[ V AM1~) (riOIANA ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY llllllll ^lilSll.... 3 1833 02138 8241 igf^^'^-^ ^»^#>@^'Gc: 977.202 M69e ^^S^^'-^^^^-O^rSAROS, James W. ia5.-j-19 I HISTORY OF f I MITCHELL I Reprinted From The Mitchell Tribune 1916 M AND I Marion Township !!| I INDIANA I By James W. Edwards ifi (1! I t I I '- I 1493172 COULD one have witnessed all the changes which have taken place in this community since its first settlement a little over one hundred years ago, its former ap- pearance would seem as a dream or romance. We find it difficult to realize the features of the dense wilderness which was the abode of our parents and grandparents. One hundred years ago my grandparents on my father's side left their mountain home in North Carolina to make their fut- ure home in what was then the territory of Indiana. They brought with them my father who was then but a small child. THE FIRST SETTLERS It is not from personal recollection that I shall write these items of local history, but from facts and incidents as I gathered them from old settlers in years long since gone by. Often in my boyhood days have I listened to the old pioneers, my father and grandfather in particular, relate their early experiences and describe the condition of the country as they found it a century ago; so often that I sometimes imagine that I can see conditions as they were and the country as it was then. THURSEY WAY Oldest person in Lawrence county and perhaps the oldest continuous resident of the state. She is nearing her 103th birth- day and at this time (June 1916) is quite active in both mind and body. It should be remembered that at the be- ginning of the last century there was not a single white inhabitant in what is now Law- rence County, and for several years after, none in that part of the county embracing what is now Marion Township and while this part of the county had always belong- ed to, or at least claimed, so far as we have history to guide us, by various Indian tribes, the first settlers found but little ev- idence of any of them having lived here. This part of the country it seems had been claimed by several tribes but permanently occupied by none. The early settler found no remains of Indian villages, nor was any land cleared to indicate that the red man had ever lived here. Occasionally the re- mains of a wigwam was found and the abundance of Indian arrow-heads and In- dian axes found would indicate, however, that roving bands of Indians had been here perhaps, during the hunting seat^ons. And while we have but little evidence from which to conclude that this community was ever permanently occupied by the red man, we have still less evidence that it was ever inhabited by that prehistoric race called Mound builders. So we can but conclude that the first settlers were those people who came here in the early part of the last century to make this their permanent home. Previous to the year 1813 there was not a permanent settler, so far as I have ever heard, in what is now Marion Township. The first settler was a man by the name of Phillips, who built a cabin in the year 1813 on the hill above and a few hundred yards west of the spring which is the head- water of Rock Lick creek. Phillips after- ward entered the land where he built his cabin and made his home for many years. It should be noted that until the year 1813 all the land, comprising what is now Marion 7 ownship, belonged to the govern- ment. So the first settler could choose his own location. THE FIRST HOMES Beginning with the year 1815 and for several years after, quite a number of home seekers arrived in this locality to make their home in this unbroken wilderness; a country covered with a primeval forest of the finest timber; everywhere a heav> growth of poplar, oak, ash, walnut, hickory, in fact, all kinds of deciduous trees; a country in its pristine glory. To destroy this fine forest was the first work of the pioneer after building his rude cabin. To build the cabin I speak of, was the work of but very few days. Usually a shack, or as they called it those days, a "make shift cabin" was built. As your readers have perhaps never seen a cabin of this kind I shall give a short description of one as I remember the way it was described to me. A place having been selected which was al- ways near a spring of water, a large tree was chopped down and a log cut from it to make the back part of the cabin. At a distance of eight or ten feet from the log or back of the cabin two stakes were set in the ground a few inches apart and at a dis- tance of eight or ten feet from these, two more stakes were placed to receive the poles which were to form the sides of the cabin. The whole slope of the roof was from the front to the back. The roof was made of rude slabs, or if the building was n ^^t ^^^^HB'/t ELI AND ISOM BURTON Pioneer citizens of Marion township. They were twins and the fathers of Dr. Isom Burton and Martin A. Burton, who have been two of Mitchells prominent citizens and business men. In the above portrait Eli wears the white trousers (tow linen) the cloth probably woven by his mother. He is the father of Dr. Isom Burton. done in the Spring, bark peeled from hick ory trees was used. The front was left en- tirely open. If the weather was cold, a fire was built directly in front of the opening; the cracks between the poles were filled with clay; dry leaves were secured for a bed and the cabin was ready to occupy. This kind of a domicile was as a rule, re- placed by a better one in a short time, though some families spent at least one winter in this kind of a shack before a bet- ter one was built in regular log cabin style. As I stated previously a fire was made in front of the cabin, or shack in winter to keep out the cold. I should have added that a fire near the cabin at night was al- ways necessary to frighten the wild beast away. All species of wild animals are eas- ily frightened by fire. If the early pioneer had occasion to go very far from his cabin at night he always carried a torch for fear he would meet one of the wild beasts that were then plentiful in this community. HOUSE BUILDING After building the temporary cabin that I have described and having rested a few days from the fatigue of his long journey from his Virginia or North CaroHna home the settler looked around for a location for a better cabin where he expected to make his permanent home. If the spring and surroundings where he built his shack suit- ed him, he located there, if not he selected a more desirable place in the near neighbor- hood. As I have previously said he prac- tically had his choice of location; I am speaking now of the time when but little of the land in this community had bsen enter- ed. Having decided upon a place to build the house which was perhaps to be his home for many years, he proceeded to cut the timber and clear the underbrush from a spot a few feet in circumference. He also cut down any tree that leaned over the place where he had decided to build. He then cut the logs that formed the walls of his cabin and selected a tree four or five feet in diameter from which he made boards for the roof. The boards were usually four feet long and rived with a frow. These boards were used without planing or shav- ing. Next, puncheons for the floor were prepared. This was done by splitting logs from trees about twenty inches in diameter and hewing the faces of them with a broad- ax. After preparing the building material described and hauling it on a sled to the place he selected, he is now ready for the house raising. He invited the few scatter- ing neighbors who lived within a radius of several miles. When the neighbors assem- bled two of them were selected for end men whose business it was to notch and saddle the logs and put them in their proper place. The roof was formed by making the end logs shorter until a single log formed the comb of the roof. On these logs the boards were placed and instead of being nailed, they were held in place by long poles as weights. The walls were built solid, that is they had no openings for a fireplace or windows. The doorway, the cabin seldom had but one, was made by cutting the logs on one side so as to make an opening about three feet wide A similar opening, but wider, was cut at the end for the chimney which was built of logs to the height of about five feet and made large so as to admit of a back and jambs of stone. The remainder of the chimney was built of sticks and clay. The door was made of slabs that had been split from a tree and smoothed with a drawing knife. The only nails in the entire building were used in making the door. For a window a section of a log, four or five feet long, was cut out and a piece of greased paper pasted over the opening. THE FURNITURE As the early settler brought no furniture with him, it was necessary to make it from such material as he could find. A table was made of a split slab and supported by four round legs set in auger holes. Three legged stools were made in the same man- ner. Bedsteads were made by setting up a stout post in a corner of the cabin about four and one-half feet from one wall and six and one- half feet from the other with two large holes bored into the post about two feet from the floor; then holes were bored into the logs of the walls and poles were inserted. On these poles, lengthwise, rails were laid and across the rails split boards were laid and the bedstead was com- plete. On the boards a rough tick, filled with dry leaves or corn husks completed the bed. Cooking utensils consisted of a skillet, a baking pot or Dutch oven, as it was called, one or two iron pots and a large iron ket- tle, gourds being used as cups and dippers. Stoves were unknown and all cooking was done about the fire of logs in the fireplace. The cabin being completed and furnished the family moves in. The excitement of the long journey from their former home and the novelty of plunging into an un- known forest being over, what a feeling of lonesomeness must have come over these pioneers I imagine that the most promi- nent feature of these wilderness homes was its solitude. WILD ANIMALS ABOUND The solitude of the night was interrupted by the hoot of the ill-boding owl, the howl- ing of wolves or the frightful scream of the murderous panther. Often the growl of the bear was heard at the cabin door, or the blood -shot eye of the catamount was seen peering through the openings of the cabin. The days if possible, were more soHtary than the nights. The gobbhng of the wild turkey, the cawing of the crow, the woodpecker tapping the hollow tree, or the drumming of the pheasant did not enliven the scene, nor was the situation without its dangers. The settler as he was going about his work, or, while engaged in the hunt, did not know at what tread he might be bitten by the poisonous copper-head, or rattlesnake; nor at what moment he might meet the hungry bear. If out at night, he knew not on what limb of a tree over his head the blood- thirsty panther might be perched ready to spring upon him. Exiled as they were from society and the comforts of life the situation of the settler and his family was perilous. The bite of a serpent, a broken limb, or a siege of sickness in the wilderness without medical skill was not pleasant to contem- plate. Such was the situation which con- fronted those brave people who built the first cabins in this community. I deem it proper just here to say that there is but one living witness to the early conditions that I have described and that is Aunt Thursey Way who has lived in this community more than one hundred years. This aged veteran is plodding feebly by the last milestone of life. Eternity will soon close around her and then the only know- ledge of early times and deeds will be from fragmentary sketches of history. Mrs, Way is past 103 years. There may be others living in Indiana who are as old but per- haps not one who has lived as long in the place he now lives and who has seen as much Hoosier history made as has Mrs. Wa>. The settlement of a new country in the immediate vicinity of an old one is not at- tended with many difficulties because sup- plies can be obtained from the older settled community, but the task of making new homes in a wilderness, as remote from civil- ization as this, was quite different, because food, clothing and other necessities were obtained with great difficulty, and while these pilgrims of the forest could feast their imagination with the romantic beauty of their new surroundmgs, they had difficulties before them which required the bravest heart to overcome. They were exiles from society, schools and church. The clothing they brought with them soon became old and ragged. The scant supply of meal they had provided un- til a field could be cleared and a crop of corn raised, was soon exhausted. It was not uncommon for a family to be without bread for weeks or even months. The lean meat of the deer and the white meat of the wild turkey were used as a substitute for bread. 1 he flesh of the bear and the squirrel was the only meat, and that often had to be eaten without salt. At the time I mention, salt could not be obtained near- er than Louisville, Ky. It was sold by the bushel and the price was sometimes seven dollars for a bushel weighing eighty-four pounds. To provide food for the few do- mestic animals they brought was also quite : problem. Many of these died of actual starvation during the first winter. I am speaking now of the winter of 1816 and 181/. We have neither record nor tradi- tion of any families having spent the winter in this ccmmunity previous to that time. Two cabins had been built here before the dates mentioned, but it is said the owners did not spend the winter here The two settlers I refer to were Lewis PhiUips, of whom previous mention has been made, and Samuel G. Hoskins. who built a cabin in 1815, on Rock Lick creek near the old Crawford homestead. It should be noted that Phillips and Hoskins, with their fam- ilies, were the only settlers in the territory of Marion township at the close of the year 1815. During the year of 1816 as many as twenty five or thirty families arrived here and most of them built cabins and made this their permanent home. I cannot name them all but will give the names of a few and tell where they located: Jacob Piles built a cabin on the south-west corner of the farm now owned by Oscar Gaines. George Sheeks located on Rock Lick creek, near the Finger cemetery. John Sutton and his father-in-law Thomas Rowark, set- tled on what is known as the Denton Sheeks farm. William Erwin built a cabin on what is known as the Widow Dodd farm. My grandfather, William Edwards, settled a short distance south of what is now tht- Edwards cemetery. Neddy Edwards built a cabin about one-half mile south of this on the farm now o ned by Noble L. Moore. Charles Toliver, the father of Aunt Thursey Way, located on the south-west corner of the farm now owned bv Isom L. Burton, near the residence of John Isom. Aunt Thursey has lived for nearly a century within about a mile of the place where her childhood days were spent. John McClean a school teacher, located near the residence of the late John Murray. About one-half mile south of the last named place James Fulton built a cabin and a few years later a distillery. Zach Spurling built a shack, in which he lived for several years, about two miles west of where Mitchell now stands. Thompson Conley built a cabin not far from the Bryantsville and Hamer's Mill road and near the Elkin spring. This was afterward the home of the Rev. David El- kin, who preached Lincoln's mother's fun- eral. Joel Conley located on the old Con- ley homestead, near the Conley cemetery. William Maxwell and William Baldwin lo- cated on what is now the Reuben Miller farm. There were a number of other fam- iUes located here during the year 1816 and whose names I cannot give. A majority of the settlers entered the land where they located within a year or two after their arrival, but some of them occupied the land for years before acquir- ing a title to their homes. Perhaps this question is asked. Where were these pion- eers from and why did they leave homes of plenty to build new homes in the wilder- ness? It was the voice of opportunity, the lure of land and the ambition to do some- thing for their children, were the leading in- centives that prompted these hardy people to leave their former homes and endure the hardships and privations in a new country. So strong is the tie of property, especially in land, that men will endure almost any kind of hardships to secure it. Nearly all the families who came here to find homes during the years 18 16 and 1817 were from Ashe county. North Carolina, or Grayson county, Virginia. Tlese two counties, although in diffeient states, are separated only by an imaginary line. Thus it will be seen they were people who had lived under the same environments before emigrating here where all were necessarily surrounded by the same conditions What I shall say of the civilization of the pioneers will also apply to those who followed them for several years afterward. It is a prevalent opinion that people who are the first inhabitants of a wilderness country, such as this community was dur- ing the first few decades of its settlement, were of the ignorant and lower class. This is far from being true. In this electric light, automobile and railroad age, the early pioneers living or dead, receive but little credit for the actual intelligence possessed. History must do justice to the noble men and women who braved the hardships that our foreparents endured. In spite of their rude surroundings these people were given to hospitality and as freely divided their rough fare with a stranger as with their neighbor, and would have been offended had they been offered pay. Other characteristics were industry, 1493172 honesty, candor and steadiness of deport- nrient For quite a period of time they knew nothing of courts, lawyers, magis- trates, sheriffs or constables. They were a law unto themselves. Every one was at liberty to do whatsoever he thought was right in his own eyes. It is the history of all sparsely settled communities where all are well known to each other, public opinion has its full effect, and to some extent, answers the purpose of legal government. That was especially true of this community. The turpitude of vice and the majesty of morality were then more apparent than now. The crime of theft was almost