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Full text of "The history of the Midland railway"

LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Class 



THE HISTORY OF 
THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 




SIR ERNEST PAGET, BART. 

CHAIRMAN OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY 



THE HISTORY 



OF THE 



MIDLAND RAILWAY 



BY 

CLEMENT E. STRETTON 



WITH ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS AND SIX DIAGRAMS 



METHUEN & CO. 

36 ESSEX STREET W.C. 

LONDON 

1901 



PREFACE 



IT is hardly to be wondered that the subject of communication 
in the Midland Counties has always interested me, for 
our family has long been connected with the railways, canals, 
and tramways of Leicestershire. As a boy I lived at New 
Found Pool, Leicester, close to the Leicester and Swannington 
Railway, and much of my time was spent on the .line. My 
interest in this railway was strengthened when I was told 
that it was the key to the inner history of the Midland 
Railway Company. Shortly after, I became an engineering 
pupil, and obtained permission, through the courtesy of 
Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis, to make copies of the plans, 
sections, ' diagrams of locomotives, and other documents be- 
longing to this Company. My first contribution to the history 
of the Midland Railway was made as long ago as the 
1 7th July, 1867 the thirty-fifth anniversary of the opening 
of the Swannington line when I read a paper at Leicester, 
entitled " Notes on the Leicester and Swannington Railway." 

The first part of this History deals with the various 
independent lines which now form the Midland Railway 
and events that took place prior to 1865. It has been 
compiled almost entirely from the books and papers form- 
ing the " Stretton Railway Collection," which, after being 
sent to the Chicago Exhibition of 1893, was presented by 
the author and his son to the nation, and is now to be 
found in the Museums at South Kensington, Leicester, 
Liverpool, Loughborough, and Holyhead. The later History 
of the Railway, from 1865 to the present day, is based upon 
records which I have most carefully kept of every event 

227989 



vi PREFACE 

as it occurred, my intimate knowledge of the history of the 
line enabling me to arrange this material in a way which, 
I trust, is likely to be interesting and valuable, not only to 
engineers and railway men, but also to the general public. 

The fact that the Midland line has been built up by 
amalgamations, extensions, and purchases, has rendered the 
work more difficult than it would otherwise have been ; it 
has been necessary to give, not only the names of these 
small lines, but also the reason why they were acquired, 
together with a short account of their previous history. The 
extent of these amalgamations may be gathered from the 
tabulated statements on pages 348 and 349. 

Though the book treats mainly of the origin and growth 
of the Midland Company, many of the sections are of a 
wider interest ; e.g. those dealing with the invention of the 
first Edge-rail-way by William Jessop, and the "Outram-way" 
introduced by the Outrams of Alfreton. On page 259 a 
chart will be found showing the administration of the railway, 
that will probably be new to the majority of readers. 

I wish to express my thanks to the Midland Railway 
Company for the loan of several very interesting photographs, 
to the Chairman and the officials for their courtesy and for 
lending photographs to illustrate the details of the depart- 
ments. I am also indebted to Mr. G. R. Stephenson and 
Mr. W. H. Ellis for the loan of portraits ; and to Messrs. 
R. Stephenson and Co., Messrs. Sharp, Stewart, and Co., The 
Butterley Iron Company, the late Mr. James Ellis, and the 
descendants of Mr. Stenson, Mr. Jessop, and Mr. Outram, 
for lending records which have enabled me to verify my 
information. 

C. E. S. 

SAXE-COBURG HOUSE, LEICESTER 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

THE BIRTH OF A RAILWAY . . . . . . i 

CHAPTER II. 
OPENING OF THE LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON RAILWAY . . . 20 

CHAPTER III. 
THE MIDLAND COUNTIES RAILWAY . . ... 32 

CHAPTER IV. 
THE NORTH MIDLAND RAILWAY . . 47 

CHAPTER V. 
THE BIRMINGHAM AND DERBY JUNCTION RAILWAY . . . 62 

CHAPTER VI. 
DIFFICULTIES SOLVED BY AMALGAMATION . . . 67 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY . . 73 

CHAPTER VIII. 
A POLICY OF EXPANSION . . . ... 76 

CHAPTER IX. 
EXTENSIONS AND PURCHASES . . . ... 87 

CHAPTER X. 
GREAT RIVAL SCHEMES . . . ... 91 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH CANAL AND TRAMROADS AND THE LEICESTER 

AND SWANNINGTON EXTENSIONS . . ... 98 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XII. 

PAGE 

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BRISTOL AND BIRMINGHAM . . . 105 

CHAPTER XIII. 
THE LEEDS AND BRADFORD RAILWAY . . . . . 116 

CHAPTER XIV. 
GIGANTIC SCHEMES AND AN ANCIENT TRAMWAY . . . 124 

CHAPTER XV. 
A COMING STORM. MR. HUDSON RESIGNS . . . . 130 

CHAPTER XVI. 
MR. JOHN ELLIS ELECTED CHAIRMAN . . ... 140 

CHAPTER XVII. 
THE NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY . ... 147 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
LEICESTER AND HITCHIN . . . ... 153 

CHAPTER XIX. 
How THE MIDLAND ENTERED MANCHESTER . ... 160 

CHAPTER XX. 

BEDFORD TO LONDON . . . . ... 174 

CHAPTER XXI. 
THE LONDON DISTRICT AND A WAR OF RATES TO LONDON . . 187 

CHAPTER XXII. 
IMPORTANT EXTENSIONS AND NEGOTIATIONS . ... 193 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
A MASTER-STROKE . . . . ... 201 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
SETTLE TO CARLISLE AND THE FORTH BRIDGE . ... 209 

CHAPTER XXV. 

SUGGESTED AMALGAMATIONS AND A SECOND MAIN LINE . . . 222 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
NEW WORKS . . . . . ... 231 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

PAGE 

THE LOCOMOTIVE WORKS AT DERBY . ... . 234 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
THE CARRIAGE AND WAGON WORKS . . ... 251 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY, WITH SOME ACCOUNT 

OF ITS ADMINISTRATORS . . . ... 257 

CHAPTER XXX. 
THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT . . . ... 279 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

FINANCE DEPARTMENT . . . ... 306 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT. WAY AND WORKS. SIGNALS AND 
SIGNAL WORKS. THE CARRIAGE AND WAGON DEPARTMENT. THE 
STORES. THE HOTELS AND REFRESHMENT DEPARTMENT. THE 
DETECTIVE DEPARTMENT . . . . . . 312 

APPENDIX. 

THE MIDLAND RAILWAY INSTITUTE. UNDERTAKINGS ACQUIRED BY THE 
MIDLAND. JOINT RAILWAYS. MIDLAND RAILWAY DIVIDENDS. 
THE COAT OF ARMS . . . ... 347 

INDEX . . . . . . 353 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Sir Ernest Paget . frontispiece 

The Bell Hotel, Leicester . . 6 

Mr. Robert Stephenson . . 7 

First Register of Proprietors . . 9 
The Seal (Leicester and Swannington) 1 1 

West Bridge Station, Leicester . 13 

Glenfield Tunnel . . .15 

Rails, Chairs, and Sleepers, 1832 . 16 

Plan of stone blocks . . 17 

The Comet Locomotive, 1832 . .18 

,, ,, (front view) . 19 

Open Carriage, 1832 . . .21 

Brass Ticket, 1832 . .23 

First-class Carriage, 1832 . . 24 

Glenfield Station, 1832 . , 25 

The "Samson" Locomotive, 1833 . 26 

The First Steam Trumpet, 1833 . 27 

Hotel, "Long Lane," 1833 . . 28 

Swannington Incline, 1833 . . 29 

,, Winding Engine, 1833 30 

The "Atlas" Locomotive, 1834 . 31 

The Sun Inn, Eastwood . -33 

Nottingham Station, 1839 . . 39 

Second-class Carriage, 1844 . . 40 

Leicester Station, 1840 . . 41 

The Avon Viaduct, 1840 . . 43 

George Stephenson . . 49 

Chesterfield . . 53 

Long Boiler Locomotive . . 59 

Goods Engine (North Midland) . 61 

The " Derwent " Locomotive . . 64 

First-class Carriage, 1839 . . 65 

Second-class Carriage, 1839 . . 65 

Derby Station . 69 

Derby, Midland Hotel . . 75 

The Outram Way . . . 101 

Locomotive " No. 42 " . . 104 

American Engine, 1840 . . 107 



PAGE 

Bristol Quay . . . 1 1 1 

Midland Broad-gauge Carriage . 113 

Contour, Derby to Bristol . .115 

Bradford Station and Hotel . .121 

Carriage and Horse, 1848 . .127 

Sharp's Engine, No. 60 . -136 

Wilson's Engine, No. 26 . .137 

First-class Carriage, 1848 . .138 

Second-class ,, ,, . .138 

Ingleton Viaduct . . 149 

Ambergate Junction . . .162 

Willersley Cutting (Matlock) . 163 

Miller's Dale . . .164 

Miller's Dale Viaduct . .165 

Modern Dining Carriage . .168 
Ashwood Dale and the Buxton 

Express . . 169 

Third-class Dining Carriage . . 171 

Liverpool Central Station . 173 

Contour, Leicester to Liverpool . 173 

St. Pancras (Roof of Station) . 181 

St. Pancras (Hotel) . . 183 
Dining Car, Third-class (interior) . 207 

Contour, London to Carlisle . . 213 

Bogie Carriage, 1875 2I 5 

First-class Joint Dining Carriage . 220 

Third ,, ,, ,, ,, .221 

Harringworth Viaduct . . 225 

Sheringham . . .227 
Edale . ... 229 

Contour, London to Leeds . . 230 

Heysham Towers (Hotel) . . 233 

Derby Works (Wheel Shop) . . 237 
Standard Express Engine, " Single " 240 

Derby Works (Fitting Shop) . 241 

American Engine, 1899 2 49 

Composite Brake Carriage . . 253 

Map of the Midland System . 258 



Xll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Mr. John Ellis . . 269 

Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis . . 273 
A Modern Train . . . 275 

Mr. G. H. Turner . . . 285 

Mr. E. W. Wells . . 288 

Mr. Mugliston . . . 289 

Gloucester Station . . .291 

Mr. Adie . . . . 298 

Lawley Street, Birmingham . .301 
Standard Goods Engine . . 302 
Mr. Shaw . ... 303 

Mr. Charles . . . 307 

Mr. Doughty . . . 309 

Standard Express Engine, " Coupled "313 
Standard Passenger Tank Engine. 315 
Goods Engine, Mr. Kirtley's . 319 



PAGE 

Mr. S. W. Johnson . . 322 

Express Engine (without bogie) . 324 

Ilkley Bridge . . . 325 

Clifton Suspension Bridge . . 326 

Mr. McDonald . . . 329 

Block Signal Diagram . . 332 

,, ,, Instruments . . 332 

Mr. W. Langdon . . . 335 

Tramway Junction, Gloucester . 336 

Leicester New Station . . 337 

,, ,, (interior) 339 

Mr. Clayton . . . 340 

Mr. Morrall . . . 342 

Mr. Towle . . . 343 

Derby Institute (Reading-room) . 347 

The Coat of Arms . . .351 



THE HISTORY 

OF THE 

MIDLAND RAILWAY 

CHAPTER I. 

THE BIRTH OF A RAILWAY 

THE system of railway traction which has revolutionised the world 
can hardly be said to have been created, and it is more in accord 
with historical accuracy to describe it as having dawned to have, in 
fact, been evolved out of primitive and very elementary systems for 
facilitating the transport of minerals. But whilst these ancient systems, 
which were in operation on a small scale in a limited number of dis- 
tricts, form the foundation and the exciting cause for better and more 
efficient methods, it was, of course, the introduction of a new system 
of traction and the harnessing of a new force by means of steam loco- 
motives that led to the birth of modern railways. 

The development of this new source of power in the service of 
mankind vastly increased the resources not only of this country, where 
it first was discovered, but it led practically to the creation of a new 
world or at least a world vastly different to that before this new power 
was called into being. It enabled the commerce of Britain to expand 
and develop as it had never done before ; and with extended trade and 
the provision of cheap and speedy communication from one part of 
the country to another it proved an instrument for the elevation and 
advancement of all ranks and conditions of men. 

Without railways England under modern conditions would be im- 
possible, for not only are railways indispensable for the trade and 
commerce of the country, but they are absolutely essential for the 
conveyance of food for the inhabitants of our great industrial centres. 

It is only seventy years ago that the first modern railway was opened ; 



2 /. t^Ji : HISTORY. OE THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

but since the time of that great experiment the country has been 
covered with a network of lines from one end to the other. In this 
great expansion which has become of world-wide importance the 
Midland Railway has played a very important part. Some of the lines 
and systems which it owns to-day were amongst the earliest lines of 
any kind that were constructed, and they form important parts of those 
methods of traction by means of horses which led to the introduction of 
modern railways. 

The new system was hailed with joy and wonder in all those towns 
and places where in early days it was introduced ; and although 
familiarity may have in these days somewhat obscured our eyes to the 
beauty and grandeur of a train in rapid flight and a locomotive in 
full steam, yet it is by no means difficult to understand the astonish- 
ment of those who for the first time witnessed so great a revolution. 
In recording the history of the Midland System it will be necessary 
to give the reader glimpses from contemporary records of what was 
at the time so wonderful a spectacle. 

The Midland Railway Company, as we know it to-day under its 
present style and title, was incorporated by an Act of Parliament passed 
on May loth, 1844, by virtue of which three previously existing inde- 
pendent railway companies, namely the "North Midland," " Midland 
Counties," and " Birmingham and Derby Junction," were on and from 
that date dissolved, and their railways and capital became consolidated 
and incorporated as "The Midland Railway Company." 

Strictly speaking, it will be seen that the present Company has existed 
for a period of over fifty-six years, but actually the ways, works, and 
traffic of the undertakings which it took over, as well as those which 
it afterwards acquired, date back to a far more remote period. In 
order, therefore, to fully understand the reasons why the original lines 
were made and the causes which led to the "consolidation" in the 
year 1844, it is necessary to investigate the histories of the three 
independent companies above mentioned. 

The first portion of the Midland Railway constructed on modern 
principles, worked by locomotives, and conveying passengers as well as 
minerals, was, beyond all question, the line from Leicester to Swanning- 
ton. It was the earliest line of railway now belonging to the Midland 
constructed by George Stephenson and his son Robert on the same 
plan which they had previously introduced with such great success 
between Liverpool and Manchester. Not only the engineers, but the 
first manager, Mr. George Vaughan, the locomotive men, the man 
to work the incline, the platelayers, the guard, were all brought from 
the Liverpool and Manchester line to instruct the local men to become 



THE CHARNWOOD FOREST CANAL 3 

proficient in railway management ; and the rules and regulations of the 
Liverpool and Manchester were also adopted. The only difference 
between the two railways was that whereas the Liverpool and Man- 
chester was a double line and had both passenger and goods trains, the 
Leicester and Swannington was a single line and had mixed trains 
carrying both passengers and minerals. By this means the new railway 
system was brought down from the north, where it had hitherto alone 
existed, into the very centre of England. 

For many generations coal mines have been worked in the Swanning- 
ton and Coleorton district of Leicestershire, also in the Erewash Valley, 
Nottinghamshire, and for very many years the only means of conveying 
the coal to the various towns and markets was by horses and carts 
upon the common road, a method which proved expensive and un- 
satisfactory. 

The colliery owners in both Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire 
were anxiously looking for an improved means of communication, and 
favoured the introduction of canals ; but they were both equally anxious 
that the canals should be constructed so as either to give exceptional 
advantages to their own particular coalfield, or, failing that, then to give 
equal facilities to both. 

To attain this object, as long ago as the year 1776 the Loughborough 
Navigation Company was formed to improve parts of the River Soar 
and make a canal from the River Trent to Loughborough. In the 
following year, 1777, the Erewash Canal Company commenced the 
construction of their undertaking, which extended from Langley Mill 
and the Nottinghamshire coalfield to the River Trent. Shortly after- 
wards it was proposed to form a Leicester Canal Company to extend 
the communication from Loughborough to the West Bridge at Leicester. 
In other words, by means of these three canals and the River Trent, 
the Nottinghamshire coal was to be brought to Leicester, and the 
Leicestershire coal would thereby be completely shut out of its own 
market. The Leicestershire coal owners naturally fought against such 
a scheme, and were powerful enough to prevent its being carried out 
until the Leicester Canal Company undertook to make a branch canal 
and tramroads extending from near Loughborough over the Charnwood 
Forest to the Swannington coalfields. By this means it was thought 
equal facilities would be conferred on both, and when, on October 27th, 
1794, the canal was opened to Leicester for coal traffic, two boats 
arrived together, bringing loads from the rival districts. 

However, the Leicestershire coal owners were destined to be dis- 
appointed, for in the winter of 1799 the banks of the Charnwood 
Forest Canal burst, the works were seriously damaged, and the whole 



4 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

of the water ran away and flooded the surrounding district. The canal 
was not repaired, but the bridges and other works can still be seen and 
the track traced, after having been disused for over a hundred years. 

Thus the failure of this branch canal effectually shut out the 
Leicestershire coal and gave the entire trade to the Nottinghamshire 
and Derbyshire coal owners, a condition of things which remained 
unaltered for no less than thirty-three years. 

Ultimately, in October, 1828, Mr. William Stenson, one of the 
partners in the Whitwick Colliery, Leicestershire, paid a visit to New- 
castle-upon-Tyne and the Stockton and Darlington Railway, where he 
was so much impressed with the value of railways and locomotives for 
the conveyance of coal that he returned home determined, if possible, 
to obtain railway communication between Whitwick and the town of 
Leicester. 

He first examined the route for a direct line, but found the gradients 
far too severe ; so, taking his theodolite, he walked over the country in 
the direction of Bagworth, Desford, and Glenfield, and on arrival at 
Leicester reported to his partners, Mr. Whetstone and Mr. Samuel 
Smith Harris, that he had found a suitable route, and after a long con- 
sultation it was decided that " Mr. John Ellis, of Beaumont Leys, near 
Leicester, was the best person to assist them in the project." 

Mr. Stenson at once wrote a long letter to Mr. Ellis, fully explaining 
that the Leicestershire colliery owners at Coleorton, Swannington, and 
Whitwick found that coal was being sent by canal from Derbyshire and 
Nottinghamshire to Leicester, and that their coal was practically shut 
out of its own market. He added : " Our carting beats us, but I see 
a way to relief if we can but get up a railway company. I've tried the 
ground with my theodolite and find no difficulty in making a railway, 
though a tunnel will, I think, have to be made through the hill at 
Glenfield, and further that there will have to be a severe incline near to 
Bagworth." Mr. Ellis at once saw the importance of the undertaking 
to the town and trade of Leicester, and having gone over the proposed 
route with Mr. Stenson, he decided to make a journey to Liverpool in 
order to consult his friend, George Stephenson, who was then engaged 
in the construction of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. After 
travelling upon one of the contractor's engines to Rainhill cutting, Mr. 
Ellis found Stephenson engaged in directing the men how to overcome 
a difficulty in the construction of the Rainhill bridge. 

The object of the visit was explained, and Mr. Stephenson was asked 
to go over to Leicester to inspect the route and to become the engineer 
of the proposed new line. To quote the words of Mr. Ellis, "Old 
George " was cross, and replied, " I have thirty-one miles of railway to 



GEORGE STEPHENSON CONSULTED 5 

make, and the directors think that that is enough for any man at 
a time." 

It has been assumed that George Stephenson gave utterance to the 
celebrated dictum that " thirty-one miles of railway were enough for any 
man to make at a time." But this is not so. The facts were that 
George Stephenson, in 1826, entered into an agreement with the 
directors of the Liverpool and Manchester line, under which he 
accepted the post of engineer-in-chief of their railway at a salary of 
;i,ooo per annum, and to devote practically the whole of his time 
to its construction ; and further, that he was to undertake no other line 
until their works were completed. It must be remembered that George 
Stephenson in 1826 was comparatively a poor and unknown man, but 
in 1829 he had become celebrated, and the reason for his being 
"cross" was that, having already had to decline the offer to make 
several other lines, he was practically compelled to decline another 
proposal. George Stephenson by this time was far too great a man 
and had too thorough a grasp of railway engineering to limit his 
energies unless compelled by circumstances to do so to the con- 
struction of thirty-one miles of line. On a previous occasion he had 
asked the directors to allow him to undertake to make a railway from 
Canterbury to Whitstable, but he was refused the necessary permission, 
and it was on this occasion that the Chairman of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway and not Stephenson delivered himself of the 
famous saying, " No ; thirty-one miles is enough for any man to make 
at one time." This is further confirmed by what immediately followed, 
for it will be seen that George Stephenson himself and his son, Robert 
Stephenson, who had also been engaged on the Liverpool and Man- 
chester line, both returned with Mr. Ellis to Leicester. 

Mr. Ellis decided not to take Stephenson's refusal as a final answer, 
but determined to wait for a few hours until Stephenson had completed 
the difficult task upon which at the moment he was engaged, and until 
the two could dine together at the inn only a short distance from the 
bridge. 

After dinner Mr. Ellis again commenced to explain the object of his 
visit, and read to Stephenson the letter which he had received from 
Mr. Stenson. A map was produced showing the proposed route ; Mr. 
Stephenson became interested in the subject, and agreed that there was 
"something in the scheme." Ultimately "Old George" remarked, 
"When are you going back to Leicester?" 

"To-night," was the prompt reply of Mr. Ellis, to which Mr. 
Stephenson answered, "Then I will go with you." 

On arrival at Leicester, Mr. Stenson accompanied Mr. Ellis and 



6 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Mr. Stephenson and his son Robert over the proposed route, and when 
Mr. Stephenson was shown building-sand near Glenfield, granite at 
Groby, coal at Bagworth, Whitwick, and Swannington, brickworks at 
Snibston, granite at Bardon Hill, and lime at Ticknall all of which 
were required in the town of Leicester he came to the conclusion that 
a very useful railway could easily be constructed, and accordingly pre- 
pared a special report in favour of the projected line, which he con- 
sidered could be made for "the sum of .75.450 or thereabouts." 

Mr. Ellis invited his friends and those persons likely to join in the 
scheme to meet him at the Bell Hotel, Leicester, when he, Mr. Stephen- 




THE BELL HOTEL, LEICESTER 
(Birthplace of the Leicester and Swannington Railway). 

son, and Mr. Stenson fully explained the objects and details of the 
proposed railway. The meeting unanimously resolved to form itself 
into a provisional committee to obtain an Act for the making of the 
proposed line, and decided that the share capital should be "90,000 
in i, 800 shares of 50 each, with power to raise 20,000 by loan if 
required. To ascertain how the money was to be raised was the next 
consideration ; in fact, to find how much each one present was really 
interested in the railway. Taking a large sheet of paper, and with pen 
in hand, Mr. Ellis remarked, "Now, gentlemen, how many shares?" to 
which George Stephenson immediately replied, "Put me down for fifty." 
This gave the list an excellent start, and all went well till nearly 60,000 



GEORGE STEPHENSON RAISES MONEY 7 

had been subscribed ; then the matter hung fire. Mr. Ellis remarked 
that most of the rich men of Leicester had their money in canals, and 
that he feared they would not be likely to assist the railway. This 
caused George Stephenson to exclaim, " Give me the sheet, and I will 




MR. ROBERT STEPHENSON 
(Engineer, Leicester and Swannington Railway). 

raise the money for you in Liverpool " ; and the sheet was accordingly 
handed to him. 

Mr. Thomas Paget, a well-known local banker, further strengthened 
the hands of the promoters by then expressing his willingness to provide 
a sum of ^20,000 on loan if necessary. 



8 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The financial part of the business being thus settled, Mr. Stephenson 
was asked to become the engineer for the line, but the request only 
brought forth the same reply as at first given to Mr. Ellis "No; 
I have thirty-one miles of railway to make, and the Liverpool directors 
think that that is enough for any man at a time." "That being so," 
said Mr. Ellis, "is there any person thou canst recommend? " "Well, 
I think my son Robert is competent to undertake the thing/' "But 
wilt thou be answerable for him ? " asked Mr. Ellis, to which Stephenson 
replied, " Oh, yes, certainly." 

Robert Stephenson, who was then about twenty-seven years of age, 
was at once appointed as engineer, and instructions were given that 
he should prepare the necessary plans and documents for Parliament 
without delay. One gentleman asked if a narrow gauge of about 
3 feet would not be cheaper than the 4 feet 8 inches guage which 
Mr. Stephenson proposed. The very suggestion of a " break of gauge " 
was more than "Old George" could stand. "This won't do," he 
remarked. * I tell you the Stockton and Darlington, the Liverpool 
and Manchester, the Canterbury and Whitstable, and the Leicester 
and Swannington must all be 4 feet 8J inches. Make them of the 
same width ; though they may be a long way apart now, depend upon 
it, they will be joined together some day." This reply met with general 
applause, and the gauge question was finally settled for this railway, 
not another word being said upon the subject. This important 
meeting lasted for fully four hours, and it will be seen that before 
it concluded Mr. Ellis and his friends had succeeded in placing the 
scheme upon a sound basis. Therefore the Bell Hotel is without 
doubt the birthplace of the Leicester and Swannington Railway 
Company. 

Mr. George Stephenson returned to Liverpool, and in a very short 
time the "sheet" was sent back, he having obtained the names of 
persons willing to provide one-third of the total capital of the Company, 
the list including many of the leading Liverpool merchants. These 
gentlemen afterwards became generally known as "The Liverpool 
party," and they had very great influence in this and many other 
railways. 

Mr. Robert Stephenson accordingly immediately made the necessary 
survey, and the plans were duly completed. Practically he followed the 
route suggested by Mr. Stenson, but as far as possible he improved 
the gradients. At Bagworth the nature of the ground necessitated 
a very considerable rise, and no less than five alternative schemes 
were prepared, in order, if possible, to obtain a line over which 
locomotives could run; but even the best of these plans required 






://^W^, ,*/.,< a 



ct ?//icaal l/ttn ml , fla/tru/ 

A Jctcoffa <*</ .//, -, . 



FIRST REGISTER OF PROPRIETORS 
(Now preserved at the Leicester Museum). 



A COMPANY SANCTIONED 



that a gradient of i in 66 should be constructed, an incline which 
was out of the question for locomotives in 1830. It was therefore 
necessary to fall back upon 
the original idea of a "self- 
acting rope incline." Robert 
Stephenson regretted this, 
for he wrote to his father, 
"I am most anxious to avoid 
this rope business." 

The Company's Act re- 
ceived the Royal Assent on 
May 29th, 1830, being one of 
the very earliest, if not the 
earliest, railways to be sanc- 
tioned on the first applica- 
tion. Clause XIX. provided 
" That the said Company of THE SEAL (full size). 

Proprietors shall meet to- 
gether at the Bell Hotel in Leicester, or at some other convenient 
place in Leicester aforesaid, within two calendar months next after the 
passing of this Act." 

This meeting was held on June 25th, 1830, when the Directors were 
appointed as follows : 




Clement Winstanley (Chairman) 

Isaac Hodgson (Deputy-Chairman) . 

Robert Birkley . . . 

Benjamin Cort 

John Ellis . . 

James Goddard 

Joshua Grundy 

Thomas Leach 

William Martin 

Richard Mitchell 

Richard Norman 

Charles James Packe 

Thomas Pares 

Joseph Phillips 

Thomas Stokes 



Leicester. 

Leicester. 

Leicester. 

Leicester. 

Leicester. 

Market Harborough. 

Leicestershire. 

Leicester. 

Leicestershire. 

Leicester. 

Melton Mowbray. 

Leicestershire. 

Leicester. 

Leicester. 

Leicester. 



At a Special General Meeting of the proprietors held at the Bell 
Hotel, Leicester, September 6th, 1830, 1,639 shares were issued, Nos. i 
to 1,639, f s each; the register of proprietors being sealed and 
signed "Clement Winstanley, Chairman." 

The Company's Act gave power to construct a railway from the 
navigable part of the River Soar, near the West Bridge, Leicester, 



12 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

to the Hinckley and Melbourne Road at the northward end of the 
village of Swannington, together with four branches, extending to 
the Bag worth, Ibstock, and Whitwick collieries, and from the ancient 
Fosse Road to the North Bridge, Leicester. The three former branches 
were constructed at the expense of the owners of those collieries, but 
the North Bridge branch was never made, another branch to Soar 
Lane 'being afterwards constructed in lieu thereof. The main line 
(exclusive of branches) was 16 miles 5 chains in length to the junction 
with the proposed Coleorton Railway, and 16 miles 12 chains if the 
coalyard at Swannington be included. 

No sooner did Robert Stephenson commence the work of the 
railway than he formed the opinion that there was coal at Snibston, 
and requested his father to come over. "Old George" was of the 
same opinion ; he therefore induced his Liverpool friends, Joseph 
Sanders and Sir Joshua Walmesley, to join him, and in 1831 they 
purchased land and commenced to make the Snibston collieries. 

The better to look after this important work George Stephenson, in 
1833, left Liverpool and came to reside at Alton Grange, Leicestershire, 
and to this fact may be traced several of the railways in the Midlands 
of England. 

The line from Leicester to Swannington was commenced in October, 
1830. A large slate slab, forming the doorstep of the railway offices 
and directors' board room at West Bridge, Leicester, was used as 
the starting point for measuring distances. Its position on the ground 
was calculated to be 180 feet above the mean water-level at Liverpool, 
and hence it was used as the datum for the heights in the construction 
of the line. Ordinance datum marks are now recorded on buildings 
all over the country; but at the period when this railway was made 
they did not exist, and the engineers had accordingly to provide their 
own datum line from which to work. This datum forms the base-line, 
and although it is an imaginary one, yet on the contour or profile 
it forms the horizontal line from which all the vertical heights are 
measured. 

Leaving the West Bridge Station, Leicester, the railway runs past 
Glenfield, the Groby branch junction, Ratby, Desford, Merry Lees, 
Thornton Lane, to the old Bagworth Station, thence up a self-acting 
incline to the incline house and station, then continuing past the 
junction of the Bagworth Colliery branch, and the Ibstock Junction 
to the summit at the Staunton-under-Bardon road-crossing, now known 
as Ellistown. The gradients were severe, but this was of little 
importance, as they were in favour of the loaded coal trains, the 
line having risen no less than 391 feet in a distance of n miles 



A DIFFICULT TUNNEL 15 

55 chains. Leaving the summit level, the railway passes Ashby Road 
Station (now known as Bardon Hill), the junctions of the Whitwick 
and Snibston No. 2 Colliery lines, the Long Lane Hotel and Station 
(now Coalville), and the Snibston No. i Colliery, to the fixed engine 
at the commencement of the Swannington incline, thence down the 
incline of i in 17 to the junction with the Coleorton Company's line 
and to the Swannington coalyard. The gradients from the summit 
to Swannington were so unfavourable that a portion had to be worked 
by a fixed engine and rope, and the other portion required the most 
powerful locomotives in existence at that period. 




GLEN FIELD TUNNEL 
(Opened July ijth, 1832). 

The principal work on the line was the Glenfield Tunnel, which 
commenced at a distance of a mile and fifty chains from Leicester. 
This tunnel is i mile and 36 yards in length, straight, level, built of 
brick, and has a single line of rails passing through it. 

The course of this tunnel for more than 500 yards, near the Glen- 
field end, lay through loose running sand, the presence of which 
rendered it necessary for Mr. Robert Stephenson to construct a wooden 
tunnel to Support the sand while the brickwork was being erected. 
So heavy did this work prove that the contractor was ruined, and 
he was unable to complete it. A second contractor declined to 



i6 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



A 



1 



continue the work, which the Company 
had themselves to complete at a largely 
increased cost. 

The line was single throughout, except 
at stations and upon the Bagworth incline, 
and the gauge was 4 feet 8J inches, this 
being one of the few early railways which 
had the gauge limited outside, the clause 
in the Act being as follows : 

" LIII. And be it further enacted, that 
the distance between the inside edges of 
the rails of the said railway shall not be 
less than four feet eight inches, and the 
distance between the outside edges of 
the rails of the said railway shall not be 
more than five feet and one inch " 



The rails were of wrought iron, of the 
elliptical, or more generally known as the 
"fish-bellied" pattern, nominally 15 feet 
in length, and when new weighed 35 Ibs. 
per yard. They had a single head only, 
2\ inches in width, but the most peculiar 
feature was that the under side of the 
rail was curved, as shown in the accom- 
panying diagram. 

The extreme depth of the rail between 
the chairs (at C) was 3^ inches, tapering 
away in a semi-elliptic curve to 2\ inches 
at the chairs (D). At that time fish-plates 
were unknown, the rail joints being made 
in a chair. On the one side of the rail 
a lateral swell was rolled and continued 
throughout the whole length of the rail ; 
but on the other side it terminated (at E] 
before reaching the chair. 

The chairs were of cast iron, a cavity 
being formed in each corresponding to 
the lateral projection on the rail. On the 
opposite side a similar cavity was cast for 
the purpose of receiving a long, thin, 
wrought-iron key (-H), which pressed the projection on the rail into 
the cavity in the chair, thus preventing the rail from rising upwards. 



STONE BLOCK SLEEPERS 17 

For 7j miles upon embankments the chairs were spiked to cross- 
sleepers (A), these being of oak of half-round section, bound at 
each end with an iron hoop. In cuttings for 7^ miles the chairs were 
supported on stone blocks, 20 inches square and 10 inches thick, 
and through the Glenfield Tunnel the chairs were fastened to longi- 
tudinal timbers, held to gauge by cross-ties. It is an interesting fact 
that fully a mile of "longitudinal timber" road was here in use in 
the year 1832, or several years before the opening of the Great 
Western Railway in June, 1838 a fact which demonstrates that 
longitudinal timbers were first introduced by Stephenson and not 
by Brunei, as has been claimed. 











PLAN OF STONE BLOCKS. 



It was soon found in practice that the stone blocks "required 
constant attention lifting, packing, and keeping to gauge " ; also 
that the riding over them was " harder than on the wooden sleepers." 
However, some of the stone-block road remained in use on the main 
line for a period of nearly forty years, and some even exists in sidings 
at the Swannington end of the line at the present day. The points 
were all of the old " slide " pattern. 

The Bagworth incline was self-acting, the loaded waggons descending 
by gravity, pulling up the empty ones by means of a rope passing 
round a wheel at the top. This incline was 43 chains in length, 
and the gradient i in 29, and commenced at a distance of about 10 
miles from West Bridge Station. A grooved wheel, 6 feet in diameter, 
was fixed horizontally in a square space under the rails at the top, round 
c 



i8 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

which a hempen rope, 1,000 yards in length, passed. This rope 
weighed 2 tons, was 5 inches in circumference, and cost ^60. The 
speed of the two sets of waggons upon the incline was regulated by 
a man riding on each train, and a brake could also be applied to 
the large wheel at the top. In the middle of the incline there was 
a loop, or passing place, and from this loop to the top there were 
three rails, the centre one being common to both up and down traffic. 
The object of this was to account for the width of the wheel and 




THE "COMET" OPENED THE LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON RAILWAY. 



position of the rope ; also to save the cost of a fourth rail, and yet 
not to have facing points. 

The first locomotive engine for this railway was named "Comet," 
and was built by Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Co., of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. It was shipped by sea from Newcastle to Hull, thence by 
canal, and as the embankment close to Leicester was not completed, 
the engine was put upon the rails at the Fosse Road siding, and on 
the morning of Saturday, May 5th, 1832, handed over to the Company 
"in steam." To see the starting of the first locomotive which had ever 
run in the Midland Counties of England was a great event. Mr. John 
Ellis remarked to his son on that morning, "Edward, thou shalt go 
down with me and see the new engine get up its steam." Ten 



STEPHENSON HANDS OVER THE "COMET" 19 

Directors, the Secretary, Treasurer, Manager, Solicitor, and Mr. Robert 
Stephenson, Engineer and the maker of the engine, were also present. 

Several satisfactory runs as far as the tunnel and back having been 
made, Mr. Stephenson formally handed over the engine with the remark 
that it was larger and more powerful than any he had previously built. 

The Chairman of the Company, Mr. Winstanley, himself then took 
hold of the " regulator," and ran the party up to the tunnel and back. 
He then handed the engine over to Mr. Henry Cabry, the Company's 
"Engine Superintendent," and appointed Robert Weatherburn, an 
experienced driver, who had come from the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railway, as the driver of the " Comet." 




THE '' COMET" (front view). 



CHAPTER II. 

OPENING OF THE LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON RAILWAY. 

THE preliminary official announcement of the opening of the line 
was given in the following rather quaint advertisement which 
appeared in the Leicester newspapers of July i4th, 1832 : 

" Leicester and Swannington 
RAILWAY. 



THE OPENING of the RAILWAY will take place on TUESDAY 
NEXT, the I7th instant. The Locomotive Engine, with a train of 
Carriages, will start from the Augustin Friars at 10 o'clock, and proceed 
to Bagworth ; and the Proprietors may be supplied with Tickets on appli- 
cation at the Directors' Room in the Friar-lane, between the hours of 10 
and 12 this day. 

It will be absolutely necessary that the Line of Railway should be kept 
clear, and the public are warned that any persons venturing upon it will 
expose themselves to imminent danger, as well as become liable to the 
Penalty imposed by the Act, which the Directors, with a view to prevent 
accidents, will strictly enforce against all trespassers. 

By order of the Directors." 

The line was opened amid great rejoicing, ringing of church bells, 
and the firing of cannon, on Tuesday, July iyth, 1832. The first train 
drawn by the " Comet " was driven by George Stephenson, assisted by 
his son Robert and Driver Weatherburn (whose son, by the way, is 
the Midland Company's present district superintendent at Kentish 
Town), and ran from West Bridge to the old Bagworth Station, situated 
at the foot of the self-acting incline known as the " lower end " of the 
line. 

The Company's "open carriage," as illustrated, with the exception 
of a special covered vehicle provided for the use of the directors, and 
in which the chairs from the board room were temporarily placed, 
was the only passenger vehicle. The carriage " for the use of directors 
only" was attached next to the tender, and was followed by the open 
vehicle and ten new coal wagons, across which planks of wood were 
laid as seats, covered with green cloth. 

20 



AN INTERESTING OPENING 



21 



The train was about sixty yards in length, and was decorated with 
flags bearing the following inscriptions : " Success to the Leicester and 
Swannington Railway" ; "Cheap coal and granite" ; "Warm hearths and 
good roads"; "We wish our efforts to promote the prosperity of all"; 
and " May the triumph of science prove the blessing of the people." 

One of the vehicles carried a band of music, and the last vehicle of 
all had a small cannon, which was fired at starting and on approaching 
each station, and this was the signal for the church bells to be rung at 
each village on the route. 

All the directors of the Company, officials, and about four hundred 
ladies and gentlemen " who had applied for tickets to enable them 
to participate in the festivities of the occasion," rode in the train, 
and it should be specially mentioned that Mr. William Jessop and 




OPEN RAILWAY CARRIAGE, 1832. 



Mr. James Oakes, who had come to watch the results, and also two or 
three canal directors, were also present. 

The Chairman of the Company having given the hand-signal 
" Right away," George Stephenson opened the regulator, and there 
was a general shout, " See, the puffing monster moves ! " The band 
struck up " God Save the King," and the cannon fired. All went 
well until reaching the middle of the tunnel, when a sudden shock 
was felt. The train almost came to a stop, and the band instantly 
ceased to play. " Keep your seats," was the message passed down 
the train from vehicle to vehicle, "it's only the engine chimney that 
has caught the top of the tunnel, that is all." The cause of this 
mishap was that the platelayers had been lifting a low place in the 
road and had raised it too high, with the result that the engine 
chimney was knocked down, and the occupants of the open vehicles 
were for what seemed to them a considerable time kept in the dark 
in a moist, smoky atmosphere. But upon emerging from the tunnel 



22 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

a sudden transformation in the appearance of the directors and 
passengers was strikingly apparent. Owing to the combined effect 
of the steam and dense smoke, the light bonnets, veils, and dresses 
of the ladies, and the shirt fronts and faces of the gentlemen, were 
thickly covered with black spots. Further on a special stop was 
made at the Glenfield Brook to repair the damaged chimney and 
to enable the passengers to wash their faces in the stream, which 
they did, using their pocket handkerchiefs as towels. 

On arrival at the foot of the Bagworth incline, which was reached 
in an hour, the locomotive engine was detached and the train 
connected to the rope. Loaded wagons having been brought to 
the top of the incline, they were attached to the other end of this 
rope, and their greater weight pulled the train up to the "incline 
house." 

The passengers, however, remained at Bagworth at the foot of 
the incline in order to partake of a cold collation and champagne, 
provided by the directors of the Company " free of all charge." 

The return train started at two o'clock, the passengers having been 
summoned by bugle call to take their places, the engine conveying 
not only the train as it started in the morning, but in addition " two 
wagons filled with coal, and two with stone, sometimes at the rate of 
more than twenty miles an hour ! " The newspapers of the period 
also add that the train got back to Leicester at three o'clock " without 
any accident except a woman being ridden over alongside the railway 
by a cavalier who was trying to keep up with the train." 

Except for the one little mishap in the tunnel, a very pleasant trip 
was made, and the passengers were delighted to know that they had 
travelled twenty miles behind an engine and brought the first coal to 
Leicester by rail. 

On arrival at three o'clock a horse and cart was in readiness, coal was 
unloaded at once, and the band, headed by flags, followed by the 
cart of coal and the visitors, marched from the West Bridge Station 
to the " Bell," where " there was a grand dinner." 

Throughout the day there was a very downcast look upon the faces 
of the Erewash Valley gentlemen and the canal directors present, 
so much so that some of the party playfully remarked, "Jessop, 
don't look so down, old man." " Oakes, what in the world is the 
matter with you?" 

The engine and carriages conveying ordinary passengers made a 
second trip to Bagworth later in the afternoon, starting at 4.30 p.m., 
and returned with a dozen wagons of coal, which were attached 
to the rear of the passenger train. 




BRASS TICKETS 23 

A paragraph in the Leicester Chronicle of the period, and merely 
headed " Railways," says : " Since the public opening on Tuesday an 
additional carriage for passengers has been added to the train, and 
numbers of respectable parties have availed themselves of the 
opportunity to visit Bagworth and its neighbourhood. On Wednesday 
upwards of 200 passengers went by the conveyance, who speak in 
high terms of the treat which they experienced." Further, the same 
paper says : "We are glad to find that the directors have commenced 
with a moderate rate of fares, which, we understand, is as follows : 
To Glenfield 4^., to Ratby 6^/., Desford Lane 8^/., Mary Lees io</., 
Thornton and Bagworth is." The Leicester Chronicle, July 28th, "under- 
stands that these fares permit of return also." "Nearly 400 [passengers] 
went at different times on Wednesday " (25th). "About half-past six 
last evening the train consisted of 17 carriages, 5 of which were loaded 
with coal, 4 with granite, and 8 with 
passengers. Owing to the great demand yJL, 

for coal the train again set out for / I 
Bagworth at half-past seven o'clock." 
"Bagworth coal could be got in Leicester 
at los. per ton in consequence of the 
railway." 

At the date of the opening there were 
three empty wagon trains a day leaving 
Leicester at 8 a.m., i p.m., and 4.30 p m., 
to which a passenger carriage was attached, BRASS TICKET 

returning behind the coal trains. The (i n use ^-^e). 

passenger fares charged were \\d. per 

mile. There was one class only, and passengers stood up in an open 
carriage, generally known as a tub. It was nothing better than a high- 
sided goods wagon, and had neither top, seats, nor spring buffers. 

The tickets issued to the various stations were of brass, of octagon 
form, as shown in the accompanying illustration. The guard of the 
train carried a leather bag, something in the form of a collecting-box, 
having eight separate divisions one for each station. At the end of 
each passenger's journey the ticket was placed in the bag by the guard, 
to be returned, recorded in the books, and used again. These brass 
tickets remained in use for the "open carriage passengers" from 1832 
to 1846. 

Immediately after the opening of the line it became apparent that 
" one class " was not sufficient, and orders were at once given for the 
construction of a first-class carriage. This was built at the West Bridge 
wagon shop by the Company's men. It had three compartments, 



RAILWAY 
BAGWORTH 



24 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

weighed two and a half tons empty, and the length of the frame was 
17 feet. The first-class fare for riding in this vehicle was 2\d. per mile, 
and the tickets for which were of paper, the name of the station and the 
name of the passenger being filled in by the booking-clerk. The first- 
class passengers were also allowed to book their seats some days in 
advance. This system of booking was many years ago abolished, but 
to this day, when we go to a station to get a " ticket," we say we are 
going to the " booking-office." 

The system of signalling was of a primitive character, hand-signals, 
flags, and hand-lamps being employed. At each intermediate station, 
and also at the Stag and Castle Inn, Thornton, a pole was erected, 
upon which a red flag or red lamp was hoisted whenever it was neces- 
sary to stop a train to pick up passengers or to attach wagons, and the 




FIRST-CLASS CARRIAGE, 1832. 



absence of the " stop signal " was an intimation to the driver to proceed 
on his journey. 

It may be wondered why a signal-pole was put up at the Stag and 
Castle Inn, that not being one of the Company's stations. The explana- 
tion is a very simple one. The passengers having complained that they 
could get no refreshments at the Bagworth Station, they were therefore 
allowed to walk down to the inn, and by order of the manager the train 
would stop to pick up passengers when the innkeeper pulled up the 
" stop signal." 

In August, 1832, when the second engine the "Phoenix" arrived, 
it became necessary to avoid trains meeting upon the single line, and 
they therefore followed each other about fifteen minutes apart, and to 
avoid collision in the tunnel a fifteen-minute sand-glass was employed 
at Glenfield Station and another at the tunnel house. When one train 
entered the tunnel the glass was turned, and if a second arrived within 
fifteen minutes it was stopped by means of a flag or by a candle placed 
in the window of either the Glenfield Station or the tunnel house, and 



WOMEN SIGNAL WORKERS 25 

the absence of the flag or candle was the signal to go into the tunnel. 
At the tunnel house, it should be mentioned, the wife of a platelayer 
attended to the sand-glass and lighted the candle. 

Lord Stamford, in 1831, commenced a branch line over his own land 
at his own expense to connect his granite quarries at Groby with the 
Swannington Railway, and in the following year George Stephenson, 
Joseph Sandars, and Joshua Walmesley constructed a line to their 
Snibston No. 2 Colliery at Coalville, and in 1832 Sir George Beaumont 
commenced the Coleorton Railway from the junction at Swannington 




GLENFIELD STATION 
(Opened 1832). 

to the ancient Ashby tramroad, thus placing the Leicester and Swan- 
nington, Coleorton, and Ashby lines, also the Ashby Canal, in direct 
communication. It is interesting to note that in each of these three 
cases the work was well in hand before any application was made to 
Parliament for Acts. 

At a meeting held at the "Bell" on January i4th, 1833, shares 
were issued from 1,640 to 1,800, but it was found that in five cases the 
calls had not been paid up. 

Mr. Roger Miles, the clerk to the Company, therefore the same day 
wrote to the holders of the five shares, Nos. 1,692, 1,698, 1,699, I j7j 



26 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

1,748, "I am therefore necessitated to inform you that unless the sum 
of 2 is paid on or before the 22nd instant, your name will be furnished 
to one of the principal and most pressing creditors of the Company." 
As a fact there were no pressing creditors, but the letter had the desired 
effect, and the money was paid with an explanation that the notice to 
pay had been overlooked. 

Another new engine, the "Samson," was placed on the line, and one 
of the first events in its history was to bring about the introduction of 
the first " steam trumpet." 

On Saturday, May 4th, 1833, Driver Weatherburn reported to the 
Engine Superintendent, Mr. Cabry, that "when driving the engine 




THE "SAMSON," 1833. 



'Samson' on the first train this morning, on approaching the level 
crossing of the road from Bagworth to Thornton at a point close to 
the Stag and Castle Inn, I observed a horse and cart approaching. 
I blew the horn, lifted the * safety valves,' and opened the cylinder taps, 
but failed to attract the attention of the man in charge of the covered 
cart. The horse passed over the rails, but the left-hand buffer of the 
engine caught the back corner of the cart. The horse was so injured 
that it had to be killed, but the driver of the cart, although thrown 
out, was not much hurt. The cart and contents were completely 
smashed up." 

Upon hearing the facts, Mr. Cabry asked, "Were the gates shut 
across the road?" "Oh, no," replied the driver, "they were wide 
open, and I saw nothing of the gatekeeper." The matter was at 



INVENTION OF A STEAM TRUMPET 





once reported to the Manager, Mr. Ashlen Bagster, who informed 
Mr. Roger Miles, the clerk to the Company, and Mr. John Ellis, 
one of the directors. At their suggestion, by the next train on the 
same day, Mr. Bagster went over to Alton Grange to report the circum- 
stance to Mr. George Stephenson, who was the largest shareholder 
in the line. After various ideas had been considered, Mr. Bagster 
remarked, "Is it not possible to have a whistle fitted on the engine 
which steam can blow?" to which 
George Stephenson replied, "A 
very good thought ; go and have 
one made." 

Mr. Bagster at once went to a 
musical instrument maker in King 
Street, Leicester, who constructed a 
" steam trumpet," which was put on 
in ten days, and tried at West Bridge 
Station in the presence of the Board 
of Directors. 

Similar trumpets or whistles were 
ordered for the other engines, and 
one was also sent from Leicester 
to the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railway. 

The owner of the cart put in a claim against the Company for a new 
horse and cart, and for fifty pounds of butter and eighty dozen eggs, 
which he was conveying to Leicester market, and as the person who 
should have closed the gates was clearly to blame and neglected 
that duty, the Company's solicitors, Messrs. S. and R. Miles, advised 
that the claim should be paid, and that course was adopted by the 
directors. 

These trumpets were the first instruments or appliances ever used 
on locomotives in any part of the world to give notice by steam whistle 
or sound of the approach of a train or engine. The trumpet had, 
of course, a steam tap, and was, according to the official diagram 
signed by the Company's Engine Superintendent, i foot 6 inches high 
and 6 inches diameter at the top. 

During the year 1833 the portion of the Leicester and Swannington 
Railway which extends from the summit near Bagworth to the top 
of the Swannington incline, known as the "Upper End," was opened 
by the " Samson," and was driven upon this occasion by Robert 
Stephenson. As the traffic was small, a composite carriage was ample 
for the passenger traffic on this section of the line. 



THE FIRST STEAM TRUMPET, 1833. 



28 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The Railway Company did not build stations at Ashby Road (now 
Bardon Hill) nor at Long Lane (now Coalville), but in each case used 
a room in the " Railway Hotels," where passengers obtained their 
tickets and waited for their trains. 

The Swannington incline, which commences at a distance of 




HOTEL, "LONG LANE" 
(Used also as a Passenger Station, 1833 to July 3ist, 1849). 



15 J miles from Leicester, was in 1833, and is to-day (1901), worked 
by a stationary engine and rope. 

By an Act of June loth, 1833, the Company obtained powers to 
make the Soar Lane branch at Leicester and to raise ; 10,000 in shares 
and ^15,000 on loan, so as to compete, if necessary, on advantageous 
terms with a rival line which was then proposed from Pinxton to 
Leicester. 

This branch crosses the canal by a curious drawbridge, designed by 
Mr. Robert Stephenson. It was built in 1833-4, and is still in use, 



STEPHENSON'S TEST FOR RIVAL ENGINES 29 

the movable part being raised and lowered by means of chains at the 
four corners passing over pulleys and attached to counterweights. 

The large increase in the coal traffic necessitated the use of more 
powerful engines to convey the trains upon the rising gradients of 
i in 251 and i in 190 between the top of the Swannington incline 
and the top of the Bagworth incline. Mr. Stephenson decided to 
construct a powerful engine, the "Atlas," having six coupled wheels, 
and it was put to work in February, 1834. This was the sixth engine 
sent to this line from the Newcastle works. However, in 1833 some 




SWANNINGTON INCLINE 
(Opened 1833, and still in use, 1901). 

members of the "Liverpool party" pressed upon the directors that 
the Lancashire firms of Bury and Co., Tayleur and Co., and the 
Haigh Foundry Company should have orders, but Mr. Stephenson 
being the largest shareholder, they appeared to have felt anxious to 
know his opinion. It was therefore decided to write a private note 
on the subject, to which George Stephenson wrote the well-known 
reply, " Very well, I have no objection ; but put them to this fair test 
hang one of Bury's engines on to one of mine, back to back, then let 
them go at it, and whichever walks away with the other, that's the 
engine." 

The order was given to Mr. Bury in 1833, who personally assured 
the directors that "whatever Stephenson's engine could do his could 
do," and the engine named the " Liverpool " was placed upon the line 



30 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

in July, 1834, when a series of practical trials was made with a train of 
wagons in the presence of the directors. However, Mr. Bury was 
ultimately obliged to admit that his engine, the " Liverpool," was not 
equal to taking the train conveyed by Stephenson's "Atlas." Turning 
to Mr. Bury, Mr. John Ellis remarked, "That being so, why didst 
thou say that whatever Stephenson's engine could do thine own could 
do ? " To this question no answer was made. 

In June, 1837, this Company obtained power to raise a further sum 




WINDING ENGINE, SWANNINGTON INCLINE, 1833 
(Still at work). 

of ^40,000 by the issue of new shares, in order to pay off all bonds 
and securities which then existed for the sum of .35,000, the remaining 
,5,000 being required for new engines and works. 

On December 2yth, 1837, the capital was raised to 2,800 shares of 
^o each, or ,140,000, and all loans and bonds paid off. 

The cost of constructing the main line of railway was equal to 
;7>97 P er m il e - The books show that for the three years ending 
December, 1839, tne average profit was ^8,648, being equal to 6*17 
per cent, on the capital. The maintenance of way, which was under- 
taken by a contractor, was during that period equal to .130 14^. per 
mile. The locomotive power and repairs of engines amounted to 
,2,099 i$s. 2.d. per annum. 



A STATIONMISTRESS 31 

The wives of platelayers and others on this line were important 
persons in several cases, living rent free in the Company's houses on 
condition that they acted as gatekeepers, and Mrs. Argyle, the wife 
of the platelayer at Merry Lees, was " stationmaster," booking-clerk, 
porter, and she also worked the signals to stop the trains. She 
assisted when wagons were shunted into the siding, and managed 
the whole station from July iyth, 1832, to February 28th, 1871, when 
it was closed. The author has repeatedly seen her go up the ladder 
of the home-signal and light the lamps as well as any man. 




STEPHENSON'S "ATLAS," 1834. 



It is worthy of note that the Loughborough Canal shares, upon which 
^142 ijs. od. had been paid, were, previous to the opening of the 
Swannington Railway, worth ^4,500 each, but to-day they can be 
purchased for ^135. The Erewash Canal shares, upon which .100 
were paid, sold for ,300, but can now be had for ^50 ; and the 
Leicester Canal .140 shares are standing at ^60. 

To stem, if possible, the tide of adversity and to compete on better 
terms with the railway company, the Leicester Navigation Company in 
1833 g a ve parliamentary notice to construct a railway system from 
Loughborough to all the collieries in the Leicestershire district, but 
these proposals were never carried into effect. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE MIDLAND COUNTIES RAILWAY 

MR. WILLIAM JESSOP and Mr. James Oakes, who had been 
deputed, as we have already seen, to attend the opening of the 
Leicester and Swannington Railway on July iyth, 1832, immediately 
after that event made a full report to the Derbyshire and Nottingham- 
shire coal owners, and a month later, namely on August i6th, 1832, 
a meeting was held at the Sun Inn, Eastwood. Mr. Jessop reported that 
Leicestershire coal was being sent by train to Leicester in large quantities, 
and was being sold at under los. per ton ; also that their own trade in 
the Leicester district was completely ruined. He stated that to com- 
pete with the Leicester and Swannington Railway the price of their 
coal in Leicester must be reduced 3*. 6d. per ton. The coal owners 
had met the canal companies and urged them to reduce their rates 
35-. a ton, the price of the coal to be lowered is. per ton. On the other 
hand, the canal companies would only agree to lose is. 6d., and con- 
sidered that the coal owners should reduce their price 2s. per ton. 
After two hours' consultation nothing further could be arranged, both 
sides considering their offers as final, and neither would give way in the 
least. 

When these facts were reported to the coal owners at the Sun Inn, 
Eastwood, on August i6th, 1832, they not only resolved to reject the 
offers of the canal companies, but also unanimously passed a resolution 
that " There remains no other plan for our adoption than to attempt to 
lay a railway from these collieries to the town of Leicester," and a com- 
mittee of seven members was elected to carry the resolution into effect. 
The Sun Inn at Eastwood is consequently the birthplace of the Midland 
Counties Railway. 

The original scheme was simply to make a line from the old Mans- 
field and Pinxton Railway at Pinxton to Leicester, and the Derbyshire 
and Nottinghamshire coal masters put down their names for a consider- 
able part of the capital, but they were unable to raise the money 
required. The Secretary, Mr. Fox Bell, therefore made a journey to 

32 



THE "LIVERPOOL PARTY" 



33 



Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Derby, and other towns and laid the 
case before the rich men known as the " Liverpool party." 

Some members of the "Liverpool party" then paid a visit to the 
district, and decided that a local single-line railway was not in accord- 
ance with their wishes. A line from Pinxton to Leicester they regarded 
as too fragmentary and incomplete, as it did not form a link in the 
great " chain " which they desired to establish between London and the 
north. It must be remembered that in 1833 an Act was obtained to 
make the London and Birmingham Railway, and the " Liverpool 







THE SUN INN, EASTWOOD 
(Birthplace of the Midland Counties Railway). 

party" insisted that the proposed Pinxton and Leicester line must be 
continued forward from Leicester to Rugby to form a junction with the 
London and Birmingham Company's system ; also that it should extend 
from near the river Trent to Derby to form a junction with the pro- 
posed " North Midland line from Derby to Leeds, and that there must 
be a branch from Trent to Nottingham." 

The proposed railway would thus become a main line from Rugby to 
Derby, having a branch to Nottingham, and another branch from near 
Long Eaton passing Pye Bridge to Pinxton would form a junction with 
the old Mansfield Outram plateway. 



34 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The " Liverpool party," who were providing the bulk of the capital, 
felt that they were entitled to call the tune, and they determined that 
they would only give their support to the scheme on the distinct con- 
dition that their extended proposals were carried into effect, and that 
the Pinxton and Leicester line should blossom into the Midland 
Counties Railway. 

A number of meetings were held in support of the project, when 
Mr. Fox Bell pointed out that surveys had been made of the intended 
lines between Derby and Leicester and Derby and Nottingham and 
part of the line from Leicester to Rugby. The latter portion of the 
survey was then being completed, and a very influential committee had 
been formed in Leicester. The coal owners of Derbyshire and Notting- 
hamshire had taken shares to the amount of ,50,000 in the original 
project, which amount would now be thrown into the present under- 
dertaking. Mr. Bell also read the draft of a prospectus, in which it 
was estimated that a capital of ^'600,000 would be ample. The 
receipts expected included : 



Coaching, parcels, etc. . ... 77,870 

Heavy goods, now sent by canal and road . . 8,288 

Coal, minerals, timber, linen, grain, etc. . . 16,309 

102,467 
Deduct working expenses . . . 37,250 



Leaving a net surplus of . ... 65,217 

Add probable increase of coaching, etc. . . 40,620 

., goods and coal . . 8,160 



Total net profit . . . -;ii3 ? 997 

The carriage of coal to Leicester, then $s. 2d. to 6s. per ton, would 
be reduced to 2s. qd. or 3^., bringing the selling price down from 
i2s. or 15-f. to from 8s. to us. per ton. A Nottingham committee 
was also formed, comprising several county magistrates and other 
influential men. The same month, November, 1833, it was stated 
that Mr. Rennie, the engineer, had personally inspected the whole 
of the intended line from Rugby to Leicester, Derby, and Nottingham, 
with the branch to Pinxton, and thought very favourably of it. 

In November, 1833, parliamentary notices were lodged for the line 
from Pinxton, Derby, Nottingham, and Leicester to Rugby, and the 
following abridged prospectus was afterwards issued : 



AN EARLY RAILWAY PROSPECTUS 35 



MIDLAND COUNTIES RAILWAY. 

PATRONS. 

The Right Honourable the Viscount Melbourne. 
The Right Honourable the Earl of Denbigh. 

PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE. 
LEICESTERSHIRE. 



Colonel Cheney, C.B. 
Charles William Packe, Esq. 
Matthew Babington, Esq. 
Thomas Edward Dicey, Esq. 
William Heyrick, Esq. 
Richard Gough, Esq. 
John Hill, Esq., M.D. 



Joseph Noble, Esq., M.D. 

John Bright, Esq. 

James Brookes, Esq. 

John Needham, Esq. 

Mr. Toone. 

Mr. Hackett. 

Mr. C. B. Robinson. 



Mr. Alfred Burgess. 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 



Lancelot Rolleston, Esq. 
John Musters. Esq. 
John Wright, Esq. 
John Coke, Esq. 
Francis Wright, Esq. 



William Trentham. 
Thomas Barber, Esq. 
Samuel Parsons, Esq. 
Richard Renshaw, Esq. 
H. B. Campbell, Esq. 



William Wilson, Esq. 

DERBYSHIRE. 

Edward Miller Mundy, Esq. Samuel Fox, Esq. 

William Palmer Morewood, Esq. Henry Chapman, Esq. 

William Leaper Newton, Esq. Mr. John Wright. 

John Boden, Esq. Mr. John Sandars. 

Edward Soresby Cox, Esq. Mr. William Baker. 

James Oakes, Esq. Mr. Byng. 

Douglas Fox, Esq. Mr. Tunnicliffe. 

BANKERS. 

Leicester : Messrs. Mansfield and Babington. 

Nottingham : Messrs. I. and I. Wright and Co. 

Derby : Messrs Crompton, Newton, and Co. 

Mansfield and Chesterfield : Messrs. Maltby and Robinson. 

Rugby : Messrs. Butlin and Son. 

London : Messrs Smith, Payne, and Smith. 

SOLICITORS. 

Nottingham : Messrs Leeson and Cell. 

Leicester : Messrs Berridge, Berridge, and Macaulay. 

Derby : Messrs. Mousley and Barber. 

ENGINEERS. 
George Rennie, Esq., and William Jessop, Esq. 

SECRETARY. 
Mr. John Fox Bell, Leicester. 

Capital ^600,000. 
In 6,000 shares of 100 each. Deposit 2 per share. 



36 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Application for shares to be made at the respective banks, or (if by letter 
post-paid) to the Secretary. 

This railway is intended to connect the towns of Leicester, Nottingham, 
and Derby with each other and with London, a junction for this latter 
object being designed with the London and Birmingham Railway near 
Rugby. A branch will also extend to the Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire 
collieries, and to the termination of the Mansfield Railway at Pinxton. 
From a very careful estimate of the sources and amount of income on 
this railway, it appears that a clear annual return of 20 per cent, may 
be expected from the capital invested in it. 

A prospectus with Plan and Section of the Line has been published, 
which, with Mr. Rennie's Report thereon, may be had on application to 
the Bankers and Solicitors above named, or to the Secretary, if by letter, 
post-paid. The requisite parliamentary notices have been given, and plan 
and books of reference have been deposited with the Clerks of the Peace for 
the respective counties agreeably to the standing orders of the two Houses 
of Parliament. 

It is expected the whole of the routes northward of Leicester may be 
completed within two years after the Act is obtained, and the remaining 
portion to Rugby by the time the London and Birmingham Railway is 
opened. 

Subscribers will not be called upon for more than 5 per cent, at one 
Instalment, nor for Instalments at shorter intervals than three months. 

November, 1833. 

The Midland Counties Company also suggested, or (perhaps un- 
fortunately for itself) let it be known that at some future time it 
intended to extend this Pinxton branch from Pye Bridge junction 
along the full length of the Erewash Valley, and join the " North 
Midland " at Clay Cross or Chesterfield, thus threatening to take some 
of the traffic which belonged to the North Midland route. This 
caused the North Midland Company to oppose the bill, and the 
powerful canal companies in the district also threw in their influence 
against the scheme. The North Midland Company, in order to 
defend itself, caused or suggested the formation of another railway 
company, the " Birmingham and Derby," to form a junction with 
the London and Birmingham Railway at Hampton, thus obtaining 
for itself an independent route to London without having to rely 
upon the Midland Counties. 

So great was the opposition to the Midland Counties Bill when it 
eventually came before Parliament in 1836 that it became evident that 
it would be lost, and the "Liverpool party" therefore decided that the 
Pinxton branch must be entirely dropped in order to save the measure. 
This alteration proved successful, and the Act for making the Midland 
Counties Railway from Rugby to Leicester, Derby, and Nottingham 
received the Royal Assent on June 2ist, 1836. 

The Midland Counties was one of the very first lines in the kingdom 
which was constructed without the aid of George Stephenson, and the 



DELAYS FROM INEXPERIENCE 37 

absence of his master hand and mind was very conspicuous. The 
engineers employed lacked Stephenson's resources and experience, and 
they failed naturally to command the same degree of confidence or that 
"inflow of capital" which were so essential to the rapid inauguration 
and completion of the works. First designed in 1832 by Jessop, in 
l8 33 George Rennie was called in to re-survey and confirm Jessop's 
route; parliamentary notices were lodged the same year, but the 
requisite financial support was not forthcoming to justify further pro- 
cedure; the parliamentary notices were repeated in 1834; a re-survey 
was advocated in 1835 ; Charles Vignoles, another engineer, was called 
in and became engineer of the line in August, 1835 ; altered plans were 
lodged in Parliament in November of the same year ; a new route to 
Northampton was advocated in February, 1836; an Act was finally 
obtained in June, 1836, but part of the scheme was kept in a state of 
suspended animation by direction of Parliament till August ist, 1837. 
That, with the advocacy of first one scheme and then another by various 
parties, accounts for the very protracted delay from 1832 to 1837. 

The Erewash Valley coal masters, by whom the scheme was first 
suggested, found themselves "completely bested," as one of them 
remarked the very Pinxton branch, which was to them the sole object 
of the line, and for which they fought so hard, was lost. They held a 
meeting, passed resolutions, and expressed their views in very strong 
terms, but they could do nothing beyond close the meeting and retire 
to an excellent dinner at the Sun Inn. 

The three canal companies and the coal owners afterwards condoled 
with each other, and heartily regretted that they did not come to terms 
in 1832, and thus have avoided the introduction of the new railway. 

The Midland Counties Railway Company held its first annual general 
meeting at Loughborough,on June 3oth, 183 7, when Mr. Thomas Edward 
Dicey, the Chairman, presided; and the Board of Directors at that time 
consisted of no less than twenty -four members, namely Matthew 
Babington, Charles William Packe, Joseph Frederick Ledsam, William 
Wilberforce Pearson, Francis Wright, Joseph Smith, William Jessop, 
Theodore Wool man Rathbone, Edward Cropper, Charles Stewart 
Parker, Richard Cheslyn, Edward Miller Mundy, Lawrence Heyworth, 
Edward Dawson, Thomas Edward Dicey, John Coke, John Horsfall, 
James Oakes, Joseph Walker, George Barker, John Bright, Thomas 
Toone, William Hackett, and Joseph Cripps. 

The original route at first suggested by Mr. Jessop was not exactly 
followed, and Mr. Vignoles, when appointed engineer, was instructed 
to prepare the plans for Parliament as though no other engineer had 
been over the ground. 



38 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

After Mr. Vignoles had decided upon the route, and during the 
time the Bill was before Parliament, the inhabitants of Northampton, 
backed also by those of Market Harborough, made a vigorous attempt 
to induce the Company to abandon the Leicester and Rugby part of 
their scheme, and to make a line from Wigston to Market Harborough, 
thence direct past Northampton to join the London and Birmingham 
Railway at Roade. A clause was therefore placed in the Company's 
Act of June 2ist, 1836, "That the said Company shall not use or 
exercise any power, privilege, or authority, given by or contained in 
this Act, with respect to the portion of their line lying between Rugby 
and the point where the Midland Counties Railway passes from the 
parish of Wigston Magna into the township of Knighton, until 
the first of August, 1837, or the last day of the then Session of 
Parliament, should Parliament be then sitting, whichever may last 
happen." 

This embargo on the commencement of the works was unfortunate, 
as it prevented the junction at Rugby being opened so soon as otherwise 
would have been the case, and it enabled a rival line to previously 
open its junction with the London and Birmingham at Hampton. 
Ultimately it was found that the route via Northampton would have 
heavy gradients upon the Kibworth Bank, and also that it would be 
of no use for traffic from Leicester to Birmingham and the west. 

After all this delay the junction at Rugby as originally sanctioned 
was made, and the Northampton scheme abandoned. 

The formal opening of the first portion of this railway took place on 
May 3oth, 1839, when the directors and about five hundred visitors 
made the first trip over the direct line from Nottingham to Derby, a 
distance of 15 J miles, and after waiting an hour the train returned and 
made a second trip to Derby and back. 

The object of starting the opening train from the Nottingham end 
of the line was that the station was completed, and the absolute 
property of the Midland Counties Company, whereas at Derby the 
line terminated at Derby Junction with the "North Midland," and 
at the time there was only a temporary wooden platform, the new 
station being then under construction. The opening for public traffic 
was on June 4th, 1839. 

The three companies, the " North Midland," " Midland Counties," 
and " Birmingham and Derby Junction," all of which obtained Acts 
in 1836, decided and agreed that one large passenger station should 
be constructed at Derby for the joint use of the three companies. 

This station was built by Mr. Jackson for the North Midland 
Railway Company, the other two companies paying rent at the rate 



TRENT TO LEICESTER OPENED 39 

of six per cent, on the proportion of the cost of that portion which was 
for their accommodation, and the Midland Counties Company paid 
for running over the canal bridge north of Derby Station, by which 
arrangement the cost of a second bridge was saved. 

Locomotive sheds and shops were provided for the use of each of 
the three companies upon the eastern side of the Derby passenger 
station, while the Midland Counties carriage and wagon shops were 
at Leicester. 

The engines used on this railway were the well-known four-wheeled 
design of Messrs. Bury and Co., of Liverpool. 




NOTTINGHAM STATION, 1839 
(Midland Counties Railway). 

The second portion of this railway, extending from Trent Junction 
to Leicester, including two curves joining the Nottingham and Derby 
section at Long Eaton and Sawley junctions, was opened on Monday, 
May 4th, 1840. 

The Leicester Chronicle of May Qth, 1840, describing the opening, 
says: "About twelve o'clock on Monday last (May 4th) four first-class 
and six second class carriages reached the station in Leicester from 
Nottingham, preceded by the "Leopard" steam-engine. Several 
directors residing at Derby and Nottingham and Messrs. Vignoles, 
Woodhouse, and other principal engineers, surveyors, and contractors 
of the railway came along with them. Great numbers of spectators 
of all classes had assembled at the station and along the line to 



40 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

witness their arrival. After waiting about an hour they resumed their 
seats. Mr. W. E. Hutchinson, the Superintendent of the railway, and 
Mr. J. F. Bell, the Company's Secretary, having also taken their seats, 
and three guards, in new uniforms, also occupied theirs on the roofs 
of the carriages, the signal for starting was given, and the train set 
out in good style for Derby ; a beautiful banner and a number of flags 
on each side of the carriages adding not a little to the interest of the 
scene. The journey was one of inspection of the line previous to 
the public opening, and, we understand, gave great satisfaction to the 
directors. After dining together at the King's Head Inn, Derby, the 
party set out on its return to Leicester, and reached the station soon 
after nine o'clock." 

The opening for public traffic took place on May 5th; but it was 
not before May 2oth that six wagon-loads of Clay Cross coal were 
conveyed to Leicester Station from Stephenson and Co.'s colliery. 
This was the first consignment of Derbyshire coal by railway, and it 
was sold at Loughborough at us. and at Leicester for 12.?. per ton. 

Leaving Trent Junction for the south, the line passes over the River 
Trent by a cast-iron bridge of three arches, each 100 feet span, the 
iron work being made by the well-known Butterley Company, and 
immediately enters the short Red Hill Tunnel. 

At Leicester a handsome station was opened, which had the directors' 
board room and the general offices upon the upper floor. There was 
only one platform, which, by means of a platform loop-line and a 
junction at either end and crossover roads in the centre, did duty 
for both up and down passenger traffic, the two main lines being 
thus left clear for through traffic. This original station, with enlarge- 
ments, remained in use until the splendid new station was opened on 
June 1 2th, 1892. 

The third and last portion of the railway, extending from Leicester 

to Rugby, was constructed by Mr. 
Mclntosh, contractor, and on May i8th, 
1840, when only one line of rails had 
been completed, a special train, drawn 
by the engine "Vivid," conveyed the 
directors from Leicester to Rugby and 
back, and the completed railway was 

SECOND-CLASS CARRIAGE, 1844 

. ., N formally opened on luesday. June loth, 

(Midland Counties Railway). J f J J o 

1840, by a special train containing the 

directors, engineers, contractors, and visitors. For public traffic the 
line was opened on July ist, 1840. 

Leaving Leicester the line passes under the short Knighton Tunnel, 




LEICESTER TO RUGBY 41 

over the Knighton Viaduct, past Wigston and over the Crow Mills 
Viaduct, thence to Gill's Corner Tunnel, near Ullesthorpe, and near 
Rugby passes over the Avon Viaduct, which consists of eleven semi- 
circular arches of brick, each having a span of 50 feet, the height of 
the viaduct being 40 feet. At Rugby the Company provided one " bay 
platform " for its trains in connection with the London and Birmingham 
station, the goods lines being extended past the passenger station to 
a second junction, which was formed at the 82^ mile post from Euston 
Station, London. 

The Company's main line, extending from the south of Rugby 
Station to Derby Junction, was 49^ miles, the line from Trent Junction 




LEICESTER STATION, 1840 
(Midland Counties Railway). 

to Nottingham 7^ miles, and the direct line from Long Eaton to 
Sawley fully a mile. Therefore the total length of main line was 
57! miles. 

The railway was upon a gauge of 4 feet 8J inches, having both up 
and down lines throughout, the ruling gradient being i in 330. The 
rails were double-headed, five yards in length, and weighing 77 Ibs. 
to the yard ; they were placed in chairs and secured by wooden keys, 
the rail ends being held in a joint-chair. 

On embankments the chairs were placed upon sleepers, and in 
cuttings stone blocks were employed, and upon the Avon and 
Knighton viaducts continuous longitudinal timbers and bridge rails 
were used. 



42 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The whole of the arrangements in connection with the three openings 
of this railway were carried out by Mr. William Evans Hutchinson, 
a druggist, of 16, Gallowtree Gate, Leicester, who was appointed 
Manager and Superintendent of the line, and so well did he perform 
these duties that he was asked to become a director; and when in 
July, 1840, he resigned his position as an official, he was presented 
by the Company with ^500 in acknowledgment of his special services. 
He afterwards also became a director of the Leicester and Swanning- 
ton ; he was one of the original directors of the Midland, and finally 
attained to the highest post of all the Chairmanship of the Midland 
Railway. 

The opening of the Midland Counties Railway through to Rugby, on 
July ist, 1840, was the signal for the commencement of war against 
the Birmingham and Derby Junction Company in order to obtain the 
traffic which this Company regarded as its own. However, to appreciate 
the merits of the dispute, due regard must be had to all the circum- 
stances attending not only the construction of the Birmingham and 
Derby Junction Railway, but also to the war of rates which followed, 
as dealt with in a later chapter. 

Soon after the opening of the Midland Counties Railway some 
remarkable excursion trains were run, which, in view of the subsequent 
great development of that branch of railway working, are of great 
importance. Four especially noteworthy excursions were run, two from 
Nottingham to Leicester, the first on Monday, July 2oth, 1840, and 
the second on Monday, August 24th of the same year ; and two from 
Leicester to Nottingham, the first on Monday, July 27th, 1840, and 
the second on Monday, August loth in the same year. 

These excursion trains are of very great importance in railway 
history for this reason, that they are the first trains of this character 
ever run on English railways. A great deal of controversy has been 
waged as to the origin of this class of traffic, due, no doubt, in a large 
degree to the subsequent developments which have taken place in all 
parts of the world. In order to establish the fundamental facts of the 
case and to place the matter beyond all future cavil or question, it is 
necessary to give the official announcements regarding these trains. 

The first of these excursions was brought about by a very successful 
industrial exhibition which was held at Leicester in 1840, which 
attracted great attention, especially in the neighbouring town of 
Nottingham. 

On Friday, July loth, 1840, an announcement appeared in the 
Nottingham and Newark Mercury to this effect : 



AN EARLY EXCURSION 



43 



"The Committee of the Nottingham Mechanics' Institution have 
resolved to visit Leicester Exhibition, with their friends, on Monday 
week, July 2oth. The names of persons wishing to be of the party will 
be received at the Exchange Room, a special train having been arranged 
by the directors to convey them." 

It will be observed that in view of the " new experiment " the Com- 
mittee took the preliminary precaution of securing the names of 
passengers before they gave their guarantee to the Company. The 
response having proved satisfactory, the arrangements were completed, 
and the excursion was accordingly run on July 2oth, 1840. 




THE AVON VIADUCT, NEAR RUGBY, 1840. 

An exhibition of a similar character was held at Nottingham, and 
accordingly the Leicester Mechanics' Institute for these organisations 
were very distinctive educational and social factors in the great towns 
of England at that period resolved on a return visit to Nottingham by 
means of the new system of special trains which the Nottingham 
Mechanics' Institute had the honour of inaugurating. This return 
visit took place on Monday, July 2yth, 1840. 

The success of this system of travelling " at half the usual charges " 
and conveying large numbers of passengers having thus been demon- 
strated as a new and very valuable source of income, led to its adoption 
by the Midland Counties Railway Company on its own behalf. The 
Company accordingly advertised the first train from Leicester to 
Nottingham on August loth, 1840, and in view of the fact that this was 
the first train of this character ever run by a railway company, the 



44. THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

formal announcement becomes of great historic value and interest. 
It was as follows : 

MIDLAND COUNTIES RAILWAY. 



THE Public are respectfully informed that a SPECIAL TRAIN will leave 
the Station at Leicester, on MONDAY MORNING NEXT, the loth 
instant, at nine o'clock, for NOTTINGHAM, and return from the Notting- 
ham Station at six o'clock, calling each way at Syston, Sileby, Barrow, and 
Loughborough, for the conveyance of Persons visiting Nottingham. 

Fares to Nottingham and back. 



First Class. 


Second Class. 


Third Clas 


From Leicester. . 6s OD 


45 6D 


2S OD 


Syston . . 58 OD 


4S OD 


2S OD 


Sileby . . 43 6D 


35 60 


IS 6D 


Barrow . . 43 OD 


35 OD 


IS 6D 


Loughborough 33 60 


2S 6D 


IS 6D 



Persons wishing for Tickets must apply at the respective Stations on or 
before Saturday evening, the 8th instant, and none can be issued after 

thattime ' By order, 

Leicester, August $th, 1840. J- R BELL > Secretary. 

The fourth excursion was the most remarkable of all, the number of 
passengers conveyed by it being far in excess of anything known at the 
present time. The fact that over 2,000 passengers were conveyed in 
the train excited the popular imagination at the time, and the details 
are of the most interesting kind. The official announcement ran thus : 

EXCURSION TO LEICESTER. 
On MONDAY, August 24th, 1840. 

The Inhabitants of Nottingham and surrounding Villages are respectfully 
informed that an arrangement has been made with the Directors of the 
Midland Counties Railway to send a SPECIAL TRAIN, capable of 
accommodating Two Thousand Persons, to view the splendid alterations 
which have recently been made in the Leicester Exhibition. 

The Train will leave Nottingham at half-past Eight o'clock in the Morning 
precisely, and Leicester at half-past Six in the Evening. 

Tickets may be had at the Exchange ; Institution Rooms, St. James's 
Street; the Booksellers; and of Mr. HENRY WILLIAM SHIPLEY, 
Honorary Secretary, 2, Collin Street. 

Nottingham, August 14, 1840. 

The Leicester Chronicle, describing this excursion in its issue of 
August 29th, says: "The roofs of the unfinished houses in the neigh- 
bourhood were crowded, and every tree that grew about was destined 
to support more limbs than its own. The gallery over the esplanade at 
the station-house was crowded with elegantly dressed females, in front 



A REMARKABLE TRAIN 45 

of whom the band of the Duke of Rutland was stationed, and from 
time to time enlivened the listeners with some of its best pieces. At 
11.30 alarm was felt at the non-appearance of the train. An engine 
with several of the railway labourers started off to meet it. Another 
feverish half-hour crept on, when a second engine carrying a few of the 
directors was despatched. At half-past twelve, however, a thin vapour, 
a little smoke, then a huge undulating mass was discovered at the 
extremity of the horizon and gave assurance that all was safe. In 
a minute a long lingering, undulating mass of wood and iron slowly 
emerged from the dark mass of vapour which partially accompanied it 
like a body-guard, and rushing along the line with a noise resembling 
the dashing of a thousand surges on a rocky shore. In an instant 
the anxious passengers jumped on the esplanade where the Managing 
Committee of the Exhibition attended to receive them." This paper 
further says there were sixty-five coaches, i.e. eight firsts, forty-nine 
seconds, and eight thirds, and more than 2,000 people. 

The Leicester Journal of August 28th relates the facts as follows : 
" The engines were overloaded, and the progress was slow. There 
were about 2,400 persons. A special engine, with all proper means 
and appliances in case of accident, was sent off to reconnoitre, but did 
not return. At length, about 12.30, when the excitement had almost 
worn itself out of long endurance, a white flag, the signal of security, 
was seen from the station waving in the air. The enormous train 
of nearly seventy carriages passed majestically in review before the 
astonished spectators. It was indeed a wonderful scene. Grand ! 
magnificent ! sublime ! were the terms which gave vent to the feelings 
as in countless succession the animated mass rushed into view. It was 
in truth a moving city, with banners and music and accompaniments 
and all the material of high excitement to enhance its efficacy." 

This demonstration of the possibility of carrying large numbers of 
people from one point to another at cheap fares was satisfactory in 
every way, for whilst it was a great boon to the people it also proved 
very remunerative to the Company, and the fame of this new move- 
ment spread far and wide, and was introduced on the Sheffield and 
Rotherham and North Midland systems on June ist, 1841. 

But it was left to Mr. Thomas Cook to lay hold of this new system, 
and to devote the whole of his life's energies to its promotion in 
all parts of the world. He realised in a supreme degree the enormous 
possibilities which could be opened up by the extension and general 
introduction, on a settled and definite plan, of this great business of 
cheap travel for the million. 

Mr. Cook ran his first excursion from Leicester to Loughborough, 



46 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

in connection with a temperance demonstration which was held in 
Mr. Paget's park. The train was a "public excursion," and left 
Leicester on the morning of July 5th, 1841. It was drawn by two of 
Bury's four-wheeled engines, and consisted of fourteen open third-class 
passenger carriages, and one first-class carriage at the rear, a seat upon 
which was occupied by the guard; 570 passengers were conveyed by 
this train at a shilling a head for the double journey. To Mr. Thomas 
Cook belongs the honour of being the first person to hire a special 
train at his own risk, sell railway tickets to the public, and personally 
travel with the train to look after the comfort of his passengers. In 
fact, he was first Excursion Agent, and so well did he perform the 
duties that he was always afterwards in request when any "special 
train " was required, and by continuing " the business of travel " built 
up the great firm of Thomas Cook and Son, whose offices will be 
found in every part of the world. A few years ago, when talking over 
the events of July 5th, 1841, with the author, Mr. Cook remarked, "It 
is a fact worthy of note that the fare of one shilling which I fixed for 
the trip from Leicester to Loughborough and back " (twenty-five miles) 
"is the excursion fare which the Midland Company charges for the 
same journey to-day." 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE NORTH MIDLAND RAILWAY 

DURING the time that Robert Stephenson was constructing the 
Leicester and Swannington Railway and that George Stephenson 
was sinking the pits at Snibston, near Coalville, many visitors of im- 
portance were frequently to be seen at Alton Grange, Ashby-de la-Zouch. 
Indeed, it is well known that George Stephenson's house was the birth- 
place of many railways. 

On one celebrated occasion, early in February, 1832, a number of 
Stephenson's friends visited him to inspect the works and to discuss 
projects for further railway enterprise of a very extensive and far- 
reaching character. One of these enterprises was the construction 
of the North Midland line. When it is mentioned that the visitors 
included George Carr Glyn, banker, London, Charles Sturge, Birming- 
ham, John and Joseph Ellis, both of Leicester, Edward Cropper, 
Henry Booth, and Joseph Sandars, of Liverpool, Edward Pease, of 
Darlington, Samuel Beale, Birmingham, William Vickers, of Sheffield, 
Henry Houldsworth, and others, it is not difficult to see that although 
the visit was simply a friendly one, the right men were present to lay 
schemes and draw plans for future railways. Immediately afterwards 
we find that " Old George " attended a meeting in London at the bank 
of Mr. George Carr Glyn, when it was decided that he and his son 
Robert should examine the routes for several lines. 

In May, 1833, an Act was passed for the making of the London 
and Birmingham Company's railway, and in view of this fact and that 
the Midland Counties Company was about to make a connecting link 
from Rugby to Derby, Mr. Stephenson formed the opinion that a 
company should be incorporated to continue the chain of communica- 
tion from Derby to Leeds, and that various other lines should be 
made, extending from Normanton to York, Newcastle, Berwick, and 
Edinburgh, in order that through trains could run from Edinburgh 
to London, Euston. " Old George " explained his idea to his friends, 
the " Liverpool party," who perfectly agreed with the through route 

47 



48 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

from London to Edinburgh, and that it would be better to proceed by 
the construction of various links rather than form one vast company to 
cover the whole distance from Derby to Edinburgh. 

Mr. George Stephenson and his secretary, Mr. Binns, drove over 
from Alton Grange to Derby, and then started to drive to Leeds in 
order to find the best route for the North Midland Railway. 
Mr. Stephenson held the opinion that important main lines should 
not have gradients of more than 16 feet rise per mile, or i in 330. 

The route he selected, and which is the present Derby and Leeds 
line, left the Derby Station, passing over the canal bridge to Amber 
Gate, Clay Cross, Chesterfield, Stavely, Eckington, Masborough, 
Normanton, and to the passenger and goods station to be constructed 
at Hunslet Lane, Leeds. 

In order to obtain the very good gradients which he considered 
of vital importance, Mr. Stephenson was obliged to avoid running 
through Sheffield, Barnsley, and Wakefield, but he pointed out that 
branches could easily be constructed from those towns to join the 
main line. The inhabitants of Sheffield were in favour of the railway 
running from Chesterfield, via Dronfield, to Sheffield and thence 
forward to Masborough. The Sheffield route and the Stavely route 
formed the subject of a bitter contest. Ultimately the people of 
Sheffield had the Dronfield route again examined, and came to the 
conclusion that the gradients would be too severe. They therefore 
accepted the suggestion of Mr. Stephenson that they should themselves 
promote a Sheffield, Masborough, and Rotherham Railway Company. 

Mr. George Hudson, of York, also attended upon Stephenson and 
pointed out the great importance of the North Midland going to 
that city, and the inhabitants of Wakefield also strongly pressed their 
claims upon him. However, "Old George" was not to be moved. 
He was determined that "his line should not be more severe than 
1 6 feet rise per mile," but he suggested that independent companies 
should be formed to connect York with the North Midland at 
Normanton, and also that a line should be made from Normanton, 
through Wakefield, to Manchester. The York and North Midland 
and the Manchester and Leeds Companies were the result of these 
views. Some of the leading men in Bradford wished the railway to 
run to their town, but they were informed that a line to Bradford must 
form the subject of another undertaking. 

The Act for the incorporation of the North Midland Railway Com- 
pany, conferring powers to make the line as suggested by Mr. Stephenson 
from Derby to Leeds, received the Royal Assent on July 4th, 1836, and 
the works were commenced early in the following year. 




GEORGE STEPHENSON 
(Engineer, North Midland Railway). 



STEPHENSON AND CLAY CROSS COLLIERIES 51 

Near Amber Gate (as it was written at that date) the River Amber, 
running in a valley, and the Cromford Canal, constructed upon a high 
embankment, had to be passed, the line going over the one by a bridge 
and under the other by means of an aqueduct. This aqueduct con- 
sisted of an iron trough, which was floated on the canal to the right 
position and then sunk, and afterwards the opening for the railway 
was cut through the canal embankment, thus avoiding any delay to the 
boat traffic. 

At Amber Gate it was necessary to construct a tunnel of elliptical 
shape in order to withstand the pressure due to the movement of the 
hill. Then Stephenson's great genius was brought into play, and it 
must be remembered that he had constantly to deal with great and 
small engineering problems of a complex character, in regard to which 
there was no previous experience either of his own or of others to 
guide him. It is truly marvellous how Stephenson met and overcame 
difficulties so varied in their nature, and although this was a small 
one, it was none the less important, for there had been no tunnel 
of this kind previously constructed. The tunnel intersected the foot 
of a high hill on a slippery base of shale, so that as fast as the 
excavation was made the lateral pressure of the hill would cause 
a side slip, which would crush in the sides of any ordinary tunnel. 
Stephenson met this by making the tunnel of an oval section, having 
its least diameter in a vertical direction and its greatest resistance 
at the sides. Thus the tunnel was able to resist the great pressure 
of the hill by conveying it to the earth on the other side. 

When the works reached Clay Cross the construction of a tunnel 
there led to a very important discovery of coal beds, which Stephenson 
at once turned to advantage. Realising the vast value and utility 
of opening up these coalfields, he communicated with his friends, 
the " Liverpool party," who, acting on his advice, joined him in a 
lease of land at Clay Cross, and Stephenson opened up the now 
famous Clay Cross Collieries. Here he also constructed coke works, 
and at Amber Gate he made limekilns, with the result that in a very 
short time after the lines were opened he became by far the largest 
trader with the Company. The limekilns were at Amber Gate, but 
the limestone was brought from Crich by means of a branch line 
three miles in length. Stephenson's interests at this period were so 
much bound up with this district that in order to look after these 
works he removed his residence to Tapton House, Chesterfield. 

One morning in- 1839, when Stephenson was engaged in the con- 
struction of the tunnel at Clay Cross, the electric telegraph block 
system of signalling was first introduced to his notice, the electric 



52 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

telegraph having just come into use. Stephenson, who had been 
making an inspection of the works in the Clay Cross Tunnel, was met 
by Mr. William Fothergill Cooke and Mr. Wheatstone, who had come 
to explain to him the importance of the electric telegraph as a means 
of regulating and controlling the working of trains. 

They stated that their system was being tried upon the Great 
Western Railway, and that in their opinion " the candle placed in 
the window at Glenfield Tunnel was not sufficient protection for trains 
in a double-line tunnel such as Clay Cross," and Stephenson agreed 
with them on that point, and at once perceived the great value and 
utility of the invention. It was arranged that the telegraph should 
be fitted up through this tunnel and the arrival and departure of 
each train reported ; and further that if a second train should arrive 
at either end before the previous one was telegraphed as "Arrived," 
it should be stopped by signals and detained until such message was 
received. This was to all intents and purposes the object and spirit 
of what is now known as the " Block System." 

During the next two years this invention underwent a great improve- 
ment and development, and in 1841 Cooke and Wheatstone at Clay 
Cross Tunnel introduced electric instruments or dials for controlling 
the trains, perfectly independent of the "speaking instruments" and 
to show at a glance if the line was "clear" or "blocked." On the 
left-hand top corner of these instruments they printed the word " Stop," 
and on the right-hand " Go on " ; there was also a brass pin to hold 
over the handle, and consequently the needle, to either side of the 
dial; they further added an electric bell to call the attention of the 
man in the signal-box, who was then called a " policeman," a title 
which has since given place to the more appropriate one of "signalman." 
Outside the tunnel a semaphore signal, with an arm painted red, 
was fixed in order to indicate to the drivers of trains when to run 
into the tunnel or to stop. These particulars are of interest, proving 
as they do that as long ago as 1841 the absolute block system of 
maintaining a clear section of line between each train was strictly 
carried out at Clay Cross. 

