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Of Earliest Settlers in Monmouth and Ocean Coun- 


Their Language, Manners and Customs. 

The Revolutionary War, 

Battle of Monmouth,. 

The War of the Rebellion 1 . 

Xaines of Officers and Men of Monmoiith and Ocean Covu)tic.-' 
engaged 117 it, etc., etc. 



E. Gardner & Son, Publishers.. 



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Title Page i 

Illustration Portrait of the Author ii 

Preface by the Editor iii 

Obituary Notice of Edwin Salter, the Author v 

Biography of the Author vii 

Table of Contents xi 

Salter Family Crest xv 

Introductory 1 

History of Monmouth and ( tcean Counties 5 

An Ancient Patent 11 

Founders of Monmouth 12 

\ Woman, of ! 13 

A Memorable Scene v . 14 

The First English Settler of New Jersey Ifi 

The Twelve Patentees 16 

The Rhode Island Monmouth Association 17 

The Monmouth Patent 24 

C< tmmencement of Settlements 27 

The First Legislative Assembly in New Jersey 32 

Buying Land i if the Indians 33 

Monmouth County — When Established 3P, 

Discovery of Ocean County 37 

Old Monmouth Described by an Ancient Writer. . . 38 

( )ld Monmouth Under the Dutch JO 

Causes of the Revi ilution, etc J2 

Boston Acknowledges Monmouth Contributions 52 

Indian Claims in Monmouth, ( )ceau, etc 58 

Members of Provincial Assembly .... • 60 

Early History of < >ld Monmouth 62 

Traditionary stories of the Indians 64 

Indian Will, an Eccentric Aboriginal 67 

Indian Peter 72 

An Indian Dinner — A Savory Dish. 73 

• ('apt. William Tom 74 

Privateering 7,S 

Privateering During the Revolution 80 

( >ld Monmouth During the Revolution 85 

Freehold in the Revolution . 90 


Upper Freehold 92 

Old Times— An Ancient Tavern Book 95 

Old Times in Ocean County 99 

The Coming of the White Man Ill 

Townships in Ocean County 115 

Our Coast 117 

Scenes in Old Monmouth 1*21 

Ancient Maps and Charts 124 

The Revolutionary War— Names of Soldiers 131 

The Battle of Monmouth 152 

Old Times in Old Monmouth 166 

The Attack on the Russell Family . . 170 

Phil. White's Capture and Death 172 

Mannahawken in the Revolution 174 

Execution of a Spy 182 

Capt. Joshua Huddy, the Hero of Toms River 183 

Toms River During the Revolution 191 

Privateering at Toms Rivei ... 194 

Death of Capt. Joshua Studson 202 

The Attack on Toms River 204 

Capt. John Bacon, the Refugee Leader 207 

Bacon at Goodluck, Forked River, etc 208 

The Massacre on Long Beach 209 

Death of Bacon, the Notorious Refugee 210 

Dick Bird, the Potters Creek Outlaw 212 

The Refugee Davenport and his Death 213 

Mannahawken in the Revolution 214 

Fifth Company Monmouth Militia 214 

Illustration — Cuts of Old Tennent Church amd Parsonage 215 

The Old Tennent Church 215 

Visitors at the Battle Ground 216 

Captain Mollie Pitcher 220 

Remarkable Trial of Rev. Win, Tennent for Perjury 221 

T-o'ms River During the Revolution 226 

Barnegat 237 

Religious History 241 

Methodism in Old Monmouth 2-42 

Episcopalianism in Old Monmouth 244 

The Rogerine Baptists 249 

Mormonism in Ocean County 252 

Episcopalianism in Barnegat 254 

Religious Societies 255 

Early Settlers — Creation of Townships, etc 267 

Old Times in Ocean County — Last War with England "290 

Birthplace of Universalism 294 

Illustration Old Potter Church at Goodluck 295 

Portrait of Parson Murray of Goodluck Church 297 

Capt. Adam Hyler 298 


Ni'M Jersej Watering Places 304 

Centennial Year of Peace 309 

High Price for a Monmonth Book 318 

An Amusing Stratagem 314 

The Skirmish at Mannahawken 316 

[lldstbatioh Battle Monument, Freehold ... 319 

The Battle Monument -Efforts to Erect it 320 

Monument Meeting :t2l 

History of Battle Monument < Organization 323 

'Ocean County Soldiers in War of Rebellion :52 ( .f 

Ocean County Pensioners 347 

(fld Dover Township 351 

Nevesink 354 

Early Navigators 357 

Purchasers of Shares of Land 359 

Records of Cattle Marks and Estrays 362 

Geographical Index to Surveys in Ocean County 364 

Early Surveys in Ocean County 369 

Rev. William Mills 370 

A Remarkable Indian 371 

Was Oliver Cromwell's Brother an Early Settler ? 381 

An Old Irish Patent of Nobility 382 

History of the Potter Church 384 

Presbyterianism in Forked River 394 

Presbyterian Church at Forked River 396 

Gen. John Lacey 400 

History of the Baptists in Ocean County 403 

Island Heights 406 

Methodism in Ocean County 409 

The Battle of Monmouth 411 

Inlets 418 

Salt Works 419 

Character of the Refugees 420 

Revolutionary Reminiscences 422 

Almost Hanged by Mistake 423 

The Murderer Peter Stout 425 

Interesting Events 426 

The Coasting Trade 428 

Blacks in the Revolution 429 

Lllustbation — Ex-Governor Joel Parker 430 

Memorial and Biography of Joel Parker 431 

Persecution of Quakers 438 

Tales of the Forest and Sea 441 


A — Abraham, Adam, Adams. Akins, Algor, Allen, A limy, Anderson, 
Antonides, Antrim. Applegate, Arney, Archer, Arnold, Arrowsmith, 
Arsley, Ashton, Aumack, Austin, Austen, Aston, Auckman. 

B— Baker, Barcalow, Barkelo, Baird, Bashan, Barnes, Han-lav. Bailey, 
Baley, Baylis, Beakes, Bedle, Beedle, Biddle, Bennett, Beere, I 
Berry, Bibby, Bibbe, Bigelow, Bills, Bird, Blackmail, Boels, Boell, Bodine, 
Bollen, Booraem, Boorem, Borum, Borden, Burden. Bower, B- 
Bowne, Bowker, Bowgar, Boude, Bowde, Boyd, Buys. Buys. Bray, 1: 
Brinley, Brindley, Brittain, Britton, Brown, Brower, Bn rer, Bryan, 
Bryer, Buckalew, Bunnell, BonnelL Burrows, Burtis, Buck, Buridge, 

C Campbell, Camburn, Camock, Cannan, Cannon, Carman,) 
boom, <'in\ Carhart, Carter, Carwithey, Chadwick, Chamberlain, Cham- 
bers, Oheeseman, Cheshire, Child, Chute. Clark, Clark.-, Clayton, I lifton, 
Clothier, Codington, CoggeshalL Cole, Coleman, Collins, Colver, ColwelL 
Combs, Compton, Conklin, Conk.-. Cook. Cooper, Corlies, CottrelL Court- 
ney. Covenhoven, Conover, Covert) Coward, Cowdriok, Cowperthwaite, 
Cox, Craft, ('ran.-, Cranmer, Craig, Crome, Craven, Crawford. Crowell. 

1) -Davis, Davison, DeBoogh, DeBogh, Debow, DeHart. Denise, 
Dennis, Denyke, Devill, Duell, Devereaux, DeWildey, Dey, Dye, Dikeman, 
Dyckman, Dillon, Dorsett, Douglass, Dove. Drummond, Dungan. 

E— Earle, Easton, Eaton, Eccles, Edge, Edwards, Ellis, Ellison. 
Empson, English, Estell, Errickson, Everingham, Evilman, Evillman, 
Emanuel, Emlay, Embley. 

F Falkinburg, Fardon, Fenton, Flinn. Fithian, Fish. Forman, 
Foreman, Furman, FoxalL Freeborn, French, Freneau, Frythowart, 

(i Gauntt, Gibeson, Guiberson, Gibbons, Gifford, Goodbody, 
Gordon, Gould, Goulding, Golding, Grandin, Grant, Green, Grover, 

H— Hall, Haight, Haines. Haynes, Halsey, Hamilton. Hampton. 
BTance, Hankins, Hankinson, Hanson. Hart. Harkcut, Harker, I lart^- 
horne, Earing, Eatton, Button, Havens. Haviland, Heaviland, Eawes, 


L — Lefever, Lafetra. Laing, Laird, Lamson.Lambson, Lane, Lawn-nee. 
Lawrie. Laurie, Layton, Lawton, LeCock, Lacock. LeConte, Leeds, 
Letterts. Leffertson, LeLaistre, Masters, Leonard, Letts, Lewis, Lloyd. 
Litdit, Limming, Lemon, Lincoln, Lippencott, Lippit, Little, Longstreet, 
Lucar, Luker, Looker, Lvell. 

M Maddocks, Malcolm, Mapes, Marsh. Mattox, McKay, McKnight, 
Melvin, Merrill. Mestayer, Middleton, Millage, Milledge, Milner, Mills, 

Melon. Mellon. Moore, .Moor, Morford, Morris. Mott, Mount. 

>" Nep.-r, Naphr. Newberry, Newman. Newell, Nicholls, Xisniuth. 

O Oakley, Ogborn, Oliphant, Ong, Oung, Okeson, Osborne. 

1» Page, Pave, Pangburn, Parr, Patterson. Paul. Payne, Pearce, 
Fierce. Percy, Perkins. Perrines, Pew, Pharo, Phillips. Pintard. Piatt, 
P. ill. emus. Potter. Powell, Predmore, Preston, Price, Purdirin, Pardon, 


It B Randolph pi i: khow, 

Bedford B raiogton, Reynolds, Ranolds, ReoshalL I; 
Richardson, Rid inson, Rockhead, Rockhi 

Romeyn, Romine, Rose, Ruckman, Rue, Rulon, Russell, Ryall. 

S Sadler, Salem, Salom, Schenck, ScoveL Salmon, 8 10k, 

Shakerly, Shattock, Sharp, Sherman, Shepherd, She] 
Sbiun. Shn - kalea, Silver, Silirer, Silverwood, Sylvesl 

Slack, Slaght, Slocum, Smith, Smock, Smack. Snawsell, 
Snowhill, S Sooy, Soper. S ithard, Speare, Spicer, Sprag 

St irk. v. Stelle, Stephens, Stewart, Stillweu, 51 phen, 

Swain, Swingler, Swiny, Swinny. 

T— Taber, Tabor, Tallman Tartle, Taylor, Tharp, Thorp, Thompson, 
Tomson, Thorasborough, Throckmorton, Tomkins, Townsend, Truax, 
Tucker, rnnison, Tomer. 

I* Dsselton. 

V Van Brakle, Van Brockle, Vane, Van ajsdale, Van Brant, V in 
Gelder, Van Cleef, Van Gleve, Vanderveer, Van Doren, Vandoorn 

ater, Van Dyke, Van -look. Van Home, Vanhise, Van Kirk. Van Me- 
ter. Vaughn, Vaughan, Verway, Vickfra, Voorhees, Vredenburgh, Vroom. 

W— Waer, Weir, Waeir, Wainright, Walker, Wall, Walling, Wallen, 
Walton. Ward, Wardell, Warford, Warne, Warner, Watson, Webb, Web- 
ley, VVlls. Wills. West. White. Whitlc-k. Wilbur, Winner. Winnow, 
Wing, Wilkins, Willett, WhTetts, Willis, Williams. Williamson, W 
Winder. Wmter. Winterton, Wolcott* Woolcutt, Wool. Woodm 
Woodmancy, Woodrow, Woodward, Woolley, Worth. Worthier, Worden, 
Warden, Wyckoff, Wykoff. 

Y— Yard. 

[For additional names under H. I. J. K. L. and P of Geneal' . 
- Ixvii to lxxx, as follows: 

H — HandelL Horndell, Harndale, II urse, Hebron. Hepburn, H~ 1 len, 
Hellens, Henderson, Hendrickson, Hepburn. Herbert. Harbert, Harbor, 
Henghes, Heyder, Hick. ligham, Higgens, Higbee, Hilborne. Hoff, Hoff- 
mire, Hoge, Holman, Horabin, Horndell. HornfuU, Horner. Horeman, 
Howard. Hubbard, Hubbs, Huddy, Huet. Hnit. Hewett, Hulet. Hulett, 
Hull Hulshart. Holsaert, Hun, Hunn, Hunlock, Hunt, Hutchinson, Hut- 
ton, Hyers, Hiers, He vers. 

I — Inilay, Ingham, Ingram, Inman, Irme— . Isaacs, Irons. Ivins. 

J --Jackson. Jacob, James. Jeffrey, Jerney, Jorney, Jerson. Jenkins, 
Jennings. Jewell JueL Jones, Job, Jobs, Johnstone, Johnston, Johnson, 
Jolly, Jolley. Judah. 

K— Kaighn. Kaighin. Ker. Kerr, Killie. Kimmons, King, Kinman, 
Kinmon, Ketcham, Kirby, Kipp. Kip, Knott. 

L — Lacey, Lafetra, Lambert, Luear, Leonard. 

P— Parker. 


The work of gathering material and writing an accurate 
History of Monmouth and Ocean Counties covering a 
period of over two centuries, so full of interest to resi- 
dents of these counties and to the people of New Jersey, 
generally, occupied the spare time of the author of this 
work for nearly one-half of his life-time, or more than a 
quarter of a century. Not being engaged in active 
business during the last three years of his life, Mr. 
Salter's time was exclusively devoted to research and 
investigation for the purpose of securing reliable infor- 
mation in regard to the early settlers of Old Monmouth 
County of which the County of Ocean was once a part. 
In order to accomplish this great undertaking, the official 
records not only of Monmouth and Ocean Counties, and 
a number of other counties of this State were searched, 
but several other States were visited at great cost of time 
and means and the State and county records patiently 
and carefully examined — notably those of Western States, 
to which many of the citizens of Monmouth and Ocean 
Counties had from time to time emigrated. The result 
was, the obtaining of a vast amount of valuable historical 
information, the collection of a great number of interesting 
local incidents, and uncpiestionably the fullest and most 
valuable Genealogical Record of the first settlers of Mon- 
mouth and Ocean Counties and their decendants, ever 
compiled. For twenty-five years previous to his death 
Mr. Salter was a corresponding member of the Xc\v 
Jersey Historical Society and the recognized authority on 
genealogical history, having been for years on its Stand- 
ing Committee of Genealogy of New Jersey families. It 
was conceded during the lifetime of the author that there 
was no man in the State so thoroughly informed of the 


history of first families of New Jersey (166-^1078) as 
Edwin Salter. 

The design in publishing this book, primarily, is to 
carry out the long-felt desire of the deceased author to 
furnish the citizens of Monmouth and Ocean counties 
with a reliable and interesting historical work ; secondly, 
to perpetuate the honored name and memory of the dis- 
tinguished author, and thirdly, for the benefit of his 
esteemed widow, who for so many years encouraged and 
aided her husband in his arduous and responsible duties. 

To the undersigned — between whom and the lamented 
author there existed for nearly twenty years a close and 
abiding friendship — was assigned the duty of editing and 
preparing for publication the valuable material left by 
the deceased historian. In this responsible undertaking 
the Editor has studiously endeavored to omit nothing 
essential to the completeness of the history, but has 
striven to present the work in the form which lie believes 
would have been acceptable to the lamented author. In 
the hope that it may bs equally so to the citizens of 
Monmouth and Ocean counties, for whom it has especially 
been prepared, the work is respectfully submitted. 

E. GARDNER, Editor, 

December 1, 1889. Bayonne, N. J. 


[From the Times and Journal, Lakewood; N. J., Dec. 22, 1888.] 


To give in a cold and conventional way an outline of 
the life of Edwin Salter would be an easy, and to us an 
ungrateful, task. It is so little to the purpose that he 
lived more than sixty years; that he died at Forked 
River ; that he was a member of the Legislature and 
Speaker of the House ; that he was for a score of years a 
clerk in one of the Departments at Washington — 
these are the tilings that we all know, and in some sense 
lie may be measured by them. But our immediate con- 
cern with his life, uow that he is done with it, is how and 
to what purpose he lived it. Men of as little moment, 
after they go hence (and often before) as a dead letter in 
a waste-basket, go to the Legislature, sit in the Speaker's 
chair, or hold a clerkship under the government. The 
political status of the State has come to this, whether by 
progress or retrogression is of no moment here except to 
confront the face of the fact and be — it so happens often— 
ratherbelittled than distinguished by it. Edwin Salter 
was not one of the little men of either his time or his 
generation. When he sat as a servant of the people, it 
was to their honor and his credit. When he was a gov- 
ernment clerk, he was faithful and efficient. His public 
life was clean and meritorious. So much for truth and 
for him in this respect. 

But, compared to his life as a student and chronicler 
of State history, his public life was as a flicker beside a 
flame. When the one is almost forgotten, and when it 
would be entirely so but for his name being linked with 
it, his contributions to the career of the State and his 
delineations of the character of its men and women, will 


be growing brighter in a steadier, stronger light. When 
the one will be almost valueless save as a chronological 
fact, the other will be invaluable as a historical heirloom 
to all future generations of Jerseymen. By this work he 
will live iu the association of men of renown ; his work 
will be perpetual, because upon its merits it will deserve 
perpetuity. His patience in collectiug data, his industry 
in the pursuit of information, his care and judgment 
in selection, his love of veracity and respect for fact 
his clearness in detail and ability in setting the whole 
sum of his studies before the world, his modest and 
unpretentious concealment of himself — these are some, 
and only some, of the characteristics of Edwin Salter's 
life. Men of this stamp do not die and be forgotten. 
They are not ephemeral. They "still live" when the 
multiplying years have left their unrecognizable dust 
far behind. Students of history must pause to do 
honor to their memory and be grateful to them for the 
good they did with little hope of reward. Indeed, re- 
ward, beyond such as necessity "may have entailed, did 
not enter into the consideration with Edwin Salter. He 
loved his chosen work, and gave of his means to it as 
freely as he would have lightened the burdens of a beg- 
gar at his door, giving all that he had. His private life 
was that of the Christian man — pure and undetiled. He 
was generous to a double fault, honorable to the breadth 
of a hair, mild and gentle as the village jjreaclier whose 
life is perpetuated in undying verse, and true as the love 
that was beneficently given to him that he might share it 
with others. Thus we knew him, and here we lay this 
tribute to a beloved memory upon the bier of its de- 
parted shade. 


Edwin Salter died at Forked River, N. J., December 
15, 1888, aged sixty-four years. H< v was the son of Amos 
Salter and Sarah Frazier, and was descended from some 
of the oldest families of Monmouth county — the Bownes, 
Lawrences and Hartshornes. His original ancestor in 
America emigrated from Devonshire, England, and set- 
tled at Middletown previous to 1687. He was a lawyer, 
a man of distinguished ability, which was illustrated in 
the part which he took as counsel with Captain Johu 
Bowne in the controversies of the people with the Lords' 

Edwin Salter was born in Bloomingdale, Morris Co., 
February 6th, 1821. While a youth, he removed with 
his parents to the more northern part of the State. At 
the age of fourteen, he became a member of a Presby- 
terian Sunday school in Newark ; three years later he 
made a profession of his faith in Christ, in a church of 
the same order. He subsequently removed to Philadel- 
phia and was there employed as a clerk in a book-store, 
but afterwards removed to Forked River and taught 
school. For a time he led a seafaring life, being master 
of a schooner in the coasting trade. 

In 1857 he was elected by the Republicans of Ocean 
county as their representative in the Assembly of New 
Jersey, the first Free Soil member in that body. He was 
returned for the two following years and in the session 
of 1859 he was elected Speaker and filled the position 
with great ability. In 1861 he received an appointment in 
the United States Treasur}^ Department, which he held 
for five years, when he resigned. He was reappointed 
shortly afterwards to a clerkship in the Fourth Auditor's 
office, where he remained till 1886, when he returned to 
Ocean County. 


He had a taste for historical research, especially in the 
study of genealogical Hues. He spent much <>f his time 
iu his later years iu prosecuting his researches into the 
history of the early families of Moumouth and Ocean 
Counties, his residence at Washington affording him 
peculiar facilities for the work, through his ready access to 
the National Archives. The information here obtained 
was supplemented by searches of the public records of 
States and counties, north and south. At the time of his 
death he had accumulated a vast amount of historical and 
genealogical matter — the work of years of patient and 
laborious research — for a history of Monmouth and 
Ocean counties, which he had long contemplated pub- 
lishing. Referring to notices he had prepared of the 
principal families now represented in Monmouth, he 
wrote in a letter to a friend on the 14th of November, 
1888, only a month before his death, "Take the matter 
altogether, I believe it will be the most complete account 
of the early settlers (and settlement) ever published of 
any county in the United States settled previous to 1700." 
Mr. Salter was the author of a series of historical sketches 
published in the Monmouth Democrat, 1873-'71, entitled 
"Old Times in Old Monmouth." His frequent contri- 
butions to the journals of Monmouth and Ocean over the 
signatures of " Selah Searcher" and " Pilot" bear testi- 
mony among others to his zeal in historical study and 
his readiness to give the fruits of his research to his fel- 
low citizens. 

Edwin Salter's name stands enrolled as a member of a 
Presbyterian Sunday-school at Forked River, in 1831. In 
1860, he was superintendent of the same school, beside 
teaching the Bible-class. He married, in 185:2, Margaret 
Bodine, of Barnegat, who survives him. Their son, 
George W. Salter, a most estimable young man, died at 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March 27th, 1880, of typhus fever, 
while stationed at that port as paymaster's clerk of the 
United States Naval Depot. 

Mr. Salter was a man of great force of character, gen- 
erous, open-hearted and strong in the maintenance of the 


right. He had no sympathy with Lawlessness or lownesa 
of aim. Withoui pretension, he aspired to the best in 
personal, domestic and social Life. In his religious lifp 
there was no affectation or cant. A genuine heartiness and 
catholicity of spirit moulded his creed ami his conduct 
His manners were genial, liis spirit was broad and liberal. 
He was a simple-hearted, earnest Christian gentleman. 
He filled a large place in the affections of his friends and 
acquaintances, by whom his death is most sincerely 

He was elected a member of the New Jersey Historical 
Society on May "21st. 1863, and was esteemed one its most 
valuable members in promoting the purposes of its organi- 
zation. His remains were laid in the Masonic Cemetery 
at Barnegat, after a funeral service held at the Presbyterian 
Church. ^ 



Ocean County — Olden Times in; Discovery, Settlement; When sot 
off and established; Proprietors' Division of Lands; First persons to take 
uplands; Business in Old Times; Genealogy; Church History, Revolu- 
tionary and Miscellaneous Matter; Scenes on the ('cast; Indian Tradi- 
tions ; Tales of the Forest and of the Sea, Ac. 

History of Ocean County — Discovery by Henry Hudson in 1609; 
Exploring our Coast; Buying Land of the Indians; Copy of the noted 
Monmouth Patent granted in 1665'; Account of the purchases of lands 
from the Indians - -prices paid and names of purchasers ; Settlers of 
Middletown. The Stout Family ; Tradition. 

Monmouth County — When established. Henry Hudson's visit to Old 
Monmouth. Old Times in Old Monmouth; The Battle of Monmouth; 
Causes of the Revolution — Principles involved ; The Battle Monument ; 
Monmouth under the Dutch. 

The Indians — Tools of the Indians ; Making Canoes ; Making Flour ; 
Indian Peter ; Traditions ; Indian Stories ; Indian Claims in Ocean and 
Monmouth Counties, and vicinity ; Indian Will, a noted character. 

First Families in Old Monmouth ; Privating on our Coast ; Old Mon- 
mouth During the Revolution; Reminiscences, do; Captain Joshua 
Huddy, the Hero Martyr of Old Monmouth ; Captain William Tom ; Con- 
gressional Representatives ; Episcopalianism in Old Monmouth. 

The Revolutionary War — Soldiers of the Revolution ; List of Officers 
and Privates of Old Monmouth ; Toms River during the Revolution ; 
Privateering; Attack on Toms River; Burning the Village; A Day of 
Horror; Capture of Captain Joshua Huddy; Attack on the Russell Family; 
Captain Adam Hyler the daring Privateer of the Revolution ; The noted 
Refugee Davenport and his death ; The last War with England. 

Toms River — Origin of the name ; Indian Tom ; Religious History 
Captain William Tom ; The Rogerine Baptists ; Mormonism in Ocean 

The Potter Church— The Rev. John Murray the first preacher of 
Universahsm in America ; He sailed from England for New York, July 21st, 
177U ; His accidental meeting with Thomas Potter and remarkable call to 
become a Preacher ; Birthplace of Universahsm in America ; Celebration 
Of the Centenary of Universahsm at Goodluck in 1870. 


Barnegat — Its discovery over two hundred years ago ; The first house 
built at least as early as 17^<i ; Religious Societies ; First Church was a 
Quaker Meeting House built in 1770; The Presbyterians among early 
r3ligious pioneers in 1760; The Episcopalians in 1750 : the Methodists in 
1829 ; Records of the Several denominations. && 

History of Monmouth — An Ancient Patent; Disputes between the 
Dutch and English in regard to its Settlement ; the "Whites entering Sandy 
Hook in 1524 ; Provisions of the Monmouth Patent ; "A good land to fall 
»n with anl a pleasant land to see" 7 ; "Free liberty of Conscience without 
any molestation or disturbance whatsoever in the way of worship"; "Was 
Oliver Cromwell's brother an early settler? 

The Founders of "Monmouth ; who they were and whence they came ; 
A Memorable Scene ; The first English Settler in New Jersey, Richard 
Stout, in about 1645 ; The Twelve Patentees ; The Pihode Island Monmouth 
A - elation ; List of names of persons who contributed toward buying the 
land in Monmouth of the Indians. 

Toms Peter during the Revolution ; Sketches of the Leading Citizens 
of Dover township, && 

Old Dover Township — The Town Book of old Dover containing a list 
of Officers, from 1783 down to 1361 ; Proceedings at ancient town meetings; 
The poor of the township sold annually ; Members of the Township Com- 
mittee allowed 81.00 per day for services ; The Fish laws : The record of 
Cattle marks and Estrays ; List of Presiding Officers or Moderators, frorn 
1846 to 1861. 

Churches and Soceetees in Ocean Cotjmty — Presbyterianisin at Toms 
River ; Methodism do. ; Baptist Seaside Association ; Island Heights ; Lava- 
let ;e City; Episcopalianism at Toms River; Baptist Church at Toms 
River. Presbyterianisin at Bricksburg. 

Creation of Townships in Ocean County ; Jackson, Plumsted and 
Union Townships ; Interesting Records. 

.History of Religious Societies, Banks, Roads, Railroads, Stage Lines, 
Seaside Resorts, Cranberry Statistics, Fish, Fowl, Game Laws, Forest 
Fires, &c 

The "War of 181*2 — An Old Monmouth Preacher ; Ocean County 
Families ; First Families of Old Monmouth ; Freehold in the Revolution ; 
Historical Reminiscences, Ac. 

Biographical Sketches — Forman. Seymour, Holmes, Birdsall, Parker, 
Ashfield, "Wright, Luyster, Remsen. Rev. Ubadiah Holmes, Earl, Tiltom 
and others. 

Ferst Settlers of Old Monmouth — Founders of Families ; One 
Thousand Surnames ; Interesting Historical Incidents. 

Commencement of Settlements — Warrants for lands granted ; 

First Sunday School at Forked River ; Presbyterianisin and Method- 
ism at Forked River, and Churches ; Holmes' Old Mill ; Laeey Township ; 

.. Lacev. 


Ocean County Soldiers i:i the War of the Rebellion ; Names, periods of 
Enlistments, Names of Companies, discharges, transfers, deaths, &c. 

Chubches in' Ocban C tntv Cedar Grove, Manchester, Collier's Mills, 
Pleasant Grove, Staffordville, Point Pleasant, Metetecunk, Manahawken, 
Cedar ltuu, Herberteville, KettleCreek, Bethel, Whiting, Pleasant Plains, 
Bayville, Toms River, Bricksbnrg, Cassville, West Creek, Barnegat, Wares- 
town, Quakers, llogerine Baptists, &.c. 

Dover Township — Roman Catholic Church; Bible Christian Church; 
Cedar Grove M. E. Church ; Pleasant Plains M. E. Church. 

Lakewood M. E. Church Organized ; Methodists at Lakewoo I ; Epis- 

oopalianism in Ocean County ; First Baptist Church at Bricksburg ; Liberal 
Christian Society at Lakewood. 

Lakewood — Hotels; Joseph W. Brick; Hotel and Land Association; 
Tobacco factory. 

Presbyteriaxism along shore as early as 17-4G ; The Potter Universalist 
Church at Goodluck ; Baptist Church at Manahawken 

Towxshlps ; Plumsted Township; New Egypt; Churches in New 
Egypt ; Sons of Temperance, Division No. 12 ; Plumsted Institute. 

Brick Township — Burrsville ; Aletetecunk ; M. E. Church ; Point 
Pleasant Churches ; Herbertville ; Point Pleasant Land Co. ; Arnold ( !ity ; 
Baptists in Brick Township ; do. at Kettle Creek ; Silverton AI. E. Church ; 
Alantoloking ; Bay Head ; Churches, &c. 

Ferrago-Baiiber ; Forga built 1803 ; Gen. John Lrce ;: ; Licey 
Township ; Eagleswood Township ; West Creek ; Staffordville ; Churches. 



The publisher is indebted to James Steen, Esq., 
Counsellor-at-Law, of Eatontown, N. J., for the Crest, or 
Coat-of-arms, of the Salter family. It was pasted in a 
law book over one hundred and fifty years old, owned by 
Lawyer Steen, which lie generously loaned the publisher, 
and from which the above electrotyped cut was made. 
In his letter referring to the plate, Mr. Steeu says : 

Eatontown, N. J., Sept. 'is, 1889. 

Mr. E. Gabdneb -Deab Sir: 

Yours nf 27tL received. While the picture is undoubtedly the Coat-of- 
arins, it is technically called a '"boot plate" when used as in this ease. 
Richard Salter of ' Barbados, ' came to Monmouth county and was a Jus- 
tice here for main years, I think. The first time he appeared at Court was 
on May 23, 1704. when the Court sat at Shrewsbury. 

I have in my possession a manuscript book of accounts of the Over- 
seers of the Poor of Shrewsbury township, containing six signatures 
(autograph) of Justice Richard Salter, auditing the overseers' accounts, as 
was required by law at that time. The first was April Li, 1740 ; the Last 
June 23, 1748. 

My impression is, that among Mr. Salter's sketches you will find one 
of the Salter family. and will lie able to trace relationship. 

Perhaps Richard Salter of 17(14, was father of Richard Salter of 

Yours truly, 



The renowned Diedrich Knickerbocker in his famous 
History of New York contended that in order to give a 
proper understanding of the origin of the settlement of 
New York, it was necessary to begin with an account of 
the creation of the world, for said he " if this world had not 
been formed it is more than probable that this renowned 
island on which is situated the City of New York, would 
never have had an existence! " and after establishing the 
fact that the world really was formed, he proceeds to 
give an outline of various noted events in its history from 
that time down to the commencement of the settlement 
of New York. 

In giving an account of the settlement of Monmouth, 
the writer will venture to depart from the precedent set 
by so noted an author and will take it for granted not 
only that the world was created and that many important 
events had happened in its history, but also, for the 
present, will assume that the county was discovered be- 
fore any attempt to settle it was made ! 

The various accounts by the first whites who are 
known" or supposed to have discovered the shores of 
Monmouth, or landed on its soil, undoubtedly should 
have a place in the history of the County, but inasmuch 
as most of these have been published in general and local 
histories of the country, it is thought sufficient to com- 
mence directly with an account of the first efforts to es- 
tablish settlements in the county. 

Some writer says that Richard Stout and family and 
five other families made an attempt to settle in Middle- 
town in 1648, but after remaining four or five years they 
were compelled to leave on account of threatened attacks 
from Indians. This does not correspond with the version 
of the story published over a century ago in Smith's History 


of New Jersey. That states that there were about fifty 
families in the infant settlement at the time of this threat- 
ened attack, and that they were not frightened off but 
remained. This indicates that the affair occurred after 
the settlement had been permanently established. 

At the time of the first settlement of Monmouth, the 
difficulties between the Diitch and the English relating 
to the ownership and sovereignty of New York and Now 
Jersey originated in the question of earliest discoveries 
by navigators. The English based their claim on dis- 
coveries made in the reign of Henry 7th, by Cabot, and 
the Dutch based theirs on the discoveries made by Sir 
Henry Hudson in 1609. There is nothing on record to 
show that Cabot ever landed on the soil of the disputed 
territory. The first account of Whites landing in this 
section is contained in Verazzana' s account of his voyage 
in 1524, to the King of France, under whose auspices his 
expedition had been fitted out. 

The Nevisinck or Navisink Indians occupied the tract 
of land in Monmouth between the Atlantic and the Eari- 
tan Bay. It is evident that the Dutch of New Amster- 
dam, at an early period in the settlement of that place, 
carried on a trade in their small sloops with the Nevisink 
Indians. The noted Patroon, Van Iiensalher, had a land- 
ing place, known as Rensalher's Pier, near the High- 
lands. In 1643, the Indians, for some cause, were 
aroused against the Dutch ; one of their traders named 
Aert Theunnisen, said to have been from Hoboken, prob- 
ably not knowing that the Navesinks were among the 
hostile tribes or bands, crossed over in his sloop to 
Shrewsbury Inlet, then called by the Dutch Beeregat, 
where he was surprised and killed. 

O'Callaghan's History of New Netherlands, says a 
patent for an Indian tract on the Raritan was granted to 
Augustus Heermans, March 28, 1651, and for a colony at 
Nevesinks to Cornelius Van Werekhoven, November 7th, 

The writer has found no mention of any attempt to 
settle on the land purchased by the Dutch, but as the pre- 

[NTIiODl CTORY. '■'> 

sumption is thai one object ha view was to found 
ment, il recalls the statement made in one version of the 
familiar story of Penelope St out to the effect that shortly 
after she married Richard Stout they settled where Mid- 
dletown now is. and there were at that time but sis white 
families Ln the s sttl sment, including their own. and that 
this was about L648, and that after a few yea;- th< y were 
compelled to abandon the place on account of threatened 
Indian troubles. The version given in Smith's Eistory 
of New Jersey, says that at the time of this threatened 
Indian trouble there were some fifty families at Middle- 
town : but this version evidently gives the traditional 
number of families at Middletown when the permanent 
settlement was effected a number of years later, ."end 
not probable that this threatened Indian trouble occurred 
after that, as if it had been the case, there would in all 
probability have been some allusion to it in ancient rec- 
ords, such records for ■ as the old Middletown Term 

In 1643 a war exist id between the Dutch and In- 
dians during which a party of eighty Indians at Pavonia 
were massacred in their sleep, l>y Dutch soldiers, an act 
which greatly excited the indignation of De Vries, who 
says : "This was a featworthyof the heroes of old Rome, 
to massacre a parcel of Indians in their sleep, to take 
children from the breasts of their mothers and to butcher 
them in the presence of their parents, or throw their 
mangled limbs into the tire or water! Other sucklings 
had been fastened to little boards and in this position 
they were cut to pieces ! Some were thrown into the; 
river and when their parents rushed in to save them, the 
soldiers prevented their landing, and let parents and 
children drown." The killing of Theunnisen in Shrews- 
bury Inlet was undoubtedly an act of retaliation by the 
Navesink Indians for this and similar acts. 

To refer again to the Stout tradition: This states 
that after the six families had lived at Middletown five or 
six years, they were compelled to leave on account of 
troubles between Indians and whites. This time corre- 


sponds very nearly to the time of the fearful Indian upris- 
ing in New York in 1655. The Indians then massacred 
all the inhabitants of Pavonia, now included in Hudson 
County, and then passed over to Staten Island and left it 
without an inhabitant or a house. In three days over 
a hundred Dutch were killed and a hundred and fifty 
taken prisoners, and property to the amount of two 
hundred thousand florins was destroyed. 

In August, Uil)4:, the Dutch at New York surrendered 
to the English expedition under Col. Richard Nicolls, and 
by September 3d the English were fairly established in 
the fort, and from that time New Amsterdam became 
known as New York. 

The Gravesend people then made another and a suc- 
cessful effort to purchase lands of the Nevesink In- 
dians for the purpose of establishing a settlement, and 
shortly after, during the same year, made two other pur- 
chases. The abandoned maize or cornfields of the In- 
dians, referred to by Tienhoven, may have saved the set- 
tlers some trouble in clearing lands. 





Iii the year 1609, Sir Henry Hudson visited our coast 
in the yacht or ship Half Moon, a vessel of about eighty 
tons burthen. About the last of August he entered the 
Delaware Bay, but finding the navigation dangerous he 
soon left without going ashore. After getting out to sea 
he stood north-eastwardly and after awhile hauled in and 
made the land probably not far distant from Great Egg 
Harbor. The journal or log book of this vessel was kept 
by the mate, Alfred Juet, and as it contains the first no- 
tices of Monmouth county by the whites, remarks about 
the country, its inhabitants and productions, first land- 
ing, and other interesting matter, an extract is herewith 
given, commencing with 'September 2d. 1609, when the 
Half Moon made land near Egg Harbor. The same day, 
it will be seen, the ship passed Barnegat Inlet, and at 
night anchored near the beach within sight of the High- 

Their first impression of old Monmouth, it will be 
seen, was "that it is a vt ry good l<in*l t,, fall in withy and 
a pleasant land to set : " an opinion which in the minds of 
our people at the present day shows that good sense and 
correct judgment were not lacking in Sir Henry Hudson 
and his fell* >w voyagers ! 

Extract from the Log-Book of the Half Moon. 

Sept. 2d, 1609. — When the sun arose we steered 


north again and saw land from the west by north'to the 
north-west, all alike, broken islands, and our soundings 
were eleven fathoms and tea fathoms. The course along 
the land we found to be north-east by north. From the 
land which we first had sight of until we came to 
a great lake of water, as we could judge it to be, i Barm - 
gat Bat/,) being drowned land which made it rise like 
islands, which was in Length ten leagues. The mouth of 
the lake (Bamegat In'et) had many shoals, and the sea 
breaks upon them as it is cast out of the mouth of it. 
And from that lake or bay the land lies north by east, 
and we had a great stream out of the bay ; and from 
thence our soundings was ten fathoms two leagues from 
land. At five o'clock we anchored, being light wind, and 
rode in eight fathoms water ; the night was fair. This night 
I found the land to haul the compass eight degrees. Far 
to the northward of us we saw high hills {Highland f) ; 
for the day before we found not above two degrees of 

This is a very good land to fall in with and a pleasant 
land to see. 

Sept. 3d. — The morningmist'y until ten o'clock; then 
it cleared and the wind came to the south-southeast, so 
we weighed and stood northward. The land is very 
pleasant and high and bold to fall withal. At three 
o'clock in the afternoon Ave came to three great rivers 
(Narrtws, Rockaway TnJetand the Raritan ) ; so we stood 
along the northward {Rockaway Inlet,) thinking to have 
gone in, but we found it to have a very shoal bar before 
it for we had but ten feet water. Then we cast about to 
the southward and found two fathoms, three fathoms 
and three and a quarter, till we came to the southern side 
of them ; then we had five and six fathoms and returned 

in an hour and a half. So we weighed and went in and 


rode in rive fathoms, ooze ground, and saw many salmons 
and mullets and rays very great. The height is 40 deg. 
30 min. (Latitude.) 

First landing of the Whites in Old McnMovth. 

Sept. 4th. — In the morning as soon as the day was 

DISCOVER"} 0] >ii ii C01 \ l'\. 7 

light, \\cs;i\\ thai il was good riding farther up ; so we 
scut our boat to sound, and found thai it was a very good 
harbor and four or five fathoms, two cable lengths from 
the shore. Then we weighed and went in with our ship. 
Then our boat went on land with our aet to fish, and 
caught ten greal mullets of a fool ami a half long, a 
plaice ami a ray as great as four men could haul 
into tin 1 ship. So we brimmed our boat and rode still all 
dav. At night (he wind blew hard at the north-west, and 
our anchor came home, and we drove on shore, but took 
no hurt, and thank God, for the ground is soft sand and 
ooze. This dav the people of the country came aboard 
of us and sunned very glad of our coming, and brought 
green tobacco leaves and gave us of it for knives and 
beads. They go in deer skins, loose and well dressed. 
They have yellow copper. They desire clothes and are 
very civil. They have a great store of maize or Indian 
wheat, whereof they make good bread. The country is 
full of great and tall oaks. 

Sept. 5th. — In tin 1 morning, as soon as the dav was 
light, the wind ceased and the flood came. So we heaved 
oil' the ship again into five fathoms, and sent our boat to 
sound the hay, and we found that there was three 
fathoms hard by the southern shore. Our men went on 
land then and saw a great store of men, women and chil- 
dren, who gave the, a tobacco at their coming, on land. 
So they went up into the woods and saw a great store of 
very goodly oaks and soma currants, (probably hucMe* 
J)erriea)\ For one of them came on hoard and brought 
some dried, and gave me some, which were sweet and 
good. This day many of the people came on board, some 
in mantles of feathers, and seme in skins of divers sorts 
of good furs. Some women also came with hemp. They 
had red copper tobacco pipes, and other things of copper 
they did wear about their nacks. At night they went on 
land again, so we rode very quiet but durst not trust 

Tl„ FirstWhili Man Killed. 

Sunday, Sept. 6th. — In the morning was fair weather, 


and our master sent John Colin an, with, four other men, 
in our boat over to the North side to sound the other 
river [Narrows), being four leagues from us. They found 
by the way shoal water being two fathoms ; but at the 
north of the river, eighteen and twenty fathoms, and very 
good riding for ships, and a very narrow river to the 
westward between two islands (Staten Island and Bergen 
Point,) the land they told us, was as pleasant with 
grass and flowers and goodly trees as ever they had seen f 
and here very sweet smell came from them. So they 
went in two leagues and saw au open sea [Newark Bay. ) 
and returned, and as they came back they were set upon 
by two canoes, the one having twelve men and the other 
fourteen men. The night came on and it began to rain, 
so that their match went out ; and they had one man 
slain in the light, which was an Englishman named John 
Colman, with an arrow shot in his throat, and two moi'e 
hurt. It grew so dark that they could not rind the ship 
that night, but labored to and fro on their oars. They 
had so great a strain that their grapnel would not hold 

Sept. 7th. — Was fair, and by ten o'clock they re- 
turned aboard the ship and brought our dead man 
with them, whom we carried on land and buried and 
named the point after his name, Column's Point. Then 
we hoisted in our boat and raised her . side with waist 
boards, for defence of our men. So we rode still all 
night, having good regard for our watch. 

Sept. 8th. — Was very fair weather ; we rode still very 
quietly. The people came aboard of us and brought to^ 
bacco and Indian wheat, to exchange for knives and beads 
and offered us no violence. So we fitting up our boat did 
mark them to see if they would make any show of the 
death of our man, which they did not. 

Sept. 9th. — Fair weather. In the morning two great 
canoes came aboard full of men; the one with their bows 
and arrows, and the other in show of buying knives, to 
betray us ; but we perceived their intent. We took two 
of them to have kept them, and put red coats on them, 


jiikI would not suffer the others to tonic near us. So 
they went on land and two others came aboard in a 
canoe; we took the one and let the other go; but lie 
which we had taken got up and leaped overboard. Then 

we weighed and went off into the channel of the river and 

anchored there all night. 

The foregoing is all of the log-book of Juet that re- 
lates to Monmouth county. The next morning the Half 
Moon proceeded up the North River, and on her return 
passed out to sea without stopping. 

In the extract given above, the words in italics are 
not of course in the original, but are underscored as ex- 


The earliest accounts we have of the whites being in 
the vicinity of Monmouth county is contained in a letter 
of John de Yerazzano to Francis 1st, King of France. 
Yerazzano entered Sandy Hook in the spring of 152-1 in 
the ship Dolphin. On his return to Europe, he wrote a 
letter dated July 8th, 1524, to the King, giving an account 
of his voyage from Carolina to New Fouudland. From 
this letter is extracted the following : 

"After proceeding a hundred leagues, we found a 
very pleasant situation among some steep hills, through 
which a very large river, deep at its mouth, forces its way 
to the sea, from the sea to the estuary of the river any ship 
heavily laden might pass with the help of the tide, which 
rises eight feet. But as Ave were riding at good berth we 
would not venture up in our vessel without a knowledge 
of its mouth ; therefore we took a boat, and entering the 
river we found the country on its banks well peopled, the 
inhabitants not differing much from the others, being 
dressed out with feathers of birds of various colors." 

Historians generally concede that the foregoing is 
the first notice we have of the whites entering Sandy 
Hook, visiting the harbor of New York or being in the 
vicinity of old Monmouth. 


The first deed from the Indians was dated ii~>tli of 
1st month, 1664 This was for lands at Nevesink, from 
the Sachem Popomora, and agreed to by his brother, 
Mishacoing, to James Hubbard, John Bowne, John Til- 
ton, Jr., Richard Stout. William Goulding and Samuel 
Spicer. The articles given to the Indians in exchange 
for the land Avert- lis fathoms seawamp, 68 fathoms of 
which were to be white and 50 black seawamp, 5 coats, 
1 gun, 1 clout capp, 1 shirt, 12 11 is. tobacco and 1 anker 
win*-: all of which were acknowledged as having been 
received : and in addition 82 fathoms of seawamp was to 
be paid twelve months hence. 

Popomora and his brother went over to New York 
and acknowledged the deed before Governor Nicholls, 
April 7. 1665. The official record of this <1 sed is in the 
office of Secretary of State at Albany, X. Y.. in Lib. 3, 
page 1. A copy of it is also recorded in Proprietor's of- 
fice, Perth Amboy, as is also a map of the land em- 
braced in the purchase, and also in the Secretary of 
State's office, Trenton. 

Two other deeds followed and were similarly re- 
corded, and on April 8th the Governor signed the noted 
Monmouth Patent. This instrument gives the nami - 
"the rest of the company." referred to in the third deed; 
they were Walter Clarke, William Reape, Nathaniel Sil- 
vester, Obadiah Holmes and Nicholas Davis, twelve in 
all, to whom the patent was granted. 

One of the conditions of the Monmouth Patent was 
•' that the said Patentees and their associates, their heirs 
or assigns, shall within the space of three years, begin- 
ning from the day of the date hereof, manure and plant 
the aforesaid land and premises and settle there one 
hundred families at the least. 

It seemed imposible for the Gravesend men alone to 
induce that number of families to settle within the pre- 
scribed time, but they had warm personal friends in 
Rhode Island. Sandwich, Yarmouth and other places in 
Massachusetts, in Dover. New Hampshire, and also in 
different Rhode Island towns, and the stipulation was 
complied with. 

\N \\Ui;\T PATENT. 11 

The founders of fche settlements in Monmouth were 
not only honorable, conscientious men in their deal- 
ings, bul ako exceedingly careful and methodical in their 
business transactions. This is shown by the very com- 
plete account, still preserved in the County Clerk's office 
;it Freehold, of the purchase of the lands of the Indians. 
the amount paid and to whom, and also the names of 
those who contributed money toward paying the Indians 
and for incidental expenses ^n making the different pur- 

Among the purchasers were a number who had been 
victims of persecution for their religious faith; some had 
felt the cruel lash, some had been imprisoned and others 
had been compelled to pay heavy fines ; others had had near 
relatives suffer thus. Among those who had suffered 
were William Shattock, Edward Wharton, Samuel Spicer 
and Mrs. Micall Spicer, his mother, Eliakim Wardell and 
wife, Thomas Clifton and daughter Hope, Nicholas Davis, 
William Reape, John Bowne (the Quaker of Flushing,) 
Robert Story, John Jenkins, John and George Allen, and 
Obadiah Holmes. And a number of others named among 
purchasers, some of whom did not settle in the county, 
had many years before been disarmed and banished from 
Massachusetts on account of adherence -to Antinomian 

The principal reasons that caused the founding of 
the settlements of Monmouth may he summed up in the 
following extracts : 

"This is a very good land to fall in with and a 
pleasant land to see." — Sir Henry Hucl&(ri& Lcg-BooTc, 

" Free Liberty of Conscience without any molesta- 
tion or disturbance whatsoever in the way of worship." 
— Monmouth. Patent, 1665. 


Shrewsbury township in old Monmouth originally 
extended to the extreme southern limit of the present 
county of Ocean. In the year 1749, a portion of the lower 


part of Shrewsbury was set off and formed into the town- 
ship of Stafford. The patent creating the township of 
Stafford is dated March 3d, 17-19, and was issued in the 
reign of George the Second, and is signed by Governor 
Jonathan Belcher, who was governor of the province of 
New Jersey from 1757 to 1767. As this patent is the first 
public official document relating exclusively to the pres- 
ent count} 7 of Ocean, it is a matter of gratification to know 
that it is still in existence and in a good state of preser- 
vation. It is on parchment with the great seal of the 
province attached, the impression of which still shows to 
good advantage. 

On the back of the patent it is endorsed by Register 
Bead as having been recorded in the Secretary's office at 

It sounds oddly at the present day to read such high 
sounding titles as are found on the patent : " George 2d, 
King of Great Britain, France, Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith," &c, " grants of his especial grace, certain knowl- 
edge, and met r motion," Arc. And what weighty titles has 
Governor Belcher! "Captain-General, and Governor-in- 
Chief, Chancellor, Vice Admiral," &c. 

This patent will be deposited in the office of the 
County Clerk of Ocean County. 



"Inquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the 
search of the fathers." — Job viii-S. 

If the people of any section of this great country 
have reason to be proud of their ancestry, the people of 
Monmouth most assuredly have. New Englanders never 
tire of boasting of the Pilgrim fathers, but a noted writer 
of history in an adjoining state, more than half a century 
ago, has said that "East Jersey was settled by the best 
blood of New England." {I. F. Watrcus in Annuls of 
Philadel], Ma.) The Pilgrim Fathers, the New England- 
ers now take pleasure in telling us, were not all Puritans 
of the straight-laced, persecitting order, but that a large 


proportion had respect for persons who conscientiously 
differed from them in religious opinion. And of this class 
of the Pilgrim Fathers we find were the principal men 
who founded the settlement in Monmouth. 

The first opinion left on record of the section of 
country now known as Monmouth is that which was re- 
corded in the log-book of the ship Half Moon, Sir Henry 
Hudson, commander. On the night of the 2d of Septem- 
ber, 1009, he anchored along the beach not far from Long 
Branch, with the Highlands of Nevisink in sight, and his 
mate recorded the following in the log-book: 

" This is a very good land to fall in with and a pleas- 
ant land to see." 

Every good citizen of the county, it is safe to say. 
will cordially endorse that opinion at the present day ! 


To a woman, it may be said, should the credit be 
given of being the cause of the earliest efforts by whites 
to settle in Monmouth. Penelope Stout, whose remark- 
able history is too well known to repeat here, during her 
captivity among the Indians* had made friends with 
them, and after she had reached New Amsterdam and 
had married Richard Stout, she induced her husband 
occasionally to sail across the bay to visit her pre- 
server and other Indian friends, and it is reasonable 
to presume that on these trips they were sometimes 
accompanied by white friends. These visits so well 
satisfied Richard Stout and his Dutch friends that " this 
was a good land to fall in with," that about 16-48, him' 
self and four or five other heads of families settled 
where Middletown now is. But they remained here only 
a few years, as they were compelled to leave on account 
of a war breaking out between the Dutch and Indians. 
In 1663 some Gravesend men attempted to make ar- 
rangements with the Indians of Monmouth for settling, 
but they were warned off by the Dutch, but the year 
after, the English took possession of Xew York and the 
Gravesend men renewed the attempt. 



From what has been left on record it would seem 

that III the ball of the old Stadt House in New York, one 
day two hundred and twenty years ago, there was an as- 
semblage of men whose meeting was one of the most im- 
portant events connected with founding the settlements 
in what is now Monmouth County. It must have been a 
scene well worthy the efforts of the painter, both for the 
importance. of the object and principles these men had 
met to decide upon and for the striking contrasts in the 
appearance of the different parties present. The leading 
person in this meeting was the new British governor of 
New York, Colonel Nicholls, who we may presume was 
attended by his staff", and arrayed in the uniform of the 
British officer of his time. Then there were men in broad 
brimmed hats, knee breeches and shad-bellied coats, giving 
evidence of their Quaker faith. Some few were probably 
dressed in the then usual style of the Dutch citizen of New 
Amsterdam, a style so graphicallv described by Diedrick 
Knickerbocker in Iris history of New York. Others in- 
terested in the proceedings were probably in the usual 
fashion of the Pilgrim fathers of that da v. But most 
striking of all was the appearance of a number of Indian 
chiefs, the sachems of the section now known as Mon- 
mouth county. Some of these had probably so far adopted 
the fashion of the whites as to wear coats -the coarse, 
loose woolen "match coat,' 1 to which the Indians took a 
fancy, but it was many years before they took to panta- 
loons ; " Indian's legs stand cold like white man's face,*' 
said one of them. AYhen these. Indians appeared before 
Colonel Nicholls in 1665, no white men lived in Monmouth, 
but certain residents of Gravesend. Long Island, had 
visited it and found it "a good land to fall in with" and 
a desirable land to settle upon. They had interviewed 
the Indians and secured their friendship and made treat- 
ies which were signed by the sachems, and they had 
paid them to their full satisfaction for their land. But 
before taking possession or commencing settlements, they 


desired also to obtain a t'A\e From the representative of 
the British crown, So these conscientious men had 
sailed Erom Gravesend across to the shores of Monmouth 
and gathered together the sachems and toot them in 
their vessel across the bay, and up to New Xork, and 
tin 'ii to the State House to call on the Governor. Colonel 
Nicholls was already aware that these Gravesend men 
wished to obtain a patent for the land, but the obje 
this assembly was t<> have the Governor receive the 
persona] assurances of the sachems themselves that their 
land had been paid for to their full si ion, and that. 

they desired these men to settle on it. The governor at 
this meeting receiving from the (dial's themselves these 
assurances, decided to granl the patenl ; but the Graves- 
end men' wished that this instrument should not only 
show that the lauds had been honorably purchased of 
the Indians, but they also insisted that in it should be 
put a pledge of unrestricted religious toleration for set- 
tlers under ,t. The result was the issuing the c< | sbrated 
document known as the Monmouth Patent, with its 
declaration that the land ha<l been honorably purchased 
of the Indians, and with it its guarantee of unrestricted 
religious toleration. This patent was recorded in the 
office of the Recorder of New York, November 8th, 
1665; it was also the first instrument recorded in the 
archives of the State at Trenton and in the County 
records at Freehold. 

Some seventeen years later, William Penn made his 
celebrated treaty with the Indians, and how his praises 
have been sounded for paying them for their land! Our 
Monmouth ancestors had done the same thing without 
boast or assumption of superior justice long before Wil- 
liam Penn came to America or had even turned Quaker. 
The year that the Indian sachems of Monmouth ap- 
peared before Governor Nicholls was the same year that 
William Penn, armed and equipped as a soldier, took 
part in the siege of a town in Ireland. The fact of Penn's 
making a treaty with the Indians and paying them for 
their land has been thought so remarkable that pictures 


of tlie scene may be found in books in every school in 
the land ; Imt that scene in New York when the sachems 
pointed to the founders of Monmouth, saying in sub- 
stance, "These men have paid us for our land — give them 
a patent," has a prior right to be commemorated. 


In the efforts to treat with the Indians for their land, 
we may feel assured that Richard Stout, the first English 
settler of New Jersey, was the principal agent. An En- 
glishman by birth, he had lived so long among the Dutch, 
and with a Dutch wife, that he was familiar with their 
language, which must have been also familiar to his chil- 
dren in their early years. And several years' residence 
among the Indians must have made him acquainted with 
their language, also. From their acquaintance with him 
a'nd knowledge of his fair dealings, the Indians no doubt 
had formed a favorable opinion of his associates. When 
Gravesend was settled about 16-15, Richard Stout was 
one of the thirty-nine original settlers. The consent of 
the Indians having been obtained and the patent granted, 
the next step on the part of the patentees was to secure 
the one hundred settlers within the three years, as re- 
quired by the patent. This necessitated energetic efforts 
on the part of the projectors. Of course the Gravesend 
men did what they could, but they had a small field to 
work in, but they received most effective help from New- 
port, Rhode Island. 


It would naturally be supposed that the twelve men 
named in the Monmouth patent would be among the 
actual settlers, but the fact is, only four of them settled 
here, viz : Richard Stout, James Grover, John Bowne 
and Richard Gibbons. Many years after, it is supposed, 
James Hubbard came in his old age. William Gouldiug, 
Samuel Spicer, Sr., and John Tilton remained at Graves- 


end. Nathaniel Sylvester remained ;it his home at Shelter 
Island, at east end of Long Island. Obadiah Eolmes 
ami Walter Clarke remained in Rhode Island. Nicholas 
Davis, of Newport, li. I., was drowned about L672. Wil- 
liain Eleape, an active, energetic promoter of tin- settle- 
ment, was a young Quaker merchant of Newport, who 
died 1670; his widow. Sarah Beape, came to Monmouth 
and Inn- only son, William, lived with her, lmt was insane 
from early manhood. Members of the families of 
most of the patentees, however, came here, and of course, 
all are entitled to honor for efforts to aid in establishing 
the settlement of the county. 


While the Gravesend men seem to have initiated the 
movement, yet residents of Newport, Rhode Island, were 
considerably in the majority in making the movement 
successful, by furnishing the greater part of the money 
to pay the Indians for their land, and in inducing persons 
to settle qn it. It is very evident that there was quite 
an intimate intercourse between the English residents of 
Gravesend and the citizens of Newport, and in some 
eases families of these places were nearly related. 

At Newport an association or "company of purchas- 
ers" was formed to aid the settlement of Monmouth, of 
which Walter Clarke, subsequently governor of that 
colony, was secretary, and of which William Keape was 
probably the most effective member. Peape's business 
as a merchant caused him to travel much on Long Island 
and to various towns in Massachusetts, which gave him 
opportunities to enlist recruits for the project, and he 
was such a zealous Quaker that he was arrested in 
Plymouth Colony by the Puritans, and on Long Island 
by the Dutch for traveling with Quaker preachers. 

It seems difficult to account for the substantial as- 
sistance given to the effort to secure the one hundred men 
within the required time, by men at Sandwich. Yarmouth, 
Salem and other towns in Massachusetts, except on the 


theory that William Reape, the busy, energetic young 
Quaker, m his travels enlisted them in the cause. 

Most of the Rhode Island and Long Island men who 
aided In settling Monmouth had previously lived in Mas- 
sachusetts, and a number were of English birth. 

Several years ago the Proceedings of the Bi-Cen- 
tennial Celebration of the New Jersey Legislature 
were published by the State, and in the Appendix the 
writer gave a list of first settlers of Monmouth, with the 
places from which each came as far as then ascertained. 
This list was substantially copied in the recent history 
of Monmouth county, but it was incomplete, and the 
compiler of that history added a few items, some of which 
need correction. 

The following is a list of some of the names, alpha- 
betically arranged, of the p3r3ons who contributed tow- 
ard buying the land in Monmouth of the Indians and 
for incidental expenses in treating with them, and also 
the amount paid by each: 

£ x. </. 

Christopher Allmey of it. I. 4 

*Job Allmey, " * . 4 

John Allen and Robert Taylor, II. 1 3 

Steven Arnold, " 3 

John Bowne, of < i-ravesend, L. I 4 

*John Bowne, of Flushing, L. 1 3 

James Bowne, L. I. 1 14 6 

William Bowne, L. 1 1 06 8 

Gerrard Bourne, 1!. 1 -4 In 

Richard Bordan, R. I 11 10 

Benjamin Borden and George Mount 6 

Nicholas Browne. It. I 4 

*Francis Brinley, It 1 3 10 

*Hemy Bull, It. 1 3 

John Conklin, L 1 15 

♦Walter Clarke, R. 1 3 

Robert Carr, R. I 3 

*Robert Carr and Walter < 'Luke, R. 1 1 

*John ( 'oggeshall 3 

*Joshua Coggeshall and Daniel Gould, It, 1 3 10 

*Wm. Coddington, It. I 3 

Thomas Clifton, R. 1 3 10 

Jiiliii ( looke, R. I 3 

< reorge ( 'hutte, R. I : * 


6 a. d. 

Thomas Cox, L. I 3 lit 

Joseph Colt -li inn :s 

•Nicholas 1 >avis, R. I s 

Roger EUis and Son, Mass. 6 

"Peter Ebsoii i Easton,) R. I 3 

James < rrover, L. I 4 

Richard Gibbons, L. 1 4 

►Zachary Gauntt, li. I : 1 10 

William Goulding. L. 1 4 

•Ralph Goldsmith, " 3 10 

♦Daniel Gould (sue J. Coggeshall,) R. 1 3 

Samuel Holliman (Holman) 3 

J( >hn Horabin 2 1 8 

Obadiah Holmes, R. I 4 

J< mathan Holmes, R. I 3 

Tobias Handson, (R. I ?) 4 

John Hnnce (Wales?) 4 

•William James, 11. I 1 5 

•John Jenkins, Mass. 3 

John Jenkins and Win. Shadduck, Mass 2 

Edmund Lafetra (Huguenot?) 3 10 

Henry Ldppitt, K. 1 4 

Richard Lippencott, L. I 16 10 

•Thomas Moor, L. I 1 13 4 

Francis Masters, (N. Y. ?) 3 10 

George Mount ( see B. Burdan ) 

Thomas Potter, R. 1 4 

Edward Pattison, Mass 4 

John Ruckman, L. I 4 

Richard Piichardson 4 

Samuel Spicer, L. I 4 

Richard Stout, " 4 

*Nath'l Sylvester, L.I 6 

Thomas Shaddock, (Mass ?> 3 

Wm. Shaddock and Geo. Webb, Mass 1 

William Shaddock (see J. Jenkins) 

Edward Smith, R. 1 3 

Robert Story, N. Y. City 9 

Wm. Shaberly, Barbadoes 4 

Richard Sussell, R. I » 4 10 

John Tilton, L. I 4 

* John Throckmorton, R. 1 1 6 8 

John Townsend, L. I 4 

*Edward Thurston, R. I 3 

Nathan Tomkins, R. 1 4 

Edward Tartt, (Mass?) 3 17 6 

Robert Taylor (see J. Allen,) R. I 

Emanuel Woolley, R.I 3 



£ s. d. 

Thos. Winterton, K.I 3 

♦Edward Wharton, Mass 3 

Eliakhu Warden, " 4 

Geo. Webb (see Win. Shaddock, Mass . ) 

Thomas Whitlock, L. I 3 ' 17 6 

Bartholomew West, E. I 4 

Eobert West, E. 1 4 

Walter Wall, L.I : 4 

John Wall, " 3 10 

John Wilson, 4 

John Wood, R I 4 10 

In addition to the above named the following per- 
sons were also purchasers or settlers, probably before 
the expiration of the three years' limit in the Patent : 

James Ashton, B. I. Bartholoman Lippencott, L. I. 

Joseph Bryce. William Layton, E. I. 

John Bird, Wm. Lawrence, L. I. 

Abraham Brown, (R I. '?) James Leonard, Mass. 

Wm. Cheesman, L. I. Lewis Mattox, E. I. 

Wm. Compton, " Wm. Newman, (Mass?) 

Jacob Cole. Joseph Parker, E. I. 

Benj. Deuell, E. I. Peter Parker, 

Thomas Dungan, E. I. Anthony Page. 

Daniel Estell, L. I. Henry Percy, E. I. 

Gideon Freeborn, E. I. William Eogers. 

William Gifford, Mass. William Eeape, E. I. 

James Grover, Jr., L. I. John Slocuni, E. I. 

Thomas Hart, E. I. Samuel Shaddock, Mass. 

John Hall, E. I. Wm. Shearman, E. I. 

Eobt. Hazard, (E. I. ?) John Smith, (E. I.?) 

James Heard, (Mass ?) John Stout, L . I. 

Eandall Huet, Sr., N. Y. Eichard Sadler. 

John Hawes, Barth. Sharuquesque. 

Eandall Huet, Jr., N. Y. John Tomson, Mass. 

Joseph Huet, " Job Throckmorton, E. I. 

George Hulett, (E. I. ?) Peter Tilton, L. I. 

John Havens, E. I. Thos. Wansick. 

John Jobs. Eobt. West, Jr., E. I. 

Eobert Jones, N. Y. Thos. Wright. 

Gabriel Kirk. Marmaduke Ward, E. I. 

John Jenkins, of Sandwich, Mass., sold his share of 
land July 6th, 1070, to George Allen, a noted Quaker of 

The persons marked with an asterisk ( * ) did not settle in the County, 
and most of them transferred their claims to others. A tew who were quite 
prominent in the first settlement of the county eventually went back to 
Ehode Island, among whom were Steven Arnold, Jonathan Holmes 
but Christopher Alliney. 


Sandwich, some of whose descendants came to Mon- 

Daniel Gould of Newport, R. I., and Joshua Gogges- 
hall of Portsmouth, R. L, also sold shares to George 
Allen, July 7th, 1670. 

"Walter Clarke also sold a share to George Allen, 
September 1st, 1672. 

Thomas Moore, who was a prominent citizen of 
Southold, L. L, sold his share to Capt. Christopher 
Allmey, August 24, 1(574. 

Robert Story, who was the leading Quaker in New 
Y< >rk City, sold his share to John Jay of Barbadoes, W. I. 

"William Shaberly, also of Barbadoes, sold his share 
to John Jay. 

Robert Carr of Rhode Island, sold his share to Giles 
Slocum of Portsmouth, who conveyed the same to his 
son, Captain John Slocum, November 22, 1672. 

Zachary Gauntt sold his share to his brother, An- 
nanias, in 1668. 

"William Goulding of Long Island, sold his share to 
Richard Hartshorne. 

Samuel Borden of Portsmouth, R. I., sold his share, 
1671, to Lawis Mattox of the same place. 

Governor, William Coddington, was said to be the 
■wealthiest man in Rhode Island ; the writer has found 
no record of his transferring his share, but thinks it possi- 
ble that George Hulett, an original settler, may have 
occupied it, as a person of that name was in Governor 
Coddington's employ, 1661, and previously, and the name 
disappears in Rhode Island after 1664. 

Job Allmey. This name is now generally given as 
Almy. Job and his brother, Christopher, both paid for 
shares of land in the original purchase of lands from the 
Indians. They were sons of William Almy, who it is 
supposed came over with Governor Winthrop to Massa- 
chusetts about 1631, and returned to England for his 
family, 1635. He located first at Lynn, Mass., next at 
Sandwich, and in 1644 settled at Portsmouth, a town in 
close proximity to Newport, R. I. William Almy was 


born about 1601 and died 1676. He is said to have been 
a member of the Society of Friends. His son, Christo- 
pher, avIio came to Monmouth, was born in England 
about 1(532, and died January 30, 1713. Job Almy was 
probably born in Massachusetts, and he died in the 
Spring of 1(584 at Portsmouth, 11. I. He married Mary 
Unthank of Warwick, R. L, and left several children. He 
held several honorable positions in the colony of Rhode 
Island — was deputy in the Colonial Assembly, 1670-2, 
Governor's assistant, 1673, etc. 

Francis Brinley. This gentleman was a Governor's 
assistant and leading judge in Rhode Island. He was a 
son of Thomas Brinley, who was auditor of revenues of 
Charles 1st and 2d. A sister of Francis Brinley married 
Nathaniel Sylvester, one of the Monmouth patentees. 
A descendant of the Brinley family, named Edward, mar- 
ried Janet Parker of the Amboy Parker family, and one 
of their children was the well remembered surveyor gen- 
eral of East Jersey, Francis W. Brinley. 

Henry Bull. This honest, indomitable old Quaker, 
one of the active friends of the settlement of Monmouth, 
was Governor of Rhode Island, 1685-90, and died 1691, 
at an advanced age. Before settling in Rhode Island he 
had been a victim or Puritan persecution in Massachu- 
setts. His history and the genealogy of his descendants 
have been quite well preserved. 

Robert Carr was of Newport, R. L, and brother of 
Caleb, who was Governor, 1625. These two were proba- 
bly the Robert Carr, aged 21, and the Caleb, aged 11 
years, who came to America in the ship Elizabeth and 
Ann, 1635. They are both named as freemen at New- 
port, 1655, and Robert is named there, 1687. He sold 
his share of land in Monmouth to Giles Slocum in 1672, 
who conveyed the same to his son, Capt. John Slocum, 
who settled in Monmouth. 

Thomas Clifton was an original settler of Rehobith, 
Mass., 1643, and subsequently became a Quaker. On 
account of being persecuted for his faith he went to 
Rhode Island, where he lived when he paid for a share 


of land in Monmouth. His daughter, Eope Clifton, was 
also a victim of Quaker persecution. He was a deputy 

in the R. I. colonial assembly, 1675. 

William Coddington. This is another honored 
Rhode Island name. He was about the wealthiest of 
the original settlers of Rhode Island, was Governor, 

L668, 1674-6, and died, 1678. His name is one of the 
most prominent in the early history of that colony. He 
did come to Monmouth. He had in 1664 a man named 
George Hulate in his employ, whose name disappears 
after that date in R. I., and then as the same name ap- 
pears among original settlers of Monmouth, it may be 
that George Hulate settlad on Governor Coddington's 
share of land. 

Nicholas Davis was one of the twelve patentees, and 
also paid for a share of land. He was born in England, 
was a freeman at Barnstable, 1643, became a Quaker, and 
being subjected to persecution, settled in Rhode Island 
and was admitted freeman at Newport, 1671. He was 
drowned in 1672. His widow, Sarah, was in Monmouth 
for a time. 

Thomas Dungan was a prominent Baptist preacher, 
and in 1678 was a deputy from East Greenwich in the 
R. I. colonial assembly. It is possible that he visited 
Monmouth as preacher. In 1681 he left Rhode Island 
and settled at Cold Run, Bucks County, Pa., where he 
died, 1688. 

Roger Ellis and son are named as paying for shares 
of land. Roger Ellis was an early settler at Yarmouth, 
Mass. ; he married Jane Lisham and his son, John, was 
born December 1, 1648. His name is sometimes given 
in records of Plymouth colony as Else. 

Henry Bull of R. L, was prominent in forwarding the 
settlement in Monmouth by getting persons to aid in 
purchasing the land of Indians and inducing settlers to 
locate there. He was a member of the Rhode Island 
"company of purchasers," of which Walter Clarke was 

Robert Carr of R. L, paid for a share of land in 


Monmouth, which lie sold to Giles Slocuni, who deeded 
the same to his son, John Slocuni, who settled on it. 

William Chadwick and Thomas Chadwick settled in 
Monmouth among original settlers. They are supposed 
to have come from R. I. The name is so often misspelled 
as Shaddock and Shattock, that in some cases it is diffi- 
cult to distinguish the family from that of William Shat- 
tock, the noted Quaker, who was persecuted iu Massa- 
chusetts, who also came to Monmouth, and about a 
dozen years later, moved into Burlington County, X. J. 
He was a Quaker of the primitive stripe and a personal 
friend of George Fox. His Quaker non-resistent views 
seriously interfered with his duties as Governor to exert 
his position to have soldiers enlisted and armed to defend 
the colonists from the fearful attacks of the Indians in 
the time of King Philip. In some of the emergencies 
some subordinate took military matters in hand. ^ hile 
his first act as Governor, in May, 1676, was to issue a 
commission to Capt. Arthur Fenner as "Chief Com- 
mander of the Kings Garrison at Providence," which 
was established in view of Indian troubles, which does 
not appear to be in accordance with Quaker principles, 
yet William Edmundson, the celebrated Quaker, says in 
his journal that he could not give his consent to kill and 
destroy men in the Indian wars at that time. Governor 
Walter Clarke occupies a very important and memorable 
pag*e in Rhode Island history. He died in 1714. 



"To all whom these presents shall come : I Richard 

Nicolls Esq., Governor under his Royal Highness the 
Duke of York of all his Territories in America send greet- 

"Whereas there is a certain tract or parcel of land 
within this government, lying and being near Sandy 
Point, upon the Main: which said parcel of land hath 


bees with my consent and approbation bought 1>\- some 
of the inhabitants of Gravesend apon Long Island of tlie 
Sachems (chief proprietors thereof) who before me have 
acknowledged to bave received satisfaction for the same, 
to the end that the said land may be planted, manured 
and inhabited, and for divers other good causes and con- 
siderations, I have thought tit to give, confirm and grant, 
and by these presents do give confirm and grant unto 
William Goulding, Samuel Spiceb, Richard Gibbons, 
Ricbabd Stout, James Grover, John Bown, John Ttlton, 
Nathaniel Sylvester, William Reape, Walteb Clarke, 
Nicholas Davis, Obadiah Holmes, patentees, and their 
associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, all that 
tract and part of the main land, beginning at a certain 
place commonly called or known by the name of Sandy 
Point and so running along the bay West North West, 
till it comes to the mouth of the Raritan River, from 
thence going along the said river to the westernmost part 
of the certain marsh land which divides the river into 
two parts, and from that part to run in a direct south-west 
line into the woods twelve miles, and thence to turn away 
south-east and by south, until it falls into the main 
ocean ; together with all lands, soils, rivers, creeks, har- 
bors, mines, minerals (Royal mines excepted,) quarries, 
woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, lakes, fish- 
ings, hawkings, huntings and fowling, and all other 
profits, commodities and hereditaments to the said lands 
and premises belonging and appertaining, with their and 
every of their appurtenances and of every part and par- 
cel thereof, to have and to hold all and singular the said 
lands, hereditaments and premises with their and every 
of their appurtenances hereby given and granted, or 
herein before mentioned to ba given and granted to the 
only proper use and behoof of the said patentees and 
their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns for- 
ever, upon such terms and conditions as hereafter are ex- 
pressed, that is to say, that the said patentees and their 
associates, their heirs or assigns shall within the space 
of three years, beginning from the day of the date hereof, 


manure and plant the aforesaid land and premises and 

settle there one hundred families at the least ; in consid- 
eration whereof I do promise and grant that the said 
patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and 
assigns, shall enjoy the said land and premises, with 
their appurtenances, for the term of seven years next to 
come after the date of these presents, free from payment 
of any rents, customs, excise, tax or levy whatsoever. 
But after the expiration of the said term of seven years, 
the persons who shall be in possession thereof, shall pay 
after the same rate which others within this his Royal 
Highness' territories shall be obliged unto. And the 
said patentees and their associates, their heirs successors 
and assigns, shall have free leave and liberty to erect and 
build their towns and villages in such places as they in their 
discretions shall think most convenient, provided that 
they associate themselves, and that the houses of their 
towns and villages be not too far distant and scattering- 
one from another ; and also that they make such fortifi- 
cations for their defence against an enemy as may be 

"And I do likewise grant unto the said patentees 
and their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, 
and unto any and all other persons, who shall plant and 
inhabit in any of the land aforesaid that they shall have 
free liberty of conscience, without any molestation or 
disturbance whatsoever in their way of worship. 

" And I do further grant unto the aforesaid patentees, 
their heirs, successors and assigns, that they shall have 
liberty t i elect by t!i3 vote of the major part of the in- 
habitants, five or seven other persons of the ablest and 
discre^test of the slid inhabitants, or a greater number 
of them (if the patentees, their heirs, "successors or as- 
signs shall see cause) to join with them, and they to- 
gether, or the major part of them, shall have full power 
and authority to make such peculiar and prudential laws 
and constitutions amongst the inhabitants for the better 
and more orderly governing of them, as to them shall 
seem meet; provided they be not repugnant to the pub- 


lie laws of tin 1 government ; and they shall also have 
liberty to try all causes and actions of debts and tres- 
passes arising amongst themselves to the value of ten 
pounds, without appeal, but they may remit the hearing 
of all criminal matters to the assizes of New York. 

"And furthermore I do promise and grant unto the 
said patentees and their associates aforementioned, their 
heirs, successors and assigns that they shall in all things 
have equal privileges, freedom and immunities with any 
of his majesty's subjects within this government, these 
patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors 
and assigns rendering aud paying such duties and ac- 
knowledgments as now are, or hereafter shall be consti- 
tuted and established by the laws of this government, 
under obedience of his Royal Highness, his heirs and 
successors, provided they do no way enfringe the privi- 
leges above specified. 

" Given under my hand and seal at Fort James in 
New York in Manhattan Island the 8th day of April, in 
the 17th year of the reign of our sovereign lord Charles the 
Second by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. &c, and in the 
year of our Lord God 1665. 

Richard Nicole's. 

" Entered in the office of ' n '.ord in New York, the day 
and year above written. 

Matthias Nicolls, Secretary." 




The years in which some of the settlers came to 
Monmouth is given in their claims made in 1675, for 
"Rights of land due according to Grants and Concessions 
made by the Proprietors." A record of these claims is 
preserved in the office of Surveyor General of East Jer- 


sey at Perth Amboy, from which the following extracts 
are made : It will he seen that under the "Grants and 
Concessions," the men named in the Monmouth Patent 
were allowed 500 acres each; then each man and wife 
120 acres each ; then allowances for children, and also 
for servants. 

The names of most of the early settlers of Monmouth 
are given in Proprietors' Records at Perth Amboy, hut in 
a majority of cases, the year is not given when they came. 
Very many to whom warrants for land were issued in 
1675 and subsequently, had been settlers for a number 
of years previous. 

The following list of warrants gives names of per- 
sons who claimed land under Grants and Concessions 
and the amounts granted them : 

1675. Here begins the Eights of Land due accord- 
ing to Concessions : 

Richard Stout, of Middletown, brings for his rights for himself, his 
wife, his two sons, John and Richard. 120 acres each, 430 acre3. Item. — 
For his sons and daughters that are to come of age since the year 1667, 
viz : James, Peter. Mary. Alice and Sarah, each 60 acres — 300 acres. Total, 
780 acres. 

John Stout, of Middletown, for himself and wife. 210 acres: Richard 
Stout in his own right, Shrewsbury, Tin acres; James Stout in his own 
right, lit i acres; Peter Stout in his own right. 60 acres; Sarah Stout in her 
own right, 60 acres; James Bound iBownel in right of himself and wife, 
Mary Stout, 240 acres; John Throckmorton in right of himself and wife, 
Alice Stout, 'i-iu acres. 

Thomas Whitlock, of Middletown, for his rights from the year 1664 
for himself, wife and three sons. Thomas, William and John, in all, five 
persons, at 120 per head, 600 acres 

Katherine Brown, the widow of Bartholomew West, of Shrewsbury, 
in right of herself and decease, 1 husband, from 1666, '. ,;| acres each — 180 
acres; and for her two sons and daughter, Stephen. William and Audry 
West, 60 each— ISO acres 

Nicholas Brown in his own right from 1665, 120 acres, and his wife's 
from 1666, 90 acres -210 acres. 

Captain John Bowne, of Middletown, for his rights, 18th March. 
167-5, 500 acres, as being a first purchaser -500 acres. Hem. — For rights 
of himself and wife, his father, mother, antl for William Gompton and his 
wife from first year. 120 acres each, 780 acres; three servants at 60 acres 
each, 180 acres. 

Jonathan Holmes demands for his ."ill acres, given by the Lords 
Proprietors as being one of the Patentees under first purchase at Xavesink, 
and in right of self and wife, 210 acres — 740 acres. 


Obadiah Bolmes for self and wife, 240 acres. 

Edward Smith, Middletown, self, L20 acres. 

James Ashton, self and wife, 240 acres. 

Thomas Cox, self and wife, 240 acres. 

John Throckmorton and wife from firsl year, 240 acres; and in right 
of his father, John, 240 acres. 

Job Throckmorton, self, 120 acres. 

Charles Eynes (Haynes?) and wife, 240 acres. 

Joseph Hurt in right of Randall Buet and wife, 240 acres. 

Sarah Reape demands for her rights: [nrightof Benjamin Speare, 
Shrewsbury, 240 acres; John Horndell Shrewsbury, 240 acres; Thomas 
Dungan, Shrewsbury, 240 acres; .lames Leonard, Shrewsbury, 240 acres; 
Marmaduke Ward, Shrewsbury, 240 acres; William -lames, half share, 
Shrewsbury, L 20 acres; Self and husband, Shrewsbury, 240 acres; Sell' and 
husband, Middletown, 240 acres; Samuel Borden, three-fourth share, 
Shrewsbury, 90 acres; Joseph Bryer, 12(1 acres 2010 acres. 

Christopher Allmey demands for his rights, Imp'd for himself and 
wife and three servants in the year 1665, at 120 acres a head, which is in 
part in fence, 600 acres; in right of John Hall, who came same year, 120 
acres: in right of Henry Hull, one of the first purchasers, 120 acres; in 
right of Henry Piersie and wifefrom the year 1666, 180 acres; man servant, 
(in acres — 1080 acres. 