un- known. Our fore-fathers, so far as I have ever heard, had a kind of hereditary de- testation of a thief. Gambling with cards, and such games as progressive euchre and five hundred were then unknown. They are some of the blessed gifts of modern civilization. CLEARING OF THE VIRGIN FOREST The early settlers usually arrived here either in the summer or early fall. Nothing could be done in the way of planting a crop JAMES \A/. ED\A/ARDS the first year on account of the lateness of the season and also on account of the country being covered with timber. The pioneer selected and marked off a piece of ground that would make a suitable field; this selection was usually near his cabin. Any of the older men now living will tell you that to go into a primeval forest and cle&r a field even with the improved tools in use at the present day is no small task. Our grandparents knew of but two tools to use in clearing, the axe and grubbing hoe; cross cut saws were not in use then The first step in clearing the ground was to cut away the under growth. Then a few of the straight grained trees were cut down and made into rails to make a worm fence around the field before planting a crop of corn. The remainder of the timber was either chopped down or deadened by girdling or burnmg. To clear a field of ten or twelve acres was the work of the first winter. LOG-ROLLING By the next spring the settler was ready for his first log-rolling. A day was set for the rolling and the neighbors for quite a distance were invited On such occasions as house- raising and log-roHings, each neighbor was expected to do his duty faith- fully. If he failed to do so without an excuse, when it came his turn to need like help from his neighbors he felt the punish- ment in their refusal to respond to his call. As some of the young people who read this perhaps have but little idea of what a log- rolling consisted of, I will describe one. First, the logs were cut or burned off so they were not more than twelve or fourteen feet in length. This was done previous to the day fixed for the rolling. Each man who was to take part in the work armed himself with a hand spike made of dog wood or sassafras. One of their number was selected as captain whose duty it was to direct the work. If the logs were very thick on the ground the captain would direct that four logs be placed side by side, then three smaller ones on top of these, then two more on top of the last three. A single log on the top of these would com- plete the pyramid, Usually all the logs in an ordinary clearing, as the first fields were called, could be piled reaoy for burning in a single day, but if more time was required it was freely given. Men would go miles to help and often worked three or four weeks in this kind of work. After the logs were piled it required several da\ s to burn the log heaps and brush and get the ground ready, as we would say, for the plow. But the kind of plow then in use. which con- sisted of a small piece of steel fastened to a wooden mould board, could be but little used in a new field. So the preparation of the ground for the first crop of corn, as well as the cultivation, had to be done mostly with the hoe. This was a slow and laborious method, but necessity knows no law. OBTAINING FOOD When the corn was nearing the roasting ear stage a battle royal would begin be- tween the farmer and the varmints, as the squirrels and raccoons were called, as to which was entitled to the corn. These animals were very plentiful and both were very destructive to growing corn. The children, as well as the men and women, every day in the week would march around tYe field making all the noise possible with cow-bells, horns, clap-traps and dogs to scare away the squirrels. At night fires were built all around the field to frighten the raccoons and other animals away. In spite of all this much of the corn was destroyed before it was ripe enough to gather. As has been previously noted, many families had been living for some time without bread and had become sickly and, as they expressed it, tormented with a sense of hunger How eagerly these people must have watched the growth of the corn. Hew delicious must the roasting ears have tasted. What a jubilee they must have had when the corn had acquired a sufficient hardness to be made into Johnny cakes by the aid of a tin grater. The question will be asked. "What is a grater and how could meal be made with it?" A grater is a circular piece of tin perforated with a nail or punch from the concave side and nailed by its edges to a block of wood. The ears of corn were rubbed on the rough edges of the holes while the meal fell through them on the block to which the grater was nailed. This was indeed a slow way of making meal, but it was the best they could do. When the corn was too hard to be ground with the grater, the hominy block was used. This was made of a large block of wood about two feat long with an excavation cut or burned in one end, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom so that the action of the pestle on the bottom threw the corn up the sides toward the top of the excavation from whence it continually fell down into the center. Thus the whole mass of grain was equally subjected to the strokes of the pestle. In the fall of the > ear while the corn was soft the block and pestle did fairly well, but this method was very slow when the corn became hard. As the mills for grinding grain, which were built in this part of the country after a few years of its early settlement were usually located on small streams which, in dry or very cold weather, could not run on account of the lack of water, the grater and hominy block were used at intervals for many years. For several years after the first settlement the farmers did not attempt to raise wheat, so that corn meal was their only de- pendence for bread PLOWING, PLANTING, HARVESTING AND THRESHING. Previous to the last sixty years, wheat as well as all other small grain, was sown broadcast and usually covered over with a wooden tooth harrow or with a brush pull- ed around by horses or oxen. For the first fifteen or twenty years after this community was settled, all reaping was done with the historic sickle. It seems in- credible to think that almost all the im- provements that have been made in agri- cultural implements, have been made dur- ing the last seventy-five or eight\' years. Less than eighty years ago the old sickle was still used that had been in use in Egypt before the pyramids were built; it had been in use long before the christian era — in fact before authentic history began. For thous- ands of years it had been the only reaper. The plow that was used here less than a hundred >ears ago with its wooden mould board, was but little different from the plow that was used in the fields of Boaz. In the memory of some few persons, yet living, wheat was threshed by tramping, just as it was in the days of Moses. No wonder that agriculture, unaided by intelligent inventors, had made no advance- ment. It has been little more than half a century ago that the scythe and cradle came into general use. Farmers then con- sidered it a model of usefulness and a great labor saver. The scythe and cradle was used almost exclusively in reaping in this community until about the year 1850 when a clumsy reaper called the Kentucky Har- vester came into existence and was used on some of the larger farms. A few years later a machine called the Dropper came into use This machine did not bind the bundles but dropped them off to be bound by hand. Then came the self binder which is now in use The first binders used wire instead of twine to bind the bundles. It was many years after this community was first settled that a threshing machine was used. In fact threshing machines were not used here until about the year 848. Un- til then, the grain vvas threshed either with a flail or tramped out with horses. The first machine used in threshing was called the 'Ground-Hog". This machine sepa- rated the grain from the straw but did not separate the grain and chaff This had to be done by running the grain and chaff through a fan, which was turned by hand. MAKING LUMBER All the lumber used in this community, for many years of its early existence, was sawed by whip saws, as they were termed. The process of making lumber with a whip saw, as I have had it described to me, is something like this: A frame work for the purpose was built on a hill side high enough for a man to stand under and work. The log that was intenaed to be made into lum- ber was rolled upon this frame and the saw- ing was carried on by two men, one above and one below the log. A long, thin saw was pulled up and down through the log by these men, much after the fashion of the old upright raw that some of the older people remember seeing at Hamer's miU a half century ago. It would require of two men a daj' of hard work to saw as much lumber as an ordinary saw mill would saw in ten or fifteen minutes. It is said that necessity is the parent of invention. This was surely true of the early pioneers. Money with them was very scarce, so it became necessary for them not only to do their own tailoring and shoe making, but to tan their own leather. A tan vat could be seen at nearly every home. This was a large trough that had been hewn from a poplar log, sunk to its upper edge in the ground. A quantity of white oak bark was easily obtained in the Spring when the clearing was being done. This, after being dried, was shaved and pounded on a block of wood with a maul or axe. Ashes were used instead of lime for taking off the hair. The blacking for the leather was made of soot and bear grease or lard Leather made in this way, while coarse, was good. WEAVING CLOTH FOR CLOTHING. The clothing worn for many years was of domestic manufacture. Almost every house contained a loom and every woman was a weaver. Girls \vere taught how to weave and spin at a very early age Lm- sey, which was made of flax and wool was about the only article of clothing. Every family raised a small field of flax. Many who read this have never seen a field of flax. The seed was sown in April or May and covered with a wooden tooth harroA'. In August or September it was ready to pull. This was a slow process as it had to be pulled much as we would pull weeds from a garden. After being pulled it was bound into bundles like wheat or oats. After a few days drying it was taken to the thresh- ing floor and by the use of the flail the seed was separated from the stem, It was then scattered out on the ground in order to rot the woody portion, where it remain sd about a month. It was then taken to the flax brake and the woody part broken into small bits then with a large wooden dagger, call- ed a singling knife, these bits were separat- ed from the flax. The next process was to separate the flax from the tow, which was done by pulling it through the teeth of the hackle. The flax was then ready to be wound aiound the distaff and spun into thread ready for the Iooti. Flax was al- ways spun on what was called the little wheel, 1 will not attempt to describe any of the tools just mentioned, but suggest that someone make a flax brake, a flail, a singling knife and hunt up a hackle and a little spinning wheel and have them on ex- hibition at the centennial celebration, that I understand is to be held here sometime during the present year. HOW PIONEERS OBTAINED TITLE TO THEIR LANDS. As was noted in a previous sketch the early settler could make practically his own selection as to a place to build a cabin for his hf me and to clear fields for a farm. It should be understood however that simply occupying the land gave no legal claim to ownership. While all the land in this community prior to the > ear 1 81 5 was termed public land, it had to be purchased or entered, as it was called, before any individual could acquire title ro it. At that time there was no preemption law that gave one a right or claim before others. To properly understand how the title to land here in Indiana was acquired it is necessary to go back to a period which antedates the admission of the State, and eve ^ before its formation as a territory. At the formation of the government all lands not owned by individuals belonged to the states within whose limits they were situated. The claim of the states however was subject to the claim of various Indian tribes. At the time I mention, what is now Indiana was a part of Virginia. This state, a few years later ceded its claim to the Federal government and it became a part of the North West Territory. A few years later a part of thi vast domain was sur- veyed and offered for sale to individuals. It is curious however to look bark at the first awkward attempt at legislation govern- ing the sale of public lands. The earliest law passed by congress for the sale of government lands provided for its disposal to purchasers in tracts ol^ not less than four thousand acres each, and did not allow the selling of a smaller quantity. This law, as can readily be seen, prevented persons of moderate means from ever requiring free- holds and would have enabled a few persons of wealth to have been the only freeholders. Had this law remained on the statute books this country would have been like Mexico, a land of landlords and serfs The law was unpopular in the extreme The first step toward a change in this objectionable system of disposing lands was made by William H. Harrison when he was a territorial delegate m congress. In 1800 the law referred to was changed so that Government lands could be entered in tracts as small as forty acres. Before land could be sold by the Government it was necessary that it be surveyed. This was done by surveyors employed by the Government. The first work of these sur- veyors was to establish a base or starting point from which to measure. To do this it was necessary that two lines be located. One. a meridian line which runs north and south; the other, a base line which runs east and west. From the point where these two lines cross all the land in this part of the country was surveyed. The meridian line used in the survey of the lands in this community is the east boundary of Mitch- ell, and the base line is eighteen miles south of here. The next work of the surveyors was to divide the land into units six miles square called townships. The townships were then divided into thirty-six equal parts called sections. The sections are one mile square and contained six hundred and forty acres. The lines dividing the sections were marked through the timber land, such as the land here was, bv blazing and cutting notches in trees. These were called witness trees. When no trees were on the line those nearest on both sides were blazed in such a way as pom ted to the line the sur- veyor had established. If a tree stood at the precise spot where a corner was to be made, as was sometimes the case, it was marked in a pecuUar manner to indicate that it was the corner of a section. When theie was no tree to mark the corner, a large stone with the proper numbers placed on it was set to indicate the corner. The suryeyor made a record of trees marked and stones placed. This record was called 'field notes. ' The surveyors were also required to make a plat or drawing of the land surveyed. A copy of this plat and field notes was placed on file in the land office in the district where the land was offered for sale or entry. By noting care- fully the marks on the witness trees and the numbers on the corner stones, and com paring them with the field notes and plat at the land office, the early settler had but little trouble in locating the land he desired to enter. The land office, where the early settlers from this p rt of the country procured titles to their homes, was at Vincennes. Although it is but sixty-five mibs from here, yet to make the trip at the time I mention was quite a difficult task. 1 here was no road, simply a trail leading from here to guide the pioneers and that was, lor a large por- tion of the way, through unbroken forest and over a very rough and hilly country. As the two branches of white river and a number of creeks had to be crossed and as there were no ferries or bridges it was quite a problem to cross the rivers and creeks when making the trip especially when they were swollen, which in those days was often the case. THE ENTRY PRICE OF LAND The entry price of land prior to 1820 was two dollars per acre. One-fourth to be paid when the certificate of purchase was issued, the remainder in two annual payments. After 1820 the price was one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, all paid at time of entry. In every congressional township one section number 15 was reserved for the benefit of public schools and was called school lands. These lands at first were not subject to entry, but were leased for a number of years. The person leasing them was required to make certain improve- ments each year, that is, to clear so many acres and to plant so many fruit trees. These lands were afterward sold and the money placed to the credit of the public school fund which was the begmning of the splendid school system we now have Very few of the pioneers had sufficient money when arriving here to make full payment on land, and were given simply a certificate of purchase which secured the land to them for a certain length of time, when, if they met the other two payments, they received a patent, as a government deed was called. If thej^ tailed to meet either of these payments they forfeited the land and the money they had paid, and all the hard work in clearing and improving it was lost. Most of the early immigrants to this community were very poor, and, as I have stated, had only money to make the first payment on the land they had selected for a home, depending on making the money to meet the deferred payments when they became due. This they found to be quite a difficult task. It was all they could do for a few years lo clear the land and raise produce enough for their own use. and if they had raised a surplus, there was no market for it. The only way they could procure money was by selling the skins and furs of wild animals. And so it happened when the payments became due and de- linquent, many of the settlers were on the point of losing their homes. Through the efforts of William Henry Harrison, who was formerly the territorial governor of Indiana, but who at the time I mention was a member of congress, a system of