The North Midland Railway was opened in two sections, the first, 
extending from Masborough to Derby, on Monday, May i ith, 1840, and 
the remainder, from Leeds to Masborough, on Tuesday, June 3oth, of the 
same year. The portion from Masborough to Derby had been specially 
expedited in order to form a junction with the already existing Sheffield 
and Rotherham Company's system, and thus by using that line from 
Masborough to Sheffield gave the latter town and district a through 
communication with Derby and the south. Up to this time the large 



THROUGH TRAFFIC FROM SHEFFIELD 53 

town of Sheffield had been isolated and cut off from railway com- 
munication with the south. 

On May i ith, 1840, the Sheffield and Rotherham Company's ordinary 
train, leaving the "Wicker" passenger station at 5.30 a.m., had through 
carriages attached for Derby, and on arrival at Masborough these were 
added to the North Midland Company's first up train, which opened 
the new line from Masborough to Derby. The traffic was heavier than 
expected, and in consequence of the slippery condition of the rails, 
time was lost to such an extent that the train was sixty-five minutes late 
on reaching Chesterfield. George Stephenson and Mr. Hudson, who 




CHESTERFIELD. 

had been Stephenson's guest at Tapton House, joined the train at this 
point. To assist the heavy train a pilot engine was attached to the 
rear and it ran as far as the north end of Clay Cross Tunnel, when 
it was detached. The result was that when the train was three-quarters 
of the way through the tunnel the engine stopped for want of steam. 
A man was sent back to fetch the "pilot," and people at the rear 
of the train, fearing a collision, got out of the carriages. At this stage 
Stephenson's Northumbrian accent was heard above the din (for he 
could not be seen) complaining of the mismanagement in sending 
away the extra engine when it was most wanted. Owing to these 
delays the train, which was due at 7.45 a.m , did not reach Derby 
till 9.30. The first up journey, it will thus be seen, was not very 



54 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

satisfactory, but the first down train, leaving Derby at 9.15 a.m., which 
had Robert Stephenson on the engine, performed the journey in the 
allotted time. 

It is stated by the chroniclers of the time that "the railway station at 
Derby is a wonderfully extensive place, which astonishes every person 
arriving there for the first time. So stupendous and magnificent does 
everything appear that imagination almost leads passengers to suppose 
they are arrived at a market-place for steam engines." 

The completion of the North Midland Railway from Hunslet Lane 
passenger station, Leeds, through to Derby, rid Masborough, was 
hailed with great public rejoicings. On the occasion of the opening 
(June 3oth, 1840) a train, drawn by two engines and consisting of 
34 vehicles, containing about 500 persons, ran from Hunslet Lane 
passenger station to Derby a distance of 72 miles 64 chains. At 
Normanton carriages arrived from the York and North Midland line 
containing George Hudson and the directors and officials of the York 
line. At the same station a carriage containing the directors of the 
Manchester and Leeds Company was also attached; and at Masborough 
the Sheffield contingent so swelled the number of vehicles that the 
total reached 62 coaches. It thus became necessary to work the train 
in two portions, each drawn by two engines and assisted by a pilot 
in the rear. 

At Derby there was "a stand-up lunch" served on the platform. 
There was "the band of music" and the cheering usual on such 
occasions, after which the train returned to Leeds, the time taken in 
each direction being about five hours. 

The event is described at length in the local press at the time. The 
Sheffield Mercury, in its issue of July 4th, 1840, says: "This line was 
formally opened throughout from Derby to Leeds on Tuesday, June 3oth 
[opened from Masborough to Derby, May nth]. The train, consisting 
of two engines with their tenders and 34 first and second-class 
carriages, left the Leeds Station at 8.3 a.m. At the Normanton Station 
it was joined by a number of carriages from the 'York and North 
Midland ' Company, filled by a highly respectable party of ladies and 
gentlemen. At Barnsley, at Chesterfield, and at Belper bands of 
music were in attendance to add to the interest and pleasure of the 
scene. Not the slightest accident of any kind occurred, and at one 
o'clock the immense line of carriages was hailed at the Derby Station 
by the welcoming cheers of the assembled multitude, the band playing 
appropriate airs. Here a cold collation with wine was provided free 
of charge by the Company to those who had tickets. Two immense 
lines of tables stretched along the stone platforms, but sitting was out 



LEEDS TO DERBY 55 

of the question. The side of the station, as well as the tables, was 
decorated with evergreens. The return train, with a party from Derby, 
left at 2.30 and reached Leeds at 6.55, about 500 persons going by it. 
In the evening the directors entertained their friends at a dinner at the 
Music Hall in Albion Street, which was tastefully fitted up for the 
occasion, and graced by the presence of several hundred ladies. 
Mr. George Carr Glyn, Chairman of the Company, presided, and 
amongst others were present the Rev. Dr. Hook, Mr. Wm. Beckett, 
the Mayor of Leeds, the late Lord Mayor of York (Mr. Hudson), 
Mr. E. Baines, Mr. Holdforth, Mr. Newton, Mr. Holdsworth, Mr. 
Pickersgill, Mr. Goodman, etc., etc. Trains for York and Sheffield left 
at 10.30 p.m. to take guests home. Public traffic began next day, 
Wednesday, July ist." 

The Sheffield and Rotherhatn Independent of July 4th, which has a 
much fuller account of the above opening, says : " A short train left 
Sheffield for Masboro' at 9.30 a.m., but not many went by it. The 
train from Leeds did not reach Masboro' till 10.30, drawn by two 
engines and pushed by a third. It appeared to be of interminable 
length. Several of the stations, like Masboro', had small engines to 
pump water for the locomotives and also boilers for heating it. The 
North Midland Railway Company built and managed Derby Station, 
the other lines paying them 6 per cent, on the cost for the privilege 
of using it. It was erected by Mr. Thos. Jackson, builder, of Pimlico, 
who also built Hunslet Lane Terminus Considerable excitement was 
caused on the return journey by finding four horses on a high embank- 
ment between Barnsley and Wakefield. Speed was slackened, and they 
got safely out of the way where the bank ceased." 

Derby Station at this period thus became a very important railway 
centre, not only as the point of junction between the three companies 
the North Midland, the Midland Counties, and the Birmingham and 
Derby but as the connecting link of traffic to and from the north. 
To facilitate the exchange of traffic the three companies very wisely 
determined to construct one station for the joint use of all three. The 
North Midland Company being the largest and most important, and 
having its head offices at Derby, undertook the work and the manage- 
ment of the station, but the other two companies, although they did 
not find any of the capital, agreed to pay 6 per cent interest on the 
proportion of the cost of that part of the structure which was for their 
accommodation. 

The station under these circumstances was a very large and com- 
modious one, certainly one of the largest in existence at that period. 
Twenty-six acres were inclosed, and nine lines of rails were included 



56 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

under the roof, the entire width of which was 140 feet, in three spans or 
bays one 56 feet and two 42 feet each an arrangement which 
exists in an extended form to the present day. The roof was 38 feet 
high, with a total length of 450 feet, but one of the three covering 
spans was extended to a total length of 1,050 feet. The usual station 
offices and buildings for each company were on a corresponding scale. 
The North Midland in addition had its board room and chief offices of 
a handsome character. 

Although the passenger stations were united, each company had for 
its other traffic independent goods sheds, and there were also three 
independent locomotive sheds and works adjoining each other on the 
eastern side of the passenger station. The engine sheds, or " houses," 
as they were then called, of the North Midland differed from those of 
the other companies, which were of the ordinary straight or rectangular 
shape. That of the North Midland was of a unique character; it was 
polygonal in shape 16 sides with 16 sets of rails, all converging on one 
turntable in the centre, the diameter of the structure being 190 feet; 
and the lighting was from a dome roof 50 feet high. This building is 
still in use. The " carriage houses " and workshops formed wings from 
the polygon, and were 180 and 160 feet in length. Mr. Jackson was 
the contractor for the whole of these buildings. 

At that time (1840) it was seen that a large hotel was necessary for 
the accommodation of travellers, Derby being a very convenient centre. 
But although the project was thus early initiated, it was not carried 
out until many years afterwards, when the present handsome and 
commodious structure adjoining the station buildings was erected by 
the Midland Company. 

On Wednesday, July 22nd, 1840, the Queen Dowager travelled from 
Nottingham to Leeds, on her way to Harewood House and Bolton 
Abbey. The special train consisted of three royal carriages, the 
property of the London and Birmingham Railway Company, " fitted 
up in a most superb style, the linings and trimmings being of white 
figured satin, with white sarsenet blinds, the exterior superbly gilt and 
ornamented, the springs being the same as those used by the Company 
for their mail carriages. There were also four trucks, for the convey- 
ance of the private carriages and luggage van of Her Majesty and 
suite. At Derby a North Midland carriage, elegantly fitted up, was 
substituted for the one in which the Queen Dowager had come from 
Nottingham. Several North Midland directors went on with the train. 
Engine No. 10 was attached at Derby, and was attended by another in 
case of accident. It proceeded at a rapid rate, and was not expected 
to stop for 40 miles, till it wanted water. At Clay Cross, however, 



A SHEFFIELD EXCURSION 57 

the Queen Dowager requested that the train might go at a slower 
pace, and the royal party consequently did not reach Leeds in much 
less than the usual time." 

The Sheffield and Rotherham and North Midland Companies ran an 
early excursion train, which takes rank amongst the very first, and was 
announced as follows : 

NORTH MIDLAND RAILWAY. 

EXCURSION TO AND FROM SHEFFIELD AND DERBY, 
ON WHIT-TUESDAY, IST JUNE, 1841. 

THE PUBLIC are respectfully informed that arrangements are made for 
offering them an opportunity of visiting DERBY and the ARBORETUM 
or PUBLIC GARDENS, to which they will be allowed FREE ADMIS- 
SION. 

The Train, consisting of First, Second, and Third Class Carriages, will 
depart from Sheffield at Nine o'clock in the Morning, returning from Derby 
at a Quarter-past Six o'clock in the Evening. 

FARES. 

First Class . ?s. | Second Class . 55. j Third Class . . 43. 
From Sheffield to Derby and Back. 

Tickets will be on Sale (from Saturday, the 22nd, to Whit-Monday only) 
at the SHEFFIELD and ROTHERHAM STATION, Independent and 
Mercury offices, and at Mr. WILEY'S, Haymarket. As the Train must 
depart precisely at the time stated, none will be issued after Monday, 3ist 
May. 

By Order. 

Sheffield Station, I5th May, 1841. 

The Sheffield Mercury, June 5th, describing this trip, says: "On 
Tuesday the inhabitants of this town were generally on the qui vive to 
witness the departure of the special train on the North Midland Rail- 
way from here to Derby. There were forty-seven North Midland and 
Sheffield and Rotherham carriages and five engines, containing about 
2,000 persons, and about 100 were left behind, they not having applied 
for tickets in time. There could not have been less than 20,000 
spectators. The train started about half-past nine, and arrived at 
Derby at a quarter -past twelve. It returned at 6.30, and reached 
Sheffield at 8.50 without any accident occurring, save a few hats 
being blown off and an individual falling out of a carriage when it 
arrived at Sheffield from getting up before it had stopped." 

Although the North Midland carried a large traffic, the dividend 
did not satisfy the shareholders, and a committee was appointed to 
reduce working expenses. This committee reported in favour of 
great reductions. Directors' fees, it considered, should be cut down 



58 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

50 per cent, the officers' salaries to be reduced 10 per cent., and 
5 per cent, to be taken off the wages of those receiving less than 
110 a year; but it suggested that stationmasters should not be 
reduced, as several of the best men had given the committee clearly 
to understand "that sooner than stand reductions they would go to 
other lines." Expenses were reduced in every department, and a 
number of servants were discharged, including the men who worked 
the block system at Clay Cross Tunnel, that system being considered 
too costly. 

Mr. Robert Stephenson, who had a salary of ^"1,000 a year as 
Engineer-in-Chief, at his own request had the amount reduced to ,400. 
However, in spite of all these savings, it was found that the dividend 
to December, 1841, was only 3 per cent. With the view of increasing 
the traffic, Mr. Robert Stephenson suggested, and Mr. Swanwick, the 
resident engineer, surveyed, proposed branches extending from the 
North Midland near Wath to the centre of the South Yorkshire colliery 
districts. Stephenson's idea was that the best way to improve the 
dividends was to increase the traffic and extend the Company's system 
into new districts and other coalfields ; but the directors and several 
large shareholders were of the contrary opinion, and they thought that 
with falling dividends they ought not to lay out capital on new works. 
Events proved that Stephenson was right, but for a time the views of 
the directors prevailed a decision which was most unfortunate, as it 
subsequently led to a large portion of the South Yorkshire coal traffic 
falling into the hands of the Great Northern Company. 

The question of the maintenance of the permanent way had for 
some considerable time engaged the attention of directors and engineers 
of railway companies generally as to the most advantageous of two 
systems, namely, maintenance by the Company's own officials or the 
employment of an independent contractor. It was determined by the 
North Midland, in order to thoroughly test the matter, to try the latter 
system; and on May lyth, 1841, an advertisement was issued from the 
Engineer's office of the North Midland Railway at Chesterfield, 
stating that tenders for the maintenance of the way and works 
between Derby and Masborough may be sent to H. Patteson, Esq., 
the Company's Secretary, at Derby, by ten o'clock on June 5th. The 
distance would be divided into five or more separate lengths, for each 
of which parties might tender. Drafts of contracts and specifications 
would be ready at the Engineer's office by May 27th, where parties 
could obtain orders allowing them to walk along and inspect the line. 
This contract was continued for a number of years, and from a report 
of a Committee of Investigation in 1849 it mav De nere stated that 



ROBERT STEPHENSON'S EXPERIMENTS 



59 



the change from light to heavy rails saved 7| per cent, on the contract 
price. With light rails and stone blocks six men were required, and 
with heavy rails and cross wooden sleepers only two and a half men 
per mile were required for the maintenance of the line. This system 
of contracting for permanent way repairs and maintenance was con- 
tinued for many years after the Midland was formed, and we believe 
it was actually in operation till 1873, when the last of the contractors 
died. 

Early in the year 1842 the locomotive officials at Derby directed 
the attention of Mr. Robert Stephenson to the important fact that 
the chimneys and smoke-boxes of the locomotive engines were being 




E 




LONG BOILER ENGINE 
(North Midland Railway). 

very quickly destroyed, and he therefore made some experiments 
with the North Midland Company's engines at Derby to ascertain the 
degree of heat which was escaping. First he placed tin in small iron 
conical cups and suspended them in the smoke-box, and it was 
found to disappear quickly ; next lead was tried in the same manner, 
and was found to melt nearly as easily; and lastly, zinc was tried, 
which was soon driven off in vapour, clearly indicating a temperature 
of 773 degrees in the chimney, and showing that a great waste of heat 
and fuel was taking place. To overcome this evil Mr. Stephenson 
decided to lengthen the boiler tubes of locomotives from 9 feet to 
13 or 14 feet. He also adopted the name "long boiler," and placed 
all the axles under the barrel or circular part of the boiler. 

In the first of these "long boiler" engines the driving wheels were 



60 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

placed between the leading and trailing carrying wheels, the cylinders 
being kept forward under the smoke-box. 

Further experiments at Derby in 1843 proved that the "long 
boiler" was successful in reducing the heat in the chimney to very 
little over 442 degrees, as upon placing tin in the smoke-box it was 
found just to melt at the corners; and early in the year 1844 Mr. 
Robert Stephenson decided to place the four carrying wheels in front 
of the engine, and the driving wheels close in front of the fire-box. 
These improvements were regarded as of great value and importance 
at the time, and they greatly reduced the consumption of coal by 
the locomotives. 

At this period the management of the Company was controlled 
partly in London and partly in Leeds and Derby, which proved a 
very inconvenient arrangement ; and at the first meeting of the 
shareholders in the year 1842 Mr. George Carr Glyn resigned the 
post of Chairman in order that Mr. William L. Newton, of Derby, 
could occupy the position and enable the whole of the general 
management to be concentrated at Derby, where it has remained 
ever since. 

The shareholders at the same meeting, notwithstanding the great 
depression in trade, expressed their surprise that in view of the 
"reductions" in expenses the dividend was only 2 per cent., and 
a very important speech was made by Mr. George Hudson, an 
energetic and well-to-do linen-draper of York, who was also Chairman 
of the York and North Midland Railway. Mainly in consequence 
of this speech a Shareholders' Committee of seven members, with 
Mr. Hudson as its Chairman, was appointed to consider the position 
and future management of the Company. 

The Shareholders' Committee made a report to a meeting of share- 
holders in November, 1842, upon the necessity for further reductions, 
but Mr. Newton, the Chairman of the Company, expressed the opinion 
of the directors that the suggestions of the Committee "could not 
be carried out with safety to the public." This caused an uproar, 
during which Mr. Newton left the chair, and the meeting terminated. 
Six of the directors shortly afterwards felt that it was not a very 
pleasant position to hold office under the circumstances, and they 
resigned, Mr. Hudson and five members of the Shareholders' Com- 
mittee being elected to take their places. 

The anxiety of the directors to carry out the policy of reduction 

in every possible direction actually led them to adopt the extraordinary 

course of announcing by advertisement their desire to sell sixty new 

'carriages, consisting of thirty first-class and thirty second-class. The 



AMALGAMATION A NECESSITY 



61 



advertisement, which appeared on March nth, 1843, gave as the reason 
of the sale that the Company had too many coaches for the require- 
ments of their traffic. 

The difficulties of the Company became very great, the directors 
and the shareholders were divided in their counsels, and the time 
was at hand for a great development and an extended combination. 




GOODS ENGINE, NORTH MIDLAND RAILWAY, 1840. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE BIRMINGHAM AND DERBY JUNCTION RAILWAY 

IT has already been explained in a previous chapter that the 
Midland Counties Railway, by means of its Trent and Pinxton 
branch, appeared to threaten the interests of the North Midland ; 
and in order to checkmate this movement the latter company came 
to the conclusion that it must find an independent junction with the 
London and Birmingham Railway for through traffic. George Stephen- 
son was consequently instructed to survey a line from Derby, passing 
through Burton, Tamworth, and Whitacre, to connect with the London 
and Birmingham Company's system at Stechford, near Birmingham, 
so as to join a line which was proposed to run to Gloucester and 
the West of England. There was also to be a ''Stonebridge branch" 
to extend from Whitacre Junction to Hampton Junction, which would 
give a connection with the direct line to London, and thus make 
them entirely independent of the Midland Counties line. 

Although these were the true objects of the line, namely to give 
direct communication with the West of England and more particularly 
with London, the latter being by far the most important of the two, 
it was given out that the line was merely one to connect Derby to 
Birmingham. It soon, however, became apparent that the Birmingham 
and Derby line was to provide an alternative route to the south via 
Hampton, and by this means convey the traffic for which the Midland 
Counties had provided by their line through Leicester to Rugby. 

This state of affairs brought the two companies into open conflict 
before even parliamentary sanction had been given to their schemes. 
But after the usual recriminations had been indulged in on both 
sides, a calmer frame of mind was shown, with the result that negotia- 
tions for the settlement of their differences by friendly means were 
opened; and it was suggested that the Pinxton branch, which was 
regarded by the North Midland as threatening their interests on the 
one hand, and the Stonebridge branch, which the Midland Counties 
regarded as infringing their rights on the other, should both be 

62 



AN EXCITING CONFLICT 63 

eliminated from the scope of the Bills to be presented to Parliament. 
The representatives of the Birmingham Company appear to have 
regarded this proposal as satisfactory and the arrangement completed, 
and, acting on this assumption, struck out the clause in their Bill 
relating to the Stonebridge branch, and withdrew it from their ad- 
vertisements, which by statute have to be published in the newspapers 
of the district through which the line was to pass. Newspapers were 
then only published weekly in the provinces, and the chagrin and 
indignation of the directors of the Birmingham and Derby line may 
be imagined when they discovered that their notices were withdrawn 
and it was too late to remedy them, whilst those relating to the Pinxton 
branch were retained. Whether this " piece of sharp practice," as 
it was termed, was due to accident or design, or to the naturally strong 
desire on the part of the Midland Counties to retain the branch which 
was at the very foundation of their undertaking or not, it greatly 
embittered the relations of the two companies, and ultimately led to the 
Midland Counties being completely outgeneraled and outmanoeuvred 
in the parliamentary conflict by their rivals, and afterwards to a 
disastrous war of rates between the competing points. 

The difficulty thus created by the withdrawal of the one branch and 
the retention of the other was met by Mr. Beale by means of an 
independent Stonebridge Junction Railway Company, which was 
formed to make the Hampton branch over exactly the same route. 
When the Bills were before Parliament the Stonebridge Company and 
the Birmingham and Derby Company were amalgamated under the 
title of the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway Company, 
and the Act of Incorporation was passed on May igth, 1836. 

Immediately after the Royal Assent had been given the Company 
commenced the purchase of land and to make arrangements for 
the construction of the line from Derby to Whitacre, as well as the 
branch to Hampton ; but it entirely neglected to take any steps 
whatever to make the portion of main line from Whitacre to the 
proposed junction near Birmingham. The object of pushing forward 
the branch to Hampton with all possible speed was in order that 
they might forestall the Midland Counties line to Rugby, have their 
line opened first, and thus secure the through traffic to London. 
Further, an arrangement was made with the London and Birmingham 
Company to convey Derby passengers to Birmingham via Hampton 
to Curzon Street Station, thus obviating the necessity for making 
the Stechford line. 

The London and Birmingham line was completed and through 
trains ran on September lyth, 1838, and on August 5th, 1839, the 



64 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

connecting line from Derby to Hampton Junction, 38^ miles, 
was formally opened by the directors, and ordinary traffic commenced 
on August 1 2th of the same year. It will thus be seen that from 
August 1 2th, 1839, to July ist, 1840, the only route from Nottingham 
and Derby to London was via Burton, Whitacre, and Hampton, and 
when on July ist, 1840, the lines were opened from York and Leeds 
to Derby a very considerable traffic was placed on the Birmingham 
and Derby Junction system ; but on the same day serious competition 
with this line was commenced by the opening of the Midland Counties 
Railway route to Rugby. 

The directors of the Midland Counties Railway were undoubtedly 
exceedingly annoyed to find that the rival route was opened first, 
and that this was entirely in consequence of the clause in their 




THE "DERWENT," SHARP'S LOCOMOTIVE, 1839 
(Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway). 

own Act one of the points in which they were placed at a great 
disadvantage by their opponents which prevented the commencement 
of their railway from VVigston to Rugby until August ist, 1837. 

The Birmingham and Derby Junction Company remained in sole 
possession of the Derby traffic for ten and a half months, but on 
July ist, 1840, the Midland Counties was opened throughout to 
Rugby. Then came the tug of war ; the Midland Counties was 
determined to obtain the traffic for which its line was made, and 
the Birmingham and Derby was equally anxious to retain the advantage 
which it possessed as the result of parliamentary strategy. 

Speeches were made on each side, both companies considered that 
theirs was the proper route, and that the other was acting "ludicrously," 
"evasively," delusively"; also that traffic was being "abstracted from 
direct channels " to be sent by a roundabout route. 

Then fares were reduced until a first-class passenger, if going to 
Rugby or London, was only charged 2s. for the 38 J miles from Derby 



LAWLEY STREET, BIRMINGHAM 65 

to Hampton instead of the proper local fare of 8s. The second-class 
fares were also reduced to is. instead of 6s., which was charged for 
local passengers. 

A loss of 75 per cent, did not appear to trouble either company 
so long as their rival lost heavily. Indeed, it was actually proposed 
to convey the London passengers from Derby to Hampton for nothing; 
but eventually it became evident to all practical men that this absurd 
competition must not go on, and that two valuable properties were 
being ruined. 

At the general meeting of the Birmingham and Derby Junction 
Company, held at Birmingham in August, 1841, the Chairman 
suggested that it would be well for a "Shareholders' Committee of 
Investigation" to be appointed, to consider the position and affairs of 
the Company generally and the keen competition with the Midland 
Counties Railway, which at that period was causing a great deal of 
traffic to be conveyed at unprofitable rates. 




w 




FIRST-CLASS CARRIAGE SECOND-CLASS CARRIAGE 

(Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway, 1839). 

The line from Whitacre to Stechford, which received parliamentary 
sanction under the original Act of May iQth, 1836, was never con- 
structed. That portion of the scheme was left in abeyance, and by 
an Act of June 3oth, 1837, tne time was extended for the taking of 
lands, whilst in the following year (1838) a third Act provided for the 
abandonment of the Stechford line and the use of the London and 
Birmingham Railway, and the substitution of an entirely new route, 
9 miles 71 chains in length, from Whitacre Junction, passing Forge 
Mills, Water Orton, and Castle Bromwich, to the passenger and goods 
station which the Birmingham and Derby Railway Company deter- 
mined to erect at Lawley Street, Birmingham, giving communication 
with the London and Birmingham Railway by means of a lift. 

But although these powers were obtained, it was only when there 
was a prospect of forming a communication with the Birmingham and 
Gloucester Company, and also a fear that the broad-gauge Great 
Western system was likely to be extended to Birmingham, that the 



66 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

works were taken in hand. In the spring of 1841, however, the 
construction of the line was commenced and pushed forward with all 
practicable speed. 

The Whitacre and Birmingham extension was completed and 
opened by the directors on February Qth, and to the public on the 
following day, February loth, 1842, when the Birmingham and Derby 
Company's line became an actual link between the two towns direct, 
passengers and goods being conveyed to the new terminus at Lawley 
Street instead of to Curzon Street, via Hampton. This saved the tolls 
which had previously to be paid, and the station buildings, which were 
an excellent type of those of the period, included all the head offices 
and board room of the Company. 

Lawley Street Station was constructed on a low level, whereas the 
London and Birmingham Curzon Street Station was on a high level ; and 
to enable through traffic to be exchanged between the companies a 
" connecting lift " was constructed close to Lawley Street, which raised 
or lowered wagons or vehicles, as the case might be, one at a time, 
from one level to the other. But although this was the simplest 
operation possible for the transfer of a small amount of traffic from 
one line to another, yet when it occurred in the middle of a long 
journey to a goods train from the north or midland districts to the 
west and south-west of England it was a cause of serious delay, and 
the evil became so great that subsequently it had to be dealt with by 
means of a connecting railway. 

The original passenger terminus at Lawley Street, Birmingham, after 
being in use for a number of years for passenger traffic, has for this 
purpose been for many years superseded by the great structure at 
New Street. The Lawley Street buildings, greatly extended, are now 
exclusively devoted to goods and mineral traffic. These new buildings 
are quite worthy of the Midland Company and of the vast commercial 
centre in which they are situated. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DIFFICULTIES SOLVED BY AMALGAMATION 

T^IERCE and unrestrained competition between the three rival 
r companies the North Midland, the Midland Counties, and the 
Birmingham and Derby Junction had brought all three, in the years 
1842 and 1843, into a position which was far from being pleasant to 
the directors or satisfactory to the shareholders. All of them were 
burdened with heavy administrative charges, and while on the one 
hand traffic, as far as two of them were concerned, was being conducted 
at unprofitable rates, on the other, invasions of their territory were 
threatened from the south and east, and by the broad gauge from the 
west. It thus became apparent that whilst the three companies were 
engaged in the keenest warfare with one another, the very existence of 
all three was seriously threatened, and their rivalries and conflicting 
interests rendered them comparatively powerless unless changes of a 
far-reaching character were brought about. 

The first step towards a drastic change of policy was initiated by 
Mr. James Heyworth, who with his family held one twentieth part of 
the share capital of the Midland Counties Company. This gentleman, 
at a meeting of that Company on August i3th, 1842, urged upon the 
directors the necessity of making a searching inquiry, and he expressed 
the opinion that they had "too many directors by half," and that 
instead of having twenty-four directors with a remuneration of ^"1,200 
a year, twelve gentlemen on the Board with ,600 a year would be 
ample for the requirements of the Company. He followed up his 
attack in the ensuing November, when a special meeting was held at 
Derby, when he proposed and demanded a committee of investigation, 
which, notwithstanding the opposition of the directors, was carried by 
a 75 per cent, majority. 

This led to a proposal being made that the Midland Counties and 
the Birmingham and Derby Junction companies should amalgamate 
a course which would have been attended with great advantages 
to both the companies concerned. But the proposal aroused great 

67 



68 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

opposition on the part of the " Liverpool party " and the North 
Midland Company, and it was evident to the North Midland that the 
unification of the interests of the Midland Counties and the Birming- 
ham and Derby Junction would only give them one string to their bow 
in place of two. The opposition proved too powerful, and so the 
scheme had to be abandoned. 

These efforts at conciliation having failed, the old rivalry and com- 
petition broke out afresh with ruinous effect on both companies, for the 
fares and rates charged were such as could yield no profit whatever. 
This led to a change in the attack on the part of the Midland Counties, 
who were advised that the system of charging by their rivals between 
Derby and Hampton was illegal as well as unfair and unreasonable. 
Application was accordingly made to the Court of Queen's Bench for 
a mandamus requiring the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway 
Company to charge equally all persons travelling between Derby and 
Hampton. This they were successful in obtaining, and the Midland 
Counties directors were sanguine that they would be able to render it 
impossible to continue the existing mode of competition. 

The introduction of this new and costly legal weapon of warfare 
threatened to entail further losses on both companies, and proved an 
effective instrument in bringing both parties to a more conciliatory and 
reasonable frame of mind. They were, in fact, weary of the prolonged 
turmoil and strife which was only destructive in its character, and other 
influences were brought into play which tended greatly to restore peace 
to all parties. 

In the early part of the year 1843 the three companies North 
Midland, Midland Counties, and Birmingham and Derby Junction 
were all in positions far from prosperous, and there were signs that 
one would be attacked by the London and York now Great Northern 
that a line from Hitchin would probably be extended by that 
Company or its friends into the very centre of the Midland Counties, 
and that the Great Western would probably carry the broad gauge to 
Birmingham or Rugby, and even Manchester was spoken of as a 
likely termination for the 7 -feet gauge. 

The " Liverpool party " became alarmed at the prospect of the 
broad gauge overrunning the country, and they saw that the three 
narrow-gauge companies, which had spent so much time and money in 
useless fighting, must now combine to resist the separate attacks which 
were threatened. George Stephenson, George Hudson, and John 
Ellis all expressed themselves as specially anxious that a scheme for 
the amalgamation of the three companies should be immediately 
formulated. 




5 

to <u 



I I 

fc jtf 





AMALGAMATION ARRANGED 71 

Mr. Hudson brought the matter before the North Midland Board, 
and at his suggestion communications were opened with the other two 
boards, with the result that in September, 1843, the proposition that 
the three lines should be amalgamated was approved by the other two 
companies. A joint committee, consisting of members from the three 
boards of directors, was then formed, and met at Derby Station to 
draw up details and arrange for a Bill to be introduced into Parliament 
"to consolidate the North Midland, Midland Counties, and Birming- 
ham and Derby Junction Railways." 

The joint committee had to take into account the share capital of 
the three companies and arrive at the respective values. The North 
Midland Company had "whole," "half," and "third" shares; the 
"whole" shares had been issued at ^100, but the "halves" were 
issued at 40, and the "thirds" at 21 135. ^d. The Midland 
Counties shares were "whole," "quarter," and "fifths"; the "whole" 
shares were issued at ^"100, the "quarters" at 1$, and the "fifths" 
had only 2 paid up. 

It was decided to consider all the above shares as of their nominal 
value, except the " fifths," which were to be considered as of the value 
actually paid up, or 2. The Birmingham and Derby shares were 
"whole," "third," and "eighth," and it was decided that the "whole" 
shares, upon which .100 had been paid, should be considered as 
.95; the "thirds," which had been issued at ^25, to be valued 
at $i 135". 4^.; and the "eighths," which had been issued at 
^"3 iSs. 5</., to be considered as 6 i^s. ^d. 

It was also determined that the Birmingham and Derby shareholders 
should receive i js. 6d. per annum less dividend per ^100 than the 
proprietors of the two other companies. These terms and the Amalga- 
mation Bill then before Parliament were considered and approved of 
by special meetings of the shareholders of the three companies on 
April 1 6th and ryth, 1844. It was also arranged that the three accounts 
should be kept separately until June 3oth, 1844, the last independent 
dividends for the half year being North Midland Railway, whole 
shares, 2 2$. od. ; Midland Counties Railway, whole shares, 2 2s. 6d. ; 
Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway, whole shares, i 6s. 6d. 

It was also agreed that the consolidated company should have a 
board of fifteen directors, and as the three companies had been 
managed by thirty-four, it followed that no less than nineteen directors 
and two sets of chief officers would lose their positions. 

The three lists annexed give the names of the directors and officers 
immediately before the passing of the Act, those marked * being 
retained for service under the new company. 



72 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



NORTH MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY. 



*William L. Newton (Chairman) 

Anthony Titley (Deputy Chairman). 

Henry Cox . . 

*Joseph Holds worth 

Thomas Laycock 

George Wilson 
*William Murgatroyd . 
*Charles Tee . . 

P. W. Brancker 

J. T. Alston . . 

*John Waddingham 
*George Hudson 
*Peter Clarke 

F. Swanwick 



Thomas Kirtley 



Derby. 

Leeds. 

Derby. 
. Wakefield. 
. Sheffield. 
. Sheffield. 

Bradford. 
. Barnsley. 

Liverpool. 
. Liverpool. 
. Leeds. 
. York. 

Secretary and Superintendent. 
Resident Engineer. 



Locomotive Superintendent. 



Chief Office Derby Station. 



MIDLAND COUNTIES RAILWAY COMPANY. 



Thomas E. Dicey (Chairman) 

James Oakes (Deputy Chairman) 
*William Evans Hutchinson 

George Byng Paget 

John Cartwright 

William Hannay 

Douglas Fox 
*John Ellis . 
*Samuel Waters 
*Henry Youle 

Lawrence Hey worth 
*John Taylor 
*John Fox Bell 
*W. H. Barlow 

J. Kearsley 



Leicestershire. 

Derbyshire. 
. Leicester. 
. Sutton Bonnington. 
. Loughborough. 
. Nottingham. 
. Derby. 

Leicester. 
. Leicester. 
. Nottingham. 
. Liverpool. 
. Leicester. 

Secretary and Superintendent. 
Resident Engineer. 
Locomotive Superintendent. 



Chief Office Leicester Station. 



BIRMINGHAM AND DERBY JUNCTION RAILWAY COMPANY. 



*Samuel Beale (Chairman) 
*Abel Peyton (Deputy Chairman) 

Colonel Blane 

William Crawshay 

Archibald Kenrick 

Daniel Ledsam 
*Josiah Lewis . 
*Sir Oswald Mosley 

Thomas Pemberton 

Joseph Walker 

Joseph Sandars 

James Allport 
*Matthew Kirtley 



Birmingham. 

Birmingham. 

London. 

London. 

West Bromwich. 

Birmingham. 

Derby. 

Burton-on-Trent. 

Birmingham. 

Birmingham. 
Secretary. 
Manager. 
Locomotive Superintendent. 



Chief Office Lawley Street Station, Birmingham. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY 

ON May loth, 1844, the Royal Assent was given to the Act by 
virtue of which the " North Midland," " Midland Counties," and 
" Birmingham and Derby Junction " railway companies " shall be 
and the same are hereby dissolved," and the proprietors of shares 
"shall be incorporated by the name of "The Midland Railway 
Company." 

As the new Company was to come into power immediately after the 
Royal Assent, it was found necessary that the Directors should be in a 
position to take control without delay ; it was therefore enacted, " That 
the number of directors shall be fifteen." The names of the fifteen 
gentlemen had been selected in the proportion of six from the North 
Midland, five from the Midland Counties, and four from the Birming- 
ham and Derby Junction, and it was also enacted that "they shall be 
the first directors." The Board thus constituted by Act of Parliament 
immediately met and elected George Hudson Chairman, and John Ellis 
Deputy Chairman ; the following being 

THE FIRST BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

(Initials of previous 
companies.) 

(N.M.) George Hudson (Chairman) . . York. 

(M.C.) John Ellis (Deputy Chairman) . . Leicester. 

(B.D.J.) Samuel Beale . . . Birmingham. 

(N.M.) Joseph Holdsworth . . . Wakefield. 

(M.C.) William Evans Hutchinson . . Leicester. 

(B.D.J.) Josiah Lewis . ... Derby. 

(B.D.J.) Sir Oswald Mosley . . . Burton-on-Trent. 

(N.M.) William Murgatroyd . . . Bradford. 

(N.M.) William Leaper Newton . . Derby. 

(B.D.J.) Abel Peyton . ... Birmingham. 

(M.C.) John Taylor . ... Leicester. 

(N.M.) Charles Tee . ... Barnsley. 

(N.M.) John Waddingham . . . Leeds. 

(M.C.) Samuel Waters . . . Leicester. 

(M.C.) Henry Youle . . . Nottingham. 

73 



74 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



OFFICERS. 

(M.C.) Secretary . ... John Fox Bell. 

(N.M.) Superintendent . . . Peter Clarke. 

(M.C.) Resident Engineer . . W. H. Barlow. 

(B.D.J.) Locomotive Superintendent . . Matthew Kirtley. 

Chief Office Derby Station. 

The share capital of the new Company was contributed in the 
following proportions : 



North Midland 

Midland Counties 

Birmingham and Derby Junction 

Total Midland Railway 



2,905,400 

1,275,000 

978,500 

",$, 1 58,900 



This capital was divided into 120,695 shares of the undermentioned 
nominal values : 



Shares. 



Amount. 



Previously. 



d. 



24,991 


100 





6,228 


95 o 





14,980 


50 o 





19,717 


33 6 


8 


6,795 


3i 13 


4 


10,000 


25 o 


o 


12,500 


2 





25,484 


6 14 


9 



N.M." and "M.C." 

B. and D.J." 

N.M." 

N.M." 

B. andDJ." 

M.C." 

M.C." 

B. and D.J." 



100 







100 







50 o 


O 


\ shares. 


33 6 


8 


\ shares. 


33 6 


8 


\ shares. 


25 o 





5- shares. 


20 o 





1 shares. 


12 10 





4 shares. 



120,695 



The three companies had also raised money by loans as under : 



North Midland . . . . . 815,450 

Midland Counties . ... 466,000 

Birmingham and Derby Junction . . . 300,000 



Total loans Midland Railway 



,1,581,450 



In order that the Midland Railway Company could pay off these 
and carry out some necessary improvements, power was granted to 
reborrow and raise a sum of i, 7 19,633 on loan. 

The Midland Company's main lines at the time of the amalgamation 
consisted of the following distances contributed by the companies as 
under : 

Miles. 

North Midland . . ... 72 

Midland Counties ... . 57 

Birmingham and Derby Junction . . . 



Total main line 



THE LARGEST RAILWAY CORPORATION 75 

In addition to this there were several short branches to goods 
yards, cattle docks, and collieries, bringing the total up to about 
i8i miles, of which 65 miles were laid on stone blocks, 115 miles 
on sleepers, and about ij miles on bridge rails, passing over viaducts 
and bridges. 

By the amalgamation a great saving in the cost of administration 
was effected, as well as an enormous saving in working expenses, and 
the Midland Railway became the largest railway corporation with the 




THE MIDLAND HOTEL, DERBY. 

greatest length of line of any company then in existence. It was 
indeed a most memorable occasion, as it marked the beginning and 
the birth of the great combinations which were afterwards to become 
such powerful factors in the commerce of the nation. It was the first 
important amalgamation in the history of the railway world, and it gave 
a new impetus to and laid the foundation of all the enormous extensions 
not only on the part of the Midland Company itself, but it was also an 
object lesson in combination which exercised an influence in railway 
affairs beyond all calculation. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

A POLICY OF EXPANSION 

THE Midland shareholders held their first General Half-yearly 
Meeting on Tuesday, July i6th, 1844, at Derby, when the 
Chairman, Mr. George Hudson, presided; and he was able to point 
out that the receipts for the half-year to June 30th had increased by 
^21,000, working expenses had been reduced by ^9,000, and further 
reductions would follow when the salaries of many members of the 
three staffs would cease. He at the same time expressed regret that 
many useful and valuable officers had to leave their service. He also 
added that the dividends declared were proofs of steadily advancing 
prosperity, and that the return for the week which had just been made 
up showed a revenue amounting to ^10,152. The Chairman after- 
wards submitted a resolution authorising the directors to take steps to 
obtain powers in the next session of Parliament for the construction 
of two lines of railway from the present main line of the Company one 
commencing near Swinton, and proceeding by Doncaster, Bawtry, 
and Gainsborough to Lincoln, the other commencing at Nottingham, 
and proceeding through Newark to Lincoln. The object of these 
lines was to connect Lincolnshire and the whole of the adjacent 
eastern district with the West Riding of Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
on the one hand, and with Birmingham, Staffordshire, and the 
midland and western parts of England on the other. The resolution 
also proposed to obtain powers for extending the Midland system 
from Lincoln to the Eastern Counties Railway at March via Boston, 
and northwards from Lincoln to the York and North Midland Railway, 
thus supplying to every important town in the Eastern Counties good 
local communication, and also convenient access to London and the 
north and west of England. The proposed line from Swinton to 
Lincoln had been some time under consideration ; the only new part 
was that from Lincoln to March. The line from Swinton to the 
York and North Midland Railway would be made, if agreed to, by 
that Company. He believed these extensions would bring a large 

76 



AN IMPROVED POSITION 77 

amount of traffic upon the Midland Railway, and in making them 
he thought they would be acting wisely and prudently. They had 
undergone the most attentive investigation by the Board of Directors, 
who were unanimous in recommending their adoption by the pro- 
prietary. All that was then asked was power to make the necessary 
surveys. He had no doubt of the lines paying a fair dividend, and 
was sure they would better accommodate the districts passed through 
than any local company could do. 

A discussion ensued, in which the projects were warmly defended. 
They were deemed necessary as a protection against other undertakings, 
and were considered, independently of that, likely to be most beneficial 
to the Midland Company. When completed the whole of the eastern 
part of the country would be amply provided with railway accom- 
modation. The Great Western Railway was pointedly alluded to as 
resorting to the plan of making extensions on the ground of protecting 
the interests of that line. The Chairman further said that " the days 
of discount" had, as regarded the Midland line, gone by. 

The resolution empowering the directors to take the necessary steps 
as to the proposed extensions was carried with only one dissentient. 
One of the first steps after the amalgamation was the construction of 
a curve north of Derby, which enabled through trains from Leeds and 
the north to run to Leicester and Rugby without entering the station 
at Derby. Further, by adopting the shortest route to Rugby, the 
Whitacre and Hampton Branch became of little use, and this branch, 
which played such an important part during the early struggles, is now 
of so little practical utility that the entire service consists of one 
passenger and one goods train in each direction per day. The 
passenger service closes at 9.30 in the morning for the day, and 
there are no trains whatever on Sunday, the line being closed from 
9.30 a.m. on Saturday till Monday morning. 

To fully appreciate the position of the Midland Railway as it was 
at the time of the amalgamation, and to understand the policy which 
was followed by the Company in after years, we must carry our minds 
back to May loth, 1844, and examine the circumstances as they then 
existed. 

The London and Birmingham, Midland, and other railways working 
in direct connection, regarded the main line from Euston Square to 
Rugby as the great trunk of a vast tree, whose branches and con- 
tinuations should extend north, east, and west, and cover the country 
to Edinburgh via Leicester and York, Glasgow via Stafford and 
Carlisle, and Ireland via Crewe and Holyhead. In fact, maps existed 
upon which were drawn the proposed branches, extensions, and new 



78 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

railways which would give communication with every part of the 
north of England via that great railway centre, Rugby. 

Here was a clearly defined policy for supplying railway communica- 
tion which had been carefully worked out and drawn up by the best 
railway and business men of the day. We may, therefore, ask why 
the plan should be upset or why it should not be carried out com- 
pletely ? The answer to these questions will be found in the fact that 
in the autumn of 1843 the money market was easy; money was 
abundant, many investments proved unfruitful, and the attention of 
the "City" began to turn to railway promotion as a branch of specula- 
tive finance. " City " men studied the railway map of England to look 
out for a route for a railway that would be likely to pay them as a specu- 
lation ; and certainly in 1843 there was ample scope for financiers to 
make lines to large towns which were then unprovided with any railway 
communication without entering into schemes which were purely 
competitive and speculative in their character. 

The London and Birmingham and Midland Railways were well able 
to carry their traffic, but the " City " men decided to get up a London 
and York scheme, and introduced a Bill asking for powers to make 
a new main line from London, King's Cross, which should run 
practically side by side with the Midland and flank it from one end 
of its length to the other; and from which railway it was intended 
to make branches, or other lines promoted in its interests, to extend 
into all the centres of the Midland traffic. Railway speculation quickly 
developed into the "railway mania" which commenced in 1843, was 
continued in 1844, and arrived at its height in 1845, during which 
thousands of persons were ruined by the absurd rush for shares. 

Speculators promoted companies to make, or pretend to make, rail- 
ways in every possible direction and to attack every existing company, 
especially the London and Birmingham and the Midland. 

Under these circumstances the Midland Company saw that there 
could be but one policy, namely, a bold fight for existence, and that the 
only course left open to them was to defend their property to the 
utmost of their power, firstly by offering the most strenuous resistance 
to the London and York Bill in Parliament, and secondly by the 
construction of branches extending to Lincoln, Peterborough, and 
other districts through which the London and York scheme desired 
to pass. The parliamentary battle was a furious and most expensive 
one. Mr. Hudson, the Midland Chairman, very properly left no stone 
unturned to protect the interests of the Midland. It was stated before 
the Commons Committee that Mr. Hudson was working with a "twelve- 
counsel power." This, however, was not a fact, five being the number 



MR. HUDSON FIGHTS WELL 79 

which watched the London and York Bill. It became known to 
Mr. Hudson that ,29,000 worth of London and York shares had 
been signed for by persons who did not exist or could not be found, 
and that "44,500 was signed for by men of straw, possessing no 
money or property, and who had been paid a small sum to lend 
their names. 

Look at the matter how we will, the transaction was " not straight," 
and the House of Lords Committee evidently came to the conclusion 
that it must "draw the line somewhere," and consequently most 
properly reported that the London and York Bill should not be read 
a second time in that House until further investigation had been made 
into the contract, and the Bill was therefore held over until the next 
session. 

Mr. Hudson, on behalf of the Midland, expressed the strongest 
indignation against the London and York Bill. He fought with a 
united Company behind him to the full extent of his power, but he 
was perfectly aware that the " financiers " had powerful friends and 
interests in Parliament, and it was no secret at Derby and on the 
Midland that the London and York Bill would be passed, or, more 
correctly speaking, be "forced through the House." Consequently 
it was no surprise to the Midland shareholders to learn that on 
June 26th, 1846, the Royal Assent had been given to the London 
and York Bill. The Great Northern Company afterwards constructed 
under the powers conferred by this Act a railway commencing at 
King's Cross Station, London, passing Hitchin, Peterborough, 
Newark, and terminating in a field about four miles north of Doncaster 
and about 1 60 miles from London, at a point now known as Askern 
Junction, where it joined, or was to be joined, by the Wakefield, 
Pontefract, and Goole Railway, now a portion of the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire system. 

The delay of a year which took place in the passing of the Great 
Northern Act enabled the Midland Company to push on with two of 
its extensions, both of which received the Royal Assent on June 3oth, 
1845. One of these was the Nottingham and Lincoln line, which was 
a continuation of the Trent and Nottingham section of the old 
Midland Counties. This extension passed Rolleston Junction, Newark, 
and terminated at Lincoln, a distance of 33 miles. There was also 
constructed a short branch of about 2\ miles from Rolleston to 
Southwell. 

At Lincoln it was intended, either by extension or by another 
system, to continue the communication to Grimsby and New Holland 
for Hull. The Nottingham and Lincoln line was formally opened 



8o THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

on August 3rd, 1846, and it is a strange fact that Parliament ever 
permitted the Great Northern to afterwards make the unsatisfactory 
level crossing at Newark which exists to this day, instead of passing 
over the Midland by a bridge, as it should have been required to do. 

On Monday, August 3rd, 1846, the Midland directors, with a large 
number of friends and proprietors, opened the Lincoln line. Special 
trains ran from Derby and Leicester to Nottingham, the former starting 
at 8 a.m. They left Nottingham at 9.26 and 10.15, tne fi rst reaching 
Lincoln at 10.51 after calling at Newark. These trains left Lincoln 
again about 12 and 12.30, consisting respectively of thirty-five carriages, 
of which sixteen were first-class. They reached Nottingham about 
1.30, where a luncheon was provided, ''combining every possible delicacy, 
with a profusion of champagne and other choice wines." It was 
laid out in the engine-house, which had been enlarged and beautifully 
decorated. George Hudson presided at the lunch, " which was a very 
gay affair." At 2.50 and 3.15 the trains went down to Lincoln for 
the second time amidst a violent storm, which continued almost 
all the way. In the evening there was a dinner at Lincoln, at which 
Hudson again presided and the Lord Mayor of York and the mayors 
of Nottingham, Newark, and Lincoln were present. The return train 
left at 9.10, reaching Nottingham at 11.10 p.m., whence expresses ran 
to Derby and Leicester. The line was inspected by General Pasley 
on July 3ist, whose report as to the construction was highly gratifying. 
Nevertheless, a bad accident happened near Gonalstone crossing, 
between Lowdham and Thurgarton, a few days after, clearly due 
to the breaking of an engine spring owing to the sinking of the 
road. The engine was upset in a ditch and the fireman killed. 

The festivities at the opening passed off well, though the weather was 
very bad and a man received fatal injuries at Lincoln from the bursting 
of a cannon. The line was constructed in eight months, by John 
Craven and Sons, contractors, of Bingley. Public traffic commenced 
on the following day, August 4th. 

The extension to Lincoln necessitated the construction of new station 
buildings at Nottingham, which was previously a terminal station. The 
buildings, although then regarded as fully adequate for all requirements, 
in the course of time required considerable extensions, and after having 
been in use for over half a century, they are now being replaced by 
a handsome and very costly structure. 

The other Act of June 3oth, 1845, gave power to construct the Syston 
and Peterborough branch, which was to commence by north and south 
curves at a point about five miles from Leicester, thence bending in 
various directions to catch the towns, namely Melton Mowbray, 



THE BATTLE OF SAXBY BRIDGE 81 

Oakham, Luffenham, Stamford, and most important of all, to form 
a junction with the intended Eastern Counties Railway at Peterborough, 
the Midland trains to have running powers into that Company's 
passenger station and goods yard there. The projected Syston and 
Peterborough line was intended to run through part of Lord Har- 
borough's Stapleford Park at Saxby, but that nobleman objected to 
the railway coming through his estate ; and further, he was considerably 
interested in the Oakham Canal, which was originally opened in 1800, 
and which he feared would be injured or rendered useless by the 
railway. Notice was therefore given that "surveyors would not be 
permitted to enter upon his land." 

The surveyors, however, proceeded along the canal bank, but one of 
Lord Harborough's keepers stopped the assistant carrying the chain. 
This person produced a pistol and threatened to fire, to which the 
keeper replied, "Shoot away!" This terminated in what is known 
as the " Battle of Saxby." The surveyors were put into a cart to 
be conveyed before a magistrate, but ultimately the cart was tipped 
up and they and their instruments were shot out, and it is said that 
some of the surveyors were conveyed to the gaol at Leicester. 
Ultimately it was found necessary to collect a strong gang of navvies, 
who, headed by two or three prize-fighters from Nottingham, walked 
through Lord Harborough's estate, followed by the surveyors, when 
no resistance could be offered by the keepers. 

It appears that this memorable trouble began on a small scale on 
November i3th, 1844. Lord Harborough and his steward, Mr. Fabling, 
had given notice to the Railway Company that they would not permit 
anyone to enter Stapleford Park and lands to survey. The railway 
men were seven in number, and were about to approach the forbidden 
ground by the Oaknam Canal towing-path. Lord Harborough's party 
of nine met them and took them prisoners. They were conveyed, with 
their flagstaff's, chains, and spirit-level, towards Cold Overton Hall, the 
residence of T. F. Turner, Esq., a magistrate. Mr. Turner was from 
home, but the head keeper informed his prisoners they might separate 
for the night, which they did. 

Another skirmish, however, took place next day, November i4th. 
The scene of action was Saxby Bridge, adjoining Lord Harborough's 
park. A renewed attempt being expected, by 9 a.m. between thirty 
and forty of the Earl's men assembled there to prevent it. Very soon 
parties of gentlemen in the employ of the Company arrived in chaises, 
etc., from Melton and Oakham, heading a number of "reckless-look- 
ing vagabonds," carrying flagstaffs, etc., looking in the distance very 
like a regiment of soldiers coming to take the place by storm. A 



82 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

lengthened parley took place on the bridge between his lordship's 
steward and solicitor, the clerk and treasurer of the Oakham Canal 
Company, and the solicitors of the Midland Railway, as to the mode 
of proceeding to be adopted. Meantime, Lord Harborough's men 
prepared for a determined stand by fencing the paths with drays, etc., 
close to the water's edge. An attempt was then made by the surveyors 
to force their way through the party stationed on the Oakham side of 
the bridge, but the barrier was too firm to be broken, and they had to 
retreat. After this some delay took place, during which both sides 
received reinforcements. Four or five of the County Police also came 
up, and stated that they should arrest the first person who committed 
an assault. Both parties were then desired to lay aside their weapons, 
which consisted of stout shillelaghs, and ordered not to strike any 
blows, but to try their relative strength by pushing. A grand stand 
was then made by Lord Harborough's party below the bridge, and 
nearest Melton, who stood wedged together and forming a living and 
very formidable barrier. The surveyors next placed rows of their men 
with their backs to the faces of the Earl's party, and set others in an 
opposite position to force the way. An almost indescribable scene 
now took place. The railwayists exerted their utmost strength, but 
so firmly did his lordship's party retain their ground that more than 
one was actually forced up high in the air, rolling over the heads of the 
contending parties. Others were forced through the hedge, tumbling 
over each other and nearly filling the ditch beneath, amidst the shouts 
of the leaders and the laughter of the numerous spectators. Great 
confusion now ensued, the two parties mixing together and in the 
tumult and dirt becoming almost undistinguishable by each other. 
In the midst of this confusion the surveyors succeeded in getting the 
chain on the forbidden ground. Lord Harborough's men then took 
forcible possession of it, and in the scuffle to recover it, it was broken 
in one or two places. A fine chase was then had for about a quarter 
of a mile down the tow-path, affording the spectators as much amuse- 
ment as a fox-hunt. Another barrier was then about to be formed, 
when a truce was shouted by the railwayists, and it was finally agreed 
that each party should withdraw their forces, and that the matter 
should be judicially brought before the magistrates by issuing a 
summons for assault against one or two of the men of each party, 
which it was understood would be heard at the Petty Sessions at 
Melton on November iQth, the solicitors and surveyors of the Com- 
pany pledging themselves that no further attempt should be made in 
the meanwhile. 

The clerk and treasurer of the Oakham Canal Company were 



A FREE FIGHT 83 

present during the whole of the skirmish, sanctioning Lord Har- 
borough's proceedings, they having some time previously given his 
lordship an exclusive right to the towing-path. 

In spite of the above arrangement for a truce, the existence of which 
was denied by the railway party, a fresh attempt took place about 
7 a.m. on Saturday, November i6th. Mr. William Latham, Lord 
Harborough's solicitor, hearing it was likely to happen, wrote informing 
the Railway Company's solicitors that he had barricaded the towing- 
path, and had in readiness a few cannon from Lord Harborough's 
yacht. About 7 a.m. a small party of railway men, about ten in 
number, attempted to take the tow-path at one point, whilst nearly a 
hundred more climbed over the palings nearer to Oakham and com- 
menced measuring with three or four chains. Lord Harborough's men 
were dispersed, watching various parts of a park 800 acres in extent, 
and could not oppose them. They had got opposite his lordship's 
beautiful cottage, where he resided, when Mr. Fabling, the steward, 
came up on a pony, with some of his "troops." Mr. Cope, one of the 
railway party, told him to retire if he did not wish to be hurt. On 
refusal, his men were ordered to remove him. Mr. Fabling ordered 
the measuring chain to be taken up. Then followed a general free 
fight. Brown, the lock-keeper of the canal, a powerful man, rendered 
great assistance to his lordship, sending his opponents head over heels 
at every blow ; the noise was so great it was heard in the villages two 
miles off. The spikes of the railway party were thrust into the sides 
of the defenders of the park, and after a battle of several minutes, 
and many broken heads, wounded faces and sides, the lower grade of 
the intruders gave way. At this moment his lordship appeared, 
accompanied by Lady Harborough, but being weak from a very severe 
illness, was not able to get near the scene of action. The noise 
having brought together more parties of his lordship's men, it was 
evident the railwayists must beat a retreat, their staves and chains 
having been broken into many pieces. Ten persons, whose names 
were taken, were not allowed by Mr. Fabling to leave till they had 
given them. Three navvies from Oakham were then brought up, 
after the hearing of the principal case at Melton, charged with having 
engaged in the affray on behalf of the Railway Company, but were only 
bound over to keep the peace for three months. Some other parties 
from Stamford were also bound over. As regards the main case, the 
Bench unanimously sent it to a higher court. "Thus terminated for 
the time the eventful contest between Lord Harborough and the 
Midland Railway Company." 

Three cases arising out of this were tried at the Assizes at Leicester, 



84 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

March 26th, 1845, before Lord Chief Justice Tindal and common juries. 
In the first case it was stated that on Saturday, November i6th, 1844, 
whilst it was yet dark in the morning, the defendants, with seventy or 
eighty people, came to the Earl of Harborough's park with measuring 
chains and flagstaffs, etc., and distinguished by white badges, with 
the evident determination to proceed with their survey. They were 
resisted by a considerable number of Lord Harborough's people, 
and after a severe struggle and fight were compelled to retreat. The 
Lord Chief Justice summed up with great clearness that parties 
assembling in the manner and under the circumstances shown were 
guilty of a riot, and were properly resisted by Lord Harborough's 
people, who were justified in using force to eject them from the 
park. The jury, without much deliberation, returned a verdict of 
guilty of an assault against all the defendants, who were sentenced to 
be imprisoned for one month and to pay a fine of \s. 

The second case, Ward v. Lord Harborough and others, was an 
action for trespass and false imprisonment and for damaging a 
theodolite. Lord Harborough's servants, after warning plaintiff and 
his followers off the canal tow-path, took him into custody, under 
a mistaken impression that they had power to do so. They permitted 
him to go away in his own carriage and used no violence, but the 
theodolite was pitched out of a cart and broken. The jury found 
a verdict for the plaintiff; damages, ^8. 

The third case, Lord Harborough v. Ward and Cope, was an action 
for trespass on the occasion of the riot. A juror was withdrawn on 
each side by agreement. The Lord Chief Justice then sentenced the 
defendants as stated above, the imprisonment to be in Ward No. i, so 
that they would have no unnecessary hardship. He expressed his 
regret that persons of their education and profession should be engaged 
in a transaction which was quite unjustifiable in law, and which he was 
bound to visit with punishment. 

All these proceedings were for trespass in connection with the 
attempts to make a preliminary survey and plans for Parliament ; but, 
notwithstanding all these objections and obstructions, the Company 
succeeded in securing parliamentary sanction by their Act of June 3oth, 
1845. 

During the passage of the Bill through Parliament, in order to 
appease Lord Harborough's objections, the Midland entered into an 
agreement with the proprietors of the Oakham Canal, of which Lord 
Harborough was a large shareholder, to purchase that undertaking. 
The agreement, which was dated April iQth, 1845, was incorporated 
in an Act of Parliament passed July 27th, 1846 ; and the proprietors of 



LORD HARBOROUGH INDICTED 85 

the canal received " 26,000, together with 200 of the newly created 
40 shares, making a total of ^"34,000." 

By the Syston and Peterborough Act of 1845 tne Company were 
empowered to make a tunnel under the Cuckoo Plantation in Staple- 
ford Park. But immediately after the commencement of the con- 
struction of the tunnel, the object of which was to preserve the trees 
and the plantation, it was found to be too shallow, and the cutting 
of the tunnel destroyed the roots of the trees, and suddenly a large 
portion of the works fell in, dragging the trees with the debris. Sixty 
trees were thus uprooted and destroyed. The engineers were not 
to be blamed, in view of their having been prevented from making 
a proper preliminary survey, and they decided, as it was impossible 
to make the tunnel as sanctioned, to form an open cutting. This 
Lord Harborough resented, and he brought an action against them 
for cutting down about sixty trees, oak, elm, and fir, of twenty-five years' 
standing, forming what was called Cuckoo Plantation, in Stapleford 
Park. By their Act the Company had power to make a tunnel at 
this point, without shafts, but proceeded, instead, to make an open 
cutting 1 06 yards in length. An injunction to restrain them was 
granted in the Vice-Chancellor's court, by Sir L. Shadwell, July 8th, 
1846, his lordship considering this "a most oppressive case." 

The Company were thus at an impasse they had powers to 
construct a tunnel which could not be made and at the same time 
preserve the trees, and they also had an injunction restraining them 
from destroying the trees or making an open cutting. 

They consequently decided to make a deviation line to dispense 
with a tunnel and to avoid the plantation entirely, but this laudable 
intention was only the signal for further warfare. So far from the 
deviation putting an end to the difficulties, Lord Harborough 
obstructed the surveyors for the plans for the deviation quite as 
strongly as he had done the surveyors for the original line. Another 
fracas occurred on the 24th and a second on November 28th, 1845. 
This led to a trial in July, 1846, when the Company indicted Lord 
Harborough and twelve other persons at Nottingham for conspiring to 
prevent Charles Liddell and others from taking surveys and making 
plans and sections which had to be laid before Parliament on Novem- 
ber 3oth, and further, for assaulting the said Charles Liddell and others. 
A deviation from the Act obtained in 1845 for the construction of the 
Syston and Peterborough Railway was found necessary. It was alleged 
that his lordship ordered the surveyors off his land and engaged people 
to obstruct them. He himself drove a gig up and down the high road 
whilst the surveyors were engaged with the theodolite, and persons who 



86 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

were in his employ carried sheets of calico, ran against the railway men 
who were about 150 in number and caused a general uproar. Lord 
Harborough also drove a brake against the surveyors' chaise, but there 
was no direct evidence of any further assault upon the persons of the 
surveyors or their assistants. After a trial of upwards of five hours' 
duration the jury returned a verdict of "Not guilty" on July 24th, 1846. 

These disputes with Lord Harborough caused great delay, and neces- 
sitated another Act of Parliament being passed on June i8th, 1846, 
authorising a deviation from the original plans. Terms were arranged 
with Lord Harborough which ultimately got rid of all the difficulties. 
The portion of line from Syston to Melton was completed and opened 
on September ist, 1846, and the Stamford and Peterborough section was 
ready, but the Midland Company had no means of getting to it, and 
could not convey either engines or carriages to this bit of line. It was 
therefore decided that the Eastern Counties Company's trains should 
open and work the Peterborough and Stamford line from October 2nd, 
1846, until such time as the intermediate Melton and Stamford division 
should be completed. 

Finally, the Syston and Peterborough branch, which added 48 J miles 
to the Company's system, was opened from Syston to Melton Mowbray 
on September ist, 1846; and at the other end of the line the portion 
from Stamford to Peterborough and the junction with the Eastern 
Counties Railway was opened on October 2nd, 1846. But the inter- 
vening section of the line between Melton and Stamford, in con- 
sequence of the dispute with Lord Harborough, was not ready till 
March 2oth, 1848, when it was opened for through coal traffic, and on 
May ist of the same year for passengers. But although the line was 
thus finally completed and opened, it was not so satisfactory as that 
according to the original plan, for it necessitated what is known as 
"Lord Harborough's curve" at Saxby, which was too sharp for fast 
running, and had many years after to be modified. 



CHAPTER IX. 

EXTENSIONS AND PURCHASES 

HAVING traced the history of the formation and the consolida- 
tion of the three parent lines and their unification in the 
existing Midland Railway Company, we now come to consider the 
policy of expansion which followed. First of all came the making 
of its two primary extensions to Lincoln and to Peterborough, which 
was succeeded by the introduction of another policy of vast and 
far-reaching importance, namely, the enlargement of the system, not 
only by making new lines to districts not touched or only very partially 
served by railway communication, but by purchasing, leasing, or other- 
wise acquiring the properties of other independent railway companies 
with the view of building up a more extensive and important railway 
system. The object of this was, of course, to secure traffic as well as 
greatly to facilitate through traffic alike to the benefit of traders, 
passengers, and the Company. The result of this policy was again 
to confirm what had been demonstrated by the original consolidation 
of the parent lines, namely, that a large company could deal more 
advantageously with traffic than could numerous small ones. 

The first of the companies so acquired was the Sheffield and 
Rotherham, which had been constructed some years previously. 

At the suggestion of Mr. George Stephenson, the inhabitants of 
Sheffield took in hand the formation of a local railway company, and 
by virtue of an Act passed on July 4th, 1836, constructed the line from 
the Wicker Station, Sheffield, past Brightside and Holmes to Rother- 
ham, a distance of 5 J miles, also a short connecting line known as the 
Greasborough branch, extending from Holmes to join the North 
Midland Railway at Masborough Station. 

The Sheffield and Rotherham line was formally opened on Wednes- 
day, October 3151, 1838. On the arrival of the first train from Sheffield 
a breakfast took place at the Court House at Rotherham soon after 
1 1 a.m. Earl Fitzwilliam and several members of his family travelled 
by this train. The Earl was more than half an hour late in reaching 

87 



88 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the Sheffield Station, so that it was 10.40 instead of 10.10 when the 
first train left Sheffield. The Chairman, Mr. Wm. Vickers, the 
directors, their guests, and proprietors holding the largest number of 
shares went by it. It was to return at n with the Rotherham pro- 
prietors and the public, admitted by gratuitous tickets. Several journeys 
to and fro were to be made, each train being computed to carry 300 
persons. The carriages, " of which those called first-class were 
exceedingly beautiful and well fitted up," were manufactured by Messrs. 
Richard Melling and Co., of Green Hayes, near Manchester. Several 
" of what are termed second-class carriages " had been procured from 
Bolton for the occasion. Along the entire line " parties were stationed 
for the purpose of preventing accidents, by keeping spectators off the 
railway." Only three engines were in use at that time, all by 
Stephenson and Co. 

Mr. Wm. Vickers, the Chairman of the Directors, presided at the 
breakfast, at which George Stephenson was present. The latter, 
returning thanks for the toast of his health, said he never was an 
advocate for unfavourable gradients ; he wanted low levels. Sur- 
rounded as the town of Sheffield was by hills, it was impossible to 
get out of it except by going to Rotherham. He defied them to do it. 
If Mr. Leather came to cut through those hills it would never do ; 
he would be disappointed. He had great pleasure in seeing the works 
so well executed by a pupil of his. 

Sir Gregory Lewin, standing counsel to the Sheffield and Rotherham 
Railway Company, wondered if Mr. Stephenson would say the same 
in private. He thought he would say that mountains never stood in 
the way of an Englishman. He then proposed the health of Robert 
Stephenson, who was not present. George Stephenson, replying, said 
he had had to sit up night after night to earn 35. to send him to school, 
and thought there was never a father who had more pleasure in a son 
than he had in his. 

It will be observed that George Stephenson defended his dictum 
regarding gradients and his policy of constructing the North Midland 
line via Staveley instead of over the hills from Chesterfield to Sheffield. 
It is all very well to say that mountains never stand in the way of 
Englishmen; but time and experience have more than justified the 
position taken up by Stephenson, for although the line which was 
originally pressed upon him from Chesterfield to Sheffield has actually 
been constructed in spite of the severity of the gradients and the 
heavy tunnelling required, still these add immensely to the cost of 
working as well as reducing the speed of ascending trains. The 
soundness of Stephenson's opinion, from an engineering point of view, 



SHEFFIELD AND ROTHERHAM OPENING 89 

is proved by the fact that at the present day one of the Midland 
modern engines is capable of taking a heavy train from Chesterfield 
to Masborough via Stephenson's Staveley line, whilst it requires two 
engines to take the same train over the more difficult gradients on the 
Chesterfield and Sheffield direct route. Thus it is that, notwithstanding 
the great importance of Sheffield and its traffic, some of the Midland 
expresses at the present time travel over Stephenson's Staveley route. 

At the public opening of the line next day (November ist, 1838) 
about 1,000 ordinary passengers travelled over the line. One of the 
trains, namely, that leaving Sheffield at 4 p.m., was drawn by the 
engine "Victory," with George Stephenson on the footplate, and it 
accomplished a remarkably good run. This train covered the distance 
in nine minutes forty-five seconds, and Stephenson expressed the 
opinion that it could easily be done in seven or eight minutes when 
the embankments had consolidated. 

The Company at once gave a very good train service, and its 
time-table was the most simple possible, namely : 

" From Sheffield Every hour from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
From Rotherham Every hour from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m." 

As this line was the only route which the Midland Company could 
use for its Sheffield traffic, it became evident at the time of the railway 
mania that it must not by any chance be allowed to fall into other 
hands. It was therefore decided that it should be vested in the 
Midland, that Company to issue Sheffield and Rotherham Preferential 
Stock, paying 6 per cent, in perpetuity on the share capital of 
,150,000, which stock continued until its conversion under the Act 
of 1897. 

The Act for vesting the line in the Midland was passed on July 2ist, 
1845, at which date the small Company ceased to exist, and its nine 
directors went out of office. Their names should therefore be here 
recorded, namely, Chairman William Vickers, Deputy- Chairman 
G. W. Chambers, Messrs. B. Vickers, W. Jackson, J. Wilkinson, 
J. Spencer, W. Bradley, A. McTurk, and G. Knowles, all being well- 
known local business men. 

By the Act of Parliament the holders of the Sheffield and Rother- 
ham Preference Stock enjoyed the privilege of having their dividends 
paid by the Midland Company " before and in preference to any 
dividends in respect of any other shares or stock whatsoever." 

On acquiring the line the first step that the Midland took was 
to construct a short curve extending from the Wicker Station at 
Sheffield to Bridge Houses Junction, thus giving a connection with 



9 o THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Company's system 
at Sheffield. By this means the Midland secured a second means of 
forwarding traffic from its system to Manchester, the only other route 
formerly available being to hand over the traffic to the Manchester 
and Leeds Company at Normanton. 

No sooner was the Midland Company formed in 1844 and the rival 
interests of the early companies removed, than our old friends, Messrs. 
Oakes, Jessop, and the Nottinghamshire coal owners, naturally came to 
the front once more with their scheme for a " Pinxton branch," which, 
it will be remembered, had to be left out of the original Midland 
Counties Bill. This time, however, they decided to form an in- 
dependent Erewash Valley Railway Company of their own, and to 
make a line from Pinxton, joining the Midland at Trent and Long 
Eaton junctions. The Midland Board came to the conclusion that 
the Erewash Valley was much too rich a district to be under the control 
of any other company, more especially as by the construction of an 
extension from Clay Cross Junction to Pye Bridge Junction a direct 
main route could be made from Clay Cross to Trent, which would 
reduce the distance from the north to Leicester, Rugby, and London, 
thus relieving the line via Amber Gate and Derby of much of its 
heavy traffic. During the time that the Bill for the construction of 
this line of about twelve miles was before Parliament negotiations were 
opened between the two companies, which resulted in the Midland 
agreeing on February i4th, 1845, to take over the Erewash Valley 
Company and to guarantee a dividend of 6 per cent, upon its capital of 
,145,000; and the Act for the formation of the line and confirming 
the agreement between the parties received the Royal Assent on 
August 4th, 1845. The line was constructed, and opened for public 
traffic on September 6th, 1847, and on that day trains ran from Codnor 
Park to Long Eaton Junction, giving communication with Nottingham 
and Leicester. 

In making this line it crossed on the level the Derby and Notting- 
ham section near Long Eaton. This was known as " Platt's crossing," 
and proved a very unsatisfactory arrangement, which some years later 
had to be altered by the formation of two new curves at Trent, which 
rendered the crossing unnecessary. This new arrangement came into 
operation on May ist, 1862. 



CHAPTER X. 

GREAT RIVAL SCHEMES 

DURING the height of the great railway mania in 1846 the 
Midland Company was fiercely assailed by rival schemes in 
every direction, and the very existence of the Midland was threatened. 
It was impossible to stand still and allow these great schemes to 
compass the ruin of Midland traffic, and consequently a very far- 
reaching policy was adopted in order to protect the interests of the 
shareholders. The policy adopted was essentially a fighting one, 
namely, by invading or threatening to invade other districts by making 
competing lines of their own or by purchasing others. In those cases 
where their rivals proposed to buy up small lines in the Midland 
district the Midland Company determined to itself purchase these 
undertakings. 

These great proposals involved an expenditure of something like 
;i i, 000,000; but the course pursued proved to be of the soundest 
character, and it established the Midland Company in a position of 
independence of all rivals. 

These enormous proposals were embodied in no less than twenty- 
six parliamentary Bills, the whole of which came before a meeting of 
the shareholders at Derby on May 2nd, 1846. This proved by far the 
most eventful Midland meeting ever held. Mr. George Hudson, M.P., 
presided, and as the sums involved were exceptionally large, and the 
bills related to great extensions over a large part of England, it is 
necessary to set out the schemes in detail and to give the "Railway 
King's " own explanation of the Midland policy. 

The projects included the following : 

1. A deviation of the Syston and Peterborough branch at Saxby, to 
overcome the objections of Lord Harborough, at a cost of ,85,000. 

2. The " vesting " of the Leicester and Swannington Railway in the 
Midland, and taking over its capital of i 40,000 at 8 per cent. 

91 



92 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

3. To extend the Leicester and Swannington to the Midland system 
at Burton and Leicester at a cost of ,461,000. 

4. To purchase the Ashby Canal and tramroads at a cost of 
,110,000, and to make a railway by the side of the canal from 
Ashby to Nuneaton at a cost of "656,000. 

5. To purchase the Oakham Canal at a cost of "26,000, in order 
to overcome the objections of Lord Harborough, in addition to the 
deviation (Scheme No. i). 

6. To construct a railway from Pye Bridge to the Midland system at 
Clay Cross, to be known as the Erewash Valley Extension, at a cost 
f ,230,000. 

7. To make a new line from Nottingham to Mansfield at an outlay 
of .275,000. 

8. The construction of a branch from Chesterfield to Newark at 
a cost of 550,000. 

9. To construct a branch line from Swinton to Doncaster at a cost 
of "140,000. 

10. To construct a branch from Darfield to Elswicker, costing 
,150,000. 

n. To construct a curve, connecting the Company's line at Saltley 
with the London and North Western Railway at Curzon Street, 
Birmingham, at a cost of 80,000. 

12. To construct a line from King's Norton to Halesowen at a cost 
of 150,000. 

13. To construct a branch from Ashchurch to Great Malvern at 
a cost of "180,000. 

14. To construct a Midland narrow-gauge line from Gloucester to 
Standish Junction, near Stonehouse, and to enable the Company 
to complete the narrow gauge through to Bristol, at a cost of 
"100,000. 

15. To construct a branch from Mangotsfield to Bath at a cost of 
"260,000. 

1 6. To consolidate the Bristol and Gloucester and the Birmingham 
and Gloucester companies with the Midland on the payment of 6 per 
cent, per annum on their capital of 1,799,902 155-. 

17. To vest 600,000 in the South Midland Railway Company in 
their line from Wigston to Hitchin. 

1 8. To vest "285,000 in the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock, and 
Midlands Junction Railway. 

19. To construct a branch from Hampton to Ashchurch. 

20. To construct a branch from Hampton to Banbury. 

21. To construct a branch from Worcester to Alcester. The schemes 



A GREAT PROGRAMME 93 

No. 19, 20, and 21 were in conjunction with the London and Birming- 
ham Company, the Midland capital being 600,000. 

22. To subscribe ,120,000 to a line from Wolverhampton and 
Dudley to Wichnor Forge. 

23. To construct branches in the Erewash Valley at a cost of 
195,000. 

24. To construct a line from Swinton to Lincoln at a cost of 
"800,000. 

25. To construct a line from Newark to Gainsborough at a cost 
of 250,000. 

26. To construct a line from Southampton to Swindon at a cost 
of "400,000. 

In explaining these complicated projects and the general policy 
which they involved, and commending their adoption by the share- 
holders, Mr. Hudson, the Chairman of the Company, had practically the 
unanimous support of the great bulk of the proprietors, although in this, 
as in almost all similar circumstances, there were those who protested 
against "any increase of liabilities." He informed the meeting that 
proxies had been received for "4,500,000, and that with the support 
of those present they had votes representing 5,000,000 or "6,000,000 
out of "7,000,000 of stock. Whilst the directors felt gratified by 
the confidence reposed in the Board, they recognised the very heavy 
responsibility involved. The course which they would recommend 
would be that which appeared to be consistent with a sound view 
of each case, and although it might be wise to reconsider their position 
with regard to some of these proposed undertakings, it would be 
unwise to abandon any undertaking which was useful or which would 
tend to the security of their property. He admitted that some of 
the new projects might not be paying lines if they stood by themselves, 
but as parts of a great system they would be remunerative ; and 
on the other hand, if they belonged to a hostile company, they would 
be a source of injury to the Midland. He recommended the con- 
struction of those lines because he believed they would pay them, 
though they would not pay an independent company. They had 
never projected a line which they did not believe would be remunera- 
tive to the shareholders. The directors called upon the shareholders 
to repose confidence in them, adding that he did not think that 
anything had occurred which need alarm a constituted company. 
Circumstances might occur which would render it expedient to 
abandon part of those schemes ; still, he would recommend the 
shareholders to confide in the discretion of the Board, who had a 
large interest in the Company. They did not wish to act upon 



94 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the feelings induced by a panic, but upon calm judgment ; and it 
would certainly be unwise to forsake really good undertakings because 
of temporary alarm. They did not pledge themselves to carry the 
whole of the Bills, but called upon the meeting to give its vote in their 
favour, leaving it to the discretion of the Board whether they abandoned 
any; or, if they continued them, to obtain as long a time as possible 
for their execution and for taking possession of the land. He was 
quite satisfied that those undertakings must progress. 

In going through the whole of the Bills the Chairman further pointed 
out that the purchase of the Ashby Canal and the construction of 
a line was a measure of a protective character. Parliament viewed 
with some jealousy the purchase of canals by railway companies, but 
this was one of those Bills which they must leave to the discretion 
of the Board. The purchase of the Oakham Canal, they hoped, 
would obviate Lord Harborough's objections to the carrying out 
of the Syston and Peterborough as originally sanctioned. If Parlia- 
ment authorised them to shut up the canal, there would be the land 
and several extensive corn warehouses at Oakham to dispose of. 

The branch from Pye Bridge to Clay Cross, known as the Erewash 
Valley Extension, gave a short and direct route north and south 
between Trent and Clay Cross and avoided the detour via Derby. 
It also provided better means for dealing with the mineral traffic 
in the district, as well as also opening up new coalfields to the 
Midland. 

The Bill with regard to the Nottingham and Mansfield line, he 
explained, would shorten the distance between those two towns and 
to the north of England. "Other parties" were competing for a 
similar line, and the Midland desired to negotiate a satisfactory 
arrangement. 

With regard to the Bill for a branch from Chesterfield to Newark, 
connecting the first -named place with Boston, there had been an 
opposing line, which was thrown out the previous year upon its merits, 
and this session upon the standing orders, so that the Midland Com- 
pany had the Bill in their own hands. He thought it important that 
they should have that district of the country, as tending to bring 
down upon their line the whole trade of Lincolnshire and enabling 
them to compete successfully with the London and York. It was not 
a very cheap line, the expense being ^550,000 ; but it was expected 
to prove remunerative, and, besides, was absolutely necessary for their 
protection. It had been very much supported locally, and was one 
of the first lines they would have executed. 

Dealing with the great sets of schemes having reference to the 



GEORGE HUDSON EXPLAINS 95 

extension of the Midland system to the west of England, the 
Chairman explained the importance of the Bills which consolidated 
the Bristol and Gloucester and the Birmingham and Gloucester 
Companies' railways with the Midland system. He further pointed 
out that the new line from Gloucester to Standish Junction, Stone- 
house, and the laying of the mixed gauge by the addition of a third 
rail from Standish to Bristol, with the construction of a new line on 
the narrow gauge from Mangotsfield to Bath, would give the Midland 
through communication from the north to both Bristol and Bath 
without change of carriage. The King's Norton to Halesowen 
branch arose out of their having leased the Birmingham and 
Gloucester line, and the construction of the branch from Ashchurch 
to Great Malvern arose from the same cause and was devised as a 
feeder to the line. 

With regard to the Midland subscription to the South Midland 
Company, he pointed out that the Midland had invested ^600,000 in 
that undertaking. 

He believed the line from Wigston to Hitchin ought to be con- 
structed, and that it would be advantageous for them to possess an 
interest in it because it would give them a communication with that 
district, and also with London. It would be of great advantage 
to them to have two means of carrying their traffic. The line was 
one which the Company would at some future time have had to 
execute had it not been locally taken up. He thought they ought 
not to abandon it, but to continue their subscription to the undertaking. 

Proceeding to deal with the Bill for making the Manchester, Buxton, 
Matlock, and Midlands Junction Railway, he explained that the Midland 
had ^270,000 in that undertaking. This new Company's line would 
give them, besides a communication with Matlock and Buxton, another 
route to Manchester, over which they would possess a certain control. 
There would likewise be a large traffic upon it, which would add to the 
receipts of the present line. There were some difficulties in the way 
of its construction, but he had learned that they would be overcome 
at a great deal less cost than had been expected. The Midland 
Company might easily dispose of their interest afterwards, if they did 
not think proper to retain it. The Manchester and Birmingham 
Company had taken shares to nearly the same amount as themselves. 

The opposition to these great proposals was led by Mr. O'Brian, 
who urged that several of the branches proposed were simply for the 
purpose of occupying the ground, so as to prevent other people taking 
their traffic. 

Mr. Franklin stated that he opposed these Bills because he thought 



96 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

they had too much on their hands already ; besides that, the time 
allowed them to consider each Bill was much too short. If they had 
been brought all the way from Van Diemen's Land it might have been 
reasonable to have thrown such a quantity of business together for 
one meeting, but such a proceeding was not called for by their 
circumstances. 

The whole of the Bills, however, were approved. 

The Chairman, in answer to a question, stated that the capital 
wanted would be three millions, or about two millions more than they 
had already power to raise. The directors had watched with great 
anxiety the state of railway property in the country. He had warned 
the public against the mode adoped in getting up lines, namely, that 
of taking a map, drawing a line across it from one town to another, 
issuing a prospectus, and getting capital. In all such cases the result 
had followed which might have been anticipated much distress and 
difficulty. He was afraid that though the resolution proposed by 
Government for putting a stop to many of those undertakings was 
framed in a kind spirit, with an anxious wish to relieve those parties 
who had been so unfortunate as to involve their capital in undertakings 
which were not secure and good in themselves, yet that it would not 
be the remedy required by the extraordinarily excited state in which 
their railway engagements had been made. No observations that 
might be made could apply to their own meeting, as they came 
together in a corporate capacity, no scrip shareholders being repre- 
sented, but only parties holding the stock of the Company. Cases 
occurred in which companies came upon parties for money when the 
calls had actually been paid up. He believed the Government were 
anxious to give relief if proper representations were made. He had 
thought it right to make those observations on the first public oppor- 
tunity afforded him, in order that they might find their way to the 
public. 

Thus ended a meeting which must ever be memorable in the history 
of the Midland. 

Although the Midland policy at this period was of the most advanced 
character, the vast importance of the traffic to Manchester had not 
been fully grasped, or the Chairman would not have alluded to the 
possibility of the Midland disposing of their interest in the Manchester, 
Buxton, Matlock, and Midlands Junction Railway ; and it is certainly 
remarkable that he should have placed before the proprietors an 
inducement to invest ^270,000 in an undertaking without any deter- 
mination to maintain their hold on a line which has since proved of 
such inestimable value to the Midland Company. 



THE FATE OF THE BILLS 97 

It will be observed that the financial difficulties were to be met 
by three methods first by means of the issue of new share capital, 
second by the raising of loans, both of these for the construction 
of the new lines, while the purchase of old lines was generally by 
means of leases and the guaranteeing of dividends on the existing 
shares, so that the former shareholders became holders of guaranteed 
stock in the Midland Company, and they were thereby assured of a 
fixed and definite return on their investments. 

When these schemes came before Parliament a long and fierce 
conflict ensued, which resulted in fifteen of them receiving the Royal 
Assent ; three failed, seven were withdrawn, and one was held over at 
the instance of the House of Lords, pending the settlement of the 
question of gauge. 

Although no less than ten of them were withdrawn or failed to pass, 
it must not be supposed because of that circumstance that the pro- 
posals contained in them failed in their purpose, because their objects 
were achieved by other means, such as concessions, and running 
powers in some cases, whereas in others they compelled the withdrawal 
of competing schemes. 

The carrying out of this great policy of expansion necessitates the 
description of the salient characteristics of the undertakings to which 
they refer, and how they came to be constructed. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH CANAL AND TRAMROADS AND 
THE LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON EXTENSION 

WITH a view to placing the western side of the county of 
Leicester in direct communication with London, steps were 
taken in 1793 to form the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal, to provide facilities 
for the conveyance of coal, lime, and other minerals. 

A provisional committee instructed Messrs. Jessop and Whitworth, 
two of the leading engineers of the day, to prepare plans and lodge 
a Bill in Parliament. The scheme commenced in a junction with 
the Coventry Canal at Marston Bridge, near Bedworth, Warwickshire, 
and running to a basin to be constructed at Willesley, near Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch, Leicestershire, and from thence branching and continuing in 
one direction to the termination, one mile north-west of Moira Baths, 
at a distance of thirty miles from the Coventry Canal, with further 
extensions from Moira to coal mines at Swadlincote and Church 
Gresley ; and in another direction passing through the town of Ashby 
to the Ticknall Lime Works, Derbyshire, 8J miles, and having a 
further branch to the Cloud Hill Lime Works of about 4^ miles. 

After the plans were duly lodged, and during the winter of 1793-4, 
it became evident that the number of locks required to get up from 
Willesley Basin to Cloud Hill would be very costly, and, furthermore, 
water could not be obtained for that section of the canal. On Feb- 
ruary 24th, 1794, the engineers presented their estimates, and advised 
the committee to adopt edge-rail-ways for the two sections to which 
reference is above made. 

Consequently during the time the Ashby Canal Bill was before the 
House the following Clause 1 8 was added : 

" And be it further enacted, that if the said Company of proprietors 
shall judge it expedient that boats or other vessels, wagons or other 
carriages should be conveyed over or along any part or parts of the 
line to be pursued in making the said canal, or cuts or branches, 
by rollers, inclined planes, or in any other manner than by water, 



THE OUTRAM WAY 99 

then, and in such case, it shall and may be lawful for the said Company 
of proprietors to cause any rollers, inclined planes, or other works 
to be made for that purpose at such place or places in the said line 
as they shall think proper, and the same shall be considered to be 
part of the said works hereby authorised to be made in like manner, 
and to all intents and purposes as if such parts or places were made 
navigable." 

The Act for the making of the Ashby Canal, and including Clause 18, 
was passed on May 9th, 1794. 

The work was at once put in hand, and the directors constructed the 
main line of the canal from Marston to Moira and Ashby Wolds, 
30 miles, perfectly level, without any locks, but by virtue of the clause 
in the Act they laid tramroads from Willesley Basin to Ticknall Lime 
Works, a distance of 8| miles, and the branch to Cloud Hill, about 
4^ miles, also five short branches to Moira, Lount, Park Wood, 
Swadlincote, and Church Gresley collieries were also tramroads. 

Messrs. Jessop and Whitworth, the engineers, advised the directors 
to lay down the " Jessop-edge-rail-way," and adopt the flanged wheels, 
and they had decided to do so, when Mr. Benjamin Outram, of 
Butterley (the father of General Sir James Outram, of Indian fame), 
arrived on the scene and had several interviews with the various 
directors ; and at the next meeting, after a severe fight, it was resolved 
and ordered that the lines should be laid with "tram-plates," to be 
three feet in length, of cast iron, having a ledge upon the inner side 
to keep the wheels or rollers upon the track, and be spiked down 
to stone blocks. 

Mr. Outram won the day, and 4^ miles of the tramroad still exist at 
the Ticknall end of the line. Jessop was naturally angry that the 
directors had taken the advice of another engineer and rejected that 
of their own engineers, and remarked, "It will bring about a break 
of system in Leicestershire " ; and so it did, as we shall see later on. 

By the same Act of Parliament under which the Ashby Canal was 
formed Sir Henry Harpur obtained power to make a private railway or 
stone road from Caulk to join the Ashby Company's system, as did 
also Mr. William Abney, of Measham, who made a line from his 
colliery at Heather to Shackerstone, and the same was done by 
Mr. William Fermor, who connected his mines at Normanton-on- 
the-Heath with the canal by means of a private plateway. The various 
works constructed by virtue of the Ashby Canal Act, either by the 
Company or by private persons, amounted to over 50 miles. They 
were opened at various times. The first part of the Outram-way was in 
use for traffic from Ticknall in 1799, and remains to the present time; 



ioo THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

a portion of the canal was opened in 1802, and the whole of the under- 
taking was completed and in full working order on May ist, 1805. 
It should here be mentioned that in all the early Acts Parliament gave 
powers to canal companies to make and maintain "navigable canals," 
and these became generally known as " navigations." The workmen 
employed to make the canals, and also the cuttings or embankments of 
lines in connection therewith, were known as " navigators," a word 
which now has become contracted into "navvy." 

Mr. Outram having induced the directors to adopt his "plate-way," 
sent his own men to lay down the permanent way, that is, to place 
the stone blocks or supports in position and spike down the "plates." 
These men were known as " platelayers," a term still applied to those 
who maintain and lay permanent way ; but it is certain that a very few 
of the present platelayers ever saw or even heard of a " plate," and 
would not know how to lay one. 

On the single lines there were numerous passing places, or loops, 
known as "turn-outs," and to guide the ftat wheels in the required 
direction there was at each end a pair of wrought-iron tongues pro- 
vided with stems, which dropped into holes in the castings these were 
termed the " pointers," a word which has become shortened into a pair 
of "points." 

Mr. Outram always spoke of the " plate-way " as " my system," " my 
plates," and in January, 1796, he wrote to the Duke of Portland (who 
was thinking of laying down a railway) informing him that "the Ashby 
Canal Company had rejected the * rail-way ' and is laying down the 
' Outram-way.' " By omitting the first two letters of the word Outram 
and combining the words, we in these days refer to the line at Ticknall 
as the Ashby tramway. 

By a very similar process "Jessop's edge-rail-way" has been con- 
tracted by leaving out the two first words entirely and writing the two 
latter as one word, thus, "railway." 

By an Act of July i6th, 1846, the Midland Company purchased the 
property of the Ashby Canal Company for the sum of ^110,000. 
This purchase was of a protective character, and it attained its object 
at the time, which was to keep dangerous rival schemes away from the 
Leicestershire coalfields. The most threatening of these were the 
Leicester and Bedford and the Bill of the Atherstone, Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch and Burton-on-Trent Railway Company, which proposed to 
raise a capital of ,750,000, and to make a railway from the Trent 
Valley at Atherstone, passing through Ashby, Market Bosworth, and 
Hinckley, and having branches running to the collieries at Moira and 
the whole of the mineral districts of Ticknall and Breedon. 



LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON VESTED 101 

The ancient Ashby and Cloud Hill Outram-way has to a considerable 
extent, by virtue of the Act of 1865, been changed or converted into 
the railway from Ashby to Worthington, leaving only the Ticknall 
branch now remaining in its original condition. 

This branch, 4 J miles in length, has the original old cast-iron Outram 
plates. 

This remarkable line is used occasionally, and to ride in a wagon 
having four perfectly flat wheels (that is, without flanges), and be drawn 




THE OUTRAM-WAY, NEAR TICKNALL 
(Opened i799,^used occasionally 1901). 

by a horse over cast-iron flanged "plates" in the year 1901 is an 
experience which those persons interested in railway history and 
development should not miss. The ancient toll-house and weighing 
machine at the Ticknall Wharf remains, and is one of the very oldest 
buildings or stations upon the Midland system. 

At the time of the railway mania, 1843-5, several rival schemes pro- 
posed to "join," "purchase," "work," or "have running powers over" 
the Leicester and Swannington Railway, and the correspondence shows 
that the " Leicester and Bedford," " Leicester and Tamworth," " Leices- 
ter, Tamworth, Coventry, Birmingham, and Trent Valley Junction," 



YbY %IE : HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

" Direct Birmingham, Leicester, and Boston," and the " Direct London 
and Manchester " (competing companies) were at this period all making 
offers and attempting to obtain the Swannington line. The Midland 
Company desiring to avoid competition in the Leicestershire district, 
purchased the Leicester and Swannington Railway, a dividend of 8 per 
cent, being guaranteed upon its share capital of ,140,000, all of which 
was fully paid up. 

The Swannington shareholders, at a meeting held at Leicester on 
August 2oth, 1845, unanimously agreed to sell the line to the Midland 
Company upon the terms above mentioned, which were no higher than 
had been offered by other companies, and on June i5th, 1846, a special 
meeting was held at the Bell Hotel, Leicester, when Mr. Isaac Hodgson 
moved, and Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis seconded, the motion that " the 
Bill now before Parliament be approved," and it was carried by 363 
votes against 12. 

The Act for the vesting of the railway was passed on July 27th, 1846, 
by which the Midland Company was required to create ^140,000 of 
Leicester and Swannington stock, consisting of 2,800 shares of ^50 
each, to be divided amongst the former shareholders. 

By this purchase i6J miles of railway, eight locomotives, six 
carnages, an$ twelve goods vehicles were added to the Midland 
system, but at that time there was no means of getting to the line 
by rail. 

However, on August 3rd, 1846, an Act was passed to enable the 
Midland Company to alter and improve some portions of the Swan- 
nington line, and to make branches from the main line of the Midland 
Railway at Leicester and from Coalville to Burton-on-Trent. 

In the following year this Act was amended by another, passed 
July 2nd, 1847, under which powers the present Leicester and Burton 
line was constructed. The old railway was doubled between Desford 
Junction and Thornton, also between Bagworth and Mantle Lane, 
Coalville, and a new deviation line, two miles in length, was constructed 
in the parish of Thornton, to avoid the Bagworth self-acting incline 
of i in 29, and to obtain a line over which locomotives could run. 
Passengers travelling from Leicester to Burton will observe the track 
of the old line on the right-hand side soon after passing Merry Lees, 
running on the level close in front of the Stag and Castle Inn. The 
power of locomotive engines had now so much increased that 
Mr. Robert Stephenson (in conjunction with Mr. Charles Liddell) 
constructed a new Bagworth incline, having a ruling gradient of i in 66, 
which some seventeen years previously he had to avoid. An accident 
of a serious character in the year 1843 led to the disuse of the old 



AN INCLINE ABANDONED 103 

Bagworth incline for passenger traffic. What happened was that whilst 
a train consisting of goods wagons and a passenger carriage (which 
most fortunately was empty) was being lowered down the incline it 
slipped from the incline rope, and running down the severe gradient 
was utterly wrecked. This occurrence so alarmed the directors and 
manager that in order to avoid the possibility of a similar accident 
occurring to a train conveying passengers they resolved to close the 
incline for passenger traffic. Passengers, it is true, were booked as 
usual from one end of the line to the other, but travellers were 
compelled to leave the train at the foot of the incline and walk to 
the top in one direction and to walk down to the bottom of the incline 
from the other end. This, of course, led to great dissatisfaction, and 
almost destroyed passenger traffic from Bagworth to Long Lane. 

Thus it came about that when the Midland took over the line 
they constructed the deviation line with better gradients, and aban- 
doned the use of the incline entirely after it had been closed for 
passenger traffic for about five years. The altered and improved lines 
were opened for traffic in accordance with the following quaintly worded 
notice issued by the local manager : 

MIDLAND RAILWAY. 
LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON LINE. 

The public is respectfully informed that a double line of rails being now 
laid down, and the line completed from Desford to Long Lane, on Monday 
next, the 27th inst., a Train with Passengers will leave Leicester and Long 
Lane at 8 a.m., 12, and 4.30 p.m., stopping at the intermediate places. On 
Saturday the last train from Leicester and Long Lane will leave at 5 p.m. 
instead of at 4.30 p.m. 

By Order, 

G. W. GILL, Manager. 
Railway Office, West Bridge, March 23, 1 848. 

It was then found that the Swannington Company's engines were 
unable to convey the trains up the new Bagworth incline single-handed, 
and a "bank engine" had to be kept at Desford Station. To avoid 
this double engine running the Midland Company sent one of its 
powerful goods engines named the " Buffalo " to work the line, but 
as there was no railway communication the engine had to be conveyed 
from the Fox Street Wharf to the West Bridge Station, a distance of 
fully a mile, through the streets of Leicester. 

The construction of the Knighton Junction and Desford line was 
considerably delayed by the heavy cutting at Shoulder of Mutton Hill 



io 4 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

and the sinking of a pier of the "Twelve Bridges" Viaduct, which 
prevented the complete opening of the Leicester and Burton line until 
August ist, 1849. Six miles of the old Swannington line near Leicester 
and ij near Swannington still remain practically unaltered at the 
present day. 

The ;i 40,000 of Leicester and Swannington Stock was in 1875 
converted into ,280,000 4 per cent. Midland Guaranteed Preferen- 
tial Stock, and the latter amount was on April ist, 1898, converted into 
,448,000 2\ per cent. Guaranteed Preferential Stock. 

On March i3th, 1893, the new station at West Bridge, Leicester, was 
opened and the old station of 1832 was closed. The Chairman's chair 
and the bell from the top of the station are now carefully preserved at 
Derby as relics of this early line. 




"NO. 42" OPENED THE LEICESTER AND BURTON LlNE, 1849 



CHAPTER XII. 

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BRISTOL AND BIRMINGHAM 

WE must now devote considerable attention to the communica- 
tion, or rather absence of communication, between the 
north, the Midland system, and Bristol. To fully understand the 
situation we must remember that when the Great Western Railway 
was opened throughout on June 3oth, 1841, if a passenger required to 
go from Bristol to Birmingham he must first travel from Bristol to 
Paddington, then drive to Euston and go down by the London and 
Birmingham Railway; in fact, journey over two sides of a triangle. 
Some time afterwards it was possible to avoid the drive in London 
by travelling over a very short line which bore the high-sounding title 
of " The Birmingham, Bristol, and Thames Junction Railway," but as 
the London and Birmingham and Great Western were of different 
gauges there could be no real "junction" simply a transfer of traffic 
from one train to another upon the line which to-day we know as the 
West London. 

As early as the year 1824 it was proposed to make a direct narrow- 
gauge line from Bristol to Birmingham, but the scheme fell to the 
ground. 

An ancient tramway constructed by the Gloucester and Cheltenham 
Railway Company had for many years conveyed traffic from the former 
town to the docks at Gloucester, and it became evident to the inhabi- 
tants of Birmingham that if they could form a company to make a line 
from Birmingham to Cheltenham, the trade of Birmingham would be 
vastly increased by means of the Gloucester Docks. 

The Birmingham and Gloucester Railway Company was formed 
principally by local gentlemen ; Mr. Charles Sturge, Daniel Ledsam, 
Samuel Bowley, William Lewis, and other well-known business men 
being the prime movers. The scheme was to erect a passenger and 
goods station at Camp Hill, Birmingham, and to construct a railway 
passing down the great Lickey incline to Bromsgrove and thence to 

105 



io6 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Cheltenham, the proposal being to purchase and use parts of the old 
tramway system to the Gloucester Docks. 

Probably this line would not have received more than local support, 
and would have possessed no special interest had it not been that 
at this particular period the " Battle of the Gauges " was commencing 
to be waged. This fact undoubtedly caused the Birmingham and 
Gloucester Railway Company to be powerfully backed by the Birming- 
ham and Derby Junction, the Grand Junction, and the London and 
Birmingham Companies, not only " with a view to keeping the Great 
Western and its y-feet gauge down in the west," but also to enable 
them to forward their own traffic by means of this railway to the 
Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Docks and the west of England. 

The London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Companies had 
arranged to have their stations side by side at Curzon Street, and it 
was intended immediately the Birmingham and Derby Company's line 
was opened to Hampton that its trains should be run forward to 
Curzon Street, Birmingham. It therefore followed that for the pur- 
poses of through traffic the intended Birmingham and Gloucester 
Railway must join the London and Birmingham system near the 
Garrison, and have the power to run its own trains into the Curzon 
Street Station, or into any other station in Birmingham which might 
become the termination of the London and Birmingham Railway and 
the point of exchange. 

Various routes between Birmingham and Gloucester had been 
surveyed, but Captain Moorsom, the Engineer, decided to carry the 
railway from its commencement at the "Gloucester Junction," Birming- 
ham, past the Camp Hill Station, Moseley, Bromsgrove, Dunhamp- 
stead, Spetchley (for Worcester), Ashchurch, Cheltenham, to Spa 
Road, Gloucester, and terminating at the Gloucester and Berkeley 
Canal Company's basin and docks at Gloucester. 

The Act for the formation of the Birmingham and Gloucester 
Railway Company was passed on April 22nd, 1836, and it contained 
the important clause giving the Company running powers from the 
" Gloucester Junction " into " the present or any future termination 
at or near Birmingham of the said London and Birmingham Railway." 
This clause ultimately became of the greatest value and importance. 

The route selected by the engineer necessitated that he should con- 
struct the Lickey incline between Blackwell and Bromsgrove, fully two 
miles in length, upon a gradient of i in 37. The engineers of that 
day considered that such a gradient upon any main line was a great 
mistake. Captain Moorsom replied that "in America he had seen 
engines go up worse gradients than that, and if English engines could 



AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVES 



107 



not do it he would bring over engines from Philadelphia that 
could." 

He therefore induced the directors to order eight locomotives from 
Norris and Co., of Philadelphia, the first four to arrive being 
named "England," "Philadelphia," "Columbia," and "Atlantic." 
These engines had a four-wheeled leading bogie, a single pair of 
driving wheels placed in front of the fire-box, and outside inclined 
cylinders. The diameter of the cylinders was loj inches, the length 
of stroke 18 inches, the diameter of the driving wheels 4 feet, and the 
weight in working order 9 tons nj cwt. 

Their usual performance up the Lickey incline was the conveyance 
of a load of 33 tons at a speed of 12 to 15 miles per hour, or a load 




AMERICAN ENGINE, 1840 
(Birmingham and Gloucester Railway). 

of 39^ tons at loj miles per hour, or a maximum load of 53 J tons at 
8J miles per hour. The lightest load and the highest speed were for 
passenger trains, the medium load for goods trains, and the heaviest 
load for mineral traffic. 

The American engines having worked with great success upon the 
Lickey incline for a few weeks, Mr. Edward Bury, of Wolverton, wrote 
to the directors " to declare that whatever American engines could do 
his could do," and sent the London and Birmingham Company's engine 
named " Bury " to prove his assertion. 

Mr. Bury, himself driving, started from Bromsgrove and humorously 
called to Mr. Gwynn, who had come from Philadelphia with the 
American engines, to join him. " No," he replied, " it's no use ; you'll 
soon come back again"; and back again Mr. Bury and his engine came, 
having stuck before getting half-way up the incline. 



io8 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The first portion of this railway from Cheltenham to Bromsgrove 
was opened on June 24th, 1840. A correspondent of the Cheltenham 
Chronicle thus describes a trip on that day : 

"At 10 minutes past 9 a.m., the passengers having taken their seats, 
the signal for starting was given. A bugler played " God save the 
Queen"; the train moved gently on till the tune was concluded and 
then started off in gallant style, quickly receding from the astonished 
gaze of the persons assembled. The engine, which was a very excel- 
lent one, soon showed its capabilities, and though an alteration from 
one line to another and a consequent slackening of the velocity was 
necessary, long before we arrived at Swindon it was in full speed [there 
is a village called Swindon near Cheltenham]. The pace was excellent, 
being at least 30 miles an hour. They took in water at Spetchley at 
10.12. This was one of the finest stations on the line, from which 
coaches ran to Worcester. The train reached Bromsgrove at 10.50; 
it returned 5 minutes later with an engine of Philadelphian manufac- 
ture, and got back to Lansdown, Cheltenham, at 12.27." 

At first only two trains in each direction ran daily between Chelten- 
ham and Bromsgrove, and there was no communication on Sundays. 
The intermediate piece of line, namely, from Bromsgrove to Birming- 
ham, not being completed, passengers were conveyed to and from these 
places by road coaches, which were provided for a limited number of 
through passengers. 

The line was further extended from Bromsgrove to Cofton Farm, 
about eight miles from Birmingham, which further reduced the coaching, 
this latter portion being opened on September iyth. 

Three months later the line was opened (December iyth) from Camp 
Hill Station, Birmingham, through to Gloucester. The " trains stopping 
at first-class stations " performed the total distance in two hours and a 
half. 

The extension from Camp Hill to the junction of the London and 
Birmingham Railway was not completed and opened until August lyth, 
1841. at which time the passenger trains of the Birmingham and 
Gloucester Company entered the Curzon Street Station in accordance 
with the running powers granted by the Act, but the goods traffic was 
dealt with at the Camp Hill goods depot and at the " Exchange " 
sidings. 

A further order for eight more American engines was given. Shortly 
afterwards, in consequence of the taunts which appeared in an American 
newspaper, that " the English could make inclines but had to come 
to America for engines to work them," Mr. J. E. McConnell (the 
Company's Locomotive Superintendent) obtained the authority of 
the directors to build at their Bromsgrove works a very powerful 



THE MIXED GAUGE 109 

tank engine, which, when completed in 1845, proved that what an 
American engine could do an English-built engine could also accom- 
plish. 

As the railway between Cheltenham and Gloucester was intended to 
be used by both the Cheltenham and Great Western Union and the 
Birmingham and Gloucester Companies, according to modern practice 
this section would have been vested in and managed jointly by a com- 
mittee of the two companies. However, another course was followed. 
The two Acts which both companies obtained in the year 1836 pro- 
vided that the Cheltenham and Great Western Union was to own the 
northern half of the line between Cheltenham, Lansdown Junction, and 
Churchdown, and to appoint the Birmingham and Gloucester Company 
trustees of this northern half of the line. The Birmingham and Glou- 
cester Company, on the other hand, whilst owning the southern half 
between Churchdown and Gloucester, appointed the Cheltenham and 
Great Western Union Company their trustees for this part of the line ; 
so that while each company owned one half of the line they modified 
their ownership by appointing the other company trustees, thus making 
it impossible for either company to " block the other out." 

The arrangement is an unusual one, but undoubtedly it must have 
given satisfaction, as it still remains in force between the Great Western 
and Midland Companies to the present day, the trains of both com- 
panies using the line between Cheltenham and Gloucester without 
paying rent or toll. 

The portion of line between Cheltenham and Gloucester being for 
the joint use of two companies using different gauges, was laid with the 
mixed gauge so as to be available for the trains of both companies. 
This was accomplished by laying three rails for each track, one extra 
rail being added to the narrow gauge for the broad-gauge traffic. This 
was the first and only instance up to this period of the use of mixed 
gauges. When the broad gauge was abolished the extra or third rail 
was removed. 

In 1837 the Birmingham and Gloucester Company obtained an Act 
to extend its railway by a branch from Ashchurch to Tewkesbury, 
which was subsequently constructed, and in 1845 further powers to 
make " extension lines " at Gloucester, a branch at Stoke Prior, and an 
extension line from St. Andrew's Junction, near Camp Hill, Birmingham, 
to join the Midland line at Saltley. The object of the last-named 
branch was to avoid the inconvenience of the lift at Lawley Street 
Station, which lift for the transfer of traffic was thus replaced by a 
branch line known as the Aston curve. 

The Bristol and Gloucestershire Railway Company obtained power 



no THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

under an Act of 1828 to make a railway or tramroad from Bristol 
to Coal-pit Heath, in the parish of Westerleigh, in the county of 
Gloucester. 

The very name, Coal-pit Heath, suggests the object of the line, 
which was to convey coal from the collieries near Westerleigh to the 
city of Bristol, and, like the railways of the north, it had a gauge of 
5 feet to the outside edge of the rails. 

The Great Western Railway Company was determined to extend its 
broad gauge to the north, and had no intention of remaining in the 
west. For this purpose it favoured the formation of the Cheltenham 
and Great Western Union Company to commence by a junction at 
Swindon, running thence to Standish and Gloucester; and by pur^ 
chasing half the Cheltenham and Gloucester tramway, which it will 
be remembered the Birmingham and Gloucester Company required, 
continued the broad gauge to an independent station at Chel- 
tenham. 

The Great Western Company also obtained a controlling interest 
in the Bristol and Gloucestershire Company, already mentioned ; and 
under an Act passed on July ist, 1839, the name was changed to "The 
Bristol and Gloucester Railway," the gauge was changed from narrow 
to seven feet, and an extension was constructed from Westerleigh 
Junction to Standish Junction, about seven miles south of Gloucester, 
from whence its trains had running powers over the Cheltenham and 
Great Western Union to Gloucester. At Bristol a line was made to 
connect the old Coal-pit Heath line at Lawrence Hill with the Great 
Western at Temple Mead, and that Company obtained powers to run 
from Bristol to Standish. Thus it will be observed the broad gauge 
was firmly planted at Gloucester by means of two lines one from 
Swindon, the other from Bristol. 

The Bristol and Gloucester Railway was formally opened through- 
out on July 6th, 1844, by the directors, who were accompanied by 
those of the Birmingham and Gloucester and Bristol and Exeter 
Railways. 

The train was to have left Bristol at 10 a.m., but did not start till 
twelve o'clock noon. When within half a mile of Gloucester the 
engine got off the line, on the outside of a sharp curve, owing to 
one of the strap-bolts of a transom being insufficiently secured and 
permitting the gauge to widen. No alarm, however, was excited, as 
the engine was going slowly at the time, followed by another engine, 
which was not at work. The passengers got out and walked to the 
carriage-shed of the Birmingham and Gloucester Company, which had 
been neatly and commodiously fitted up with tables, evergreens, flags, 



THE GAUGE COMMISSION 



ii i 



orchestra, etc., for the accommodation of the company. The carriages 
were twelve in number, and contained nearly five hundred and fifty 
ladies and gentlemen, most of whom partook of the entertainment. 
The health of Brunei, the great broad-gauge engineer, was drunk ; but 
he was not present, being busy getting the derailed train on the metals 
again. The party returned to Bristol about 8 p.m. 

Public traffic commenced on Monday, July 8th, when arrangements 
were made for six trains in each direction daily, and half the stage 
coaches immediately ceased running. 

Some years before this line was opened the public and the traders 




BRISTOL QUAY. 

saw that the break of gauge at Gloucester would be a very serious 
evil, and that there would be delays to passengers by having to change 
trains, and that goods, coal, timber, etc., would all have to be transferred 
to other wagons. These fears were at once realised when the two 
systems were brought into contact at Gloucester, and at length the 
delays became so serious and the question of gauge so pressing that 
the Government, regarding it as a question of national importance, ap- 
pointed a Royal Commission to inquire into the subject on July nth, 
1845. After hearing a great deal of evidence, beginning with Robert 
Stephenson on August 6th, 1845, the Commission eventually, in 1846, 
reported in favour of the narrow, or 4 feet 8J-inch gauge, and against 
the broad, or y-feet gauge. This was the death-blow to the broad 
gauge, which has now entirely disappeared from this country. 



ii2 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

A considerable number of Bristol and Gloucester shares had changed 
hands, and it soon became evident that the Great Western no longer 
held " the controlling interest," and many of the new shareholders 
expressed regret that their line was not narrow gauge. They also 
formed the opinion that the Birmingham and Gloucester and the 
Bristol and Gloucester Companies should amalgamate. Negotiations 
proceeded so far that the two companies decided to unite under 
the name of the Bristol and Birmingham Railway Company, and 
a Bill was prepared and read in Parliament a second time to carry 
that into effect; and from March, 1845, pending the passing of the 
measure, they were "working together as an amalgamated company." 
The management was controlled by a joint board or committee of 
directors, and it was decided that a change should be made in the 
gauge of one railway so that through trains could be run between 
Bristol and Birmingham without break of gauge. This was a question 
of vital importance, as either the Great Western and the broad gauge 
must be brought into the Midland district to Birmingham, or the 
narrow gauge must be carried into the Great Western country to 
Bristol. 

Between these two great rival interests the Bristol and Birmingham 
Companies found themselves the centre of attraction. 

First came a suggestion from one company and then from the other. 
The Bristol and Birmingham Board opened negotiations with both, and 
the rivalry continued. Mr. Saunders, on behalf of the Great Western, 
made his final offer, which was to give the shareholders ordinary Great 
Western shares, which would, according to the dividends then being 
paid by the Great Western, bring in 6 per cent. 

Immediately afterwards Mr. John Ellis had an interview to place 
before the joint board of directors his final offer on behalf of the 
Midland. It "went one better," and was to consolidate the Bristol 
and Gloucester and Birmingham and Gloucester Companies with the 
Midland, the shareholders of the two previously mentioned companies 
to receive a guaranteed 6 per cent, upon their capital, by the creation 
of Midland Railway 6 per cent, shares in lieu of their own shares. 

This offer of a fixed return instead of an uncertain one was accepted, 
and Mr. John Ellis carried off the prize, which extended the Midland 
system to Bristol. 

This arrangement received parliamentary sanction by an Act passed 
on August 3rd, 1846, vesting the properties of the Bristol and Gloucester 
and Birmingham and Gloucester Railway Companies in the Midland 
Company. The Midland was required to raise a capital of ,1,799,902 
15*. by the issue of 6 per cent, preference shares, which were to be 



THE BIRMINGHAM AND GLOUCESTER PURCHASE 113 

given to the Bristol and Gloucester and Birmingham and Gloucester 
shareholders in lieu of their shares in those companies which were by 
the Act dissolved. 

The Birmingham and Gloucester purchase gave to the Midland 
Company the right of running powers into the Curzon Street Station, 
Birmingham, which was the property of the newly formed London and 
North Western Railway Company. It also added about 54 miles 
to the Midland system, of which 33 miles were laid upon longitudinal 
timbers, 3 J miles on iron sleepers, and the remainder upon the ordinary 
cross sleepers. The locomotives were thirty-seven in number, the most 
powerful of which was Mr. McConnell's celebrated tank engine for 
the Lickey incline, having six coupled wheels of 3 feet 10 inches 
diameter, cylinders 18 inches diameter, a stroke of 26 inches, and 
a weight of 30 tons. By the Bristol and Gloucester purchase the 
Midland became possessed of 30 miles of broad y-feet gauge railway 
laid on longitudinal timbers, commencing at the junction with the 




gj- 



MIDLAND BROAD-GAUGE THIRD-CLASS CARRIAGE, 



Great Western at Bristol and terminating at Standish Junction, near 
Stonehouse. It also conferred powers to run into the Temple Mead 
Station at Bristol and also to run over the Cheltenham and Great 
Western Union from Standish to Gloucester. 

The total stock, consisting of eleven broad-gauge engines, twenty 
carriages, and eighty-two other vehicles, also became the property of 
the Midland. 

It would have been far more convenient to the public if the gauge 
could have been at once changed to " narrow," but this was impossible, 
as the working of the locomotive department had previously been 
let by contract to Messrs. Stothard and Slaughter, of Bristol, for a term 
of years. The Act of August 3rd, 1 846, further required the Midland 
Company "at all times hereafter to maintain" on the line from Bristol 
to Standish Junction " two lines of railway on the same gauge as 
the Great Western Railway," and to permit the Great Western broad- 
gauge trains to pass " at all reasonable and proper times " ; and further, 
the Cheltenham and Great Western from Standish to Gloucester was 



ii4 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

broad gauge only. In 1848 the Midland obtained power to make 
a new narrow-gauge railway from Gloucester to Standish, seven miles, 
and to lay down a third rail thence to Bristol, thus completing the 
narrow gauge to Temple Mead Station, Bristol, the narrow gauge 
being opened May 29th, 1854. Six years before the alteration was 
completed it became necessary to have four new broad-gauge engines, 
and Messrs. Sharp Brothers, of Manchester, were instructed by 
Mr. Matthew Kirtley to build four engines, Nos. 66, 67, 68, 69, 
" convertible " ; they were, in fact, narrow-gauge locomotives, having 
very long axles, and the wheels were placed quite outside the axle- 
boxes. The cylinders were 16 x 20, driving-wheels 6 feet 6 inches. 
These engines commenced to work on the broad gauge 1848-9, 
but as soon as the narrow gauge was completed the wheels and axles 
were taken out, sent to Derby to be shortened, and replaced with 
the wheels between the double frames in the ordinary way. These 
were the first "convertible" engines ever built, and the change to 
narrow gauge was accomplished with very little trouble or expense. 

The London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Companies, 
which on July 1 6th, 1846, had become the London and North Western, 
now decided to construct a large central station at New Street, 
Birmingham, and to close their Curzon Street Station for passenger 
traffic. The Midland, who had absorbed the Birmingham and 
Gloucester Company, took advantage of that Company's rights as 
set forth in Clause 21 of the original Act granted to the Birmingham 
and Gloucester Company on April 22nd, 1836, whereby the Birming- 
ham and Gloucester Company had power to run into the Curzon 
Street Station, " or any future termination at or near Birmingham " 
of the London and Birmingham Railway. New Street being such 
a " new termination," the Midland had the right to exercise running 
powers ; and in consideration of the service rendered by the Midland 
in obtaining the Birmingham and Bristol and keeping the Great 
Western " down in the west," it was now arranged by the London 
and North Western (as successors of the London and Birmingham) 
for the Midland to use the -New Street Station, Birmingham, upon 
paying for porters and an acknowledgment of ;ioo a year. In order 
to more completely carry out the arrangement, the Midland, on 
July 27th, 1846, obtained an Act to make the "extension curve" a 
mile in length to connect Saltley on the old Birmingham and Derby 
Company's system with the London and North Western Railway at 
*' Derby Junction," near New Street. Another connecting link about 
a mile in length was constructed from Saltley to St. Andrew's Junction, 
thus making a direct communication with the Birmingham and Bristol 



A GREAT NORTH-EAST TO SOUTH-WEST ROUTE 115 

lines. These various links and the mixed gauge enabled through 
trains to be run from Leeds to Bristol. 

Generally speaking, it will be found that the various main lines in this 
country either start from London or are in connection with other 
railways which do. The Midland Company's west main line from 
Derby to Birmingham and Bristol is quite an exception to this rule, 
as it forms the great through route between the north and north- 
east of England and Bristol and all parts of the west, the formation 
of which has been of great advantage both to the public and the 
Company. 



DERBY | & BRISTOL. 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 

CONTOUR OF LINE FROM DERBY TO BRISTOL via CAMP HILL AND WORCESTER. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE LEEDS AND BRADFORD RAILWAY 

BRADFORD, the important seat of the woollen industry and the 
greatest wool centre in the world, had up to the year 1846 
remained completely isolated and unconnected with the dominant 
factor in modern commerce. It had no railway communication of 
any kind whatever, its industries were crippled, and its trade, if not 
its existence as a great commercial centre, was seriously threatened. 

Originally, when George Stephenson surveyed the North Midland 
line from Derby to Leeds, the people of Bradford saw the necessity 
of having a line from Leeds forward to Bradford, and the leading 
traders pressed that view on the directors of the North Midland 
Company ; but the Company considered that their seventy miles of 
line from Derby to Leeds was quite sufficient for them to undertake at 
that time (1836). George Stephenson, who was engineer to the North 
Midland, advised the representatives of the Bradford trade that although 
his Derby to Leeds line could not be extended forward, they ought to 
form a company of their own to continue the through communication ; 
and he further stated that he was willing to be engineer to such a 
scheme as he had suggested. But the Bradford people then failed 
to find a body of men with sufficient courage or foresight to grasp 
the situation and undertake the financial responsibilities. The result 
was that Leeds obtained through communication to London long 
before its rival in the West Riding, and Bradford was left without 
the coveted line till a later period. 

At the time of the amalgamation in 1844 the people of Bradford 
saw another opportunity of pressing their claims, and they urged the 
directors of the newly formed Midland to make the extension from 
Leeds to Bradford. The Midland, however, considered that it had 
"quite sufficient irons in the fire," with the Nottingham and Lincoln 
and Syston and Peterborough extensions, and could not then entertain 
the suggestion made by the leading citizens of Bradford. 

116 



WELLINGTON STATION, LEEDS 117 

Mr. Murgatroyd, Mr. John Rand, and others interested in the trade 
of Bradford saw that they were placed at a serious disadvantage, and 
determined to form a company of their own. They therefore secured 
the services of Mr. George Hudson, M.P., as Chairman, and Mr. George 
Stephenson as Engineer ; and the Leeds and Bradford Company's 
Act received the Royal Assent on July 4th, 1844. The railway was 
to commence at the Wellington Station, Leeds, thence running past 
Holbeck and Shipley to Bradford, and there was also a short con- 
necting line outside Leeds to join the Midland Railway with the Leeds 
and Bradford, thus enabling Midland trains to run into the Wellington 
Station, Leeds. 

It was a sound stroke of policy to thus carry out the original 
suggestion of George Stephenson, and with Hudson, the Midland 
Chairman, at the head of the movement, and Stephenson, the Midland 
Engineer, to carry out the line, it gave it a very close association from 
the first with the Midland Company. The Midland Company also 
secured a great advantage, in that whereas the Midland trains had 
previously to stop at Hunslet Lane Station, which was on the outskirts 
of Leeds, in an unsuitable district, the Wellington Station, which was 
constructed by the newly formed Bradford Company, provided the 
Midland with a splendid terminus in the centre of Leeds, to which the 
Midland trains began to run on July ist, 1846. The line was duly 
constructed, and opened with more than usual ceremony as was 
certainly due as marking the connection of two great commercial 
centres. 

There was a "contractors' opening" of this line on May 30th, 1846. 
The contractors, having completed their works within the time allowed, 
invited the directors of the Company and a party of friends to 
accompany them on a trip to Bradford and back. The train left 
Leeds shortly before one o'clock, and was composed of about a dozen 
open-topped third-class coaches, except one vehicle reserved for ladies. 
Two local bands attended and played in the train, as well as at Leeds 
Station and at the White Horse Inn, Boar Lane, on getting back. 
The engine (the " Linsay ") was decorated with flowers, and on it were 
two flags, one inscribed, "Who'd have thought it?" and the other, 
"See the conquering hero comes !" The train was under the guidance 
of Mr. Fell- Young, resident engineer of the line. Surprise was ex- 
pressed at the Bradford people not cheering the train, which was 
attributed to the severe distress in the town damping their spirits. An 
engine called " Stephenson " brought the train back, stopping a quarter 
of an hour to enable the passengers to inspect Apperley Viaduct. At 
Kirkstall Forge seven small cannon were fired on each passing of the 



n8 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

train. The dripping of water from the roof of Thackley Tunnel was 
most unpleasant in the open carriages. A shorter train, conveying the 
workmen, was also run, drawn by the engine " Malton." Mr. George 
Goodman, of Leeds, a director, presided at the dinner at the "White 
Horse," Leeds, soon after 6 p.m. The contractors were Messrs. 
Crawshaw, Leeds to Kirkstall ; Messrs. Tredwell, Kirkstall to Thackley 
Tunnel; Messrs. Nowell and Hattersley, the tunnel itself; and Mr. 
James Bray, from the tunnel to Bradford. 

The formal opening took place on June 3oth, a general holiday being 
held at Bradford, but the weather was unfavourable. A train of about 
fifteen coaches from the Midland, York and North Midland, and other 
lines left Leeds at 1.14 p.m., and another soon after, containing 
Mr. George Hudson, the Board of the Leeds and Bradford Company, 
the Lord Mayor of York, and the Mayor of Leeds. There was a 
collation in a tastefully decorated pavilion facing Bradford Station. 
In the afternoon there was a great dinner in the Music Hall at Leeds, 
Mr. Hudson presiding, and sitting under a sort of canopy, " the 
observed of all observers." 

Public traffic began next day, Wednesday, July ist, trains running at 
various intervals from 5 a.m. till TO p.m. There were no intermediate 
stations finished or in use. 

On June 3oth, 1845, the Leeds and Bradford Company obtained an 
Act to make an extension from Shipley to Skipton, thence turning in 
a southward direction to form a junction at Colne with the East 
Lancashire Railway Company's system, which was intended to have 
direct communication with Liverpool and also with Manchester. 

At this period another independent company was in progress, named 
the " North Western," which obtained an Act to form a junction with 
the Leeds and Bradford extension at Skipton, its object being to run 
past Clapham, Settle, and Lancaster to Morecambe Bay; also by 
another line to form a junction with the Lancaster and Carlisle 
Company's system. The importance to the Midland Company of the 
Leeds and Bradford, its extension to Skipton and the North Western, 
thence to the Lancaster and Carlisle line, can hardly be overestimated, 
as by those connections a direct communication was formed between 
the Midland system at Leeds and Carlisle and Scotland. 

The Manchester and Leeds Railway Company, which at first had 
handed over its traffic to the North Midland at Normanton and 
possessed running powers over that line into Leeds, had now become 
on very friendly terms with the London and York. It was forming 
a junction at Askern, near Doncaster, and consequently giving the 
Great Northern access to the Midland district at Leeds. The 



A STORMY MEETING 119 

Manchester and Leeds Company, no doubt backed up by the 
London and York, desired to obtain possession of the Leeds and 
Bradford Railway, and was prepared to lease it at a rental of 10 per 
cent. In fact, a Bill to amalgamate the Manchester and Leeds and 
the Leeds and Bradford was read a second time in Parliament in 1846. 
The East Lancashire Railway Company was equally anxious to secure 
the Leeds and Bradford Company, as via Colne it would connect the 
towns of Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, and Bradford, and it was also 
prepared to offer 10 per cent. 

Mr. Hudson's personal feeling was thought to be that the Leeds 
and Bradford Railway should fall into the hands of the Midland ; but 
as Chairman of the Leeds and Bradford Railway, and in justice to his 
shareholders, he could not of course expect them to accept less than 
the 10 per cent, which the East Lancashire and Manchester and 
Leeds Companies had offered and were willing to give; and he 
contended that if the line was worth that amount to the two com- 
panies mentioned, surely it was worth as much to the Midland. 

The Midland Board considered the question, and came to the only 
possible conclusion, namely, that the line must be theirs ; and a 
special meeting of the Midland shareholders was held in July, 1846, 
to consider the proposal to lease the Leeds and Bradford line for 
999 years at a rental of 10 per cent. 

As Mr. George Hudson was so much interested in the Leeds and 
Bradford Railway, it was naturally expected that he would either absent 
himself from the meeting, or at least if he did attend that he would 
not speak on the subject. 

Unfortunately, by some error of judgment and to the surprise both 
of his friends and his enemies, he not only took the chair at the 
Midland meeting, but at once rose to propose that the lease should 
be entered into. Almost immediately it was seen that there was about 
to be a storm. Voices remarked, "You are buyer and seller too!" 
"You are looking after your own interests !" "You have no business 
in the chair when we discuss this !" 

In spite of these "very straight hints," Mr. Hudson continued to 
speak, and gave "a broad denial to the assertion that he had taken 
advantage of his position for his own benefit." He " publicly declared 
that he had never done so," and called upon any person who could 
prove anything to the contrary to come forward and do it at once. 
This challenge was received with applause, and the shareholders 
anxiously looked round the room to see " who would rise to the 
occasion," but all was perfectly quiet; the expected storm passed over, 
and the difficulty appeared to be ended. Mr. Hudson, however, con- 



120 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

tinued to defend himself, and after going over a list of railways 
which the Midland had obtained, declared that "he never made 
a single penny by any of these purchases," and was concluding the 
speech with the remark, "Well, gentlemen, having cleared myself 
from that imputation," when a voice remarked, "No, you have 
not." 

This was certainly very unfair and uncourteous treatment, consider- 
ing that a challenge had been thrown down by the Chairman which 
no one had attempted to take up. Mr. Hudson then, it would appear, 
lost his temper, and the whole tone of the meeting became "very 
excited." A shareholder exclaimed, "If you are the Railway King 
you are not going to come here and sit upon us," an interruption 
which certainly did not improve the tone of the debate, and caused 
the Chairman to remark, "All this has been concocted in Liverpool," 
a true but very unwise statement. 

With a view to put an end to the uproar and to bring the meeting 
back to business, Mr. John Ellis pointed out that "it was essential 
to the prosperity of the Midland that they should complete this 
purchase. The line was necessary for their protection, and if it fell 
into the hands of a company now in existence, namely, the London 
and York, where would the Midland be then? Away would go half 
their traffic from London to Glasgow and the north." Without question 
the view of Mr. Ellis was the correct one, and the meeting was almost 
entirely with him. 

Mr. Brancker, of Liverpool (who had been a North Midland director 
before the amalgamation), moved an amendment that the meeting 
should be adjourned for two months, to which Mr. John Rand replied 
that the Leeds and Bradford Company, of which he was a director, 
would not wait for two months, but would proceed to accept one of 
the other two offers. Mr. Hudson stated that if there were a con- 
siderable minority who voted against the lease he should at once 
withdraw the proposition. 

Finally, the amendment having been lost, the resolution was put 
to the vote, when only six hands were held up against it. The terms 
were that the Midland guaranteed 5 per cent, on the full amount of 
the shares, as if paid up, until three months after the opening of the 
line complete to Colne or about the beginning of 1848 after which 
^90,000 per annum was to be paid, or 10 per cent, in perpetuity 
on ,900,000 (the share capital of the Leeds and Bradford), which 
was divided into 18,000 shares of .50 each. The Midland Company 
were to furnish any additional capital which might be required to 
complete the line. 



GEORGE HUDSON'S CAREER 123 

Of Mr. Hudson's energy, business capacity, and hard work in con- 
nection with the building up and defence of the Midland Company 
there can be no question ; but, on the other hand, there cannot be 
a doubt that the events and incidents which occurred at this most 
unfortunate meeting (which he would have been well advised not to 
have attended) shook his reputation to the very foundation, and proved 
to be the turning point, the beginning of the end, of Mr. Hudson's 
great and remarkable railway career. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

GIGANTIC SCHEMES AND AN ANCIENT TRAMWAY 

THE railway system of the kingdom had not only been progressing, 
but had rather been expanding by great leaps and bounds, and 
practically every centre of trade and industry, as well as fashionable 
places of resort, were loudly clamouring for the benefits of the new 
communication, and railway companies were besieged with petitions 
and requests for extension from all quarters. The expansion of the 
Midland had so far yielded very satisfactory results, the Company's 
traffic continued to increase, and several of the new branches were 
giving results even better than could have been expected. Railways 
continued to be by far the most important financial and commercial 
undertakings of the day, and in the beginning of 1847 the great boom 
had not yet expended itself, so that the Midland had still to further 
pursue a forward policy to meet rival schemes and to safeguard their 
own interests. 

This being the position of affairs, further gigantic proposals were 
launched by the Midland, and at the meeting of the shareholders on 
March 6th, 1847, these proposals, which had been embodied in thirteen 
Bills, came before the shareholders. The capital involved was no less 
than ^4,680,000, and they included the construction of 251 miles of 
new lines. These projects were as follows : 

1. The purchase of the Mansfield and Pinxton Company's Tramway; 
to alter the same, and to construct a branch from the Erewash Valley 
line to join the Nottingham and Mansfield branch at Sutton ; also to 
construct branches to Mansfield, and also to the Alfreton Ironworks. 

2. To construct an extension at Lincoln to connect with intended 
railways to Grimsby and New Holland. 

3. The construction of a deviation on the Syston and Peterborough 
line, and an approach at Manton. 

4. To enlarge the joint station at Normanton, and to enlarge 
Masborough Station. 

124 



A COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMME 125 

5. To construct a new line from Leicester to Desford, and to double 
the old Leicester and Swannington line from Desford to Coalville ; also 
to enlarge the West Bridge Station at Leicester. 

All the above proposals were sanctioned by Parliament and carried 
into effect. 

6. To construct lines from Wigston Junction, near Leicester, via 
Bedford, to Hitchin, with a branch from Kettering to Huntingdon, 
and another branch to Northampton ; also an enlargement of the 
Leicester Station (Campbell Street). 

Received the Royal Assent July Qth, 1847, DUt afterwards abandoned. 

7. To construct a narrow-gauge railway from Gloucester to Standish 
Junction. 

8. The extension of the narrow gauge to Bristol. 

These two revived schemes were again postponed, pursuant to a 
resolution of the House of Lords on June loth, 1847. 

9. To construct a narrow-gauge railway from Mangotsfield Junction 
to Bath. 

This proposal was withdrawn after passing its second reading in 
the House of Commons. 

10. To construct lines from Sheffield to Barnsley, Doncaster, and 
Goole. 

This was withdrawn after an arrangement had been made to give 
the Midland running powers into Doncaster over the South Yorkshire 
Company's line from Swinton Junction. 

11. To construct lines from Worcester to Hereford, Malvern, and 
Cheltenham. 

12. To construct a line similar to the above, but having an additional 
branch to Ledbury. 

Both of the above Bills were withdrawn after the Midland had 
secured running powers from Stoke Works Junction to Worcester and 
Hereford over the Great Western Company's system. 

13. To construct a line from Hampton to Cheltenham, with branches 
to Warwick and Leamington. 

This was withdrawn after the Midland had arranged to exchange 
traffic with the London and North Western Company at Birmingham. 

All these proposals were approved by the shareholders. But between 
the sanctioning of these schemes and the carrying of them into practical 
effect there had appeared on the horizon a little cloud, which warned 
prudent men of the probable break in the flow of undreamt of pros- 
perity. Cautious men now began to question whether the country 
could stand the strain of such unparalleled expansion in the means of 



iz6 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

communication, and to ask whether there had not been an over-rapid 
construction of railways in advance of the requirements and the 
development of the trade of the country. 

A spirit of prudence and caution began to creep in, and rival com- 
panies became more open to compromise by granting running powers ; 
and by this and other means they obviated the construction of many 
lines which had already been sanctioned by Parliament, but of whose 
remunerative qualities there was some doubt. 

This spirit is evidenced in the fate of these and other Bills. Three 
Acts which the Midland Company had obtained in 1846, namely, to 
make lines from Clay Cross to Newark, from Ashby to Nuneaton, 
and a branch from Halesowen were allowed to lapse ; and of the 
thirteen Bills introduced into Parliament in 1847 on ly fi ye were 
carried into effect. 

One of the most noteworthy of these was the purchase of the 
Mansfield and Pinxton Tramway for 21,066 13^. <\d. a comparatively 
small sum, but giving possession of a very ancient line. 

When, as long ago as 1777, the Erewash Valley Canal Company 
commenced its water-way from the Trent to Langley Mill, it was 
intended to extend the canal from Pinxton Wharf on to Mansfield. 
But here history repeated itself, and the same difficulties were experi- 
enced as in the case of the Ashby Canal, namely, the expense of 
locks, owing to the contour of the land, and the shortness of water 
during times of drought, and on these practical difficulties being 
pointed out it was found to be inadvisable to construct the extension 
from Pinxton to Mansfield. But instead of a canal it was determined 
to secure communication by means of a tramroad or railway. Then 
came a similar dispute to that which occurred at Ashby : whether the 
line should be constructed as an "Edge-rail-way," or as an "Outram- 
road." The " Outram-road " carried the day, and it was constructed 
under the Mansfield and Pinxton Act, passed June i6th, 1817. 

The line was made and opened in 1819, and worked by horse- 
traction for very many years. This communication was regarded as 
of very little importance, except for its local utility and as a feeder 
to the Erewash Valley Canal. 

But when the railway mania burst upon the country in 1845 it 
suddenly acquired an unexpected value, as likely to be a great feeder 
to a railway in opposition to the interests of the canal, and it arose 
in this way. 

Two so-called independent schemes, which were ultimately amal- 
gamated, were presented to Parliament, namely (i) for the construction 
of a Boston, Newark, and Sheffield Railway (this was to commence 



A THREATENED INVASION 127 

at Boston, passing the banks of the Trent at Newark, through the 
towns of Southwell and Mansfield, terminating at Chesterfield in con- 
junction with the existing and projected Midland railways, the capital 
being ^1,000,000); and (2) the Nottingham and Mansfield Railway 
for the construction of a line to commence in junction with the 
Midland railways at Nottingham, passing through Lenton, Radford, 
Basford, and by using a portion of the old Pinxton and Mansfield 
Tramway to Mansfield, terminating in junction with the proposed 
Boston, Newark, and Sheffield scheme at Teversall, with a further 
extension to Clay Cross, the capital being ,500,000. 

An examination of these schemes showed that their real object was 
to enable the London and York Company to extend itself to Sheffield, 
Chesterfield, Nottingham, and the whole of the Midland and Erewash 
Valley coal districts the richest district covered by the Midland, to 
whose interests it was undoubtedly hostile. This would have been 
an invasion into the very heart and 
soul of the Midland system, which, 
as a matter of self-preservation, at 
once excited great interest on the 
part of the Midland. 

So anxious were the promoters of 

this Scheme tO Obtain the ancient PASSENGER CARRIAGE, 1848 

Mansfield and PinxtOn Tramway, SO (Mansfield and Pinxton Company). 

as to give them primary possession 

of the communication across to Pinxton Wharf, that they did not even 
wait for their Act to be passed by Parliament, but entered into 
arrangements to obtain, and did obtain, the control by ownership of 
this old artery of traffic, a portion of which was to be used and 
converted into their Nottingham and Mansfield scheme. 

To meet this difficulty and to resist this threatened invasion by the 
"other parties," Mr. Hudson and the Midland Board drew up a rival 
scheme to cover practically the same unoccupied ground by extending 
its arteries into these unoccupied districts and thus attract traffic to 
the Midland instead of having some of it diverted to the London 
and York (now Great Northern) system. 

A Bill was introduced into Parliament for the Nottingham and 
Mansfield Railway by the Midland, and also for the Chesterfield and 
Newark line, as explained by Mr. Hudson to the shareholders at their 
meeting on May 2nd, 1846. 

The result was that the threatened invasion was rejected by Par- 
liament and the Midland proposals sanctioned. 

But the owners of the invading scheme were in a quandary. They 




128 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

were in the position of a provisional committee without any par- 
liamentary authority, owning a tramway which was useless to them 
because they had no parliamentary authority either to own or use 
it. In fact, they could not deal with it in any way whatever, however 
anxious they might be to sell it for the benefit of their shareholders 
and to wind up their venture. 

The Midland were anxious to purchase the property, and the other 
people were perfectly willing to sell, and at length relief from this 
curious position was obtained by the issue on February i5th, 1848, 
of a certificate by the Railway Commissioners, to the great delight 
of the interested parties, allowing the tramway to be amalgamated 
with the Midland Company's system. This certificate had to be 
granted by the Railway Commissioners before the Mansfield and 
Pinxton Company could be dissolved, in accordance with the Midland 
Act passed in July, 1847. 

Thus the old Mansfield and Pinxton Tramway became the property 
of the Midland, and it had its gradients greatly improved and converted 
into a modern railway, and was reopened to Mansfield October Qth, 
1849. During the progress of the alterations, on March 3rd, 1849, a 
jar containing 500 Roman coins and medals was unearthed near 
Hermitage Mills, close to the old line. 

At the meeting on August i2th, 1847, a dividend of 7 per cent, was 
declared upon the ordinary shares, after the Bristol and Birmingham 

6 per cent., Leicester and Swannington 8 per cent., and others had 
been duly paid. On February i2th, 1848, the gross receipts for the 
half-year amounted to ,586,034, and the dividend was declared at 

7 per cent., the Chairman remarking that all expenses that could 
fairly be charged to revenue account had been so charged, and that 
the renewals had been a heavy item. For instance, he would take 
the carrying stock. "It was," he said, "notorious at the time of 
the amalgamation that the rolling stocks of the three companies 
were in a state of excessive depreciation, that neither their wagons, 
carriages, engines, nor anything else were equal to the traffic of 
to-day. Without casting reflections upon either of the three com- 
panies, they would all agree that each party had been anxious to 
economise their expenditure, and that when the stock was handed 
over to the amalgamated company it was found to be in a condition 
very unlike what it was at present." 

The Midland Company in 1848 were stated to have 160 engines 
and tenders, averaging 39 feet long, which equals 2,192 yards, and 
6,8 1 6 other vehicles, averaging 18 feet over the buffers, the total being 
23 miles and 416 yards long, or further than from Derby to Chesterfield. 



DEATH OF GEORGE STEPHENSON 129 

The fact should here be recorded that Mr. George Stephenson, who, 
as we have seen, was a founder of the Midland, died at Tapton House, 
Chesterfield, on August i2th, 1848, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. 

At this period several important understandings were come to with 
other railway companies ; for instance, the South Staffordshire was to 
form a junction with the Midland at Wichnor ; the North Staffordshire, 
it was arranged, should form junctions with the Midland at Burton-on- 
Trent and Willington, and have running powers over the Midland 
Railway and use its stations at Burton and Derby. 

At Breighton, near Staveley, a junction was to be made to connect 
with the Manchester and Sheffield system, and in the west the Oxford, 
Worcester, and Wolverhampton Company was to be permitted to put 
in junctions at Stoke Prior and Abbotswood, thus giving the Midland 
Company direct communication with Worcester. The (little) North 
Western Company arranged to use the Leeds and Bradford Station at 
Skipton and to work the Midland traffic thence to Morecambe and 
Ingleton Junction, and the London and North Western Company 
agreed to give the Midland better facilities between Rugby and London 
and to avoid as far as possible " delays," of which the Midland passen- 
gers complained seriously. 

The Midland Company also arranged to "work" the Manchester, 
Buxton, Matlock, and Midlands Junction Company's Railway, which 
extended from Ambergate to Rowsley, and in which line both the 
Midland and London and North Western Companies had considerable 
interest. 



CHAPTER XV. 

A COMING STORM. MR. HUDSON RESIGNS 

A> previously mentioned, Mr. Hudson ascended to power in the 
year 1842, at the time when he and the members of the Share- 
holders' Committee took the position of the directors of the North 
Midland Railway Company ; and as some of those directors who found 
it necessary to resign office were members of the powerful " Liverpool 
party," it naturally followed that Mr. Hudson "had no friends in 
Liverpool," and it is certainly remarkable that at the time of the 
amalgamation in 1844 the Liverpool directors appear to have been 
entirely passed over. 

This may have been an accident, or possibly it was considered 
essential that the directors should reside near to the Midland system, 
or probably some of the other directors had greater claims. 

Be that as it may, there is no reliable evidence available to account 
for the constitution of the first Midland Board beyond the statement 
of a director to the author that "we picked out the best men in the 
proportion of six, five, and four, from the three companies." 

The " Liverpool party," however, considered that its capital and its 
importance demanded at least one, probably two, or even three 
directors, and it was no secret that the "party," rightly or wrongly, 
believed that it was "all Hudson's doings that their members were 
shut out." 

The opposition to the leasing of the Leeds and Bradford line was, 
as Mr. Hudson remarked, "concocted in Liverpool," and a few days 
afterwards a meeting of the "Liverpool party" was held, when it 
appears to have been determined to attack the Midland system in 
general and Mr. Hudson in particular. 

It must be remembered that in the early days of railways directors 
and officials had no information as to wear and tear or the cost of 
renewals, nor did any rules exist as to what sums should be charged to 
capital or to revenue. 

130 



THE LIVERPOOL PARTY MILITANT 131 

One company would charge the entire cost of a new engine to 
capital, with the exception of the old-iron price obtained for the 
previous engine, whereas another company held that the whole cost of 
renewals should be paid out of revenue. There was no standard to 
follow, and each board of directors used its own judgment. Every 
statement of accounts published, therefore, furnished ample material 
for some attack. One shareholder would assert his opinion that 
sufficient had not been charged to revenue, that the property was 
not being properly maintained, and that the dividend was coming out 
of the capital ; but another would as strongly hold that the dividend 
was far too small in consequence of the directors spending so much 
revenue upon permanent improvements. 

The " Liverpool party " held meetings in that city frequently to con- 
sider the progress of its railway property, and professional accountants 
were employed to investigate each half-yearly statement in order to 
provide some of the members with materials wherewith to attack at 
the next meeting, and the Board of Directors was constantly asked to 
furnish some further details not given in the printed accounts. 

Mr. Hudson, in the summer of 1848, replied with some warmth to 
the letter of a shareholder, and added that if he was to be pestered 
with such letters concocted in Liverpool he would leave the Midland. 
At the next meeting, in August, the shareholder consequently asked " if 
it is true that the Chairman is about to leave the Midland Railway?" 
to which Mr. Hudson replied that "he had no intention whatever of 
doing so." 

The proceedings at this meeting had such an important bearing on 
subsequent events that we give a report of the proceedings as published 
at the time : 

"At the general half-yearly meeting held at Derby on Saturday, 
August i Qth, 1848, Mr. G. Hudson, M.P., in the chair, there was an 
unusually large attendance, owing to a report in the newspapers that 
the Chairman was about to resign for the purpose of transferring his 
services to the London and York. After the usual review of the 
Company's position by the Chairman, a shareholder asked him if it 
were true that he was going to leave the line for the London and York. 
Mr. Hudson assured the honourable proprietor that he had no intention 
of leaving the Company (Hear, hear, and applause), and he would 
further say, that so long as he had health and strength and enjoyed the 
confidence of the proprietors, nothing on earth would induce him to 
quit the Company. (Hear, hear, and much applause.) He did not 
care what the promotion offered might be ; he had naturally a warm 
affection for the Midland proprietors, and had always been received by 
them with such kindness that he should be unworthy of the name of 
Englishman if he should think of leaving them while he could be of 



132 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

any use to them. (Applause.) Mr. Hudson then paid a fine tribute 
to the memory of George Stephenson, who had just died. At this 
meeting it was decided that in future the Midland proprietors should 
meet on Wednesdays instead of Saturdays." 

These declarations by Mr. Hudson satisfied the shareholders for the 
moment, but the " fire " of opposition was not extinguished ; it 
smouldered only to burst out into unexpected fury before many 
months, as the subsequent narrative will disclose. 

The half-yearly meeting which was held at Derby on September yth, 
1848, took place in one of the sheds. The report stated that the 
goods and coal traffic showed the very satisfactory increase of ^"47,300, 
but the passenger receipts gave a serious falling off. This was due 
entirely to the fact that parts of the Great Northern and the Man- 
chester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Companies' lines had been opened 
and were diverting or taking away the Midland passengers. In con- 
sequence of this falling off in receipts and the growth of the under- 
taking, as well as to better watch the interests of the Company, the 
directors announced that they had formed themselves into committees 
specially to control the large departments Way and Works ; Locomo- 
tive, Carriage, and Wagon ; Traffic ; and Finance. 

The proceedings at this meeting have been described as " quiet " or 
"even uninteresting." However, those "in the know" were perfectly 
aware that this was not a sign of peace and tranquillity, but simply 
a lull before a great storm. The directors had previously under- 
taken to furnish to the " Liverpool party " the details and particulars 
for which it asked. Consequently until that information was com- 
piled and forwarded it was practically impossible for further action 
to be taken. Immediately the required information was obtained 
a meeting was held in Liverpool on October 28th, 1848, when the 
whole management of the Midland Company was criticised adversely, 
and it was decided to raise important issues at the next meeting. 
Accordingly, on February i5th, 1849, the balance-sheet was called 
in question, and it was alleged that "it did not deal fully with 
the accounts " ; a sum of .36,000 parliamentary charges had been 
put down to capital, but a debate upon the question was " cut short " 
by the statement of the Chairman that the directors were per- 
fectly willing to charge that amount to revenue if the shareholders 
wished it. 

A proprietor expressed his opinion that the Company made little or 
no profit on its coal traffic ; this brought down upon him the statement 
of Mr. John Ellis that " it was even more profitable than their 
passenger traffic." 



HUDSON RESENTS INQUIRY 133 

Attacks were next directed against the Chairman, and it was hinted 
that he had sold some shares. 

Mr. Hudson strongly resented the insinuation, and stated that he 
had then about ,17,000 in the Company, which was even a greater 
stake than he had previously held, and he asked the shareholders, 
"What motive can I have but to serve your interests in leaving my 
home, filled with friends, to travel all night in order to wait upon you 
to-day ? " This question brought forth " loud applause." He warned 
the shareholders against playing into the hands of men who might 
have sold their shares and found it inconvenient to deliver them, and 
therefore wanted to depreciate the property. He (the Chairman) could 
not be accused of holding his position from mercenary motives. He 
only received ;8o a year from the Company, had never put a relative 
into a post on the line nor trafficked in the shares, and his only object 
in retaining the post of Chairman was the satisfaction he felt in pro- 
moting the interests of the shareholders. 

A member of the "Liverpool party" then proposed "the appointment 
of a Committee of Inquiry into the administration and accounts of the 
Company." Much amusement was caused by cries of " Liverpool 
again !" " That was concocted in Liverpool ! " and a vote of confidence 
in the directors being proposed, it was carried by a vast majority and 
followed by rounds of applause and the waving of hats. 

However, a few days after the meeting, when the published reports 
had appeared in the newspapers, a very considerable change was 
observed. Letters were received from some of the largest share- 
holders and best friends of the Company, expressing regret that the 
" Committee of Inquiry " was not granted. " Let them inquire," 
wrote one shareholder ; " let them investigate. Let them look 
for themselves into the position of affairs ; they won't rest till they 
do." 

At the next Board meeting there was unmistakable information and 
evidence that a majority of the shareholders was decidedly in favour 
of a " Committee of Investigation." 

Mr. John Ellis, Deputy Chairman, and the other directors had no 
objection whatever, their only desire being to carry out the wishes of 
the shareholders, and in view of the serious Great Northern com- 
petition they came to the conclusion that it would be well for the 
shareholders to see for themselves the injury which the London and 
York scheme was about to do to their company. 

The Chairman, however, took an entirely different view. The vote 
of confidence in the directors had been carried amid "tumultuous 
applause." That, he considered, was sufficient. " Is this company to be 



134 E HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

managed at Derby or at Liverpool? that is the question"; and it was 
evident that Mr. Hudson would rather resign than agree to a " Com- 
mittee of Investigation." At the same period it became known that 
the York and North Midland Company and the York, Newcastle, and 
Berwick were entering into arrangements by which the east coast traffic 
would be handed over to the Great Northern system to be conveyed 
to King's Cross instead of to the Midland at Normanton, en route 
to Derby, Rugby, and Euston Square ; and at the same time it was 
evident that passengers could not be expected to travel from York to 
London via Rugby when a quicker route was established via Peter- 
borough. 

An extraordinary general meeting, attended by about a thousand 
proprietors, was held in the goods shed at Derby on April igth, 1849. 
Mr. John Ellis, Deputy Chairman, presided, and read the following 
important letter from Mr. Hudson : 

YORK, April \ith, 1849. 

GENTLEMEN, 

The approaching meeting of the shareholders renders it necessary 
for me to address you on the subject of the office which I have had the 
honour to hold as Chairman of your Company. 

Forming parts of one great line of communication, the Midland, 
the York and North Midland, and the York, Newcastle, and Berwick 
Railway Companies have hitherto had one common interest to pro- 
mote, and in watching over the development of them it has always 
been to me a pleasing reflection that I was contributing to the pros- 
perity of each of the other companies. It was this which enabled 
me to discharge the duties of Chairman, confided to me by the share- 
holders of these different lines ; and it is because I am apprehensive that 
circumstances have now arisen which must render it impracticable for 
any one person to preside over all these companies that I feel it requisite 
to make the present communication. It must be obvious to everyone that 
the Great Northern Railway, when opened, must of necessity materially 
affect the existing lines of railway in the district through which it passes. 
To the formation of that railway I gave my most uncompromising opposi- 
tion. I believed its formation to be unnecessary, and felt that the benefits 
to be derived from it were not sufficient to justify the immense capital 
requisite for its construction. It pleased the Legislature to view the question 
otherwise, and the consequence is that this line will very shortly be brought 
into active operation. The existence of that Company cannot now be 
disregarded, and it may be that the interests of these different railways may 
not be found to be identical. Therefore it is that, after due deliberation, I 
have thought it right, and to be more satisfactory to the shareholders of the 
Midland Railway Company, to resign the office of their Chairman. I could 
not consent to hold the office without devoting every energy that I possess 
to the furtherance of their interests, regardless of any other company ; 
neither would I consent to preside over the other two companies without 
being prepared to exert myself for the promotion of their prosperity, 
irrespective of the consequences which might result to any other company 
from the policy which they might decide on pursuing. Under these 
circumstances I feel that I best perform my duty to the shareholders by 
tendering my resignation of the office of Chairman. It is impossible for 



HUDSON RESIGNS 135 

me to do this without expressing the deep sense which I entertain of the 
generous confidence which has been reposed in me by my brother share- 
holders, and the high satisfaction which I have derived from the cordiality 
which has prevailed amongst the directors with whom it has been my good 
fortune to associate, "and of the unanimity which characterised all our 
proceedings. This it is which has enabled the capabilities of your line 
to be brought into full activity. 

I take my leave of you, gratefully acknowledging your past kindness and 
anxiously desirous for the continued prosperity of the undertaking with 
which I have been identified. 

I have, etc., 

GEORGE HUDSON. 

This letter was received with hissing. The Chairman of the meeting 
continued : 

" Gentlemen, that resignation has been accepted (Hear, hear), but 
whilst the letter would only seem to imply that Mr. Hudson has 
resigned the office of Chairman, we understand it as a resignation 
as a director altogether, and in that light it has been accepted by 
the Board (cheers), and that explains why I have taken the chair 
at this meeting." 

Mr. Ellis went on to explain that Mr. Hudson's remarks as to his 
having made an arrangement between the York and North Midland 
and the Great Northern had caused the Midland much anxiety. He 
(Mr. Ellis) had seen Mr. Denison, the Great Northern Chairman, who 
had assured him the arrangement did not extend to traffic, but only to 
making a line from Knottingley to Burton Salmon, to save the expense 
of going straight to York. He (Mr. Ellis) was a director of the London 
and North Western Railway, as well as a director of the Midland Rail- 
way, and thought these two lines natural allies. 

The views of Mr. Ellis as to the Midland and the London and 
North Western being allies was no doubt perfectly correct, because 
at this period the London and North Western was taking the Midland 
traffic over its rails from Rugby to London. 

The references at the meeting to the Knottingley curve will be fully 
understood by a consideration of the following statement of facts, which 
were of an extraordinary character. 

This curve extended from Burton Salmon on the York and North 
Midland to Knottingley on the Manchester and Leeds Company's 
Railway, and the Act authorising its construction received the Royal 
Assent on July Qth, 1 847. The importance of this, however, could not be 
seen, and was never suspected until the Manchester and Leeds began 
to work in conjunction with the London and York (or Great Northern) 
via Askern Junction. But it was afterwards discovered that the York, 



136 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Newcastle, and Berwick Company and the York and North Midland, 
who had been previously entirely dependent upon the Midland for their 
connection with London and the south, had by means of this small 
junction curve another complete route to London available by means 
of the London and York Company's line. 

This little link also completed the through east coast route from 
London, King's Cross, via Peterborough, York, and Newcastle, 
Berwick to Edinburgh, and thence to Glasgow. 

As far as the York and North Midland and the York, Newcastle, 
and Berwick Companies were concerned it was a highly valuable 
conection in fact, a fine stroke of policy. And Mr. Allport, who 
was then Manager of the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railway 




SHARP'S "60" CLASS, 1848. 



Company, could not fail to have recognised the vast value to his 
Company of a second road to London. 

But it was an altogether different thing with Hudson, who occupied 
the treble position of chairman of three companies, namely, the 
Midland, the York and North Midland, and the York, Newcastle, 
and Berwick, whose systems extended from Rugby to Newcastle. 
According to the old doctrine, no man can serve two masters ; but 
Hudson tried to serve three, and so long as the interests of the 
three companies did not come into conflict it was to their mutual 
advantage to have one common chairman. But when, as in this case, 
the interests of the two most northern companies were preferred to, 
or clashed with, those of the Midland or more southern company, 
his position became impossible. The two most northern companies 
were planning and carrying out an arrangement which could not fail to 



AN UNPLEASANT SEQUEL 



137 



be, and was intended to be, a deadly blow against the Midland, and 
that placed Mr. Hudson in an untenable position, which he ought 
never to have consented to occupy. His position was also aggravated 
by the fact that as the Bill for the Knottingley curve had been passed 
on July Qth, 1847, tm 's deadly blow to the Midland had actually been 
delivered at the very time he was making those profuse professions 
of friendship and devotion to the interests of the Midland share- 
holders. 

When the truth leaked out and the real position was revealed it 
excited the greatest indignation, and for a time caused consternation 
amongst the directors and shareholders of the Midland, as they con- 
sidered that their interests had been shamefully betrayed. 




?jr jyp %$ 'gjy .yjfr 

S) ^^^ ^ & 



E. B. WILSON'S "JENNY LIND" CLASS, 1847. 



Thus Mr. Hudson terminated his connection with the Midland, both 
as Chairman and as a director. A " Committee of Investigation " was 
then appointed, upon the motion of Mr. Wylie, of Liverpool, to examine 
into the management and affairs of the Company, with instructions 
to report to an adjourned meeting. 

What is known as a " Budget express " made a very notable run on 
Saturday, February igth, 1848, in order to convey copies of The Times 
and other papers containing reports of the Budget debate, which did 
not conclude till one o'clock in the morning. The express ran from 
Euston to Rugby, thence over the Midland system to Normanton, 
to York, Newcastle, Berwick, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. It left 
London, Euston, at 5.35 a.m. and reached Glasgow at 3.57 p.m., 
completing the journey of 470! miles in the remarkably quick time 



138 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

of 10 hours 22 minutes. The detentions amounted to 50 minutes, 
including 8 minutes occupied in passing from Gateshead to the New- 
castle Station, and 7 minutes in passing from Tweedmouth to the 
station at Berwick, thus reducing the actual railway travelling to 
9 hours and 32 minutes, being at the rate of upwards of 50 miles 
an hour. The journey from London to Rugby was done in i hour 
40 minutes, and from Rugby to Normanton, on the Midland, in 
2 hours 6 minutes, being at the average rate of 56 miles an hour. 
The couriers, Mr. Beswick, Travelling Inspector of the Midland Railway, 





FIRST-CLASS COUPE CARRIAGE 



SECOND-CLASS CARRIAGE 



(Midland Railway, 1848 ) 

and Mr. Lockey, after spending an hour in Glasgow, returned to 
Edinburgh by the 5 p.m. train, thus showing the possibility of break- 
fasting in London, dining in Glasgow, and spending the evening in 
Edinburgh. 

The train passed over the Midland system as follows : 



Distance from 
Rugby. 

m. ch. 

Rugby, arrived 

Rugby, left 

20 5 Leicester, passed 
32 38 Loughborough, passed 
49 2 Derby, South Junction, arrived 

Derby, South Junction, left 
72 62 Chesterfield, passed 
88 48 Masborough, passed 
112 49 Normanton, Altofts Junction, arrived 
Normanton, Altofts Junction, left . 



7.15 
7.29 
7.52 

8.5 

8.25 

8.27 

8.54 
9.10 

9-35 
9-37 



Mr. Hudson alluded to this train at the Midland meeting held 
the day it was run, saying they attained the speed at a less cost 
and in a better manner than on the broad gauge, and that the run 
was a proof that the railway was in excellent order. Mr. Hudson's 
observations were more than justified, as the speeds were very re- 
markable. From Rugby Station to Derby South Junction, a distance 
of 49 miles 2 chains, was run in 56 minutes, or an average speed 



A BUDGET EXPRESS 139 

throughout of 52*5 miles per hour. Engines were changed in two 
minutes, and the run was continued to Altofts Junction, Normanton, 
a distance of 63 miles 49 chains, which was covered in 68 minutes, 
or an average speed of fully 56 miles an hour. The run from Rugby 
to Derby was performed by one of Sharp's engines of the " 60 " class, 
and from Derby to Leeds by one of Wilson's well-known "Jenny Lind" 
engines, both of which are illustrated, as well as the carriages of the 
period. 

It ought to be remembered in considering this remarkable run that 
rails did not at the time exist from London to Edinburgh. There were 
two gaps one of over a mile between Gateshead and Newcastle, over 
the River Tyne, owing to Robert Stephenson's high-level bridge not 
being completed ; and the other between Tweedmouth and Berwick, 
across the River Tweed, where the Royal Border Bridge was not ready 
for traffic. These two gaps were traversed by coaches and horses at 
full gallop, a wonderfully quick transfer being effected in each instance. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

MR. JOHN ELLIS ELECTED CHAIRMAN 

THE upheavals related in the previous chapter necessitated the 
election of a new Chairman, and the prosecution of the in- 
vestigations which the shareholders had directed to be made. When 
so much doubt and uncertainty had been created, it was essential to 
the well-being of the Company that a very strong chairman should 
be secured to take charge and direct its policy ; and further that the 
Committee of Investigation should be such as to command the entire 
confidence of the proprietors. 

The choice of the directors fell upon Mr. John Ellis, the Deputy 
Chairman, who had given ample evidence of his great ability, capacity, 
and worth, and as being a man in whom the greatest confidence could 
be reposed. Accordingly, on May yth, 1849, at a meeting of directors, 
Mr. John Ellis, M.P., of Leicester, was unanimously elected, Mr. 
Hudson's resignation having taken effect on April iQth. 

Mr. Samuel Beale, of Birmingham, who, previous to the amalgama- 
tion, had been Chairman of the Birmingham and Derby Junction Rail- 
way Company, was elected Vice-Chairman. 

These appointments gave great satisfaction, in view of the recent 
rather painful experiences of the Company. 

The Shareholders' Committee had the services of professional 
accountants, and investigated the books, leases, and every branch of 
the Company's business. Mr. Barlow, the resident engineer, satisfied 
the committee that when an older set of rails was replaced by heavier 
and better rails, that revenue should be charged with the original value, 
and capital should pay for the permanent benefit to the property. 
Mr. Robert Stephenson, with reference to the locomotive stock, also 
expressed his view that when an engine of an old light pattern was 
replaced by a new heavier engine, that the difference in original cost 
was a permanent improvement, and that the amounts which had been 
hitherto carried to capital had been legitimately so placed. 

The report of the committee was completed and dated August i5th, 

140 



EAST TO WEST ROUTE OPENED 141 

1849, and proved that the published accounts were in accordance with 
the authentic books of the Company. Several suggestions were made 
in the report, one being that there should be a stipendiary chairman, 
who should devote his whole time to the interests of the Company. 

Naturally the members of the "Liverpool party" were extremely 
disappointed at the result of the investigation. Mr. Wylie even moved 
an amendment when the adoption of the report was proposed, and 
remarked, " A more incomplete and inconclusive document I have 
never seen." However, he ultimately withdrew the amendment, and 
the report was adopted unanimously. 

Thus the great storm created on October 28th, 1848, "fell flat and 
went off in smoke," and the shareholders had the satisfaction of knowing 
that the charges of mismanagement which had been frequently made 
were not founded on fact. 

The new line from Burton to Coalville having been opened and the 
Swannington railway widened and improved to Desford Junction, the 
new connecting line running thence to Knighton Junction, near 
Leicester, was brought into use on August ist, 1849, and a through 
service of trains established between Burton, Leicester, and Melton to 
the Eastern Counties Railway Station at Peterborough. 

Not only did the Burton branch form a communication between east 
and west, but for the first time it put the Leicestershire collieries into 
the excellent position of being able to send their coal by rail to all 
parts. No longer had the coal to be conveyed to the West Bridge 
Wharf, there to be loaded in boats, as rails now existed in connection 
with the main line. This was a very severe blow to the canals, and 
brought a large and valuable coal traffic to the Company. Another 
useful link was the Kirkby and Mansfield branch, opened in October, 
1849. 

The Great Northern competition was now becoming very disastrous 
to the Midland traffic, a further section of that railway being opened 
between Askern Junction, north of Doncaster, and Retford, thus 
enabling the Great Northern to compete more especially for the traffic 
between Leeds and the south via Peterborough. 

In September, 1849, tne Great Northern tried still further to increase 
their traffic by actually running over the rails of the Midland Company 
into Leeds, which, of course, was then the extreme end of the Midland 
Company in the north. This attempt led to a very extraordinary 
incident, which resulted in an effort to run a Great Northern engine 
and train on the Midland system, and an equally determined resistance 
on the part of the Midland, who pulled up the connecting metals. 

The North Midland Railway Company and the Manchester and 



142 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Leeds Company had from the first been on the most friendly terms. 
So much so that, to save the making of two lines side by side from 
Normanton to Leeds, the North Midland Company agreed to build 
a booking-office for the Manchester and Leeds Company at its Hunslet 
Lane Station, Leeds, and to make the Normanton Station one for the 
joint use of both companies, as well as for the accommodation of 
the York and North Midland. The Manchester and Leeds passengers 
were thus allowed to use the Midland line between Leeds and Goose 
Hill Junction, south of Normanton. In the interests of the Manchester 
and Leeds, the Wakefield, Pontefract, and Goole Railway Company 
formed its line ; and for the same reason, namely, to avoid duplicate 
lines, the Midland Company agreed to allow the Wakefield Company 
(which in the meantime, in the session of 1847, na d amalgamated and 
become the Lancashire and Yorkshire) to run its trains from Methley 
Junction to Leeds. But with the introduction of the Great Northern 
system and the formation of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway 
the whole situation changed. That original friendship between the 
North Midland and the Manchester and Leeds terminated. The 
North Midland had become Midland, while the Manchester and 
Leeds and the Wakefield, Pontefract, and Goole had amalgamated 
and become the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company. The 
latter line had a junction with the Great Northern at Askern, and 
had become a powerful ally of the Great Northern. So strong was 
the friendship between the Lancashire and Yorkshire and the Great 
Northern that the first-named Company tried to assist its new-found 
friend to run over the Midland line from Methley to Leeds by the 
following strategy. 

A short time before the Doncaster Races, which took place in 
September, 1849, the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company, as usual, 
compiled a list of special trains which it proposed to work over the 
Midland rails from Leeds to Methley en route to Doncaster. It was 
quite understood that some of the carriages forming some of the trains 
would be lent by the Great Northern Company to the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, and worked down to Leeds as empty carriage trains the 
previous day, it being presumed that the trains would be worked by 
Lancashire and Yorkshire engines and officials, as no other company 
had running powers over the line. 

To the great surprise of the Midland Company, however, when the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's notice was issued to their servants 
it was found that some of the trains booked to run over the Midland 
Railway from Leeds to Methley had as a footnote these words : "This 
train will be worked by the Great Northern Company." It was also 



A QUESTION OF RUNNING POWERS 143 

discovered that for several days Great Northern drivers had been 
travelling on the Lancashire and Yorkshire engines to learn the road 
to Leeds. 

The Midland Company at once communicated with the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Company, protesting against the Great Northern working 
the trains on the ground that they had no running powers. The reply 
was that the Lancashire and Yorkshire had, and that they could by this 
means let the Great Northern into Leeds. The Midland altogether 
repudiated any such contention, and then the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
fell back upon the excuse that they were short of engines, and had hired 
a few from the Great Northern. 

The Midland, however, declared that they would not have engines 
and men of a company which had no running powers on their lines. 
The Lancashire and Yorkshire argument then was that a hired engine 
was to all intents and purposes their property, and that they would send 
the trains to Leeds as booked. 

The Midland answer to this was that the junction would be pulled 
up ; and when news was received that the empty Great Northern trains 
had actually left Doncaster on their way to Leeds, a gang of Midland 
platelayers at once set to work and removed the rails, thus preventing 
the passage of the trains on to the Midland at Methley. 

On the approach of the trains all the usual signals were given and 
the trains brought to a stand. Finding progress in that direction 
impossible, the Great Northern train was run back to Pontefract, 
thence to Wakefield, and back to the Goose Hill Junction, Normanton, 
where another junction with the Midland Railway existed. This was 
just as much Midland, and the legal rights of the matter were just 
as strong at one point as at the other ; but the Midland, having made 
their protest and not wishing to inconvenience the public, allowed 
the "hired" Great Northern engine to proceed to Leeds, leaving 
the question of right to be afterwards legally determined. 

But although this was a highly technical point and one of great 
interest and importance in railway law, a legal decision was never 
taken ; for the Great Northern and Lancashire and Yorkshire Com- 
panies at once took up this position, that if they could not use the 
Midland line they would have one of their own, so as to get to 
Leeds without using the Midland line from Methley. They further 
proposed other extensions from their intended line. 

Under these circumstances the Midland had to choose the least 
of two evils, namely, to allow the Great Northern to run over their 
lines from Methley to Leeds and stop there, or allow the Great 
Northern to construct a line which might afterwards be greatly 



144 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

extended in unknown directions. The result was that the Midland 
determined to concede running powers to the Great Northern, the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire, and to the York and North Midland 
railways into their Wellington Station at Leeds. This was confirmed 
by the shareholders of the Midland at their meeting on August 23rd, 
1850. 

At the meeting previous to the one at which the above memorable 
dispute was ended, namely, that held at Derby on February 27th, 1850, 
the shareholders had to face the fact that the receipts for the past 
half-year were only ^"600,000, or a decrease of ^20,000, and that the 
dividend for the half-year upon the ordinary shares was only i $s. 

Mr. Wylie addressed the meeting for a period of about two hours, 
and stated that he represented 1,200 shareholders in the Liverpool 
district, who held shares to the amount of ; 1,623,000. 

He objected to the guarantees and leases and especially to the 
Leeds and Bradford lease, and finally moved a resolution to " re- 
construct the Board " ; in other words, to find room for the members 
of the " Liverpool party." However, after full discussion the resolution 
was rejected, and the shareholders returned to their homes after a 
sitting of no less than six hours. 

At the half-yearly meeting held on August 23rd, 1850, the dividend 
upon the ordinary shares fell to only i6s. for the half-year, and the 
shares which but a few years previously were at ;i6o were now 
actually to be bought for $2. 

The extension curve between Saltley and the London and North 
Western Railway at Birmingham, in place of the " lift " at Saltley, was 
completed in the autumn of 1850. The Erewash Valley and Mans- 
field lines were in use, as were also the two junctions at Stoke Prior 
and Abbotswood, to enable the Midland trains to run over the Oxford, 
Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway via Worcester. It is worthy 
of note that every portion of the line which the Company proposed 
to make at that time was completed and opened for traffic, the total 
being about 500 miles. This fact, together with the coal traffic from 
the Erewash Valley and Leicestershire, increased the goods and 
mineral receipts by ^32,000 during the second half of the year 

1850, but the Great Northern competition caused a further falling 
off of ;8,ooo in passenger traffic, and the dividend paid in February, 

1851, was 255-., being a considerable improvement upon the i6s. paid 
on the previous occasion. 

The Leeds and Bradford lease, which had previously proved such 
a bone of contention, on two further occasions came up for discussion. 
A Liverpool shareholder, who brought forward the question on 



THE LEEDS AND BRADFORD LEASE 145 

August 23rd, 1850, boldly moved a resolution with a view to its 
entire repudiation. The reason for advocating this unusual and very 
extraordinary course was this, that while the Leeds and Bradford 
shareholders were getting their guaranteed dividend of 10 per cent, 
per annum, according to the lease, without any risk whatever, the 
Midland ordinary shareholders were having to face the increased 
competition of the Great Northern, with the result that the dividend 
on ordinary stock for 1850 was only 2 is. per cent. The ordinary 
shareholders failed to see why the Leeds and Bradford shareholders 
should be placed in such a highly favoured position. The Chairman, 
however, warned the proprietors against interfering with an engage- 
ment which they had previously sanctioned, even although it was 
at a time when they were all too sanguine as to the value of 
railway property. He read a letter from Lord Lifford, in which 
he said that "any attempt to disturb the lease would put an end to 
confidence in railway property and damage the characters of those 
who did it as honourable mercantile men " a view which was 
confirmed by the shareholders. 

The Leeds and Bradford Railway for the last time received the 
attention of the shareholders at a special meeting held on June 4th, 
1851, when a Bill which had passed the House of Commons required 
approval in order to enable the estate and interest of that Company 
to become the property of the Midland. The Chairman pointed out 
the great importance of the line, and trusted the opposition would 
be withdrawn. Mr. Brancker, of Liverpool, expressed the opinion 
which he had consistently held, that " the scheme was a preposterous 
undertaking, concocted in iniquity." However, at the wish of 
Mr. Ellis, he did not continue to oppose the motion, and as 
Mr. Wylie considered the Bill was the best way out of the whole 
difficulty, the resolution to acquire the line was carried unanimously, 
and it is no secret that all parties were heartily glad to see this old 
Leeds and Bradford question finally set at rest by the Act of 1851. 

The Great Exhibition of 1851, which at one time was expected to be 
a source of greatly increased revenue to the Midland as well as to 
other companies, proved a serious disappointment, for so far from 
yielding an increased return, it entailed a loss of revenue to the 
Midland of between ^400 and .550 per week whilst the Exhibition 
was open. There was, it is true, a very heavy traffic from the north 
to Rugby en route to London, but the great number of passengers 
to London disturbed the passenger traffic on the other portions of 
the line ; and other centres of interest and attraction, such as Matlock, 
Scarborough, and Cheltenham, were quite neglected. Moreover, as the 



146 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Great Northern fare from Leeds to London was fixed at only 5^., 
there was but a small profit to be obtained from the Exhibition 
traffic. 

In the following year (1852) the directors became firmly convinced 
that it was of vast importance to the prosperity of the Midland system 
that the Company should establish more or less direct connections 
with London, and negotiations were entered upon with representatives 
of the London and North Western Railway Company with a view to 
amalgamation. So essential was it considered that the Midland should 
be permanently identified with a line having a terminus in London that 
the amalgamation scheme was all but completed. The Midland terms 
were finally 60 in proportion to the London and North Western 
shares of ;ioo, and the dividend to be pro rata on these amounts. 
The London and North Western would not agree to these terms, and 
offered amalgamation on the basis of ,57 icxr. per share, and on this 
difference of 505-. per share between the parties the negotiations were 
broken off. But meanwhile the Midland Company had established 
other arrangements, which enabled them to deal with their growing 
London traffic until the time was ripe for another forward movement. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY 

THIS Company, which, to avoid confusion with the great Company 
known as the London and North Western was usually termed 
the " Little " North Western, was formed by . an Act passed on 
July 3oth, 1846, and its object was to construct a line commencing 
at a junction with the Leeds and Bradford Railway extension at Skip- 
ton, and passing through Settle extend to the coast at Morecambe, 
with a branch from Clapham to Ingleton, to join an intended com- 
munication with the Lancaster and Carlisle Company's system at 
Low Gill for north traffic ; and a short curve at Lancaster Green Ayre 
to join the same Company's system at Lancaster Castle Station for 
south traffic. 

The line was opened at various dates and in six sections, the first 
section being that extending from Lancaster Green Ayre to Poulton 
Station and harbour, now known as Morecambe. This was opened 
for traffic on Whit-Monday, June i2th, 1848, with a train service hourly 
in each direction from 9 a.m. till 5 p.m., and less frequently at other 
hours. At that time the Morecambe Station was a purely temporary 
structure, pending the completion of the permanent buildings and 
the erection of the North Western Hotel, which in 1871 had its 
name changed to the " Midland Hotel " on the Midland acquiring the 
undertaking. Mr. Pudsey Dawson was the first Chairman of the 
North Western Company, and two Midland directors were on the 
original Board, namely, Mr. Murgatroyd and Mr. Waddingham. The 
local time-tables issued at the time were headed " North Western 
Railway, Morecambe Branch," and in them notice was given that 
passengers holding return tickets issued by the third-class trains might 
return by any train during the day. This seems to imply that third- 
class return tickets were issued, probably a rare thing at that 
time. 

i47 



148 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The various sections of the line were opened as follows : 

Morecambe to Lancaster Green Ayre . . June I2th, 1848. 
Skipton, Clapham Junction, and Clapham- Ingle- 
ton Branch . . ... July 3oth, 1849. 
Lancaster Green Ayre to Wennington . . Nov. 1 7th, 1849. 
Lancaster Green Ayre to Lancaster Castle . Dec. 1849. 
Wennington to Bentham . ... May 2nd, 1850. 
Bentham to Clapham Junction . . . June ist, 1850. 

The opening of the completed line, forty-seven miles in length, took 
place on June ist, 1850, when through trains from Leeds, Bradford, 
and Skipton ran to Morecambe. The trains included portions for 
Kendal, which were detached at Lancaster Green Ayre and conveyed 
to the Castle Station; from thence they were taken forward by the 
Lancaster and Carlisle Company, and the road coach, which had run 
from Ingleton to Milnthorpe on the opening of the Ingleton section, 
was, of course, discontinued, as was also a conveyance which had run 
between Bentham and Clapham Junction previous to the opening of 
that section. 

Thenceforward from this period the Midland Company obtained 
communication by means of the " leased " Leeds and Bradford line 
to Skipton, and by the North Western line from Skipton to Lancaster, 
Castle Station, and thence by the Lancaster and Carlisle Company's 
Railway, to Scotland by an alternative route, and were no longer 
dependent upon the York and North Midland, the York, Newcastle 
and Berwick, and North British Railways for their communication and 
for Scotch traffic. 

The Midland, who had great interest in, and was always on the 
most friendly terms with the North Western, and being anxious to 
secure more or less permanent provision for its .traffic to and from that 
district, in May, 1852, undertook for twenty-one years the working of 
the " Little " North Western. 

This working agreement would not have expired till 1873, but as 
early as 1857, under parliamentary powers, both companies resolved 
that the line be leased to the Midland Company in perpetuity as from 
January ist, 1859, on payment "equal to an annual net dividend on 
the ordinary capital at rates ranging from i per cent, in 1859 to 
3! per cent, (the maximum rate) in 1864, with such additional 
dividend (if any) as one-half the excess net earnings of the North 
Western undertaking will pay beyond such 3! per cent." 

On July nth, 1864, a further change was made in the shares of 
the North Western Company, which received parliamentary sanction, 
whereby the 20 shares, representing a total capital of ;7 8 5>5 6o > 



A NEW ROUTE TO SCOTLAND 



149 



were divided into one share of 12 each (total capital .471,336) 
and another of 8 (total capital 314,224), the former or 12 
shares bearing a fixed perpetual preferential dividend of 5 per cent., 
and the latter or 8 shares taking ij per cent., which would absorb 
the whole of the residue of the rent, plus "any contingent 
advantage that may arise out of the lease to the Midland." This 
lasted for six years, namely, till August, 1870, when a new arrange- 
ment was agreed to with the Midland, whereby the Midland guaranteed 
a graduated dividend till 1874, and afterwards at 5 per cent, in per- 
petuity ; and this receiving the sanction of Parliament, the Midland 




INGLETON VIADUCT 

were able to obtain the absolute conveyance of the North Western 
to them on January ist, 1871, or two years before the original arrange- 
ment would have expired. 

Thus the Midland obtained entire possession and control of an 
invaluable outlet to the north-west, as well as securing a base for 
their extension from Settle to Carlisle, and from Wennington to the 
Lake District. Further than this, by arrangement with the Lancashire 
and Yorkshire Company, Hellifield became the point of junction 
between the Midland through traffic from Manchester and Liverpool 
to Scotland. 

More recently it lent itself to the great development now in progress 
by the construction of Heysham Harbour, which will add immensely 



150 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

to the utility and value of this section of the Midland, for it is 
intended that Heysham Harbour will be an important port for 
passenger and goods traffic between the Midland system, the Isle of 
Man, and the north of Ireland. 

With a view to connecting the Furness Railway Company's system 
with the Midland, so as to give through communication via Barrow- 
in-Furness to the Lake District, the Isle of Man, and the north of 
Ireland, the Furness and Midland Companies were authorised, by an 
Act of June 22nd, 1863, to construct a joint line 9^ miles in length, 
extending from Wennington to Carnforth. The capital was ^1 50,000, 
with ;5> 000 borrowing powers, and it was provided in equal shares 
by both companies. This little connecting link has proved an in- 
valuable one for the Midland Company, both as regards its mineral 
traffic and the influx of passengers which sets in during the summer 
season to the Lake District and the Isle of Man. 

Another phase of the delicate relationships between various com- 
panies as to what may or may not be done under what is known 
as running powers arose at Nottingham, and in view of the circum- 
stance that these early cases have exercised an important influence 
on all subsequent decisions in railway law the details become 
interesting. 

A railway company having the long title of the Ambergate, Notting- 
ham and Boston, and Eastern Junction Railway had obtained powers 
for the construction of a line extending from Ambergate to Notting- 
ham, thence to Grantham, Boston, and Spalding : but only the portion 
between Nottingham and Grantham was constructed, and at the last- 
named town it was connected with the Great Northern main line, 
while at the Nottingham end the Midland gave the little Company 
running powers for its trains into the Midland station. Shortly after 
the opening, arrangements were concluded between the Ambergate 
and Great Northern companies, by virtue of which the Great Northern 
claimed a right to work its own engines and trains into the Midland 
station at Nottingham. This contention was resisted by the Midland 
on the ground that concessions made by the Midland could not be 
transferred to another company without their authority or sanction, 
and an injunction was obtained. The Great Northern Railway Com- 
pany, however, in spite of these legal disabilities, attempted to exercise 
running powers, and did on one occasion (August ist, 1852) run one of 
its engines and trains into the Midland station. But it was discovered 
that it was much easier to run the train into the station than to get 
it out again, for the Midland officials proceeded to seize the offending 
engine which had set the injunction at defiance. Midland engines 



GIGANTIC AMALGAMATIONS PROPOSED 151 

were placed at each end of the Great Northern locomotive, and 
although the driver made a desperate effort to get his engine away, it 
was carried off as " a prisoner of war " and locked up in a Midland 
engine-shed. So as to be certain that there should be no escape the 
rails leading to the shed were pulled up, and there the Great Northern 
engine remained for seven months. At the end of this period it was 
returned to the Great Northern, on the Ambergate Company agreeing 
to build its own station at Nottingham and the Great Northern 
Company to keep clear of the Midland lines. Thus the London 
Road Station, erected at Nottingham for the accommodation of the 
Great Northern by the Nottingham and Grantham Company, was 
placed in close proximity to the Midland line. 