Jonathan Holmes as being a first purchaser, 500 acres; andforself 
and wife, 240 acres; Obadiah Holmes and wife, 240 acres, Edward Smith, 
12(1 acres; James Ash ton and wife, 240 acres; Thomas Cox and wife, 240 
acres; John Throckmorton and wife, 240 acres; John Throckmorton for 
his father, John, 240 acres; Job Throckmorton, self, 120 acres. 

Warrants for tracts of laud to be subsequently lo- 
cated and surveyed, were issued by the Proprietors to 
the following among other persons : 

1675. Nicholas Brown, 210 acres ; Thomas Wainright and wife 180 
acres; Katherine Brown, late widow of Bartholomew West, in right of her 
deceased husband, 180 acres; Stephen, William and Audry West, 60 acres 
each, 180 acres; Edward Lafetra and wife, 180 acres; Robert West. 120 
acres; Abraham Brown and wife, 120 acres; Joseph Parker and wife, 240 
acres; Richard Stout, Jr., and wife, 120 acres; Richard Stout, Sr , and wife, 
780 acres; John Stout, 120 acres; James, Peter and Mary Stout, 60 each, 
180 acres; Richard Hartshorne, 200 acres; Peter Parker, 180 acres; Francis 
Le Maistre, 240 acres ; Clement and Pauline Masters, 120 acres; Thomas 
Wright, self and wife, 180 acres; Gabriel Stelle, 120 acres. 

1676. Christopher Allmey in right of self, wife and others, 1080 acres. 
Sarah Reape in right of ten persons, 2010. 

John Throckmorton, 480 acres; Job Throckmorton, 120 acres; James 
Ashton, 240 acres; Thomas Cox, 240 acres; Joseph Huet, 210 acres; James 
Bowne, 240 acres ; Thomas Warne, 240 acres ; Stephen Arnold, 360 aires; 
Hannaniah Clifford and wife, 240 acres; Thomas Leeds, Sr., and wife, 120 
acres; William Leeds and wife, Dorothea. 120 acres; Daniel Leeds and wife, 
Anne, 120 acres ; Thomas Leeds. Jr., 120 acres; Clement Shinn and Eliza 


bis wife, 120 acres ; George Shinn, 60 acres ; Thomas Jacob and wife, 120 
acres; William Heyden, 60 acres. 

1676. Thomas Cook, 60 acres ; John Champners, 60 acres ; William 
Shattock, 360. 

Samuel Spicer, for his rights from Lords Proprietors, 500 acres; and 
for self and wife, 240 acres —740 acres. 

Col. Lewis Morris, (for iron works, ) about 3, 000 acres. 

John Hance, 330 acres; Richard Richardson, 150 acres; John Wilson, 
240 acres ; James Grover, (500 and 360) -860 acres; Peter Tilton (500 and 
570)— 1070 acres; Richard Gibbons, 500 acres; Sarah Reape, 500; Nathaniel 
Silvester, 500 acres; James Grover, Sr., 400 acres; Henry Leonard, (450 and 
■360)— 750 acres ; Richard Sadler, 240 acres; John Jobs, 120 acres; George 
Jobs, 120 acres; Francis Hxrbert, 120 acres; Thomas Harbert, (132 and 
240)— 372 acres ; Benjamin Devell (Deuell), 250 acres ; John Vaughan, 135 

1676. Walter Wall and wife, 240 acres; William Layton and wife, 
240 acres ; John Smith and wife, 240 acres ; Richard Dans and wife, 120 
acres; Daniel Estell and wife, 120 acres; James Dorsett and wife, 240 acres; 
George Mount and wife, 240 acres; William Cheeseman, 120 acres: Thomas 
Morford, 120 acres ; John Williama and wife, 240 acres; Henry Marsh, 120 
acres; William Whitelock, 120 acres; John Whitelock, 120 acres. 

Richard Hartshorne, in right of servants that he hath brought, 90 
acres each, 270 acres; right of WilliRm Golding.and wife, 240 acres ; right of 
Robert Jones and wife, 240 acres— 750. 

William Lawrence, in right of self and sister, Hannah Lawrence, 
240 acree. 

John Havens and wife, 240 acres; William Worth ami wife, 240 acres; 
Morris Worth, 120 acres 

1677. Caleb Shrife (Shrieve), in right of John Cooke, 240 acres; John 
Slocum and wife, 240 acres ; Benjamin Burdan and wife, 240 acres ; John 
Hance, wife and man servant, 360 acres; in right of John Foxall, 240 acres! 
in right of Thorlogh Swiney, 240 acres ; Edward Wharton and wife, 240 
acres; Francis Borden in right of Nathaniel Tompkins, 240 acres; and for 
self and wife, 240 acres -480; John Borden and wife, 240 acres. 

Sarah Reape. in right of Thos. Winterton and wife, 240 acres; also 
Christopher Fasze (?) and wife, 240 acres: also Gabriel Hicks and wife, 240 
acres; also Marmaduke Ward, 240 aci - es ; also William James, 120 acres; 
also self and husband, 240 acres: also Samuel Borden, 00 acres 1410. 

1676. Hugh Dikeman, wife and daughter, 360 acres. 

Abraham Brown and wife, 240 acres, and in right Peter Tilton and 
wife, 240 acres -480 ; Isaac Ouge and wife, 120 acres ; John Rnckman and 
wife, 240 acres ; Richard Lippencott, wife and two sons and two servants, 
600 acres : John Lippencott and wife, 240 acres ; John Woolley and wife, 
120 acres ; Eliakim Wardell. in right of Nicholas Davis, ten shares, 480 
acres ; Thomas Ward and wife, 240 acres ; Stephen Arnold and wife, in 
right Samuel Holeman, 560 acres : George Hulett and wife, 240 acres ; 
Thomas Barnes, wife and maid servant, 180 acres. 

1677. Thomas Applegat", Sr., 24*1 acres ; Thomas Applegate, Jr., 120 
acres; John King, 60 acres; Ebenezer Cottrell, 120 acres; Thomas Williams, 


60 acres ; Adam Channelhouse, 240 acreB ; Restue Lippencott and wife, 240 
.■ims; Peter Easton and wife, 24U acres; Peter Tilton, in right of his 
brother John and wife, 240 acres; Gideon Freeborn and wife, 240 acres; 
Jacob Cole and wife, 240 acres; Benjamin Rogers and wife, L20 acres; 
];. membrance Lippencott and wife, 24U acres ; Judah Allen, in righl "i 
Annanias Garrett, 240 acres ; Judah Allen, in righl Daniel Gould, 120 acres; 
Judah Allen, in righl Joshua Coggeshall, 12U acres ; Annaniah Gifford, in 
right Win. Gifford, 12U acres; Eliakim Warded and wife, 210 acres: 
Eliakim Warded, for Robert StOry and wife, 240 acres; Samuel Woolcotl 
and wife, 21<) acres; Hannah -lay alias Hannah Cook, 60 acres; Samuel 
Hatton (no amount). 

1678 Daniel Applegate, 120 acres; Samuel Leonard, '210 acres; 
Nathaniel Leonard, 120 acres; Thomas Leonard, 120 acres; Henrj 
Leonard, Jr., I'M acres; John Leonard, 120 acres; Samuel Willett and 
wife, 120 acres ; Lewis Mattex, three tracts; Cornelius Steenmen, adjoining 
lands ; William Lawrence, in right of original purchaser, tor self, wife and 
son, 300 acres. 

1679. Boger Ellis, 440 acres; William Conipton, 280 acres; Nicholas 
Serrah, 80 acres; Isaac Bryan, 840 acres; Jacob Trias, (Truex) 120 acres; 
Peter Parker, George Parker, Stephen West, John Jerson, Christopher 
Gifford. J arret Wall and wife, 120 acres; Randall Huet and wife, 240 acres; 
Derrick Tuneson and wife, 240 acres; Joshua Silverwood and wife, 120 
acres. Safety Grover and wife, 120 aires; Jacob Triax (i'ruax), 120 
acres; Robert Hamilton, 100 acres; Thomas Potter, wife, son and daughter, 
at Deale, 500 acres; Francis Jeffrey, at Deale, 120 acres; Isaac Bryan, Pop- 
lar Swamp, self, wife, four children and eight servants, 840 acres. 

1081. Patents, or confirmations of titles for land were granted to 
Gideon Freeborn, Hannah Joy, Henry Bowman, Caleb Shrieff, jShrieve), 
Peter Easton, John Williams, George Parker, Nathaniel Cammack, Samuel 
Wolcott, Francis Jeffries, Daniel Leeds, Joseph Warded, John Ohamnis, 
Restre Lipjiencott, Flemembrance Lippencott, John Lippencott, Christo- 
pher Gifford, Morris Worth, Annanias Gifford, Edward Wharton, Henry 
Marsh, John Slocum, Nathaniel Slocum, Thomas Potter, Elizabeth Hatton, 
Job Havens, Samuel Spieer, William Shattock, John Hance, Peter Parker, 
John Clayton, Stephen West, Edmond Lafetra, William West, Francis 
Parden, (Purdaine ?), John Chambers, Lob.rt West, Thomas Hilborne, 
Tobias Hansen, John Borden, John Worthley, Hugh Dickman, William 
Worth, Eliakim W ardell, John Jerson, Benjamin Rogers. 

In 1085 to Richard Gardiner, Samuel Colver, Garret Wall, and 
George Corlies. 

In 1086 to Gershom Bowne, George Mount, Safety Grover, James 
Grover, Jr., Joseph West, George Keith, Kobert Hamilton and Francis 

In 1687 to William Shadock, Edward Williams, Thomas Eatone, 
Jacob Lippencott, Thomas Huet, Abigail Lippencott, Francis Borden, John 
Borden, Peter White, John Cranford, John Brea (Bray), Samuel White, 
Job Jenkins and Nathaniel Parker. 

In 1088, Mordecai Gibbons in right of his father, Richard Gibbons, had 
confirmed to him a tract of 540 acres. And so called "head lands" were 


granted to James Panl and Isabel, bis wife, 30 acres ; Robert and Mazy 
Cole, 30 acres; Archibald Bflivei and Christiana, bis wife, 30 acres; also 
patent to Thomas and Richard HanMoson, 120 ai 

In U»89 Rebecca ("ward, a servant of William Dnckura, bad a 
patent for 30 acres, which she transferred t<> John Bowne. 

In 1692 Richard Hartshorne had patent in right of Walter Clark, of 
R. I., one of the patentees, 500 a 

In 1693 Thomas Webley had patent in right of Stephen and Audry 

In 1G97 patents were given to Gershom Mott and John Chamberlain. 



It is verv evident that daring the first two or three 
years of the settlement, there must have been busy times 
for the little sloops in carrying settlers to and fro and in 
bringing over their families, household goods, merchan- 
dise, lumber, etc.. from their old homes to the new settle- 
ment. We may conjecture that after the first settlers 
landed and had selected their lots or tracts of land that the 
first work would be putting up shelter-, either log houses 
or perhaps more pretentious dwellings of lumber brought 
from Gravesend, Newport or elsewhere. Clearing the 
land and putting up fences was the next serious task. In 
this work the first year would probably be occupied. 
Perhaps many of them did not bring over their families 
to reside permanently until this work was accomplished. 
In 1667 the settlers found themselves so far advanced, 
with dwellings erected and lands cleared, that they had 
opportunity to take measures to establish a local govern- 

Bv tin- terms of the Nicolls patent, (the patentees 
named, i their associates, heirs, successors, and assigns 
had liberty to elect by the vote of the major part of the 
inhabitants, "five or seven other persons of the ablest 
and discreetest of said inhabitants" to join with them in 
making such peculiar and prudential laws as to them 
seemed meet 

In pursurance of this permission a General Assem- 


bly of delegates from the three towns was held in Shrews- 
bury on the 1 Ith of December, L667. This w&a the first 
Legislative body ever assembled in Nevt Jersey. Richard 
Richardson was chosen as its secretary, and appointed 
to record acts, orders and deeds, and bence may be con- 
sidered the first County Clerk of Monmouth. His record 
of the proceedings of this Assembly is still well pre- 


In August, 1664, the Dutch at New Amsterdam sur- 
rendered to the English and soon after, the Gravesend 
men before alluded to, made another and a successful 
effort to purchase land of the Indians aud within a few- 
months made two other purchases. 

The first Indiau purchase was by a deed dated Jan- 
uary 25, 1661:, legal year, January 25, 1665, by our cal- 
endar year ; the original record of this deed is at Albany, 
N. Y., Liber 3, page 1. It was from Popomora, chief of 
the Xeyesink Indians to James Hubbard, John Bowne, 
John Tilton, Jr., Richard Stout. William Goulding and 
Samuel Spicer, all of Grayesend. This deed was also 
agreed to by Mishacoing, a brother of Popomora. It 
was witnessed by Indians named Rickhoran, Checockran, 
Chrye, Serand and Mingwash. The considerations giyen 
were as follows : 

118 fathom seawamp (wampum), of which 68 fathom 
was to be white seawamp, and 50 fathom black, 5 coats. 
1 gun, 1 clout capp, 1 shirt, 12 lbs tobacco, 1 anker wine ; 
all of which were acknowledged as receiyed, and 82 
fathoms additional of seawamp to be paid twelye months 

The interpreters were John Tilton, Sr., James Bowne, 
John Horabin, Pvandall Huet and John Wilson The 
fact of these men being interpreters shows that they 
previously had had considerable intercourse with the In- 


The second purchase was dated April 7, 1665, and 
was from Indians named Taplawappamnmnd, Mattama- 
hickanick, Yawpochammmid, Kackenham, Mattanoh, 
Norchon and Qnrrmeck and the deed was to John Tilton 
Sr., Samuel Spicer, William Goulding, Richard Gibbons, 
James Grover and Richard Stout. 

The third purchase was dated June 5, 1G65, and 
from Indians named Manavendo, Emmerdesolsee, Pop- 
pomera, Checawsen, Shanhemun, Cramanscum, Wine- 
germeen and Macca, and the deed was to James Grover, 
John Bowue, Richard Stout, John Tilton, Richard Gib- 
bons, William Goulding, Samuel Spicer and " the rest of 
the company." 

The articles given for the second and third purchases 
were wampum, wine and tobacco, 11 common coats, three 
pairs of breeches, 9 blankets, 45 yards duffel (coarse cloth) 
4 1-2 lbs. powder, 15 1-2 lbs. lead, etc. — in all about the 
same value in proportion as for the first purchase. The 
orignal record of these deeds is also at Albany, and 
copies are recorded at Perth Amboy and at Trenton. 
These purchases were acknowledge before Governor 
Nicolls at New York. In their first land sales, the In- 
dians were anxious- to procure coats, but they seemed to 
have cared but little for breeches, preferring to go bare- 
legged ; said an Indian : " Indian's legs like white man's 
face, no want covering." But Popomora and some of 
his chiefs were probably induced to wear breeches as 
they had to visit the settlement at Gravesend and also to 
go to New York, to acknowledge the deeds before the 
Governor, and Tilton, Stout and the others would natu- 
rally object to the Indians parading through the streets 
of New York, dressed with only a short coat and perhaps 
a few feathers stuck in their hair ! 

The following account is a sample of receipts and 
expenditures in the original purchase of the lands of the 
Indians and the names of the purchasers and shares 
awarded is from Book A, Freehold Records : 

Newasink, Narumsunk and Pootapeck, Dr. as followeth to William 
Beape : 










To John Tilton and < 'ompany 

in peague * 
In rum at Ivnirs at 7-6 per gallon 

15 duffels 

To the Sachem of ye gif< Land 

and t<> Randal Huet in rum 1 00 6 

To a sloop hire 1 * > days, with expences 

in provisions upon a voyage with the 

Patentees to Pootopeek Nect 1 06 

To the charm' of three men sent 

from Rhode Islam! to settle ye, the 

oonnterey affairs here :s (is n 

To the use of Derrick Smiths sloope 

for their transport 1 11 <; 

To "21 days for myself nu ye 

publique affairs with provisions :S 03 () 

To the forbearance of my mouey 00 (i 

To my expense of new attending the 

publique service at the making of 

this account 00 

689 07 

The above accompt of disbursements of William 
Reape, amounting to £89 07s Od is owned by us, the 
Patentees and Deputies now present at Portland Point. 

Witness cur hands this 5th day of July, 1670 : 

Will Goulding, 
James Grover, 
John Bowne, 
Richard Gibbons,. 


Richard X Stout, 


John Hance, 
Etta Tmvr Wardell, 
James Bowne, 

Testis: R. Richardson. 

* Backus' History of Baptists says a wampum peague was worth one-sixth of a i enuy. 



The name Monmouth was officially given to the 
county March 7th, 1683, as will be seen by the following 
extracts : 

" Att a Councill held the 7th day of the mo-1 called 
March 1(58 2-3 * * * * * 

"A bill sent downe from the Deputyes for devideing 
the p'vince into Countyes read and agreed vtno." — 
Journal of proceedings of Gov. (& Council,1682 — 1703. 

The following is an extract from the bill referred to : 

" At a General Assembly begun and holden at Eliza- 
bethtown in this Province of East New Jersey, the first 
day of the Month called March Anno Domini 1682 and in 
the Five and Thirtieth year of the reign of King Charles 
the Second, over England, &c. and there continued by 
several adjournments thereof until the twenty-eight day 
of the said Month of March, for the public Weale of this 
Province was Enacted as follows : 

"IV. An Act to divide the Province into F<mr 
< 'mi i, firs. — Having taken into consideration the necessity 
of dividing the Province into respective Counties for the 
better governing and settling Courts in the same : — 

" Be it Enacted, by this General Assembly, and the 
Authority thereof, that this Province be divided, into four 
counties as follow eth : (Here follows the bounds of Ber- 
gen, Essex, and Middlesex, after which the bounds of 
Monmouth are given as follows :) 

"Monmouth County to begin at the Westward 
Bounds of Middlesex county, containing Middletown and 
Shrewsbury and so extend Westward, Southward, and 
Northward to the extream Bounds of the Province. 
Provided this distinction of the Province into Counties, 
do not extend to the infringement of any Liberty in any 
Charter alread} r granted." 

The name Monmouth was given to the county 
through the influence of Col. Lewis Morris who at the 
beginning of this session (March 1st,) was said to have 

DISCOVER! »l 01 i;\n COUNTY. 37 

been "Elected Eor Shrewsbury" as a Deputy, but liis 
place declared vacant, probably because In' had been 

selected l>\ the Governor as a member of the council ;i( 
that time. 

Colonel Moiris had purchased a large tract of land, 
in what was afterwards known as Monmouth County, 
October 25th, 1676, said to Contain 3,540 acres, where- 
upon he located, as described in 1680, "his iron mills, 
his Manors, and divers other buildings For his servants 
and dependants ; together with (50 or 70 negroes about 
the Mill and Husbandry. To this plantation he gave the 
name of Tintern (corrupted afterwards to Tinton) after 
an estate which had belonged to the family in Mon- 
mouthshire, England, and from him Monmouth county 
received its name." 


Who first discovered this section of our country? 
Who first entered Barnegat Bay, and explored its shores ? 
Who were the first whites who located here ? Have any 
accounts of the Indians once living here been preserved ? 
These are among the first questions which naturally 
present themselves in making inquires into the early his- 
tory of this section of our State. While the records of 
the past, meagre indeed as regards this locality, do not 
furnish as full answers as desirable, yet much has been 
preserved which is of interest to all desirous of obtain- 
ing information on these and kindred points. 

The discovery of that part of New Jersey now known 
as Ocean County, was by Sir Henry Hudson, on the 2d 
day of September, 1609, while cruising along our coast 
in the celebrated Dutch ship, the Half Moon. This ship 
was quite small, being of only eighty tons burthen, and 
of a build that would now be considered quite novel, re- 
minding one of the curious-looking Dutch galliots, which 
occasionally were seen in the harbor of New York a gen- 
eration or so ago, which used to attract the attention of, 
and are well remembered by old seafaring men of Ocean 


This ship, two 01 three days previously, had tried t<> 
enter Delaware Bay, but finding the navigation danger- 
ous, no attempt was made to land, and she again stood 
out to sea. After getting fairly out, Hudson headed 
north-eastwardly, and after a while hauled in and made 
land, Sept. 2d, near Egg Harbor. A very complete log 
of the ship was kept by the mate, Alfred Juet, and the 
part relating to Monmouth and Ocean comities is pub- 
lished elsewhere in these pages. 

Samuel H. Shreve, Esq., who in past years has furn- 
ished many valuable historical items to th • N sw Jersey 
Courier, says in a communication dated January, 1868 : 
"Ferrago Forge was erected by Gen Lacey in 1809, and 
the same year Dover Forge was built by W. L. Smith, 
the son-in-law ofXiacey.' 

It has been stated that Lacey expended ten thousand 
dollars at Ferrago in building the dam alone, and the 
construction of the forge and other buildings and of the 
road to Forked River must have required a very consid- 
erable outlay of money. 



We copy the following from the celebrated but quite 
rare work of Oldmixon, published in 1708. The capitals, 
orthography and italics are about as in the original. 

After describing Middlesex county, he says : " We 
cross over the river from Middlesex into 

M<,ninn<it]> County; Where we first meet with Mid- 
dleton a pretty Good Town consisting of 100 Families 
and 30,000 Acres of Ground on what they call here Out 
Plantations. Tis about 10 or 12 miles over Land, to 
the Northward of Shrewsbury and 2(5 miles to the South- 
ward of Piscattaway. Not far off, the Shoar winds itself 
about like a Hook and being sandy gives Name to all the 


Shrewsbury is the most Southern Town of the Prov- 


Lnce and reckon'd the chief Town of the Shire, li con- 
tains about L60 Families and 30,000 Acres of Out Planta- 
tions, belonging to its Division. Tis situate.] on the 
Side of a fresh Water Stream, thence called Shrewsbury 
River, Dot far fi< in its Mouth. Between this Town and 
Middltton is an Imn Work but we do not understand it 
lias been any great Benefit to the Proprietors. CoL 
Morris is building a Church at the Falls. There's a new 
town in the County called 

Freehold, which has not been Laid out and inhabited 
long. It does not contain as yet above 40 Families, and 
as to its Out Plantations we suppose they are much the 
same in number with the rest and may count it about 
30,000 acres. 

"We have not divided the counties into Parishes and 
that for a good reason, there being none, nor indeed a 
Church in the whole Province worth that Name. But 
there are several Congregations of Church of England 
men as at Shrewsbury, Ambov, Elisabeth Town and Free- 
hold whose Minister is Mr. John Heak; his Income is 651 
a year: and a Church is building at Salem. 

In another place Oldmixon in speaking of the first 
settlers of New Jersey says : 

"We must note that most of the first English Inhabi- 
tants in this country (East and West Jersey i were Des- 
sei iters, and most of them Quakers and Anabaptists. 
Thes ■ p >ople are g n Tally Industrious ; Be their Hypo- 
crisy to themselves if they are Hypocrites; but we must 
do them the Justice to own that they are the fittest to 
inhabit a new discovered Country, as possessing Industry, 
and shunning those public Vices which beget Idleness 
and "Want. Their enemies drove great numbers of them 
out of England, and the Jerseys had their share of them. 
The People here are for this Beason Dissenters to this 
Day. there being but two Church of England Ministers in 
both Provinces ; and this may be one reason why there 
are no Parish Churches, which the Inhabitants may be 
afraid to build, least it might be a temptation for more 
Orthodox Divines to come among them. 


"A gentleman asking one of the Proprietaries 'Tftht n 

were no Lawyers in the Jerseys?* Was answered ' .V". 
And then ' If there mere no Physicians ?* The Propri- 
etor replied ' No? ' Nor Parsons?* adds the Gentleman. 
' No? says the Proprietor. Upon which the other cry'd 
' What a /"7vv/ place must this b" and hom worthy the 
name of Paradice! ' We do not perhaps differ more from 
this gentleman than we agree with him." 

Oldmixon derived his information of New Jersey 
from two of the Proprietors as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing extract from his preface : 

"Mr. Dockwra and Dr. Cox were both so kind as to 
inform him fully of the Jerseys and Mr. Pen did him the 
same Favor for Pennsylvania ; these three Gentlemen 
doing him the Honor to admit him into their Friend- 


Ex-Governor Parker, dec'd, in his valuable address 
before the New Jersey Historical Society, produced the 
old town book of Middletown township, which gives the 
history of this section of East Jersey from 1667 to 1702. 
After the Dutch conquest in 1673, it was stated that little 
or nothing is recorded in the town book during their 
brief rule of less than a year. 

The Dutch had the supremacy in New York and New 
Jersey until 1664, when the English, conquered the 
Dutch. In 1673, a- war having again broken out between 
England and Holland, a small Dutch squadron was sent 
over and arrived at Staten Island, July 30th. Captain 
Manning, the English officer temporarily in command at 
New York, surrendered at once without any effort to de- 
fend the place and the Dutch again resumed sway over 
New York, New Jersey and settlements along the Dela- 
ware. They retained it however only a few months, as 
by a treaty made in February following, these places 
were ceded back to England, though the English appear 
not to have taken formal oossessiou until November fol- 


lowing. During this short time while the Dutch were again 
in authority, embracing the time thai the Middletown 
township book records l>ut little or nothing, the follow- 
ing items relating to old Monmouth, are found among 
the official records of the Dutch al New York. The firsl 
is an order issued shortly after their arrival ; the ortho- 
graphy is given as found. 

"The inhabitants of Middletown and Shrewsbury, 
are hereby charged and required to send their deputies 
unto us on Tuesday morning next, for to treat with lis 
upon articles of surrendering their said towns under the 
obedience of their High and Mighty Lords, the States 
General of the said United Provinces, and his serene 
Highness, the Prince of Orange, or by refusall we shall 
be necessitated to subdue the places thereunto by force 
of arms. 

"Dated at New Orange this 12tli day of August, A. 
D. 1673. 


"Jacob Benckes." 

Iu compliance with the above order, deputies from 
Shrewsbury, Middletown ami other places in East Jer- 
sey, appeared in court on the 18tli of August, and upon 
their verbal request the same privileges were granted to 
them as to Dutch citizens. 

" August 19th, 1673. Middletown, Shrewsbury and 
other towns in Achter Coll, to name two deputies each, 
who shall nominate three persons for Schout and three 
for Secretarys, out of which said nominated persons by 
us shall be elected for each town, three magistrates and 
for the six towns, one Schout, and one Secretary. 

"Jacob Benckes. 
" CoiiNELIS Evektse, Jr." 

Achter Coll above mentioned, is said to mean " be- 
yond the hills," that is, beyond Bergen Hills. The 
Dutch in New York, it is stated, sometimes called Old 
Monmouth and other parts of East Jersey, beyond Ber- 
gen Hills, by this name. 

" April 19th, 1671. A certain proclamation being de- 


livered into Council from the Magestrates of the Toune 
of Middletoune, prohibiting all inhabitants from depart- 
ing out of said toune, unless the\ give bail toreturnas 
soon as their business will have been performed, or they 
be employed in public service &c, requesting the Gov- 
ernors approval of the same, which being read and con- 
sidered, it is resolved and ordered by the Governer Gen- 
eral and Council, that no inhabitant can l>e hindered 
changing his domicile, within the Province unless 
arrested for lawful cause ; however ordered that no one 
shall depart from the toune of Middletoune, unless he 
previously notifies the Magestrates of his intention." 


Historians of other States h;tve always conceded 
that the citizens of New Jersey were among the earliest 
and most active opponents of those tyrannical acts of 
Great Britain which brought on the war, and finally re- 
sulted in separation. Large and spirited public meet- 
ings were held in various parts of the State in 1774 5, to 
denounce the obnoxious laws, and to organize for counsel 
and defence. 

At this stage of affairs, separation from England had 
not been proposed, and most of these meetings, while 
condemning the acts of the British Ministry and Parlia- 
ment, still expressed decided loyalty to the King. Our 
ancestors warmly seconded the stand taken by the people 
of Boston, and freely forwarded contributions to the suf- 
fering inhabitants of that city. 

We annex extracts from the proceedings of some of 
these meetings in Old Monmouth, as tiny exhibit the 
timely zeal and firm and decided spirit of its citizens, and 


also furnish the names of some of the leading spirits who 
were prominent in the early stages of political movements 
which brought on the lie volution. The several counties of 
the State were requested to send delegates to meet al New 
Brunswick, July 21st, 1774, to consider what action should 
be taken by the citizens of the province of New .Jersey. 
This conventioE was generally spoken of as the "Pro- 
vincial Congress of New Jersey," and was a different body 
from the Legislature; in several instances, however, the 
same persons were members of both bodies. A number 
of persons named in these proceedings were afterwards, 
during the war, conspicuous in military or civil life, for 
their services in behalf of their country in legislative 
halls and on the field of battle. 

For a year or two the citizens of the county appeal 
to have been about unanimous in their sentiments, but 
when finally the subject of a separation from the mother 
country was boldly advocated, there was found to be a 
diversity of opinion, and some who were among the 
most active in the meetings of 1774-5, earnestly opposed 
the proposition, and eventually sided with England in 
the later years of that memorable struggle. The fearful 
consequences of this division, in which it would seem 
almost every man capable of bearing arms was compelled 
to take sides, we have endeavored to give in other 

The citizens of Freehold had the honor, we believe, 
of holding the first meeting in New Jersey to denounce 
the tyrannical acts of Great Britain — of inaugurating the 
movements in our State which finally resulted in Inde- 
pendence. The date of their first meeting is June 6th, 
1774; the earliest date of a meeting in any other place 
that we have met with, is of a meeting at Newark, June 
11th, 1774. 

The following is a copy of the Freehold Proceedings: 

Lowei; Freehold Resolutions. 

"Freehold June 6th 1774. 
"At a meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants 
of the Township of Lower Freehold in the county of 


Monmouth in New Jersey, on Monday the < "> 1 1 1 day of 

June, 1774. after notice given of the time, place and oc- 
casion of this meeting : 

" Resolved That it is the unanimous opinion of this 

meeting, that tin- cause in which the inhabitants of the 
town of Boston are now suffering is the common cause of 
the whole Continent of North America : and that unless 
some genera] spirited measures, for the public safety he 
speedily entered into there is just reason to fear that 
every Province may in turn share the same fate with 
them; and that therefore, it is highly incumbent on them 
all to unite in some effectual means to obtain a repeal of 
the Boston Port Bill and any other that may follow it, 
which shall he deemed subversive of the rights and privi- 
leges of free born Americans. 

"And that it is the opinion of this meeting that in case 
it shall hereafter appear to be consistent with the gen- 
eral opinion of the trading towns and the commercial 
part of our countrymen, that an entire stoppage of im- 
portation and exportation from and to (neat Britain and 
the West Indies, until the said Port Bill and other Acts 
be repealed, will he conducive to the safety and preser- 
vation of North America and her liberties, they will yield 
a cheerful acquiescence in the measure and earnestly 
reccommend the same to all their brethren in this Prov- 

" Resolved, moreover, That the inhabitants of this 
township will join in an Association with the several 
towns in the county and in conjunction with them, with 
the several counties in the Province (if. as we doubt not 

they see tit to accede to the proposal i ill any measures 

that may app< ar best adapted to the weal and safety of 
North America and all her loyal sons. 

"Ordered That 

John Andersoh Esq Peteb Forman 

Hendrice Smoce John Forman 

Ashei; Holmes Capt. Jno. Covenhoven 

and Dr. Nathaniel Scuddeb 

be a committee for the township to join those who may 


be elected for the neighboring townships or counties to 
constitute a General Committee for any purposes similar 
to those above mentioned; and thai the gentlemen so ap- 
pointed do immediately solicit a correspondence with 
the adjacent towns. - ' 

(Dr. Scudder subsequently was a Colonel in the Firsi 
Regiment Monmouth Militia, and killed October L5th, 
1781, as described elsewhere.) 

The following week the citizens of Essex sent the 
following to the patriots of Monmouth : 
Essex to Monmouth. 

" Elizabethtown June 13 1774 

"Gentlemen: The alarming Measures which have 
been lately taken to deprive the Inhabitants of the Ameri- 
can Colonies of their constitutional Rights and Privileges, 
together with the late violent attacks made upon the 
rights and liberties of the Colony of the Massachusetts 
Bay (for asserting and endeavoring to maintain their 
rights) manifestly intended to crush them without Mercy 
and thereby disunite and weaken the Colonies, and at 
the same time dare them to assert or own their Constitu- 
tional Eights, Liberties or Properties, under the Penalty 
of the like, and if possible, worse treatment: and as the 
Assembly of New Jersey are not like to meet in time to 
answer the Design proposed, and the neighboring Colo- 
nies are devising and expecting the immediate union of 
this Colony with them. 

"Sundry of the Inhabitants of the County of Essex 
by Advertisements, convened a general Meeting of said 
County at Newark on Saturday last, when the said in- 
habitants unanimously entered into certain Resolves and 
Declarations upon that occasion, a copy of which you 
have enclosed. We the Committee appointed by the said 
Meeting, do earnestly request that You will immediately 
by Advertisements or otherwise, call a general Meeting 
of your County for the purposes aforesaid as soon as pos- 
sible, as we have intelligence that it is most probable the 
General Congress of the Colonies will be held the latter 
end of July next. Vs'e think New Brunswick the most 


suitable place for the committee to meet, and with sub- 
mission to them desire they will meet us at New Bruns- 
wick on Thursday, July ^lst next, at 1<> o'clock in the 
morning, unless some other time and place more suitable 
shall in the meantime be agreed upon. 

"We earnestly request your answer as soon as pos- 

"Letters of this Tenor and Date we now despatch to 
the other Counties in this Colony. We are, Gentlemen, 
"your most ob't servants 

Stephen ('hank, Chairman. 

"By order; 

"To Messrs. Edward Taylor, Richard Lawrence, 
Elisha Lawrence, John Taylor and Henry Waddell and 
other Inhabitants of the County of Monmouth, Friends 
to the Liberties and Privileges of the American Colo- 

(The above letter was directed to the above named 
gentlemen "or to any body else in Monmouth County.") 

Delegates from the different townships in the county 
assembled at Freehold, July 19th, and the result of their 
decision is found in the following admirable document. 
It is lengthy, but will well repay perusal. In the closing 
paragraph they trust that some faithful record will trans- 
mit the reasons which actuated them, to their posterity 
to whom they make a brief but elotpient appeal. As 
they desired, this record has been preserved, and as they 
desired, we do what we can to place it before their de- 
scendants : 

Monmouth County Resolutions. 

"On Tuesday, July 19th, 1774, a majority of the 
Committees from the several townships in the County of 
Monmouth of the Colony of New Jersey, met according to 
appointment at the Court House at Freehold in said 
county; and appearing to have been regularly chosen 
and constituted by their respective townships, they unani- 
mously agreed upon the propriety and expediency of 
electing a committee to represent the whole county at 
the approaching Provincial Convention to be held at the 


city of New Brunswick, for the necessary purpose <>f con- 
stituting delegates from this Province to the genera] 
Congress of the Colonies and for all other such import- 
.iiit purposes as shall hereafter be found necessary. 

"They at the same time also recorded the following 
Resolutions, Determinations and Opinions, which they 
w ;sh to be transmitted to posterity as an ample testimony 
to their Loyalty to liis British Majesty, of their firm at- 
tachment to the principles of the glorious Revolution 
and their fixed and unalterable purpose, by every lawful 
means in their power, to maintain and defend themselves 
in the possession and enjoyment of those inestimable 
civil and religious privileges which their forefathers, at 
the expense of so much blood and treasure, have estab- 
lished and handed down to them. 

"1st. In the names and behalf of their constituents, 
the good and loyal inhabitants of the county of Mon- 
mouth, in the colony of New Jersey, they do cheerfully 
and publicly proclaim their unshaken allegiance to the 
person and government of his most gracious Majesty, 
King George the Third, now on the British throne, and 
do acknowledge themselves bound at all times, and to 
the utmost exertion of their power to maintain his dig- 
nity and lawful sovereignty in and over all his colonies 
in America ; and that it is their most fervent desire and 
constant prayer that in a Protestant succession, the de- 
scendants of the illustrious House of Hanover, may con- 
tinue to sway the British sceptre to the latest posterity. 
" 2d. They do highly esteem and prize the happi- 
ness of being governed and having their liberty and 
property secured to them by so excellent a system of 
laws as that of Great Britain, the best doubtless in the 
universe ; and they will at all times cheerfully obey and 
render every degree of assistance in their power to the 
full and just execution of them. But at the same time 
will, with the greatest alacrity and resolution oppose any 
unwarrantable innovations in them or any additions to 
or alterations in the grand s}-stem which may appear un- 
constitutional, and consequently inconsistent with the 


liberties and privileges of the descendants of free born 
American Britons. 

" 3d. As there has been forages past, a most happy 
union and uninterrupted connection between Great Brit- 
ain and her colonics in America, they conceive their in- 
terests are now become so intimately blended together 
and their mutual dependence upon each other to be at 
this time so delicately great that they esteem everything 
which has a tendency to alienate affection or disunite 
them in any degree, highly injurious to their common 
happiness and directly calculated to produce a Revolu- 
tion, likely in the end to prove destructive to both ; they 
do therefore heartily disclaim every idea of that spirit of 
independence which has, of late, hj some of our mistaken 
brethren on each side of the Atlantic, been so ground- 
less!}' and injuriously held up to the attention of the 
nation, as having through ambition, possessed the breasts 
of the Americans. And moreover they do devoutly be- 
seech the Supreme Disposer of all events, graciously to 
incline the heart of our Sovereign and all his Ministers, 
to a kind and impartial investigation of the real senti- 
ments and disposition of his truly loyal American sub- 

"4th. Notwithstanding many great men and able 
writers have employed their talents and pens in favor of 
the newly adopted mode of taxatiou in America, they are 
yet sensible of no convictive light being thrown upon the 
subject ; and therefore, although so august a body as that 
of the British Parliament is now actually endeavoring to 
enforce in a military way, the execution of some distress- 
ing edicts upon the capital of the Massachusetts colony, 
they do freely and solemnly declare that in conscience 
the}- deem them, and all others that are, or ever may be 
framed upon the same principles, altogether unprece- 
dented and unconstitutional, utterly inconsistent with the 
true original intention of Magna Charta, subversive of 
the just rights of free born Englishmen, agreeable and 
satisfactory only to the domestic and foreign enemies of 
our nation, and consequently pregnant with complicated 


ruin, aiid tending directly I" the dissolution and destruc- 
tion of t be r>ritisli Empire. 

"5th. As they, on th i one band firmly believe thai 
the inhabitants of the Massachusetts colony in general, 
and thos • of the town of Boston in particular, are to all 
intents and purposes as loyal subjects as any in all his 
Majesty's widely extended dominions; and on the other, 
thai (although the present coercive and oppressive meas- 
ures against them may have taken rise in some part 
from tli" gross sst and most cru >] misrepresentation both 
of their disposition and conduct) the blockade of that 
town is principally designed to lead th - way in an at- 
tempt to execute a dreadful deep laid plan for enslaving 
all America. They are therefore clearly of opinion, that 
the Bostonians are now eminently suffering in the com- 
mon cause of American freedom, and that their fate may 
probably prove decisive to this very extensive continent 
and even to the whole British nation ; and they do verily 
expect that unless some generous spirited measures for 
the public safety be speedily entered into and steadily 
prosecuted, every other colony will soon in turn feel the 
pernicious effects of the same detestable restrictions. 
Whence they earnestly entreat every rank, denomina- 
tion, society and profession of their brethren, that, lay- 
ing aside all bigotry and every party disposition, they do 
now universally concur in one generous and vigorous 
effort for the encouragement and support of their suffer- 
ing friends, and in a resolute assertion of their birth- 
right, liberties and privileges, In consequence of which 
they may reasonably expect a speedy repeal of all the 
arbitrary edicts respecting the Massachusetts govern- 
ment, and at the same time an effectual preclusion of any 
future attempts of the kind from the enemies of our 
happy Constitution, either upon them or any of their 
American brethren. 

" 6th. In case it shall hereafter appear to be con- 
sistent with the result of the deliberation of the general 
Congress, that an interruption or entire cessation of 
commercial intercourse with Great Britain and even 


(painful as it may be) with the West Indies, until such 
oppressive Acts he repealed and the liberties of America 
fully restored, stated and asserted, will on this deplor- 
able emergency be really necessary and conducive to the 
public good, they promise a ready acquiescence in every 
measure and will recommend the same as far as their 
influence extends. 

"7th. As a general Congress of Deputies from the 
several American Colonies is proposed to be held at 
Philadelphia soon in September next, they declare their 
entire approbation of the design and think it is the only 
rational method of evading those aggravated evils which 
threaten to involve the whole continent in one general 
calamitous catastrophe. They are therefore met this 
day, vested with due authority from their respective con- 
stituents, to elect a committee to represent this county 
of Monmouth in any future necessary transactions re- 
specting the cause of liberty and especially to join the 
Provincial Convention soon to be held at New Brunswick, 
for the purpose of nominating and constituting a number 
of Delegates, who in behalf of this Colony may steadily 
attend to said general Congress and faithfully serve the 
laboring cause of freedom and they have consequently 
chosen and deputed the following gentlemen to that im- 
portant trust viz : 

Edward Taylor John Anderson 

John Taylor Dr. Nathaniel Scudder 

John Burro wes John Covenhoven 

Joseph Holmes Josiah Holmes 

Edward Williams James Grover 

John Lawrence. 
•'Edward Taylor being constituted chairman and any 
five of them a sufficient number to transact business. 
And they do beseech, entreat, instruct and enjoin them 
to give their voice at said Provincial Convention, for no 
persons but such as they in good conscience and from 
the best information shall verily believe to be amply 
qualified for so interesting a department; particularly 
that they be men highly approved for integrity, honesty 


and uprightness, faithfully attached to his Majesty's per- 
son and Lawful government, well skilled in the principles 
of our excellent constitution and steady assertors of all 
our civil and religious liberties. 

"8th. As under the present operation of the Boston 
Port Bill, thousands of our respeefced brethren in that 
town must necessarily be reduced to great distress, they 
feel themselves affected with the sincerest sympathy and 
most cordi.-d commiseration; and as they expect, under 
God, that the final deliverance of America will be owing, 
in a greai degree, to a continuance of their virtuous 
struggle, they esteem themselves hound in duty and in 
interest to afford them every assistance and alleviation 
in their power ; and they do now in belief of their con- 
stituents, declare their readiness to contribute to the re- 
lief of the suffering poor in that town ; therefore they re- 
quest the several committees of the country, when met, 
to take into serious consideration the necessity and ex- 
pediency of forwarding under a sanction from them, sub- 
scriptions through every part of the Colony, for that 
truly humane and laudable purpose ; and that a proper 
plan be concerted for laying out the product of such sub- 
scriptions to the best advantage, and afterwards trans- 
mitting it to Boston in the safest and least expensive 

"9th. As we are now by our Committees in this, in 
conjunction with those of other colonies, about to dele- 
gate to a number of our countrymen a power equal to 
any wherewith human nature alone was ever invested ; 
and as we firmly resolve to acquiesce in their delibera- 
tions, we do therefore earnestly entreat them, seriously 
and conscientiously to weigh the inexpressible import- 
ance of their arduous department, and fervently to solicit 
that direction and assistance in the discharge of their 
trust, which all the powers of humanity cannot afford 
them ; and we do humbly and earnestly beseech that 
God, in whose hand are the hearts of all flesh and who 
ruleth them at his pleasure, graciously to infuse into the 
whole Congress a spirit of true wisdom, prudence and 


just moderation ; and to direct them to such unanimous 
and happy conclusion as shall terminate in His own 
honor and glory, the establishment of the Protestant 
succession of the illustrious House of Hanover, the 
mutual weal and advantage of Great Britain and all her 
Dominions and a just and permanent confirmation of all 
the civil and religious liberties of America. And now 
lastly, under the consideration of the bare possibility 
that the enemies of our constitution will yet succeed in a 
desperate triumph over us in this age, we do earnestly 
(should this prove the case) call upon all future genera- 
tions to renew the glorious struggle for liberty as often 
as Heaven shall afford them any probable means of suc- 

" May this notification, by some faithful record, be 
handed down to the yet unborn descendants of Ameri- 
cans, that nothing but the most fatal necessity could 
have wrested the present inestimable enjoyments from 
their ancestors. Let them universally inculcate upon 
their beloved offspring an investigation of those truths, 
respecting both civil and religious liberty, which have 
been so clearly and fully stated in this generation. May 
they be carefully taught in all their schools ; and may 
they never rest until, through Divine blessing upon their 
efforts, true freedom and liberty shall reign triumphant 
over the whole Globe. 

" Signed by order of the Committees, 

"Edward Taylor Chairman." 


The patriots of Monmouth promptly and freely con- 
tributed to the suffering inhabitants of Boston. In for- 
warding their first contribution " they entreated their 
brethren not to give up, and if they should want a further 
supply of bread to let them know it." 

On the 21st of October, 1774, a letter was written on 
behalf of the Bostonians, to the citizens of Monmouth, 
in which they say : , 


"The kind and generous donations of the ( 'ounty of 
Monmouth iu the Jersies we are now to acknowledge 
and with grateful hearts to thank you therefor, having 
received from the Committee of said county, per Captain 
Brown, eleven hundred and forty (1140) bushels of rye 
and fifty barrels of rye meal, for the suffering poor of 
this town, which shall be applied to the purpose intended 
by the donors; and what further cheers our hearts, is 
your kind assurances of a further supply, if necessary, to 
enable us to oppose the cruel Parliamentary Acts, lev- 
elled not onl}- against this town, but our whole Consti- 

"Committees of Observation and Inspection." 

"Freehold December 10th 1774. 
"In pursuance of the recommendation of the Con- 
tinental Congress and for the preservation of American 
Freedom, a respectable body of the freeholders of Free- 
hold township met at the Court House and unanimously 
elected the following gentlemen to act as a Committee of 
Observation and Inspection for said township : 
John Anderson Hendrick Smock 

John Forman John Covenhoven 

Asher Holmes Dr. Nath'l Scudder 

Peter Forman David Forman 

Dr. T. Henderson. 
"The committee were instructed by their constitu- 
ents to carry into execution the several important and 
salutary measures pointed out to them by the Continental 
Congress and without favor or affection to make all such 
diligent inquiry as shall be found conducive to the ac- 
complishment of the great necessary purposes held up to 
the attention of Americans." 

Upper Freehold, Dover and Middletown formed simi- 
lar committees, and notified the Freehold committee. 

Shrewsbury however failed to appoint a committee. 
This may have been owing to the prevalence of Quaker 
principles in the township. An attempt by the patriots 
of Shrewsbury was made to have a Committee appointed, 


as will be seen by the following copy of an advertise- 
ment put up in this township : 


"Shrewsbury January 2nd 177."). 

"Agreeable to the Resolutions of the late General 
Continental Congress — The Inhabitants of the town of 
Shrewsbury, more especially such as are properly quali- 
fied for choosing Representatives to serve in the General 
Assembly are hereby warned to meet at the house of 
Josiah Halstead, in said Shrewsbury, on Tuesday the 
17th of this instant January at noon, in order to choose 
a Committee for the several purposes as directed by the 
said ('(ingress. 

,- As the method ordered by the Congress seems to 
be the only peaceable method the case will admit of, on 
failure of which either comtirmed Slavery or a civil war 
of course succeeds ; the bare mention of either of the two 
last is shocking to human nature, more particularly so to 
all true friends of the English Constitution. 

"Therefore it becomes the indispensable duty of all 
such to use their utmost endeavors in favor of the first 
or peaceable method, and suffer it not to miscarry or fail 
of its salutary and much desired effects by means of any 
sinister views or indolence of theirs. Surely expecting 
on the one hand to be loaded with the curses arising 
from slavery to the latest posterity, or on the other hand 
the guilt of blood of thousands of their brethren and 
fellow Christians to lay at their door and to be justly 
required at their hands. 

''Think well of this before it be too late and let not 
the precious moments pass. 

A number of the citizens of Shrewsbury assembled 
at the time and place mentioned in the advertisement 
but they failed to appoint a committee. The following 
shows the conclusion to which the meeting came. It 
concludes more like a Quaker Meeting epistle than 
a town meeting resolve : 
"Extract from a letter to a gentleman in New York 

dated Shrewsbury X. J. January 18th 1775. 


"Iii consequence of an anonymous advertisement 
fixed up in this place, giving notice to freeholders and 
others, to meet on Tuesday the 17th inst. in order to 

cllOOSe a ('< ill! Ill it tee of I lispect ioll, etc., between thirty and 

forty of the most respectable freeholders accordingly 
met and after a few debates od the business of the day, 
which were carried on with great decency and modera- 
tion it was generally agreed (there being only four or five 
dissenting votes) that the appointment of a committee 
was not only useless, but they were apprehensive would 
prove a means of disturbing the peace and quietness 
which had hitherto existed in the township, and would 
continue to use their utmost endeavors to preserve and 
to guard against running upon that rock on which, with 
much concern, they beheld others, through an inatten- 
tive rashness, daily splitting." 

The Freehold Committee of Observation and Inspec- 
tion at a meeting held March 17th, 1775, took up the case 
of Shrewsbury township, and after stating the subject in 
a preamble they resolved that from and after that day 
they would esteem and treat the citizens of Shrewsbury 
as enemies to their King and country and deserters of 
the common cause of Freedom ; and would break off all 
dealings and connections with them "unless they shall 
turn from the evil of their ways and testify their repent- 
ance by adopting the measures of Congress." 

The New Jersey Provincial Legislature, in May fol- 
lowing, authorized other townships to appoint delegates 
for Shrewsbury, but the same month the refractory town- 
ship, as will be seen by the following, chose delegates 
and also a committee of Observation, and so the un- 
l^leasantness ended. 

Shrewsbury Falls Into Line. 

" At a meeting of Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
the township of Shrewsbury this 27th day of May 1775, 
the following persons were by a great majority, chosen a 
committee of observation for the said town agreeable to 


the direction of the General Continental Congress held at 
Philadelphia September 5th, 1774 viz. 
Josiah Holmes John Little 

Jos. Throckmorton Samuel Longstreet 

Nicholas Van Brunt David Knott 

Cor. Vanderveer Benjamin Dennis 

Daniel Hendrickson Samuel Breese 

Thomas Morford Garret Longstreet 

Cornelius Lane. 
" Ordered : That Daniel Hendrickson and Nicholas 
Van Brunt, or either of them, do attend the Provincial 
Congress now setting at Trenton, with full power to rep- 
resent there, this town of Shrewsbury. And that Josiah 
Holmes, David Knott and Samuel Breese be a sub-com- 
mittee to prepare instructions for the Deputy or Depu- 
ties who are to attend the Congress at Trenton. 

" Josiah Holmes was unanimously chosen chairman. 

Josiah Holmes. 
" Chairman and Town Clerk." 

Freehold Patriots Indignant. — Novel Proceedings. 

March 6th, 1775. 

A Tory pamphlet entitled " Free Thoughts on the 
Resolves of Congress ly A. W. Farmer" was handed to 
the Freehold Committee of Observation and Inspection 
for their opinion. The committee declared it to be most 
pernicious and malignant in its tendencies and calculated 
to sap the foundation of American liberty. The pamphlet 
was handed back to their constituents who gave it a coat 
of tar and turkey buzzard's feathers, one person remark- 
ing that " although the feathers were plucked from the 
most stinking of fowls, he thought it fell far short of 
being a proper emblem of the author's odiousness to the 
friends of freedom and he wished he had the pleasure of 
giving the author a coat of the same material." 

The pamphlet in its gorgeous attire was then nailed 
to the pillory post. 

The same committee severely denounced a Tory 
pamphlet written by James Bivington, editor of Riving- 


ton's Royal Gazette, the Tory paper, printed in New 


By the following resolves it will be seen that the 
citizens of Upper Freehold favored arming the people if 

necessary, to oppose the tyrannical acts ofGreat Britain. 
A striking illustration of the stirring events of that peril- 
ous time is found in the fact that before a year had 
elapsed sonic of the prominent men in this meeting were 
aiding Great Britain to the best of their ability by voice, 
pen, or sword : 

Upper Freehold Resolutions. 

" May 4th 1775. This day, agreeable to previous 
notice a very considerable number of the principal in- 
habitants of this township met at Imlaystown. 

"John Lawrence Esq. in the chair: When the fol- 
lowing resolves were unanimously agreed to : 

" Resolved, That it is our first wish to live in unison 
with Great Britain, agreeable to the principles of the 
Constitution ; that we consider the unnatural civil war 
which we are about to be forced into, with anxiety and 
distress but that we are determined to oppose the novel 
claim of the Parliament of Great Britain to raise a 
revenue in America and risk every possible consequence 
rather than to submit to it. 

" Resolved. That it appears to this meeting that 
there are a sufficient number of arms for the people. 

" Resolved. That a sum of money be now raised to 
purchase what further quantity of Powder and Ball may 
be necessary ; and it is reccom mended that every man 
capable of bearing arms enter into Companies to train, 
and be prepared to march at a minute's warning ; and it 
is further recommended to the people that they do not 
waste their powder in fowling and hunting. 

" A subscription was opened and one hundred and 
sixty pounds instantly paid into the hands of a person 
appointed for that purpose. The officers of four com- 
panies were then chosen and the meeting broke up in 
perfect unanimity. 

"Elisha Lawrence, Clerk." 



The last lands in Old Monmouth claimed by the 
Indians were described in certain papers, powers of at- 
torney, &c, presented to a conference between the 
whites and Indians held at Crosswicks, N. J., in Feb- 
ruary, 1758, For several years previous the Indians had 
expressed much dissatisfaction because they had not re- 
ceived pay for several tracts of land, some of them of 
considerable extent in Monmouth and other counties. 
When the ill feeling of the Indians became apparent, the 
Legislature appointed commissioners to examine into the 
causes of dissatisfaction. Several conferences wore held 
at Crosswicks, Burlington, Easton, Pa., &c, between the 
commissioners and the representatives of several Indian 
tribes with reference to the lands, and satisfactory set- 
tlements made. 

In the year 1678, a claim was brought by the 
Indians against Richard Hartshorne, an early set- 
tler of old Monmouth, who had previously bought of 
them Sandy Hook, and lands around the Highlands. In 
that year, to prevent their trespassing upon his lands, he 
had to pay them to relinquish their claims to hunt, fish, 
fowl, and gather beach plums. The following is a copy 
of the agreement: 

"The 8th of August, 1678. Whereas the Indians pre- 
tend that formerly, when they sold all the laud upon Sandy 
Hook, they did not sell, or did except liberty to plums, 
or to say the Indians should have liberty to go on Sandy 
Hook, to get plum-; when the please, and to hunt upon 
the land, and fish, and to tak3 dry trees that suited them 
for cannows. Now know all men by these presents, that 
I, Richard Hartshorne, of Portland, in the county of 
Monmouth, in East Jersey, for peace and quietness sake, 
and to the end there may be no cause of trouble with 
the Indians and that I may not for the future have any 
trouble with them as formerly I had, in their dogs kill- 
ing my sheep, and their hunting on my lands, and their 
fishing, I have agreed as folio weth : 


"These presents writnesseth, that I, Vowavapon, 
Hendricks, fche Indians sonn, haying all the liberty and 
privileges of pluming on Sandy Hook, hunting, fishing, 
fowling, getting cannows &c, by these presents, give 
grant, bargain, sell, unto Richard Hartshorne, his heirs 
and assigns forever, all the liberty and privilege of plum- 
big, fishing, fowling, and hunting, and howsoever re- 
served and excepted by the Indians tor him, the said 
Richard Hartshorne, his heirs and assigns, to have, hold, 
possess, and enjoy forever, to say that no Indian, or In- 
dians, shall or hath no pretense to lands or timber, or 
liberty, privileges on no pretense whatsoever on ,ui\ 
part a parcell of land, belonging to the said Richard 
Hartshorne, to say Sandy Hook or land adjoining to it, 
in consideration the said Hartshorne, hath paid unto the 
said Vowavapon, thirteen shillings money: and I the 
said Vowavapon, do acknowledge to have received thir- 
teen shillings by these presents. Witness my hand and 

" Vowavapon X his mark 
" Tocus X his mark. 

" Signed, sealed arid delivered in the presence of 

John Stout." 

Having delivered their claims to the Commission- 
ers, the Indians present executed a power of attorney to 
Tom Store, Moses Totamy, Stephen Calvin. Isaac Still 
and John Pompshire, or the major part of them, to 
transact all future business with the state government 
respecting lands. 

In 1757 the government had appropriated £1,600 to 
purchase a release of Indian claims; one-half to belaid out 
in purcdiasing a settlement for the Indians on the south 
side of the Raritan, whereon they might reside ; the other 
half to purchase latent claims of hack Indians not resi- 
dent in the province. At the conference at Easton, in 
October, 1758, it was decided to purchase a tract of land 
in Evesham township, Burlington, containing over 3,000 
acres, for the Indians to locate upon. There was there 
a sawmill and cedar swamp and satisfactory hunting 


ground. The Indians soon r» imo^ ed to this reservation, 

named Brotherton ; in removing their buildings they were 
assisted by government. A house of worship and several 
dwellings were soon put up. 

In 1765, it is said, there were about sixty persons 
settled there. 

About the last remnant of Indians remaining in our 
state, sold their lands to the whites about 1801, and the 
year following removed to New Stoekbridge, near Oaeida 
Lake, New York, from whence, about 1824, they removed 
to Michigan, where they purchased a tract of land of the 
Menoinonie Indians, on both sides of the Fox river near 
Green Bay. 

In 1832, the New Jersey tribe, reduced to less than 
forty souls, delegated one of their number named Bar- 
tholomew 8. Calvin, to visit Trenton and apply to our 
Legislature for remuneration for hunting and fishing 
privileges on unenclosed lands, which they alleged had 
not been sold with the land. Calvin was an aged man 
who had been educated at Princeton, where he was at 
the breaking out of the Revolution when he joined the 
American army. The claim, so unusual, was met in a 
spirit of kindness by our Legislature, who directed the 
State Treasurer to pay to the agent of the Indians, the 
sum of two thousand dollars, thus satisfactorily and hon- 
orably extinguishing the last claim the Indians brought 
against our state. Hon. Samuel L. Southard, at the close 
of a speech made at the time, said: "It was a proud fact 
in the history of New Jersey, that every foot of her soil 
had been obtained from the Indians by fair and volun- 
tary purchase and transfer, a fact that no other state of 
the Union, not even the land which bears the name of 
Penn, can boast." 



In the list of members of the Assemblv, or "House 


of Representatives of the Province of Nova Cesarea or 
New Jersey," from 17<>:! to 17<>'.>, daring which time there 
were four sessions, the names of the comities to which 
they severally belonged are not given. The records sim- 
ply mention that they are from East or West Jersey as 
the case may be. Among the members from East Jersey 
it is probable that the following are from Monmouth 

1st Assembly, 1703, Obadiah Bowne, Richard Hartshorne. 

,-, , , r „, \ Richard Hartshorne, John Bowne, 

2d 1/U4, -i 

( Richard Salter, Obadiah Bowne. 

.. , ,, 1707 j John Bowne, William Lawrence, 

i Lewis Morris. 

4th " 1708-9, Gershom Mott, Elisha Lawrence. 

After this session the names of the counties to which 
the members belonged are given. 

5th Assembly, 1705), Elisha Lawrence, Gersham Mott. 

6th " 1710, Gershom Mott, William Lawrence, 

7th, " 1716, William Lawrence, Elisha Lawrence. 

8th, " 1721, William Lawrence, Garret Schenck. 

9th, " 1727, John Eaton, James Grover. 

10th, " 1730, John Eaton, James Grover. 

11th, " 1738, John Eaton, Cornelius Vandervere. 

12th, " 1740, John Eaton, Cornelius Vandervere. 

13th, " 1743, John Eaton, Robert Lawrence. 

14th, " 1744, John Eaton, Robert Lawrence. 

15th, " 1745, John Eaton, Robert Lawrence. 

16th, " 1746, John Eaton, Robert Lawrence. 

17th, " 1749, John Eaton, Robert Lawrence. 

18th, " 1751, Robert Lawrence, James Holmes. 

19th, " 1754, Robert Lawrence, James Holmes. 

20th, " 1761, James Holmes,* Richard Lawrence. 

21st, " 1769, Robert Hartshorne, Edward Taylor. 

23d " 1772, Edward Taylor, Richard Lawrence. 

Robert Lawrence was speaker of the Assembly in 
1746-7, and again from 1754-1758. 


The delegates appointed by the several counties to 
take action in regard to the tyrannical acts of Great 
Britain, assembled at New Brunswick, July 21st, 1774, 

♦James Holmes died and John Anderson was chosen in his place. 


and continued in session three days. Seventy-two dele- 
gates were present. The following had been elected 
from Monmouth county by a meeting held at Freehold 
Court House, July lllth, viz: 

Edward Taylor, John Anderson, John Taylor, 

James Grover, John Lawrence, Dr. Nath'l Scudder, 

John Burrowes, Joseph Holmes, Josiah Holmes, 

Edward Williams. 

Edward Taylor was appointed chairman of the dele- 
gation. The Provincial Congress elected Stephen Crane, 
of Essex, Chairman, and Jonathan D. Sargent, of Som- 
erset, clerk. Resolutions were passed similar in char- 
acter to those adopted by the Monmouth meeting. 



It is doubtful if any more ancient accounts of travel- 
ing across New Jersey can be found than the following, 
extracted from the journals of John Burnyeate and 
George Fox, distinguished members of the Society of 
Friends ; in company with them were Robert Withers, 
George Patison and others, some of whom returned by 
the same route a few months afterwards. These noted 
Quaker preachers left Maryland in the latter part of Feb- 
ruary, Ki72, and arrived at New Castle, Delaware, about 
the first of March. From thence Burnyeate gives the 
following account of their journey across the State to 

"We staid there (New Castle) that night, and the 
next day we got over the river (Delaware). When we 
got over we could not get an Indian for a guide, and the 
Dutchman we had hired would not go without an Indian, 
so we were forced to stay there that day. The next day 
we rode about to seek an Indian, but could get none to 
go ; but late in the evening there came some from the 
other side of the town, and we hired one, and so began 
our journeying early the next morning to travel through 


the country, which is now called New Jersey ; and we 
travelled we supposed nearly 40 miles. In the evening 
we got to a few Indian wigwams, which are their houses : 
we saw no man, nor woman, house nor dwelling, thai 
day, for there dwelt no English in that country then. 

•' We Lodged that night in an Indian wigwam, and 
lay upon the ground as the Indians themselves did, and 
the Dext day we travelled through several of their towns, 
and they were kind to ns, and helped us over the creeks 
with their canoes; we made our horses swim at the sides 
of the canoes, and so travelled on. Towards evening we 
got to an Indian town, and when we had put our horses 
out to grass we went to the Indian King's house, who re- 
ceived us kindly, and showed us very civil respect. But 
alas! he was so poorly provided, having got so little that 
day, that most of us could neither get to eat or drink in 
his wigwam; but it was because he had it not — so we 
lay as well as he, upon the ground — only a mat under us, 
and a piece of wood or any such thing under our heads. 
Next morning early we took horse and travelled through 
several Indian towns, and that night we lodged in the 
woods ; and the next morning got to an English planta- 
tion, a town called Middletown, in East Jersey, where 
there was a plantation of English and several Friends, 
and we came down with a Friend to his house near the 
water-side, and he carried us over in his boat and our 
horses to Long Island.'' 

It is impossible to read the accounts of travelling at 
this early period without being forcibly reminded of the 
contrast in traveling then and now. Many of the Quaker 
preachers speak of crossing streams in frail Indian ca- 
noes, with their horses swimming by their side ; and one, 
the fearless, zealous John Richardson, (so noted among 
other things for his controversies with "the apostate 
George Keith") in substance recommends, in traveling 
across New Jersey, " for safety, travellers' horses should 
have long tails." The reason for this singular sugges- 
tion was that in crossing streams the frail canoes were 
often capsized, and if the traveller could not swim, he 


might probably preserve his life by grasping his horse's 
tail. Mr. Richardson describes how one man's life was 
preserved by this novel life preserver; in this case the 
life-preserver being the long tail of Mr. R.s own horse; 
and in commenting upon it he quaintly observes " that 
he always approved horses" tails being long in crossing 

Long before Fox and Biirnyeate crossed the state. 
the white-., particularly the Dutch, frequently crossed 
onr state by Indian paths, in going to and fro between 
the settlements on the Delaware and New Amsterdam 
New York), though they have left but meagre accounts 
of their journeyings, and there are strong probabilities 
that the Dutch from New Amsterdam, after furs and 
marching for minerals, crossed the stata as far as Burl- 
ington Island. Trenton, and points far up the Del- 
aware from forty to fifty years before the trip of these 
Quaker preachers. 

That their journeyings were not always safe, is shown 
in the following extract of a letter written by Jacob Al- 
ricks, September 20th, 1669 : 

" The Indians have again killed three or four Dutch- 
men, and no person can go through ; one messenger who 
was eight days out returned without accomplishing his 

The next day he writes : 

I liave sent off rnes-enger after messenger to the 
Manhattans overland, but no one can get through, as the 
Indians there have again killed four Dutchmen. 

At the time of writing these letters Alricks resided 
in Delaware, and they were addressed to the Dutch au- 
thorities at New York. 


Of the different accounts by ancient writers of the 
manners and customs of the Indians of our part of the 
State and West Jersey, about the clearest and most 
readable is by the celebrated Swedish traveller, Professor 


Calm, \\!k> visited our State in 1748, and from whose 
writings tin' following extracts are taken : 


When the Indians iui snded to fall a thick, strong 
tree, they conld not make use of their clumsy stone 
hatchets, and for want of proper instruments, employed 
fire. They set fire to a great quantity of wood at the 
root of the tree, and made it fall by that means. But 
that the fire might not reach higher than they would 
have it, they fastened some rags on a pole, dipped them 
in water, and kept constantly wetting the tree a little 
above the fire. 

Whenever the Indians intend to hollow out a thick 
tree for a canoe, they lay dry branches all along the stem 
of the trees as far as it must be hollowed out. Then they 
put fire to these dry branches, and as soon as they are 
burned out, they are replaced by others. AVhile these 
branches are burning, the Indians are very busy with wet 
rags and pouring water upon the tree to prevent the fire 
from spreading too far in at the sides and at the ends. 
The tree being burnt hollow as far as they found it 
sufficient, or as far as it could without damaging the 
canoe, they took their stone hatchets, or sharp flints, or 
sharp shells, and scraped off the burnt part of the wood, 
and smoothed the boat within. By this means they like- 
wise gave it what shape they pleased ; instead of using a 
hatchet they shaped it by fire. A good sized canoe was 
commonly thirty or forty feet long. 


The chief use of their hatchets was to make fields 
for maize plantations ; for if the ground where they in- 
tended to make corn fields was covered with trees, they 
cut off the bark all around the trees with their hatchets, 
especially at a time when they lose their sap. By that 
means, the trees became dry and could not partake any 
more nourishment, and the leaves could uo longer 
obstruct the rays of the sun. The small trees were pulled 


out by force, and the ground was a little turned up with 
crooked or sharp branches. 


Thev had stone pestles about a foot long and as thick 
as a man's arm, for pounding maize, which was their 
chief and only corn. They pounded all their corn in 
hollow trees ; some Indians had only wooden pestles. 
They had neither wind mills, water mills, nor hand mills 
to grind it, and did not so much as know a mill before the 
Europeans came to this country. I have spoken with 
old Frenchmen in Canada, who told me the Indians had 
been astonished beyond expression, when the French set 
up the first wind mill. They came in numbers even 
from the most distant parts to view this wonder, and 
were not tired with sitting near it for several days to- 
gether, in order to observe it ; they were long of opinion 
that it was not driven by wind, but by spirits who lived 
within it. They were partly under the same astonish- 
ment when the first water mill was built. 


Before the coming of the Europeans, the Indians 
were entirely unacquainted with the use of iron. They 
were obliged to supply the want with sharp stones, 
shells, claws of birds and wild beasts, pieces of bone and 
other things of that kind, whenever they intended to 
make hatchets, knives and such like instruments. From 
whence it appears they must have led a very wretched 
life. Their hatches were made of stone, in shape similar 
to that of wedges used to cleave wood, about half a foot 
long, and broad in proportion ; they are rather blunter 
than our wedges. As this hatchet must be fixed with a 
handle, there was a notch made all around the thick end. 
To fasten it, they split a stick at one end, and put the 
stone between it, s«> that the two halves of the stick came 
into the notches of the stone ; then they tied the two 
split ends together with a rope or something like it, 
almost in the same way as smiths fasten the instruments 
with which they cut off iron, to a split stick. Some of 


these stone hatchets were Dot aotched «>r furrowed at the 
upper end, and it seems that they only held these to theii 
hands to hew or strike with them, and did not make 
handles to them. Some were made of hard rock or 
stone. Fish hooks were made of bones or birds' daws. 



In days gone by, the singular character and eccen- 
tric acts of the noted Indian Will formed the theme of 
many a fireside story among our ancestors, many of 
which are still remembered by older citizens. Some of 
the traditionary incidents given below differ in some par- 
ticulars, but we give them as related to us many years 
ago by old residents. Indian Will was evidently quite a 
traveler, and well known from Barnegat almost to the 
Highlands. At Forked River, it is said lie often visited 
Samuel Chamberlain on the ueck of land between the 
north and middle branches, and was generally followed 
by a pack of lean, hungry dogs which he kept to defend 
himself from his Indian enemies. The following tradi- 
tion was published in 1842, by Howe, in Historical Col- 
lections of New Jersey : 

" About the year 1670, the Indians sold out the sec- 
tion of country near Eatontown to Lewis Morris for a 
barrel of cider, and emigrated to Crosswicks and Cran- 
bury. One of them, called Indian Will, remained, and 
dwelt in a wigwam between Tintou Falls and Swimmine 
River. His tribe were in consequence exasperated, and 
at various times sent messengers to kill him in single 
combat ; but, being a brave, athletic man, he always 
came off conqueror. One day while partaking of a 
breakfast of suppawn and milk with a silver spoon at Mr. 
Eaton's, he casually remarked that he knew where there 
were plenty of such. They promised that if he would 
bring them, they would give him a red coat and cocked 
hat. In a short time he was arrayed in that dress, and 
it is said the Eatons suddenly became wealthy. About 


80 years since, in pulling down an old mansion in 
Shrewsbury, in which a maiden member of this family 
in her lifetime had resided, a quantity of cob dollars, 
supposed by the superstitious to have been Kidd's money, 
was found concealed in the cellar wall. This coin was 
generally of a square or oblong shape, the corners of 
which wore out the pockets." 

A somewhat similar, or perhaps a variation of the 
same tradition, we have frequently heard from old resi- 
dents of Ocean county, as follows : 

" Indian Will often visited the family of Derrick 
Longstreet at Manasquan, and one time showed them 
some silver money which excited their surprise. They 
wished to know where he got it and wanted Will to 
let them have it. Will refused to part with it, 
but told them he had found it in a trunk along the 
beach, and there was plenty of yellow money beside ; 
but as the yellow money was not as pretty as the white, 
he did not want it, and Longstreet might have it. 
So Longstreet went with him, and found the money in a 
trunk, covered over with a tarpaulin and buried in the 
sand. Will kept the white money, and Longstreet the 
yellow (gold), and this satisfactory division made the 
Longstreets wealthy. 

It is probable that Will found money along the 
beach; but whether it had been buried by pirates, or 
was from some shipwrecked vessel, is another question. 
However, the connection of Kidd's name with the money 
w< mid indicate that Will lived long after the year named 
in the first quoted tradition (1670). Kidd did not sail on 
his piratical cruises until 1696, and, from the tradition- 
ary information the writer has been enabled to obtain, 
Will must have lived many years subsequent. The late 
John Tilton, a promient, much-respected citizen of Bai- 
negat, in early years lived at Squan, and he was quite 
confident that aged citizens who related to him stories of 
Will, knew him personally. They described him as 
stout, broad-shouldered, with prominent Indian features, 
and rings in his ears, and a good-sized one in his nose. 

I \ I ' 1 A N WILL. 69 

The following are some <>t' the stories related of him : 
Among other things which Wil] bad done to excite the 

ill-will of other Indians, lit- was charged with having 
killed his wife. Her brother, named Jacob, determined 
on revenge. He pursued him, and, finding him unarmed 
undertook to march him off captive. As they were going 
along, Will espied a pine knot on the ground, managed 
to pick it up, and suddenly dearth Jacob a fatal blow. 
As he dropped to the ground, Will tauntingly exclaimed, 
"Jacob, look up at the sun — you'll never see it again!" 
Most of the old residents who related traditions of Will, 
spoke of his finding honey at one time on the dead body 
of an Indian he had killed ; but whether it was Jacob's 
or some other, was not mentioned. 

At one time to make sure of killing Will, four or five 
Indians started in pursuit of him, and they succeeded in 
surprising him so suddenly that he had no chance for de- 
fence or flight. His captors told him they were about to 
kill him, and he must at once prepare to die. He heard 
his doom with Indian stoicism, and he had only one favor 
to ask before he was killed and that was to be allowed to 
take a drink out of his jug of liquor which had just been 
filled. So small a favor the captors could not refuse. 
As Will's jug was full, it was only common politeness to 
ask them to drink also. Now, if his captors had any 
weakness it was for rum, so they gratefully accepted his 
invitation. The drink rendered them talkative, and they 
commenced reasoning with him upon the enormity of his 
offences. The condemned man admitted the justness of 
their reproaches and begged to be allow r ed to take 
another drink to drown the stings of conscience ; the 
captors consented to join him again — indeed it would 
have been cruel to refuse to drink with a man so soon to 
die. This gone through with, they persuaded Will to 
make a full confession of his misdeeds, and their magni- 
tude so aroused the indignation of his captors that they 
had to take another drink to enable them to do their 
duty becomingly ; in fact they took divers drinks, so 
overcome were they by his harrowing tale, and then they 


were so completely unmanned that they had to try to re- 
cuperate by sleep. Then crafty Will, who had really 
drank but little, softly arose, found his hatchet, and soon 
dispatched his would-be captors. 

It was a rule with Will not to waste any ammuni- 
tion, and therefore he was bound to eat whatever game 
he killed, but a buzzard which he onca shot, sorely tried 
him, and it took two or three days' starving before he 
could stomach it. One time when he was alone on the 
beach he was seized with a lit of sickness and thought 
he was about to die, and not wishing his body to lie ex- 
posed, he succeeded in digging a shallow grave in the 
sand in which he lay for a while, but the sickness passed 
off and he crept out and went on his way rejoicing. In 
the latter part of his life he would never kill a willet, 
as he said a willet once saved his life. He said he was 
in a canoe one dark stormy night crossing the bay, and 
somewhat the worse for liquor, and unconsciously about 
to drift out of the Inlet into the ocean, when a willet 
screamed and the peculiar cry of this bird seemed to him 
to say " This way, Will! this way. Will ! *' and that way 
Will went, and reached the beach just in time to save 
himself from certain death in the breakers. When after 
wild fowl he would sometimes talk to them in a low tone : 
"Come this way, my nice bird, Will won't hurt you!'' 
If he succeeded in killing one he would say : " You fool, 
you believed me, eh ? Ah, Will been so much with white 
men he learned to lie like a white man ! " 

Near the mouth of Squan river is a deep place 
known as " Will's Hole." There are two versions of the 
origin of the name, but both connecting Indian Will's 
name with it. Esquire Benjamin Pearce, an aged, intel- 
ligent gentleman, residing in the vicinity, informed the 
writer that he understood it was so called because Will 
himself was drowned in it, The other version, related 
by the late well remembered Thomas Cook, of Point 
Pleasant, is as follows : 

Indian Will lived in a cabin iu the woods near Cook's 
place ; one day he brought home a muskrat which he or- 


dered his wife t<> rook for dinner ; she obeyed, but when 
it was placed upon the table she refused to partake of it. 
"Very well," said be, " if von are too good to eat musk- 
rat you are too good to live with me." And thereupon 
he took her down to the place or bole in the river spoken 
of. and drowned her. Air. Cook gave another tradition 
as follows: Indian Will had three brothers-in-law, two 
of whom resided on Long Island, and when, in course of 
time, word reached them that their sister had been 
drowned, they crossed over to Jersey to avenge her 
death. When they reached Will's cabin, he was inside 
eating clam soup. Knowing their errand, he invited 
them to dinner, telling them he would tight it out with 
them afterward. They sat down to eat, but before con- 
cluding their dinner Will pretended he heard some one 
coming, and hurried to the door, outside of which the 
visitors had left their guns, one of which Will caught up 
and fired and killed one Indian and then shot the other 
as he rushed to close in. In those days the Indians held 
yearly councils about where Burrsville now is. At one 
of these councils Will met the third brother-in-law, and 
when it was over they started home together carrying a 
jug of whiskey bstween them. On the way, inflamed 
with liquor, this Indian told Will he meant to kill him 
for drowning his sister. They closed in a deadly tight, 
and Will killed his antagonist with a pine knot. 

Mr. Cook said, Indian Will finally died in his cabin 
above mentioned. From the traditions related to us 
.many years ago by Eli and John Collins and John Til- 
ton of Barnegat, Reuben Williams of Forked River, and 
others, and from Thomas Cook's statements, it is evident 
•Indian Will must have lived until about a century ago, 
and if lie protested against any sale of land, it must have 
been against the titles ceded about 1758. At the treaties 
then, an Indian called Captain John, claimed the lands 
from Metedeconk to Toms River, but other Indians said 
they were aleo concerned. 




About a century ago an Indian named Peter, said to 
have been connected by relationship and in business 
with the noted Indian Tom, after whom some, we think 
erroneously, considered Toms River to be named, re- 
sided at Toms River, but owing to an unfortunate habit 
of mixing too much whisky with his water, he became 
unfortunate, and about the time of the war removed with 
his family to the vicinity of Imlaystown, where he built 
a wigwam by a pond not far from the village. 

Shortly after he located here his wife sickened and 
died. Peter dearly loved his squaw, and was almost 
heart-broken on account of the unlucky event. He 
could not bear the idea of parting with his wife, of put- 
ting her under ground out of sight. For a day or two 
he was inconsolable and knew not what to do ; at length 
a lucky idea occurred to him ; instead of burying her 
where he never more could see her, he would put a rope 
about her neck and place her in the pond and daily 
visit her. This idea he at once put into execution, and 
as he daily visited her, it somewhat assuaged his 
poignant grief. On one of his melancholy visits to the 
departed partner of his bosom, lis noticed in the water 
around her a large number of eels. To turn these eels 
to account was a matter of importance to Peter, for 
though he loved his wife, yet he loved money, too. So he 
caught the eels daily, and for a week or so visited the 
village regularly and found a ready sale for them among 
the villagers. 

But at length the supply failed — his novel eel trap 
gave out. A few days thereafter he was in the village 
and numerous were the inquiries why he did not bring 
any more of those good eels. 

" Ah," said Peter very innocently, drawing a long 
sigh, " me catch no more eels — me squaw all gone — boo 
— hoo ! " 

His grief and singular reply called for an explana- 
tion, and he, thinking nothing wrong, gave it. 


The result was a genera] casting up of accounts 
among the villagers, terrible anathemas upon the En- 
dim!, and a holy horror of eels anion-; that generation of 
Imlaystown citizens, and oven to this day it is said some 
of their descendants would as soon eal ;i snake as an eel. 

(The above tradition we have no doubt is substan- 
tially correct ; we derived it from Hon. Charles Parker, 
for many years State Treasurer, father of Gov. Parker, 
who some sixty years ago, while at Toms River, met with 
some of the disgusted purchasers of [ndian Peter's eels.) 



The last remnant of the Indians who frequented the 
lower part of old Monmouth, had their principal settle- 
ment at a place called Edgepelick or Edge Pillock, about 
three miles from Atsion in Burlington county, from 
whence they removed to Oneida Lake, New York, 1802. 
Before their removal, members of this tribe with their 
families would visit the shore once a year and spend 
some time fishing, oystering, making baskets, &c. The 
most noted among the last Indians who regularly visited 
the shore were Charles Moluss, his wife, and wife's sister. 
who bore the euphonious names of Bash and Suke, among 
the ancient residents of old Stafford township, but in 
Little Egg Harbor, Burlington county, where they also 
were frequent visitors, Moluss' wife was known as Bath- 
sheba, and considered as a kind of Indian Queen, on ac- 
count of the great respect shown to her by her people 
and by the Quakers of Burlington, because of her pos- 
sessing more intelligence, and having a more pre] assess- 
ing personal appearance than the rest of her tribe. At 
Tuckerton, when her company visited there and put up 
their tents, Bathsheba was generally invited to make her 
home with some one of the principal inhabitants of the 
place. At Barnegat, her company generally camped on 
the place lately owned by Captain Timothy Falkinburgh. 
where they were on friendly terms with the whites and 
quite disposed to be hospitable, but Bathsheba, Indian 


Queen though she may have been, occasionally pre- 
pared Indian delicacies for the table which the whites 
seldom appreciated. Some thirty years ago Eli Collins, 
a well remembered aged citizen of Barnegat, told the 
writer of this, that when he was a young man, one time 
he had been out from home all day, and on his way back, 
stopped at the hut of Moluss. His wife Bash, or Bath- 
sheba, was boiling something in a pot which sent forth a 
most delightful odor to a hungry man, and he was cor- 
dially invited to dine. As he had been without anything 
to eat all day he willingly accepted the invitation ; but 
he soon changed his determination when he found the 
savory smelling dish was hop t< *i<J .soup. 