re- lief wa^ devised which, by extending the time of payment, enabled most of the people to save their homes. General Harrison was born and reared in a log cabin in the wilderness and knew some- thing of the trials and hardships of pioneer life. ^ After 1820 the credit system was abolish- ed, and the price of land, as has been stated, was fixed at one dollar and twenty- five cents per acre instead of two dollars, the former price. The immigration to this part of the country for the first few years was slow and tardy in its movements. Up to the year 1820 there had been less than forty land entries in what is now Marion town- ship, which contains more than sixty-five sections of land. This is little more than one purchase for each thousand acres em braced in the township, and some of the persons making these entries aid not live here During the :. ear 1820 there were but four entries of land made in this locality. These entries were made by Thomas Bulitt, Aaron Davis, Robert Hall and Zebedee Wood Mr. Bulitt, two years prior to this, had built the mill long after- ward known as Hamer's mill, and the land he entered was adjacent to this property. Aaron Davis located on White river, near where the road leading from here to Bed- ford crosses the river, Robert Hall entered a part of the land now owned by Clay Wright and Mrs. Henry Trueblood and built there the fiist house of hewn logs that was built in this community. He also was the first pioneer to venture away from a spring or stream, and it is s&id, dug the first well that was dug in this entiie vicinity. Zebedee Wood located near where Woodville was afterward located. Mr. Wood was the first gun-smith to locate here, and to his honor be it said, was among the first to depart from the custom of having whiskey at house-raisings and log-rollings. During the twenties quite a change came over the community. A number of the cabins once so solitary became the nucleus of a little settlement. After the settlers had secured titles that were undisputed to their homes they began to plant orchards and make other improvements. The year 1826 was especially eventful, for in that year more settlers arrived than dur- ing any two years previous. Among these were the Bass families, the Field families, and quite a large number of the Burton families. It was also during that year that the first postoffice this community ever had was established It was located at Hamer s mill and called Mill Spring. Hugh Hamer was the first postmaster. DEVELOPMFNT OF THE COUN 1 RY The question has been doubtless asked, why have I presented this portrait of the hardships, privations and crude manner of living of our fathers and forefathers^ If so, may I not ask, why are you pleased with reading the horrors of war and the account of the butchery and carnage of battles? Why are you deHghted with the fictions of poetry, the novel and rom nee? I am attempting to give facts and facts only as I understand them. I am en- deavoring to depict a state of society and manner of living that have long since ceased to exist and are fast vanishing from the memory of man I hope these sketches and descriptions of earl\ times will give the young people who mav read them a knowledge of the advantage of living in a community blessed with all modern im- provements, and prevent them from think- ing that former times and conditions were better than the present. It is especially befitting that in this centennial year of our State and the centennial year of the settling of this community we should inquire who the men and women were who came here when this was a wild and rugged wilderness. This IS now a prosperous and progressive community, and surelv the people who laid the foundation for its development are worthy of our study and consideration. The history of this community is evolution. Present prosperity and present conditions have come only from exertion, privation and sacrifice. No thmking peison can be insensible to the pleasure of the study which deals with the aspirations and efforts ol those people who, many years ago, laid so well the foundation upon which has been built the civilization we now enjoy. It is eminently proper that we should know something of those people and trace and record the social, industrial and political progress of the community in which we live. So far, I have spoken only of the hardships and tiials of the early settlers. But these conditions were not always to exist. As time went on some of the settlers built mills, not such as we have today, but they filled a much felt want. Some of the early mills were run by water; others, by horse power Some of the old people now living can remember when baskets of corn were brought in to be shelled by the bright blazing fire-place. After supper the entire family would assist in shelling the corn from the cob It was then placed in a bag and the next day the settler placed it on the back of a horse and a boy mounted behind it and st&rted to the mill which was often quite a distance. When he arrived at the mill he would probably find others there before him and would have to wait sometimes two or three days for his turn. CORN THE CHIEF PRODUCT For many years corn bread was the staple food, and it was made in the simplest manner. The meal was mixed with salt and water and made into a stiff- dough which was placed on a clap-board two or three feet long and about an inch thick This was placed before a hot fire in the fire place. When partly baked it was turned on the board and the other side was placed toward the fire. When baked in this manner it was called "Johnny Cake." Sometimes the dough was made into what was called a pone and baked in an oven If baked in this manner it was called "corn dodger." For several 3^ears of the early settling of tHs locality corn was almost the only grain raised, and there was but little, if any, market for it. Sometime during the early twenties a whiskey distillery was built at Hamer's cave by a man named Montgomeiy who bought considerable corn and distilled it into liquor. A year or two later Hugh Hamer commenced building flat boats at the old boat yard near where Mill Creek- empties into White river, and shipped corn and other produce to New Orleans. From this time on the settlers found a market for their corn and other produce Tha price, however, was often very low. Some- times not more than ten cents per bushel was paid for corn. FIRST POSTOFFICE ESTABLISHED It was in the year 1826 that the first postoffice was established in the town- ship. Previous to that time the pioneers of this part of the country had been as completely cut off from their old home and friends as if an ocean rolled between them Although the privations and suffering of the early immigrants did not last man\ years it was quite a long while before they were permitted to enjoy what might be termed the luxuries of life. Matches, which we consider a necessity, were un- known to them. Fire was kept from day to day and from year to year by covering heaps of coals in the fire place or by setting fire to hickory logs and stumps in the v/oods and fields near the honne. If the fire went out they had to kindle it by the use of the flint and steel or go to a neigh- bor and borrow. For a number of years after the first settlement, the people had no candles nor lamps. Their cabins were lighted by the blaze from the open fire- place or by what they termed the tallow dip, which was made by saturating a rag in tallow or bear grease and burning it. A few years later candle moulds were brought into use, and for many years candles were used for lights. It was not until some time m the fifties that coal-oil lamps were brought into use. IMPROVEMENT OF HOMES As time went on conditions that I have been speaking of changed. By and by many of the cabins gave place to hewed log houses, some of them with an upper room which was reached not by a stair- way, but by a ladder on the outside of the house. This upper room was called the loft. After a fe^v > ears even the little cabins in the woods began to look more homelike We should bear in mind that the people of those early days were much like the people of the present time, it was the circumbtances and surroundings that made them different. Although without the means to provide themselves with fine clothing and elegant homes, yet they loved the beautiful. After a few years the yards of their humble homes were made fragrant by wild roses, daffodils, sun flowers and other old fashioned flowers. Indian-creepers, wild mornmg-glories and other bloommg vines clambered over the walls of the cabins, and Mary m her vine covered cabin in those days was as happy as she would be in her vme clad cottage today. EARLY SCHOOLS The people who settled here in early days had little time, for several years to thmk of education. It kept them^ busy to clear the ground and provide food and clothing for their families. Children assisted in the work on the farm and as it was such a difficult task to prepare the land for culti- vation, that had schools been situated in their midst the children, who were old enough to do any kind of work, could not have been spared to attend school. The people of this community, as have been previously stated, for several years had been completely cut off from communicat- ing with the rest of the world and had not, perhaps, read a newspaper for years. The opportunity for reading and studying at home was very limited. In those days a family library usually consisted of a Bible, a hymn book, Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and sometimes outlines of Ancient History. It is worthy of special note that under these difficulties and limitations the Ameri- can thirst for education was alive and the pioneers of the forest longed for the oppor- tunity of educating their children. While none of these people had been instructed in classic lore, yet, they were as a rule, people of ordinary intelligence and some education and as soon as the bread and butter issue was not a problem, the education of their children was first in their mind. At that time it was almost impossible to obtain books, slates, pencils, pens and paper, and for several years their use was limited to those who had brought them from their old homes. For quite a number of years after Indiana become a state there was no pub- lic school system and no public funds to pay teachers or build school houses. For several years the few school houses, that were built in this community, were built by the men in the locality where they were located, and the teachers for a number of years, were paid b\' private subscription. When the people of a neighborhood decided to build a school house, a site would be selected as near the center of the neighbor- hood as possible. Then a day would be agreed upon for the men to meet and buiid the little structuie that was to be a neigh- borhood or community school house. As the country became more densely populat- ed, a few school houses were built of hewed logs but most ol them were made of round logs with clapboard roof and puncheon floors. The boards on the roof were fas- tened down with wooden poles and wooden pegs. Almost h If of one end of the house was taken up by a fireplace and stick and clay chimney. A section of the log was cut a^vay on one side to form a window. Over this opening stiff paper was placed which had been greased to make it trans- parent. For a writing desk split boards that had been smoothed with a drawing knife were placed on pegs which had been inserted in auger holes in a log beneath the window. The door was made of slabs and hung on wooden hinges. The benches were made of logs split into halves and the split side smoothed with a broad axe and sup- ported by pegs driven in the round side. The school house was now complete and the people of the neighborhood were just as proud of it as we are of our elegant school houses of toda\ . A school house of this kind was by no means a conafor table place for children to spend eight or ten hours a day. This was especially the case in winter time. The wind whistled about the little structure and found plenty of open space, or "cracks" as they were called, so the scholars, as well as the teacher, often suffered with cold in spite of the blazing fire in the big fire place. It was the custom, in those days, to study the lesson aloud, that is, the pupils spelled and read their lessons, when studying, in an audible tone, and .sometimes, when study- ing their spelling lessons, could be heard for quite a distance from the school house. A school conducted in this way was termed a loud school. When a teacher applied for a school he was always asked the question: whether he wanted to keep a loud or silent school. In those days, except in spelling, the pupils did not recite in classes, but in- dividually. When reciting the spelling les- son there was always a head and foot to the class and a record was usually kept of the one who received the largest number of head marks during the term of the school and sometimes a prize was given to the lucky one. The spelling class recited twice each day; just before the noon recess and again just before the school was dismissed for the day. Every scholar, from the small- est to the largest, was required to stand up and spell m one of the two or three classes. The one who was at the head of the class at the close of one recitation went to the foot in the next. When one missed a word it was passed to the next in line, and the one who spelled it correctl> stepped up above the first one who had missed. To have gone to the head the most times in a term of school was considered quite an honor. In studying reading, each pupil was per- mitted to use any kind of book that he happened to have Often the New Testa- ment was the only reading book in the school room When the weather was warm all the pupils, and sometimes the teacher, went to school barefooted. In winter time the boys wore home-spun and home-woven linsey or jeans coats and pants, made after the pattern of their fathers, with "gallow- ses" that their mothers had knit of home- spun yarn, crossed in the back and fastened to the pants with wooden buttons. Instead of hats they wore coon skin caps. SCHOOL GAMES Not only did the methods of teaching and studying in the early schools differ from the methods ot the present day, but there vv^as also quite a difference in the games played during the schoDl. Such games as foot ball and basket ball were unheard of then The games in vogue in early time? for the large boys were "shinny," bull pen and town ball. The smaller boys would play hat ball and three cornered cat-ball. The large girls would skip the rope, or rather the grape vine they would Lise for a rope. The little girls would play "ring-a round-a-rosey. " If the teacher permitted the boys and girls to play together, which was not often the case, the whole school would join in play- ing "ant-ny-over. ' On each Friday afternoon the children would recite declamations and dialogues. One of the most delightful features of the early schools was the spelling bee or, the spelling match as it was then called. When it was announced that there would be a spelling match on a given night the people came for miles away, not in automobiles or carriages, but walked or rode in wagons or sleds, drawn sometimes by horses, but oftener by slow plodding oxen. The manner of conducting a spelling match was sometning like this: Two leaders would be selected to "choose up,' that is, to divide the spellers into two companies who, as thev were chosen, took their places en opposite sides of the school room, which was lighted by tallow candles or by a blazing fire in the fire place. The words were pronounced from a spelling book by the teacher. Those who misspelled a word took their seats. This was kept up until the last speller on one side was "turned down" as it was termed. The way some of the pupils could spell in those times would be a surpri e to the people of today. It often happened that page after page, and sometimes the entire spelling book, would be learned by heart To be a champion speller was considered quite an honor. This was a worthy ambition, now much fallen into decay. Of the qualifications of the early teachers not much can be said. In fact, for quite a number of years no qualification at all was required except that he be able to read and write and cipher. He was also re- quired to know how to make "quill pens." These were made with a sharp knife from goose quills, as the long stiff feathers which grow on the wings of the goose are called. Steel pens were not used for many years. Ink was made at home either from ripe polk berries or from little balls that grew on oak trees called "ink balls." The rules that the teacher or Master, as teachers were usually called, were very severe. A bundle of switches were a necessary part of the school furniture. Nor were they neglected, but were used upon the least provocation without mercy There were some "Masters" who made regular rounds of the school room and whacked each of the larger boys over the shoulders whether he deserved it or not. The small, timid boys were usually punished by being made to sit with the girls. Harsh and even cruel as those teachers seem to us at this day to have been, most of them had a sincere desire to help the children placed in their charge, and to inspire in them a desire for education and a wish to better their condition. As has been stated, for quite a number of years after Indiana became a state there were no public school funds, and teachers were paid altogether by the patrons of the school. The pay. however, was very small often not more than ten dollars a month. Teachers in early days usually "boarded around," that is. they boarded among the families of the neighborhood; a week here and a week there until they had spent a week with each family, anci then they would begin a second round. While those early teachers had but little knowledge fo books, andj their methods of discipline and instruction were crude, yet most of them had what we do not find in all the teachers ofto d&y. "common sense, ' which covered a multitude of other deficiencies. TURNING TEACHER OUT A common practice in almost all the old time schools was to "turn the teacher out" at Christmas time till he agreed to treat. Sometime^ cakes and cider were demanded, and occasionally candy could be procured. If the teacher could outrun the boys or outwit them in any way and gain admittance to the school