A GREAT SCHEME THAT FAILED 

We now come to deal with one of the most important and remark- 
able projects in connection with the whole of the railway systems 
north of London, and in which the Midland Railway Company was 
the pivot upon which the whole scheme turned. The London and 
North Western had their line and their terminus in London ; so had 
the Great Northern, but the Midland were dependent on the grace 
and favour of others. The Midland, however, was a growing power, 
and accordingly her great rivals, the London and North Western and 
the Great Northern, were anxious to absorb her. And, curiously enough, 
the Midland had two "proposals" for amalgamation within two days. 
On August 1 4th, 1852, the Secretary of the London and North Western 
wrote to the Midland Company, informing them that they were pre- 
pared to discuss the question of a closer union or amalgamation of 
the two undertakings. The importance of this communication was 
greatly enhanced by the receipt of a similar communication from 
the Chairman of the Great Northern to Mr. John Ellis, the Chairman 
of the Midland Company. What these negotiations ultimately resulted 
in was a gigantic scheme by which the London and North Western, 
the Midland, and Great Northern Companies, which controlled all 
the traffic north of London, should be amalgamated. The parties, 
after protracted correspondence and discussion, had all practically 
agreed upon the terms, which were to be determined by three arbitrators 
of great eminence, and all the parties had expressed their ardent desire 
for amalgamation with the view of restricting competition and avoiding 
duplicate lines, stations, and the running of duplicate trains. The 
first practical step for the accomplishment of this object was the intro- 
duction into Parliament of a Bill to amalgamate the London and 



152 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

North Western and the Midland Railway Companies in 1853. The 
shareholders of both companies sanctioned the scheme, and the Bill 
was promoted and backed by the most powerful influences. Parliament, 
however, considered the project in an entirely different light. Looking 
at the matter from a national point of view, it established a most im- 
portant precedent by declaring against the amalgamation of very large 
railway companies. This first part of the scheme having failed to obtain 
parliamentary sanction, involved the whole of the gigantic amalgamation 
in complete failure. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

LEICESTER AND HITCH IN 

THE enormous increase of railway traffic all over the country, 
a vast proportion of which was seeking its outlet in London, 
brought about a great change. The London and North Western at this 
period had to deal, on two pairs of lines from Rugby to London, not 
only with its own Irish, Scotch, Liverpool, and Manchester traffic, but 
also to find accommodation for the whole of the traffic of the Midland 
and its allied companies from Rugby to the south. No doubt the 
London and North Western did their best, but they speedily found 
out, as a matter of course, that there is a limit to the carrying capacity 
of an up-and-down line, and the result was that there were serious 
delays to the Midland traffic, which called for grave consideration on 
the part of the Midland directors, who were ultimately obliged to 
reconsider the Leicester and Hitchin line as the only possible way out 
of their difficulties. 

The Leicester and Hitchin project had previously played a very 
important part in the policy of the Midland in the eventful years 
1845-7, which must be described. 

As at this period (1845) the Midland Company was working upon 
very friendly terms with the London and Birmingham and handing 
over a large traffic at Rugby, it may at first sight appear somewhat 
extraordinary that its Chairman and large shareholders should be 
parties to a rival route towards London ; we have consequently to 
turn our attention to events which were taking place in the district 
between Hitchin, on the Great Northern, Bedford, and Leicester. 

A so-called independent railway company had been formed under 
the name of the " Leicester and Bedford," to commence at Hitchin 
by a junction with the Great Northern, to run thence through Bedford, 
Wellingborough, Kettering, Harborough, and Wigston to Leicester, 
where it was to form a junction with the Leicester and Swannington 
Railway, the design being for the Leicestershire coal to be conveyed 
from the Leicestershire coalfields district to London, King's Cross, 



154 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

via Leicester and Hitchin. The Leicester and Swannington line at 
that time was quite isolated, and had no communication with any other 
railway company ; and was, of course, consequently without railway 
connection with London, the whole of the coal having to be forwarded 
to the Metropolis by canal from Leicester, with an alternative canal 
route from Ashby. 

The Leicester and Bedford scheme, of course, "received the cordial 
assistance " of the Great Northern Company, as it naturally would, 
considering that it was to provide railway communication extending 
into the very centre of the Midland district, with the further possibility 
of greater developments, which would have been a serious menace 
to the Midland. 

The counter moves to this scheme were (i) the purchase by the 
Midland of the Leicester and Swannington Company; (2) the purchase 
of the Ashby Canal Company and its tramroads : and (3) the formation 
of a so-called independent company known as the South Midland, 
of which Mr. Hudson was Chairman, which proposed to run over 
the very same route from Wigston Junction to Hitchin Junction, 
and this scheme, of course, "received the cordial assistance" of the 
Midland. 

The Leicester and Bedford and South Midland each took great 
pains to disseminate the notion that the other was a "sham line." 

Each one stated that the other was not an "independent company"; 
that the other was got up to serve the interests of the Midland or 
the Great Northern, as the case might be; that one was for the 
purpose of upsetting the other. 

At a meeting of the South Midland Railway Company, held at 
Derby on May 2nd, 1846, Mr. Hudson, the Chairman of that line, 
explained that their main line was to extend from Leicester to 
Hitchin, and had two branches, which formed the subject of separate 
Bills, namely, the Huntingdon branch and the Northampton and 
Bedford line. 

He hoped that it would not be disagreeable to the proprietors; 
but the directors were unanimous in the opinion that they should 
proceed with the Bills, as nothing had occurred to alter their views 
since they first embarked on the undertaking. They were satisfied 
that that district required to be supplied with railway communication, 
and had received the sanction of the proprietors of land on the 
line, as well as of towns in its neighbourhood. Earl Fitzwilliam, 
Lord Northampton, Earl Spencer, and others were strongly in its 
favour. The line would go through an agricultural country, and 
would give the Midland Company a communication with the south. 



LEICESTER AND BEDFORD 155 

He did not think anything had occurred to induce them to abandon 
an undertaking which had been so well considered and approved 
of by people locally interested. They had received notifications 
from holders of 36,000 shares in favour of continuing, and only of fifty 
declining to proceed. 

Mr. Knight said he, as a promoter of the South Midland, could 
contradict the story that it was promoted by the Midland for the 
purpose of upsetting the Leicester and Bedford. 

The Chairman stated that some arrangement for working the South 
Midland line might be made with the Midland Company, they having 
themselves an interest in it, and therefore being likely to meet the 
proprietors in a manner satisfactory to all. 

The resolution in favour of proceeding both with the main line and 
the branches was carried. 

On the other hand, at a meeting of the rival Leicester and Bedford 
Company, Mr. Whitbread, the Chairman, declared his belief that the 
sole object of the South Midland scheme was to floor the Leicester 
and Bedford, and that they were quite content to be floored themselves 
so long as the other line was floored also. This was met by "flat 
denials." 

After considerable fighting it was found that the honours rested with 
the Midland, who, by the purchase of the Leicester and Swannington 
and the Ashby Canal, played trump cards, which secured the very 
traffic which the Leicester and Bedford scheme was specially designed 
to obtain. It was arranged first that the South Midland should take 
over the Leicester and Bedford scheme, and afterwards that the two 
independent companies should be dissolved, and that the Midland 
should obtain an Act for carrying it into effect. 

The Leicester and Hitchin Act was obtained in 1847, but was after- 
wards abandoned, as at that period the line was not considered neces- 
sary in view of the better accommodation which the London and 
North Western agreed to give the Midland over the line from Rugby 
to Euston ; and thus the South Midland Company had attained its 
object, which was to keep the Great Northern Company and its friends 
away from Leicester. 

The powers obtained in 1847-8 for the formation of this line having 
lapsed, it became necessary to obtain a new Act, which was passed 
in 1853. 

Under this new Act the line commenced at Wigston North Junction 
near Leicester, on the Company's Leicester and Rugby section, con- 
tinuing thence to Great Bowden Junction, where it joined the Rugby 
and Stamford (single line) branch of the London and North Western 



156 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Railway. It used this line, which was doubled for the purpose for 
a distance of sixty-six chains, to Harborough Junction, the station there 
being also granted for the use of Midland traffic. This arrangement 
continued for many years, but was subsequently altered, Market Har- 
borough being made a joint station with independent lines for both 
companies ; and this vastly improved arrangement came into operation 
on June 28th, 1885. 

The original Midland main line continued from Harborough Junction 
up the Great Desborough Bank, on to Kettering and Wellingborough 
(where a branch was made to the London and North Western system), 
and forward to Bedford. Here a branch was made to connect with 
the London and North Western Railway, and a short distance farther 
on the Midland crossed the London and North Western Bletchley to 
Cambridge line on the level at right angles, after which it runs forward 
to Hitchin Junction on the Great Northern system. The total distance 
from Wigston to Hitchin Junction was 62 miles 9 chains. It may be 
stated as a curious fact that the mile-posts on this section of the line 
have never been altered, but up to the present date show the distance 
from the Great Northern Junction at Hitchin. 

At Hitchin the Midland Company provided their own goods station, 
but they used the Great Northern station for passengers. 

The Midland Company further obtained running powers over the 
Great Northern system to King's Cross, and also by agreement the use 
of the Great Northern coal sidings at London ; but the Midland built 
its own goods station at St. Pancras, with a short connecting line 
to the Great Northern. 

In case of any block or interruption to traffic on the Hitchin line, 
a curve was constructed, 23 chains in length and known as the North 
London incline, which enabled the Midland to send its goods to 
the docks served by the North London Company, and also rendered 
it possible still to send goods and traffic via Rugby to Camden Station 
and thence over the North London Railway to the incline junction. The 
Leicester and Hitchin line was opened for mineral traffic on April i5th, 
1857, and on the 22nd of the same month it was opened for goods 
traffic, and through trains ran to the Midland goods station, London, 
via the Great Northern Railway. 

The Leicester and Hitchin works and stations were completed by 
Mr. Brassey for the official inspection of Colonel Yolland on April 29th, 
1857. The formal opening took place on May 7th. The first train, 
of eighteen carriages, left Hitchin at 7.33 a.m., passed Bedford at 8.15, 
and reached Leicester at 10.50; it was distinguished by a red flag. 
At Bedford immense crowds were waiting at the station from as 



THE MIDLAND RUNS TO KING'S CROSS 157 

early as 7 a.m. to take their places, nearly three thousand tickets 
having been issued. All the shops were closed and business suspended 
by order of the Mayor. Children from the schools and many inmates 
of the workhouse were treated to a trip. The first train, consisting 
of sixteen first-class and fourteen second-class carriages, started at 
9.2 a.m. The second train, of thirty thirds, left at 9.16, both reaching 
Leicester "without the least accident or delay." These trains were 
distinguished by white flags. At Kettering and Market Harborough 
also the day was observed as a holiday. A train of twenty-nine 
coaches, of all three classes, left at 9 a.m., Harborough at 9.40, and 
got to Leicester at n, marked by green flags. Though there were 
more than one hundred coaches and six engines to return from Leicester, 
" they all reached their destinations without anything occurring to mar 
the pleasure of the day." Nearly 5,000 tickets were taken for this 
trip. Regular public traffic began next day, May 8th, 1857. 

At first the Midland did not run any through trains, the passengers 
having to change into Great Northern trains at Hitchin, which took 
them on to King's Cross. This was found to be a serious in- 
convenience, and the Midland, having running powers, began on 
February ist, 1858, a service of through trains to and from the Midland 
system from King's Cross. Thus the Company obtained its first direct 
hold on London traffic, which has since had such a marvellous 
development. 

In consequence of this opening, the Wigston and Rugby line, which 
had been a main passenger route of the country, now sank into the 
position of a purely local branch. 

At the Midland meeting, February i8th, 1858, Mr. Ellis stated that 
the construction of the Leicester and Hitchin line was the wisest piece 
of policy the Company had ever pursued. Never was a million of 
money laid out to better advantage. If they did not earn a shilling 
on the line, it was worth all the money laid out upon it, because 
it placed them in an independent position. 

Mr. John Ellis, who, as we have seen, was a founder of the line 
from the earliest commencement, and as Chairman since 1849 had 
carried the affairs of the Company safely through very troubled and 
difficult times, desired to resign his position. Mr. G. B. Paget, on 
December 2nd, 1857, accepted the office, but before he was able to take 
the chair at a meeting he was unfortunately struck down by a serious 
illness, and died January 25th, 1858. Mr. Ellis, therefore, under these 
sad circumstances consented to hold the office until March 3rd, 1858, 
when Mr. Samuel Beale, of Birmingham, was elected Chairman of 
the Company. 



158 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

To mark their high appreciation of the services of Mr. Ellis the 
shareholders voted a sum of one thousand guineas, part of which they 
expended in a service of presentation plate, and also the splendid 
portrait of Mr. Ellis, who is portrayed standing near to the Glenfield 
Tunnel on the Swannington Railway, which picture is now preserved 
in the shareholders' room. His busy and useful life terminated on 
October 26th, 1862. 

One part of the original South Midland scheme of 1846 was the 
making of a branch railway from Kettering to Huntingdon with a 
view to joining the Eastern Counties Railway ; but this having lapsed 
and not being included in the Midland Act of 1853, it was left "open 
territory " till years after, when a private company undertook the work. 
The Kettering, Thrapston, and Huntingdon Railway Company con- 
structed under an Act of 1862 a line 26 miles in length, commencing 
at the Kettering Junction with the Midland main line and extending 
to Thrapston, and thence to its termination in junction with the Great 
Eastern Company's system at Huntingdon, over which latter line it 
had running powers to Cambridge. By agreement it was arranged that 
the Midland should work the new line, and by this means direct 
communication was obtained between Cambridge and all parts of 
the Midland system. This important link was opened for goods 
traffic on February 2ist, 1866, and for passenger traffic on March ist 
of the same year, when Midland passenger trains commenced to run 
between Kettering and Cambridge. 

This railway passes through valuable beds of ironstone, which 
provide a considerable traffic. The Kettering, Thrapston, and 
Huntingdon Company finally terminated its existence on August 6th, 
1897, when the Act was passed to vest the undertaking in the Midland 
Company. 

The town of Northampton, from the time when the Midland 
Counties Railway was made, desired to be placed in communication 
with the Midland system, and a good chance presented itself when the 
London and North Western Company informed the Midland that it 
would, under the common law right, run over the Midland rails from 
Wichnor Junction, of the South Staffordshire Railway, and Burton- 
upon-Trent. The Midland simply replied that it would claim a 
similar right and run over the North Western Railway between Welling- 
borough and Northampton. A local railway company also obtained 
powers on July 5th, 1865, to construct a railway direct from Northampton 
to join the Midland main line at Oakley Junction, north of Bedford. 
This railway was opened on June loth, 1872, being worked by the 
Midland Company. Finally, on December 3ist, 1885, the Bedford and 



COMMUNICATION WITH NORTHAMPTON 159 

Northampton Company ceased to exist, its railway having at that date 
become the property of the Midland. 

At Ravenstone Wood Junction, situated about fourteen miles from 
Bedford, on the Northampton branch, communication is made with 
the East and West Junction Company's line, which in its turn works 
the Evesham, Redditch, and Stratford-upon-Avon Junction Railway, 
which was opened on June 2nd, 1879, from Stratford to Broom Junction, 
where it joins the Evesham and Redditch line ; and in connection 
with the Barnt Green and Redditch system (both of which have been 
acquired by the Midland), in addition to the Evesham and Ashchurch 
branch constructed by the Midland Company, forms an alternative 
route between London, Bedford, and the Midland Company's western 
lines. 

Unfortunately, the through communication between Ravenstone 
Wood and Broom has not been developed as it might have been, 
owing to the fact that the affairs of the East and West Junction 
Company are in the unhappy position of being under the supervision 
of the Court of Chancery, which appoints directors (one being a 
representative of the creditors), managers, and receivers of the 
undertaking. 

The Hemel Hempsted Railway Company, in 1863 and by subsequent 
Acts, obtained powers to construct a local line, commencing at Boxmoor, 
on the London and North Western, and extending past Hemel Hemp- 
sted and Redbourn to Harpenden, on the Midland, and also to the 
Great Northern system at the same place. The prospects of this little 
line were far from satisfactory, and the promoters found that their 
scheme could not be of any value unless worked by one of the large 
companies. They therefore approached the Midland Company, and on 
July i6th, 1877, the line from the junction near Harpenden to Hemel 
Hempsted was opened for traffic, the railway being worked by the 
Midland Company, the communication between Boxmoor and Hemel 
Hempsted remaining unopened. 

In 1886 the small company was dissolved, and the Hemel Hempsted 
line became the property of the Midland Company. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

HOW THE MIDLAND ENTERED MANCHESTER 

AT various times extending over many years the administrators of 
the Midland had sought to obtain communication from Amber- 
gate to Manchester, but however much they longed for this, the nature 
of the intervening ground the rocks, the severe gradients, and the 
Peak of Derbyshire formed a well-nigh insuperable barrier. It 
required a man of great determination and of great engineering ability 
to force a passage through these fastnesses, and that man was Mr. 
Allport. 

Mr. Allport, having been General Manager of the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, was in the best position to know 
the great value of Manchester and its traffic, and he had no difficulty 
in convincing the Midland Board that they must, at any cost, find 
access to Manchester. He was also aware of the difficulties of the 
task by a consideration of what others had tried to do and had failed. 

Jessop, the great canal engineer, had set out to make a canal from 
the Cromford Canal to Whaley Bridge, where it would join another 
canal near Manchester; but the great number of locks required, 
together with the want of water in the summer time with which to work 
them, put an end to his enterprise. 

After this he fell back upon a railway from Cromford to Whaley, 
which he constructed, and is known as the High Peak Railway, and 
it is one of the oldest lines in the kingdom. But what sort of a line 
was it ? It went up and down just as the land lay ; it had gradients as 
steep as the roof of a house, which were worked by fixed engines and 
ropes, and was altogether unsuited for speedy traffic. 

The owners of the Manchester and Crewe line at this time were 
seeking other communication south just as the Midland were desirous 
of securing communication north, and therefore they jointly agreed that 
a line was necessary to connect the two systems together by means of 
lines from its Stockport Station to the Midland system at Ambergate. 
The Manchester and Crewe line, with this object in view, secured the 

160 



THE WAY TO MANCHESTER BLOCKED 161 

High Peak line, so that they had with the exception of a short con- 
necting link railway communication, of a sort, from Manchester to 
Cromford. Both companies also favoured the construction of a con- 
necting line from Cromford to Ambergate, which would, of course, 
establish rail communication throughout, but it would have required an 
enormous expenditure in improving the gradients and working of the 
High Peak line to make it anything like a success. This scheme for 
the construction of a line from Ambergate to Cromford, and the 
improvement of the High Peak road, or alternatively the formation of 
a new route to Manchester via Matlock and Buxton, was too great for 
either company or both combined to carry out. 

The result was that both companies became parties to the formation 
of an independent company to carry out the work. This company was 
named the Manchester, Buxton, Matlock, and Midlands Junction Rail- 
way. There was a Board of twelve directors, which included the Midland 
Chairman and Vice-Chairman and also representatives of the Manchester 
and Crewe line, the Chairman being the Hon. G. H. Cavendish, M.P., 
who represented the Duke of Devonshire and the local interest. This 
company was incorporated on July i6th, 1846, and the Midland and the 
owners of the Manchester and Crewe line both subscribed largely to 
the undertaking. 

But suddenly there was a great change of policy on the part of the 
owners of the Manchester and Crewe line, for on the very day that the 
new company came into legal existence the Manchester and Crewe line 
amalgamated with the London and Birmingham and the Grand Junction 
Railway, the three companies becoming incorporated as the London and 
North Western Railway Company. 

So that at one stroke the Midland way to Manchester was barred, for 
not only did this change of policy interfere with the Midland aspira- 
tions, but it handed over the line from Manchester via the High Peak 
to Cromford to their London and North Western rivals. 

The London and North Western, who had, of course, taken over the 
financial interest of the Manchester and Crewe line in the new scheme, 
Ambergate to Manchester via Matlock, now wanted nothing to be done. 
The Midland, on the other hand, who had subscribed ^285,000, 
wanted the undertaking to proceed according to the original design, 
which was to construct a line 45 miles i furlong 6 chains, extending 
from Ambergate via Matlock, giving communication with Manchester. 

George Stephenson, who had planned the line, was to be the 
engineer. The sum to be raised by shares was ;i, 650,000 and by 
loan or mortgage .550,000. 

The main line was to have a length of 42 miles 2 furlongs, com- 



162 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

mencing with a junction with the Manchester and Crewe line at 
Stockport, passing through the valleys of the Wye and the Derwent 
and through the towns of Ashford, Bakewell, Chatsworth, Matlock, 
and Cromford, and terminating in a junction with the Midland Railway 
at Ambergate. It also had branches to Norbury Collieries and to 
Chapel-en-le-Frith. The steepest gradient was i in 100, the smallest 
radius of curve 16 chains; it had fifteen tunnels, with a total length 
of 11,574 yards. 

All this grand scheme, which received the Royal Assent on July i6th, 
1846, and which promised such great things for the Midland, was 
suddenly dashed to the ground; and instead of this great through 




AMBERGATE JUNCTION. 

line only a little bit of local railway extending from Ambergate to 
Matlock and Rowsley, about n miles in length, was constructed. 

This greatly reduced line was made, and opened for traffic on 
Monday, June 4th, 1849, the Midland Company having agreed to work 
the line and provide the whole of the plant on equitable terms. This 
state of things continued until this very much shrunken Company, 
which we will now refer to as the " Little " Matlock Company, obtained 
in 1851 possession of the Cromford Canal; and in the following year 
(1852) the Ambergate to Rowsley line and its canals were leased to the 
London and North Western and the Midland Companies jointly for 
nineteen years from July ist, 1852. 

This lease would have terminated in 1871, and in 1853, when Mr. 
James Allport became General Manager of the Midland, he expressed 
his opinion that the Matlock line should be extended in accordance 



RIVAL INTERESTS 



163 



with its name; in fact, that it should become a real Manchester, 
Buxton, Matlock, and Midlands Junction Railway. In other words, 
that the grand original scheme should be carried out. There was, 
however, the great difficulty that the London and North Western had 
the joint lease of the Ambergate and Rowsley portion until 1871, and 
in view of the termination of the lease, Mr. Allport had to carefully 
consider the Midland position in case the Midland should lose the use 
of the line after 1871 ; and this was the reason why he devised the 
alternative Duffield, Wirksworth, and Rowsley scheme, which would 
have placed the Midland in a perfectly independent position. 




WlLLERSLEY CUTTING, MATLOCK, IN WINTER TlME. 

The interests of the two leasing companies were thus opposed to 
each other, and it cannot be a matter of surprise that the London and 
North Western Company declined with thanks the suggestion that it 
should find a portion of the capital to extend the line to Manchester, 
the sole object of which extension would be to bring the competition 
of the Midland into that city. 

This refusal immediately caused Mr. Allport and the Midland Board 
to decide that they must make a line of their own from the Duffield 
Junction to Manchester. However, it was thought better to make two 
bites at this cherry, by at first only going from Rowsley as far as 
Buxton. The London and North Western on the one side, and 



164 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the Great Northern and the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire 
railways on the other, naturally viewed with alarm the prospect of 
a third or middle course between London and Manchester. They 
entered into " arrangements " " three - company agreements " and 
mutual understandings between themselves with the sole object of 
keeping the Midland away from Manchester. 

However, in spite of all these devices the Midland Company ob- 
tained its Act on May 25th, 1860, to construct an extension fifteen 
miles long from Rowsley to Buxton. The tunnels and other engineer- 
ing works on this section were unusually heavy owing to the hilly 




MILLER s DALE. 

nature of the ground. The views, however, to be obtained from the 
carriage windows in the district of Chatsworth Park, Haddon Hall, 
Monsal Dale, and Miller's Dale are most picturesque, and indeed the 
whole district may be regarded as the " Switzerland of England." 

The London and North Western Company constructed a line from 
Whaley Bridge to Buxton, in order to occupy the country through 
which the Midland desired to traverse on its way to Manchester, but 
the gradients were so very severe that it was useless as a through 
route. 

The Midland Company, however, was determined that this local line 
must not stand in the way of its own through communication with 



THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE PEAK 167 

Manchester, and in 1861 the Chairman, Deputy-Chairman, and General 
Manager drove over the route from Buxton. 

On the way, by accident, they met officials of the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, and it was arranged that the 
Midland Company should make an extension from near Buxton to 
New Mills, and thence use the Sheffield Company's line to the 
London Road Station, Manchester. The Bill promoted in Parliament 
by the Midland in 1862 to carry out the above arrangement brought 
forth the strong opposition of the North Western and Great Northern 
Companies. 

Finding, however, that the Bill would probably pass, the North 
Western Company offered the use of their Buxton and Stockport 
route, but as the gradients were so extremely severe as to render 
it useless as a main line, the Midland would not accept such an 
offer, and the Act for making the line to New Mills and with running 
powers to Manchester received the Royal Assent in June, 1862. 

But the construction of this connecting link from Buxton to New 
Mills in the wildest portion of the Peak district proved a very tedious 
and trying engineering work, which was beset with difficulties of 
exceptional magnitude. The gradients throughout were of the severest 
character, i in 90 being the rule. At the summit of the Peak Forest 
Bank, Dove Hole's Tunnel, 2,987 yards in length, had to be con- 
structed, and in piercing the mountain natural difficulties were 
encountered of no ordinary character. Whilst surveying the line 
it was found that a large brook disappeared in what was known as 
the Swallow Hole a large natural fissure. This was only one of many 
similar fissures and caverns, some of which were of great depth. An 
exploration of one of these led to the discovery that a vast volume of 
water was flowing. 

This demonstrated that the conditions under which the tunnel could 
be constructed were practically unknown, and contractors therefore 
naturally declined to undertake the work except on very unusual terms. 
In the end the Company was practically compelled to construct the 
tunnel itself, Mr. James Campbell being appointed resident engineer 
under Mr. Barlow, the Company's engineer. It appeared to the 
engineers that the first and most essential thing to be done was to 
effectively divert this underground brook, which was done by cutting 
a channel two miles long, at the end of which was another great 
natural fissure into which the water was turned. From this fissure, 
near the Peak Forest Station, there is another underground outlet 
down the Great Rocks Dale, and this has been the course of the 
brook ever since. Great quantities of water had further to be specially 



i68 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

dealt with in the boring of the tunnel, but these difficulties were 
ultimately overcome most successfully after three years' continuous 
operations, and the work, when completed, proved to be of the most 
substantial character. At the northern end of the tunnel, a deep 
cutting through beds of shale, a slip occurred, bringing down a large 
mass of debris, which filled up the cutting and buried fourteen wagons. 
To prevent any recurrence it was decided to extend the tunnel through 
this difficult part of the strata by solid masonry. 

The line was completed, and opened for goods traffic in 1866, but 
in the autumn of that year, after a period of exceptionally heavy 
rainfall all over the country, there were signs of an extensive land 
movement at Bugsworth Viaduct, a solid structure of masonry of five 
arches, the whole having a curve towards the hillside. The great 
saturation of the shale beds had caused them to slip on some harder 




A MODERN DINING CARRIAGE. 

rocks underneath, and it was observed that the whole hillside was 
moving, and that the curved viaduct had been forced by the immense 
moving mass into a straight line. Traffic was at once suspended, and 
the responsible engineers anxiously waited for the completion of this 
great earth movement. At length no less than sixteen acres of land 
slid bodily down the slope, carrying with it the whole of the substantial 
viaduct. Tunnels were formed by the engineers to divert the water 
underground, and four hundred men were engaged day and night for 
a period of ten weeks constructing a new viaduct of timber to replace 
the one which had been swept out of the course of the line. This 
work having been successfully carried out, the Midland route to 
Manchester was at length opened for passenger traffic in February, 
1867. 

For passengers the Midland Company used the London Road 
Station at Manchester, but for their extensive goods traffic they 
purchased Ancoats Hall and grounds, upon which they constructed 



AN ALTERNATIVE 



171 



an extensive goods station and sidings for mineral traffic, the whole 
covering an area of over seventy acres. In order to gain access to 
the site a junction was formed with the Sheffield Company's system 
at Ashburys. 

On October ist, 1867, the Duffield and Wirksworth branch was 
opened. It was intended to form an important part of an alternative 
route between Derby and Rowsley, in case the property of the Matlock 
Company by any means should become an obstruction to the Midland 
communication with its own railway at Rowsley, and the line, therefore, 
may be regarded as one for the protection of important interests. 




INTERIOR, THIRD-CLASS DINING CARRIAGE 

However, at the termination of the joint lease in 1871, the Midland 
Company, in accordance with previous arrangements confirmed by Act 
of Parliament on June 26th, 1870, obtained sole possession of the 
Matlock Company from July ist, 1871. The conditions were mainly 
that the shareholders got 5 per cent, in perpetuity. 

Thus the Midland then got absolute ownership of the Ambergate 
and Rowsley Railway and the Cromford Canal, and the Wirksworth 
and Rowsley extension was rendered unnecessary. 

The London and North Western Company and the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Company practically held the monopoly of the very extensive 
and valuable traffic, both goods and passenger, to and from Liverpool, 



OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

and naturally the Midland, the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire 
and Great Northern Companies were exceedingly desirous of obtaining 
access to this great seaport. Careful consideration showed that the 
construction of three new lines to Liverpool was out of the question, 
and it was therefore decided to form a joint committee of the three 
companies under the title of the Cheshire Lines. A number of small 
separate undertakings already existed in the districts to be traversed, 
and on July 5th, 1865, action was initiated by which ultimately, on 
August i5th, 1867, the three companies obtained an Act acquiring 
all these subsidiary lines, which are amalgamated in an independent 
committee, and also powers for constructing all the necessary links 
for giving through access to Liverpool. There are no personal share- 
holders, the capital being furnished pro rata by each of the three 
companies whose delegates form the committee three from each line. 
The total length of these lines thus acquired was fifty-one miles, and 
the companies thus embodied in the triple control are as follows : 

Miles. 

Stockport to Woodley . . . 2.\ 

Stockport to Altrincham . . . 9 

Altrincham to Northwich . . . I2| 

Northwich to Helsby, with branches . . 22 

Garston to Liverpool (Brunswick Station) . . 4 

Total . . .51 

Subsequently the Cheshire Lines Committee constructed lines and 
works which give a total length of 123^ miles and furnish direct com- 
munication from Liverpool Central to Manchester Central, Altrincham 
to Chester, Glazebrook to Stockport, continuing to Godley, where it 
terminates by a junction with the Great Central Company's system. 

By means of the Liverpool north extension and the Southport and 
Cheshire Lines extension the Midland is enabled to send its carriages 
through to Lord Street Station, Southport. 

The Midland Company forms its connection with the Cheshire Lines 
at Bradbury Junction, near Stockport. 

The carriages used on the Cheshire Lines are provided by the Joint 
Committee; the engine power, however, by arrangement, is supplied 
by the Great Central Company, but the Midland Company works its 
own engines and trains through to Manchester and Liverpool. 

As previously mentioned, the Midland main line passenger traffic 
was in February, 1867, conveyed to the London Road Station, Man- 
chester, but on Monday, August 2nd, 1880, the Midland changed its 
quarters to the Cheshire Lines new "Central" Station, which it reaches 
via Stockport and the Manchester South District Railway. Quite 



HEATON MERSEY LINE 



173 



recently (March i5th, 1899) the Great Northern Company began also 
to run its own trains into the Central Station at Manchester. 

A new railway is now under construction by the Midland Company 
from its own line at New Mills to Heaton Mersey, and its Man- 
chester South District Railway, which will greatly improve the Midland 
approach to Manchester Central, as it will avoid the express trains 
having to run via Marple, as at present. 




;TERIOR, LIVERPOOL CENTRAL STATION. 



LEICESTER, DERBY. | f \MANCH ESTER & LIVERPOOL. 

1 




10 m 40 50 60 70 80 30 10 20 30 

CONTOUR OF RAILWAY FROM LEICESTER TO DERBV, MANCHESTER, AND LIVERPOOL. 



CHAPTER XX. 

BEDFORD TO LONDON 

A LTHOUGH in possession of running powers to London, the 
l\ development of the Midland system and its growing traffic 
speedily demonstrated that something of a more permanent and satis- 
factory character, with greater control in the hands of the Midland, 
must, in the supreme interests of the Company and the districts which 
it served, be secured. 

" Running powers," although very much in evidence and very 
extensively used, are nevertheless more or less illusory. These run- 
ning powers are generally given by one company to prevent another 
company laying a competing line, and they grant the concession 
because they are practically compelled to do so; but the company 
granting the favour are still left in a position to cause delays and 
inconvenience at every turn, and to trifle with the company exercising 
the privilege to an almost unlimited extent. In fact, running powers 
may in brief be said to confer the minimum of accommodation with 
the maximum of inconvenience; and when the company working 
under them can stand such a condition of affairs no longer, they have 
to fall back upon the only alternative of constructing a line for 
themselves. 

Such in brief was the experience of working Midland traffic to 
London via Hitchin. 

Soon after the Midland commenced to run its own passenger trains 
over the Great Northern system from Hitchin to London (1858) it 
became apparent that history would repeat itself, and that which had 
happened on the London and North Western route to Euston via 
Rugby would be repeated on the route to King's Cross via Hitchin. 

The traffic had been gradually increasing to such an extent that the 
lines south of Hitchin were unable to carry it efficiently. 

The Great Northern Company, as owners, naturally gave their own 
trains the preference, and consequently Midland traffic had to take 
second place, with all the consequences of very irritating delays, 

i74 



THE MIDLAND EVICTED 175 

brought about by Midland expresses having to follow immediately 
after Great Northern slow stopping trains. 

So serious did this become that the already great difficulties were 
vastly intensified by the enormous strain upon the railway companies 
owing to the exceptional traffic brought about by the Great Exhibition 
of 1862. In this year no fewer than 3,400 Midland trains 1,000 
passenger and 2,400 goods were delayed on the Great Northern 
system. 

This circumstance alone was enough to demonstrate to the Midland 
Company the absolute necessity for an independent route to London. 
But more serious troubles were yet in store for them. From 1858 
to 1862 the Midland had enjoyed the use, under agreement, of Great 
Northern sidings at King's Cross, although they were actively providing 
sidings of their own to meet the requirements of their increasing traffic. 
The Great Northern, too, were likewise under pressure and suffered 
from inadequate siding accommodation for their Exhibition trains, 
and so they determined to "evict" the Midland from the sidings on 
June 3oth, 1862, a process which was carried out in a summary fashion, 
thereby for a time completely dislocating the Midland traffic. This 
was the last straw, and the great chief, Mr. James Allport, and the 
Midland Board determined, in the interests of the shareholders, to put 
an end to what had become an utterly intolerable position. 

An independent main line, commencing at Bedford and proceeding 
via Luton, St. Albans, and Hendon to a new terminus at St. Pancras, 
was surveyed, and a Bill authorising its construction at once prepared. 
This Bill raised some opposition, but the Midland established such 
an overpowering case that on June 22nd, 1863, parliamentary sanction 
was given to construct the necessary fifty miles of line to give an 
independent access to London. The capital raised for this purpose 
was ;i, 750,000 in shares and .583,330 on loan. Commencing at 
the northern end of Bedford Station, the engineering difficulties were 
not of an exceptional character. The Ouse is crossed by a girder 
bridge, Ampthill is tunnelled, and the summit level is reached near 
to Leagrave, and a slight decline brings the railway to Luton. The 
line to St. Albans is an easy gradient at a high elevation, and passing 
through Elstree Tunnel, 1,060 yards, Hendon is soon reached; but 
the engineering difficulties on entering the London district were very 
serious and involved an enormous outlay of capital. 

By a very wise and far-seeing policy, the Midland Company decided 
that as the London traffic was certain to grow by leaps and bounds, 
the time must soon come when two sets of rails would not be able 
to carry the passenger and mineral traffic ; they must purchase land 



176 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

sufficiently wide for the laying down at a future date of four sets 
of rails complete. Not only was this done, but the whole of the 
over-bridges from Bedford to London were constructed for four lines, 
while from the Welsh Harp Junction to St. Pancras goods station the 
four lines were laid down at once. At Belsize Tunnel, however, there 
was a curious device designed to carry four sets of rails in the space 
necessary for two, and at the same time avoid the necessity of having 
junctions at either end of the tunnel. This was accomplished in this 
way the four sets of lines were laid down within a few inches of 
each other and intersected each other through the tunnel. This tunnel 
is i mile 62 yards in length, and is about 120 feet below the surface. 
This system remained in use until February 3rd, 1884, when the second 
Belsize Tunnel, which the increasing traffic and the difficulties and com- 
plications in working the old one had rendered absolutely necessary, 
was formally opened. 

On entering the London district at Hendon, the difficulties of the 
distribution of traffic begin to manifest themselves. Practically up 
to this point the trains from the north arrive with heavy loads of 
passengers and merchandise meat, fish, vegetables, milk, timber, 
coal, and general goods and all of these have to be assorted and 
distributed according to their destination in London ; and in the 
case of through traffic to foreign parts for their transhipment to other 
companies and steamships. In addition to all these, there is all the 
return flow of traffic in the opposite direction and from all parts of 
the world to be provided for as regards its collection for distribution at 
other centres on the Midland system. 

Following up the main line to its great London terminus, we pass 
the junction station at Kentish Town, which supplies communication 
between the Midland, the London, Tilbury, and Southend, the Great 
Eastern, the London, Chatham, and Dover, the Metropolitan, and other 
railway systems. 

But the difficulties of selecting and determining on the best available 
site for the vast assemblage of lines and buildings necessary for the 
great London terminus were very considerable. As previously pointed 
out, the Midland Company had its own goods station at St. Pancras, 
communicating with the Great Northern system. This was very much 
overcrowded with the rapidly growing goods traffic. Its situation was 
unsuited to the addition of a vast passenger traffic, and an entirely new 
site therefore became imperatively necessary. At this period an estate 
adjoining the Euston Road came upon the market, which, if acquired, 
would give an equally good position for traffic as that possessed by the 
Great Northern and the London and North Western railways. The 



ST. PANCRAS STATION 177 

directors, after being fully satisfied as to the advantages of this site, 
immediately secured it on very favourable terms, and there the present 
magnificent pile of buildings known as St. Pancras Station now stand. 
To reach this site by good gradients it was necessary to cross the 
Regent's Canal, which barred the approach on the level and necessitated 
one of two things. If the lines went under the canal the station 
buildings and the rail level at St. Pancras would have been buried 
underground; while if the lines went over the canal the station 
evel must be raised from 12 to 17 feet above the street level of Euston 
Road. The Regent's Canal was only 45 chains north of the terminus, 
and practically determined the level of the station. It was at once 
decided that the high level be adopted, as it carried with it many 
compensating advantages. The high level practically gave the whole 
of the ground-floor area for disposal, and although the original design 
was to fill this up with the material excavated from the St. Pancras 
branch, further considerations demonstrated the enormous value of 
this ground space for warehouse accommodation in the Metropolis. 
The site was bounded on the east by the old St. Pancras Road, on 
the south by Euston Road, and on the west by Brewer Street, and 
hence with direct access to these streets it was decided that this lower 
or ground floor should be devoted in its entirety to warehouse purposes. 
The enormous traffic in beer between Burton-on-Trent and London 
over the Midland system demanded large cellars for storing and dis- 
tribution ; and here was offered every facility for dealing with it in 
the best manner possible, as regards temperature, situation, and prac- 
tically unlimited accommodation. Another great factor was, of course, 
that by making such ample provision for the beer trade of Burton- 
on-Trent, traffic of this and a similar character could not fail to be 
attracted to the Midland system and prove a very valuable source 
of revenue to the Company and a great convenience to the brewers 
and their customers in London and the district. 

The beer traffic also had a determining influence in the final 
character of the ground floor. Brick piers and arches, which appeared 
in the early designs, would have occupied far too much space, and 
so they gave way to iron columns and girders, and upon these the 
main floors of St. Pancras passenger station rest. It having been 
determined that the ground floor should be vast brewery stores, the 
engineer of the Midland determined that everything should be ex- 
pressly designed and constructed for that purpose; hence, as he 
afterwards stated, a beer barrel became the unit of measure upon 
which all the arrangements of this floor were based. 

This decision led to a reconsideration of the question of the 

N 



178 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

roofing of the station, and demonstrated the great value, if it could be 
accomplished at a reasonable outlay, of making the roof of one vast 
arch. It had been pointed out by Mr. Allport, the General Manager, 
to the directors that railway stations were frequently designed with 
either intermediate columns or brick walls, varying in the number 
of spans from one to six, and that in the course of a few years it 
often happened that such stations had to be remodelled. Platforms 
were required where lines were laid, and rails where there were 
platforms, and then came the difficulty how to accomplish the change 
desired and demanded by the traffic without entirely reconstructing the 
station. It was consequently impressed upon the mind of Mr. W. H. 
Barlow, the Engineer, the extreme desirability of having the station as 
free as possible from columns or brick walls, and so Mr. Barlow faced 
the problem and tried to construct the roof in one span. This also 
involved another engineering point, namely, that as the platforms and 
rails were to be movable in case of necessity, it followed that the 
strength of the flooring must be uniform throughout, so as to be able 
to carry any weight which the traffic might require. 

The question of roofing the cellars of such uniform strength proved 
the crux of the whole question. In the early suggested designs evolved 
by the engineer it became obvious that if intermediate columns were 
employed to support the outside roofing of the station proper, these 
must be carried down through the station floor and through the beer 
cellars to a solid foundation. These intermediate pillars, upon which 
were to rest the spans of the several bays into which it was proposed to 
construct the roof, would consequently have been over sixty feet in 
length and of much larger diameter than the other columns under the 
station, which other columns would only have to carry the weight of the 
station floor and none of the weight of the roof. This would have 
necessitated the employment of different patterns in the girders, cross- 
girders, and in the plating of the lower floor, besides interfering with 
the economical distribution of the space on the ground floor. More- 
over, these columns must have carried large areas of roofing in addition 
to the weight of the flooring, involving a greatly increased weight on 
the foundations, which must have been enlarged accordingly. Further 
than that, there was the additional difficulty, which had to be carefully 
weighed, that some of these pillars must have rested on the tunnel of 
the Midland Company's branch railway, which extends from near 
Camden Road to the junction at King's Cross with the Metropolitan 
underground system. This tunnel passes diagonally underneath St. 
Pancras Station, from the north-west corner to the south-east corner, 
so that here the engineer had to deal with a foundation already under- 



A COMPLEX PROBLEM 179 

mined by a railway over which he had to construct vast sets of rails in 
the beer stores on the ground level, an enormous railway terminus at 
a high level over it, and enveloping and inclosing the whole with a vast 
roof of enormous weight. 

The consideration of all these complex questions and problems led 
to the conception in the mind of the engineer that by far the best 
course to pursue would be to construct one great span of 240 feet 
wide, with a height at the highest point of 100 feet above the rails, the 
whole length of the roof being 690 feet. The estimated addition to 
the cost of principals of 240 feet span as compared with principals of 
two spans of 120 feet each and their columns was about ^"6,000. But 
notwithstanding this, the importance attached by the directors and the 
General Manager to obtaining perfect freedom in the use of the whole 
area of the station for traffic purposes, unembarrassed by columns or 
other impediments, was such that instructions were given for an arched 
roof of one clear span. 

The question which the engineer had to determine was, what depth 
and form of rib, and what additional material would be employed to 
make an arch sufficient to retain its form under all conditions of stress 
arising from its own weight, from snow, and from heavy gales of wind. 
The results at which Mr. Barlow arrived on the subject, partly by 
calculation and partly by experiment, were : 

1. That the depth of the rib must be sufficient to contain all the 
lines of pressure generated by the dead load, by snow, and by the 
pressure of the wind. 

2. That the sectional area of the metal should be sufficient to sustain 
the whole stress without producing a strain on the iron exceeding 
3^ tons per square inch. 

3. That the arch should be rivetted together with proper joint-plates 
throughout, so as to give it the advantages of complete continuity. 

The floor girders across formed a ready-made tie sufficient for an 
arched roof over the station in one span, all that was to be required to 
obtain a roof of this construction being the arch or upper member of 
the truss, of which the floor girders would form the lower member. 
There was a third feature in the case. In iron roofs, as usually con- 
structed, the depth of one principal is about one-fifth of the span ; but 
here, by adopting an arch extending across the station, the height from 
the tie beneath the rails to the crown of the arch became the effective 
depth of the truss ; and this height, being about two-fifths of the span, 
all the horizontal strain arising from the dead weight of the roof, its 
covering, and accumulations of snow, etc., would be about the same in 



i So THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the arch of 240 feet span with an effective depth of truss of TOO feet 
as in an ordinary truss of 120 feet span with a depth of 24 feet. 
Excepting, therefore, such additions as might be necessary for retaining 
the form and figure of the arch, the actual sectional area at the crown 
and for about two-thirds of the entire arch did not require to be greater 
than in an ordinary truss of 120 feet span. There were, as Mr. Barlow 
pointed out, other advantages belonging to the arch one being that as 
the weight of the roof was carried to the floor line and did not rest on 
the tops of the walls, there was no necessity to make the side walls 
thicker ; for not only was the weight on the tops of the walls avoided, 
but also the racking motion from the expansion and contraction of an 
ordinary roof, which, though it might be mitigated, was not prevented 
by the use of roller frames at the feet of the principals and by appliances 
of a like nature. As to the question of the contraction and expansion 
of the arched roof, the ties being beneath the ballast, the temperature 
would vary so little that no provision would be necessary, and for the 
arched part of the roof, which would alone be subject to appreciable 
change, the only effect would be a slight rise or fall of the crown. 

The general arrangements of the platforms and rails of the passenger 
station are shown in the diagram of Mr. Barlow, which is reproduced. 
There is nothing calling for special observation beyond recording the 
fact that there are three levels of rails one above the other, as has 
already been pointed out. On the lowest, or underground level, the 
Midland Company also constructed a tunnel for the use of the Metro- 
politan Company, in view of the possible widening at some future date 
of that Company's system. 

The area of the passenger station at St. Pancras, measured within 
the walls, is 18,822 square yards. The lower floor contains 720 cast- 
iron columns, set with stone bases in brick piers ; there are 49 rows of 
principal girders across the station, and 15 similar girders running 
longitudinally. These carry intermediate girders, and the whole is 
covered with Mallet's buckle-plates. The strength of the girders and 
plating is sufficient to carry locomotives all over the floor, the ironwork 
of which cost ;57,ooo, or about $ os. 6d. per square yard. 

The main ribs or principals of the roof are made of channel iron 
and plate iron, and are 6 feet deep, or one-fortieth of the clear span. 
The rib between the walls is open work, but the extremities of the 
principals in the walls are of solid plates. The total weight of each 
rib is 54 tons 16 cwts., and the cost ^1,132 4$. each. The ribs 
project in front of the piers of the walls, and the piers project from 
the line of wall. The width measured between the walls is 245 feet 
6 inches, and the distance from centre to centre of the ribs is 



;- 
* 



II 




1 82 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

29 feet 4 inches. The arch is slightly pointed at the crown, as this 
form apparently possesses some advantages in resisting the lateral 
pressure of the wind, while it improves the architectural effect. The 
radius of curvature was diminished at the haunches to give increased 
head room near the walls. The glazing is ridge and furrow, and 
ventilation is obtained along the whole length of each ridge, which 
is left open and protected from wet by a ventilation cover. The 
ventilation is thus very complete. The roof is also provided with 
gangways throughout, so that any pane of glass can be taken out 
and replaced. The gable ends or screens consist of three horizontal 
lattice girders 6 feet wide, united and carried by verticals of similar 
construction. 

The erection of the roof was effected by means of two large timber 
stages, each made in three divisions, so that each part of either stage 
could be moved separately. These stages were designed by the Butterley 
Iron Company, who were the contractors for the roofing and for 
the lower floor, Sir G. J. N. Alleyne being the manager. The stages 
were 40 feet in width, of great strength and solidity, and contained about 
25,000 cubic feet of timber and 80 tons of ironwork. The weight 
of each stage was about 580 tons, and with two ribs on it, the weight 
resting on the floor girders where it stood, including men and apparatus, 
was about 650 tons. The passage of these two stages, which moved 
on wheels along the floor of the building, constituted a good test of 
the strength of that portion of the work. 

The process of erection was somewhat complicated on account of 
the very heavy weights which had to be dealt with. The contract pro- 
vided for the formal testing of the roof, but the not inconsiderable 
tests to which it was subjected from time to time during erection 
were sufficient to demonstrate that this was unnecessary. Heavy 
iron girders, weighing over seven tons each, were raised from the 
cross-pieces with only a depression of three-sixteenths of an inch, and 
after the weight was removed the ironwork at once resumed its 
position. During the erection the roof endured several gales of wind 
without the slightest visible movement ; and the lines of the roof 
are remarkably well preserved. As to the strength of the roof there 
were no precedents of sufficient magnitude to be available, and at 
St. Pancras it was further required to construct an arch capable of 
maintaining its own form without any intermediate connections with 
the tie at the rail level. Under these circumstances it was considered 
expedient to adopt a low rate of pressure upon the metal, with a large 
assumed weight acting in addition to the weight of the principals. 
With this view, and to remove all doubt on the question of strength, 



A GREAT ACHIEVEMENT 185 

the arch was designed so as to be capable of bearing an assumed 
load of 70 Ibs. per square foot measured on the plan, in addition to 
the weight of the principals, with a stress on the metal not exceeding 
3! tons per square inch. Of the 54 tons 16 cwts., the weight of a rib, 
a portion belongs to the connecting medium with the ties. Excluding 
this portion, the weight of each rib is as follows : 

Tons. 

The open arched part between the springings . -35 

The feet or pedestals, 9 tons 10 cwts. each (2) . .19 

54 

The surface carried by the arched portion of the rib is 
240 feet x 29 feet 4 inches = 7,040 square feet ; and with 
the assumed weight of 70 Ibs. per foot, the assumed 
load is 7,040 x 70 Ibs. . ... 220 

Add weight of arch . . . . 35 

255 

The great stiffness and almost total absence of deflection or dis- 
turbance of any kind which the roof exhibits point irresistibly to 
the conclusion that the structure is of great strength. 

The roof as originally designed had twenty-four main ribs, and the 
gable or screen at the northern end; and Sir Gilbert Scott designed 
a second gable and screen for the southern end, so as to separate the 
passenger station from the hotel buildings. This second screen 
involved an additional main rib. The total cost of the roof, including 
the two screens, amounted to .69,365. 

The area of space within the walls on the ground being 245 feet 
6 inches wide and 690 feet long, it follows that the extent of the 
floor to be covered is 169,400 feet, and the cost for covering, exclud- 
ing the cost of the screens and the extra rib at the south screen, 
works out at 31 us. per square of 100 feet superficial. The cost 
of the floor girders, which perform the double duty of girders and 
roof-ties, is taken as part of the cost of the floor. If there had been 
no floor-girders, the quantity of metal required for ties at that level 
would have made an addition of about i per square of 100 feet 
superficial to the cost of the roof. 

The roof is not more costly than those of other railway stations; 
it possesses a unique character of its own, has many advantages, and 
forms a most worthy engineering work at this important London 
terminus. The greatest credit is due to Mr. William Henry Barlow, 
the Engineer of the Midland Company, who designed the structure, 
of whose skill it will form a lasting and worthy memorial. The whole 
of the ironwork was executed by the Butterley Iron Company. 



1 86 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The Bedford and London extension was not all opened at one time, 
for before the stations were completed, and indeed as soon as a pair 
of rails was available, coal was conveyed locally to the town to which 
the line then extended. 

The line to St. Pancras goods station was opened on September 7th, 
1867. Local passenger traffic from Bedford to Moorgate Street com- 
menced on July 1 3th, 1868. At that time the locomotives which had 
worked the trains up to Kentish Town were uncoupled at that station, 
and the trains taken forward by the new Midland condensing tank 
engines via St. Paul's Road Junction, King's Cross Junction (under- 
ground), the termination of the Midland system, and then forward 
over the Metropolitan Railway to Moorgate Street. 

Finally, on October ist, 1868, the St. Pancras Station was opened for 
passenger traffic, and during the night the whole of the Midland staff, 
tickets, carriages, and property of the Midland was transferred from 
King's Cross to St. Pancras. 

The first train to enter the new terminus was the up mail from 
Leeds, which arrived at 4.15 a.m. The first train to leave the new 
station was the newspaper express, at 6.15, for the north. The 7.45 a.m. 
and the 9 a.m. trains, which formerly had run from King's Cross, 
followed; but at ten o'clock a new express for Manchester left St. 
Pancras, and after stopping at Kentish Town left that station at 10.6 
and ran straight through to Leicester, a distance of 97 J miles, in 
2 hours 8 minutes, arriving at 12.14 p.m. At this period this was 
a wonderful run, and constituted a world's record. This performance 
was repeated four times a day, namely, by the 5 p.m. down and the 
two expresses to London leaving Leicester at 12.29 a d 7-34 P- m - 

Thenceforward the Bedford and Hitchin line was an unimportant 
branch. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE LONDON DISTRICT AND A WAR OF RATES TO LONDON 

AT Brent and West End enormous siding accommodation has been 
provided for the great concentration of the coal and goods 
traffic, and adjoining these, at Child's Hill, are extensive engine sheds, 
which accommodate the tank locomotives which are engaged in con- 
veying the traffic to all the various depots in the London district and 
to the junctions with other railway systems. Brent and West End 
sidings constitute a vast marshalling and distributing ground, where 
the traffic for the London district is made up into trainloads for its 
particular destination, and where the return traffic and empty wagons 
are concentrated before being despatched to the north. 

The first branch line to diverge from the main route runs from 
Brent and Child's Hill junctions to Acton, and was originally con- 
structed by the Midland and South Western Junction Railway 
Company by virtue of an Act passed in 1864. This short line, four 
miles in length, was from the opening worked by the Midland Com- 
pany, and in 1874 became vested in the Midland at a rental of 
^6,000 per annum. At Acton Wells it forms a junction with the North 
and South Western Junction Railway Company's system, which by 
an Act passed on August i4th, 1871, was jointly leased in perpetuity 
to the Midland, London and North Western, and North London 
Companies, and extends to Kew and Hammersmith. 

By means of this jointly leased line the Midland obtains communi- 
cation with the Great Western and London and South Western Rail- 
ways, and the London and South Western Company runs its own engines 
and goods trains to the Midland sidings at Brent. Also, by the same 
route and by the use of the Metropolitan District Company's Hammer- 
smith Junction line, the Midland obtains access to its own depots for 
coal, goods, and cattle traffic at West Kensington and for coal at 
Kensington (High Street), which were opened on March ist, 1878. 

From Kew Junction to Clapham Junction the Midland runs its own 
goods and coal trains over the London and South Western rails. 

187 



188 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Returning again to Brent and proceeding forward on the Midland 
main line, a junction is formed with the Metropolitan Railway at 
Finchley Road, and after passing through the Belsize Tunnel, there 
are important junctions situated at Carlton Road and Kentish Town, 
both of which communicate with the Tottenham and Hampstead 
Junction line. As early as the year 1862 an independent company 
was formed with the object of connecting the London and North 
Western Company's Hampstead line at Gospel Oak with the Great 
Eastern system at Tottenham, and it therefore adopted the name 
Tottenham and Hampstead Junction ; but the little company found 
that the two companies which it desired to connect together had 
already communications and agreements, and the junction points and 
crossings at the Gospel Oak Station, instead of being used for traffic, 
were pulled up and laid in a heap by the side of the line. 

However, although this railway was useless for the purpose for which 
it was constructed, it was afterwards made of great value as a link 
between the Midland and the Great Eastern Companies, by whom it is 
now jointly worked, and by whom the shares are largely owned. 

By means of the Carlton Road and Kentish Town branches the 
Midland gains access to the Tottenham and Hampstead Railway, thus 
giving direct communication with the Great Eastern, Tottenham, and 
Forest Gate and London, Tilbury, and Southend Railways. 

Thus, through express trains are now run from Southend to St. 
Pancras worked by the Tilbury Company's engines, the Great Eastern 
Company runs passenger trains from Tottenham, and thus that Com- 
pany has the advantage of using St. Pancras Station; while, on the 
other hand, the Midland Company has its own goods and mineral 
trains working to Thames Wharf, Victoria Docks, Mint Street, West 
India Docks, and the whole of the great port of London via Tottenham 
Junction. 

Thus it comes to pass that a piece of line which originally threatened 
to become of little value as an independent undertaking, became in the 
hands of the Midland and the Great Eastern Companies an invaluable 
connecting link. The Great Eastern Company at Liverpool Street, 
while being in an excellent position for traffic to the City and the east 
of London, were too far removed from the west of London to obtain 
much traffic from that district. For this purpose St. Pancras forms 
an excellent terminus for traffic to the north and west end of London. 
The London, Tilbury, and Southend Company, which previously only 
had communication with the east of London, by a recent arrangement 
uses St. Pancras as its terminus for the west end. 

The Midland Railway Company as a quid pro quo is able to convey 



IMPORTANT JUNCTIONS IN LONDON 189 

passengers for Australia, per the Orient Line, from St. Pancras to 
Tilbury Docks, via the Tottenham, Forest Gate, and the London, 
Tilbury, and Southend Railways direct, thus saving passengers with 
their luggage the inconvenience of crossing London. 

Reverting again to the main line, we have now to deal with 
St. Paul's Road Junction, south of Camden Road Station, where 
a line branches off to give communication with the Metropolitan 
Railway at King's Cross (underground). It should here be stated 
that when the Bedford to London extension was opened on July i3th, 
1868, for local passenger traffic, and before St. Pancras Station was 
completed, the trains ran from Bedford to Moorgate Street over the 
Metropolitan system. At Farringdon Street an invaluable connection 
is made with the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway Company's 
system, which gives the Midland through communication with Ludgate 
Hill, Loughborough Junction, Clapham, and Victoria, the great West 
End terminus. Here at Victoria further communication is provided 
from the Midland system to the London and Brighton line, thus 
opening up the South Coast traffic directly to the Midland Railway. 
On July ist, 1875, to make this connection between north and south 
more complete, the Midland Company commenced to run their own 
through passenger trains from Hendon via Kentish Town and Farring- 
don Street to Victoria, while on the other hand the London, Chatham, 
and Dover Company also worked their own engines and trains over 
the same route between Victoria and Hendon. Thus the Midland, by 
an interchange of running powers with the London, Chatham, and 
Dover Railway, have a very complete means for the interchange of 
passenger traffic both locally and for distant parts. 

To supply coal to the south of London the Company has con- 
structed depots at Wandsworth, Brixton, Peckham, and Walworth Road, 
all of which are supplied by trains running direct from Child's Hill 
and Brent, in addition to the vast quantity of coal handed over to 
the southern railway companies. 

As regards the goods traffic, as long ago as May ist, 1879, the 
Midland began running their own goods trains from Kentish Town 
to London Bridge via Ludgate Hill and the Blackfriars Curve and to 
the South Eastern Railway's goods station at Bricklayer's Arms. This 
gives an outlet for the goods traffic on to the South Eastern and 
Brighton Companies' systems. 

More recently Hither Green sidings have been opened by the 
extension of the Midland running powers from New Cross to this 
depot. This junction is of great value and importance for the transfer 
of fruit and other traffic which requires to be dealt with very ex- 



190 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

peditiously. During the height of the fruit season, which usually 
commences about the end of June, numerous special express trains 
are run from Herne Hill and Hither Green to Kentish Town, and 
then forwarded by special express trains to Leicester, Manchester, 
Leeds, Bradford, and Scotland. Thus the Kentish fruit growers are 
brought into rapid communication with the great consuming centres 
of the country, and the carriage of perishable goods is thereby greatly 
promoted. This is of vast importance, for the existence of this trade 
all depends upon the fruit being delivered at the consuming centres 
in prime condition and before it has had time to deteriorate. Special 
vans are provided and reserved exclusively for these express fruit trains, 
the running speed being equal to that of passenger trains. 

On January ist, 1878, the Midland Company opened its new 
Whitecross Street goods station in the very heart of the City of 
London. It is situated between Aldersgate and Moorgate Street 
stations, and is approached by means of the running powers over 
the Metropolitan Railway. The area of this goods station is about 
4,300 square yards, the main building being 250 feet long by 50 feet 
wide, and having six floors, the total height being 70 feet above the 
street-level. 

Thirty-six iron columns, placed in two rows, support the floors, each 
of these columns being practically continuous from the basement to 
the tie-beams of the roof; all the floors are fireproof. Hoists are 
provided, which enable goods to be transferred to any of the floors, 
and railway wagons, with their load complete, can be raised from the 
level of the Metropolitan Railway to the first floor. Adjoining the 
principal warehouse is a large area of ground, covered by six bays 
of roofing. The roofs are of iron, supported upon columns and 
girders, and receive light through broad belts of glazing. This great 
space is for the sheltering of the carts and vans during the times of 
loading and unloading goods. 

In the year 1863 the Midland and Great Northern Railway Com- 
panies, who had previously been engaged in a severe competition with 
reference to the rates of coal carriage to London, entered into an 
agreement by which the rates from Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, 
Derbyshire, and Yorkshire were finally fixed on a fair basis. In case 
of a dispute, the matter, it was arranged, should be determined by 
arbitration. This agreement was honourably carried out until 1868, 
when, to the surprise of the Midland, the Great Northern Company 
desired an alteration, and in the following year the matter was referred 
to Sir John Carslake. After more than a year and a quarter had 
elapsed in taking evidence pro and con, he made his award in the 



COAL RATE WAR 191 

following words : "I award that no alteration be made in the rates 
for coal in the said agreement, or submission to arbitration mentioned 
and referred to." The award bore the date, August, 1870. The Great 
Northern having thus lost in the serious questions at issue, fell back 
upon the expedient, as expressed by Mr. Denison, one of their counsel, 
"to look at the agreement and see whether we could drive a coach 
and six through it." When legal gentlemen set their wits to work 
with this avowed object, it is not difficult to see that some specious 
scheme or device would be launched for "keeping the promise to 
the ear" whilst practically evading it. The modus operandi was as 
follows : The Great Northern induced the Sheffield Company to 
deliver Yorkshire coal to them at Retford by a circuitous route 
instead of by the direct line to Doncaster. The practical effect of 
this was that the Yorkshire coal was sent from Retford to London 
under the Nottinghamshire rate instead of under the higher Yorkshire 
rate a difference of nd. per ton. Thus the Great Northern evaded 
the award, and actually reduced their rate to the extent named, so 
that not only was the Midland affected, but a great injustice was 
done to the colliery owners of Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and 
Leicestershire, by giving the Yorkshire collieries an unfair advantage 
by having their coal carried to London a longer distance at the 
same price per ton. This, of course, aroused the Midland Company, 
who took action at once, and, in defence of their own and the interests 
of the collieries whom they served, immediately lowered their rates to 
a corresponding degree. Reprisals and counter reprisals followed in 
rapid succession, for in a war of rates, as in other wars, a spirit 
of recklessness and disregard of consequences is forced upon the 
combatants. These various movements continued, until finally both 
companies were in the position of carrying coal to London absolutely 
at a loss ; for the small sums charged were quite unequal to defray the 
necessary working expenses. Throughout the war the Midland occupied 
the best position, and had this crumb of comfort, that their losses were 
less than those of their rivals, who had to carry the mineral a longer 
distance at the same price. 

The total reduction on the Derbyshire rate from the beginning of the 
conflict amounted to 2S. $d. per ton, making the total Clay Cross rate 
only $s. 2d. per ton. Towards the close of the dispute the Midland, 
whose affairs had never been conducted with more conspicuous ability 
than at this trying period, executed a bold movement which absolutely 
re-established its monopoly as regards the Derbyshire traffic. Notice 
was given to the Great Northern, and quickly enforced, that the advan- 
tage which they had previously enjoyed of having coal from Derbyshire 



192 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

conveyed to Nottingham by the Midland at the through rate to London 
would cease, and it would have to pay the local and much higher 
rate. This practically excluded the Great Northern from Derbyshire, 
and lost them a traffic which a short time previously had resulted in an 
annual return of ,50,000. This was a decisive and conclusive blow 
as far as this matter was concerned, although ultimately it led to the 
extension of the Great Northern system to the Leen Valley, Derby, and 
Stafford, and also, in conjunction with the London and North Western, 
to the construction of a line from Newark to Melton Mowbray and 
Market Harborough, as well as an independent Great Northern branch 
from Tilton Junction to Leicester. 

After war peace. But it was not the peace of submission ; it was 
independence. Numerous conferences were held between the parties, 
but common action failing, the Midland took an independent course 
and raised their rates from May ist, 1871. 

But although the war of rates had practically ceased, the conflict was 
only transferred, for almost immediately many schemes were launched 
for the construction of new lines, involving a very large expenditure of 
capital. 

It is necessary to explain that the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincoln- 
shire (now Great Central) and Great Northern Companies had entered 
into a fifty years' agreement, but a little green-eyed jealousy was intro- 
duced between these parties by the Sheffield Company having en- 
couraged the Midland by allowing them access to Manchester over 
their rails. The Sheffield Company had also long cherished a desire 
for a route to London independently of its Great Northern partner. 
This led to a proposal and an "acceptance," in 1873, f r tne construc- 
tion of a joint Midland and Sheffield line direct from Askern Junction, 
north of Doncaster, to Rushton, near Kettering, on the Midland main 
line, a distance of about 115 miles, and involving an expenditure of 
2,700,000. Under this scheme the Sheffield Company was to have 
running powers over the Midland from Rushton to London, and thus 
the Sheffield line would have been completely independent of the 
Great Northern. A struggle lasting for forty days in the Commons 
Committee ensued, and the joint Bill emerged in a mutilated form, 
which mutilation was continued by the House of Lords, with the 
result that but a few miles of the scheme were left, and this was ulti- 
mately abandoned by both companies. And thus a death-blow was 
given to a project which, had it been carried through, the new Great 
Central extension to London would never have been constructed. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

IMPORTANT EXTENSIONS AND NEGOTIATIONS 

line which George Stephenson declined to construct in 1835 
X from Chesterfield to Sheffield on account of its severe gradients 
and the limited power of the locomotives of that period, was subse- 
quently carried out, and direct communication was established between 
Sheffield and the south on February ist, 1870. Leaving the old main 
line at Tapton, north of Chesterfield, the new route diverges to the 
west and encounters very severe rising gradients. After running over 
Unstone Viaduct and passing Dronfield, the summit-level is reached 
within the Bradway Tunnel, i mile 264 yards long, and from thence 
the falling gradients are equally steep, practically all the way to Sheffield, 
where a new station was constructed. The new line proceeds via Atter- 
cliffe to its junction with the old Sheffield and Rotherham Railway, thus 
furnishing an alternative route between Chesterfield and Masborough. 
Thus the town of Sheffield was put on the direct line, to the great 
advantage of the trade of the town and the districts through which the 
line traverses. There was no formal ceremony at the opening, but at 
Dronfield there were great rejoicings and the day was observed as 
a public holiday. 

The Midland, with a view to extending its communication from 
Wichnor, on its Birmingham and Derby line, to Walsall and Wolver- 
hampton, subscribed ,72,000 to two independent companies one 
known as the Trent Valley, Midlands, and Grand Junction, the other 
the South Staffordshire Junction Railway which received their Acts 
and became amalgamated in 1846 under the name of the South 
Staffordshire Railway Company. This amalgamated Company con- 
structed the lines which extend from Wichnor to Walsall and Dudley, 
forming a junction with the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton 
line. The Midland obtained running powers over the whole of the 
South Staffordshire Railway, and this continued until 1867, when the 
London and North Western obtained by purchase the South Stafford- 
shire undertaking. Then it was that the Midland deemed it wise to 

o 193 



194 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

obtain an independent line of its own, and the London and North 
Western, by an Act of 1876, sold the piece of line from Walsall Junc- 
tion to Wolverhampton, and the Midland ceased to exercise running 
powers over the South Staffordshire Railway. 

By the Act of August 6th, 1872, the Wolverhampton, Walsall, and 
Midland Junction Company was incorporated to make lines from 
Walsall, on the Wolverhampton and Walsall Railway, to join the 
Midland at Water Orton, but by an Act of 1874 this new undertaking 
was vested in the Midland. The Wolverhampton and Walsall Com- 
pany was incorporated in 1865 to construct a line from Wolverhamp- 
ton to Walsall. This was afterwards vested in the London and North 
Western, but by an Act of 1876 it was sold by the London and North 
Western to the Midland. At midnight on July 3151, 1876, there was 
a transformation scene on this line, when the whole of the London and 
North Western engines, vehicles, and staff withdrew, and the Midland 
staff took command and commenced to work all the passenger and 
goods trains over it on the following morning, August ist, 1876. 

The Water Orton and Walsall line was opened for goods traffic on 
Monday, May iQth, 1879, and for passengers on July ist, 1879, when 
the Midland trains ceased to run from Wichnor Junction. 

The advantage obtained was that Wolverhampton and Walsall were 
put into direct communication with London via the Midland system. 

As it may seem an extraordinary circumstance that one railway 
company should sell a piece of line to a rival, some explanation is 
desirable, but it is nevertheless extremely difficult to give in an 
intelligible form, as it was the outcome of long negotiations over a 
great many most intricate questions of railway policy and construction. 
In fact, the whole subject forms a problem in railway negotiations 
affecting a large number of districts, which, opening about 1865, after 
lasting many years, resulted thus : 

(a) The London and North Western took over the South Leicester- 
shire (private Company) line, Nuneaton to Wigston, and ran thence 
over the Midland line to Leicester, where the Midland gave them the 
use of their passenger station and built a goods station for their goods 
traffic. 

(b) The Midland got running powers over the South Leicestershire 
line from Wigston to Nuneaton and made a line from Nuneaton to join 
its own system at Whitacre. 

(c} The London and North Western bought the South Staffordshire 
line. 



A GIVE-AND-TAKE POLICY 195 

(d] The Midland to give up running over the South Staffordshire 
from Wichnor to Walsall. The Midland to make the Water Orton and 
Walsall line, and buy from the London and North Western the Walsall 
line to Wolverhampton ; and the Midland to use the London and North 
Western station at Wolverhampton. The Midland to run to Dudley 
from Walsall for goods traffic, and the Midland also to run from 
Nuneaton to Coventry for goods traffic. 

(e) The Midland made a curve south of Tamworth (three-quarters of 
a mile) to enable the London and North Western to run from Nuneaton 
to Burton; but this was never opened, as the Midland and London and 
North Western further agreed to construct the Ashby and Nuneaton 
Railway jointly, and the London and North Western got power to run 
to all collieries on the Leicester and Burton line for mineral traffic. 

(/) The London and North Western obtained running powers from 
Wichnor to Derby. 

(g) The Midland obtained running powers from Wellingborough to 
Northampton. 

(h] The Midland obtained powers to run through New Street Station, 
Birmingham, and the London and North Western agreed to widen the 
lines. 

(i) The Midland and London and North Western made a joint 
station at Market Harborough, with separate lines for each company, 
and the Enderby branch near Leicester was constructed jointly. 

The sum total, in effect, is that the Midland got its traffic to Wolver- 
hampton and a route from London and Leicester to Birmingham, 
Cannock Chase, and the Black Country, a route through New Street 
Station at Birmingham, and also access to Northampton. 

The London and North Western, on the other hand, got into Derby 
and Leicester and into the Leicestershire coalfields. 

The following curves, although constructed, were rendered unneces- 
sary and have not been opened for traffic : Midland curve at Tamworth, 
three-quarters of a mile; London and North Western curve, on the 
Nuneaton to Leicester line to the Coventry line, three-quarters of a 
mile ; joint curve, Stoke Golding to Hinckley, 3^ miles. 

Complex as these arrangements were, they saved the expenditure of 
a large amount of capital by both companies and the making of many 
duplicate lines. 

It will be remembered that as early as the year 1846 the Midland 
Company obtained powers to construct a line from near Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch, passing through Market Bos worth and forming a junction 



196 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

with the Trent Valley Railway Company's line at Nuneaton. This 
proposed branch was of a protective character, but having attained 
its object the Act was allowed to lapse and the railway was not 
constructed. A so-called independent railway company, in 1866, was 
promoted under the high-sounding title of "The London and North 
Western and Midland Counties Coalfields Railway," the real object 
of which was to give the London and North Western access to the 
Leicestershire collieries, the route selected by the promoters being 
almost exactly that decided upon by the Midland Company in 1846, 
and the latter Company therefore introduced a Bill in 1866 to enable 
it to carry out the original scheme. 

Here, then, were two rival lines, the Midland and the Coalfields, 
which latter was, however, simply a nom-de-plume for the London 
and North Western, each trying to run a railway over the very same 
ground. 

The outcome of these two rival schemes was that the London and 
North Western met the Midland Company, the "Coalfields" title was 
abandoned, and the line, 29 miles in length, was constructed jointly 
and subsequently opened, and is still worked as a joint undertaking. 

During the sessions of 1859 and 1860 a nominally independent 
railway company, known as the "South Leicestershire," obtained powers 
to construct a line from the Trent Valley at Nuneaton to Hinckley and 
Wigston, with running powers thence over the Midland Railway to 
Leicester, the object of the line being to give the London and North 
Western Company communication with Leicester, and in 1867 the 
"South Leicestershire" became the absolute property of that Company. 

However, by the Act of June i4th, 1860, the Midland Company 
secured running powers between Wigston, Nuneaton, and Coventry, and 
by means of an Act passed in 1861 the Midland obtained powers 
to make a line from Nuneaton to Whitacre upon its Derby and 
Birmingham section, thus obtaining a direct communication between 
London, Leicester, and Wigston, and Nuneaton, Whitacre, Birming- 
ham, and all parts of the west of England. This communication was 
further improved in December, 1872, when a new curve was opened 
at Wigston enabling passengers to travel from the south and Wigston 
Station direct to Hinckley and Birmingham without having to be 
conveyed to Leicester. 

The Birmingham West Suburban Railway Company was originally 
incorporated on July 3oth, 1871, to make a local line from Albion 
Wharf, Birmingham, to King's Norton a distance of 6f miles. By 
an Act of July, 1873, diversions were made, and by additional powers 
obtained in 1875 tne undertaking was vested in the Midland, the 



BIRMINGHAM ON A THROUGH LINE 197 

original shareholders getting 5 per cent, in perpetuity. It was opened 
as a local line on April 3rd, 1876, from Granville Street Station, and 
formed a junction with the Midland main line at King's Norton, the 
Midland providing the rolling stock. Afterwards it was connected 
with the western end of New Street Station, and thus formed a link 
so that the Midland could pass from Derby or Leicester via Saltley 
and New Street Station to Bristol, the object being to place New 
Street, Birmingham, on the through line instead of being a terminus 
so far as Midland traffic was concerned. To meet this traffic the 
London and North Western Company, by arrangement with the 
Midland, has doubled the width of its Birmingham Station and 
provided perfectly independent lines for the use of the Midland trains 
between the Grand Junction and the New Street Junction. The 
Midland express trains ran via New Street on October ist, 1885. 

The relationship of the Midland with the Severn and Wye line in 
the Forest of Dean colliery district recalls the fact that a very ancient 
Outram-line was formed between Lydney and Lydbrook in 1809 and 
opened in 1813, which connected the Forest of Dean with the River 
Severn. That undertaking was enlarged, and became known as the 
Severn and Wye. The next step was the building of a great structure 
across the Severn by the Severn Bridge Company, which was opened 
on October i7th, 1879, and which gave communication with the English 
side of the Severn. The Midland then constructed a branch to meet 
it from Berkeley Junction, on their Gloucester to Bristol line, to 
Sharpness. The Midland had running powers over the Severn Bridge. 
The whole of the section from Berkeley Junction to Lydbrook and 
the branches, including the bridge, were transferred to the joint owner- 
ship of the Midland and Great Western by the Act of 1894. 

The line is 8f miles long, and its value is mainly on account of 
its mineral and goods traffic. 



THE INVASION OF WALES 

The next field for Midland enterprise was the invasion of Wales. 
But this proved rather a complicated and protracted campaign. There 
were, it is true, rails all the way, but the great difficulty was to get over 
the legal and parliamentary obstacles as well as the jealousies of rival 
companies. It has been already pointed out that the Midland had 
running powers from Stoke Works, near Bromsgrove, to Worcester 
over the Great Western system, and after this, by way of a concession 
for non-opposition to a Great Western amalgamation with the Oxford, 
Worcester, and Wolverhampton Company, the Midland obtained 



198 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

running powers which enabled them to use the Great Western route 
to Hereford. The Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Railway had been 
constructed as an independent line, but, as usual, the line was 
comparatively useless and the Company powerless without through 
traffic. The Hereford Company, however, had running powers over 
the Mid-Wales and Brecon and Merthyr Companies' systems, and 
the Mid-Wales Company for a time worked the Hereford, Hay, and 
Brecon line; but when this arrangement was nearing its completion 
application was made to the Midland to work the line. 

At a Midland meeting held at Derby on May i8th, 1869, it was ex- 
plained that the clauses contained in certain Bills promoted by other 
companies, under which the Midland sought to obtain permissive 
powers for using the Barton Station at Hereford and to participate 
in the management of the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Railway, had 
been dropped. 

The report of the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Company for the 
half-year ending December 3ist, 1869, says a temporary agreement for 
working the line by the Mid- Wales Company terminated on September 
3oth, 1869, since which date the Midland had worked it. 

Thus the Midland secured a through communication as far as Brecon. 
As early as the year 1850 there was a line formed known as the Swansea 
Valley Railway, which had been extended from Swansea to Ynis-y- 
Geinon, and the name changed to the Swansea Vale Railway. 

This line was leased by the Midland Company on July ist, 1874. All 
that was required now was the connecting link between Brecon and 
Ynis-y-Geinon Junction. This had already been supplied by a section 
of the Neath and Brecon system, and all that was necessary was power 
to run over it, which power was duly obtained, thereby completing by 
ownership and running powers direct communication from Swansea to 
the whole of the Midland system. But such an invasion of Welsh 
territory was not viewed with equanimity by the Great Western 
Railway, and, doubtless with the view of safeguarding what it con- 
sidered its own interests, the Great Western Company raised a very 
nice point of law by challenging the right of the Midland Company to 
run through trains on to the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon line over the 
Great Western Company's connecting curve at Hereford. Although 
this connecting link was of very short extent, it formed the key to 
the whole situation, for without its use through traffic, either goods or 
passenger, was impossible, as the Midland could only obtain access to 
the line which it had leased by passenger vehicles and by carting through 
Hereford. After a great deal of legal fencing and failing to come 
to an amicable arrangement, the Midland Company, being convinced 



A WELSH CONFLICT 199 

that it had the necessary powers, notified the Great Western Company 
that a train would be sent to run to Brecon over the curve in question. 
This was met by the Great Western Company by a distinct refusal, and 
not only were the signals placed at " danger," but the line was actually 
blocked by an engine and some wagons. The driver of the Midland 
engine, who had an unusually powerful locomotive under steam, was 
particularly anxious to push the obstruction out of the way, but this 
plan was naturally not adopted. To further make it impossible for 
the Midland train to proceed the rails were pulled up, thus effectively 
stopping communication. The dispute was, as a matter of course, 
carried into the law courts. 

In October, 1869, a station was about to be erected at Moorfields, 
Hereford, as a terminus for the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Company. 
They had formerly had a terminus near the same spot. 

In the session of 1870 the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Company had 
a Bill for making a line from Moorfields Station to the Great Western 
Railway and to enable the Midland Railway to take over the Hereford 
Company and use the junction. At any rate, they advertised their 
intention to introduce such a Bill. 

The parliamentary history of the connection at Hereford appears 
to be (i) that by 22 and 23 Viet. cap. 84 a line was to be made 
from Brecon through Hay to the Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway 
at Hereford ; (2) a deviation was authorised by 23 and 24 Viet, 
cap. 127 enabling the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Company to 
relinquish this junction and in substitution to form a junction with 
the Newport, Abergavenny, and Hereford Company. This became 
West Midland, and the West Midland became Great Western Railway 
property. Thus the arrangements became very involved and com- 
plicated. 

On January 2oth, 2ist, 22nd, and February nth, 1873, a suit was 
heard in the Rolls Court before Lord Romilly the Midland Railway 
v. Great Western Railway in which the plaintiffs, the Midland 
Railway Company, sought to have it declared that by virtue 
of an agreement dated September i4th, 1869, they were entitled 
to use and run trains over a certain junction at Hereford, and 
to restrain the Great Western Railway from obstructing plaintiffs 
from using that junction. It appeared that the Hereford, Hay, and 
Brecon Company had, by a decree of the Court of Chancery, been 
declared to be entitled to use it, and that by the agreement of 
September i4th, 1869, they made over their line to the Midland 
Railway. The latter claimed to use the junction under this agree- 
ment. Lord Romilly dismissed the case with costs, considering that 



200 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

one railway company could not delegate all its powers to another 
without the consent of Parliament. 

The Midland Railway appealed from this decision, and on April 25th, 
26th, and 28th, 1873, the case came on in the Court of Appeal before 
the Lords Justices. The agreement of September i4th, 1869, it now 
appears, was for two and a half years from that time, i.e. till March i4th, 
1872. Their lordships were of opinion that there was nothing in the 
agreement illegal or contrary to public policy, and that the plaintiff 
company were entitled to the injunction prayed for to restrain the 
defendants from obstructing the junction, with costs up to the 
hearing. In these suits Messrs. Beale, Marigold, and Beale were 
solicitors for the Midland Railway, Messrs. Young, Maples, and Co. 
for the Great Western Railway, Messrs. Tilleard, Godden, and Holme 
for the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Company. 

On July 3oth, 1874, an Act was passed, "The Midland Railway 
(Hereford, Hay, and Brecon Railway Lease) Act, 1874," under which 
the line is leased in perpetuity to the Midland Railway, who paid a 
yearly sum as rent, rising from ^"14,511 ijs. in 1875 to, and remain- 
ing at from 1882, ^20,354 Ss. per annum, payable on January ist and 
July ist in each year, the Midland to have full powers of booking all 
kinds of traffic to and from London and North Western and Great 
Western Railways and the Hereford, Hay, and Brecon line via 
Hereford. 

Thus, after three years' litigation, with verdicts first on one side 
and then on the other, this great dispute was finally decided in 
favour of the Midland, and thereby was sanctioned and established 
through communication between Swansea and the Midland system. 
By this means also a number of semi-independent lines, which were 
by themselves of comparatively little value, were, by being made links 
in a system of through communication, greatly enhanced in im- 
portance and became invaluable feeders to the Midland system. The 
Hereford, Hay, and Brecon line was vested in the Midland in 1886; 
the Swansea Vale in 1876. On the Mid- Wales and the Brecon and 
Merthyr the Midland have running powers; and the Midland work 
over the Neath and Brecon to its own Swansea Vale line. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

A MASTER-STROKE 

THE years from 1872 to 1875 w ^ l n g be memorable for the 
great struggles which occurred and for the inauguration of a 
series of reforms, the like of which had never been previously heard 
of in the railway world. The Midland were pioneers in this great 
work of reform, and by its spirited and far-seeing policy laid the 
foundations of a magnificent prosperity by looking to the interests 
and requirements of the great mass of the people. First of all, on 
March iQth, 1872, the Midland suddenly announced that on April ist 
next third-class passengers would be carried by all Midland trains, 
and the intimation was at once hailed as a master-stroke of policy. 
Previously to this third-class trains were slow, with poor accommoda- 
tion, and an almost total want of comfort. They had to shunt at any 
and every junction to allow the faster trains to pass, and the result 
was that the third-class passenger had to do a heavy and almost 
continuous " penance " during the whole of the period he or she 
was travelling; and the time occupied on long journeys was altogether 
such as severely to try the best of strength and tempers. It was 
estimated that the change would result in a saving, and it was found 
that by the abolition of "third-class trains" the mileage run was 
reduced by no less than 500,000 miles per annum, while the saving 
under this head amounted to .37,000 a year. Thus there was no 
sacrifice of revenue, for the Midland carried far more passengers than 
previously. This was followed on October 7th, 1874, by another surprise, 
when the Midland boldly announced that on and after January ist, 1875, 
second-class would be abolished. The whole railway world was excited, 
and the rivals of the Midland were in arms against what was regarded 
as a daring innovation. 

In the money article of The Times there appeared the following 
paragraph : 

"It is stated that the railways most directly affected by the policy 
of the Midland in abolishing second-class carriages have decided 

201 



202 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

to adopt a retaliatory policy. They do not intend to abolish any one 
of the three classes, but to lower second-class fares below Midland 
first, and to run special first-class trains to all competing points against 
the Midland. Whatever its financial soundness and we should 
question it very gravely an attempt to coerce the Midland after 
this fashion is, to say the least, somewhat petty, and cannot be 
regarded as a specimen of sagacious administration." 

Whatever its reception at the time, there can be no doubt that it 
was a great reform conceived in no selfish spirit, but on the broad 
lines of true policy and human progress. It was a bold movement, 
and upon its success or failure depended the reputation of those 
primarily responsible for so great a change a change which, small 
as it may now like most other changes and reforms in the world- 
appear, was then regarded as almost revolutionary in its character; as 
an unwarranted attack upon neighbouring and competing lines; as 
an invasion of the rights and privileges of the great middle class to 
consideration, provision for their reasonable and legitimate travelling 
requirements ; and as a policy of " equality and fraternity " thrust 
upon the English people which they neither appreciated nor desired. 

It is difficult to realise after a quarter of a century how men of 
sound business acumen, politicians, and many critics of the day could 
see so many evils in so small a " revolution," which would be better 
described as an important but necessary change in the business 
management of a great public concern. But although at this dis- 
tance of time it may seem to the casual observer to have been 
a comparatively small matter and a "battle in a teacup," it was, 
after all, a great departure ; it was the initiation of a great movement 
for the better treatment and the greater comfort of the great bulk 
of those who travel than had been previously considered either 
possible or desirable. It, in fact, proved to be the Magna Charta 
of the third-class passenger, and formed the intermediate stage of 
the great three-fold movement which has since led to so many other 
improvements of the greatest advantage. First of all there was third- 
class by all trains ; next, the abolition of second-class, a reduction of 
first-class fares to the price of second; and thirdly, there was the 
provision of cushioned seats for third-class carriages, which practically 
meant the abolition of the old third-class carriages and the levelling 
up of the third to the comfort of the old second-class. The wisdom 
and ability shown in engineering these great changes in a quiet and 
effective way least calculated to disturb the susceptibilities of others 
and at the same time safeguard the interests of Midland shareholders 
was most conspicuous. In order to have a clear conception of the 



ABOLITION OF SECOND-CLASS 203 

matter, the basis of the change must be considered. When the 
Midland Board came to consult (November 4th, 1874) as to the new 
rolling stock which should be ordered for the opening of the Settle 
and Carlisle Railway, the question of classes was forced very strongly 
on the attention of the directors. It had been long under considera- 
tion, and it had been further observed that the passenger traffic was 
not extending in a degree corresponding with the increase in goods 
and mineral traffic. They also came to the conclusion, from a long 
series of careful observations, that a great deal of unnecessary weight 
had to be carried in their trains. Again, they found that the capital 
cost of a first-class carriage of three compartments was about ^450, 
and the yearly earnings ^530; the cost of a second-class carriage of 
four compartments about ,250, and the yearly earnings about ^430 
and the cost of a third-class carriage of four compartments .270, and 
the yearly earnings about ,890. So that the first-class carried 118 per 
cent, on its cost, the second-class 122 per cent., and the third-class 
330 per cent. The carefully ascertained facts led the directors, whilst 
in meeting assembled, not only to arrive at their decision, but to have 
the circular put in type and sent out to the secretaries of all other 
railway companies before they left the room. The formal resolution 
declared that on and after January ist, 1875, on ^y two classes of pas- 
sengers would be carried on the Midland Railway first and third ; 
that first-class fares be reduced to \\d. per mile and third-class fares 
to be continued as at present, return tickets at reduced fares to be 
discontinued. 

The three months' notice to the other railway companies of the 
kingdom was at once followed by a "council of war" of the directors 
and managers of the Great Northern, the Great Western, the Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire, the London and North Western, the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire, and the North Eastern Railway Companies, 
held at Euston under the chairmanship of Mr. R. Moon. A resolution 
was unanimously adopted and forwarded to the Midland Company to 
the effect that the Midland Board be "respectfully requested to post- 
pone the proposed action in reference to the abolition of the second 
or intermediate class and the reduction of the first-class fares until 
after the ensuing half-yearly meetings; and that in the meantime the 
companies represented at this meeting will be willing to consider with 
the Midland Company what change, if any, should be made in the 
conduct of the passenger traffic of the country in the direction of 
increased facilities, with fair regard to the interests of railway pro- 
prietors ; and that this meeting be adjourned for the reception of the 
reply." 



204 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

On the same day, November 5th, 1874, the Chairman of the Midland 
Company (Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis) addressed a spirited circular 
to the shareholders of his Company, in which he set forth that their 
action had been so keenly, and in some cases so unfairly criticised 
that he deemed it right to state explicitly the reasons which influenced 
them in recommending the change. "The charge," he stated, "has been 
freely made that we are abolishing second-class carriages and reducing 
first-class fares with the object of injuring adjoining companies and 
entering upon a course of new and ruinous competition which deserves 
reprisals at their hands. This charge is totally unfounded. Our only 
objects are to increase the profits of the Midland Company by reducing 
the cost of working the passenger service, and by obtaining a greater 
number of passengers at lower first-class fares. It is to the encourage- 
ment and increase of the local traffic on our own system that we look 
for a return, not to the abstraction of traffic from other companies. 
A change of this character may prove less beneficial to other com- 
panies than to us that it will prove injurious to any, your directors 
do not believe but we hold ourselves responsible in the conduct of 
affairs of this Company to Midland proprietors alone, and we are not 
justified in rejecting a change which will be beneficial to them because 
it may not suit one or more neighbouring companies, the circumstances 
of whose traffic may be widely different, and who, after all, are keen 
competitors with the Midland, not mindful, as the last few years have 
shown, of the interests of the Midland shareholders." He also reviewed 
the policy of extension, which had been miscalled aggression, which 
had been forced upon the Midland, and added, " No one who has 
watched the subsequent development of the districts traversed by the 
Midland can doubt the enormous advantages which the public have 
derived." 

With the object of increasing the passenger receipts pro rata 
with the increasing goods traffic, the experiment was tried in 1872 of 
conveying third-class passengers by all trains. " The success of that 
policy justifies your directors in asking your confidence and support in 
carrying out the present proposal, which is based upon the former 
change and is an almost necessary consequence of it." 

A special meeting of the shareholders was held at Derby on Novem- 
ber 1 7th, at which Mr. Ellis clinched the matter by declaring "the 
question now to be determined by the shareholders is really whether 
your directors are to be allowed to manage their own affairs, or whether 
we are to submit to a policy to be determined by our rivals." The 
result was that the proposals were endorsed by 44,305 votes as against 
6,177. This decisive confirmation at once put an end to the threatened 



TWO-CLASS WORKING 205 

interference of the other companies, and January ist, 1875, saw the 
great change in full operation. 

Twelve months later the Chairman of the Company had the satis- 
faction of informing the shareholders that the change had proved very 
satisfactory. He also added that the change had caused them to gain 
ground with the public, but they could not hope to satisfy their com- 
petitors, to whom the Midland conceded what they appeared to grudge 
the Midland, namely, the right to manage their own affairs in their own 
way. Having thus further secured public confidence, as well as the 
confidence of their shareholders, the Midland further determined (1875) 
to cushion all third-class carriages and in other ways to add to the 
comfort of those who travelled third-class. The wisdom of delaying 
this further reform till events had matured is apparent, for to have 
launched both schemes at one and the same time would probably have 
been fatal to both ; for it would have been tantamount to a declaration 
of carrying third-class passengers in second-class carriages at third- 
class fares, and neither the shareholders nor the public were prepared 
for so great a change. Time and experience have most amply justified 
a step which was so seriously challenged at the date of its inception, 
and a whole list of other benefits have followed in its train : third-class 
lavatory compartments, third-class breakfast and dining cars, and many 
other very substantial improvements. The Midland were the pioneers 
in this great movement, and other companies were compelled to improve 
their accommodation in a corresponding degree. The heroes of this 
noteworthy struggle were beyond all question Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis, 
the Chairman, whose quiet, steady, persistent Quaker determination 
was accompanied by dignity and confidence, and Mr. James Allport, 
the General Manager, whose transcendent genius as a railway adminis- 
trator laid the foundations and placed the fortunes of the Midland 
Company on a solid and enduring basis. Mr. James Allport, be- 
yond all cavil or question, was by far the ablest man of his time as a 
railway administrator in this or any other country, and when he laid 
down the burden of his general managership he was elected a director 
of the Company and voted by the shareholders the sum of ^"10,000 in 
recognition of his long and invaluable services. 