Iii regard to the origin of the name of Toms River, 
we have two distinct traditions ; one alleging that it was 
named after a somewhat noted Indian, who once lived in 
its vicinity; the other attributes it to a certain Captain 
William Tom, who resided on the Delaware two hundred 
years ago, and who it is said penetrated through the 
wilderness to the seashore, on an exploring expedition, 
where he discovered the stream now known as Toms 
.River ; upon his return he made such favorable repre- 
sentations of the laud in its vicinity, that settlers were 
induced to come here and locate, and these settlers 
named it Toms River, after Mr. Tom, because he first 
brought it to the notice of the whites. 

While the writer of this, after patient investigation, 
acknowledges that he can find nothing that conclusively 
settles the question, yet he is strong in the belief that 
the place derives its name from Mr. Tom, for the follow- 
ing reasons: First — Though there was a noted Indian 
residing at Toms River a century ago, known as "Indian 
Tom," yet the place is known to have borne the name of 


Toms River when he was quite a young man; it is not 
reasonable to suppose the place was Qamed after aim 

when he was scarce <>ut of his terns. Second The posi- 
tion and business of Captain William Tom, was such as 
to render it extremely probable that the tradition relat- 
ing to him is correct. Much difficulty has been found in 
making res< arches in this matter, as Capt. Tom was an 
active man among our first settlors before our West Jer- 
sr\ records begin, and information regarding liiin lias to 
be sought for in the older records of New York and New 
Castle, Delaware. In his day Southern and Western 
Jersey were under control of officials whose headquar- 
ters were at New Castle, Del.; these officials were ap- 
pointed by the authorities at New York. In his time 
Capt. John Carr appears to have been the highest official 
among the settlers on both sides of the Delaware, acting 
as Commissioner, &c. But at times it would seem that 
Capt. Tom was more relied upon in managing public af- 
fairs by both the Governors at New York and the early 
settlers, than any other man among them. In the various 
positions which he held, he appears t<> have unselfishly 
and untiringly exerted himself for the best interests of 
the settlers and the government. 

He held at different times the positions of Commis- 
sary. Justice, Judge, Town Clerk and Keeper of Official 
Eeeords relating to the settlements on both sides of the 
Delaware, Collector of Quit Eeuts, &c. As collector of 
Quit Eents and agent to sell lands, his duties called him 
throughout the Southern halt of our State, wherever set- 
tlers were found, and in search of eligible places for 
settlers to locate. AYe find that Capt. Tom was continu- 
allv traveling to and fro in the performance of his duties, 
was among the first white men to cross the State to New 
York, was on good terms with the Indians, with whom 
he continually must have mingled, and it is not at all 
unlikely in the performance of his duties, he crossed to 
the shore by Indian paths, so numerous and so fre- 
quented by the red men in his time, aud thus visited the 
stream now known as Toms River. 


As no outline of Capt, Tom's Life and services has 
ever been published, we give the substance of the facts 
found relating to him, not only because .of its probable 
bearing on the history of old Monmouth, and that our 

citizens may know who he was, but also because it gives 
an interesting chapter in the history of our State. It will 
be seen that he was a prominent, trusted and influential 
man before the founding of Philadelphia, Salem or Burl- 
ington, or before any considerable settlements existed in 
New Jersey. In looking back to the past, it seems a long 
while to Indian Tom's day, but Capt. William Tom lived 
nearly a century before him. The following items are 
collected from New York, Pennsylvania and Delaware 

Capt. William Tom came to this country with the 
English expedition under Sir Robert Carre and Col. 
Richard Nicholls which conquered the Dutch at New 
Amsterdam, (New York) August, 1664. Immediately 
after the English had taken formal possession of New 
Y'ork, two vessels, the "Guinea" and the "William and 
Nicholas," under command of Sir Robert Carre were 
despatched to attaek the Dutch settlements on the 
Delaware river. After a feeble resistance the Dutch sur- 
rendered about the first of October of the same year, 
(1664). Capt. Tom accompanied this expedition, and 
that he rendered valuable service there is evidenced by 
an order issued by Gov. Nicholls, June 30, 16(55, which 
states that for William Tom's " good services at Dela- 
ware," there shall be granted to him the lands of Peter 
Alricks, confiscated for hostility to the English. Capt. 
Tom remained in his majesty's service until August '27, 
1668; during the last two years of this time he was Com- 
missary on the Delaware. He was discharged from his 
majesty's service on the ground as is alleged " of good 

. In 1673 Capt. Tom was appointed one of four ap- 
praisers to set a value on Tinicum Island in the Dela- 
ware. In 1674 he was appointed secretary or dark for 
the town of New Castle, and he appears to have had 


charge of the public records for several years. In L673 
the Dutch regained their power in New Xbrk, New Jer- 
sey and Delaware, bul retained it only a few months; 
after they were again displaced in 1674, Gov. Andross 
appointed Captains Cantwell and Tom to take possession 

for the King's use, of tlie fort at New Castle, with the 
public stoics. They were authorized to provide for the 
settlement" and repose of the inhabitants at New Castle, 
Wliorekills (Lewes) and other places." 

In 1675 some settlers complained against Capt. Tom, 
for molesting them in the enjoyment of meadow lands 
which adjoined their plantations. The settlers probably 
supposed because they owned uplands, they should 
also have the same use of meadow land without paying 
for the same. The Governor ordered a compromise. In 
l()7(i he was appointed one of the Justices of the Peace 
and a Judge of the court. He sat as one of the Judges 
in an important suit in which the defendant was John 
Fenwick, the Salem Proprietor. Judgment was given 
against Penwick, and a warrant issued to take him dead 
or alive. Penwick finding it useless to resist, gave him- 
self up, and was sent prisoner to New York. 

Capt. Tom was reappointed justice and judge in 1677. 
Towards the latter part of this year complaint was made 
that the town records of New Castle were in confusion, 
and Mr. Tom was ordered to arrange aud attest them. 
It is not improbable that ill health prevented him from 
completing this task, as Ave find his death announced Jan- 
uary 12, 1678, coupled with the simple remark that, "his 
papers were in confusion." 

From the foregoing and other facts that are pre- 
served, it would appear that William Tom was about t he- 
most prominent, useful and trustworthy man among the 
settlers from the time of the coming of the English to his 
decease, that he enjoyed the confidence of Governors 
Nicholls, Lovelace and Andross, that his varied duties 
vvere performed with general satisfaction to settlers, In- 
dians and officials, and we may safely infer that he did 
as much or more than anv man in his day "towards the 


settlement and repose of the inhabitants" <>n both sides 
of the Delaware. It is no discredit to the name of Toms 
River that it should he derived from such a man. 

In speaking of Capt. Tom's discovering Toms River, 
we do not refer to its original discovery, nor wish to con- 
vey the idea that he was the first white man who visited 
it. The stream was discovered by navigators fifty years 
before Capt. Tom came to America. They simply marked 
the stream on their charts without naming it. The fact 
that tins river had been previously visited by the Dutch, 
was probably not known to Capt. Tom and the English 
in this day. 



The following is from an ancient paper published in 
1782, just previous to the close of the war. 

" We learn that the brave Captain Storer, commis- 
sioned as a private boat-of-war under the State, and who 
promises to be the genuine successor of the late Captain 
Hyler, has given a recent instance of his valor and con- 
duct in capturing one of the enemy's vessels. He went 
in two boats through the British fleet in the Narrows 
and boarded a vessel under the Hag staff battery. He 
captured the vessel without alarm. She was a sloop in 
the Engineers' department of H. B. M. service, and was 
carried away safely." 


Captain Marriner lived in New Brunswick during 
the war. Erom notice of him in ancient papers, we find 
he was another brave enterprising partisan, as the fol- 
lowing extracts will show. The first is from a letter 
dated June 17th, 1778. 

" William Marriner, a volunteer, with eleven men and 
Lieutenant John Sehenck, of our militia, went last Sat- 
urday evening from Middle town Point to Long Island, 
in order to take a few prisoners from Elatbush, and re- 
turned with Major Moncrieff and Mr. Theophilus Bacho 
(the worshipful Mayor and Tormentor-General, David 


Matthews, I'lsi)., wlm has inflicted ofi our prisoners the 
most unheard of cruelties, and who was the principal 
object of the expedition, being unfortunately in the city,) 
with four slaves, and brought them to Princeton, to be 
delivered to his excellency tin 1 Governor. Mr. Marriner 
with his party left Middletown Point on Saturday even- 
ing, and returned at six o'clock next morning, having 
traveled by land and water above fifty miles, and be- 
haved with greatest prudence and bravery." 

The following is from an official naval work in the 
Library of Congress : 

"The privateer Blacksnake was captured by the 
British, but in April, 1780, Captain William Marriner, 
with nine men in a whale boat, retook her. Captain 
Marriner then put to sea in his prize, and captured the 
Morning Star, of (i swivels and 33 men, after a sharp re- 
sistance, in which she lost three killed and five wounded • 
he carried both prizes into "Egg Harbor." 

After the war Captain Marriner removed to Harlem, 
where he lived many years. 

The Daniel Matthews above spoken of was the Tory 
Mayor of New York, during the Revolution, and noted 
for his enmity to all favoring the Americans. 


" December 18th, 1782. — Capt. Jackson of the Grey- 
hound, in the evening of Sunday, last week, with much 
address, captured within the Hook, the schooner Dol- 
phin and sloop Diamond, bound from New York to Hali- 
fax, and brought them into Egg Harbor. These vessels 
were both condemned to the claimants, and the sales 
amounted to £10,200. 


In the following item from the Packet Jan. 1779, no 
names are mentioned. 

" Some Jerseymen went in row boats to Sandy 
Hook and took four sloops, one of which was armed. 
They burned three and took one ; also nineteen prisoners. 

The share of prize money per man, was £100." 




Toms River appears to have been occupied by the 
Americans as a military post during the greater part of 
the Revolution. The soldiers stationed here were gen- 
erally twelve months men, commanded by different offi- 
cers, among whom may be mentioned, Captains Bigelow, 
Ephraim Jenkins, James Mott, John Stout and Joshua 
Huddv. Captain Mott had command of a company 
called the " Sixth Company " of Dover, and Captain 
Stout of the Seventh Company. The Fifth Company was 
from Stafford, and commanded by Capt. Reuben F. Ran- 
dolph. These companies all belonged to the militia or- 
ganization of old Monmouth. 

The duties of the militia stationed at Toms River, 
appear to have been to guard the inhabitants against de- 
predations from the refugees ; to check contraband trade 
by way of old Cranberry Inlet to New York, and to aid 
our privateers who brought prizes into the Inlet, which 
was a favorite resort for New Jersey, New England and 
other American privateers. 

By the following extracts, it will be seen that old 
Dover township was the scene of many stirring incidents 
during the war. 

About the 1st of April, 1778, the government salt 
works near Toms River, were destroyed by a detachment 
of British under Captain Robertson. One building they 
alleged belonged to Congress and cost X6,000. The salt 
works on our coast at Manasquan, Shark River, Toms 
River, Barnegat and other places, were so important to 
the Americans during the war that we propose to notice 
them in a separate article. 

May 2 2d, 1778, it is announced that a British vessel 
with a cargo of fresh beef and pork, was taken by Cap- 
tain Anderson and sixteen men in an armed boat, and 
brought into Toms River. 


Iii thf early part of August following, the British 
ship "Love and IJnity," with ;i valuable cargo was 
brought into the Inlet ; the cargo was saved but the ship 
was subsequently retaken by a large British force ; the 
particulars of the capture and recaptura are as follows 
from ancient letters : 

"August 12th, 1778. We learn that on Thursday 
night, the British ship "Love and Unity" from Bristol, 
with 80 hhds of loaf sugar, several thousand bottles Lon- 
don porter, and a large quantity of Bristol beer and ale, 
besides many other valuable articles, was designedly run 
ashore near Toms River. Since which, by the assistance 
of some of our militia, she lias been brought into a safe 
port and her cargo properly taken care of." 

The carg# of this ship was advertised to be sold at 
Manasquan, on the 26th of August, by John Stokes, U. 
S. Marshal. The articles enumerated in the advertise- 
ment show that the cargo must have been a very valu- 
able one. The Americans were not quite so lucky with 
the ship as with tli3 cargo, as will bs seen by the follow- 
ing extract : 

"Friday, September 18th, 1778. Two British armed 
ships and two brigs, came close to the bar off Toms River 
(Cranbury) Inlet, where they lay all night. Next morn- 
ing between seven and eight o'clock, they sent seven 
armed boats into the Inlet, and re-took the ship Wash- 
ington formerly "Love and Unity" which had been 
taken by the Americans ; they also took two sloops near 
the bar and captured most of the crews. 

The captain of the ship and most of his officers es- 
caped to the main land in one of the ship's boats. After 
they got ashore a man named Robert McMullen, who 
had been condemned to death at Freehold but afterwards 
pardoned, jumped into the boat, hurrahing for the Brit- 
ish, and rowed off and joined them. Another refugee 
named William Dillon, who had also been sentenced to 
death at .Freehold and pardoned, joined this party of 
British as pilot." 

By the following extract it will be seen that the ren- 


egades McMullen and Dillon, had been out of jail but a 
very few weeks, when they aided the British in this ex- 
pedition : 

"July 22d, 1778. We learn that at the Court of 
Oyer aud Terminer, held at Monmouth in June last, the 
following parties were tried and found guilty of burglary, 
viz: Thomas Emmons alias Burke, John Wood, Michael 
Millery, William Dillon and Robert McMullen. The two 
former were executed on Friday last, and the other three 

McMullen probably had some connection with the 
expedition, perhaps to spy out the whereabouts of the 
captured cargo, as he would not have been in that vicinity 
unless assured that a British force was at hand. 

One tradition states that when he jumped into the 
boat lie was living for his life — "that he was pursued by 
the Americans and escaped by swimming his horse across 
the river near its mouth to a point which he called Good- 
luck Point to commemorate his escape." 

Goodluek Point near the mouth of Toms Paver, un- 
doubtedly received its name from some person flying for 
his life in the above manner, and it is possible that it 
might have been McMullen. 

"On the 9th of December, 1778, it is announced that 
a British armed vessel, bound from Halifax to New York, 
and richly laden, came ashore near Bamegat. The crew 
about sixty in number, surrendered themselves prison- 
ers to our militia. Goods to the amount of five thous- 
and pounds sterling were taken out of her by our citizens, 
and a number of prisoners sent to Bordentown, at which 
place the balance of prisoners were expected. About 
March, 1779, the sloop Success, came ashore in a snow 
storm, at Barnegat. She had been taken by the British 
brig Diligence, and was on her way to New York. She 
had a valuable cargo of rum, molasses, coffee, cocoa, Arc, 
on board. The prize master and three hands Were made 
prisoners and sent to Princeton. In the ease of , this ves- 
sel and the one previously mentioned, it is probable the 
Toms River militia aided, as the name of Barnegat was 


frequently applied to the shore north of the inlet, both 
on the beach and on the main Land. 

Feb. 8th, 1779, the sloop Fancy and schooner Bope, 
with cargoes of pitch, tar and salt are advertised for sale 
at Toms River 1»\ the J. 8. Marshal. They were probably 
prizes. The Major Van Embnrg mentioned in the fol- 
lowing, belonged to the 2d Reg. Middlesex militia; he 
was taken May 14, 1780. 

On the 5th of June, 1780, an ancient paper says: 
" On Sunday morning, Major Van Emburg and eight or 
nine men from West Jersey, on a fishing party, were sur- 
prised in bed at Toms River by the Refugees, and put 
on board a vessel to be sent prisoners to New York, but 
before the vessel sailed they fortunately managed to 

Toms River then did not seem quite as desirable a 
place for pleasure resort as it is in the present day. 
History does not tell us whether the Major was success- 
ful in catching fish : all we know is that he got caught 

About the middle of December, 1780, a British brig 
in the West India trade, was captured and brought into 
Toms River. This brig was short of water and provis- 
ions and mistaking the land for Long Island, sent a boat 
and four *nen ashore to obtain supplies. The militia 
hearing of it manned two boats and went out and took 
her. She had on board 150 hhds of rum and spirits, 
which our ancestors pronounced " excellent," by which 
we conclude they must have considered themselves com- 
petent judges of the article ! With the British, rum 
must have been a necessity, as in every prize taken from 
them rum was an important part of the cargo. 

The British brig Molly, was driven ashore in a snow 
storm near Barnegat ; her prize crew were taken pris- 
oners by the militia and sent to Philadelphia. 

In December, 1780, Lieut. Joshua Studson of Toms 
River, was shot by the refugee Bacon, inside of Cran- 
berry inlet. The particulars of this affair are given in a 


notice of Bacon's career, and therefore it is unnecessary 
to repeat them. 

March 19,1782. The privateer Dart. ('apt. Wm. 
Gray, of Sal. -in Mass., arrived at Toms River with a prize 
sloop, taken from the British galley, Black Jack. The 
next day he went with his boat and seven men in pur- 
suit of a British brig near the bar. Unfortunately for 
Capt. Gray, instead of taking a prize he was taken him- 
self. For a long time after, the Toms River people 
wondered what had become of him. In August follow- 
ing they heard from him. After getting outside the bar 
he was taken prisoner, and carried to Halifax, and sub- 
sequentlv released on parole. He stated he was well 
treated while a prisoner. 

A few days after Capt. Gray was taken, the British 
attacked and burned Toms River. This was the last 
affair of any importance occurring in the immediate 
vieinitv of Toms River during tin- war. But south of 
Toms River, several noted affairs afterwards occurred. 
Davenport burned the salt works at Forked River, and 
was himself killed in June ; in October, Bacon attacked 
and killed several men on the beach south of Barnegat 
lighthouse ; in December, occurred the skirmish at Cedar 
Creek, where young Cooke waskilled ; on the 3d of April 
following, (1783,) Bacon was killed near West Creek. 


The original and following certificate is in pos 
sion of Ephraim P. Empson, Escp, of Collier's Mills : 

Provided e, Feb. 21, 1777. 
This may certify that Messrs. Clark and Nightin- 
gale and Captain William Rhodes have purchased here 
at vendue, the schooner Pope's Head, which was taken 
by the privateers Sally and Joseph (under our command) 
and carried into Cranberry Inlet, in the Jersies, and 
there delivered to the care of Mr. James Randolph by 
our prize masters. 

James Maro. 
John Fish. 


m is. i i.i vneous n i .ms. 
During the war there were interesting events occurr- 
ing ;it Toms River, outside of military and naval matters. 

Iii January, 1778, the Bloop, Two Friends, Capt. 
Alex. Bonnett of Hispaniola, was east away near Barne- 
gat, with L,600 bags of salt, -J ( .» hhds. molasses, also a lot 
of rum, sugar, Ac Only ICO galls, rum saved. The 

shore people went to their assistance, but one man was 
lost. The Capt. of the Two Friends, Alex. Bonnet, then 
shipped as a passenger in the sloop Endeavor of Toms 
River, for New York, hut sad to relate, while she lay at 
anchoT in the inlet, a storm at night parted the cable 
and all on hoard were drowned in the bay. 

In December, 1778, Capt Alexander of the sloop Eliz- 
abeth of Baltimore, was taken by the British, but he was 
permitted to leave in his small boat, and landed in Toms 
River inlet. 

It was during the war, in the year 1777, that Rev. 
Benjamin Abbott, expounded the then new principles of 
Methodism, to the people of Toms River, first at the 
house of Esquire AbielAikens, and then at another place 
when " a Frenchman fell to the floor, and never rose until 
the Lord converted his soul. Here (at Toms River), we 
had a happy time," so says Abbott in his journal. 

During the war there was of course no communica- 
tion with New York, but the peojile of Toms River had 
considerable overland intercourse with "West Jersey, 
Philadelphia and Freehold. 


Historians generally concede that no state among 
the old thirteen suffered during the war more than did 
New Jersey ; and it is generally admitted that no county 
in our state suffered more than did old Monmouth. In 
addition to the outrages to which the citizens were sub- 
jected from the British army, they were continually har- 
rassed by depredations committed by regularly organized 
bands of Refugees, and also by the still more lawless 

86 history, of monwouth and ocean counties. 

acts of a set of outcasts known as the Pine Woods Rob- 
bers, who, though pretending to be Tories, yet if oppor- 
tunity offered, robbed Tories as well as Whigs. 

The Refugees, or Loyalists as they called themselves, 
were generally native born Americans who sided with 
the British regularly organized, with officers commis- 
sioned by the Board of Associated Loyalists at New 
York, of which body the President was William Franklin, 
the last Tory governor of New Jersey, an illegitimate son 
of Dr. Benjamin Franklin. The Refugees had a strongly 
fortified settlement at Sandy Hook, the lighthouse there 
defended with cannon and British vessels of war always 
lying in the vicinity. From this settlement or "Refugees' 
town," as it was sometimes called, these marauders would 
sally forth to plunder and murder in the adjoining county. 
To show the perils by which the citizens of old Mon- 
mouth were surrounded and the outrages to which they 
were subjected, we append some extracts chiefly from 
ancient papers, which though plain and unvarnished, yet 
will give a vivid idea of life and times in this county In 
the dark days of the Revolution. 


"June 3d, 1778. We are informed that on Wednes- 
day morning last, a party of about seventy of the Greens 
from Sandy Hook, landed near Major Kearney's (near 
Keyport,) headed for Mill Creek, Middletown Point, and 
marched to Mr. John Burrows, made him prisoner, burnt 
his mills and both his storehouses — all valuable build- 
ings, besides a great deal of his furniture. They also 
took prisoners Lieutenant Colonel Smock, Captain 
Christopher Little, Mr. Joseph Wall, Captain Joseph 
Covenhoven (Conover) and several other persons, and 
killed Messrs. Pearce and Yan Brockle and wounded an- 
other man mortally. Having completed this and several 
other barbarities they precipitately returned the same 
morning to give an account of their abominable deeds to 
their bloody employers. A number of these gentry, we 
learn, were formerly inhabitants of that neighborhood." 


The "Greens" above mentioned, it is said, were 
Refugee <»r Loyalist Jerseymen who joined the British. 
Their organization was sometimes called "the New Jer- 
sey Royal Volunteers," under command of General Cort- 

landt Skinner. 

■■April 26th, ITT'.l An expedition consisting of seven 
or eight hundred men under Col. Hyde went to Middle- 
town, Red Bank, Tinton Falls, Shrewsbury and other 
places, robbing and burning as they went. They took 
Justice Covenhoven and others prisoners. Captain Bur- 
rows and Colonel Holmes assembled our militia and 
killed three and wounded fifteen of the enemy. The 
enemy however succeeded in carrying off horses, cattle 
and other plunder." 

In the above extract the name of Justice "Coven- 
hoven'" is mentioned. The names of different members 
of the Covenhoven family are frequently met with in 
ancient papers and records among those who favored 
the patriot cause. Since that time the name has gradu- 
ally changed from Covenhoven to Conover. 

In May. two or three weeks after the above affair, 
some two or three hundred Tories landed at Middletown, 
on what was then termed a " picarooning " expedition. 
The term " picaroon" originally meaning a plunderer or 
pirate, seems to have been used in that day to convey 
about the same idea that "raider" did in the late Re- 

"June 9th, 1771*. A party of about fifty Refugees 
landed in Monmouth and marched to Tinton Falls undis- 
covered, where they surprised and carried off Colonel 
Hendrickson, Colonel Wyckoff, Captain Chadwick and 
Captaiu McKnight, with several privates of the militia, 
and drove off sheep and horned cattle. About thirty of 
our militia hastily collected, made some resistance but 
were repulsed with the loss of two men killed and ten 
wounded, the enemy's loss unknown. 

April 1st, 1780. About this time, the Tories made 
another raid to Tinton Falls, and took off seven prison- 
ers. Another party took Mr. Bowne prisoner at Middle- 


town, who, but three days before had been exchanged, 

and had just got home. 

About the last of April, the Refugees attacked the 
house of John Holmes, Upper Freehold, and robbed him 
of a large amount of continental money, a silver watch, 
gold ring, silver buckles, pistols, clothing, Ac 

June 1st, 1780. The noted Colonel Tye, (a mulatto 
formerly a slave in Monmouth Co.) with his motley com- 
pany of about twenty blacks and whites, carried off 
prisoners Capt. Barney Smock, and Gilbert Van Mater, 
spiked an iron cannon and took four horses. Their ren- 
dezvous was at Sandy Hook. 

Shortly after this, Colonel Tye aided in the attack on 
Capt. Joshua Huddy, at his house at Colts Neck. Col- 
onel Tye, (or Titus, formerly a slave belonging to John 
Corlies,) though guilty of having a skin darker than our 
own, yet was generally acknowledged to be about the 
most honorable, brave, generous and determined of the 
Refugee leaders. Like our forefathers, he fought for his 
liberty, which our ancestors unfortunately refused to 
give him. 

October 15, 1781. A party of Refugees from Sandy 
Hook landed at night, at Shrewsbury, and marched un- 
discovered to Colt's Neck, and took six prisoners. The 
alarm reached the Court House about four or live o'clock 
P. M., and a number of inhabitants, among whom was 
Dr. Nathaniel Scudder, went in pursuit. They rode to 
Black Point to try to recapture the six Americans, and 
while tiring from the bank, Dr. Scudder was killed. Dr. 
Scudder was one of the most prominent, active and use- 
ful patriots of Monmouth, and his death was a serious 
loss to the Americans. 

About the beginning of August, 1782, Richard Wil- 
gus, an American, was shot below Allentown, while ou 
guard to prevent contraband trade with the British. 

February 8th, 1782. About forty refugees under 
Lieut. Steelman, came via Sandy Hook to Pleasant A al- 
ley. They took twenty horses and five sleighs, which 
they loaded with plunder ; they also took several pris- 


oners, viz: Eendrick Eendrickson and his two sons, 

IVter Covenhoven, or Conover as the name is now called, 
was made prisoner once before in 177'.*, as before related, 
(Janet Eendrickson, Samuel Bowne and son, and James 
Denise. A.t Garret Bendrickson's a young man named 
William Thompson, got ap slyly and wmi off and in- 
formed Capt. John Schenck, of Col. Eolmes' regiment, 
who collected all the men he could to pursue. They 
overtook and attacked the refugees, and the before men- 
tioned William Thompson was killed and Mr. Cottrel 
wounded. They however took twelve refugees pris- 
oners, three of whom were wounded. But in return- 
in-', they unexpectedly fell in with a party of sixteen 
men under Stevenson, and a sudden tiring caused eight 
of the prisoners to escape. But ('apt. Schenck ordered 
his men to charge bayonet, and the tories surrendered. 
('apt. Schenck took nineteen horses and five sleighs, and 
took twenty- one prisoners. 

The first of the foregoing extracts, relating to a raid 
of the British in Middletown township, in 1778, and land- 
ing near Major Kearney's, in the vicinity of Keyport, is 
probably the affair referred to in a tradition given in 
Howe's collections, which we give below, as it explains 
why the Refugees tied so precipitately. It will be 
noticed, however, that the tradition does not agree with 
extract quoted as to damage done ; but we have no doubt 
but that the statement copied from the ancient paper 
(Collins' Gazette) is correct, as it was written but a feAV 
days after the affair took place. 

" The proximity of this part of Monmouth county to 
New York rendered it, in the war of the Revolution, 
peculiarly liable to the incursions of the British troops. 
Many of the inhabitants, although secretly favorable to 
the American cause, were obliged to feign allegiance to 
the crown, or lose their property by marauding parties 
of the refugees, from vessels generally lying oil' Sandy 
Hook. Among those of this description was Major 
Kearney, a resident near the present site of Keyport. On 
one occasion a party of thirty or forty refugees stopped 


at his dwelling on their way to Middletown Point, where 
they intended to burn a dwelling and sonic mills. Kear- 
ney feigned gratification at their visit, and falsely in- 
formed them there were probably some rebel troops at 

the Point, in which ease it would be dangerous for them 
to march thither. He ordered his negro servant, Jube, 
thither to make inquiry, at the same time secretly giving 
him the cue how to act. In due length of time Jube, 
who had gone but a short distance, returned and hastily 
entered the room where Kearney and the Refugees were, 
and exclaimed: "Oh Massa ! Massa ! the rebels are at 
the Point thick as blackberries ! They have just come 
down from the Court House and say they are going to 
march down here to-night." The ruse succeeded ; the 
Refugees, alarmed, precipitately retreated to their boat-, 
leaving the Major to rejoice at the stratagem which had 
saved the property of his friends from destruction." 

The probability is that the ruse prevented the Refu- 
gees from doing as much damage as they had intended, 
although they remained long enough to inflict considera- 
ble injury, as lias been related. 


A few days previous to the battle of Monmouth, the 
prisoners in Freehold jail, six of whom were under sen- 
tence of death, were removed to the jail at Morristown, 
under charge of Nicholas Van Brunt, who was at the 
time Sheriff of Monmouth County. The following is an 
extract from the minutes of the State Council of Safety, 
under date of September 28, 1778 : 

"Agreed that there be paid to Mr. Schenck for the 
use of Nicholas Van Brunt. Sheriff of Monmouth, for his 
expenses in removing the prisoners from the gaol in 
Monmouth Co. to that of Morris, at the time of the 
enemy's march through Monmouth cV in fetching back to 
Monmouth those who were there to be executed, as per 
his account, the sum of £48 (is." 

It will be remembered that the corpse of Captain 
Joshua Huddy, after his murder, was brought to the 


house of Captain James Green, al Freehold. Captain 
Green's house seems to have been the principal place, 
for a time, in Freehold, for meetings to transact public 
business. A. number of trials were held there, notably 
Courts of Admiralty to try claims for prizes captured 
by the Americans. Esquire Abiel Aiken, of Toms River, 
had one here the week before Huddy was taken, to try 
the claims for the prize "Lucy,' of which William Dil- 
lon had been master. Dillon was one of the eight men in 
Freehold jail under sentence of death, to whom Rev. 
Abel Morgan preached in June, 1778, but he somehow 
escaped death. The next week after Esquire Aiken had 
the examination at Captain Green's house, at Freehold, 
for claims against Dillon's vessel. Dillon piloted the 
British expedition into Toms River, which destroyed the 
block house, captured Huddy and others, and burned 
the village and Esquire Aiken's house among the rest. 

Captain -Tames Green may have been a seafaring- 
man previous to the war. At a Court of Admiralty he 
at one time had claim on the Betty, a captured prize. 

It will be remembered that one of Captain Huddy' s 
daughters married a Green and the other a Piatt. This 
last was a Middlesex County name. John Piatt was 
sheriff of Middlesex in 1779 and thereabouts. John Van 
Kirk was sheriff before him, aud John Conway followed 

In Monmouth, during tlie war, Nicholas VanBrunt 
was sheriff, then David Forman, and the last year of the 
war John Burrows, Jr. 

In 1780, sales were advertised to take place at the 
house of Daniel Randolph, Freehold. A very prominent 
man at Toms River in the early part of the war was 
James Randolph, extensively engaged in saw mills and 
other business. He died about 1781, and Daniel Ran- 
dolph's appearance, then, at Toms River, suggests 'that 
he might have gone there to manage the estate. An ex- 
ecutor named Benjamin Randolph then lived in Chest- 
nut street, Philadelphia. 

James Wall is named as an innkeeper, at Freehold, 


in 1778, and William Snyder, innkeeper, is named 1770. 
The only paper published in New Jersey then was 
the -V- w Jersey Gazette, of which Isaac Collins was pub- 
lisher. There were no post offices then in Monmouth. 
The nearest one Mas at Trenton, of which B. Smith was 
Post-Ma-ter. The New Jersey Gazettt had many sub- 
scribers in Monmouth, to whom papers were delivered 
by post riders who undertook such business on their own 



By the courtesy of C. 1). Deshler, Esq., of the New 

Brunswick Historical Club, the Editor of the Monmouth 
Democrat, Mr. James S. Yard, was given permission to 
publish the following interesting paper communicated by 
Mr. Deshler to the Club, from which paper it is copied : 

Bernardus Legrange, an attorney living- at New 
Brunswick in 17<'.D. was complained of to the Assembly 
for having taken exorbitant fees. For this he was repri- 
manded by the Council, but this punishment was miti- 
gated by their publishing, subsequently, letters from 
Chief Justice Smith, and Second Justice Bead, which 
stated that his charges were only such as were custom- 
arily made. 

Shortly after, a singular letter was addressed to Le- 
grange. It was anonymous, and was thought to be of 
sufficient importance t<> be inserted in the Minutes of the 
Assembly. It was as follows: 
To Bernardus Legrange, Esq., Attorney at Law in New 

Brunswick : 

Friend Legrange — As I am a lover of peace and 
concord, there is nothing gives me greater pleasure than 
beholding the same having a subsistence among man- 
kind. And on the other hand there is nothing can give 
me so much pain as to see any of the human species be- 
come a Nuisance to the commonalty of mankind. 
Whether they become such thro" an act of inadvertence 


or from a selfish ambition. As for the lsl I heartily be- 
moan and bewail them (as it may flow from some iiatnr;i! 
passion) and] think so ought all considerate men rather 
than ridicule 'em; for my own part I am always Led to 
pit\ & Lament the condition of that man I see ad against 
his own peace & well-being here. And if it is Ambition, 

that has made him such to his fellow creatures, Oh! 
Wretch indeed! that Satan shou'd lift up his mind, that 
he shou'd become the cause of his own ruin, and the de- 
vision and hissing of the general part of his acquaint- 
ance. What has begotten you the hatred A- aversion of 
the public in these parts are best known to thyself, & 
whether deservedly or undeservedly I shall not deter- 
mine: but one thing I can assure you, that thou hast 
accrued it to the highest degree. And, if thou comesi 
this way, may God Almighty have Mercy on thee, for I 
am convinced the people have none, if the Lord does not 
turn their hearts from their present resolutions. 

I will let thee know what I heard the other day 
among a parcel of people, having met accidentally with 
'em at the Mill at English town concerning you and some 
more of your brethren; thee especially they seemed to 
have the greatest grudge against: One of them said. 
He wished that fellow Legrange would come to Court 
this mouth, he should not escape from out of a back 
window as he did before; another of the company makes 
answer Damn him, I hear he is to come and act as King's 
Attorney ; but that shall not screen the rascal, says he ; 
Aye, says he, the lawyers has done that a purpose, that 
we might not disturb the villain ; but if we catch him, 
we will Legrange him ! 

I hearing the people expressing themselves in this 
manner I began to examine them what you had done unto 
them that enraged them so against you. Why, says one, 
he will bring down our heads A humble us. They say 
you egged up their Creditors to put their bonds in suit 
saying Monmouth people are all like to fail, and much 
more of the like nature. And, I inquired, if they cou'd 
prove their assertions against you, they say, yes they can, 
by some of their creditors; and will if you carry some 
action ; but I could not learn against whom, or where 
the person lived. 

Yesterday I was in Upper Freehold among some 
Company, where I heard them resolve concerning you, 
much the same as above; wishing you might come to 
Court, for there were between seven and eight hundred 
of them ready to receive you. Nay, I have heard some 


of tliem declare solemnly they would use you as the in- 
formers were used at New York and Philadelphia. I 
know, they collected some mone}' to purchase two barrels 
of Tar and have agreed with a man to haul it a Monday. 
And as far as I can learn it is for you. They intend to tar 
A* feather you, and to cart you from the Court house to 
Vankirk's Mill & hack again. In imitation of the Oister- 
man in New York. 

I shou'd have taken the trouble to come to your 
house and informed you of the plotters against your per- 
son ere now, only, as I have some considerable property 
in this County, I know they would utterly ruin me if they 
knew I divulged to you the least matter. 

Friend Legrange, you can act as you think will best 
suit you. Only I would advise you as a friend, to con- 
sider seriously the fury of an enraged mob ; mad with 
oppression ; and think deliberately with yourself how 
you expect to escape their hands : O, I beseech Y^ou ! to 
ponder well in your own breast, the fate t of many Kings 
£ Princes, when they become obnoxious or hateful to the 
people. And the spirit of rioting seems to increase in 
our day ; think 'of the fate of Major James Ogden, and 
many of the custom house officers. Nay, we have daily 
instances of one or another falling a sacrifice to the peo- 
ple when provoked. And I can positively affirm if thou 
hadst dwelt in this County there would not been left one 
stone on another of your house ere now. 

Raro antecedentem scelestum desiruit pede poena- 

I ordered my young man to leave this for you, at 
your house or Duff's for thee. 

This letter was thought of sufficient importance 1 >y 
the House of Assembly to be made the subject of its 
action, and the following additional record is to be found 
concerning it in the Minutes of Assembly : 

"On the question 

" Resolved that the said letter is scandalous and un- 
warrantable : and that this house look upon the same as 
manifestly tending to a breach of the public peace. 
The voices being equal the Speaker decided in the Affirm- 

On the vote the members from Middlesex voted in 
the negative, and those from Monmouth and Somerset 
were divided. 




Certainly the tavern accounts of a New Jersey C t- 

tr\ Inn, of over an hundred years old, would l>e a 
curiosity. The kindness of a friend lias placed before us 
just such a document. It is a home-made book of the 
ancient ribbed and unruled fools-cap paper. The hook 
is made by folding each leaf down the middle, lengthwise, 
so that each sheet makes four leaves or eight pages. 
The length is thirteen inches, and the width is nearly 
four and one-half inches. The cover is also home-made, 
being of a coarse, thin paste-board, made by pasting to- 
gether several sheets of paper, and then pasting a strip 
of thin paper a quarter of an inch wide round the border. 
The opening is made on the inside of the cover, where 
the owner writes: "His Book of Tavern Accompts 
November 14 1766 the Money prock." The abbreviated 
word "prock" needs. explanation, which has been kindly 
furnished by Mr. C. D. Desbler, of the New Brunswick 
Historical Club. It alludes to the official and legislative 
proclamations regulating the currency as to its value. 
The accoiuits, however, are kept (though not very artisti- 
cally, yet with care,) in pounds, shillings and pence. 

A private note accompanying the book informs us 
that it is "the account of a hotel in Somerset county." 
However that may be, the names found in the entries are 
the family names of nearly all the old families of Mon- 
mouth county, and the adjoining county of Middlesex. 
There are accounts with one hundred and forty persons. 
Very numerous among these are the Cowenhovens. Of 
these one is entered with strict formality as " Win. 
Cowenhoven Pt S." and another as " Court house William 
Cowenhoven." We have also the Buckelews, Carliles, 
Combses, Claytons, Cassleers, Campbells, Clarks, Craigs, 
Millers, Coopers, Disborrows, Dorsets, Englishes, Em- 
leys, Erricksons, Fornians, Gastons, Pages, Herberts, 
Hagemans, Loyds, Lairds, Murrays, Moxols, Morfords, 
Newells, Perines, Patersons, Kue, Reed, Smalley, Smith, 


Scobey, Polhamicees, Tilton, Wooley, Winerite, White, 
&c. Ir is seen that these names are spelled differently 
now. And \.-r\ curious are the entries in this old book. 
Doubtless the following customer was a hard working, 
sturdy woman of those times. We copy the whole entry: 


January 2 To 1 mug of Cider & 1-2 Dram 6. 

To 1 mug of Beer 6. 

To 1-2 Dram 2. 

To 2 mugs of Beer 1 — . 

April 8 To 1 Dram 4 

To 1-2 Dram 2. 

0. 2. 8. 
So Dolley's " accompt " was 0£. 2s. 8cL She paid the 

ace >unt. as it is cancelled by two lines drawn diagonally 
across the page. She is the only lady customer this 
trusting publican Lad. A customer named Rogers lias a 
1< »ng and varied account "To 1 mug of Cid.-r Id" oc- 
curs often. We hud him on N^w Year's day taking " 1 
mug of Cider at -id.,*' and again on the same day indulg- 
ing in two mugs, for which he is charged 8d. The next 
day we find him charged with " 2 Pints of Cider Id. 

Query: did a mug of cider contain two pints, as it is 
charged 4d., also ? If so, on New Year's he must have 
taken three quarts of apple juice. I This same day he is 
charged "to Victuals 5d. To 1 Dram Id. To Supper 
10d. To Hot Bum Is. 2d." As a dram was a gill, and 
cost 4d., this hot rum at 14 pence must have been a 
pretty heavy night-cap after supper. But this customer 
was generous, as we find him charged "To liquor in 
Company (that is, to treating round) Is. 7d." Other en- 
tries against him are in March, " 1 mug of Beer 6d." 
Next month occurs an entry "2 mugs of beer Gd." 

Query: did they have different sized mugs?) The en- 
trie-, ...-cur "To Beer and egg ruin 9<L To liquor & 
Bread & Cheese Is. lid. To Beer & Egg Rum 9A April 
9. To 1 Dram & Pint of Beer 7. To ( !ash 2a To 1 Egg 
Dram 6. On this date is an entry to his favor : " Or. Bv 

OLD I i.MKS. !»7 

( lash 7s. 6d." Tu o days after, another tit i >f g( >od are 
conies on, so he is charged "To Dinner & Liquor in 
Coin 1 1. Ls. 8d, " and the same day he borrows of tin- la mi- 
lord Is. On the 27th he stands charged "To 2 Drams 
8<L To Egg Rum & Win.' Is. Id." 

In an account running against one William Orchard 
through several months, we find among many entries for 
drinks certain items thai would indicate him to lie aped- 
dler, and which afford some insight into traveling ex- 
penses: "To Victual & mug of Cider Is. 6d. To Lodg- 
ing 4d. To hay & oats for horses ls. To breakfast and 
dram ls. To hay 1 day & 1 Night ls. To 2 Quarts of 
oats M. To Breakfast & mug Cider ls. 2d. To Dinner 
Is. To hay for your horse Is." &c. 

A curious account is one that shows a bad debt 
brought from the day book, and the landlord's shrewd- 
ness in his further dealing. The account is as follows : 
1766. Matthew Rue, Blacksmith Dr. 

Dec 16. Brought from the Day Book 1. 6. 

Jan 30. To mug of Beer on a ship in pawn 6. 

So the poor blacksmith had to pawn a miniature 
ship in order to get his drink. As to how the affair ended. 
there is no clue. 

Among a good many entries, William Carlile is 
charged " To 1 Sling 6d. ^To 1-2 Bowie of Punch 9. To 
1 Pint of Beer 3d. To 1 mug of Beer 6d." It would 
seem, then, that the mug was of the capacity of a quart. 

In the account of David Welch, January 12, 1767, is 
the entry : " To mug of Beer Wagered on Carlisles Wed- 
ding 6." The same day Welch is charged " To Stewed & 
Rum 5d." What cookery may be implied in the word 
" stewed " is not clear, as the price does not permit the 
following to explain it : " To Cider, Quaker & Beer ls. 
3d. To mug of Stewed Quaker ls." This "Stewed 
Quaker" consisted of cider with some cider oil in it, and a 
hot roasted apple floating on top. This whim of the fre- 
quenters of our ancient American Tavern was really only 
a refinement on the luxury indulged in by the evening 
patrons of the old English hostelry, when a roasted or 


wild apple was floated on the mugs of ale. David 
Welch's account runs through four months, and foots up 
ii 15s. 2d. At the bottom is written: "The above ace. is 

Oue Peter Yatsman runs an account in the years 
1766—67—68. From the nature of the entries it would 
seem that he is a traveler — likely a peddler — as among 
similar entries is found this one: "To hayStablmg, Sup- 
per, Lodging A- Rum 2s. 8d." The heaviest single entry 
in tin- Look occurs in his account. " To liquor A Vict- 
uals in Com. 6s. 3d." He is also charged " To 1 Bole of 
Toddy Is.," and to "a pound and a half of Tobacco lid." 
We suspect a half pound was meant. Peter is credited 
by "31s. york," which is entered as " 1 i:. 9s. 6cL," and 
finally (a rare case, certainly), the landlord makes a 
closing entry of 7s. 2d. in Yatsman's favor. 

One David Wilson seems remarkably free, as in a 
short account he is charged seven times licpioring and 
victualing tin- company. This Mr. Wilson stands, in one 
entry, credited with "two turkeys, total 5s. 6d." 

A John Cowenhoven stands charged "To 1 mug of 
SwezeL" What that is, does not appear; but it cost 10d., 
and as a mug of cider cost but 4, and a mug of beer but 
6, it was rather costly. 

Charles Scobey gets credit " By soaling 2 pairs of 

Shoes, 4s. 

Jonathan Forman gets credit for " two bushels of 
Corn, (is.'" 

In settling one account certain differences are struck 
between York money and Prock (proclamation) money, 
and an allowance is made for what is called "light 

This short sketch from this curious old book, is 
<nven to show the prices of some things at that time. It 
would be interesting to get at the old time talks, when 
the old folks gathered at this hostelry to hear the news 
and discuss the scandals. The book shows vividly the 
social status of the alcohol question then. Among the 
names is one Gilbert Tennent — we dare not say it was 


tin- minister, because we are aot sun-. But this is cer- 
tain, that since then the change in sentiment has been 
stupendous. Tt was then do disgrace to sit in the tavern 
and indulge — the wedding, the funeral, the ministers' 
gathering, all saw the social cup pass freely. Verily, 
temperance men have wrought wonders ; and the world 
moves for the better, as is testified to by this old witness 
of the days of 1766. 





The first mention by Europeans of that portion of 
our State now comprised within the limits of the county 
of Ocean is contained in the following extract from the 
journal kept by Robert Juet mate of the "Half Moon," 
of which ship Sir Henry Hudson was commander. Sir 
Henry Hudson himself has given us no account of his 
discoveries on this trip in 1609. The Half Moon left 
Delaware Bay and was proceeding northerly along our 
coast when Juet wrote as follows : 

" Sept. 2nd 160 ( .). The course along the land we 
found to be N. E. by N. from the land which we first had 
sight of until we came to a great lake of water as we 
could judge it to be, being drowned land which made it 
rise like islands, was in length ten leagues. The mouth 
of the lake has many shoals and the sea breaks upon 
them as it is cast out of the mouth of it. And from that 
lake or bay the land lays X. by E. and Ave had a great 
stream out of the bay, and from thence our soundings 
was ten fathoms two leagues from land. At five o'clock 
we anchored in eight fathoms water, wind light. Far to 
the northward we saw high hills." 

The next morning the Half Moon proceeded on to- 
wards the Highlands. 

Juet's description of the coast, its two courses, one 


above and the other below Barnegat gives it as it still is ; 
the soundings are about as he describes, and the iulet 
and bay still present the same appearance. 


Among the sawmills first erected in Ocean county 
may be mentioned the following : 

John Eastwood had a sawmill on Cedar Creek pre- 
vious to 1740. 

Edward Beak's, sawmill, Kettle Creek, 1742. 

Van Hook's sawmill, Dry Cedar Swamp Brook, 1749. 

Everingham's sawmill, north branch Toms River, 

Van Horn's sawmill, Van Horn's brook, Toms River, 

Coward's sawmill, north branch Toms River, 1762. 

In the New York Gazette^ April, 1768, appears an 
advertisement offering for sale a tract of land of 1,000 
acres at Toms River; also a sawmill four miles from the 
bay, renting for 82,000 fest good inch boards a year. 
The advertisement is signed by Paul and Abraham 
Schenck, and reference given to John Williams, Tiniconk 

Jackson's Mills and Schenck's Mills, Jackson town- 
ship, Willett's Mills, Stafford, Kimmons' Mills, New Egypt 
and mills on Forked River (upper mill), Waretown and 
Oyster Creeks, w T ere also built at an early date. The saw 
and grist mill at Toms River (where the village now is) 
were burnt by the British, March, 1782. 

We find that some of these mills were established 
farther up some of these streams than many now would 
suppose would be the case ; the lumber would be made 
into small narrow rafts and floated down towards the 
bay, where vessels would be in readiness to carry it to 
market. Old Cranberry Inlet being then open it was 
much more convenient to get to New York than at the 
present day. 

In 1748 we find in ancient records mention of 
Marcus Hedden's dam at Toms River called " The old 

W_ . — - «.x- — - 


giving over place;" other writings speak of "The old 
riding overplace," which was near the presenl bridge. 
In 1749 we find mention of A. Luker's Ferry at Toms 


The first land taken up at Toms River appears to 
have been a small tract of 17 \-'l acres along the river 
near Messrs. Aumack's store Nov. 14th, 1741 ; and same 
date a tract 7~> acres back of Cowdrick's Hotel — by 
James Alexander, Surveyor General. 


Mannahawkin : This name is from tlie original In- 
dian designation of the place and signifies "good corn 

Bamegat: From the Dutch and signifies "Ijivakers 
Inlet," or an inlet with breakers. It was first written 
" Bar-ende-gat," then " Barndegat" and finally the present 
orthography was adopted. 

11 nr' Ion-,, : So called from an early settler named 
Abraham Waeir who died in that village March 24th, 
1768, aged S.l years. 

Toms River: So called from a noted Indian living- 
there previous to the Revolution. It is said he held some 
office under the British Government, but proving a de- 
faulter was deprived of it and disgraced. 

\> w Egypt : One tradition says this place was 
formerly called " Kimmons Mills " a man named Kim- 
rnons owning the mills there ; and from the amount of 
corn raised and sold in the vicinity, people at a distance 
used to speak jokingly of " going to Egypt to buy corn," 
and hence the name. 

Goodluck : There is a tradition to the effect that a 
man on horseback being pursued by some enemies in- 
tent on taking his life, rode his horse into the bay and 
swam him across to the point of land near the mouth of 
Toms River now known as Goodluck Point by which 
means he escaped and to commemorate his deliverance he 
called it " Goodluck Point." In regard to the name of 
Goodluck applied to the village, another tradition says it 


was given by Rev. John Murray on account of the good 
luck which he seemed to meet with there. As Murray must 
have originally landed near Goodluck Point, it is not im- 
probable that fancying the name as applied to the Point 
he might under the circumstances have bestowed it upon 
the village. 

Barende-Gat; The name Barende-gat in Dutch 
signifies Breakers inlet or an inlet with breakers ; it ap- 
pears to have been applied to the inlet, not as a perma- 
nent name, but only as one descriptive of the inlet, by the 
first discoverers along our coast ; the same name is found 
upon some ancient maps applied both to Absecon and 

The name Barnegat in ancient times was not only 
applied to the inlet and bay but to much or most of the 
land bordering on the bay. 


The establishment of saw mills rendered it necessary 
to have vessels to carry lumber to market ; these vessels 
were generally sloops. This was about the beginning of 
the coasting trade for which Ocean county has since been 
so noted. After a time these first vessels found addi- 
tional employment in carrying cedar rails to market ; 
after a time this trade began to fail but about the time 
it failed the invention of steamboats caused a demand for 
pine wood. Since then a large number of vessels owned 
and manned by citizens of this coimtyhave been steadily 
engaged in the wood trade ; when the supply of pine 
wood failed in the county, larger vessels were built and 
proceeded to Maryland and Virginia to obtain it. 

When the largest of the timber — -such as was fit 
for marketable wood, was cut off, the charcoal trade next 
furnished employment for many of the smaller class 
coasting vessels. The charcoal trade was commenced 
about forty years ago. 

At the present time most of the coasting vessels 
(generally schooners — two or three masted) are too large 
to enter our bay loaded ; they are engaged in the coasting 
rade from New York to Southern and Eastern ports. A 


large amount of capital is invested by our citizens in 
these vessels, much larger than Custom House records 
would show, as most of them take out papers at New 
York, Perth Amboy, Little Egg Harbor and other places 
out of the county or out of the Custom House district. 
It is difficult now to give the precise amount of capital 
invested, but it is probable that between half a million and 
a million dollars is now invested in vessel property by 
O^ean county citizens. Most of these vessels are built 
in the county, but some have been built on the North 
River, at Alio way stown, N. J., and other places. 

(As there is no Custom House in Ocean county, my 
impression is that much of the vessel property owned 
here is credited to other places ; for instance, if three- 
fourths of a vessel is owned here and one-fourth in New 
York, the vessel will be enrolled in New York, as it is 
convenient to renew papers there.) 


The first Europeans who ever landed within the 
limits of our county, it is probable, were Capt. Hencl- 
rickson and his companions in the celebrated yacht 
" Onrest" (Restless), although we have no positive infor- 
mation to settle the point. The evidence, though cir- 
cumstantial, is strong. It will be remembered that Mr. 
Brodhead, the Historian of N. Y., discovered a map in 
Holland supposed to have been published or made about 
October, 1614. This map gives so correct a representa- 
tion of Barnegat Bay and the various streams running 
into it that it bears upon its face evidence of having been 
made from actual exploration. In regard to the author- 
ship of this map of 1611, I am unaware of its being 
attributed to an} T one ; but it will be remembered that 
the little "Onrest," after returning from her cruise in the 
Spring of that year under Adrien Block (from the East- 
ward), was taken in charge by Capt. Hendrickson who 
sailed out of Sandy Hook southerly for the express pur- 
pose of making discoveries and exploring the coast. 
Most map^ made during the succeeding fifty or seventy- 
five years give so incorrect representations of Barnegat 


Bay and the streams emptying into it that they doubt- 
lessly were mad ■ by persons who never entered the ba\ 
at all, but only sailed along outside the beach. Navigar, 
tors in vessels outside could easily d itermine the length. 
and quite accurately tha width, also, but could see no 
streams. It is true that in the noted "Figurative" map 
of 1616, of Capt. Hendriekson's, we rind nothing to justify 
the supp »sition that he entered this bay, but that map 
does not appear to have been made to give exact particu- 
lars of discoveries, but only to give general outlines of 
the coast for an especial and different purpose, viz : to 
illustrate and explain his demands for certain special 
trading privileges. From the object he had in view in 
cruising along our coast in 1614 : from the size of his 
little vessels so well adapted for coming in our inlet 
which the larger Dutch vessels could not do ; from the 
improbability of any other navigator cruising along here 
that year; from the date of the map corresponding so 
nearly t<> the time of his trip : from the probabilities that 
he must have made a more minute map of the coast than 
his figurative one — from all these circumstances combined, 
it seems reasonable to suppose that the " Onrest," the 
first vessel ever built in America, was the first that ever 
entered Barnegat Bay. 


The fishing privileges afforded in the vicinity of 
Barnegat Bay were frecpuently enlarged upon by the Pro- 
prietors and others, to indii33 psrsousto settle along the 
bay and even whaling was exp set >d to prove quite 
profitable. The celebrated navigator De Yries tells us 
that on the loth of April, 1633, h ■ was off " Barendegat, 
where in two hours he took upwards of eighty codfish 
better than those of Xew Foundland. Samuel Groonie 
in order to effect the establishment of this branch of 
cominBrce was very anxious for a spsedy arrangement 
with the Indians whereby lanl-i n >aT l> irn >g it might be 

The work of Scott, 1685, before alluded to, says: 
" Bornogat •. or Burning Hole, is said to be a very 


good pla?e for fishing and there are sour- desiring to 
take up land thsra who Lnfor ji ug that il is good land 
and abundance of m ladotx Lying in it." 

Though whaling turned out generally unprofitable, 
yel our first settlers found inducements enough to locate 
here in other fisheries, the abundanc i of oysters, wild 
fowl, etc.; these, together with the meadow and farm 
land adjacent to th i bay, rendered the n scessaries of life 
easily obtainable. These first settlers, losating them- 
selves along the bay or upon streams near the bay, do 
not appear to have taken upland; the presumption is, 
that th" Proprietors persuaded them to come and locate 
upon their lands or were anxious to have them do so as 
a means of drawing other settlers here. A few families 
appear to have been in the county scattered at various 
points as early as about 1700, and slowly increased in 
numbers until from 1735 to 1740, about which time (as 
far as I have been able to ascertain I settlers first began 
to take up land. Then (1735 40) we find the next in- 
ducement to locate here was the valuable sites for mills 
afforded by the numerous streams and the facilities for 
the lumber trade; s im3 of the first mills established in 
Ocean county it may be proper to mention. 


It is said* that the Dutch, after displacing the 
Swedes along the Delaware in 1655, and while under the 
Governorship of Peter Alricks and others, acquired large 
tracts of country upon the eastern side of New Jersey. 
According to some traditionary accounts, persons, either 
Swedes or Dutch, from along the Delaware about this 
time visited Ocean county and endeavored to induce per- 
sons to settle along Toms River, but this point is not as 
yet conclusively settled. 

Besides the reasons ottered by the Proprietors to in- 
duce persons to settle here we have other causes which 
actuated many of the first settlers to locate here and in 
other parts of East Jersey, given in the following extract 

: Hi>t. Coll. N. J. 


from ;i letter of Lord Cornbury s to the Board of Trade, 
dated July 1st, 1708. 

" Two sorts of people remove out of this Govern- 
ment (New York) to neighboring provinces ; the first are 

trading men ; of these but few have removed since I 
came hither. The other sort are husbandmen. Of this 
sort many are removed lately, especially from Kings 
county, Long Island. Many of our early settlers along 
shore came from Long Island about the time referred to 
by Lord Cornbury — those on the lower part of our 
county chiefly by way of Egg Harbor. And the reasons 
they remove are of two kinds, namely : The first is be- 
cause Kings county is small and full of people, so as the 
young grow up they are forced to seek land farther off 
to settle on. The land in the Eastern Division of New 
Jersey is good and not very far from Kings county; 
there is only a bay to cross. The other reason that in- 
duces them to move into New Jersey is because tiny pay 
no taxes ; no, nor no duties." 

Lord Cornbury then proceeds to propose plans to 
check this emigration, but we find that Gov. Robt. Hun- 
ter, i April 30th, 1716,) still complains of " the great 
numbers of the younger sort who leave Long Island 
yearly to plant in New Jersey and Pennsylvania." 

As before stated, many of the early settlers of Ocean 
county came from Long Island, probably a majority of 
those in the lower part of the county. Many of these, 
perhaps most of them, came by the way of Little Egg 

From Long Island tax rates 1675, to His;, arc gath- 
ered the following among other familar Ocean county 
names : 

Oyster Bay: Birdsalls, Willetts, Homers, Town- 
sends. Andrews. 

Grave»<nd : Tiltons, Davis, Woolleys, Johnsons, 
Stillwells, \Vilkins. 

Brooklnan : Salmons, Rogers, Platts, Jones, 
Coxes, Hulses. 


Southampton : Roses, Mills, Cooks, Komptons. 

Southold : Baileys, Salmons. 

Ecutt Hampton : Osbornes. 

Newtown : Lawrences, Pangborus, Moores, Smiths, 
Southards, Salmons, Whites, Williams, Formans, Bird- 
sails, Burchams. 

Iu several Long Island towns are the Lawrences, 
Conklins, Williams, Rogers, etc. 

From Burlington county came the Pharos, Ridg- 
ways, I mlays, Jennings, Mills, etc. 

Among families supposed to have come from Middle- 
sex are the Parkers,'' Gulicks, Randolphs, Predmores, 

A large number of early settlers came from Mon- 
mouth: the Stouts, Holmes, Couovers, Lawrences, Rus- 
sells, Herberts, and others too numerous to mention. 

Many families of the same name appear to have 
com?, in different parts of the county, from different 
places, as Mills, Cooks, Johnsons, etc. 

Among early settlers who are referred to in ancient 
deeds but of whom little is known as to their origin, we 
find Wm. Chamberlain whose house stood on the north 
side of Oyster Creek, 1739 ; Bobert Hewlett's dwelling, 
Goodluck, 1748, and Nicholas Brown, Mannahawkin. 

Mem : The county was so sparsely populated a 
century ago that I doubt if it contained over twelve or 
fifteen hundred people, though so large in territory. 


Ocean it will be remembered was once a part of 
Monmouth, and Monmouth was formerly divided into 
Middletown and Shrewsbury. Shrewsbury then ex- 
tended to tli3 most southerly point of the present county 
of Ocean ; it is therefore proper to make some reference 
to old Shrewsbury. 

The celebrated Stout manuscript says that in 1618 
there were only six white families in Middletown. It is 
doubtful if there were any then in Shrewsbury. Shrews- 

* For Parker family sep '■ Contributions to E. J Hist, by W. A. Whitehi ad 


bur j was first settled by emigrants from Connecticut 
iu 1664. 

The following items relating not only to Shrewsbury, 
but to other parts of East Jersey, may be new to some ; 
they are from the Dutch records during their brief sway 
in 1673. 

After displacing the English, the Dutch sent officers 
into East Jersey to administer to the inhabitants : 


" Aug. 12th, 1673. The inhabitants of Middletown 
and Shrewsbury are required and charged to send their 
deputies unto us on Tuesday morning next to treat upon 
surrendering their said towns to the Dutch. 

i Signed) ( '< h:\elius Evertie, 

Jacob Benches. 

" 14th 7ber 1673. Capt. Knyff and Lieut. Snell re- 
turned yesterday morning from Aghter Coll* and reported 
that pursuant to their commissions they had adminis- 
tered the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants of the 
undernamed towns, who are found to number as in the 
lists herewith delivered to Council :" 

Elizabethtown, 80 men, 76 took oath — rest absent. 

New Wark, 



75 " 

(( a a 




53 " 

" one absent. 




43 " 





52 " 





38 " 

18 Quakers 

promised allegiance — rest absent." 

By the foregoing census it appears that the men in 
East Jersey that year numbered 391. Allowing the pop- 
ulation to have been four times as many as the popula- 
tion of East Jersey that year (1673) would have been 
1564, and of Shrewsbury 272. 

Many original Monmouth settlers were Dutch from 
Holland. The Holland Dutch origin is stdl preserved 
by many familiar names as shown elsewhere. 

The Holland Dutch i or Law Dutch,) are proverbially 

Aghter '(ill. or Renter Coll. meaning "beyond the hills"— beyond Bergen Hills— 
the name applied to East Jersey 

OLD TIMES IN o<T.\N col \TY. 1 09 

a remarkably cleanly and neat people— so much so, thai 
we hardly dare call in question the truth of the stor\ of 
one of our very neat, tidy Monmouth Dutch Grandmoth- 
ers who scrubbed her floor so thoroughly and so often, 
that one day she scrubbed through and fell into the cellar 
and broke her neck. 

The following item also relates to Shrewsbury : 

"Whereas the late chosen Magistrates of Shrews- 
bury are found to he persons whose religion will not 
suffer them to take an oath, it was ordered that a new 
nomination of four persons of true Protestant Christian 
religion out of which I shall elect two and continue 
one of the former Magistrates. 

Anthony Colve, Gov. 

29th 7th her 1673. 

Magistrates of Shrewsbury, sworn Sept. 1st, 167:!: 

John Hance, Eleakim Wardil, Hugh Dyckman. 

Capt. Knyff and Lieut. Snell reported also that they 
had sworn in certain officers of the militia in said towns. 
For Middletown and Shrewsbury were the following : 

Middletown — Jonathan Holmes, Captain; John 
Smith, Lieut.; Thomas Whitlock, Ensign. 

Shrewsbury -- William Newman, Captain; John 
AVilliamson, Lieut.; Nieles Brown, Ensign. 

In 1682 the population of Shrewsbury was estimated 
at 400, and several thousand acres of laud were under 


The first mention that I now remember to have met 
with of any part of the present county of Ocean in any offi- 
cial publi ■ English records is in the grant of the Duke of 
York to Berkely and Carteret July 29th, 1C74. In giving 
the bounds of territory it is described as extending " as far 
southward as a certain creek called Barnegat, being about 
the middle point between Sandy Hook and Cape May, 
and bounded on the west in a strait line from said creek 
called Barnegat to a certain creek in Delaware river next 
adjoining to and below a certain creek in Delaware river 
called Renkokus." (Learning & Spicer, p. 46.) 


The above quotation is repeated in Carteret's in- 
structions to planters and settlers, (Learning and Spicer, 
p. 50.) 

In the Proprietors' Instructions to the Deputy Gov- 
ernor, Julv 3d, 1(585, it is ordered : 

" That whenever there is a convenient Plott of land 
lying together, containing twenty -four thousand acres as 
we are informed will more especially be the case at Bar- 
negatte, it l>e divided and marked into twenty-four parts, 
a thousand acres to each Proprietary and the parts being 
made as equal as ran be for quality and situation, the 
first comers settling to have the choice of the Divisions 
and where several stand equal in that respect upon equal 
Terms and Time of settling it be determined by lot," etc. 

(The sections proceed to give farther directions in 
regard to dividing the lands which are to be found in 
Learning and Spicer, pages 210-211.) 


Although the majority of persons who earliest visited 
Ocean county travelled along the shore, yet it is probable 
that the north-westerly and northerly portions of the 
county were occasionally traversed by travelers crossing 
our State long before there were any settlements of 
whites in the central portion of New Jersey. These trav- 
elers crossed the State for various reasons, some for 
curiosity, perhaps, or to explore it ; some on public or 
private business between the early settlements in New 
York and East Jersey, adjacent, and the settlements on 
the Delaware, as in the case of Capt. William Tom and 
Peter Alrioks, 1671 ; others as missionaries or traveling 
preachers between settlements in this and other Staffs. 

I know of no account which gives the precise route 
usually travelled then, but it would be reasonable to sup- 
pose they followed the usual Indian trails or paths. 
Among these paths we find occasional mention in ancient 
jMonmouth and Ocean records of " Burlington old path," 
among other places referred to in 1767 in the act creating 
the township of Dover now in Ocean. 

THE COMING OF THE w nil i: U w Ill 



After Sir Henry Hudson's departure from the shores 
of Monmouth he proceeded towards Manhattan Island 
and thence up the river now bearing his rfame. The fol- 
lowing traditionary account, the coining of the Whites 
according to Heckwelder, was handed down among both 
Delaware and Iroquois Indians. It is not often we meet 
in fact or fiction a more interesting story than this plain, 
simple Indian tradition. After explaining that the Indian 
chiefs of old Monmouth County notified the chiefs on 
York or Manhattan Island, and that the chiefs of the 
surrounding country finally gathered at the last named 
place to give a formal reception, the tradition sa}-s : 

A long time ago before men with a white skin had 
ever been seen, some Indians fishing at a place where the 
sea widens, espied something at a distance moving upon 
the water. They hurried ashore, collected their neigh- 
bors, who together returned and viewed intently this 
astonishing phenomenon. What it could be, baffled con- 
jecture. Some supposed it to be a large fish or other 
animal, others that it was a large house floating upon the 
sea. Perceiving it moving towards the land, the spec- 
tators concluded that it would be proper to send runners 
in different directions to carry the news to their scattered 
chiefs, that they might send off for the immediate attend- 
ance of their warriors. — These arrived in numbers to 
behold the sight, and perceiving that it was actually 
moving towards them, that it was coming into the river 
or bay, they conjectured that it must be a remarkably 
large hous3 in which the Manitto or Great Spirit was 
coming to visit them. They were much afraid and ypt 
under no apprehension that the Great Spirit would injure 
them. They worshipped him. The chiefs now assembled 
at New York Island aDd consulted in what manner thev 


should receive their Manitto; meat was prepared for a 
sacrifice. The worn. mi were direct -d to prepare their best 
victuals. Idols or images were examined and put in 
order. A grand dance they thought would be pleasing, 

and in addition to the sacrifice might appease liiin if 
hungry. The conjurers were also set to work to deter- 
mine what this phenomenon portended and what the re- 
sult would be. To the conjurers, men, women and chil- 
dren looked for protection. Utterly at a loss what to do, 
and distracted alternately between hop;' and fear, in the 
confusion a grand dance commenced. Meantime fresh 
runners arrived, declaring it to be a great house of vari- 
ous colors and full of living creatures. It now appeared 
that it was their Manitto. probably bringing some new- 
kind <>f game. Others arriving declared it positively full 
of people of different color and dress from theirs, and 
that one appeared altogether in /•"/. i This was sup- 
posed to In- Sir Henry Hudson. I This then must be the 
Manitto. They were lost in admiration, could not 
imagine what the vessel was, whence it came, or what all 
this portended. They are now hailed from the vessel in 
a language they could not understand. They answered 
by a shout or yell in their way. The house or large 
canoe as some call it. stops. A smaller canoe comes on 
shore with the red man in it: some stay by the canoe to 
guard it. The chief and wise men form a circle into 
which the red man and two attendants enter. He salutes 
them with friendly countenance, and they return the 
salute after their manner. They are amazed at then- 
color and dress, particularly with him. who glittering in 
red. wore something, perhaps lace and buttons, they 
could not comprehend. He must he the great Manitto, 
they thought, but why should he have a white skin? 

A large elegant Houckhack (gourd, /'. <. bottle, decan- 
ter, A;c..> is brought by one of the supposed Manitto's 
servants, from which a substance is placed into smaller 
cups or glasses and handed to the Manitto. He drinks, 
has the glasses refilled and handed to the chief near 
him. He takes it, smells it. and passes it to the next, 


who does the same The glass in this manner is passed 
around the circle and is about to be returned bothered 
clothes man. when one of the Indians, a greai warrior, 
harangues them on the impropriety of returning the cup 
unemptied. It was handed to them, he said, by the 
Manitto, t<> drink out of as he had. To follow his ex- 
ample would please him— to reject,mighl provoke his 
wrath; and if no one else would, he won Id drink it him- 
self, let what would follow , for it were 1) stter for one man 
to die, than a whole nation to be destroyed. He then 
took the glass, smelled it, again addressed them, bidding 
adieu, and drank its contents. All eyes are now fixed 
ii] ton the first Indian in New York, who had tasted the 
poison, which has since effected so signal a revolution in 
the condition of the native Americans. He soon began 
to stagger. The women cried, supposing him in fits. 
He rolled on the ground; they bemoan his fate ; they 
thought him dying; he fell asleep; they at first thought 
he had expired, but soon perceived he still breathed ; he 
awoke, jumped up, and declared he never felt more 
happy. He asked for more, and the whole assembly 
imitating him became intoxicated. While this intoxica- 
tion lasted, the whites confined themselves to their ves- 
sels ; after it ceased, the man with the red clothes re- 
turned and distributed beads, axes, hoes and stockings. 
They soon became familiar, and conversed by signs. The 
whites made them understand that they would now re- 
turn home, but the next year they would visit them again 
with presents, and stay with them awhile ; but as that 
they could not live without eating, they should then 
want a little land to sow seeds, in order to raise herbs to 
put in their broth. 

Accordingly a vessel arrived the season following, 
when they were much rejoiced to see each other ; but 
the whites laughed when they saw axes and hoes hang- 
ing as ornaments to their breasts ; and the stockings 
used as tobacco pouches. The whites now put handles 
in the axes and hoes and cut down trees before their 
eyes, dug the ground, and showed them the use of stock- 


ings. Here, say the Indians, a general laugh ensued — 
to think they had remained ignorant of the use of these 
things, and had borne so long such heavy metals sus- 
pended around their necks. Familiarity daily increas- 
ing between them and the whites — the latter prepared to 
stay with them — asking them only for so much land as 
the hide of a bullock spread before them would cover ; 
they granted the request. The whites then took a knife, 
and, beginning at a place on the hide, cut it up into a 
rope not thicker than the linger of a little child. They 
then took the rope and drew it gently along in a circular 
form, and took in a large piece of ground ; the Indians 
were surprised at their superior wit, but they did not 
contend with them for a little ground, as they had 
enough. They lived contentedly together for a long 
time, but the new comers from time to time asked for 
more land, which was readily obtained, and thus gradu- 
ally proceeded higher up the Mahica/nnittuck {Hudson 
River), until they began to believe they would want all 
their country, which proved eventually to be the case. 

The name which the Indians first gave to the whites 
was Woapsiel Lenna/pe, which signified white people. 
But in process of time, when disagreeable events occur- 
red between them, the Indians laid aside this name and 
called them Sohwonndek — the salt people — because they 
came across the salt water ; and this name was always 
after applied to the whites. 

The foregoing traditions are said to have been 
handed down among both Delaware and Iroquois. 

The Delawares owned and were spread over the 
whole country, from New York Island to the Potomac. 
They say they had a great many towns, among other 
places a number on the Lennapewihittack or Delaware 
river, and a great many in SheyichM on that part of the 
country now named Jersey. That a place named Ghi- 
chohaci, now Trenton, on the Lannapewihittuck a large 
Indian town had been for many years together, where 
their great chief resided. The Delawares say Chick- 
ohacki is a place on the east side of the Delaware river 


above Philadelphia, at or near a greal bend where the 

white people lmve since lniilt ;i town which thev call 

Trenton. Their < >1 « 1 town was on a high bluff which was 
always tumbling down, wherefore the town was called 
Chiehohacki, which is tumbling banks, or falling banks. 
When the Europeans first arrived at York Island 
the Great CJnami chief of the Turtle tribe resided south- 
ward across ;i Large stream, or where Amboy now is. 
That from this town a very Long sand bar (Sandy Hook) 
extended far into the sea. That at Amboy and all the 
way up and down their Large rivers and bays and on 
great islands they had towns when the Europeans first 
arrived, and that it was their forefathers who first dis- 
covered the Europeans on their travel, and who met 
them on York Island after they landed. 


The present county of Ocean, as before stated, was 
once a part of 'Shrewsbury. This was the case until 
1749 when a portion of the lower part of Shrewsbury 
was set off and formed into the township of Stafford. 

The patent creating the township of Stafford is 
dated March 3d, 17-19, and was issued in the reign of 
George II, and is signed by Gov. Belcher. As this is 
probably the first official public document relating to 
any portion of the present county of Ocean it is a mat- 
ter of gratification to know that this patent is still in ex- 
istence in good preservation. It is, as was usual, upon 
parchment, with the great seal of the province of New 
Jersey attached, the impression of which still shows to 
good advantage. 

(This patent at present writing is in the care of the 
author hereof.) 

The next division of Shrewsbury affecting the 
county of Ocean, was the creation of the township of 
Dover June 24th, 1767, when Win. Franklin was Gov- 
ernor. In the recital of the boundaries of Dover, men- 
tion is made of " Burlington old path " where it crosses 


the north branch of Toms River, &c." (This "Barling- 
ton old path " is the one before referred to as haying 
been probably traversed by early travelers.) 

The other townships in Ocean have been set off 
within late years. 

Jackson was originally set off in 1844; Plumsted in 
1845; Union in 1846 ; Brick in 1850. 

Plnmsted, it is said, was named in honor of Clement 
Plnmsted one of the early Proprietors ; Brick after Jo- 
seph W. Brick, a prominent citizen of the township ; 
Jackson, probably after General Andrew Jackson, but 
some contend it was also after the proprietor of " Jack- 
son's Mills," who was an early and prominent settler in 
the township ; perhaps the township received its name 
on account of both. 

"When application was made to have " Union " set 
off it was proposed at first to call it " Stratton," after 
Gov. Charles Stratton, but the proposition failed. 


It may not be amiss to introduce some brief items 
relative to and showing the increase of population in 
this section of the State and also of the State at large, 
as possessing some general interest ; though some, per- 
haps all of them, may be familiar to those well versed in 
our early history, yet they may contain something not 
generally known to the public. 

In 1648 the celebrated Stout manuscript says there 
were only six white families in Middletown. 

In 1673 Capt. Knyff and Lieut. Snell's report shows 
there were 391 male adults in East New Jersey. 

In 1682 the population of Shrewsbury township was 
estimated at 400, and Middletown 100 families. 

In 1702 the population of the whole State was esti- 
mated at about 20,000. (Vide Hist. Coll. N. J.) 

In 1703 Col. Lewis Morris estimates the population 
of East Jersey at 8,000. 

(Historical Collections of N. J. page 29, says the 
population of New Jersey in 1702 was supposed to be 
about 20,000, of which 12,000 belonged to East Jersey 

oil: coast. 117 

and 8,000 to Wesi Jersey, and Militia L,400; bul CoL 
Stoma estimates aa above onlj 8,000 in East Jersey the 
fellow ing year. I 

In 17'Jii the population of the whole State was 
32,442. A.s these appear to have been the firsl nearest 
approach which I bave nut with to a complete census of 
the State this year (1726) I append the table herewith as 
I notice that it appears to have escaped the attention of 
some writers weU versed in the early history of our 
State. It will be noticed that there were only ten coun- 
ties then. 

(See census table accompanying 

In 17:is the population of New Jersey was 47, :Ji'.'. i slaves 3,981. 
1745 " '• " " 61,403 Slav. - 1,603. 

The last two are given on authority of Morse's Geog- 
raphy (old Ed.) 

1765. The New York " Post Boy," December 1765, 
estimates the number of whites and blacks capable of 
bearing arms in New Jersey then, at 20,000. The British 
authorities appear to have kept account of the men 
capable of bearing arms about this period, as they occa- 
sionally made calls or drafts for men. For instance, in 
1757-8 during the old French war, in our State, soldiers 
weri raise I by draft to go North to meet the French. 
This draft operated with severity among Quakers, espe- 
cially ; many were forced into the ranks and marched 
North, but fortunately got into no battles. 



There are many interesting items relating not only 
to Ocean county but to the State at large to be collected 
from ancient maps and charts. And I will here take the 
liberty of calling attention to that portion of the Report 
of the Superintendent United States Coast Survey for 
1856 which refers to the labors of Dr. J. G. Kohl. By 
the sketch given of Dr. Kohl's report to the United 
States Superintendent it appears that he has examined 


about live hundred charts, maps and works relating to 

our coast from 1407 to 1855. These were found in this 
country and Europe, and his researches for information 
relative to the American coast were probably the most 
thorough ever made, and it is a great misfortune that his 
report has never been published, but yet lies buried in 
the archives of the Superintendent's office at Washing- 
ton As the United States Superintendent's report for 
1856 is easily to be obtained for reference, it is unneces- 
sary here to give a full description of Dr. Kohl's report ; 
it will suffice to state that, among other matters, it con- 
tains : 

A history of the Dutch discoveries and of expeditions 
to the regions between Virginia and New England execu- 
ted during the first quarter of the 17th century by Navi- 
gators Hudson, Black, Hendrickson, Christiansen, May. 
Vries, and others. (Part 1st, Chap. 10. ) The first part 
has also a map tracing the routes of the principal discov- 
erers, and to all the principal bays, harbors, &c, on the 
coast is appended the names of the principal explorers. 

The Second part of Dr. Kohl's report contains a 
review of the names on the Atlantic coast; to every 
name is added an essay or note giving the origin and 
changes of name, its history, &c. Part 1st, Chap. 13, 
gives New Jersey coast from Shrewsbury inlet to Cape 
May ; chapter 14 gives Delaware bay and river. 

The Third part contains among other matter a list 
of the titles of books which treat on the history, geog- 
raphy, &c, of our coast, with critical notices ; also lists 
of maps and surveys ; and has copies of 40 principal 
maps having especial historical interest. 

A copy of so much of Dr. Kohl's report as relates 
to New Jersey would prove a valuable acquisition to our 
Historical Collections. Inasmuch as our Government 
has paid for his report it should be published. 


August 5th, 1778. " Lately retaken and brought 
into Little Egg Harbor by two New England privateers 
in company with Capt. John Kice, a brig and a sloop 

OUR COA8T. 119 

loaded. Several at the Bame time takes into Great 
Egg Earbor by the privateer sloop Cornet, Capt. Xel- 
verton Taylor and others." [N. J. Gazette.) 

■" V>\ a gentleman from Egg Harbor we learn thai a 
few davs since a sloop from Jamaica bound to New 
York was brought in there. Jt seems that a number of 
Americans captured at sea and carried to that island had 
bsen put on board in order to be sent to New York, and 
on their passage rose and secured the master and hands 
and brought the vessel into the above port. She was 
loaded with nun, sugar, etc." 

In November, 17.SU, several persons were appre- 
hended in Philadelphia, for carrying on a contraband 
trade with the enemy by way of Egg Harlan- vessels. 
Their vessels would clear for Boston hut had British 
passports. Among those taken were Capt. James Steel- 
man. John Shaw, Black; a man named Atkinson 

concerned with them escaped. 


" June 17th, 1778. Wm. Marriner a volunteer with 
eleven men and Lieut. John Schenck of our militia went 
last Saturday evening from Middletown Point to Long 
Island in order to take a few prisoners from Flatbush, 
and returned with Major Moncrieff and Mr. Theophilus 
Bache i the worshipful Mayor and Tormentor-General, 
David Mathews, Esq., who has inflicted on our prisoners 
the most unheard of cruelties and who was the principal 
object of the expedition being unfortunately in the city,) 
with four slaves and brought them to Princeton to be de- 
livered to his Excellency the Governor. Mr. Marriner 
with his party left Middletown Point on Saturday even- 
ing and returned at six o' cloak the next morning having 
traveled by land and water above fifty miles and behaved 
with the greatest bravery and prudence." (Gazette.) 

The sloop Susanuah, Capt. Stoeker of eight guns and 
thirty-five men, fitted out at Egg Harbor. On the 29th 
of August, 1778, off that port fell in with the " Emerald" 
man of war tender, a sloop of 10 guns, when a severe en- 


gagemeut ensued in which the Lieutenant who com- 
manded the tender with several of the crew fell and the 
vessel was only saved by flight. Two vessels under con- 
voy of the tender in the beginning of the action stood to 
the northward and also escaped. Capt. Stoeker during 
the engagement showed the greatest bravery and has 
gained the esteem and confidence of his crew ; he had 
one man killed and six wounded. 