room by some strategy, the school would lose the treat. This, however, did not often happen, for while the boys were chasing the teacher, the girls would see that the school house door was kept securely barred. As time went on the interest in education increased among the pioneers. Larger and better school houses were built. Until some time in the forties all the school houses that were built were of logs, but they answered the purpose for which they were erected, very well. In the year 1845 the Legislature of the State passed a law establishing a free school system with the provision rhat it should not be enforced except in such counties as adopted it bj' a vote of the people. It seems strange to us now that more than half the counties of the State voted to reject it. .Although this county voted to adopt the system it was by no means unanimous. Many of the people who lived here then had come from states that had no free school system, and they were opposed to taxing themselves to educate other people's children. Previous to the year 1845 all the school houses that were located here were called neighborhood or community school houses as they were built by the people living in the community or neighborhood. After the public school system referred to was adopted they were termed public or district school houses, as they were built with public funds. Until this time each school had been conducted just as the teacher and the patrons desired. There had been no uniformity of text books, bnt each pupil had been permitted to use any text book he happened to have, and but little qualifi- cation had been required of teachers. It is true that for several years each township had what was called a "board of educa- tion,' consisting of three trustees elected by the voters, who were supposed to con duct examinations and pass on the qualifi- cation of teachers. It often happened how- ever that no member of the board could either read or vvrite, so the examinations the teachers underwent were surely very superficial In the \ ear 1827 congress gave its con- sent to the State to sell the lands that had been set apart as school lands, and as soon as these lands could be disposed of and the mone}^ loaned and interest collected, there was a small amount of pubic funds that could be used to help pay teachers. This added to private subscriptions would, in some instances, provide for a three months school during the year. This was regarded as quite a long term. In the absence of records I think I am safe in saying that prior to the year 1860 the average school term of Marion township did not exceed three months. It is surprising that the early teachers could have accomplished so much For it is true strange as it may seem, that out of these old time schools came many boys and girls with enough of the rudiments of knowledge to enable them to beccme useful, intelligent and successful men and women in the various walks of life. While not intending to criticise the present methods of teaching, yet I think the teaching in the early schools was more practical than the teaching of the present day; that is, it better fitted the pupils for the duties of the great, busy world in which they wt le to live I think it is also true that parents in early times took, as a rule, more interest in the education of their children than at the present time. How many parents of today would send their children to school where they had to walk through the mud and snow two or three miles to reach a school house, and make the money to pay their tuition the hard way the pioneers had to make theirs ? As years rolled on geography and grammar were taught in some of the schools. Later, geography and grammar schools were held at night in many of the school houses where, seated around the open fire in the fire place, the children would pore over the mysteries of these subjects In a few of the schools debating or literary societies were organized. Some times two or three schools would unite and organize a society with a 'constitution and by-laws.' These societies, which always met at night, were often kept alive during the entire year. Perhaps the most noted one of these societies that was established in this community was organized and met at what was called the "Dave Dobbins" school house, which was situated about four miles west of Mitchell. Once a week after a hard day's work the young people of the community, and often the older ones, would wend their way to that old school house, which was surrounded by wood.-, to discuss and to hear discussed the important subjects of the day, National problems, such as 'Should foreign immigra- tion be prohibited?" the slavery question, the temperance question, the tariff, and other leading topics of that time were debated and settled in a masterful manner. William H. Edwards and Isom Burton are the only persons n jw living, so far as 1 am informed, who were members of that society and took part in its debates Another feature of the early schools that 1 must not fail to mention is the school exhibition that was held on the night of the last day of school. This was looked upon as a great occasion, and pupils and teacher would spend weeks in preparation. Perhaps some ola man who reads this will recall the time when a boy I e appeared on the stage at one of these exhibitions and began in a loud and shaky voice "Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish " Some imitator of Spartacus would urge his Gladiators on to battle, and Patrick Henry would demand either liberty or death. The Turk then as now — ,'At midnight in his guarded tent. Lay dreaming of the hour When Greece her knee in suppiiance bent. Should tremble at his power. " The small boy who "Liked to see a little dog and pat him on the head," and the little girl telling of "Mary's lamb with fleece as white as s ow,'' were sure to appear on the stage. But all this to the reader, perhaps, seems like echoes from a forgotten world. \es. there were merry and happy times in those long gone-by- days in spite of the toils and hardships, and many a tired man and woman, when enfeebled by age, has looked back upon them with pleasurable longing. "Backward, turn backv/ard O time in your flight. Make me a child again, Just for tonight." This community has, from its earhest settlement, kept constant and steady step in the march of education. Within a very few 3'ears after its first settlement the rude huts that were to be used for school houses were built m several localities. Although each of these schools of "ye olden time" has its tinge of history, its interesting past, yet to trace the origin and history of each one would be almost an impossibility, and, were it possible the result would scarcely justify the extraordinary undertaking that such a task would require. I will, how- ever, give a short sketch of a few of the very early schools and one or two of the schools of a later day. As no records were kept of the early .schools I necessarily have to rely on tradition for the information that I shall give. The first school that was taught in what is now Marion township was taught in a little log house which was situated about two miles south of Mitchell on the farm now owned b-. the Jenkins brothers. The first teacher was John McClean, who taught a short term in the year 1824. What little salary teachers in early times received was paid altogether by the patrons of the school, and it is said that McLean agreed to take the larger part of his salary in such provisions as he could use in his family. The second teacher was Samuel Dalton, a one legged man, who teught two or three terms Dalton's successor was a man named Evans, whose career as a teacher was short, teaching but one short term. William Bathay was the third teacher. Bathay taught thre^ terms, and it was said of him that he was a good man and a good teacher. The last pedagogue to hold forth in this little log structure was a We shman by the name of Watkins, who taught four terms. It was said of Watkins that he was a good scholar and a teacher ot more than ordinary ability. In the year 1823 the second school house in this community was built near the Elkin Spring, about five miles northwest of Mitchell. The first teacher to teach there was an Irishman named Wood, who taught but one short term. Wood was succeeded by a young man by the name of William Bathay, Jr , who was a son of the teacher Bathay previously mentioned. The third and last teacher to teach at this little hut was a man named Crump, who taught three terms, and was regarded a good teacher. All the teachers that I have mentioned, as well as all the pupils who attended their schools, have long since passed to the Great Beyond. Joe A. Burton has kindly handed me a short history of the schools he attended in his boyhood days, which I am sure is in- teresting: 'The old log school house on my father's farm was built in 1839. It was a small building about twenty feet wide and twenty two feet long. It had two windows, one in the north end and one in the south ena. On the east side one whole log was cut out and a row of glass put in to give light. The teachers ^vho taught there were: John McClain, a Mr. Weir, Jesse Archer, Mr, Bridges and Allen C. Burton, who taught the last school that was taught in that primitive little school house Shortly after, a larger and better house was built on the "Bald Knob" which is about a half mile south of where the old house stood The first to occupy tht- new house was William A Burton, the second, James Madison Baker, third, William Ken- nedy, fourth and last James McConnaha. While the last named teacher was teaching, the house burned. I remember the teach- er, Mr. Weir, as being very harsh and cruel, and one day when a boy named Isom Cox committed some offense, he gave him an unmerciful whipping. I can remember see- ing the blood run down his heels after he had whipped him The bo\ s father made complaint and a meeting of the patrons was called. it was agreed that if the teacher would leave the country there would be no prosecution. Weir left, and I think with out his pay. I remember seeing the large boys at Christmas time take the teacher. Allen C. Burton, to my father's spring to duck him if he didn't agree to treat Just as they were in the act of putting him in the water lie gave them a half dollar with which to buy two bu.-hels of apples to treat the school. The last day I wore a dress was while attending Archer's school " All the teachers whose names are men tioned here, are long since dead, and the pupils who attended their schools that are still living are: Joe A. Burton, Zack Bur- ton, Riley D. Burton, Nancy Conley and William O'Dell When the school house burned, which was in the early fifties, a frame school house was built to take its place a short distance east of "Bald Knob'' and has long been known as the Burton school house. This was, perhaps, not only the fiast frame build- ing erected in this township, but was also the first one to be built with public funds. FIRST SUNDAY SCHOOL Another log school house built about this time was known as the Woodville, or Sutton school. It was in this little log structure that the first Sunday 5^chool in Lawrence County, south of White river, was organ- ized. This Sunday School was kept alive ior several years by Harlan Pope and Owen Bruner, its Superintendents. These two pioneers were intelligent, upright and re- ligious men. Both were teachers and did much for the educational uplift of the com- munity. This little log building was used as a school hou.-e until the year 1852. The teachers who taught there were: Owen Bruner, Arthur Howell, G. W Dodson and Harlan Pope, who taught several terms. These teachers are all dead and so far as I know, there are but thrre of the pupils now living, who attended the school, Aaron Pless, Mrs A Wood and W. H Edwards. The second irame school house built in Marion township was located a shoit dis- tance west of Mitchell and was known as the "Hardin Burton'' school house The teachers who taught there were John D. Carter, Daniel Watkins, Henry Burton, George Miller, Mary F Minter, John Bene diet, Joe A. Burton and Monroe Pless The different schools taught there were largely attended. Two of the teachers, Joe A. Burton and Henry Burton, are still liv- ing. In 1961 the school district was chang- ed and the school house abandoned. Short- ly afterward it was moved to Mitchell to be used as a residence, where it still stands on east Warren street. This is the only one of the f chool houses ol the long ago that is still standing and if some of the old pupils, who are now living, could visit it, they would, perhaps, find their names deeply carved on its ceiled walls. "The old school house, the cradle of youth; Thy benches hard, rigid and straight; Not less hard was thy teaching and truth Which has made great men for the state." CHURCHES \ large per cent of the early settlers of this communitv were christian men and women or at least had been reared in chris- tian homes. It is no wonder that they regarded it one of their greatest hardships that they were for so long a time deprived of the privilege of attending religious ser- vices. For several years after this com munity was first settled there was no public religious service of any nature. Sunday was considered simply as a day of rest for the older people and a day of play for the children. THE FIRST PREACHER The first minister of the gospel to visit this community so far as I have been able to learn wad a man named Abram Mitchell who held several meetings in the cabins of the 5^ettlers as early as 1821. Soon after this another itinerant preacher by the name of William Noblitt came and held services in several homes and also preached a few times in the grove. Perhaps no class of men in early times was more deserving of respect, or accomplished more good than the devoted pioneer preachers. Although most of them were uneducated and lacked cul ture, yet the\ did an almost incredible amount of useful work under extremely difficult conditions. These men devoted their lives to the cause of Christianity. They traveled from home to h )me on horse back over rough roads, often with no road at all except a blazed bridle path to guide them As a rule they were kind and sym- jiathetic and made themselves pleasant and agreeable wherever they went The lonely pioneer family considered it quite a treat to have a preacher for a guest, and he was always welcome. The ministers of early times considered it their duty to advise and counsel the people in all affairs, either religious or secular. They considered them- selves servants of the people, and for all this they received as pay a bare subsistence. THE FIRST CHURCH The first church to be organized in this community was christened the "Spice Valley Baptist Church." The church was organized in 1822 and has been kept alive for almost a century, as it is the oldest church organization in the county and, perhaps, the oldest country church in the State. I shall give a more detailed history of it than space will permit me to give of the other churches of the community. It was about seven years after the church was organized before a church building was erected. In winter time the people met for worship in the homes of the members, and in the summer they met either in the grove or in William Maxwell's mill shed. In 1829 a small log meetin' house," as a church house was called in those days, was built. This little hut, like most all other buildings of that day, was built of round legs with a puncheon floor and stick and clay chimney. Near this little church a small spot of ground was cleared, a rail fence built around it, and in this little in- ^losure they would bury their dead. Once a month on the Sabbath day, in winter and in summer, the people for miles around, dressed in their best homespun clothes, wended their way through the woods to this little house of worship. They had no carriages or buggies m those days, so they came either on foot or on horseback. Some- times the father and mother would ride the same horse, each holding a child before them. If evening services were held the time would be announced as "early candle lightin' " The only lights they had then were candles and tallow dips. This little church house was surrounded by thick spreadmg trees, and in summer time the songs of the birds flitting among the boughs were just as sweet as the music furnished by a modern church choir. They had no choirs then and, as many of the people had no hymn books, the preacher would alwa\'s line the songs to be sung. He would also request the audience to sing either in the "long metre" or "short metre." During the long existence of this church it has managed to have services at least once a month, except at short intervals All of its earlj'^ pastors have long since gone to their reward. The first pastor to sei ve this little church, which is now almost a century old, was Abram Mitchell, who began his work in 1823 and served as pastor several years. The second pastor was Thomas Vandiver, who continued as pastor eight years. In 1835, and during Vandiver's pastorate the little log church house burned, A man named Ballard was teaching school in it when it burned. A brick building was erected soon after. The third pastor was Joseph Odell, who served continuously for twelve years. It is said of him that he was a man of more than ordinary ability, a warm hearted minister, a fine orator, a good exhorter or evangelist and a highly esteemed pastor. There are a few persons yet living who can remember this old pioneer preacher as he wojld preach of the duty of right living and the importance of preparing for the Judgment and Eternity. They can. perhaps, recall hearing him speak of his toils, his travels his perse- cutions and his welcomes. His earnestness in presenting gospel truths took deep hold on the minds of the people, and during his pastorate the great revival of 1842 occurred during which seventy-five persons were baptized and received in the church. The fourth pastor was Hardin Burton. Uncle Hardy, as he was familiarly called, was VA ell known and highly esteemed, He served the church as pastor at different times for many years The fifth pastor was Jacob Crabbs, who was called in 1853 and served three years. In 1856 a man named Moses Edwards, a graduate of an eastern theological college, was called and served as pastor one year. Other preachers who have served the church as pastor at different times are William