As Mr. Ellis stated to the writer at the time, " We are not going to 
be cajoled ; we are not going to be intimidated from the discharge of 
a great public duty, and a duty to our shareholders. We have confi- 
dence in Mr. Allport, and we are not going to be driven from the path 
of duty by either threats of reprisals or by anything else. We calmly 
await the verdict of experience and results." How great these results 
are only those who remember the old order of things and enjoy the 



206 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

new privileges can adequately tell. And side by side with all this 
we have the continued and continuing prosperity of the great under- 
taking whose destinies have fallen into no less able and devoted 
hands. 

In the year 1874 the Midland Company introduced the first complete 
American train into this country, the cars having been built by the 
Pullman Car Company at Detroit and sent over in pieces to be put 
together at Derby. These cars were 57 feet in length over the end 
platforms and ran upon two four-wheeled bogies ; they were provided 
with central single buffers and automatic couplings, the engines 
intended to work these trains being specially fitted with central 
buffers. 

On March i7th, 1874, an officials' special express to test the running 
of the cars at very high speed was worked between Derby and St. 
Pancras with engine "No. 906" and two cars. The time allowed for the 
journey was only 2- hours and included two stops of three minutes 
each, and a speed of 75 miles an hour was attained on parts of the 
journey; and four days later (March 2ist) a special express of four cars 
ran from London to Bedford and back and conveyed about eighty 
visitors, all of whom were greatly interested in the trip; and upon 
June ist, 1874, the new train of five cars commenced regular running, 
leaving Bradford at 8.30 a.m. and returning at 12 midnight from 
St. Pancras. 

The cars for first, second, and third-class passengers were the property 
of the Midland Company, and ordinary fares were charged ; but the 
drawing-room and sleeping cars were the Pullman Company's, and for 
which a small extra charge was made. On April ist, 1875, American car 
trains were introduced between Liverpool, Manchester, and London, and 
in addition to the day trains a sleeping-car was run to Liverpool at 
midnight from St. Pancras. 

The American visitors very highly appreciated the Pullman trains, but 
many English travellers expressed a preference for the ordinary com- 
partment vehicles. Consequently, on May i5th, 1876, the Company 
provided Midland carriages in place of the first and third-class cars. 
On March nth, 1878, the complete American trains were again intro- 
duced between Liverpool, Manchester, and London, but the Man- 
chester passengers expressed their opinions so strongly in favour of 
compartments that the first and third-class Midland cars were again 
withdrawn on March igth, 1878, since which time they have been in 
occasional use for special parties. 

This furnished a notable instance of providing luxurious travelling, 
which failed at the time to meet with its due reward and appreciation ; 



PULLMAN CARS INTRODUCED 



207 



for there can be no question whatever that for long-distance travelling 
the Pullman bogie cars in 1874 were by far the finest trains in the 
kingdom. There can be no doubt that the spirited action of the 
Midland Company in this respect led to the general introduction 
of bogie vehicles on English railways, and marked an important epoch 
in the art of making railway travelling comfortable and indeed enjoy- 
able, while at the same time adding greatly to the security and safety 
of running at a high speed. 




INTERIOR, THIRD-CLASS DINING CAR. 



The Pullman Car Company, on July loth, 1882, introduced first-class 
dining cars upon the Midland, one being attached to the 5 p.m. express 
from St. Pancras to Liverpool, the other to the 4.5 p.m. up train from 
Liverpool. 

The Midland Company having purchased the whole of the Pullman 
day cars, first-class passengers, on November ist, 1883, were allowed 
to ride in the day cars without extra payment, except, of course, the 
price of dinner provided in the dining cars. In February, 1888, the 
Company also purchased the sleeping cars, and the fare was fixed at 
5-r. extra between all points. 

In May, 1900, four new American Pullman sleeping cars of the latest 
pattern were put on between St. Pancras and Edinburgh and Glasgow. 



2 o8 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The cars were manufactured in America, taken to pieces, shipped to 
Liverpool, and afterwards reconstructed at the Company's works at 
Derby. They are 60 feet in length, and run on two six-wheeled bogies. 
One half of the car is taken up by four state-rooms, each of which is 
fitted up with a bed and folding washstand. All the berths are on 
the same level, the plan of putting one over the other having been 
abandoned in the state-rooms as well as in the general room, which 
occupies the other half of the car. This general room is provided 
with seats for day travelling, and at night curtains are provided which 
completely shut off each berth from the rest of the car. Altogether 
there are eleven berths, five of which are in the state-rooms, which are 
mainly intended for ladies. The cars are 8 feet wide inside, and 8 feet 
10 inches from floor, to roof. They are most elaborately furnished; 
there is a refreshment buffet, and in fact everything that can conduce 
to the comfort of the passengers. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

SETTLE TO CARLISLE AND THE FORTH BRIDGE 

THE Midland Company, by virtue of its lease and ultimate pur- 
chase of the (Little) North Western Railway, extended as far 
north as Ingleton, where it met and formed what is termed " an end- 
on junction " at Ingleton with the Lancaster and Carlisle Company's 
system, this latter line giving communication with Scotland to both the 
London and North Western and Midland routes via Low Gill and 
Carlisle. However, from the first the London and North Western had 
a considerable controlling interest in the Lancaster and Carlisle 
Company, and ultimately leased the line and rolling stock for no less 
a period than 1,000 years. 

To all intents and purposes the line passed from the hands of an in- 
dependent company into those of a powerful rival. True, the London 
and North Western Company did work the Midland traffic between 
Ingleton and Carlisle, but with such serious delays, inconveniences, 
and changes of carriages that in point of fact the Midland Scotch 
traffic was practically completely killed. The Midland Board and Mr. 
Allport, about 1865, determined that this serious obstruction could no 
longer be endured, and complaint was made to the London and 
North Western Company, by whom it was suggested that the Midland 
might purchase a half-share of the line and run over it, but the London 
and North Western was to "control" the rates and fares charged by the 
Midland. Such a suggestion the Midland Board could not for one 
moment entertain ; and as they had already had such bitter experiences 
of "running powers" between Hitchin and King's Cross, they came to 
the only possible conclusion that the most satisfactory way of forming 
communication with Scotland was to make an entirely new line of 
its own from Settle to Carlisle. Naturally the London and North 
Western viewed with alarm the prospect of the Midland arriving at 
Carlisle upon its own rails, and opposed the Bill in Parliament, but 
without avail, as it was perfectly evident to the Select Committee 
. that the Midland was only acting in self-defence against serious and 

P 209 



210 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

unnecessary obstruction to its traffic; and accordingly, on July i6th, 
1866, the Midland was authorised to construct its Settle and Carlisle 
line, and to use the Citadel Station at that city, ^1,650,000 capital to 
be raised in shares and .555,000 by loan. The passing of this Act 
gave great satisfaction to the Lancashire and Yorkshire and North 
British Companies, and it was proposed that the Midland and Glasgow 
and South Western Companies should completely amalgamate. 

Seeing that the Midland would firmly establish itself in Scotland, the 
London and North Western appears to have regretted having broken 
off the negotiations with reference to the use of its Lancaster and 
Carlisle line, and it became " hinted " that they were willing to reopen 
the consideration of the subject. 

At this period a somewhat extraordinary incident occurred in the 
relationship between some of the shareholders and the Midland Board 
of Directors. It appears that a considerable number of persons 
holding stock in the Midland Company were also interested financially 
to an equal, if not greater, extent in the Lancaster and Carlisle and 
London and North Western Railways. Consequently, having an eye 
to their own divided interests, they were in favour of the Midland 
Company abandoning its Settle and Carlisle Act and coming to terms 
for the use of the Lancaster and Carlisle Line. These gentlemen 
formed themselves into a Midland Shareholders' Association, with a 
Manchester solicitor as its secretary, and they adopted a very bold and 
unusual course of procedure, for, quite unknown officially to the 
directors of the Midland, they proceeded to interview the Chairman 
and officials of the London and North Western at Euston, with whom 
they discussed the terms upon which their projects could be carried 
into effect. They actually so far succeeded as to obtain a statement 
of the terms of the London and North Western, which were, in effect, 
that the whole matters in dispute should be referred to the President 
of the Board of Trade, conditional to the Midland Company abandon- 
ing its Settle and Carlisle line. This proposal, when communicated to 
the Midland Company, was described by Mr. Hutchinson as childish, 
and the shareholders as a body expressed their views and feelings by 
receiving the news with hilarity. 

The heavy expenditure of capital of the Midland, however, at this 
period became so onerous that a policy of caution and reserve became 
necessary, and accordingly at a meeting of the shareholders on January 
1 5th, 1868, Mr. Hutchinson announced that the future policy of 
the Board would be the suspension of all works which would not 
involve too great a sacrifice, postponement of all new lines not yet 
commenced, and the enforcement of the most rigid economy. A 



THE SETTLE AND CARLISLE EXTENSION 211 

consultative committee, consisting of nine shareholders, headed by 
Mr. Baines, M.P., was appointed to confer with the directors. The 
result of their inquiries was given in a report to the shareholders, in 
which they " bore abundant testimony to the integrity and ability with 
which the administration of the directors had been conducted." They 
also emphasised the fact that certain large expenditure which other 
companies debited to capital had in the case of the Midland been 
paid out of revenue, as well as the interest on ,5, 000,000 of un- 
productive capital ; they, however, expressed some regret that the 
Company had been induced to undertake arrangements beyond what 
could properly be undertaken at one time without great inconvenience 
to the shareholders. 

In pursuance of this policy negotiations were reopened with the 
London and North Western for the use of their line between Ingleton 
and Carlisle, the result being that it was determined, if possible, to 
abandon the construction of the Settle and Carlisle extension, both 
companies having come to satisfactory terms, and both lodged a Bill 
in Parliament to carry out this arrangement. The opposition to this 
abandonment of another independent route to Scotland was opposed 
by the Lancashire and Yorkshire and the North British Railway Com- 
panies, on the ground that the projected line would be of enormous 
advantage to their traffic by giving them a competitive line with the 
North Western. After six days' contest in Parliament it was decided 
that in the public interest the abandonment Bill must be thrown out 
and the Settle and Carlisle line constructed. This decision carried dis- 
appointment to many of the Midland shareholders, but Mr. Hutchinson 
comforted them with the fact that the traffic between England and 
Scotland, disclosed by the testimony before Parliament, was more 
valuable than they had previously been led to expect. 

The surveying and formation of the 72^ miles of line from Settle 
to the junction with the North Eastern Railway at Carlisle were works 
of great difficulty. The country to be traversed was one of the wildest 
districts, with mountain ranges, wild gorges, and almost precipitous 
cliffs barring the way. However, great as were the obstacles to be 
encountered, they were all most successfully overcome, and the line 
constitutes a great engineering work certainly one of the most 
important which has been achieved in railway construction in this 
country. 

Branching off from the old main line at Settle Junction at a height 
of 425 feet above sea-level, the railway is carried up the valley of the 
Ribble for a distance of 15 miles to Blea Moor Tunnel, the gradient 
throughout this portion being the severe one of i in 100. The 



212 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

first important work after leaving Settle Junction is at the Skipton 
Road, which it crosses by a fine skew girder bridge, having a span of 
62 feet. A deep cutting is next entered through grit stone, which 
provided materials for the construction of many of the bridges. A 
vast quantity of earth was excavated on the west side of the railway, 
and was deposited to form the goods yard and site of the Settle 
Station, which included an area of about ten acres. On its way across 
Kirk Gate, one of the principal streets of Settle, a viaduct was con- 
structed having four arches, each of 30 feet span and 23 feet high. 
Another viaduct spans Giggleswick Road, and is succeeded by a high 
embankment containing no less than 250,000 cubic yards of earth, 
which had been excavated from several cuttings in the neighbourhood. 
After passing the turnpike road to Ingleton, an embankment com- 
mences, and contains no less than 280,000 cubic yards. Thirteen 
miles from Settle the Batty Moss Viaduct is reached. It spans the 
valley leading to Ingleton, and is one of the most important works on 
the line. It is 1,328 feet in length, composed of twenty-four arches, 
and the rail-level is 100 feet above the ground. Shortly after passing 
over this great work we enter the Blea Moor Tunnel, another heavy 
and very costly undertaking. It is i mile 865 yards in length, and 
the rail-level at the highest point in the tunnel is 1,151! feet above 
the sea and 500 feet below the summit of the mountain through 
which it pierces. This stupendous engineering task was accomplished 
by working at each end and from seven intermediate shafts. The 
strata of the mountain consists of grit stone, limestone, and shale, 
and although sufficiently hard to require blasting, it was not stable 
enough to avoid the necessity of lining this tunnel with brickwork. 

Proceeding at this high elevation for 1 1 miles to the Ais Gill signal- 
box, 1,167 feet above the sea-level, the line passes en route over Dent 
Head Viaduct, a little way beyond the Blea Moor Tunnel. This 
Dent Head Viaduct consists of ten arches, is 596 feet long and 
100 feet above Fell End Gill, which it crosses. During the next 
17 or 1 8 miles the works continue to be of the severest character. A 
very good general idea of their value and extent may be gathered from 
the fact that in this distance are included forty-seven cuttings, amount- 
ing in length to 2 J- miles ; five viaducts, whose combined length is half 
a mile, and from 50 to 145 feet high; four tunnels, whose united 
length is over a mile, and in several places are 140 feet below the 
tops of the hills. In addition to all these very costly structures there 
are sixty-eight road bridges, from 10 to 50 feet span, and 100 culverts, 
from 2 to 10 feet wide, together with a vast amount of lesser work. 
After traversing the Dent Valley for two miles the line passes to the 



GREAT ENGINEERING WORKS 



213 



right, and by means of a long tunnel through Rise Hill it emerges in 
Garsdale. It runs along this valley as far as the Moorcock Inn, 
where it soon passes over Ais Gill Moor, 
which is the summit of the line, the 
rails being at this point no less than 1,167 
feet above the level of the sea. The rail- 
way then runs several miles down Maller- 
strang, which is the commencement of the 
valley of the Eden, but owing to the rapidity 
of the fall of the valley, the line skirts the 
hill on the western side and passes over the 
Birkett Fells, and afterwards over the North 
Eastern branch line to Tebay by means of 
the Smardale Viaduct. Just before reach- 
ing Crosby Garrett Station, Crosby Garrett 
Tunnel and Viaduct are encountered. The 
tunnel is through grit and limestone, and is 
followed by a cutting 176 yards long and 
65 feet deep; the viaduct is 270 feet long 
and 53 feet high, having six arches of 38 feet 
span. Here heavy cuttings follow, and then 
High Gisburn Viaduct, also of six arches, 
after which Helen Tunnel is reached. One 
of the cuttings at this point is 500 yards in 
length and no feet deep. 

Soon after passing the Ais Gill signal-box 
the line practically descends continually by 
gradients of i in 100 for about 15 miles to 
Ormside Viaduct. At Crowdundle Beck 
there is a viaduct of 50 feet high, a tunnel 
at Cudgarth 800 yards long and 100 feet 
deep, and another tunnel 200 yards long 
under the west bank. At Eden Lacy the 
line crosses the Eden on a viaduct, and 
south of Lazonby there is another short 
tunnel of 100 yards. There are also two 
short tunnels in Eden Brow Wood, closely 

followed by the Armathwaite Viaduct, Dry Beck Viaduct, and an 
enormous embankment containing over 400,000 cubic yards of earth. 

The gradients become less severe from Ormside Station to Carlisle. 
There are many wild and picturesque scenes along this route, and 
in winter, when the snow and wind prevail, constant care and watch- 




214 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

fulness are necessary to keep the line from being snowed up. Snow 
ploughs are maintained at convenient points, and vast barriers have 
been constructed to hold back the drifting snow. When the wind 
blows its fiercest, in some of the most exposed parts of the line and in 
narrow gorges, it materially affects the speed of trains and frequently 
makes the use of two engines an indispensable necessity. 

The contractors for the formation of the road met with many 
unexpected difficulties, which were altogether unprovided for in their 
contracts with the Company. So serious and costly were these items 
for exceptional expenditure that during the progress of the works the 
contractors communicated the fact to the directors, that if they were 
to construct the line for the sum originally specified they would be 
completely ruined. Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis, who was Chairman at 
this period, and the Board, supported by the whole body of share- 
holders, determined that the work must proceed with unabated vigour ; 
that as certain very costly work must be done which could not be fore- 
seen even by the engineers or by the contractors, it must be and was 
paid for at a fair and reasonable rate as between the contracting parties. 
That determination was boldly and plainly announced by Mr. Ellis to 
the shareholders, and he emphasised his views by his strong conviction 
that they must at all costs adhere to that which was fair, reasonable, 
and right as between man and man. 

Mr. Ellis placed the whole of the facts from a business point 
of view before the half-yearly meeting of the shareholders on 
February 22nd, 1876. He said: "The expenditure upon the Settle 
and Carlisle line has very much exceeded the estimates. At first 
the directors were sanguine that the line might be constructed for 
^2,200,000; in fact, they believed that that would be the case even 
after the contracts were let. But the contractors had no sooner got the 
work in hand than they found the cost would be far beyond their 
anticipations. Very soon the Board had to take the first contract 
for the first section of the line out of the hands of the contractor and 
carry it on themselves. With regard to the other three contractors for 
the second, third, and fourth stages of the line, if the Board had not 
under the exceptional circumstances of the case assisted them very 
largely beyond the amount of the contracts, we believe they would have 
been ruined. The circumstances were altogether exceptional ; there was 
the enormous rise in wages and materials, and the natural difficulties of 
the country through which the line passed. The result was that up 
to December 3ist, 1875, ^3,330,000 had been expended on the line, 
and another ^137,000 would be further required, making a total of 
3 467,000 for 72 miles of double rails and 8 miles of single rails, 



SETTLE AND CARLISLE OPENED 



215 



forming the Hawes branch. The works were extremely substantial ; in 
fact, there is not a more perfect line of railway in the world." 

It ought to be recorded that the engineer for this great undertaking 
was Mr. Crossley, who for the long period of forty-two years honour- 
ably filled the position of Engineer to the Company. On his retirement 
from his onerous duties he still remained, at the request of the 
directors, Consulting Engineer, in order that the Settle and Carlisle 
extension might be completed under his personal supervision. When 
this, his greatest and most gigantic task, was at length accomplished, 
Mr. E. S. Ellis, the Chairman of the Company, at the half-yearly 
meeting of the shareholders on August i2th, 1875, paid a graceful 
tribute to the exertions and abilities of Mr. Crossley, who would, 
he said, always be remembered as being identified with the most in- 
teresting episodes of the line, and especially as having carried out 




BOGIE CARRIAGE, 1875 
(Built for the Scotch Express Trains). 

this, the greatest work since the formation of the Midland Railway 
Company. 

At Carlisle the Midland has constructed a goods station for its own 
traffic, but for passenger traffic it uses the North Eastern rails, leading 
to the Citadel Station, which is the joint property of the London and 
North Western and Caledonian Railways. 

Commenced in November, 1869, the Settle and Carlisle line was not 
opened for goods traffic till August 2nd, 1875, an< 3 for passenger traffic 
on May ist, 1876, thus having taken six years to complete. 

A party of directors and officials of the Company inspected the line 
previous to its opening for passenger traffic. The interesting party 
included Mr. Ellis, Chairman, son of the notable John Ellis who 
took the reins when they fell from the hands of King Hudson and 
inaugurated the policy that saved the Midland system. There was 
the veteran Sir Isaac Morley, who rocked the cradle of more than 
one of our early lines ; there was Mr. Allport, after forty-five years' 
experience, combining the enterprise of youth with the wisdom of 



216 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

age ; there was Mr. Carter, who for many years had charge of all 
the Midland Bills in Parliament, and of whom it is said that he never 
lost a Bill ; and there was Mr. Thompson, the Vice-Chairman ; Mr. 
Mappin and Mr. Thomas, directors ; Mr. Crossley, the late Engineer ; 
Mr. Johnston, his successor ; Mr. Saunders, the Architect ; Mr. Gratton, 
and others. 

" Finis coronat opus ! " was said to be the ejaculation of Mr. Crossley, 
the Engineer, when the party reached Carlisle; and the opinion generally 
expressed was that, next to the London and Bedford line, the Settle 
and Carlisle was the greatest and most vital of the developments of 
that bold policy of extension by which the Midland has triumphed 
over the schemes of its eastern and western rivals. 

For the through goods traffic to Scotland the Midland is a joint 
owner of the goods traffic lines in combination with the Caledonian, 
Glasgow, and South Western and London and North Western Com- 
panies, thus placing its goods traffic in direct communication with the 
Scotch railway companies. 

The through trains between the Midland system and Scotland were 
originally formed of the Midland Company's carriages and Pullman 
cars ; but as this necessitated the Glasgow and South Western and 
North British Companies having to pay the Midland large sums for 
carriage hire, it was decided that from July ist, 1879, the trains should 
be composed of carriages and vans which compose the Midland 
Scotch joint stock and are the tri-joint property of the Midland, 
Glasgow and South Western, and the North British Companies in 
equal shares, and the vehicles are distinguished by the letters. "M.S.J.S." 

This arrangement continued until July ist, 1899, when it was partly 
modified, and further alterations were made in 1900, the effect of 
which is that the splendid new corridor trains which are running 
from St. Pancras to Glasgow are the joint property of the Midland, 
and Glasgow and South Western Companies only, and carry the 
initials "M. & G.S.W."; while the trains for the Edinburgh traffic are 
owned by the Midland and North British Companies, and the vehicles 
are marked " M. & N.B." However, the locomotive power for working 
the joint trains has always been provided by each Company over its 
own system. 

THE FORTH BRIDGE 

As the Midland Company have the largest financial interest in the 
Forth Bridge, which is owned by a separate company, some details 
regarding this structure, which is one of the engineering wonders of 
the world, ought to be here recorded. The Forth Bridge, which 



OPENING OF THE FORTH BRIDGE 217 

greatly improved the railway communication between the Midland 
and other lines in England and the north of Scotland, was practically 
forced on the Midland, the North British, the Great Northern, and 
North Eastern Companies. But although owned by an independent 
company, the bridge is worked and maintained by the North British 
Company. 

An Act for the construction of a bridge across the Forth at 
Queensferry was obtained in 1873, but the work was not proceeded 
with : and in 1882 another Act was obtained, and in 1883 the building 
of the bridge was commenced. The capital of the Company amounted 
to ; 2 >3 2 5) 000 with .774,999 of debenture stock, the total amount 
received being .3,048,333. The financial difficulties were met from 
the first by a guarantee of 4 per cent, perpetual dividend by the follow- 
ing companies in the proportions named : 

Per cent. 

Midland . . ... 32^ 

North British . ... 30" 

Great Northern . . . i8| 

North Eastern . . . . i8| 

100 

The structure was completed and opened by His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales on March 4th, 1890. Mr. M. W. Thompson (afterwards 
Sir Matthew), the Chairman of the Midland Company, was also Chair- 
man of the Forth Bridge Company at the formal opening of the bridge, 
which was attended by eminent engineers from all parts of the world. 

The main facts were admirably set forth by the Prince of Wales in 
his speech on the occasion, when he said : 

" I had the advantage, nearly five and a half years ago, of seeing the 
Forth Bridge at its very commencement, and I always looked forward 
to the day when I should witness its successful accomplishment. 
(Cheers.) I may, perhaps, say that in opening bridges I am an old 
hand. (Laughter.) At the request of the Canadian Government 
I performed the ceremony, thirty years ago, of opening the Victoria 
Bridge over the St. Lawrence at Montreal, putting in the last rivet, 
the total of rivets being one million. To-day I have performed a 
similar ceremony for the Forth Bridge, but on this occasion the rivets 
number nearly eight millions instead of one million. The construction 
of the bridge has been on the cantilever principle, which has been 
known to the Chinese for ages, and specimens of it may be seen like- 
wise in Japan, Tibet, and the North-West Provinces of India. Work 
of this description has hitherto been carried out on small dimensions, 
but in this case the engineers have had to construct a bridge in 30 
fathoms of water, at the height of 150 feet above high-water mark, and 
crossing two channels, each one-third of a mile in width. Had it not 
been for the intervening island of Inchgarvie, the project would have 



218 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

been impracticable. It may, perhaps, interest you if I mention a few 
figures in connection with the construction of the bridge. Its extreme 
length, including the approach viaduct, is 2,765 yards, ii of a 
mile, and the actual length of the cantilever portion of the bridge 
is i mile and 20 yards. The weight of steel in it amounts to 51,000 
tons, and the extreme height of the steel structure above mean water- 
level is over 370 feet, above the bottom of the deepest foundation 
452 feet, while the rail-level above high water is 156^ feet. Allowance 
has been made for contraction and expansion and for changes of 
temperature to the extent of i inch per 100 feet over the whole 
bridge. The wind pressure provided for is 56 Ibs. on each square foot 
of area, amounting in the aggregate to 7,700 tons of lateral pressure 
on the cantilever portion of the bridge. About 2 5 acres of surface will 
have to be painted with three coats of paint. (Laughter.) As I have 
said, about eight millions of rivets have been used in the bridge, and 
42 miles of bent plates used in the tubes about the distance between 
Edinburgh and Glasgow. Two million pounds have been spent on the 
site in building the foundations and piers, in the erection of the super- 
structure, on labour in the preparation of steel, granite, masonry, 
timber, and concrete, on tools, cranes, drills, and other machines 
required as plant; while about two and a half millions has been the 
entire cost of the structure, of which ^800,000 (nearly one-third of 
this amount) has been expended on plant and general charges. These 
figures will give you some idea of the magnitude of the work, and will 
assist you to realise the labour and anxiety which all those connected 
with it must have undergone. (Cheers.) The works were commenced 
in April, 1883, and it is highly to the credit of everyone engaged in 
the operation that a structure so stupendous and so exceptional in its 
character should have been completed within seven years. (Cheers.) 
The opening of the bridge must necessarily produce important results 
and changes in the railway service of the east coast of Scotland, and it 
will, above all, place the valuable manufacturing and mineral producing 
district of Fife in immediate communication with the south side of the 
Firth of Forth. When the Glenfarg line, now nearly completed, is 
opened for traffic, the distance between Edinburgh and Perth will be 
reduced from 69 to 47 miles, and instead of the journey occupying, as 
at present, 2 hours and 20 minutes, an express will be able to do it 
in an hour. (Cheers.) Dundee, likewise, will be brought to within 
59 miles of Edinburgh, and Aberdeen 130 miles, and no sea ferries 
will have to be crossed. (Cheers.) The construction of the bridge 
is due to the enterprise of four important railway companies (i) North 
British (the bridge is in its district), (2) North Eastern, (3) Midland, 
and (4) Great Northern, and the design is that of two most eminent 
engineers, Sir John Fowler and Mr. Benjamin Baker. The contractor 
was Mr. William Arrol, and the present Tay Bridge and the bridge 
which I have inaugurated to-day will be lasting monuments of his 
skill, resources, and energy. (Cheers.) I have much pleasure in 
stating that, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, the Queen 
has been pleased to create Mr. Matthew William Thompson, Chairman 
of the Forth Bridge Company and of the Midland Railway Company, 
and Sir John Fowler, Engineer-in-Chief of the F^orth Bridge, baronets of 



LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO SCOTLAND 219 

the United Kingdom. (Loud cheers.) The Queen has also created, 
or intends to create, Mr. Benjamin Baker, Sir John Fowler's colleague, 
a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George 
(cheers), and to confer on Mr. William Arrol, the contractor, the 
honour of a knighthood. (Cheers.) I must not allow this oppor- 
tunity to pass without mentioning the valuable assistance which has 
been rendered to the companies by Mr. Wieland, their able and inde- 
fatigable Secretary, who deserves especial praise for the admirable way 
in which he has carried out the important financial arrangements 
essential in a scheme of such magnitude. (Cheers.) Before con- 
cluding, I must express my pleasure at seeing here Major-General 
Hutchinson and Major Marindin, two of the inspecting officers of the 
Board of Trade. (Cheers.) Although in this country great under- 
takings of the kind which we are celebrating this day are wisely wholly 
left to the enterprise and genius of private individuals without aid or 
favour from the State, yet, in connection with these particular works, 
Parliament, I am informed, for the first time associated officers of the 
Board of Trade with those practically engaged in the construction of 
this magnificent bridge from its commencement by requiring the Board 
of Trade to make quarterly reports to be laid before Parliament as to 
the nature and progress of the works. This most important and 
delicate duty has been performed by Major-General Hutchinson and 
Major Marindin, and I now congratulate them on the completion of 
their responsible duties, which they have carried out in a way that 
redounds credit to themselves and to the department which they so 
ably serve. (Cheers.) 

The Midland representatives in the Forth Bridge Company at present 
are Sir Ernest Paget and Mr. W. U. Heygate, who has had a seat on 
the Board since it was first constituted. 

IMPORTANT POWERS ACQUIRED 

As long ago as the year 1859 the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Company obtained power to swallow up the "East Lancashire" 
Railway, an independent undertaking extending from the Midland 
at Colne to Liverpool, and also to Manchester. 

The Midland Board saw the importance of maintaining open 
communication, and therefore obtained running powers for its own 
engines and trains over the East Lancashire section. On June ist, 
1880, the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company opened its new line 
from Chatburn to Hellifield, and the Midland opened its new station 
at Hellifield, and the through traffic was exchanged at that station. 
However, as the point of junction had been transferred from Colne, 
the Midland secured powers to run from Hellifield, under which, since 
August ist, 1888, the Company works its own engines and trains to 
the " Exchange" Station at Liverpool, and to "Victoria" at Man- 
chester, and thus, by means of its running powers, round Manchester 



220 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

to the Ancoats Junction, thence over the Sheffield and Midland 
joint railway to Marple and New Mills, where once again the Midland 
Railway is joined. Thus it will be seen that the wisdom of the 
Midland Board in securing the powers over the East Lancashire 
in 1857 has now had the effect of giving a complete alternative 
route extending from Ambergate Junction to Hellifield, where it forms 
a very valuable feeder to the Settle and Carlisle Railway, and fully 
accounts for the desire of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company 
that the new route to Carlisle should not be abandoned. 

Although the Midland Company's main trunk line terminates at 
Carlisle, it is also interested as joint owner in a piece of joint railway 
in Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire extending from Castle Douglas 




FIRST-CLASS JOINT DINING CARRIAGE, BUILT 1899 
(Midland and Glasgow and South Western). 

to Stranraer and Port Patrick. By means of using the Glasgow and 
South Western route as far as Castle Douglas the Midland obtain 
access to the joint property at Castle Douglas, and have direct 
communication with Lame, Belfast, and the north of Ireland. 

Originally the Port Patrick Railway Company, as long ago as 
August loth, 1857, obtained powers to construct a line from Castle 
Douglas to Port Patrick and to build a harbour at the latter port. 
The harbour works were duly formed, but so great was the violence 
of the sea at this wild and unprotected coast that the works were 
gradually undermined and completely wrecked. It afterwards became 
necessary to construct a short branch line to Stranraer in order to 
make that the point of arrival and departure. 

Here at Stranraer, Loch Ryan furnishes a splendidly sheltered 
harbour, the northern end of the Mull of Galloway forming a great 
natural breakwater to the fierce force of the Atlantic and the Irish 
Sea. The Wigtownshire Company, which was formed in July, 1872, 
constructed a branch from Newton Stewart to Wigtown, and after- 



THE STRANRAER ROUTE 



221 



wards to Whithorn. These two companies terminated their existence 
by virtue of an Act of Parliament as from August ist, 1885, when 
the whole of the companies' lines and branches, comprising 82 
miles of line, together with all their rolling stock and other property, 
were transferred to the Port Patrick and Wigtownshire Joint Com- 
mittee. This body is composed of two representatives from each 
of the following companies, namely, the Midland, the London and 
North Western, Caledonian, and Glasgow and South Western Railways, 
to whom the whole of the property jointly belongs, the capital being 
provided in equal proportions. All the four companies send their 
through carriages over this railway, but the locomotive power is 
provided by the Glasgow and South Western and the Caledonian 




THIRD-CLASS JOINT DINING CARRIAGE, BUILT 1899 
(Midland and Glasgow and South Western). 

Companies, so that the engines of the Midland and London and 
North Western Companies are never seen on the system. 

This Joint Committee, soon after coming into possession, set to 
work to greatly alter and improve its property ; more especially was 
this the case at Stranraer, where very handsome and convenient 
transfer stations for goods and passengers, as well as a most com- 
modious harbour, have been constructed. Passengers pass directly 
under cover from the trains to the steamers, the latter being powerful 
and well-found vessels fitted with all the modern appliances. At 
Larne, on the Irish side, an excellent landing-stage and railway 
station combined has been built, so that splendid through communica- 
tion is obtained between the Midland system and the whole of the 
north of Ireland by the shortest sea route. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

SUGGESTED AMALGAMATIONS AND A SECOND MAIN LINE 

ANOTHER very important amalgamation scheme was announced 
in the newspapers officially on October 2oth, 1877, at which 
date it was stated that " negotiations were pending for the acquisition 
of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway jointly by 
the Midland and Great Northern Companies." It appears that 
Colonel Buncombe, the Chairman of the Great Northern, viewed 
with apprehension the large amount of capital being jointly invested 
in the Cheshire Lines and the increased cost for working which the 
Sheffield Company charged. He therefore came to the conclusion 
that the best course to follow would be to get rid of the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire entirely, and he placed a proposal before 
Mr. E. S. Ellis, the Midland Chairman, to the effect that the Sheffield 
Company should be converted into a Midland and Great Northern 
joint railway. 

For ten years previously the Sheffield Company's dividend had 
averaged only 2 3^. 6d. consequently the offer of 4 per cent, 
made by the other two companies was a most liberal one. However, 
at a meeting of the chairmen of the three lines held at King's Cross 
on November gth, 1877, Mr. (now Sir Edward) Watkin, on behalf 
of his Company, demanded another half per cent. Thus the negotia- 
tions failed, and the Sheffield Company immediately issued the follow- 
ing statement: 

" The directors of the Sheffield Company announce that they have 
received a notification from the chairmen of the Midland and Great 
Northern Companies that the negotiations for the joint purchase of 
the Sheffield undertaking are at an end. The terms proposed by the 
Great Northern and Midland were an ultimate rent charge of 4 per 
cent., which was declined by the Sheffield Board, who proposed in 
return 4^ per cent., with contingent reserves. The latter terms are 
now declined by the two companies, and the negotiations initiated 
by them are at an end." 



222 



THE NOTTINGHAM ROUTE TO LONDON 223 

It will thus be seen that los. per cent, was the small "rock" 
on which these most important negotiations were wrecked. It would 
certainly have been a most advantageous arrangement for the share- 
holders of the Sheffield Company had it been carried into effect, 
but in that case there would have been no Great Central Railway 
to London to-day, and a vast capital expenditure would have been 
saved. The shareholders would further have had the benefit of a 
fixed 4 per cent, investment, which is a vastly different position to 
that held by the Great Central shareholders at the present time. 

If the Askern Junction and Rushton joint railway had been carried 
out, a very excellent communication would have been formed between 
the Midland and North Eastern systems; but as the Bill was not 
sanctioned by Parliament it became necessary in order to carry the 
constantly increasing traffic to arrange for a new route which should 
avoid the delays which frequently took place at Normanton. The 
Midland and North Eastern Companies, on July i6th, 1874, obtained 
powers jointly to construct a railway about 15! miles in length to 
connect the Midland at Wath Road Junction, Swinton, with the North 
Eastern at Knottingley Ferry Bridge, the Midland Company to have 
running powers to York and the North Eastern to have similar powers 
to run its own trains to Sheffield. 

This useful link in the chain was opened for goods trains on 
May i Qth, 1879, and on July ist of the same year passenger traffic 
commenced, a new service of trains, worked by Midland engines 
and carriages, running from Sheffield to York. At the present time 
through carriages are run by this route between Newcastle- on -Tyne 
and Bristol ; also between York and Bournemouth via Bath. 

In connection with the Swinton and Knottingley route the Midland 
Company from Milford Junction obtains access for its traffic over the 
North Eastern rails to Selby and the important port of Hull. 

From the early days of the Midland Counties Railway Nottingham 
was served by a branch line from Trent Junction, but gradually the 
importance of the town and traffic required a more direct route 
both to London and the north. At the same period it became 
evident that the existing main line between Leicester and Kettering 
was overcrowded with traffic, and it was ultimately decided that 
instead of widening that portion of the railway to four sets of rails, 
an alternative main line should be constructed, and the necessary 
powers were obtained by the Acts of 1872-4. The first section 
extends from Kettering to Manton Junction, where it forms a com- 
munication with the Company's Syston and Peterborough line, and 
which is used as far as the Melton Mowbray Junction ; then the 



224 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Melton and Nottingham line was constructed and continued to the 
eastern end of the station at Nottingham, thus reducing the distance 
from London to 123! miles, which, by recent improvements at Bedford 
and Saxby, has been further slightly reduced. 

By means of the then existing line from Nottingham to Radford 
and the extension from Radford to Trowell a perfectly independent 
main line was obtained between Kettering and the junction with the 
Erewash Valley, 5^ miles north of Trent. 

The chief works upon this route are the Corby Tunnel, 1,920 yards, 
and the viaduct between Harringworth and Seaton Tunnel, which 
spans the valley of the Welland and is built of red brick, the height 
being 60 feet and the length about three-quarters of a mile; after 
which the railway passes through the Glaston Tunnel for a distance 
of 1,842 yards. 

North of Melton Junction there are short tunnels at Asfordby and 
Saxelby, followed by Grimstone and Stanton tunnels ; and near to 
Nottingham the railway crosses the River Trent by an iron girder-bridge, 
the three main spans of which are each 100 feet. On December ist, 
1879, the new route was brought into use for goods and mineral traffic, 
twenty trains per day in each direction running via Nottingham, 
Melton, and Manton and Kettering. In February and March, 1880, 
the Nottingham and Melton and the Kettering and Manton lines were 
respectively opened for local passenger traffic, but it was not until 
June ist, 1880, that Nottingham received the full advantage of the 
alternative route. However, upon that date a completely new service 
of express trains was put into operation between London, Kettering, 
Nottingham, Sheffield, Leeds, and Bradford. 

The great value of this second main line has been further enhanced 
by the fact that it enables the Midland Company at the present time to 
successfully repel the attacks of the Great Central and the Great 
Northern Companies upon its through Nottingham traffic, which it 
might have experienced some difficulty in doing via the Trent route. 

Within the triangle at Trent Junction the Company, on May ist, 1862, 
opened the Trent Station simply as a convenient centre from which 
passengers could journey. Every passenger train from either London, 
Leeds, Nottingham, or Derby ran to Trent, and the various portions or 
through carriages were then properly arranged for their destination. 

This arrangement, after continuing for a number of years, had 
to be greatly modified, and with the opening of the Nottingham, 
Manton, and Kettering route to London and the necessity for running 
the Manchester expresses with a minimum of stoppages, the Trent 
Station has now become of secondary importance. 



THE EASTERN COUNTIES 227 

Communication with the district roughly embraced between Peter- 
borough, Bourne, King's Lynn, Yarmouth, and Cromer was originally 
provided by a number of independent railway companies, who each 
dealt with a particular portion. For instance, the Peterborough, Wis- 
bech, and Sutton Bridge Railway dealt with one district, the Midland 
and Eastern Railway with the section from Bourne to Spalding and 
Lynn, the Lynn and Fakenham Railway, which connected these towns, 
the Yarmouth Union Railway, and the Yarmouth and Norfolk Railway. 
All these what may be called subsidiary lines were united as the 




SHERINGHAM 
(Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway). 

Eastern and Midlands Railway Company by an Act of August i8th, 
1882. This Company, amalgamated in its turn by virtue of the 
Midland and Great Northern Companies' joint Act, was transferred 
from July ist, 1893, to the Midland and Great Northern Railway 
Companies jointly. The total length of the railway thus acquired 
was 1 88 miles, the capital being provided by both partners in equal 
proportions. The traffic in this case is managed by a Board of six 
directors, three from each system. There are seventy engines, and 
these are controlled by Mr. S. W. Johnson, the Midland Locomotive 
Superintendent ; they are exactly Midland in design and working parts, 
but are painted yellow and carry the letters " M. & G.N. Jt." 



228 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

To save the construction of a duplicate line to Lowestoft the 
joint committee arranged with the Great Eastern Company to convert 
a portion of its railway into the Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Railway, thus 
giving the Midland uninterrupted communication to Lowestoft. 

The joint branch line from Melton Constable to Sheringham and 
Cromer gives access to a very beautiful part of the Norfolk coast, 
which is yearly attracting a large number of visitors. By means of 
the Saxby and Bourne line, constructed by the Midland Company, the 
route to the Norfolk coast is considerably improved and shortened. 
The building of a new station at Saxby and the increase of the radius 
of the well-known Saxby curve have proved very advantageous. 

One of the most remarkable illustrations of the fact that a line which 
is entirely or almost entirely local in its character and in its traffic is 
comparatively valueless and unimportant, yet when it is combined with 
or made a portion of a through route it at once becomes of great 
value and importance, is furnished by the Somerset and Dorset Rail- 
way. Originally there was a Somerset Central Railway Company and 
also a Dorset Railway Company, each dealing with practically only 
local traffic. These two lines the Somerset, a broad-gauge system, 
incorporated June, 1852, and the Dorset, a narrow-gauge system, 
incorporated July, 1856 were amalgamated as the Somerset and 
Dorset Company, with 66 miles of lines. The amalgamated Company, 
with a view to forming a junction with the Midland at Bath, con- 
structed a connecting link 26 miles in length from Evercreech Junction 
to the Midland terminus at Bath. This extension was opened for 
traffic on July 2oth, 1874. The separate existence of this Company, 
however, speedily came to an end, for on November ist, 1875, tne 
line was leased for a period of 999 years jointly to the London and 
South Western and Midland Railway Companies. Thus it came about 
that by means of the Midland branch from Mangptsfield to Bath, the 
jointly leased line from Bath to Poole, and the running powers from 
Poole to Bournemouth, the Midland line stretches in an uninterrupted 
route right through the whole of England from Carlisle in the north 
to Bournemouth in the south. The working of this leased line is one 
of the very few instances in which the whole of the traffic is dealt with 
by engines which are owned by the joint committee who manage 
the line. There are sixty-eight engines, under the control of the 
Locomotive Superintendent of the Midland Railway, and the committee 
is formed of three directors from both the Midland and South Western 
Companies. 

The Dore and Chinley branch, which unites the Midland, Chester- 
field, and Sheffield direct line at Dore with the Ambergate and 



DORE AND CHINLEY LINE 



229 



Manchester line at Chinley, was only constructed after long efforts. 
The district traversed is a picturesque one, and many sanguine persons 
thought that the line would be a valuable one for holiday traffic, 
especially from Sheffield ; but the wild character of the Peak caused 
engineers to pause on the ground of the cost of construction. Holiday 
traffic, moreover, is not at all sufficient to make a line pay, and it soon 
became evident that to be at all remunerative it must form a link 
in through traffic. In 1884 an Act was passed to form an independent 
company to make the Dore and Chinley line, but the scheme did not 











EDALE 
(Dore and Chinley Line). 

attract sufficient financial support, and but for the intervention of the 
Midland the line would never have been formed. The Midland saw 
that the line would give communication from Sheffield to Liverpool, 
Manchester, and also to Buxton, as well as providing communication 
from Nottingham and Chesterfield to the Peak district. It also pro- 
vided an alternative route to Manchester in the event of any obstruction 
on the line between Ambergate and Chinley, and it completed four 
sets of rails from London to Chinley, either by quadruple lines or 
by alternative routes. It also opened up pleasure resorts in a district 
not previously touched by any railway. The Midland obtained 



230 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

parliamentary powers in 1888, whereby the scheme was vested in the 
Midland Railway Company, who at once proceeded with the con- 
struction. The line is 20 miles 8 chains long, with two short curves, 
one at each end. The work was of a very heavy character, and 
necessitated two of the longest tunnels on the Midland system, namely, 
the Totley Tunnel, 6,226 yards, and Cowburn Tunnel, 3,727 yards. 
The gradients also were very severe, including long stretches of i in 
100. The most trying piece of the line was that from near Hope 
Station to the mouth of the Cowburn Tunnel, a distance of 5^ miles. 
The Totley Tunnel is of such exceptional length that there is specially 
devised electrical communication in addition to the block system, 
whereby drivers, firemen, guards, or platelayers are able to com- 
municate with the signalmen at each end of the tunnel in the event 
of any accident or obstruction requiring the stoppage of traffic. In 
the event of anything necessitating this arising, all that has to be done 
is to cut or break a special wire, when the alarm bells in the signal- 
boxes will ring and all traffic will be stopped. The same arrangement 
is also carried out in Cowburn Tunnel. The line, which was a very 
costly one to make, was completed and opened for goods traffic in 
the autumn of 1893, and on June ist, 1894, through express trains 
were run over the line from Sheffield to Manchester. The local 
passenger traffic commenced the following month. Messrs. Parry and 
Story were the engineers for this line. 

The last railway purchased by the Midland was that of the Barnolds- 
wick Company, which was formed on August i2th, 1867, to make a 
local line two miles in length from Barnoldswick to Barnoldswick 
Junction to join the Midland, Skipton, and Colne branch. The 
Midland agreed to work the line in 1867, and it was opened on 
February i3th, 1871. It was vested in the Midland and the small 
company dissolved by the Midland Act of 1899. 



LONDON TO L^EEDS VIA NOTTINGHAM AND SHEFFIELD. 

o > L ;> I !ii,,, 

*** is ^ Ii 1 Hi I I i iEiili 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 KO 150 160 170 

CONTOUR OF THE SECOND MAIN LINE via MANTON, NOTTINGHAM, AND SHEFFIELD. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

NEW WORKS 

THE over-sea traffic of the Midland has constantly grown in magni- 
tude and importance, and the value to the system of having its 
own direct outlets for the goods and minerals from the towns and places 
served by the system cannot be overrated. By this means it is enabled 
to collect its own traffic, convey it to the quayside on its own wagons, 
and tranship it, under the direct control of its own officials, by its own 
servants, to have full and absolute control of its own quays, berths, and 
the management of a port of its own, thereby avoiding delays, demur- 
rage, and many other disadvantages. To have the power, the space, 
and the means for extending and amplifying the siding, quay, and dock 
accommodation from time to time, as traffic is developed or attracted 
to a port, is a privilege of the most vital concern. When it is con- 
sidered how many of the great centres of industrial and mineral 
activity are to a large extent dependent upon the Midland Company 
for communication between, for instance, Lancashire, Yorkshire, 
Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, and London itself, both 
to and from all parts of the world, the future possibilities in the way of 
development are of the most important character. And it is to this 
end, as well as to meet a great deficiency at Morecambe, that the great 
harbour scheme and works at Heysham have been entered upon, and 
which are at the time of writing in a very advanced stage. 

At Morecambe steamers drawing 14 feet and over have only four 
hours available each tide in which to enter or depart from the harbour. 
The great expansion in the size of passenger and freight-carrying 
steamers rendered it more and more desirable, if not absolutely 
essential, for the Midland to have control of a port with infinitely 
better accommodation in waterway and wharfage. Heysham Harbour 
would not be a practical undertaking but for one very fortunate circum- 
stance. In the Bay of Morecambe, extending right over the mouth of 
the new harbour up to a point where the River Lune falls into the sea, 
there is a great depression or valley in the bed of the bay which is 

231 



232 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

known as Heysham Lake. The depth of this ocean valley ranges from 
24 feet to 156 feet, and at the harbour entrance, even at the lowest 
spring tides, when the water has receded to its minimum limits, there 
is always a depth of water of 36 to 42 feet. Now the scheme of the 
engineers was this : To run out from the cliffs north and south of 
the harbour two great embankments or breakwaters each 900 yards 
long, and forming together a semi-circular or crescent shape, with 
an aperture or opening 100 yards wide at the apex. Each of the 
breakwaters terminates in a very massive concrete head, and their site 
is 300 yards within the low-water mark. By closing the aperture be- 
tween the heads of the two breakwaters whilst the works are in progress 
there is an inclosure of about 180 acres in extent, which, when the 
banks were completed, was reduced to about 140 acres. At the time 
of writing a great army of men, inhabiting two separate and specially 
constructed "colonies," or temporary townships, were engaged in 
widening, strengthening, and completing these great breakwaters, and 
in excavating the inclosed land for the harbour works. Four miles of 
double line, forming the new Heysham branch of the Midland, have 
been completed, whilst outside what will hereafter be the harbour 
entrance a temporary jetty has been constructed for the use of the 
steamers and barges conveying concrete and materials for the new 
works. The two great breakwaters were commenced in November, 
1897, and they were completed and united by the intervening dam on 
March i7th, 1899. They were formed in the ordinary way by tipping 
earth, and their slopes towards the sea were protected by large pieces 
of rock from the excavations, and afterwards by the permanent stone 
facings from Barrow and Horsforth. The harbour proper will, at the 
outset, be 44 acres in extent, leaving the remainder for future exten- 
sions. It will be 800 yards long, 300 yards wide, and down its centre 
is a pier 300 yards in length. There will be wharfs both north and 
south, and all will be connected by sidings communicating with the 
new branch and the various buildings, etc., required for the storage of 
goods. Twelve miles of temporary railway were used in the excavations, 
eleven steam excavators, eleven locomotives, two steam pile engines, 
six steam pumps of great power, and other plant in proportion, together 
with large cement stores, repairing sheds, etc. The breakwaters keep 
the temporarily sealed harbour free from the tidal action of the waters, 
and the powerful pumps, operating in deep sumps formed in the rock, 
to which all the water was drained, kept the workings clear. 

When the piers and harbour have been completed, and all is in 
readiness, the 100 yards dam which connects the two breakwaters will 
be removed at low tide somewhere, it is expected, towards the end of 



HEYSHAM HARBOUR 233 

1901 and the waters of the bay will flow into the harbour. Then 
steam-dredgers will cut a deep channel 450 yards long between the 
harbour and the bed of the Heysham Lake or Valley, and thus there 
will be a free and open waterway for the largest steamers available at 
all stages of the tide. 

The work is a vast one, and it has required great engineering skill to 
carry it out successfully. At the period when the sea embankments 
were erected and the tidal water excluded from the site of the harbour 
serious difficulties were reported to have been encountered, but it turned 
out that the only obstacles met with were those which had been fore- 
seen and duly provided for by the engineers ; and they were only such 




MANSION HOTEL, HEYSHAM TOXVER. 

as were likely to be met in so big a scheme, for these works may be. 
said to rank second to none in the kingdom for commercial purposes 
carried out by one great company. 

The Midland Company have already one very important adjunct to 
the new port of Heysham in full operation, namely, what we may call 
the Mansion Hotel, at Heysham Tower, which is delightfully situated 
within a mile of the new harbour. 

The whole of the new works have been and are being executed under 
the supervision of the responsible engineers, Mr. J. A. M'Donald, who 
has associated with him Mr. G. N. Abernethy; and Messrs. Price and 
Wills, of Westminster and Manchester, are the contractors. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE WORKS AT DERBY 

WHEN the three companies were merged in one Midland Com- 
pany in 1844 eacn of them had its own locomotive shops 
established, and all adjoined one another at Derby, which was the great 
connecting centre and the joint passenger station for all three. At that 
period the locomotive and carriage works were combined, and they 
occupied altogether a site of 8J acres, of which the buildings covered 
2\ acres. In 1873 tne carriage and wagon works were placed on a 
separate basis and new works constructed on another estate, thus 
leaving the old site and the adjacent land available for additional works 
necessary for locomotive building and repair. The present locomotive 
works alone occupy an area of over 80 acres, and there are buildings 
covering 20 acres. The works are almost a town, and the employees 
certainly form a community by themselves. The site is somewhat of 
an oval shape, 1,500 feet in width and 3,500 feet in length, and is 
bounded on one side by the Derby Station buildings and offices, the 
main line to London, and on the other side by the Derby Canal. 

It is very difficult to give an adequate idea in words of what these 
stupendous works are, and of the great and manifold operations carried 
on within them. Some parts resemble broad thoroughfares intersected 
by lines of rails, and the visitor is puzzled to find his way about from 
building to building. There are over 5,000 skilled workmen employed, 
earning about ^6,000 per week ; about fifty new engines are turned out 
every year; 130 are provided with new boilers \ and about 900 engines 
undergo repairs during the twelve months. 

The most striking features of the buildings are their lofty roofs ; they 
are admirably heated, lighted, and ventilated, and they are almost 
entirely of one storey, the heavy character of the operations necessitat- 
ing their being conducted on the ground floor. Electricity and gas are 
the artificial illuminants, both of which are provided by the Company's 
own plant. The works also embrace a laboratory in charge of a fully 
qualified chemist and his assistants, drawing offices for locomotive work 

234 



LOCOMOTIVE CONSTRUCTION 235 

and machine tools, millwrights' department, stores, and photographic 
studio. The principal workshops and buildings which come under the 
immediate control of the Works Manager are as follows : Drawing 
offices, pattern shop, foundry, smiths' shop, boiler shop, wheel and axle 
shop, tender shop, machine shop, erecting shop, and paint shop. 

To commence the construction of a set of new engines of, say, ten or 
more in number, if they are for goods traffic, they will be of a fixed 
standard pattern, the main features of which are six coupled wheels of 
5 feet diameter with 1 8-inch cylinders with 26-inch stroke, which have 
been found so effective for their work that there has been very little 
alteration in recent years. 

But with regard to passenger express engines a very different state of 
affairs prevails. The Locomotive Superintendent becomes aware, 
through the reports of his assistants, that engines of greater power 
are required for working certain traffic in consequence either of increase 
of speed being required or the load on certain trains becoming heavier. 
Another object in view in the construction of larger engines is as far as 
possible to avoid double-engine running. The Locomotive Superin- 
tendent has to decide and determine what are the best means of 
meeting the requirements of the traffic and overcoming the difficulties 
indicated. 

Locomotives of greater power can be obtained either by an increase 
in the size of cylinders or higher working steam pressure or by smaller 
driving wheels, or it may be by the combination of all three ; or again, 
the object desired may be best secured by having large single driving 
wheels, larger cylinders, and higher pressure ; or by a new utilisation of 
four coupled driving wheels. 

The system or principle which he intends to adopt depends very 
greatly on the gradients of the lines engines with single driving 
wheels being chiefly employed on the more level portions and those 
with coupled wheels on the more severe gradients for the dictum of 
George Stephenson, unfortunately for locomotive superintendents, that 
no gradient should exceed that of i in 330, or 16 feet in a mile, has long 
been discarded owing to the pressure of circumstances. Now loco- 
motive superintendents have to provide power for carrying heavy loads 
at high speeds up gradients as steep as i in 90. 

In determining the mechanical means which are to give the increased 
power demanded, very careful consideration is involved as to the nature 
of the traffic, the route to be traversed, and the length of the journey j 
and it is in the practical mastery of this problem that the superinten- 
dent achieves the best working results for the capital expended. It is 
this practical test in actual working and the more perfect utilisation of 



236 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the forces at their command that decides everything. The engine, to 
be a success, has to do what it was designed to do, and it must convey 
the traffic more speedily or more economically than its predecessor. 

Of course, this is only a continuation of the steady, but none the less 
wonderful, stream of progress which has been witnessed from the time 
of the earliest locomotives. As trains have grown in length and 
increased in speed and covered greater distances without stopping, 
so locomotives have had to be developed in weight, size, and power. 

Thus, on the formation of the Midland Railway in 1844, a loco- 
motive with its tender, in working order, had reached a stage of develop- 
ment till they weighed about 25 tons complete. This showed an 
increase from the earliest locomotives on the Leicester and Swannington 
Railway, when they weighed : engine, 9 J tons ; tender, 3 J tons ; or a 
total of 13 tons weight. So that the size and weight of locomotives 
had been practically doubled in the twelve years from 1832 to 1844. 

Again, since 1844 the increase has been continuous until the middle 
of 1900, when the weight of the most modern Midland locomotives, 
such as that shown at the Paris Exhibition in 1900, fully loaded, 
reaches a total of 100 tons, or a four-fold increase in fifty-six years. 

But it is necessary to point out that this raises altogether another set 
of problems and considerations, which may be put very briefly in this 
way. The lines constructed in 1844, with all the necessary bridges, 
culverts, etc., were only required to carry engines of 25 tons. But the 
early engineers were wise in their generation, and made a great margin 
of allowance, and so constructed the works that they would carry much 
greater weights than they had any idea of carrying at the time they 
were built. 

These circumstances, and the gradual relaying and rebuilding of 
bridges, etc., on the same wise principles, have given locomotive super- 
intendents a much freer hand than they would otherwise have had. 
Because not only is there the individual increase in the weight of each 
engine, but provision has also to be made for the maximum weight 
possible by having two of the heaviest engines attached to the train 
running in one direction, and two similar engines attached in like 
manner to another train travelling in an opposite direction, and all four 
engines rushing on to one viaduct at the same instant, when a fourfold 
increase in weight would have to be sustained. 

This is where the happy combination and co-operation comes into 
play between the locomotive department and the engineers' depart- 
ment of the way and works. The superintendent of the locomotive 
department must only construct such engines as the road will carry ; 
and on the other hand the engineer has to so strengthen and improve 



WEIGHING A LOCOMOTIVE 239 

the permanent way, etc., that it will have an ample margin of strength 
after sustaining any strains which may be thrown upon it. 

A design having been decided upon, the necessary drawings are 
prepared, which are forwarded to the works manager, together with the 
order for the number of engines to be built. 

The works manager is then in a position to know exactly every nut, 
bolt, plate, casting, and every part that will be necessary, and he 
instructs the foremen of the various shops accordingly. The patterns 
are prepared, and the necessary castings of brass, steel, or iron, as the 
case may be, are made in the foundry; and when complete are for- 
warded to the machine shop, where they are turned, bored, planed, and 
trued exactly to proper size. 

The wrought-iron work is, of course, forged in the smiths' shop. 
The boiler shop, like all the others, is filled with many special machines 
and special tools of all kinds. The boiler, fire-box, and smoke-box are 
all furnished by this department complete, and the boilers are tested 
with hydraulic pressure and with steam before leaving this department. 

The wheels, axles, and springs are all prepared in special shops, and 
are subjected to the severest tests and the closest examination before 
being sent out for use. 

When the whole of the parts are completed they all gravitate to the 
erecting shops, where they are all put together : first the frame plates, 
then the stays between them, then the cylinders, next the boiler and 
fire-box complete are lifted and lowered into position ; then the work- 
ing parts are put in, and powerful cranes lift the completed monster 
into the air and deposit it upon its wings of movement the wheels 
and axles and it becomes almost a living thing. 

Of course, before the engine is exposed to public gaze it is taken 
into the paint shop, has a tender coupled up, and is put through a 
number of preliminary trials, after which it is placed in the effective 
list of engines in a given district. 

But before an engine does any work or running, either preliminary 
or otherwise, it is placed in the balances and weighed up, so that the 
weight not only of the engine as a whole, but the exact weight which 
is sustained by each wheel, can be set down to a pound. 

It is of the most vital importance that a locomotive should be equally 
balanced, so that the weight resting on the wheels on each side shall 
be equal, and also to see that extra weight of the desired amount 
rests upon the driving wheels, to ensure that when running the 
necessary adhesion between the driving wheels and the rails will be 
obtained. 

This weighing up of the load resting on each individual wheel 



2 4 o THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

demonstrates the accuracy with which the whole engine and its 
arrangement of parts has been constructed. 

A most ingenious weighing machine has been designed for this 
important work, and may be said to consist of a divided weighing 
platform, which practically amounts to a number of independent 
weighing machines, which give a separate register of the weight resting 
on each individual wheel; and thus the designer of the locomotive 
has the surest proof of the exact distribution of the weight which he 
intended to create. 

Having been subjected to many coatings of paint and varnish, it is 
sent forth to career to and fro in the service of man. 

It would be obviously impossible to describe here these works in 
technical detail; but a few dimensions may prove serviceable and 
interesting. There are two iron foundries, one 250 feet by 90 feet, 




STANDARD EXPRESS ENGINE. SINGLE DRIVING WHEELS. 

and another 215 feet by 45 feet. The pattern shops are 180 feet by 42 
feet ; the smiths' shops, of which there are two, contain seventy-five fires 
and ten steam hammers; the boiler shop is 270 feet by 45 feet; the 
wheel and axle shops occupy four bays, each 270 feet long by 45 feet 
wide, and each bay is provided with travelling and walking cranes of 
great capacity, with hydraulic presses, one of which exerts a force of 
470 tons ; the fitting shops of six bays are each 450 feet long, with 
nearly 500 machines for all purposes, and forming part of an extensive 
building 450 feet square; the two erecting shops, each 450 feet by 
50 feet, are capable of accommodating 108 engines. In addition, 
there are tender shops of great capacity, and very powerful machinery 
of the most efficient character is provided wherever required. 

The cost of a locomotive varies according to circumstances, in- 
cluding its design, the number to be built at one time, the price of 
coal, materials, and labour ; but, broadly speaking, it may be estimated 
at from ,2,500 to ,3,000. 



LOCOMOTIVE CONSTRUCTION 243 

Having thus briefly sketched the processes of locomotive building, 
it now becomes necessary to shortly indicate the chief characteristics 
of the various types of modern Midland engines. 

During the whole period covered by the Company's existence the 
Midland locomotives have always been well abreast of the times and of 
the work which they were called upon to perform ; and it is safe to say 
that at the present moment the leading types of engines which have 
been designed and constructed by Mr. S. W. Johnson, at the Com- 
pany's works at Derby, are equal to the finest locomotives in any part 
of the world. They are inferior to none either in speed, in the load 
they convey, in their ability to ascend heavy gradients, as well as in 
their economy in working and in general efficiency. 

However much locomotives may vary in technical detail as well as 
in outward appearance and these variations are of extreme interest to 
locomotive engineers and railway specialists it yet remains true that 
the general principles of all are more or less closely allied to one 
another. And, however widely their construction and dimensions may 
differ, all these variations or special arrangements are mere devices for 
the better and more efficient utilisation of their power. The four great 
points in a locomotive are, of course : 

1. The boiler in which the steam is generated. 

2. The cylinders in which it is utilised to force the piston alter- 
nately from end to end, the length of the stroke being regulated by 
the throw of the crank according to the length of the cylinder. 

3. The throw of the crank of the axle of the driving wheel ; and 

4. The size of the driving wheel. 

Hence the four important questions regarding all locomotives are : 
first, the diameter of the cylinders ; second, the length of the stroke ; 
third, the diameter of the driving wheels ; and fourth, the pressure of 
steam in the boiler. It is upon these points that the whole of the 
changes in locomotive construction are rung; they are the keynotes 
which dominate the whole ; and these particulars being given, all the 
rest, to a practical engineer, becomes more or less a mere matter of 
detail. 

Of course there are other questions which arise on different railways, 
such, for example, as to whether locomotives should have their cylinders 
inside the frame, as in all the Midland, or outside, as in American and 
other types. Further, the class of coal or fuel which can be secured in 
different localities has also to be carefully taken into consideration ; 
and modifications may be considered necessary in the construction of 



244 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

fire-boxes and boiler-tubes to meet the particular circumstances. Then 
there are other locomotives, of which the Midland own a number, 
which run on the London underground railways, which are not allowed 
to discharge any steam in the tunnels, and which are therefore provided 
with special condensing apparatus by means of which the steam, instead 
of being discharged up the chimney into the atmosphere, is turned 
into the cold-water tank and condensed. 

But notwithstanding all these variations, the tendency of all railway 
companies has for a long time been to adopt certain standard patterns, 
which gives the advantage a very great one of all parts being inter- 
changeable. Each locomotive superintendent, it is true, has his own 
views and his own designs, and this has led to the construction of 
engines of great variety, which the superintendents believe to be the 
most advantageous for their own particular railways. This has brought 
new ideas to the front, and has promoted the efficiency of locomotive 
power generally, because each system and every new principle has been 
brought to the test of practical experience. 

In the early days of English railways the lines were made compara- 
tively straight, and engines with three rigid axles ran steadily and with 
great advantage ; whereas in America the early lines had considerable 
curves, and therefore bogies were of great use in giving security in 
passing over them. But the bogie which forms so conspicuous a 
feature in modern locomotives, in dining cars and in long carriages, 
was an English invention : and it was actually applied to the loco- 
motive known as "Puffing Billy," built as early as 1813, and rebuilt 
with bogies in 1815; also, in 1833, R. Stephenson and Co., of New- 
castle-on-Tyne, constructed an engine known as " Davy Crocket " 
which had a leading bogie, this engine being exported to America. 
An imported American locomotive with a leading bogie also opened 
the first section of the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway in 1840. 
But it was undoubtedly the American experience that practically 
demonstrated the great utility and value of the bogie principle. It 
gives greater freedom in running, as well as equalises the weight on the 
four front wheels, and indeed it is now easy to see that very few more 
passenger engines will be built in Great Britain without a bogie. 

Mr. Johnson was one of the first to recognise the value of the 
leading bogie for fast passenger engines, and its reintroduction, so to 
speak, to this country is the direct outcome of the American results. 

At the present time the Midland are constructing six distinct types 
of engines for their traffic, viz. first, an express bogie engine with single 
driving wheels; second, bogie express with four coupled driving 
wheels ; third, for local passenger traffic there are bogie tank engines 



TYPES OF MIDLAND ENGINES 245 

with four coupled wheels in front ; fourth, standard goods engines ; 
fifth, tank engines for local goods traffic practically a goods engine 
without a tender; and sixth, small special engines on four wheels, 
which go round very sharp curves in dock or brewery sidings. 

Mr. Kirtley constructed the first engine built at the Derby works in 
September, 1851. He also built express engines having "single" 
driving wheels, 6 feet 6 inches diameter, also coupled engines, some 
6 feet 2 inches, and forty-eight others (the "800" class) 6 feet 8J inches 
diameter, and goods engines with six coupled wheels of 5 feet 2 inches, 
but none of these can be considered "modern," although it must be 
mentioned that all the "800" class, built over thirty years ago, are 
still doing good work. 

In 1876 Mr. S. W. Johnson had the first of his bogie express engines 
("No. 1312") placed upon the line. This design consists of a four- 
wheeled leading bogie and four coupled wheels. The cylinders are 
placed inside, the framing and bearings being also inside. The 
dimensions of the first type of coupled bogie engines were 17^-inch 
cylinders, 26-inch stroke, coupled wheels 6 feet 6 inches, and having a 
boiler pressure of 140 Ibs. At various times these dimensions have 
been increased, until the one illustrated by engine " No. 63 " has 
igj-inch cylinders, 26-inch stroke, coupled wheels 7 feet, and the 
boiler pressure has been increased to 170 Ibs. The total weight of 
this engine with its loaded tender is nearly 100 tons. 

In 1887 Mr. Johnson placed the first of his "single" express engines 
upon the line. These have a leading bogie and a single pair of driving 
wheels. The frames are double and the cylinders inside. The first 
eighteen engines had driving wheels of 7 feet 4 inches diameter and 
cylinders 18 inches diameter. 

"No. 1853," built and sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1889, had 
driving wheels 7 feet 6 inches and cylinders 18^ inches; of this type 
forty-two engines were constructed. 

In 1893 the "179" class was built, having cylinders 19 inches diameter 
and piston valves placed under the cylinders, the driving wheels, as 
before, being 7 feet 6 inches. 

So satisfactory did the whole of the seventy " single " engines prove 
that in 1896 and 1897 Mr. Johnson took another most important step 
in the direction of progress. He constructed five more engines, the 
"115" type, having 3 inches larger driving wheels, ^ inch more cylinder, 
and 10 Ibs. more steam pressure. The tender runs on six wheels, and 
carries 3,500 gallons of water and 4- tons of coal. 

The magnificent locomotive of the Midland, "No. 2601," and named 
the " Princess of Wales," the first of a class of ten built at Derby in 



246 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

1900 and shown at the Paris Exhibition, is a further development of 
this type of "single" engine. The cylinders, stroke, and size of driving 
wheels remain unaltered. The great features of these engines are the 
increased size of the boiler, an enlarged fire-box, which gives increased 
heating surface, and a steam pressure of 180 Ibs. The engine is of 
greater weight, and the tender, instead of running on six wheels, as in 
previous passenger engines, is provided with two four-wheeled bogies, 
and carries no less than 4,000 gallons of water. Ten of these engines 
are at work on the fastest and heaviest expresses. 

The table opposite shows at a glance in historical order the leading 
types of engines on the Midland line at various periods, together with 
the details of the standard pattern express engines now being manu- 
factured by the Company at the Derby works. 

It will be observed from the table of selected locomotives, and 
it is a fact worthy of mention, that as long ago as the years 1839 
and 1840 the Birmingham and Gloucester Company, now a portion 
of the Midland, purchased several locomotives from an American firm 
of builders in Philadelphia, and those engines were found to give 
satisfactory results upon English rails. A period of sixty years has 
now elapsed, and history begins to repeat itself. The circumstances 
attending the re-ordering of American locomotives were explained by 
Sir Ernest Paget to the shareholders of the Company on February i ;th, 
1899, as follows: He said that they would no doubt have seen that 
they had purchased some engines in America, and as that was a new 
departure some explanation would be interesting to them. He might 
say that from the first they would very much have preferred purchasing 
home-made goods, whether engines or anything else, if possible. He 
might say, too, that the question of cost did not enter at all into their 
calculations when they asked for tenders for engines from over the 
water. Their train mileage had been increasing very rapidly of late 
years, the mileage of 1898 showing an increase of more than two 
millions of miles. Their Locomotive Superintendent, Mr. Johnson, 
had for some years been impressing upon them that they worked their 
engines too hard. He believed that if Mr. Johnson could have his 
way he would have seventy-five per cent, of their engines in steam. 
As it was, ninety was very much nearer the number in steam, so that 
they saw at once that there was no margin. He would tell them how 
they were situated as regarded the ordering and the delivery of engines. 
They had at present 170 ordered in England. They commenced in 
December, 1897, and the first engines were to be delivered in July, 
1898, so many per month following. If that delivery had gone on 
properly they would now have had forty-eight of the engines, but they 



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248 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

had not got one. The last order they gave was in December, 1898, 
for twenty engines at a very large cost, but they could not get even 
the promise of one engine for fifteen months, and that order would not 
be completed until May, 1900. Engines were a necessity to them; 
they must have them ; so they determined to try two firms in America 
the Baldwin and the Schenectady. They gave orders for ten engines 
in each case, the delivery in one instance being in ten weeks from the 
time all the drawings and so forth were received, and in the other case 
the shipment from America was to be in four months. So that they 
saw that, whereas in England they could not get an engine in fifteen 
months, in America they could get twenty in four. They needed no 
further justification than that, and, thinking so, they had doubled the 
order to one of the firms. The engines would be of the " Mogul " 
type ; they would be essentially American, but with certain alterations 
which their Superintendent thought necessary. They would have 
copper fire-boxes and copper tubes in the place of steel ones, which 
were used in America. There were other minor details, but the 
engines would practically be American, and they would be very 
interesting to the Midland Company, because they were of the same 
power as their own. It would therefore be interesting to them to see 
the engines running by the side of their own, because Mr. Johnson, 
and he hoped every one of the staff, had determined that they should 
have fair play from beginning to end. 

These engines have been delivered, thirty by the Baldwin and ten by 
the Schenectady works, and they are now at work in the ordinary way, 
giving satisfactory results. 

The first question which will naturally be asked is, "What are the 
special points of difference between these new American engines and 
the ordinary English locomotives for goods traffic ? " Without entering 
too much into technical details, it may be summed up in a few words 
that the English goods engine has six wheels coupled, and its cylinders 
are placed inside, that is, between the frames and out of sight, whereas the 
American goods engine, known as the " Mogul " type, has eight wheels, 
the leading pair being small and capable of turning in the required 
direction when passing round curves, followed by six wheels of 5 feet 
diameter coupled together, and the cylinders are placed outside. At 
first sight it is probable that Englishmen will be struck with the amount 
of their " machinery " ; as a fact, there are no more working parts, but 
those which do exist appear upon the outside, and can be plainly seen. 
In English goods engines the upper parts of the wheels are covered 
over by splashers ; but in the American engines the driver's foot-plate 
or "running-board," as it is termed in America, is high up above the 



AMERICAN ENGINES RE-INTRODUCED 249 

six coupled wheels of 5 feet diameter. Upon the boiler are placed 
what at first may appear to be two domes : one of these, the nearest 
to the chimney, is, however, a circular box to contain sand, to be 
applied in front of the driving wheels to prevent slipping in case of 
wet or greasy rails, and the second dome only is used for the purpose 
of obtaining dry steam from the boiler for conveyance to the cylinders. 
One of the most important features in the new engines is the American 
cab. When the early locomotives for the Liverpool and Manchester, 
Leicester and Swannington, and other pioneer railways were built no 
protection whatever was given to the driver and fireman against wind 
and rain. Gradually a weather-board and a little shelter became 
usual, but for some reason there seemed to be an opinion that if a 
driver and fireman were protected from the weather they would not 
perform their duties so well. The opinion of the writer is, however, 




ONE OF THE BALDWIN ENGINES, BUILT 1899. 

quite in the opposite direction, for, when travelling on American 
engines at speeds of over 80 miles an hour, the drivers, although well 
sheltered and provided with a comfortable seat, performed their duties 
with the greatest care and efficiency. Indeed, there can be no question 
that a driver placed in a convenient sheltered cab is far more likely to 
give attention to work than a man wet through with rain and snow and 
half frozen. 

To give an idea of the power of the new Midland engines, of which 
" No. 2501 " was the first to be sent from the Baldwin works, it is only 
necessary to say that there are two cylinders of 18 inches diameter 
by 24 inches stroke, and six coupled wheels of 5 feet diameter. In 
those dimensions there is nothing very surprising, but when we come 
to consider the boiler the facts unroll themselves. The heating surface 
of the fire-box is 125 square feet; of the tubes, 1,247 square feet; total, 
1,372 square feet ; and the boiler working pressure is 160 Ibs. per square 



250 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

inch. The tenders are of the American pattern, placed upon two 
four-wheeled bogies, and carry nearly 4,000 gallons of water. One 
very important point about these engines is that they are built to 
" standard " patterns. If an accident should occur or a part become 
broken, it is only necessary to telegraph or write to America giving the 
name and number of the part required, and it will be sent over to 
England in less time and at less cost than it could be made here. The 
total weight of engine and tender loaded is 80 tons 3 cwt. 14 Ibs. 

The Schenectady engines are essentially of the same type, but they 
are 7,000 Ibs. heavier and have a six-wheeled tender practically of the 
English pattern. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

THE CARRIAGE AND WAGON WORKS 

WHEN the Midland Company was formed and had been in 
working operation for a year, its rolling stock consisted of 
282 carriages and 1,256 wagons, and their weights were as follows : 

First-class carriages, 4 tons 10 cwt, composite, 4 tons 5 cwt. ; second- 
class, 4 tons ; third class, 4 tons 1 2 cwt. ; trucks, 3 tons ; wagons, 3 tons 
5 cwt. 

That was the state of affairs in 1845. In 1900 there were 295 first- 
class carriages, 952 composite, 2,000 third-class, 109 post-office vans, 
467 horse-boxes, 620 passenger vans, or a total of 4,989 vehicles for 
passenger traffic, while there were 118,182 wagons, etc., for goods 
traffic, or a total of 123,171 rolling-stock vehicles. The early carriages 
ran on four wheels, and were short in length and very low in the roof ; 
whereas now the latest carriages are 60 feet long, exclusive of the 
buffers, run on two bogies with six wheels each, and weigh 24 tons for 
for ordinary vehicles and 32 tons each for dining cars. 

There are also corridor carriages, which have been largely introduced 
on the Midland system ; but at present the question as to the rolling 
stock of the future remains in a very unsettled condition, and is a 
source of great thought and anxiety to all concerned, although it is 
pretty clear that corridor cars are in time destined to become almost 
universal. A road through a train from one end to the other is to 
many persons a great source of comfort combined with a feeling of 
additional safety, and where this is so passengers are attracted. On 
the other hand, there are still those who have a distinct preference for 
the compartment system, and who avoid the corridor trains as far as 
possible. There are those who long for the sociability of the corridor 
carriage, and there are others who prefer to rest, sleep, write, smoke, 
or be accompanied by their wives and families in a compartment by 
themselves. 

With a view to meeting the convenience and the comfort of all 

251 



252 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

parties the Midland give equal facilities to both systems ; but certainly 
corridor carriages can only come into general use very gradually, as it 
would be a very serious thing for railway companies to bring about 
a sudden change, because many of the older class of carriages could 
not be converted into the new system, which moreover gives less 
passenger-carrying capacity and less seating room per carriage. It also 
increases the proportion of dead weight in a train to the paying load 
in a ratio which has already seriously taxed the locomotive power on 
all railways. 

Whatever kind of carriage may be the vehicle of the future, there 
is no doubt that the best-paying carriage, as far as the shareholders are 
concerned, is what is known as the six-wheeled one of five compart- 
ments, which gives sitting accommodation for fifty third-class passengers, 
and the weight is only about 12 tons. This return of 45. 2d. per 
mile (of the carriage filled) is the best on the Midland system in 
proportion to the total weight carried. 

But perhaps the greatest advancement in the way of promoting the 
comfort of third-class passengers was when the Midland announced 
in 1875 tnat tne y would in future have all their third-class carriages 
provided with cushioned seats. It is difficult, if not impossible, at this 
time of day to picture the varied feelings which were aroused by a 
change of this apparently simple character. It was said to be an unfair 
attack on the second class of other companies ; an undue pampering of 
the working classes and of the third-class passenger generally ; to all of 
which Mr. E. S. Ellis, the then Chairman of the Company, replied that 
the third class were the best paying customers, and that they were 
entitled to this consideration. That this view was a sound one is 
evidenced by the fact that the change has been almost universally 
adopted, greatly to the public advantage. 

At this period there was a considerable quantity of Midland rolling 
stock, which had been in use for a long time, in third-class carriages 
open from end to end, having straight backs to the seats ; and when 
this cushioning of all third-class carriages was resolved upon these old 
carriages were taken off the line and broken up. 

A railway carriage has an enormously long life, if it does not get out 
of date, and that is all the greater reason why coaches which are being 
built should be of the latest design and character. The wheels and 
bogies upon which the Midland carriages rest can be renewed or 
replaced within a few hours from time to time as required, and it is 
upon these working parts that the main portion of the strain rests; 
and the bodies of the carriages being kept well painted and upholstered 
from time to time will last for many decades. 



BOGIE CARRIAGES 253 

The adoption of the bogie system not only gives greater ease in 
travelling, especially in rounding sharp curves and the crossing of 
junctions, but it equalises the strain and diminishes the jar com- 
municated to the body of the vehicle, and through it to the passengers ; 
and this reduction of shock extends the life and durability of the 
carriage itself. 

The adoption likewise of what is known as the Mansell wheel, 
composed of wooden segments, compressed by hydraulic pressure and 
secured most strongly by bolts and rings, instead of iron spokes, also 
tends to promote silent and smooth running, and thus to preserve the 
carriage. There are likewise a number of other technical details, into 
which it is unnecessary to enter. 




COMPOSITE BRAKE CARRIAGE, No. 916 
(Paris Exhibition, 1889). 

In regard to wagons, the English form of wagon remains very much 
what it was in 1832. The only difference substantially is in the 
size, which is increased, and the weight and carrying capacity from 
3 tons to 8 or 10 tons, which is now the usual load. The other 
changes are of a trifling character, with the single exception of the 
substitution of spring buffers (in a great number of instances and in 
all modern Midland wagons for the solid wooden ones), which are of 
great advantage in lessening the jar during shunting operations or in 
stopping a train. 

There has been no subject more debated, nor one in which the 
English system has been more called in question, than that of the size 
and construction of English goods wagons. It is true that the pro- 
portion of dead weight to the paying load is far greater in England 
than in America and in other countries which use the long bogie 



254 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

wagons for heavy weights and great loads. A modern English wagon 
to carry 10 tons of goods or minerals weighs 5 tons 10 cwt. (dead 
weight) ; whereas one of the large American wagons, weighing 9 tons, 
would carry 30 or 35 tons of goods as one load. But the system of 
short wagons has grown up with the whole system of British railways, 
and forms an integral part of it ; and an attempt to alter it would 
be so vast an undertaking that, except in very special instances, it 
would be almost out of the question even to consider it. However 
much advantage there might be derived, the alteration could not be 
made under existing circumstances ; it would involve such gigantic 
alterations and so great sacrifices that it could not possibly pay. 

To begin with, the colliery companies construct large numbers of 
their sidings at pits with turntables, which are only just large enough to 
turn the present four-wheeled wagon ; their weighing machines are only 
long enough to weigh the same sized wagon ; the coal drops at the great 
coal depots in London and elsewhere can only deal with the present 
wagons ; the turntables at docks and wharfs, the lifts in goods sheds, the 
turntables and lifts at breweries and brewery sidings, and, in fact, on 
the premises of every class of trader using wagons all over the country, 
are only adapted for existing wagons. So that all these various 
companies and individuals have large vested interests in the main- 
tenance of the present size of wagon, and the general adoption of any 
other would be strenuously resented. Thus, although in itself an 
apparently simple question, it is impossible to say what the con- 
sequences or the cost would be involved in any alteration. 

There are many small stations which only require a small quantity of 
traffic, and to send a wagon capable of carrying 30 tons and only 
conveying 3 or 4 tons of goods would be a most extravagant arrange- 
ment. Of course, it is true that for carrying long lengths of timber or 
immense quantities of coal from one given point to another where 
there are suitable arrangements at each end for dealing with it a great 
saving of locomotive power would be effected. Whatever may be the 
ultimate outcome of the discussion of this important question, British 
railway companies do not see their way to carry out this change at 
present, and in order to make any alteration pay a constant stream of 
heavy traffic must be assured. 

The Midland are doing their utmost to secure all reasonable 
advantages to traders by largely increasing the supply of "covered" 
goods wagons, or what the Americans call "box cars," which are 
far more satisfactory for the conveyance of goods than the ordinary 
open wagon covered with a sheet. Not only do they hold a greater 
quantity of paying load, but there is no danger of damage to goods 



CARRIAGE CONSTRUCTION 255 

through sheets being defective, neither is there any risk of fire owing to 
sparks from the engine. 

The process of carriage construction is briefly as follows : Two 
longitudinals, known as " sole bars," form the sides of the main under- 
frame of the vehicle, upon which is afterwards to rest the inclosing 
superstructure, or body of the carriage. The ends of each of these 
" sole bars " are strongly attached to each other by the two headstocks, 
or ends of the under-frame, and the whole strongly stayed together. 
This, with the various stays and struts, makes an extremely strong and 
rigid frame, capable of resisting strains in all directions, and forms the 
foundation, so to speak, of the carriage, and is complete in itself. In 
the largest carriages the staying is most elaborate, and is accomplished 
by means of tension bars, or tie-rods, which, when properly adjusted, 
give great strength and rigidity to the structure. 

The body of the carriage in which passengers travel is quite a 
separate part and is also complete in itself. The floor of the carriage 
is next put together, and corner and intermediate door and window 
pillars or uprights are fixed, and bars or ribs are adjusted to support 
the roof. The whole is then inclosed inside and out with panelling 
of the most suitable timber. The whole of the woodwork is of the 
strongest and best possible character and is all prepared by special 
machinery for each part. The doors are then fixed in position, the 
window-glass is fixed, and the body of the carriage is then placed 
on the under-frame, to which it is firmly secured and bolted. Then 
the whole structure is lifted by cranes, and the wheels or bogies, as 
the case may be, are secured in position. 

The structure is now complete in its skeleton, and the seats having 
been fixed, the painters, decorators, and upholsterers commence their 
important work, for the embellishment of a Midland carriage is now of 
an elaborate and costly character. 

The selection of woods and panellings for internal decorative pur- 
poses has become a work of art, and the Midland have always a very 
valuable stock of the most costly woods for the purpose at the Derby 
works. The carriages having thus been constructed and fitted in- 
ternally, the continuous brake apparatus and the hot-water pipes are 
fitted for conveying hot water from the boiler of the engine to the 
carriages in winter; special appliances for dining cars or lavatory 
purposes are put in; spring buffers, couplings, etc., are fixed, and 
the painting and varnishing, and the crest of the Midland having 
been emblazoned on the doors of the first-class compartments, the 
carriage is sent out into active service. 

In addition to building carriages for their own system exclusively, 



256 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the Midland also construct some of the joint stock used in conjunction 
with other railways, and particularly for Scottish traffic in conjunction 
with the North British and Glasgow and South Western Railways. 

It is not too much to say that the latest productions from the 
Midland carriage works at Derby are really the highest examples 
of the coachbuilders art, and are models of utility, beauty, and 
stability. 

The carriage and wagon works occupy a site between the Midland 
line to Birmingham and the turnpike road to London, 86 acres in 
extent, of which 24 are covered by buildings which are supplied with 
the latest and most useful machinery for all purposes. 

In addition to the office at the entrance, there are seven main 
buildings and three timber store sheds, all widely separated from 
each other for safety in case of fire. Over 3,500 workmen are 
employed, and the belts driving the whole of the machinery in all 
the buildings run under the floors, which are thus left clear for the 
operations of the workmen. 

Of these seven main buildings the dimensions are as follows : 

Feet. 

Wagon shop . . 320 x 200 

Carriage shop . . . 400 x 200 

Carriage painting . . . 400 x 300 

Trimming, finishing, and sewing shops . 400 x 300 

Sawmill . . 320x200 

Fitting, machine, wheel-lathes, and wood-wheel shops, 220 x 200 
feet; smithy, with over 100 rows of hearths, spring shop, bolt and 
wheel shop, 220 x 200 feet; and general stores, iron and brass foundry, 
etc., 220 x 200 feet. The buildings are all of one storey, and they are 
admirably lighted and ventilated; and there are over 12 miles of 
sidings connecting them with each other and with the various lines 
of the Company. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 
WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF ITS ADMINISTRATORS 

THE general scheme of the administration of the Midland Railway 
Company is clearly illustrated in the chart on page 259. 

The administration of a great line of railway like the Midland system 
is, as a matter of necessity, somewhat complicated ; but when clearly 
explained it will be found that the whole has been reduced by division 
and subdivision into what may be termed simple elements in branches 
and departments. Supreme central control is, of course, a sine qua non 
in all matters involving general policy or principles, and while a great 
measure of local control is permitted on what are recognised lines of 
dealing either with the ordinary passenger or goods traffic and the 
arrangement of the staff, yet everything has to be reported to head- 
quarters at Derby to be there properly recorded and confirmed. The 
system of management in general is a combination of the utmost 
possible freedom of action within clearly defined limits to those in 
authority at the various centres, consistent with all matters involving 
questions of policy or matters of vital importance raising questions of 
principle being submitted to the chief officials and the directors of 
the Company at headquarters. 

But while this may be true as a general statement of fact, it ought to 
be pointed out that while small matters can be safely left with local 
representatives and local authority, the utmost vigilance and supervision 
is constantly being exercised by the chief officials to keep in the very 
closest touch with all matters concerning the branches of the service or 
the departments with which they are connected. 

Every matter, whether ordinary or extraordinary, has, as a matter of 
fact, to be reported to headquarters either by an ordinary return or by 
a special report, and dealt with by the heads of departments according 
to the requirements of the case. 

s 257 



MAPOFMIDLAND RAILWAY AND ITS CONNECTIONS. 



THE DIRECT 

PICTURESQUE ROUTE 

THROUGH THE 

CENTRE OF ENGLAND 

TO THE 

PRINCIPAL TOWNS 



The Most Interesting Route 
TO SCOTLAND 



1M THE -MIDLAND RAILWAY COMPANY ARE 
GENERAL CARRIERS 
TO ALL PARTS or 

GREAT BRITAIN & THE CONTINENT. 




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260 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Primarily the whole control of the system is vested by the pro- 
prietors or shareholders in a body of fifteen directors, of whom four 
retire annually. 

The following is a complete list of those gentlemen who have held 
the office of director on the Midland system from 1844 to 1901 : 

George Hudson. William Longsdon. 

John Ellis. W. P. Price. 

Samuel Beale. J. F. Bell. 

Joseph Holdsvvorth. William Hannay. 

W. E. Hutchinson. E. S. Ellis. 

Josiah Lewis. Sir James Allport. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart. Timothy Kenrick. 

William Murgatroyd. C. H. Jones. 

W. L. Newton. . Richard Birkin. 

Abel Peyton. George Hounsfield. 

John Taylor. Sir M. W. Thompson, Bart. 

Charles Tee. G. B. Lloyd. 

John Waddingham. J. W. Cropper. 

Samuel Waters.* Sir Joseph Whitworth. 

Henry Youle. Grosvenor Hodgkinson 

George Byng Paget. Hugh Mason. 

Sir Isaac Morley. Michael Biddulph. 

Sir Joseph Paxton. Robert Rankin. 

E. H. Barwell. Lord Burton. 

William Beverley. W. L. Beale. 

Francis Carbutt. Sir W. Coddington, Bart., M.P. 

John Mercer. John Noble. 

William Smith (Sheffield). 

PRESENT DIRECTORS. 

Sir Ernest Paget, Bart. G. Behrens. 

Charles Thomas. J. W. Oxley. 

W. U. Heygate. The Rt. Hon. Lord Belper. 

Sir F. T. Mappin, Bart., M.P. The Rt. Hon. Lord Farrer. 

H. T. Hodgson. J. C. Carter. 

L. R. Starkey. W. H. Hodges. 

R. A. Allison, M.P. C. Booth, junr. 

Sir Henry Wiggin, Bart. 

The directors themselves appoint from their own number their own 
chairman and vice-chairman, and they have also the power of appoint- 
ing the whole of the officials and staff necessary for the working of 
the line. Indeed, it is expressly stated that there is always a right of 
appeal on the part of any servant of the Company to the directors by 
way of memorial through the head of the department concerned. By 
this means the directors retain very large general powers in their own 
hands, but as a matter of fact the general working and management of 

* The name of Samuel Waters is given in the Midland Railways Consolidation 
Act, 1844, as one of the first directors of the Company, but there is no record of his 
ever having attended a Board meeting. 



JOINT RAILWAYS 261 

all departments is vested in a sub-committee of directors acting in con- 
junction with the responsible head of the department. 

The directors meet weekly for the transaction of the ordinary busi- 
ness of the Company ; but in addition to this the Board of Directors 
is split up into seven important and several subsidiary sub-committees, 
the principal sub-committees being Traffic, Finance, Locomotive, Way 
and Works, Carriage and Wagon, Stores, Hotels and Refreshment- 
rooms. Further, there is a General Purposes Committee, which con- 
sists of the whole Board of Directors. This General Purposes Com- 
mittee's functions are very important, as they decide as to the carrying 
out of new works, the provision of increased rolling stock or machinery 
involving capital outlay exceeding ^100, and also the acquisition and 
disposal of lands and property. The nature of the business dealt with 
by the other sub-committees is sufficiently indicated by their titles. The 
minutes of each of these sub-committees are submitted to and con- 
firmed by the Board, and are not generally considered to be operative 
until they have been approved by the Board of Directors. 