The privateer General Lee came around from Egg 
Harbor on Saturday last. (Packet, Sept. 1778.) 

About the last of September, 1778, a fleet of thirty 
British vessels, and the next day fifty more, sailed south- 
ward along our coast. 

August 25th, 1779. The Schooner Mars, Capt. Tay- 
lor, took a snow (3 masted vessel) the " Falmouth " (see 
Hist. Coll. p. 66,) a packet and forty -five prisoners ; but 
the prize was retaken by the British ; Capt. Taylor got 
safe into Egg Harbor. In September, 1779, Capt Tay- 
lor took a prize into Egg Harbor, containing a Hessian 
colonel and 214 privates, also dry goods, etc. 

In June, 1779, some Jerseymen went in rowboats to 
Sandy Hook, and took from the British four sloops, one of 
which was armed ; they burned three and took one, also 
nineteen prisoners ; the share of prize money was £400, 
per man. 

About December 1st, 1778, Capt. Stevens, in a priva- 
teer belonging to Egg Harbor, took the schooner Two 
Friends, Capt. Sion of New York ; the Two Friends had 
six carriage and twelve swivel guns, and twenty-two 

About September 1st, 1782, Capt. Douglas with some 
Gloucester County militia attacked a Refugee boat at Egg 
Harbor with eighteen Refugees on board, fourteen of 
whom were shot or drowned, and four escaped. This was 
supposed to be the band that robbed Mr. Fennemore, 
Collector of Burlington County. 

Mem. — Very many exploits on our coast have been 
published in Modern works and are here omitted. 



August 7th. 1782. About this time .in American 


named Richard Wilgus was shoi while keeping guard 
below Allcntow n fco prevent contraband goods being 

taken to the British. 

In regard to tlio attack on Capt. Huddy's house the 

Philadelphia Packet contains some items not mentioned 
in other accounts. The Packet's statements are as rela- 
ted by Capt. Huddy himself. It says there were seventy- 
two men attacked him under Lieut. Joseph Parker and 
William Hewlett about an hour before day. They com- 
menced stoning a window to pieces which aroused Capt. 
Huddy ; the girl helped defend. Mrs. Huddy and another 
woman tried to induce him to surrender, as they thought 
defence was useless. Tye who is here called " one of 
Lord Dunmore's crew," received a wound. After Huddy 
surrendered, they plundered the house. They were two 
hours in taking him. Six militia came near and fired and 
killed their commander. Ensign Vincent and sixteen 
men of the State regiment attacked them as they em- 
barked and accidentally wounded Huddy ; the tiring- 
made confusion in the boats and one overset and Huddy 
swam ashore. This paper says the Refugees " made a 
silent and shameful retreat with disgrace — two hours for 
seventy-two men to take one man." 

The Refugee town at Sandy Hook was not allowed 
to remain unmolested by the Americans. Capt. Adam 
Hyler was continually on the alert seizing their vessels 
there and taking prisoners, &c. 

Of the Pine Robbers such as Fenton, Burke, Fagan, 
and others, it is not necessary here to speak. Accounts 
of them are already published in modern works. 

April, 1870. About the last of April the Refugees 
attacked the house of John Holmes, Upper Freehold, 
and robbed him of a very large amount of Continental 
money, a silver watch, gold ring, silver buckles, pistols, 
clothing, &c. 

June 1st, 1780. Colonel Tye (Mulatto) with his 


niotley comj^any, twenty blacks and whites, carried off as 
prisoners, Captain Barney Smock and Gilbert Yan Ma- 
ter, spiked an iron cannon and took four horses. Their 
rendezvous was said to be Sandy Hook. 

About this time Colonel Tye with sixty Eefugees at- 
tacked Captain Huddy's dwelling at Colt's Neck. (See 
Hist, Coll. p. 365.) 

(The Refugees had a settlement or "town" as it was 
often called at Sandy Hook. ) 

October 15th, 1781. A party of Refugees from Sandy 
Hook landed at night at Shrewsbury and marched undis- 
covered to Colt's Neck and took six prisoners. The alarm 
reached the Court House about 4 or 5 o'clock, P. M., and 
a number of inhabitants, among whom was Dr. Nathaniel 
Scudder, went in pursuit. They rode to Black Point to 
try to recapture the six Americans, and while firing from 
the bank Dr. Scudder was killed. 

February 8th, 1782. About forty Refugees under 
one Lieut. Steelman came via Sandy Hook to Pleasant 
Valley. They took twenty horses and five sleighs, which 
they loaded with plunder ; they also took several prison- 
ers, viz : Hendrick Hendrickson and his two sons, Peter 
Covenhoven, Esq., Garret Hendrickson, Samuel Bowne 
and son, and Jacques Denise. At Garret Hendrickson's 
a young man named William Thompson got up slyly and 
went off and informed Captain John Schenck of Colonel 
Holmes' regiment, who collected all the men he could, to 
pursue. They overtook and attacked them, and the be- 
fore mentioned William Thompson was killed, and a Mr. 
Cottrell wounded. They, however, took twelve Refugees 
prisoners, three of whom were wounded. But in return- 
ing they unexpectedly fell in with a party of sixteen men 
under one Stevenson, and a sudden firing caused eight of 
the prisoners to escape. But Captain Schenck ordered 
his men to charge bayonets and this party of Tories sur- 
readered. Captain Schenck retook nineteen horses and 
five sleighs, and took twenty-one prisoners ; among the 
latter were several well known atrocious villains. — 
( Packet.) 



Gov. Robert Hunter, in a letter to the Board of 
Trade, dated New York, May 7th, 1711, says : 

"I am directed by your Lordships to send you my 
observations on the past in New Jersey during Col. In- 
goldsby's administration." After alluding to other mat- 
ters he refers to an act for building and repairing gaols, 
and says "by virtue of this act they have designed a 
Court House in the remotest corner of the county of 
Monmouth which will be a great tax upon the people 
of that county and was meer party pique." (Was this 
at Freehold ?) 


About the year 1703 Col. Lewis Morris sent a memo- 
rial to England for a missionary to be sent to East Jer- 
sey, particularly to Shrewsbury. This memorial con- 
tained the following items relating to Middletown and 

" The population of New Jersey (East Jersey ?) is 
about 8,000. Freehold was settled by emigrants from 
Scotland. Mr. Keith (George), began the first settle- 
ment there and made a fine plantation. One-half of the 
people were Scotch Presbyterians. There is in town a 
Quaker meeting house but most of the Quakers had sece- 
ded with Keith. Shrewsbury, he says, was settled by emi- 
grants from New England and New York. There is in it 
about thirty Quakers of both sexes and they have a 
meeting house." 

Oldmixon in 1708 says : 

" Shrewsbury is the most southern town of the pro- 
vince and reckoned the chief town of the shire. It con- 
tains about 160 families ; and 30,000 acres of out planta- 
tions belong to its division. There is a new town in the 
county called Freehold, which has not been laid out and 
inhabited long. It does uot contain as yet above forty 



On ancient maps and charts, which I have had op- 
portunity of examining, the following items have seemed 
to me worthy of note : 

1014. The map found by Brodhead iu Holland, sup- 
posed to have been made October 17th, 1614, has upon 
it Eyre Haven, (Egg Harbor,) and north of it an inlet not 
named, meant for Barnegat. The hay now known as 
Barnegat Bay is laid down with islands, rivers. &c. ; so 
fair a representation of Toms River, Forked River, Oys- 
ter Creek and other streams running into it is given that 
it is evident the map was made by actual exploration. 

1616. Capt. Hendrickson's celebrated Figurative 
1616 has hut one inlet on our coast, probably meant for 
Egg Harbor and one river. 

1614-21. On a map in the Library of the New Jer- 
sey Historical Society, 1614-21, Barnegat Inlet is given 
as Barendegat. 

1656. A map of 1656 (Visschers?) has Barnegat 
Inlet, called Barndegat and Absecon Inlet also called 

1656. Vanderdonck's map, 1656, has only river 
running into Barnegat Bay. and its course southerly; 
this river is evidently marked at random, not from actual 
exploration. On this map is named a tribe of Indians 
about the lower part of Ocean and Burlington ; this tribe 
is here called "Ermomex;" near the line of Ocean and 
Monmouth is another tribe called the "Aquanachoques." 
Two Indian villages are also laid down, apparently not 
far from the lines of this county : the northerly village is 
called " Amacaronck ; " the southerly one " Meotani Ka- 
ronck." The tribe of Indians on this map called Ermo- 
mex in other places is called Armeomexs, Erwomee, Ar- 
mowamex, Arwavmons, Arwamex, Armeomeks, etc. (See 
also Barker's Prim. Settlements on Del. I 

169S. Gabriel Thomas' map, 1698, locates the above 
mentioned Indian village of Amacaronck about (I should 

\M ll'A I U LPS AMi CHAM 8. L25 

suppose) the bead of Toms River, and Meotam Karonck 
probably in the vicinity of Maurice River. 

One or two writers I Qotice bave doubted whether 
there ever were such villages; as Ear as the existence of 
Indian villages is concerned, the travels of Burnyeute 
alone settle that point; it is immaterial whether or not 
the names arc correctly given, though my impression is 
they could nut be far from correct, as the last syllable of 
each name, "onck," is a wed signifying "place," in tie- 
dialect of the Indians in this section. 
" In Memory of 
Died March '21th, 1768, 
Aged 85 years. 
Whose inocent life 
Adorned true light." 

Tradition says that Abraham Waeir came from the 
vicinity of the Hurl Gate, where he had a mill washed 
away in a storm, and then came and settled at this place, 
where one or two mills were standing in his time ; and 
that he belonged to a singular religious society of which 
notice is given elsewhere. 

Oyster Greek. From the quantity of oysters in its 
vicinity. In old deeds this creek is sometimes called 
" McCoys" Creek and " McCays " Creek. 

Forked River. From its branches, three in number, 
shaped somewhat like a fork. 

Cede /■ ( 'reek. From the cedar along its banks. 

Pattern Greek. The family of the Potters were among 
the first and principal settlers in its vicinity. The father 
of Thomas Potter, the founder of the Goodluck Univer- 
salist Church, was probably the first. 

Toms Rimer. One tradition, quite generally accepted 
in the vicinity, says that it was named after a noted In- 
dian named Tom who resided on an island near its 
mouth, and whose name was said to be Thomas Pumha. 
A map or sketch made in 1740 of Mosquito Cove and 
mouth of Toms River (probably by Surveyor Lawrence), 
has marked on it " Barnegatt Tom's Wigwam," located 
upon north point of Mosquito Cove. (This map is in pos- 


session of S. H. Shreve, Esq., Toms River.) Indian Tom, 
it is stated on seemingly good authority, resided on Dil- 
lon's Island, near the mouth of Toms River, during the 
lie volution. As the name " Toms River," is found about 
fifty years before (1727,) it throws some doubt upon the 
statement that the name was derived from him. 

Another tradition, and a more reasonable one, says 
that the place was named after Captain William Tom, a 
noted man along the Delaware from 1664 to 1674. A 
manuscript in the Library of the New Jersey Historical 
Society — I believe the author's name is Henry — says 
the stream was named after Captain William Tom. One 
or two aged citizens who spent much time about Toms 
River about fift}' years ago, inform me they saw it also 
stated in old publications at Toms River or vicinity when 
they were there. The manuscript above referred to gives 
a quotation (elsewhere given) from Delaware records 
which, however, is not conclusive. I do not consider the 
facts yet presented on either side give satisfactory rea- 
sons for deciding either way upon the origin of the name. 
I will append some few brief items relating to Captain 
Tom, which show that he was a prominent, trustworthy 
man, at least, whether the place was named after him 
or not. 

Toms River, as has elsewhere been stated, was often 
called Goose Creek. The first time it is called Goose 
Creek ( as tar as I have been able to find ) is in a patent 
to Robert Barclay and also one to Dr. Johnson, 1699. 
The last time I have noticed it so called is on Carey's 
map, 1814, where it is called " Goose or Toms Creek." 
Toms River was also sometimes called the " Town of 
Dover" — as in Rivington's Royal Gazette when describ- 
ing Block House affairs. 

Metehunk. Brick Township. Sometimes called Me- 
tedeconk, of Indian derivation, probably from the words 
"Mittig-Conck — a place where there is good, or thrifty, 
or living timber." 

New Egypt. A highly esteemed citizen of this vi- 
cinity gives the following and only account I have heard) 

\\i IIENT MAI'S \Mi CHARTS. 127 

of the origin of the name of this place. A man named 
Cowperthwaite Simmons, formerly owned a mill here, 
and the place was called " Kimmons' Mills." Prom the 
amount of corn raised and sold in this vicinity, people 

at a distance used to speak jokingly of "going to Egypt 
for corn," and this name thus applied, finally became 
generally adopted as appropriate for a place so noted 
for corn. 

Collier's Mills. So called after a late proprietor, 
John Collier. Before him the mills were owned by a 
man named Shreves, and then called Shreves' Mills. 

CassvUle. After Lewis Cass. This place was for- 
merly called Goshen — (sometimes still called so.) 

Downsville. After Samuel Downs, a resident. 

Goodluck. Goodluck Point at the mouth uf Toms 
River, it is said, was so named by some man in ancient 
times who was pursued by an enemy seeking his life and 
who escaped by swimming his horse across the river ; as 
he landed he called the place " Goodluck," on account of 
his good luck in escaping. The village of Goodluck 
probably derives its name from Goodluck Point. 

Double Creek. This Creek upon which Barnegat 
village is situated derives its name from its double 
mouth — having two mouths about half a mile apart. 

Mcmohester. After Manchester in England, proba- 
bly so named by Win. Torrey, principal proprietor of the 

Burrmille. After Barzilla Burr, a prominent citi- 
zen there many years ago. 

In regard to the origin of the Indian names in 
Ocean county I do not place much reliance upon the 
definitions given in the before-mentioned manuscript in 
the New Jersey Historical Library. I have given the 
meaning after careful examination of authorities, the 
most satisfactory of which I have found to be School- 
craft in one of the volumes of the Smithsonian Institute. 

In regard to the Indian word answering to our word 
" place," or locality, I find it variously given in names de- 
rived from the Indians as, conch, konck, conk, cunk, cnck t 


con, o?i, a a. ong, onk (Algonquin, Sankikan and Mohican.) 


About hfty or sixty years ago a large number of 
families from some of the villages along the bay, par- 
ticularly from Groodluek, Cedar Creek, and thereabout, 
removed bo Redstone, Pennsylvania, then called "the 

Redstone country,"' considered and called at that day 
'•Out West." . 

Among the families who then went were David 
Woodmansee, William Paul, Samuel Pierce, Abel and 
Jonathan Piatt, John Smith, &c. 

About forty years ago a large number of families 
removed from various places in our county to Genesee, 
New York, to Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and other States. 

The number of " old residents " now living in our 
county is unusually small in proportion to the popula- 
tion ; the reasons are chiefly the removals out of the 
county of one class, and the attention given by so many 
of the remainder to coasting affairs which so notoriously 
shortens life. 

It is stated by Societies in New York and other 
places devoted to benevolent efforts among seamen, that 
the average life of a sailor is but twelve years, from the 
time he commences following the sea. 

In our county it is a striking fact that out of the 
large proportion of our population engaged in marine 
affairs that it is almost impossible to meet with an old 
sailor or sea captain; I can hardly recall one such, who 
has followed the sea steadily. Accidents and disasters 
at sea, and fevers contracted in Southern ports are the 
occasion of this. 



Probably no county in the State presents greater 
obstacles in the way of collecting historical information 
than does Ocean county, for the following reasons : 

Our ancient local records are at Freehold, Mon- 

\\< ll \ l M u\s \\h CHARTS. L29 

mouth county I I-'! miles from Barnegat) or at Perth A.m- 
1m>\ some 80 or 90 miles distant; the distance of these 
places, the expensive traveling and other expenses, pre- 
sent one difficulty . 

Public Libraries at New York. Newark, Trenton and 
other places so distant and inconvenient. 

The couuty of Ocean being one of the largest in 
territory in the State, is one of the most difficult to 
travel, through want of public conveyances, heavy roads, 
&c, rendering it inconvenient to travel for local tradi- 
tion, &c. 

Probably fewer old persons, natives of the county, 
reside in Ocean in proportion to the population than in 
any other county in the State. This is owing to the ex- 
tensive emigration twenty-five to fifty years ago of natives 
of the county to Western States; and to the fact that so 
many of our citizens are and have been engaged in the 
coasting trade, which so shortens life that it is almost 
impossible to find an old sailor. 

(Many of the families removing West have carried 
family records, family history, &c, with them.) 


The early settlers of Ocean county were chiefly 
Baptists, Quakers, and Presbyterians, or Congregational- 
ists. Before any houses of worship were built in the 
county traveling preachers of various denominations 
would hold forth at private houses, as we find from the 
journals of some of these preachers and from other 

From the best information now to be obtained it ap- 
pears that the first house of worship erected in the 
county was the church known as the Baptist Church at 
Mannahawkin. The deed for the land upon which this 
church is situated is dated August 24th, 1758, and from 
the deed it appears that the church was then already 

The second church built in the county was probably 
the old "Potter Church" at Goodluck, now known as a 
Methodist church. This church was built bv Thomas 


Potter, originally as a free church, but subsequently 
given by him to the Universalists with the privilege to 
other societies to hold meetings in it. 

(The history of this church, so remarkable, is 
given: though probably familiar to many, it should 
occupy a prominent place in the history of Ocean county. 
The exact year when it was built is not known, but it 
probably was from 1760 to 1765. I 

The Quaker church at Barnegat comes next. The 
deed for this church is dated June 11th, 177<>. and by it 
it appears that this church was also built when the deed 
was made. 

Though these were the first houses of worship built 
in the county, yet there was a religious society at Ware- 
town as early as 1746 ; of what denomination is now un- 
certain. A place of worship at Waretown, it is said, was 
standing about a century ago — probably used as a free 

Though nearly a century ago we find as yet but four 
churches along shore, yet this speaks well for the people 
as we find that there were less than a thousand people, 
men, women, and children, to attend them. 

(Thomas Potter tells Rev. Murray, 1770, that there 
were 700 within twenty miles. ) Probably he meant from 
Toms River to Mannahawkin where these churches were. 





is, during the Revolution, Ocean County was a part 
of Monmouth, the patriots who served in the army from 
the present county of < >cean were enrolled among others 
of the old county. 

The following is a list of officers and privates of Old 
Monmouth, as stated in General Stryker's Reports of 
Officers and Men of the Revolution: 

Thomas Seabrook, Militia 


dier General, Jersey Mi- 


David Brearley, "2d R< 

Samuel Breese, 3d 

John Covenhoven. 
Samuel Porman, 2d B 

Daniel Hendrickson, 

Reg't, Monmouth. 
Asher Holmes, 1st 

Monmouth, and 

Elisha Lawrence, 

Quartermaster. I 
Nathaniel Scudder, 1st Reg. 

Monmouth, killed Octo- 
ber 15, 1781. 
John Smock, 1st Regiment, 

George Taylor, detached 


Thomas Henderson, in Col. 

Porman' a battalion. 
Joseph Salter, 2d Regiment, 

Elisha Lawrence, 2d Reg't, 




i and 

and State Troops. 


John Cook, 2d Reg't, killed 

at Toms River, March 

24, 1782. 
Dennis Denise, 3d Reg't. 
Thomas Hunn. 1st Ri 
James H. Imlay. 
William Montgomery, 2d 

James Mott. 2d reg't. 
Hendrick Van Brunt, 3d 

Elisha Walton. 1st Reg't. 
James Whitlock, 1st Reg't. 


Anderson Kenneth. 1st reg't. 

George Cook. 
Nathan Crane. 
David Rhea, Jr.. 1st Reg't. 

Richard Hartshorne, 1st 

David Rhea. 
John Stillwell, 1st Reg't. 


Peter Covenhoven. 
David Forman. 



Barber, 1st I: 



Jacob Hubbard, 1st Reg't. 
John Scudder, surgeon's 

mate, 1st Reg't. 


1 )ayid Anderson. 
George Anderson. 
David Baird, 1st Reg't. 
Joshua Bennett. 


Andrew Brown. 

James Bruere, 2d Reg't. 

John Buckalew. 

John Burrows, 1st Reg't 

John Burrows. Jr., 1st Reg't. 

Samuel Carhart, 1st Reg't. 

Thomas Chad wick, 3d Reg't 

John Colaton. 

John Conover, Militia and 

State troops. 

Joseph Cowperthwaite, 1st 

Jacob Covenhoven, Light 

Horse, Ac. 
Benjamin Dennis. 
John Dennis, '2d Reg't. 
Samuel Dennis, 1st Reg't. 
John Downie. 2d Reg't. 
Stephen Fleming, 3d Reg't. 
Jonathan Forman,lst Reg't. 
David Gordon, 1st Reg't. 
Guisbert Guisbertsen, 2d 

Kenneth Hankinson, 1st 

John Henderson. 
Daniel Hendrickson, Light 

Joshua Huddv, Artillery; 

hung by Tories, April 

L2, L782. 
David Imlay, Col. Holmes' 

Reg't., &c. 
Ephraim Jenkins. 
Christopher Little. 
Theophilus Little. 

Thomas Little, 3d Reg't. 

Anion Longstreet, Lieut., 
Monmouth, and Captain 
in Middlesex Reg't. 

Richard McKnight. 

John Peairs. 

Tobias Polhemus, 1st Regt. 

Nathaniel Polhemus, 

Joseph F. Randolph. 

Reuben F. Randolph. 

William Remson, Lighi 

Robert Rhea, 1st Reg't. 

William Schahck, 1st Reg't. 

Moses Sheppard, 1st Reg't. 

Nathan Sheppard, State 

Barnes Smock, 1st Reg't. 

Barnes Smock, Jr., Light 

Hendrick Smock, Minute 
man and 1st Reg't. 

Joseph Stillwell, Command- 
ing Guard. Sandy Hook, 
and in Detached Militia. 

Michael Swvetnian.lst leg't 

Sweetman. 3d Reg't. 

Nicholas Tan Brunt, 3d 

John Van Cleat. 

William YanCleaf.lst Reg't 
I Benjamin Van Cleve (or 
Cleat,) 1st Reg't. 

William Van Cleve, 1st 

Joseph Vandike. 

Cornelius Van Mater. 

Thomas Waddell. 

Thomas Wainright. 

Louis Walling. 

Thomas Walling, 1st Reg't. 

.John Walton, Light Dra- 

Peter Wyckoff, 2d Reg't 

Jaques Denise, Captain, 
Lieutenant, Light Dra- 



l.l r.i TEN wis. 

Thomaa A.nderson. 
Barnes Bennett. 
John Blake, 1st Regiment. 
John Brinley, Col. For- 
man's battalion. 

Kpliraini l>nck. 

Jul) ( Jompton. 
Ruliff Conover. 
George Cook. 

Thomas Cook, Col. For- 
man's battalion. 

Ralph Covenhoven. 

Kulif ( 'ovenhoven. 

James Cox, 1st Reg., and 
State troops. 

John Da\ is, Capt. Carhart's 

Moses Davis, Capt. Hankin- 
son's Company. 

Ezekiel Em ley. 

Jacob Fleming. 

Samuel P. Forma n. 

Ephraim Foster. 

David Hay. 

David Hendrickson. 

Abraham Lane. 

Gilbert Longstreet, capt. 
Wyckoff's co. 

Clias. McCoy, capt. Bruere's 

Abraham Osborn. 

John Quay. 

Anthony Reckless, sappers 
and miners, cont'l army. 

David Pihea, light horse. 

Ezekial Sayre. 

Samuel Sexton. 

Henry Smock. 

Henry Stryker, captain 
Smock's light dragoons. 

Joshua Stud son, capt. Jen- 
kins' co., killed Dec. 1780. 

Jacob Ten Eyck, capt. Car- 
hart's co. 

Hendrick Van Brunt, Jr., 3d 

I [endrick Va nderveer. 
James Wall, capt. Smock's 

liglil dragoons. 
John Whitlock, Lst reg't, 

killed Feb. L3, 1777. 

FIRST I. Ill I T.\ WTS. 

Jeremiah Chadwick, capt. 

( Ihadwick's co., 3d reg t. 
John Craig, capt. Elisha 

Walton's co. 
Aukc Eendrickson, capt. 

( rarret I [endrickson, capt. 

Win. Schenck's co. 
[saac [mlay. 
Lawrence Taylor. 
Jacob Tice, capt. Hume and 

John Schenck's cos. 
John Walton, capt. Hankin- 

son's co. 

Peter Conney. 
Joseph Cosgreve. 
Benja'n Covenhoven, capt. 

Hendrick Smock's co. 
John Conrad, capt. Wyck- 

ott's CO. 

Thomas Edwards. 

David Forman, capt. Elisha 

Walton's co. 
Jonathan Holmes, capt. 

Burrowes' co. 
James Wall, Win. Schenck's 



John Buckalew. 

James Craig, capt. Walton's 
light dragoons. 

Nathaniel Davidson, capt. 
Wyckoff's co. 

Morris DeHart, capt. Chad- 
wick's co. 

John Errickson, lst reg't. 

William Hillyer. 

John Hutch, capt. Wyck- 
off's co. 



Ezekiel Imlay, rapt. Han- 

kinson's co. 
William Imlay. 
Lambert Johnson, eapt. 

Barnes Smock's co. 
Matthias Johnson, capi 

Carhart's ( !o. 
• I. sse Marsh, rapt. Reuben 

Randolph's c< >. 
John Morris, capt. Walton's 

state troops. 
John G. Schenck, capt 

Hunn's co. 
Peter Vanderhoof, rapt. 

Samuel ( 'arhart's co. 
Job Walton, capt. Hankin- 

Ephraim Whitlock, Heard's 

Jonathan Forman, coronet. 

eapt. Walton's co. 


Jacob Allen, capt Car- 
hart's co. 

Tunis Aum< >ck, capt. Barnes 
Smock's co. 

John Brine. Lieut. Jacob 
Tice's co. 

John Chase v. capt Walton's 
light drag 

Llins, capt. Bruere's 
C( ». 

Joseph Combs, capt. Wal- 
ton's light horse. 

Lewis Covenhoven. light 

The( >d< >rns Covenhoven, 
capt HanMnson's co. 

David Craig, capt. Walton's 
light horse. 

John Emens (Emmons?) 
capt Hunn's co. 

Tennis Forman. 

William F< >rman, capt Han- 
kinson's co. 

William Gradin, capt. Wad- 
dell's CO. 

James Herbert, capt Han- 
kinson's co. 

John Hoff, capt Samuel 
I >ennis' c< >. 

Robert James, capt Wad- 
dell's co. 

Peter Johnson, capt Wal- 
ton's light horse. 

Richard Laird, capt. Wal- 
t< m's light horse. 

David Landen, capt. Hud- 
dy's artillery. 

Samuel Leonard, capt Wad- 
dell's co. 

Wm. LL >yd, capt. Baird's c* >. 

Alexander Low. 

James Newell 

Rich'd Pittinger, capt. Wal- 
ton's co. 

John Eteid, capt. Hankiu- 
son's eo. 

John Pihea, capt "Walton's 

John Russell, capt Walton's 

Elisha Sheppard, c pt 
Hunn's co. 

Henry Strieker, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop. 

Derrick Sutphen, captains 
Waddell and Smock. 

Sam'] Throckmorton, cap. 
Waddell' s co. 

Hendrick Vanderbelt, capt. 
Samuel Dennis" co. 

Tunis Vanderveer, captain 
Barnes Smock's co. 

Cort Van Koyor, captain 
Hunn's co. 

Wm. Walton, capt. Bruere's 


John Willett. 

Abraham W< >lley, capt Wal- 
ton's troop. 


Joseph Bowne, capt Wad- 
dell's co. 



1 1. in\ Frease, ca ptain 

Breure's co. 
William Haukinson, capt. 

I Eankinson's c< >. 
( reo. Mount, capt. Bruere'a 

Burns Morris, cap;. Car- 
hart's <•". 

Samuel < >sbone, capt. Wad- 
dell's CO. 

Derrick Sipphen (Sutphi 
capt. Hunn's co. 

John Throckmorton, capt. 
WaddeU's c< >. 

Henry Vunck. 

Wm. Wickoff, capt. Wad- 
dell's CO. 

MUSIC] W's. 

Jas. Kilpatrick, drummer, 

'2d reg't and cont'l army. 
Samuel Smith, drummer, 

capt. Carhart's co. 
Aaron Forman, drummer, 

capt. WaddeU's co. 
Joshua Solovan i Sullivan, i 

fifer, capt. WaddeU's c-o. 
Robert Dunn, bugler, capt. 

Walton's co. 


William Aikers, also cont'l 

David Allen. 

John Allen, also cont'l army. 

Judah Allen. 

Nathan Allen. 

David Ainev. also conti- 
nental army. 

Elijah Anderson. 

John Anderson. 

John Anderson, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg t, Mon- 

Tunis Anderson, capt. Sam- 
uel Dennis' co., 1st reg'i, 

"William Anderson. 

I >aniel Ajpplegate, Matri 
capt. 1 1 uddy's <■<>•, ai 
state troops, also cont'l 

•lolin Applegate. 

Robert Applegate, captain 
I [ankinson's c< >., 1 s! 

William Applegate. 

•lames Arwin. capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

John Arwin, capt. Walton's 
troop, Light dragoons, 

Robert Ashton, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

Jacob Atten. 

Jno. Aumock,Matross, capt. 
Barnes Smock's co. arty, 

John Aumock. 

William Aumock. 

Richard Ayi 

Jonathan Bailey. 

( )1 Kidiah Baird. 

John Baley (or Baily,) 2d 
>, Monmouth; also 
continental army. 

David Barkelow. 

James Bates. 

William Beck, 3d reg't. 

Joel Beedle. 

Thomas Beedle, 1st n 

Richard Ben ham. 

Edward Bennett. 

Jacob Bennett. 

Jeremiah Bennett, 2d reg't, 
Monmouth; also, cont'l 
army. . 

J« >lm Bennett, Lieut. Barne - 
Smock's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

Walter Berdine, lieut. Tice's 
co., 1st reg't, Monmouth. 



Henry Berry. 

John Berry. 

.Tames Bird. 

William Bird. 

Walter Bodine, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't, Mon- 

Samuel Bogart. 

Bedford Boltenhouse. 

( ioleman Boman. 

Jesse Borden. 

John Borden. 

William Borden. 

Wm. Bostwick, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't, Mon- 

John Baulser. also cont'l 

John Bowers. 

John Bowman, capt. Hunn's 
co., 1st reg't, Monmouth. 

David Bowne. 

Elias Bowne. 

Joseph Bowne. 

Peter Bowne, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't, Mon- 

Samuel Bowne. 

John Brand. 

Isaae Braisted, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

JohnBrearley, 2d regiment, 

John Breese, also cont'l 

Jacob Brewer. 

John Brewer, capt. Hunn's 
eo., 1st reg't, Monmouth. 

George Brinley. 

Jacob Brinley, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

William Brinley. 

Abraham Britton, capt. Ja- 
cob Tice's co., 1st reg't, 

Israel Britton, capt. Wad- 
dell's CO., 1st reg't, Mon- 

Absalom Broderick. 

W'm Broderick, also cont'l 

Jonathan Brooks, captain 
Hankinson's co., 1st reg't, 

Abraham Brewer. 

David Brown, capt. Bruere's 
co., Monmouth. 

John Brown. 

Samuel Brown, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

William Brown, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

John Bruer, capt. Hunn's 
co., 1st reg't, Monmouth. 

William Bryant ; also con- 
tinental army. 

Samuel Buckalew, capt. 
Walton's troop, light 
dragoons. Monmouth. 

Ramoth Bunting, 1st reg't, 
Monmouth ; also cont'l 

Joseph Burd; also cont'l 

Richard Burd; also cont'l 

William Burden, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

Samuel Burk. 

Joseph Camburn, captain 
Reuben Randolph's co., 

John Campbell, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't, Mon- 

Thomas Carhart. 

Robert ( Sarhart. 

Uriah Carl, lieut. J. Tice's 
co., 1st reg't, Monmouth. 

1 in: EtEVOLl TlONARlf WAR. 


Adrian Carle. 

Francis ( '.•niton. 

I >anie] Carman. 

Elijah ( larman. 

Nathaniel Carman. 

Ebenezer ( !arr, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmoul b. 

Adrian Carroll, 1st reg't, 
Monmouth; ;ilso conti- 
nental army. 

Wm. Case, Matross, capt. 
Buddy's co. 

John Cavana, also Conti- 
nental jinny. 

Thomas Chaffey. 

Aaron Chamberlain. 

Henry ( 'hamberlain. 

Thomas Chamberlain, capt. 
Reuben Randolph's co., 

•lames ( lhambers, also Con- 
tinental army. 

John Chambers, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, Monmouth. 

Robert Chambers, captain 
Bruere's co., Monmouth. 

William Chambers. 

William Cheeseman. 

.John Childerhouse, also 
Continental army. 

Alexander Clark, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st reg't., 
Monmouth ; killed at Mid- 
dletown, Feb. 13th, 1777. 

Alexander Clark, lieu't J. 
Tice's co., 1st reg't, Mon- 

William Clark, capt. Bru- 
ere's co., Monmouth. 

Asher Clayton, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Cornelius Covenhoven (1), 
capt. Carhart's co., 1st 

Nicholas ( 'lark. 
Cornelius ( lovenhoven (2), 
capt. Carhart's CO., 1st 


Cornelius ( lovenhoven, cap- 
tain Hankinson's co., 1st 

1 >avid ( lovenhoven. 

Garret Covenhoven, capt. 
Carhart's co., 1st reg't. 

Isaac Covenhoven, captain 
Hankinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Jacob Covenhoven, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st regt. 

Job Covenhoven, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st regt. 

John Covenhoven, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st regt. 

John Covenhoven, captain 
Walton's troop, light 
dragoons, Lieut. Smocks 
troop, light dragoons. 

Joseph Covenhoven. 

Matthias Covenhoven, capt. 
Samuel Dennis' co., 1st 

re .s'*- 

liuliff Covenhoven, captain 
Walton's troop, light dra- 
goons, capt. Hankinson's 
co., 1st regt. 

Theodosius Covenhoven, 
capt. Walton's troop, light 

William Covenhoven, Kent, 
Barnes Smock's troop, 
light dragoons. 

William Covenhoven, capt. 
Hankinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Adrian Covert, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

Ben. Covert, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Wm. Covert, capt. Hunn's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Wm. Covert, Matross, capt. 
Barnes Smock's co., ar- 


I >u 1 1 van ( 'overt. 

Joseph Coward, also, Con- 
tinental army. 

Samuel Coward. 

Asher ( !ox. 

John Compton, 1st reg't, 
also Continental army. 

Joseph Compton. 

Lewis Compton, capt. Eli- 
slia Walton's co., 1st 

Thomas Coner, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

Hendrick Conk. 

John Conk. 

John Connelly, 1st reg't, 
also Continental army. 

Matthew Connet, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Elias Conover (1) capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Elias Conover ('2) captain 
Waddell's co., 1st reg't. 

John N. Conover. 

William Conover, captain 
Waddell's CO., 1st reg't. 

Levi Conro. 

Thomas Couvey. * 

George Cook, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

George Cook, captain Hau- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

George Cook, captain Han- 
■ kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Peter Cook, captain John 
Sehenck's co., 1st reg't. 

Thomas Cook. 

William ( look. 

James W. Cooper, captain 
Samuel Dennis' co., 1st 

Joseph Coperat, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

David Coslick. ' 

Eleazer Cottrell. 

Thos. Cottrell, lieut. Jacob 
Tice's co., 1st reg't. 

Nicholas Cottrell. 

William Cottrell. 

Albert Covenhoven. 

Benjamin Co venhoven, capt. 
Hunn's co., 1st reg't, dis- 

Asher Clayton, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Elijah Clayton. 

John Clayton, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Jonathan Clayton, captain 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

Jonathan Clayton, captain 
Waddell's co., 1st reg't. 

Joseph Clayton. 

John Clayton. 

Robert Clayton, capt, Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Zelmlon Clayton. 

George Clinton, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Jacob Coral, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons, 
capt. Hankinson's co., 1st 

David Cook, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

William Cole, 1st reg't; 
died March 15th, 1778, 
while prisoner. 

John Collins, capt. Samuel 
Dennis' co., 1st reg't. 

James Colvin. 

James Colvin, (-apt. Bruere's 

Isaac Combs. 

John Combs, capt, Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Joseph Combs, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

T1IK KKYOUTION \i;\ \\ \|;. 


Roberl ( lommins, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

George Compton, 1st reg'1 

also State troops, also 
( lontinental army. 

Jacob Compton. 

James Compton, capt. Bru- 
ere's co. 

James Compton, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, also 
Continental army. 

Job Compton. 

John Compton, capt. Bru- 
ere's co. 

James Cox. 

John Craig, capt. Walton's 
troops, light dragoons. 

John Craig, capt. Waddell's 
co., 1st leg't. 

Samuel Craig. 

Seth Crane, captain Ran- 
dolph's co. 

Silas Crane, 2d reg't, also 
Continental army. 

William Craven, 1st reg't, 
also Continental army. 

James Crawford, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't, killed 
Feb. 13th, 1777, at Mid- 

Stephen Crawford. 

William G. Crawford, capt. 
Waglum's co., 2d reg't, 
also Middlesex. 

William Cuffey (Indian), 2d 
reg't, Continental army. 

James Dane, Hunterdon. 

Joseph Dane, 1st reg t, also 
Continental army. 

John Davis. 

Joseph Davis, 1st reg't, 
died while prisoner, M'ch 
11, 1777. 

James Davison, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Richard ( Jummins. 
Robert Cummins. 

John Davison, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

William Davison, captain 
Hankinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Matthew Dean, capt. Sam- 
uel Dennis' co., 1st reg't. 

James Denight, also Conti- 
nental army. 

John Denight, also Conti- 
nental army. 

Daniel Denise, capt. T\ 'ad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Joseph Dennis. 

Phillip Dennis, capt. Bru- 
ere's co. 

John Dey. 

Josiah Dey. 

Cyrus Dey, capt. Hankin- 
son's co., 1st reg't. 

Samuel Disbrow? Middle- 

John D. Disbrow, infantry 
and artillery. 

David Dodge, Matross, cap- 
tain Huddy's co., artillery 
State troops. 

Cornelius Doren, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

Nicholas Doren, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

Benjamin Dorsett. 

John Dorsett. 

Joseph Dorsett, capt. Den. 
nis' co., 1st reg't. 

Samuel Dorsett. 

James Dorsett. 

Linton Doughty. 

John Driskey, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

John Driskell. 

Andrew Drumn. 

Christian Drumn, 3d regt., 
also Continental army. 



Manasah Dunham, captain 
( larhart's co., 1st regt. 

Samuel Dunlop, also Con- 
tinental army. 

Williarn Duvinney. 

Peter Eakman. 

John Eaton. 

James Edsall, Matross, cap- 
tain Huddy's co. 

John Eldridge. 

Ezekiel Embley, capt. Han- 
kin son's co., 1st regt. 

Jonathan Emley, captain 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

Joseph Emley. capt. Wal- 
toon's troop, light dra- 

Abraham Emmons, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st regt., also 
State troops, also Con- 
tinental army. 

Amos Emmons. 

Jesse Emmons. 

John Emmons, capt. Hunn's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Ezekiel Emmons. 

Peter Emmon's, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st regt. 

James English. 

Errick Errickson. 

Michael Errickson. 

Thomas Errickson. 

John Ervin. 

John Erwin, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Stephen Essick, also Con- 
tinental army. 

William Evengew. 

John Everingham. 

Nathaniel Everingham. 

Thomas Everingham. 

John Farr, Matross, capt. 
Huddy's CO., artillery, 
State troops ; killed at 
Toms River, March 24, 

William Fary. Continental 

( reorge Fenton 

Thomas Fenton. 

Nathaniel Ferris, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

William Ferris, capt. Wal- 
ton's troops, light dra- 

Absalom Ferroll. 

Henry Fisher. 

James Fitzsimmons, capt. 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

Jacob Fleming. 

Dennis Forma n, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st. regt. 

Jonathan Forman, captain 
Waddell's co., 1st regt. 

Samuel Forman, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st regt. 

William Forman, capt. Wal- 
ton's light dragoons. 

John Freeman, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Phillip Freeman, capt. Car- 
hart's eo., 1st regt. 

Hendrick Friend, 1st regt. 

James Frisalear. 

Thomas Gavan, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st regt. 

Garret Garrison, capt; Sam- 
uel Dennis' co., 1st regt. 

Daniel Gaston 

William Gaston 

•Jose] )h Giberson, capt. B. 
Dennis' co. 

John Gill, 1st regt., also 
Continental army. 

Peter Gillidet, 1st regt., al- 
so Continental army. 

Charles Gillman, 1st regt. 

Charles Gilmore. 

Ebene/er ( rollahar. 

Lewis Gollahar. 



Peter I Gordon. 

James ( rore, capt. Walton's 
troop, Light dragoons. 

I >aniel ( rreenwood, also 
( Jontinenta] arm} . 

John ( Sregory. 

Eddy Griny, capt. Bruere's 

Matthew ( 1 riggs. 

Thomas Griggs, capt. Han- 
kinson's c >., 1 si reg. 

George (ironies, also Con- 
tinental army. 

Benjamin( ruyneh,also( Jon- 
tinenta] army. 

Dollwyn Hagaman. 

John Hagerty. 

( reorge Hailey. 

David Hall, capt. Bruere's 
CO., also cont'l army. 

Jacob Hall, 1st reg't, also 
Cont'l army. 

John Hall, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

William Hall, 3d reg't, also 
State troops, wounded at 
Middletown, J u n e 22d, 
1781, also cont'l army. 

Josiah Halstead, 3d reg't, 
also State troops, also 
cont'l army. 

James Hampton. 

John Hampton, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

John Handrix, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Dauiel Hankins, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, also 

Joseph Hankins, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

Thomas Hankins. 

James Hankinsou, c a p t. 
Walton's troop, light 

John Hankiuson, capt. 
Waddell's co., 1st reg't. 

William Hankins. 
Reuben Hankinson, rapt. 
Waddell's co., 1st re 

William llankinson, capt. 
Walton's troop, I i g h t 

Samuel Han/ey. 

John Harber. 

James Harbert, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Daniel Harbert, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

John Harbert. 

William Harcourt. 

John Harker. 

Edmond Harris, capt. Wad- 
di ll's co., 1st reg't. 

George Harrison. 

Job Harrison. 

Ebenezer Hart, Matross, 
capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

Jesse Havens. 

Mi >ses Havens. 

Daniel Hayes, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

John Hayes. 

William Hays, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light horse. 

Joseph Heaviland, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

Job Heaviland, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

Samuel Heingey, Matross, 
capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

David Hinderson. 

John Hinderson, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Abraham Hendricks on, 
capt. Hunn's co.,lst reg't. 

Abram Hendrickson, Ma- 
tross, Captain Barnes. 13. 
Smock's co., artillery. 



C ornelius Hendrickson. 

Daniel Hendrickson, Capt. 
Walton's troop light dra- 

Elias Hendrickson, Captain 
Walton's troop light dra- 

Hendriek He n d r i e k s o n, 
Capt. Carhart's co., 1st 
reg't, also troop light 

John Hendrickson, Matross 
Capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

William Hendrickson. 

James Herbert, troop light 

Thomas Herbert. 

James Hibbetts, 1st reg't, 
died while prisoner, June 
1st, 1780. 

William Hier. 

John Hight, Capt. Walton's 
troop light dragoons. 

James Hill, also State 

John Hill. 

Jonathan Hillow, also Con- 
tinental army. 

William Hilsey. 

John Hilyer. 

Simon Hilyer. 

John Hires, Capt. Hunn's 
co., 1st regiment. 

James Hoagland, Matross, 
capt. B. Smock's co., ar- 

Anthony Holmes. 

John Holmes. 

Stout Holmes, 

William Holmes. 

Edward Hopkins. 

Samuel Horner, 

Benj. Horton. 

Jacobus Hubbard. 

David Hubbs, 1st reg't, also 
Continental army. 

John Huggins, capt Bru- 
ere's co. 

Marties Hulebart, captain 
Carhart's co., 1st regt. 

Matthew Huln. 

William Huln. 

Benjamin Hulsart, 1st reg't. 

Cornelius Hulsart. 

Cornelius H. Hulsart. 1st 

Matthew Hulsart, Lieut. 
Tice's co., 1st reg't. 

William Hulsart. 

Timothy Hulse, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

John S. Hunn. 

William Hurley. 

Jonathan Inilay. 

Robert Inilay. 

James Irons. 

Jonathan Isleton, 1st reg't 
also cont'l army. 

A.bel Ivins, also Continen- 
tal army. 

Solomon Ivins, 1st reg't. 
State troops, Continental 

Hugh Jackson, capt. Bru- 
ere's co. 

William James. 

Francis Jeffrey. 

Humphrey Jeffrey, capt. 
Walton's troop, iight dra- 

John Jemison, rapt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, also Continental 

John Jewell, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

John Jewell, capt. Hankin- 
son's co., 1st reg't. 

Robert Jobes, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

David Johnson, c a p t. R. 
Randolph's co. 



Henry Johnson, 1st reg't 
•John Johnson, rapt. Barnes 
Smock's co., Lst regiment, 
taken prisoner February 
13th, 1777 : died w hil e 
Joseph Johnson, c a ]> t. 8 

Dennis' co., 1st reg't 
Peter Johnson, l>t n 
William Johnson, (1) capt 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

gOl 'US. 

William Johnson, (2) capt. 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

Abraham Johnson. 

Hendrick Johnst< >n. 

John Johnston. 

Joseph Johnston. 

William Johnston. 

Henry Jones, lst reg't, also 
State troops, also cont'l 

James Jones, capt. Jacob 
Ten Eyck's co., 1st reg't. 

Jonathan Jones, lst reg't. 
also State troops, also 
cont'l army. 

Michael Jordan, 1st reg * 
also cont'l army. 

John Kelsey. 

Ebenezar Kerr. 

Walter Kerr, also contin'l 

Watson Kerr, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

William Kerr, capt Hauk- 
inson's co., 1st regiment 

William Kerrill. 

George Kincard, continent' 1 

James Kinsley. 

James Kinsley, Matross, 
capt. Huddys co. artil- 
lery. State troops ; killed 
at Toms River, March 
•21th, 1782. 


• I 3eph Knox, capt Walton's 
troop, light drag< tons. 

Robert Laird, lieut Barnes 
Smock's co., light di 

William Laird, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

John Lake, capt. Sunn's 
co., lst reg't 

Aaron Lane, 1st regiment, 
wounded July, 177 v . 

Jacob Lane. 

William Lane. 

William Lard, capt. Wad- 
dell's CO., 1st )• _ ' 

Daniel Lawrence, captain 
Waddell's co., 1st reg't 

Richard Leard, capt. Hank- 
inson's co., lst reg't. 

William Leard, capt Hank- 
inson's co., lst reg't. 

John Lee, lst reg't, 
cont'l army. 

John Leistel. 

Isaiah Lemon. 

Thomas Lemmon. 

William Lequear. 

Thomas Letson. 

John Letts, lst reg't, 
cont'l army. 

Nehemiah Letts. 

Richard Levings, lieutenant 
Tice's co. 

Ezekiel Lewis. 
capt Barnes 
co., artillery. 

Thomas Linsey. 

Jacob Lippincott, captain 
Walton's troop, light dra- 
goons, also cont'l army. 

William Lippincott. capt. 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

David Lloyd, capt. Wad- 
dell's co.. 1st reg't 

Thomas Lloyd. 

Aaron Longstreet. captain 
Waddell's co., lst reg't. 





John Longstreet, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., Ls1 reg't. 

Stoffel Logan. 

David Lord, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

John Luif, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

William Luis (or Lewis), 
capt. Hankinson's co., 1st 

Thomas Luker. 

Jolm Magee, lieut. Tice's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Andrew Mains, 1st reg't, 
wounded at Germantown, 
Oct. 4th, 1777. 

William Mains. 

Andry Mans, capt. Hunn's 

1st reg't. 


James Marsh, capt. 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

William Martin, continental 

Joseph Mason, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

Moses May. 

John McBride, cont'l army. 

James McChesney. 

Stephen McCorinick, capt. 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

Cornelius McDaniel, 1st 
reg't, also cont'l army. 

Benjamin McDonald, cont'l 

James McDuffee, Matross, 
capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

Robert McDuffee. 

William McDougal. 

James McGee, 1st reg't, 
also capt. Wittall's CO., 
State troops; also cont'l 

Joseph McKnight. 

Daniel McLaughlin, cont'l 

John McMullen. 

Lewis McKnight, captain 

Hankinson's CO., 1st reg't. 

Thomas Middleton, captain 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

Thomas Middleton. 

Frederick Miller, captain 
Bruere's co. 

James Mitchell, Matross, 
capt. Buddy's co., artil- 
lery, State troops. 

Gideon Molatt, cont'l army. 

Caleb Moore, cont'l army. 

Edward Moore, capt. Sam- 
uel Dennis' co., 1st reg't. 

John Moore. 

Joseph Moore. 

Matthias Moore, 1st reg't, 
also continental army. 

Thomas Moore, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, also 
continental army. 

John Morford, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

John Morford, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Enoch Morgan, 1st reg't. 

Jas. Morgan, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

John Morris, Matross, capt. 
Huddy's co. 

Robert Morris, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't, also 
continental army. 

Daniel Morrison. 

William Morrison, captain 
Hankinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Jesse Mount, capt. Bairns 
co., 1st reg't. 

Moses Mount, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons, also infantry. 

John Mullen, 3d reg't, also 
State troops, also cont'l 



Nathaniel Mount. 

Joseph Murray, .'!«l reg't, 
killed by Tories at Mid- 
dletown, June 8th s L780. 

Christian Naberling, conti- 
nental army. 

John Nance, cont'l army. 

John Nestor. 

Hugh Newell, capt. Bruere's 

William Newman, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, also 
continental army. 

John Niverson, capt. Bur- 
rowes' co. 1st reg't ; Ma- 
tross, capt. Huddy's co., 
artillery State troops ; 
Matross, captain Barnes 
Smocks CO., artillery. 

Nathan Nivison. 

Burrows Norris. 

John North. 

William Ogborn, lieutenant 
Barnes Smock's troop, 
light dragoons. 

Eobert Qglesbie. 

Henry O'Neal continental 

John O'Neal. 

John Otson, 1st reg't, also 
State troops, also conti- 
nental army. 

Conrad Overfelt, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Henry Overteur. 

Timothy Page. 

Samuel Pairs. 

Philip Palmer, 2d reg't, also 
continental army. 

Limis Pangborn, killed at 
Manahawken, New Jer- 
sey, Dec. 30, 1781. 

Nathaniel Pangborn. 

Elisha Parker. 

George Parker, Matross, 
capt. Huddy's co., artil- 
lery, State troops. 

Joseph Parker. 

John Parker, Mai ross, capt. 
H uddy's co. 

Mark Parker. 

-John Parrent, capt, Wal- 
ton's troop, light d la- 

Robert Parrent, capt. Bru- 
ere's co. 

John Parse, 1st reg't. 

Jonathan Parse, 1st reg't. 

John Parsons, 2d reg't, also 
continental army. 

John Patton. 

Benjamin Paul, Capt. Bur- 
rows' co., 1st reg't, capt. 
Wikoff's co., 2d reg't. 

Wm. Paxon, capt. Bruere's 

Samuel Pearce, lieutenant 
Barnes Smock's troop, 
light horse. 

William Pearce, 3d reg't, 
also State troop, also con- 
tinental army. 

Samuel Pease. 

Samuel Peep, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Jonathan Peer, 1st reg't, 
also Continental army. 

Herm Peet. 

Jonathan Peirce. 

Samuel Peirce, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

Henry Perrine. 

Job Perrine, capt. Hankin- 
son's co., 1st reg't. 

Lewis Perrine, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Silas Perrine, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Samuel Perse, capt. Wal 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Robert Pette, capt. Nixon's 
troops, light horse. 



James Perrine. 

Jonathan Pettemore, capt. 
Huddy's c< >., State troops. 
Richard Pettenger. 

Joseph Pew. 

John Phillips, continental 

Joseph Phillips. 

David Philmelie. 

Abraham Phihvell, captain 
Keen's co., State troops, 
also boatman. 

David Phihvell, Matross, 
capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

Isaac Pidgern, capt. Bru- 
ere's co. 

Jonathan Pierce, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st regt. 

Thomas M. Pike. 

Samnel Pittenger, captain 
Waddell's co., 1st reg't. 

Francis Piatt. 

James Polhemus. 

Lefford Polhemns. 

Xathan Polhemus. 

Richard Poling. 

Samuel Poling. 

John Porter. 

George Post, 1st reg't. 

Chas. Pastens, State troops. 

Jacob Pastens, State troops, 
also, wagonmaster. 

Charles Paster, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Richard Pastley, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

Paul Potter. 

Reuben Potter. 

William Potts, cont'l army. 

John Preston. 

Joseph Preston, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

Adam Primmer. 

Richard Purdv, captain 
Bruere's CO. 

John Price. 

Peter Quackenbush, capt. 
Hunu's co., 1st reg't. 

David Queen, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

David Quin. 

James Randolph. 

Samuel Randolph. 

David Ray, capt. Waddell's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Robert Reckless, wounded 
at Cedar Creek, December 
•27th, 1782. 

Aaron Reed, capt. Hankin- 
son's co., 1st reg't. 

Aaron Reed, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Job Reed (or Reid), capt. 
Hankinson's co., 1st reg't. 

John Reed, infantry, light 

Hosea Reeves. 

John Reid, Matross, capt. 
Barnes Smock's co., artil- 

Jonathan Reid, Matross, 
capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

James Reynolds. 

John Reynolds (substitute), 
1st reg't. 

Robert Rhea, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

William Ribeth, continental 

John Richardson 

George Rivets. 

Joseph Robbins. 

Moses Robbins, Matross, 
capt. Huddy's co., artil- 
lery. State troops, wound- 
ed at Toms River. March 
24th, 1782; cont'l army. 

William Robbins. 

Matthew Roberts, captain 
Carhart's co.. 1st reg't. 
State troops. 



Matthew Roberts, lieuten'i 
Tice's co., Lsl reg b. 

Thomas l!< >berts, capt Car- 
hart's co., Lsl reg t. 

Edmund Robinson. 

Samuel Rogers, lieut Tice's 
co., 1st reg't 

James Rogers. 

Richard Elogers. 

Philip Roler, 3d reg't, also 
Stat.' troops ; also, cont'l 
arm v. 

William Rolls. 

William Rooler. 

.1 — ph R< >se. capt. Walton's 
troop, light horse. 

Thomas Rostoinder, Ma- 
tross, capt. Huddy's co., 
artillery, State troops. 

Henry line. capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Job Rue, capt. Hankinson's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Matthew Rue, capt. Hank- 
inson's CO., 1st l 

John Rue, capt. "Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Matthew Rue,capt Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Matthias Rue, ensign, Wal- 
ton's co., 1st reg't, died at 
New York. Feb. 28th, 
17(7. while prisoner of 

William Rue, capt Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

John Rue, captain Samuel 
Dennis' co., 1st reg't. 

John Ruff, captain Samuel 
Dennis' co., lstreg't 

Benjamin Salter. Eastern 
battalion; killed Septem- 
ber 6th, 1771). 

William Sanford, 

Cornelius Schanck, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st reg't. 

Rulief Schaner, captain 
H mill's co., 1 >t reg'1 ; dis- 

( 'rineyonce Schenck. 

Cyrenus Schenck. lieuten'i 
Jacob Tice's co., 1 si reg't. 

( rarret Schenck, lieutenant 
Barnes Smock's troop, 
light dragoone. 

Peter Schenck. 

William Schenck. lieuten- 
ant Jacob Tice's co., 1st 

Timothy Scoby, capt. A\ ;ul- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

.h.l. Scudder, capt. Walton- 
troop, light dragoons. 

■James Searbrook, captain 
Samuel Dennis' co., 1st 

Daniel Sexton. 

William Sexton. 

William Shafey, 1st reg't, 
also continental army. 

Robert Sharp, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Thomas Shaw. capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Josiah Shearman. 

Thomas Shepherd, lieut. 
Tice's co., 1st reg't. 

Al >1 tertus Sin >ekalear. 

David Sickle (< >r Van Sickle) 
2d reg't. also continental 

James Sickles, lieut. Tic- '- 
co., 1st reg't, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 
goons ; Matross, captain 
Barnes Smock's co., ar- 

James Smaller, capt Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Benjamin Smith. 



George Smith, capt. Hunn's 

co., 1st reg't. 
Gideon Smith. 
Jacob Smith, capt. Hankin- 

son's co., 1st reg't. 
John Smith, capt. Hunn's 

co., 1st reg't. 
Joseph Smith, Matross, 

capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

Peter Smith. 

Samuel Smith, lieut. Tice's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Thomas Smith, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, also 
cont'l army. 

William Smith, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, also 
corit'l army. 

Cornelius Smock. 

George Smock. 

Chris. Sneider, cont'l army. 

John Sneider. 

William Snewden. 

John Soloman, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

John Soloman, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

John Springstein. 

Isaac Staatser, capt. Barnes 
Smock's co., artillery. 

Isaac Stalm, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Wm. Starkey, State troop, 
also cont'l army. 

Isaac States, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Robert Steath. 

Alexander Stewart, 2d reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

William Stewart. 

ELisha Still, capt. Bruere's 

Jacob Stillwagon, Matross, 
capt. Huddy's co., artil- 
lery, State troop. 

Peter Stilll wagon. 

Garret Stillwell, lieutenant 
Barnes Smock's troop, 
light dragoons. 

Gershom Stillwell. 

John Stillwell, capt. Samuel 
Dennis' co., 1st reg't. 

Obediah 'Stillwell, 1st reg't, 
died April 18, 1777, while 

Thomas Stillwell. 

Matthew Htiner. 

John Storer. 

Luke Storey. 

Seth Storey, Matross, capt. 
Huddy's co., artillery, 
State troops. 

James Stout. 

Jeremiah Stout. 

Jonathan Stout. 

Thomas Stout, capt. Sam'l 
Dennis' co., 1st regt. 

Adam Striker, capt. Samuel 
Dennis' co., 1st regt. 

John Stymits. 

Peter Stymits. 

David Sutfin, captain Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'us. 

Job Sutfin, capt. Walton's 
troop, ligit dragoons. 

John Sutfin, capt. Hankin- 
son's co., 1st regt. 

Joseph Sutfin, captain Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'us. 

Abram Sutphen. 

Court Sutphen, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st regt. 

John Sutphen, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drae'ns. 

Peter Sutphen, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'us. 

Jonas Sutton, 2d regt., also 
cont'l a nay. 

Richard Suydam. 

Jacobus Swangler, captain 
Bruere's co. 

■i in nr.vni. \\i;v wai:. 

1 111 

Jesse Swem, 2d regt., also 

COnt'l arm v. 

( tbadiah Sylvester, captain 
Walton's troop, light dra- 

William Tallman, contin'] 


James Tapscott, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

Charles Tatem, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light drag'ns. 

Edward Taylor. 

James Taylor, State troops. 

John Taylor, captain Wad- 
dell's co., 1st regt. 

Joseph Taylor, 1st regt. ; 
wounded at Germant'wn, 
( >ct. 1th, 1777. 

John Test, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

Jonathan Thorpe. 

Richard Thomas. 

Robert Thomas. 

Benjamin Thompson. 

Lewis Thompson, captain 
Waddell's co., 1st regt. 

William Thompson, capt. 
Samuel Dennis' co., 1st 

David Thompson. 

Benjamin Thorp, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st regt. 

James Throckmorton, capt. 
Waddell's co., 1st reg't. ; 
also troop light horse ; 
also cont'l army. 

Richard Tice. 

Benjamin Tilton. 

Benjamin Tilton, Jr., Ma- 
tross, captain Barnes 
Smock's co., artillery. 

Edward Tilton. 

John Tilton, captain Wad- 
dell's co., 1st regt. 

John Thompson, captain 
Waddell's co., 1st regt. 

Isaac Tonson. 


Abraham Truax, capt. Han- 

kinson's co., 1st regt. 
Jacob Truax. 
Samuel Truax, capt. Samuel 

Dennis' co., 1st reg't. 
Samuel Truax, lieut. Tice's 

co., 1st regt. 
( '< >rnelius Tunison, lieuten't 

Barnes Smock's troop, 

light dragoons. 
John B. Turner. 
John Tyson, 1st regt. 
John Underwood. 
Thomas Yalentine, Matross, 

capt. Huddy's co.. State 

William Valentine. 
Jacob C. YanArtsdalen. 
David Tan Blarkin. 
Stephen Tan Brackley, capt. 

Carhart's co., 1st regt. 
John Tan Cleave. 
Joseph Tan Cleave. 
Peter Van Cleave. 
John Van Court. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Jacob Vanderbilt. 
Abraham Vanderhall, capt. 

Waddell's co., 1st reg't.; 

also cont'l army. 
Cornelius P. Vanderhoof, 

capt. Carhart's co., 1st 

John A anderhoof. 
Gershom Vanderhull, 1st 

reg't ; died March 28th, 

1778, of wounds received 

at Germantown, Pa., Oct. 

4th, 1777. 
Abraham Vanderhull, State 

Henry Vanderhull. 
Cornelius Vanderveer, tr'p 

light horse. 
John Vanderveer. 



Jos. Vanderveer, Matross, 
capt. Barnes Smock's co., 

Peter Vanderventer. 

Denise Vandine. 

Isaac VanDorn, troop, light 

Nicholas Van Dorn. 

Jemisen Vankirk, captain 
Hankinson's co., lstregt. 
lieuten't Jacob Tice's co., 
1st regt. 

Benjamin Van Mater, capt. 
Waddell's co., 1st regt., 
captain Barnes Smocks 
co., artillery. 

Cyrionce Van Mater, capt. 
Waddell's co. 

Cyrinus Van Mater, capt. 
Waddell's co. 

James Van Norman, 1st 
reg't ; also cont'l army. 

Martin Van Nortwick. 

Alexander Van Pelt, capt. 
Carhart's co.; also State 

Christopher Van Pelt, capt. 
Carhart's co. 

Hendrick Van Pelt, captain 
Carhart's co. 

Jacob Van Pelt, capt. Car- 
hart's co. 

Johannes Van Pelt, captain 
Carhart's co. 

Tunis Van Pelt, capt. Car- 
hart's co. 

William Van Pelt, captain 
Carhart's co. 

William Van Pelt, captain 
Walton's troop, light 

Court Van Schaick, Ma- 
tross, captain Barnes 
Smock's co., artillery. 

Benjamin J. Van Skoick. 

Jonah Van Skoick. 

John Van twicke, continental 


Joseph Vantwicke, conti- 
nental army. 

Henry Voorhees, capt. Wad- 
dell's co. 

Lucas Voorhees. 

Tunis Voorhees, Matross, 
captain Barnes Smock's 
co., artillery. 

William Voorhees, captain 
Waddell's co. 

Jaques Voorhees. 

Vincent Wainwright. 

John Wainwright, captain 
Huddy's co. 

Forman Walker. 

George Walker, capt. Wad- 
dell's co. 

William Wallen. 

John Wiley, cont'l army. 

William Wilgus. 

James Wilkinson. 

Humphrey Willett, captain 
Samuel Dennis' co., 1st 

Arthur Williamson. 

William Williamson, capt. 
Hunn's co., 1st reg't. 

Henry Willin, cont'l army. 

Andrew Wilson, continental 

Benjamin Wilson, captain 
Samuel Dennis' co., 1st 

Jacob Wilson. 

James Wilson, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

John Wilson. 

Peter Wilson. 

James Winter, 1st reg't, 
died March 1th, 1777, 
while prisoner. 

Jacob Witchell, continental 

1 lil REV0L1 l\'<\ LM WAR. 


Joseph Wollea, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st battalion. 

Benjamin Wood. 

George Wood. 

M.i; bias Wood. 

James Woodmancy. 

Abraham Wooley. 

Stephen Wolverton. 

Nicholas Worrel, captain 
Barnes Smock's co., artil- 
lery, Matross. 

John Worth, capt. Walton's 
troop, light dragoons. 

William Worth, 1st reg't, 
also State troops, cont'l 

John Yateman. 

Benjamin Yates. 

William Y'ates, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

Car hart Walling. 

Daniel Walling. 

James Walling. 

John Walling. 

Philip Walling, 1st reg't, 
wounded at Middletown, 
New Jersey, June 21st, 

Carhart Walton, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

William Waid, 1st reg't, 
also cont'l army. 

( reorge Warner. 

John Warrick, capt. Wal- 
ton's troop, light dra- 

William Watson, 2d v^i^'t, 
also cont'l army. 

Ariluir Weeks. 

Valentine Wilet, capt. Wal- 
, ton's t coop, light dra- 
goons, capt. Hankinson's 
co., 1st reg't. 

Stephen West, capt. Wad- 
dell's co., 1st reg't. 

Thomas West, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Lewis White. 

William White. 

James Whitlock, capt. Car- 
hart's co., 1st reg't. 

Lockhart Whitlock. 

Garret Wickoff. 

Jacob Wickoff, capt. Han- 
kinson's co., 1st reg't. 

Samuel Wickoff. 

William Wickoff, captain 
Hunn's co., 1st reg't. 

John Wilber, Matross, capt. 
Huddy's co., artillery, 
State troops. 

William Wilber. 

Steron Wilberson. 

Richard Wilbur, captain 
Bruere's co. 





(From Gordon's History of New jersey.)* 

About the time the command of the army devolved 
upon Sir Henry Clinton, orders were received for the 
evacuation of Philadelphia. The part which France was 
about to take in the war, with the naval force she had 
prepared, rendered this city a dangerous position, and 
determined the administration, entirely, to abandon the 
Delaware. Preparations to this end were actively pur- 
sued, but it was some time uncertain to what point the 
army was destined. At length the intention was appar- 
ent to reach New York through the Jerseys. Upon this 
presumption General Washington conducted his oper- 

General Maxwell, with the Jersey Brigade, was or- 
dered to take post about Mount Holky and to unite with 
Major-General Dickenson, who was assembling the mil- 
itia for the purpose of breaking down bridges, falling 
trees in the roads, and otherwise embarassing the march 
of the British General. Instructions were given to these 
officers to guard carefully against a covp dt main, and to 
keep the militia in small, light parties on his flanks. 

When Washington learned that the greater propor- 
tion of the British army had crossed the Delaware,* he 
convened a council of general officers to determine on his 
course. The force of the armies was nearly equal, the 
numerical advantage being with the Americans; the 
British having ten and the Americans between ten and 
eleven thousand. Of seventeen general officers, Wayne 
and Cadwalader alone were decidedly in favor of attack- 
ins the enemy. La Fayette inclined to that opinion 

* The History of New Jersey from its Discovery by Europeans to the adoption 
• if the Federal Constitution. By Thomas F. Gordon, Trentou Published by Daniel 
Fenton, 1834. 

t June 18, 1778. 


without openly embracing it. Consequently it was 
resolved not to risk a battle. 

Sir Henry Clinton moved with great deliberation, 
seeming to await the approach of his adversary. He 
proceeded through H;iddonheld,:|: Mount Holly, Slab- 
town and Crosswicks to Allentown and Imlaystown, which 
he reached on the twenty-fourth. 

Dickinson and Maxwell retired before him, unable 
to obstruct his march otherwise than by destroying the 
bridges. As his route, until he passed Crosswicks, lay 
directly up the Delaware, and at no great distance from 
it, General Washington found it necessary to make an 
extensive circuit to pass the river at Coryell's Ferry. 
Pursuant to the settled plan of avoiding an engagement 
he kept the high grounds, directing his army so as to 
cover the important passes of the Highlands. He crossed 
the river on the twenty-second, and remained the twenty- 
third at Hopewell, in elevated country, adjacent to the 

General Arnold, whose wounds yet unfitted him for 
service, was directed to possess himself of Philadel- 
phia, and to detach four hundred continental troops and 
such militia as could be collected, to harass the rear of 
the enemy. 

This service, by the order of the commander-in- 
chief, was confided to General Cadwalader, who could 
only add to his continental force fifty volunteers and 
forty militia, commanded by General Lacy. From Hope- 
well, Morgan, with six hundred riflemen, was detached 
to annoy his right flank ; Dickenson, with about one 
thousand Jersey militia, and Maxwell's brigade, hung on 
his left. 

In this position of the armies General Washington, 
who had rather acquiesced in than approved the decision 
of the late council of war, and was disposed to seek bat- 
tle, again submitted the proposal to the consideration of 
the general officers, by whom it was again negatived. 

t The night that the British encamped at Haddon field, Captain McLane, In- 
order from General .Ml old. passed through their ramp, and repotted their situa- 
tion to the General. 


By their advice a chosen body of fifteen hundred men, 
under Brigadier-General Scott, was added to the corps 
on the left flank of the enemy. But Washington being 
supported by the wishes of some officers whom he highly 
valued, determined on his own responsibility, to bring on 
a general engagement. The enemy being on his March 
to Monmouth Court-House, he resolved to strengthen 
the force on his lines by despatching General Wayne 
with an additional corps of one thousand men. The 
Continental troops now thrown in front of the army 
amounted to four thousand men, a force sufficient to 
require the direction of a major-general. The tour of 
duty was General Lee's, but he having declared strongly 
against hazarding even a partial engagement, and sup- 
posing that in conformity with the advice signed by all 
the generals in camp, save one, nothing would be at- 
tempted beyond reconnoitering the enemy and restrain- 
ing the plundering parties, showed no disposition to as- 
sert his claim, but yielded the command to General La- 
Fayette. All the continental parties on the lines were 
placed under his direction, with orders to take measures 
in concert with General Dickenson, to impede the march 
of the British and to occasion them the greatest loss. 
These measures demonstrated the wishes of the com- 
mander-in-chief, tending almost inevitably to a general 
battle. Wayne had earnestly advised it, and La Fayette 
inclined towards a partial engagement. Colonel Hamil- 
ton, who accompanied him, had the strongest desire to 
signalize the detachment, and to accomplish all the 
wishes of Washington. These dispositions having been 
made, the main army was moved to Cranberry on the 
twenty-sixth, to support the advance. The intense heat 
of the weather, a heavy storm, and a temporary want of 
provisions, prevented it from proceeding further next 
day. The advance corps had pressed forward and taken 
a position on the Monmouth road, about five miles in 
the rear of the enemy, with the intention of attacking 
him on the next morning. It was now, however, too re- 
mote and too far on the right to be supported in case of 


action ; ami, pursuant fco orders, fcke Marquis filed off by 
his lefi towards Englishtown, early in the morning of the 

General Lee had declined the command of the ad- 
vance party, under the opinion that it was not designed 
for effective service; but perceiving soon after its march 
that much importance was attached to it, and dreading 
lest his reputation might suffer, he earnestly solicited to 
be placed at its head. To relieve his feelings, without 
wounding those of La Fayette, Washington detached the 
former with two other brigades to support the Marquis. 
Lee would, of course, have the direction of the whole 
front division, amounting now to five thousand men ; but 
he stipulated that if any enterprise had been formed by 
Li Fayette, it,.should be execute 1 as if the commanding- 
officer had not been changed. 

Sir Henry Clinton had taken a strong position on 
the high grounds about Monmouth Court House ; having 
his right flank in the skirt of a small wood, his left se- 
cured by a thick one, and a morass toward his rear. His 
whole front was also covered by a wood, and for a con- 
siderable distance toward his left, by a morass, and he 
was within twelve miles of the high grounds about Mid- 
dletown ; after reaching which he would be perfectly 

Under these circumstances, General Washington de- 
termined to attack their rear, the moment they should 
move from their ground. This determination was com- 
municated to Lee, with orders to make his disposition 
and to keep his troops constantly lying on their arms, 
that he might be in readiness to take advantage of the 
first movement. Corresponding orders were also given 
to the rear division. 

About five in the morning of the twenty-eighth, in- 
telligence was received from General Dickenson, that the 
front of the enemy was in motion. The troops were im- 
mediately under arms, and Lee was directed to move on 
and attack the rear, "unless there should be powerful 
reasons to the contrary." He was at the same time in- 


formed, that the main army would march to support 

Sir Henry Clinton, perceiving that the Americans 
were in his neighborhood, changed the order of his 
march. The baggage was placed under the care of Gen- 
eral Knyphausen, while the flower of this army, unin- 
cumbered, formed the rear division commanded by Lord 
Cornwallis ; who, to avoid pressing upon Knyphausen, 
remained on his ground until about eight, and then de- 
scending from the heights of Freehold, into a plain of 
about three miles in extent, took up his line of march in 
rear of the front division. 

General Lee made the dispositions necessary for ex- 
ecuting his orders ; and, soon after the rear of the enemy 
was in motion, prepared to attack it. General Dickenson 
had been directed to detach some of his best troops to 
co-operate with him, and Morgan to act on the enemy's 
right flank, but with so much caution as to be able read- 
ily to extricate himself and to form a junction with the 
main body. 

Lee appeared on the heights of Freehold soon after 
the enemy had left them, and following the British into 
the plain gave orders to General Wayne to attack their 
covering party so as to halt them, but not to press them 
sufficiently to fores them up to the main body, or to 
draw reinforcements from thence to their aid. In the 
meantime, he proposed to gain their front by a shorter 
road on their left, and entirely intercepting their com- 
munication with the line to bear them off before they 
could be assisted. 

While in the execution of this design, a gentleman 
of General Washington's suite came up to gain intelli- 
gence, and to him Lee communicated his present object. 

Sir Henry Clinton, soon after the rear division was 
in full march, observed a column of the Americans on his 
left flank. This being militia, was soon dispersed. When 
his rear guard had descended from the hill, it was fol- 
lowed by a corps; soon after which a cannonade upon it 
was commenced from some pieces commanded by Col- 


onel Oswald, and at the same time lie received intelli- 
gence that a respectable force had shown itself on both 
his llanks. Believing a design to have been formed on his 
baggage, which in the defiles would he exposed, he de- 
termined in order to secure it to attack the troops in his 
rear so vigorously as to compel them to call off those on 
his flanks. This induced him to march back his whole 
rear division, which movement was making as Lee ad- 
vanced for the purpose of reconnoitering to the front of 
the wood adjoining the plain. He soon perceived him- 
self to have mistaken the force which formed the rear of 
the British, but he yet proposed to engage on that 
ground, although his judgment, as was afterwards stated 
by himself, on an inquiry into his conduct, disapproved 
of it ; there being a morass immediately in his rear, 
which could not be passed without difficulty, and which 
would necessarily impede the arrival of reinforcements 
to his aid and embarass his retreat should he be finally 

This was about ten o'clock. While both armies 
were preparing for action, General Scott (as stated by 
General Lee), mistook an oblique march of an American 
column for a retreat, and in the apprehension of being 
abandoned left his position and repassed the ravine in 
his rear. Being himself of opinion that the ground on 
which the army was drawn up was by no means favora- 
ble to them, Lee did not correct the error Scott had corn- 
committed, but directed the whole detachment to regain 
the heights they had passed. He was pressed by the 
enemy and the same slight skirmishing ensued during 
this retrograde movement, in which not much loss was 
sustained on either side. 

When the first firing announced the commence- 
ment of the action, the rear division threw off their 
packs and advanced rapidly to support the front. As 
they approached the scene of action, Washington, 
who had received no intelligence from Lee notifying his 
retreat, rode forward, and about noon, after the army had 
m'arched live miles, to his utter astonishment and mortifi- 


cation, met the advanced corps retiring before the enemy 
with bnt having made a single effort to maintain their 
ground. Those whom he first fell in with neither un- 
derstood the motives which had governed General Lee 

nor his present design, and could give no other informa- 
tion than that by his orders they had fled without 

Washington rode to the rear of the division, which 
was closely pressed. There he met Lee, to whom he 
spoke in terms of some warmth, implying disapproba- 
tion of his conduct. He also gave immediate orders 
to the regiments commanded by Colonel Stewart and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ramsay to form on a piece of ground 
which he deemed proper for the purpose of checking the 
enemv, who were advancing rapidly on them. General 
Lee was then directed to take proper measure with the 
residue of his tore- to stop the British column on that 
ground, and the Commander-in-chief rode hack himself 
to arrange the rear division of the army. These orders 
were executed with firmness. A sharp conflict ensued, 
and when forced from the ground on which he had been 
placed, Lee brought off his troops in good order, and was 
then directed to form in. the rear of Englishtown. 

The check thus given the enemy, afforded time to 
draw up the left wing and second line of the American 
army on an eminence, partly in a wood, and partly in an 
open field, covered by a morass in front. Lord Sterling, 
who commanded the wing, brought up a detachment of 
artillery, under Lieutenant-Colonel Carrington, with some 
field pieces, which played with considerable effect upon 
the enemy, who had passed the morass and were press- 
ing on to the charge. The pieces, with the aid of sev- 
eral parties of infantry detached for the purpose, effec- 
tually put a stop to their advance. 

The American artillery were drawn up in the open 
field, and maintained their ground with admirable firm- 
ness under a heavy and perseyering fire from the British. 

The right wing was for the day commanded by General 
(ireene. To expedite the inarch, and to prevent the en- 


emy from turning the right flank, he bad been ordered 
to file off by the new church, two miles from Englishtown, 

and fco tall into the Monmouth road a small distance 
in the rear of the court house, while the residue of the 
army proceeded directly to that place. He had advanced 

on this road considerably to the righi of and rather be- 
yond the ground on which the armies were now engaged, 
when he aras informed, of the retreal of Lee, and of the 
new disposition of the troops. He immediately changed 
his route and took an advantageous position on the 

Warmly opposed in front the enemy attempted to 
turn the left flank of the American army, but were re- 
pulsed and driven back by parties of infantry. They 
then attempted the right with as little success. ( reneral 
Greene had advanced a body of troops, with artillery, to 
a commanding piece; of, 1 ground in his front, which not 
only marred their design of turning the right, but severe- 
ly enfiladed the party which yet remained in front of the 
left wing. At this moment, General Wayne advanced 
with a body of infantry in front, who kept up so hot 
and well directed a fire of musketry that the Brit- 
ish soon gave way and withdrew behind the ravine to the 
ground on which the first halt had been made. 

Here the British line was formed on very strong 
ground. Both flanks were secured by thick woods and 
morasses, while their front could be reached only 
through a narrow pass. The day had been intensely hot 
and the troops were much fatigued. Still, Washington 
resolved to renew the engagement. For this purpose 
Brigadier-General Poor, with his own and the Carolina 
brigade, gained the enemy's right flank, while Woodford, 
with his brigade, turned their left, and the artillery ad- 
vanced on them in front. But the impediments on the 
flanks of the enemy were so considerable that before 
they could be overcome and the troops approach near 
enough to commence the attack it was nearly dark. Under 
these circumstances further operations were deferred un- 
til morning. The brigades on the flanks kept their 


ground through the night and the other troops lay on 
their arms in the field of battle in ordei to be in perfect 
readiness to support them. General Washington, who 
had through the day been extremely active, passed the 
night in Ins cloak in the midst of his soldiers. 

In the meantime, the British were employed in re- 
moving bheir wounded. About midnight they marched 
away in such silence that their retreat was without the 
knowledge of General Poor, who lay very near them. 

As it was perfectly certain that lie would gain the 
high grounds about Middletown before they could be 
overtaken, where they could not be attacked with advan- 
tage as the face of the country afforded no prospect of 
opposing their embarkation; and as the battle, already 
fought, had terminated favorably to the reputation of 
the American arms, it was thought advisable to relin- 
quish the pursuit. Leaving the Jersey brigade. Mor- 
gan's corps and AL'Lane's command to hover about 
them, to countenance desertion, and protect the country 
from their depredations, it was resolved to move the 
main body of the army to the Hudson, and take a posi- 
tion which should effectually cover the important passes 
in the Highlands. 

The loss of the Americans was eight officers and 
sixtv-one privates killed, and about one hundred and 
sixty wounded. 

Among the slain were Lieut. -Colonel Bonner, of 
Pennsylvania, and Major Dickinson, of Virginia, both 
much regretted. One hundred and thirty were missing ; 
of whom many afterwards joined their regiments. 