Baker, R M Parks. Volney T. Baker, Nat Williams Isaac Carothers, A J Essex, Thomas J Swan, Wright Sanders, W. L Green, C. J Bunnell, David Blankenship, Walter Pack L. S Sanders, E. A Howard, P. B. Shoe maker, Warren A. Sanders, H T, Stevens J. N Nicholson, and Henry B. Sanders who is the present incunnbent. The second church house built in Marion township was known as Hicks' Chapel or Rock Lick Church. This building, which was made of hewed logs, was built in 1845. Although the buildi.ig and ground was owned by the Methodists. > et it was a union church building. An old colored man. named John Barnett, deeded the ground to the Methodists, with the proviso that the Baptists could use the building to be erected when not in use by the Metho- dists. ?o the two denominations organized a church, one known as Hicks' Chapel, the other as Rock Lick Baptist Church. Although both denominations held services there for several years, I can give the names of but few of the pastors. Rev. Samuel Hicks preached for a number of years for the Methodists, and Isaac Carothers, Thomas Robinson, William Baker and David Elkins preached for the Baptists. Both churches have long since disbanded and the church building torn away. The next building erected for church purposes in the community was known as the Cross Roads Church. This little church house, which was built in 1847, was situated at the cross roads a short distance south of the present home of C. F Lewis. This was owned jointly by the Baptists and Presbyterians. The preachers who preached at this church during its short existence were Elder John Tiffany for the Presbyterians, and Rev John Blackwell for the Baptists. Mr. Blackwell was the father of our townsman, Harrison Black- well. In 1849 the church house burned and both organizations disbanded. The next church in the community was known as thr Freedom Baptist church, which was organized in 1850 In 1851 a substantial frame church building was erected about one mile south of Mitchell. I cannot give the names of all the pastors who served this church during the several years of its existence, but will mention the fcllowing; Thomas Robinson, R. M. Parks, W. L B3«^ton, J B Porter, Albert Ogle, A. J. Essex and W. L Green. The next was a Presbyterian church or- ganized in 1855 in an old log school house situated about two miles north of MUchell. A fuller history of this church will be given in connection with the history of the churches of Mitchell The next church in the community was christened the Liberty Baptist church or- ganized in 1870. This has been a prosper- ous church from the beginning and in 1873 erected a good frame building which was remodeled and rebuilt in 1914; The church has had for pastors. William Baker, V. T. Baker, Wright Sanders, Issac Carothers, Edker Burton, J. M. Stalker, F. Dame. E. H. T' cker Rev. Groves, C. F. Pack W. E. Monbeck, W. A. Sanders and Henry B. Sanders This is a flourishing church, wide awake to its opportunities and has perhaps the largest Sunday school attendance of any rural chuich in Southern Indiana. In the early seventies a Methodist church was or ganized and a 'church building erected on the Mitchell and Bedford road near Red Cross and called Wesley Chapel. This has always been, as I am informed, a circuit church and I am unable to give the names of the ministers who have served as pastors. Services are still held there and the church has been productive of much good in the community. There have been oiher attempts to build churches in the township but no others than the ones mentioned have ever been built so far as I am informed. In all the churches that I have mentioned Sunday Schools were organized These early day Sunday Schools were attended by both old and young. Sunday School lessons then were not outlmed with "Golden texts" and instructions for studying as they are today. This would have been of little use however for many who attended Sunday School then could read but little and some of them not at all. Those who could not read brought spelling books with them and for them classes were formed and they were taught to spell and read Those who could read were assigned lessons in the New Testament. In addition to the Sunday School and churchservice that they had in early days the people would often meet at the homes where they would read the Bible and have song and prayer service. If they could have a minister with them they would have a sermon. One of the pioneer preach- ers of this communit} who spent much of his time preaching at the homes of the peo- ple was David Elkins. This devoted old preacher before emigr ting here was a neighbor and friend of the Abraham Lincoln family in Kentucky. A biographer of Lin- coln says: Local History of National Interest. "From David Elkiiis. the itiiin'aiit preach- er, .Ihraham Liven] ii leai^ned nnicJi, Ids de- sire for knon-Jedge orereoming his tii}hi difij." Agaii) ill,' sanir aiiilior in si»'uk'iitg of Mrs. Lincoln's drolli saiis. "nl llnil iiinr no minis- ter nuts nrnr in rnndnei the funeral srrrirr and oat nf the depths of his soriuar .Ihrahani irrote his frsi li-ticr io Parson Da rid F.I kins of Kcnia rkif . i ni jil ni'i n g liini In mine and eon- dnei (I memorial serriee ai his m niher' s grave . D is recorded ihat ahnut ia-n hundred people gathered some weeks later in j>a rtici p'lte in Ihe service cnnd acted liij tlie Fev. Elkins who had cnine ])}ore than a hundred miles if) solace fItU ff'iuh'v In^tirf of <i l)(>ti." If is not geiic.r- ((II 11 k-iioiru I hut this old minister is buried in- a null' iD'OlccI I'd ijrii i-r- ijii rd some five miles ivfsi of Milrhi'll . Such however is true his - torij and ])<'!' pi II >J out from nmong the aecumu- Ir/tion of iveeds. Inishrs and hriiirs in that badly ne fleeted ornrr ,/ard is a little nn/rJ.'er bearing the i nscri ]ition " Dovid Ellyins :I /•'. C. Mil. irirr of /SI J. '• y'lie Lincoln famili/ moved from Kentucky to Spencer Co.. Indiana in IS 16 fJncoln. ivastheu about right years old: about a ijear later Mr. Klkins com jil yi n g irith the reijuest of the letter set out on horseback for the home of Ihe Lincolns. ) oung Lincoln al the same time, not hiiri no recei red a rejilij to his letter. started to visit Rev. Elkiiis irith a vicir to in- ducing him to come to Indiana and pay the tribute of respect that he fell iras due the memoi']/ of h is mollier. Some udiere on Ihe road Ihe Iwo met and KIkins returned irith Lincoln and preached the funeral at the Lin- coln home, adiich is near Lincoln City in Sjieiicer count y. LJIkins. alio iras a sol d i er in the irar of IS\J. moved to a farm about four miles noj'tha-esi pf .Mitchell some time in ih.e forties. He died in ISr,] and is buried in Ihr little cemrlrry abore men Honed . II is remein bered thai KIkins often spoke of the 10 year- old lad irho a-as so dei-oted to his mother. David Elkins is well remembered by a few people still living here. They are W. H. Edwards, Henry J. Tirey, Aunt Phoebe Burton and Aunt Hannah Burton. MARION TOWN5HIP. The territory embraced in what is now Marion township was originally a part of Clark and Knox counties. All of that part of the township west of the Meridian, which is the east boundary of the corporation of Mitchell, was a part of Knox county and the part which is east of the Meridian line was a part of Clark county. In 1808 the territory on the east side be- came a part of Harrison county and re- mained so until 1813, when it became a part of Washington county. In 1815 Orange county was formed and all the territory embraced in what is now Marion township became a part of Orange county and so remained until January 17, 1818, when Lawrence county was formed. When Lawrence county was organized Marion township was constituted a voting precinct but was not named as a township until 1826, being, until that time, apart of Bono township. The township was named after General Francis Marion, of Revolutionary fame. Iii Size, it is one of the largest townships in the county and, with the exception of Shawswick, is the wealthiest township in the county. It is something over eight miles square and contains about sixty six square miles or sections of land. The first election held in the voting pre- cinct, which was afterward Marion town- ship, was held at the residence of Samuel G. Hoskins, on the first Monday i.i August 1818. At that election thirteen votes were cast. The names of the voters were: Ar- thur Dycus, Robert Erwin, William Erwin, Samuel Hoskins, Joseph Pless, James Bos- well, Joseph Bosweli, Elijah Murray, James Mathis. George Sheeks. John Finger, Joseph Culbertson and Thomas Rowark. At that time there were two parties. Republican and Federalist. Ten of the votes were cast for the Federalist and three for the Repub- lican party. The voting place for the town- ship continued at Hoskins residence, which was then on the meridian road in the ex- treme north part of the township, until he moved on what is now the Mitchell and Bedford road where Jacob Colglazier now resides, at which place elections were held until 1842 when the voting place was chang- ed to Redding thence to Woodville and in 1856 was moved to Mitchell. There was but little interest taken in politics in this township until the election in 1836 when General Harrison who was the idol of the pioneers, was the Whig candidate for Presi- dent when quite an interest was taken, and again in 1840 the township gave a majority for "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". In the Presidential election in 1844 it gave a ma- jority of Its votes for Henry Clay. In 1848 Zachariah Ta> lor carried the township. In 1832 the vote of the township was Pierce 109 votes, Scott 248 votes. In 1856 James Buchanan received 148 votes Willard Fil- more 219 and John C. PVemont ]7. Ab Gross, east of Mitchell, is the only one of these living who voted for Fremont. The father of Postmaster J, T. Dilley was large- 1}' instrumental in persuading Mr. Gross to vote for Fremont It was during this campaign that the first political club called the Lincoln Republican Club, was organized in the township. Silas Moore was President and W. H. Edwards then too >oung to vote, was Secretary. Mr. Edwards is the only surviving member of this club. The result of this election in this town- ship was that Lincoln received 217 votes. Douglass 167. Breckinridge 37 and Bell 79. In 1864 Lincoln received 298 and McClellan 132 votes. In 1868 the vote was for Grant 386 and Seynmour 205. In 1872 Grant re- ceived 410 and Greely 249 votes. The re- sult of the election in 1876 was Hayes 458 andTilden267 votes. In 1880 Grarfield received 459 and Hancock 259 votes. It is not necessary that I give the results of later elections as records, kept on file in the office of the township tiuster, and county clerk, are of easy access. INDUSTRIES. Of the early industries of the township not much can be said. For many years agriculture was the principal occupation of the people of the township To find a market for their surplus corn was quite a problem. This was partly solved by the erection of a few mills and distilleries. The mill erected near the source of Mill creek was one of the earliest, as well as one of the best mills erected in the county, and the people of a a large scope of country were its patrons for many years and until as late as the year I860.. On the tract of land where this old mill has stood for nearly a cenlurv, is the famous Homer's cave and the beautiful glen known as Hamer's Hol- low, As early as the year 1817 a small corn mill was erected near where the old stone building now stands. This mill was run by water conducted from the cave by troughs hewn from logs. A man by the name of Wright was the first miller. In 1818 the stone mill mentioned was built and equipped with the best machinery known in that day, and the mill became the most noted place in the township. There were other mills built in the township, but they were of an inferior kind and of very limited capacity. In the early twenties a man by the name of Dennis Frost built a small mill and distillery at Tomlinson's spring near where the Lehigh crusher now stands. A small mill with an overshot wheel was built in 1824 at Donaldson's cave. A distillery and carding machine was built in connect- ion with this mill in 1835. The interior of this cave shows that at one time gunpowder was manufactured there, but of this there is neither history or tradition. Within this picturesque cavern the roar of a magnificent cascade may be heard. In the cave is found a well formed hall twelve feet high, three hundred feet long and nearly fifty feet wide. Other distilleries, grist mills and saw mills too numerous to mention have existed at different places in the township, but they have long since disappeared. This township, as has been previously stated, was originally heavily timbered with almost every variety of timber. The work ing of this, after the completion of the rail- roads which ran through the township, was quite an industry until these fine forests were almost destroyed, since when more at tention has been given to cultivation and fertilization of the soil, and while the im- provement in the methods of farming has been slow, yet is steady and perceptible. MUSTER GROUNDS Marion township, like all other portions of Indiana in early years, was required by law to organize its militia and meet at least once every three months to drill or muster as it was then called. The place designated as ' mueter grounds" for this township was in a field on the farm now belonging to Frai^k Mitchell and just across the road from the residence of Jake Col- clazier. This militia, which was composed of ell able bodied men between the age of 18 ?.rd 45 years, was organized into companies and regiments under the command of a captain, colonel or major. As no records were kept it is impossible to give the names of many of the officers who at various times were in command in this township. It is known however that John Sheeks was a colonel, Alfred Burton a major and Henry Miller, Sr. a captain. Each man who drilled was required to furnish his own gun. but it often happened that some of the men had no gun to furnish and, as he was required to have something with which to go through the manual of arms, a broom stick or corn stalk was frequently used. At that time the memory of the Revolutionary war and the war of 1812 were fresh in the minds of the people, and for several years quite < n interest was taken in these drills or musters. As years rolled by and these memories began to subside, the active interest in the musters subsided also, and finally degenerated into a mere farce, and the day that had been formerly looked upon so proudly degene- rated into a day of horse racmg. shooting matches and fist-fighting. Sometime in the early forties the militia was disbanded, and muster day became a thmg of the past THE WARS This township sent a number of soldiers to the Mexican war, but I can give only the following names: Samuel Brooks, George Wright, and three brothers, Charles, Henry and Wesley Edwards. It was in the war of the Rebellion that the township made a record that is excelled by no other township in Lawrence county, and by but few in the State. It is a matter of regret that a complete history of the part the township took in that terrible struggle cannot be given. Much valuable matter such as accounts of meetings held, relief committees organized, speeches de- livered, disloyalty displayed, war meetings called, and a hundred other personal notes and observations which are of local value, are nearly all lost to history. It is also a matter of deep regret that but few of the heroic acts of the private soldiers of the township can be given. It was the men in the trenches who won the battles, and many a heroic deed that would thrill the hearts of the young people of today was performed by men who held no commission and who carried the musket and not the sword. Space will not permit even the mentioning of the names of all the boys who enlisted from this township and served either dur- ing all or a part of the great conflict. It is perhaps the prevailing opinion of most people who have no personal recollec- tion of the state of affairs that existed in this community at the beginning and dur- ing the early years of the war, that every- body here was loyal to the union cause. This, I am sorry to say, was far from the case. In Marion township, as well as in other parts of the State, public opinion in regard to the war was divided. It looks peculiar to the people of the present day that so many thinking persons during 1860 and 1861 were in doubt as to what position to take. This state of affairs led to ani- mated discussions, bitter feelings and some- times to personal encounters. An attempt was made at night to destroy a Lincoln flag pole which had been erected on Main street. Things remained in an unsettled and gloomy state until the morning of April 15. 