The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Company are ex ojficio 
members of all Midland committees, and they are also representatives 
to the Railway Companies Association ; and all directors who have 
seats in either House of Parliament are members of the Parliamentary 
Committee of the Railway Companies Association. A representative 
director is also elected as a delegate to attend the committees of 
the Railway Clearing House and also the Irish Railway Clearing 
House. 

The duties of the directors are also further largely increased by 
representing the interests of the Midland Railway Company on the 
joint committees responsible for the management and working of the 
various railways of which the Midland Company is joint owner, or in 
which it has more or less large sums of money invested. 

In this way directors of the Midland Company are appointed to 
serve in conjunction with the representatives of other lines on the 
following joint committees : 

Ashby and Nuneaton, and Enderby\ Jointly owned with London and 
branch f North Western. 

Bristol joint station and line, Clifton"\ 
and Bristol, Bristol Port Railway I 

and pier, Severn and Wye and 1- Jointly owned with Great Western. 
Severn Bridge, Berkeley branch, 
Great Malvern extension. J 

{Jointly owned with the London and 
North Western, Caledonian, and 
Glasgow and South Western. 



262 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



Carlisle, Dentonholme goods station.-! 



Cheshire Lines. 

Forth Bridge. 

Furness and Midland. 
Midland and Great Northern. 

Norfolk and Suffolk. { 

Normanton Station. 
North and South Western Junction. | 
Tottenham and Forest Gate. 

Tottenham and Hampstead Junction. 

Otley and Ilkley, Swinton and/ 
Knottingley. I 

Port Patrick and Wigtownshire Rail- } 
way ; also Larne and Stranraer / 
steamboats. ) 

ShefBeld and Midland. 

| 



Somerset and Dorset. 



Jointly owned with the Glasgow 
and South Western and North 
British. 

Jointly owned with the Great Central 
and Great Northern. 

Jointly with the Great Northern, 
North Eastern, and North British. 

Jointly owned with Furness. 
Jointly with Great Northern. 

Jointly with Great Northern and 
Great Eastern. 

Jointly with the North Eastern and 
Lancashire and Yorkshire. 

Jointly leased to the Midland, North 
Western, and North London. 

Jointly controlled by Midland and 
London, Tilbury, and Southend. 

Jointly worked, and shares largely 
owned, by Midland and Great 
Eastern. 

Jointly owned with the North 
Eastern. 

Jointly with the London and North 
Western, Caledonian, and Glas- 
gow and South Western. 

Jointly owned with Great Central. 

Jointly owned with the London and 
South Western. 



From this very formidable list of engagements it will be seen that 
the life of a Midland director must be a very active and busy one, 
involving much railway travelling over long distances, as well as great 
mental strain in dealing with matters of great complexity and im- 
portance, which are constantly arising alike in regard to the Midland 
system itself and its ever-growing traffic and the many lines in which 
Midland money has been invested. Of course, the main responsibility, 
as far as the Directorate is concerned, rests with the Chairman, and his 
life is very largely absorbed, like that of the heads of the departments 
and officials, in exercising that eternal vigilance by which alone the vast 
interests of the Company can be safeguarded, and its efficiency, enter- 
prise, and dividend-earning capacity maintained. When it is considered 
that about ,4,000,000 per annum are distributed in dividends to 
shareholders and debenture holders, and that of all the gross receipts 
from all sources, amounting to about 11,000,000, no less than 61-02 
per cent, is absorbed by the actual cost of working, the anxieties 
and responsibilities of directors and officers of the Company are not 
to be lightly regarded by any means. To illustrate the position and 



LIST OF CHAIRMEN 263 

bring the figures into the simplest form the relationship works out in 
this way. Of every sovereign earned by the Midland Company the 
shareholders receive the sum of &s. in dividend as interest on the 
capital outlay, there being an expenditure of 12.?. for actual working 
cost. This proportion of working expenses and dividend has always 
engaged the greatest attention of the Directorate, as it constitutes the 
vital point in management and is the ultimate test of the earning 
capacity of the system. But in spite of the serious attention which 
has been given to this subject by all railway companies, there has 
been a constant tendency for a good many years for the proportion 
of working expenses to increase on all systems, and the Midland has 
been no exception to the general rule. The march of social progress, 
increased wages, and shorter hours to servants, the increased cost of 
coal, the increased cost of rolling stock, increased efficiency in working 
the line, increased comfort and safety of passengers, increased cost of 
the appliances, and the requirements connected with the collection 
and distribution of traffic generally, together with the increased com- 
petition and consequent less earning capacity per train mile these 
are the main causes in distributing the balance of proportion in gross 
earnings and working expenditure. Only a few years ago 50 per cent, 
was regarded as a fair standard, when half the earnings were absorbed ; 
but the Midland, of all companies, could not afford to be behind in 
any scheme of progress either in regard to the comfort of its passengers, 
the efficiency of its passenger and goods service, or in the material 
comfort and well-being of its servants, upon whom so much depends. 
Whether this growth of the working expenditure be continued or not, 
the problem may safely be left to be successfully met and solved by 
the determination and capacity of those having the control of the 
system. 

Those who have had the honour of presiding over the destinies of 
the Midland Company, together with the dates of their appointment, 
will be found in the following table : 

LIST OF CHAIRMEN. 

Name. Appointed. Retired. 

George Hudson* . . May loth, 1844 . April I7th, 1849. Died 

1871. 

John Ellis . . . May yth, 1849 . March 3rd, 1858. Died 

Oct. 26th, 1862. 

George Byng Pagett . . Dec. 2nd, 1857 . Died Jan. 25th, 1858. 

* Mr. Hudson having been previously nominated, became Chairman on May 
loth, 1844, when the Company's Act received the Royal Assent. 

t Mr. G. B. Paget, although elected December 2nd, 1857, was seized with sudden 
illness, and died on January 25th, 1858, before he had attended a shareholders' 
meeting, and Mr. John Ellis continued to perform the duties till March 3rd, 1858. 



264 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Name. Appointed. Retired. 

Samuel Beale, M. P. . . March 3rd, 1858 . Oct. 5th, 1874. Continued 

a director. 

William E. Hutchinson . Oct. 5th, 1864 . Feb. i6th, 1870. Died 

Dec. 6th, 1882. 

William Philip Price, M.P. Feb. i6th, 1870 . May 2oth, 1873. 

Edward Shipley Ellis . . May 2oth, 1873 Died Dec. 3rd, 1879. 

Sir Matthew Wm. Thompson Dec. i6th, 1879 Dec. 2oth, 1890. 

Sir Ernest Paget . . Jan. 2nd, 1891 

The periods covered by the respective chairmen varied very much 
not only in duration, but also in their permanent influence on the 
position of the Company. Some of the directors had to hold the 
helm of affairs during times of calm and steady progress, whilst others 
had to steer a straight course during times of great stress and trial. 
But none had to face more stormy or perilous times than Mr. George 
Hudson the Railway King, or, as he was sometimes called, "The 
Prophet of the Iron Road" the founder of the present Midland 
Company, during the great railway mania which reached its culminating 
point about the years 1845-6. 

MR. GEORGE HUDSON was undoubtedly a most remarkable man, whose 
name both for good and evil, it may be said, must for ever be associated 
with the rise and progress of British railway enterprise. His rise from 
the position of linen draper to Lord Mayor of York, and thence to the 
unique position of Railway King was phenomenal, and forms one of the 
most striking commercial romances of the century. His connection 
with the Midland Company has been touched upon in dealing with the 
progress and development of the Company's system ; but it would 
be unpardonable and lamentable weakness to ignore or attempt to 
ignore the great and beneficent part which George Hudson undoubtedly 
played in combining, co-operating, amalgamating, and extending the 
railway system of the kingdom, which has proved so beneficial to 
the nation. But if his policy was sound and his great work was 
of national value, if not of world-wide importance, as combining and 
calling into being in a vast cohesive whole isolated companies and 
short sections of line, and thus demonstrating in a practical way what 
could then be accomplished, and thereby paving the way for the 
greater events and the larger schemes of the succeeding generations, 
it had also its terribly seamy side. During the railway mania, when 
George Hudson was king by popular acclaim, when all the world stood 
amazed at fortunes being made, as it were, without effort and as if by 
magic, when obscure individuals became millionaires, it was little to be 
wondered at that the erstwhile linen draper of York should "lose his 
head," become dictatorial and somewhat violent, and certainly very 



GEORGE HUDSON'S CAREER 265 

irritable in his temper. He was interested in practically every railway 
company (and there were many then) from London to Edinburgh. He 
had called George Stephenson and his great engineering knowledge 
to his aid ; he had determined the routes of lines of railway ; he had 
negotiated with the owners of the land ; and had guided and fostered 
his plans by means of shares, premiums, dividends, and many devices 
whereby they might become remunerative. He was a great financial 
genius undoubtedly, of whom much might be written ; but, unfortunately 
for his reputation, the once faithful linen draper and Lord Mayor 
of York was, after various dark rumours, found guilty by various 
committees of investigation of offences involving great frauds. Power- 
ful, he became dictatorial, and his efforts were directed to keeping his 
co-directors in the dark. He was so much involved in various 
companies and was so deeply concerned in manipulating them that 
it was bound in the end to lead to jealousy and distrust. Hudson 
had a wonderful capacity for calculations, and he had organising 
abilities of a high order ; but his rapid rise to prominence excited 
envy, and very broad rumours that his conduct was not above 
suspicion spread and multiplied, and their confirmation was demanded 
by inquiry. He had become a member of Parliament for Sunderland, 
and by seductive and attractive utterances he paraded himself as 
seeking only to promote the welfare of the country, and consequently 
the seriousness and persistence of the allegations against him came 
as a rude shock to the railway world. It was stated that his parlia- 
mentary career was used for selfish purposes ; and in regard to some 
of the companies with which he was associated, over-payments were 
alleged, irregular entries were numerous, and there were errors in other 
matters. Holders of railway stock became alarmed, the value of 
railway property fell rapidly, and large sums of money were expended 
with too lavish a hand in the execution of works. Committees 
of investigation were demanded on every hand, and suspicion was 
thoroughly aroused, and some very astounding and lamentable dis- 
coveries were announced. Thus in connection with one railway he 
was found to be indebted to the extent of ;ii,ooo in his payments on 
the purchase account ; in another company he had used the company's 
funds to pay for his shares, which he had taken in an assumed name. 
By delaying the completion of the register of shareholders a fraudulent 
increase in the number of shares issued was concealed from the share- 
holders. He also appropriated shares upon which neither deposit nor 
calls had been met, and upon which dividends were regularly paid. 
He appropriated to his own purposes moneys which companies had 
voted for the payment of land for the use of the company ; he bought 



266 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

iron at a low price, and sold it to some of his companies at a great 
profit; in fact, his frauds were scandalous, gigantic, and widespread. 
Subsequently it is stated that Hudson tried to atone for some of his 
misdeeds by voluntarily repaying some portion of the money which 
he had misappropriated. He escaped a criminal prosecution, but 
whereas only a year or two previously his acceptance of the chairman- 
ship of a small railway company overjoyed the shareholders, the Railway 
King passed out of the public view amid the execrations of all honest 
men. 

Such is the story of the first Chairman of the Midland Railway, 
and such is his life as a whole ; but in regard to the Midland Railway 
Company in particular, although there were suggestions that he was 
not at all times quite loyal to their interests, it must be stated that 
the committee of investigation on the Midland found that the accounts 
had been faithfully kept, and that a strong and powerful directorate 
had preserved the honour and reputation of the Company unsullied. 
That this was so, a large measure of praise is due to Mr. John Ellis, 
the hard-headed Quaker, who subsequently undertook the controlling 
influence. 

Mr. Hudson's fall was rapid and complete, for on April lyth, 1849, 
he resigned the chairmanship of the Midland Company, and in less 
than a month every vestige of control in every line in the kingdom had 
passed out of his hands. He was no longer Railway King his name 
had become a byword and a reproach. Hudson died in 1871. 

In dealing with Mr. Hudson's career it has been urged that he was 
drawn into a vortex by the gigantic speculations while the railway 
mania lasted, and that he was a great railway genius, the value of 
whose work has been very imperfectly appreciated. What that mania 
was, and its far-reaching effects, is difficult to thoroughly appreciate 
after the lapse of over half a century. The year 1845, for example, 
was unparalleled in the history of railway enterprise. In the language 
of a railway authority of the day, it may be stated that " the prominence 
that has been given to railway affairs by the newspaper press and by 
discussions in Parliament the extension of the railway system through- 
out Great Britain, the continent of Europe, and North America 
have convinced even the most prejudiced that railway communication 
is the most rapid, safe, and economical that human ingenuity has yet 
devised. This species of enterprise no longer appears to the public 
as chimerical or too much in advance of the age to be worthy of 
serious trial ; but merchants, manufacturers, wholesale dealers, traders, 
and farmers are all becoming supporters of railway locomotion and 
shareholders in existing or projected lines." In the construction of 



THE RAILWAY MANIA 267 

English railways it was argued "every shilling expended is a national 
advantage. Not only does no capital leave the country, but no 
money is locked up or sunk, as many foolish speakers and writers 
have asserted. At the worst it is only a transfer of capital that can 
be complained of; but that is not a national evil, for, like Lord 
Bacon said truly, money was like muck, and did no good till it was 
spread. Seeing the large amount of capital required to construct 
the projected railways, many persons have said, ' Where is all the 
money to come from?' But these and double the number could be 
made with the greatest ease without the least addition to the circulating 
medium of the country. When a Railway Act is obtained, the money 
is not all wanted immediately, and therefore a surplus capital of a few 
millions would suffice to intersect Great Britain with railways and to 
supersede every common road. A manufacturer, for instance, holds 
fifty shares in a new railway, and pays a call of 2 per share at 
intervals of three months. When the call is paid up by all the 
shareholders the directors disburse the amount for labour and con- 
struction, which is again expended by the labourers for food and 
raiment with the shopkeeper, who is thereby enabled to hand back 
the amount in payment to the manufacturer, probably in time for the 
next call ; and thus it goes on till the entire line is completed, during 
which operation not one shilling capital is abstracted or lost to the 
country. That some idea may be formed of the immense stimulus 
the trade of the country would derive from the formation of these 
public works, it is only necessary to state that were 2,000 miles of 
the projected railways to be constructed it would give employment 
to 500,000 labourers and 40,000 horses for the next four years. The 
necessary buildings, sheds, and permanent way would cover 20,000 
acres of land; and to lay a double line of rails would require 
400,000 tons of iron." The Times, on Monday, November iyth, 1845, 
printed a supplement containing a tabular statement of the "Railway 
Interest of the United Kingdom," and which occupied five pages of 
the paper. These made a total of " 1,263 railway companies, requiring 
for construction a capital of ^5 6 3, 000,000." The Times, commenting 
on this state of affairs, declared that this was a fact without a parallel 
in the history of the world. "A widespread mania of rich and poor, 
of idle and busy, an unprecedented mass of speculation, not the folly 
or wickedness of a few, but the act of the entire nation." The huge 
expenditure of the period was described as "capital sunk in earth- 
works." In 1844 Railway Acts were passed for the construction of 
2,841 miles of railway, and a very cautious estimate of the capital 
expended and projected in 1845 is given in the following: 



268 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

SUMMARY OF RAILWAY CAPITAL. 



Capital expended in lines open . ... 70,327,264 

Capital required for railways in course of construction 61,930,020 
Capital required for English projected railways . . 427,720,000 
Capital required for Irish projected railways . . 42,910,000 
Capital required for projected foreign railways . . 98,223,333 
Capital required for projected Colonial railways . . 29,775,000 

Total . . 730,885,617 

This table does not include new branches, deviations, and con- 
necting links then proposed, and which, if carried into effect, would 
have added at least a further sum of ^30,000,000 to the total. 

The alarm created by the opponents of these schemes was such 
that of the Bills projected only 561 were presented out of 1,263, 
and the number was further reduced to 271, the number which 
actually received the Royal Assent. Of these, 24 were for amalgama- 
tions and purchase, 7 for new stations and enlargement, 131 for 
branches to be constructed by old companies, and 109 for new lines 
by new companies, the whole requiring a capital of over ^"100,000,000. 
The total length of these lines was upwards of 4,700 miles (60 of 
which was tunnelling), and over 55,000 acres of land were required for 
their sites. 

These were the surroundings in which Hudson was the moving spirit, 
and the greatness of Hudson's railway genius only makes it all the 
more lamentable that so great a man should have so deplorably fallen 
and have been guilty of acts which resulted in ruin and universal 
condemnation. 

MR. JOHN ELLIS, M.P., of Belgrave, Leicester, in 1849 assumed the 
chairmanship of the Midland, after having rendered very distinguished 
services as Deputy Chairman from its inception, being the founder of 
the Leicester and Swannington line. Mr. Ellis was essentially the man 
for the hour, for he was an extremely strong and capable administrator, 
and exactly suited for critical times when every railway company in the 
kingdom required to repair the loss and restore the confidence so 
seriously impaired by the railway mania and the cruel blows caused to 
finance by the delinquencies of Hudson and others. Not only did 
Mr. Ellis do this, but by a bold and sound policy he succeeded in greatly 
expanding the ramifications of the Midland system by securing, almost 
entirely by his own personal efforts, the Bristol and Birmingham line. 
But for his promptitude this link would have passed into the hands of 
the Great Western, which would not only have been a great loss to the 
Midland, but would have brought up the broad-gauge system to 




JOHN ELLIS 

(Portrait in Shareholders' Room, showing the Glenfield Tunnel 
and the Engine named "Buffalo"). 



JOHN ELLIS AS CHAIRMAN 271 

Birmingham, and thereby have greatly hampered the interchange of 
traffic, while the great through route which the Midland now hold from 
Bristol and the west of England to Leeds, Manchester, and the north 
would have been entirely lost to the Midland, and a considerable 
portion of it at least would have reverted into the hands of rival com- 
panies. Mr. Ellis, who at the time was Deputy Chairman of the 
Midland Company and a director of the London and Birmingham, also 
a director of the Leicester and Swannington lines, as well as the head 
of the large coal firm of John Ellis and Sons, which he founded, gave 
important evidence before the Royal Commission in November, 1845, 
as to the great difficulties attending the transfer of traffic from the 
broad to the narrow gauge and vice versa, and expressed the opinion 
that the traffic of the country could have been much more conveniently 
managed if the Great Western had not adopted the broad-gauge ; and 
further, expressed " his perfect horror " of any interlacing of the broad 
and narrow-gauge systems. His prompt action and the strong feeling 
which Mr. Ellis entertained on this subject undoubtedly enabled the 
Midland ultimately to secure the Bristol and Birmingham Railway as 
part of their system. The soundness of Mr. Ellis's opinion in favour 
of the narrow gauge is proved by the fact that the Great Western have 
taken up the broad gauge and have relaid the line on the narrow system. 
The period of Mr. Ellis's chairmanship extended from May yth, 1849, 
to March 3rd, 1858, with the exception of a few weeks, when Mr. G. B. 
Paget nominally held office, but was seized with illness and died. Mr. 
Ellis held office long enough to see a great expansion of the Midland 
system, when by the opening of the Leicester and Hitchin line the 
Midland planted its foot in the great Metropolis, with its trains 
running over the Great Northern system and landing its passengers at 
King's Cross. Mr. Ellis had a fine personality, and his rule on the 
Midland was marked by great prosperity. The very soul of integrity, 
he had a bold and clear conception of the capabilities of the Midland 
and its importance to the commerce of the nation, and he did much to 
raise the administration of the Midland to that high level which has so 
long distinguished it. He was member of Parliament for Leicester 
Borough for a few years, being elected in 1848. 

MR. SAMUEL BEALE, M.P., of Birmingham, took a very active part in 
the formation of the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway, and 
became Chairman of that Company. He subsequently joined the 
Midland Board of Directors at the time of the amalgamation, and 
ultimately succeeded to the chair of the Midland on March 3rd, 1858. 
He was connected with the well-known firm of solicitors at Birmingham, 
and during his presidency the Midland Company made steady, solid 



272 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

progress. When he retired, in October, 1864, on account of failing 
health, he continued on the Directorate, and ^1,000 was placed at the 
disposal of the Board, which was utilised for presenting Mr. Beale with 
a service of plate, while in turn Mr. Beale gave a fine portrait of himself, 
which forms one of the collection in the Board-room at Derby. During 
Mr. Beale's chairmanship in 1864 the dividends reached the high-water 
mark of 1 7^. 6d. per cent, for the year. 

MR. WILLIAM EVANS HUTCHINSON, of Leicester, was another member 
of the Society of Friends who presided over the fortunes of the 
Midland. Succeeding to the chairmanship in October, 1864, he 
brought with him a practical experience which is rare even among 
chairmen of great railway companies. He was a Leicester citizen, and 
began his career as a chemist and druggist in the main thoroughfare ; 
but he, in 1839, forsook his chemist's shop in Gallowtree Gate and the 
manufacture of pills and the preparation of medicines and entered on 
a widely different sphere, namely that of Superintendent and Manager 
of the Midland Counties Railway, a position which he had occupied 
during the formation of the line according to the Act passed in 1836. 
He undertook the great task and it showed great business capacity in 
those early days of making all the arrangements for the opening and 
working of the Midland Counties Railway in 1839. It was especially 
gratifying to find that although Mr. Hutchinson was without practical 
experience, the arrangements of the quiet, meditative little gentleman 
were most successful; and in 1840, when he resigned this office, he was 
voted ^500 in acknowledgment of the special services he had rendered 
in the very difficult circumstances connected with the opening of a new 
line, and he was elected on the Board of Directors. He was also 
a director of the Leicester and Swannington, and he became one of 
the members of the Board when the Midland was first constituted. He 
was a man of few words, of great discernment, and he gave the best 
years of his life to the service of the Midland Railway. He resigned 
his chairmanship in February, 1870, but he continued on the Board till 
his death on December 6th, 1882. He had thus served on the Midland 
Directorate from its formation in May, 1844, to December, 1882, a long 
period of 38^ years. He was the last of the original Board. During 
Mr. Hutchinson's connection with the Midland he had witnessed many 
fluctuations in the fortunes of the Company. He had seen the shares 
of the Company quoted at more than ^"190, and he had seen them 
quoted as low as $2 or ^33. He had seen the dividends at 
^7 75. 6d. per cent., and he had seen them as low as 2 is. od. 
per cent. 

MR. WILLIAM PHILIP PRICE, M.P., Gloucester, who was appointed on 



EDWARD SHIPLEY ELLIS 



273 



February i6th, 1870, resigned his presidency on May 2oth, 1873. 
During his chairmanship several very important administrative reforms 
were introduced, and notably the carrying of third-class passengers 
by all trains. His abilities and his great knowledge of railway working, 
linked to a calm judicial mind, marked him out as one of the most 
capable railway leaders in the kingdom, and accordingly the Govern- 
ment of the day offered him the position of one of the three commissions 
under the Railway and Canal Traffic Act on its coming into operation 
in 1873, on the acceptance of 
which he retired from the Mid- 
land Board. He was at one 
time member of Parliament for 
Gloucester. 

MR. EDWARD SHIPLEY ELLIS, 
of Leicester, son of a former 
chairman of the Midland, took 
office on May 2oth, 1873, and oc- 
cupied the position till his death 
on December 3rd, 1879. He was 
one of those who were at the 
birth of railway enterprise, and 
during his youth he came under 
the spell of George Stephenson, 
with the result that during the 
whole of his railway life Stephen- 
son's name and memory were a 
source of profound veneration 
and inspiration to Mr. Ellis. 
An intimate friend of his once 
remarked to the writer that he 

never had the idea of Mr. Ellis being a great man, because he was a 
man of one great idea, and that was all treasured up in the Midland 
Railway. That was a very narrow and restricted view of the life of 
Edward Shipley Ellis; but it was also a great testimony to the way 
in which he, conscious of the responsibilities of his position during 
very difficult and trying times, threw himself heart and soul into the dis- 
charge of his duties. On more than one occasion he stated to the writer 
that the Midland system had become so important, and its continued 
success so essential to the well-being of its shareholders as well as 
to the commerce of the country, that its affairs, its policy, administra- 
tion, and management must absorb the whole commercial life of the men 
at its head, including that of its Chairman. Punctuality in the running 
T 




MR. EDWARD SHIPLEY ELLIS. 



274 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

of trains, and civility and attention on the part of the servants of the 
Company were two of the things he tried to enforce and secure. He 
was a man of great determination, very cautious in the formation of 
his judgments, but when once his mind had become fixed on what 
he conceived to be adequate foundations his confidence and power 
could not be shaken. Mr. James Allport found in Mr. Ellis a true 
and staunch friend and supporter in the masterly policy which he 
from time to time initiated, and much of Allport's success was due 
to the great intellectual, moral, and material power of Mr. Ellis. No 
one who was present at the meeting of the Midland shareholders in 
November, 1874, will ever forget the fierce way in which the proposal 
to abolish second-class was assailed ; nor the able way in which Mr. 
Ellis quietly marshalled the facts and announced the determination 
of the directors to stand by their policy, notwithstanding the great 
pressure which had been brought to bear by other companies. It 
was the most notable and memorable railway meeting during the last 
quarter of a century. A weaker man would have yielded before the 
storm. Mr. Ellis, by his firmness and strength of purpose, as well as the 
grasp which he had of all the facts and his confidence in the sound- 
ness of his judgment, carried the day; and twenty-six years' experience 
has verified the soundness of his position. Another period when Mr. 
Ellis showed great financial ability was during the construction of the 
Settle and Carlisle line, when unlooked-for difficulties had to be met 
in a unique way, as set forth in that part of this volume referring to 
that extension. Mr. Ellis used to say that he owed much to railway 
companies even to the extent of his wife, for he was first introduced 
to Mrs. Ellis at the opening of the Leicester and Swannington line. 
In fact, the whole of his life was more or less bound up in the Midland, 
and he, like Mr. George B. Paget, died in office on December 3rd, 
1879. It is a curious circumstance that three notable chairmen of 
the Midland line lie in a corner of the Leicester Corporation Cemetery, 
namely, John Ellis, W. E. Hutchinson, and E. S. Ellis, within a few 
feet of one another, and a few yards away lie the remains of Thomas 
Cook and John M. Cook, of railway tourist fame. 

SIR MATTHEW WILLIAM THOMPSON, Bart., of Guiseley, Leeds, who 
was Chairman from December i6th, 1879, to December 2oth, 1890, 
was once asked in cross-examination before a committee of the House 
of Commons by a learned counsel who rather appeared to question 
Sir Matthew's trading experience, "What are you?" Sharply came 
the reply: "When I am at Derby, I am Chairman of the Midland 
Railway Company; when I am at Glasgow, I am Chairman of the 
Glasgow and South Western Railway Company ; when I am at Brad- 



SIR ERNEST PAGET 277 

ford, I am a brewer; and when I am in London, I am a barrister, 
like you, sir." During the eleven years of his chairmanship the most 
important event was the construction and completion of the Forth 
Bridge for railway traffic on March 4th, 1890. The Midland Railway 
Company being part owners of the Forth Bridge, Sir Matthew was 
ex-offido Chairman of that great undertaking, and in recognition of his 
services in that vast engineering work he received the honour of a 
baronetcy. His elevation to the Directorate of the Midland Company 
took place in 1865, so that he occupied a seat on the Midland Board 
for just a quarter of a century. He also served as Deputy Chairman 
under Mr. E. S. Ellis, and he represented for a good many years 
the Midland Company on the Cheshire Lines Committee. He was 
a man of very genial and kindly disposition. 

SIR ERNEST PAGET, Bart., of Sutton Bonnington, Loughborough, was 
appointed Chairman January 2nd, 1891. He is the only son of the 
late George Byng Paget, a former Chairman, who, although cut down 
by death soon after his elevation, had been long associated with the 
fortunes of the Midland. He was born in 1841, and was a youth of 
seventeen at the time of his father's death. Previous to his appoint- 
ment as Chairman of the Midland, on the retirement of Sir M. W. 
Thompson through ill-health, Sir Ernest had a rather varied experience, 
having served with the 7th Hussars and the Royal Horse Guards, from 
which he retired in 1867. Subsequently he was appointed Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Leicestershire Yeomanry Cavalry, but when he entered 
upon his railway career he gave up military duties entirely. As 
Chairman of the Traffic Committee, and afterwards as Deputy 
Chairman of the Company, he rendered very valuable service to the 
Midland, and thus prepared the way for the highest place in the 
Company. Among the positions which he occupied were those of 
Deputy Chairman of the Nottinghamshire Quarter Sessions, a Deputy 
Lieutenant of the same county, and a Justice of the Peace for 
Leicestershire. He was also associated as Director with the Inter- 
Oceanic Railway of Mexico, Limited, Chairman of the Mexican 
Southern Railway Company, Limited, Chairman of the South Western 
of Venezuela Railway Company, Limited, ex-offido Chairman of the 
Forth Bridge Railway Company, the Somerset and Dorset Railway 
Company, the Tottenham and Forest Gate Railway Company, and the 
Tottenham and Hampstead Junction Railway Company. Sir Ernest, 
during the period of his chairmanship, has become more and more 
entirely absorbed in the Midland Railway. The " forward " policy of 
the Midland has been kept well to the front, and the advancement 
and consolidation of the undertaking have been very marked. There 



278 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

has been a great doubling of the lines, so as to give four pairs of 
rails where the traffic was most congested. In fact, either by alterna- 
tive routes or by four sets of lines, the Midland now have four roads 
practically from London to Stockport, also from London to Shipley ; 
whilst by means of their right of running over the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire system the Midland have, in fact, four roads from London 
to Hellifield. The present Chairman has had to face some serious 
difficulties, and among them may be included the important "flanking" 
movement of the Great Central Line right through to London; and 
there has never been such keen competition for all classes of traffic 
as at the present day. Although the present Chairman has not 
had great departures of policy to inaugurate and to carry out, yet 
his responsibilities are greater than those of any of his predecessors. 
There is a greater mileage to supervise; there is a vast amount more 
capital for which he is primarily responsible ; the duties on joint com- 
mittees in conjunction with representatives of other companies have 
never been greater; a large number of stations which had become 
obsolete or utterly inadequate for present-day requirements have had 
to be rebuilt on a much larger scale at an enormous outlay. In fact, 
comparatively few stations now remain that existed at the time of the 
amalgamation in 1844. Sir Ernest received the honour of a baronetcy 
in the New Year's honours of 1897, in recognition of the splendid part 
which the Midland Railway Company has taken in railway development 
during Her Majesty's reign. Sir Ernest's great energy and capacity 
for administrative work, backed up by the great experience which he 
acquired whilst Chairman of the Traffic Committee, enable him to 
deal with all those multifarious duties and intricate questions of 
finance and general administration with a master hand. He is very 
clear-sighted, rather cautious, blended with firm determination quali- 
ties the exercise of which are constantly called into play, in spite of all 
the advantages secured by an elaborate system of delegation. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT 

WHILST the directors are in supreme authority and have the 
ultimate responsibility of the affairs of the Company, the 
practical and technical head of the administration is, of course, the 
General Manager, who has the sole responsibility of giving final and 
authoritative advice in regard to all practical matters, and, further, 
he has the additional duty imposed upon him of seeing that it is 
carried into actual working. But although the whole of the general 
working and administration of the line vests in the General Manager, 
the executive responsibility for the working of the railway is divided 
into many departments, some of which have supreme heads, who 
are independent of each other and are separately responsible to the 
directors. The following heads of departments are directly respon- 
sible to the directors for the conduct and administration of all that 
comes within their respective spheres : The General Manager, the 
Secretary, the Accountant, Locomotive Superintendent, the Engineer- 
in -Chief, the Stores Superintendent, the Carriage and Wagon Super- 
intendent, the Hotels and Refreshment Rooms Manager. However, 
this general rule is subject to this modification, if it may so be termed, 
that the General Manager has the supreme control of the working 
of the line generally in all departments, and the directors confer 
with him on the general policy of the Company; and he likewise 
has to deal with all parliamentary matters, agreements and arrange- 
ments with other companies as to through traffic, leasing of lines, 
traffic arrangements on joint lines, and generally with all questions 
of the first importance, subject, of course, to strictly technical ques- 
tions being dealt with by the chief officers of each department. The 
heads of these departments, subject to the approval of the various 
sub -committees of directors under which they act, are responsible 
for the appointment of the staff in their respective departments, 
their promotion or dismissal, and the fixing of their rate of pay ; 
but all permanent additions to the staff have to be approved by 

279 



2&o THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



the Board of Directors. In fact, the whole system is one of carefully 
devised devolution combined with constant and watchful supervision. 

The GENERAL MANAGER, in addition to his duties as adviser to the 
directors and the duty of exercising a general supervision of the whole 
of the affairs of the Company, also occupies what may be termed a 
dual position by undertaking the special control and superintendence 
of the whole Traffic Department, which is the largest and most im- 
portant of all, and is at once the greatest spending department as well 
as the great channel through which the revenue flows from the public 
into the treasury of the Company. 

It follows as a matter of necessity that a position of this varied and 
complicated character can only be adequately filled by a gentleman 
who has had a long and very wide experience, not only in the vast and 
intricate details of railway working, but also of large general knowledge 
of affairs and commercial and financial experience, combined with 
a sound judgment and what we British people understand by good 
common sense, great tact, and wise discrimination. 

The Midland Railway Company have been particularly fortunate in 
their general managers, upon whom so much of the success of the 
railway depends. The names of those who have held this important 
office and the dates of their appointments are as follows : 



Name. 

P. Clarke 
J. Sanders 



J. Sanders 

J. J. Allport . 

W. L. Newcombe 

J. J. Allport . 

J. Noble 

G. H. Turner . 



Designation. 

Superintendent from North 
Midland Company . 

Appointed General Superin- 
tendent of the manage- 
ment of all trains in the 
Coaching Department . 

General Manager 



Date Appointed. 

July, 1844. 



July, 1849. 
January, 1850. 
Oct. ist, 1853. 
Oct. ist, 1857. 
April 4th, 1860. 
Feb. 1 7th, 1880. 
May 20th, 1892. 



It will be observed in the above list of notable men that Mr. 
J. J. ALLPORT held office altogether for the long period of twenty-four 
years, and he afterwards became a director, which position he occupied 
until his death. His name and the fame of his policy and administra- 
tion, which have been dealt with in other parts of this volume, are 
indelibly associated with British railway enterprise. His name is a star 
in the railway firmament of the first magnitude, and his life's work con- 
ferred untold advantages on all classes in the country. He did for 
railway passengers what Rowland Hill did in postal reform, and his far- 



SIR JAMES ALLPORT 281 

seeing policy and the courage which he showed in carrying it out 
marked him as a public benefactor, although at the same time it 
secured advantages of the most substantial character to the Midland 
Company. He determined that the great English railways should not 
be mere sectional monopolies holding dependent districts at their 
mercy. They were the great national arteries for commerce, and he 
the Bismarck of railway policy was determined that a policy of reform 
and advancement should be pursued, in the conviction that trade, 
railways, and passengers would all share in the common advantages. 
Born on February 27th, 1811, Mr. Allport was twenty-eight years of 
age when, in the year 1839, he became associated as chief clerk with 
the Birmingham and Derby Railway. He was speedily marked out for 
advancement to the position of "carrying manager," which included 
with it a salary of ^300, and afterwards ^400 a year an "extravagant 
reward," as the not over-prosperous shareholders of the time thought, 
and against which they protested. But his mind was directed towards 
greater matters than those small details which drew the criticism of the 
shareholders. The first battle of railway rates ever recorded in history 
was fought under his regime, when the Birmingham and Derby line 
entered the lists with the Midland Counties Railway for the through 
traffic to London ; but the war ended in a happy combination and the 
formation of the Midland Company. Thus it came to pass that the 
first railway war also brought about the first important amalgamation in 
railway history. But in this new corporation there was no room for 
Allport, because, with three sets of officials and the Birmingham and 
Derby line as the smallest of the three companies, his services could 
not be utilised. But the Railway King, Hudson, who had a great 
faculty for selecting the most able men, knew the value of Allport if 
the shareholders of the Birmingham and Derby line did not. Mr. 
Hudson, the new Chairman of the Midland, at once transferred 
Mr. Allport's services to another of Hudson's undertakings, the New- 
castle and Darlington, in whose service he remained for six years. He 
was just too late to join in a deputation, headed by Hudson and 
Robert Stephenson, to Sir Robert Peel to solicit Government aid for 
the east coast route to Scotland. Allport's business, however, as the 
east coast route was gradually pieced together, was to organise a 
through service of carriages from London to Edinburgh. It was at 
the period 1845 that Mr. Allport made his famous run from Sunderland 
to Euston and back with the announcement of Hudson's election as 
M.P. for Sunderland. The route was vi& York over the York, New- 
castle, and Berwick line ; thence to Normanton over the York and 
North Midland Companies' line ; forward to Derby over the Midland 



282 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

system, and continuing on to Rugby ; and thence via Wolverton over 
the London and North Western line to Euston. Special trains were 
waiting for Allport at each of these points. Mr. Allport, describing 
the run, said : " Reaching Euston, I drove to the Times office, and 
handed my manuscript to Mr. Delane, who, according to an arrange- 
ment I had previously made with him, had it immediately set up in 
type, a leader written, both inserted, and a lot of impressions taken. 
Two hours were thus spent in London, and then I set off on my 
return journey, and arrived in Sunderland next morning at about ten 
o'clock, before the announcement of the poll. I then handed over 
copies I had brought with me of the Times newspaper of that day con- 
taining the return of what had happened in Sunderland the afternoon 
before. Between five o'clock in the evening and ten o'clock that 
morning I had travelled six hundred miles, besides spending two hours 
in London, or a clear run of forty miles an hour." 

This was a very wonderful performance, for, without deducting any- 
thing for stops en route, the whole journey of six hundred miles was 
done in fifteen hours. 

From 1850 to 1853 he was General Manager of the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, which gave him an insight into 
the resources of Lancashire and the West Riding, which afterwards 
proved extremely valuable. In 1853, when Mr. Allport returned to 
the Midland, he inaugurated his great policy, which in the course of 
years transformed the Midland from a local link or collection of local 
lines, dependent entirely on other companies for through traffic, into a 
great trunk system. But these extensions were not initiated and carried 
through without great efforts. The times were bad, money was hard 
to raise, and the dividends were small 3 per cent. ; but Mr. Allport 
urged the policy of progress. After the opening of the Leicester and 
Hitchin line in 1857 Mr. Allport joined the great shipbuilding firm of 
Messrs. Palmers, of Jarrow, in the capacity of Managing Director. His 
connection with the Midland Railway, however, was maintained by his 
acceptance of a seat on the Midland Board of Directors. After two 
years of retirement from active railway work he, in 1859, returned to 
the Midland Company, whose fortunes, if not its very existence, was 
menaced by what is known as the " triple alliance " of its competitors 
on every side to shut the Midland out from the sources of its traffic. 
The recall of Mr. Allport from Jarrow, and his resumption of the 
general managership in 1860, resulted not only in the triple alliance 
being frustrated, but the eyes of the Midland directors were opened to 
the perils of the system so long as the Company was at the mercy 
of strangers. Henceforward the Midland were driven into the pursuit 



A BOLD POLICY 283 

of a new policy, which must be carried out with great determination, so 
that the Company might be independent of its neighbours. While this 
policy of expansion was in progress the panic of 1866 had caused a 
temporary collapse of the Brighton Railway, and had sent the Chatham 
and Dover and a host of smaller lines into a state of bankruptcy. 
At this very critical juncture the Midland had no less than five millions 
of capital absorbed in unfinished works, which, of course, produced 
nothing towards dividend; but notwithstanding this, the directors 
issued a circular in 1867 announcing that the Company proposed 
to apply to Parliament for a further sum of five millions of capital 
for new works. The shareholders were almost in a panic; but the 
calm unfolding of the Midland policy showed that the men at the 
head of affairs took a wider and more comprehensive view, and their 
policy was finally adopted and carried into effect. The direct result of 
this bold and heroic policy at a critical time was soon disclosed; and 
to the master minds which controlled the Midland system at this 
period is due the fact that to-day the great trunk system from London 
to Carlisle is crowded with traffic. Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis, when 
Chairman in 1874, recalling the events of this period, wrote : 

" It must be remembered that the Midland Railway has grown up 
under different circumstances from its neighbours. We are often 
charged, either good humouredly or otherwise, with aggressiveness, but 
shareholders who have been long connected with the Company will 
recall how the policy of extension, miscalled aggression, was forced 
upon us. The Midland system originally formed part of the route from 
London to Leeds, York, and Scotland via Rugby and Normanton, and 
from South Wales to the north via Gloucester ; but the construction of 
the Great Northern Railway and the extensions of the London and 
North Western and Great Western Companies deprived us of our 
through traffic, a project of amalgamation with the London and North 
Western failed, and the Midland directors and shareholders were left 
to choose between the policy of making the Midland a complete system, 
independent of its neighbours, or of remaining as a local line to be 
gradually starved by our more fortunate competitors on either side. 
Those who remember the facts will know that this statement is not 
exaggerated. The policy of extension was adopted and successfully 
carried out under many difficulties, and shareholders have since had no 
reason to regret the patience and self-denial then largely drawn upon, 
or the confidence which they extended to their then directors, and 
no one who has watched the subsequent development of the districts 
traversed by our system can doubt the enormous advantages which the 
public have derived." 

But his master-stroke was the commencement of the conveyance of 
third-class passengers by all trains ; and not only that, for third-class 



284 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

passengers, who not many years previously had been carried in what 
were little better than cattle trucks, were to be provided with luxuriously 
cushioned carriages. Mr. Allport's great revolution was due to his 
foresight that a multitude of customers at a penny per mile was better 
than a few at a higher rate. The experiment was a tremendous success 
for the Company, an enormous advantage to the great mass of the 
people, and to trade and the country generally. In 1880 Mr. Allport 
retired from the general managership of the Midland and rejoined the 
Directorate. On this occasion Mr. Allport took the place of his old 
friend, Mr. Ellis, on the Board, and the circumstances are set out 
in the following resolution which was passed on the occasion : " That 
Mr. James Joseph Allport be and is hereby elected a director of the 
Company in the place of Mr. Edward Shipley Ellis, deceased, and 
that the directors be and are hereby empowered and requested to 
set aside out of the profits of the Company for the half-year ending 
the 3ist day of December, 1878, the sum of ; 10,000, and to present 
the same to Mr. Allport as an expression of the gratitude of the 
shareholders for services rendered by him to the Company as General 
Manager during 26 \ years, and as an acknowledgment of the ex- 
ceptional ability, energy, and public spirit which have so largely 
contributed to the progress and development alike of the Midland 
Railway and the great industrial districts which it unites." 

In 1884 Her Majesty conferred upon Mr. Allport the honour of 
knighthood, and his death, at St. Pancras Hotel, on April 25th, 1892, 
full of years and greatly honoured, snapped the last link between 
the primitive experimental railways of the past and the great systems 
and organisations of to-day. He was a picturesque and genial per- 
sonality a man who did well for his country and for the advancement 
of the nation, and those who were privileged to pay a last mark of 
respect at his grave at Belper will never forget the passing of a great 
railway genius. 

MR. G. H. TURNER, the present General Manager of the Company, 
has distinguished his tenure of office by many reforms and improve- 
ments of a very practical character, which have been attended with 
great success, and his general administration has proved most gratifying 
from a financial point of view. He began his railway career at the 
bottom of the ladder, and the greater part of his fifty years' railway 
experience has been on the Midland system. The story of his career 
reads like a romance, and forms a notable example of what may be 
achieved by ability and determination. His entrance into the Midland 
service was in the capacity of a goods clerk at Bristol in 1853, previous 
to which he had had some railway experience on the Bristol and 




MR. G. H. TURNER. 



G. H. TURNER 287 

Exeter Railway, which he joined on its completion in 1849. After 
six years' service on the Midland he was transferred to Birmingham, 
where he became chief clerk at that important depot. His next step 
in the ladder of promotion was at Nottingham, where, in 1875, ne 
undertook the duties of Chief Goods Agent, and three years later 
the position of Chief Goods Canvasser at Derby. So successful were 
his efforts that he was chosen by the Glasgow and South Western 
Railway Company for the important post of Goods Manager, and 
success again crowning his efforts, two years later he re-entered the 
Midland service to occupy the position of Goods Manager on the 
Midland line. In this larger sphere he had the distinction, after .a 
period of great depression in trade, of so attracting the stream of 
returning traffic to the Midland system that the revenues of his 
department rose to an unprecedented height. Following upon this 
achievement Mr. Turner, in 1891, was called upon to assist Mr. John 
Noble in the position of General Manager, Mr. Noble's health having 
given way under the strain and anxiety of his arduous duties. In 
May, 1892, Mr. Noble resigned his post, and the directors of the 
Company called upon Mr. Turner to fill the highest position in this 
great enterprise in recognition of his most efficient and able adminis- 
tration in many departments of the Company's service. Of ceaseless 
energy, and possessed of the happy gift of keen business insight, of 
great knowledge of practical men and of business affairs, Mr. Turner 
has contributed much to the steady expansion and the continued 
success of the Midland undertaking. He is a J.P. for the county 
of Derby and a Colonel of the Engineer and Railway Volunteer Staff 
Corps. Mr. Turner, in 1900, was elected Chairman of the General 
Managers' Conference, which represents all the railway companies of 
the kingdom at the Railway Clearing House. 

The importance of the position occupied by Mr. Turner will be 
better understood by referring to the Chart of Administration, which 
has been compiled with the object of showing the great departmental 
system of devolution adopted by the Midland Company and the whole 
scheme of management and control. From this it will be seen that 
the General Manager is directly and personally responsible for the 
whole of the conduct and matters arising in 

(a) The Superintendent of the Line's department, which includes 
(i) district passenger agents, (2) district inspectors, (3) train 
working inspectors, (4) canvassers, (5) stationmasters and 
staffs of stations, (6) signalmen, (7) passenger and goods 
guards. 



288 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



() Goods Manager's department, (i) outdoor assistant, (2) goods 
agents, (3) canvassers, (4) inspectors, (5) carters, porters, and 
shunters, (6) veterinary surgeon and staff. 

(c) Mineral Manager's department, (i) coal traffic district agents and 
staff. 

The General Manager, in the discharge of his duties in connection 
with the traffic department, has associated with him four leading 
officials, namely, the Assistant General Manager (Mr. E. W. Wells), the 
Superintendent of the Line (Mr. W. L. Mugliston), the Goods Manager 

(Mr. W. E. Adie), and the Mineral 
Manager (Mr. J. Shaw). 

The Superintendent of the Line 
(Mr. Mugliston) takes command of 
everything relating to the running 
of all trains whether goods or 
passenger excepting, of course, 
the locomotive power, which is 
supplied by another department. 
He also controls the arrangement 
of time-tables, which is in itself a 
stupendous task little dreamed of by 
the outside public. For example, 
there is first of all the ordinary time- 
tables issued to the public, con- 
taining about 200 pages; then there 
is the private working time-table, 
issued to the Company's servants 
only, containing the times of the 
working of every passenger and 

goods train on the whole system. This runs to nearly 700 pages. 
In addition to this there is what is called the Appendix to the working 
time-table, which is issued to the servants of the Company at frequent 
intervals, and this runs to about 450 pages of closely printed matter, 
giving minute and detailed instructions as to the working of the block 
system, the number of whistles to be given at every junction on the 
system, the distinguishing head-light to be carried by engines to denote 
the class of train to which they are attached, the name of every signal- 
box on the system, together with its distance from the adjoining signal- 
boxes in each direction, the loads to be carried by engines over every 
separate part of the lines and branches, the very important means of 
signalling by fog -signals during the prevalence of fog that most 




MR. E. W. WELLS. 



THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE LINE 



289 



inveterate enemy of railway working, which frequently paralyses even 
the finest system for days together; also the special arrangements in 
force in every district of the system whereby a fully competent staff of 
men to work fog -signalling can be called together at any time of the 
day or night and be at their post of duty within a few minutes of 
the call. This volume further contains all the regulations relating to 
many parts of the system to be observed in shunting or working the 
traffic, special rules for loading traffic, testing the telegraph wires, and, 
in fact, it constitutes a great compendium conveying instructions and 
directions for every circumstance 
that can possibly arise on the 
Company's system. There are 
also the rules for the interchange 
of traffic with other companies. 
There is also a supplementary 
working time-table giving the 
running of all extra trains that 
may be required by the exigencies 
of traffic. 

A great railway company, in 
order to maintain its line in a 
high state of efficiency, must be 
constantly repairing and renew- 
ing. This work of disturbing 
the line from its ordinary con- 
dition is undertaken only with 
the greatest possible precautions, 
not only at or near the point 
where the works are being executed, but in giving ample notice to 
drivers, guards, stationmasters, and all concerned well in advance of 
the time. This is done in a weekly pamphlet of about fifty pages, 
which sets out what parts of the line are to be repaired, the alterations 
in running, the alterations in signals, the erection of new signals, 
details as to the relaying of the line, and the special regulations for 
the working of the traffic at these points whilst the work is in progress. 

There is further a special excursion train programme for each week, 
showing the running of every extra passenger train, the times of 
running, who is to provide the carriages, the locomotive power, and the 
guards. These regulations apply to all excursion and special trains 
race-meetings, football matches, cricket matches, trains for holidays ; 
and then, to crown all, comes a special summer programme. 

All these things, of course, are quite outside and in addition to the 
u 




MR. MUGLISTON. 



290 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

three hundred and odd pages of "Rules," which are signed by the 
Chairman and Secretary of the Company for the general guidance of 
all officers and servants of the Company. 

The Superintendent of the Line is also responsible for the working of 
the signal-boxes and the carrying out of the block system and the safe 
working of the line in all respects. 

For passenger traffic the Superintendent of the Line is assisted by 
five district passenger agents, this devolution having been introduced 
in November, 1899. These five agents cover between them the whole 
of the Company's system, the districts being known as London, Derby, 
Manchester, the North of England, and South Wales. Their duties 
are generally to supervise the arrangements for passenger traffic in 
their respective districts, and they meet together monthly to lay the 
result of their investigations before the Superintendent of the Line and 
the Traffic Department. 

Then come the district inspectors, who take charge of smaller 
divisions and are answerable for the proper conduct and for everything 
that happens on the lines under their supervision. All cases of com- 
plaint or delay come to their special notice and have to be inquired 
into on the spot delays to trains, irregularities in signal-boxes, 
accidents of all kinds, cattle straying on the lines, level-crossing gates 
not properly secured, in fact, anything out of the ordinary course of 
traffic working. The guard of every train makes out a "journal" 
giving the number of coaches and the times of running of every train, 
and he has to account specifically for every minute occupied beyond 
the scheduled time. The importance of this, on a line crowded with 
traffic, cannot be overestimated, because slight delays to either goods 
or passenger trains tend most seriously to interfere with the carrying 
capacity and the earning powers of the lines, and if not promptly 
checked and obviated would soon lead to serious disorganisation. 

These "journals" and special reports give an account of everything, 
whether ordinary or extraordinary, relating to the working of each 
train, and they must reach the Superintendent of the Line not later than 
9 a.m. on the following morning. Here they are examined by a staff 
of clerks, and those which record delays or anything of an irregular 
character are sent to the district inspectors. In addition to this the 
district inspectors also get reports through the Superintendent of 
the Line, who has received them from the station master or signalman 
in the district where the occurrence or delay of whatever character has 
taken place, giving their version of the cause. The district inspector 
must then go to the whole of the parties concerned, inquire into the 
facts, and report without delay to the Superintendent of the Line. 



THE DUTIES OF A STATIONMASTER 293 

In addition, the district inspectors have to visit every signal-box in 
their district and see that everything is in order, and that the work is 
being efficiently performed these visits being made both by day and 
by night. These district inspectors have an assistant inspector under 
them, but the district inspectors have no fixed hours of service ; they 
have to be available at all times of the day and night it must be 
known at all times where they can be found ; and whenever anything 
unusual or of a serious or important character occurs the district 
inspectors have to be called at once to the scene, and they must 
remain in charge until the difficulty is removed. 

There is also a staff of train-working inspectors, whose duty it is to 
travel by either goods or passenger trains which frequently lose time in 
order to ascertain the cause, and they have to present special reports as 
to the best methods of overcoming the same. 

The stationmasters are to transpose their name "masters of the 
station," and their duties and responsibilites vary in a most remarkable 
manner according to the size of the station and the amount of traffic. 
Stationmasters at large centres, such as St. Pancras, Leicester, Notting- 
ham, Leeds, Bradford, or Sheffield deal with passenger and parcels 
traffic only. A stationmaster at such places has a very large staff 
under his control and for whom he is responsible ; he has to receive 
and distribute large sums of money for the payment of wages, amount- 
ing in large districts to several thousand pounds per week. He is also 
primarily responsible for all the money taken and collected at the 
station, and for its being promptly banked and accounted for ; he has 
also to manage the staff at his station so as to deal adequately with the 
requirements of both day and night traffic. Sunday and weekday he 
has the control of all the trains whilst they are at the station or within 
station limits ; he has the control of the signalmen in the boxes within 
those limits, which vary from three to twelve boxes. He is responsible 
for the conduct of the parcels and milk traffic in the parcels depart- 
ment ; he is responsible for the conduct of the booking-offices, for all 
stores supplied to the station and their proper use books, stationery, 
coal, oil, brushes, etc. The whole of the passenger guards are under 
his control, and he has also to look well ahead to provide the necessary 
coaches for extra trains which only run on certain days of the week, as 
well as for special trains provided for in the excursion programme, and 
also special trains ordered by telegraph. He is responsible for the 
proper conduct of the whole of the rooms of every kind at his station, 
the cab-stands, the out-porters, the lifts, the passengers' luggage, the 
mails, and he has to specially report upon complaints of all kinds, so 
far as the station working is concerned. His duties are manifold, and 



294 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

he is being constantly required to give a decision on all manner of 
questions, both verbally and in writing. Above and beyond all this, he 
is responsible for the safety of every passenger arriving, transferring, or 
departing from his station a matter of no light importance and 
concern in times of great pressure of traffic with crowded platforms ; 
and to him applies with special force the rule which says, " The safety 
of the public must, under all circumstances, be the chief care of the 
servants of the Company." A stationmaster is in very close touch 
with the public, and he has come to be regarded almost as a public 
functionary. The skill and diplomacy with which a stationmaster 
discharges his duties have a very important influence in attracting 
traffic to the line. He has also to encourage his staff in the careful 
and diligent performance of their important duties ; he " coaches," 
"trains," instructs, and examines members of his staff who have ambition 
not only to get on, but who have displayed zeal and ability in the 
performance of their duties, and who are worthy of encouragement. 
This is of very great value and importance, because it not only provides 
an incentive for the faithful and punctual discharge of their functions, 
but tends to promote that vigilant supervision which is so essential not 
only for the safe and proper working of the railway and the comfort of 
the travelling public, but the promotion of the Company's interests. 

These observations and these details of the duties of a stationmaster 
apply to all the large stations in the Company's system. 

It has been pointed out that the stationmasters at large centres deal 
only with the passenger and parcels traffic ; but the stationmasters at 
small stations have to be a sort of " all-round, handy men " who know 
everything about their districts, and undertake the supervision of 
passenger, goods, and mineral traffic. 

Taking an extreme illustration at the bottom of the tree, there is an 
instance on a small single line with little traffic where the stationmaster 
is the sole representative of the Company at the village, and his duties 
comprise stationmaster, porter, signalman, gateman, ticket-clerk, goods 
and mineral agent, and weighing-machine man combining all these 
offices in his own person. 

There are also what are called station agents, who at various points 
perform very important functions where there are competing lines, and 
who are, for all practical purposes, as far as the Midland are concerned, 
really stationmasters. They are the representatives of the Company 
on lines and at stations where the Midland has running powers. They 
have to look after the Midland traffic and interests generally, but, of 
course, they have no control over the station, or the station staff, or its 
working. They, however, have to see that the company which furnishes 



TRAIN ARRANGEMENTS 295 

the running powers finds the porters and all the necessary facilities for 
working the trains required. These agents are stationed at such places 
as Carlisle, York, Bristol, Cambridge, Worcester, and Peterborough. 

The entire train service, both goods and passenger, is regulated and 
alterations from time to time determined upon as may be deemed 
necessary to cope with the traffic, such alterations, regulations, and 
additions being based upon the reports of all the functionaries or 
officers whose duties we have been describing to the Superintendent 
of the Line. He carefully dissects all these, and after full investiga- 
tion he submits his reports and recommendations to the General 
Manager, by whom they are finally decided after he has laid the most 
important questions before the Traffic Committee for approval and 
confirmation. Thus it comes to pass that no great change or any ill- 
digested schemes or alterations can ever be brought into practice ; and 
it is only after the fullest consideration and precaution, and the due 
weighing of all the facts and conditions to be dealt with, that they are 
brought into practical working. It is by reason of these rather elaborate 
schemes of forethought that the running of unnecessary trains is 
avoided, and also the consequent waste of expenditure which would 
otherwise arise; and further, it also explains and accounts for the 
smooth and automatic way in which these alterations which are brought 
into practical working are effected without any disturbance of the 
previously existing train service. These improvements fit in with a 
nicety of detail and work in perfect harmony; all this is due to the 
care, the forethought, and the systematic way in which they are brought 
into being. 

The alterations are not made for the mere purpose of bringing 
about changes ; they are brought about by the actual pressure of traffic, 
or the snowball-like way in which certain trains attract and develop 
traffic en route, which forces its attention on the responsible officials. 

Thus, a new train may be required because a previously existing 
express has come to consist of so many coaches that two engines 
are necessary almost every day ; or it may be that a rival company has 
introduced or is about to introduce a new competing train, which it 
is necessary, in the Company's interests, to checkmate in order to 
retain its own traffic and position ; or there are cases in which 
important traders or large firms put forth pressure and run sufficient 
traffic to induce the Company at least to give a trial to a new 
train for specific purposes, and as far as possible to meet public 
requirements. In all these cases the Superintendent of the Line 
receives the reports on the subject from the stationmasters, the 
passenger agents, the goods managers, or the district inspectors, as 



296 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the case may be ; and when he has reduced all these into a practical 
shape he himself draws up a report as to the probable number of 
passengers, the best times for starting and arriving, the best stations 
to stop at en route, the number of coaches required for the train, the 
kind of carriages, and whether they are to include breakfast, dining, 
or sleeping cars. After all this has been done his scheme is submitted 
to the General Manager, who, if he is satisfied that it is a proper 
arrangement, submits it to the Traffic Committee, who finally dispose 
of it. If the proposed train is to run over any other company's line 
on any part of its journey, or is to run into any other company's 
station, or is to work in connection with the trains of other companies, 
it is necessary to obtain from such companies their sanction, and they 
must be consulted and the details made to fit their views and the 
exigencies of their traffic. In working a new train into practical effect 
it is necessary to provide a " balance " or return train in the opposite 
direction, in order that the engine, coaches, and men can be brought 
back to the station from which they originally started. This raises 
another problem of discovering the best time for the new train to be 
put on for the return journey. When this has been arrived at the Super- 
intendent of the Line then communicates with the Locomotive Depart- 
ment, giving the times of the new train in both directions, and requests 
the Locomotive Superintendent to provide the required power. Then 
the Locomotive Superintendent takes up the matter and provides for 
the engine and the best means of utilising not only the power but the 
time of the men in charge. The Carriage Superintendent has also to 
be consulted as to the necessary vehicles and how they are to be pro- 
vided. Of course, if he has sufficient vehicles in stock there is no 
further trouble ; but if they are required to be of a new and special 
character of which the Company does not possess more than are 
necessary for actual requirements, the question of the construction of 
new railway stock must be brought before the Carriage and Wagon 
Committee. It is these requests for new trains whether passenger 
or goods by the General Manager that necessitate and determine the 
applications which the Locomotive and Carriage Departments have to 
make from time to time for more capital to be expended on additional 
engines, carriages, or wagons. But before this new capital is ex- 
pended the General Purposes Committee, which looks so carefully 
after the interests of the shareholders, and which Committee consists 
of the whole of the directors, finally decides whether the new stock 
or engines are absolutely necessary, and that the expenditure is a wise 
one in the interests of the Company and to meet the necessities of the 
traffic. 



THE GOODS DEPARTMENT 297 

It will thus be seen that it is no light and easy matter to arrange for 
the introduction of new trains, as is sometimes imagined by the general 
public, who often apparently think it the easiest thing in the world to 
slip in a new train for their special benefit and convenience at any hour 
of the day. 

When a new arrangement does come into force and the time-tables 
are printed, the alteration works smoothly and automatically without 
friction of any kind and without disturbance to other trains on the 
railway, from the fact that the arrangements have been so carefully 
planned and worked out in a systematic manner; and although the 
line is crowded with traffic, there is no dislocation of the facilities which 
previously existed. 

The Advertising and Literary Department, under the supervision of 
the General Manager, deals with a great variety of detailed work, which 
is admirably carried out by Mr. T C. Jeffrey. 



THE GOODS DEPARTMENT 

The second division of the Traffic Department is the Goods, but, 
as already explained, the Goods Department has nothing whatever to 
do with the running of the trains, which are all dealt with, as already 
explained, by the Superintendent of the Line. 

The Goods Department is under the charge of the Goods Manager 
-(Mr. Adie), and it is one of the chief and most important in the Mid- 
land system, the Midland having an enormous goods traffic at every 
station on the line. At the large stations the Goods Manager has 
special goods agents, and at small places the stationmaster combines 
the duties, as already explained. The staff under the Goods Manager 
is a most extensive, one. He is assisted in his far-reaching duties by 
an Assistant Goods Manager, an outdoor assistant, goods agent at 
every station (some 600 in number), canvassers, inspectors, veterinary 
surgeon and staff, carters, porters, shunters, and a whole army of 
clerks. 

The outdoor assistant has to control and look after the whole of 
outlying goods sheds, warehouses, yards, and their management ; and 
he has generally to superintend the local goods agents in each town. 
The carting, the horses, and similar things also claim his attention. 

In the case of passenger traffic, the passenger, when he is booked 
loads and unloads himself and there is an end of the matter; but 
with goods it is far different. The goods have to be collected, signed 
for, loaded, conveyed, unloaded, delivered, and a receipt taken, besides 
which there is the collection of the charges for the carriage. Goods and 



298 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



general merchandise fall into the ordinary regular grove, although even 
in their case there is an enormous amount of clerical work to be per- 
formed and permanent records kept of all transactions from the time 
that the goods are received from the consigner till their delivery to the 
consignee. 

But in addition to this there are many branches of special traffic 
which come under the designation of goods. Thus there are cattle 
to be dealt with, and meat to be conveyed in refrigerating vans, armour 
plates, guns, boilers, girders, which all require special and particular 
arrangements to be made either for collection, conveyance, or delivery, 

or for all three combined, and special 
wagons have to be provided to 
convey unusually heavy weights and 
materials of exceptionally large size 
the latter of which are only con- 
veyed under special circumstances. 

Great care has also to be exercised 
at all points by the Goods Department 
as to the "loading gauge" and the 
secure loading of wagons under 
ordinary and exceptional circum- 
stances. 

The enormous shipping traffic sent 
to or conveyed from the docks at 
great centres London, Liverpool, 
Bristol, Gloucester, Swansea demand 
great administrative ability, as the 
goods come from and go to the 
uttermost parts of the earth. Then 
again, there is the exchange of 

traffic with other companies, both sending and receiving, which re- 
quires great care in its manipulation. The great complication of 
accounts which is thereby entailed between the Midland and the other 
railway companies as to carriage paid in advance and carriage col- 
lected at the destination in both directions sending and receiving 
and the proportion pro rata according to the fixed scale and regulations 
of the charges due to each company is dealt with by the Clearing 
House ; but at the same time it entails great care and accuracy in 
registering the proportions due to the Midland account by the goods 
clerical staff. 

Once a month the goods agents from all parts of the Midland 
system meet at Derby and have a conference with the Goods Manager 




MR. ADIE. 



THE GOODS MANAGER 299 

as to the general conduct of the traffic in their respective centres. 
Each district agent lays before the head of the department the matters 
which arise in his district, especially relating to traffic which the 
Company may be losing or which they consider they might obtain, 
and also the actual competition and threatened competition by other 
companies. The main object of the conferences is for the Goods 
Manager to ascertain that all sources of traffic are thoroughly tapped ; 
also to discover the best means of looking after the growing trade and 
the new business which is being constantly developed. How im- 
portant this is may be gathered from the fact that during the last half 
of the year 1899 the increased traffic receipts from merchandise alone 
amounted to no less than ^73,296 over the corresponding six months 
of 1898, while the total receipts from merchandise during the last six 
months of 1899 amounted to ,2,484,023 los. $d., which practically 
shows a revenue of about ^5, 000,000 per annum from this one 
department. 

The Goods Manager has also to attend the conferences in London 
of the Clearing House, which take place between all the goods 
managers of the kingdom. Views are exchanged and united action 
is decided upon by all companies as to rates for ordinary and 
special traffic. Nothing is more complicated than the question of 
railway rates, and even after the most careful arrangements, the matters 
in question have frequently to be threshed out in a court of law before 
certain traders will be satisfied. 

There have to be special or preferential rates for shipping traffic or 
else it would cease to exist. Special rates have to be conceded for 
goods of comparatively small value or that traffic would be strangled ; 
the competition with canals has also to be taken into account; and 
practically all these important and complex questions have to be 
determined by the goods managers in conference, and their decisions 
finally confirmed by the general managers of each company and their 
traffic committees. These conferences are to ensure joint and uniform 
action, to fix a fair and reasonable rate for specified goods for given 
distances, and to prevent a state of utter chaos and confusion and a 
war of rates which would otherwise result. 

In addition to all his duties in the effective superintendence of all 
those great goods depots dealing with such an enormous traffic in all 
parts of the country, the Goods Manager is also charged with the 
supervision of a whole army of clerks, porters, shunters, loaders, and 
carters; he has to arrange and is accountable for the purchase and 
distribution of all horses for carting and other purposes their stabling, 
feeding, doctoring, and re-sale when their railway days are over. The 



300 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

horses owned by the Midland number 5,767, and as they are in- 
variably powerful and costly animals of a high class, the Veterinary 
Surgeons' Department, under the Goods Manager, has to be conducted 
with great skill in order to obviate waste in the feeding or in the 
utilisation in their very valuable horseflesh. 

The merchandise traffic of the great railway companies of the 
kingdom is in very deed and in very truth the daily bread of the 
great mass of the population of our great towns London especially. 
Without this great and ever-increasing inflow of what is known as 
perishable traffic forwarded by express goods trains, some of which 
run at passenger train speed, and arriving at the great centres of 
population at fixed and regular hours early in the morning, conveying 
meat, vegetables, fish, milk, and in fact all the necessaries of daily life, 
so as to be available in the shops on their opening in the morning, 
London and the great towns would be almost as bad as a beleaguered 
city in forty-eight hours so close and hand to mouth has the supply 
become owing to the great regularity of the railway traffic. 

It will be seen from these facts and considerations that it would be 
altogether impossible to close railways for all traffic on Sundays. 
Efforts are made from time to time by certain well-meaning persons, 
who would, if they could have their way, entirely close the whole of 
the railways of the country upon Sunday. While being as strongly 
opposed as anyone to the running of unnecessary trains upon that 
day, and adopting the view that men who are obliged to work on 
Sunday should be properly paid, and arrangements made to give them 
a day of rest during the week, it is hardly necessary to point out that 
a certain number of passenger trains and the mail trains must be run 
upon the Sunday. Probably few persons will say that the workers in 
our large towns, who are all the week shut up in factories and works, 
have not the right to have special trains run to the seaside in order 
that they may for a few hours on the Sunday have the benefit to 
health of a change and the breathing of pure air. Some people will 
perhaps say this is all very well, but why run Sunday goods trains? 
Probably the general public does not know nor consider what is con- 
tained in these goods trains, nor what would be the result if they were 
delayed or stopped for twenty-four hours. The heavy "fast goods 
trains," composed of covered vans or wagons sheeted over, which may 
be seen making their way up to London on Sunday, consist almost 
entirely of "perishable food traffic," such as fish, meat, milk, fruit, 
game, eggs, butter, bread, and the like. London, with its five millions 
of people, has practically no reserve of food on hand it relies from 
hour to hour upon the arrival of these fast goods trains for its supplies. 



SUNDAY TRAFFIC 



301 



If it were possible for one Sunday to stop these trains running for 
twenty-four hours, the result would be that on Sunday and Monday 
morning the people of London would be starving, The exact total 
value of the food carried by all the lines into London on Sunday is 
great, and taking that over the Midland only it is worth about ,30,000 
each Sunday. 

Now, in view of such facts as these, is it likely that the people in 
large cities are to be starved, and many thousands of pounds' worth of 
good food to be allowed to go bad and be unfit for the food of man 
just to save the running of goods trains on Sunday? Then, again, 
there is the cattle traffic. Many hundreds of wagons of cattle are sent 




LAWLEY STREET GOODS YARD, BIRMINGHAM. 

off on Saturday afternoon to London from Scotland, from Ireland via 
Liverpool, and other parts ; and the trains do not arrive till Sunday. If 
the lines were closed, what is to be the result ? Surely no one will wish 
the poor animals to be shunted into sidings at twelve o'clock midnight 
on Saturday, there to wait for twenty-four hours ! The fact of the matter 
is that the more our large towns grow the more food they require ; con- 
sequently the more they have to depend upon fast goods trains for their 
supplies, and it is therefore clear that the fast goods traffic on Sunday- 
is destined to increase rather than decrease. It is very easy indeed for 
the advocates of Sunday closing of railways to bring forward a theory, 
but the food-supply question is a very large and important one which 
must be faced, and shows that the whole notion of shutting up railways 
on that day is not a practical one. 



302 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



THE MINERAL DEPARTMENT 

The third section under the supervision of the General Manager is 
the Mineral Department, which is under the control of Mr. Shaw. 
Minerals include the conveyance of coal, coke, granite, ironstone, and 
lime; and the conditions under which such traffic is worked are very 
varied and rather complicated. For example, almost all collieries served 
by the Midland Company have competing lines for their traffic ; there 
is also the competition of canals in a great many cases, and in this 
particular department it is very keen on account of their low rates and 
their small expenses. Some of the collieries and quarries are close to 
the Midland lines, whereas others have their own branch lines of con- 
siderable length to connect them with the Midland. In some instances 
the Midland send their engines to the pits to fetch the coal ; in others 




STANDARD GOODS ENGINE. 

the colliery owners provide their own locomotives. Then, again, some 
collieries hire Midland wagons, while other collieries provide their own. 
At the delivery end of the journey the arrangements are equally 
varied. In some instances the Midland Company provide their own 
coalyards and sidings from which the owners of the coal unload 
wagons ; in other cases the Company has coal depots of its own fitted 
with special drops, lifts, and shoots, and appliances for transferring the 
coal into the various private owners' drays or carts, as the case may be. 
Again, some of the large colliery firms have their own drops and do 
their own unloading; and in the case of docks, the dock companies 
and harbour boards frequently provide their own locomotives and staff 
both for transferring and unloading purposes. All these different con- 
ditions have to come under the review of the Mineral Manager, who 
is responsible for full and adequate arrangements being provided under 
each system, and he is further charged with the duty of seeing that 
all the special rules which relate'to them are strictly observed. 



THE MINERAL MANAGER 



303 




Very few of the public have any conception of the difficulties in the 
way of supplying such huge centres of population as London with coal. 
The cost of land at the various points required is so enormous, and 
the difficulties in the way of the expansion of the depots so great, that 
the ordinary easy-going coalyards with wagons standing about for days 
together is altogether out of the question. It is a case of getting in 
and out again with the utmost rapidity, 
so that the greatest amount of traffic 
possible may be got out of the smallest 
possible depot in the shortest space 
of time. How stupendous these diffi- 
culties are can only be adequately 
conceived by those who have the 
actual working of the traffic, which 
has to pass, be it remembered, over 
an intermediate or foreign line of 
railway linking the depot with the 
Midland system, and which link is 
closed entirely for the receipt or 
despatch of mineral trains during a 
good many hours of the day. 

As an example of working a coal \ ^W ^ 

depot take Walworth Road, London. 
Here is the special rule which governs 
its traffic : MR SHAW 

"At Walworth Road only one mineral train can be dealt with at 
the same time. The foreman on duty at Kentish Town will be held 
responsible for taking care that a second mineral train is not allowed 
to leave Kentish Town for Walworth Road at a less interval than 
one hour after the preceding train." 

This means that a previous train of sixteen wagons must be unloaded 
and returned back within the hour from Walworth Road to Kentish 
Town; and with 10 tons of coal in each wagon, this gives 160 tons 
of coal which must be dealt with in the course of an hour, the wagons 
cleared and shunted, and the depot clear for another train. This is 
an example of not only what is possible, but what is absolutely neces- 
sary to be achieved in order to ensure, by a happy combination, the 
regular and smooth inflow of coal traffic to a depot. 

Whilst these are the general surroundings, they are involved in a 
mass of detail with hardly two cases alike, there being so many special 
conditions of actual service rendered and distances covered, together 



304 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

with a supply of locomotive power and wagons so very varied, and the 
rates and charges governing them depending on so many special Acts 
of Parliament which have been passed at various dates, and including 
so many particular rates both regarding the class of traffic and the 
divisions of the line over which it is carried, that the utmost care has 
to be observed in working them out. The great and paramount duty 
of the Mineral Manager is to secure a continuous flow of mineral 
traffic all the year through and on all branches of the system; and 
where there is so much competition and so many changes taking place 
this requires constant watchfulness in order to conserve the Company's 
interests. The arrangements and agreements made between the Mid- 
land Company and its customers have to be most carefully considered. 

The consignors of the minerals invariably load the wagons at their 
collieries or quarries with their own staff and at their own cost. Where 
the colliery owners provide their own locomotive power and sidings 
they convey the traffic to a given point on the Midland line, where it is 
handed over to the Midland Traffic Department, which comes under 
the control of the Superintendent of the Line, who deals with it till it 
reaches its destination. Where the Midland Company provide the 
locomotive power on private owners' sidings the traffic is handed over 
as the wagons are coupled up, when the Midland engine and guard 
take charge of it. The Mineral Manager has not only to arrange for 
obtaining traffic and the terms upon which it is to be carried, but has 
also to see that an adequate number of wagons is provided at each 
point, and he has to indicate to the Superintendent of the Line at which 
point wagons are most urgently required in order that the Traffic 
Department may adequately respond to the exigencies of trade. 

The minerals having been conveyed to their destination by the 
Traffic Department, they again come under the control of the Mineral 
Manager, upon whom rests the responsibility of prompt delivery or 
being promptly placed at the disposal of the consignee, and that the 
wagons are speedily unloaded and again sent back for reloading. The 
consignees have to be advised that the minerals have arrived, and in 
cases of delay in unloading, demurrage on the wagons has to be 
notified and charged for. The whole of the work of delivery is done 
by the consignees as far as emptying the wagons and the taking away 
of the minerals are concerned. The Company weigh the vehicles as 
they enter the yards or depots and again as they depart loaded, and 
these weights are checked by the weighing of the railway wagons and 
their load at the most convenient weighing machine on the Midland 
system near the collieries or quarries. The Mineral Manager is also 
charged with the duty of seeing that the appliances, the coal shoots, 



MINERAL SIDINGS 305 

and the sidings are sufficiently large and adequate for dealing with the 
Company's traffic, and that they are utilised to the utmost advantage. 
Where new appliances or sidings are required he has to report to the 
General Manager as to the necessities of the case and the best way of 
meeting them. Of course, the General Manager has special district 
agents at all convenient points and centres both of collection and 
delivery. 

The mineral traffic on the Midland Railway yields a revenue of 
practically ^3, 000,000 per annum. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

FINANCE DEPARTMENT 

WE now pass on to the second great division of the Company's 
administration, namely, the Finance Department, which is 
controlled by a committee of five directors. It is subdivided into 
three separate divisions, namely : 

(1) The Secretary's Department. 

(2) The Accountant's Department. 

(3) The Rating Surveyor's Department. 

The Secretary (Mr. Alexis L. Charles) is the legal representative of 
the Company, and as we read in the old Acts of Parliament, he is the 
person to sue and be sued. His great business is to keep the minutes 
of all meetings of the Board and various committees, as well as of all 
meetings of the shareholders. He also has charge and is answerable 
for the correctness of all the registers of stock, shares, debentures, 
loans, and all transfers in the transfer department. He has as chief 
officers an assistant secretary, a chief cashier, and a rent-collector, as 
well as a large staff of clerks in the various departments of which he 
has charge. When new capital is to be issued it is he who places it 
upon the market under the general direction of the Finance Committee. 
All transfer deeds come under his supervision, and he deals with all the 
correspondence relating to the Financial Department of the under- 
taking. He has to issue and sign all legal notices. He is, in addition, 
one of the largest holders of licences in the kingdom, having, in his 
capacity as Secretary, to take out year by year the licences for all the 
hotels and refreshment-rooms at the various stations on the whole 
system. His name, too, appears over the doors of these various 
buildings, and it will likewise be found on every cart and delivery van 
owned by the Company. All conveyances of land and property to the 
Company are under his custody, as are also all the Acts relating to 
lines purchased and all the agreements entered into between the 
Midland and other companies. 

306 



THE SECRETARY 307 

The following is a list of the secretaries from 1844 to 1900 : 

J. F. Bell Appointed May 24th, 1844 Resigned Oct. ist, 1853. 

Joseph Sanders Oct. ist, 1853 Died Nov. I4th, 1856. 

G. N. Browne Jan. 7th, 1857 Died June nth, 1868. 

James Williams ., Dec. 2nd, 1868 Resigned May igth, 1899. 

A. L. Charles ,, June i6th, 1899 

MR. JOHN Fox BELL, who was the first Secretary of the Midland, 
was originally Secretary of the Midland Counties Railway at Leicester. 
Upon him fell a large share of the responsibility connected with the 
carrying through of the amalga- 
mation. He continued in orifice 
until October ist, 1853, and he 
subsequently became a director 
of the Company. 

MR. JOSEPH SANDERS, who 
had previously been Secretary 
of the Birmingham and Derby 
Junction Company before its 
absorption in the Midland, was 
appointed General Superinten- 
dent of the management of all 
trains in the coaching depart- 
ment in July, 1849, and in 1850 
he became General Manager. 
But on October ist, 1853, he 
gave way in the general manager- 
ship to allow Mr. Allport to 
assume the chief command as 

General Manager at a very im- MR. CHARLES. 

portant period in the develop- 
ment of the Midland. On vacating this office he was appointed 
Secretary of the Company, which he held until the time of his death 
in 1856. 

MR. G. N. BROWNE, his successor, was Secretary from 1857 till the 
time of his death in 1868. 

MR. JAMES WILLIAMS, who is a justice of the peace for the borough 
of Derby, was born at Helston, Cornwall, on April gth, 1830. He 
commenced his business career with the Bodmin and Wadebridge 
Railway, now the property of the London and South Western 
Company, in 1844, and joined the East Lancashire Railway in 1849, 
remaining with that Company until 1852, when he entered the service 
of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway shortly after 




308 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

the appointment of Sir Edward Watkin as Chairman of the Board 
of Directors. He severed his connection with the Sheffield Company 
in 1856, having been offered the position of Accountant to the West 
Midland Railway. Shortly after his removal to Worcester the 
undertaking was amalgamated with the Great Western, and he 
joined the executive staff of that Company at Paddington. In 1867 
Mr. Williams was selected as one of the members of the Commission 
appointed by the Treasury to inquire into the financial condition 
of the Irish railways, with a view to their purchase by the Government, 
under the Act of 1844. On the conclusion of the work of that 
Commission, in 1868, he was chosen from amongst a large number 
of applicants to succeed the late Mr. G. Newton Browne as Secretary 
to the Midland Railway Company, and commenced his duties on 
January ist, 1869. Mr. Williams' resignation was accepted at a 
meeting of the Board on May iQth, 1899. 

MR. ALEXIS LEON CHARLES, the Secretary of the Company, was born 
at Nottingham on February 3rd, 1851, educated at the Derby Grammar 
School, and entered the Midland Railway's service as junior clerk 
in the Accountant's Department, September i2th, 1865, being 
transferred to the Secretary's Department as clerk in charge of the 
stations cash accounts, December ist, 1866. He was appointed 
shorthand writer, July ist, 1869; chief assistant, January i8th, 1883; 
assistant secretary, July iyth, 1891 ; and Secretary, June i6th, 1899. 

Mr. Charles is well known as a public man at Derby ; and his 
leisure hours are fully occupied in the promotion of various 
philanthropic objects. Among the offices he fills it may be 
mentioned that he is Chairman of the Board of Trustees of 
the Liversage Charity, which distributes about ,3,000 per annum 
amongst the deserving poor of Derby; he is churchwarden of 
St. Andrews ; he is a director of the Derbyshire Permanent Building 
Society; member of the Council of the Institute of Secretaries; 
member of the committee of the Railway Benevolent Institution; 
member of the committee of the Railway Servants' Orphanage ; 
Chairman of the Railway Servants' Orphanage Concert Committee; 
Chairman of the Board of Managers of the Westhouses Railway 
School; Chairman of the Litchurch branch of the National Deposit 
Friendly Society ; Vice-President of the Midland Railway Temperance 
Union ; and Vice-President of the Midland Railway Natural History 
Society. 

Mr. Charles is also Secretary of the Somerset and Dorset Railway 
Company and Secretary of the Tottenham and Hampstead Railway 
Company. 



THE ACCOUNTANT 



309 



Upon the Accountant (Mr. John James Doughty) falls the care and 
charge of the whole of the accounts of the undertaking ; and he signs 
and certifies them in conjunction with the Chairman of the 
Company. As these accounts deal with over ^100,000,000 of 
capital and with a revenue of about ;i 1,000,000 per annum, and 
a working expenditure of about ^6,700,000 per annum, which revenue 
is obtained from many sources in great detail, and which expenditure 
is laid out over a wide area and 
in an endless variety of ways, the 
Accountant's duties call for the very 
highest administrative ability, care, 
and accuracy. He has as chief of 
his staff an assistant accountant 
and a number of inspectors and 
auditors. He is responsible for the 
whole of the monetary transactions 
of the Company, and the daily, 
weekly, and monthly, and the final 
half-yearly returns from all stations 
and depots on all parts of the 
system ; and the whole of these 
complicated accounts from all these 
various quarters have to be certified 
as accurate and balanced to a half- 
penny. He has not only to be 
responsible for the accuracy of 
his own accounts at the head- 
quarters at Derby, but he has also 

to testify to the correctness of the financial transactions at all points 
where money is received or paid. 

Every ticket sold has to be recorded in a ticket-book by the booking- 
clerk, every parcel or package of goods has a counterfoil to show every 
receipt, and at the end of every day each man receiving money has to 
pay in the money either to the stationmaster or the responsible official 
by whom the books and the cash are verified, and the cash forwarded 
the same evening in a box to the station, from whence it is transferred 
to the bank. Consequently the accounts are completed each evening 
at a certain hour, and it therefore follows that when the auditor sends 
one of his inspectors or auditors to examine the books and papers 
at any given station or goods depot, as he does at unexpected times, 
the whole of the transactions at that station have to be perfectly clear 
and correct up to date. The inspector or auditor can immediately 




MR. DOUGHTY. 



3io THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

prove that that is the case by an examination of the train-book, parcel 
vouchers, station master's cash-book, and the receipts from the banks 
or audit department. After each audit or investigation at a local 
station the inspector signs the books, and ticks off the items ; and he 
therefore knows at his next visit the transactions which have taken 
place in the interval. 

All receipts from the various sources of traffic, passengers, merchan- 
dise, minerals, cattle, and miscellaneous sources are all kept separate 
and distinct, so that the whole can be most carefully compared from 
time to time with the receipts at corresponding periods in correspond- 
ing half-years, and the why and the wherefore of any alteration carefully 
inquired into. 

The payment of wages is accomplished in this manner : Each man's 
time is recorded when he comes on duty and when he leaves by he 
himself signing on and off duty in rotation of time, and if he is in 
daily, weekly, or monthly payment, his rate of remuneration is recorded. 
The time-sheet is prepared by the stationmaster, district locomotive 
superintendent, the goods agent, or other chief official having the 
name of each man in his department, together with the time and rate 
of wages and the amount due to each man in his department ; and 
this is recorded on the pay-sheet, and sent in to the heads of the 
various departments at Derby. Having been examined and certified 
as correct, the money for the payment is transmitted to the various 
stations and departments, and the head official locally is responsible 
for the due distribution of the money. This having been done, the 
proof that the wages are actually paid is furnished to the accountant. 

In conjunction with the Secretary and the Finance Committee the 
Accountant advises on the general financial policy of the Company. 
Occasionally this involves a great amount of wise discrimination and 
great forethought on the part of all concerned, as, for instance, when, 
by the Act of 1897, the 100 ordinary shares of the Company were 
converted into ^200 shares, namely, one ^100 share of 2\ per cent, 
preferred ordinary stock, and another share of ^100 deferred ordinary 
stock, which gave this great advantage, that investors, widows, retired 
officers, and persons with a fixed sum of money at their disposal, who 
were unwilling or legally disqualified from investing in more or less 
speculative business, could, by purchasing these 2\ per cent, preferred 
ordinary shares, thereby ensure a steady, regular fixed income which 
would practically be quite as safe as consols, as well as paying a slightly 
better interest. The holders of the other shares were placed in the 
position of receiving whatever balance of revenue remained after the 
payment of the 2\ per cent, as the interest for their investment. By 



THE RATING SURVEYOR 311 

this Act the capital of the Company was nominally increased by 
^"35,434,947. This scheme, which was most successfully carried 
through under the able guidance of the Chairman of the Company, 
had the enormous recommendation that whilst it conferred privileges 
and advantages on all the shareholders it entailed disabilities and 
disadvantages on none ; and in addition to all this it tended to increase 
the number of small shareholders, thus extending the number of 
those interested in the success of the Midland. There were numbers 
of persons who were able and willing to invest in shares of 100, but 
who had not the means of purchasing ;ioo shares which stood at a 
price of .180. 

The third division of the Finance Department is that of the Rating 
Surveyor, which is in charge of Mr. W. P. Payne and his staff. The 
duties of this official may at first sight appear to be of a routine 
character, but when we consider the great number of parishes that 
the Midland line passes through, and to each of which it has to pay 
tribute, it will be seen that enormous complications must arise, as the 
Midland is one of the largest ratepayers in the kingdom. The 
Company's bill for rates and taxes (not including income tax, which 
is deducted from every shareholder's dividend) amounts to no less 
than ^,'345,000 per annum, in addition to which it has to pay 
a Government duty of about ,14,000 per annum. In other words, 
the Midland Railway Company has to pay over in rates and taxes 
about ;i,ooo every day, including Sundays. This large sum is 
composed of many items, the rates in some large towns amounting 
to as much as 8,000 to 10,000 per annum, whilst in others it is 
a comparatively small amount. But the sums to be paid are the 
subject of much negotiation, and sometimes even litigation has to be 
resorted to in order to effect a settlement, comparatively small parishes 
through which the line passes occasionally imagining that their little 
bit of territory is necessary as a connecting link, and that therefore 
a sort of " way leave " in rates and taxes ought to be exacted from 
the Company on all traffic passing over the lines. 

All these arrangements require to be negotiated with great diplomatic 
acumen, so as to preserve the interests of the Company and not to 
unduly wound the susceptibilities of the parishes that may be in 
question. The rates vary almost as much as the value of land, say, 
in London as compared with pastoral land in the wilds of Cumberland 
on the Settle and Carlisle line; and the mastery of all these details 
can only be acquired after very long actual experience, combined with 
natural aptitude for the work. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE LOCOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT 

THE third great Department of the Midland Company is that 
which deals with locomotive power, which since July, 1873, nas 
been under the control of Mr. Samuel W. Johnson. The Locomotive 
Superintendent is charged with duties of a very comprehensive 
character, which include the designing, construction, and maintenance 
of all engines (both locomotive and stationary), the machinery and 
appliances in the great works at Derby and all outlying depots, and 
the working of all engines in the running of trains. His duties also 
include the supervision of 305 stationary engines, 270 stationary boilers, 
1,030 hydraulic machines, 420 cranes of every kind, the construction 
and maintenance of turntables all over the system, water columns, 
water-tanks and pumps, and water-supplies generally. The Locomotive 
Department is also responsible for clearing the line in case of accident, 
and for providing break-down trains and all appliances for the purpose. 
Fire brigades, gas supplies, and weighing machines all come within 
the purview of the Superintendent's office. The Midland Company 
have now more locomotive engines running on their system for the 
working of traffic than any railway company in the kingdom. On 
August ist, 1900, the number of engines stood at 2,610, which were 
charged to capital account, and over 200 on the "A" or duplicate list, 
which are charged to revenue, which, added to the above number, 
give a total of 2,810 locomotives. Besides these he has the control 
of the engines which are the joint property of the Midland and Great 
Northern Railway Companies running on the Eastern and Midland 
Railway, 82 in number, and those which are jointly owned by the 
Midland and South Western running on the Somerset and Dorset 
Joint Railway, which number 70, so that altogether, with the engines 
now on order and being constructed, the Locomotive Superintendent 
has control of no fewer than 3,000 locomotives, all in effective working 
order. 

It is necessary to point out that in 1844, just prior to the amalgama- 

312 



THE LOCOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT 313 

tion, the three companies had a total altogether of 95 locomotives, 
which were managed by three locomotive superintendents, and which 
engines were transferred to the sole care of Mr. Matthew Kirtley, the 
first Superintendent of the Midland, and who was Mr. Johnson's 
immediate predecessor. Thus it comes to pass that Mr. Matthew 
Kirtley saw the locomotives of the Company increased during his 
reign at the Locomotive Department from 95 to 1,069, while Mr. 
Johnson's administration has expanded the number from 1,069 to 
over 3,000, in addition to which he has had the whole of the previously 
existing engines either entirely replaced by new ones or rebuilt. Re- 
building in practice on the Midland means that a new boiler, fire-box, 
smoke-box, and tubes are put in, and any parts worn or damaged are 
replaced; therefore a rebuilt engine comes again into active work in 
as good and as effective a condition as when it was first constructed. 




STANDARD EXPRESS ENGINE. FOUR WHEELS COUPLED. 

The vast expansion in this department is only typical of what has 
taken place all round and in the great industrial centre of the loco- 
motive works at Derby. 

The Locomotive Superintendent is assisted in his position by the 
heads of four subsidiary branches, namely 

1. Assistant Locomotive Superintendent for the northern division. 

2. Assistant Locomotive Superintendent for the southern division, 

including the running department of locomotives stationed at 
Derby. 

But in addition to this general arrangement it is subject to a further 
subdivision into two classes 

(a) The running which deals with engines actually at work. 

(b) The repairs, renewals, and constructing department; and the finan- 

cial arrangements of each are kept perfectly separate and distinct. 

These offices are filled : northern district by Mr. W. H. Adams, and 
for the southern district by Mr. C. H. Jones. 



3 i 4 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

In the running department there are running shed foremen (night 
and day), and at large stations where engines are frequently changed 
there are also assistant locomotive foremen (one for nights and one 
for days), who are responsible for seeing that the engines are ready to 
take on their respective trains. There are also time-keepers, drivers, 
firemen, foremen of cleaners, steam risers, cleaners, coal stagemen, and 
labourers. 

In the maintenance branch work is only carried on by day, and the 
staff comprises foremen of fitting-shops, fitters, machinists, and labourers. 