Sir Henrv Clinton stated his dead and missing at 
four officers, and one hundred and eighty-four privates ; 
his wounded at sixteen officers, and one hundred and 
fifty-four privates. This account, so far as respects the 
dead, cannot be correct, as four officers and two hundred 
and forty-five privates were buried on the held, and 
some few were afterwards found and buried, so as to in- 
crease the number to nearly three hundred. The un- 

Til! l;\ l l ll OF MONMOl I II. 1 I'd 

common heal of the day was fatal to si 'Mia] on both sides. 
As usual when a battle lias no: been decisive, both 
parties claimed the victory. In tin- early part of the 
da\ the advantage was certainly with the British; in the 
latter partit may be pronounced with equal certainty t<> 
have been with the Americans. They maintained their 
ground, repulsed the enemy by whom they were attacked, 
were prevented only by the night, ami the retreat of Sir 
Henry Clinton from renewing \\w action, ami suffered in 
killed and wounded less than their adversai 

Independent of the loss sustained in action the 
British army was considerably weakened in its way 
from Philadelphia to New York About one hundred 
prisoners were made, and near a thousand soldiers, prin- 
cipally foreigners, many of whom had married in Phila- 
delphia, deserted the British standard during the march. 
Whilst the armies were traversing the Jerseys, 
Gates, who commanded on the North River, by a well- 
timed and judicious movement down the Hudson, threat- 
ened New York for the purpose of restraining the gar- 
rison of that place from reinforcing Sir Henry Clinton, 
should such a measure be contemplated. 

The conduct of Lee A\as generally disapproved. As. 
however, he had possessed a large share of the confi- 
dence of the commander-in-chief, it is probable that ex- 
planations might have been made which would have res- 
cued him from the imputations cast on him, and have 
restored him to the esteem of the army, could his 
haughty temper have brooked the indignity he believed to 
have been offered him on the field of battle. General 
Washington had taken no measures in consequence of 
the events of that day and probably would have come to 
no resolution concerning them without an amicable expla- 
nation had he not received from Lee a letter, in very un- 
becoming terms, in which he manifestly assumed the 
station of a superior, and required reparation for the in- 
jury sustained from the very singular expressions said to 
have been used on the da}' of the action by the com- 
m ander-in-c hief . 


This letter whs answered by an assurance, that so 
soon as circumstances would admit of au inquiry, he 
should have an opportunity of justifying himself to the 
army, to America, and to the world in general, or of con- 
vincing them that he had been guilty of disobedience of 
orders, and misbehavior before the enemy. On the same 
day, on Lee's expressing a wish for a speedy investiga- 
tion of his conduct, and for a court martial rather than a 
court of inquiry, lie was arrested : 

First, For disobedience of orders in not attacking the 
enemy on the 28th of June, agreeably to repeated instruc- 
tions. Secondly, For misbehavior before the enemy on 
the same day, in making an unnecessary, disorderly and 
shameful retreat. Thirdly, For disrespect to the com- 
mander-in-chief in tw r o letters. Before this correspond- 
ence had taken place, strong and specific charges of mis- 
conduct had been made against General Lee by several 
officers of his detachment, and particularly by denei-als 
Wayne and Scott. In these the transactions of the day, 
not being well understood, were represented in colors 
much more unfavorable to Lee than facts would justify. 
These representations, most probably produced the 
strength of the expressions contained in the second ar- 
ticle of the charge. A court martial was soon called, 
over which Lord Stirling presided ; and after a full in- 
vestigation, Lee was found guilty of all the charges ex- 
hibited ■ against him. and sentenced to be suspended for 
one year. This sentence was afterwards, though with 
some hesitation, approved, almost unanimously by Con- 
gress. The court softened, in some degree, the severity 
of the second charge by finding him guilty, not in its 
very words, but of misbehavior before the enemy, by 
making an unnecessary, and, in some tew instances, a 
disorderly retreat. 

Lee defended himself with his accustomed ability. 
He suggested a variety of reasons justifying his retreat, 
which, if they do not absolutely establish its propriety, 
give it so questionable a form as to render it probable 
that a public examination would never have taken place. 

Tin: !•■ \ l II I OF MONMOl Til. 1(J3 

could his proud spirit have stooped to offer explanation 
instead of outrage, to the commander-in-chief. 

From " Dawson's Battles <>F the United States," this 
most important incident of the day is thus described: 

While Genera] Washington's faithful and intelligent 
secretary Colonel Harrison, was engagedin the front, en- 
deavoring to ascertain the cause of the retreat, General 
Washington was not less active in seeking information 
and in checking the retreat. Riding forward and accost- 
ing the several commandants of regiments as lie met 
them, he received the same negative answers and the 
same evidences of dissatisfaction that his secretary had 
received, until in the rear of the retreating column he 
met the commands of Colonels Ramsay and Stewart. 
Calling these officers to him and telling them that he 
" should depend upon them that day to give the enemy 
a check," he directed General Wayne to form them with 
two pieces of artillery on their right, and hold the enemy 
in check. At this instant the guilty author of the mis- 
chief, General Lee, rode up, and the commander-in-chief 
demanded, in the sternest manner, " What is the mean- 
ing of all this, sir ? " Disconcerted and crushed under 
the tone and terrible appearance of his chief, General 
Lee could do nothing more than stammer, " Sir, sir ? " 
When, with more vehemence and with a still more indig- 
nant expression, the cpuestion was repeated. A hurried 
explanation was attempted — his troops had been misled 
by contradictory intelligence, his officers had disobeyed 
his orders, and he had not felt it his duty to oppose the 
whole force of the enemy with the detachment un- 
der his command. Further remarks were made on both 
sides, and closing the interview with calling General Lee 
a " damned poltroon,"* the commander-in-chief hastened 
back to the high ground between the meeting house and 
the bridge, where he formed the regiments of Colonels 
Shreve, Patterson, Grayson, Livingston, Cilley and Og- 

* This statement is made on the authority of General La Fayette, who gave it on 
the piazza of the residence of Vice-president Daniel D. Tompkins. Sunday morn- 
ing, August 15. 1824. General La Fayette referred to it as the only instance wherein 
he had heard the General swear. 


den, and the left wing under Lord Sthling. AVlien the 
first line of troops had been formed on the heights, Gen- 
eral Washington rode up to General Lee and inquired in 
a calmer tone, " Will you retain the command on this 
height or not? If you will, I will return to the main 
body and have it formed on the next height." General 
Lee accepted the command ; when, giving up the com- 
mand, General Washington remarked, " I expect you 
will take proper means for checking the enemy," and 
General Lee promised, "Your orders shall be obeyed; 
and I shall not be the first to leave the ground." 

The attention of General Washington was now turned, 
principally to the north River, towards which the march 
of his army was directed, with the intention of continu- 
ing some time about Haverstraw. And soon after he 
crossed the North River to White Plains. 

After remaining a few days on the high grounds of 
Middletown, Sir Henry Clinton proceeded to Sandy 
Hook, wdience he passed his army over to New York. 
This transit was effected by means of a fleet under Lord 
Howe, which had arrived off the Hook on the "28th of 

Upon the day of battle the French fleet, under Count 
D'Estaing, having on board a respectable body of land 
forces, made the coast off Chincoteague Inlet. Had it 
arrived a few days earlier its suparior force would have 
shut Lord Howe and the British fleet in the Delaware, 
and the censure of the army under Sir Henry Clinton 
would, probably, have followed. The Count proceeded 
to Sandy Hook for the purpose of attacking the British 
fleet in port, and should this be found impracticable, to 
make an attempt on Rhode Island. The first was de- 
feated by the shoalness of the bar at the mouth of the 

Another account of the battle closes b} r stating that 
after the terrible reprimand of General Lee by the Com- 
mander-in-chief, that officer, however much he had 
erred, bore himself with great, though boastful gal- 
lantry throughout the remainder of the action. Enough, 


that from the moment of Washington's coming, however 
hard to undo the error of an hour, the tide of battle re- 
mained at a standstill if it did not ;it once flow in favor 
of the patriots. When the night Eel] the palm of assured 
\ictor\ was almost within the grasp of the patriot com- 
mander, and only the one question remained whether 
Clinton w'as or was not too much crippled to resume his 
march towards Sandy Hook. Only the broken character 
of the ground thwarted Washington's intention of test- 
ing his strength by yet another attack after nightfall; 
with such impediments, and in the exhausted state of 
his troops, the second attack was deferred until morning. 
Both forces lay on their arms very near each other, but 
a little west of Monmouth Court House, when the night 
came on ; but when the morning broke the British camp 
was deserted and the harassed hosts of Clinton were be- 
yond the Court House and out of reach, having left 
so silently that even General Poor, in command of 
the American advanced corps, had no suspicion of the 
intention or its fulfillment. With this departure and 
virtual escape of the British, necessarily the combat 
was at an end. Clinton pursued his way by the hills 
of Middletown to Sandy Hook, and the fleet of Lord 
Howe, which bore his troops away to New York; 
and Washington — his enemy driven from the Jerseys 
if no more — marched northward with his army to New 
Brunswick, and thence to the Hudson. 

The enemy's loss, it is said, was Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hon. H. Monckton, Captain Gore, Lieutenants Vaughan 
and Kennedy, four sergeants and fifty-seven rank and 
file killed; three sergeants and fiftj'-six rank and file 
died from fatigue ; Colonel Trelawney, Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Simcoe, Major Gardner, Captains Cathcart, Bereton, 
Willis, Leighton, Powell, Bellue and Ditmas, and Lieu- 
tenants Kelly, Paumier, Goroffe, Desborough and Gil- 
christ, seven sergeants, one hundred and forty-eight 
rank and tile wounded ; and seven sergeants and sixty- 
one rank and file missing.* The American army lost 

The militia had returned to their homes immediately after the action. 


Lieutenant-Colonel Bonner, Major Dickinson, three cap- 
tains, three lieutenants, one sergeant, seven matrosses, 
one bombardier and fifty-two rank and rile killed; two 
colonels, nine captains, six lieutenants, one ensign, one 
adjutant, nine sergeants, one gunner, ten matrosses and 
one hundred and twenty-two rank and file wounded ; 
five sergeants, one matross, and one hundred and twenty- 
six rank and tile missing, many of whom, who had been 
overcome by the heat, afterwards came in. 


Everv citizen of old Monmouth has just cause to be 
proud of the fact that the original patentees were among 
the first in America to gurantee toleration to all settlers 
in religious matters. In Rhode Island, while Roger Wil- 
liams advocated "a free, full and absolute liberty of con- 
science,'" it is charged that Roman Catholics were ex- 
cepted in the charter of 166o. The much vaunted toler- 
ation act of Maryland limited toleration to "all who be- 
lieved in Jesus Christ.'' William Penn did not arrive 
in America until October, 1682, nearly eighteen years after 
the Monmouth patentees declared that every settler 
should have Free Liberty of Conscience without any 



This section of New Jersey is exceptionally rich in 
reminiscences of the past, extending from the colonial 
times down to the present. The geographical situation 
of Monmouth County has always exposed its eastern por- 
tion to the furious sweep of storm and tempest, and at 
the same time, left it open to the ravages of the enemy, 
whenever involved in foreign Avar. This was peculiarly 
tin- case in the war of 1812, when the British cruisers lay 
off the coast, and held such a constant menace over the 
section, that none of the citizens were drafted, but were 
ordered to hold themselves in readiness to repel invasion. 

OLD I I.Ml'.s i\ MONMOl I II. 1 I'm 

Judge John S. Form w, a former -I iidge of Monmouth 
county, a hale old man of vigorous frame, whose memory 
ran back almost four score years, had a wide and accu- 
rate knowledge of the history of Monmouth for a century 
previous and whose father blew a fife at the liattle of 
Monmouth; in June, 177s, related the following: "1 was 
then only a lad of thirteen or fourteen years," said the 
Judge. ""1 have often heard my father describe the battle. 
The day was fearfully hot, and my father was blowing 
with all his might, when the battle became fiercer and 
fiercer, and it drew more of his attention than did the 
music. While he stood thus, his uncle. Colonel Samuel 
Forman, mounted upon a white horse, halted within a 
short distance, and began giving orders to some officers 
near liiin. His nephew, still holding his fife to his mouth, 
stood with idle fingers, staring and listening, and forget- 
ful entirely of his own duty. All at once the Colonel 
spurred his charger up to the young man, and making a 
sweep at him with his sword thundered out, 'You little 
rascal, if you don't fill that fife and keep time, I'll run 
you through.' Young Forman 'kept time' until the whist- 
ling of the bullets and the thunder of the cannon ended 
and "Washington drove the British from the field. 

"It was a favorite custom of the English cruisers to 
send a barge ashore, at some point on the coast, kill and 
dress a number of cattle, and take the beef back to the 
ship with them. On one of these occasions, when a barge 
was aiming for Barnegat, two fishermen were engaged on 
shore. One of them naturally enough took to the woods, 
and kept out of sight until they were gone. The other 
was a well-remembered character, known as George Ha- 
vens, supposed by many to be underwitted, but. as is often 
the case, with a certain vein of shrewdness and cunning 
that more than once made him a match for those who 
were supposed to be more highly endowed than he, he 
determined to wait and see the British, quite confident 
that lie could pull through any trouble into which he 
was likely to get. Havens had a thin, squeaking voice, 
and when the English landed, he made them a low obeis- 


ance, as if delighted to meet them. Gathering around 
the old man, they instantly besieged him with questions. 
They wished to know whether there was any American 
force near at hand, and pointing to the masts of some 
vessels that could be seen several miles up the bay, they 
gave him to understand that they meant to burn them, 
and unless he piloted them across to the bay, he would 
be shot. Havens, with mouth and eyes wide open, lis- 
tened to all they had to say, and then, his face lit up, as 
he replied that they were correct. He had often found 
the nests of sea gulls himself, in the sand along shore, it 
being their custom to lay two, three and sometimes four 
eggs. The exasperated foragers plied him with other 
questions, but a deafer man than Havens was never seen. 
To every inquiry he returned the most ridiculous an- 
swers, and when they ordered him to help kill and dress 
some of the cattle browsing near, he still was unable to 
comprehend their meaning. When they were ready to 
embark, the old man was frightened to hear them discuss 
whether they should take him along as a prisoner or not. 
The officer in charge was desirous of carrying him aboard 
ship, as were a number of his subordinates; but, after 
quite an extended debate^ they concluded that he was too 
deaf to be of any use, and he was left. 

"The American coasters hiding in the rivers and in- 
lets were constantly on the lookout for a chance to slip 
out and run up to New York, with their cargoes of wood 
and material that were in great demand. During a storm 
I have frequently stood on the beach, and looking out to 
sea, have been unable to detect a single sail. It is then 
that all prudent navigators make haste to get out of 
sight of the Jersey coast. It was on such occasions as 
these, that the little American vessels stole cautiously 
out of the inlet, and crowded all sail for New York. It 
was assuming great risk, but, if successful, they were 
sure of making a, handsome profit on their cargo, and all 
were eager to take the chance. 

"I was down in the meadows," said the Judge, "one 
day in the month of July, 1813, when I noticed that a 


British brig that had been standing on and offshore for 
a number of weeks, had all sail crowded on, and w&s 
heading almost directly in. As the white foam curled 
away from her [trow, it was easy to sec that she was 
coming with greal speed, or there was some mischief 
afoot. A glance northward told what it meant. Two of 
our sloops, after making the run into New York, were 
creeping down the coast, hoping to reach shelter unob- 
served, when the brig sighted them and instantly spread 
every stitch of canvass for the purpose of cutting them 
off. Well knowing their peril, the coasters ran with des- 
perate haste for Squan Inlet, certain that if they could 
once get in there, all danger would be at an end. Thus 
all three were heading toward the same point, and at one 
time they were about equi-distant. The sloops were much 
the faster, and had everything been favorable, would 
have effected their escape ; but, when they turned to run 
into the inlet, the water was too low. There was a heavy 
thump, and, as the bows lurched upward, we could see 
that both were immovably grounded. The crews were in 
the boats in a twinkling, and in a few minutes later landed 

"The brig approached as close as was prudent, and 
then opened tire upon the helpless sloops. The shots 
were well directed, and the hull and rigging were splin- 
tered and battered until it seemed as if they were totally 
destroyed. Some of the shots passed over the bluff, and 
struck a mile or two inland. They fell all about the 
house of Uncle Tommy Cook, and one of them, I recol- 
lect, just grazed the top of his barn and ploughed up the 
field beyond. They were not chary of their shots either, 
but kept hammering away at the sloops, until certain 
they were destroyed, they withdrew to watch for other 
daring roasters that might be prowling along shore. 
After they were out of the way, and the tide had risen, 
we got the sloops over the bar and up the inlet, where 
they were repaired and used for years afterward. Three 
thousand two hundred pounds of shot were picked up in 
the shape of cannon balls. I remember that we expected 


tlie British would land that night, and there were a hun- 
dred and eighty of us under arms, and on the lookout. We 
would have given a good deal to induce them to do so, but 
they were all very timid about venturing on shore, and pre- 
ferred to drop a shot now and then upon us, from their 
men-of-war, or to land only long enough to steal a few 
cattle and make off again." 

Among revolutionary incidents is one giving an account 
of the shooting of a notorious horse thief and tory 
named Fenton. He was a sort of Modoc, who was in 
constant communication with the British, and took a 
devilish pleasure in leading them against his neighbors, 
many of whom were utterly ruined through his treach- 
ery. A couple of Americans concealed themselves under 
some hay and barrels in a wagon, while a third, under the 
guise of an honest farmer, rattled off down the road by a 
house where Fenton was reported to be. Not suspecting 
the trap set for him, the miscreant summoned the wagon 
to halt, set down his gun, and started out to take posses- 
sion of the stores that he supposed were in the vehicle. 
He had just thrown one foot over the fence, when the two 
men in concealment rose up and shot him dead. Judge 
Form an stated to me that his father's housekeeper was 
standing only a few feet away at this moment, aud saw 
the wretch meet his doom in the manner described. 


This outrage was an unusually aggravated one even 
for the Refugees, and the particulars will show wh} T Phil. 
White was afraid that he would be hung if he reached 
Freehold. John Russell, one of his guards, after the 
war, removed to old Dover township, near Cedar Creek, 
and his descendants nov live at Barnegat. 

The following extract is from the New Jersey Gazette, 
published during the Revolution : 

" On the 30th of April, 1780, a party of negroes and 
Refugees from Sandy Hook landed at Shrewsbury in 
order to plunder. During their excursion, a Mr. Russell, 


who attempted some resistance to their depredations, 
was killed, and his grandchild bad five balls shot through 
him, but is yet living. Captain Warner, of the privateer 
brig Elizabeth, was made prisoner by these ruffians, but 
was released by giving them two and a half joes. This 
banditti also took off several prisoners, among whom 
were Captain James Green and Ensign John Morris, of 
the militia." 

The following is from Hewes' Collections : 

" Mr. Russell was an elderly man, aged about sixty 
years. As the party entered his dwelling, which was in 
the night, he fired and missed. William Gillian, a native 
of Shrewsbury, their leader, seized the old gentleman by 
the collar, and was in the act of stabbing him in the face 
and eyes with a bayonet, when the fire blazed up and, 
shedding a momentary light upon the scene, enabled the 
younger Russell, who lay wounded on the floor, to shoot 
Gillian. John Farnham, a native of Middle town, there- 
upon aimed his musket at the young man, but it was 
knocked up by Lippencott, who had married into the 
family. The party then went off. The child was acci- 
dentally wounded in the affray.' 

The Lippencott above mentioned, we presume, was 
Captain Richard Lippencott, who subsequently had the 
command of the party which hanged Captain Joshua 
Huddy. John Rnssell, mentioned above as having been 
wounded, and who subsecpiently was one of Phil. White's 
guard, lived to quite' an advanced age, at Cedar Creek, 
and his account of the affair, as related to the late Cap- 
tain Ephraim Atcheson, was substantially as follows : 

" There were seven Refugees, and he (John) saw 
them through the window, and at one time they got so 
that he told his father he could kill four of them, and he 
wished to fire, as he believed the other three would run. 
His father persuaded him not to fire, but to do so when 
they broke into the house. When they broke in, the 
father fired first, but missed his aim. He was then fired 
upon and killed. John Russell the a fired upon and 
killed Gillian, who had shot his father. During the 


affray John was shot in the side, and the scars of the 
wound wore visible until his death. After being wounded 
he fell on the floor and pretended to be dead. The 
Refugees then went to plundering the house. The 
mother and wife of John were lying in bed with the child. 
The child awoke and asked: 'Grandmother, what's the 
matter?' A Refugee pointed his gun at it and fired, and 
said, 'That's what's the matter!' Whether he intended 
to wound the child or only to frighten it is uncertain, but 
the child, as before stated, was badly wounded, but 
eventually recovered. As the Refugees were preparing 
to leave, one of their number pointed his musket at John 
Russell as he lay on the floor, and was about again firing 
at him, saying he didn't believe he was dead yet, where- 
upon another, probably Lippencott, knocked up the 
musket, saying it was a shame to tire upon a dying man, 
and the load went into the ceiling. After the Refugees 
were gone, John got up and had his wounds dressed, and 
exclaimed to his wife : 'Ducky! bring me a glass of 
whiskey; I'll come out all right yet.' He did come out 
all right, and before the war ended he aided in visiting 
merited retribution on the Refugees for their doings at 
this time. When some two years later he aided in the 
capture of Phil. White, one of the party who killed his 
father, it is not probable that he desired his death be- 
fore reaching Freehold, as it was quite certain justice 
would be meted out to him there. Of the seven Refugees 
concerned in the attack on the Russell family, at least 
three met with their just deserts, viz : Gillian, killed at 
the time ; Farnham, subsequently captured and hanged 
at Freehold; and Phil. White, killed while attempting 
to escape." 


Among some old residents, the Refugee version of 
Phil. White's death at one time seemed so far accepted 
as to imply a belief in wanton cruelty to White, and 
Howes' Historical Collection seems inclined to favor the 


same belief. But the\ se'em not to have been aware thai 
the whole matter was thoroughly investigated by both 
the British ami Americans shortly after it occurred, and 

the evidence, subsequently filed in the State Department 
at Washington, conclusively proves the falsity of the 
Refugee assertions of wanton cruelty. This evidence is 
given in full in a report made to Congress, February 14, 

1837, on a report relating to pension claims of Captain 
Joshua Huddy's heirs. Among the affidavits taken and 
forwarded to General Washington were those of Aaron 
White, a brother of Phillip White, who was taken 
prisoner with him, John North, William Borden and 
John Russell, who were his guards. White was captured 
near Long Branch, and the guard was ordered to take 
him to Freehold. Before starting he was told if lie at- 
tempted to escape he would be shot down. When be- 
tween Colt's Neck aud Freehold, White slipped off his 
horse and made for the woods; the guards called on him 
to stop, but he refused to halt and they tired on him ; 
the ball fired by Borden wounded him aud he fell on his 
hands and knees, but got up and ran for the woods, but 
North lea] ied a fence on horseback and headed him off 
when he made for a bog ; North jumped from his horse, 
dropped his gun aud pursued him with drawn sword, and 
overtook him ; White would not stop, and North struck 
at him with the sword which wounded him in the face, 
and White fell, crying that he was a dead man. Borden 
repeatedly called " White, if you will give up you shall 
have quarters yet." White's body was taken to Freehold, 
and the evidence of General David Form an and others 
who saw the body, showed that he had received no other 
wounds but the gun shot in his breast and cuts of a 
sword on his face. 

The probability is that Phil. White supposed if he 
was taken to Freehold jail, that he would be tried and 
hanged for his participation in the murder of the father 
of John Russell, one of his guards, and the attempt to 
kill Russell himself, as well as in other misdemeanors, 
and so he determined to try to escape, aud he made the 


effort at a place where he thought the woods, fences, 
marsh and brook would impede the light horsemen. 



Probably no place in old Monmouth furnished a 
greater number of men in proportion to population for 
the service of the country during the Revolution than 
did Mannahawkin. Captain Reuben Randolph who 
owned the public house on the site of the one at present 
occupied by Mr. Joseph R. Wilkins, was, with his heroic 
band of militia, very active in guarding against Tory out- 
rages at home as well as abroad. Among those who 
nobly stood by him besides his own two sons, Thomas 
and Job, were the ancestors of many well-known families 
now residing in that village, among whom may be 
named, the Cranes, Bennetts, Johnsons, Pangburns, 
Browns, Letts, Hay woods, Pauls and others. 

At one time it was rumored that Bacon with a party 
of refugees was coming to Mannahawkin on a plundering 
expedition, and such of the members of the militia as 
could be notified were hastily summoned together at 
Captain Randolph's house to prepare to meet them. The 
militia remained on the alert the greater part of the 
night, but rinding the Tories failed to make their appear- 
ance, they concluded it was a false alarm and retired to 
sleep after appointing sentinels. From the best informa- 
tion now obtained it is most probable that Jeremiah 
Bennett and Job Randolph were sentinels on one post 
and Seth Crane and Samuel Bennett on another, and 
Captain Randolph himself also volunteering. 

The refugees came down the road from towards 
Barnegat and the first intimation the sentinels stationed 
near the Baptist church had of their coming was by 
hearing their bayonets strike together as they were march- 
ing. The sentinels halted long enough to see that the 
party was quite large, numbering perhaps thirty or forty, 


and firing, ran aooss the fields to the public bouse to 
give the alarm. By the time the lev, militiamen were 

arouse*!, the refugees were abreast of the house, and be- 
fore they could form, they were tired upon and Lyons Pang- 
burn was killed and Sylvester Tilton severely wounded, 
both men belonging to Captain Randolph's company. 
The militia were compelled to retreat down the Lane be- 
fore they could organize, when finding the refugees well 
armed and nearly double their number, they were reluct- 
antly compelled to decline pursuing them. The refugees 
made but a short, if any halt, and passed down the road 
towards West Creek. In the party with Bacon was the 
same Englishman, Wilson, alluded to in the case of 
Reuben Soper in a previous chapter, and also a man 
named Brewer. 

Tilton, who was so severely wounded, miraculously 
recovered, although the ball passed clear through him, 
going in by one shoulder and out on a little one side of 
his breast; the physician, as is well authenticated, 
passed a silk handkerchief completely through the 
wound. Several of our citizens yet living often saw the 
scars of this wound. Sometime after the war was over 
Tilton removed to Colt's Neck, where it is believed some 
of his descendants now live. He always believed that 
Brewer was the man who wounded him, and as after the 
war Brewer had the hardihood to remain in the vicinity, 
Tilton determined to punish him, and did give him a 
severe chastisement. One tradition of this punishment 
is, that when Tilton found out where. Brewer was, he 
started after him unarmed. On his way he met James 
Willetts then quite a noted and highly esteemed Quaker, 
who, upon finding out Tilton's errand, vainly pursuaded 
him to turn back; finding he would not, Willetts asked 
permission to go along, hoping something would turn up 
to make a peaceable end of the affair. Tilton willingly 
accepted his company, but plumply told him if he inter- 
fered he would flog him, too. Arriving at the house where 
Brewer was, Tilton suddenly opened the door and rushed 
toward him and grasped him before he could quite reach 


his musket which he had kept ready expecting such a visit. 
Tilton dragged him to the door and pummelled him to 
his heart's content; telling him, "You scoundrel, you 
tried to kill me once, and I mean now to settle with you 
for it. I want you now to leave here and follow the rest 
of the refugees." (Most of the refugees had then gone 
to Nova Scotia). 

Two unarmed members of this militia company of 
Mannahawkin one time captured three refugees each 
armed with muskets! The following were the circum- 
stances : Seth Crane and David Johnson had been fishing; 
as their boat lay alongside of the meadows on their re- 
turn, the three refugees came down to the boat and the 
leader leaning his musket against the side of the boat 
stepped aboard and went aft and picked out a lot of the 
finest fish and said he meant to have them. Crane told 
him he couldn't without paying for them ; the refugee 
said he would take them by force. Crane, quick as a 
flash, picked up an eel spear and held it over him, told 
him to drop the fish or he would run it in him. Seeing 
a serious fight now before them, Johnson who stood on 
the meadows by the other two tories instantly knocked 
one of them with his powerful fist into the salt pond, 
musket and all, then grasped the musket leaning against 
the boat, brought it to bear upon the other who was so 
startled by the unexpected turn of affairs that he had 
started to run and told him to drop his musket instantly, 
or he would shoot ; the terrified man did as ordered. 
Johnson and Crane then took the muskets ; the refugees 
were let go with a reasonable warning against again at- 
tempting to steal fish. 

The notorious John Bacon, the refugee leader, had 
before the war worked a year or so in the Crane family 
as a farm laborer. 

It is said that on another evening a prominent Wing 
named Silas Crane, of the same family as Seth, Mas severe- 
ly wounded at his own house. It being warm weather, 
the front door was open and also a window on the op- 
posite side of the room by which Crane sat. Happening 


to look <>ut of the door he got a glimpse of two <>r three 
men with muskets, &c, and knowing the refugees had 
threatened him, he sprang out the window ; as he jumped 
he was fired upon and though severely wounded in the 
thigh managed to escape. Captain Randolph himself at 
one time was surprised, taken prisoner and taken to a 
swamp and tied to a tree, Imt managed to escape. He 
and li is brave comrades just previous to the battle of 
Monmouth, marched on foot, though the weather was 
most intensely hot, to join Washington's force, but were 
unexpectedly prevented from joining him in season ; tra- 
ditionary accounts fail to give a reason for their going so 
near yet not actually participating, yet the history of 
that battle and Washington's disposition of his forces 
satisfactorily accounts for it. Washington had stationed 
General Morgan at Sliumar's Mills with positive orders 
not to move until he should again hear from him, and 
through that ever memorable day Morgan was compelled 
to listen to the distant tiring and burned with impatience 
for orders to join, but the orders did not come. The 
Mannahawkin militia when they got to Sliumar's Mills 
would most probably be placed under Morgan's com- 
mand and this would account for their not participating. 
The goodly village of Mannahawkin is fertile in in- 
teresting local reminiscences. The name of Mannahawkin 
is an Indian word signifying "good corn land;" its his- 
tory shows it could also boast of its good men. In the 
company which lately left that village for the seat of war 
it is gratifying as well as significant to see among them 
so many descendants of active heroes of the revolution ; 
it proves them worthy sons of noble sires. 


Another account says that one warm summer even- 
ing during the war there had been religious services at 
the church at Mannahawken. After services the minister 
went home with one of the Cranes (Silas Crane, we think 
it was,) when the minister and Crane sat conversing until 


late in the evening. The front door was open, and also 
a window on the opposite side of the room, by which 
Crane sat. At length, happening to look at the front 
door, Crane got the glimpse of two or three men with 
muskets, and knowing the Refugees had threatened his 
life, he sprang through the back window. As he jumped 
he was fired upon, and though severely wounded in the 
thigh he managed to escape. 

The notorious Refugee leader, John Bacon, it is said, 
worked as a farm laborer, a year or two for the Crane 
family, before the war. 

Captain Randolph and his heroic militia, just pre- 
vious to the battle of Monmouth, marched on foot, 
though the weather was intensely hot, to join Washing- 
ton's forces beyond Freehold, but were unexpectedly 
prevented from engaging in the battle. Tradition fails 
to give a reason why they went so near and yet did not 
participate, but the history of the battle and of Wash- 
ington's disposition of his forces sufficiently explain it. 
Washington had stationed General Morgan at Shumar's 
Mill's (near Blue Ball), with positive instructions not to 
move until he should receive orders, and through that 
memorable battle Morgan was compelled to listen all 
day to the distant firing, chafing with impatience for 
orders to join, but orders failed to come. The Manna- 
hawkin militia, when they got to Shumar's Mills, were 
probably placed under Morgan's command, and this 
would account for their not participating in the battle. 

During the war Captain Randolph was one night 
surprised in bed at home by Refugees, taken prisoner 
and carried to a swamp and tied to a tree, but managed 
to escape. At another time the Refugees surrounded 
and searched his honse while he was in it, but his wife 
successfully concealed him under feathers in a cask. 



During the war the Refugee leaders appear to have 
had our shore divided into districts. Davenport and his 
men had Dover township for their "stamping" ground; 


Bacon from Cedar Creek to Parkertown, below Wesi 
Creek ; around Tuckerton and below it Joe Mulliner and 
Giberson, Erom their headquarters at the forks of the 
Mullica river, sallied forth on their predatory excursions. 
These men do not appear to have left their respective 
districts except to aid their confederates. 

One time Bill Giberson (as he was usually called) 
with a part of his band, suddenly appeared at Tuckerton, 
and thinking they were safe,, went to Daniel Falkin- 
burgh's tavern (where Dr. Page's house now is) and de- 
termined to have a good time. They began by making 
night hideous with their bacchanalian revels. Some of 
the villagers at once sent word to the Mannahawkin 
militia, and Sylvester Tilton and three or four more 
started in a farm wagon to attempt to capture or dis- 
perse the outlaws. Giberson was informed by a Tory 
that the militia had been sent for, and so he retreated 
towards the landing, to a good position near his boats, 
and when the militia arrived he poured into their ranks 
such a volley that they were compelled to retreat, as they 
found the Refugees were in greater force than had been 

The militia jumped into their wagon and drove back, 
followed by Giberson and his men, who pursued them to 
West Cieek bridge, where the Refugees halted. This 
little affair was about the only one during the war that 
gave the Refugees a chance to boast, and so they often 
related the story with great glee and much exaggeration. 
But after all, there was but little to brag about, in a 
strong force causing the weak one to retreat. As the 
militia were driving over West Creek crossing a mishap 
occurred to the wagon-tongue — one end dropping down, 
which checked them long enough to allow the Refugees 
to fire again, but fortunately without effect. 

Giberson was wounded by the patriots during the 
Avar, and the particulars are thus given in Mickle's 
Reminiscences of Camden : 

" Captain John Davis was sent with a company of 
men to Egg Harbor. Here his lieutenants, Benjamin 


Bates and Richard Howell, were informed that the Refu- 
gee officers were concealed in a certain house. They 
called early in the morning and found and captured 
William Gibersou aud Henry Lane, both Refugee lieu- 
tenants, the former a notorious rascal, who had commit- 
ted many outrages and killed one or two Americans in 
cold blood. On their way to the quarters of Davis' 
company, Gibersou called Bates' attention to something 
he pretended to see at a distance, and while Bates was 
looking that way, Gibersou started and ran the other 
way, and being a fast runner, made his escape, although 
Bates fired his musket. The next day Bates went to 
hunt for him at the same house, and while opening the 
door heard the click of a musket-lock behind a large tree 
within a few feet of him, and turning around saw Giber- 
son taking aim at him. Bates dropped on his kuees, and 
the ball went through the rim of his hat. Gibersou then 
started to run, but before he got many rods Bates gave 
him a load of buckshot, which broke his leg. Gibersou 
was then well guarded and taken to Burlington jail, 
whence he finally escaped to New York." 

Tradition says that Gibersou escaped from Burling- 
ton jail by assistance of his sister. She obtained per- 
mission to visit him, and while in the cell exchanged 
clothes with him. So strikmgly did they resemble each 
other that when he came out of the cell the jailor thought 
it was the sister, and actually helped him in the wagon 
and thus he escaped. 

Mickle corroborates the Stafford and Egg Harbor 
traditions iu regard to the marvelous strength and 
activity of Gibersou and his sister. It is said that " at a 
hop, skip and jump he could clear an ordinary Egg Har- 
bor wagon," and was fleet-footed as an Indian ; and that 
his sister could staud in one hogshead, and without 
touching her hands, would jump iuto another by its side. 

After the war Giberson's sister, it is probable, re- 
moved to Salem county, as traditions there speak of a 
woman named Gibersou who could perform the feat of 
leaping from one hogshead into another. Gibersou him- 


Belf went to Nova Scotia, with other Refuses, about 
ITS:!, Imt after a few years he returned to Atlantic county, 
where be settled down to a peaceful life. 

Mrs. Leah Blackmail says the house where Giberson 
sought refuge, when Hates was seeking him, was on a 
small lot below Tuckerton, between the farms of James 
Downs and Dr. T. T. Price, and that he had a rude hut 
in the centre of a thicket, called Oak Swamp, in the 
neighborhood of Down Shore. This hut was composed 
of branches of trees, leaves and moss, and called " Giber- 
son's Nest." She says he was wounded by a hickory 
tree near Downs' farm, and this tree was frequently 
pointed out to her. 


A license to engage in whale fishery was granted 
February 14, 1678, to Joseph Huet, Thomas Ingram, 
Richard Davis, Isaac Benit, Randal Huet, Thomas Huet, 
Henry Leonard, Thomas Leonard, John Whitlock, John 
Crafford (Cranford), Thomas Applegate and Charles 
Dennis, " twelve persons or more," they having made 
proposals to undertake the fishing trade. The} T were 
licensed to take whales or like great fish between Barne- 
gat and the eastern part of the Province, and to pay for 
the privilege one-twentieth of the oil. 



One affair which caused the most intense excitement 
throughout old Monmouth, and elsewhere during the war 
of the Revolution, was the arrest, trial and execution of a 
young man named Stephen Edwards, on the charge of 
being a spy for the British. Though reference to it is 
rarely met with in our histories, yet there were but few 
events in the county during the Revolution, that created 
a greater sensation than did this. 

One of the officers who tried Edwards, and assisted 
at his execution, was Captain Joshua Huddy, and this 
furnished one of the excuses the refugees gave for his in- 
human murder near the Highlands some three years after. 
On the trial of the refugee leader, Captain Richard Lip- 
pencott, by a British Court Martial at New York, in the 
Summer of 1782, for his participation in the hanging of 
Huddy, refugee witnesses testified that even while Huddy 
was a prisoner in their hands, and but a few days before 
his death, he boldly acknowledged his participation, and 
justified it on the ground that he was found with treason- 
able papers in his possession, which conclusively proved 
him to be a spy. 

The following account of Stephen Edwards arrest, 
trial and execution, from "Howe's Collections" is believed 
to be substantially correct : 

Stephen Edwards, a young man, in the latter part of 
the war, left his home in Shrewsbury and joined the 
lovalists (refugees) in New York. From thence he was 
sent by Colonel Taylor of the refugees, a former resident 
of Middletown, back to Monmouth county, with written 
instructions to ascertain the force 1 of the Americans there. 
Information having been conveyed to the latter, Captain 
Jonathan Forman of the cavalry, was Ordered to search 
for him. Suspecting he might be at his father's resirl 
half a mile below Eatontown, he entered at midnight 
with a party or men, and found him in bed with his wife, 
disguised in the night cap of a female. 

"Who have you here ? " said Forman. 

. \l TAIN J0SH1 \ BUDDY. L83 

"A laboring woman," replied Mrs. Edwards. 

The captain detected the disguise, and on Looking 
under the bed, saw Edwards' clothing, which he ex- 
amined, and in which he found the papers given him by 
Colonel Taylor. 

Be then said, "Edwards, 1 am sorry to^find you! 
You sec these papers? You have brought yourself into 
a very disagreeable situation — you know the fate of 
spies ! " 

Edwards denied the allegation, remarking that lie 
was not such and could not so bo considered. 

This occurred on Saturday night. The prisoner was 
taken to the Court House, tried by a Court Martial next 
day, and executed at 10 o'clock on Monday morning. 
Edwards' father and mother had come up that morning 
t«> ascertain the fate of their sou, and returned with the 
corpse, lid wards was an amiable young man. The For- 
nian and Edwards families had been on terms of inti- 
mate friendship, and the agency of the members of the 
former in the transaction, excited their deepest sympa- 
thies for the fate of the unfortunate prisoner. 

The guilt of Edwards was conclusively proven; deep 
sympathy was felt for his parents and wife, but the perils 
of the patriots at this time were so great that prompt 
and decisive action was necessary for their own preser- 

The foolhardiness of Edwards iu keeping treason- 
able papers about him was remarkable. Some features 
of this affair will remind the reader of the unfortunate 
Major Andre. It is probable that Edwards was executed 
about September, 177M. 



Among the multitude, of heroic men furnished by 
our State in aid of the struggle for independence, the 
name of Captain Joshua Huddy should ever occupy a 
conspicuous place in the memory of Jerseymen. Y T et 


•when we recall his daring deeds, his patriotic efforts and 
sacrifices, and his unfortunate end, it is doubtful if less 
justice has been done to the services and memory of any- 
other hero of his day. Though the Continental Congress, 
as well as General Washington and other noted men tes- 
tified their warm appreciation of his services; though 
his name at one time was a household word, not only 
throughout this country but at the courts of England and 
France ; and though his unfortunate death and its con- 
sequences, for a time caused the most intense excite- 
ment on both sides of the Atlantic, yet in the substance 
of the language of a report adopted by Congress in 1837, 
"It is fearful to state that after a lapse of fifty years, 
while the services of others of so much less merit have 
been made the theme of the biographer and the poet, 
the memory of Huddy has not been honored with an 
epitaph. His country, it would seem, has outlived the re- 
collection of his services, and forgotten that such a vic- 
tim was sacrificed for American liberty." 


The following extracts from the archives of the State 
Department of New Jersey, were furnished in 1837 to a 
Congressional committee at tha request of the chairman, 
by the late Governor Philemon Dickenson : 

"Captain Joshua Huddy is appointed by an act of the 
Legislature, passed Sept. 24, 1777, to the command of a 
company of artillery, to be raised from the militia of the 
State, and to continue in service not exceeding one year. 

"In the accounts of the paymaster of militia there 
is an entry of a payment made on the 30th of July, 1778, 
to Captain Joshua Huddy, of the artillery regiment for 
services at Haddonfield, under Colonel Holmes. In the 
same accounts a payment is also made to Captain Huddy 
on the 1st of July, 1779, for the use of his horses in the 

Captain Huddy, with other prisoners, was taken to 
New York and lodged in the noted Sugar House prison, 
from whence he was taken on Monday, April 1st, 1782, 
to the prison of the Provost Guard in New Nork, where 


he «as closely confined until Monday, April 8th, when he, 
with Daniel Randolph and Jacob Fleming (both of whom 
were taken prisoners with Huddy at Toms River, but 
soon exchanged for two tories, named Captain Clayton 
TiltoD and Aaron White), were taken on board a sloop 
and in medL 

The following is a copy of the order to the Commis- 
sary of Prison at New York, to deliver him to the care of 
Captain Richard Lippencott, of tlie Refugees, to be taken 
on board the sloop : 

New York. April 7th. 1782. 

Sn: : — Deliver to Captain Richard Lippencott the 
three following prisoners: Lieutenant Joshua Huddy, 
Daniel Randolph and Jacob Fleming, to take down to the 
H<x>k. to procure the exchange of Captain Clayton Tilton 
and two other associated Loyalists. 

By order of the Board of Directors of Associated 

8. S. Blowers, Secretary. 
To Mr. Commissary Challoner. 

Huddy, Randolph and Fleming were kept in irons 
in the hold of the sloop, until Tuesday evening, April 
9th, when they were transferred to the guard ship at 
Sandy Hook. The ship was the British man-of-war Bri- 
tannia. Captain Morris. Early on the 12th Lippencott came 
on board the ship for Huddy and showed Captain M< >rris 
two papers, one being a label which was afterward fas- 
tened to Huddy's breast. Captain Morris asked Lippen- 
cott what he intended to do with Huddy. Lippencott 
replied that he intended to put in execution the orders 
of the Board of Associated Loyalists of New York, which* 
was to hang Huddy. He borrowed a rope from Captain 
Morris, and then proceeded on his infamous mission. 
Huddy was then taken ashore at the Highlands where a 
gallows was erected from three rails and a barrel placed 
under it from which he was launched into eternity. The 
• label attached to his breast had the following inscrip- 
tion : 

" We, the refugees, having long beheld with grief the 
cruel murders of our brethren, and rinding nothing but 
such measures daily carrying into execution ; we there- 


fore determine not to suffer without taking vengeance 
for the numerous cruelties, and thus begin, having made 
use of Captain Huddy as the first object to present to 
your view, and determine to hang man for man while 
there is a refugee existing. 


Captain Huddy executed his will under the gallows, 
signing it on the barrel from which he was a few moments 
afterward launched into another world. 


The following is a copy of the will of Captain Hud- 
dy, signed by him under the gallows : 

"In the name of God, amen ; I, Joshua Huddy, of 
Middletown, in the county of Monmouth, being of sound 
mind and memory, but expecting shortly to depart this 
life, do declare this my last will and testament : 

"First: I commit my soul into the hands of Almighty 
God, hoping he may receive it in mercy ; and next I com- 
mit my body to the earth. I do also appoint my trusty 
friend, Samuel Forman, to be my lawful executor, and 
after all my just debts are paid, I desire that he do di- 
vide the rest of my substance whether by book debts. 
notes or any effects whatever belonging to me, equally 
between my two children, Elizabeth and Martha Huddy. 

" In witness whereof I have hereunto signed my 
name this twelfth day of April, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty two. 

"Joshua Huddy." 

The will was written on half a sheet of foolcap paper, 
on the back of which was the following endorsement, 
evidently written shortly after the will was executed : 
* " The will of Captain Joshua Huddy, made and ex- 
ecuted the same day the refugees murdered him, April 
12th, 1782." 

The will was found some years ago among the pa- 
pers of his executor, the late Colonel Samuel Forman and 
subsequently came into the possession of Judge Benning- 
ton F. Randolph, who deposited it in the library of the 
New Jersey Historical Society. It was signed by Capt- 
Huddy, but was apparently written by another person. 
The daughters named in the will subsequently became 
Elizabeth Green and Martha Piatt. The last named 


moved to Cincinnati where she lived to an advanced age. 
"Timothy Brooks, a refugee, who was one of Lippen- 

cott's party, testified in New York before a Board of In- 
quiry, that Huddy was executed by a negro and that Lip- 
pencott shook hands with Huddy as the latter was stand- 
Lag on the barrel by Huddy's request. 

After his inhuman murder his body was left hang- 
ing until afternoon, when the Americans came and took 
it to Freehold, to the house of Captain James Greene, 
where it was, April 15th. He was buried with the honors 
of war. His funeral sermon was preached by the well 
remembered Rev. Dr. John Woodhull, pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church, Freehold. 

The execution of Huddy was regarded by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief as a matter of such high import that, in 
anticipation of the action of Congress upon his letter, he 
had directed that the general officers of the army, and 
the officers commanding brigades and regiments, should 
assemble at West Point and decide on what measures 
should be adopted. On the 19th day of April the meet- 
ing was held at the quarters of General Heath, when the 
following questions propounded by Washington were 
stated : 

" Shall there be retaliation for the murder of 

" On whom shall it be inflicted ?" 

"How shall the victim be designated?" 

General Heath in his memoirs describes the de- 
liberations of the officers as independent of each other; 
no conversation was permitted between them on the 
question submitted, but each one was to write his own 
opinion, seal it up, and address it to the Commander-in- 
Chief. By this process it was found the decision was 
unanimous that retaliation should take place ; that it 
should be inflicted on an officer of equal rank ; and the 
designation should be made by lot from among the 
prisoners of war who had surrendered at discretion, and 
not under convention or capitulation. 

This decision was approved by Washington, who 


gave immediate information of his intention to retaliate, 
to the British Commander, unless the perpetrator of the 
bloody deed should be given up for execution. 

Baron de Grimm, in his celebrated Memoirs, states, 
without any qualifications, that George III gave orders 
" that the author of a crime which dishonored the English 
nation, should he given up for punishment" but he was 
not obeyed. It is highly probable that this statement is 
true ; the writer recorded it in 1775, and from the advan- 
tageous position he occupied, must be presumed to have 
known the fact. (Vol. iv., p. 272.) 

The people of New Jersey were exasperated bej'ond 
measure at the bloody catastrophe ; but when it was 
ascertained that the murderer would not be surrendered 
or punished, their indignation prompted the bold attempt 
to seize the miscreant by force. To effect this purpose, 
Captain Adam Hyler, of New Brunswick, having ascer- 
tained that Lippencott resided in Broad street, New 
York, with a crew disguised as a British press gang, left 
the Kills at dark in a single boat, and arrived at White- 
hall about nine o'clock. Here he left the boat in charge 
of a few men, and passed directly to Lippencott's house, 
where, on inquiry, it was ascertained he had gone to 
Cock Pit. (Naval Magazine, November, 1839.) The ex- 
pedition of course failed ; but the promptness with which 
it was conducted proves the devotion of the brave men 
who were engaged in the common cause, and their exe- 
cration of Huddy's assassin. 

The demand for Lippencott having been refused, 
General Washington, on the 4th of May, directed Briga- 
dier-General Hogan to designate by lot, from among the 
prisoners at either of the posts in Pennsylvania or Mary- 
land, a British Captain who had been unconditionally 
surrendered. As it was ascertained that no such officer 
was in his power, a second order was issued on the 13th 
of May, extending the selection to the officers who had 
been made prisoners by convention or capitulation. 
Under this last dispatch, the British Captains who had 


been captured at Yorktown were assembled at Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, and the lot fell upon Captain Asgill. 

Charles Asgill was a Captain of the guards, of a 
noble family, and at the time he was designated to suffer, 
but nineteen years of age. He was captured at York- 
town, confined during the winter of 1781-82 at Winches- 
ter, in Virginia, and had been removed but a short time 
to York, Pennsylvania, when the lot was cast against 

Captain Asgill was conducted to Philadelphia, and 
from thence was removed to Chatham. He was accom- 
panied by his friend, Major Gordon, who attended him 
with the devotion of a parent to a child. 

In the meanwhile the execution was suspended, but 
every effort was exerted, every plan that ingenuity could 
devise or sympathy suggest adopted to save the innocent 
sufferer. Major Gordon appealed to the French Minister, 
then in Philadelphia ; he wrote to the Count de Rochem- 
beau, and despatched messengers to numerous influential 
Whigs throughout the Colonies to interest them in be- 
half of his friend ; and so eloquent and importunate were 
his appeals, that it is said by General Graham, " that 
even the family of Captain Huddy became themselves 
suppliants in Asgill's favor." These untiring exertions 
unquestionably contributed to postpone the fate of the 
victim until the final and successful intercession of the 
French Court obtained his release. 

When Lady Asgill heard of the peril which im- 
pended over her son, her husband was exhausted by dis- 
ease, and while the effect of the intelligence was pent 
powerfully up in her mind, it produced delirium in that 
of her daughter. Under all these embarrassments she 
applied to King George the III., who, it is said, ordered 
the cause of this measure of retaliation, the wretched 
Lippencott, to be delivered up, which Clinton contrived 
to avoid. She did not cease her importunities until she 
had dictated a most eloquent and impassioned appeal to 
the Count de Vergennes, who laid it before the King and 
Queen of France, and was immediately directed to com- 


municate with General Washington and implore the re- 
Lease of the sufferer. A letter, says the Baron tie Grimm, 
•• tlif eloquence of which, independent of oratorical 
forms, is that of all people, and all languages, because it 
derives its power from the first and noblest sentiment of 
our nature." 

For seven months the fate of this interesting young 
officer remained suspended, when, chiefly through the 
intercession of the French Court, he was set at liberty. 
The following are the proceedings of Congress directing 
his discharge : 

Thursday, November 7, 1782. 

On the report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. 
Rutledge, Mr. Osgood, Mr. Montgomery, Mr. Boudiuot, 
and Mr. Duane, to whom was referred the letter of the 
19th of August last, from the Commander-in-Chief, the 
report of a committee thereon, and the motives of Mr. 
Williamson and Mr. Eutledge ; and also, another letter 
from the Commander-in-Chief, with a copy of a Letter to 
him from the Count de Vergennss, dated July 29bh last. 
interceding for Captain Asgill : 

Resolved, That the Commander-in-Chief be, and he 
hereby is directed, to set Captain Asgill at liberty. 

A copy of the foregoing proceedings and resolution 
was forwarded by General Washington to Captain Asgill, 
together with a letter, given below, which exhibits the 
moral excellence, the great and commanding attributes 
that always distinguished the Father of his Country. 
"The decision of General Washington in this delicate 
affair, the deep interest felt by the American people for 
the youthful sufferer, the pathetic app >als of Lady Asgill 
to the Count de Yt-rgennes in behalf of her son (in the 
language of Congress in 1837), forms one of the most im- 
portant and instructive portions of revolutionary his- 


Sir: — It affords me singular satisfaction to have it 
in my power to transmit to you the enclosed copy of an 
act of Congress of the 7th insi, by which you are relieved 


from the disagreeable circumstances in which you have 
been so long. Supposing that you would wish to go to 
New York us soon as possible, I also enclose a passporl 
for that purpose. Four letter of the 18th came regularly 
to my hands. I beg of you to believe that my not answer- 
ing it sooner did not proceed from inattention to you, or a 
want of feeling for your situation; but I daily expected 
a determination of your case, and I thought it better to 
await that than to feed you with hopes that might in the 
end prove fruitless. You will attribute my detention of 
the enclosed letters, which have been in my possession 
a fortnight, to the same cause. I cannot take leave of 
you, sir, without assuring you that, in whatever light my 
agency in this unpleasant affair may be viewed, I was 
never influenced throughout the whole of it by san- 
guinary motives, but what I conceived to be a sense of 
duty, which loudly called upon me to use measures, how- 
ever disagreeable, to prevent a repetition of those 
enormities which have been the subject of discussion ; 
and that this important end is likely to be answered 
without the effusion of the blood of an innocent person, 
is not a greater relief to you than it is to me. 

Sir, &c. George Washington. 

Immediately after this letter released him, Captain 
Asgill prepared himself to return to England, and in a 
short time embarked. The second letter of Lady Asgill 
to Count de Yergennes contained the eloquent outpour- 
ings of a grateful heart. 


During the Revolutionary war, Toms River, for such 
a small village, was evidently c^uite a busy, lively place, 
betsveen the militia, the Refugees and the arrival and 
departure of privateers and their prizes ; the arrival of 
boats and teams with salt from the several works along 
the bay; the departure of teams for West Jersey with 
salt, oysters, fish, etc., and their return with merchandise ; 
the visits of business men from different parts of the 


State to purchase captured vessels or their cargoes, and 
the rafts or scows from the sawmills with lumber for ves- 
sels to carry to places iu the State when they could run 
with safety. It would seem also that sometimes pleasure 
or fishing parties from other places visited the village, as 
on the 14th of May, 1780, Major John Van Emburgh, of 
Middlesex county, and eight or nine men came to Toms 
River to go out on a fishing excursion, but they were 
surprised in bed by the Refugees and made prisoners, 
and put on board of a vessel to be sent to New York. 
They were fortunate enough, however, to escape a few 
days after. 

Near Toms River bridge were buildings owned by 
men engaged in the manufacture of salt. They were used 
to store salt from the various works along the bay, and 
also for provisions and supplies for men employed in the 
manufacture and transportation of this article. In 1777 
Colonel John Morris, of the New Jersey Royal Volun- 
teers, a Refugee organization, was sent to destroy these 
buildings. But a man named John Williams " had 
placed the significant letter ' R ' on them by order of 
General Skinner" (says Sabine, in his History of Loyal- 
ists). General Cortlandt Skinner was in the British ser- 
vice and commander of a brigade of about eleven hun- 
dred New Jersey Refugees, or Royalists, as they called 
themselves. No explanation is given of what was meant 
by " the significant letter R," but the inference is that 
some of the owners had accepted papers guaranteeing 
British protection, which were given by John Lawrence 
(of Lawrence's line note), and perhaps others, to all who 
signed a pledge not to aid the Americans, but to adhere 
to the Crown. The partnership business in some of the 
salt works above Toms River, which had their depot in 
the village, seems at times to have perplexed armed par- 
ties of both sides, as some owners were known active 
patriots, and others sympathized with the British. A 
British expedition from New York in 1778 destroyed 
works at the head of the bay, which were owned in part 
by Loyalists, much to their dissatisfaction and to tho 
gratification of the Americans. 


The soldiers stationed at Toms River during the 

war were mainly twelve months' men, but probably oc- 
casionally by men who were to serve Pour months, at the 
expiration of which time they could be relieved, unless 
in actual service against the enemy. Among the officers 

who were stationed here were Captains Ephraim Jenkins, 
.! aines Mott, John Stout and Joshua Huddy. Captain 
Mott had command of a company called the Sixth Com- 
pany of Dover, and Captain Stout, of the Seventh Com- 
pany of Dover. The Fifth Company of militia was com- 
manded by Captain Reuben F. Randolph, of Manna- 
hawkin. The commissions of some of these men are in 
the library of the New Jersey Historical Society. 

It would seem that a number of soldiers from Penn- 
sylvania were also stationed uot far from the village, as 
the Pennsylvania State Council, November 2, 1776, 
ordered that an officer aud twenty-five men be sent to 
Toms River to guard salt works erected by that State, 
the soldiers to take twenty-five spare muskets, two 
howitzers and a sufficient quantity of ammunition for 
defence in case of attack. On the 8th of April, 1777, the 
following resolution was passed by the Continental Con- 
gress : 

" Resolved, That it be recommended to the Governor 
and Council of Safety of New Jersey not to call into the 
field such part of their militia, not exceeding forty, as 
are necessarily employed in the salt works now erecting 
in their State by the Governor of Pennsylvania; provided 
it be not inconsistent with the laws of the State." 

To this the New Jersey Council of Safety made the 
following reply : 

" The exemption above recommended is inconsistent 
with the militia law of the State, but if the Government 
of Pennsylvania will carry on said works with the in- 
habitants of their own commonwealth, care shall be 
taken to have them exempted as above, though they will 
also be liable to be called into the field by the said act 
as it now stands, as becoming, by their residence here, 
subjects of this State to that purpose. 

" William Livingston." 

The dirties of the militia stationed at Toms River 


were to guard the inhabitants from depredations by the 
Refugees ; tf> check contraband trade with the enemy at 
New York by way of Cranberry Inlet, and to aid our 
privateers who brought vessels into the inlet. 

Cranberry Inlet, nearly opposite the mouth of Toms 
River, was then open, and perhaps the best inlet on the 
coast, except Little Egg Harbor. On this account it was 
a favorite base of operations for American privateers on 
the lookout for vessels carrying supplies to the British 
at New York. 


In the early part of 1778 Captain Peter Anderson, 
in a boat with sixteen men, captured the sloop "Hazard" 
and brought her into Toms River. She was loaded with 
Irish beef and pork. The Court of Admiralty to adjust 
his claim and that of his men, for their prize was held at 
Allentown, at the house of Gilbert Barton. 

About the first of August, 1778, the British ship 
"Love arid Unity" was run ashore, it was said designedly, 
on the beach nearly opposite Toms River. She had a 
valuable cargo, consisting of eighty hogsheads of loaf 
sugar, several thousand bottles of London porter and 
Bristol beer, and other articles. She was taken posses- 
sion of by the militia from Toms River and brought into 
Cranberry Inlet. This ship was one of the most valu- 
able prizes captured by the Americans in this vicinity. 
A Court of Admiralty was held at the Court House at 
Trenton, August 28, 1778, to try the claim of Benjamin 
LYatt and others of her captors. The ship was adver- 
tised to be sold by the Marshal, John Stokes, at Toms 
River, August 31, together with a part of her cargo, con- 
sisting of Bristol beer, cider, porter, salt, Hour, cheese, 
red and white wine, Queen's and delf ware, double-flint 
wine glasses and tumblers, etc. A part of her cargo had 
been removed to Manasquan, and was advertised to be 
sold ten days later, on September 2d. The ship was re- 


named the "Washington" by the purchasers .-it the sale. 
She was too valuable for the British not to attempt to 
regain her. On September 18, a little over two weeks 
after her sale, two British armed ships and two brigs 
came close to the bar of the inlet where they Lay all 
night. Next morning between 7 and 8 o'clock they si nt 
in seven armed boats and retook the ship, and also took 
two sloops near the bar and captured most of their 
crews. The American captain of the ship and most of 
his men escaped to the main land. The pilot of the 
British expedition was the notorious William Dillon, 
who had just before been in Freehold Jail under sentence 
of death. After the American captain of the ship reached 
shore, a refugee named Robert McMullen, who had been 
in Freehold Jail and condemned to death with Dillon 
but pardoned, jumped into the boat, hurrahing for the 
British and rowed off and joined them. 

In the early part of March, 1779, the sloop " Suc- 
cess" came ashore on the north beach and was made a 
prize of by the militia under John, probably the John 
Price of Goodluck, known as Major after the war. The 
sloop proved to be a valuable prize, as she was loaded 
with molasses, coffee, cocoa, rum, etc. She had previous- 
ly bee a captured by the British brig "Diligence" and a 
prize master and three men put on board of her to take 
her to New York. When she came ashore the prize mas- 
ter and the three men were made prisoners and sent to 
Princeton. She was advertised to be sold as she lay >n 
Island Beach, by order of the Court of Admiralty, by 
Joseph Potts, Marshal, on April 7, 1779, the sale to take 
place at Toms River ; her cargo was to be sold at the 
same time. On the 26th of April, Marshal Potts pulf- 
lished the following order : 

"The people concerned in capturing the sloop "Suc- 
cess" are desired to meet me at the house of Daniel 
Griggs at Toms River, on Thursday the 13th of May 
next, to receive their proportion of the moneys arising 
from the sales of said sloop and cargo. All persons indebted 
for goods bought at above sale are requested to make 
immediate payment to Mr. Abiel Akins at Toms River, 


or to the subscriber at Cranberry, that he may be able to 
close the accounts by the time mentioned. 

Joseph Potts." 

Major John Cook, who was killed in the action at 
the Block House, was a resident of Toms River and in- 
terested in privateering. He captured the sloop " Fanny,'' 
Captain Bell, and his claim was adjudicated at a Court 
held at the house of Gilbert Barton, Allentown, February 
24, 1779. 

John Chadwick had a claim before the same Court 
for the capture of the schooner "Hope." This vessel and 
the " Fanny," captured by Major Cook, were brought to 
Toms River and they and their cargoes, consisting of 
pitch, tar, salt and other articles, were advertised to be 
sold here March 1, 1779, by Joseph Potts, Marshal. 

John Kaiglm about the same time, claimed as a prize 
the sloop "Experiment." The vessel and her cargo, 
which consisted of 1,500 bushels of salt, was at the Union 
Salt Works, Manasquan, and she was advertised to be 
sold May 7, 1779. No particulars are given of her cap- 
ture, but it was alleged that some persons in that vi- 
cinity owning salt works or shares in them, were British 
sympathizers and had accepted papers guaranteeing 
British protection to obtain which they had to pledge al- 
legiance to the Crown to agents of the British. John 
Lawrence, the noted surveyor who ran the celebrated 
Lawrence Line between East and West Jersey, was the 
most prominent agent of the British in secretly traveling 
around and persuading people to accept British protec- 
tion ; he was finally arrested for it by the Americans and 
imprisoned in Burlington Jail. The Union Salt Works 
above named, were advertised to be sold March '21, 1779, 
by Nathaniel Lewis, Joseph Newbold and John Kaiglm, 
all probably of West Jersey. 

Joseph Salter advertised to sell May 2, 1779, the 
sloop "Lively," together with her cargo of lumber, at the 
house of John Cooke (Major John Cooke). It is not 
stated why the vessel was to be sold. She may have been 
the private property of Salter, who, it is supposed, re- 


moved from Toms River about this time. The mention 
of Lumber shows that the Lumber business was still car- 
ried on in the vicinity. 

Iu the latter part of L780, Captain Joshua Studsonof 
Toms River took two prizes, the schooner "John" and 
sloop "Catherine," in Baritan Bay, near south side of 
State n Island. The prizes were taken to Middletown 
Point. The Admiralty Court to adjust claims for these 
prizes was held at the house of Isaac Wood, Mount Hol- 
ly, and the vessels were advertised to be sold at Mon- 
mouth Court House, January 1, 1781. Just a month be- 
fore this, Captain Studson was killed by the Refugee 
Bacon at the inlet, opposite Toms River. 

About the close of the year 1780, Captain Samuel 
Bigelow, who, before the war, lived on Wrangle Brook, a 
short distance from Toms River, captured a prize under 
the following circumstances: The brig "Dove," from 
Tortola, West Indies, bound to New York, fell short of 
water and provisions ; her master, Captain Hannel, mis- 
took this coast for Long Island and sent a boat with four 
men ashore to obtain supplies. These men were retained, 
and Captain Bigelow and others manned two boats and 
went out and captured the brig and brought her up to 
Toms River without difficulty. The brig, with her cargo 
of 140 puncheons of rum, was advertised to be sold at 
Toms River, January 3, 1781, by John Burrowes, Mar- 
shal. On the 25th of January, 1781, Captain Bigelow and 
Samuel Allen had their claims for prize money for these 
sales before a Court held at the house of Gilbert Barton, 

Captain Bigelow also made a prize of another vessel 
called the "Betsey," which had belonged to citizens of 
Delaware, where she was taken by the British out of a 
place called Muskmelon Creek. On her way to New 
York she was driven in a storm ashore near the bar of 
Cranberry, where Captain Bigelow recaptured her. His 
prize claim was adjusted at a Court held at the house of 
Isaac Woods, Mount Holly. 

On January 24, 1780, a sale at the house of James 


Lippencott, Toms River, was advertised to take place, by 
Zachariah Rossell, Marshal, of a quantity of rum ; also 
of sails, rigging and hull of ship lying at Cranberry Inlet. 
Perhaps the sloop was the " Betsey," captured by Capt. 

James Randolph and Moses Bobbins, of Toms 
River, presented a claim before an Admiralty Court at 
Allentown, January 25, 1781, against the sloop "Bruns- 
wick," of which Joshua Wooding had been captain, which 
had been cast away on the beach. Randolph and Rob- 
bins' claim was on behalf of themselves, Jacob Wilcot 
and others, who took possession of the vessel. 

In the early part of 1782, just before the Block 
House at Toms River was taken by the British, Captain 
William Gray, in the privateer "Dart," of Salem, Mass., 
took a prize sloop from the British galley "Black Jack." 
Captain Gray seems to have been a driving, daring man, 
who lost no chance to annoy the enemy. It was an- 
nounced, March ID, 1782, that he had brought his prize 
sloop to Toms River. The next day he went with his boat 
and seven men in pursuit of a British brig near the inlet. 
Unfortunately for him, instead of taking a prize, he was 
captured himself. For some time the people of Toms 
River wondered what had become of him ; in August fol- 
lowing they heard that after he got out of the inlet he 
was taken prisoner and carried to Halifax, and subse- 
quently released on parole. He said he was well treated 
while a prisoner. 

While Captain Gray was cruising out of Toms River 
he captured one prize that probably was one cause of 
the expedition which captured the Block House and 
burned the village of Toms River. This prize was the 
sloop " Lucy," of which the notorious William Dillon 
was captain. She was engaged in contraband trade from 
Egg Harbor and other shore places to New York. The 
following is a copy of the advertisement relating to Dil- 
lon's vessel published in the early part of March, 1782. 

" To all whom it may concern : 

"Notice is hereby given, That a Court will be held at 


the house of James Green, at Freehold, iii the county of 
Monmouth, on the 16th day of March next, at the hour 
of ten o'clock of the forenoon of the same day, then and 
there to try the truth of the facts alleged in the hill of 
Captain William Gray (who as well, &c.,) against the 
sloop or vessel called the " Lucy," taken on her voyage 
from Egg Harbor to New York, William Dillon late mas- 
ter, with her tackle, furniture and cargo, and a negro 
man named York. To the end and intent that the owner 
or owners of said vessel, or any other person or persons 
interested therein, may appear and show cause, if any 
they have, why the said cargo and negro man should not 
be condemned to the captors pursuant to the prayer of 
said bill. Abiel Akin." 

Abie! Akin was a leading patriot of Toms River, Jus- 
tice of the Peace and prominent generally in public mat- 
ters. Captain James Green, at whose house at Freehold 
the court was to be held, it is supposed was the same 
who married Captain Joshua Huddy's daughter, and it 
was to his house, shortly after, that the body of Captain 
Huddy was brought after he was murdered by the Refu- 
gees near the Highlands. Many trials were held at Cap- 
tain Green's house during the war. The court to adju- 
dicate on claims relating to prize "Lucy" was to be held 
the 16th of March, which was Saturday. The following- 
Saturday the British expedition from New York arrived 
at Cranberry inlet, and the next da) the Block House 
was captured and the village, burned, Esquire Abiel 
Aldus house among the rest. Dillon, from whose family 
Dillon's Island derived its name, was evidently well 
acquainted with the coast, as he was captain of a coast- 
ing vessel and had lived so near the bay. He bore no 
good will to the patriots, for he had once been sentenced 
to death by them, and now he had had his vessel cap- 
tured. The British had sent expeditions to destroy 
privateers up the Raritan as far as New Brunswick, and 
also at Chestnut Neck and other places around Egg Har- 
bor. And the expedition to Toms River, so soon after 
Dillon lost his vessel, leads to the conclusion that he 
went to New York and induced the British commandant 
there to send the expedition to Toms River and inflict 


vengeance on all persons interested in privateering, or 
who aided the patriot cause, with most of whom he was 
personally acquainted. And he was the willing pilot of 
this fleet that came to destroy his former neighbors and 
burn their homes. It was undoubtedly he who pointed 
out what houses to destroy and what to spare. The 
house of Mrs. Studson, whose husband had recently been 
murdered by Bacon, was spared, and also the house of 
Aaron Buck, whose wife was a niece of Dillon's, Buck 
having married his brother's daughter. 

Another prize brought into Toms River was the 
schooner " Speedwell," which had been captured by the 
daring Captain Adam Hyler. The " Speedwell " was 
nearly new and of about twenty-two tons burden. The 
sale of this vessel was advertised to take place at Free- 
hold June 20, 1782, at the house of Captain James Green, 
by Robert Hude and John Bray, agents. This vessel 
had been captured by the British and recaptured by 
Captain Hyler. Toms River had been burned about 
three months before this sale took place, and it is not 
probable that there were any houses in the village to 
accommodate persons who might desire to purchase the 
" Speedwell," and hence a reason for the sale at Free- 

In the early part of 1783, some of the Mannahawkin 
militia, under the lead of Captain Joseph Randolph and 
Nathan Crane, Adjutant in the militia, made prizes of 
the schooners " Polly " and " Dilly Latta," with two hun- 
dred and two barrels of flour and fifteen kegs of bread. 
These vessels had been captured by the British and cast 
away on the beach, where they were retaken by the 
Americans. The prize claims of Captain Randolph and 
Adjutant Crane were adjudicated by a court held at the 
house of Benjamin Lawrence, Allentown, Joseph Law- 
rence, judge. 

The following account of the capture and sale of a 
prize brings to light an interesting fact in the Revolu- 
tionary history of Toms River, which is the name of one 


of the first, if not the first, of the citizens of the place 
who rebuilt a house after the village was burned. 

In the early part of 1783, Captain John Wanton, in 
the armed boat " General Washington," captured the 
sloop " Rebecca" and brought her into Toms River. She 
had been captured by the British brig "Renown," an I 
retaken by Captain Wanton. The following is a copy of 
the advertisement for her sale : 

"To be sold at public vendue, at 10 o'clock, on Fri- 
day, March 14, 1783, at the house of Moses Bobbins, at 
head of Toms River, the sloop Rebecca, with her cargo 
of 330 barrels of flour, a few barrels of pork, &c, lately 
captured by Captain John Wanton. 

" David Potter, Marshal." 

From the above it seems that Moses Bobbins, who 
was wounded in the fight at the Block Hoiise, had a 
house then built suitable for business. 

The following notice of a prize brought to Toms 
River by Rhode Islanders is from a certificate in posses- 
sion of Hon. Ephraim P. Emson: 

"Providence, Feb. 21, 1777. 
" This may certify that Messrs. Clark and Nightin- 
gale and Captain William Rhodes have purchased here 
at vendue the schooner Popes Head, which was taken 
by the privateer "Sally and Joseph" (under our com- 
mand) and carried into Cranberry Inlet, in the Jersies, 
and there delivered to the care of Mr. James Randolph 
by our prize masters. 

"James Maro, 
"John Fish." 

On the 9th of December, 1778, it was announced that 
a British armed vessel, bound from Halifax to New York, 
and richly ladened, came ashore near Barnegat. The 
crew, about sixty in number, surrendered themselves 
prisoners to the militia. Goods to the amount of five 
thousand pounds sterling were taken out of her by our 
citizens, and a number of prisoners sent to Bordentown, 
at which place the balance of prisoners were expected. 

In the winter of 1780-1 the British ship "Molly" 
was driven ashore in a snow storm on the beach (at what 


point not stated and her crew made prisoners and sent 
to Philadelphia. 

In December, 177 s . Captain Alexander, of the sloop 
"Elizabeth," of Baltimore, was taken by the British. 

He was permitted to leave in a small boat, and lie landed 
at Cranberry Inlet. 

In January. 1778, the sloop "Two Friends," Captain 
Alexander Bonnett. of Hispaniola, was cast away near 
Barnegat Inlet with 1,600 bags of salt, forty-eight hogs- 
heads of molasses, also a lot of rum, sugar, etc. Only 
L60 gallons of rum was saved. The shore people went 
to their assistance, but one man was lost. Captain Bon- 
nett then shipped as a passenger in the sloop " En- 
deavor," at Toms River, for New York; but, sad to 
relate, while she lay at the inlet at anchor a storm parted 
her cable -and all on board were drowned in the bay. 


Captain Studson, during the He volution, lived at 
Toms River, on the bank of the river a few hundred 
yards below the present bridge. He was a captain in the 

privateer service and was also appointed a lieutenant in 
Captain Ephraim Jenkins' company of militia, June 14, 
1780. In the latter part of 1783,' Captain Sbudson took 
two prizes, tie- schooner "John" and the sloop "Cath- 
arine," on the south side of Staten Island, in Princes or 
Raritan Bay. The prizes were taken to Middletown. The 
Admiralty Court, which adjusted prize claims in his i 
met at the house of Isaac Wood, Mount Holly, and the 
vesst-ls were advertised to be sold at public sale at Free- 
hold Court House, January 1, 1781. Just a mouth before 
this sale, on December 1, 1780, Studson was killed by 
the Refugee Bacon. It would seem that after taking his 
prizes to Middletown Point, he sailed down the beach and 
into the inlet, and thence up to Toms Paver, probably to 
lay up his vessel for winter. The particulars of his death 
have been hande 1 down as follows: 

Three men living along the bay, named Asa Wood- 

DEATH 01 I U'TAIN J0BH1 A si l D80N. 203 

mansee, Richard Barber and Thomas Collins, hearing 
that farm produce was bringing exorbitant prices among 
the British at New 5Tork, loaded a whale boat with truck 
from farms along the bay and proceeded to New York by 
way of old Cranberry Inlet, which was then open nearly 
opposite Toms River. These men were not known as 
B >fuge s, hut undertook the trip merely to make a little 
money by a kind of "running the blockade" business on 
a small scale. They arrived safely in New York, sold out 
their produce, and were about returning home, when the 
noted Refugee, Captain John Bacon, called on them and 
insisted on taking passage hack in the whale boat. 
Much against their will they were forced to allow him to 
come on board. They arrived near Cranberry Inlet be- 
fore sundown, and lay outside until after dark, being 
afraid to venture in the bay during the day. In the mean- 
time the patriot militia stationed at Toms River had got 
wind of their proceedings, and being determined to put 
a stop to the contraband trade, a small party under com- 
mand of Lieutenant Joshua Stndson took a boat and 
went across to the inlet and concealed themselves behind 
a point just inside. After dark the whale boat came in, 
but no sooner had it rounded the point than to the con- 
sternation of those on board they saw the boat of the 
militia so close by that there was no apparent chance of 
escape. Lieutenant Stndson stood up in his boat and 
called upon them to surrender. The unfortunate specu- 
lators were unarmed and in favor of yielding, but Bacon 
knowing that his life was already forfeited, refused, and 
having his musket loaded, suddenly fired with so deadly 
an aim that the brave lieutenant instantly dropped dead 
in the boat. The sudden, unexpected firing, and the 
death of Studson, threw the militia into momentary con- 
fusion, and before they could decide how to act the 
whale boat was out of sight in the darkness. The mil- 
itia rowed back to Toms River the same night, and land- 
ing in front of the house, some of the number went up 
and aroused Mrs. Studson, and told her the sad news. 
His unexpected death, and so shortly after leaving home, 


completely overwhelmed her with sorrow. The men pro- 
cured a blanket from the house aud went down to their 
boat, took the body of Captain Studson and put it in the 
blanket and carried it up to the house. 

The crew of the whaleboat, knowing it was not safe 
for them to remain at home after this affair, fled to the 
British army and were forced into service, but were of 
little use as "they were sick with the small pox, and suf- 
fered everything but death," as one of them (Collins) 
said, during their stay with the British. Taking ad- 
vantage of one of General Washington's proclamations, 
offering protection to deserters from the British army, 
they were afterwards allowed to return home. James 
Mills, an aged, respected citizen now living at Barnegat, 
born 1806, in his young days resided with one of the 
Woodmansees on the James Jones place, at Forked 
River, and frequentky met one or two of these ill-starred 
blockade runners. Thomas Collins lived to an advanced 
age, and was always badly scarred from the small pox, 
which he caught within the British lines. 

Not long after the war, Mrs. Studson married a man 
named Chamberlain at Toms River. 



In giving an account of this affair we shall first copy 
a brief statement from Haves Collections the editor of 
which visited the place in 1842 in search of historical 
information relating to olden times in old Monmouth : 

"In the American Revolution, a rude fort or block- 
house was erected a short distance north of the bridge, 
at the village of Toms River, on a hill about a hundred 
yards east of the road to Freehold, on land now belong- 
ing to the heirs of Elijah Robbins, deceased. In the lat- 
ter part of the war, this blockhouse was attacked by a 
superior force of the enemy. Its commander, Captain 
Joshua Huddy, most gallantly defended it until his am- 


munition was expended and no alternative l>u< surren- 
der left. After the brave Little garrison was in their 
power, it is said the}' deliberately murdered five men ask- 
ing for quarter. From thence Captain Huddy, Justice 
Randolph, and the remaining prisoners were taken to 
New York, where, suffering the various progressions of 
barbarity inflicted upon those destined to a violent or 
lingering death, these two gentlemen, with a Mr. Fleming 
were put into the hold of a vessel. Captain Huddy was 
ironed hand and foot, and shortly after barbarously 
hanged on the shore of the Highlands of Navesink." 

The tory organ, RivingtorC 8 Royal Gazette, of New 
York, gave the following account of the battle : 

" On Wednesday, the 20th inst. (March, 1782,) Lieu- 
tenant Blanchard, of the armed whale boats, and about 
eighty men belonging to them, with Captain Thomas and 
Lieutenant Roberts, both of the late Bucks County Vol- 
unteers, and between thirty and forty other Refugee 
loyalists, the whole under the command of Lieutenant 
Blanchard, proceeded to Sandy Hook under the convoy 
of Captain Stewart Ross, in the armed brig 'Arrogant,' 
where they were detained by unfavorable winds until the 
23d. About 12 o'clock on that night the party landed 
near the mouth of Toms River and marched to the Block 
House at the town of Dover (now Toms River), and 
reached it just at daylight. On their way they were chal- 
lenged and fired upon, and when they came to the works 
they found the rebels, consisting of twenty-five or twenty- 
six twelve months' men and militia, apprized of their 
coming and prepared for defence. 

" The post into which the rebels had thrown them- 
selves was six or seven feet high, made wjth large logs, 
with loop-holes between and a number of brass swivels 
on the top, which was entirely open, nor was there any 
way of entering but by climbing over. They had, besides 
swivels, muskets with bayonets and long pikes for their 
defence. Lieutenant Blanchard summoned them to sur- 
render, which they not only refused, but bid the party 
defiance ; on which he immediately ordered the place to 


be stormed, which was accordingly done, and though de- 
fended with obstinacy, was soon carried. The rebels had 
nine men killed in the assault, and twelve made prisoners, 
two of whom are wounded. The rest made their escape 
in the confusion. Among the killed Mas a Major of the 
militia, two Captains and one Lieutenant. The Captain 
of the twelve months' men stationed there is among the 
prisoners, who are all brought safe to town. On our side 
two were killed — Lieutenant Iredell, of the armed boat- 
men, and Lieutenant Inslee, of the Loyalists, both very 
brave officers, who distinguished themselves on the at- 
tack, and whose loss is much lamented. Lieutenant 
Roberts and five others are wounded, but it is thought 
none of them are in a dangerous way. 

" The Town, as it is called, consisting of about a 
dozen houses, in which none but a piratical set of ban- 
ditti resided, together with a grist and saw-mill, were, 
with the Block House burned to the ground, and an iron 
cannon spiked and thrown into the river. A fine large 
barge i called Hyler's barge, ) and another boat in which 
the rebels used to make their excursions on the coast, 
were brought off. Some other attempts were intended to 
have been made, but the appearance of bad weather, 
and the situation of the wounded, being without either 
surgeon or medicines, induced the party to return to New 
York where they arrived on the 25th.'" 

The attack on Toms River was made on Suuday 
morning, March 24th, 1782. No Tory or Tory sympa- 
thizer was tolerated in the village of Toms River, which 
was the only reason that caused Rivington 's 11 oyal 
Gazette to call its people "banditti." 

Upon the approach of the British, the Americans 
opened fire so effectually that the British account acknow- 
ledges that seven were killed or wounded, though the 
damage inflicted upon them must have been greater. A 
negro Refugee killed, was left by them outside of the fort 
for the Americans to bury. 

What a terrible day to the inhabitants of Toms River 
was that memorable Sabbath ! Probablv not less than a 


hundred women and children were rendered homeless; 
the killed and wounded demanded immediate attention ; 
husbands and fathers were carried away captives, their 
household goods, provisions —their all destroyed. Some 
families were entirely broken up, the heads killed, 
mothers and children scattered, never as families meet- 
ing again. 