1861, when the news of the fall of Ft. Sumpter reached here and created the wildest excitement. Business of all kinds was almost entirely suspended. Farmers unhitched their horses from the plow and hurried to town to learn the details. Crowds gathered on the streets and listened to talks from such men as Silas Moore, Hugh Hamer, Jonath&n Turlcy and other political leaders. Arrangements were made for a mass meeting to be held the following night in Johnson's hall, the hall over the City Drug Store. A large crowd gathered at the time appointed, and the excitement was at a high pitch. Hugh Erwin was ths principal speaker and fired the audience with such expressions as, "Shall we permit this glorious union to be destroyed and wiped out by traitois^" *'Will we, as loyal men, look quietly on and see the American flag insulted and trailed in the dust?" "If war is necessary that this union, the heritage of our Revolutionary fathers, shall be preserved let it come. I repeat it. Let it come." Within a very few days steps were taken to raise volun- teers, and a heavy list was enrolled. As many as fort}/ or fifty left their homes here within a ^veek aftar the fall of Ft. Sumter, most of them going to Indianapolis in the hope of gettiiig into service there. Under the shadows of the great war which is now engaging the attention of the world, the boys who fought the battles of our own war and who saved the nation, must not be forgotten. To them we owe a debt of gratitude that can never be paid. It re- quired bravery and sacrifice on the part of these young men, whose average age was but twenty years when the war cloud burst forth in cyclones of fire and battle, to put away their schocl books, lay down their farming tools, leave the work shop, bid good bye to home and loved ones and rush to their country's rescue. It was no holiday affair to exchange a comfortable home and the healthful climate of a northern state for the hot swampy and un- healthful climate of the south land. The sacrifice of life from disease alone abundantly attest the hardships and peril through which they passed. And while we honor the living heroes and scatter flowers on the graves of the soldiers v^ho are buried in our midst, we should not forget to pay homage to the memory of those who were left on the southern battle field, or who starved to death in southern prison pens, or died of disease, and who are sleeping in deserted and forgotten graves, where the moaning pine and the stately magnolia sheds their perfume over them, and the mocking bird chants the sad requiem of death. Although the brave boys are gone their memory should be as a precious jewel in the bright casket of memory. "On fame's eternal camping ground, Their silent tents are spread. " The exact number of soldiers that Mit- chell and Marion township furnished dur- ing the Civil War connot be definitely given, as quite a number left the country to enter companies raised elsewhere, and, for whom the township received no credit. The first enrollment of the township, which was tak- en in 1861 showed that the township con- tained three hundred and forty-five men between the ages of 18 and 45 years. As near as can be ascertained, about three hundred of these enlisted some time during the war. Although, as has been previously stated, quite a number left home immed- iately after the fall of Ft.Sumpter, it was not until early in June 1861 that any of them succeeded in being mustered into ser- vice. The first to enter service frcm this township were George Hamer, Hugh Hamer, John Richards and Irve Tinsley, who en- listed in the i5th regiment. John Richards was the first man from Marion Township to receive a wound while on the field of battle. He now lives in Mit- chell. Columbus Moore, later known as Captain Moore, was perhaps the next to enlist from here, enlisting in the 16th regi- ment. After serving a few months. Cap- tain Moore returned and raised a company of one hundred men for the three year ser- vice. This company met and organized under a spreading beech tree that stood on the lot on West Main St, where Joe Chess now lives, and John Riley of Mitchell made a speech. The officers selected and after- ward formally elected and commissioned were Columbus Moore, captain; William Mannmgton, 1st Lieutenant; Milton N. Moore, 2iid Lieutenant. After selecting their officers the boys marched proudly down Main Street, stopping at the resi- dence of Silas iMoore, when Mrs. Moore, after giving them some motherly advice, presented the company a beautiful flag. Captain Moore, in behalf of the Company, accepted the flag and pledged that, while life remained in a single member of his company, the flag should never trail the dust As far as 1 can ascertain, the mem- bers of this company who were from Mit- chell and Marion Township were: Marion Beaslej- Satn Erwin John Alexander Alex Leach George Bass Mole Nugent Harrison Blaokwell Gus Nugent Jackson Beaslev Tom Paterson Dave Blackwell Ed Riddle Frank Crawford E!za Smith Jesse Cokenhour Abner Stevens Henr.y Dodson Ben Blackwell Isaiah Dougherty Joe Stroud Lee Davis Robert Stroud John Davis John VV. Slieeks E. P. Eversole David Snow Mike Earl John Winegar George Flora William Wease W. H. Hilton John Webb Dave Hixon Joseph Yandell William Haraer David Tanksley William Eiwin John Daysou John Tanksley The officers of the company, Captain Moore, Milton N. Moore and Wm M n- nington were also from Mit'.'heli. Perhaps no company from the state participated in more hotly contested battles than did this company. lu the Battle of Richmond, Ky. the company of less than one hundred men lost twenty five, either killed or wounded, A historian, in writing an account of the surrender of Vicksburg, Miss, says, "Capt. Moore, a brave officer of the 16th Indiana regiment, was 'Officer of the Day' at Vicks- burg on the night of the 3rd da\ of July 1863, and on the memorable morning o ithe 4th day of July conducted Gen. Bowen and Col. Montgomery, Chief of Staff, to Gen- eral Pemberton, blindfolded, through our lines to the headquarters of Gen Burbridge to await an audience with General Grant. AH the brave boys whose names I have mentioned as belonging to this company have fought the last battle of life and answered the last roll call except three, namely, Harrison Blackwell, William. H. Hilton and Ben Blackwell. The second company organized at Mit- chell was Co, *H' 67th reg. This company which was composed almost entirely of bo\ s from Mitchell and Marion township was organized in August, 1862. The company met and elected its officers in the basement of the old Baptist church. The officers elected were: David Kelly, Captain; Allen C. Burton, 1st Lieutenant; Gordon Burton, 2nd Lieutenant. The company was com- posed of one hundred and one young men. all from Mitchell and Marion Township, except a few from Spice Valley and Bono Townships. The following names were en- lolled as members oi this company: D.ivi.i Kelly Alexander F.dwaids Allen C P,urt()ii Gordon Edsvards Tliomas Beasley Ben Legg John Beasley Frank LaoKey William Brown Laniska Loniax David G Burton Samuel Lynn W. A. Burton Sharp Lynn Gordon Burton Solomon Lynn Riley D. Burton John Mahan Isom Burton Tom Melvin Hugh H. Burton Joseph Miller Alex Bundy Joseph Morris Denton Bundy Abe Murray William Cox Wesley Murray Richard Cox Elijah Mclntire William H. Brewer Hugh McNabh William Carpenter Volney Moore Robert Cassaday Simpson Pope Eli Clark Jacob Sloan Josiah Cleveland George Smith Sol Con ley Hiram Sperelin Frank Conley William Talbott Jas. L. Cunningham Henry Tomlinson John Dewherst William Tomlinsoi Allen Edwards, Jr. Oliver Turner Wesley Edwards John T. Williams David B. Edwards Temple Wright This company left Mitchell for Madison, Ind., to be mustered into service August 12th, 1862, A large crowd gathered at the depot to see the boys off. The occasion, though enthusiastic, was sonowful and im- pressive, and scores wept bitter tears for dear ones they never again expected to see. It was hard indeed to see them go. There were fathers, husbands, sons and brothers going away to die, perhaps on a southern battlefield or in a rebel prison pen, or re- turn witii an empty sleeve or broken con- stitutions. The person who has now pass- ed middle Hfe, but who was only a small child then, cannot forget the scene that was stamped upon his memory that day. He remembers how, with eager eyes and throbbing heart, he saw his father or broth- cr enter the car to be taken away, perhaps never to return. Let not the conditions of life of the old veterans prevent us from paying them the honor that is justly due them. And while on Decoration Day we beautify the graves of the dead soldiers with fragrant flowers, let us not forget to salute those who are still living. COMPANY "H 67" Company "H. 67 ' regiment left Mitchell as has been stated. August 12th, 1862 and went directly to Madison, Indiana, where, on Augujit 19th, it was mustered into ser- vice and the boys became full fledged sol- diers. Two days later the company receiv- ed orders to strike tents, pack knapsacks and prepare to march; just where, none but a fey/ of the officers knew. It was soon found, howewer, that the destination was at some point in Kentucky, which proved to be Mumfordvilie where they were or- dered in an endeavor to check the Rebel army under General Bragg in its march toward Louisville. Arriving at Mumford- vilie on August 28th the boys realized that they were in the enemy's country without military drill or dicipline and liable to be attacked at any time On September 14th. Bragg's army, which was about five times greater than the Union forces, made its appearance and completely surrounded the Union forces After three da\ s of al- most continuous fighting against such great odds, the entire Union army, at that place, was compelled to surrender. I cannot give a detailed history of com- pany "H" and the regiment of which it was a part, but will say that no regiment from the state deserves more honor than the 67th, and it is a matter of local pride to know that tne boys Irom Mitchell and Marion township were always at their post. After their capture and parole at Mum- fordvilie they were permitted to return home, remaining until the following Dec ember, when they were exchanged and with other companies of the regiment were ordered first to IndianapoHs and from there to Memphis, Tenn. The next battle the company was engaged in was at Chicasaw, Bayou and Arkansas Post, where two mem- bers of the company were killed and others wounded. Other battles in which the com pany took a part were at Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, siege and capture of Vicksburg, Grand Coteau, La., where a part of the company was cap- tured by the Rebels, Sabine Cross Roads, Cane River and Alexandria, The company also took part in the movement against Fort Margain and Fort Gaines and was in the campaign against Mobile. The com- pany in its nearly three years of service was engaged in seventeen hotly contested battles besides many skirmishes, was under fire one nundred and forty seven days and traveled more than seventeen thousand miles; surely an honorable record. In December 1864, the ranks of the 67th regiment of which company "H" was still a part, had become so diminished by Rebel bullets and death by disease that it was consolidated with the 24th Indiana regiment. At that time Captain David Kelley, who had proven himself to be a brave and cautious officer, was made Major of the new regiment. The company was mustered out of service July 19th, 1865, lacking just one month of serving three \ears. Only thirty-two of one hundred stalwart young men who con- stituted the company when it enlisted, an- swered roll call that day. If the roll of the company was called today, only ten would answer "here", the other ninety having an- swered the roll call "up yonder". The members of the company still living, so far as I am informed are: Isom Burton, Joe A. Burton, William H Edwards, Alexander Edwards, Richard Cox, Laniska Lomax, William Garyes. Riley D. Burton, Gordon Burton and Ab Cross. In addition to the two companies, which were made up and organized here, quite a number of Mitchell and Marion township boys enlisted at different times of the war and performed gallant service in other reg- iments. In addition to the names already mentioned of Mitchell and Marion Town- ship soldiers 1 will give the following list which I fear is not complete: I*](l\v;ii'(l Antoiiipsld Samuel ('()nl< Asa Dean .Toliu Cook William Coleman (ieo. VV. Cook Creorge Wood William R. Hamer William Edwards Daniel W. Burgess Tom Edwards Jol n Burgess Isaac Edwards Corbin Flora Capt. Hugh Erwin William Flora Capt. .loshua I'.idd William Davis Capt. Ai). Miller E. Z. J^ogan Van B. Kelly Henry Morris William Murpljy Ben Morris Washington Stroud William Muis William Pliipps George Sutton Isaiah Bhipps Jordon Sutton .lim Spiliei't Dave Ferguson Marion Brown Dave Blackvvell Henry B>rown George Bass William Ard Isom B«.ss William Boyd William Hamilton Tom l->oyd Joe Toliver .Tames Davis J. W. Manington Levi Clark William M. Munson Robert Dodson Nathan Osborn Sol Harris Charley Harnard A. W. Jones James Owen Bent Jones Tlunnas Jones Hugh Tirey Cal Cox William H. Tirey Andy Noe E, Tirey John Hull S. Osborn John Reeves AD. Bless Henry Ward Anslem Wood Kenhen Haft Eingley Wood Cljarley Emiis T .]. Toliver Samuel Hosteller Harry Walker D.iu Hosteller Wesley Walker Henry Isoni Henry Walker Fred Haverly Elijah Walker Caswell 11 Burton William Mcnyhan jj^^g,, ^ ,>„^,f„„ John Mead William Erwin Martin Hall Jacob Blaekwell ^- H. Crawford Cla> Wright J- VV Chess Green Wright David Carbin Theie are doubtless puite a number of others whose names I fail to recall. Mit- chell and Marion Township surely did a noble part during the great struggle. Be- sides furnishing so large a number of sol diers the township contributed five thous- and dollars bounty and one thousand dol- lars relief fund for soldiers. The ladies of the town and township also did noble work. They fed the soldiers as they passed through on the trains and during the Morgan raid. They were in full sympathy with the Chris- tian and Soldier's Aid Societies and assist- ed them greatly in relieving our brave soldiers on the battle field and in the hospitals. THE BIRTH OF MITCHELL iy ITCHELL is, at present, the only "— ^^^ town in Marion township, three older towns having fallen into decay. These towns were Redding, Woodville and Juliet. Of these, Redding is the oldest, having been laid out in 1842 by John R. Nugent and Robert Porter. When it was platted it consisted of 84 lots. For many years Redding was the principal trading place for the people of the county south of White river. It was also, for many years, the voting place for the voters of Marion town- ship. Although the town was christened Redding the postoffice established there was called "Sinking Springs". John R. Nugent was appointed postmaster and served until the postoffice was discontinued. Mr. Nugent wcs also the principal mer- chant of the town. The town and post- office both have long since pass*?d into his- tory. The second town to be established in the township was Woodville, which was laid out by Edwin Wood in 1849. A post- office was established there and Mr. Wood was commissioned postmaster and served until the office was moved to Mitchell. Woodville consisted of 58 lots, lying on thr two sides of what is called Main street through which the Monon railroad runs The location of the B. & O. railroad sound- ed the death knell of Woodville and it has long since ceased to exist. Juliet the third town was laid out in 1850. For almost two years Juliet was the terminal of the Louis- ville, New Albany and Chicago Railroad, now called the Monon, and was quite a business place. Goods were shipped there by railroad and hauled from there in wag- ons to Bedford, Bloomington and to many other towns north. Stage lines were also established from there almost to Chicago. John D. Thomasson was the principal mer- chant of the thriving little burg and was also the first postmaster to serve the peo- ple there. The completion of the railroad north ruined the prosperity of the town and early death was its fate. The next town established in Marion township was Mitchell, which was laid out September 29th 1853 by John Sheeks and G. W. Cochran. Mitchell was named in honor oi O. M. Mitchell, who was the chief engineer in the location and construction of the Ohio and Mississippi Railway, now the B. & O. S. W., and who also surveyed and platted the town. The streets of the orig- inal town plat running east and west are Vine, Baker, Frank, Mississippi Avenue. Main, Warren, Brook and Oak. Streets running north and south were not named but numbered consecutively from one to eight. In 1859 West Mitchell was laid out by Jonas Fmger. which added one hundred and fifteen lots to the original plat. The streets of the addition were named Brady, Stevens and Finger. Since then quite a number of other additions have been made until the town now occupies more than a section of land. Where Mitchell now stands was originally a dense forest of large trees. The first of these trees to be cut down was in 1849 when work was commenced on the right of- way of what is now called the Monon Rail- way. During the same year a little spot was cleared and a log cabin built near where Bottorff-Simmen's store now stands. The first to occupy this log cabin was an Irish school teacher named John White. Mr. White did not remain here until the town was laid out and G. W, Dodson was perhaps the first settler of the town proper. He was followed by Albert Johnsou, Marion Brady, Amzi Munson, Silas Moore and John Fitzpatrick. Robert Stroud was the first to purchase a lot after the town was platted, but did not locate here until sev- eral years later, Mrs. W. T. Moore and Miss Lillie Brady were the first two children born in Mit- chell. The first sermon preached here was by a Presbyterian minister named Bishop. The sermon was preached from a stand which was erected near where the Grand hotel now stands. Dr. Rariden gave the first temperance lecture from a stand on the lot where the Arlington hotel once stood. The first school taught in Mitchell was in the old brick school house now occupied by the colored Baptist church. The teacher was Miss Jane Sheeks, afterward Mrs. Jane Marley. This was a subscription school. The first free schcol was taught in the same building with Eli Baldwin as the the teach- er. The first church built here was the old Methodist church building now owned and occupied by the Church of Christ. The early meichants were Silas Moore and John R. Nugent. The first druggist was G. W. Dodson- Samuel Cook and Dennis Cole- man were the first blacksmiths and J. T. Briggs was proprietor of the first hotel. Dr. Bulkley, Dr. A. L. Goodwin, Dr. New- kirk and Dr. J. T. Biggs were the early physicians. Dr. Craig ^vas the first Den- tist. Lorenzi Coppersmith was the first to practice law here. The growth of Mitchell for the first few years was slow but steady and in the year 1860 when the first cerisus was taken it con- tained six hundred and twelve people. On December 23rd, 1864 Mitchell was incor porated as a town and an elsctioa was held soon after, for the election of town officers. The first officers elected were, for Trustees, Joshua Budd, Robert Barnard and Z. L. Warren. A. T. McCoy was, at the same time, elected Clerk, but resigned at the first meeting of the council and Henry Manington was appointed to fill the vacancy. One of the first acts of the council was to purchase grounds for the cemetery, which is now one of the most beautiful and well kept cemeteries in the state, and is admir- ed and favorably commented upon by all visitors. The Civic League, an organiza- tion of Mitchell ladies, has been a moving spirit in beautifying the cemeteiy. Mitchell remained an incorporated towa for forty-three years. On July 29, 1907 an election was held to determine whether it should remain an incorporated town or should be incorporated