Each of the two assistant locomotive superintendents (north and 
south) has under his charge the conduct of the actual running and 
repairs to locomotives, which may be executed at outlying stations 
without necessitating the engines being sent to the large workshops 
at Derby. 

They also have to report periodically as to the number of engines 
(both goods and passenger) which they consider are required by the 
exigencies of traffic at each point in their respective divisions; and 
subject to the Locomotive Superintendent's approval, the engines are 
provided accordingly. 

The assistant locomotive superintendents have also to determine the 
number of engines to be stationed at each locomotive shed, the number 
of drivers and firemen necessary for their working ; and they also 
arrange the order in which the trains are to be worked in each direction 
from each station, and the hours of the day and night that the drivers, 
firemen, fitters, cleaners, etc., are to be on duty. 

The district locomotive superintendents, of whom there are thirty 
stationed at the large centres of traffic, are responsible for the efficiency 
of all engines working from their district, also for the efficiency of the 
drivers and firemen and all the men employed in their departments. 

They are also responsible for seeing that an adequate supply of coal 
is constantly available for all engines, that the water-tanks are kept 
in order, that an ample supply of water is ready night and day, and 
for the working of water-cranes, especially during times of frost or 
drought. 

At the end of each month the district locomotive superintendent 
has also to send in a return to headquarters at Derby to the assistant 
locomotive superintendent of his district, giving the number of engines 
stationed at his shed, the condition in which they are, the number 
of miles run during the month by each engine, the total coal consumed, 
oil, waste, and water used, the wages of the men employed in working 
each engine, and as to whether the engine is in good condition or 
requires or is being repaired. 



THE WORKING OF LOCOMOTIVES 315 

On the other side he has also to state what engines have been in the 
repair shops during the month, the nature of the repairs, the cost both 
as regards materials and labour ; further, the state of the machinery, 
stationary boilers, engines, and their maintenance in a thoroughly 
sound and effective condition. It is by these carefully prepared reports 
at each centre that the Locomotive Superintendent is able at each 
half-year to formally certify to the directors that the whole of the 
engines, tenders, machinery, tools, etc., of the Company have been kept 
in a good working order and repair during the period in question. 

These district locomotive superintendents each week have to compile 
a list showing the duties of each driver and fireman, and what engine 
they are working and the trains which they are carrying every day 
during the week of course, the whole twenty-four hours being covered. 




STANDARD PASSENGER TANK ENGINE. 

This sheet of duties is arranged on a system of a given number of men 
working in a ring upon certain classes of traffic goods or passenger 
and on certain trains. Thus a driver and fireman work a train later 
each day in a given direction, and the same on the return journey. 
The result is that, say, where eight men form the ring, in the course 
of eight weeks each man has covered the round and resumes again 
at the point from which he started. By this and similar means each 
driver will have worked exactly the same number of trains, will have 
conveyed practically the same loads, and a comparison can be made 
both as to the working of engines and men, and the total expenditure 
for the period ascertained and compared. A quarterly sheet is also 
prepared, showing the working of each man and engine. The Company 
give premiums to the drivers and firemen who have during the 
quarter performed the best locomotive work, and the men receive 
rewards accordingly for efficiency in working. Further comparisons are 



316 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

taken by comparing the work and the cost of one district with another, 
and this is shown by a return compiled by each district locomotive 
superintendent, showing the total results in their respective limits. 
There is also a casualty list, in which all failures or break-downs of 
engines are recorded, and the causes ; and it is needless to say that 
each district locomotive superintendent is very anxious that none of his 
engines should figure in this black book. 

Each district locomotive superintendent is also responsible for clear- 
ing the line in case of accident or break-down. Each district is mapped 
out, so that when any obstruction occurs, the stationmasters, signalmen, 
or guards are able at once to telegraph to the proper district superin- 
tendent for assistance. Whilst every possible effort is made and every 
precaution taken to avoid accidents or break-downs, it is of the highest 
importance, when these unfortunate occurrences do take place, to have 
the speediest means of restoring the traffic to its natural condition. 
With this object each district locomotive superintendent is provided 
with a special break-down train, which is reserved solely for this pur- 
pose and which is specially constructed and fitted up with every 
necessary appliance and a powerful crane capable of lifting many tons 
of dead weight. Being required for sudden and unexpected emer- 
gencies, this train and all its appliances is constantly kept in perfect 
order, so as to be available at all times at a moment's notice. A break- 
down train consists of five vehicles and an engine two brake vans 
and two wagons, and a crane in the middle mounted on a special 
wagon. The break-down train is, in fact, a travelling workshop, in which 
there are ample stores of chains, blocks, hydraulic and other jacks, 
and tools of every kind always stored and kept in their proper places, 
and a staff of men, most carefully selected and specially adapted for the 
work and familiar with all the appliances, is constantly available. An 
exact record is kept of the time when a call is given and when the 
break-down train leaves the locomotive sidings. The break-down train 
runs with " express lights," and the line is cleared for it so as to give it 
a speedy passage to the point blocked. A special register is kept of the 
names of the men required and their places of residence, so that they 
can be called on at any moment night or day. For ordinary purposes 
the staff consists of fourteen or sixteen fully trained men under a 
competent official, and in all important cases the district superintendent 
is in command on the spot. Provision is also made in the break-down 
train for the workmen for the use of a van as a canteen, where tea and 
other necessaries are provided, to enable the men to continue at work 
on the spot for as many hours as may be necessary. A stretcher and 
a small ambulance outfit is also carried for use in case of emergencies 



LOCOMOTIVE SUPERINTENDENTS 317 

Fortunately, break-down gangs are not so frequently called into 
action as formerly, thanks to a wise periodical examination of rolling 
stock, heavier and better permanent way, the block system, and 
generally the stricter discipline and supervision of the staff as previously 
described. All these have produced greater efficiency, as well as 
greater safety ; but notwithstanding this, the break-down train and 
its staff is as valuable and as important as it ever was, and it is main- 
tained in the highest state of efficiency. 

The third subsidiary branch of the Locomotive Department is the 
great works which the Company have established at Derby. This 
department is under the Works Manager (Mr. John Lane), who is 
responsible for the whole of the machinery, workmanship, and general 
administration. As the whole of the 3,000 engines in use have to 
go to Derby works for all extensive repairs and rebuilding, while a 
large number of entirely new engines are turned out to replace old 
engines broken up and to increase the total number of locomotives, 
the Works Manager has many important duties to discharge. He has 
to examine and report as to whether engines which have been a long 
time in use are worthy of extensive repair or rebuilding, or whether 
it is more desirable to send them to the scrap heap, and replace them 
by engines of more modern design. He also has to arrange for the 
construction of special machines, and tools, and labour-saving 
appliances for the production of special parts of the locomotives, 
so that they may be repaired or rebuilt and returned to active work 
as speedily as possible. An engine in a workshop is a useless 
appliance, is costing much and earning nothing, and hence the 
importance of having as few engines in the repair shops at one time 
as possible. These works are of an elaborate and very extensive 
character, and they are described in a special chapter. 

The fourth subsidiary branch is the gas department, and the gas 
engineer is responsible for the mains, supply, and use of gas-lighting 
and all connected with it, and its periodical inspection and maintenance 
all over the Company's system. 



LOCOMOTIVE SUPERINTENDENTS OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

Matthew Kirtley, appointed 1844, died May 24th, 1873. 
Samuel Waite Johnson, appointed July, 1873. 

As everything connected with the movement of traffic depends 
upon the efficiency of the Locomotive Department, it will be seen 
how important is the question of its development and its adminis- 
trative control. From 1844 to 1901 only two officials have held this 
office which plays so great a part in railway undertakings. 



3i8 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

MR. MATTHEW KIRTLEY was born at Tanfield, in the county of 
Durham, February 6th, 1813. His father was employed on the Stockton 
and Darlington Railway, and the whole of the family were associated 
with railway and locomotive work. Kirtley's brother was Locomotive 
Superintendent of the North Midland Railway ; then another member 
of the family was one of the firm of Kirtley and Co., engineers, 
at Warrington, and his nephew, William Kirtley, was, until a recent 
period, Locomotive Superintendent of the London, Chatham, and Dover 
Railway. The first thing that we knew of Matthew Kirtley was 
as a youth of sixteen when he went as fireman on the Warrington 
and Newton Railway. From that he went to the Hull and Selby 
Railway, where he was a driver for some time ; and afterwards, on the 
opening of the London and Birmingham Railway, he appears to have 
driven the first of that Company's trains to London in 1837. His 
next step was one of great importance, and marked a very distinct 
advance in his career, and occurred at the opening of the 
Birmingham and Derby Railway, when he received the appointment 
to take charge of the Company's engines at Hampton. His adminis- 
tration there was a great success, for ultimately, when the Midland 
Company was formed in 1844, he received the appointment of Loco- 
motive Superintendent, although at the time he was engaged on the 
smallest of the three companies amalgamated. He was also given 
the sole control of the Locomotive, Carriage, and Wagon Depart- 
ments, which post he held to the time of his death, when the offices 
were divided with one chief Locomotive Superintendent, and another 
independent chief official for the Carriage and Wagon Department. 
When Kirtley first started on the Midland Railway there were but 
ninety-five engines under his control, and these coming from three 
companies and all built by various makers and of different designs, 
they formed a collection of a most miscellaneous character. None 
of the three companies the Birmingham and Derby, the Midland 
Counties, and the North Midland then built their engines, and it 
was on the recommendation of Kirtley, in 1851, that the Midland 
began to build their own locomotives. The change came about in 
this way : Kirtley, as a thoroughly practical man, found that none 
of the parts of the various types of engines were interchangeable, 
and the result was that when an engine broke the smallest portion 
of a working part the locomotive had to remain entirely out of work 
till a duplicate part could be either made in the repair shops or 
one supplied by the makers of the engine. Indeed, it became 
necessary in some cases to send the engines back to the makers 
to be repaired, and all this meant loss, delay, and expense to the 



MATTHEW KIRTLEY 



319 



Company. To obviate this difficulty Kirtley advised the directors 
to erect their own engines in their own workshops as well as having 
them repaired there; and where this could not be done the makers 
of the engines were supplied with Midland drawings and designs, from 
which they had to manufacture the engines. 

The first locomotive turned out at the Derby works was "No. 158," 
in September, 1851, and some of these standard engines are now 
running, having in the meantime been rebuilt according to the old 
designs on the original frames. 

In 1 86 1 he had to design and construct some entirely new and 
powerful tank engines for working the traffic up the heavy Lickey 
incline of i in 37 on the Birmingham and Gloucester section of the 




GOODS ENGINE, MR. KIRTLEY'S DESIGN. BUILT 1860. 

Midland. At the Great Exhibition of 1862 six new express engines 
were designed and constructed specially to convey the very heavy 
traffic up to London, and one of Kirtley's goods engines, "No. 479," 
was shown in the Exhibition. 

In 1870 he placed forty-eight still larger express engines, known as 
the " 800 " class, on the Midland, which did excellent work for many 
years, and after being rebuilt are still in effective working to-day. 
These engines, together with a type known as the "890," are of great 
historic interest. When the great policy of third class by all trains 
was first introduced, the length of the Midland express trains was, 
of course, greatly increased. Previously express trains had con- 
sisted of five or six coaches, but directly afterwards they were 
increased to thirteen and even more vehicles. To run this greatly 
augmented weight up heavy gradients at a high speed called for a 



320 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

great expansion of locomotive power; and when the time arrived 
in 1872 for this policy to be inaugurated Kirtley had sixty-eight new 
and powerful locomotives ready for the work, which they performed 
with great ease and satisfaction. 

Matthew Kirtley was a man who made a great mark in locomotive 
engineering in the early period of its history. Of course, he was 
one of the "old school" of strictly practical working engineers who 
had thoroughly mastered all the details by actual personal experience 
in the management and running of engines. At that time, when 
engines were much more liable to break down on the road and when 
so many repairs had to be executed on the spot in order to enable 
an engine to bring its train to its destination, the driver had to be 
much more of a fitter and operative mechanic than a driver is called 
upon with more perfect appliances to be to-day. At that time a driver 
had what was known as a " shed day " once a week, when he had 
to put in the whole day, together with the fireman, repairing, packing 
glands of the piston rods and valve spindles, making tight joints, and 
generally overhauling his own engine. 

This experience was very valuable to Kirtley, and he had also had 
the great advantage of his merits being recognised by the Stephensons. 
It was while Kirtley was working on the London and Birmingham 
Railway that the Stephensons recommended him to the Birmingham 
and Derby Junction Railway; and it was afterwards, through their 
favourable opinion of Kirtley, even although he came from the 
smallest of the three companies amalgamated, that he was given this 
highly important position on the Midland. 

At that period there were considerable differences among engineers 
as to whether engines should be placed upon four or six wheels. The 
Midland Counties Company, following the lead of the London and 
Birmingham, had adopted four-wheeled engines. Mr. Kirtley, having 
had actual experience of the unsteadiness of these four-wheeled 
engines, was, on the other hand, a strong advocate for the six-wheeled 
type ; and immediately after he assumed control of the Midland he 
introduced six-wheeled engines exclusively, and placed the four- 
wheelers to unimportant work as speedily as possible. This change 
proved of great utility, and added largely to the safety of railway 
travelling. 

Kirtley's life presents a fascinating picture of sturdy work some- 
what similar to that of George Stephenson in the development and 
carrying out of his ideas. It was, of course, of great advantage 
to him that his own practical experience enabled him to know exactly 
what engines did and could do, and assisted him largely in his manage- 



MATTHEW KIRTLEY 321 

ment and dealing with the men under his control, and also in designing 
engines for specific work. 

Here we have a man beginning life in the humblest position with a 
clear head, gifted with great natural mechanical intelligence, mastering 
detail after detail, and giving practical instructions to his assistants as 
to the drawing of the designs which he intended to be reproduced. 
It would be idle to pretend that Kirtley was a man of great book- 
learning, or of polished education, or of high scholarly attainments ; 
on the contrary, he was essentially a plain, sturdy specimen of a 
Durham man, whose mind was imbued with the all-important fact 
that everything came down to the test of practical working, and that 
the practical outcome of a thing was the true gauge of its value. 
And it was the possession of these great natural gifts and qualifications 
that for so many years made him the valued and esteemed servant of 
the Midland Railway Company until the day of his death. Mr. E. S. 
Ellis, who was Chairman of the Company at the time of his decease, 
and whose admiration and veneration for the Stephensons was of the 
highest possible character, his association with them in his young 
days exercising an abiding influence with him all his life, extended 
that admiration in no slight degree to Matthew Kirtley. Kirtley, in 
the early stages of his career and afterwards, was sometimes, for a 
variety of reasons, fiercely attacked by those who had not, as he had, 
gone through the initial stages of great railway expansion and develop- 
ment in England. He was even accused of being " tailor bred " in the 
railway press and the pamphlets of the period. How small, paltry, and 
feeble-minded these attacks read to-day ! But the fact that Kirtley 
was so attacked only increases our respect for the man and our 
admiration for the responsible directors who had the courage as well 
as the sound business instinct to support and uphold one who, although 
not cultured, was a great practical mechanical engineer, whose name 
and whose fame deserve to live in locomotive history. 

In his memory a handsome granite obelisk has been erected in the 
Corporation Cemetery at Derby, which bears the following inscription: 

MATTHEW KIRTLEY, 

BORN FEB. 6TH, 1813. 
DIED MAY 24x11, 1873. 

Locomotive Superintendent of the Midland Railway Company 
from 1844 up to the time of his death. 

This monument was erected by the Employees of the 

Locomotive and Carriage Departments as a 

token of their affection. 

" The way of the just is uprightness." 

ISAIAH xxvi. 7. 



322 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



MR. SAMUEL WAITE JOHNSON, M.I.C.E., who was President of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1898, is a native of Bramley, 
near Leeds, and was educated at the Leeds Grammar School. He 
entered on his career as an engineer at the important works at Leeds 
of Messrs. E. B. Wilson and Co., of the railway foundry, where he 
was a pupil under the late Mr. James Fenton, an engineer of some 
note and importance, who, in the early days of railways, constructed 
some locomotive engines that were famous in their day. At these 
works general engineering work was carried on as well as the construc- 
tion of stationary and locomotive engines. He showed a decided 

favour for the locomotive depart- 
ment, and accordingly his first 
step in the ladder of progress 
was his appointment as manager 
of workshops for the repair of 
engines on the Great Northern 
Railway, whose works were then 
under the control of Mr. Archi- 
bald Sturrock. From thence 
he removed to Gorton, near 
Manchester, when he entered 
the service of the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Rail- 
way Company (now Great Cen- 
tral) as Works Manager of the 
locomotive, carriage, and wagon 
shops, then under the superin- 
tendence of the late Mr. Charles 
Sacre. This position he occupied 
for five years, and he resigned to 
take up the still higher office as 

Locomotive, Carriage, and Wagon Superintendent of the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow Railway at the Glasgow headquarters of the Company. 
During his tenure of that office this line was absorbed by the 
North British Railway Company, who retained his services as 
Locomotive Superintendent of the Western (or Glasgow and Edin- 
burgh) Division of the North British system. After spending about 
two years in Scotland, Mr. Johnson, in 1866, took a still more 
important step when he accepted the position of Locomotive, 
Carriage, and Wagon Superintendent of the Great Eastern Railway at 
Stratford. He occupied this post for seven years, and during that 
period he initiated some important mechanical changes both in the 




MR. S. W. JOHNSON. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE SUPERINTENDENT 323 

design of locomotives and in the construction of machinery, as well 
as great improvements in administration. After the death of Mr. 
Matthew Kirtley in 1873, the Midland directors were extremely 
fortunate in securing Mr. Johnson as his successor. This position 
also carries with it the offices of Locomotive Engineer to the 
Somerset and Dorset Joint as well as the Midland and Great Northern 
Joint Railways. 

It will thus be seen that for over thirty-five years Mr. Johnson has 
had a most varied and wide experience in the designing and con- 
struction of locomotive engines as well as a great practical acquaintance 
with the construction and management of all kinds of rolling stock. 

Indeed, he may be said to be the doyen of locomotive superintendents 
in this country, and his experience is of the most varied and extensive 
character, which places his scientific knowledge of this department of 
railway working in the highest eminence. Some of the leading features 
of the great work which he has accomplished for the Midland are dealt 
with in the chapter relating to the locomotive works at Derby. Some 
idea of the progress and development of the locomotive requirements 
of the Midland Company during his administration may be gathered 
from the fact that when he was appointed in 1873 the train mileage 
of the Company for the year was 19,811,000 train miles, whereas 
the mileage calculated for 1900 was no less than 48,400,000 train 
miles, which is very nearly one million miles run by the Company's 
engines every week. 

WAY AND WORKS 

The Way and Works Department, the fourth great division (of which 
Mr. J. Allen McDonald is Engineer-in-Chief) has the care and main- 
tenance of the whole of the way and works of the Company, which 
include, as the name implies, the permanent way, rails, sleepers, banks, 
viaducts, culverts, bridges, aqueducts, telegraph posts, signal-boxes, 
canals, stations, goods sheds, engine sheds in fact, it covers all the 
real property of the Company with the exception of the rolling stock. 
There are three branches, all of which are under the Way and Works 
Committee, consisting of four directors, and the Engineer-in-Chief 
takes the control of everything except the subsidiary branches, which 
are under the Estate Agent and the Electrical Engineer. 

The Engineer-in-Chief has associated with him an assistant engineer 
for new works, who deals entirely with the new works which the 
Company is constructing; and an assistant engineer, who is charged 
with the maintenance and efficiency of the works already completed. 
This latter department is subdivided, and is controlled by three 



324 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

divisional engineers, one for the Northern Division (north of Derby), 
another for the Southern Division, and the third for the South Wales 
line. Further, there are district engineers, who are stationed at the 
most convenient centres, eleven in number. Under these district 
superintendents there are forty-three inspectors, whose duty it is to 
walk constantly over the lengths of line committed to their charge 
and carefully examine the condition of the road, culverts, bridges, 
and everything on their section. They mark places requiring repair, 
enter them up in a book, and give instructions to the gangers of plate- 
layers or to the department or workmen concerned, and see that the 
necessary repairs or alterations required are at once attended to. In 
order to ensure, as far as possible, the absolute safety and efficiency 
of the line, the whole of the rules relating to the supervision and 
maintenance of the permanent way have to be read over to every 
man on entering the department, and also twice a year to each man 




EXPRESS ENGINE. BUILT 1881. 

employed ; and the district inspector is responsible for seeing that this 
is done. There are seventy-seven of these rules and sub-rules, so that 
it will be seen that at least twice a year the district inspector has 
almost to hold a school of instruction. This duty is necessarily very 
strictly enforced, and the utmost stress is laid on the rule that the great 
and paramount duty of all is to see that the lines are kept absolutely 
safe for running. When this duty of reading the rules has been per- 
formed, each man to whom the rules and regulations have been so 
read and explained must sign a declaration that this has been done, 
which declaration is forwarded to the permanent way inspector for 
the district. In addition, the permanent way and works inspectors 
have to take care that the whole of these rules and regulations are 
duly observed, and any departure therefrom must be promptly reported 
to the Engineer-in-Chief. 

Each inspector must have a register of the names and places of 
residence of all the men employed in his district, so that in case 



WAY AND WORKS DEPARTMENT 



325 



of accident he may be able to summon them in the event of their 
services being required either by day or night, to remove any obstruc- 
tion caused by snow, frost, slips, or other sudden emergency. 

The men who keep the line in order are divided in gangs for 
ordinary purposes of six or eight men, who are under the charge of a 
foreman or ganger, to whom is allotted a length of line, say, from half 
a mile to five miles, according to the number of lines and the amount 
of traffic on it, and all their attention has to be devoted to it, the 
ganger being personally responsible for the whole. 

Each foreman, ganger, or leading man must walk over his length of 
line every morning and evening on weekdays, and where passenger 




ILKLEY BRIDGE. 

trains are run, once on Sundays ; and he must examine the line, level, 
and gauge of the road, and see that everything is sound and in proper 
order and repair. 

He has in addition to examine gates at crossings, and report any 
irregularities which he observes, in order that the persons who are 
required to keep such gates closed and fastened may be charged with 
the penalties. In case of floods the foreman or ganger has to examine 
carefully the action of the water through the culverts and bridges, and 
in case of any sign of danger he must stop the trains and take all pre- 
cautionary measures till the inspector arrives, and thus secure the 
stability of the line and the safety of the traffic. 

The ganger is also responsible for the extinction of fires near the 



326 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

line, and in the event of snow or fog he has to see that work ceases in 
the Permanent Way Department, so that the services of the men may be 
transferred to the Traffic Department as fog signalmen or as clearers of 
snow, so that the traffic may proceed smoothly and safely as far as 
possible without interruption. 




CLIFTON SUSPENSION BRIDGE, BRISTOL. BY MR. W. H. BARLOW. 



CHIEF ENGINEERS OF THE MIDLAND COMPANY 



W. H. Barlow . 
J. S. Crossley . 
A. Johnston 
J. Underwood . 
A. A. Langley . 
J. A. McDonald 



July, 1844, to 1857 . 
January, 1858, to 1875 
April, 1875, to 1883. 
April, 1875, to 1889. 
October, 1883, to 1890 
July, 1890 . 



Lines open for traffic. 
Lines under construction. 



In the early days of railways the lines were designed and constructed 
by independent engineers who were not officials of any particular 
company, but who were called in for the performance of special work, 
and to carry out specific schemes for the extension of old lines or the 
inauguration of entirely new works. The railways and the railway 
companies of the kingdom had not yet become sufficiently large and 
important to be able to retain exclusively the services of an eminent 
engineer for their own special benefit; and it was only after the 
companies had by great combinations and amalgamations grown to 



EARLY RAILWAY ENGINEERS 327 

gigantic proportions that they were able to command, and indeed were 
compelled by the necessities of the case to have, their own engineer, 
whose services should be entirely and exclusively devoted to the 
interests of one company. This system of calling in special engineers 
was followed for a very considerable period, and applied to all the rail- 
ways of the kingdom ; and one of the chief duties of these engineers 
was to prepare plans for the Acts of Parliament, and to give pro- 
fessional evidence of their practicability and utility before Parliamentary 
Committees. A very good example of this is to be found in the two 
Stephenson's, George and Robert (father and son), who at the time 
they held the position of chief engineers to the lines which subsequently 
formed the Midland system, also held a similar position on many other 
lines all over the country. That necessitated each company having a 
resident engineer of its own to act under the advice of the Stephen- 
sons (practically for the whole of the narrow-gauge railways, of which 
they were the champions), Brunei (for the broad gauge), and a few 
others. 

During this period Robert Stephenson and Co. were also locomotive 
engineers at Newcastle-on-Tyne, where they designed and built engines 
for use on the various railways ; and as a matter of fact this firm have 
supplied locomotives to the Midland from the earliest lines which 
formed the foundation of the Company, including the "Comet,'' which 
opened the Leicester and Swannington line in 1832, down to the 
present day. Both George and Robert Stephenson were also owners 
of the Snibstone Collieries, near Leicester; the Clay Cross Collieries, 
Derbyshire ; and the lime pits at Crich, near Ambergate. 

The resident engineers who had been gradually acquiring practical 
knowledge and experience in carrying out works under such master 
minds, on the death of the Stephensons received the appointments as 
chief engineers ; but a new order of things came into operation, and 
these chief engineers no longer had a purely nominal connection 
henceforward they were the responsible officers of the company to 
whose interests the whole of their energies had to be devoted. There 
was in fact no longer that exclusive prominence that belonged to the 
great railway pioneers ; but their pupils and assistants raised up a new 
generation of engineers to follow them, and each company was then 
able to command the exclusive services of its own practical and highly 
trained official. 

ROBERT STEPHENSON having been the engineer-in-chief of the North 
Midland, occupied a similar position for the united Company in 1844, 
and his distinguished father, George Stephenson, who had been the 
engineer for the making of the North Midland, became " consulting " 



328 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

engineer for the Midland, which office he held up to his death. 
Robert Stephenson, who was engineer for the Leicester and Swanning- 
ton in 1830, was engineer for the London and Birmingham line, which 
gave the Midland its first communication with London (over what is 
now the London and North Western Railway via Rugby), while his 
father, George Stephenson, was engineer for the North Midland; 
Birmingham, and Derby ; Leeds and Bradford ; Leicester and Burton ; 
Syston to Peterborough; and between them they were practically 
engineers for the whole of England rather than for any particular 
company. In fact, at the time Robert was engineer to the Midland 
he was making the Chester and Holyhead Railway, including the cele- 
brated tubular bridge. 

Robert Stephenson died October i2th, 1859, in his fifty-sixth year, 
and he was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

MR. WILLIAM HENRY BARLOW, the first Chief Engineer of the Midland, 
is the oldest official of the Midland Company still living; and he is still 
one of the consulting engineers of the Company. He was the Resident 
Engineer of the Midland Counties Railway at Leicester, and at the 
time of the amalgamation he was selected and removed to Derby as 
Chief Engineer of the united Company. For many years he acted 
under Robert Stephenson, who was Consulting Engineer. Mr. Barlow 
constructed many lines, including the Bedford and London, for the 
Midland ; but the great work with which his name will ever be 
associated is the St. Pancras roof, which he designed, as well as all the 
arrangements and offices connected with the station, except the hotel 
and offices, which were the work of the late Sir Gilbert Scott. He 
was joint engineer with Sir John Hawkshaw for the Clifton Suspension 
Bridge (1861); he was one of those appointed to investigate the cause 
of the fall of the old Tay Bridge (1879); constructed the new Tay 
Bridge (1880-7) \ was President of the Institution of Civil Engineers 
(1880); consulted as to the feasibility of the Forth Bridge (1881); and 
is the author of several books on technical subjects. He was born on 
May loth, 1812, and is the son of the late Professor Peter Barlow, 
F.R.S., who was one of the three commissioners appointed in 1845 to 
report on the question of railway gauge. He was educated by his 
father, and in the Engineering Department of the Royal Arsenal, 
Woolwich. In 1832 he went to Constantinople and erected works and 
machinery for Turkish ordnance. He was appointed Resident Engineer 
to the Midland Counties Railway in 1842 ; Chief Engineer to the Mid- 
land in 1844; and Consulting Engineer to the Midland in 1857. 

MR. JOHN ALLEN MCDONALD, the Chief Engineer of the Midland, 
is a member of the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He 



THE ENGINEER'S DEPARTMENT 



3 2 9 



is a son of the late Mr. George McDonald, surgeon, of Bristol, where he 
was born in 1847. After the completion of his educational course at 
Clifton, he commenced his engineering career on extensions of the 
London and South Western Railway, being trained as a pupil of his 
brother, Mr. A. H. McDonald, who was then Resident Engineer for 
Mr. W. R. Galbraith, the Chief Engineer for these lines. He was 
next engaged as an assistant to the late Mr. Charles Richardson, the 
engineer and originator of the Severn Tunnel ; and afterwards he did 
some work in the construction of the London and North Western and 
Rhymney Companies' joint line in South Wales. At the end of 1871 
he entered the service of the 
Midland, when he was engaged 
by the late Mr. J. S. Crossley, 
the Chief Engineer of the Mid- 
land; and in 1872 he entered 
on the great extension work, 
which has, on one part of the 
system or other, been con- 
tinuously in progress on the 
Midland Railway since that 
period. Mr. McDonald was 
appointed Resident Engineer 
on the widening of the main 
line from Trent to Leicester. 
He continued his valuable 
work as Resident Engineer on 
different new lines and works 
till 1889, when he was trans- 
ferred to Derby as Chief Assis- 
tant for new works under Mr. A. 
A. Langley, the Chief Engineer. 

Shortly afterwards the maintenance of the Southern Division of the 
Midland lines was added to his other duties, and in July, 1890, on the 
retirement of Mr. Langley, he was appointed Engineer-in-Chief. Since 
that period he has been responsible for many great works, including 
the provision of four roads from Kettering to London, with very heavy 
tunnelling at Ampthill and Elstree ; and also for the vast alterations 
which have been effected at Kentish Town, which have proved of 
enormous advantage in the working of the traffic. The construction 
of the new direct line from Sheffield to Bradford, the extensive new 
works at Sheffield, the Leicester and Wigston widening, the new 
widening from Trent to Chesterfield, now approaching completion, 
are all included among his achievements. 




MR. MCDONALD, THE ENGINEER-IN-CHIEF. 



330 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

The Architect (Mr. C. Trubshaw) has to design station buildings and 
to perform all the duties which come within his department. 

The Superintendent of the Signal Department (Mr. T. Woodward) 
has about twenty district inspectors under him, and at the large centres 
where there is much traffic the duties of all concerned are not only 
very onerous, but they are of vital importance and require constant and 
most earnest supervision, because the safety of the line so largely 
depends upon the efficiency in signalling. This department has made 
very rapid progress in recent years, both as regards its importance and 
its complicated machinery. When railways were first introduced there 
were no telegraphic signals, but with the growth of traffic the use of 
signals has been enormously extended until practically every movement 
of traffic on the main line, no matter how simple it may be, is controlled 
and regulated by the movement of a signal arm or disc on a fixed 
post. These signals in all cases work in conjunction and are inter- 
locking with the points, so that they must act in perfect unison. It 
is a remarkable fact that, notwithstanding the number of signals and 
the complication of signal-boxes, scarcely any accidents are caused 
by errors in signalling, and it may be said there are none due to 
signals being out of order. The signals are so constructed that if 
they do fail or get out of order through any cause they automatically 
fly to " danger " and stop all traffic, so that the safety of the travelling 
public is absolutely assured. In olden days one post with a pair of 
arms controlled both lines ; now the smallest station has three signals 
all on separate posts for each direction ; and at many places where 
there were formerly only three signals there are now at least ten or 
twelve signal-posts. 

In fact, every mechanical device has been brought into use to 
minimise risk and to eliminate as far as possible the element of 
human frailty. 

SIGNALS AND SIGNAL WORKS 

The signal works are situated at the North End at Derby. They 
deal with the construction of signal-boxes, signals, and the interlocking 
apparatus and fittings. There are ever 1,800 signal-boxes in operation, 
and their size and importance vary largely. On single lines there are 
small cabins which contain simply one point lever, and on the other 
hand some of the great signal-boxes at important junctions or stations 
have as many as 240 levers to be manipulated. These signal-boxes 
contain most elaborate and intricate mechanical appliances, which are 
maintained in the most perfect order. The interlocking of the various 
levers to ensure harmonious action so that no conflicting signal can be 



SIGNALS AND SIGNAL WORKS 331 

exhibited to a driver is of the most complex character ; and of course 
the greater the number of levers involves a corresponding increase 
in the number of inter-locks. For example, to show the great practical 
value of interlocking points and signals, take the simple case of say two 
main lines (up and down) which are joined by a double-line branch. 
Eliminating the distant signals, there would be four "home" signals 
placed to " open " or " close " each of the four lines for traffic. There 
would thus be four levers to move any of these four signals one for 
each signal and also two levers to move the two pairs of points one 
lever for each pair. These four signals could be shown in the old days 
before interlocking by means of error on the part of the signalman in 
no less than sixteen different combinations; and of these only ten 
are safe working signals, and six would lead to serious accidents. 
While as regards the two pairs of points they can be placed in 
four positions irrespective of how the signals stand only three of 
which are safe and one highly dangerous. Thus with sixteen different 
positions of signals and four different positions of points there are 
no less than sixty-four possible combinations of points and signals. 
But of these sixty-four combinations only thirteen are safe, and fifty-one 
are absolutely dangerous. The function of the interlocking apparatus 
is to make these fifty-one dangerous combinations impossible, and 
thereby avoid the possibility of an accident due to human fallibility 
in the manipulating of point and signal levers. 

Electrical apparatus is also brought largely into use in signal-boxes. 
Above the interlocking frame, but in no way connected with it, a shelf 
is fixed, upon which the block telegraph instruments and electric bells 
stand. The most simple box situated on a double line of railway has 
two electric bells and four block telegraph instruments. One bell and 
two instruments communicate with the next signal-box (say) north ; 
another bell and two instruments communicating with the next signal- 
box, which we will call south. Each box is practically the end of one 
section and the beginning of another ; and the instruments constitute a 
continuous record of the state of the line on the respective sections 
north or south, to which they refer. The outdoor signals are raised or 
lowered by the signalman in exact accordance with the position indicated 
b y the needle of the block telegraph instrument. This simple arrange 
ment becomes immensely increased and more complicated with every- 
additional junction, as each pair of lines requires its own bell and two 
block instruments; and where there are four lines of rails forming a 
junction with four other lines the number of instruments and bells 
is, of course, doubled. 

All the important lines in the kingdom are worked upon the " abso- 



332 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

lute " block system, and the object thereof is to maintain and secure 
an actual interval of space or distance between all trains, in place of an 
uncertain interval of time ; consequently, although it is quite out of the 
question to alter the name now, still " space system " would have been 
much more appropriate, more especially as in these days we know that 




BLOCK SIGNAL DIAGRAM. 

the system is not a block to the traffic, but that it permits an enormous 
number of trains to be safely passed over a railway. 

In order that the practical working of the " absolute " block system 
may be clearly understood the annexed illustration is given. 

The line of railway is divided into lengths or sections by the erection 
of signal-boxes at convenient distances ; the greater the traffic, naturally, 
the greater must be the number of sections. 



UP LINE 
TRAIN ON I 



LINE CLEAR 



DOWN LINE 



RAIN ON LINE 

LINE CLEAR 



LINE 
BLOCKED 



BLOCK SIGNAL INSTRUMENTS. 

The permission or otherwise for a train to approach, as indicated 
upon the block instruments, is, of course, communicated to the engine- 
drivers by means of the usual distant, home, and starting signals. 

The diagram shows an up train as having left the starting signal 
at " A," and approaching the distant from " B," with signals off. 
Also a down train is shown as passing the home signal " B," with all 
signals off to "A." 



SIGNALS AND SIGNAL WORKS 333 

When a train passes the first signal-box the line is considered 
" blocked," and if a second train arrives before the first has arrived 
at the next signal-box it is stopped and detained at the starting signal, 
until the telegraphic signals have been duly received, showing that the 
first train has arrived, and that the section is " clear " ; it therefore 
follows that no two trains are ever permitted to be in the same 
" section," and that collisions should be impossible. 

On a line such as the Midland, where the traffic is very varied in 
character, an elaborate and complicated code of block signals is 
necessary to indicate what class of train is approaching. 

In addition to this signal light indicators are introduced in all boxes 
where there are signals which cannot be seen by the signalman owing 
to obstructions ; while there are several ordinary single needle telegraph 
instruments and one or more telephones in nearly all boxes, and there 
are special electric bells for long distances or for communicating with 
adjacent stations. The ordinary telegraph instruments are for service 
messages in connection with the working and running of trains, and at 
specified stations for postal telegraph work. 

This department have not only to construct all the signal and other 
apparatus, but they have also to consider in conjunction with repre- 
sentatives of the Locomotive and Traffic Departments the best posi- 
tions for signal posts, in order to give the best sight to the drivers 
of trains. Where there are curves and buildings and numerous other 
signals this is a matter which requires very grave consideration, for 
upon the clearness and absolute correctness of signalling very much 
depends. When these officials have decided what signals are neces- 
sary at any junction or siding a plan is prepared and the necessary 
posts, counter weights, rods, and levers are obtained from the stores, 
where large supplies are always available. Gales of wind frequently 
necessitate very rapid repairs, and every provision is made for this 
purpose. In addition to the complicated work inside a signal-box, 
there has also to be provided long lengths of rods to work the points, 
which have to be placed in some cases at considerable distances from 
the signal-box. A signal post varies in height from fifteen to sixty feet. 

When an old signal-box has to be replaced by a new one, the new 
one is built and conveyed in sections to the desired site ; and the old 
arrangements are not disturbed till everything is completely ready for 
a quick change. This work is usually performed at a fixed hour on 
Sundays, when the traffic is light ; and information as to the day and 
hour of the change is published beforehand to all concerned. 

The Midland line is in the very first rank as regards its signal 
arrangements, and the whole is being constantly watched, inspected, 



334 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

and tested, every signalman when he comes on duty and when he 
leaves off having to satisfy himself that everything is in perfect working 
order. Rule 58 reads : "The signalman must frequently examine and 
try his fixed signals to see that they work well, are kept clean, and 
stand properly. Great care must be used in putting on a signal ; it is 
not sufficient merely to move the lever, but the signalman must at the 
same time watch the signal so as to ascertain that it obeys the lever 
and goes fully to danger. When a fixed signal is out of the signal- 
man's sight, and its working is indicated by a repeater in the signal- 
box, he must satisfy himself by observation of the repeater that the 
fixed signal is working properly. He must take care that the signal 
wires are kept properly adjusted by means of the regulating screws or 
links so as to compensate for the expansion and contraction caused by 
variations of temperature." 

In olden times the signals were "off" in their normal condition 
that is, the arms were straight down within the posts out of the sight 
of the line, and the light shown at night was white. Thus the "All 
right " signal was practically the absence of anything to the contrary ; 
in fact, it was purely negative. After a train had passed a signal cabin 
the arm was put in a horizontal position, with a red light for danger 
at night, and the signals were maintained in that position for five 
minutes. At the end of that time the signal arm was lowered to an 
angle of forty-five degrees and a green light shown, intimating to the 
driver of a succeeding train that he could proceed cautiously, as there 
might be another train a few minutes in front of him. At the expira- 
tion of ten minutes the arm was again lowered to a vertical position, and 
a white light or " Line clear " exhibited. 

The Midland Company tried a very ingenious appliance in 1863, 
which consisted of a clock which mechanically showed the time at 
which the previous train had passed up to a quarter of an hour, and 
the driver of a following train knew exactly how long it was since the 
train in front of him had passed. Two of these mechanically regulated 
clocks were fixed one at Kegworth and the other at Kibworth. They 
were started by the passing train depressing a lever attached to the 
rails and communicating with the clockwork, and at the expiration 
of fifteen minutes the indicator returned to zero. They worked 
remarkably well for a time, but, like some other complicated mechanical 
arrangements, they were not to be relied upon. Besides, the informa- 
tion conveyed was of little value, as a train might have broken down 
as soon as it had passed out of sight ; and this actually did 
happen. 

The absolute block system has altered all this, and the traffic has 



THE ELECTRICAL SUPERINTENDENT 



335 



now to be worked by absolute positive knowledge, and there is now no 
such thing as " Caution "; it is either " Go " or " Stop." 

The " Stop " signal is as before the horizontal arm and a red light ; 
while a green light and the arm at an angle of forty-five degrees is the 
" All right " signal. A white light now means that the signal is out of 
order, and has to be treated as " Danger " accordingly, as a white light 
can only mean that the red or green glass has been broken, or fallen 
out of place. The green light is also less liable to be mistaken for 
ordinary lights adjoining the line. 

There are 84,317 electric batteries in use in the Midland system, 
19,500 telegraph instruments, and 
about 30,000 miles of telegraph 
wire. There are 1,800 signal cabins, 
with 24,500 levers in use, while 
there are 14,500 signals. 

In the department of the Estate 
Agent (Mr. P. S. M'Callum), all the 
purchases of land are dealt with; 
and the delicacy and importance of 
these negotiations in many cases, 
and especially in large towns, is 
evident. 

The Electrical Department (under 
Mr. W. Langdon) has the control 
of the electric lighting of stations, 
hotels, etc., the provision of tele- 
phones between all signal boxes, 
in hotels, at stations, and wherever 
required, and he is responsible for 
all the telegraphic instruments used 
in connection with the block system 

of signalling. He has also the construction and maintenance of the 
electrical repeaters, the use of which is to show the signalmen whether 
the lights at distant signal-posts, it may be three-quarters of a mile 
away, are burning or are gone out. When the light is burning the 
apparatus shows "Light in"; when the lamp becomes extinguished 
an electric bell rings and the indicator shows " Light out." This is a 
very valuable adjunct for signalmen at night time, especially when the 
signalman in his cabin is unable, from curves, obstructions, or other 
causes, to have a view of the distant signal. The whole of the work 
of the department is of a delicate but most valuable character, and 
forms a very interesting link in the great combination of devices which 
the Midland have ever been foremost to adopt to give knowledge and 
security in running. 




MR. W. LANGDON. 



336 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



THE CARRIAGE AND WAGON DEPARTMENT 

This department (under Mr. T. G. Clayton), being the fifth division, 
is under the Carriage and Wagon Committee, which consists of four 
directors. Since 1873, on the death of Mr. Kirtley, this has been 
an independent branch. The Superintendent has associated with him 
an assistant superintendent for indoor work and another assistant 
superintendent for outdoor work; there are also district assistant 
superintendents, who have the charge of the carriage shops at the 
local centres, foremen, workmen, carriage and wagon examiners, 
carriage washers, etc. 




SIGNALS AT THE PRESENT TRAMWAY JUNCTION, GLOUCESTER. 

This department has the construction, renewal, care, and mainten- 
ance of over 5,000 carriages, vans, horse-boxes, and vehicles running 
on passenger trains; in addition there are 119,000 wagons, cattle 
trucks, and brake vans for goods and mineral traffic ; whilst there 
are also the very extensive carriage and wagon works at Derby, filled 
with very valuable machinery for the construction and repair of all 
rolling stock belonging to the Company. 

The present carriage and wagon works at Derby have been entirely 
formed since Mr. Clayton took the position in 1873. These works and 
their special machinery are dealt with in a separate chapter. 

Every carriage, wagon, or other vehicle travelling on the line is 
examined and tested in running on being sent out new, and all stock 
is also examined many times every day all. over the system. Every 
train that runs, whether passenger, goods, or mineral, and whether it 



LEICESTER STATION 339 

consists of private wagons or of stock belonging to the Company, 
is examined before it starts on its journey or when it enters on the 
Midland system, and at fixed stopping-places en route. These stop- 
pages many of them for examination purposes are very valuable 
in preventing accidents, as heated axle-boxes, disturbance of load, 
defects in the covering by sheets, damaged springs or other parts are 
at once detected, and the necessary repair is effected on the spot; 
or if it is anything of a character likely to become more serious the 




INTERIOR, LEICESTER NEW STATION, 1892. 

vehicle is shunted out of the train till it can be put once more 
into running condition. 

MR. T. G. CLAYTON, Superintendent of the Carriage Department, 
is the son of an engineer and boiler maker, and was born at Madeley, 
Shropshire, early in 1831. He began his railway career under remark- 
able circumstances in 1850, when, after having the run of his father's 
pattern shops, foundry, etc., he elected to expand his ideas and enlarge 
his experience by entering the Locomotive Department of the Shrewsbury 
and Birmingham line. The condition of that line at this period may 
be understood by the statement of one fact, namely, that the Company 
were conveying passengers from Wellington to Shrewsbury, a distance 
of eleven miles, for one penny. Of course, such a state of affairs could 



340 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



not pay, and was only rendered possible by the support of the Great 
Western, who "held up" the Shrewsbury line till the Great Western 
could get through from Oxford to Birmingham and Wolverhampton. 
These were very lively times, and the officials had often to seek the 
protection of the police, and even the "red -coats," for there were 
constant troubles and outbreaks of one kind and another. Having 
spent several years on this line, Mr. Clayton was in 1854 "absorbed" 
into the Great Western, who took over the smaller company, in whose 
service he remained altogether for about fifteen years. But this was 
not continuous, for at various periods he was engaged in important under- 
takings under Fox and Hender- 
son, the Horseley Company (who 
built Paddington Station); he was 
also in the service of the Royal 
Mail Steam Company on two occa- 
sions at their marine engine works, 
and had service in thirteen engineers' 
shops in London. The building of 
lighthouses before they were sent 
out to their allotted sites also came 
within the scope of his engineering 
experiences, so that all sides and 
phases of engineering and construc- 
tion came within his range, and 
proved invaluable to him in after 
years in determining how best to 
accomplish the objects desired. 
During the larger portion of the 
fifteen years covering his service 
with the Great Western Mr. Clayton 
had charge of the Carriage and Wagon Department under Mr. 
Armstrong. When the Great Western, in 1863, absorbed a number 
of other railways at the time of their great scheme of amalgamation, 
that Company came into possession of all their various carriage and 
wagon works at Paddington, in South Wales, at Worcester, and at 
Shrewsbury; and it was then seen that new and greater works must 
be constructed so as to concentrate the whole. Oxford was at first 
selected as the site of these works, but while the concentration was 
in embryo the Oxford site was abandoned and the erection at Swindon 
determined upon. The designing and construction of these great 
works was accordingly entrusted to Mr. Clayton, and he carried this 
vast and important undertaking through with very great success. Soon 




MR. CLAYTON. 



THE CARRIAGE SUPERINTENDENT 341 

after the new workshops were started an immense amount of work was 
thrown upon the new department in the conversion and reconstruction 
of a large portion of the broad-gauge stock into narrow-gauge carriages, 
wagons, vans, etc. The great pressure thus suddenly thrown upon the 
resources of Swindon was successfully met, and an exceptionally heavy 
task was got through with great expedition, owing to the skill and 
resourcefulness in a very great degree of Mr. Clayton, which brought his 
name and his reputation into great prominence as one of the first men 
in this class of work in the country. During the time he had charge of 
the Swindon works he had the honour of designing and constructing the 
Great Western carriage for Her Majesty the Queen, which she uses 
whilst travelling on the Great Western system up to the present time, 
and which has given much satisfaction to Her Majesty. This carriage 
as originally designed by Mr. Clayton was 50 feet long, and was to be 
carried on the bogie principle. But afterwards Sir Daniel Gooch 
stepped in and cut off 7 feet, reducing the length to 43 feet. Sir 
Daniel Gooch also modified the bogie principle to some extent, as he 
considered that the bogie for carriages was too experimental to be 
embodied in a railway coach for the Sovereign. The carriage was 
constructed with independent frames, and when Mr. Clayton left the 
works at Swindon for Derby it was all but finished in every detail. 
Since that time, however, the vehicle has been lengthened to 50 feet, 
so as to give greater accommodation to the ladies-in-waiting, more 
space for the storage of provisions, and retiring rooms ; but the original 
apartments were by desire of Her Majesty left intact. This carriage 
was constructed in 1873, and the same year Mr. Clayton transferred his 
services from the Great Western to the Midland, where he has re- 
mained ever since. He found the Midland stock in a very backward 
condition, and actually new carriages were being constructed from 
patterns which were twenty years old, with luggage rails on the tops a 
thing which had been discarded on other lines. He at once inaugur- 
ated a great scheme of practical carriage reform, which the Board of 
Directors found attracted traffic to the line by giving a much greater 
degree of comfort to passengers. Previously the idea which seemed 
to prevail generally was that it was only desirable to provide what was 
more or less absolutely necessary for passengers, whereas to-day nothing 
is too good in the way of space, easy riding, and luxurious appoint- 
ments. The old stock was replaced as rapidly as possible, and obsolete 
vehicles were discarded and broken up. Upholstered third-class 
carriages, more airy, wider, the frames faced with steel to give greater 
strength and rigidity, bogies to give smoother travel, lavatories, and 
in fact everything has been done to beautify the stock and to add 
to the enjoyment of travel ; and in all this great transformation Mr. 
Clayton has played a leading and very important part. 



342 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 



THE STORES 

This department is under the charge of Mr. G. Morrall, and forms 
the sixth administrative division. It is controlled by a committee of 
six directors, and this department deals with everything except land, 
which is purchased by the Company, from thousands of tons of coal, 
rails, girders, bricks, timber, and iron, down to a tin-tack or a box 
of matches. In purchasing such a vast amount of materials the most 
systematic arrangements are necessary to prevent waste and leakage 
and to know exactly what is in stock and what is required. 

The general scheme adopted is 
for the Superintendent to ascertain 
what is necessary to be supplied, 
and to order accordingly from the 
producers who have contracted with 
the Company. On delivery it is 
booked up as in stock. Everything 
required all over the system in 
every department has to be ordered 
through the stores by a written 
requisition, and a receipt given 
on delivery. The Superintendent 
thus has a receipt for all that goes 
out of his department as well as 
for all that enters it, and con- 
sequently the difference between 
the two represents the stock on 
hand. 

This is carried out in every detail, 
and it is only by a very strict 
adherence to this scheme that a proper check can be maintained over 
the vast quantities of materials used. Some conception of the extensive 
character of the transactions of this department may be obtained from 
the fact that on January ist, 1900, the general stores had a stock of 
materials on hand of the value of ,1,425,772 195. $d. 

Again, in his department the materials required for the maintenance 
of existing rolling stock, buildings, lines, etc., and materials required 
for the execution of new works are kept entirely separate and distinct. 
One of the largest items the stores has to deal with is the coal for 
the locomotives, which costs about 560,000 per annum, which is 
equal to over a guinea per minute night and day all the year through. 
Among the items dealt with in very large quantities are rails, 




MR. MORRALL. 



THE HOTEL DEPARTMENT 



343 



sleepers, chairs, bolts, stationery, uniforms, oil, grease, hay, straw, 
fodder, harness, wagon covers, timber, paint, cloth, lamps, carpets, 
clocks, watches, whistles, and so on in endless variety. 

Not only is it necessary to exercise the strictest scrutiny over 
deliveries to and from the stores, but it is also obviously equally 
essential that the qualities as well as the quantities should be main- 
tained up to the samples ; and in order that this may be achieved 
a special department has been created for the sole purpose of testing 
materials and goods of every description. The tests applied are 
chemical, microscopical, and mechanical. 

The Superintendent has an assis- 
tant and a large staff associated 
with him, including men with a very 
wide knowledge and great skill in 
the examination of materials. 



THE HOTELS AND 
REFRESHMENT DEPARTMENT 

The last great administrative 
division the seventh is that re- 
lating to hotels and refreshments; 
and many passengers after or during 
a long journey will doubtless regard 
the commissariat as of the very 
highest advantage and utility, inas- 
much as it ministers so much to 
their comfort. It is under the 
charge of a committee of five 
directors and a Manager (Mr. 

William Towle), who has his chief offices at the Midland Grand Hotel 
in London. 

The hotels of the Company are great aids to traffic in providing 
accommodation to passengers, and there is great inducement to 
travellers to select a route which is well supplied with hotels at large 
centres. 

The Midland line is unusually fortunate in this respect. It has the 
Grand Hotel at St. Pancras, London, the Adelphi Hotel at Liverpool, 
the Midland Hotel at Derby, the Midland Hotel at Bradford, the 
Midland Hotel at Morecambe, the Queen's Hotel, Leeds, the Midland 
Hotel, Manchester, and last, but certainly not least, the Residential 
Hotel, Heysham Towers, Heysham, near Morecambe. 




MR. W. TOWLE. 



344 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

There are also refreshment-rooms both first and third class at all 
large stations on the main lines ; and these rooms are now furnished 
with a richness and luxuriance which cannot be surpassed, whilst 
the general refreshment accommodation for third-class passengers 
especially has developed enormously with advantage to all con- 
cerned. 

Each of the hotels has a district or local manager, who is responsible 
for the working and management of the hotel under his care. The 
refreshment-rooms all over the line are also under this department, as 
well as the breakfast, luncheon, dining, and sleeping cars. 

District inspectors examine and report frequently concerning the 
working of the hotels and the refreshment -rooms, and great care is 
given to the maintenance of the furniture, fittings, and decorations. 

The whole of the foods and drinks supplied by the contractors to 
the Company and delivered at the various hotels and refreshment- 
rooms are carefully examined by skilled experts, who have to certify 
both as to quantity and quality, thus assuring the public of being 
supplied with only the soundest and most wholesome refreshments. 

The linen used in the sleeping cars is also under the care of this 
department. 

THE DETECTIVE DEPARTMENT 

The Detective Department of the Midland is under the control 
of Chief-Superintendent Carr, who has occupied that position for many 
years. The duties, it need hardly be said, are of a very varied char- 
acter, and frequently call for the exercise of great tact and skill. The 
protection of the whole of the Company's property, including its vast 
warehouses and stores, as well as the whole of the goods in transit, 
in addition to the protection of the Company from frauds of a widely 
diversified character, including passengers travelling without tickets, all 
come within the scope of this branch of the service. 

One of the best stories of fraud on the Midland was told in the 
Nottingham Guardian in October, 1849, which we cannot refrain from 
quoting : 

" A few days ago a woman got in a second-class carriage attached to 
a down train for Nottingham. In her arms she carried a ponderous- 
looking babe dressed in long clothes, and with its head entirely 
concealed through her shawl. Several times during her journey the 
half-smothered infant made a noise very like the barking of a dog. 
The repetition of these unnatural sounds aroused the sympathy of 
an old lady, who remarked, * What a dreadful cold that child's got, 
to be sure ! ' The distressed baby's nurse replied that the poor thing 
had a severe attack of influenza, which she was afraid would turn 



A SUSPICIOUS INFANT 345 

to whooping cough. At Nottingham the active ticket-collector opened 
the door, and exclaimed rather abruptly, 'Tickets, please.' This 
awakened the slumbering object in the woman's arms, and an angry, 
but this time unmistakable bark burst forth, to the astonishment of 
the official, who lifted up the shawl and exposed the head of one 
of the canine species ludicrously wrapped in an infant's long dress. 
Extra fare was immediately demanded, which the woman reluctantly 
paid, amidst the jeers and laughter of the passengers." 



APPENDIX 



THE MIDLAND RAILWAY INSTITUTE 

THE Midland Railway Institute at Derby, which was opened on 
February i5th, 1895, * s really an organisation of old standing, 
but for many years the quarters allotted to it were altogether in- 
adequate for the amount of business carried on in its name. It had 




READING ROOM, MIDLAND INSTITUTE, DERBY. 

long outgrown in point of membership and other respects the accom- 
modation originally provided for it, and with the extension of the 
frontage of the railway station an opportunity was seized of erecting, on 
adjacent property possessed by the Company, a structure of sufficient 
magnitude to comply with present-day necessities. 

Its objects are well in keeping with the educational spirit of the 
age, the mental culture and social comfort of the members being 
provided for in a comprehensive manner. The building comprises 
a library with shelving capacity for 14,000 to 16,000 volumes, a com- 

347 



348 THE HISTORY OF THE MIDLAND RAILWAY 

modious newsroom, magazine and writing-room, three classrooms, 
chess and card room, billiard-room with three tables, lecture and concert 
hall capable of seating upwards of five hundred people, coffee-room, 
and other facilities. The structure covers an area of 960 square yards. 
It is built of pressed red brick with terra-cotta dressings, and provided 
with electric light throughout, which in the concert hall is so arranged 
as to permit of various stage effects. The concert hall is perhaps the 
most elaborate part of the interior of the building, and is certainly one 
of the finest in Derby. 

There are 2,300 members of the Institute, there are over 13,000 
volumes, with an annual issue of between 60,000 and 70,000, while 
140 different publications are taken. 

UNDERTAKINGS ACQUIRED BY THE MIDLAND 

The following thirty-two undertakings, which were originally carried 
out or authorised by separate and independent companies, have at 
various dates since the formation of the Midland Company in 1844 
been vested in and become incorporated as part of its system : 

Date of vesting. 

Ashby Canal and tramways . ... 1846 

Barnoldswick . . . ... 1899 

Bedford and Northampton . . 1 885 

Birmingham and Gloucester . . . . 1846 

Birmingham West Suburban . ... 1875 

Bristol and Gloucester . . ... 1846 

Cheltenham Station . . ... 1895 

Chesterfield and Brampton . . . .1871 

Cromford Canal . . . . 1871 

Dore and Chinley . . . 1888 

Dursley and Midland Junction . ... 1882 

Erewash Valley . . ... 1845 

Evesham and Redditch . ... 1882 

Kernel Hempsted . . . . . 1886 

Hereford, Hay, and Brecon . ... 1886 

Keighley and Worth Valley . . . 1881 

Kettering, Thrapston, and Huntingdon . . . 1897 

Leeds and Bradford . . . . . 1851 

Leicester and Swannington . ... 1846 

Manchester, Buxton, Matlock, and Midlands Junction . 1871 

Manchester South District . . . 1877 

Mansfield and Pinxton . . ... 1848 

Midland and South Western Junction (old) . . 1874 

North Western (Little) . . . . .1871 

Oakham Canal . . . . . 1846 

Redditch . . . ... 1874 

Sheffield and Rotherham . .1845 

Stonehouse and Nailsworth . . 1886 

Swansea Vale . . ... 1876 

Tewkesbury and Malvern . ... 1876 

Wolverhampton and Walsall . ... 1876 

Wolverhampton, Walsall, and Midland Junction . . 1874 



UNDERTAKINGS ACQUIRED 349 



JOINT RAILWAYS 

The following is a list of the nineteen undertakings which have been 
bought or made jointly by the Midland and other Companies : 

Miles. 

29^ Ashby and Nuneaton Line (Mid. and L. & N.W.). 

6 Bristol Port Railway and Pier (Mid. and G. W.). 

ij Carlisle Goods Traffic Committee (Mid., Cal., G. S.W., and 

L. & N.W. 

9 Clifton Extension (Mid. and G.W.). 

125 Cheshire Lines (Mid., G.C., and G.N.). 

2| Enderby Branch (Mid. and L. & N.W.). 

9f Furness and Midland (Mid. and Furness). 

5 Halesowen (Mid. and G.W., jointly worked). 
4| Norfolk and Suffolk (Mid., G.N., and G.E.). 

Si North & South Western Junction (Mid., L. & N.W., and N. Lond.). 

6} Otley and Ilkley (Mid. and N.E.). 

C Peterborough, Wisbech, and Sutton ^ 
l88< Bourne and Lynn > Mid. and G.N. 

( Eastern and Midlands 

82 Port Patrick and Wigtownshire (Mid.,Cal.,G. S.W.,and L. & N.W.). 
42 Severn and Wye (Mid. and G.W.). 

28f Sheffield and Midland Railway Cos. Committee (Mid. and G.C.). 
94} Somerset and Dorset (Mid. and L. S.W.). 
19} Swinton and Knottingley (Mid. and N.E.). 

6 Tottenham and Forest Gate (Mid. and L.T. S., joint control). 

4| Tottenham and Hampstead Junction (Mid. and G.E., jointly worked 
and largely owned). 



MIDLAND RAILWAY DIVIDENDS 



MIDLAND COUNTIES. 


NORTH MIDLAND. 


BIRMINGHAM AND DERBY 
JUNCTION. 




Dividend 
for 
Half- 
year. 


Per 
cent, 
for 
Year. 




Dividend 
for 
Half- 
year. 


Per 

cent, 
for 
Year. 




Dividend 
for 
Half- 
year. 


Per 

cent, 
for 
Year. 


1841 June . 


2 10 
200 


4 


1841 June 
Dec. 


200 

IO 


3j 


1840 June . 
Dec. . 


I O O 

o 15 o 


if 


1842 June . 
Dec. . 


I 10 
I 10 


3 


1842 June 
Dec. 



12 6 


2f 


1841 June . 


I 2 6 
I 2 6 


2* 


1843 June . 
Dec. . 


i 4 o 

240 


3t 


1843 June 
Dec. 


10 

o o 


3i 


1842 June . 
Dec.. 


12 
100 


If 


1844 June. 226 


1844 June . 2 o 


1843 June . 


050 
i 8 o 


m 


THE DIVID 


END SINCE THE AMAI 


1844 June, i 6 8 




.GAMATION 




Dividend 
for 
Half- 
year. 


Per 

cent, 
for 
Year. 




Dividend 
for 
Half- 
year. 


Per 

cent. 
for 
Year. 




Dividend 
for 
Half- 
year. 


Per 

cent, 
for 
Year. 


1844 Dec. . 


300 




1868 June . 
Dec.. 


2 10 

2 17 6 


5| 


1891 June . 
Dec. . 


2 17 6 
3 10 o 


6f 


1845 June . 
Dec.. 


300 
3 i3 o 


*i* 


1869 June . 
Dec.. 


2 17 

3 5 6 


6* 


1892 June . 
Dec. . 


2 12 6 

3 7 6 


6 


1846 June . 


3 10 o 
3 10 o 


7 


1870 June . 
Dec. . 


ma 


1893 June . 
Dec. . 


2 7 6 

I 10 


3& 


1847 June . 


3 10 o 
3 10 o 


7 


Dec. . 


1871 June . 
Dec. . 


35 

3 J 5 


7 


1894 June . 
Dec. . 


2 7 6 
2 17 6 


5j 


1848 June . 
Dec.. 


300 

10 


si 


1872 June . 
Dec. . 


3 10 o 
3 IS o 


7i 


1895 June . 
Dec. . 


200 

3 2 6 


5i 


1849 June . 
Dec. . 


IO O 

5 o 


2| 


1873 June . 
Dec. . 


ll-\6k 


1896 June . 
Dec. . 


2 10 

3 10 o 


6 


1850 June . 
Dec. . 


IS o 
5 o 


2 


1874 June . 
Dec. . 


2 15 

35 


6 


1897 June . 
Dec. . 


2 12 6 

35 


5* 


Dec.. 


5 
7 6 


n 


1875 June . 
Dec. . 


300 
300 


6 


1898 June . 
Dec. . 


2 12 6 

350 

2 17 6 
300 


S3 


Dec. . 


12 6 


3l 


1876 June . 
Dec. . 


2 10 

2 17 6 


si 


1899 June . 
Dec. . 


si- 


1853 June . 
Dec. . 


12 6 <, 1 
12 6 3l" 


1877 June . 
Dec. . 


2 10 

2 17 6 


51 


1900 June . 
Dec. . 


2 12 6 




Dec. . 


17 6 


3* 
3| 


1878 June . 
Dec. . 


2 10 

2 17 6 


51 


1901 June . 
Dec. . 








*5 
17 6 


Dec. . 


1879 June . 
Dec. . 


2 10 

3 2 6 


51 


1902 June . 
Dec.. 






1856 June.l o o 
Dec. . | 26 


4i 


1880 June . 
Dec. . 


300 
3 2 6 


6i 


1903 June . 
Dec.. 






1857 June . 
Dec. . 


2 6 
IO 


4f 


1881 June . 
Dec. . 


2 15 O 
326 


si 


1904 June . 
Dec.. 


1858 June . 
Dec.. 


2 6 
15 


4 


1882 June . 
Dec. . 


2 15 

3 6 


51 


1905 June . 
Dec. . 






1859 June . 
Dec. . 


12 6 

3 o o 


5J 


1883 June . 
Dec. . 


2 15 

3 a 6 


si 


1906 June . 
Dec. . 






1860 June . 
Dec.. 


350 

3 10 o 


6| 


1884 June . 
Dec. . 


10 

17 6 


si 


1907 June . 
Dec. . 






1861 June . 
Dec. 


3 2 6 
3 10 o 


6f 


1885 June . 


7 6 

15 


si 


1908 June . 
Dec. . 
1909 June . 






1862 June . 
Dec. 


2 IS 

350 


6 


i886-June . 



12 6 


4f 






1863 June . 
Dec. 


2 17 6 
3 10 o 


6f 


1887 June . 
Dec. . 


2 6 

12 6 


4f 


1910 June . 1 
Dec. .1 




Dec.. 


3 17 6 


7f 

1 f O 


1888 June . 


5 o ri. 
o o 04 


1911 June . 
Dec.. 






Dec. 


3* 10 o | Of 


1889 June . 
Dec. . 


12 6 

3 7 6 


6 


1912 June 
Dec. 






1866 June 
Dec. 


300 
326 


6i 


1890 June . 
Dec. . 


2 15 

3 10 o 


6i 


1913 June . 
Dec. 






1867 June 
Dec. 


2 15 
2 15 


si 







350 



MIDLAND DIVIDENDS 351 

From the table of dividends it will be observed that since the 
amalgamation the returns to the shareholders have varied from the 
low-water mark of 2 per cent, in 1850 to 7 j per cent, in 1864. During 
the fifty-six completed years, for each ;ioo share there has been paid 
in dividends the sum of ^307 8s., or an average of slightly less than 
5^ per cent, per annum for the whole period, namely $ 9.?. ^d. 

THE COAT OF ARMS 

The fearful and wonderful creature perched on the top of the 
Midland Railway Company's coat of arms, painted on the passenger 
carriages and what not, is known as a wyvern, a sort of winged 
serpent, which, like the dragon, griffin, griffon, unicorn, etc., never 
existed outside the Heralds' College. The buck or deer within the 
park palings represents the town or "by" of the deer Derby; on 
the right hand the castle and ships are the arms of the city of Bristol ; 
and on the left are those of Birmingham. The arms of Lincoln are 
depicted under the deer, with Leeds on the right and Leicester on the 
left. On the seal of the Company Nottingham is represented instead 
of Bristol. The dolphin is on the left, the salamander on the right, 
and the wyvern on the top of the shield. At the time of the Saxon 
Heptarchy Leicester was the capital of Mercia, and the wyvern was 
the crest of the Mercian kings. The wyvern is a quartering of the 
town arms of Leicester, and was adopted as the crest of the Leicester 
and Swannington Line, out of which sprang the present Midland 
Railway. Hence its forming an important part and parcel of the 
Midland Company's coat of arms. 




INDEX 



Abney, William, 99. 
Abolition of second class, 201-205. 
Accountant's Department, 309-311. 
Adie, W. E.. 297, 298. 
Administrators of Midland Railway, 

257-345- 
Administration of Midland Railway, 

257-345. 

,, chart, 259. 

Ais Gill, 212. 

Alleyne, Sir G. J. N., 182. 
Allport, Sir James, 72, 136, 160, 162, 
163, 175, 178, 205, 209, 215, 260, 
280-284. 

Alton Grange, 12, 47, 48. 
Amalgamation, 67-72. 
Ambergate, 51, 90, 129, 160, 163. 
American train, 206. 
,, cars, 206-208. 
,, engines, 106, 107, 246, 249. 
Ampthill Tunnel, 175. 
Ashby Canal, 25, 92, 94, 98-104, 126, 

^55, 348. 

,, Tramway, 25, 98-104. 
Ashby and Nuneaton Line, 92, 126, 

195, 349- 
Ashchurch, 92. 
Ash wood Dale, 169. 
Askern, 118, 141, 192, 223. 

B 

Bagworth, 4, 12, 22, 102, 103. 

,, incline, 17, 102. 
Barnoldswick Line, 230, 348. 
Barlow, W. H., 72, 74, 140, 167, 178- 

186, 326, 328. 
Bath, 92, 125, 228. 
Beale, Samuel, 72, 140, 157. 260, 264, 

271, 272. 

Beaumont, Sir George, 25. 
Bedford and Northampton Line, 125, 

158, 348. 
,, and Hitchin, 125, 153-158, 

1 86. 

,, to London, 174-186. 
Bell, Fox, 32, 35, 40, 72, 74, 260, 307. 
Bell Hotel, Leicester, 6, II, 25, 102. 
2 A 



Berkeley Junction, 197. 
Birmingham, 76. 

,, and Derby Junction Rail- 

way, 2, 62-66, 67-72, 
74, 1 06. 

,, and Gloucester, 65, 92 

95, 105-115, 348. , ; j 
,, Camp Hill, 105, 108. 

,, West Suburban, 196, 348. 

,, Curzon Street, 63, 106, 

108, 113, 114. 

,, Lawley Street, 65, 66, 

109, 301. 

,, New Street, 66, 114, 195, 

197. 

Block signalling, 51, 52, 331-334. 
Bourne, 228. 

,, and Lynn, 227. 
Bournemouth, 228. 
Bradford, 48, 116-123, 224. 
Brancker, P. W r ., 72, 145. 
Brecon and Merthyr, 200. 
Bristol and Gloucester Line, 92, 95, 
1 10, 348. 

,, Port Railway, in, 349. 

,, and Birmingham, 105-115, 128, 

125. 

Broad gauge, 68, 288. 
Brown, G. N., 307. 
Brunei, I. K., 17, in. 
Budget express, 137-139. 
Bugsworth Viaduct, 168. 
Burton-on-Trent, 102, 103, 104, 129, 

177. 

Bury, Edward, 29, 30, 39, 107. 
Butterley Iron Company, 182, 185. 
Buxton, 164. 



Caledonian, 215, 216. 
Cambridge, 158. 
Canals 

Ashby, 25, 98-104, 348. 

Berkeley, 1 06. 

Charnwood Forest, 3, 4. 

Coventry, 98. 

Cromford, 1 60, 171, 348. 

Erewash, 3, 31. 

Leicester, 3, 31. 



354 



INDEX 



Canals (continued) 

Loughborough, 3, 31. 

Oakham, 81, 84, 92, 94. 
Carlisle Station, 210, 215. 

,, Goods Traffic Committee, 216, 

349- 

Carr, Mr., 344. 
Carriage Department, 336. 

,, Superintendent, 339. 

,, Scotch Joint Stock, 216, 220, 

221. 

works, 251-256. 
Carriages, types, illustrated, 21, 24, 
65, 113, 138, i6S, 171, 207, 215, 

220, 221, 253, 275. 

Carslake, Sir John, 190, 191. 
Cavendish, Hon. G. H., 161. 
Chairmen, List of, 263, 264. 
Charles, A. L., 306, 307. 
Charnwood Forest, 3. 
Cheltenham, 105, 108, 109, 113, 125. 

,, Station, 348. 

,, and Gloucester Tramway, 

105, 106. 

Cheshire Lines, 172, 173, 349. 
Chesterfield, 53, 92, 94, 229. 

,, and Brampton Line, 348. 

Clarke, P., 280. 
Clay Cross, 40, 51, go, 92, 94, 126. 

,, ,, Tunnel, 52. 
Clayton, T. G., 339-341. 
Clifton Extension, 349. 

,, Suspension Bridge, 326. 
Coalville, 15, 102, 141. 
Coat of arms, 351. 
Cook, Thomas, 45, 46. 
Contours, 115, 173, 213, 230. 
Coventry, 195. 
Cowburn Tunnel, 230. 
Cromford, 161. 

,, Canal, 160, 171, 348. 
Crossley, J. S., 215, 326. 

D 

Darfield, 92. 
Dawson, Pudsey, 147. 
Derby, 80, 91, 131. 

Station, 38, 55, 56, 69, 71, 74. 
,, Locomotive Works, 234-243. 

Carriage ,, 251-256. 

Signal ,, 330-335- 

Derbyshire coalfields, 4, 191, 192. 
Detective Department, 344, 345. 

,, Superintendent, 344. 
Dicey, Thomas E., 72. 
Dining cars, 207. 
Directors of Midland, 260. 
Dividends, List of, 350, 351. 
Doncaster, 92, 142. 
Dore and Chinley, 228-230, 348. 
Dorset Line, 228. 
Doughty, James, 309. 
Dudley, 195. 



Duffield and Wirksworth Line, 163, 

171. 

Duncombe, Colonel, 222. 
Dursley and Midland Junction, 348. 



East Lancashire, 219, 220. 
Eastern and Midlands Line, 86. 
,, Counties Railway, 158. 
Edge-rail-way, 99, 126. 
Electrical Department, 335. 
Ellis, Edward Shipley, 18, 102, 204, 

205, 214, 215, 222, 260, 264, 273, 

274, 283. 
Ellis, John, 4-8, 27, 30, 47, 68, 73, 

112, 120, 132-135, 14, J 45> IS 1 ! 

157, 158, 260, 263, 268-271. 
Elstree Tunnel, 175. 
Enderby Branch, 349. 
Engineers-in-Chief, List of, 326. 
Erewash Valley, 3, 37, 90, 92-94, 126, 

144, 348. 

Estate Agent. 335. 

Evesham and Redditch Line, 159, 348. 
Excursion trains, 42-45, 57. 



Finance Department, 306-311. 
Fitting Shop, Derby, 241. 
Fitzwilliam, Earl of, 87, 154. 
Forth Bridge, 216-219. 
Furness Railway, 150. 

,, and Midland Line, 349. 



Gauges, Battle of, 106, in, 114, 115. 
General Management, 279, 280, 295- 

297. 

,, Managers, List of, 280-288. 
Glasgow and South Western, 216. 
Glenfield, 12, 24, 25. 
,, Tunnel, 15. 
Gloucester, 92, 105, 336. 
,, Station, 291. 

Glyn, George Carr, 47, 55, 60. 
Goods Department, 295-301. 
Grand Junction, 106, 161. 
Grantham, 150. 
Great Central, 192, 223, 224. 
,, Eastern, 188, 228. 
,, Malvern, 92. 

,, Northern, 68, 80, 141, 143, 146, 
150, 151, 154, 172, I74 I75> 
190, 203. 

,, Western, 68, 105, 110, 197-200, 
203. 

H 

Halesowen Line, 92, 95, 349. 
Hampton, 36, 62-65, 125. 
Harborough, Lord, 81-86, 91, 92, 94. 
Harpenden, 159. 



INDEX 



355 



Harringworth Viaduct, 225. 
Hellifield, 149, 219, 220. 
Hemel Hempsted, 159, 348. 
Hendon, 189. 
Hereford, 198. 

,, Hay, and Brecon Line, 197- 

200, 348. 

,, Barton Station, 197-200. 
,, Moorfields, 197-200. 
Heygate, W. U., 219, 260. 
Heysham Harbour, 149, 231-233. 
Heyworth, James, 67. 
High Peak Railway, 160. 
Hitchin, 92, 95, 174. 
Hodgson, Isaac, 102. 
Hotel Superintendent, 343. 
Hotels, 75, 121, 233, 343, 344. 

,, List of, 343. 

Hudson, George, 48, 60, 68, 71, 73, 
76, 78-80, 91, 93, 117-123, 127, 
130-137? 154, 215, 260, 263-268. 
Hull, 223. 

Hutchinson, W. E., 40, 42, 73, 210, 
211, 260, 264, 272. 



Ilkley Bridge, 325. 
Ingleton, 147-149. 
Institute, Derby, 347, 348. 
Ireland, Midland route, 220, 221 
Isle of Man, 150. 



J 
Jessop, William (senior), 98, 99, 160. 

,, 21, 22, 32, 33, 37. 
Johnson, S. W., 227, 244, 245, 312- 

322, 323- 

Johnston, A., 326. 
Joint lines, 261, 262. 
,, Committees, 261, 262. 

K 

Keighley and Worth Valley Line, 348. 
Kentish Town, 186. 
Kettering, 153. 

,, Thrapston, and Huntingdon 
Line, 158, 348. 

,, and Manton, 223. 

,, and Nottingham, 224. 
King, His Majesty Edward VII., 217- 

219. 

Kirtley, Matthew, 72, 74, 317-321. 
Knottingley Curve, 135. 



Lancashire and Yorkshire, 142, 149, 

171, 203, 211. 

Lancaster and Carlisle, 147, 148, 209. 
Langdon, W., 335. 
Langley, A. A., 326. 



Langley Mill, 3. 

Leeds, 48, 55, 118, 119, 129, 141, 142, 

224. 
,, and Bradford Line, 116-123, 

130, I44-M7, 348. 
,. Hunslet Lane, 48, 54. 55, 117, 

142. 

,, Wellington Street, 117, 144. 
Leicester, 80. 

,, and Rugby Line, 38, 77. 
Station, 40, 41, 337, 339. 
,, to Birmingham, 195. 
,, and Swannington Railway, 2, 
3, 12, 91, 101, 
104, 125, 128, 

154, 155, 348. 
,, Register, 10. 
Seal, ii. 
,, Directors, 1 1. 
,, permanent way, 

15-17. 

,, opening, 20-31. 
and Burton, 92, 141. 
and Bedford, 101, 153. 
Canal, 3. 

and Hitchin, 95, 153-157. 
Leicestershire Coalfields, 3, 195. 
Lickey Incline, 105-107, 113. 
Liddell, Charles, 85, 102. 
Lifford, Lord, 145. 
Lincoln, 76, 78-80, 87, 124. 
Liverpool, 172, 173. 

,, and Manchester Railway, 

2-5- 
party, 34, 36, 47, 51, 68, 

120, 130, 141, 144. 
,, Exchange Station, 219. 
Locomotive Works, 234-243. 

,, construction, 243-250. 

,, Department, 312-323. 

,, Superintendents, List of, 

317. 

Locomotives, Early, 18, 19, 26, 31,224. 

,, details, 247. 

,, types, illustrated, 18, 19, 

26, 31, 59, 61, 64, 104, 

107,136, 137,240,249, 

275,302,313,315,319, 

324- 

London, Chatham, and Dover, 189. 
,, and Birmingham Line, 38, 47, 

63, 77, 78, 93. 106. 
,, King's Cross, 78, 79, 134, 156, 

157, 174, 175, 178. 

Euston, 77, 134, 145, 174. 

St. Pancras, 156, 175-186. 

Tilbury, and Southend, 175. 

Chatham, and Dover, 175. 

District, 187-190. 

Victoria, 189. 
London and North-Western, 92, 125, 
129, 135, 146, 153, 156, 158, 161, 
163, 171, 174, 193-197, 203, 209. 



356 



INDEX 



London and North -Western proposed 
amalgamation, 146, 151, 152. 

London and North- Western and Mid- 
land, etc., Railway, 196. 

London and York Line, 68, 118. 

Long Lane Hotel and Station, 28. 

Longitudinal sleepers, 17, 115. 

Loughborough, 37. 

,, Navigation, 3. 

Lydney and Lydbrook, 197. 

Lynn and Fakenham, 227. 

M 

M'Callum, P. S., 335. 
M'Donald, J. A., 233, 326, 328, 329. 
Manchester^ 95, 135, 160-173. 

,, Buxton, Matlock, &c., 

Line, 92, 95, 96, 129, 
161, 171, 348. 
Ancoats, 168, 171. 
South District, 172, 348. 
London Road, 167, 168, 

172. 

and Leeds, 90, 141. 
Central Station, 172. 
Victoria Station, 219. 
and Crewe Line, 160, 161. 
Sheffield, and Lincoln- 
shire, 167, 172, 192, 
203, 222, 223. 
Malvern, 125. 
Mangotsfield, 228. 
Mansfield, 92, 94, 127. 

,, and Pinxton Line, 32, 126, 

348. 

,, plateway, 33, 124, 127. 
Map of Midland, 258. 
Market Harborough, 153, 156, 195. 
Marple, 220. 
Masborough, 52, 124. 
Matlock, 163. 
Melton Constable, 228. 
Melton Mowbray, 80, 81-86, 223. 
,, ,, and Nottingham Line, 

224. 

Methley, 142, 143. 
Metropolitan, 178, 186, 189. 

,, District, 187. 

Mid-Wales, 198. 
Midland Railway, 2, 73, 77. 

,, ,, Companies amalga- 

mated, 2, 67-72. 

,, ,, earliest portions, 2. 

,, Counties Railway, 2, 32-46, 

67-72, 74. 
and South- Western Junction, 

348. 

, , and London and North- Western 
(proposed amalgamation), 
146, 151, 152. 
,, and Great Northern, 190, 222, 

227. 
,, and Sheffield, 192. 



Midland and Great Western, 197, 348. 

,, and North-Eastern, 223. 
Miller's Dale, 164, 165. 
Mineral Department, 302-305. 
Moon, Sir Richard, 203. 
Moorsom, Captain, 106. 
Morecambe, 147, 231. 
Morley, Sir Isaac, 215. 
Morrall, G., 342. 
Mugliston, W. L., 288, 289. 

N 
Neath, 198. 

,, and Brecon, 198, 200. 
New Mills, 167, 173. 
Newark, 80, 93, 94. 
Newcombe, W. L., 280. 
Newton, William L., 72. 
Noble,J., 280. 

Norfolk and Suffolk Line, 228. 
Normanton, 124, 142, 223. 
North British, 211, 216. 

,, Eastern, 203. 

,, London Incline, 156. 

,, Midland, 2, 33, 36, 47-6 1, 67- 

72, 74, 135- 
,, Western (Little), 129, 147-150, 

209, 348. 
,, and South -Western Junction, 

187, 349- 

Northampton, 37, 158, 159, 195. 
Nottingham, 76, 79, 92,94, 1 50, 151, 229. 

,, Station, 39, 80. 

,, and Derby Line, 38. 

,, and Grantham, 150. 

Nottinghamshire coalfields, 3, 4. 
Nuneaton, 195. 

O 

Oakes, James, 21, 22, 32. 
Oakham Canal, 81, 84, 92, 94, 348. 

81. 

Ordnance datum, 12. 
Otley and Ilkley, 349. 
Outram, Benjamin, 99-101. 

,, plateways, 99, 101, 105, 124, 

126, 197. 

Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhamp- 
ton, 193, 197. 



Paget, Thomas, 7. 

,, G. B., 72, 157, 260, 263. 

,, Sir Ernest, 219, 246, 260, 264, 

277, 278; frontispiece. 
Payne, W. P., 311. 
Peak Forest, 167. 
Peterborough, 80-87, 91, 134. 

,, Wisbech and Sutton 

Line, 227. 
Pinxton, 90, 126-128. 

,, and Leicester Line, 33, 34, 
37, 62. 



INDEX 



357 



Port Patrick and Wigtownshire Line, 

220, 221, 349. 

Price, W. P., 260, 264, 272, 273. 
Pullman cars, 206, 208. 

R 

Radford, 224. 
Railway mania, 78, 101, 264-268. 

traction creates revolution, I. 

First modern, I. 

Horse traction, 2, 127. 

Locomotive traction, 2. 

prospectus, 35. 

stationary engines, 29, 160. 
Rand, John, 120. 
Rates, First war of, 64-66. 

,, 68, 190-192. 
Rating Surveyor, 311. 
Redditch Line, 348. 
Rennie, George. 35-37. 
Rolleston, 79. 
Rowsley, 163. 
Rugby, 67-72, 78. 



Saltley, 92, 144. 

Sanders, Joseph, 12, 25, 280, 307. 
Saunders, Charles A., 112, 
Saxby, 228. 

,, Battle of, 81-86. 
Scotch traffic, 209-221. 
Scott, Sir Gilbert, 183, 185. 
Second class abolished, 201-205. 
Secretaries, List of, 307. 
Settle, 147. 

,, and Carlisle, 149,203, 209-221. 
Severn and Wye Line, 197, 349. 

,, Bridge, 197. 
Sharpness, 197. 
Shaw, J., 302, 303. 
Sheffield, 228, 229. 

,, and Rotherham Line, 48, 53, 

57, 87-90, 193, 348. 
., and Midland Committee, 192, 

220. 

,, and Midland Joint, 349. 
,, direct, 48, 88, 193. 
Sherringham, 227, 228. 
Shrewsbury and Hereford, 199. 
Signal Works, 330-335. 
Signalling (primitive), 24. 

,, (modern), 230, 322, 333. 
Sleeping cars, 206. 
Snibston Colliery, 25. 
Soar Lane Bridge, Leicester, 28. 
Somerset and Dorset, 228, 349. 
South-Eastern, 189. 

,, Leicestershire Line, 194, 196. 
,, Midland Company, 92, 154, 

158. 

,, Staffordshire, 193. 195. 
Southend, 188. 



Southport, 172. 

Southwell, 79. 

Standish, 95, no, 113, 125. 

Stamford, Lord, 25. 

Stationmasters, 293-295. 

Stationmistress, 31. 

Steam trumpet invented, 27. 

Stenson, William, 4, 6. 

Stephenson, George, 2, 4-8, 12, 17, 
20, 21, 25, 47-49, Si, 
53, 62, 68, 87-90, 116, 
117, 129, 132, 161, 193, 
327, 328. 

,, Robert, 2, 4-8, u, 12, 

15, 18, 19, 28, 29, 47, 
58-60, 102, 140, 327, 
328. 
,, R. and Co., 18, 19. 

Stockport, 1 60, 162. 

Stone blocks, 17, 41, 75. 

Stonebridge Branch, 62. 

Stonehouse and Nailsworth Line, 348. 

Stores Department, 342, 343. 

Stranraer, 220, 221. 

Sun Inn, Eastwood, 32, 33, 37. 

Sunday trains, 300, 301. 

Superintendent of Stores, 342. 

,, of the line, 288, 289, 

295-297. 

Swannington Incline, 15, 28-30. 

Swansea Vale Line, 200, 348. 

Swinton, 76, 92, 93. 

,, and Knottingley, 223, 349. 

Syston and Peterborough, 80-86, 91, 
94, 124. 



Tapton House, 51. 

Tewkesbury and Malvern, 348. 

Third class, 201-205. 

Thompson, Sir M. W., 216, 260, 264, 

274-277. 

Tickets, Brass, 23. 
,, Paper, 24. 
Ticknall, 99. 
Totley Tunnel, 230. 
Tottenham and Forest Gate Line, 188, 

189, 349- 
,, and Hampstead Junction 

Line. 188, 349. 
Towle, William, 343. 
Tramways, Ashby, 98-104. 

, , Cheltenham and Gloucester, 

105, 106. 
,, Mansfield and Pinxton, 33, 

124, 127. 

,, Lydney and Lydbrook, 197. 

Trent, 90, 94, 224. 
Trent Valley, 196. 
Trubshaw, C., 330. 
Tunnels, 15, 57, 175, 176, 183, 211- 

213, 224, 230. 
Turner, G. H., 280, 284-288. 



358 



INDEX 



u 

Undertakings acquired, List of, 34.8. 

,, ,, jointly, List of, 

349- 
Underwood, J., 326. 

V 

Vaughan, George, 2. 
Vickers, William, 88. 
Vignoles, Charles, 37, 38. 

W 

Wales, Prince of (now King), 217-219. 
,, invasion by the Midland, 197- 

200. 

Walmesley, Sir Joshua, 12, 25. 
Walsall, 193. 
Warwick, 125. 
Watkin, Sir E., 222. 
Way and Works Department, 323-339. 
Weatherburn, Robert, 19, 20, 26. 
Wellingborough to Northampton, 195. 
Wells, E. W., 288. 



West Bridge, Leicester, 12, 17, 103, 104. 
Wheel Shop, Derby, 237. 
Whitacre to Birmingham, 62, 63, 65, 66. 
,, and Hampton, 77. 
,, and Nuneaton, 196. 
Whitecross Street, 190. 
Whitwick, 4. 
Wichnor, 129, 158, 193. 
Wigston, 153, 155. 
Williams, James, 307, 308. 
Winstanley, C., 19. 
Wirksworth, 163, 171. 
Wolverhampton, 193, 195. 

,, and Walsall, 193, 194, 

348. 

,, Walsall, and Midland 

Junction, 194, 348. 
Worcester, 197. 



York, 223. 

,, and North Midland, 136. 

,, Newcastle, and Berwick, 136. 
Yorkshire Coalfields, 191, 192. 



PLYMOUTH 

WILLIAM BRENDON AND SON 
PRINTERS 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 

AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF 

METHUEN AND COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS : LONDON 

36 ESSEX STREET 

W.C. 

CONTENTS 



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POETRY, . . . . . . 7 

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HISTORY, ....... 15 

BIOGRAPHY, ...... 17 

TRAVEL, ADVENTURE AND TOPOGRAPHY, . . 18 

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THEOLOGY, ...... 24 

FICTION, . . . . 29 

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THE PEACOCK LIBRARY, .... 39 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION SERIES, 39 

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will be well illustrated. They will make delightful gift books. 

THE LIFE OF DANTE ALIGHIERI. By PAGET TOYNBEE. 
With 12 Illustrations. 

THE LIFE OF SAVONAROLA. By E. L. HORSBURGH, M.A., 

With Portraits and Illustrations. 



IKHorfcs of Sbafcespeare 

New volumes uniform with Professor Dowden's Hamlet. 

ROMEO AND JULIET. Edited by EDWARD DOWDEN, Litt.D. 

Demy 8vo. 35. 6d. 

KING LEAR. Edited by W. J. CRAIG. Demy 8vo. $s. 6d. 



/llbetbuen's Stanfcarfc 

MEMOIRS OF MY LIFE AND WRITINGS. By EDWARD 
GIBBON. Edited, with an Introduction and Notes by G. BIRKBECK 
HILL, LL.D. Crown 8vo. Gilt top. 6s. 

THE LETTERS OF LORD CHESTERFIELD TO HIS 
SON. Edited, with an Introduction and Notes by C. STRACHEY and 
A. CALTHROP. Two volumes. Crown 8vo. Gilt top. 6^. each. 



6 MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 
Gbe Iftovels ot Gbacles 2>fcfcen6 

With Introductions by GEORGE GISSING, Notes by F. G. KITTON, 

and Illustrations. 

Crown &vo. Each Volume, doth T>S. net, leather 4$. 6d. net. 
The first volumes are : 

THE PICKWICK PAPERS. With Illustrations by E. H. NEW. 
Two Volumes. [Ready 

NICHOLAS NICKLEBY. With Illustrations by R. J. WILLIAMS. 
Two Volumes. [Ready. 

BLEAK HOUSE. With Illustrations by BEATRICE ALCOCK. Two 
Vohimes. 

OLIVER TWIST. With Illustrations by E. H. NEW. One Volume. 

Gbe Xittle Xfbrarg 

With Introductions, Notes, and Photogravure Frontispieces. 
Pott Svo. Each Volume, cloth is. 6d. net. ; leather 2s. 6d. net. 
NEW VOLUMES. 

THE EARLY POEMS OF ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. 

Edited by J. C. COLLINS, M.A. 
MAUD. By ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON. Edited by ELIZABETH 

WORDSWORTH. 

A LITTLE BOOK OF ENGLISH LYRICS. With Notes. 
PRIDE AND PREJUDICE. By JANE AUSTEN. Edited by 

E. V. LUCAS. Two Volumes. 
PENDENNIS. By W. M. THACKERAY. Edited by S. GWYNN. 

Three volumes. 

EOTHEN. By A. W. KINGLAKE. With an Introduction and 

Notes. 

LAVENGRO. By GEORGE BORROW. Edited by F. HINDES 
GROOME. 2. Volumes. 

CRANFORD. By Mrs. GASKELL. Edited by E. V. LUCAS. 

THE INFERNO OF DANTE. Translated by H. F. GARY. 
Edited by PAGET TOYNBEE. 