This noted Refuges leader, whose name is so well 
remembered by old residents of Monmouth, Ocean and 
Burlington, appears to have confined his operations 
chiefly to the lower part of old Monmouth county, be- 
tween Cedar Creek in what is now Ocean county and 
Tuckerton in Burlington County. His efforts were mainly 
directed to plundering the dwellings of all well known 
active members of the old Monmouth militia. Himself, 
and men were well acquainted with the roads and paths 
through the forests of Burlington and old Monmouth, 
and had numerous hiding places, cabins, caves, etc., in 
the woods and swamps, where they could remain until 
some trustworthy spy informed them of a safe chance to 
venture out on what was then termed a picarooning ex- 

About December 1st, 1780, Bacon killed Lieutenant 
Joshua Studson ; the particulars of this affair are given 
in the chapter relating to Revolutionary events at Toms 
River during the Revolution. 

Another affair in which Bacon was a prominent actor, 
was the skirmish at Mannahawkin, in Ocean county, De- 
cember 30th, 1781. The militia of this place, under com- 
mand of Captain Reuben F. Randolph, having heard that 
Bacon, with his band, was on a raiding expedition and 
would probably try to plunder some of the patriots in 
that village, assembled at the inn of Captain Randolph, 
prepared to give them a reception. After wait- 


in"- until two or three o'clock in tin* morning, they con- 
cluded it \v;is ;i false alarm, and so retired to rest, taking 
the precaution to put out sentinels. Just before daylight 
the Refugees came down the road from the north on 
their way to West Creek. The alarm was given and the 
militia hastily turned out, but were compelled to retreat, 
as the Refugees had a much larger force than they anti- 
cipated. As they were retreating, Bacon's party fired 
and killed one of the patriots named Lines Paugborn 
and wounded another named Sylvester Tilton. 

After this affair Tilton removed to Colts Neck, near 
Freehold, where we believe his descendants yet live. 


Oa one of his picarooning or raiding exp3litions, 
Bacon, with fifteen or sixteen men, plundered the dwell- 
ing house of John Holmes at Forked River, who then 
lived at the mill known in late years as Francis Cornelius' 
mill. The party camp 3d in the woo;ls, near the house, 
until daylight, and then came and demanded money. Mr. 
Holmes was supposed to be somewhat forehanded, and 
they hoped to have made a good haul. In the expecta- 
tion of such a visit he had buried many of his valuables 
in his garden. The Rsfugees pointed a bayonet to his 
breast and threatened to kill him if the money was not 
forthcoming. Mr. Holmes' wife happened to have some 
money about her, which she delivered up, and this 
seemed to satisfy them as far as money was concerned. 
They then ransacked the house and took provisions and 
such other things as they wanted. 

An ancient paper says that about the last of April, 
1780, " the Refugees attacked the house of John Holmes, 
Upper Freehold, and robbed him of a large amount of 
Continental money, a silver watch, gold ring, silver 
buckles, pistols, clothing, etc." It is possible that this 
refers to the same affair ; if so, it occurred in old Dover 
township instead of Upper Freehold. 


Bacon's party, a* this tiin •, entered the houses of 
bhe Prices and took whatever they could carry, though 
we believe these patriots, like others in those dark days, 
kept buried in gardens and fields many things they feared 

the Refugees might covet. 

Anions other zealous Americans for whom Bacon 
had strong antipathy were Joseph Soper and his son 
Reuben, both members of Captain Reuben F. Randolph's 
militia company. They lived about half way between 
Waretown and Barnegat, at a place known as " Soper' s 
Landing." His attentions to the Sopers were so frequent 
that they often had to sleep in the adjacent swamps 
along Lochiel brook. 

Mr. Soper's son Reuben was murdered by Bacon on 
Long Beach, about a mile south of Barnegat Inlet. 

At one time Mr. Soper had received pay for building 
a small vessel. Wilson, a treacherous employee, acci- 
dentally was a witness to his receiving the mousy, but he 
did not know the amount. After Wilson had left, Mr. 
Soper snspacted he would inform Bacon, aid so he 
divided his money into two parcels ; a small amount in 
one parcel and the larger part in another, and then buried 
both lots in separate places not far from the house. 

Mr. Soper at this time had taken refuge in the 
swamp, and the house was occupied only by women and 
young children. Their threats compelled the women to 
lead them into the garden to the spot where the smaller 
amount of money was buried, after receiving which 
they seemed to be satisfied, thinking it was all they had. 
They then returned to the house and made a clean sweep. 
Among other things taken by Bacon at this time was one 
of Mr. Soper's shirts, which afterwards served as Bacon's 
winding sheet, as he was subsequently killed with it on. 



This was the most atrocious affair in which Bacon 
was engaged. The inhuman massacre of sleeping men 


was in keeping with the memorable affair at Chestnut 
Neck, near Tuckerton, when Count Pulaski's guards were 
murdered by the British and Refugees. 

The massacre at Long Beach took place about a 
mile south of Barnegat light-house, and there were, we 
think, more men killed and wounded then than in any 
other action in that part of Old Monmouth now com- 
prised within the limits of Ocean county. 

A tory paper gives the following version of the affair : 

"A cutter from Ostend, hound to St. Thomas, ran 
aground on Barnegat Shoals, October 25, 1782. The 
American galley 'Alligator,' Captain Steelman, from 
Cape May, with twenty-five men, plundered her on 
Saturday night last of a quantity of Hyson tea and other 
valuable articles, but was attacked the same night by 
Captain John Bacon, with nine men, in a small boat 
called the ' Hero's Revenge,' who killed Steelman and 
wounded the First Lieutenant, and all the party except 
four or rive were either killed or wounded." 

In this account the number of Steelman' s men is 
doubtless overe-itim itad and Brcon's undsrestimated. 


The following account of the death of Bacon was 
furnished to the New York Historical Society by the late 
Governor George F. Fort. 

"John Bacon was a notorious Refugee who had com- 
mitted many depredations along the shores of Monmouth 
and Burlington counties. After having been a terror to 
the people of this section for some time, John Stewart, 
of Arney town, (afterwards Captain Stewart), resolved, if 
possible, to take him. There had been a reward of fifty 
pounds sterling offered by the Governor and Council for 
his capture, dead or alive. A short time previous, in an 
engagement at Cedar Creek Bridge, Bacon and his com- 
pany had discomfited a considerable body of State 
troops, killing a brother of Joel Cook, Burlington county. 
which excited much alarm and exasperated the whole 
county. On the occasion of his arrest, Captain Stewart 

I III l>! Mil OF BACON. 21 I 

took with him Joel Cook, John Brown, Thomas Smith, 
John Jones, and another person whose name is not recol- 
lected, ami started in pursuit, well armed. 

They traversed the shore andfound Bacon separated 
from his men at the public house or cabin of William 
Rose, between West Greek and Clamtown (now Tucker- 
ton), in Burlington County. The night was very dark, 
and Smith being in advance of the party, approached the 
house, and discovered through the window a man sittine- 
with a gun between his knees. He immediately in- 
formed his companions. ( )n arriving at the house, Cap- 
tain Stewart opened the door and presenting his musket 
demanded a surrender. The fellow sprang to his feet, 
and cocking his gun was in the aid of bringing it round 
to the breast of Stewart, when the latter, instead of dis- 
charging his piece, closed in with him and succeeded af- 
ter a scuttle in bringing him to the floor. He theu 
avowed himself to be John Bacon, and asked for quarter, 
which was at once readily granted to him by Stewart. 
They arose from the floor, and Stewart (still retaining his 
hold on Bacon) called to Cook, who, when he discovered 
the supposed murderer of his brother, became exasper- 
ated, and stepping back gave Bacon a bayonet thrust un- 
known to Stewart or his companions. Bacon appeared 
faint and fell. After a short time he recovered and at- 
tempted to escape by the back door. Stewart pushed a 
table against it. Bacon hurled it away and struck Stew- 
art to the floor, opened -the door, and again attempted to 
pass out ; but was shot by Stewart (who had regained 
his feet) while in the act. The ball passed through his 
body, through a part of the building, and struck the 
breast of Cook, who had taken position at the back door 
to prevent egress. Cook's companions were ignorant of 
the fact that he had given Bacon the bayonet wound, 
and would scarcely credit him when lie so informed them 
on their way home. They examined Bacon's body at 
Mount Misery, and the wounds made by both bayonet 
and ball were obvious. They brought his dead body to 
Jacobstown, Burlington countv, and were in the act of 


burying it in the public highway, near the villa-* in the 
presence of many citizens who had collected <>n the occa- 
sion, when llaron's brother appeared anion-- them and 
after much entreaty succeeded in obtaining his body for 
private burial." 

This affair took place on Thursday evening, April 
3rd, lis:;. 

The Refugee leaders in our State — Hetfield, Bacon, 
Lippencott, Davenport, Moody and others — all doubtless 
held com missions from the "Board of Associated Loyal- 
ists," of which the President was William Franklin, the 
last British Governor of New Jersey. 



This scoundrel, who was probably one of Daven- 
port's gang, was exceedingly obnoxious to the Americans 
on account of outrages in which he was concerned. He 
was intimately acquainted with all the roads and by- 
paths in the woods and swamps in old Dover township, 
which then extended to Oyster Creek. Tradition says, 
that early in the war he had a cave near the head-waters 
of ( Jedar Creek. 

Near Quail Run was a woman of low character, whom 
he often visited. On the day he was shot he called on 
her; she told him as the militia were after him, they 
would find him there, and advised him to go to a less 
suspected place. He was seen by some patriotic women, 
who sent information to his pursuers, who surprised him 
at the house while the woman was sitting on his lap. He 
sprang for his musket, which was in the chimney corner. 
and just as he reached it his pursuers tired through the 
window and killed him instantly. 

THE REF1 GEE l>\\ l NPOR r AM> ills i»i.\ i 11. 213 


( )u the first of June, L782, Davenport with eighty 
men, half of whom were black and half white in two 
long barges Landed al Forked River, firsi od the north 
side where they demanded provisions of Samuel and 
James Wbodmansee, brothers who then lived on the 
James Jones and Joseph Holmes places. They then 
proceeded to the south bianch of Forked River, to the 
house of Samuel Brown, an active member of the militia, 
who then lived on the place owned some twenty odd 
years ago by John Wright, still known as the Wright 
place. They plundered his house, burnt his salt works, 
and came near capturing Air. Brown himself, who just 
had time to escape to the woods. Air. Brown often had 
to sleep in the woods for fear of Refugee raids at night. 

After completing their work of destruction, the two 
barges proceeded down Forked River to its mouth, when 
one went up the bay, while the other with Davenport 
himself proceeded down the bay with the intention of 
destroying the salt works of the Americans at Waretown 
and vicinity. Davenport expected to meet with no op- 
position, as he supposed no militia were near enough to 
check him. But before he reached Oyster Creek he per- 
ceived a boat heading for him. His crew advised him to 
turn back, as they said the other boat must have some 
advantage or they would not venture to approach. 

Davenport told them they could see the other boat 
had fewer men, and ridiculed their fears. He soon found, 
however, why it was that the American boat ventured to 
attack them. Davenport's men had only muskets with 
which to defend themselves ; the Americans had a can- 
non or swivel, and when within proper distance they dis- 
charged it with so effective an aim that Davenport, who 
was standing up in the boat, was killed at the first dis- 
charge, and his barge damaged and upset by his fright- 
ened crew. It happened that the water was only about 
four feet deep and his crew waded ashore and landed 


near Oyster Creek, not far from the place lately owned 

by James Anderson, deceased, and thus escaped, scatter- 
ing themselves in various directions in the woods and 
swamps. The late John Collinsof Barnegat remembered 
some of them calling on his father and other Quakers 
begging for provisions. 

Back of Toms River is a stream railed Davenport's 
Branch, which some suppose to have derived its name 
from his having places of concealment on its banks, but 
this is an error, as the stream was known before the war 
as "Davenport's Tavern Branch." 

Samuel Brown, above named, after the war removed 
to Mannahawkin and has many descendants now living 
there and elsewhere. 


Mannahawkin, during the Revolution, was noted for 
the patriotism of its citizens. From a manuscript origin- 
ally found in Congressional Records, but now in the 
library of the New Jersey Historical Society, it appears 
that the militia company here was called the Fifth Com- 
pany of Monmouth, Reuben F. Randolph, captain, and 
Nathan Crane, lieutenant. Captain Randolph was origi- 
nally from Middlesex county. About the time of the war, 
he kept the public house at Mannahawkin. His sons, 
Thomas and Job, were in his company. As the names of 
the heroic men of his company should be preserved as 
far as possible, and especially by their descendants, we 
give a list of such as we have ascertained. 


Reuben F. Randolph, captain ; Nathan Crane, lieu- 
tenant ; James Marsh, ensign. 

Privates — Michael Bennett, Jeremiah Bennett, Sam- 
uel Bennett, Israel Bennington, Joseph Brown 1st, Joseph 
Brown 2d, Joseph Camburn, Thomas Chamberlain, 
William Casselman, Luke Courtney, Seth Crane, Amos 




Cuffee, David Howell, David Johnson, Thomas Johnson, 
David Jones, Thomas Kelson, Philip Palmer, Jr., Ben- 
jamin P. Pearson, Benjamin Paul, Enoch Read, Job Ran- 
dolph, Thomas Randolph, David Smith, Joseph Soper, 
Reuben Soper, Zachariah Southard, Jenny Sutton, Lines 
Pangburn, Sylvester Tilton. 

Of the above, Reuben Soper was killed by the Refu- 
gees on Long Beach, in October, 1782. He left a son, 
named Reuben, who has children still living, among 
them Mrs. George \Y. Lippencott, of Tuckerton, who has 
preserved several interesting old-time relics; and her 
brother, ako named Reuben Soper, inheriting the patriot- 
ism of his grandfather, enlisted in the Union army, in the 
Rebellion, was mortally wounded, and died three weeks 
after in Saterlee hospital. Lines Pangburn was killed in 
the skirmish at Mannaha wkin, December 30th, 1781. 
Sylvester Tilton was dangerously wounded at the same 
time. One of the Cranes was wounded near his own 


The Rev. J. F. Halsey, who was for two years a 
pastor of the church, wrote to the editor of the Mon- 
mouth D( moerat in 1873, giving him information relating 
to this historical old church, which we copy. He writes: 

"In the early history of the Presbyterian Church in 
Monmouth county, X. J., a special meeting was held to 
pray that the Lord would send them a minister, and at 
that meeting a Mr. Carr was selected to go to the Log 
College (now Hartsville, Pa.), where the Father of the 
Tennents preached and taught. Though it was at har- 
vest time, so eager was Mr. Carr to execute his mission 
that he started the very next day. When he had made 
known the object of his visit, he could get none of the 
sons to consent to go. But as he left to return home he 
said : ' So sure am I that I have come on the Lord's 
errand, and that our prayers will be favorably answered, 
that I shall not reach home before vou will send for me 


and assure me that 1 have not taken this journey in vain,' 

and so bid t liem farewell. 

"And sure enough, be bad not gone on his way 
more than a few miles before a messenger overtook him, 
calling him back, and assured him that Rev. John Ten- 
nent would return with him as their minister, which lie 
did. He lived and labored anion-; them less than two 
years, and was succeeded by his brother, Rev. William 
Tennent, who labored at Freehold forty-eight years, and 
is buried in the aisle of the church. 

"I said that Mr. Carr went on his mission to Ney- 
hamings, Pa., leaving his harvest unreaped. When the 
farmers had hurriedly gathered in theirs, feeling that he 
had gone on their business us well as his own — that be 
was the church's servant — they turned out and cut his 
-rain for him, and Mr. C'arr, on his return, found it put 
up in shocks in the field. A sudden and Ion- rain com- 
pelled him to leave it standing so, and so it happened 
that when the next season for sowing arrived the best 
seed grain was Mr. Carr's, as his neighbors had gathered 
in theirs before it was thoroughly ripened, and many 
applied to him for seed. 

" Such was the tradition told me more than half a 
century ago by some of my aged elders, who themselves 
had been gathered into the church under the ministry of 
Rev. William Tennent. J. F. Halsfy.'* 



The author of the Field Book of the Revolution says ; 

"I visited the battle ground of Monmouth toward 
the close of September, 1850. and had the good fortune 
to be favored with the company of Doctor John Wood- 
hull, of Freehold, in my ramble over that interesting 
locality. Dr. Woodhull is the son of the beloved minister 
of that name who succeeded Rev. William Tennent in the 
pastorial care of the congregation that worshipped in the 
Freehold meeting-house, and who, for fortv-six consecu- 


tive years, preached and prayed in thai venerated chapel. 
Dr. Wbodhull was bora in the parsonage yel upon the 
battle ground, and is so familiar with every locality and 
evenl connected with the conflict, thai I fell as if travers- 
ing the battle field with an actor in the scene." 

Mr. Lossing aexl speaks of a beavj storm which 
compelled him to take shelter in the old Tennenl church : 
resting Ids portfolio on the bigh back of an old |>eu he 
sketched a picture of the neal monument erected to the 
memory of Rev. John Woodhull, I ). D., who died No- 
vember 22d, 1824, aged 80 years. He next refers to Key- 
William Tennent who was pastor of that ilock for forty- 
three years, and then says : 

" When the storm abated we left the church and 
proceeded to the battle ground. The old parsonage is in 
the present possession of Mr. William T. Sutphen, who 
has allowed the parlor and study. of Tennent and Wood- 
hull to be used as a depository of grain and of agricul- 
tural implements ! The careless neglect which permits 
a mansion so hallowed by religion and patriotic events 
to fall into ruin is actual desecration, and much to be 
reprehended and deplored. The windows are destroyed, 
the roof is falling into the chambers, and in a few years 
not a vestige will be left of that venerable memento of 
the 'field of Monmouth.' 

"We visited the spot where Monckton fell; the 
place of the causeway across the morass (now a small 
bridge upon the main road); and after taking a general 
view of the whole ground of conflict and sketching a pic- 
ture, returned to Freehold. 

" It had been to me a day of rarest interest and 
pleasure, notwithstanding the inclement weather, for no 
battle-field in our country has stronger claims to the 
reverence of the American heart than that of the plains 
of Monmouth. * " :: " ""' * * 

"The men and women of the Revolution, but a few 
years since numerous in the neighborhood of Freehold, 
have passed away, but the narrative of their trials during 
the war have left abiding records of patriotism upon the 


hearts of their descendants. I listened to many talcs 
concerning the Pine Robbers and other desperadoes of 
the time, who kept the people of Monmonth county in a 
state of continual alarm. Many noble deeds of daring 
were achieved by the tillers of the soil and their mothers, 
wives and sisters ; and while the field of Monmouth 
attested the bravery and endurance of American soldiers, 
the inhabitants, whose households were disturbed on 
that memorable Sabbath morning by the bugle and the 
cannon peal, exhibited in their daily course the loftiest 
patriotism and manly courage. We will leave the task 
of recording the acts of their heroism to the pen of the 
local historian." 

The following item we find published in a magazine: 
"Attention has lately been called to the condition of 
the grave of Colonel Monckton, in the burial ground of 
the Freehold Meeting House, in Monmouth county, N. J. 
It should be properly cared for, for Monckton, though a 
foemarj to the Americans when he fell mortally wounded 
at the battle of Monmouth, was a gallant officer, and a 
man of irreproachable moral character." 


Lieutenant-Colonel Honorable H. Monckton, gen- 
erally called Colonel Monckton, according to both writ- 
ten and traditionary accounts was one of the most 
honorable officers in the service of the British — accom- 
plished, brave, of splendid personal appearance, and of 
irreproachable moral character. He was in the battle of 
Long Island in August, 1776, when he was shot through 
the body, and lay for many weeks at the point of death. 
He recovered, and for his gallantry on that occasion was 
promoted from the Fifth Company. Second ( Grenadiers, 
to be Lieutenant-Colonel, and was in command of the 
battalion at the Battle of Monmouth, in which the First 
and Second Royal Grenadiers bore a conspicuous part, 
and in a charge the heroic Monckton and the greater 
part of the officers of the Grenadiers — the flower of the 
British army — fell from a terrible tire from the Americans 


under Genera] Wayne. The spot where Colonel Monck- 
ton was killed is said to be abouteight roils north-east 
of the old parsonage of the Tennent Church, and he was 
buried about six foot from the west end of the church. 
About thirty years ago a board was set up to mark bis 
grave by William 11. Wilson, a native of Scotland, who 
will long and favorably be remembered by hundreds of 
citizens of Monmouth and Ocean as a successful teacher 
and for bis many good qualities of head and heart. He 
died at Forked River, in Ocean county, thirty-five years 
ago, and the respect retained for him by his old scholars 
near the battle-ground and elsewhere in Monmouth, was 
evidenced by the fact of their sending for his body and 
giving it a suitable final resting place in the vicinity of 
his first labors in this county. Mr. Wilson, or "Dominie" 
Wilson, as he was familiarly called on account of his 
once having boon a clergyman, deserves a more extended 
notice than we have space to give. 

On the board prepared and set np by Mr. Wilson 
was inscribed : 

nn JACET. 

Colonel Monckton, 
Killed 28 June, 177s. 

w. b. \v. 

Mr. Wilson may have been induced to put up the 
board by noticing that in the reminiscences of the battle 
published by Henry Howe, who visited the ground in 
18-12, attention was called to the fact that no monument 
marked the grave. 

In 1850, Benson J. Lossing visited the battle ground 
and made a sketch of the head-board which w r as given 
in his valuable work, the Field Book of the Revolution, 
and it is also given in a late number of the American 
Historical Record. Mr. Lossing says that when he visited 
the grave "the only monument that marked the spot was 
a plain board painted red, much weather worn, on which 
was drawn in black letters the inscription seen in the 
picture given. The board had been set up some years 
before bv a Scotch schoolmaster named William Wil- 


sun, who taught th«' young people in the schoolhouse 
u|)iin the green near the old Meetinghouse." Tn speak- 
ing of Colonel Monckton he says: "At the head of his 
grenadiers on the field of Monmouth, he kept them silent 
until they were within a few rods of the Americans, when 
waving his sword he shouted, "Forward to the charge!" 
Our General Wayne was on his front. At the same mo- 
ment "Mad Anthony" gave a signal to fire. A terrible 
volley poured destruction upon Monckton's grenadiers 
and almost every British officer fell. Amongst them was 
their brave leader. Over his body the combatants fought 
desperately until the Americans secured it and bore it to 
the rear." 



From various articles relating to this noted woman 
the following are selected: 

"The story of a woman who rendered essential ser- 
vice to the Americans in the battle of Monmouth is 
founded on fact. She was a female of masculine mould. 
and dressed in a mongrel suit, with the petticoats of her 
own sex and an artilleryman's coat, cocked hat and 
feathers. The anecdote usually related is as follows: 
Before the armies engaged in general action, two of the 
advanced batteries commenced a severe tire against each 
other. As the heat was excessive, Molly, who was the 
wife of a cannonier, constantly ran to bring her husband 
water from a neighboring spring. While passing to his 
post she saw him fall and on hastening to his assistance 
found him dead. At the same moment she heard an of- 
ficer order the cannon to be removed from its place, com- 
plaining he could not fill his post with as brave a man as 
had been killed. "No," said the intrepid Molly, fixing 
her eyes upon the officer, "the cannon shall not be re- 
moved for the want of some one to serve it ; since my 
brave husband is no more, I will use my utmost exer- 
tions to avenge his death." The activity and courage 


with which she performed the office of cannonier during 
tin 1 action, attracted the attention of all who witnessed 
it, and finally of Washington himself, who afterward gave 
her the rank of lieutenant and granted her half pay dur- 
ing life. She wore an epaulette and was called ever after 
Captain Molly. Howes Collection*. 

Lossing in the Field Book of the Revolution thus 
mentions Molly Pitcher : 

■■Captain Molly was a stout, red-haired, freckled- 
faced young Irish woman with a handsome, piercing eye. 
The French officers, charmed by the story of her bravery, 
made her many presents. She would sometimes pass 
alone- the French lines with her cocked hat and get it al- 
most tilled with crowns." 

The same writer visited the locality of Forts Mont- 
gomery and Clinton on the Hudson, where Molly Pitcher 
ended her days and there found old residents who "re- 
membered the famous Irish woman called Captain 
Molly, the wife of a cannonier who worked a field piece 
at the battle of Monmouth on the death of her husband. 
She generally dressed in the petticoats of her sex with 
an artilleryman's coat over. She was in Fort Clinton 
with her husband when it was attacked in 1777. When 
the Americans retreated from the fort, as the enemy 
scaled the ramparts her husband dropped his match and 
tied. Molly caught it up, touched off the piece and then 
scampered off. It was the last gun the Americans fired 
in the fort. Mrs. Hose remembered her as "Dirty Kate," 
living between Fort Montgomery and Buttermilk Falls, 
at the close of the war, where she died a horrible death 
from syphilitic disease. Washington had honored her 
with a lieutenant's commission for her bravery on the 
field of Monmouth nearly nine months after the battle, 
when reviewing its events." 


The remarkable trial of Rev. William Tennent, of 


the old 'LViiiit'iit Church, for perjury, took place ;it Tren- 
ton in 1742 before Chief Justice Robert Hunter Morris. 

The indictment upon which Mr. Tennent was tried 
was one of a series of indictments all growing out of the 
same transaction — the alleged stealing of a horse by the 
Rev. Mr. Rowland ; and the individual who was the cause 
of all the woes and perils which befe] the unfortunate 
gentlemen who were supposed to be implicated, was a 
notorious scoundrel named Tom Bell, whose exploits 
would not suffer by a comparison with those of Jonathan 
Wild or Jack Sheppard. He was an adept in all the arts 
of fraud, theft, robbery and forgery. J Jut his chief 
amusement consisted in traveling from one part of the 
country to another personating different individuals and 
assuming a variety of characters. By turns he was a 
sailor, a merchant, a lawyer, a doctor, a preacher, and 
sustained each character in such a way for a time as to 
impose on the public. The late Judge Richard S. Field, 
in a paper read before the New Jersey Historical Society 
in 1851, reviewing the reports of this remarkable trial, 
furnished quite a list of the misdeeds of this villian. 

By far the most brilliant of all Tom Bell's achieve- 
ments was unquestionably that out of which grew the in- 
dictment of Rev. William Tennent for perjury. It so 
happened that Bell bore a striking resemblance to the 
Rev. Mr. Rowland, a popular preacher of the da} , and a 
friend and associate of Whitfield and the Tennents. 

One evening Bell made his appearance at a tavern 
in Princeton dressed in a dark grey coat. He there met 
John Stockton, Esq., father of Richard Stockton, a signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, who, coming up to 
him, at once accosted him as the Rev. Mr. Rowland, and 
invited him to his house. Bell assured him that he was 
mistaken — that his name was not Rowland. Mr. Stock- 
ton acknowledged his error, and told him it proceeded 
from the very close resemblance he bore to that gentle- 
man. This link was enough for Tom Bell. It at once 
occurred to him that here was a chance for playing one 
of his tricks. The very next day he went into what was 


then the county of Hunterdon and stopped al a place 
where the Rev. Mr. Rowland had occasionally preached, 
luit where be was iiol well known. Here be introduced 
himself as Mr. Rowland, was invited to the house of a 
gentleman in the neighborhood, and asked to preach on 
the following Sabbath. He consented to do so, and 
notice to thai effeci was accordingly given. When the 
day arrived he accompanied the ladies to church in the 
family wagon, while the master rode alongside on a \.m\ 
tin,, horse. As they approached the church, Bell sud- 
denly discovered that he had left his notes behind him, 
and proposed riding Lack after them on the tine hois,.. 
This was at once agreed to, and Bell mounted the horse, 
rode hack to the house, rifled the desk of his host and 
took his departure, leaving the assembled congregation 
to wonder what had become of the Rev. Mr. Rowland. 

We may imagine the satisfaction which Bell must 
have derived from this exploit. Mr. Rowland was a noted 
preacher of great pungency and power, and thundered 
the terrors of the law against all impenitent sinners. He 
was called by the professed wits of the day "Hell Fire 
Rowland." He was literally a terror to evil-doers, and 
therefore it may be presumed an object of pecuHar aver- 
sion to Tom Bell. The idea then of bringing such a man 
into disgrace and at the same time of pursuing Ins 
favorite occupation must have been doubly pleasing to 


Rev. Mr. Rowland was at this time absent from New 
Jersey. He had gone for the purpose of preaching in 
Pennsylvania or Maryland in company with Rev. William 
Tennent and two pious laymen of the county of Hunter- 
don by the names of Joshua Anderson and Benjamin 
Stevens, members of a church contiguous to the one at 
which Tom Bell proposed to officiate. As soon as they 
returned, Mr. Rowland was charged with the robbery of 
the horse. At the next term of Oyer and Terminer for 
Hunterdon county an indictment was preferred against 


Great was the excitement produced by this event, 


owing in part to the peculiar state of the Colony at the 
time. Through the labors of Mr. Whitfield and his asso- 
ciates, among whom were Messrs. Tennent and Rowland, 
a great revival of religion had taken place in the 
Provinces But there was a party in the Colony who 
were very hostile to this religious movement, who de- 
nounced its authors as fanatics and enthusiasts, and 
some of whom did not hesitate to brand them as hypo- 
crites and imposters. Conspicuous among this party 
was the Chief Justice, Robert H. Morris, who, whatever 
claim he may have had to respect, was certainly not dis- 
tinguished either for religion or morality. To such men 
this charge against Mr. Rowland, one of the preachers 
who were turning everything upside down, was of course 
occasion of great triumph and rejoicing, and the most 
strenuous efforts made to procure Iris conviction. The 
Grand Jury at first refused to find a bill against him, but 
they were reproved by the Court and sent out again. 
They again returned without an indictment, but the 
Court sent them out a second time with threats of pun- 
ishment if they persisted in their refusal, and then they 
consented to find a true bill. 

Thus Mr. Rowland was subjected to the ignominy of 
a trial. A clear case was made out on the part of the 
prosecution. A large number of witnesses swore posi- 
tively that he was the identical person who had commit- 
ted the robbery. On the other hand, the defendants 
called as witnesses Messrs. Tennent, Anderson and 
Stevens, who testified that on the very day on which the 
robbery was committed they were in company with Mr. 
Rowland at some place in Pennsylvania or Maryland, 
and heard him preach. An alibi being thus clearly 
proved, the jury without hesitation acquitted him. 

But still the public mind was not satisfied. The per- 
son whose horse had been stolen and whose house had 
been robbed was so convinced that Mr. Rowland was the 
robber, and so many individuals had, as they supposed, 
seen him in possession of the horse that it was resolved 
not to let the matter drop. Messrs. Tennent, Anderson 


and Stevens were therefore arraigned before the Courl 
of Quarter Sessions, of Hunterdon, upon the charge of 
having sworn falsely upon the crial of Mr. Rowland, and 
indictments were found againsl each of them for perjury. 
These indictments were all removed to the Supreme 
Court. Anderson, const ions of his innocence and un- 
willing to be under the imputation of such a crime, de- 
manded his trial at the next term of Oyer and Terminer. 
What evidence lie offered in liis defence does not appear, 
but he was convicted and condemned to stand one hour 
on the Court House steps with a paper on his breast 
\\ hereon was written in large letters, "This is for wilful 
and corrupt perjn /■_//." The trials of Tennent and Stevens 
were postponed. 

Tennent we are told, being entirely unused to legal 
matters and knowing no person by whom he could prove 
his innocence, had no other resource but to submit him- 
self to Divine will, and thinking it not unlikely that he 
might be convicted, had prepared a sermon to preach 
from the pillory. True, he employed Mr. John Coxe, an 
eminent lawyer of the Province to assist, and when he 
arrived at Trenton he found Mr. William Smith, one of 
the most distinguished members of the New York bar, 
who had voluntarily attended on his behalf; and Mr. 
Tenuent's brother Gilbert, who was then pastor of a 
church iu Philadelphia, had brought with him Mr. John 
Kinsey, an eminent lawyer of that city, to aid in his de- 
fence. But what could they do without evidence ? When 
Mr. Tennent was desired by his counsel to call on his 
witnesses that they might examine them before going into 
Court, he declared he knew no witnesses but God and 
his conscience. His counsel assured him, that however 
well founded this confidence might be, and however im- 
portant befor| a heavenly tribunal, it would not avail 
him in an earthly court. And they therefore urged that 
an application should be made to postpone the trial. But 
this he would by no means consent to. They then in- 
formed him they had discovered a flaw in the indictment 
and proposed that advantage should be taken of it. (Mr. 


Stevens took advantage of this flaw and was cleared.) 
Mr. Tennent resisted with great vehemence, saying it was 
another snare of the devil, and before lie would consent 
to it he would suffer death. In the meantime the bell 
summoned them to the Court. While on the way to the 
Court House Mr. Tennent is said to have met a man and 
his wife who stopped and asked if his name was Tennent. 
He said it was. and begged to know if they had any busi- 
ness with him. They replied, "You know best." They 
then informed him that they resided in a certain place in 
Pennsylvania or Maryland, and that upon one occasion 
he in company with Rowland, Anderson and Stevens had 
lodged at their house ; that on the following day they 
had heard him and Rowland preach ; that some nights 
before they left home, they had each of them dreamed 
that Mr. Tennent was at Trenton in the greatest possible 
distress, and that it was in their power, and in theirs 
alone to relieve him ; that this dream was twice repeated 
and in precisely the same manner to each of them, and 
that it made so deep an impression on their minds that 
they had at once set off upon a journey to Trenton, aud 
were there to know of him what they were to do. Mr- 
Tennent handed them over to his counsel, who, to their 
astonishment, found that their testimony was entirely 
satisfactory. Soon after, Mr. John Stockton, who mis- 
took Tom Bell for Rev. Mr. Rowland, also appeared and 
was examined as a witness for Mr. Tennent. In short 
the evidence was so clear and conclusive, that, notwith- 
standing the most strenuous exertion of the Attorney- 
General to procure a conviction, the jury without hesita- 
tion acquitted Mr. Tennent. 



Major John Cook, who was killed in the action at 
tlie Block House, was a captain in the Second Regiment, 
Monmouth, and appointed Second Major in same regi- 
ment, October 13, 1777, probably to succeed James Mott, 


who Lived at one time Dear Toms River. Public sali 
privateers and their cargoes were sometimes held at his 
house. The following notice in reference to the settle- 
ment of his estate was published in the New Jersey 
Gazette, January 22, 1783 : 

"All persons indebted to the estate of Major John 
Cook, late of Toms River, deceased, are hereby request. . I 
to settle their respective accounts, on or before the 10th 
day of February next, as this is the last notice they are 
to expect from 

Thomas Cook, 


N. B. — On said day the above administrator will at- 
tend at George Cook's tavern at Cross wicks, in order to 
adjust matters agreeable to law ; also to receive all de- 
mands against said estate that shall be properly proven!" 

John Coward, before and during the early part of 
the war, was a prominent business man at Toms River 
and quite an extensive owner of timber land. He was as- 
sociated for a time with James Randolph. He died, 
probably in 1779. His executors were James Randolph 
and Tobias Hendrickson, who published the following 
notice in January, 1780 : 

"To be sold at public vendue, on Tuesday, February, 
1780, at the house of Daniel Griggs at Toms River, 
seventy acres of very good young green cedar swamp, 
very handy to water carriage, on the branches of Cedar 
Creek, late the property of John Coward, deceased. At- 
tention will be given for several days before the sale at 
Toms River to show the premises. The land will be sold 
as best suits the purchasers, as to quantity and attention 
will be given by 

"James Randolph, 
"Tobias Hendkicksox, 


James Randolph, just before and during the early 
part of the war, was perhaps more extensively engaged 
in lumber and other business than any other person in 
the vicinity of Toms River. He was an executor of John 


Coward ami at the sale of some timber land belonging to 
the estate of Coward, in February, 1780, Randolph adver- 
tised also to sell property of his own as follows : 

"The subscriber has for sale a very good farm, in 
situation convenient for salt works near Toms River, with 
near three hundred acres of good salt meadows, which 
will support one hundred head of cattle, and is exceeding 
handy for fish and oysters. Also a good saw mill with 
a large quantity of valuable cedar swamp to said mill. 
They will be sold at private sale before vendue, or on 
that day, or any day after, when any purchaser shall 
offer, and a good title made. 

"James Randolph. 

" December 30, 1779." 

He probably died about the latter part of 1781, or 
early part of 1782. The following substance of a notice 
published in March, 1782, regarding the settlement of his 
estate, gives an idea of the extent of his business : 

"To be sold at public vendue, on Monday, April 29, 
1782, at the house of Samuel Forman, inn keeper, Upper 
Freehold, the following tracts of land of estate of James 
Randolph, late of Monmouth County: 

" One plantation at Mosquito Lane, containing 350 
acres, the greater part salt meadows, with a frame 
dwelling house, salt works, good fishery, Arc. One 
saw mill in Davenport (mouth of Wrangle Creek) near 
Toms River, goes with two saws, together with pine 
and cedar lands. Two-fifths of a new saw mill and four- 
fifths of land adjoining, near James Randolph's late 
dwelling, held in partnership with Tobias Hendrickson. 
Eighteen or twenty lots of cedar swamp in Wrangle 
Creek, Union, Horricone, Lenkers, <fec. 

"Apply to Tobias Hendrickson, near the late dwelling 
of James Randolph, or to Benjamin Randolph, Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia. Signed by Benjamin Randolph and 
Tobias Hendrickson, who were his executors. Part of 
his estate, the Mosquito Lane plantation, was again ad- 
vertised to be sold the following year, June, 1783." 

There was a James Randolph in the militia of Mon- 


mouth, possibly the same. 

Daniel Randolph, Esquire, wras among the prisoners 

taken at the Block House in March, 1782. A person of 
this name lived at Freehold, d< >wn to within two years 
previous to tin' burning of Toms River. Sales were ad- 
vertised to take place at his house at Freehold in 1780. 
The appearance of the same name at Toms River, short- 
ly after the decease of James Randolph, suggests the pos- 
sibility of his being a relative, and that he came to Toms 
River on business connected with the care or settlement 
of the estate of James. 

James Attin must have been somewhat prominent at 
Toms River in the early part of the war, judging from 
the following advertisement published in the New Jersey 
Gazette. He may have been from Middlesex county 
where the surname was not unusual. His advertisement 
was as follows : 

" To be sold at vendue, on Monday, the 6th day of 
September, 1779, at the house of the subscriber in the 
township of Dover and county of Monmouth, viz: 200 
acres of pine land, well timbered, about two miles below 
Toms River Bridge ; 50 head of cattle, 40 sheep, 6 horses, 
10 hogs and 8 negroes, a set of blacksmith's tools, 200 
bushels of wheat and rye, 20 acres of Indian corn, a 
quantity of tanned leather and tar, a variety of farming 
utensils and household goods too tedious to mention. 
Same time will be sold a valuable plantation, with a 
great quantity of fresh and salt meadows ; a grist and 
saw mill, with plenty of timber ; a valuable fishery, with 
400 acres of land. All may be entered upon immediately. 
For terms, apply to the subscriber on the premises. 

"John Attin. 

"August 18, 1779." 

The offering for sale of eight negroes, recalls a dif- 
ference between then and now. 

Abiel Aldus, who, for many years was the principal 
Justice of the Peace at Toms River, lived during the 
war, according to a tradition of old residents, on the 
south side of Toms River, on the place formerly the 


residence of Anthony Ivins and subsequently of A. P. 
Stanton. His house was a stopping place for Eev. Ben- 
jamin Abbott, a pioneer of Methodism. It was burned 
by the British at the time when the village was burned. 
It is said that he subsequently resided on the north side 
of the river below the bridge. His ancestry is noticed in 
the sketch of the Akin family. For almost a generation 
he seemed to have performed most of the marriage cere- 
monies in his vicinity. The following were some parties 
married by him : 

Dillon Wilbur to Leucretia Bird, October 14, 1795. 
William Runnels (Reynolds ?) to Leonah Francis, 
August 10, 1795. 

Gilbert Lane to Sarah Aumack, January 10, 1796. 
Abel Piatt to Melah Letts, March 26, 1796. 
David Rogers to Susannah Chadwick, May 1, 1796. 
James Wilber to Elizabeth Hopkins, June 26, 1796. 
Jacob Applegate to Margaret Luker, July 10, 1796. 
About 1808 the Legislature passed a law for the re- 
lief of Abiel Aldus, as he had met with reverses in busi- 

Moses Robbins was a matross in Captain Huddy's 
companv, and was seriously wounded in the action at the 
Block House. He was one of the first to have a dwelling 
erected after the village was burned, and the sale of a 
captured prize was advertised to take place at his house 
in March, 1783. In 1792 he purchased timber land back 
of Toms River, and Holmes & Robbins' mill is mentioned 
the same year. In 1795 his heirs had a tract on the 
road from Toms River to Schenck's Mill, sold. From 
this it would seem probable that he died between 1792 
and 1795. In the early part of the present century Elijah 
Robbins owned the land on which the Block House had 
been situated. 

A matross was a member of an artillery company 
who assisted in loading cannon, and also carried a 

Aaron Buck was one of the two persons in the vil- 
lage who had the fortune of having their houses spared 


when the village was burned. It is supposed this was 

because lie was related to the Refugee, William Dillon, 
the pilot of the British, Buck having married a daughter 
of Dillon's brother. Mrs. Studson's house was the 
other spared, and her house and Buck's afforded a tem- 
porary refuge for the unfortunate women and children 
whose homes had been burned by the British. Before 
the war he was a land owner, and in 1765 sold a tract 
near Toms River to Albertio Shockelia. He had two 
daughters, one of whom married Judge Ebenezer Tucker, 
for whom Tuckerton was named, and the other married 
John Rogers, ancestor of most of the Rogers family from 
Toms River to Cedar Creek. It is said that Aaron Buck 
was captain of a coasting vessel after the war, and 
eventually committed suicide by hanging himself on the 
rigging of his vessel as she lay in Toms River. 

Captain Ephraim Jenkins, according to tradition, 
lived in the village of Toms River, and his dwelling was 
among those burned by the British in 1782. It is sup- 
posed that he was killed in the action at the Block House, 
and his family was left unprovided for. One of his child- 
ren was taken care of by one of the Prices at Goodluck, 
ancestor of Dr. T. T. Price, of Tuckerton. Captain Jen- 
kins was commissioned captain in Colonel Asher Holmes' 
battalion, June 14, 1780. 

Captain Joshua Studson, who was killed by the 
Refugee John Bacon, December 1, 1780, lived along the 
edge of the river, just below T the bridge. He was ap- 
pointed a lieutenant in Colonel Asher Holmes' battalion, 
June 14, 1780, and was also a captain in the privateer 
service. In the latter part of 1780 he took two prizes, 
the schooner "John" and the sloop "Catharine," on the 
south side of Staten Island. The Admiralty Court, to 
adjust his prize claims, was appointed to be held at 
Mount Holly, January 1, 1781. Just a month before this 
lie was killed. It is said that a few years after his death 
his widow married a man at Toms River named Cham- 

James Lippencott's house was one at which sales took 


place during the war. In 1791 Samuel Pease (Pearce ?) 
and wife sold to James Lippencott land in old Dover 
township. And in 1792 James Lippencott .bought land 
of William Cox and wife, Richard Smith and wife, William 
Smith and wife, John Hoskins, Sr., and John Hoskins, 
Jr., and Edward Pole, all in same township. 

James Mott, Jr., was another p v ominent man around 
Toms River during the early part of the war. He proba- 
bly lived easterly of the village on the bay, on or adjoin- 
ing the place subsequently owned by the late James 
Cook. His property is thus described in an advertise- 
ment published in Collins Neu) Jersey Gazette in Septem- 
ber, 1779 : 

" To l» Sold: A valuable tract of land adjoining 
Barnegat Bay, near Toms River, in the town of Dover, 
Monmouth county, containing about 1,000 acres, about 
280 acres of salt meadow, 30 acres of cedar swamp (part 
of which is very good), about 50 acres of upland, cleared 
and fenced with cedar ; a new frame dwelling house 
thereon, 20 feet by 26, with two fire-places on first floor, 
and a stone cellar under the same ; also a kitchen ad- 
joining, 16 feet square, with a brick oven, and a well at 
the door ; the remainder woodland. The land is good 
for rye, Indian corn, for raising stock, and is as well situ- 
ated for manufacturing salt as any in New Jersey. It 
will be sold together or be divided, as shall suit pur- 
chaser. For terms apply to Abiel Akins, Esq., at Toms 
River, or to the subscriber on the premises. 

"James Mott, Jr." 

In March the same advertisement in substance was 
published, but application to be made to Joseph Salter, 
Toms River, and "to be sold for Continental bills of 
credit or loan certificates." 

There was a James Mott captain in the militia, 
stationed at Toms River. He was appointed major, and 
resigned June 18, 1776. In 1776, James Mott was a 
member of the Legislature from Monmouth. The name 
appears as a property owner in Middletown, 1778 and 
1790, and also in Shrewsbury township. He purchased 
land in Dover township in 1795. He was probably re- 
lated to Joseph Salter, who at one time owned a tract on 

roara i;i\ ii; di ring the revoli tion. 233 

the bay, possibly the same advertised by Mott, as Joseph 
Salter married a Mutt. 

Edward Thomas, of Black E^orse, Burlington county, 
owned a place adjoining James Mutt's, which lie thus de- 
scribed in an advertisement published in 1777: 

"A plantation in Dover township, adjoining Barne- 
gai Bay, bounded 1>\ Lands of James Mott and Pennsyl- 
vania Salt Works; 301) acres, 7<> acres salt meadows, 
remainder good timber hind; soil good for corn and rve. 
and with small expense (by bringing seaweed) will be 
good for raising wheat. On it a log house, also a cellar 
due- and walled, '20 by 26, and frame timber, &c, sufficient 
to build. Well located for erecting salt works." 

Edward Thomas was a member of the militia com- 
pany that came alone- shore in pursuit of the Refugee 
Bacon, and finally killed him near West Creek. 

-Joseph Salter at one time owned a place near the 
bay, possibly the same once owned by James Mott, to 
whom he was related by marriage. He was at Toms 
1 liver as early as 1774, and a relative, Thomas Salter, had 
purchased considerable land in the township twenty-rive 
or thirty years before. He was a member of the Provin- 
cial Assembly in 177"). He was appointed Lientenant- 
Colonel in the militia, but soon resigned. In the minutes 
of the New Jersey Provincial Congress, October '21, 177"), 
it is stated that — 

" Joseph Salter, Esquire, having returned his com- 
mission of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Regiment of 
Militia for the County of Monmouth, and desired leave 
to resign the same : 

"Resolved unanimo'usly, that his resignation be ac- 

His first wife was Sally, daughter of Samuel Holmes } 
by whom he had a son William. His second wife was 
Huldah Mott, by whom he had several children, some 
of whom came into possession of the place at Toms 
River, which eventually was purchased by James Cook, 
who in 18.~) ( .l sold the same to Gavin Brackenridge, who 
in turn sold it to Thomas Gilford, and in the description 
of the land occurs the following clause : 

" Excepting thereout one hundred and fifty acres 


lying on the west side, conveyed by Sarah Salter, Eliza- 
beth Salter, Margaret Salter and Hannah Salter to Garret 
Irons, which said tract of land is henceforth to be de- 
scribed and known by the name of Ballantrae." 

Ballantrae means a settlement or place by the sea or 
water ; an appropriate name for the tract. 

Joseph Salter was summoned before the Council of 
Safety in April, 1777, and Isaac Potter and Daniel Griggs, 
of Toms River, gave some evidence against him, of which 
the purport is not given, and he was committed to Bur- 
lington jail. 

John Lawrence, who was committed to the same jail 
the same week, was charged with high treason. He was 
an agent to furnish British protection papers. 

Possibly Salter had accepted papers giving British 
protection, but in October of the same year he took the 
oath to the Provincial Government, and was released. 
He remained about Toms Paver until about May, 1779, 
when he removed elsewhere. It is said that he founded 
Atsion Furnace, in Burlington county, in 1770. His son 
Richard lived at Toms River in the early part of the 
present century. He had a son James, who was proba- 
bly the James Salter, treasurer of the Stat- of New Jer- 
sey in 1799, and who died December 19, 1803. 

Captain Samuel Bigelow was engaged in the privateer 
business, and some of his prizes are noticed in the 
account of Privateering at Toms Biver. He seems at 
times to have had charge of barges, or whale-boats, then 
in common use by both Americans and British for ser- 
vice in bays and on the ocean near the inlets. He is 
rated as "mariner" in the roster of officers and men of 
the Revolution. His residence is described in a survey 
made in 1773. as on the north side of Wrangle Brook, 
thirty chains above Randolph's saw-mill, which was at 
the junction of Wrangle Brook with Davenport. 

Edward Wilbur took up land before the war, in 1762, 
three-quarters of a mile north of Toms River. When 
the village was burned in 1782, the house of a Wilbur, 
situated about the same distance from the river, was not 


burned, possibly because it was too Ear off, or becausi 

related to the Dillon family, as Dillon Wilbur, somewhat 
prominent just after the war, received bis name from the 
Dillon family. 

John Wilbur was a member of Captain Joshua Hud- 
dy's company, and was rated as a matross. 

James Dillon was quite noted around Toms River 
before the war. In 1761 he took up land above Toms 
River on one of its branches. In 1762 he was taxed 10s. 
3d. In 1763, it is said, he claimed to own "Toms 
Island," subsequently known as Dillon's Island. He 
had a daughter who married Aaron Buck, and it is proba- 
ble" he was related to the Wilbur family, as a member of 
it was named Dillon Wilbur. 

William Dillon, the noted Refugee scoundrel, was 
imprisoned at one time in Freehold Jail under sentence 
of death, but was either pardoned or escaped, probably 
the latter, as he soon after appeared at Toms River as a 
Refugee pilot. He engaged in contraband trade between 
New York and Egg Harbor, and his vessel was captured 
by Captain Grey, a New Englander, who came in his 
vessel to Toms River. The Admiralty Court, to try the 
claim of the captors of Dillon's vessel, was called at 
Freehold, by notice signed by Esquire Abiel Akins, to 
meet March 16, 1782. Within a week after, Dillon was 
piloting the British expedition which burned Toms 
River. After the war he left with other Refugees for St. 
Johns, New Brunswick, where he was in 1783 given town 
lot number 1,019. 

Benjamin Johnson, just before the war, and proba- 
bly during the war, lived in the north or north-easterly 
1 .art of the village. A person of the same name had a 
dwelling house on the south side of Toms River, towards 
Sloop Creek, in 1741, some thirty odd years before the 
war. Benjamin Johnson is named as deceased in a sur- 
vey in 1788. The family appears to have been among 
the earliest settlers in the vicinity of Toms River. 

Benjamin Smith lived on the west side of Long Swamp, 
where he built a new house just before the war. A per- 


son of this name was a member of the mibtia from old 
Monmouth. Members of the Smith family were among 
the earliest who received patents for land in what is now 
Ocean county, sonic of whom resided in old Middletown 
township, to which the first members came from Rhode 

David and Thomas Luker were among members of 
the Monmouth militia. The family was among the first 
to settle at Toms River. Daniel Luker's dwelling is re- 
ferred to in a survey in 1747. Luker's Ferry, over Toms 
River, is mentioned 1740 and subsequently, and Luker's 
Branch and Luker's Bridge also named previous to the 
Revolution. The name is generally given in old records 
of surveys as Luker, hut it is also given as Lucar and 
Louker. The names Looker, Lucar and Leuker apparently 
are of the same origin. Among earliest settlers of Eliza- 
bethtown were Lookers, and members located at Wood- 
bridge, in Middlesex. 

Richard Bird, commonly known as "Dick" Bird, 
the Refugee, lived near Toms River, and perhaps of the 
family of William Bird, who, in 1773, lived on the south 
side of Toms River at Eagle's Point. About the same 
time John Bird lived near Forked River. " Dick " Bird 
was killed during the war by the Americans. He had 
relatives, it seems, in the lower part of what is now 
Berkely township. 

Francis Jeffrey owned land on the south side of 
Toms River, and probably resided within a short dis- 
tance of the village during the war. He was a member 
of the Monmouth militia. The name Francis has been 
preserved in the family for two centuries. John Jeffreys 
and Humphrey Jeffreys were also members of the militia 
during the Revolution. 

Edward Worth owned land on the south side of 
Toms River, and probably lived within a ver} T few miles 
of the village. John Worth was a member of Captain 
Walton's Light Dragoons, and William Worth was in the 
Monmouth militia and also in the Continental army. 

John Williams resided near Toms River, and during 


tlic war was interested in the store-house for salt at Toms 
River, on which he marked the letter "R" to save it 
from being destroyed by the British. He, or a person of 
the same name, owned lands in old Dover township, and 
a saw-mill on Cedar Creek twenty years before the war ; 
also lands near Meteteeouk. 

George Parker, John Parker and Joseph Parker were 
members of Captain Joshua Hnddy's company in the 
Block House. After the war members of the family lived 
near Toms River. In 1797 George Parker and Abraham 
Parker bought of Isaac Gulick "lauds at mouth of Toms 
River, known as Dillon's Island," which they sold in 1799 
to Abel Middleton, of Upper Freehold. Benjamin Par- 
ker had a tar kiln on Little Hurricane in 1795. 

Jacob Jacobs took up land in 1761 east of Long 
Swamp, not far from Dillon's Island. The line of his 
land here is referred to in a survey in 1775. 

Iu 1760 Jacobs' saw-mill, on the south side of Toms 
River, is named, and after that date Jacobs' branch and 
Jake's branch are frequently named, probably from Jacob 
Jacobs. He left Toms River, and iu 1779 he was over- 
seer of Speedwell saw-mill, formerly called Randle's 
(Randolph's) mill, ou the east branch of Wading River, 
which mill was advertised for sale in February, 1779, by 
Benjamin Randolph. 

The names of man}^ of the leading citizens of Dover 
township, as it was at the close of the war, will be found 
in the extracts from the old Dover Town Book. 


The village of Barnegat derives its name from the 
inlet, which was originally called Barende-gat by the first 
Dutch discoverers on our coast. Barende-gat, meaning 
an inlet with breakers, was subsequently corrupted by 
the English to Barndegat, aud finally to Barnegat. 

Among the first whites who settled at Barnegat and 
vicinity, tradition says, were Thomas Timms, Elisha Parr, 
Thomas Lovelady, Jonas Tow (pronounced like the word 


nvw) and a man named Yanll. Thomas Lovelady is the 
one from whom Lovelady's island, aear Barnegat, takes 
its name. The first settlers seem generally to have 
located on the upland near the meadows, on or near the 
Collins, Stokes and Mills farms. There was a house 
built on the Collins place by Jonas Tow, at least as early 
as 1720. The persons named above as the first comers, 
do not appear to have been permanent settlers, and 
tradition fails to state what became of any of them, with 
the exception of Jonas Tow, who it is said died here. 

Among the first permanent settlers, it is said, were 
William and Levi Cranmer, Timothy Eidgway, Stephen 
and Nathan Birdsall and Ebenezer Mutt : and Ebenezer 
Collins followed soon after. The ancestor of the shore 
Bulons was also an early settler. Tradition says he lived 
on the road to Cedar Bridge two or three miles west of 
the present village of Barnegat and on the place known 
in late years as the Corlies place. 

The first permanent settlers at Barnegat, as well as 
at other places along shore, appeared not to have pur- 
chased titles of the proprietors until several years after 
they came. The first land taken up from the proprietors, 
it is said, was the tract of 500 acres, bought by Timothy 
Ridgway and Levi Cranmer, September 9th, 1759, of 
Oliver Delancey and Henry Cuvler, Jr., agents for the 
proprietor, William Dockwra. This tract included the 
lot upon which the Quaker church is built, but the main 
portion lay south-easterly. The land along shore was 
originally divided off into two tracts of about a thousand 
acres, by John Reed, surveyor, and alloted in alternate 
divisions to the proprietors ; William Dockwra having 
for his portion a large part of the laud on which stauds 
the village ; next north came Robert Burnett's, and then 
Lord Xeill Campbell's. Lochiel brook, between Barnegat 
and Waretown, it is said, was named in compliment to 
Campbell's estate in Scotland. 

The first Cranmer family at Barnegat lived in the 
tract purchased as above mentioned, and their dwelling 
was on or near the site of the one owned in modern times 


by Cap tail] Isaac Soper, and subsequently by Captain 
John Russell. 

The Rackhow road was laid out by Peter Rackhow, 
a son of Daniel Rackhow, who once lived in the place 
now owned by Samuel Bird sail, Esq., Waretown. Rack- 
how, it is said was a Dutchman, who eventually changed 
his name to Richards. He had two sous — Peter, above 
named, who was a reputable young man, and another 
who joined the Refugees, went off with them and was 
not heard of afterwards. 

The first inn or public house iu Barnegat was estab- 
lished in 1820 by David Oliphant, on the site of the pres- 
ent one, at the corner of the maiu shore road and the 
road to the landing. 

The well-remembered old public house of Eli Col- 
lins was occasionally patronized fifty or sixty years ago 
by distinguished visitors, among them the noted Prince 
Murat with quite a train of servants. He was one of the 
most expert hunters of his day. Murat was a large pow- 
erful man and of remarkable powers of endurance — able 
to tire out almost any other hunter or gunner he met. 

Another celebrated personage who occasionally 
stopped here was Lieut., or Captain Huuter, of Alvarado 
fame. Once, as he drove up, an hostler stepped out to 
attend to his horses and addressed him by name. Capt. 
Hunter was surprised to find himself addressed so famil- 
iarly by so humble a personage, and upon inquiry found 
that the hostler had once held some office in the Navy, 
and been on a man of war with him up the Mediter- 
ranean, and while there had acted as Hunter's second in a 
duel. Hunter replied: "Proctor, I know you, but I 
don't know your clothes ! " Proctor had considerable 
natural ability, but it was the old story, liquor sent him 
on the down grade. Frank Forrester (William Henry 
Herbert) the great authority and noted writer on field 
sports, was evidently well acquainted here, as his writ- 
ings show wonderful familiarity with this section. 
Uncle Eli Collins' house and the lower tavern once kept 
by David Church were old well-known headquarters for 


gunners from distant places. Speaking of gunners, re- 
minds us of one who stopped once at the lower tavern 
with a fierce hull dog. The landlord told the gunner to 
keep his dog away from a yard where he had a loon 
wounded in his wings, as the loon might hurt the dog- 
The idea of a loon or any other wild fowl hurting his bull 
dog amused the gunner, and he offered to bet fifty dollars 
that his dog would kill the bird. The landlord took the 
bet, the dog was let in, but in an instant the loon picked 
out the dog's eyes by suddenly darting his sharp bill in 
quick succession. 

During the Revolutionary war, parties of both 
Refugees and Patriots, as they traveled up and down 
shore, would stop at the houses of the Barnegat Quakers 
and demand victuals, but on the whole, the residents 
suffered less during the war than did those of any other 
place along shore, except perhaps West Creek. They 
had. however, but little reason to congratulate them- 
selves on this score, as they suffered enough after the 
war; for then in time of peace, on account of their con- 
scientious scruples against militia training and paying 
fines for non-atteadance, they were continually harrassed 
by lawsuits, arrests, fines and executions, and imprisoned 
or property sold for non-compliance with militia laws. 
The once notorious Esquire William Piatt, of old Dover 
township, bore no enviable name among the Quakers for 
his vexing them with suits on this account. 

During the Revolution quite extensive salt works 
were carried on at Barnegat, on the meadows near the 
farm of Mr. James Mills, by the Cranmers, Ridgways, 
and others. The usual plan to manufacture salt was to 
seek some place on the salt meadows where no grass 
could grow. By digging wells in these bare places, the 
water was found to be strongly impregnated with salt- 
The water from these wells or springs was put in large 
boilers with a kind of arched oven underneath, in which 
a fire was built. After most of the water was boiled 
away, the remainder, thick with salt, was poured into 
baskets of sugar-loaf shape, made to allow the water to 


drain out. One of these curious-shaped baskets was pre- 
served and in possession of the Late Uncle Eli Collins 
as late as 18< >( ). 

The remains of shell beds on the farm of James 
Mills; Esq., and at other places show that the Indians at 
Barnegat, Ion-;- before the whites came, caught shell fish 
in great quantities. Some of course were eaten here, 
but the principal object of the Indians appeared to be to 
prepare a quantity to take back with them. This was 
generally done by roasting and then taking them out of 
the shell, stringing and drying them in the sun. 


The first preachers who visited any part of the New 
Jersey shore of whom we have any account, belonged to 
the Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers. This 
society established a meeting at Tuckerton in 1704, and 
built a meetinghouse there in 1709. 

The first religious society established in Ocean 
County was probably that of the Rogerine Baptists, a 
company of whom came to Waretown about 1737 and 
remained here about eleven years and then left. They 
were singular people in their ideas of worship. Among 
other peculiarities, the members took work to meeting 
with them, and during services the men made axe and 
hoe handles, the women knit, sewed, &c. The principal 
member of the society was Abraham Waeir, from whom 
"Waretown derives its name. It is probable they held 
meetings in a building used as a schoolhouse. 

An Episcopalian clergyman named Rev. Thomas 
Thompson, visited Barnegat and Manahawkin while he 
was a missionary in old Monmouth, from 1745 to 1751, 
and on his return sent Christopher Robert Reynolds, who 
was a schoolmaster of the " Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," to labor at these two 
places, but on account of his age and infirmity he re- 
mained but a short time. 

A church, which tradition says was free to all 


denominations, was built at Manahawkin as early as 
1758, which was the first church built in Ocean County. 
This church is now known as the Baptist Church- The 
Baptist Society was organized in it August 25th, 1770. 

The second church built in Ocean County was the 
noted Potter Church, at Goodluck, built by Thomas Pot- 
ter in 1766, which he intended to be free to all denomina- 

The third church built in Ocean County was the 
Quaker Meeting House, at Barnegat, erected as early as 
1770. This was the first church in the county built for a 
particular society. 



There is reason to belieye that the pioneers of Meth- 
odism visited the county within a very few years after 
the principles of the society were first proclaimed in 
America, and that occasionally some preacher would 
hold forth in some of our churches, schoolhouses or 
private houses as early as 1774 Some uncertainty exists 
as to where the first preachers held services in the 
county, owing to the fact that the early heroes of Meth- 
odism were not always very precise in giving the names 
of places where they preached, dates and other particu- 
lars interesting to the historian of the present day. The 
most complete and satisfactory journal is that of the 
faithful, zealous, untiring Bishop Francis Asbury, which 
is the more remarkable as it is doubtful if any minister 
of any denomination ever performed as much labor as he 
did in traveling and preaching. We append extracts 
from his journal relating to his labors in Monmouth. 
Other preachbrs had preceded him. Bev. William 
AVatters, the first Methodist traveling preacher of Ameri- 
can birth, was stationed in our State in 1774, and he may 
have visited our county, though he makes no mention of it 
in his journal. That earnest minister of the Gospel, Bev. 
Benjamin Abbott, visited old Monmouth in 1778. Mr. 

METHODISM l\ OLD SfONMOl l M. -J \.', 

Abbott, in his journal, speaks of preaching iii various parts 
of old Mon mouth now composed within the limits of ( >ceaii 
county, among which ware Mannahawkin, Waretown, 
Goodluck and Toms River. But after leaving Toms 
River he omits to name places; he merely uses such 
expressions as "at mv next appointment," Ac, without 
uaming where it was. Be probably preached at Free- 
hold and other places within the limits of the presenl 
county of Monmouth. 

Rev. John Atkinson, in his "Memorials of Method- 
ism in New Jersey," says : 

"The Methodist Society of Monmouth (Freehold ) 
must have been formed at an early period, probably 
about 1780, as in that year Job Throckmorton, of Free- 
hold, was converted under the ministry of Rev. Richard 
Garretson, and became a member of the society. He 
was one of the first members in that region. The Meth- 
odists were much persecuted there at that time. His 
house was a home for preachers, and very likely Asbury 
was entertained at his dwelling during his visits to Free- 
hold. Everitt, Freeborn Garretson, Ezekiel Cooper, 
Ware and others, were accustomed to stop at his house. 
He was accustomed to relate incidents of Rev. Benjamin 
Abbott's powerful ministry, one of which is as follows: 

"On one occasion meeting was held in the woods, 
and after Freeborn Garretson had preached, Abbott 
arose and looked around over the congregation very sig- 
nificantly, and exclaimed: 'Lord, begin the work! Lord, 
begin the work now'. Lord, begin the work just there /' 
pointing at the same time towards a man who was stand- 
ing beside a tree, and the man fell as suddenly as if he 
had been shot, and cried aloud for mercy." 

In 1786 Trenton circuit probably included Trenton, 
Pemberton, Mount Holly, Burlington and Monmouth, 
Reverends Robert Sparks and Robert Cann, preachers. 
In 1787 Rev. Ezekiel Cooper and Rev. Nathaniel B. 
Mills were the preachers. In 1788 Revs. John Merrick. 
Thomas Morrell and Jettus Johnson were the preach- 



The following is an account of the missionary efforts 
of Rev. Thomas Thompson in old Monmouth, nearly a 
century and a half ago. 

In his account of Lis visit it will be noticed that he 
speaks disparagingly of the early settlers in what is now 
Ocean county. His zeal for the tenets of the society by 
which he was employed, seems to have led him to make 
animadversions against the people here, which it would 
appear were not deserved according to the testimony of 
ministers of other denominations. It will be noticed 
that while he accuses them of great ignorance, he yet 
acknowledges having many conferences and disputes on 
religious topics with them, which shows that they were 
considerably posted in scriptural matters, but undoubt- 
edly opposed to the Church of England. 

Mr. Thompson says: In the spring of the year 1745 
I embarked for America, being appointed Missionary of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts upon recommendation of my Reverend Tutor Dr. 
Thomas Cartwright, late Archdeacon of Colchester and a 
member of the Society, myself then a Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridge. I went in a ship called the Albany, 
belonging to New York which sailed from Gravesend on 
the 8th day of May and providentially escaping some 
instant dangers on the passage, arrived at New York on 
the 29th of August. The Sunday following I preached 
both Morning and Afternoon at the Episcopal Church in 
that city, whereof the Reverend Mr. Commissary Yesey 
had then been rector more than forty years. On the next 
Sunday I passed over to Elizabethtown in New Jersey on 
my journey to Monmouth County in the Eastern Division 
where I was appointed to reside and have the care of 
Churches in that county, being also licensed thereto by 
the Right Reverend the late Lord Bishop of London. 

Being come to the place of my mission I presented 
my credentials and was kindly received and took the first 
opportunity of waiting upon the governor Lewis Morris 


Esq., at his seal at Kingsburg which is in the Western 
Division, and took the oath of allegiance and supremacy 
and also the abjuration oath and subscribed the Declara- 
tion in presence of his Excellency. 

Upon making inquiry into the state of the churches 
within my District, I found thai the members were much 
disturbed and in a very unsettled state, insomuch, that 
some of them had thoughts of leaving our communion 
and turning to the Dissenters. The particular occasion 
of this 1 forbear to mention. 

That part of the country abounding in Quakers and 
Anabaptists, the intercourse with these sects was of so 
bad influence, as had produced among the Church people 
thus c< .nforming with their tenets aud example. However, 
the main fault was rather carelessness of the baptism 
and a great deal was owing to prejudice respecting the 
matter of godfathers aud godmothers. 

I had three churches immediately in my charge, 
each of them situated in a different township, which had 
regular duty in such proportion as was agreed upon and 
subscribed to at a general vestry meeting soon after my 
coming there. The names of the townships are Freehold, 
Shrewsbury and Middletown. I also officiated at Allen- 
town in Upper Freehold while that church was destitute 
of a minister. These four townships comprised the whole 
county although 40 or 50 miles in length and in some 
parts of it considerably wide. I also did occasional duty 
at other places. 

As to the church buildings I have found them all 
much out of condition, especially the church at Middle- 
town, which was begun to be built but the year before I 
came there, and had nothing done on the inside, not even 
a floor laid. So that we had no place for the present to 
assemble in Divine worship, only an old house which had 
formerly been a meetinghouse. 

I liad now a great and very difficult task of it to 
bring people to the communion. They that were con- 
formable to this Bacred ordinance were in very small 
numbers. Many persons of 50 or 60 years of age and 


some older had never addressed themselves to it. I took 
all possible pains to satisfy their scruples, gave them 
frequent opportunities of the communion, and by the 
blessing of God gained most of the ancient people besides 
manv others, who gave due and devout attention t<» it 
ever after. 

The number of my catechumens began now to in- 
crease and several of riper years presented themselves 
with a seeming earnestness to receive the benefit of this 
instruction. So I carried it further and put Lewis* Ex- 
position into their hands and appointed them a day 
about once a month to come to the Court House and say 
the parts which I set them to get by heart, and this 
course I continued till some of them could recite it from 
end to end. 

In the vear 174b' the church at Middletown, which 
had stood useless, being, as I have before mentioned, 
only a shell of a building, had now a floor laid and was 
otherwise made fit to have divine worship performed in 
it. The congregation of this church was but small and 
as the service could not be oftener than once a month, it 
was morally impossible to increase the number much. 
espec:allv as there was a weekly meeting of Anabaptist- 
in that town, so that it was the most I could propose to 
prevent those that were of the church from being drawn 
away by dissenters. 

St. Peters, in the township of Freehold, which had 
been built many years but was never quite completed, 
was afterward fitted up. 

The situation of St. Peters Church at Tqpo?u mes, 
which is distant from any town, is however, convenient 
enough to the congregation and was resorted to by many 
families in Middlesex county living within the several 
districts of Cranberry, Macheponeck and South River, 
their missionary, my friend and brother, Mr. Skinner, 
gladlv remitting to me the care of them. 

At a town called Middletown Point I preached 
divers times, the place being remote, and few of the set- 
tlers having any way for convenience of coming to church. 


The inhabitants of Freehold township were at least 
half of them Presbyterian. The church people and 
these interspersed among each other, had lived less in 
charity and brotherly Love than as becomes churches. 
But they began od both sides to think less of the things 
iii which they differed in opinion than of those in which 
they agreed. 

The Church of England worship had at Shrewsbury 
been provided for by the building of a church before 
there was any other iu the county; but this church was 
now too small for the numerous congregation. People 
of all sorts resorted thither and of the Quakers, which 
are a great body in that township, there were several 
who made no scruple of being present at divine service, 
and were not too precise to uncover their heads in the 
house of God. 

I went sometimes to a place called Manasquan, 
almost twenty miles distant from my habitation where, 
and at Shark River, which is in that neighborhood some 
church families were settled who were glad of all oppor- 
tunities for the exercise of religion. 

From Manasquan, for twenty miles further on in the 
country, is all one pine forest. I traveled through this 
desert four times to a place called Barnegat, and thence 
to Manahawkin, almost sixty miles from home, and 
preached at places where no foot of minister had ever 

In this section I had my views of heathenism just as 
thoroughly as I have ever since beheld it. The inhabi- 
tants are thinly scattered in regions of solid wood. Some 
are decent people, who had lived in better places, but 
those who were born and bred here have neither religion 
nor manners, and do not know so much as a letter in a 

As Quakerism is the name under which all those in 
America shade themselves that have been brought up to 
none, but would be thought to be of some religion ; so 
these poor people call themselves Quakers, but they have 
no meetings, and many of them make no distinction of 


days, neither observing Lord's Day nor the Sabbath. 

In my journeying through this part of the country I 
had many conferences and disputes with the people. 
Some of them were willing to see their errors, and others 
were as obstinate in defending theirs. It pleased God 
that I brought some to a true sense of them, and I gained 
a few to the communion, and baptised, besides children, 
seventeen grown persons, of which number was Nicholas 
Wainright, nearly eighty years of age. 

I had now seen a great change in the state of my 
mission within the space of three years, through the 
grace of God rendering my labors effectual to a good 
end ; in particular as to the peace and unison which the 
church members, after having been much at variance 
among themselves, were nosv returned to, and the ceasing 
animosities betwixt them and those of other societies. 
For these I account the most valuable success that 
attended my ministry. 

In the latter end of the year 1750, having then been 
about five years in America upon this' mission, I wrote to 
the venerable and honorable society a letter requesting 
of them to grant me a mission to the coast of Guinea, 
that I might go to make a trial with the natives and see 
what hopes there would be of Introducing among them 
the Christian religion. My request was granted arid on 
November 25th, 1751, I went on board the brigantine 
" Prince George," bound for the coast of Africa. 

The most noted among the first clergymen of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church who held services in the 
county, was the celebrated Rev. George Keith. When 
he first located at Freehold he was an active member of 
the Society of Friends, as it would seem were others of 
the first settlers. He left Freehold in 1689 and went to 
reside in Philadelphia. In 1694 he went to London, and 
soon after abjured the doctrines of the Quakers and be- 
came a zealous clergyman of the Church of England. He 
officiated some time in his mother country, and in 1702 
he Avas sent to America as a missionary of the " Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." He 


sailed from England April "is, \~i)~2, in the ship "Cen- 
turion," bound for Boston. After his arrival he traveled 
and preached in various parts of N'\\ England and New 
York, accompanied and assisted by the Rev. John Tal- 
botj who had been chaplain of the ship, and who, a few 
pears later, located in Burlington, N. J., in charge of the 
Protestant Episcopal Society there. Mr. Keith arrived 
at Amhov and preached his first sermon in New Jersey 
in that place October .">, 17(»'2. He says that among the 
audience were some old acquaintances, and some had 
Keen Quakers, lmt were come over to the church, par- 
ticularly Miles Forster and John Barclay (brother to 
Robert Barclay, who published the "Apology for 
Quakers"). After stopping- a few days with Miles Forster 
he left for Monmouth county, where lie preached' his 
first sermon October 10, 1702. He traveled and preached 
in various parts of the county for about two years, then 
went to Burlington and Philadelphia, and shortly sailed 
for England. 



About the year 1737 a society of Rogerine Baptists, 
or Quaker Baptists, as they were then called, located at 
Waretown, now in Ocean county. From various notices 
of the history of this singular sect and how a society 
came to be located in Ocean county, we extract the fol- 
6 wing : 

This society was founded by John Rogers about 
1(174:; his followers baptised by immersion; the Lord's 
Supper they administered in the evening with its ancient 
appendages. They did not believe in the sanctity of 
the Sabbath. They believed that since the death of 
Christ all days were holy alike. They used no medicines 
nor employed doctors or surgeons; w r ould not say grace 
at meals ; all prayers to be said mentally, except when 
the spirit of prayer compiled the use of voice. They 
said, "All unscriptural parts of religious worship are 


idols,'' and all good Christians should exert themselves 
against idols, etc. Among the idols they placed the 
observance of the Sabbath, infant baptism, etc. The 
■Sabbath they called the New England idol, and the 
methods they took to demolish this idol were as follows: 
The} would on Sundays try to beat some manual labor 
near meetinghouses or in the way of people going to and 
from church. They would take work into meetinghouses, 
the women knitting, the men whittling and making- 
splints for baskets, and every now and then contradict- 
ing the preachers. " This was seeking persecution," 
says one writer, "and they received plenty of it, inso- 
much that the New Englanders left some of them neither 
liberty, proparty or whole skins." 

John Rogers, the founder of tin- sect, who, it is said, 
was as churlish and contrary to all men as Diogenes. 
preached over forty years, and died in 1721. The occa- 
sion of his death was singular. The smallpox was rag- 
ing terribly in Boston and spread an alarm to all the 
country around. Rogers was confident that he could 
mingle with the diseased and that the strength of his 
faith would preserve him safe from the mortal contagion. 
Accordingly he was presumptuous enough to travel one 
hundred miles to Boston to bring his faith to the test. 
The result was that he caught the contagion, came home 
and died with it, the disease also spreading in his family 
and among his neighbors. This event one would think 
would have somewhat shaken the faith of his followers, 
but on tin* contrary it seemed to increase their zeal. 

In 1725 a company of Rogerines were taken up on 
the Sabbath in Norwich, Conn., while on their way from 
their place of residence to Lebanon. They were treated 
with much abuse, and many of them whipped in a most 
unmerciful manner. This occasioned Gov. Jenks, of 
Rhode Island, to write spiritedly against their persecu- 
tors, and also to condemn the Rogerines for their provok- 
ing, disorderly conduct. 

One family of the Rogerines was named Colver, or 
Culver, (Edwards' History spells it one way and Gov. 


Jenks the other.) This family consisted of John Colver 

and his wife, who were a part of the company which was 
treated so rudely at Norwich, and five sons and five 
daughters, who, with their families, made up the number 
of twenty-one souls. Iu the year 1 7^4 this Large family 
removed from New London, Conn., and settled in New 
Jersey. The first place they pitched upon for a residence 
was on the east side of Sehooley's Mountain, in Morris 
county. They continued here about three years and 
then went in a body to Waretown, then in Monmouth, 
but now in Ocean county. While here they had their 
meetings in a schoolhouse, and their peculiar manner of 
conducting services was quite a novelty to other settlers 
in the vicinity. As in England, during the meeting the 
women would be engaged in knitting or sewing, and the 
men in making axe handles, basket splints, or engaged in 
other work, but we hear of no attempt to disturb other 

They continued at Waretown about eleven years, 
and then went back to Morris county and settled on the 
west side of the mountain from which they had removed. 
In 1790 they were reduced to two old persons whose 
names were Thomas Colver and Sarah Mann; but the 
posterity of John Colver, it is said, is yet quite numer- 
ous in Morris county. Abraham Waeir, from whom the 
village of Waretown derives its name, tradition says was 
a member of the Rogerine Society. When the main 
body of the society left he remained behind, and became 
quite a prominent business man, generally esteemed. He 
died in 1768, and his descendants removed to Squan and 
vicinity, near the head of Barnegat Bay. 

Before concluding this notice of the Rogerinex, it 
should be stated that another thing in their creed was, 
that it was not necessaiw to have marriages peformed by 
ministers or legal officers. They held that it was not 
necessary for the man and woman to exchange vows of 
marriage to make the ceremony binding. A zealous Rog- 
erine once took to himself a wife in this simple manner, 
and then, to tantalize Governor Saltonstall, called on him 


to inform him they had married themselves without aid of 
church or state, and that they intended to live together as 
husband and wife without their sanction. "What!"' said 
the Governor, in apparent indignation, "do you take this 
woman for your wife?" "Yes, I most certainly do," re- 
plied the man. "And do you take this man for your 
husband?" said he to the woman. The woman replied 
in the affirmative. "Then," said the wily old Governor, 
"in the name of the Commonwealth I pronounce you 
husband and wife — whom God hath joined together let 
no man put asunder. Yon are now married according to 
both law and gospel." 

The couple retired, much chagrined at the unex- 
pected way the Governor had turned the tables on them, 
despite their boasting. 


In 1n:>7, Elder Benjamin Winchester preached the 
tirst Mormon sermon in- Ocean county, in a schoolhouse 
in New Egypt. Winchester was from the State of New 
York, and one of the early disciples of Joseph Smith. 
He continued for some time to hold regular services here, 
and in his discourses gave minute account of the alleged 
original discovery of the golden plates of the Book of 
Mormon near Palmyra, New York, by Joseph Smith, and 
their translation by him and Sidney Rigdon, and claimed 
that they were deposited by a people two thousand years 
before, whom they said were the Lost Tribes of Israel. 
He also preached in neighboring places. He made some 
fifty converts, who were baptized ; among them was Abra- 
ham Burtis, who became a preacher, and a large number 
joined the society at Hornerstown, where they finally 
built a church, and where a good many respectable peo- 
ple adhered to the faith. The church has since gone 
down, but a few people remained favorably impressed 
with the principles. Their laboraexten led toTouisRiver, 
and here, too, they built a small church on the south side 
of the rivei', which is remembered as the tirst building 


in which the Ocean County Courts were beld after the 
County was established, and before the couri house was 
built. Their preachers also went as Ear south as Forked 
River, where they made a considerable impression, and 
baptized some in bhe mill pond— the preacher compli- 
menting one convert, it is said, by saying, after immers- 
ing her, thai he saw the devil as bjg as an owl leave her! 

Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, visited 
New Egypt, Hornerstown and Toms River, in 1840, and 
sealed a large number. William Smith, brother of the 
prophet, frequently preached at New Egypt ; he preached 
the funeral sermon of Alfred Wilson, who was originally 
a Methodist, but became a Mormon preacher. James 
L. Curtis, originally a Methodist, also became a Mormon 
preacher. The present successor of Joseph Smith and 
Brigham Young, as head of the Mormon Church, is John 
Taylor, who has also preached in Ocean county, and was 
probably the last who preached as far south as Forked 
River. He held forth about 1851, in the old Forked Riv- 
er sehoolliouse, and liis sermon seemed to differ but little 
from an old-fashioned Methodist sermon ou the necessity 
of salvation, as he made but little allusion to the peculiar 
tenets of Mormonism. About 1852 many Mormon con- 
verts left Ocean county for Salt Lake City, among whom 
were Joseph Chamberlain and family, of Forked Piiver, 
and a number of respectable families from Toms Fviver. 
They encountered serious hardships in crossing the 
plains. It is generally conceded that the Mormon con- 
verts were noted for sincerity, industry and frugality. 