as a city under the statutes of the state. The result of the election was a large majority in favor of incorporating as a city. The town was then divided into three wards and an election ordered to be held August 23, 1907 to elect a mayor, clerk, treasurer and five couDcilmeD, one for each ward and two at large. The result of this election was for mayor, William L. Brown; treasurer, Harry V. Shepherd; clerk, Cl\ de Burton; council- men, Thos, W Welsh, William H Dings, John L. Holmes, John B. Sims and John A. Dalton. William L. Brown resigned before completing his term and Clyde Burton be- came mayor. Mr, Burton resigned in a short time and William E. Stipp was ap- pointed to fill the unexpired term. When Mitchell became a city it had a population of more than three thousand people. This was quite an increase from the time it was incorporated as a town and an increase of more than a thousand during the five years just previous. For many years there was but little manufacturing done in Mitchell and con- sequently but little demand for labor. In fact, previous to the year 1863 there was no manufacturing established here at all. and there was but little inducement for laboring men to locate here, except to work on the railroads. It should be noted here that railroads and their equipments were quite different sixty years ago, from what they are today. What was called a good railroad when the two roads passing through Mitchell were built, would be considered quite a bummy affair today. This is especially true of the Monon. Instead ol heavy steel rails, such as are now used, flat iron bars about the weight of the tires on a wagon, were spiked to wooden stringers braced apart and bound together every six feet to v/ooden cross ties. Soms of ths older psopls can remember the first little wheezy engines used by this road with their balloon shaped smoke stacks and their canvas covered bow topped cabins which were about the size and shape oi an ordinal y wagon bed. The first freight cars were small and light, having a capacity of not more than seven or eight tons. A train of ten of these cars, when loaded, was considered quite a heavy train. For the first year or two of the road's exist- ence there were but two regular passenger trains on the southern division of the road but some of the freight trains had a pas- senger coach and were called mixed trains. The limit of a passenger train was fifteen miles an hour and it usually took all day to make the run from here to New Albany. As there were no telegraph or telephone connecticns at that time, trains were run according to a printed schedule. They were expected to pass at specific sidings but if one reached the sidiiig first, the orders were to wait ten minutes and if the other train could not be heard or sighted, to pro- ceed cautiously to the next siding. When this was done a member of the crew was sent ahead to be on the lookout for the be- lated train. Passenger trains were required to stop for passengers whenever and where ever flagged. As the engines, u-cd to pull the passenger trains, as well as the freight engines, burned wood for fuel, frequent stops had to be made to load the tender with wood. Water for the boilers was pro- cured from ponds or creeks near the rail- road by carrying it in buckets. The brake- men called this "jerking water ', which gave the road the nickname "Jerkwater railroad ' In the work of procuring ^vood and water the passengers would often assist. In 1856 and 1857 an apology for a telegraph line was constructed along both railroads passing through Mitchell. The lines consisted of a single strand of common wire strung ou black-jack and sassafras poles such as are now used by farmers for telephone poles. For several years the telegraph messages wer?, what was termed, sight-written; that is, were compressed on a long, narrow white paper ribbon by run- ning it through a little dot and dash re ceiver and then cutting it out and trans- lating it from a code. The early telegraph- ers here were Charles Moler, Mr. Hayward William and Joe Yandel for the O. & M. Wheeler Putnam was perhaps the first to serve the Monon and served for quite a number of j^ears The first ticket office of the Monon was in a room of the old Arlington Hotel The road was operated for many years before building a depot here. Silas Moore was the first agent of this road and also the first to serve the O. & M. in the same capacity, but seived that company but a short time until he re- signed and was succeeded by A. M. Mills- paw. Other lailroad men who were promi- nent in the early history of Mitchell were Jo.-hua Budd, Harve Marley, James Mann- ing, Mr. Lovejoy, A. T. McCoy, William Humston, I. H. Crim and Robert L. StroL,d. For many years there was no method of turning a locomotive and the engines had to run backward while going in one direction. Later a turn table was built near the Monon depot. Engines were run upon this and men then turned them around. A little later the "Y ' was dis- covered. This discovery is said to have been made by a boy playing with his to} s. FIRST MERCHANTS A complete directory of the early mer- chants of Mitchell carmot be given. Silas Moore was perhaps the first merchant to locate here and, in connection with his son, the late Milton N. Moore, continued in business for many years. Other early mer- chants were John R Nugent, Robert Harn- ard. Z. L. Warren. G. W. Dodson. J. T. Biggs, George Webb and others. As the amount of money in circulation, prior to 1860, was very small, a large percent of the business transacted by the merchants was by barter, very little money changing hands. Farmers would bring in to ex- change for goods such articles as butter, eggs, wool, home-made Jeans cloth, woolen socks and stockings knit by hand, dried fruit, feathers and, last but not least, gin- seng, which once grew in abundance in this community and was always in demand In 1870 the following persons and firms were ens:aged in b siness here; drygoods and groceries, Crim & Burton, Henry Clark. Emsley Wood, Sheeks & Monroe, Moore & Bro. ; Groceries, Allen Edwards & Henry Mannington; Stationers, Anderson & Ham- ilton; Boots and Shoes, Wood and Brother; Milliners, Mrs. E. A. Brown, Mrs, Tanks- ley, Mrs. Moffit, Mrs. Newby and Mrs. Gresham; Tinware and Stoves, Hill & Owen; Physicians, A. L Goodwin, M. D. Grim, J. Trush, E. S. Mclntire, W. A. Burton, J. B. Larkin. J. T. Biggs and Isom Burton; Dentist, J. H. McPheeters; Under- taker and Cabinet Maker, A. P Adams; Harness Makers, Rice M. Brown and Wm. M. Munson; Shoemakers, M. G. Keane, Ghris Vossler, Fred Brown, Amzi Munson; Lawyers, Wm. H. Edwards and Gharles G Berry; Flour mill, D. Kelly & Co; Druggist. G. W Dodson and Burton & Burton; Hotel keepers, Jas. Richardson Sarah Day- son and I. B. Falkner; Blacksmiths, Hugh McNabb, Sam Cook, Dennis Coiemar, John Lasweil, James Head and Kin Owen; Butchers, Sant McNabb, Dave Ferguson and Cole Smart. As we scan ths above list we find but two names whose faces are familiar to the people of Mitchell today, W. H. Edwards and Isom Burton. Span- ning a decade and a half a directory of Mitchell in 1885 would show the following named persons and firms doing business here: Dry Goods, A. Wood & Co.; Jas. D Moore, iVloore & McPheeters. Malott & Glover; Groceries, Edwin Wood, Burton & Malott, Jas. H, Brown. E. P. Eversole; Drugs, W. A- Burton, Isom Burton, W. H. Tapp, G. W. Dodson, J. T. Biggs; Hard- ware, Gus Davis, Crawford & Son; Milli- ners, Mrs. S. E. Newby, Mrs, Tanksley, Mrs. Williams; Stoves and Tinware, Jos- Dale; Grist Mill, David Kelly; Saw Mill, Charley Lemon; Bank of Mitchell, Milton N. and Wm. T. Moore; Sdddler and Har- ness, Wm. M, Muneon, Rice M. Brown; Stave Factory, Tilson Harlan; Editors- Commercial, John V. Smith, Times, Chas. L. Yockey; Marble Shop. Ed J. Salyards; Book Store, Geo. Wood; Jewelers, S. F. Martin, Chas. L, Barton; Lawyers Wm. H. Edwards. Chas. G. B^rry; Physicians, J. L. W. Yost, J. B. Larkin. G. W." Burton, E. S. Mclntire, Jas. C Pearson, A. J. Mc- Donald; Lumber Dealers, Viimedge Bros.; Shoemakers. Lyman Beebe, Chris Vosler, Amzi L. Munson; Ministers, Pastor cf Bap- tist Church, Rev. Davis, Presbyterian, Rev. iMcKee, Methodist R'^^v. Hutchinson. For future reference the following busi- ness directory July 10 IS* 1 6 is given; Banks The Bank of Mitchell The First National Hardware H. H. Crawford Bottorff — Sinimen Co Clothing Jacob Effron Ceoil Murray Furniture VV. M. Shanks J. M. Card well J. VV. Howe C. E^ Harrison Dry Goods Braraan's Dept Store Harry Chappie E. Sharashewsky G. Miehael Grocers I.. B. Mather A. R. Ewing & Sons J. F. Mathews Bramans Wm. Morarity Sarah Alvey Ben Deitendorf Holmes Brothei-s Chappies J. D. Sanders W. F. Lagle Chas, Coyle L. A. Morgan S P. Corn well J. Hildehrand Wni. Sutton Druggists VV. R. Richardson Jesse Godwin Carr & Jones City Drug Store Restaurants Evans & Gordon Lyman Ficklin Deputy Restaurant Josiah Be vers Jewelers N P. Martin Harry Clements Insurance J. H. Landreth E. P. Moore T. J. Wood Joe Keane Dentists J. B. Gamhrel R. J. Seigmund Novelty Stores Claude Bryan C. D. Nangle Wir. . Mantler T. J. Wood Barbel's John Clark Fred Parrot J as. Lcwery Pruett Bros. Allspaw & Hopper Milliners Garages Miller & Alexander Frank Ghastain Mrs. K. B. Miseho Earl Trabue Mrs Joel White Deiseher & Reed Miscellaneous Mrs. Hubbard Mitchell Hardwood Lumber Co. Newspapers The Commercial The Tribune Mite h e 1 1— Hostetler Lumber (-o. 0. F. Thome, Flour, Lawyers Feed, etc. •1. H. Edwards Van Wray, Giles & Doman Meat Market C. Faris The Mitchell Tele- Harold Kelley phone Co. Lehigh Portland Ce- Physicians ment Company J. D. Bvrns Heise Bro.-. Ice Plant J. C. Kelly Sherwood's Livery W. 0. Sherwood John Schamer, Har- J. A. Gibbons Geo. Gibbons ness Smith & Smith, Pho- J. S. Atehinson tographers H. S. Scheibe, Tailor Blacksmiths Coal Dealers A. D. Sanders T. W. Welsh Sam Gray Doane & Routh John Rodarmel Joe K*^ane Pool Rooms J. F (^)llier Hotels Lynn Terrell The N( w Putuam Jacob Irwin The New Grand MITCHELL CHURCHES The oldest building in Mitchell now used for church services, is the little brick building belonging to tne Colored Baptist Chinch which was built in the year 1855 and is located near the cement mills. This little structure was originally a school house and used for that purpose for many years. It was in this school house the first Sabbath School in Mitchell was organized, which was in the year 1859, This was organized on a union basis. Silas Moore Vv^as the superintendent and Ollie Owen the first secretary. In the latter part of the same year a denominational Sunday School was organized by the Methodists. William Meris was the first superintendent of this school PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH The oldest church organization is the Presbyterian. The history of this church begins with the organization of ihe Presby- terian church in a little log school house a mile and a half north of Mitchell, on the 24th of Jan. 1855 by Rev. John A. Tiffany and Rev. John M, Bishop. Those who took part in the organization and became members of the new church were John L. Dodson and wife, J. H, Crawford and wife, G. W. Dodson, Elmira Braxtan, Agnes Cook and Mary J. Pless. Mrs. Solomon Bass was the ffrst to be received into the church by examination and Baptism. Ser- vices were held in the rude school house for two or three years and a small frame church building was started at Woodville but was never finished. In 1839 the meet- ing place of the church was changed to Mitchell and during that year a frame building was erected on the lot where the present building stands. This building was dedicated January 8, 1860. In 1870 this frame building was moved away and a brick structure erected in its place. In 1875 a steeple was added to the building in which a town clock was placed. The same building of 1870 with alterations and im- provements is still in use. The Presby- terian Sunday School, while not large, is fully as vigorous as any in Mitchell and for several years maintained a rest station in Korea for missionaries in foreign fields. Rev J. M, Bisphop preached for the church as a supply until May 11, 1864 when Rev. Thomas A. Steele, who had ac- cepted a call, began his labors. Mr. Steele served the church faithfully and earnestly for fourteen years and was respected and loved, not only by his own congregation but by the people of the town and com- munity at large. He is lovingly remem- bered by many of the older people here. Pastors of the church since then have been Rev. Telle 1879 to 1882; Rev. McKee 1883 to 1884; J. H. Reed 1885 to 5887; W. E. B. Harris 1887 to 1890; H. J. Van Dyne 1891 to 1896; William Hall 1896 to 1898; G. W. Applegate 1898 to 1900; H. C. Johnson 1900 to 1904; E. O Sutherland 1905 to 1907; S. M. Morton 1907 to 1912; Rev. A. F. Davis was called in 1912 and is still pastor. Ou Jan. I, 1870 Silas Moore and wife made the church a gift of $2,000. The late Milton N. Moore also left, by his will, a sum for the benefit of the church. This bequest is to be kept intact, nothing but the interest being expended. METHODIST CHURCH The Methodist Church of Mitchell was organized in the spring of 1856 by Rev. G. F. Culmer of the Orangeville circuit. The church was organized at the fall con- ference the same year. In a grove near where the present church stands the first quarterly meeting was held in 1856. In 1858 a frame building was erected, the building now used b}^ the Church of Christ. In 1874 the present building was completed at a cost of $8,000. Of this sum Jacob Finger contributed $2,000. On a slab in the east wall of the chuich building may be seen this inscription "Jacob Finger, M, E. Church." Rev. Charles Cross and Rev. W. S. Carter preached for the church until 1858 when Rev. Francis Walker was appointed by conference as pastor, followed by J. M. O. Fling in 1860; A. J. Clark in 1861; J. W. Julian 1862; W. M. Zaring 1863, J Wharton 1865, I. N. Thompson 1866, W P. Armstrong 1868. Edward Hamer 1870, John Poucher 1871, F. A. Friedly 1873. W. R. Halstead 1876, J. H. Ketcham 1879. M. S. Heavenridge 1880, J. W. Asbury 1881, H. J. Barr 1882, F. A. Hutchinson 1883, R. A. Kemp 1884, John Speer 1885, S. W. Troyer, Geo. Reed, H. S. Headen 1890. A. L Bennett 1895. W. M. Zaring 1896, E. C. Jordon 1899, E, H.Tav- !or 1S02. W. N. Gaither 1904. M S. Heavenridge 1905, D. P Holt 1909. R. R. Bryan 1911, W. R Ashby 1913, C. S Whitted 1913. Mr. Whitted is the present pastor. Recently the interior of the church build- ing has been redecorated and is one of the prettiest church auditoriums in this part of the state. The Sunday School is one of the most prosperous in the city The work of the church is ably supported by a capa ble official board and a most efficient Ladies' Aid Society. THE BAPTIST CHURCH On the 30th day of January. 1854 the iohowing named prrscns met in the old Pre^byterian church building and organized the Mitchell Baptist church: John Ed- wards, Lucy Edwards. Alien C. Burton, Adaline Burton, Rachael Pless. Mary Pless, Thomas Giles, Adaline Giles, Maggie Giles, Mary Giles, Matilda Dodeon. Ann M. Giles. Mary Montonya, Simpson Bui ton, Carrie Burton, Sar h Blackwell Hugh McNabb, Sarah McNabb and Kate Owens. A brick building, known as the Mitchell Baptist Semi/iary. had previously been erected. It was understood when this building was erected that the Baptist church should one be organized here, should have the use of the second story for church pur- poses. The newly organized church at once took steps to fit this room for church services, and soon after extended a call to Rev. Wright Sanders, as pastor. Rev. Sanders served four years, being followed b' Rev. Albert Ogle in 1868, Rev. A J E^sex in 1871. Rev. Noah Harper m 1876 Rev. W. L. Gtecne in 1879. Rev. G. C Shirk m 1881. Rev, B. J. Davis in 1883, Rev. A. C. Watkins in 1887. Rev. C. M Carter m 1888. Rev D M. Christy in 1891 Rev. I A. Heily in 1892. Rev. J B Thomas in 1894. Rev. J. M. Kimbrough in 18 Rev. E R. Clevenger in 1901, Rev. G. O. Webster in 1905, Rev C L. Merriman in 1106, Rev. C. A Sigmon in 1S08. Rev. W. E. Denham in 1911, Rev. C Bebb in 1912 Rev. and Creed W. Gawthrop in 19i3. On the 15th day of December. 1901. the old seminary and church building was de stroyed by fire and very soon after, the present structure, which is modern in every detail, was erected. The new buildiug cost about ten thousand dollars, to wnich has been added improvements amounting to six thousand dollars. From its incipiency, except for short in- tervals, the church has maintained all time preaching and for more than fifty years has kept alive a flourishing Sabbath School, which now has an enrollment of more than three hundred. The membership of the church is four hundred and fifty, THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH In the month of May, 1906, the First Christian Church, of Mitchell, was organ- ized. For almost a year the congregation met in a hall for worship. In 1907 the church completed a building on the corner of Frank and Eighth streets at a cost of six thousand five hundred dollars Pastors of the church have been: Rev. E. S. Lewis in 1906, Rev. I. Konkle in 1907, Rev. R. J. Bennett in 1908, Rev. H. A. Wingard in 1910 Rev. E. E. Petticord in 1913 and Rev, A. J. Cook, the present pastor. The growth of the church has been al- most phenomenal. Although but ten years old it is one of the largest churches, in point of number, in the city, and maintains a Sabbath School with an average attendance of more than three hundred. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH The Catholic church building here was erected in 1871 The lot, upon which the building stands, was donated by Col. John Sheeks. Several years after the church was built it was remodeled and enlarged and a substantial rectory was built at a cost of four thousand dollars. The church property is nov/ worth ten thousand dollais. The present priest in charge is Father Eise- man THE CHURCH OF CHRIST On the 24th day of January, 1874, about fifteen persons met in Amos Adam's furni- ture store and with the assistance of Rev. William B. Chrisler, of Bedford, organized the Church of Christ. In November of the same year the chuich purchased the old Methodist church building on east Main street. Since purchasing the building it has been remodeled and refurnished. The church was organized with but fifteen members, but now has a membership of more than a hundred and is wide awake to its opportunities. LEHIGH CHAPEL The Lehigh Chapel church building is located in east Mitchell, near the cement mills. The erection of this building is due to the generous and philanthropic people of the Lehigh Portland Cement Company. The Salvation Army has its headquarters at this building and hold regular services there. Much good has been accomplished in Mitchell by this organization. THE HOLINESS CHURCH The Holiness Church is located on the corner of Fourth and Frank streets. These people have a substantial frame building and a large membership. The church is said to be in a flourishing condition COLORED BAPTIST CHURCH Sometime in 1866, through the influence of Rev. Simpson Burton, a church of the Baptist denomination was organized here composed of colored people These people have, for many years owned their own house of worship, which is the old brick school house on east Main street. COLORED METHODIST CHURCH The colored Methodist people also have a church organization here and own a brick building on Warren street. Both colored churches maintain Sabbath Schools. The first sabbath school com- posed of colored people, in Lawrence county was organized by D. M. Alter and his daughter Maggie, in the brick building now owned by the colored Baptist people. SCHOOL? In the fall of 1859 Simpson Burton re alizing the need of better educational fac- ilities in Mitchell and surrounding com- munity organized a private school in a dwelling house on the corner of Main and 9th street. He had for his assistant Miss Mary Montonya who taught the primary department. In the spring of 1860 Prof. Burton with others began organizing a stock company to erect a building to be known as the Mitchell Baptist Seminary The first meeting for this purpose was held in the old Freedom Church. Steps were taken at this meeting to raise funds to erect a substantial brick building which was finished in the fall of 1860. This building was de- stroyed by fire in 1902. Many were the heart aches when it was learned that the old Seminary had been destroyed. The first session of school in the Sem- inary building began in October 1860 Vv'ith Simpson Burton as principal, assisted by Carrie Graves and Mary Montonya Prof. J. K. Howard was afterward added to the faculty and for several years the school was conducted by and flourished under the direction of Burton and Howard Per- haps no school in the state did better and more thorough work than did the old Semi- nary. The war of the rebellion together with the public free school system caused the attendance to decrease and in 1868 Burton and Howard gave up the school. Two sessions were taught during the fol- lowing year by Prof C. L. Donaldson It is eminently proper in connection with the history of this school to say that too much credit cannot be given to Simpson Burton, No history of this community could be properly written without giving a large place to the life and work of this noble man In thinking of the educational history of Mitchell and community in the memory of those who arc no longer young, he stands out alone and apart from all others as a beuefactor and leader of the community in an educational way. In zeal and devotion to high ideals inspiring others to make the most of themselves he was unsurpassed. His career was a short on?, dying at the age of thirty-nine, but as a benefactor in the town to this da}^ pre-eminent and un challenged. He had worked his way by reason of great persistency and self sacrifice through Franklin College, graduating from that institution in I860. Returning home he became profoundly impressed with the need of better educational facilities for the young people Oi the town and cornmunity. The common schools with short terms and limited courses of study and poorly pre- pared teachers afforded the only opportun- ity of education here at that time. The high school had not come into existence. He conceived the idea of establishing at Mitchell a school for higher learning. In the interest of his undertaking he canvass- ed the entire community. Everyone had great confidence in him as a man. His zeal, his unselhsh devotion to a good cause, his untiring energy, his high ideals pro- foundly impressed every one with whom he came in contact. He went mto the homes and talked to parents and children and in- spired them to cultivate higher ideals of living. As a teacher he was eminently successful and will ever be tenderly remem- bered by his many pupils. And to this it should be added that theie are many that are nearing tne close of their earthiv career who will say that whatever success has come to them sn this life they are greatly indebted to the teacher of their youth. Were I asked the question, "Wiiat man h.^s performed the greatest service in this com- munity", the answer would be, without a moment's hesit tion, "Simpson Burton." In the spring of 1865 a school was organ- ized by the Prr.-bylerian Church congre- gation aud was called the "Mitchell Select School." A bUiaW frame building was erected on the back of the lot where the Presbyterian Church now sta:id«. The teachers for the first year were Miss Anna Balantine and Miss Mary Alter (Barton ) Subsequent teachers were Miss Maria Sheely, Miss Mattie Brown and Mrs. Plumer S I. NORMAL Mitchell lost its most valuable asset when the Sjuthern Indiana Normal College buildi g was destroyed in August 1900. An effort was made to laise funds to rebuild and $14,000 were in sight, but the m.atter was there dropped. Students cams from many states to at- tend the Normal, and the entire commun- ity was raised to a much higher moral and intellectual plane than it has since occupied. There is still a great demand and a rips field for a similar institution in this part of Indiana. The first building stood oii Nineth street between Main and Warren, and three cot- tages were made from this old frame build- ing. The new building, a substantial brick, occupied the present site of the south side school building Prof. W. F. Harper, now of Pomona, Cal , contributes tlie following. He was the first President of the College: "The institution \v,-is rst:in!isliHi] April 6, 18S0, lUii] was (Inly in('()fi)(M-Mte(! on June Ttli of tti.-it year. J.N. Sell)y wastlie moving- spii'it in the esra,Mislinu-ut of the in^tilulion .Mr. St-lhy re mail eil hut a lirief I iii;(^ hownvef. and when the iii.'<tituti')u was ineorpmated I was eleeted as its president. Dr 11 L. Kuiiherlin was pres.(h-ar of the Boaid of Tiaisiees. Dr. -i L W^ Yo.>t, viee president; .1. Y Bates, treasurer; Dr. (I W. Burton, secretary. IV'ilton N. Moore, at that time the leading merchant of Mitchell, was the largest contributor toward the ei-ection of the building. Indeed, except for Mr. Moore's libei-alitj-, it could not have been erected. W. G. Anderson, who at that time was conducting a wholesale book and stationery business, was one of the chief boosters. Allen C. Burton, James D. Moore, M. A. Burton, Anslem Wood and E. P. Eversole wei-e members of the first Board of Trustees. These were all devoted and faithful supporters of the new insti- tution. Many men of prominence in Southern Indiana were our friends from the beginning. I ncnll especially. Professors eT. M. Bloss, of Evansville; L'ichard Owen, of New Harmony: J. A. Wood, of Salem; J. W. 0. Springston. of Leavenworth; and R. A. Ogg, of New Albany. Most of these were superintendents of selu ols in their respective towns and cities. Judges W. R. Gai-d:er, of Washington; E. V. Pierson, Bedford; Hon. A. Guthrie, Tunnelton ; Col. Louis Brooks, Shoals, and many others. There were some choice people in the first faculty. Prof. W. E. Lugenbeel was our professor of mathematics and natural science. He was one of the most thorough instructors I have ever known and a man of very high ideals. FIRST GRADED SCHOOLS Previous to the year 1869 the only pub- lic schools in Mitchell were the schools held in a little brick building in east Mitchell and a small frame building situated at the corner of Ninth and Warren streets. As both of these were township district schools the length of the terms t ught were very short. In 1869 a board of education was appointed and steps taken to organize a graded school for the town A substantial frame building was erected on the lot where the little frame school house stood for so many years and in October 1869 the fir^-^t session of the graded school began. This gave Mitchell the honor of being one of the first towns in the state to adopt the graded school s\ stem The first superintendent was Prof. McLaulin. The school has been ably conducted from its beginning. In 1881 it was admitted as a standard high school, its graduates being admitted with- out examination to all colleges and univer- sities of Indiana Ohio, Illinois and Ken- tucky. The first to graduate from the school was Mrs. Ella Munson Bennett who graduated in 1876 The graduates last year numbered fifteen. The total number of graduates since the school was organized is three hundred and forty nine. The city now has three substantial brick school buildings. Eight teachers are employed giving instruction in high school work, sup- plemented by an able corps of teachers in the grades. More than one hundred fifty pupils will be enrolled the coming year in the high school alone. Prof. Robt Tirey is the present superintendent The city also maintains a school for colored children. NEWSPAPERS The newspaper, next to the school and church, has always been a potent factor in advancing the best interest of the town and community. The first newspaper estab- lished in Mitchell was in 1863 and called the Mitchell Republican. J. M. Griffin was editor, propiietor and printer. The life of this paper was only six months. Sometime during the next year the Mitch- ell Commercial was established by Wood- ard & Rumrill. A year later these gentle- men sold out to Professors B'.irton, Howard, and King who conducted the paper a little over a year when Charles G. Berry took charge and was its editor for several years. Subsequent editors have been E. S, Mc- Intire, W H. Edwards, W. T. Moore. Geo. Z. Wood, J. V. Smith, E. L. Lee, Hane & Thurston, McShane & Thurston, Wool- heater & Chitty, and Howard Chitty, who is the present editor and proprietor. The Commercial will soon celebrate its fiftieth birthday and is the oldest newspaper in southern Indiana. In 1876 a paper was established here by Charles Yockey and J T. Biegs called the Mitchell Times. Dr. Biggs later conducted the paper alone, as editor and proprietor but in 1884 sold out to Charles Yockey who conducted it uutil failing health compelled him to give it up. July 11 , 1899 the first number of the Trib- une madr; its appearance, Moore and Tank- sley as proprietors. W. T. Moore was editor and T. J. Tanksley did all the work except the writing. The paper was first printed on a Washington hand press in the room now occupied by Will Morarity on Main street, Moore and Tanksley retired and the paper was owned and edited by T. J. Wright Later it was owned by Sam Thurston and P, M. McBride. For a time A. N. Palmer was associated with Mc- Bride as editor. Following this P. M. Mc- Bride owned and published the Tribune until August 1907. Since which time it has been ed'ted and published by W. E. Stipp. INDUSTRIES Mitchell is justly proud of its factories and especially the great lime and cement plants located here. The manufacture and use of cement in this part of the country is of comparatively recent date. Until recent years the Amerieaa Portland Cement in- dustry was confined to a small locality known as the Lehigh Cement District in eastern Pennsylvania named after the Lehigh Valley in which district the natural cement rock of the eastern United States was first developed. As cement is a heavy, bulky commodity it does not bear distant railroad transportation except at prices al- most prohibiting its general use. So that it was to the mutual interest of both manu- facturer and consumer that raw material be located and developed in the manufacture of cement as near a center of distribution and consumption as Vv^ould eliminate as far as possible the high freight cost of this use- ful article. Recognizing this fact the Le- high Portland Cement Company began to prospect in many localities for suitable raw materials and through the active efforts of Noble L. Moore and John H. Edwards, were attracted by the enormous beds of limestone near Mitchell and the extensive beds of shale near here. An investigation followed which i-esuUed in locating their first western mill at Mitchell in 1901. They commenced the manufacture of cement at this mill which has a capacity of two thousand barrels per day, in August 1902. The use of cement increased enorm- ously and to supply this increasing demand the same company built a second plant here in [905. This plant has a capacity of four thousand barrels per day. The daily product of the two plants is over six thou" and barrels which makes this one of the most important cement producing centers west of the Alleghanies. The amount of limestone and shale used in the manufact- ure of this cement is about 80/^ limestone and 20/r shale. This mixture requires a thorough grinding to a high degree of fine- ness, previous to burning. This and other processes necessary in rhe manufacture of cement call for the heaviest crushing and grinding machinery and a very large ex- penditure of power and labor. The amount of coal used at the plants here approximates sixteen thousand tons per month while the amount of limestone and shale used is more than two thousand tons per day. The operation of the mills and quarries gives employment to six hundred or seven hund- red m^n at a monthly pay roll of over forty thousand dollars. The manufactured pro- duct requires the best railroad equipment for shipping and with an average of one hundred and seventy-five barrels to a car- load the daily requirements are thirty or forty first-class box cars During the busy season of the year the shipments often amount to as much as twelve thousand barrels per day. Nearly every city, town and hamlet in the states of Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, southern Michigan and southern Wisconsin are familiar with cement made at Mitchell. CLOSING THOUGHTS These Sketches of Local History be- gan when this community was an un- broken wilderness, and with Mitchell when it was practically a forest. Long years have sped away. The unbroken wilderness has been transformed into beautiful fields, orchards and gardens, and where a little over a half century ago was a dense forest we now have a thriving and beautiful city. On al- most the very spot where less than a century ago nothing could be seen but the thin wreaths of smoke which as- cending, marked the spot where the pioneer had built his cabin, now huge volumes of smoke from our great manufacturing plants almost obscure the sun, while the ceaseless roar of tireless machinery proclaims to us the Empire of Mechanical Genius, When the history of the community, as I attempted to give it, began, the hiss of the rattlesnake, the howling of wolf, and the scream of the panther could be heard, where now patriotic songs of Sunday school bands can be heard which speak to us of Christian civilization. The little cabin which was the home of our forefather no longer exists The httle field and truck patch which gave him a scanty supply of bread and vegetables have been swallowed up in the extended meadow, orchard and grain field. We must remember that these great changes have not taken place in a moment's time; not by the magic hand, but by the patient toil of brave and sturdy men and women. It was these noble men and women who swept away the forest and laid so well the foundation for the comforts and civilization we now enjoy. In giving these sketches to the read- ers of the Tribune it is my sincere hope that they have derived as much pleasure from reading as I have in writing them. One pleasure, at least, results from studying the past history of a community which has made as many changes as ours has; it lengthens the retrospect of lives With me I am sure it has had that effect, and did not the definite number of my years teach me to the contrary would think myself much older than I am. The experien- ce of those who have been reared in large cities or old settled communities, where from year to year the same un- changing aspect of things presents it- self, is said to be quite different. There life passes away as an illusion or dream not having been presented with any striking events or changes to mark its different periods and give them an imaginary distance from each other. With them life ends with a bitter com plaint of its shortness. Could one have witnessed all the changes in our com- munity and city that I have described from time to time they would have been gradual and scarcely preceptible. But the view from one extreme to the other is like the experience of crossing one of the great lakes, Vv^ith the Cana- dian wilds upon one shore and the civ- ilization and enlightenment of our own country upon the other. To those of us who have spent our lives here, as we look back over the history of the community and realize that not one of the early pioneers is now living, we cannot avoid the most serious reflect- ious. We cannot fail to be reminded of an ancient Greek General who, when he saw from a high hill, the plains covered with his soldiers and the sea with his ships he, in the pride of his heart, pronounced himself the most favored of all mortals. But reflecting that in a few short years to come not one of the many thousands he then be- held would be alive, he burst into tears at the brevity of human hfe and the instabiHty of all human things. If in reading these sketches there has been created in the minds of the readers a local veneration and respect for the memory of the pioneers, who by toil and hardship, have made our country what it is today, then the writing has not been in vain. There is a tendency on the part of some to depreciate our own city and surroundings There should be in- stilled in the minds of the boys and girls in our schools a love and pride for Mitchell and surrounding commun- ity and a desire to know more of their history and tradition. They should be taught that our city can be made as beautiful, our orchards as productive, our fields as fertile and our people as talented as are to be found anywhere. To cherish the past should be our pleasure, to improve the present our aim, and to anticipate more glorious changes in the future our brightest hope.