JOHN HALIFAX, GENTLEMAN. By Mrs. CRAIK. Edited 
by ANNIE MATHESON. Two volumes. 

A LITTLE BOOK OF SCOTTISH VERSE. Arranged and 
Edited by T. F. HENDERSON. 

A LITTLE BOOK OF ENGLISH PROSE. Arranged and 
Edited by Mrs. P. A. BARNETT. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Poetry 



WRIT IN BARRACKS. By EDGAR WALLACE. Cr.Zvo. 3s.6<t. 

Mr. Edgar Wallace, a member of the Royal Army Medical Corps, is a follower of 
Mr. Kipling, and his ballads of soldier life and sufferings are well-known in South 
Africa. They are spirited, pathetic, and true, and at the present time they should 
enjoy a considerable popularity. 

THE RUBAIYAT OF OMAR KHAYYAM. Translated by 
EDWARD FITZGERALD, with a Commentary by H. M. BATSON, and 
a Biography of Omar by E. D. Ross. 6s. 

This edition of the famous book, the text of which is printed by permission of Messrs. 
Macmillan, is the most complete in existence. It contains FitzGerald's last text, 
and a very full commentary oil each stanza. Professor Ross, who is an admirable 
Persian scholar, contributes a biography, containing many new, valuable, and 
interesting facts. 

Scientific and Educational 

THE CAPTIVI OF PLAUTUS. Edited, with an Introduction, 
Textual Notes, and a Commentary, by W. M. LINDSAY, Fellow of 
Jesus College, Oxford. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 

For this edition all the important MSS. have been re-collated. An appendix deals 
with the accentual element in early Latin verse. The Commentary is very full. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE INDUCTION COILS. 

By A. T. HARE, M.A. With numerous Diagrams. Demy^vo. 6s. 

THE SCIENCE OF HYGIENE. By W. C. C. PAKES, Guy's 

Hospital. With many illustrations. Demy 8vo. i^s, 

THE PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETISM AND ELEC- 
TRICITY: AN ELEMENTARY TEXT-BOOK. By P. L. GRAY, B.Sc., 
formerly Lecturer on Physics in Mason University College, Birming- 
ham. With numerous diagrams. Crown %vo. 3.5-. 6d. 

LACE-MAKING IN THE MIDLANDS, PAST AND 
PRESENT. By C. C. CHANNER and M. E. ROBERTS. With 16 
full-page Illustrations. Crown Svo. 2s. 6ct. 

AGRICULTURAL ZOOLOGY. By Dr. J. RITZEMA Bos. 
Translated by J. R. AINSWORTH DAVIS, M.A. With an Introduc- 
tion by ELEANOR A. ORMEROD, F.E.S. With 155 Illustrations. 
Crown &vo. $s. 6d. 

A SOUTH AFRICAN ARITHMETIC. By HENRY HILL, 
B.A., Assistant Master at Worcester School, Cape Colony. Crown 
8vo. 3-r. 6d. 
This book has been specially written for use in South African schools. 

A GERMAN COMMERCIAL READER. By S. BALLY, M.A. 

Crown Svo. 2s. [Mcthuen's Commercial Series. 



8 MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 
Fiction 

THE MASTER CHRISTIAN. By MARIE CORELLI. Crown 
8v0. 6s. 

QUISANTE. By ANTHONY HOPE. Crown ^vo. 6s. 

A MASTER OF CRAFT. By W. W. JACOBS, Author of 
'Many Cargoes.' With 12 Illustrations by W. OWEN. Crown 
8v0. 6s. 

THE GATELESS BARRIER. By LUCAS MALET, Author 
' The Wages of Sin. ' Crown 8vo. 6s. 

CUNNING MURRELL. By ARTHUR MORRISON, Author of 
' A Child of the Jago,' etc. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

FOR BRITAIN'S SOLDIERS : Stories for the War Fund. By 
RUDYARD KIPLING and Others. Edited by C. J. CUTCLIFFE 
HYNE. Crown 8vo. 6s. 



A volume of stories, the proceeds of which will be given to the War Fund. 
Among the contributors are : Rudyard Kipling, Sir W. Besant, S. R. Crockett, 
A. E. W. Mason, Max Pemberton, H. G. Wells, C. J. C. Hyne, Mrs. Croker. 



THE FOOTSTEPS OF A THRONE. By MAX PEMBERTON. 
Crown 8v0. 6s. 

SONS OF THE MORNING. By EDEN PHILLPOTTS, Author 
of ' The Children of the Mist. ' With a frontispiece. Crown &vo. 6s. 

THE SOFT SIDE. By HENRY JAMES, Author of ' What Maisie 
Knew.' Crown 8v0. 6s. 

TONGUES OF CONSCIENCE. By ROBERT HICHENS, Author 
of ' Flames.' Crown 8v0. 6s. 

THE CONQUEST OF LONDON. By DOROTHEA GERARD, 

Author of ' Lady Baby. ' Crown 8v0. 6s. 

WOUNDS IN THE RAIN : A Collection of Stories relating 
to the Spanish- American War of 1898. By STEPHEN CRANE, 
Author of ' The Red Badge of Courage.' Crown 8v0. 6s. 

WINEFRED. By S. BARING GOULD, Author of 'Mehalah.' 
With 8 Illustrations by EDGAR EUNDY. Crown 8v0. 6s. 

THE STRONG ARM. By ROBERT BARR, Author of 'The 
Countess Tekla.' Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

THE SEEN AND THE UNSEEN. By RICHARD MARSH. 
Author of 'The Beetle/ ' Marvels and Mysteries,' etc. Crown 8v0. 6s. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S ANNOUNCEMENTS 9 

SERVANTS OF SIN. By J. BLOUNDELLE BURTON, Author 
'The Clash of Arms.' CroivnSvo. 6s. 

PATH AND GOAL. By ADA CAMBRIDGE. Crown %vo. 6s. 
ELMSLIE'S DRAG-NET. By E. H. STRAIN. Crown %vo. 6s. 
A FOREST OFFICER. By Mrs. PENNY. Crownlvo. 6s. 

A story of jungle life in India. 

FITZJAMES. By LILIAN STREET. CrownZvo. ?>s.6d. 



IRcwelist 

A monthly series of novels by popular authors at Sixpence. Each 
Number is as long as the average Six Shilling Novel. Numbers I. to 
XII. are now ready : 

XIII. THE POMP OF THE LAVILETTES. GILBERT PARKER. 

XIV. A MAN OF MARK. ANTHONY HOPE. 
XV. THE CARISSIMA. LUCAS MALET. 

XVI. THE LADY'S WALK. MRS. OLIPHANT. 

XVII. DERRICK VAUGHAN. EDNA LYALL. 

[November. 

flfeetbuen's 

A New Series of Copyright Books. 

I. THE MATABELE CAMPAIGN. Maj. -General BADEN-POWELL. 
II. THE DOWNFALL OF PREMPEH. Do. 

III. MY DANISH SWEETHEART. W. CLARK RUSSELL. 

IV. IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA. S. BARING GOULD. 

V. PEGGY OF THE BARTONS. B. M. CROKER. 

VI. BADEN-POWELL OF MAFEKING : a Biography. 

J. S. FLETCHER. [November. 

VII. ROBERTS OF PRETORIA. J. S. FLETCHER. [December. 

A2 



A CATALOGUE OF 

MESSRS. METHUEN'S 

PUBLICATIONS 



Poetry 



Eudyard Kipling. BARRACK-ROOM 
BALLADS. By RUDYARD KIPLING. 
68th Thousand. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Leather, 6s, net. 

1 Mr. Kipling's verse is strong, vivid, full 
of character. . . . Unmistakeable genius 
rings in every line.' Titties. 

' The ballads teem with imagination, they 
palpitate with emotion. We read them 
with laughter and tears ; the metres throb 
in our pulses, the cunningly ordered 
words tingle with life ; and if this be not 
poetry, what is ? 'Pall Mall Gazette. 

Rudyard Kipling. THE SEVEN 
SEAS. By RUDYARD KIPLING. 
tflth Thousand. Cr. 8vo. Buckram, 
gilt top. 6s. Leather, 6s. net. 

' The Empire has found a singer ; it is no 
depreciation of the songs to say that 
statesmen may have, one way or other, 
to take account of them.' Manchester 
Guardian. 

'Animated through and through with in- 
dubitable genius.' Daily Telegraph. 



"Q." GREEN BAYS: Verses and 
Parodies. By"Q." Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 3^. 6d. 

E. Mackay. A SONG OF THE SEA. 
By ERIC MACKAY. Second Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo. 5>y. 

H. Ibsen. BRAND. A Drama by 

HENRIK IBSEN. Translated by 

WILLIAM WILSON. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

A.D. Godley. LYRA FRIVOLA. By 
A. D. GODLEY, M.A., Fellow of 
Magdalen College, Oxford. Third 
Edition. Pott 8vo. 2S. 6d. 
'Combines a pretty wit with remarkably 
neat versification. . . . Every one will 
wish there was more of it. ' Times. 

A. D. Godley. VERSES TO ORDER. 
By A. D. GODLEY. Crown 8vo. 
2s. 6d. net. 



' A capital 
poetry " 



al specu 
.'St.J. 



imen of light academic 
' s Gazette. 



' ' Q. " POEMS AND BALLADS. 
"Q." Crown 8vo. 3*. 6d. 



By 



J. G. Cordery. THE ODYSSEY OF 
HOMER. A Translation by J. G. 
CORDERY. Crown 8vo. js. 6d. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



ii 



Belles Lettres, Anthologies, etc. 



E. L. Stevenson. VAILIMA LET- j 
TERS. By ROBERT Louis STEVEN- 
SON. With an Etched Portrait by j 
WILLIAM STRANG. Second Edition. \ 
Crown 8vo. Buckram. 6s. 

' A fascinating book.' Standard. 

' Unique in Literature.' Daily Chronicle. 

G. Wyndham. THE POEMS OF WIL- 
LIAM SHAKESPEARE. Edited 
with an Introduction and Notes by 
GEORGE WYNDHAM, M.P. Demy 
8vo. Buckram, gilt top. los. 6d. 
This edition contains the ' Venus,' ' Lucrece, 
and Sonnets, and is prefaced with an 
elaborate introduction of over 140 pp. 
'We have no hesitation in describing Mr. 
George Wyndham's introduction as a 
masterly piece of criticism, and all who 
love our Elizabethan literature will find a 
very garden of delight in it.' Spectator. 

W. E. Henley. ENGLISH LYRICS. 
Selected and Edited by W. E. 
HENLEY. Crown 8vo. Gilt top. 
3J. 6d. 

' It is a body of choice and lovely poetry.' 
Birmingham Gazette. 

Henley and Whibley. A BOOK OF 
ENGLISH PROSE. Collected by 
W. E. HENLEY and CHARLES 
WHIBLEY. Crown 8vo. Buckram, 
gilt top. 6s. 

H. C. Beecning. LYRA SACRA : An 

Anthology of Sacred Verse. Edited 
by H. C. BEECHING, M.A. Crown 
8vo. Buckram. 6s. 
' A charming selection, which maintains a 

lofty standard of excellence.' Times. 
"Q." THE GOLDEN POMP. A Pro- 
cession of English Lyrics. Arranged 
by A. T. QUILLER COUCH. Crown 
8vo. Buckram. 6s. 

W. B. Yeats. AN ANTHOLOGY OF 

IRISH VERSE. Edited by W. B. 

YEATS. Revised and Enlarged 

Edition. Crown 8vo. y 6d- 

'An attractive and catholic selection.' 

Times. 

G. W. Steevens. MONOLOGUES OF 
THE DEAD. By G. W. STEEVENS. 
Foolscap 8vo. y. 6d. 



W. M. Dixon. A PRIMER OF 
TENNYSON. By W. M. DIXON, 
M.A. Cr. 8vo. as. 6d. 
' Much sound and well-expressed criticism. 
The bibliography is a boon.' Speaker. 

W. A, Craigie. A PRIMER OF 
BURNS. By W. A. CRAIGIE. 
Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
' A valuable addition to the literature of the 
poet.' TMMY, 

L. Magnus. A PRIMER OF WORDS- 
WORTH. By LAURIE MAGNUS. 
Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

' A valuable contribution to Wordsworthian 
literature.' Literature. 

Sterne. THE LIFE AND OPINIONS 
OF TRISTRAM SHANDY. By 
LAWRENCE STERNE. With an In- 
troduction by CHARLES WHIBLEY, 
and a Portrait. 2 vols. 73. 

Congreve. THE COMEDIES OF 
WILLIAM CONGREVE. With an 
Introduction by G. S. STREET, and 
a Portrait. 2 vols. js. 

Morier. THE ADVENTURES OF 
HAJJI BAB A OF ISPAHAN. By 
JAMES MORIER. With an Introduc- 
tion by E. G. BROWNE, M.A. and a 
Portrait. 2 vols. ?s. 

Walton. THE LIVES OF DONNE, 
WOTTON, HOOKER, HERBERT 
AND SANDERSON. By IZAAK 
WALTON. With an Introduction by 
VERNON BLACKBURN, and a Por- 
trait. 3-f. 6d. 

Johnson. THE LIVES OF THE 
ENGLISH POETS. By SAMUEL 
JOHNSON, LL.D. With an Intro- 
duction by J. H. MILLAR, and a Por- 
trait. 3 vols. IQS. 6d. 

Burns. THE POEMS OF ROBERT 
BU RNS. Edited by ANDREW LANG 
and W. A. CRAIGIE. With Portrait. 
Second Edition. Demy 8vo, gilt top. 
6s. 

'Among editions in one volume, this will 
take the place of authority.' Times. 



12 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



F. Langbridge. BALLADS OF THE 
BRAVE ; Poems of Chivalry, Enter- 
prise, Courage, and Constancy. 
Edited by Rev. F. LANGBRIDGE. 



Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. y. 6d. 
School Edition. 2.3. 6d. 
'The book is full of splendid things.' 
World. 



/IRetbuen's Standard Xibrarg 



WOOD. Edited by C. G. CRUMP, 

M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

This edition is the only one which contains 
the complete book as originally pub- 
lished. It contains a long Introduction 
and many Footnotes. 

' "The History of Thomas Ellwood" holds a 
high place among the masterpieces of 
autobiography, and we know few books 
that better deserve reprinting. More- 
over, Mr. C. G. Crump's new edition is 
accurate and convenient, and we com- 
mend it ungrudgingly to all those who 
love sound and vigorous English.' 

Daily Mail. 

Tennyson. THE EARLY POEMS OF 
ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, 
Edited, with Notes and an Introduc- 
tion by J. CHURTON COLLINS, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

An elaborate edition of the celebrated 
volume which was published in its 
final and definitive form in 1853. This 
edition contains a long Introduction and 
copious Notes, textual and explanatory. 
It also contains in an Appendix all 
the Poems which Tennyson afterwards 
omitted. 

'Mr. Collins is almost an ideal editor of 
Tennyson. His qualities as a critic are 
an exact and accurate scholarship, and 
a literary judgment, which has been 
trained and polished by the closest study 
of classics both ancient and modern. 
Mr. Collins' introduction is a thoroughly 
sound and sane appreciation of the 
merits and demerits of Tennyson.' 
Literature. 

Worfcs of Sbafcespeare 

General Editor, EDWARD DOWDEN, Litt. D. 

MESSRS. METHUEN have in preparation an Edition of Shakespeare in 
single Plays. Each play will be edited with a full Introduction, Textual 
Notes, and a Commentary at the foot of the page. 

The first volume is : 

HAMLET. Edited by EDWARD volume, admirably printed and produced, 

~ and containing all that a student of 

DOWDEN. Demy too. y. 6d. Hamlet "need require. '-Speaker. ^ 

\ ' Fully up to the level of recent scholarship, 
' An admirable edition. ... A comely i both English and German. Academy. 



Dante. LA COMMEDIA DI 
DANTE ALIGHIERI. The Italian 
Text edited by PAGET TOYNBEE, 
M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' A carefully-revised text, printed with 
beautiful clearness.' Glasgow Herald. 

Gibbon. THE DECLINE AND 
FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 
By EDWARD GIBBON. A New Edi- 
tion, Edited with Notes, Appendices, 
and Maps, by J. B. BURY, LL.D., 
Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 
In Seven Volumes. Demy 8vo, Gilt 
top. 8s. 6d. each. Also Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
each. 

' The time has certainly arrived for a new 
edition of Gibbon's great work. . . . Pro- 
fessor Bury is the right man to under- 
take this task. His learning is amazing, 
both in extent and accuracy. The book 
is issued in a handy form, and at a 
moderate price, and it is admirably 
printed.' Times. 

' At last there is an adequate modern edition 
of Gibbon. . . . The best edition the 
nineteenth century could produce. 
Manchester Guardian. 
' A great piece of editing.' Academy. 
' The greatest of English, perhaps of all, 
historians has never been presented to 
the public in a more convenient and 
attractive form. No higher praise can 
be bestowed upon Professor Bury than 
to say, as may be said with truth, that 
he is worthy of being ranked with Guizot 
and Milman.' Daily News. 

C. G. Crump. THE HISTORY OF 
THE LIFE OF THOMAS ELL- 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 13 



Novels of Gbarles 2>tcfcens 

Crown 8vo. Each Volume, cloth 3.?. net ; leather ^s. 6d. net. 

Messrs. METHUEN have in preparation an edition of those novels of Charles 
Dickens which have now passed out of copyright. Mr. George Gissing, 
whose critical study of Dickens is both sympathetic and acute, has written an 
Introduction to each of the books, and a very attractive feature of this edition 
will be the illustrations of the old houses, inns, and buildings, which Dickens 
described, and which have now in many instances disappeared under the 
touch of modern civilisation. Another valuable feature will be a series of 
topographical and general notes to each book by Mr. F. G. Kitton. The books 
will be produced with the greatest care as to printing, paper and binding. 

The first volumes are : 

THE PICKWICK PAPERS. With Illustrations by E. H. NEW. Two Volumes. 
' As pleasant a copy as any one could desire. The notes add much to the value of the 
edition, and Mr. New's illustrations are also historical. The volumes promise well 
for the success of the edition.' Scotsman. 



Xittle 

'The volumes are compact in size, printed on thin but good paper in clear type, 
prettily and at the same time strongly bound, and altogether good to look upon and 
handle.' Outlook. 

Pott Svo. Each Volume, cloth is. 6d. net, leather 2s. 6d. net. 

Messrs. METHUEN intend to produce a series of small books under the 
above title, containing some of the famous books in English and other 
literatures, in the domains of fiction, poetry, and belles lettres. The series 
will also contain several volumes of selections in prose and verse. 

The books will be edited with the most sympathetic and scholarly care. 
Each one will contain an Introduction which will give (i) a short biography of 
the author, (2) a critical estimate of the book. Where they are necessary, 
short notes will be added at the foot of the page. 

Each book will have a portrait or frontispiece in photogravure, and the 
volumes will be produced with great care in a style uniform with that of ' The 
Library of Devotion.' 

The first volumes are : 
VANITY FAIR. By W. M. THACK- I IN MEMORIAM. By ALFRED, LORD 



ERAY. With an Introduction by S. 
GWYNN. Illustrated by G. P. 
JACOMB HOOD. Three Volumes. 

' Delightful little volumes.' Publishers' 
Circular. 

THE PRINCESS. By ALFRED, LORD 
TENNYSON. Edited by ELIZABETH 
WORDSWORTH. Illustrated by W. 
E. F. BRITTEN. 

'Just what a pocket edition should be. 
Miss Wordsworth contributes an accept- 
able introduction, as well as notes which 
one is equally glad to get.' Guardian. 



TENNYSON, Edited, with an Intro- 
duction and Notes, by H. C. BEECH- 
ING, M.A. 

'An exquisite little volume, which will be 
gladly welcomed.' Glasgow Herald. 

' The introduction, analysis, and notes by 
the Rev. H. C. Beeching are all of the 
sound literary quality that was to be 
expected.' Guardian. 

'The footnotes are scholarly, interesting, 
and not super-abundant.' Standard. 

' It is difficult to conceive a more attractive 
edition.' St. James's Gazette. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Xittle $utde0 

Pott Svo, cloth 3.5-. ; leather, $s. 6d. net. 



OXFORD AND ITS COLLEGES. 
By J. WELLS, M.A., Fellow and 
Tutor of Wadham College. Illus- 
trated by E. H. NEW. Third Edition. 
' An admirable and accurate little treatise, 

attractively illustrated." World. 
'Aluminous and tasteful little volume.' 
Daily Chronicle. 

CAMBRIDGE AND ITS COL- 
LEGES. By A. HAMILTON THOMP- 
SON. Illustrated by E. H. NEW. 
' It is brightly written and learned, and is 
just such a book as a cultured visitor 
needs. ' Scotsman. 



SHAKESPEARE'S COUNTRY. By 
B. C. WINDLE, F.R.S., M.A. Illus- 
trated by E. H. NEW. Second Edition. 

' Mr. Windle is thoroughly conversant with 
his subject, and the work is exceedingly 
well done. The drawings, by Mr. 
Edmund H. New, add much to the 
attractiveness of the volume.' Scots- 
man. 

' One of the most charming guide books. 
Both for the library and as a travelling 
companion the book is equally choice 
and serviceable.' Academy. 

' A guide book of the best kind, which 
takes rank as literature.' Guardian. 



Illustrated and Gift Books 



Phil May. .THE PHIL MAY 
ALBUM, tfo. 6s. 
' There is a laugh in each drawing.' 
Standard. 

A. H. Milne. ULYSSES; OR, DE 
ROUGEMONT OF TROY. De- 
scribed and depicted by A. H. MILNE. 
Small quarto. 35. 6d. 

'Clever, droll, smart.' Guardian. 

Edmund Selous. TOMMY SMITH'S 

ANIMALS. By EDMUND SELOUS. 

Illustrated by G. W. ORD. Fcap. Svo. 

2s. 6d. 

A little book designed to teach children 

respect and reverence for animals. 
'A quaint, fascinating little book: a nur- 
sery classic.' Atheneeum. 

B. Baring Gould. THE CROCK OF 
GOLD. Fairy Stories told by S. 
BARING GOULD. Crown Svo. 6s. 

'Twelve delightful fairy tales.' Punch. 

M. L. Gwynn. A BIRTHDAY BOOK. 
Arranged and Edited by M. L. 
GWYNN. Demy Svo. i2s. 6d. 
This is a birthday-book of exceptional 
dignity, and the extracts have been 
chosen with particular care. 

John Bunyan. THE PILGRIM'S 
PROGRESS. By JOHN BUNYAN. 
Edited, with an Introduction, by C. H. 



FIRTH, M.A. With 39 Illustrations 
by R. ANNING BELL. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' The best " Pilgrim's Progress.'" 

Educational Times. 

F.D.Bedford. NURSERY RHYMES. 
With many Coloured Pictures by F. 
D. BEDFORD. Super Royal Svo. $s. 

S. Baring Gould. A BOOK OF 
FAIRY TALES retold byS. BARING 
GOULD. With numerous Illustra- 
tions and Initial Letters by ARTHUR 
J. GASKIN. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 
Buckram. 6s. 

S. Baring Gould. OLD ENGLISH 
FAIRY TALES. Collected and 
edited by S. BARING GOULD. With 
Numerous Illustrations by F. D. 
BEDFORD. Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 
Buckram. 6s. 
'A charming volume.' Guardian. 

S. Baring Gould. A BOOK OF 
NURSERY SONGS AND 
RHYMES. Edited by S. BARING 
GOULD, and Illustrated by the Bir- 
mingham Art School. Buckram, gilt 
top. Crown Svo. 6s. 

H. C. Beeching. A BOOK OF 
CHRISTMAS VERSE. Edited by 
H. C. BEECHING, M.A., and Illus- 
trated by WALTER CRANE. Cr. Svo, 
gilt top. 3.?. 6d. ' 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



History 



Flinders Petrie. A HISTORY OF 
EGYPT.FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES 
TO THE PRESENT DAY. Edited by 
W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, D.C.L., 
LL.D. , Professor of Egyptology at 
University College. Fully Illustrated. 
In Six Volumes. Cr. 8vo. 6s. each. 

VOL. I. PREHISTORIC TIMES TO 
XVlTH DYNASTY. W. M. F. 
Petrie. Fourth Edition. 

VOL. II. THE XVIlTH AND 

XVIIlTH DYNASTIES. W. M. 

F. Petrie. Third Edition. 
VOL. IV. THE EGYPT OF THE 

PTOLEMIES. J. P. Mahaffy. 
VOL. V. ROMAN EGYPT. J. G. 

Milne. 

' A history written in the spirit of scientific 
precision so worthily represented by Dr. 
Petrie and his school cannot but pro- 
mote sound and accurate study, and 
supply a vacant place in the English 
literature of Egyptology.' Times. 

Flinders Petrie. RELIGION AND 
CONSCIENCE IN ANCIENT 
EGYPT. By W. M. FLINDERS 
PETRIE, D. C. L. , LL. D. Fully Illus- 
trated. Crown 8vo. 2S. 6d. 
' The lectures will afford a fund of valuable 
information for students of ancient 
ethics.' Manchester Guardian. 

Flinders Petrie. SYRIA AND 
EGYPT, FROM THE TELL EL 
AMARNA TABLETS. By W. M. 
FLINDERS PETRIE, D.C.L., LL.D. 
Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

1 A marvellous record. The addition made 
to our knowledge is nothing short of 
amazing.' Times. 

Flinders Petrie. EGYPTIAN TALES. 

Edited by W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. 

Illustrated by TRISTRAM ELLIS. In 

Two Volumes. Cr. 8vo. 3^. 6d. each. 

' Invaluable as a picture of life in Palestine 

and Egypt.' Daily News. 



Flinders Petrie. EGYPTIAN DECO- 
RATIVE ART. By W. M. FLIN- 
DERS PETRIE. With 120 Illustrations. 
Cr. 8vo. 3-y. 6d. 

' In these lectures he displays rare skill in 
elucidating the development of decora- 
tive art in Egypt.' Times. 

C. W. Oman. A HISTORY OF THE 
ART OF WAR. Vol. II. : The 
Middle Ages, from the Fourth to the 
Fourteenth Century. By C. W. 
OMAN, M.A., Fellow of All Souls', 
Oxford. Illustrated. Demy 8vo. 2is. 

' The whole art of war in its historic evolu- 
tion has never been treated on such an 
ample and comprehensive scale, and we 
question if any recent contribution to 
the exact history of the world has pos- 
sessed more enduring value.' Daily 
Chronicle. 

S. Baring Gould. THE TRAGEDY 
OF THE CAESARS. With nume- 
rous Illustrations from Busts, Gems, 
Cameos, etc. By S. BARING GOULD. 
Fourth Edition. Royal &vo. 15*. 
'A most splendid and fascinating book on a 
subject of undying interest. The great 
feature of the book is the use the author 
has made of the existing portraits of 
the Caesars and the admirable critical 
subtlety he has exhibited in dealing with 
this line of research. It is brilliantly 
written, and the illustrations are sup- 
plied on a scale of profuse magnificence.' 
Daily Chronicle. 

F. W. Maitland. CANON LAW IN 
ENGLAND. By F. W. MAITLAND, 
LL.D., Downing Professor of the 
Laws of England in the University 
of Cambridge. Royal 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

' Professor Maitland has put students of 
English law under a fresh debt. These 
essays are landmarks in the study of the 
history of Canon Law. ' Times. 



i6 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



H. de B. Gibbins. INDUSTRY IN 
ENGLAND : HISTORICAL OUT- 
LINES. By H. DE B. GIBBINS, 
Litt.D., M.A. With 5 Maps. Se- 
cond Edition. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. 

H. E. Egerton. A HISTORY OF 
BRITISH COLONIAL POLICY. 
By H. E. EGERTON, M.A. Demy 
8vo. i2s. 6d. 

' It is a good book, distinguished by accu- 
racy in detail, clear arrangement of facts, 
and a broad grasp of principles.' 
Manchester Guardian. 



Albert Sorel. THE EASTERN 
QUESTION IN THE EIGH- 
TEENTH CENTURY. By ALBERT 
SOREL. Translated by F. C. BRAM- 
WELL, M.A. Cr. 8vo. 35. 6d. 

C. H. Grinling. A HISTORY OF 
THE GREAT NORTHERN RAIL- 
WAY, 1845-95. By C. H. GRIN- 
LING. With Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 
IQS. 6d. 

1 Mr. Grinling has done for a Railway what 
Macaulay did for English History.' 
The Engineer. 

W. Sterry. ANNALS OF ETON 
COLLEGE. By W. STERRY, M.A. 
With numerous Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. js. 6d. 

' A treasury of quaint and interesting read- 
ing. Mr. Sterry has by his skill and 
vivacity given these records new life.' 
Academy. 

G.W.Fisher. ANNALS OF SHREWS- 
BURY SCHOOL. By G. W. 

^'FiSHER, M.A. With numerous Illus- 
trations. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. 

'This careful, erudite book.' Daily 

Chronicle. 
' A book of which Old Salopians are sure 

to be proud.' Globe. 

J. Sargeaunt. ANNALS OF WEST- 
MINSTER SCHOOL. By J. SAR- 
GEAUNT, M.A. With numerous 
Illustrations. Demy 8vo. js. 6d. 



A. Clark. THE COLLEGES OF 
OXFORD : Their History and their 
Traditions. Edited by A. CLARK, 
M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College. 
8vo. I2s. 6d. 

'A work which will be appealed to for 
many years as the standard book.' 
Athenaeum. 



T. M. Taylor. A CONSTITUTIONAL 
AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF 
ROME. By T. M. TAYLOR, M.A., 
Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Crown 8vo. js. 6d. 

' We fully recognise the value of this care- 
fully written work, and admire especially 
the fairness and sobriety of his judgment 
and the human interest with which he 
has inspired a subject which in some 
hands becomes a mere series of cold 
abstractions. It is a work that will be 
stimulating to the student of Roman 
history.' A thenezum. 

J. Wells. A SHORT HISTORY OF 
ROME. By J. WELLS, M.A, 
Fellow and Tutor of Wadham Coll. , 
Oxford. Third Edition. With 3 
Maps. Crown 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

This book is intended for the Middle and 
Upper Forms of Public Schools and for 
Pass Students at the Universities. It 
contains copious Tables, etc. 

'An original work written on an original 
plan, and with uncommon freshness and 
vigour. ' Speaker. 

0. Browning. A SHORT HISTORY 
OF MEDIAEVAL ITALY, A.D. 
1250-1530. By OSCAR BROWNING, 
Fellow and Tutor of King's College, 
Cambridge. In Two Volumes. Cr. 
8vo. 5-y. each. 

VOL. i. 1250-1409. Guelphs and 
Ghibellines. 

VOL. n. 1409-1530. The Age of 
the Condottieri. 

O'Grady. THE STORY OF IRE- 
LAND. By STANDISH O'GRADY, 
Author of ' Finn and his Companions. 
Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Edited by J. B. BURY, M.A. 



ZACHARIAH OF MITYLENE. 
Translated into English by F. J. 
HAMILTON, D.D., and E. W. 
BROOKS. Demy 8vo. *2S. 6d. net. 

EVAGRIUS. Edited by Professor 



LE~ON PARMENTIER and M. BIDEZ. 
Demy 8vo. ios. 6d. net. 

THE HISTORY OF PSELLUS" 
By C. SATHAS. Demy 8vo. 155. 
net. 



Biography 



R. L. Stevenson. THE LETTERS 
OF ROBERT LOUIS STEVEN- 
SON TO HIS FAMILY AND 
FRIENDS. Selected and Edited, 
with Notes and Introductions, by 
SIDNEY COLVIN. Third Edition. 
Demy 8vo, 2 vols. , 25*. net. 

1 Irresistible in their raciness, their variety, 
their animation ... of extraordinary 
fascination. A delightful inheritance, 
the truest record of a "richly com- 
pounded spirit " that the literature of 
our time has preserved.' Times. 

'There are few books so interesting, so 
moving, and so valuable as this collec- 
tion of letters. One can only commend 
people to read and re-read the book. The 
volumes are beautiful, and Mr. Colvin's 
part of the work could not have been 
better done, his introduction is a master- 
piece." Spectator. 

J. G. Millais. THE LIFE AND 
LETTERS OF SIR JOHN 
EVERETT MILLAIS, President of 
the Royal Academy. By his Son, 
J. G. MILLAIS. With 319 Illus- 
trations, of which 9 are in Photo- 
gravure. Second Edition. 2 vols, 
Royal 8vo, 32*. net. 

' The illustrations make the book delightful 
to handle or to read. The eye lingers 
lovingly upon the beautiful pictures.' 
Standard. 

This charming book is a gold mine of good 
things.' Daily News. 



1 This splendid work.' World. 

' Of such absorbing interest is it, of such 
completeness in scope and beauty. 
Special tribute must be paid to the 
extraordinary completeness of the illus- 
trations. ' Graphic. 

S. Baring Gould. THE LIFE OF 
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. By 
S. BARING GOULD. With over 450 
Illustrations in the Text and 12 
Photogravure Plates. Large quarto. 
Gilt top. 36.5-. 

1 The main feature of this gorgeous volume 
is its great wealth of beautiful photo- 
gravures and finely - executed wood 
engravings, constituting a complete 
pictorial chronicle of Napoleon I.'s 
personal history from the days of his early 
childhood at Ajaccio to the date of his 
second interment.' Daily Telegraph. 

P. H. Colomb. MEMOIRS OF AD- 
MIRAL SIR A. COOPER KEY. 
By Admiral P. H. COLOMB. With 
a Portrait. Demy 8vo. i6s. 

Morris Fuller. THE LIFE AND 
WRITINGS OF JOHN DAVEN- 
ANT, D.D. (1571-1641), Bishop of 
Salisbury. By MORRIS FULLER, 
B. D. Demy 8vo. ios. 6d. 

J. M. Rigg. ST. ANSELM OF 
CANTERBURY: A CHAPTER IN 
THE HISTORY OF RELIGION. By 
J. M. RIGG. Demy 8vo. 75. 6d. 



i8 



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F. W. Joyce. THE LIFE OF 
SIR FREDERICK GORE OUSE- 
LEY. By F. W. JOYCE, M.A. 75. 6d. 

W. G. Collin^wood. THE LIFE OF 
JOHN RUSK1N. By W. G. 
COLLINGWOOD, M.A. With Por- 
traits, and 13 Drawings by Mr. 
Ruskin. Second Edition. 2 vols. 
Svo. 32J. Cheap Edition. Crown 
Svo. 6s. 

C. Waldstein. JOHN RUSKIN, By 
CHARLES WALDSTEIN, M.A. With 
a Photogravure Portrait, Post Svo. 5*. 

A. M. F. Darmesteter, THE LIFE 
OF ERNEST RENAN. By 



MADAME DARMESTETER. With 
Portrait. Second Edition. Cr.Svo. 6s. 

W. H. Hutton. THE LIFE OF SIR 
THOMAS MORE. By W. H. 
HUTTON, M.A. With Portraits. 
Second Edition. Cr. Svo. 5*. 

' The book lays good claim to high rank 
among our biographies. It is excellently, 
even lovingly, written.' Scotsman. 

S. Baring Gould. THE VICAR OF 
MORWENSTOW: A Biography. 
By S. BARING GOULD, M.A. A 
new and Revised Edition. With 
Portrait. Crown Svo. $s. 6d. 

A completely new edition of the well known 
biography of R. S. Hawker. 



Travel, Adventure and Topography 



SvenHedin. THROUGH ASIA. By 
SVEN HEDIN, Gold Medallist of the 
Royal Geographical Society. With 
300 Illustrations from Sketches 
and Photographs by the Author, 
and Maps. 2 vols. Royal Svo. zos.net. 

'One of the greatest books of the kind 
issued during the century. It is im- 
possible to give an adequate idea of the 
richness of the contents of this book, 
nor of its abounding attractions as a story 
of travel unsurpassed in geographical 
and human interest. Much of it is a 
revelation. Altogether the work is one 
which in solidity, novelty, and interest 
must take a first rank among publica- 
tions of its class. ' Times. 

F. H. Skrine and E. D. Ross. THE 

HEART OF ASIA. By F. H. 
SKRINE and E. D. Ross. With 
Maps and many Illustrations by 
VERESTCHAGIN. Large Crown Svo. 
los. 6d. net. 
c This volume will form a landmark in our 



knowledge of Central Asia. . . . Illumin- 
ating and convincing.' Times. 

R. E. Peary. NORTHWARD OVER 

THE GREAT ICE. By R.E.PEARY, 

Gold Medallist of the Royal Geogra- 

phical Society. With over 800 Illus- 

trations. 2 vols. Royal Svo. 32*. net. 

1 His book will take its place among the per- 

manent literature of Arctic exploration." 

Times. 

E. A. FitzGerald. THE HIGHEST 
ANDES. By E. A. FITZGERALD. 
With 2 Maps, 51 Illustrations, 13 of 
which are in Photogravure, and a 
Panorama. Royal Svo, $os. net. 
Also a Small Edition on Hand-made 
Paper, limited to 50 Copies, tfo, 



' The record of the first ascent of the highest 
mountain yet conquered by mortal man. 
A volume which will continue to be the 
classic book of travel on this region of 
the Andes.' Daily Chronicle. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



F. W. Christian. THE CAROLINE 
ISLANDS. By F. W. CHRISTIAN. 
With many Illustrations and Maps. 
Demy 8vo. i2s. 6d. net. 

'A real contribution to our knowledge of 
the peoples and islands of Micronesia, 
as well as fascinating as a narrative of 
travels and adventure.' Scotsman. 

H. H. Johnston. BRITISH CEN- 
TRAL AFRICA. By Sir H. H. 
JOHNSTON, K.C.B. With nearly 
Two Hundred Illustrations, and Six 
Maps. Second Edition. Crown $to. 
i8s. net. 

' A fascinating book, written with equal 
skill and charm the work at once of a 
literary artist and of a man of action 
who is singularly wise, brave, and ex- 
perienced. It abounds in admirable 
sketches. ' Westminster Gazette. 

L. Decle. THREE YEARS IN 
SAVAGE AFRICA. By LIONEL 
DECLE. With 100 Illustrations and 
5 Maps. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. 
los. 6d. net. 

' Its bright pages give a better general 
survey of Africa from the Cape to the 
Equator than any single volume that 
has yet been published.' Times. 

A. Hulme Beaman. TWENTY 
YEARS IN THE NEAR EAST. 
By A. HULME BEAMAN. Demy 
8vo. With Portrait. los. 6d. 

Henri of Orleans. FROM TONKIN 
TO INDIA. By PRINCE HENRI OF 
ORLEANS. Translated by HAMLEY 
BENT, M.A. With 100 Illustrations 
and a Map. Cr. 4*0, gilt top. 253. 

S. L. Hinde. THE FALL OF THE 
CONGO ARABS. By S. L. HINDE. 
With Plans, etc. Demy 8vo. 125. 6d. 

A. St. H. Gibbons. EXPLORATION 
AND HUNTING IN CENTRAL 
AFRICA. By Major A. ST. H. 
GIBBONS. With full-page Illustra- 
tions by C. WHYMPER, and Maps. 
Demy 8vo. 15*. 



Eraser. ROUND THE WORLD 
ON A WHEEL. By JOHN FOSTER 
FRASER. With 100 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' A classic of cycling, graphic and witty.' 
Yorkshire Post. 

R. L. Jefferson. A NEW RIDE TO 
KHIVA. By R. L. JEFFERSON. 
Illustrated. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

The account of an adventurous ride on a 
bicycle through Russia and the deserts 
of Asia to Khiva. 

' An exceptionally fascinating book of 
travel. 'Pall Mall Gazette. 



J. K. Trotter. THE NIGER 
SOURCES. By Colonel J. K. 
TROTTER, R.A. With a Map and 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo. $s. 

Michael Davitt. LIFE AND PRO- 
GRESS IN AUSTRALASIA. By 
MICHAEL DAVITT, M.P. 500 pp. 
With 2 Maps. C rown 8vo. 6s. 



W. J. Galloway. ADVANCED AUS- 
TRALIA. By WILLIAM J. GAL- 
LOWAY, M. P. Crown 8vo. y. 6d. 

' This is an unusally thorough and informa- 
tive little work.' Morning Post. 

W. Crooke. THE NORTH- 
WESTERN PROVINCES OF 
INDIA : THEIR ETHNOLOGY AND 
ADMINISTRATION. By W. CROOKE. 
With Maps and Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. ioj. 6d. 

A. Boisragon. THE BENIN MAS- 
SACRE. By CAPTAIN BOISRAGON. 
Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. %s. 6d. 

' If the story had been written four hundred 
years ago it would be read to-day as an 
English classic." Scotsman. 



H. S. Cowper. THE HILL OF THE 
GRACES : OR, THE GREAT STONE 
TEMPLES OF TRIPOLI. By H. S. 
COWPER.F.S.A. With Maps, Plans, 
and 75 Illustrations. Demy^vo. is.os.6d. 



2O 



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W. B. Worsfold. SOUTH AFRICA. 

By W. B. WORSFOLD, M.A. With 

a Map. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

' A monumental work compressed into a 

v*?ry moderate compass.' World. 

Katherine and Gilbert Macquoid. IN 
PARIS. By KATHERINE and GIL- 
BERT MACQUOID. Illustrated by 
THOMAS R. MACQUOID, R.I. With 
2 maps. Crown 8vo. is. 
' A useful little guide, judiciously supplied 
with information.' Athetueuw. 



A. H. Keane. THE BOER STATES : 
A History and Description of the 
Transvaal and the Orange Free State. 
By A. H. KEANE, M.A. With 
Map. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'A work of clear aims and thorough execu- 
tion.' Academy. 

' A compact and very trustworthy account 
of the Boers and their surroundings.' 

Morning Post. 



Naval and Military 



G. S. Robertson. CHITRAL: The 

Story of a Minor Siege. By Sir 

G. S. ROBERTSON, K. C.S.I. With 

numerous Illustrations, Map and Plans. 

Second Edition. Demy 8vo, ioj. 6d. 

1 It is difficult to imagine the kind of person 

who could read this brilliant book without 

emotion. The story remains immortal 

a testimony imperishable. We are face 

to face with a great book.' Illustrated 

London News. 

' A book which the Elizabethans would have 
thought wonderful. More thrilling, more 
piquant, and more human than any 
novel.' Newcastle Chronicle. 
'As fascinating as Sir Walter Scott's best 
fiction.' Daily Telegraph. 

E. S. S. Baden-Powell. THE DOWN- 
FALL OF PREMPEH. A Diary of 
Life in Ashanti, 1895. By Maj.-Gen. 
BADEN-POWELL. With 21 Illustra- 
tions and a Map. Cheaper Edition. 
Large Crown 8vo. 6s. 

R. S. S. Baden-Powell. THE MATA- 
BELE CAMPAIGN, 1896. By Maj.- 
Gen. BADEN-POWELL. With nearly 
loo Illustrations. Cheaper Edition. 
Large Crown 8vo. 6s. 

J. B. Atkins. THE RELIEF OF 
LADYSMITH. By JOHN BLACK 
ATKINS. With 16 Plans and Illus- 
trations. Second Edition. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

This book contains a full narrative by an 
eye-witness of General Bullet's attempts, 



and of his final success. The story is of 
absorbing interest, and is the only com- 
plete account which has appeared. 

,' The mantle of Archibald Forbes and G. 
W. Steevens has assuredly fallen upon 
Mr. Atkins, who unites a singularly 
graphic style to an equa ly rare faculty 
of vision. In his pages we realise the 
meaning of a modern campaign with the 
greatest sense of actuality. His pages 
are written with a sustained charm of 
diction and ease of manner that are no 
less remarkable than the sincerity and 
vigour of the matter which they set 
before us. 'World. 

' Mr. Atkins has a genius for the painting 
of war which entitles him already to be 
ranked with Forbes and Steevens, and 
encourages us to hope that he may one 
day rise to the level of Napier and 
Kinglake. 'Pall Mall Gazette. 
' It is the record told wkh insight and 
sympathy of a great conflict. It is as 
readable as a novel, and it bears the 
imprint of truth.' Morning Leader. 

H. W. Nevinson. LADYSMITH : The 
Diary of a Siege. By H. W. NEVIN- 
SON. With 16 Illustrations and a 
Plan. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

This book contains a complete diary of the 
Siege of Ladysmith, and is a most vivid 
and picturesque narrative. 

' There is no exaggeration here, no strain- 
ing after effect. But there is the truest 
realism, the impression of things as they 
are seen, set forth in well-chosen words 
and well-balanced phrases, with a mea- 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



21 



sured self-restraint that marks the true 
artist. Mr. Nevinson is to be congratu- 
lated on the excellent work that he has 
done.' Daily Chronicle. 
' Of the many able and fascinating chroni- 
clers of the sad and splendid story, Mr. 
Nevinson is among the ablest and most 
fascinating.' Pall Mall Gazette. 

E, H. Alderson. WITH THE 
MOUNTED INFANTRY AND 
THE MASHONALAND FIELD 
FORCE, 1896. By Lieut. -Colonel 
ALDERSON. With numerous Illus- 
trations and Plans. Demy 8vo. 
io.y. 6d. 

Seymour Vandeleui. CAMPAIGN- 
ING ON THE UPPER NILE 
AND NIGER. By Lieut. SEYMOUR 
VANDELEUR. With an Introduction 
by Sir G. GOLDIE, K.C.M.G. With 
4 Maps, Illustrations, and Plans. 
Large Crown 8vo. T.OS. 6d. 

Lord Fincastle. A FRONTIER 
CAMPAIGN. By Viscount FIN- 
CASTLE, V.C., and Lieut. P. C. 
ELLIOTT-LOCKHART. With a Map 
and 16 Illustrations. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

E. N. Bennett. THE DOWNFALL 
OF THE DERVISHES : A Sketch 
of the Sudan Campaign of 1898. By 
E. N. BENNETT, Fellow of Hertford 
College. With a Photogravure Por- 
trait of Lord Kitchener. Third 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 3-f. 6d, 

W. Kinnaird Rose. WITH THE 
GREEKS IN THESSALY. By 
W. KINNAIRD ROSE. With Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

G. W. Steevens. NAVAL POLICY : 

By G. W. STEEVENS. Demy 8vo. 6s. 

This book is a description of the British and 

other more important navies of the world, 

with a sketch of the lines on which our 

naval policy might possibly be developed. 

D. Hannay. A SHORT HISTORY 
OF THE ROYAL NAVY, FROM 



EARLY TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY. 

By DAVID HANNAY. Illustrated. 

2 Vols. Demy 8vo. js. 6d. each. 

Vol. I., 1200-1688. 

' We read it from cover to cover at a sitting, 
and those who go to it for a lively and 
brisk picture of the past, with all its faults 
and its grandeur, will not be disappointed. 
The historian is endowed with literary 
skill and style.' Standard. 

C. Cooper King. THE STORY OF 
THE BRITISH ARMY. By Colonel 
COOPER KING. Illustrated. Demy 
%>vo. js. 6d, 

'An authoritative and accurate story of 
England's military progress.' Daily 
Mail. 

E. Southey. ENGLISH SEAMEN 
(Howard, Clifford, Hawkins, Drake, 
Cavendish). By ROBERT SOUTHEY. 
Edited, with an Introduction, by 
DAVID HANNAY. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'A brave, inspiriting book.' Black and 
White. 

W. Clark Russell. THE LIFE OF 
ADMIRAL LORD COLLING- 
WOOD. By W. CLARK RUSSELL. 
With Illustrations by F. BRANGWYN. 
Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' A book which we should like to see in the 
hands of every boy in the country.' 
St. James's Gazette. 

E. L. S. Hprsburgh. WATERLOO : A 
Narrative and Criticism. By E. L. S. 
HORSBURGH, B. A. With Plans. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. $s. 
'A brilliant essay simple, sound, and 
thorough.' Daily Chronicle. 

H. B. George. BATTLES OF 
ENGLISH HISTORY. By H. B. 
GEORGE, M.A., Fellow of New 
College, Oxford. With numerous 
Plans. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
' Mr. George has undertaken a very useful 
task that of making military affairs in- 
telligible and instructive to non-military 
readers and has executed it with a 
large measure of success.' Times. 



22 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



General Literature 



S. Baring Gould. THE BOOK OF 
THE WEST. By S. BARING 
GOULD. With numerous Illustra- 
tions. Two volumes. Vol. I. Devon. 
Vol. II. Cornwall. Crown 8vo. 
6s. each. 

' They are very attractive little volumes, 
they have numerous very pretty and 
interesting pictures, the story is fresh 
and bracing as the air of Dartmoor, and 
the legend weird as twilight over Doz- 
mare Pool, and they give us a very good 
idea of this enchanting and beautiful 
district.' Guardian. 

' A narrative full of picturesque incident, 
personal interest, and literary charm.' 
Leeds Mercury. 

S. Baring Gould. OLD COUNTRY 
LIFE. ByS. BARING GOULD. With 
Sixty-seven Illustrations. Large Cr. 
8vo. Fifth Edition. 6s. 
" Old Country Life," as healthy wholesome 
reading, full of breezy life and move- 
ment, full of quaint stories vigorously 
told, will not be excelled by any book to 
be published throughout the year. 
Sound, hearty, and English to the core. ' 
World. 

S. Baring Gould. AN OLD ENGLISH 
HOME. By S. BARING GOULD. 
With numerous Plans and Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The chapters are delightfully fresh, very 
informing, and lightened by many a good 
story. A delightful fireside companion.' 
Si. James's Gazette. 

S. Baring Gould. HISTORIC 
ODDITIES AND STRANGE 
EVENTS. By S. BARING GOULD. 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

S. Baring Gould. FREAKS OF 
FANATICISM. By S. BARING 
GOULD. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

S. Baring Gould. A GARLAND OF 
COUNTRY SONG: English Folk 
Songs with their Traditional Melodies. 
Collected and arranged by S. BARING 
GOULD and H. F. SHEPPARD. 
Demy 4/0. 6s. 



S. Baring Gould. SONGS OF THE 

WEST: Traditional Ballads and 

Songs of the West of England, with 

their Melodies. Collected by S. 

BARING GOULD, M.A., and H. F. 

SHEPPARD, M.A. In 4 Parts. Paris 

/., //., ///., 3 j. each. Part IV., $s. 

In one Vol., French morocco, 15*. 

' A rich collection of humour, pathos, grace, 

and poetic fancy. 1 Saturday Review. 

S. Baring Gould. YORKSHIRE 
ODDITIES AND STRANGE 
EVENTS. By S. BARING GOULD. 
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DAYS. By J. G. COTTON MINCHIN. 
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W. E. Gladstone. THE SPEECHES 
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MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



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L. L. Price. ECONOMIC SCIENCE 
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ford. Crown 8vo. 6s. 



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J. S. Shedlock. THE PIANOFORTE 
SONATA : Its Origin and Develop- 
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MAN. Fcap 8vo. 2s. 
A practical guide, with many specimen 
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E. M. Bowden. THE EXAMPLE OF 
BUDDHA : Being Quotations from 



Buddhist Literature for each Day in 
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as. 6d. 

F. Ware. EDUCATIONAL RE- 
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An attempt by an expert to forecast the 
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' Any one who really wants to know how 
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L. T. Hobhouse. THE THEORY OF 
KNOWLEDGE. By L. T. HOB- 
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Demy 8vo. 2,is. 

' The most important contribution to 
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W. H. Fairbrother. THE PHILO- 
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Philosophy 



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F. W. Bussell. THE SCHOOL OF 
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Demy 8vo. IQS. 6d. 

F. S. Granger. THE WORSHIP 
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W. R. Inge. CHRISTIAN MYSTI- 
CISM. The Bampton Lectures for 
1899. By W. R. INGE, M.A., Fellow 
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Oxford. Demy 8vo. izs. 6d. net. 
A complete survey of the subject from St. 
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S. R. Driver. SERMONS ON SUB- 
JECTS CONNECTED WITH 
THE OLD TESTAMENT. .ByS. 
R. DRIVER, D.D., Canon of Christ 
Church, Regius Professor of Hebrew 



Theology 



in the University of Oxford. Cr. 8vo. 
6s. 

'A welcome companion to the author's 
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T. K. Cheyne. FOUNDERS OF OLD 
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7*. 6d. 

A historical sketch of O. T. Criticism. 

Walter Lock. ST. PAUL, THE 
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LOCK, D.D., Warden of Keble 
College. Crown %vo. 3^. 6d. 

' The essence of the Pauline teaching is 
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MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



is overlooked. We gladly recommend 
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BLH.Henson. APOSTOLIC CHRIS- 
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H. H. Henson. DISCIPLINE AND 
LAW. By H. HENSLEY HENSON, 
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Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

H. H. Henson. LIGHT AND 
LEAVEN : HISTORICAL AND 
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SON, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Bennett and Adeney. A BIBLICAL 
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W. H. Bennett. A PRIMER OF 
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Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 2S. 6d. 
' The work of an honest, fearless, and sound 
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C. F. G. Masterman. TENNYSON 
AS A RELIGIOUS TEACHER. 
By C. F. G. MASTERMAN. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

1 A thoughtful and penetrating appreciation, 
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William Harrison. CLOVELLY 
SERMONS. By WILLIAM HARRI- 



SON, M.A., late Rector of Clovelly. 
With a Preface by ' LUCAS MALET.' 
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Cecilia Robinson. THE MINISTRY 
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T. Herbert Bindley. THE OECU- 
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A historical account of the Creeds. 
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H. M. Barron. TEXTS FOR SER- 
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RON, B.A., of Wadham College, 
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SCOTT HOLLAND. Crown 8vo. 3-$-. 
6d. 

W. Yorke Fausset. THE DE 
CATECHIZANDIS RUD1BUS 
OF ST. AUGUSTINE. Edited, 
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W. YORKE FAUSSET, M.A. Cr. 8vo. 
y. 6d. 

F. Weston. THE HOLY SACRI- 
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A Kempis. THE IMITATION OF 
CHRIST. By THOMAS A KEMPIS. 
With an Introduction by DEAN 
FARRAR. Illustrated by C. M. 
GERE. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 
3-r. 6d. Padded morocco, 5*. 
'Amongst all the innumerable English 



26 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



editions of the "Imitation," there can 
have been few which were prettier than 
this one, printed in strong and handsome 
type, with all the glory of red initials.' 
Glasgow Herald. 

J. Keble. THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. 
By JOHN KEBLE. With an Intro- 



duction and Notes by W. LOCK, 
D.D., Warden of Keble College. 
Illustrated by R. ANNING BELL. 
Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3^. 6d. 
Padded morocco. 55. 
1 The present edition is annotated with all 

the care and insight to be expected from 

Mr. Lock.' Guardian. 



Commentaries 

General Editor, WALTER LOCK, D.D., Warden of Keble College, Dean 
Ireland's Professor of Exegesis in the University of Oxford. 



THE BOOK OF JOB. Edited, with 
Introduction and Notes, by E. C. S. 
GIBSON, D. D. , Vicar of Leeds. Demy 
8vo. 6s. 

1 The publishers are to be congratulated on 
the start the series has made.' Times. 

'It is in his patient, lucid, interest-sus- 
taining explanations that Dr. Gibson is 
at his best.' Literature. 

' We can hardly imagine a more useful book 
to place in the hands of an intelligent 
layman, or cleric, who desires to eluci- 



date some of the difficulties presented in 
the Book of Job.' Church Times. 

The work is marked by clearness, light- 
ness of touch, strong common sense, and 
thorough critical fairness. 

' Dr. Gibson's work is worthy of a high 
degree of appreciation. To the busy 
worker and the intelligent student the 
commentary will be a real boon ; and it 
will, if we are not mistaken, be much in 
demand. The Introduction is almost a 
model of concise, straightforward, pre- 
fatory remarks on the subject treated.' 
A thencfum. 



1banDl>oofc6 of 

General Editor, A. ROBERTSON, D.D., Principal of King's College, London. 

TPIE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Edited 
with an Introduction by E. C. S. 
GIBSON, D.D., Vicar of Leeds, late 
Principal of Wells Theological Col- 
lege. Second and Cheaper Edition 
in One Volume. Demy 8vo. i2s. 6d. 

' We welcome with the utmost satisfaction 
a new, cheaper, and more convenient 
edition of Dr. Gibson's book. It was 
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orders. ' Guardian. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE 
HISTORY OF RELIGION. By 
F. B. JEVONS, M.A., Litt.D., Prin- 
cipal of Bishop Hatfield's Hall. 
Demy 8vo. los. 6d. 

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the author's judgment. He is at once 



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suggestive. A comprehensive and 
thorough book.' Birmingham Post. 

THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCAR- 
NATION. By R. L. OTTLEY, M. A. , 
late fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxon. , and Principal of Pusey House. 
In Two Volumes. Demy 8vo. 15*. 

' A clear and remarkably full account of the 
main currents of speculation. Scholarly 
precision . . . genuine tolerance . . . 
intense interest in his subject are Mr. 
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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE 
HISTORY OF THE CREEDS. By 
A. E. BURN, B.D., Examining Chap- 
lain to the Bishop of Lichfield. Demy 
8vo. ios. 6d. 

'This book may be expected to hold its 
place as an authority on its subject. 
Spectator. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



27 



Gburcbman's Xibrarg 

General Editor, J. H. BURN, B.D., Examining Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Aberdeen. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH 
CHRISTIANITY. By W. E. COL- 
LINS, M.A. With Map. Cr. Svo. 
35. 6d. 

1 An excellent example of thorough and fresh 
historical work.' Guardian. 

SOME NEW TESTAMENT PRO- 
BLEMS. By ARTHUR WRIGHT, 
M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, 
Cambridge. Crown Svo. 6s. 



THE WORKMANSHIP OF THE 
PRAYER BOOK: Its Literary and 
Liturgical Aspects. By J. DOWDEN, 
D.D., Lord Bishop of Edinburgh. 
Crown Svo. $s. 6d. 
'Scholarly and interesting.' Manchester 
Guardian. 

EVOLUTION. By F. B. JEVONS, 
LittD., Principal of Hatfield Hall, 
Durham. Crown Svo. $s. 6d. 

1 A well-written book, full of sound thinking 
happily expressed.' Manchester Guar- 
dian. 



A singularly fresh and stimulating book.' 
Speaker. 

' We have no hesitation in saying that this 
is much the best general account of the 
philosophical consequences of the theory 
of Evolution that has yet appeared.' 

Guardian . 



THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN 
HERE AND HEREAFTER. By 
CANON WINTERBOTHAM, M.A., 
B.Sc., LL.B. Cr. Svo. 3 s. 6d. 

'A most able book, at once exceedingly 
thoughtful and richly suggestive.' Glas- 
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ZTbe Cburcbman's JBible 

General Editor, J. H. BURN, B.D. 

Messrs. METHUEN are issuing a series of expositions upon most of the books of 
the Bible. The volumes will be practical and devotional, and the text of the 
authorised version is explained in sections, which will correspond as far as 
possible with the Church Lectionary. 

THE EPISTLE OF ST. >AUL TO 
THE GALATIANS. Explained by 
A. W. ROBINSON, Vicar of All 
Hallows, Barking. Fcap. Svo. is. 6d. 
net. 

' The most attractive, sensible, and instruc- 
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we have ever seen.' Church Gazette. 
ECCLESIASTES. Explained by A. 



^Scholarly, suggestive, and particularly 
interesting. ' Bookman. 



THE EPISTLE OF PAUL THE 
APOSTLE TO THE PHILIP- 
PIANS. Explained by C. R. D. 
BiGGS, B.D. Fcap. Svo. is. 6d. 
net. 



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has managed to compress a good deal of 
information into a limited sjace.' 

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W. STREANE, D.D. Fcap. Svo. 
is. 6d. net. 

Gbe Xtbrarg of Bevotion 

Pott 8vo, cloth, 2s. ; leather, 2s. 6d. net. 
'This series is excellent.' THE BISHOP OF LONDON. 
' Very delightful.' THE BISHOP OF BATH AND WELLS. 
' Well worth the attention of the Clergy.' THE BISHOP OF LICHFIELD. 
' The new " Library of Devotion " is excellent.' THE BISHOP OF PETERBOROUGH 
' Charming.' Record. ' Delightful.' Church Bells. 



THE CONFESSIONS OF ST. AU 
GUSTINE. Newly Translanted, 
with an Introduction and Notes, by 
C. BIGG, D.D., late Student of Christ 
Church. Third Edition. 



' The translation is an excellent piece of 
English, and the introduction is a mas- 
terly exposition. We augur well of a 
series which begins so satisfactorily.' 
Times. 



28 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. By JOHN 
KEBLE. With Introduction and 
Notes by WALTER LOCK, D.D., 
Warden of Keble College, Ireland 
Professor at Oxford. 
'The Tolume is very prettily bound and 
printed, and may fairly claim to be an 
advance on any previous editions.' 
Guardian. 

THE IMITATION OF CHRIST. A 
Revised Translation, with an Introduc- 
tion, by C. BIGG, D.D., late Student ! 
of Christ Church. Second Edition. 
A practically new translation of this book, 
which the reader has, almost for the first 
time, exactly in the shape in which it 
left the hands of the author. 
' A nearer approach to the original than 
has yet existed in English.' Academy. 

A BOOK OF DEVOTIONS. By J. 
W. STANBRIDGE, B.D., Rector of 
Bainton, Canon of York, and some- 
time Fellow of St. John's College, 
Oxford. 

' It is probably the best book of its kind. .It 
deserves high commendation.' Church \ 
Gazette. 



LYRA INNOCENTIUM. By JOHN 
KEBLE. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by WALTER LOCK, D.D., 
Warden of Keble College, Oxford. 
Pott 8v0. 2S. ; leather, 2s. 6d. net. 

' This sweet and fragrant book has never 
been published more attractively.' 
Academy. 
1 The work is given in as dainty a form as 

any it has yet taken.' Scotsman. 
'The analysis and notes are discriminating, 
scholarly, and helpful.' ChurchRevieiu. 
A SERIOUS CALL TO A DEVOUT 
AND HOLY LIFE. By WILLIAM 
LAW. Edited, with an Introduction, 
by C. BIGG, D.D., late Student of 
Christ Church. 

This is a reprint, word for word and line for 
line, of the Editio Princeps. 

THE TEMPLE. By GEORGE HER- 
BERT. Edited, with an Introduction 
and Notes, by E. C. S. GIBSON, 
D.D., Vicar of Leeds. 
This edition contains Walton's Life of 
Herbert, and the text is that of the first 
edition. 

1 As neat and desirable an edition of the 
work as can be found.' Scotsman. 



Xeafcers of 

Edited by H. C. BEECHING, M.A. With Portraits, Crown Svo. $s. 6d. 

A series of short biographies of the most prominent leaders of religious 
life and thought of all ages and countries. 
The following are ready 



By R. H. 



By G. 



CARDINAL NEWMAN. 

HUTTON. 

JOHN WESLEY. By J. H. OVER- 
TON, M.A. 
BISHOP WILBERFORCE. 

W. DANIELL, M.A. 
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JOHN KEBLE. By WALTER LOCK, 

D.D. 
THOMAS CHALMERS. By Mrs. 

OLIPHANT. 
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L. OTTLEY, M.A. 



AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY. 

By E. L. CUTTS, D.D. 
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Other volumes will be announced in due course. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



29 



Fiction 



SIX SHILLING NOVELS 

Marie Corelli's Novels 

Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 



A ROMANCE OF TWO WORLDS. 

Twenty-first Edition. 

VENDETTA. Sixteenth Edition. 
THELMA. Twenty-third Edition. 

ARDATH: THE STORY OF A 
DEAD SELF. Twelfth Edition. 

THE SOUL OF LILITH. Ninth 
Edition. 

WORMWOOD. Tenth Edition. 

BARABBAS : A DREAM OF THE 
WORLD'S TRAGEDY. Thirty- 
fifth Edition. 

' The tender reverence of the treatment 
and the imaginative beauty of the writ- 
ing have reconciled us to the daring of 
the conception, and the conviction is 
forced on us that even so exalted a sub- 
ject cannot be made too familiar to us, 



provided it be presented in the true spirit 
of Christian faith. The amplifications 
of the Scripture narrative are often con- 
ceived with high poetic insight, and this 
"Dream of the World's Tragedy" is 
a lofty and not inadequate paraphrase 
of the supreme climax of the inspired 
narrative.' Dublin Review. 

THE SORROWS OF SATAN. 

Forty-second Edition. 
' A very powerful piece of work. . . . The 
conception is magnificent, and is likely 
to win an abiding place within the 
memory of man. . . . The author has 
immense command of language^ and a 
limitless audacity. . . . This interesting 
and remarkable romance will live long 
after much of the ephemeral literature 
of the day is forgotten. ... A literary 
phenomenon . . . novel, and even sub- 
lime.' W. T. STEAD in the Review 
of Reviews. 



Anthony Hope's Novels 

Crown %vo. 6s. each. 



THE GOD IN THE CAR. Ninth 

Edition. 

' A very remarkable book, deserving of 
critical analysis impossible within our 
limit ; brilliant, but not superficial ; 
well considered, but not elaborated ; j 
constructed with the proverbial art that 
conceals, but yet allows itself to be 
enjoyed by readers to whom fine literary 
method is a keen pleasure.' The World. 

A CHANGE OF AIR. Fifth Edition. 
'A graceful, vivacious comedy, true to 
human nature. The characters are 
traced with a masterly hand.' Times. 

A MAN OF MARK. Fifth Edition. \ 
'Of all Mr. Hope's books, "A Man of J 
Mark" is the one which best compares 
with "The Prisoner of Zenda." ' 
National Observer. 



THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT 
ANTONIO. Fourth Edition. 

'It is a perfectly enchanting story of love 
and chivalry, and pure romance. The 
Count is the most constant, desperate, 
and modest and tender of lovers, a peer- 
less gentleman, an intrepid fighter, a 
faithful friend, and a magnanimous foe. ' 
Guardian. 

PHROSO. Illustrated by H. R. 

MILLAR. Fourth Edition. 
' The tale is thoroughly fresh, quick with 
vitality, stirring the blood.' St. James's 
Gazette. 

'From cover to cover "Phroso" not only 
engages the attention, but carries the 
reader in little whirls of delight from 
adventure to adventure.' Academy. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



SIMON DALE. 
Edition. 



Illustrated. Fifth 



There is searching analysis of human 
nature, with a most ingeniously con- 
structed plot. Mr. Hope has drawn the 
contrasts of his women with marvellous 
subtlety and delicacy.' Times. 



THE KING'S MIRROR. 
Edition. 



Third 



In elegance, delicacy, and tact it ranks 
with the best of his novels, while in the 
wide range of its portraiture and the 
subtilty of its analysis it surpasses all his 
earlier ventures. ' Spectator. 

"The King's Mirror" is a strong book, 
charged with close analysis and exquisite 
irony ; a book full of pathos and moral 
fibre in short, a book to be read.' 
Daily Chronicle. 



Gilbert Parker's Novels 

Crown &vo. 6s. each. 



PIERRE AND HIS PEOPLE. 
Fifth Edition. 

' Stories happily conceived and finely ex- 
ecuted. There is strength and genius in 
Mr. Parker's style.' Daily Telegraph. 

MRS. FALCHION. Fourth Edition. 

' A splendid study of character.' 

A thencBum. 

THE TRANSLATION OF A 
SAVAGE. 

'The plot is original and one difficult to 
work out ; but Mr. Parker has done it 
with great skill and delicacy.' 

Daily Chronicle. 

THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. 

Illustrated. Sevenh Edition. 
' A rousing and dramatic tale. A book like 
this, in which swords flash, great sur- 
prises are undertaken, and daring deeds 
done, in which men and women live and 
love in the old passionate way, is a joy 
inexpressible. ' Daily Chronicle. 

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO 
PONTIAC: The Story of a Lost 
Napoleon. Fourth Edition. 
1 Here we find romance real, breathing, 
living romance. The character of Val- 
mond is drawn unerringly.' Pall Mall 
Gazette. 



AN ADVENTURER OF THE 
NORTH : The Last Adventures of 
1 Pretty Pierre. 1 Second Edition. 

' The present book is full of fine and mov- 
ing stories of the great North, and 
will add to Mr. Parker's already high 
reputation.' Glasgow Herald. 

THE SEATS OF THE MIGHTY. 
Illustrated. Tenth Edition. 

'Mr. Parker has produced a really fine 

historical novel.' Athenceum. 
' A great book. 1 Black and White. 

THE POMP OF THE LAVILET- 
TES. Second Edition, y. >d. 

1 Living, breathing romance, unforced 
pathos, and a deeper knowledge of 
human nature than Mr. Parker has ever 
displayed before. ' Pall Mall Gazette. 

THE BATTLE OF THE STRONG : 
a Romance of Two Kingdoms. 
Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 

' Nothing more vigorous or more human has 
come from Mr. Gilbert Parker than this 
novel. It has all the graphic power of 
his last book, with truer feeling for the 
romance, both of human life and wild 
nature. ' Literature. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



S. Baring Gould's Novels 



Crown 8vo. 6s. each. 

'To say that a book is by the author of "Mehalah" is to imply that it contains a 
story cast on strong lines, containing dramatic possibilities, vivid and sympathetic descrip- 
tions of Nature, and a wealth of ingenious imagery.' Speaker. 

' That whatever Mr. Baring Gould writes is well worth reading, is a conclusion that may 
be very generally accepted. His views of life are fresh and vigorous, his language 
pointed and characteristic, the incidents of which he makes use are striking and original, 
his characters are life-like, and though somewhat exceptional people, are drawn and 
coloured with artistic force. Add to this that his descriptions of scenes and scenery are 
painted with the loving eyes and skilled hands of a master of his art, that he is always 
fresh and never dull, and it is no wonder that readers have gained confidence in his 
power of amusing and satisfying them, and that year by year his popularity widens.' 
Court Circular. 

NOEMI. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. 
THE BROOM-SQUIRE. Illustrated. 
Fourth Edition. 

THE PENNYCOMEQUICKS. 
Third Edition. 

DARTMOOR IDYLLS. 

GUAVAS THE TINNER. Illus- 
trated. Second Edition. 

BLADYS. Illustrated. Second Edition. 



ARMINELL. Fifth Edition. 

URITH. Fifth Edition. 

IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA. 

Seventh Edition. 
MRS. CURGENVEN OF CURGEN- 

VEN. Fourth Edition. 
CHEAP JACK ZITA. Fourth Edition. 
THE QUEEN OF LOVE. Fifth 

Edition. 
MARGERY OF QUETHER. Third 

Edition. 

JACQUETTA. Third Edition. 
KITTY ALONE. Fifth Edition. 



DOMITIA. Illustrated. Second Edi- 
tion. 
PABO THE PRIEST. 



Conan Doyle. ROUND THE RED 
LAMP. By A. CONAN DOYLE. 

Seventh Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The book is far and away the best view 
that has been vouchsafed us behind the 
scenes of the consulting-room. 'Illus- 
trated London News. 

Stanley Weyman. UNDER THE 
RED ROBE. By STANLEY WEY- 
MAN, Author of ' A Gentleman of 
France.' With Illustrations by R. C. 
WOODVILLE. Fifteenth Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' Every one who reads books at all must 
read this thrilling romance, from the 
first page of which to the last the breath- 
less reader is haled along. An inspira- 
tion of manliness and courage.' Daily 
Chronicle. 

Lucas Malet. THE WAGES OF 
SIN. By LUCAS MALET. Thir- 
teenth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Lucas Malet. THE CARISSIMA. 
By LUCAS MALET, Author of ' The 



Third Edition. 



Wages of Sin,' etc. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 



George Gissing. THE TOWN TRA- 
VELLER. By GEORGE GISSING, 
Author of ' Demos,' ' In the Year of 
Jubilee,' etc. Second Edition. Cr. 
8vo. 6s. 

'It is a bright and witty book above all 
things. Polly Sparkes is a splendid bit 
of work.' Pall Mall Gazette. 
' The spirit of Dickens is in it.' Bookman. 

George Gissing. THE CROWN OF 
LIFE. By GEORGE GISSING, Author 
of ' Demos,' ' The Town Traveller,' 
etc. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' Mr. Gissing is at his best.' Academy. 

'A fine novel.' Outlook. 

S. R. Crockett. LOCHINVAR. By 

S. R. CROCKETT, Author of 'The 

Raiders,' etc. Illustrated. Second 

Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'Full of gallantry and pathos, of the clash 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



of arms, and brightened by episodes of 
humour and love. . . .' Westminster 
Gazette. 

S. R. Crockett. THE STANDARD 
BEARER. By S. R. CROCKETT. 

Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'A delightful \.2\t.' Speaker. 
1 Mr. Crockett at his best.' Literature. 

Arthur Morrison. TALES OF 
MEAN STREETS. By ARTHUR 
MORRISON. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
8vo. 6s. 

' Told with consummate art and extra- 
ordinary detail. In the true humanity 
of the book lies its justification, the 
permanence of its interest, and its in- 
dubitable triumph.' A thenaum. 
'A great book. The author's method is 
amazingly effective, and produces -a 
thrilling sense of reality. The writer 
lays upon us a master hand. The book 
is simply appalling and irresistible in 
its interest. It is humorous also ; with- 
out humour it would not make the mark 
it is certain to make.' World. 

Arthur Morrison. A CHILD OF 
THE JAGO. By ARTHUR MORRI- 
SON. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
' The book is a masterpiece.' Pall Mall 

Gazette. 

1 Told with great vigour and powerful sim- 
plicity. ' A thenceum. 

Arthur Morrison. TO LONDON 

TOWN. By ARTHUR MORRISON, 

Author of ' Tales of Mean Streets, ' 

etc. Second Edition. Crown 8z'o. 6s. 

' We have idyllic pictures, woodland scenes 

full of tenderness and grace. . . . This 

is the new Mr. Arthur Morrison gracious 

and tender, sympathetic and human.' 

Daily Telegraph. 

' The easy swing of detail proclaims the 
master of his subject and the artist in 
rendering.' Pall Mall Gazette. 

M. Sutherland. ONE HOUR AND 
THE NEXT. By THE DUCHESS 
OF SUTHERLAND. Third Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'Passionate, vivid, dramatic.' Literature. 
' It poss_esses marked qualities, descriptive, 
and imaginative.' Morning Post. 



Mrs. Clifford. A FLASH OF 
SUMMER. By Mrs. W. K. CLIF- 
FORD, Author of 'Aunt Anne, 1 etc. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The story is a very beautiful one, exquis- 
itely told.' Speaker. 

Emily Lawless. HURRISH. By the 
Honble. EMILY LAWLESS, Author of 
'Maelcho,' etc. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
8vo. 6s. 

Emily Lawless. MAELCHO : a Six- 
teenth Century Romance. By the 
Honble. EMILY LAWLESS. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' A really great book.' Spectator. 
' One of the most remarkable literary 
achievements of this generation." Man- 
chester Guardian. 

Emily Lawless. TRAITS AND 
CONFIDENCES. By the Honble. 
EMILY LAWLESS. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Eden PhiUpotts. THE HUMAN 
BOY. By EDEN PHILLPOTTS, Author 
of 'Children of the Mist.' With a 
Frontispiece. Fourth Edition. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

1 Mr. PhiUpotts knows exactly what school- 
boys do, and can lay bare their inmost 
thoughts; likewise he shows an all-per- 
vading sense of humour.' Academy. 

E. W. Hornun^. THE AMATEUR 
CRACKSMAN. By E. W. HOR- 
NUNG. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' An audaciously entertaining volume.' 
Spectator. 

Jane Barlow. A CREEL OF IRISH 
STORIES. By JAXE BARLOW, 
Author of ' Irish Idylls. ' Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'Vivid and singularly real.' Scotsman. 

Jane Barlow. FROM THE EAST 
UNTO THE WEST. By JANE 
BARLOW. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Mrs. Caffyn. ANNE MAULEVERER. 
By Mrs. CAFFYN (Iota), Author of 
' The Yellow Aster.' Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



33 



Benjamin Swift. SIREN CITY. By 
BENJAMIN SWIFT, Author of ' Nancy 
Noon. 1 Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'"Siren City" is certainly his best book, 
and it is the work of a strong man. It 
has sobriety, not only of manner, but of 
spiri t. ' A cademy. 

J. H. Findlater, THE GREEN 
GRAVES OF BALGOWRIE. By 
JANE H. FINDLATER. Fourth 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'A powerful and vivid story.' Standard. 
' A beautiful story, sad and strange as truth 

itself.' Vanity Fair. 
'A very charming and pathetic tale.' Pall 

Mall Gazette. 
' A singularly original, clever, and beautiful 

story. ' Guardian. 
' Reveals to us a new writer of undoubted 

faculty and reserve force." Spectator. 
'An exquisite idyll, delicate, affecting, and 
beautiful.' Black and White. 

J. H. Findlater. A DAUGHTER 
OF STRIFE. By JANE HELEN 
FINDLATER. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

J. H. Findlater. RACHEL. By 
JANE H. FINDLATER. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' A not unworthy successor to " The Green 
Graves of Balgowrie." ' Critic. 

Mary Findlater. OVER THE 

HILLS. By MARY FINDLATER. 

Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

' A strong and wise book of deep insight and 

unflinching truth.' Birmingham Post. 

Mary Findlater. BETTY M US- 
GRAVE. By MARY FINDLATER. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Handled with dignity and delicacy. . . . 
A most touching story.' Spectator. 

Alfred Ollivant. OWD BOB, THE 

GREY DOG OF KENMUIR. By 

ALFRED OLLIVANT. Third Edition. 

Cr. %vo. 6s. 

'Weird, thrilling, strikingly graphic.' 

Punch. 

' We admire this book. . . . It is one to read 
with admiration and to praise with en- 
thusiasm.' Bookman. 

' It is a fine, open-air, blood-stirring book, 
to be enjoyed by every man and woman 
to whom a dog is dear.' Literature. 

B. M. Croker. PEGGY OF THE 
BARTONS. By B. M. CROKER, 



Author of 'Diana Barrington.' 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Mrs. Croker excels in the admirably simple, 
easy, and direct flow of her narrative, the 
briskness of her dialogue, and the geni- 
ality of her portraiture.' Spectator. 

Mary L. Tendered. AN ENGLISH- 
MAN. By MARY L. TENDERED. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' Her book is most healthy in tone, and 
leaves a pleasant taste in the mouth.' 
Pall Mall Gazette. 
' A very noble book. It is filled with wisdom 

and sympathy.' Literary World. 
'At once sound and diverting.' Academy. 

Morley Roberts. THE PLUN- 
DERERS. By MORLEY ROBERTS, 
Author of ' The Colossus,' etc. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'The author secures and maintains the 
reader's lively interest in his clever ab- 
surdities.' Pall Mall Gazette. 
' The whole atmosphere is one of high spirits 

and high comedy.' Globe. 
' Mr. Roberts writes of real people who do 
things and know things." Black and 
White. 

Nonna Lorimer. MIRRY-ANN. By 
NORMA LORIMER, Author of 'Jo- 
siah's Wife. ' Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'The heroine is rare and striking, but 
thorough woman and altogether lovable, 
and the plot is brisk and well sustained.' 
Pall Mall Gazette. 

' It is a Manx story, and a right able story. 
The atmosphere is excellent, the descrip- 
tive passages fine, and the story is one 
which will repay perusal.' Glasgow 
Herald. 

' A Manx novel which is at once sincere, 
poetical, and in the best sense true.' 
Academy. 

Helen Shipton. THE STRONG GOD 
CIRCUMSTANCE. By HELEN 
SHIPTON. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'A story of high merit and many attrac- 
tions. ' Scotsman. 

' An up-to-date story and a very beautiful 
one of self-sacrifice.' Daily Tele- 
graph. 

' A most effective story, written with both 
insight and imagination.' Leeds Mer- 
cury. 



34 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Violet Hunt. THE HUMAN IN- 
TEREST. By VIOLET HUNT, 
Author of 'A Hard Woman,' etc. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Clever observation and unfailing wit.' 

Academy. 

'The insight is keen, the irony is deli- 
cate.' World. 

H. G. Wells. THE STOLEN BA- 
CILLUS, and other Stories. By 
H. G. WELLS. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

1 The impressions of a very striking imagina- 
tion." Saturday Review. 

H. G. Wells. THE PLATTNER 
STORY AND OTHERS. By H. G. 
WELLS. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 
6s. 

' Weird and mysterious, they seem to hold 
the reader as by a magic spell. 1 Scots- 
man. 

Richard Marsh. MARVELS AND 
MYSTERIES. By RICHARD 
MARSH, Author of 'The Beetle.' 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' While under their immediate influence the 
reader is conscious of nothing but thrill- 
ing excitement and curiosity.' Glasgow 
Herald. 
' Ingeniously constructed and well told.' 

Morning Leader. 

'Admirably selected and of the very best.' 
Christian World. 

Esm Stuart. CHRISTALLA. By 

ESM& STUART, Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The story is happily conceived, and enter- 
taining throughout.' Scotsman. 
'An excellent story, pathetic, and full of 

humour.' A thenceum. 
' We wish that we came across more books 
like this clever and charming story. 
Leeds Mercury. 

Sara Jeannette Duncan. A VOYAGE 
OF CONSOLATION. By SARA 
JEANNETTE DUNCAN, Author of ' An 
American Girl in London.' Illus- 
trated. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
'A most delightfully bright book.' Daily 

Telegraph. 
'The dialogue is full of wit. Globe. 

Sara Jeannette Duncan. THE PATH 
OF A STAR. By SARA JEANNETTE 



DUNCAN, Author of ' A Voyage of 

Consolation.' Illustrated. Second 

Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'Richness and fullness of local colouring, 

brilliancy of style, smiting phrases, and 

the display of very pretty humour are 

graces which are here in profusion. The 

interest never flags.' PallMallGazette. 

C. F. Keary. THE JOURNALIST. 

By C. F. KEARY. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
' It is rare indeed to find such poetical sym- 
pathy with Nature joined to close study 
of character and singularly truthful dia- 
logue '. but then "The Journalist" is 
altogether a rare book.' Athenaum. 

W. E. Norris. MATTHEW AUSTIN. 
By W. E. NORRIS, Author of ' Made- 
moiselle de Mersac,' etc. Fourth 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' An intellectually satisfactory and morally 
bracing novel.' Daily Telegraph. 

W.E. Norris. HIS GRACE. ByW. E. 

NORRIS. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 

6s. 
W. E. Norris. THE DESPOTIC 

LADY AND OTHERS. By W. E. 

NORRIS. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

j W. E. Norris. CLARISSA FURIOSA. 

By W. E. NORRIS. Cr. %vo. 6s. 
' As a story it is admirable, as a.jeu d esprit 
it is capital, as a lay sermon studded 
with gems of wit and wisdom it is a 
model.' The World. 

W. E. Norris. GILES INGILBY. By 
W. E. NORRIS. Illustrated. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Interesting, wholesome, and charmingly 
written.' Glasgow Herald. 

W. E. Norris. AN OCTAVE. By 
W. E. NORRIS. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' A very perfect exposition of the self- 
restraint, the perfect knowledge of so- 
ciety and its ways, the delicate sense of 
humour, which are the main charac- 
teristics of this very accomplished 
author.' Country Life. 

Ernest Glanville. THE DESPATCH 
RIDER. By ERNEST GLANVILLE, 
Author of ' The Kloof Bride. ' Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

A highly interesting story of the present 
Boer War by an author who knows the 
country well, and has had experience of 
Boer campaigning. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



35 



W. Clark Russell. MY DANISH 
SWEETHEART. By W. CLARK 
RUSSELL. Illustrated. Fourth 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Robert Barr. IN THE MIDST OF 

ALARMS. By ROBERT BARR. 

Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

' A book which has abundantly satisfied us 

by its capital humour.' Daily Chronicle. 

'Mr. Barr has achieved a triumph.' Pall 

Mall Gazette. 

Robert Barr. THE MUTABLE 
MANY. By ROBERT BARR. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Very much the best novel that Mr. Barr 
has yet given us. There is much insight 
in it, and much excellent humour.' 
Daily Chronicle. 

Robert Barr. THE COUNTESS 
TEKLA. By ROBERT BARR. Third 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'Of these mediaeval romances, which are 
now gaining ground, "The Countess 
Tekla " is the very best we have seen. 
The story is written in clear English, 
and a picturesque, moving style.' Pall 
Mall Gazette. 

Andrew Balfour. BY STROKE OF 
SWORD. By A. BALFOUR. Illus- 
trated. Fourth Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
A banquet of good things.' Academy. 
' A recital of thrilling interest, told with 

unflagging vigour. ' Globe. 
' An unusually excellent example of a semi- 
historic romance.' World. 

Andrew Balfour. TO ARMS ! By 
ANDREW BALFOUR. Illustrated. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The marvellous perils through which Allan 
passes are told in powerful and lively 
fashion.' Pall Mall Gazette. 

Andrew Balfour. VENGEANCE IS 
MINE. By ANDREW BALFOUR, 
Author of ' By Stroke of Sword. ' j 
Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
A vigorous piece of work, well written, and 
abounding in stirring incidents.' Glas- 
gow Herald. 

J. Maclaren Cobban. THE KING 
OF ANDAMAN: A Saviour of 
Society. By J. MACLAREN COBBAN. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'An unquestionably interesting book. It 
contains one character, at least, who has 
in him the root of immortality.' Pall 
Mall Gazette. 



J. Maclaren Cobban. THE ANGEL 
OF THE COVENANT. By J. 
MACLAREN COBBAN. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

R. N. Stephens. AN ENEMY TO 
THE KING. By R. N. STEPHENS. 
Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
' It is full of movement, and the movement 

is always buoyant.' Scotsman. 
' A stirring story with plenty of movement.' 
Black and White. 

R. N. Stephens. A GENTLEMAN 
PLAYER. By R. N. STEPHENS, 
Author of 'An Enemy to the King.' 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

1 A bright and spirited romance of adven- 
ture, full of movement and changing 
action. ' Scotsman. 

R. Hichens. BYEWAYS. By ROBERT 
HICHENS. Author of ' Flames, etc." 
Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
' The work is undeniably that of a man of 
striking imagination.' Daily News. 

J. S. Fletcher. THE PATHS OF 
THE PRUDENT. By J. S. FLET- 
CHER. Crown %vo. 6s. 

J. B. Burton. IN THE DAY OF 

ADVERSITY. By J. BLOUNDELLE- 
BURTON. Second Edition. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 
' Unusually interesting and full of highly 
dramatic situations.' Guardian. 

J. B. Burton. DENOUNCED. By 

J. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON. Second 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
'A fine, manly, spirited piece of work." 
World. 

J. B. Burton. THE CLASH OF 
ARMS. By J. BLOUNDELLE-BUR- 
TON. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

'A brave story brave in deed, brave in 
word, brave in thought.' St. James's 
Gazette. 

J. B. Burton. ACROSS THE SALT 
SEAS. By J. BLOUNDELLE-BURTON. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The very essence of the true romantic 
spirit. 1 Truth. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



W. C. Scully. THE WHITE HECA- 
TOMB. By W. C. SCULLY, Author 
of ' Kafir Stories. ' Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
1 Reveals a marvellously intimate under- 
standing of the Kaffir mind." African 
Critic. 

W. C. Scully. BETWEEN SUN 



AND SAND. By W. C. SCULLY, 
Author of 'The White Hecatomb.' 
Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

' The reader passes at once into the very 
atmosphere of the African desert : the 
inexpressible space and stillness swallow 
him up, and there is no world for him but 
that immeasurable waste.' Athenau-nt. 



OTHER SIX-SHILLING NOVELS 

Crown 8vo. 



DANIEL WHYTE. By A. J. DAW- 
SON. 

THE CAPSINA. By E. F. BENSON. 

DODO : A DETAIL OF THE DAY. 
By E. F. BENSON. 

THE VINTAGE.- By E. F. BENSON. 
Illustrated by G. P. JACOMB-HOOD. 

ROSE A CHARLITTE. By MAR- 
SHALL SAUNDERS. 

WILLOWBRAKE. By R. MURRAY 
GILCHRIST. 

THINGS THAT HAVE HAP- 
PENED. By DOROTHEA GERARD. 

SIR ROBERT'S FORTUNE. By 
Mrs. OLIPHANT. 

THE TWO MARYS. By Mrs. 
OLIPHANT. 

THE LADY'S WALK. By Mrs. 
OLIPHANT. 

LONE PINE: A ROMANCE OF 
MEXICAN LIFE. By R. B. 

TOWNSHEND. 

WILT THOU HAVE THIS 
WOMAN? By J. MACLAREN 
COBBAN. 

By 



A PASSIONATE PILGRIM. 
PERCY WHITE. 



SECRETARY TO BAYNE, M.P. 
By W. PETT RIDGE. 

ADRIAN ROME. By E. DAWSON 
and A. MOORE. 

THE BUILDERS. 
FLETCHER. 



GALLIA. By MNIE MURIEL 

DOWIE. 

THE CROOK OF THE BOUGH. 
By MNIE MURIEL DOWIE. 

A BUSINESS IN GREAT WATERS. 
By JULIAN CORBETT. 

MISS ERIN. By M. E. FRANCIS. 

ANANIAS. By the Hon. Mrs. ALAN 
BRODRICK. 



CORRAGEEN IN 
ORPEN. 



'98. By Mrs. 



THE PLUNDER PIT. ByJ. KEIGH- 
LEY SNOWDEN. 

CROSS TRAILS. By VICTOR WAITE. 

SUCCESSORS TO THE TITLE. 
By Mrs. WALFORD. 

KIRKHAM'S FIND. By MARY 
GAUNT. 

DEADMAN'S. By MARY GAUNT. 

CAPTAIN JACOBUS : A ROMANCE 
OF THE ROAD. By L. COPE CORN- 
FORD. 

SONS OF ADVERSITY. By L. COPE 

CORNFORD. 

THE KING OF ALBERIA. By 
LAURA DAINTREY. 



THE DAUGHTER OF ALOUETTE. 
By MARY A. OWEN. 

! CHILDREN OF THIS WORLD. 
By ELLEN F. PINSENT. 

By J. S. I AN ELECTRIC SPARK. By G. 
MANVILLE FENN. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



UNDER SHADOW OF THE 
MISSION. By L. S. McCHESNEY. 

THE SPECULATORS. By J. F. 
BREWER. 

THE SPIRIT OF STORM. By 
RONALD Ross. 



THE QUEENSBERRY CUP. 
CLIVE P. WOLLEY. 



By 



A HOME IN INVERESK. By T. 
L. PATON. 

MISS ARMSTRONG'S AND 
OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES. By 
JOHN DAVIDSON. 

DR. CONGALTON'S LEGACY. By 
HENRY JOHNSTON. 

TIME AND THE WOMAN. By 
RICHARD PRYCE. 

THIS MAN'S DOMINION. By the 
Author of ' A High Little World.' 



DIOGENES OF LONDON. 
B. MARRIOTT WATSON. 



By H. 



THE STONE DRAGON. By 
MURRAY GILCHRIST. 

A VICAR'S WIFE. By EVELYN 
DICKINSON. 

ELSA. ByE. M'QuEEN GRAY. 

THE SINGER OF MARLY. By 1. 
HOOPER. 

THE FALL OF THE SPARROW. 
By M. C. BALFOUR. 

A SERIOUS COMEDY. By HERBERT 

MORRAH. 

THE FAITHFUL CITY. By 
HERBERT MORRAH. 

IN THE GREAT DEEP. By J. A. 
BARRY. 

BIJLI, THE DANCER. By JAMES 
BLYTHE PATTON. 

JOSIAH'S WIFE. By NORMA 

LORIMER. 

THE PHILANTHROPIST. By 
LUCY MAYNARD. 

VAUSSORE. By FRANCIS BRUNE. 



THREE-AND-SIXPENNY NOVELS 

Crown %vo. 



DERRICK VAUGHAN, NOVEL- 
IST. 42nd thousand. By EDNA 
LYALL. 

A SON OF THE STATE. By W. 
PETT RIDGE. 

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