< )f Joseph Smith's visit to New Egpyt, some amusing 
stories, probably exaggerated, are told at the expense of 
converts, such as of a wealthy man being told by Smith 
to repair to a particular tree at a certain hour of the 
night and pray for direction from Heaven, and the Lord 
would reply. Accordingly the man sought the place and 
prayed as directed ; he was answered by a voice from 
above, which, among other things, directed him to give a 
good share of his worldly goods to the prophet Smith ; hut 
the man seemed to doubt it being the voice of an angel — 


it sounded more like Smith himself concealed in the 

The little Mormon church at Toms River was bought 
in 1878 by Franklin Harris and is now a part of his 

In June, 1878, Rev. Wm. Small, a Mormon preacher, 
held services in Shinn's Hall, New Egypt. 


Rev. Mr. Shafer, an Episcopalian clergyman, of Bur- 
lington, held services once a month for a year or so in 
1872-3 at Barnegat and Manahawkin, and Rev. Mr. Pettit, 
of Bordentown, preached at Manahawkin in 1878. 

Bishop Odenheimer visited Barnegat, July 25, 1873, 
and held services in the M. E. church, assisted by Rev. 
Mr. Shafer, on which occasion Prof. B. F. North united 
himself with the Episcopal denomination. 

The Methodists used the old free church for many 
years, but on February 10, 1853, a certificate of incorpo- 
ration was filed in the County Clerk's office, naming as 
trustees of the M. E. Society, Job Edwards, Lawrence 
Ridgway, Gabriel M. Ininau, Tunis Bodine and Jeremiah 
Predmore. A lot was bought and on the 22d of August, 
1857, the corner stone of their church was laid, on which 
occasion Revs. Messrs. Stockton, Corson and others of- 
ficiated. The basement was dedicated January 17th, 
1859, Rev. William C. Stockton, pastor in charge, Rev R. 
B. Lawrence and others present. The main audience- 
room was dedicated January 31st, 1864 ; Rev. A. E. Bal- 
lard preached the dedication and the pastor Rev. Samuel 
H. Johnson assisted in the services. The church was 
burned down on the moruiug of May 23d, 1882. Meas- 
ures were at once taken to rebuild it and the new corner 
stone was laid July 11th, 1882, on which day it was an- 
nounced that $5,000 had been raised towards the building 
fund. The basement was dedicated December 10th, 1882, 
while Rev. J. J. Graw was pastor. Rev. John Miller, of 
Trenton, preached in the morning and in the evening. 

RELIGI01 s 80CIE l II 8. -J.').") 

Presiding Elder Shock conducted the services. The 
church so Ear as then completed cost $6,000, of which all 

but sl-_!() had been raised. 


The tirst church built at Barnegat was the Quaker 
meetinghouse. The deed for the land on which it is sit- 
uated, is dated June 11, 1770, and is from Timothy Bidg- 
wav and Levi Cranmer to Stephen Birdsall and Job 
Bidgway, of Barnegat, and Dauiel Shrouds and Joseph 
Gauntt, of Tuckerton. The deed calls for one acre and a 
half quarter — consideration money, twenty shillings. The 
meetinghouse was then already built, as the deed calls 
for the beginning of the survey at a certain course and 
distance " from the south-east corner of the meeting- 
house." The Job Bidgway named in the deed died July 
•24, 1832, aged 89 years. 

The Presbyterians were among the early religious 
pioneers of the village, and about 1760 they commenced 
holding regular or occasional services. Among the first 
preachers were Bev. Messrs. Chesnut, Green, McKnight 
and John Brainerd. From a letter written by Rev. John 
Brainerd in 1761, it seems the Presbyterians held their 
meetings at the house of Mr. Bulon. 

The Presbyterian Society now at Barnegat is of 
recent origin, having been organized in February, 1876, 
with nine members. 

The first effort to introduce Episcopalianism in Bar- 
negat was by Rev. Thomas Thompson, between 1745 and 
1750, which he mentions in his published account of 
missionary services in old Monmouth in those years. 

The Methodist pioneers held regular or occasional 
services probably as far back as the Revolution. The 
first Methodist Society was organized in 182'.), with the 
late Rev. Job Edwards as the first class leader and local 
preacher. Mr. Edwards' grandfather, James Edwards, 
who had been a soldier in the old French War, was one 
of the earliest and most earnest converts to Methodism 


along shore, and in more modern times the Society in 
this section has had no more zealous, successful laborer 
than Rev. Job Edwards. "He still lives" in the cher- 
ished remembrance of his fellow-members, and in the 
evidences of his works in the cause of his Master. 


The following copy of a paper shows the origin of 
the old Barnegat Free Church. To residents of this sec- 
tion the names appended will be read with interest, as 
they recall their predecessors of fifty years ago: 

Staffobd, June 3d, 1829. 

We. the subscribers, inhabitants of Barnegat, in the 
township of Stafford, and county of Monmouth, do pro- 
pose to build a meetinghouse for the purpose of preach- 
ing, in the village of Barnegat, free and open for the re- 
ception of preachers of all Christian denominations. 
We therefore solicit the aid of all charitably disposed 
persons, as we are fully persuaded that all that is given 
for such a purpose will be abundantly made up 'to us in 
this life, and tenfold in that which is to come, for we con- 
sider it our reasonable duty to use every means pre- 
scribed in the Gospel to aid in the diffusion of the Word 
of God throughout our land. 

We therefore promise to pay unto the trustees who 
shall be appointed to receive the same, the sum annexed 
to our several signatures, on or before the first day of 
August next ensuing, if thereto required : 

Daniel Smith, $20; Thos. B. Odell, $20; D. S. Hay- 
wood, $10; John Tilton, $10; Caleb Cranmer, $20; Stacy 
Jennings, $5; Job Inman, $5; John Perine, $5; Edward 
Jennings, $5 ; Orrin Chamberlain, $5 ; Benjamin Collins, 
$5 ; Lawrence Falkinburg, $5 ; Daniel Conover, $3 ; John 
Cranmer, $5; Samuel Perine, $2 ; Amos Birdsall, Jr., $3; 
Wm. Chandler. $1 ; Sarah Bemsen, $10 ; James Collins, 
$10; Jarvis Hazleton, $1; David Reed, si, Daniel W. 
Holt, $5 ; Doughty Soper, $2 ; Daniel Perine, $3 ; Solomon 
Soper, $5; John Birdsall, |5; Samuel Edwards, $5 ; Selah 
Oliphant. $5; Jesse Rulon, $5 ; Isaac P. Peckworth, $3; 


John Langans, $1 ; Edward Jennings, Jr., $1.50; Heze- 
kiah Soper, $5 ; David JohDson, $1 ; Samuel Taylor, $2 ; 

Wm. Letts, $5; Job Cook, si ; Wm. Rulon, si ; Jj > S T. 

Berline, $10; David Church, $5; Charles Butler, $10; 
Job Edwards, slf,; Tims. Lewis, $10; Thos. Edwards, Sr., 
s:>; David Rulon, $5; Prentice Rugbee, $10; Wm. D. 
Oliphant, $5; -I. F. Randolph, $5; Adam Myers, $5; Tunis 
Bodine, $10; Moses Headley, $5; John Camburn, $3; 
Timothy Candee, s-j; Ezekiel Smith, $5; Michael [nman, 
s:!; Joshua Rinear, S^!; James Rinear, $5 ; John Parker, 
$5; Jonathan Oliphant, $3; Jeremiah Predmore, $2; 
Matthew Miller, $2; Gabriel Mills, $10; John Solsburg, 
$1 ; Ephraim Predmore, $10; Richard Ridgway, $5; 
James Edwards, $5 ; George Edwards, $5; James Mills, 
$5 ; Alex. Duncan, $5 ; Benjamin Oliphant, $5 ; John 
Rinear, $1 ; David Swain. $1 ; Jesse Pen a, $3 ; Samuel and 
John Corlies, $4; Thomas, M. Cook, $2; Zalman Church, 
$3 ; Samuel Birdsall, $5 ; James Giberson, $3 ; Noah 

Edwards, $1. Total, $408.50. 



A certificate of incorporation of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church at Potter's Creek (now Bayville) recorded at 
Toms River, is dated January 6, 1855, and names as 
trustees Samuel T. Rogers, Reuben Tilton, Caleb Grant, 
William Jeffrey and Moses R. Anderson. 

The certificate of incorporation of the "Trinity M. E. 
Church of Bayville," filed September 20, 1872, states that 
at a meeting held May 9, 1872, the following persons were 
elected trustees: Samuel R. Bunnell, Thomas Harvey, 
Richard Phillips, William Jeffrey, Barzillai B. Anderson. 

The corner stone of the Bayville M. E church was 
laid September 9, 1873, and the church was dedicated 
June 20, 1880, Rev. L. Vansant officiating in the cere- 


At a meeting of Methodist Protestants of which Rev. 
Lewis L. Neal was chairman, held October 23, 1855, the 


following persons were elected trustees: (lark Newman, 
Ezekiel Lewis, Benj. S. Lewis, Be naj ah Everingh am, Ben- 
jamin Pearce. 

This Bethel Meeting House was the old Dover 


This church, on what was termed the Atlantic cir- 
cuit, at a meeting held October 11, 1855, elected the fol- 
lowing trustees: Isaac Osborne, John M. Brown, John 
('. Curtis, Joseph S. Wardell, Edward Cook. The certifi- 
cate of incorporation was recorded January 13, 1857. 

Old Dover Chapel was built about 1829 as a church 
free to all denominations. It was used mainly by the 
Methodist Episcopal Society and next by the Protestant 


The Quaker meetinghouse at Barnegat, was origin- 
ally built at least as early as 1770, as the deed for the 
land on which it is situated is dated June 11, 1770, tad it 
speaks of the meetinghouse as then built. 

The deed was from Timothy Ridgway and Levi 
Cranmer, of Stafford township, Monmouth county, to 
Stephen Burdsall and Job Ridgway, son of said Timothy, 
of the same place, and Daniel Shourds and Joseph 
Gauntt, of Little Egg Hail. or, in Burlington county, con- 
sideration money twenty shillings. The tract is thus de- 

One piece or parcel of land containing one acre and 
half quarter, lying at Barnegat. in the township of Staf- 
ford, in the county of Monmouth, it being part of a 
tract of live hundred acre.-, that the said Ridgway and 
Cranmer purchased of Oliver Delaneyand Henry Cuy- 
ler, Jr.. by one indenture of bargain and sale under their 
hands and seals, dated the ninth day of September, 17 59. 
The grant.-- above named deeded the lot. the same 
date, to " The people of (rod called (Quakers, belonging 
to the monthly meeting held at Little Egg Harbor, in 
Burlington county." 


The first named deed was proved before Silas Crane, 
Judge, July 17, 1813, and recorded at Freehold, Book W. 
p. 364, July 22, 1813. 

The last named deed was proved before Judge Silas 
Crane, July 22, 1813, and is recorded at Freehold, Book 
W, p. 365. The witnesses to the first deed were Richard 
Bidgway and Levi Cranmer, Jr. 

Before the meetinghouse at Barnegat was built, 
Quaker preachers travelled along shore, and the first 
place in what is now Ocean county where they held 
meetings, was at West Creek. 

John Fothergill, Jane Haskens, Abigail Bowles, John 
Wbolman, Peter Andrews, Benjamin Jones, Patience 
Brayton, Job Scott, Elizabeth Collins, and other noted 
preachers travelled and held meetings " through the des- 
erts, from Chesterfield, in Burlington county, to Little 
Egg Harbor, extending the love of truth to the poor 
people thereaway," during a period extending from 1722 
to 1765. 

On September 15, 1785, Job Scott preached at Bar- 
negat, and says : "I had a very laborious meeting at 
Barnegat, though a few exercised friends were present." 

st. john's roman catholic church, Manchester. 

A lot was presented to the Catholics of Manchester 
by AVilliam Torrey, Esq., and work was commenced in 
building the church about October, 1870. Father De- 
laney received fourteen members May 3, 1874. In 1876, 
Father Donelly held services here the first Monday in 
each month. 

The certificate of incorporation, filed January 18, 
1878, named as trustees Bt. Bev. Michael A. Corrigan, 
Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of New Jersey ; 
Very Bev. Geo. H. Doane, Vicar-General of same diocese ; 
The Very Bev. Stanislaus Damelow, pastor, and William 
McLaughlin and Patrick McElhenney, lay members. 


The corner stone of the M. E. Church at this place 
was laid June 24, 1869, Bevs. E. H. Stokes, W. W. Moffett, 


P. C. Johnson, W. F. Morris, and J. Wagg officiating. 
General John S. Schultze was President of the Board of 
Trustees. The church was completed November "23,1870. 


In 1841, says Rev. I. G. Symmes, a house of worship 
was erected at Mancheser and dedicated in November of 
the same year, Rev. Dr. Samuel H. Cox officiating. The 
church was organized in the Spring of the next year by 
the Presbytery of Brooklyn, New School. The succeed- 
ing Spring, 1841, Mr. William E. Schenck, subsequently 
of the Presbyterian Board of Publication, a licentiate of 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick, was called. Then oc- 
curred what is believed to have been the first fraternal 
correspondence between the Old and New School bodies, 
between the Presbytery of Brooklyn, and the Presbytery 
of New Brunswick ; and the Church of Manchester was 
transferred by the former to the latter Presbytery, and 
Mr. Schenck was ordained and installed first pastor. A 
large committee, headed by Dr. Benjamin Bice, came 
down to install him, and the occasion was a memorable 
one in that part of the county. 

Mr. Schenck left in two years, and the church passed 
through two more brief pastorates before 1851. Then 
came a period of great depression in business and the 
village was nearly depopulated for ten years. Regular 
services and Sabbath school, however, were maintained 
by Elder William Torrey, with occasional ministerial 
help, until August, 1864, when a regular pastor was se- 
cured. Then Revs. Messrs. Charles D. Nott, James 
Petrie and E. M. Kellogg came in rapid succession, re- 
maining each but a short time. The brief ministry of 
Dr. Schenck was greatly blessed. In 1877 the member- 
ship was fifty-six. 

The following is a list of the pastors of the Manches- 
ter Presbyterian church which was organized March 13, 

Rev. William E. Schenck. D. D., from February 28. 
1843, to May 14, 1845. 


Rev. Morse Howell, Dec. ( .», 1845, fco April 1, is is. 

Rev. Charles I ). Knott, August 11, ISO!, to Au-ust 24, 

Rev. James Petrie, November 15, 1866, t<> March 12, 

Rev. E. M. Kellogg, July 24, 1873, to October 22, 

Rev. B. T. Phillips May 9, 1876— who still (1886) re- 
mains pastor. 

At a meeting of the members and friends of the 
Presbyterian church at Manchester, held Dec. 3, 1880, 
the following trustees were elected : Wm. T. Wortzel, 
Chas. L. Rogers, John N. Dettrell, Wm. R. Schultze, 
James M. Quinby, Mark Souden, John S. Schultze. 

Certificate filed Feb. 5, 1881. 

The historical sketch of Monmouth Presbytery, by 
Rev. Joseph G. Symmes, published 1877, in speaking of 
the Whiting Church, says : 

"At present Rev. George W. Cottrell is acting as 
stated supply, and he has under his care a tract eighteen 
miles long and fourteen miles wide. The population is 
scattered, concentrated for the most part at four railroad 
points — Whiting, Wheatland, Woodmansie and Shamony. 
There are sixteen members in the new church." 

The above historical sketch says the church was 
organized in 1875, which is probably a typographical 
error, as it was organized the previous year. 

The certificate of incorporation, filed October 15, 
1875, named as trustees, Geo. W. Cottrell, W. H. Wright, 
and B. F. Errington. 


The Union Presbyterian Society was organized at 
Whiting on the evening of August 5, 1874, with N. R. 
Todd, of Shamony, and W. R. Wright, of Whiting, as 
Ruling Elders. A commission of the Monmouth Pres- 
bytery, consisting of the Rev. Messrs. Dashiel, Van Dyke 
and Everett had held two days' services at Whiting and 
adjacent places. This society, it was said, was the im- 


mediate result of the labors of Martin Kellogg, a student 
of Princeton Seminary. During the following rear a 
good church edifice was built at Whiting, which was ded- 
icated September 15, 1876. 


This church was built about 1866, according to Rev. 
(t. W. Simpson, who was at one time its pastor. 


In an article published in the New Jersey Courier, 
May 25, 1881, Mrs. Leah Blackman says : *' Between 
fifty and sixty years ago there was a Methodist Church 
built at West Creek, and the meetings in the old school- 
house were given up. A few years ago another Metho- 
dist Church was erected at West Creek, and the old 
church was sold to the Baptists, who now have a society 

The new Methodist Episcopal Church at West Creek 
was dedicated December 17, 1868, daring the pastorate 
of Rev. W. S. McCowan. 

The most prominent member of the society at this 
place for very many years was the late Hon. Joel Hay- 
wood, who, as a local minister, was well and favorably 
known throughout the lower part of the county. 

A debt of $1,200 which the West Creek M. E. Church 
owed, was entirely paid off about the beginning of 1883, 
while Rev. E. T. Gwynn was pastor. Of the amount, the 
late Esquire John Willets gave $400. 


At a meeting held July 13, 1876, Charles A. Mott, 
moderator; Dr. T. T. Price, clerk, the following trustees 
were elected ; Charles Cox, Jonathan Shinn, Charles 
Parsons, Samuel Headlev, Jr., Samuel E. Shinn, Bodine 
Parker, Joseph King. Certificate recorded July 20, 1876. 


The corner-stone of a M. E. Church at this place 
was laid June 12, 1876, Revs. Graw, Sykes, Simpson and 
Parker officiating. 


A clergymen's SETTLEMEM. 
About 1877 a tract of about seven hundred acres, 
lying about half-way between Barnegat and Mannahaw- 
kin, and a little west of the main shore road, was bought 
by Kev. Messrs. R. S. Arndt, H. D. Opdyke, Keifer, 
Wright, Middleton, C. E. Little and D. Habrom, and 
divided into one hundred acres for each owner, which 
they commenced clearing up and improving. The land 
proved productive, and on it good crops of corn, grain 
and fruits of different kinds were raised. Good dwellings 
and outbuildings were erected. The owners were mem- 
bers of the New Jersey M. E. Conference, and they put 
their places under care of hired employees or tenants, 
occasionally visiting the place for rest and recuperation. 


The certificate of incorporation of tins Division was 
■dated June 15, 1850, and signed by Isaiah Cranmer, W. P., 
and Isaac P. Peckworth, K. S. 


The corner-stone of the M. E. Church at Cedar Run, 
near Mannahawkin, was laid November 20, 1874, Revs. 
Ballard, Graw, Parker and Clark assisting. The church 
was dedicated December 15, 1880. 

The name of Unionville was given to Cedar Ptun 
about a dozen years ago. 


The M. E. Church at Cedar Grove, in Stafford town- 
ship, near Job Corlies' residence, was dedicated Decem- 
ber 24, 1874. The certificate of incorporation, filed Feb- 
ruary 4, 1875, named the following trustees : Reuben C. 
Corlies, John Bowers, Job M. Corlies, John G. Corlies, 
Joshua M. Corlies, Samuel Stackhouse, Jr., William 

An effort was made about 1880 to change the name 
of Cedar Grove to Corlisville. 

The early history of this church is given in the chap- 


ter relating to ancient churches in the county. A certifi- 
cate of incorporation of this church was filed at Toms 
River, May 18, 1857, which states that the following 
trustees were elected April 27, 1857 : Jarvis H. Brown, 
Amos B. Brown, John B. Crane, Jr., Stacey Gennings 
and Joseph R. ( )liphant. 

The church was rebuilt and dedicated July 10, 1867, 
when Rev. Mr. Smith, of Bloomfield, N. J., preached the 
dedicatory sermon, Rev. Joseph Perry, of Philadelphia; 
Rev. Mr. Connolly, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and Rev. Edwin S. Browe, the pastor, assisting in the 
services. The cost of rebuilding, including furnishing, 
was about $2,776. A balance of $600, due dedication 
day, was all raised on that day, and the church thus 
cleared from debt. The whole amount, except $200, was 
raised in the vicinity. 

The centennial of the organization of the Baptist 
Society here was celebrated August 25, 1870, on which 
occasion, among the speakers, was Rev. Daniel Kelsey, 
who had been a former pastor for nine years, and also a 
teacher, but had been away about twenty-two years. He 
was accompanied by his two sons, born in the village, 
one of whom was also a Baptist minister. 

At a meeting held September 5, 1876, Charles A. 
Mott, moderator; Jarvis H. Brown, clerk; the following 
trustees were elected, viz : Joseph R, Oliphant, Josiah B. 
Cramner, Samuel G. Peckworth, Edward Hazletou, Jarvis 
H. Brown. 

Rev. C. A. Mott preached his farewell sermon the 
last Sunday in July, 1878, after which he removed to 

Rev. E. L. Stager became pastor February, L880, and 
died April 13, 1882, aged 35 years. 

A parsonage was erected in 1882. Rev. J. T. Bender 
began preaching about January, L883. Rev. W. H. 
Eldredge was pastor January, 1884. 

The trustees of Mannahawkin M. E. Church named 


March 12, L803 (Book N, page 630, Freehold records), 
were Benjamin Seaman, Samuel Bennett, Edward Lamb- 
son, Benjamin Randolph, Henry Pearson, Thomas Ran- 
dolph, Nathan (Crane?) Levi Camburn and William 
Randolph. The di'i'd for church lot to them from Reu- 
ben Randolph on thai date, gave bounds thus: 

Begins five feet from west end of school house, and 
runs — 

S. 88 \Y. 1 chain 75 links. 
S. 2 E. 1 " 50 " 
N. 88 E. 1 " 75 " 
N. 2 W. 1 " 50 " 

Containing one-quarter acre more or less. Con- 
sideration, ten dollars. Witnesses, David Bartine, Stacy 

The witness, David Bartine, was probably the noted 
Methodist minister of that name. 

The corner-stone of a new edifice for the society was 
laid August 7, 1872, and the church dedicated August 6, 
1874. In the Summer and Fall of 1883 the entire upper 
story of the building was taken down and reconstructed, 
and the edifice raised ten feet. lu January, 1884, the re- 
constructed church was dedicated, Bishop Harris, Rev- 
Dr. Hanlon and the pastor, Rev. W. E. Perry, officiating. 


This is a village situated in Brick township, about 
one mile west of the Manasquan River, and four and a 
half from the Atlantic. The population is about three 
hundred, mostly employed in farming. There is a Metho- 
dist Church ; a public school, with seventy pupils; two 
saw-mills, one steam and one water; and two brickyards 
Its chief attractions are the fertility of the soil and the 
handsome farms by which it is surrounded, its fine ele- 
vated situation near the banks of the beautiful Manas- 
quan, and its wholesome air. 

The M. E. Church at this place was dedicated Jan- 
uary 30, bS7(>, Revs. Craw and tt sokes officiating. 

A post-office was established at Herbertsville in 
August, 1884 



The Baptist Century Book says that " the Baptist 
Church of Squan and Dover " was received into the Bap- 
tist Association in October, 1805, and the same year 
Samuel Haven was a delegate, and the society had thirty- 
eight members. In 1807 Samuel Haven was again a 
delegate, and the church reported forty-five members. 

The Orient Baptist Church was built in 1857, at a 
cost of $1,500. Its size was 26 by 35 feet. 


The certificate of incorporation of the First Baptist 
Church at Kettle Creek, in Brick township, recorded 
May 8, 1855, states that the following trustees were 
elected at a meeting held January 29, 1855 : Cornelius 
Strickland, Peter W. Havens, Isaac Osborn, Lewis John- 
son, William Dowdney. 


The Methodist Episcopal Church at Bethel (Lake- 
wood charge) had dedicatory services November 30 and 
December 1, 1867. Rev. E. H. Stokes, the pastor, Rev. 
S. H. Asay and others participated. 


The trustees of this church, named in the certificate of 
incorporation March 14, 1854, were David C. Woolley, 
William M. Woolley, John C. Wardell, B. H. Fielder, 
William Clayton, William Downey, Thomas Tilton. 


At a meeting held July 19, 1873, five trustees were 
elected. The proceedings were signed by Miles McKel- 
vey, President ; Cornelius Hawkins, Secretary ; and Rev. 
E. B. Lake, Witness, but trustees' names are not given 
in the certificate, which was filed July 21, 1873. 


At a meeting of friends of this society, of which 
Barton Twiford was chairman in 1853, the following per- 
sons were elected trustees: John C. Curtis, John M. 


Reynolds nud William L. Chadwick. The certificate was 
filed February 19, 1853. Another certificate of incorpo- 
ration was dated October 24, 1870, which states that at a 
meeting held September IS, 1870, the following persons 
were elected trustees : Thompson B. Pearce, William H. 
Bennetts, James Loveland, William P. Stout, William I! 
Pearce. A new church was dedicated August 13, 1876. 


This church was completed in February, 1883, and 
first services held the 11th of the same month. The 
society was incorporated Nov. 11, 1882, and the corpora- 
tors were Charles E. Knox, Julius Fostei*, Frederick* M. 
Trask, Richard C. Marley and A. V. D. Schenck. Rev. 
Samuel Y. Luin was pastor 1886-7. 


In July, 1887, the Borough Hall was tendered to the 
Baptists, by the Mayor, for religious purposes. These 
were conducted by Rev. Mr. Wilkinson. 


The Protestant Episcopal Church at Point Pleasant, 
" St. Mary by the Sea," was contracted for April 24, 1880, 
and July 4th the building was finished and services held 
in it. Services were conducted by Rev. Dr. Hills. The 
church was dedicated August 4, 1881, by Bishop Scar- 




The township of Brick was originally established in 
the same act creating the County of Ocean, approved 
February 15, 1850. Its bounds were thus described : 

So much of the township of Dover as lies north of a 
line running east from a point where the line between 
the townships of Jackson and Howell meet the Dover 
township line; thence a straight line to Polhemus' mills, 


on the south branch of Kettle creek; thence along said 
creek to the baj ; thence across the bay to the sea, and 
all those parts of the townships of Howell and Dover 
included in the' following boundaries, viz.: Beginning at 
Manasquan inlet and mouth of Manasquan river; thence 
up the middle of said river to the first I nidge over the 
same: thence westerlv to a corner on the south side of 
said rivei. near the old bridge; thence a south-westerly 
course till it strikes the road leading to Jackson's mills; 
thence along said road till it meets the line between 
Jackson and Howell townships ; thence along said line 
to the Dover township line ; thence a straight line to 
Pohlhemus' mills, on the south branch of Kettle creek; 
thence along said creek, the several courses thereof, to 
the bay : thence across the bay to the sea : thence along 
the sea to the place of beginning. 

The first town meeting of the inhabitants of the 
township of Brick was by the above act directed to lie 
held at the house of Richard Burr, Burrsville, on the 
second Tuesday in March. 1850. 


The act establishing the township of Ocean was 
approved April 13, 1876, and thus defines its bounds: 

All that part of the townships of Union ami Lacey, 
in the county of Ocean, l}ing within the following 
boundaries, that is to say : Beginning at the sea and 
running, first, north sixty-seven and a half degrees west 
to the mouth of Little Horse Neck Creek, known as the 
north fork of Lochiel branch; thence, second, westerly 
n)i said branch to the bridge on the main shore road 
leading from Barnegat to Waretown; thence, third, north 
fifty-seven degrees west to the north side of the Hezekiah 
Soper old house standing on the westerly side of the old 
main load: thence, fourth, north seventy-eight degrees 
west to the Pancoast road: thence, fifth, westerly along 
said Pancoast road to a stone on the north side of said 
load on the east line of a tract of land containing about 
one hundred and seventy-five acres now belonging to 


Samuel Birdsall, said stone being twenty-one chains 
easterly from where the middle of the Barnegal straighl 

road to Cedar Bridge crosses said PailCOast load; thence, 
sixth, north sixty-seven and a half degrees west to a 
point where the road Leading from Milhille to the 
Barnegat and Cellar Bridge straight road intersects said 
line; thence, seventh, northerly to a point where tie 
Jones road crosses the Wells Mills road; thence north- 
westerly on or along said Jones road to the south line of 
Lacey township; thence, eighth, easterly along the 
southerly line of said Lacey township to the mouth of 
oyster creek ; thence, ninth, south seventy-seven degrees, 
forty-rive minutes east to the sea; thence, tenth, along 
the edge of the sea, crossing Barnegat inlet to the begin- 


Stafford was set off from the lower part of old Shrews- 
bury township in 1749. The patent creating the town- 
ship was issued in the reign of George II., and is now 
preserved in the office of the County Clerk at Toms River. 
It is the oldest public official document relating to the 
present county of Ocean. It is on parchment with the 
great seal of the Province of New Jersey affixed. The 
following is a copy of 

The Patent <>f Staifvrd Township, Ocea/n Go-anty : 
( reorge the Second by the Grace of God of Great Brit- 
ain. France and Ireland, King Defender of the Faith, &C. 
to all to whom these presents shall come Greeting Know 
ye that we of our especial Grace certain knowledge and 
meer motion have Given and Granted and by these Pres- 
ents Do Give and Grant for us our Heirs and Successors to 
the Inhabitants of the South western part of the Town- 
ship of Shrewsbury in our County of Monmouth in our 
Province of New Jersey Within the following bound- 
aries i to wit) BEGINNING at Old Barnegat Inlet and from 
the North End of the Beach lying to the Southward of 
the said Inlet, running over the Bay North forty-six de- 
gree s West five Miles and thirty-seven chains to the 


Mouth of Oyster Creek and then "West Eleven Miles and 
Seventy chains to Pine tree in the South West plain in 
the Old partition line of East and West Jersey formerly 
run by George Keith thence bounded by the said Old Di- 
vision line South Nineteen degrees East Nineteen Miles 
and Sixty Chains to the south Stationary Point of Di- 
vision between East and West Jersey at the Main Sea 
North Easterly to the place of Beginning according to 
the plan hereunto annexed to be and remain a Perpetual 
Township and Community in Word and in Deed to be 
called and known by the name of the Township of Staf- 
ford. And we further Grant to the said Inhabitants of the 
Township aforesaid and their Successors to choose an- 
nually two Commissioners of the High Ways, one Over- 
seer of the High Ways, one Overseer of the Poor, one 
Assessor, one Town Collector, and one Constable for the 
Town aforesaid and to have hold and Enjoy all other 
Privileges Rights Liberties and Immunities that any 
other Township in our said Province do or may of right 
Enjoy. And the said Inhabitants are hereby Constituted 
and appointed a township by the Name aforesaid. To 
have hold and enjoy the Privileges aforesaid to them In 
Testimony whereof we have caused these our Letters to 
be made patent and the Great Seal of our Province of 
New Jersey to be hereunto affixed. Witness our Trusty 
and well beloved Jonathan Belcher EsQitrour Captain 
General and Governor in chief in and over our Province 
of Nova Cresarea or New Jersey and Territories thereon 
depending in America, Chancellor and Vice Admiral in 
the Same Ac. at Burlington the third day of March in the 
twenty third year of our Reign A. D. MDCCXLIX. 

" The Plan annexed " is on paper, and has but a 
fragment left. It begins with the words: "The Bounds 
of Stafford Township in Monmouth county, and ends with 
the date February, 10 1749-50. It is in a different hand 
writing. The Patent is on parchment, and the chiro- 
graphy is beautiful. 

The endorsement on the back reads: "Let the Great 
Seal of the Province of New Jersey be hereunto affixed. 


To the Secretary of the Province of New Jersey. 

J. Belcher. 

"Recorded in the Secretary's Office in Burlington in 
Lib. A A A. of Commissions fol. 305 Arc. J. Read, Regr. 

The inline Stafford whs probably given through the 
influence of -James Haywood, as the Haywood family was 

an ancient family of Staffordshire in England. 

Benjamin Paul was born at Deghton, Mass., and de- 
scended from William Paul, who came from England in 
1635. Luke Courtenay, it is said, was born in England 
and came to this country just before the Revolution. 

During the war (in December, 1780,) a shocking ca- 
lamity occurred at Manahawkin, by which several lives 
were lost. A dwellinghouse owned by William Pidgeon, 
on what was once known as the Haywood place, took fire 
and burned down. Captain Isaac Andrews lived in the 
house. His two daughters, one white hired man and two 
colored men were burned to death, so rapid w r as the fire, 
occasioned by a high wind. Sis persons in the house 
managed to escape, but without apparel. Mr. Pidgeon 
at the time was ill in the house, and got somewhat burned, 
but leaped out of a second-story window and was then 
taken to a neighboring house ; he was taken worse from 
excitement, and caught cold that night, having been re- 
moved in his shirt, and died a few r days after. 

James Hayw T ood, said to be from near Coventry, 
England, bought land in Stafford in 1743, and is frequent- 
ly named subsequently in deeds, and he also was the 
chief man in building the old church, originally a free 
church, but subsequently known as the Baptist church. 
Thomas, George and William Haywood are named be- 
tween 1760 and 1770 and subsequently Reuben, Thomas 
and Job Randolph, Nathan and Seth Crane, Louis Pang- 
born, Luke Courtenay, David and Thomas Johnson, Ben- 
jamin P. Pearson, Benjamin Paul and Zachariah Southard 
were settled here previous to the Revolution, and bore an 
honorable share in that war. The Randolphs probably 
came from Middlesex, and Cranes, Pangborn and Pear- 
son from Essex. 


The late William Aumack, who long lived at Cedar 
Creek, built, about fifty years ago, the old storehouse at 
Manahawkin, in the uppar part of the village; he was 
father of John Aumack, now of Toms River, Ex-Sheriff 
B. F. Aumack and Elijah and other children, and he sat 
up some of his sons in business here, and they carried 
on an extensive business for a number of years in mer- 
chandise, charcoal, etc. After them Henry C, and Hor- 
ton Gulick had the stand. Among their successors in the 
same stand were Randolph <v. Abbott, Allen A: Son, 
Joshua S. Lawson, Charles M. Sloan, Sprague & Oli- 
phant, Alfred Brown, I. M. Inman, Lewis B. Peckworth 
and Peckworth & Bros., wdio in 1880, sold to Charles H. 

Manahawkin seems to have been one of the earliest 
settled places in Ocean county. The name is said to be 
from Indian words signifying good land or good land for 
corn. The name was anciently written Mannahocking 
and Manahocking. 

Among early settlers was Nicholas Brown, who died 
about the beginning of 1724. He came from Burlington 
and was the son of Abraham Brown, who came to that 
county from Monmouth and was of Rhode Island origin. 
Nicholas Brown had wife Elizabeth, and sons Abraham 
and Joseph and daughters. 


The act creating this township was approved March 
17, 1874. The bounds of the township are thus set 
forth : 

All that part of the township of Stafford contained 
within the following bounds : Beginning at a stone in 
the main highway leading from West Creek to Manna- 
hawkin, in a north-easterly direction one hundred and 
ninety-five chains and forty links from the middle of 
West Creek mill stream ; thence runs, first, north forty- 
five degrees west, by a straight line to the Burlington 
and Ocean county line ; thence, second, bounded by and 
following the said line between Burlington and Ocean 

i:Ai;n Miii i rs. 273 

counties, in a south-easterly direction t<> the Atlantic 
Ocean, and thence running in a north-easterly direction 
to a point south-fast From the place of beginning. 

The first town meeting in Eagleswood was fixed to be 
held at the bouse of George Gaskell, West Creek, <>n the 
second Tuesday in April. L874 

W.-st Creek was one of the earliest, if not the 
earliest settled places in the present county of Ocean. 
The name was anciently given as Westeconk or Weste- 
cunk, an Indian name, probably signifying "a place to 
get meat or eatables," and indicating that this was a 
place of resort for oysters, fish, clams, etc. Among the 
first settlers at West Creek was Gervas Pharo, son of 
James and Ann, born in Lincolnshire, England, 3 mo. 15, 
1675. He came to this country with his parents in the 
ship Shields, in 1678. His father died in 1688, when he 
was only 13 years old. He was left, by his father's will, 
two or three tracts of land, one of which, in Springfield, 
was the one on which his parents resided. In 1706 he 
sold this to his brother-in-law, Richard Ridgway 2d, and 
not long after moved to West Creek. In 1701 he married 
at Hempstead, L. I., Elizabeth Willetts, daughter of 
Hope and Mary, of that place. The same year Richard 
Ridgway, 2d, married Mary Willetts, another daughter 
of Hope and Mary, who are described then as of Jerusa- 
lem L. I.. Gervas Pharo died in 1756, leaving an only 
son named James, from whom descend the Pharos of 
Little Egg Harbor and Ocean county. Members of the 
Willetts, or Willis and Cranmer families were also among 
early settlers. 


Lacey township derives its name from General John 
Lacey, who, in the Summer and Fall of 1809, built at 
Ferrago the first forge and also dwelling houses, barns, 
stables, etc., there ; and bought large tracts of land in 
that vicinity. In 1810 he applied for authority to have a 
road laid out from Forked River Landing to Ferrago and 
thence on to Hanover Furnace. In September, 1810, the 


Supreme Court appointed as Commissioners three men 
from Burlington county and three from Monmouth. From 
Burlington, the men appointed were Eli Mathis, Daniel 
(Mathis?) and John Irick ; from Monmouth, John Hay- 
wood, James Edwards and Abraham Woolley. The re- 
turn was dated October 13, 1810. The length from 
Forked River Landing to south end of the dam at Ferrago 
was eight and one quarter miles, less three chains ; four 
rods wide from Hanover to Forked River landing. 

This road, the well known "Lacey road," was run 
out by John Black, at one time President of the Mount 
Holl}' Bank, who, when a young man, followed surveying. 

In 1740 there was a landing on the north branch of 
Forked River and a cart-way from swamp to the landing 
is named in a survey of that year. 

Robert Hulett and Moses May had dwellings near 
Goodluck between 1740 and 1750 ; there was at this time 
at Forked River, a bridge over north branch and also 
an "upper bridge." A new causway was also then built. 
In 1748 James Holmes bought 70 acres of land near 
Robert Hulett's house. 

Samuel Worden, or Warden, as it was recorded, had 
salt works at Forked River in 1754. Between 1750 and 
1760 Peter Peshine had dwelling on north branch, and 
John Towson or Tozer, in 1750, had dwelling between 
south branch and Oyster Creek ; about the same time 
John Bird lived between Forked River and Goodluck. 
In 1770 Benjamin Allison lived between middle and 
south branches of Forked River. James Mills took up 
land uear bridge on north branch, 1780-90, and had a pub- 
lic house on the site of the present Lafayette House. 
John Winnow or Winner at same time had dwelling be- 
tween north and middle branches, west of main road, on 
the place owned in late years by Daniel Chamberlain, 

Thomas Parker and Francis Letts together bought 
land on Cedar Creek in 1792 ; and Thomas Parker 
bought, in 1805, fifty acres between north and middle 
branches. About this time his son Anthony settled at 


Forked River, near where the Riverside hotel now is. 

At Cedar Creek, among persons who early took up 

land were Gabriel and David Woodmansee, sons of 

Thomas. David owned the .Judge D. I. C. Rogers place. 
They were settled here at leasl as early as 1749. David's 
sons, Samuel, James and Gabriel, settled between Stout's 
Creek and north branch of Forked River. 

Thomas Potter, Sr., and his son, Thomas Potter, the 
t'rieud of Rev. John Murray, were settlers at Goodluck 
about 1750. 

John Holmes, called "the Elder,"' took up land near 
the V pper Mill, Forked River, 1759 and '60 ; and another 
John Holmes, who married Catharine Brown in 1764, 
lived at the mill before and during the Revolution. 
Samuel Brown, brother of John Holmes' wife, had a 
place on south branch of Forked River. After the war 
he moved to Mannahawkin. 

Caleb Falkinburg took up land in 1803 between 
Forked River and Stout's Creek. His house was on the 
place owned by the late Captain Joseph Holmes. 

The first settlers of Lacey generally located some 
distance east of the main shore road, and not far from 
where the uplands join the meadows. Their dwellings 
in this vicinity were generally situated about in a line 
from the old Captain Benjamin Stout farm, east of Good- 
luck Church, across Stout's Creek, by the Joseph Holmes 
and James Jones places, and thence to the south side of 
Forked River, by the old James Chamberlain or Ezekiel 
Lewis place, and James Anderson's ; then across Oyster 
Creek, by the old Camburn homestead. And the original 
main route of travel along here appears to have been by 
these places. Then the little north branch of Forked 
River, now known as Bridge Creek, had a bridge over it, 
and there was a ferry across Forked River, nearly oppo- 
site the old Wells swamp, at the place still called " The 
Ferry " by old residents. 

A century ago, the most noted residents appear to 
have been : David Woodmansee, who lived on the place 
now owned by Judge D. I. C. Rogers ; Thomas Potter, 


who lived on the farm east of Goodluck Church ; Samuel, 
James and Gabriel Woodmansee, sons of David, who 
lived on the James Jones and Joseph Holmes farms ; 
Samuel Brown, who lived on the old Wright place on 
south branch of Forked River ; and John Holmes, who 
lived at the upper mill, Forked River. 

Rev. John Price, who was made Major after the war, 
moved to Goodluck two or three years before the war 
ended. There was a tavern at Goodluck before the war, 
and one just over Cedar Creek during the war. 

The act establishing the township of Lacey was 
approved March 23, 1871. and its bounds are thus de- 
scribed : 

" All that part of the townships of Union and Dover, 
in the county of Ocean, contained within the following- 
boundaries, that is to say : Beginning at a point in the 
line between the counties of Ocean and Burlington where 
the southerly and easterly line of Manchester township 
meets the same ; thence, first, along said township line 
in a north-easterly direction to a point where the road 
from Giberson's mill to Dover Forge crosses said town- 
ship line ; thence, second, easterly along said road to 
Dover Forge ; thence, third, south-easterly along Guise's 
road, by Dover Forge pond, to the middle of Cedar Creek ; 
thence, fourth, along the middle of Cedar Creek to its 
junction with Barnegat Bay ; thence, fifth, on a course 
due east to the Atlantic Ocean ; thence, sixth, southerly 
along said Atlantic Ocean to the north side of Barnegat 
Inlet ; thence, seventh, on a course westerly to the mouth 
of Oyster Creek ; thence, eighth, westerly along said 
Oyster Creek .to where the road from Waretown to the 
head of Factory or south branch of Cedar Creek, known 
as Stout's Road, crosses the same ; thence, ninth, westerly 
in a straight line to the head of said Factory branch, on 
the division line between Dover and Union townships ; 
thence, tenth, south-westerly along said division line to 
the county line of Burlington and Ocean ; thence, eleventh, 
along said line north-westerly to the place of begin- 


The first town meeting was appointed to be held ;it 
the house of Martin Hall, .it Forked River, on the second 
Tuesday in April, 1871. 


Ferragp came into possession of Reuben Rockwell, a 
native of Vermont, who came to what is now Ocean 
county about 1843. Mr. Rockwell was informed that 
the milldam was unusually costly, as near $10,000 was 
expended on it. 

The ore in the place had some years before been 
exhausted, and Mr. Rockwell and Joseph Austin, who 
was connected with him, procured ore from up the North 
River, probably near Fishkill. 

William Hurry, of New York, became owner of the 
Ferrago tract, which, with other lands bought by him, 
composed about 10,000 acres owned by him. He named 
the place Bamber, in remembrance of Dr. John Bamber, 
of Barking, in Essex county, England, from whom his 
mother was descended. 

Ferrago forge was built in the Summer and Fall of 
1809 by General John Lacey, who, about the same time 
erected dwelling, barns, etc. It is said that Lacey also 
owned an interest in Hanover Furnace. He wished to 
establish a road from Hanover Furnace, by Ferrago, to 
Forked River landing, and as it would run through two 
counties, he had to apply to the Supreme Court to have 
commissioners appointed to lay out the road, which was 
done September 10, 1810. The commissioners made 
their return October 13, 1810. The road was to be four 
rods wide from Hanover Furnace to Forked River 

The name Ferrago is from the Latin word ferrum, 


The act creating the Township of Manchester was 
approved April 6, 1865, and it thus defines its bounds : 

All that portion of the Township of Dover, in the 
county of Ocean, lying and being within the boundaries 


as follows : Beginning in the middle of the channel of tin- 
north or main branch of Toms River, at the southerly 
boundary of the township of Jackson, and running thence 
down the middle of the channel of said branch to Avhere 
it unites with Ridgway branch. Thence to a stake in 
the main stage road from Toms River to the village of 
Manchester, which stake is the dividing line between 
lands of A. P. Stanton and the lands of James Brown, and 
running thence in a straight line to a point on the line 
between Burlington and Ocean counties, distance two 
miles easterly from the centre of the track of the Dela- 
ware and Raritan railroad ; thence north-westerly along 
the dividing line to the south-easterly line of Plumsted 
township. Thence along the south-easterly line of plum- 
sted and Jackson townships to the place of beginning. 

The first town meeting was designated to be held at 
the house of Ridgway Taylor in Manchester. 

Solomon and Job Ridgway bought land on west side 
of north branch of Toms River, four miles above Schenck's 
mill, in 1762, and other tracts at different times. Ridg- 
way's sawmill is frequently named 1790 to 1800. 

Ridgway's sawmill appears to have originally been 
built by James Hepburn and Stephen Pangborn before 
1751, as surveys speak of Hepburn & Pangborn's mill, 
now Ridgway's. 

Vanhorne's new sawmill is named 17-49; in 1753 Mat. 
Vanhornes sawmill place and Vanhorne's brook are 
named. Mat. Vanhorne's bridge over Davenport is named 
1760. In 1795 Tice Vanhorne's branch, Tice A'anhorne's 
and Tice Vanhorne's old sawmill are named. 

AVlieatland is on the New Jersey railroad, near the 
Burlington county line. 

Deb by Piatt place was a noted hotel where the road 
from the shore forks, one going to Hanover, another to 
New Egypt and a third to Collier's Mills. It is since 
known as Boyd's hotel. 

Ferrago Station is on the New Jersey Southern rail- 
road, and on the road from Ferrago or Bamber to Han- 


Buckingham derives it-- Dame from John Bucking- 
ham, a native of Connecticut, who in early life settled in 
Eatontown, Monmouth county, and subsequently removed 
to the village of Manchester. Prom thence he moved to 
the place now known as Buckingham, where a steam saw- 
mill and two or three dwellings had been put up which 
he purchased. 

The Pine Laud Improvement Company, for improv- 
ing lands along the railroad between Manchester and 
Lakewood, was incorporated December 25, 1883. The 
incorporators were John E. Howell, New York ; Charles 
C. Lathrop, Newark ; Charles D. Morrow, Newark ; J. R. 
Mallory, New York; John Torrey, Monmouth Beach. 

The postoffice at Manchester was established in 
October, 1841, and Henry L. Bulkly was the first post- 
master. The next was Peter D. Kneiskern, appointed 
September 30, 1842. He held the office for a number of 
years. William Torrey was postmaster about 1853-4. 

Union sawmill, built by or before 1750, was proba- 
bly at Manchester, and from it Union branch derived its 

The Revolution seemed to have thrown many saw- 
mills out of business, and this mill must have suffered 
with others. 

A century ago Manchester was known as Federal 
Forge, and then as Federal Furnace. 

A forge was erected here about 1789, it is said, by 
David Wright and Caleb Ivins. " The old Federal House, 
which was built for the use of David Wright's forge," 
and " Federal Company's coaling house," and " David 
Wrights coaling ground" are named in surveys between 
1795 and 1800. Federal furnace was built not long be- 
fore 1800 by John W. Godfrey, of Philadelphia. In 1815 
Federal furnace was owned by Griffith Jones and I. 
Holmes. In surveys 1830 and thereabouts " Dover fur- 
nace, late Federal furnace," is named. (Dover forge was 
on Cedar Creek.) 

In 1764, in a survey to D. Knott on Hurricane, 
reference is made to " the edge of the place where the 


Hurricane wind passes through the swamp." This 
seems to imply that it was thought Hurricane derived its 
name from the hurricane wind. 


Nathan C. Whiting, from whom Whiting derives its 
name, came from New Haven, Conn., to Ocean county 
about 18o '2, and purchased an extensive tract of wood 
land and erected a saw-mill, and engaged in the lumber 
business. After about twenty years, he sold out his 
interest and returned to New Haven, where he died April 
28, 1884. He was a sou of Deacon Nathan Whiting, 
editor of the Religious hitelli'jencer of New Haven. 

Phoenix Forge, a short distance below Federal, was 
built by Jones & Wood, and at first was called Lower 
Forge. It was burned down and rebuilt, and hence the 
name of Phoenix. 

Mr. Benjamin. Snyder, of Lake wood, says that 
Samuel (I. "Wright once owned Federal furnace, and 
after him came Benjamin B. Howell, and then his sons, 
Henry and Lewis Howell, who put up another stack. 

William Torrey has an order sent by General Wash- 
ington, in his own handwriting, to Mr. Torrey' s father, 
who was a Colonel in the Revolution, and he also has 
two swords which belonged to his father. Colonel Torrey 
was present at the execution of Major Andre. 

Mrs. Torre}-, wife of William Torrey, when a little 
girl, sat at the bedside of Tom Paine. His room she 
describes as filthy ; a barrel for a table, a three-legged 
stool for a chair, a dilapidated bedstead, etc. He had 
on a red nightcap. 


The village of Bayville, Ocean county, was formerly 
known as Potter's Creek, The name was changed to 
Chaseford, after Hon. S. P. Chase, Secretary of the 
Treasury. From this it was changed to Bayville. 

Among ancient settlers of this township was John 
Grant, who was among taxpayers 1764, and who is fre- 
quently named in ancient records. John and Joseph 
Piatt were also taxpayers 1704. 


Thomas Pott >r, father of the Thomas who was the 
friend of Rev. John Murray, bought land in what is now 
Berkeley in 1756, and at other times. 

•lohn Williams took up land in the middle of last 
century and owned sawmills, etc. 


The township of Union was originally established by 
an act approved February 7, 1846, entitled, "An Act to 
set off from the townships of Stafford and Dover, in the 
county of Monmouth, a new township to be called the 
township of Union." Its bounds were thus described : 

" Beginning at the sea, and running, first, a due west 
course to the southerly point of Harvest Point; thence 
north forty -five degrees west, crossing the bay to the 
main meadows; thence north-easterly along the edge of 
the same to the mouth of Gunning River ; thence up said 
river its various courses to the mouth of Fresh Creek ; 
thence up said creek its various courses to the north line 
of a tract of land known as the Fresh Creek lot, now 
owned by the heirs or devisees of Samuel G. Wright, de- 
ceased, and others; thence westerly along said line to the 
westerly end thereof ; thence north fifty-two degrees and 
fifty minutes west along a line known as the Ogden line, 
to a stone, being the second corner of a tract of land 
known as the Ogden tract, standing on a course north 
ten degrees and twenty-one minutes east, eight chains 
and seventy-five links from a large stone standing ons 
Par's cabin knowl ; thence north-westerly to the north- 
west corner of a tract of laud that Joseph W. Pharo pur- 
chased of the executors of Samuel Pharo, deceased ; 
thence north fifty degrees west, one hundred and eight 
chains and twenty-seven links to a stone in the west line 
of Souman's patent ; thence north seventy degrees w r est 
to the Burlington county line ; thence up and along said 
county line to intsr.sse-l with a due west course from the 
head of the main southerly branch of Cedar Creek, known 
as Factory branch ; thence down and along said branch 
and creek to the bay ; thence a due east course to the 


sea; thence southerly along the edge of the same to the 

The act was to go into effect on the second Tuesday 
of March, 1846. 

The first animal town meeting of the township was 
ordered by the above act of the Legislature to be held at 
the house of Benjamin Predmore, Ware town, on the day 
appointed by law for holding annual town meetings in the 
other townships of the county of Monmouth, and after- 
wards at such place in the township of Union as the 
inhabitants of said township shall determine. 

As long as the township of Union preserved its 
original bounds the town meetings were usually held at 
the same house. 

In 1871 Lacey was set off from Union. In 187G its 
bounds were again lessened by the act creating the town- 
ship of Ocean. 


The act creating the township of Berkeley was 
approved March 31, 1875, and its bounds are thus de- 
fined : 

"All that part of the township of Dover, in the 
county of Ocean, contained within the following boun- 
daries, that is to say : 

" Beginning on the south-west corner of the town- 
ship of Dover at a point where the road from Giberson's 
mill to Dover Forge crosses the easterly line of the town- 
ship of Manchester ; thence, first, easterly along said 
road to Dover Forge, said road being the boundary line 
between the townships of Dover and Lacey ; thence, 
second, southerly along Guise's road by Dover Forge 
pond to the middle of Cedar Creek ; thence, third, 
easterly along the middle of Cedar Creek to its junction 
with Barnegat Bay ; thence, fourth, on a course due east 
to the Atlantic Ocean ; the above metes and bounds 
being the division line between the townships of Dover 
and Lacey ; thence, fifth, northerly along said Atlantic 
Ocean to the south side of old Cranberry Inlet; thence, 
sixth, on a course westerly to the middle of Toms River 


at its junction with Barnegal Bay; fchence, Beventh, 
westerly along the middle of said Toms River and up the 
north branch to the Toms River and Manchester Rail- 
road; thence, eighth, along said railroad to tl ast 

division line between the townships of Dover and Man- 
chester; thence, ninth, southerly along said division Line 
to tin- place of beginning." 

The name Berkeley was selected for this township 
by the late Samuel H. Shreve, formerly Surveyor and 
Civil Engineer of Toms River. 

John B. Larner is said to have purchased the tract 
known as Barnegat Park, west of Bayville, Berkeley 
township, in the Spring of 1887. It was desired to have 
lots sold to army and navy officers and their friends. 
About fifty lots had been sold by July following. 

Thomas Placide, a well-known actor, resided in 
Berkeley, on south side of Toms River, not far from the 
County Seat. He was of a family of actors, his father, 
mother, brother and two sisters having followed that pro- 
fession. His brother had been a great sufferer from a 
cancer, and he became a victim of the same complaint, 
and it so preyed on his mind that in a fit of desperation 
he took his life July 20, 1877. He was (59 years of age. 

The oldest monument in Berkeley is on the old 
Anderson place, near Dover Chapel. On it is inscribed : 
" Here lies the body of William Cheainlin. He died De- 
cember 18, 1759, aged 36 years." The name Cheamlin 
was probably intended for Chamberlain. 

Mary Worth, living in the southern part of Berkeley, 
reached the advanced age of 106 years. She died March 
5, 1873. 

soper's landing. 

The first settler on the Soper place, between Ware- 
town and Barnegat, according to the late Jeremiah 
Spragg, an aged citizen of Barnegat, was John Perkins, 
whose daughter married James Spragg, father of Jere- 
miah. Mr. Perkins came from England during the old 
French war and located near Soper's landing, and subse- 
quently sold out to Joseph Soper, ancestor of the numer- 


ous Soper families in this vicinity and elsewhere. The 
first house built on tin- beach opposite to Wart-town, 
according to Mr. Spragg, was by Thomas Rogers. It 
was located Dear the inlet, and in it lived Rogers, and 
also James Spragg, father of Jeremiah; and during the 
Revolution they witnessed many exciting scenes, such as 
shipwrecks of war and merchant vessels, and coni 
between the British and Americans in efforts to capture 
crews and cargoes. The rirst Soper in New Jersey was 
Thomas Soper, who landed in West Jersey in 1678 The 
old members of this family had a tradition that they 
were of Huguenot descent The Ocean county Sopers 
descend from Henry Soper, who settled at Huntington, 
L. I., in 1666. His son Richard cam- to Middlesex 
count v. X. J., ami his son Joseph came to Barnegat 


( hi Monday evening. January 12, 1857. a meeting was 
held at Temperance Hall, at Barnegat, for the purpose 
of forming a Barnegat Masonic Cemetery Association. 
Captain T. W. Falkinburg was chairman, and James 
Bodine secretary. The following persons were the 
original associates: Charles I. Errickson. Timothy W. 
Falkinburg, James Robinson, James Bodine. John W. 
Bennett. Nathan S. Cranmer, Joseph H. Townsend, Ed- 
win Salter, Thomas Edwards, Joseph Anderson. Alex- 
ander S. Letts, Stephen Oonklin, James W. Collins, Jr., 
Levi Cranmer, (diaries Soper. William Errickson. 

The Association was incorporated under the act 
relating to cemeterm> passed by the Legislature in 1851. 

The following persons were elected as trustees at 
the first meeting: For one year, Charles I. Errickson, 
James Robinson ; two years. T. W. Falkinburg, Joseph 
Anderson: three years. James Bodine, John W. Bennett 

Tie- annual meeting was fixed for January 15, 1857. 



The certiti -at ■ of incorporation of this Division was 
i. rded March LO, 1853, and signed by Job F.Randolph, 

I.\l;l.\ 8] l l II RS, ETC. 285 

W. P., ami Gabriel M. Inman, K. 8. The lodge was 
instituted some time before this, probably about 1849. 
For a time they held their meetings in an uppei room or 
hall prepared for them, and also used for other purp 
in the Temperance House, kept by Gabriel M. Inman. 

Barnegat Lodge, Knights of Pythias, No. 71, was 
incorporated January 20, 1887. Incorporators Ira S. 
Cranmer, Thomas Bamford and Joseph 0. Elbertson. 

Mariners' Lodge, No. L50, F. A. M., was organized 
February 7. 1881. It had been working under a dispen- 
sation granted May •">, 1S80. 

The Town Hall at Barnegat was completed about 
January, 1871. 

The Masonic Cemetery contained 127 burials up to 
July 1, 187-2. 


The forge at Burrsville was established about March. 
1808, by John Lippencott. It was subsequently bought 
by Barzillai Burr and John Butcher, and was once 
known as Butcher's forge. Burrsville derives its name 
from Barzillai Burr. 

In 1808 John Lippincott bought land of Proprietors 
described as on "south side of Metetecuuk, near Indian 
stage, and near road from new bridge over Metetecuuk 
to Cedar Bridge." He also bought, subsequently, numer- 
ous tracts near Metetecuuk river and Kettle Creek. 

The Postoffice at this place was established about 
1839 or '40, and called Metetecuuk, and so continued down 
to about 1884, when the P. O. Department changed it to 
Burrsville. B. H. Fielder was the first Postmaster; 
amoug his successors was Hou. A. ( ). S. Havens, the sec- 
ond member of the Assembly from Ocean county. 


The M. E. church at this place was dedicated Decem- 
ber -29, 1878. 


This place holds the key of the mainland at Cie 


nethermost extremity of Baruegat Bay. On July 25, 
1883, ground was broken for the erection of the office of 
the Company. At this time a number of lots had been 
sold and several cottages contracted for. 

A Postoffice was established at Bay Head in the 
Summer of 1882, Julius Foster, Postmaster. 

The Bay Head Land Company was incorporated 
September 6, 1879. Capital $12,000. Incorporators 
David H. Mount, Rocky Hill, Edward Howe, Leavitt 
Howe and William Harris, of Princeton. 

This quickly developed Summer resort may be said 
to have contributed largely to the current of popular fa- 
vor now bestowed upon this portion of Ocean county. It 
is situated at the head of Baruegat Bay, from which it 
takes its name of "Bay Head." There are about 28G 
lots in this tract, 50x100 feet iu size. Its present popul- 
ation is seventy-five. The improvements in 1882 com- 
prise 20 new cottages, and all the other improvements in 
a resort in the process of development. A sea wall has 
been put in, roads built and graded, &c. The prospects 
for the future are flattering, new houses being rapidly 
built. Bay Head Junction adjoins this tract and con- 
forms with its survey. 


This beautiful property lies south of Bay Head on 
the peninsula beach, bounded on the east by the Atlantic 
ocean, on the west by Baruegat Bay. ( Considerable 
money has been laid out in improvements of this tract, 
of which the grading and complete laying over of the 
entire beach with heavy fertile inland soil may be men- 
tioned. This tract was first brought into notice by the 
New Jersey Sea-Shore Land and Improvement Com- 
pany, under the management of Capt. John Arnold, of 
Point Pleasant, whose energies' awakened much interest 
in behalf of the place. Quite a number of fine cottages 
are already upon it, and many more in contemplation. 


The Kettle Creek post office was established about 
1834 or '5 and Mary Kelly was postmistress. 

EARL! si. I I 1.1 lis, ETC. 28*3 

Kettle Creek was anciently known also as Fishing 

James Fullerton had a patent for land beginning 
at north cape of Kettle or Fishing Creek and Dr. John 
Dalrymple had tract adjoining. 

Anion- persons who took up land from the pro- 
prietors in its vicinity were John Forman L742-5; William 
Brinley 1742 ; Benjamin Woolley 1747 ; Richard Stout 
1747; Ebenezer Applegate 1750 ; Abraham Schenck 1755; 
Annanias Gifford 1756; David Knott 1T*>1 1770; Delan- 
cey and Cuyler L763; James Parker 17(14; John Allen 
1766. Among other persons who owned land here about 
or before this time were Thomas Tilton, Samuel Hulett, 
Joseph Potter and John Chambers. 

There was a saw mill built on Kettle Creek about 
1740 and probably by Ebenezer Applegate, as in 1761 his 
"old saw mill" is referred to. It is presumed that this 
Ebenezer Applegate was a son of Jacob, as in the tax list 
of 1764 " Ebenezer Applegate son of Jacob" is the only 
Ebenezer named. Between 1740 and 1750 bridges were 
over branches of Kettle Creek, one of which was built by 
Benjamin Woolley and Job Cook. In 1764 John Allen 
had a saw mill on north branch. 

Tunis Denise took up considerable land in 1755 and 
thereabouts near Meteteconk and had saw and grist mill. 
It is possible that from him may be derived the name 
Tunes, one of the branches of Kettle Creek. In 1815 
Silvenus Bills owned the Tunis Denise mills. 

Michael Ortley, whose name is noted in connection 
with land on the beach, took up land in 1818 between 
north and south branches of Kettle Creek. 

About the latter part of last century John Havens, 
Senior, bought dwellinghouse and land of John Allen and 
John Havens, Jr., bought dwelling and land of James 
Allen and in 1800 took up a tract from proprietors be- 
tween Kettle Creek and Reedy Creek, near head of latter. 

James Runnals lived south, side Metetecunk 1745. 


Point Pleasant is a name applied to a semi-peninsu- 


lar tract of land in Brick Township, Ocean county, 
rapidly becoming studded with resorts. It constitutes 
the northern extremity of the county, and is bounded on 
the east by the Atlantic, on the north-west by the beau- 
tiful Manasquan river, and on the south by the Metete- 
conk river and the head of Barnegat bay. The distance 
across the neck of the semi-peninsula (between the Mete- 
teconk and Manasquan rivers) is nearly two miles, while 
its ocean front stretches for three miles along the beach. 
Point Pleasant is a fertile tract, with well wooded undu- 
latory hills interspersed with lakelets, and faces a part of 
the Manasquan river with a bluff. It is reached from 
New York by the New Jersey Central railroad and also 
by the Freehold and Jamesburg branch of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad ; and from Philadelphia by the Philadel- 
phia and Long Branch railroad. 

Some 18 or 20 years ago Point Pleasant was an 
unimproved, undeveloped tract, till taken hold of by Capt. 
John Arnold, seconded afterwards by no less energetic 
allies, and the result of his and their energy and enter- 
prise is now seen in fine cottages, schools, churches, 
stores, hotels and boarding-houses standing on well laid 
out streets and avenues, where formerly rabbits and rep- 
tiles were wont to burrow. At that time the population 
did not exceed 12 families who had houses fit to live in; 
and ingress from or egress to either Philadelphia or New 
York implied forty miles by stage, and the loss of a 
whole day for the single journey. Point Pleasant now 
has Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, Episco- 
pal, Roman Catholic, and Presbyterian churches ; graded, 
public and private schools; two Postoftices and railroad 
stations as mentioned, and numerous hotels and board- 
ing-houses. Its chief attractions are those presented 
by the ocean, Barnegat bay and Manasquan river, afford- 
ing facilities for boating, fishing, crabbing, bathing, gun- 
ning, Arc., its shady groves, and pure sea air. 


Arnold City is the most northerly of the new resorts 
referred to under Point Pleasant. The tract comprises 


300 lots, 50x100 feet, with avenues 70 feel and streets 60 
feet in width. It is named after Captain John Arnold, 
the pioneer of this beautiful section of our coast. The 
improvements already mentioned under Point Pleasant, 

include the resorts. This tract is a part of the Arnold 
farm, purchased by Robert M. Worthington, who is as- 
sociated with Brighton, a flourishing new Summer resort 
in Monmouth county. By his able management of the 
Arnold tract most <>f the entire property has been dis- 
posed of to classes who are calculated to improve it. On 
this property are a station and roundhouse of the New 
Jersey Central railroad. 


Point Pleasant City is the name of a Summer resort 
adjoining Arnold City. It is one of the first tracts taken 
up and laid out for a Summer city by the sea at Point 
Pleasant. It has received increasing patronage from 
seaside seekers, who have purchased lots and are build- 
ing Summer homes* upon them. The "Resort House," 
and other hotels and boarding-houses attract large num- 
bers during the hot Summer months. 


This property is the last remaining beach tract imme- 
diately connecting with the main land on the New Jersev 
coast. It lies north of Bay Head. It contains 190 lots, 
and offers the same advantages and attractions as the 
other Point Pleasant resorts. 


In the Spring of 1878 this company bought the John 
Forinan property, consisting of 250 acres. The officers 
were John L. Murphy, President, James Buchanan, Sec- 
retary, J. Hart Brewer, Treasurer. 

Their first purchase extended from the ocean back 
to the old Squan road, and down to near the head of 
Barnegat Bay. Streets were laid out fifty to sixty feet 

The company was incorporated Oct. 22, 1877. capital 
$50,000. Incorporators, J. Hart Brewer, Charles H. 


ttkirin, John L. Murphy, James Buchanan and William 

The Stafford Forge Cranberry hog is quite a noted 
one, and usually very productive. In 1H77 Mr. Daniel 
R. Gowdv, the owner, had HOI) pickers employed. 

John Lawrence of Manasquan sold 232 acres in 1727 
to Thomas Tilton of Shrewsbury. 

Oshorne's Island is now owned by Dr. Fuller of New 
York. As the river channel runs south of it, it belongs 
to Monmouth. 

Joseph Lawrence was a son of the first William and 
became possessed of 4-7ths of his father's estate above and 
below Manasquan river. 


The Thomas Cook place at junction of the river was 
bought by Thomas Cook, Sr., of Walter and Mary Curtis 

The first Thomas Cook named above had children 
Thomas, Richard and Sarah who married Thomas 

The Curtis family owned at one time most of the 
land around Point Pleasant. The first of the family were 
step-sons of Joseph Lawrence who married a widow 
Curtis. Joseph Lawrence lived just over the river in 
Monmouth on the Col. James Osborne place. 

The island in the river was once called Hartshorne's 
Island and then Osborne's Island. Samuel Osborne is 
named in this vicinity in 1754. 




During the Avar of 1812-14, Ocean county vessels 
trading to New Y r ork and elsewhere, found their business 
seriously injured by British cruisers on our coast. 
Occasionally some bold, fortunate master of a vessel 
would succeed in eluding the enemy's vigilance, and 


arrive safely at New York ; but generally they were not 
so fortunate. Commodore Hardy, in his flag-ship, the 
■• Ramillies," a 74-gun ship, had command of the British 
blockading squadron on our coast, All accounts, written 
and traditional, concede that he was one of the most 
honorable officers in the British service. Unlike the in- 
famous Admiral Cockburn, who commanded the block- 
ading squadron further south, Hardy never took private 
property of Americans, except contraband in war, with- 
out offering compensation. By his vigilance he inflicted 
considerable damage to our coasters, and by nearly stop- 
ping this trade, injury also resulted to a large portion of 
other citizens then depending on the lumber trade. 

On the last day of March, 1813, Hardy, in the 
" Ramillies," came close to Barnegat Inlet and sent in 
barges loaded with armed men after two American ves- 
sels lying in the inlet. They boarded the schooner 
" Greyhound," Captain Jesse Rogers, of Potter's Creek, 
and attempted to take her out, but she grounded. The 
enemy then set fire to her and she was burned, together 
with her cargo of lumber. They then set fire to a sloop 
belonging to Captain Jonathan Winner, Hezekiah Soper 
and Timothy Soper, of Waretown. This vessel was 
saved, however, as signals were fired by the Commodore, 
recalling the barges in haste, that he might start in pur- 
suit of some vessel at sea. x\s soon as the barges left, 
the Americans went on board the sloop and extinguished 
the fire. The name of the sloop has generally been given 
as the " Mary Elizabeth," but one or two old residents 
insist that it was the " Susan." The probability is that 
vessels of both names were fired, but at different times. 
While the barges were in the inlet a party landed on 
the beach, on the south side, and killed fifteen head of 
cattle belonging to Jeremiah Spragg and John Allen. 
The owners were away, but the British left word that if 
they presented their bill to Commodore Hardy, he would 
settle it, as he generally did similar ones. But the owners 
were too patriotic to attempt anything that seemed like 
furnishing supplies to the enemy. 


At another time tin- schooner "President," Captain 
. Vinos Birdsall, of Waretawn, bound to New York, was 
taken by Commodore Hardy, who ;it once commenced to 
take from the schooner her spars, deck planks, etc. Cap- 
tain Birdsall, with his crew, hud liberty to leave in their 
yawl : l>ut on account of a heavy sea they were detained 
a day or two on board, when they succeeded in getting 
on hoard a fishing smack, and thus got home. Before 
Captain Birdsall left the "Ramillies," the masts of his 
schooner had been sawed into plank by the British. 

The sloop "Elizabeth," Captain Thomas Bunnell, 
of Forked River, was captured by 1 targes sent into Bar- 
m-gat Inlet, and towed out to sea : but it is said she was 
shortly after lost on Long Island. The captain saw the 
barges coming, and he and the crew escaped in the yawl. 
She was owned by William Piatt and Captain Bunnell. 
At another time Captain Bunnell was taken out of another 
vessel and detained by the British some time, and then 
put on hoard a neutral vessel, said to have been Spanish, 
and thus got to New York. The sloop " Traveler," Cap- 
tain Asa Grant, was set on tire by the British, hut the fire 
was extinguished after the British left. At another time, 
two sloops, one named the " Maria.'" Captain Joshua 
Warren, and the other the "Friendship,"' Captain Thomas 
Mills, were (diased ashore near Squan. They were com- 
ing down the beach, when Commodore Hardy espied and 
stood for them, and they ran ashore. Hard}' sent barges 
ashore to plunder them. One boat came to the "Friend- 
ship,"' and the bowsman caught hold of the taffrail to 
jump on hoard. Jesse Chadwick, a soldier of the Revo- 
tion, went to the edge of the shore and shot the man. 
The barges then put back to the ship, which fired about 
two hundred balls at the sloops. 

A vessel commanded by Captain John Rogers, who 
lived near Toms River, was also captured, and Rogers 
himself detained for a while on the British man-of-war. 
Captain Rogers used frequently to relate his adventures 
on this ill-starred trip which cost him his vessel. 

Captain Jesse Rogers, of the "Greyhound," who 


lived to quite an advanced age, made efforts to have bis 
l< isses reimbursed by ( !< mgress, as did also Messrs. Spragg 
ami Allen and others, but fchey were unsuccessful. 

\i Waretown much excitement was created by the 
barges of Commodore Hardy entering the inlet and burn- 
ing the "Greyhound." At Forked River a new dwelling 
and store had just been erected at the upper Landing by 
Charles Parker, father of ex-Governor Joel Parker. Mr. 
Parker informed the writer that though his house was 
unfinished, yet the roof was tilled with persons watching 
Hardy's proceedings. Judge Jacob Birdsall, then a boy, 
was among the children sent to dwellings back in the 
woods for safetv. 

The war of 1812 did not seem to be a very popular 
one in New Jersey, as the political party opposing it 
generally carried the State. To raise troops, a draft was 
at one time ordered along shore, which called for one 
man in every seven. This draft, however, seemed to 
work but little hardship, as seven men would club to- 
gether to hire a substitute, who could generally be 
engaged for a bonus of fifty dollars. Most of the men 
obtained under the orders for drafting were sent to de- 
fend Sandy Hook, where, from the reports they subse- 
quently made, their time was principally occupied in 
uttering maledictions on commissaries for furnishing 
them with horse beef and other objectionable grub. 
Among those who volunteered, the last survivor at Forked 
River was the late Gershom Ayres, who served under 
General Rossell. At Waretown, Ralph Chambers was 
the last survivor. He was properly entitled to a pension 
for wounds received in the battle of Plattsburg ; but as 
he had money of his own when wounded, he hired medi- 
cal attendance at a private house to insure good atten- 
tion, by which means his name escaped being embraced 
in the official report of wounded. At Barnegat, Tunis 
Bodine was the last survivor of the war of 1812, and 
received a pension for his services. In September, 1877, 
Mr. Bodine completed his eighty-sixth year, and was 
remarkably well and hearty. 




A singular and interesting chapter in the religious 
history of not only Ocean county, but of this country, 
relates to the noted old Goodluck Church, formerly 

known as the "' Potter Church." built in 1766 by Thomas 
Potter, a benevolent citizen of tbe village, who then lived 
east of the church on the farm subsequently owned by 
the late Captain Benjamin Stout. Before building the 
church. Potter had l>een in the habit of opening his 
house to travelling preachers of all persuasions, ami 
after a while erected this edifice free to all denomina- 
tions, and in it preached Quakers, Presbyterians, Bap- 
tists and Methodists, and in it was preached the first 
Universalist sermon ever delivered in America. 

The earliest uotice of old Totter ( Jhurch at ( roodluck 
is found in the following extract from the Journal of 
John Griffith, a preacher of the Society of Friends, found 
in Friends" Library, vol. 5, p. Jii^ : 

"On 3d day, 22d of 4th month. 1766, had a large 
meeting at Little Egg Harbor. Next day had a meeting 
in a new Presbyterian meetinghouse near Barnegat. It 
was large and held more than an hour in silence which 
the people were not accustomed to. At length the word 
was given with authority and cleverness, showing tin- ad- 
vantage of silence in worship. * " We travelled by the 
seaside to a place called Goodluck where we found a 
largt Qghouse not quite finished, erected by one 

Thomas Potter, intended by him. it se.-ms, for all preach- 
ers to make use of. who would preach freely, except Pa- 
pists, who would not be admitted even on those terms. 
We had a meeting in it. but notice not coming timely, it 
was small and to little satisfaction. We met him that 
afternoon on his return. He seemed sorry he happened 
to lie out at that time ; he was beyond hireling ministry. 

Rev. Abel C. Thomas a noted and an aged minister 
of the Universalist Society furnished the following 


I— I 


account of the Centennial Celebration of Universalism in 
Goodluck, Ocean county, in 1870, for the New Jersey 
< 'ourier, soon after it occurred : 

"We had no expectations of large delegations of our 
members at the late celebration in Groodluck. Our 
centenary had been attended the week previously in 
Gloucester, Mass., the number present being variously 
estimated from ten to fifteen thousand, including two 
hundred and fifty out of six hundred and fifty clergymen. 

"On the 28th of September, 177t>. Rev. John Murray, 
a disciple of Kelly (in the sense that Relly was a disciple 
of Christ) landed on the coast of New Jersey. 

"The late great convocation in Gloucester antedated 
the landing of Murray by the space of one week, and a 
few of us determined to spend the exact Centenary at 
Goodluck, Ocean county. This was what took us there ; 
precisely one hundred years from the landing of Murray, 
we held a memorial service in the old church, and also at 
the Grave of Thomas Potter — the order being substan- 
tially the same that we had used in Gloucester. The 
only change was this: "We strew this evergreen and 
these flowers, in memory and honor of Thomas Potter, 
the friend and patron of .John Murray, our early preacher 
of Universalism in America." 

After a brief address by the Rev. Abel C. Thomas, 
who conducted the services, a hymn was sung, and tin- 
services were appropriately (dosed. 





A.mong tin- captains of privateers who came into 
Toms River during tlie Revolution was Captain Adam 
Hyler. At the time Toms River \v;is burned, one of his 

barges was found in the stream and carried away by the 

It is rare to find, in fact or fiction, more daring 
exploits recorded than those performed chiefly in the 
waters around old Monmouth by Captain Adam Hyler, 
who resided at New Brunswick during the latter part of 
the Revolutionary war. From some unaccountable cause, 
the heroic deeds of this man have received but little 
notice from historians ; indeed, we remember of but one 
modern work that makes any allusion to them, and that 
gives only two or three of the items published below. 

Captain Hyler's operations were carried on in Rari- 
tan Bay, and along our coast as far down as Egg Harbor; 
chiefly, however, in the first named place. Though he 
sometimes used sail craft, yet he generally depended 
upon whale boats or large barges, rowed by skillful 
crews. These barges were generally kept at New Bruns- 
wick, but some were at times concealed in small streams 
emptying into Raritan Bay and River, which place was 
then reached by old Cranberry Inlet. 

Though the Refugee band which had its headquar- 
ters at the settlement on Sandy Hook, around the light- 
house, gave great annoyance to the patriots of Monmouth ; 
yet their operations were much circumscribed by the 
efforts of Captain Hyler and his brave compatriots, who 
seriously interfered with the vessels of the Refugees, as 
well as of the British, and when opportunity offered, as 
will hereafter be seen, hesitated not to attack their settle- 
ment, and even the lighthouse fort itself. The Refugees 
would sometimes boast of successful midnight maraud- 
ing expeditions into the adjacent country, but the bold. 
skillful exploits of Hyler far eclipsed their best planned 


A dear idea of Captain Hyler's manner of liarassing 
tin- enemy is giveD in the Eollowing extracts, copied from 
various ancient papers published at the time. Thej 
serve to aid in completing the picture of life and times 
in and around old Monmouth during the Revolution. 

"October 7. 1781. On Friday last, Captain Adam 
Eyler, from New Brunswick, with one gunboat and two 
whaleboats, within a quarter of a mile of the guard- 
ship at Sandy Hook, attacked five vessels, and after a 
smart conflict of fifteen minutes, carried them. Two of 
them were armed, one mounting four six-pounders, and 
one six swivels and one three-pounder. The hands made 
their escape with their long boats, and took refuge in a 
small fort, in which were mounted twelve swivel guns, 
from which they kept up a constant firing, notwithstand- 
ing which he boarded them all without the loss of a 
man. On board one of them was •_!.">() bushels of wheat 
and a quantity of cheese belonging to Captain Lippen- 
cott, bound to New York. He took from them fifty 
bushels of wheat, a quantity of cheese, several swivels, a 
number of fuses, one cask of powder and some dry- 
goods, and stripped them of their sails and rigging, not 
being able to bring the vessels into port in consequence 
of a contrary wind and tide ; after which he set fire to all 
save one, on board of which was a woman and four small 
children, which prevented her from sharing a similar 

On the loth of October, a week or ten days after the 
above-mentioned affair, Captain Hyler, with one gunboat 
and two whaleboats, boarded a sloop and two schooners, 
which all hands, except two, had previously left, and 
which lay under the cover of the lighthouse fort at Sandy 
Hook, and brought them all off; but the sloop being a 
dull sailor, and being much annoyed from a galley lying 
near Staten Island, she was set on fire about three miles 
from the fort. One of the schooners running aground by 
accident, was stripped and left ; the other, a remarkably 
fine, fast sailing, Virginia built pilot, mounted with one 
four-pounder, was brought, with two prisoners, safely off*. 


( )n the 24th of the same month, he started with one 
gunboat to surprise the " refugee town " at Sandy Hook. 
He landed within three quarters of a mile of the light 
house, but found the refugees were out in Monmouth 
county on a plundering expedition. He, however, fell in 
with six noted villains who he brought off and lodged in 
a safe place. A subsequent notice of Captain Hyler, 
says that at one time he captured the Captain of the 
guard at the light house, with all his men, but whether 
it was at this or some other time, is not stated. 

November 14th, 1781. On Saturday night, Captain 
Hyler, with a gunboat and a small party of men, went to 
the Narrows, where he captured a ship with fourteen 
hands, and brought her off with the intention of running 
her up the Raritan river, but near the mouth she 
unluckily got aground, and, as the enemy approached in 
force, he was obliged to set her on fire. She was loaded 
with rum and pork ; several hogsheads of the former he 
got out and brought off with the prisoners. 

The ship captured was probably "The Father's De- 
sire," as twenty hogsheads of rum and thirty barrels of 
pork were advertised by the U. S. Marshal to be sold a 
few days after ; which the advertisement states were 
taken from a ship of this name by Captain Hyler. 

" On the 15th of December, Captain Hyler, who 
commands seven or eight stout whale boats, manned 
with near one hundred men at the Narrows, fell in with 
two refugee sloops trading to Shrewsbury, one of them 
commanded by the noted villain, ' Shore Stephens," and 
had on board £(500 in specie, besides a considerable 
quantity of dry goods; the other had similar articles, 
also sugar, rum, etc. They were taken to New. Brunswick." 

The many daring exploits of Captain Hyler, follow- 
ing so close one after another, aroused the British at 
New York, and they fitted out an expedition with the 
determination of destroying his boats, and, if possible, 
capturing him. The following account of this expedition 
is derived chiefly from Philadelphia papers of the dates 
of January 15th and 10th 1782 : 



-A party of the British lately (about January 9th) 
made an incursion to New Brunswick with the design, it 
is said, of carrying off the boats of the celebrated partisan, 

Captain Allan. Hyler. They landed at New Brunswick 
and plundered two houses, but were gallantly opposed 
by the neighboring miltia, and the enemy were driven off 

with some loss. Further accounts say there were some 
•201) refugees and British, and thai they succeeded in 
destroying the whale boats. No Americans were killed, 
but five were wounded and six taken prisoners. Several 
Tories were killed— four known to he, and several were 
seen to be carried off. The British made the attack 
about five o'clock, A. M., just before daylight, and the 
American account says the expedition was well planned, 
and that the Tories held the town for about an hour. 
The British regulars were detachments from the 40th 
and 42d regiments, under command of Captain Beckwith, 
in six boats, and they took away all of Hyler's boats. 
The British alleged that Captain Hyler was a deserter 
from the Royalists." 

It is probable that at this time, besides his boats at 
New Brunswick, Captain Hyler had others concealed 
elsewhere, as we find early in the following spring he 
was at work as usual, apparently but little inconveni- 
enced by the loss of the boats taken by the British, 
though he may have built some in the meantime. In 
March following, when the British attacked and burned 
Toms River, they boasted of having captured there a 
line large barge, belonging to Captain Hyler. 

In April, 1782, Captain Hyler. in an open boat 
boarded and took a large cutter, almost ready for sea. 
lying near Sandy Hook, and near the Lion man-of-war, 
sixty-four guns.' This cutter mounted twelve eighteen 
pounders, and was commanded by one White, formerly 
of Philadelphia, but turned apostate. Hyler blew up 
the vessel, which was designed as a cruiser, and took 
forty prisoners. Another account says the number of 
prisoners was fifty, and the cutter's armament was six 
eighteen pounders and ten nine pounders. At the same 


time lie took a sloop which was ransomed for i;4(>0. The 
Captain of the cutter gives an amusing account of the 
war Hyler captured his vessel. 

"On the 25th of May, 1782, Captain Hyler, with his 
armed boats, being in Shrewsbury river, a party of 
British troops, consisting of twenty-five men, under Cap- 
tain Shaak, was detached to intercept him in the gut. 
Hvler discovered them, and landed thirteen men with 
orders to charge : when four of the enemy were killed or 
wounded, and the Captain and eight men taken prisoners. 
By the firing of a gun it was supposed others were killed, 
as they were seen to fall. Just before this affair Captain 
Hyler had met with a hurt, or otherwise he probably 
would not have let a man escape." 

On the 2d of July, Captain Hyler, assisted by Cap- 
tain Story, another brave partisan, in New York bay, 
with two whale boats, boarded and took the schooner 
'•Skip Jack," carrying six guns, besides swivels, and 
burned her at noon, in sight of the guard-ship, and took 
the Captain and nine or ten men prisoners. About the 
same time he also took three or four trading vessels, 
loaded with calves, sheep, &c. 

These were probably about the last exploits in which 
Captain Hyler was engaged, as we find no further men- 
tion of his name in ancient papers until the announce- 
ment of his death, some two months after. He died at 
New Brunswick on the 6th of September, 1782. 

The following from an ancient paper gives a graphic 
account of his manner of conducting his operations. It 
was originally published June 19, 1782 : 

"The exertions of the celebrated water partisan, 
Captain Adam Hyler, have been a considerable annoy- 
ance to the wood shallops, trading vessels and plunder- 
ing pirates of the enemy about Sandy Hook, Long Island 
and Staten Island for several months past. You have 
heard that his effort to take an eighteen-gun cutter was 
crowned with success. It was indeed a bold and hazard- 
ous attempt, considering how well she was provided 
against being boarded. He was. however, compelled to 


blow her up, after securing his prisoners and a few arti- 
cles on board. His surprising a captain of the guard, at 
the lighthouse, with all his men, a short time ago, was a 
handsome affair, and gained him much credit. He lias 
none but picked and tried men. The person who dis- 
covers the least symptom of fear or diffidence, lie he who 
lie will, is immediately turned on shore and never suf- 
fered to enter again. In the next place, they are taught 
to be particularly expert at the oar, and to row with such 
silence and dexterity as not to he heard at the smallest 
distance, even though three or four boats lie together, 
and go at the rate of twelve miles an hour. Their cap- 
tures arc made chiefly by surprise or stratagem; and 
most of the crews that have hitherto been taken by these 
boats declare they never knew anything of an enemy 
being at hand till they saw the pistol or cutlass at their 

After the notorious Refugee, Lippencott, had barba- 
rously murdered Captain Joshua Huddy, near the High- 
lands, General Washington was anxious to have the 
murderer secured. He had been demanded of the 
British General, and his surrender refused. Captain 
Hyler was determined to take Lippencott On inquiry 
he found that he resided in a well known house in Broad 
street, New York. Dressed and equipped like a man-of- 
war press gang, he left the Kills, with one boat, after 
dark, and arrived at Whitehall about nine o'clock. Here 
he left his boat in charge of three men and passed to 
the residence of Lippencott, where he inquired for him 
and found that he was absent, having gone to a cock pit. 
Thus failing in his object he returned to his boat, with 
his press gang, and left Whitehall, but finding a sloop 
lying at anchor off the battery, from the West Indies, 
laden with rum, he took her, cut her cable, set her sails, 
and, with a north-east wind, sailed to Elizabethtown 
Point, and before daylight, had landed from her and 
secured forty hogsheads of rum. He then burned the 
sloop to prevent her re-capture. 

The fact of Captain Hyler's having been formerly in 


the British service, increases our admiration for his hold 
operations. Ead he been taken by the British he proba- 
bly would have received ;i deserter's punishment. 


The first seaside resorts in New Jersey in ;ill proba- 
bility wore Long Reach, in Monmouth, and Tucker's 
Beach, in Little Egg Harbor. The first named place, 
now in Ocean county, is opposite the villages of Barnegat 
and Mannahawkin, and the latter opposite Tuckerton. 
Of these places Watsons Annals of Philadelphia says: 

iW We think Long Beach and Tucker's Beach in point 
of earliest attraction as a seaside resort for Philadel- 
phians must claim the precedence. They had their visi- 
tors and distant admirers long before Squan and Deal, 
and even Long Branch itself, had got their several fame. 
To those who chiefly desire to restore languid frames, 
and to find their nerves braced and firmer strung, noth- 
ing can equal the invigorating surf and general air. * 
Long Branch — last but greatest in fame, because the 
fashionables who rule all things have made it so — is still 
inferior as a surf to those above named." 

Before the Revolution, Philadelphians and others 
from a distance who visited Long and Tucker Beaches, 
went in old-fashioned shore wagons on their return trips 
from the city, and took with them their stoves, blankets, 
etc. Some people on the beaches began t<» make pro- 
visions to receive these transient boarders, and so origi- 
nated this business in New Jersey in which now annually 
is spent such an immense amount of money. The shore 
wagons carted fish and oysters to Philadelphia, Trenton 
and other places over a hundred years ago, and these 
primitive conveyances on their return trips were first 
used to convey health or pleasure seekers to our earliest 
-•■aside resorts. What a contrast between then and now 
—between an oyster wagon and a palace car! 


Long Branch comes nexi in order, being first known 
as a watering place aboui L788 

Cape Mav began to be known as a watering place 
about 1813. Atlantic City was founded some forty years 
Later, about the time of the completion of the Camden 
and Atlantic railroad. 

The foregoing watering places from Long Branch to 
Cape May, it is said, were all brought into notice by 


The earliest mention of Long Branch as a watering 
place in any historical works that the writer of this bas 
found, is in Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, published 
in 1830, as follows : 

"This place, before the Revolution, was owned by 
Colonel White, a British officer, aud an inhabitant of 
New York. The small house which he occupied as a 
summer residence was existing among a clump of houses 
owned by Renshaw, in 1830. In consequence of the war 
the place was confiscated. The house was first used as 
a boarding house by Elliston Perot, of Philadelphia, in 
178cS. At that time the whole premises were in charge 
of one old woman left to keep the place from injury. Of 
her Mr. Perot begged an asylum for himself and family, 
which was granted, provided he could get beds and bed- 
ding from others. Being pleased with the place he re- 
peated his visit there three successive years, taking some 
friends with him. In 1790-1, Mr. McKnight, of Mon- 
mouth, noticing the liking shown for the place, deemed 
it a good speculation to buy it. He bought the whole 
premises containing one hundred acres for £700 and then 
got Mr. Perot and others to loan him two thousand dol- 
lars to improve it. He then opened it for a watering- 
place and before his death it was supposed he had made 
forty thousand dollars by the investment. The estate 
was sold to Renshaw for $13,000." 

According to Watson it would seem that Elliston 
Perot was the founder of Lone; Branch as a watering 


place. The Perot family lias been a prominent one in 
Philadelphia annals. During the Revolution the Perot 
mansion at G-ermantown was used by Lord How.- as a 
- lence, and after the war. while G sneral Washington 
was President, he also occupied it for a time during the 
prevalence of the yellow fever in the city in 17'.*-'S. 


At a conference between the- whites and Indians 
held at Crosswicks, \. J., in February, 17~> s . two Indian- 
known by tin- whites a- Tom Store and Andrew Woolley 
claimed the land "from the mouth of Squan river to the 
mouth <>f the Shrewsbury, by the streams of each to 
their heads and across from on.- head to another." This 
claim was satisfactorily settled at a subsequent confer- 
ence held at Easton, Pa., in October of the >ame year. 


The following extract- are from the New York 

tte, Morris' Guide and other authorities, to which 
>< ime c< >minents are added : 

From the best sources we find a tradition generally 
credited among the best informed descendants of old 
settlers, that a party of Indians, whose grounds lav hack 
of this portion of the coast, visited the shore in the fall 
of 17o4. So well pleased were the red men with this 
inaugural visit to the seaside, that like many of their 
modern white brethren, they became hdlritues of the 
place, -till adhering t<> the original camping ground, a 
location near the Clarendon Hotel. Here they made 
their annual pilgrimage for fishing, &c, and welcoming, 
after a long march, the termination of the land, called 
the place " Land- End." 

A. few a ears thereafter settler- bought crown lands 
for twenty shillings per acre, and to protect their dwell- 
in-- from the winter winds upon the coast, located them 
a short distance from the shore, pursuing the double 
calling of farmers and fishermen. They opened the 
Burlington pathway to Monmouth Court Hon-.- and 
attracted other settlers, thus establishing old Long 


Branch Village, one and a half miles from the beach 
and within a radius of this distance embracing a popula- 
tion of over three thousand. 

When the old settlers had opened the Burlington 
pathway to Monmouth Court House, intersecting a road 
to Burlington, communication was then opened with 
this point of the Atlantic coast, possessing advantages as 
a salubrious seaside resort far superior to any other. No 
other portion of this coast commands a bluff of more 
than from half a mile to a mile in extent, while Long 
Branch has a continuous range of five miles of bluff, 
which extends over a rolling country of increasing eleva- 
tions back to Monmouth Court House at Freehold, a 
distance of seventeen miles. At the early period indi- 
cated, Philadelphians availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity thus presented to drive over the new road and 
enjoy the luxuries of a sea bath. 


" Long Branch takes its name from a brook, a branch 
of the South Shrewsbury river, which runs in a direct 
line northward with the coast. It is of little use except 
for gathering ice for the hotels and cottages. 

Tradition points to an Indian fishery, established in 
173-1, as the first occupation of this place, which was 
styled at that time 'Land's End.' A legend tells us that 
in those early times four men named Slocum, Parker, 
Wardell and Hulett, came from Rhode Island in quest 
of land. They found the Indians friendly but not dis- 
posed to sell. It was proposed by the Yankees that a 
wrestling match should be made up between one Indian 
and one of the whites, to be decided by the best in three 
rounds. If the champion of the white men won, they 
were to have as much land as a man could w 7 alk around 
in a da}- ; if otherwise, they w r ere to leave peacably. 
John Slocum was selected for the struggle — a man of 
great proportions, athletic and of great strength, courage 
and inflexibility of purpose. Great preparations were 
made to witness the encounter. The chosen Indian 


wrestler practised continually for the event. The day 
long expected proved cloudless and auspicious. The 
spot chosen was the present Fishing Land. A circle 
was formed and the Indian champion, elated, confident 
and greased from head to foot, appeared. Slocum ad- 
vanced coolly and the struggle began ; it was long and 
doubtful ; finally Slocum threw his antagonist, but in an 
instant the Indian was again on his feet. A murmur ran 
through the circle. Again the Indian made a violent ef- 
fort and both fell. Another murmur was heard. Silence 
prevailed as they came together again, broken only b} r 
the roaring of the surf. A long struggle. Slocum inured 
to toil, hardy and rugged, proved too much for the Indian 
and threw him, to the intense disappointment of the 
Indians and undisguised joy of the whites. The terms 
were then all arranged. John Slocum had two brothers 
and they located that part of Long Branch reaching from 
the shore to Turtle Mill brook, embracing all lands 
lying north of the main road, from the sea to Eatontown, 
between these two points to the south of Shrewsbury, 
except Fresh Pond and Snag Swamp, which was located 
by one of the Wardell family. A considerable portion of 
these lands continued in the possession of the Slocums 
until fifty or sixty years ago. All are now gone into 
other hands. The Parkers placed themselves on Rum- 
son's Neck. Hulett lived for a time at Horse Neck, but 
afterwards left this region. Indian warrants, it is said, 
still exist in the county conve} T ing these lands to the 
white owners. 

After some years a few hardy settlers from neigh- 
boring provinces purchased lands from the agents of 
the Crown at the rate of twenty shillings per acre, deeds 
for which, it is stated, are in existence over the signature 
of King George III or his agents." 

Probably the most noted Indian in this section of 
Old Monmouth was the celebrated Indian Will, of whom 
a number of traditions were published and which are 
given elsewhere. He was well known at Eatontown, Long 
Branch and vicinity, at Squan and along the coast down 


as far as Barnegat. A tradition in Howe's Collections 
says the Indians in this section sold out their lands to 
Lewis Morris in 1G70, but Indian Will refused to leave. 
The probability is that this tradition has confounded 
two transactions. Indian Will, according to the best 
traditionary authority, lived near a century later, and 
the Indian sale of land with which his name has been 
connected was probably the one originating at a confer- 
ence held at Crosswicks in February, 1758, and concluded 
at Eastern Pennsylvania in the same year. 



Independence Day one hundred years ago was but 
little observed in our State. At Trenton a number of 
patriotic gentlemen assembled at the house of Isaiah 
Yard. Thirteen cannons, one for each State, were fired ; 
after which a cold collation was served, and then the 
company separated. The reason that this particular 
day was less observed than several which had preceded 
it was that the event it commemorated had so recently 
been celebrated in connection with the proclamation of 
peace. In nearly all the towns of our State, Trenton ex- 
cepted, the proclamation of peace was celebrated on the 
19th of April, because that day was the anniversary of 
the first battle of the Revolution, that of Lexington. At 
Trenton the celebration was held a few days before, on 
the 15th. The news had been received by a French ship, 
at Philadelphia, March 23d. Three days later, on Wed- 
nesday, March 26, the Trenton New Jersey Gazette pub- 
lished the news, which rapidly spread through the State 
by post-riders, expresses and private conveyances. The 
official proclamation in New Jersey was made by Gover- 
nor Livingston on the 14th of the next month, and the 
next day the citizens generally assembled at the house 
of Mr. Williams (where public meetings were frequently 
held), and a procession was formed, in which were Gov- 
ernor Livingston, the Vice-President of Council, mem^ 


bers of the Legislature, judges, magistrates, students of 
the academy and citizens generally. They marched to 
the Court House, where the Governor's proclamation 
announcing the cessation of hostilities was read, and 
thirteen cannon tired, followed by the huzzas of the 


At 12 o'clock divine service was held and a suitable 
discourse delivered by Kev. Dr. Elihu Spencer. 

At 3 P. M. the Governor and citizens met at the 
houses of Messrs. Williams and Cape (both of whom 
probably kept hotels), where entertainments were given 
and appropriate toasts proposed. In the evening almost 
every house in Trenton was ilium in ated. 

At Princeton, on the 19th, the programme was about 
the same. The religious discourse was by the Kev. Dr. 
WitherspOon. Celebrations were also held at New 
Brunswick, Woodbridge, Cranberry, Am well in Somerset, 
and other places. 

Bordentown seemed to have had the most notable 
one. At noon the citizens of the town and vicinity 
assembled at the house of Colonel Okey Hoagland. The 
Governor's proclamation was read, thirteen cannons 
tired, huzzas, etc. At 3 P. M. a dinner and toasts at 
Colonel Hoagland's. In the evening the houses of the 
town were all illuminated, but the particular attractions 
were the illuminated transparencies at the house and 
academy of Kev. Burges Allison. The transparencies 
represented : 

1. The sun in its meridian splendor, shedding its 
rays on the segment of the globe comprehending North 
America, with the motto, "Shine on our happy land." 

2. Portrait of General Washington encompassed with 
thirteen stars, representing the States, with the motto 
above, "Independent, united and free!" Below the 
motto, " Success to our allies ! " 

3. Peace represented with implements of husbandry, 
and a dove with an olive branch, with the motto, "They 
shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears 
into pruning hooks." 


4. Plenty represented by ten cornucopias with fruits 
ami flowers; the cornua supporting a festoon, two wheal 
sheaves and a basket of fruit. 

."). The crown of France in the middle of the four de 
//*, with the motto, " Long Live Louis XV." 

6. A trophy adorned with British arms, drums and 
inverted standard; motto, "Spoils of our foes," over 
which was Fame riving, with a label from her trumpet, 
•• America shall be free !" 

7. Britannia sitting in a disconsolate position point- 
ing to her broken spear, saying by a label, "Alas, I've 
lost America!" Mars standing - with his sword extended 
over her and saying per label, "I've humbled her!" 

8. America in the figure of an Indian with his bow 
and arrows, and the British crown lying at his feet. 
Mercury standing by him with a laurel crown, saying, 
per label, "The laurels thou hast won." 

The celebration at Bordentowu closed with a grand 
ball in the evening. New Brunswick had a curious bon- 
fire in the evening ; sixteen tar barrels, supported by 
separate poles of great length, all set on fire at the same 
time with a large quantity of combustibles around the 
tallest poles. 

In almost every town the celebration was commenced 
by divine services. At New Brunswick the services were 
in the Dutch Church, and conducted b} r a Presbyterian 
minister, Rev. Israel Reed. His text was from Ecc. 7:14, 
" In this day of prosperity be joyful." At Woodbridge 
Rev. Mr. Roe conducted the services. 

The toasts in the various towns, Trenton, Princeton 
and elsewhere, were very pertinent. 


Provisional articles of peace between Great Britain 
and the United States were signed at Paris, November 
20, 1782, to go into effect when a treaty between France 
and Great Britain should be agreed upon, which was 
done January 20, 1783, but not to go into effect until rati- 
fications were exchanged. This took place February 3, 


1783, and as soon as it occurred our French friends were 
intensely anxious that a French ship should be the 
bearer of the first news received in America. Lafayette 
and Count D'Estaing determined to have a war ship 
started at the earliest possible moment. It would not do 
to send a ship by way of the Channel or North Sea, as 
the treaty did not affect vessels there until twelve days 
after February 3, and their ships might be intercepted. 
But D'Estaing had an immense new fleet of sixty war 
ships just fitted out to aid in attacking England. It was 
determmed to send one of this fleet, then lying at Cadiz, 
at the farthest extremity of Spain. By the time the dis- 
patches were prepared, sent to the ship, and the ship 
fitted for the voyage, over two weeks had elapsed. On 
the 19th of February she set sail. The name of the ship 
was the " Triumph." Perhaps Lafayette and D'Estaing 
selected her because of her name to carry the triumphant 
news. Her captain was the Chevalier du Quesne. The 
anxiety was great that she should get the news to Phila- 
delphia before a British ship could carry the news to the 
enemy in New York: In this our French friends were 
gratified. The English ship did not reach New York 
until April -4, while the " Triumph," after a passage of 
thirty-two days, reached the capes of the Delaware, when 
the captain went ashore and started an express with the 
dispatches, which reached Philadelphia at 9 o'clock on the 
morning of March 23, beating the British nearly two 
weeks. On Wednesday, March 26, the New Jersey 
Gazettt , at Trenton, published the news under the head 
of "Peace, Liberty and Independence." 

It is doubtful if the Trenton State Gazettt of 1865, in 
publishing the news of Lee's surrender, spread so much 
joy as did its predecessor by the news in its issue of 
March 2(5, 1783. 

B. Smith was postmaster at Trenton then, and the 
dispatches came, probably, to his care by James Martin, 
who was post-rider between Philadelphia and Trenton. 
There were no post-offices then in Burlington or Mon- 
mouth. John Van Kirk, of Cranb err v, an ex-Sheriff of 


Middlesex, was a post-rider on Ins own account from 
Trenton to Allentown, Freehold, Middletown, etc., and 
similar post-riders carried the old New Jersey Gazette to 
East Jersey, Newark, Morris and elsewhere, and great 
joy did those post-riders bring to every town and home 
with the news. 

In most of the celebrations of peace in New Jersey 
the three prominent toasts were : " February 3d," date 
of Peace ; " April 19th," Battle of Lexington ; " July 
4th," Independence Day. And these three memorable 
days were commemorated in one. The thirteenth toast 
at Princeton expressed the idea of all : " May the recol- 
lection of the 19th of April, 1775, the 4th of July, 1776, 
and the 2d of February, 1783, prove a terror to tyrants 
and oppressors throughout the world." 

Of course the finale of the war had not yet come. 
Evacuation Day, November 25, 1783, when the British 
evacuated New York, was perhaps the last act in the 
eight years' war. What a fearful contrast between the 
distress and despair of the Refugees in New York, whom 
peace had ruined, and the joy of the Patriots ! 


Philip Freneau, the popular poet of the Revolution, 
issued from his press at Mount Pleasant, Monmouth 
county,. in 1795, a volume of his poems entitled : 


Written between the years 1768 and 1791, 

By Philip Freneau, of New Jersey. 

A new edition, revised and corrected by the Author, 

Including a considerable number of pieces never before published. 

Audax inde cohort stellis eplurebus unum 

Ardua pyramidos lull it ad intra caput. 


N. J. 
Printed at the Press of the Author, at MOUNT PLEASANT, near MIDDLE- 
TOWN POINT : M.DCC.XCV : and of American Independence XIX. 

Over the Latin motto is a pyramid of fifteen stars — 
the pyramid of fifteen American States. There are other 
editions of his poems, but this one is so rare that it is 
highly prized by antiquarians. Our attention has been 


called to this book by the fact that in a recent London 
bookseller's catalogue a copy is advertised for sale ; 
price, I'.'!. 10s. (about seventeen dollars.) A leading Ameri- 
can dealer in, and importer of rare and curious works, 
generally charges a customer here forty cents for every 
shilling a book costs in London, to cover risks and profit. 
This would make this book cost an American purchaser 
twenty-eight dollars ! But this is not the highest price 
this work has been held at. A friend found a copy in an 
antiquarian bookstore in Washington a few years ago, 
for which the dealer asked some forty odd dollars, but 
finally got down to thirty-five dollars ! 

Philip Freneau married Miss Eleanor Forman, 
daughter of Samuel Forman, a wealthy citizen of the 
county. Colonel Jonathan and Denise Forman, men- 
tioned in the historical sketches of the county in connec- 
tion with Revolutionary matters, were her brothers, and 
General David Forman was a cousin. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Freneau are buried at Mount Pleasant. He died 
December 18, 1832. 

The following account of his death was published in 
the Monmouth Inquirer at the time : 

" Mr Freneau was in the village, and started towards evening to go 
home, about two miles. In attempting to go across he appears to have got 
lost and mired in a hog meadow, where his lifeless corps was discovered 
yesterday. Captain Freneau was a stanch Whig in the time of the Revolu- 
tion, a good soldier and a warm patriot. The productions of his pen ani- 
mated his countrymen in the darkest days of 76, and the effusions of his 
muse cheered the desponding soldier as lie fought the battles of freedom. 

"Of this poet, from whom Thomas Campbell and Walter Scott did 
not hesitate to plagiarize; whom the greatest English critic compared to 
Gray and who wrote pieces that Scott learned 1>\ heart, one of which he 
pronounced 'as fine as anything written in the Knglish language,' is a 
man of whom Monmouth has a reason to he proud. He was the intimate 
friend of Leading American statesmen for nearly two generations." 


The noted Commodore Percival, who died a few 
years ago, familiarly named "Mad Jack Percival," in the 
early part of his naval career was the hero of an adven- 
ture (in our coast, which is thus described by a paper 
published in New York at the time : 

" ( )n Sunday morning, July 4, 1813, the fishing smack 


' Xankee' was borrowed by Commodore Lewis, who had 
command of the American flotilla stationed at Sandj 
Hook, for the purpose of taking by stratagem the sloop 
' Eagle,' tender to the Poictiers 74, cruising off and on 

Sandy Hook, which succeeded to a charm. A calf, a 
sheep and a goose were purchased and secured on deck. 
Thirty men, well armed, were secreted in the cabin and 
forepeak. Thus prepared, the ' Yankee ' stood out of 
Mosquito Cove, as if going on a fishing trip to the Banks; 
three men only being on deck dressed in fishermen's 
apparel, with buff caps on. The 'Eagle,' on perceiving 
the smack, immediately gave chase, and after coming up 
with her and rinding she had live stock on board, ordered 
her to go down to the Commodore, then five miles dis- 
tant. The helmsman of the smack answered, 'Ay! ay, 
sir ! ' and apparently put up the helm for that purpose, 
which brought him alongside the ' Eagle,' not three yards 
distant. The watchword ' Lawrence ' was then given, 
Avhen the armed men rushed on deck from their hiding 
places and poured into her a volley of musketry which 
struck the crew with dismay, and drove them so precipi- 
tately into the hold that they had not time to strike the 
flag. Seeing the enemy's deck clear, Sailingmaster Per- 
cival, who commanded the expedition, ordered the men 
to cease from firing, upon which one of the men came out 
the hold and struck the ' Eagle's ' colors. They had on 
board a thirty-two pound brass howitzer loaded with 
canister shot, but so sudden was the surprise they had 
not time to discharge it. The crew of the ' Eagle ' con- 
sisted of H. Morris, master's mate of the Poictiers, "W. 
Price, midshipman, and eleven seamen and marines. Mr. 
Morris was killed, Mr. Price mortally wounded, and one 
marine killed and one wounded. The ' Eagle,' with the 
prisoners, arrived off the Battery in the afternoon and 
landed the prisoners at Whitehall, amid the shouts and 
plaudits of thousands of spectators assembled at the 
Battery to celebrate the anniversary of independence. 
Mr. Morris was buried at Sandy Hook with military 
honors. Mr. Price was carried to New York, where on 

:;ii; history of monmouth and ocean counties. 

Thursday he died, and was buried with military cere- 
monies in St. Paul's churchyard." 

A traditionary version of this affair, as related by 
the late Judge Job F. Randolph, of Barnegat, says that 

Percival wished to make his boat appear as a market 
boat; that he placed one of his men on a seat close to 
the bulwark disguised as an old Quakerish looking 
farmer, with broad-brimmed hat and long staff in hand, 
while he looked like an ignorant boor at the wheel, and 
by his answers made the British think he was half-witted. 
"When ordered to drop alongside, under threat of being 
tired into, he made a silly reply to the effect, "You had 
better not try it, for dad's big molasses jug is on deck, 
and if you broke that, he would make you sorry for it." 


At one time it was rumored that the Refugee, Cap- 
tain John Bacon, with a party of his marauders, was on 
his way to Manahawken, on a plundering expedition, and 
such of the militia as could be notified, were hastily 
summoned together at Captain Randolph's house to pre- 
pare to meet them. The handful of militia remained on 
the alert the greater part of the night, but towards 
morning, rinding the enemy failed to appear, they con- 
cluded it was a false alarm, ami retired to sleep, after 
stationing sentinels. Tradition says that the sentinels 
were stationed on the main road, two above the hotel, 
and two below, and that on one post were Jeremiah Ben- 
nett and -lob Randolph, and on the other. Seth Crane ami 
Samuel Bennett, and that Captain Randolph superin- 
tended the lookout. 

I e Refugees came down the road from the north, 
and the tirst intimation the sentinels stationed near the 
old Baptist church had of their approach, was hearing 
their bayonets strike together as they were marching. 
The sentinels haltel long enough to see that the party 
was quite large, double the number of the militia, and 
tiring, ran across the fields to give tin' alarm. By the 


time the few militia were aroused, the Refugees were 
abreast of the house, and before the Americans could 
form, they were fired upon, and Lines Pangburn killed, 
and Sylvester Tilton severely wounded. The militia 
were compelled to retreat down the lane before they 
could organize, when, finding the Refugees had the 
larger force, and were well armed, they were reluctantly 
compelled to decline pursuing them. The Refugees 
passed down the road towards West Creek. 

Tilton, who was so severely wounded, recovered 
almost miraculously, as the ball passed clear through 
him, going in by one shoulder and out at his breast ; the 
physician, as is well authenticated, passed a silk hand- 
kerchief completely through the wound. After the war 
was over, Tilton removed to Colt's Xeck, where it is 
believed some of his descendants now live. Lines Pang- 
burn, who was killed, was probably the same person who 
aided in organizing the Baptist church at Manahawken, 
was the lirst delegate to the General Association, and 
also the man referred to so very kindly by Rev. John 
Murray, as "Esquire" Pangburn. 

Sylvester Tilton always believed that a Refugee 
named Brewer, was the man who wounded him, and he 
vowed to have revenge if he should ever meet him. 

Several years after the war closed, he heard that 
Brewer was at a certain place, and he started after him 
unarmed, though he knew Brewer was always well pro- 
vided with weapons. He found Brewer and closed in on 
him before the Refugee could avail himself of weapons, 
and gave him a most unmerciful beating ; it would prob- 
ably have fared worse with Brewer but for the interfer- 
ence of a much esteemed Quaker named James Willets. 
After Tilton had finished, he told Brewer, "You scoun- 
drel, you tried to kill me once, and I have now settled 
with you for it, and you've got to leave here and follow 
the rest of your gang." The rest of the Refugees had 
fled to Xova Scotia. 

After the war the widow of Lines Pangburn applied 
to the court at Freehold for relief and the following is 


a copy of the record in the Clerk's office : 

" To the Honorable Court of Quarter Sessions to be 
holden in and for the county of Monmouth. Whereas 
L. Pangburn, a militiaman, an inhabitant of Stafford, 
under command of Captaiu Joseph Randolph, who was 
shot dead as he stood on guard, by a party of Refugees, 
on the thirty-first day of December, 1780, in the pres- 
ence of Sylvester Tilton (who was shot through with a 
bullet at the same time) and Reuben Randolph, both 
being sworn and affirmed before me, Amos Pharo, say 

the above facts are true. 

Sylvester Tilton, 

Reuben Randolph. 

Amos Pharo. 

Now the widow of him, the deceased, by the name 
of Ann Pangburn, prays that your Honors may give her 
some aid for her support as she is blind and in low cir- 

The Court allowed her half pay." 





In 1846 and in 1854 special efforts were made to ac- 
complish the erection of a monument to commemorate 
the Battle of Monmouth. The first step taken was the 
publication of an advertisement in the Monmouth In- 
quirer of June 18, 1846, and was as follows : 




THE citizens of Monmouth county, who are in favor of taking measures 
to erect a monument to commemorate the Battle of Monmouth, are re- 
quested to meet in the Court House, in the village of Freehold, on SAT- 
URDAY, the 27th inst,, at 3 o'clock, P. M. 

John Hull, 
William H. Bennett, 
Enoch Coward, 
D. V. McLean, 

A. C. McLean, 

J. B. Throckmorton, 


B. F. Randolph. 
Freehold, June 18, 1846. 

Next, a copy of the Democrat of July 2, 1846, con- 
tained a report of the proceedings of the meeting as 
follows : 


A call for a meeting of the inhabitants of the count}* 
of Monmouth, to take measures to erect a monument in 
commemoration of the Battle of Monmouth, having been 
published in the Freehold papers, a number of persons 
met at the time appointed. 

Enoch Coward, Sen., was called to the chair, and A. 
C. McLean appointed Secretary. 

The object of the meeting was stated b}- Rev. D. V. 
McLean, and remarks made by J. B. Throckmorton, B. 
Connolly, Rev. A. Marcellus and others. 

The following resolutions were offered by D. B. Mc- 
Lean, and adopted : 

1. Resolved, That it is the duty of a grateful posterity to commemorate 
not only in their hearts, but by suitable monuments, the noble deeds of 
their fathers, and the important events in their history. 

2. Resolved, That among the important events of our Revolutionaiy 
struggle, the Battle of Monmouth should never be forgotten. 


;?. Resolved, That we believe the time lias fully come when the citia dg 
of Monmouth county should unite and erect a suitable monumenl to com- 
memorate thai important event. 

4. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting 1"' published in the 
Freehold papers. 

The meeting then adjourned to meet in the Court 

House on the 4th day of August, at 2 o'clock, P. M. 

From the Monmouth Inquirer, August 6, 1846. 


The adjourned meeting, called to take into further 
consideration the propriety and importance of erecting a 
monumeut to designate the ground and to commemorate 
the Battle of Monmouth, convened in the court room, 
during the recess of court, on Tuesday. A considerable 
number were present, among whom we noticed some of 
our most estimable and influential citizens. The meeting- 
was temporarily organized by the appointment of Thomas 
G. Haight, President, and Amzi C. McLean, Esq,, Secre- 
tary. It was, therefore, determined to organize a per- 
manent association to be called " The Monmouth Monu- 
ment Association" for the accomplishment of this 
purpose. A constitution was then offered by Rev. D. Y. 
McLean, which was taken up, section by section, and, 
with a few immaterial alterations, adopted. The officers 
of the association are a President, one Yice-President 
from each township, a Treasurer and Secretary, and a 
committee for the circulation of subscriptions and the 
collection of funds, consisting of three from each town- 
ship. The contribution of jifty cents will constitute an 
individual a member of this association. When the 
monument is erected, the organization and the proceed- 
ings of the association, with the subscription books 
containing the names of those who shall contribute 
towards the erection, will be placed securely in the base 
of the Monument, there to remain until some convulsion 
of nature or the destroying hand of man shall prostrate 
it with the earth. Thus by contributing fifty cents the 
name of each individual will be transmitted to posterity 
down to the latest ages. The following are the names 


of the permanent officers and committees of the associ- 
ation : 

President — Thomas G. Haight. 

Vice-Presidents — James S. Lawrence. Esq.. of Up- 
per Freehold ; Thomas M. Perrine. of Millstone ; James 
W. Andrews, of Freehold; William Little, of Middle- 
town; Lvttleton White, of Shrewsbury: Halsted Wain- 
right, of 'Howell ; Samuel 0. Dunham, of Dover: Edward 
Allen, of Jackson; John Meirs, of Plumsted; Samuel 
Birdsall, of Union; David W. Moore, of Stafford 

Treasurer — Thomas H. Arrowsmith. 

s oretary — A. C. McLean. 

Managi rs. 

TJjyper Freehold. — Thomas Miller, John Cox and 
Augustus Ivins. 

Millstone. — William P. Forman, Rev. Charles F. 
Worrell and Joseph J. Ely. 

Freehold. — Robert E. Craig, Enoch L. Coward and 
Samuel Conover. 

Middletvwn. — Dr. Edward Taylor, Asbury Fountain 
and Daniel Holmes. 

Shn wshury. — Thomas E. Combs, Dr. John E. Cono- 
ver and James Green. 

H&wett. — Dr. Robert Xaird, John S. Forman and 
Andrew Simpson. 

Jackson. — William Allen, William Francis and 


/;,„•, r . — Dr. Lewis Lane, Anthony Ivins. Jr. and 

David Jeffrey. 

Union.-— John Tilton. William Birdsall and Joseph 
H >lrnes. 

Stafford. — Samnel M. Oliphant, John Willits and Dr. 

A. G. Hankinson. 

the movement of 185-4. 
The movement of 1854, referred to. took no definite 
shape. It originated with Major S. S. Forman, of Syra- 
cuse, New York, a native of Monmouth, and who went 
over the battle-field the day after the battle, being at 
that time only thirteen years of age. Happening to fall 
in with a stray copy of the Democrat it revived old recol- 
lections, and he wrote the editor a letter, which was 
published, in which he referred to the movement of 18-46, 
and urged that a monument ought to be erected on some 


spot in or adjacent to the village, where it would 1 f 

easy access tt> visitors. 

The letter excited some interest, and was the subject 
of a good deal of discussion throughout the county, and 
one gentleman, Mr. William T. Sutphin, who then owned 
the parsonage farm, went so Ear as to offer to give four 
acres of ground on the highest part of the farm, and 
one thousand dollars in money towards the erection of 
the monument, Imt as no steps were taken towards 
organizing the movement, the whole matter gradually 
faded out. 


The final movement toward the erection of the 
monument was made in response to an address delivered 
by ex-Governor Joel Parker, at Freehold, on the ninetv- 
ninth anniversary of the battle, June 28, 1877. A preli- 
minary meeting for the purpose was held September 17, 
and the Monmouth Battle Monument Association was 
organized October 2, 1S77. At this meeting Governor 
Parker was elected president, Major James S. Yard, 
secretary, and a general committee of three gentlemen 
from each township in Monmouth county selected to 
procure the funds necessary for the erection of the monu- 
ment. The people of the State, and especially of 
Monmouth county, during the years 1878, 1879 and 1880, 
contributed nearly $10,000 to this object. On February 
2, 1878, the association accepted the offer of a plot of 
land, to be called "Monument Park," in Freehold, as a 
gift from the heirs of Daniel S. Schanck. On May 7, 
1878, the association was incorporated under the provis- 
ions of an "Act to incorporate associations for the erec- 
tion and maintenance of monuments and statues," 
approved March 19, 1878. The same president and 
secretary were re-elected, and Mr. John B. Conover made 
treasurer, Major James S. Yard, Theodore W. Morris, 
James T. Burtis, John H. Laird and Hal Allaire, the 


executive and finance committee. The corner-stone of 
the monument was laid with Masonic ceremonies, June 
28, 1878, in the presence of Governor George B. Mc- 
Olellan and a large number of distinguished guests. The 
deed to the park was presented by Mr. Theodore W. 
Morris, representing the estate of D. 8. Schanck. 
Addresses were delivered by ex-Governors Newell and 
Parker, by the Hon. S. S. Cox, Mr. B. W. Throckmorton 
and General Henry B. Carrington. The State of New 
Jersey, by an act of March 14, 1881, appropriated 
$10,000, and placed the work under the charge of a 
commission instructed to select a design, contract for, 
erect and finish a monument in the park at Freehold, 
where the battle commenced, June 28, 1778. Under this 
act the Monument Association selected rive trustees- -Mr. 
Theodore W. Morris, Major James S. Yard, Mr. James T. 
Burtis, Mr. Hal Allaire and Mr. John B. Conover — to 
represent them in the newly-created State commission. 
The State officials to represent the State on this commis- 
sion were the President of the Senate and the Speaker 
of the House of Assembly ; Hon. Edward J. Anderson,. 
Comptroller of the Treasury ; General Lewis Perrine, 
Quartermaster-General, and General William S. Stryker, 
Adjutant-General. On April 9, 1881, the commission was 
organized by electing Hon. Garret A. Hobart, President 
of the Senate, to be president of the commission ; Hon. 
Harrison VanDuyne, Speaker of the House of Assembly, 
and Mr. Theodore W. Morris, vice presidents ; Colonel 
Edwin F. Applegate, secretary, and Mr. John B. Conover, 
Treasurer. Governor Parker, President of the associa- 
tion, was invited to be present at each meeting of the 
commission, and assist them by his advice and counsel. 
The commission, at this meeting, also ordered a deed to 
be executed to the State of New Jersey for Monument 
Park. The Congress of the United States passed a law, 
approved July 6, 1882, granting an appropriation of 
$20,000 for the purpose of completing a monument. A 
committee on design, consisting of Mr. Theodore W. 
Morris, Hon. Edward J. Anderson, General Louis Per- 


rine, Genera] William S. Stryker and Mr. Hal Allaire, 
on October K'>. L882, invited the submission of designs 
and specifications for the battle monument, and on 
March 2, 1883, the design executed by Emelin T. Littell 
and Douglass Smythe, architects, and J. E. Kelly, sculp- 
tor, and exhibited by Maurice J. Power, of New York 
City, was accepted, and a contract was awarded Mr. 
Power, of the "National Fine Art Foundry," for its 
erection, for the sum of s36,000. On May it, 1883, the 
services of Mr. Edward E. Raht, architect, were secured to 
superintend the construction of the monument, Hon. 
Garret A. Hobart, President of the Senate, was elected 
president of the commission, and Hon. John T. Dunn, 
Speaker of the House of Assembly, and Mr. Theodore 
W. Morris, vice presidents, for the year 1882. The 
officers of the commission for 1883 were Mr. Theodore TV. 
Morris, president, and Hon. John J. Gardner, President 
of the Senate, and Hon. Thomas O'Connor, Speaker of 
the House of Assembly, vice-presidents. In 1884, Mr. 
Morris was re-elected president of the commission, with 
Hon. Benjamin A. Yail, President of the Senate, and 
Hon. Alfred B. Stoney, Speaker of the House of Assem- 
bly, vice-presidents. The other officers of the commis- 
sion continue at this date the same as first elected in 



President, Joel Paekee. 

Vice-Presidents, Chiliox Robbixs. De. Robebt Lalrd. John S. 


Secretary. James S. Yaed. 

Treasurer, Johx B. Coxoveb. 

Trustees, Theodore W. Morris, Edwin F. Applegate, James T. Burtis. 
John H. Laird. Levi G. Irwin, Hal Allaire, Jacob Stults, Thomas Field, 
Daniel P. YanDoren, William H. Hendrickson, Dr. S. H. Hunt, Thomas 
Burrowes, James A. Bradley, William L. Terhune. 


President. Theodoee W. Moreis. 
Vice-President, Hox. B. A. Yail. Hon. A. B Stoxey. 
Secretary, Edwin F. Applegate. 
Treasurer, Johx B. Coxovee. 

Trustees. Gen. Lewis Perrine. Gen. William S. Stryker. Hon. E. J. 
Anderson, Maj. James S. Yard, Hal Allaire. James T. Burtis. 



The park comprises three and a quarter acres, 

eligibly located on a commanding knoll, a short distance 

from the main street of the town, and the title for the 

same is vested iu the State. 


Mrs. Mary A. Schanck, Mb. Andrew H. Schanck, 

Mrs. Theo. VV. Mobbis, Mb. Daniel S. Schanck. 

Mbs. Alice C. Schanck, Mr. Geobge E. Schanck, 

Heirs of Daniel S. Schanck, deceased. 

The number of tickets issued to invited guests was 
six hundred and twenty-four (624), which were dis- 
tributed as follows : 

The President of the United States and his Cabinet. 

The Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

The surviving ex-Governors of New Jersey. 

The Governors of the several States of the Union. 

The Judiciary and State < tfneers of New Jersey 

The United States Senators from New Jersey. 

The Congressional Representatives from New Jersey. 

Minister from Great Britain. 

Minister from France. 

Minister from Germany. 

The Senate of the State of New Jersey. 

The General Assembly of the State of New Jersey. 

The Governor's Staff. 

General Officers of the Genera! Society of the Cincinnati. 

The New Jersey Society of the Cincinnati. 

Officers of the Grand Lodge of Free Masons 

The New Jersey Historical Society. 

The Monmouth Battle Monument Association. 

The Monmouth Battle Monument Commission. 

Ex-Officers of the Monmouth Battle .Monument Commission. 

The Trenton Monument Association 

Descendants of Colonel Ramsey. 

The Board of Chosen Freeholders and other < Mricers of the County <>t~ 

The Board of Commissioners of the Town of Freehold. 

The Donors of Monument Park. 

The Contractors and Architects of the Monument 

The Police Commissioners of the Cities of New York and Philadelphia 

The Orators at the Laying of the Corner-stone of the Monument in 

The Clergy of the Town of Freehold. 



The unveiling of the Monmouth Battle Monument 
took place at Freehold, N. J., Thursday, November 13, 


Three hundred and fifty (350) scats were occupied at 
the banquet provided by the committee for the invited 


The procession formed on Broad streel and inarched 
through the principal streets. It was reviewed by Gov- 
ernor Abbett. who, with his staff and a number of 
dignitaries and distinguished visitors, occupied the re- 
viewing stand erected by the county in front of the 
court house. After the review, Governor Abbett and 
staff, and all the officials on the stand, joined the 
procession as it marched up Court street to Monument 
Park. The complete procession was composed as 
follows : 

(hand Marshal, Major James S. Yard, and Marshal's 

Provisional Brigade, X. G. X. J., Bt. Major-General 
William J. Sewell, commanding, and Brigade Staff. 

Fourth Regiment, X. G. N. J., Colonel Dudley S. 
Steele, commanding, Field and Staff. 

First Regiment, X. G. N. J., Colonel Edward A. 
Campbell, commanding, Field and Staff. 

Seventh Regiment, N. G. N. J., Colonel Richard A. 
Donnelly, commanding, Field and Staff. 

(ratling Gun Company 15, Captain Robert R. Ecken- 
dorf commanding. Two gnus drawn by horses. 

Third Regiment, X. G. X. J., Colonel Elihu H. Ropes, 
commanding, Field and Staff. 


The Monument Association, The Monument Com 1 
mission, The Senators and Representatives and .Repre- 
sentatives-elect of the Congress of the United States, 
Tin Society of the Cincinnati, The Grand Lodge of Free 

Hon. Leon Abbett, Governor of New Jersey, and 
( rovernor's staff. 

Major-General Gershom Mott, Commandant of the 
National Guard of New Jersey, an 1 Staff, and Division 


Bt. Major-General Joseph W. Phime, Commandant 
Second Brigade, N. G. N. J., and Brigade Staff. 

Ex-Governors of New Jersey and Governors of other 
States, The Judiciary of New Jersey, The State Officers, 
Members and Member-elect of the New Jersey Legisla- 
ture, The Reverend Clergy, Other Distinguished Gnests, 
The Board of Chosen Freeholders, The Sheriff' and 
County Officials, The Board of Commissioners of the 
Town of Freehold, The Township Officials of other 
Townships, Knickerbocker Lodge, I. O. of 0. F., Mata- 
wan, Washington Engine Company, Matawan, Other 
Civic Societies, Citizens and Strangers. 


As soon as the procession reached Monument Park, 
the ceremonies of unveiling were proceeded with, and an 
invocation of the Divine blessing was offered by Right 
Reverend Bishop Scarborough. 

Bishop Scarborough first read a portion of the 
fourth chapter of Joshua, showing God's sanction of the 
setting up of memorial stones. 

At the close of the prayer, President Morris formally 
presented the monument to the State of New Jersey. 

At the conclusion of this address the cord was drawn 
by the President, releasing the drapery of the bronze 
bas-reliefs, the military presented arms and a cannon on 
an adjoining hill fired a Continental salute of thirteen 


Governor Abbett, on behalf of the State of New 
Jerse} r , accepted the monument in an appropriate speech. 

Upon the conclusion of his speech, Governor Ab- 
bett introduced Judge Joel Parker, ex-Governor of the 
State of New Jersey, as the orator of the day, who made 
an eloquent and patriotic address. 

When the oration of Judge Parker was finished, Rev. 
Mr. Maddock pronounced the benediction. 

At the close of the ceremonies at the monument, a 
national salute of thirty-eight guns was fired. 

Twenty-five to thirty thousand people were present. 





Thomas W. Middleton, Captain, commissioned Oct. 

22, 1861 ; wounded at battle of . Resigned Sept. 

11, 1862. 

Edgar Kissam, Captain, commissioned Dec, 1862; 
discharged on account of disability Feb. 17, LSI!"). 

Amos H. Evans, Captain, commissioned April 22, 
18(5") ; mustered out July 12, 1865. 

George G. Irons, 1st Lieutenant, commissioned Oct. 

22, 1861 ; Resigned Aug. 27, 1862. 

Charles Hufty, 1st Lieutenant, commissioned Dec. 

23, 1862 ; promoted Captain, Co. I, July 3, 1864. 

Joseph C. Bowker, 1st Lieutenant, commissioned 
July 3, 1864; mustered out July 12, 1865. 

Andrew J. Elberson, 2d Lieutenant, commissioned 
Dec. 23, 1862 ; resigned May 30, 1863. 

J. Madison Drake, 2d Lieutenant, commissioned 
June 3, 1863 ; promoted 1st Lieutenant, Co. K, April 13, 

Edward H. Green, 2d Lieutenant, commissioned 
Jan. 14, 1865 ; promoted 1st Lieutanint, Co. C, June 
22, 1865. 


Jesse R. Hulsart, Sept, 23, 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 


Redin N. Penn, Sept. 23, 1861, July 12, 1865. 
Job L. Cramer, Sept. 23, 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 
Thomas Hazleton, Sept. 23, 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 
Nicholas S. Champion, Sept. 23, 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 


Gilbert H. Heyers, Sept. 23, 1861 ; July 27, 1865. 
William H. Sharp, November 1, 1861; July 19, 



David Riley, Sept. 23, 1861 ; .Inn.- 23, 1865. Paroled 
prisoner. I 

David C. Hankins, Sept. -2:;. 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 
Benjamin A. Rogers, Sept. 2M. lsiil : July 12, ISO"). 
John Errickson, Sept 23, 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 
John Oakerson, Febrnary 29, 1864; July 12, 1865. 
John Siegel, August 15, 1862; June 14, 1865. 
Charles Sepp, August 18, 1862 ; June 14, 1865. 


Napoleon B. Fithian, Sept, 23, 1861; July 12, 1865. 
William B. Conklin, Sept. 23, 1861 ; July 12, 1865. 


William H. Peck, Sept. 23, 1861 : July 25, 1865. 


Charles Archer, Sept. 23, 1861 : July 12. 1865. 
William Armstrong. Sept. 9, '64 : June 11. '65. 
( ■••• rge Beatty, February 29, '64 : July 12, '65. 
Knox Bechler, August 15, '62 ; June 14. '65. 
William H. Beebe, April 10, '65; July 12, '65. 
Nicholas Bohr, March 24, '65; July 12, '65. 
Paul Bowers, February 24, '65 ; July 12, '<»."». 
Samuel Brinley, Frebruary 29, '64; July 19, '65. 
William Brown, September 23, '61; December 8, '64. 
William H. Bunnell, October 1, V>4 : June 14, '65. 
Henry A. Camburn, Sept. 23, 'til ; Dei-ember 7. '64 
John Cameron. March 8, '65; July 12, '65. 
Charles P. Chafer. September 23, '61; -Inly 12. '<'>">. 
James Clark, September 2-'!. '61 : August 23, '•'»•"> : dis- 
charged from Ward Hospital. Newark. 

Peter (lark. March 8, '64 : July 12. '65. 
Henry Clayhill, March K). '65; July 12. '65. 
John A. Clayton. January 2. '64 ; July 12. '65. 
John M. Clayton. September 23, '61; July 19, '»'>."">. 
Isaac Collins, March 6, '65; July 12. '65. 
Eugene A. Crane. September 2::. '61 : July 12, '65. 
Robert Crossley, May 24. '64; February b>. '65 



Samuel Day, March 29, '65 ; July L2, '65. 
Charles Dennis. March 6, '65; July 12, '65. 
William Dennis, Sept. 23, '61 ; July L9, '65. 
Timothy Driscoll, April 3, '65 ; July 12, '65. 
Fuller 15. Errickson, March 8, '65; July 12. '65. 
Horace C. Errickson, Sept. 2:!. 'ill : Oct. 13. '64 
Francis Pagan, April 6, '65; July 12. '65. 
Emile Franck, April 13, '65; July 12, '65. 
Charles Fnclis, August 20, '62; July 13, '65. 
Hance H. Gant, January 4, '64; July 12, '65. 
Stephen E. Gant, January 4, '64; July 12, '65. 
Charles H. Carton, March 7. '65: July 12, '65. 
Simou Geimer, May 3, '63 ; July 12, '65. 
Samuel Goodfellow, June 12, '62; Juue 14, '33. 
William H. Gregory, November 1, '61; Nov. 4, '64 
Cornelius Grover, March 8, '65; July 12, '65. 
Samuel W. Hankihs, March 8, '65; July 12, '65. 
William Heider, April 11. '65; July 12/65. 
James Hulse, September 23, '61; July 12, '65. 
Samuel Hulse, February 23, lil ; July 12, '65. 
Garret V. Hyers, September 23, 'til ; July 19, '65. 
Isaac M. Inman, September 23, '61; Dec. 8, '64. 
Oliver P. Inman, February 29, '64; July 12, '65. 
Wallace Irons, January 2, '64; Juue 5, '65. 
Noah E. Jeffrey, Sept. 23, 4il ; December 8, '34. 
Abram J. Johnson, January 2, 4)4: ; May 27, '65. 
Charles A. Johnson. Sept. 23, lil: August 31, '65; 
discharged from Ward Hospital, Newark. 

Thomas C. Joslin, February 21). '1)4; July 12, '65. 
John Keller. September 10, '61 ; July 12, '65. 
August Kirchner, March 27. '65; July 12, '65. 
Benjamin F. Ladow, April 11, '65; July 12, '65. 
Charles M. Levey. Sept. 23, 'lil: Dec. S, 'lib 
Joseph Loveless. September 23. 'lil : Sept. 22. 'lib 
Frank E. Mailey, March (i, '65 ; July 12, '(53. 
James F. Matthews, Feb. 29, 'CI: June 7, '('»"). 
William W. Martin, February 29, '64; July 12, '65. 
William Mcllvaine, February 24. '65; July 12, '65. 



David McKelvy, September 23, '(54; July 12, 65. 
John S. McKelvy, February 24, '64 ; July 12, '65. 
John W. McKelvy, February 24, '64 ; July 12, '65. 
James Neal, March 2, '65 ; July 12, '65. 
Isaiah Norcross, March 2, '65; July 12, '65. 
Joseph Oakerson, September 23, '61; July 12, '65. 
James Palmer, September 28, '(54; July 12, '65. 
Samuel K Penn, February 21), '04 ; July 12, •(55. 
James M. Pettit, September 28, '61 ; July 12, '(*)•">. 
Charles Phillips, May 31, '64; May 27, '65. 
Charles P. Bobinson* May 31, '64; July 12, '65. 
Charles YV. Roll, February 24, '65; July 12, '65. 
Edwin YV. Savage, April 10, '65; July 12, '65. 
Henry Sleicher, August 15, '62; August 11, '65; 
discharged from Ward Hospital, Newark. 

Ezekiel Shinn, September 23, '61 ; July 12, V>r>. 
Walker Simpkins, April 11, '65 ; July 12, '65. 
James Simpson, April 11, '65; July 12, '65. 
Joseph M. Smith, March 6, '65; July 12, '65. 
Thomas Spencer, April 11, '65 ; July 12, '65. 
Frederick Springer, February 28, '65 ; July 12, '65. 
David Terry, April 11, '(\o ; July 12, '65. 
Peter Their, September 13, '61 ; December 7, '(54. 
Charles L. Tilton, February 29, '64; July 12, '65. 
Ernest Traudt, August 15, '62 ; August 22, 'i\~). 
Charles W. Truax, September 23, '61 ; July 12, '65. 
William L. Truax, January 4, '64 ; July 12, '65. 
Edgar Vantilburg, September 23, '61 ; July 19, '65. 
Jacob Walter, September 29, 64; June 14, '65. 
Daniel Westcott, February 24, 'Ch) ; July 12, '65. 
Ivins Wilbur, March 8, '65 ; July 12, '(\'y. 
Jesse M. Wilkins, Sept. 23, '61 ; December 7, '64. 
Jacob Wirtz, September 29, '64 ; June 14, '(55 
John Zimmerlin, September 23, '(51; July 12, '65. 


Joseph AY. Cranmer, Corporal, Sept. 23, '61 ; at 
Trenton Aug. 9, '(54, for wounds received in action. 



John \Y. Barclay, Private, Nov. 1, ill ; at Beaufort, 

George Beatty, priyate, Sept. 23, '61 ; at Caroline 
City, X. C, disability. 

George Benner, Private, September 30, '(51 ; at New- 
born, N. C, disability. 

Ernest Biehl, Private, August 18, '62; at De Camp 
Hospital, David's Island, N. V., September 6, '65. 

Charles Brindley, Private, September 30, '61; at 
Trenton, October 23, '(51 ; disability. 

William B. Clayton, Private, September 23, '(51 ; at 
Beanfort, June 1, '63 ; disability. 

John Cornelius, Private, September 23, (51 ; at An- 
napolis Hospital, March 3, (52; disability. 

Hiram Craft, Private, September 23, '(51 ; at Caroline 
City, N. C, May 23, '(53 ; disability. 

Henry A. Hartranft, Private, October 8, '61 ; Novem- 
ber 19, '62, to join Regular army. 

William H. Hurley, Private, September 23, (51 ; at 
Hilton Head, S. C, March 17, '63 ; disability. 

Oliver P. Inman, Private, September 23, '61 ; at St. 
Helena Island, S. C, March 17, '63 ; disability. 

Barzillai Johnson, Private, September 23, '61 ; at 
Newbern Hospital, May 12, '63 ; disability. 

John Johnson, Private, March 9, '(54; at New York 
April 14, '65 ; disability. 

Benjamin W. Jones, Private, September 23, '61 ; at 

Newport., N. C, June 23, '62 ; disability. 

Wesley B. Norcross, Private, September 23, '61 ; at 

Newbern, May 28, '63 ; disability. 

Thomas S. Randolph, Private, September 23, '61 ; at 
Ward Hospital, Newark, September 23, '63; disability. 

James H. Robinson, Private, September 23, '61 ; at 
Beaufort Hospital, February 9, '63 ; disability. 

John Trautwein, Private, September 25, '61 ; at 
Ward Hospital, Newark, February 11, '(53 ; disability. 

James Truax, Private, September 23, '61 ; at New- 
bern June 23, '(52; disability. 



George R. Worth, Private, September 23, '61; at 
Army Hospital, Newark, September 6, '62; wounds 
received in action at Roanoke Island. 

Jacob Yetmy, Private, September 23, '61 ; at New- 
port, N. C, Barracks, July L9, '62; disability. 

Matthias Zipfel, Private, August <*>, '62 : at Newbern, 
June 10, '(>:> ; disability. 


James Johnson, Corporal, September "2"), lil ; to vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, January 2, 154; discharged there- 
from September 2.*!, "(54. 

Edwin Applegate, Private, March 8, '64; to Company 
E ; discharged May 3, '65. 

Francis E. Beatty, Private, September 23, <>1 : to U. 
S. Navy May 3, '64. 

Charles Brandt. Private, September 23, '61; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged September 2-4, Y>4; 

David Brawer, Private, Feb. 26, '64 : to Company C. 

William Bush, Private, March 22, '65 ; to Company C. 

Benjamin B. C, unburn, Private, September 23, '61 ; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged September 24, '(14. 

Charles P. Camburn, Private, September 23, V>1 ; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged September 24, '(54. 

Francis E. Camburn, Private, Mar. 7, '64 ; to( lomp'y ( '. 

William P. Carr, Private, March 23, '65 : to Co. F. 

David S. Carter, Private, March 2*!, '65; to Co. F. 

John R. Chadwick, Private, February 29, '64; to TJ. 
S. Navy; discharged October 11, '64. 

Henry A. Clevinger, Private, Feb. 22, '64; to Co. C. 

Henry Councellor, Private, March 21, '65; to Co. K. 

William H. Craft, Private, March 23, '65; to Co. F. 

Joseph C. Ellen, Private, September 23, '61 ; to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps; discharged September 23, '64. 

Daniel E. Ely, Private, February 25, '64 ; to Co. C. 

Samuel B. Gaston, Private, February ( .), "(54; to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps; discharged September 23, (>4. 

Henry Hewitt, Private, September 23, '61; to I". S. 
Navy ; discharged September 4, '65. 


David A. Johnson, Private, September 23, ".1 ; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps ; discharged September 23, 64. 
William F. Johnson, Private, Feb. 26, 64 ; to < o. ( . 
j am es McDonald, Private, Feb. L5, '65 ; to Co. I. 
j ame3 F. McKelvy, Private, March 8, '64; to Co. L 
William H. Moore, Private, Feb. 26, '64; to Co. C. 
Joseph Nierman, Private, August L4, '62; to ( o. I\. 
Samnel V. Norcross, Private, Feb. 20, '64; to Co. C. 
Henn W. Nutt, Private, Feb. 13, '64; to Co. G. 
\ W. Osborn, Private, Feb. 26, "64 : to Co. A. 
Benjamin Osborn, Private, Feb. 29, '64 ; to Co. F. 
John W. Perrine, Private, September 23, 61; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged September 23, 64 
Tylee Remolds, Private, February 25, 64; to Co. 1. 
George W. Rogers, Corporal, September 23, 61 ; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps ; discharged September 23, '64. 
Andrew J. Steelman, Private, Feb. 29, '64; to Co. E. 
Patrick Tracy, Private, Feb. 26, '64; to Co. K. 
Ferdinand Westerman, Private, September 13, til ; to 
Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged September 13, '64. 
Sydney Worth, Private. Feb. 24, '64; to Co. C. 
resseL Bennett, Sergeant, September 23, '61 ; miss- 
in. in action at Drnry's Blnff, Va., May 16, '64 ; died in 
Andersonville prison, February 25, '65; commissioned 
Lieut. April 13, '64, but died before muster. 

Charles P. Smith, Corporal. September 23, 61 ; killed 
in action before .Petersburg, Va., August 15, '64. 

Benjamin Y. Gale, Corporal, March 1, '62 ; died m 
Andersonville prison August 15, : <i4. 

Benjamin L. Homan, Corporal, September 23, bl ; 
died in Andersonville prison February 25, '65. 

Edward (i. Ashton, Private. September 23, <il ; died 

of typhoid fever at Carolina City, N. C, September 15, 63. 

Joseph Atterson, September 23, '61; wounded m 

action at Roanoke Island and died in hospital, Xewbern, 

May 1, '62. . 

Michael Babst, October 11, '61; died m Ander- 
sonville prison August 15, '('4. 



Ezra ( 'mumer, September 2:!. '61; died of typhoid 
fever. Newbern, April 12, '62. 

Joel H. Gant, January 4. 04 ; died in Anderson- 
ville prison, August 22, 'I'd. 

Joel Hulse, September 23, '61 ; wounded in action 
at Deep Creek, Va.; died in hospital, Portsmouth, Va., 
March 8, '64. 

Abraham T. Johnson, September 23, '61; died in 
Andersonville prison, December 26, 04. 

Jonathan E. Johnson, January 2, '04; died of di- 
arrhoea, Fortress Monroe, August 29, '64. 

Thomas P. Johnson, March 10. '04 ; died of fever, 
Fortress Monroe, April 7, 04. 

Henry Lachat, September 23, '01 ; killed in action 
Newbern, March 14, '02. 

Caleb H. Mount, September 23, '61 ; died in Ander- 
sonville prison, September 9, '64. 

Albert S. Nutt, September 23, '01 ; killed in action 
at Deep Creek, Va., March 1, '64. 

Samuel Osborn, September 23, '01 ; died of consump- 
tion, Newbern, June 4, '62. 

Henry H. Phillips, September 23, 4)1 ; wounded in 
action at Roanoke Island and died at Beaufort Hospital, 
February 14, '63. 

Herbert W. Polhemus, January 2, "(54 ; died in Rebel 
prison, Charleston, S. C, September 23, '04. 

Alexander Reed, September 23, '01 ; died in Ander- 
sonville prison, September 9, '04. 

James H. Robinson, March 9, '04 ; wounded at 
Petersburg, and died from wounds August 19, '04. 

William H. Rogers, January 14, '(54 ; died of typhoid 
fever, Kingston, N. C, March 29. '65. 

Oscar -J. Rulay, September 23, '01 ; died at Newbern 
Hospital, July 1(5, '62. 

Ferdinand Schilling, August 2;"), '(52 ; died of diarrhoea 
City Point, Va., July 27, '04. 

John B. Steelman, September 23, '(51 ; wounded at 
Newbern ; died April 12, "02. 


ENROLL] l'. 

.Inliii .1. Street, January I. (il ; died in Andersonville 
prison, September 1 . L86 1. 

Elihu Tindle, July 17, '62 ; died of fever, White House. 
\.i.. .lane -21. V.I 

Martin CJlrich, September L3, 'til ; died of diarrhoea 
Fortress Monro.', October 9, '(54. 

John Vantilburg, September •">, til ; missing in action 
March 7. '65, supposed to be dead. 

Recapitulation: Total number of officers and men, 
two hundred and sixteen. Of these twenty-three men. 
were discharged, thirty-six transferred, twenty -nine died. 


Ralph B. (lowdy, Captain, August 20, '(52 ; resigned 
September 30, '63. 

John C. Patterson, Captain, October 5, '63; pro- 
moted Major, January 2s, '65, and Brevet Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Colonel, " for meritorious services during 
the war,"' March 13, '65. 

Vincent 11. Marsh, Captain, January 30, '65 ; mustered 
out June 18, '65. 

Samuel C. Bailey, 1st Lieutenant, October 5, '<*>•> ; 
promoted Captain, Company H, August 9, '01, Vice- 
Captain S. H. Stults killed in action at M mocacy, Md., 
promoted Brevet Major October 19, '04, "for gallant and 
meritorious services in the field during the campaign 
before Richmond and in the Shenandoah Valley, 1 ' to date, 
from October 19, '64 ; to be Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, 
"for gallant and meritorious services before Petersburg, 
Va.," to date, from April 2, '65. 

Jarvis Wauser, 1st Lieutenant, August 9, (il ; 
transferred to Company B. 

Barton Applegate, 1st Lieutenant, January 30, '65 ; 
mustered out June 18, '65. 

Benjamin F. Patterson, 2d Lieutenant, October .~>. 
'63 : resigned April 1, (54. 

Charles H. White, 2d Lieutenant, December 1, til ; 
transferred to Company G, as Captain. 


William S. Couover, 2d Lieutenant, January 30, '<')."); 
mustered out June L8, '65. 

James Chaffey, 1st Sargeant, Augusi L5, '62; 
promoted Lieutenant, Company K. 

William E. Lecompte, 1st Sergeant, August 15, '62 ■ 
mustered out June 18, '65. 

Samuel G. Hill, Sergeant, August 15, "'>"2: promoted 
Lieutenant ( Jompany A. 

John Grover, Jr., Sergeant, August 1"), "<'»-2 : mustered 
>ut September 12, '65 ; deliberately shot by the Rebels 
after he was taken prisoner at Petersburg, April - 2, '65, 
necessitating amputation of an arm. 


Charles W. Fleming, Aug. 1~>, V»'2 ; June 18, '65. 

Joseph Hankins, Aug. 15, '62 : June 18, '65. 


George H. Bryan, Aug. 15, '62 : June 8, '65. 

Henry Powell. Aug. 1~>, '62; June 18, '<!."). 

Alexander J. Johnson, Aug 18, <J - 2 ; June 18, '65. 

Joseph H. Wright, Aug. 18, '62 ; June 18, '65. 

Edmund R. Chafey, Aug. 1">, '62 : June 18, '65. 

John Heron, Aug. 15, '62 : June 18, '65. 

Solomon Southard, Aug. 15, <i"2 ; June 18, '65. 

William A. Parker, Aug. 15, '62 : June 18, '65. 

Roderick A. Clark, Aug. 15, '62; discharged at De 
Camp Hospital, David's Island, New York harbor, 
September 11, '65. 


Albert S. Cloke, Captain. Sept. 1. '62; -June 30, V>*i. 

( IharlesL. Kimball, 1st. Lieut., Sept.4,'62 ; June30,'63. 

AL Perrine Gravatt, 2d Lieut, Sept. 4, '62 ;June 30, '63. 

Robert Burns, 1st Sergt., Aug. 27. '62; June 30, '63. 

Charles Lofton, Sergeant, Aug. 31, '62; June 30, '63. 

TaylorG. Wainright, Sergt., Aug. 31, '62; June 30, '63. 

Benjamin L. Lawrence, Sergt., Aug. 31, '62 ; June30,'63. 

John W. Peterson, Sergt., Aug. 27, '62; June 30, '63. 

Michael P>. Zabriskie,Corpl.,Aug.20,'62; June 30> '63. 


Sylvester Hall, Corpl., 27, '62; June 30, '63. 
Andre* Steelman, Corpl., 24, '62; June 30, '63. 
[saac Worth, Corpl, An--. 28, '62; June 30, '63. 
Christian Naeglin, Corpl., 26, '62; June 30, '63. 
George Zabriskie, Corpl., 20, '62; June 30, '63. 
Levi Reeves, Corpl., Aug. 26, '62; June 30, '63. 
Charles K. Bunnell, Corpl., Aug. 17, ! 62; June 30, '63. 
Thomas B. Morse, Musician,Aug. 26, '62; June 30, '63. 
Asa Tiltou, Wagoner, Aug. 24, '62; June 30, '63. 
Daniel Applegate, Private. Aug. 28, '62; June 30, '63. 
George Bareford, Private, 23, '62 : June 30, '63. 
William Benson, Private, Aug. 28, '62; June 30, '63. 
Ferdinand Berthond, Private, Aug. 29,'62 ; June30,'63. 
Barzillai Biship, Private, Aug. 25, '62; June 30, '63. 
Joseph Biship, Private, Sept. 1, '62 : June 30, '63. 
Michael S. Biship, Private, Aug. 24, '62 ; June 30, '63. 
Charles Borden, Private, Aug. 17, '62; June 30, '63. 
John Bower, Private, Aug. 30, '62; June 30, '63. 
Holmes Britton, Private, Aug. 30, '62; June 30, 63. 
John Branson. Private, Aug. 20, '62; June 30, '63. 

Corporal Aug. 21 to Nov. 1, '62.) 
Henry Brown, Private, Aug. 25, '62; June 30, '63. 

James Brown, Private, Aug. 28, '62; June .'50, 03. 

Jesse Brown, Private, Aug. 26, '62; June 30, '63. 

Samuel Burk, Private, Aug. 28, '62 June 30, '63. 

Francis E. Camburn, Private, Sept. 1,'62; June 30/63. 

Corlis Clayton, Private, Sept. 3, '62; June 30, 63. 

Lewis L. Conk, Private, Aug. 23, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Charles B. Cook, Private. Sept, 1, '62; June 30, '63. 

Samuel B. Corlis, Private, Aug. 30, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

William J. Corlis, Private, Aug. 30, "62 ; June 30, '63. 

Duncan Cox, Private, Aug. 26, '62; June 30, '63. 

Samuel B. Cranmer, Private, Aug. 30, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Samuel S. Cranmer, Private, Sept. 2, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

William Dennis, Private, Aug. 29, '62; June 30, '63. 

Ebenezer De Witt, Private, Aug. 28, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

John Dougherty, Private, Sept. 1, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Abial Emley, Private, Aug. 24, '62 ; June 30, "113. 

Joseph H. Gibeson Private, Aug. 30, '62; June 30, '63. 


Charles Gouldy, Private, Aug. '2-"), "02; June 30, '63. 

Asher (Irani, Private, Sept. 1, '62; June 30, '63. 

Thomas P. Henley, Private, Aug. 27, '62 ; June 30,'63. 

Edward Hoffmire, Private, Aug. 28, 02 ; June 30, '63. 

John R. Irons, Private, Sept. 3, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

William H. Irons, Private, Aug. 18, '62; June 30, '6:!. 

August Johns, Private, Aug. 25, '62; June 30, '63. 

George Johnson, Private, Sept. 2, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Joseph B. Johnson, Private, Aug. 30, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Peter Johnson, Private, Aug. 30, "62 ; June 30, '63. 

Reuben Johnson, Private, Sept. 1, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Cornelius Kelly, Private, Aug. 30, '62; June 30, '63. 

William T. Letts, Private, Sept. 2, '62 ; June 30, '6:;. 

William H. McKelvy, Private, August 30, '62 : 
June 30, '63. 

George Messic, Private, Aug. 27, '62; June 30, '63. 

Allen Morris, Private Aug. 23, '62; June 30. '63. 

Samuel C. Morton, Private, August 28, '62 ; June 
30, '63. 

Joel C. Palmer, Private, Aug. 28, '62; June 30, '63. 

John T. Penn, Private, Aug. 30, '62: June 30, '63. 

Samuel R. Penn, Private, Sept. 1, '62; June 30, '63. 

Augustus Pharo, Private, Sept. 1, "62; June 30, '63. 

Joel Reeves, Private, Sept. 1, '62; June 30, '63. 

Joseph Ridgwa}-, Private, Aug. 26, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Stephen Ridgway, Private, Aug, 20, '02; June 30, '63. 

Forman Rogers, Private, Aug. 30, '62 ; June 30, '63. 

Mahlon Rossell, Private, Sept. 1, '62; June MO. '63. 

James Soper, Private, Aug. 20, '02; June 30, '63. 

Isaiah Stackhouse, Private, Aug. 20. '62; June 30, '63. 

Michael Stack house, Private, Aug. 27, '62 ; June 30, '03. 

Miller Yannote, Private, Aug. 30, '02 : June 30. '63. 

Joseph E. Wainright, Private, August 27, '62; 
June 30, '63. 

Orlando T. Wainright, Private, August 22, '62; 
June 30, '('.::. 

Samuel WeOO, Private, Aug. 27, '62; June 30, '03. 

Abraham Wilbur, Private, Aug. 20, '62 ; June 30. '63. 

Joseph Yates, Private, Aug. 18, '62 ; June 30, '63. 



William V. Estell, Wagoner, Sept. 2, '62; April 6, 
('>.'!: disability. 

William H. Brown, Private, Aug. 26, '62; at Carver's 
Hospital, Washington, Jan. 7, '63; disability. 

Augustus V. Camburn, Private, August 28, '62; at 
Alexander Hospital, February 2, '63; disability. 

Ivins Conk, Private, August 18, '62; at Judiciary 
Square Hospital, Washington, January '27, '63. 

Ezekiel C. Giberson, August 20, '62 : at Army Hospi- 
tal, Washington, April 24, '63; disability. 

Benjamin Clifford, Private, Sept. 2, '62 : at Army 
Hospital, Washington, May 3, '63. 

Thomas Johnson, Private, August 27, '62; at Hospi- 
tal, Newark, February 28, '63; disability. 

George W. Luker, Private, Aug. 23, '62; at Army 
Hospital, Washington, January 1, '63 ; disability. 

Charles O. Palmer, Private, August 28, '(52; at Army 
Hospital, Washington, March 2, '63 ; disability. 

Jonathan H. Penn, Private, September 1, '62; at 
Army Hospital, Washington, February 22, '63; disability. 

Lorenzo Yates, Private, August 17, '62; at Douglass 
Hospital, Washington, January 21, '63 ; disability. 

Clayton Hagerman, August 28, '62 ; died typhoid 
fever, Belle Plains, Va., April 12, '63. 

Michael Lauffer, September 1, '62 ; died typhoid 
fever^Belle Plains, Va., January 26, '63. 

Samuel H. Osborn, September 3, '62 ; died typhoid 
fever, Tenallytown, November 23, '62. 

Recapitulation : Total number of officers and men, 
ninety-nine ; of the men eleven were disharged, one 
transferred, and three died. 


John E. Southwick, Aug. 15, '62 ; June 28, '65, from 
hospital at Annapolis. 

enrolled. mustered out. 

George J. Appleby, Aug. 15, '62 ; June 18, '65. 
Charles S. Applegate, Aug. 15, '62 ; June 18, '65. 



William L. Applegate, Sept. 9, '64; June Is, '65. 

Charles Archer, Aug. L5, '62 ; June 18, '65. 

Charles P. Bennett, Aug. 1~>, (i-J ; discharged from 
Frederick City Eospital May L9, '<*»•"">. 

John S. Bennett, Aug. 15, '('>•_!; June Is, '65. 
(Sergeant Nov. 10, '63, to July 31, '(54) 

Andrew Q. Bowers, Aug. 15, V>j> ; June IS, "(J"). 

Mark Bozarth, Aug. 15, '62; June Is, '65. 

Charles Brindley, Aug. 15, '62; June IS, '()."). 

John F. Brown, Aug. 15, '62 : discharged Wilmington. 
Del., Hospital, June 24, '65. 

Gabriel Chamberlain, Aug. 2, '64 ; discharged from 
Frederick Hospital, May 19, '65. 

Reuben Chamberlain, Aug. 15, '62 ; June is, '65. 

Eugene C. Clayton, Aug. 15, id : .June 18, '65. 

William Clayton, Aug. 'M\, '64; .June 18, '65. 

John H. Cook, Aug. 15, "<i'2 ; June 18, '65. 

Joseph Cook, Sept. l(i, '64; June 18, '65. 

David P. Fielder, Sept. 7. '64; June 18, '65. 

John W. Finch, Aug. 15, '62; June is, '65. 

Charles Hall, Aug. 15, 'li'i ; June IS, '65. 

Henry Hankins, Aug. 15, '62; June is, '65. 

Jacob Havens, Aug. 15, '62 : June Is, (i."). 

George Henderson, October 1, lit ; June IS, li."). 

James D. Herbert, Sept. 3, '64 ; discharged Jarvis 
Hospital, Baltimore, June 1-1, '<>.">. 

John Hopkins, Aug. 15, '62; June Is, (Jo. 

Samuel Hopkins, August 15, (d: August 8, '<>">. 

Kins Irons, August 15, '62; discharged Douglass 
Hospital, Washington, August 18, '65. 

Ellison Jamison, August 1"), '62 ; June Is, '65. 

Anthony S. Johnson, Aug. 15, '62 ; June 18, '65. 

David C. Johnson, Aug. 30, '64; June IS '65. 
William Johnson, Aug. 15, '62; June 18, "li."). 

Charles ( !. Jountry, Aug. 15, '62; June 18, '65. 

John Knott, Aug. 15, '62; June Is, '(J."). 
William C. Lake, August :!<>, "C»4 ; discharged June 
8, '65. 



Robert Mel )onald, 15. '62 ; discharged Frederick 
City Hospital, .May lit, '65. 

Washington McKean, A.ugus1 L5, '62; June is, '65. 

William II. Miller, L5, '62; June Is, '65. 

William H. Morris, 1"), '62; June is, '65. 

Edward Newman, Aug. 1."., '62; June is, '65. 

Charles E. Parker, 2, '64; discharged Satterlee 
Hospital. West Philadelphia, May 1!). '65. 

William L. Parker, August 15, '62; June 18, '65. 

Tabor C. Polhemus, Aug. 15, '62; June IS, '65. 

James Totter, Aug. 15, '62 ; June 18, '65. 

Heulings L. Prickett, Sept. 3, '64 ; June is, '65. 

Gilbert W. Reid, Aug. 29, '64 ; June is, '65. 

Harrison Reid, Aug. 15, '62 ; June 18, '65. 

Cornelius Rogers, Aug. 31, '64; June 18, '65. 

.7 esse Rogers, Aug. 15, '62; June IS, '65. 

William Rogers, Aug. 15, '62; June is, '65. 

Silas Southard, Sept. 1<!, '64; June IS, '65. 

AValling Wainright, Aug.' 15, '62; June IS, '65. 

James E. Wheeden, September 3, '64; discharged 
Douglass Hospital, Washington, June 14, '65. 

James White, August 15, '62; discharged Saterlee 
Hospital, WVst Philadelphia, May V-l '65. 

William Williams, August 15, '62 ; mustered out 
June 18, '65. 


John W. White, Sergeant, August 15, '62; at White- 
hall Hospital, Bristol, Pa., disability, June 17, (Jo. 

Walter B. Abbott, Private, August 15, '62; at Hospital 
York, Pa., disability, March 21, '65. 

Alonzo Applegate, January 2, '64; at Ward Hospital, 
Newark, December 14, '61; disability. 

Peter Daily, July 23, '62; at Alexandria, Va., August 
26, '63 ; disability. 

William H. Hall, September 21, '61; at Newark, 
June 17, 'Go ; disability. 

Herbert Havens, August 15, '62 ; at Newark, Decem- 
ber 15, '64 ; disability. 



Daniel Hopkins, August 15, '62; at Newark, February 
7. '65 ; disability. 

Archibald J. McLane, September 7, '(54; October 2, 
1)4; rejected by Medical Board. 

Charles K. Sherman, August 15, '62 ; at Newark. 
December 13, '64 ; disability. 

Josiah Smith, August 15, "02 ; October 8, '63, by 
sentence Court Martial. 

George E. Spratford, August 15, '62; Newark, Octo- 
ber 8, '63 ; disability. 

John Stout, August 15, '62; Newark, January 24, 
'64 ; disability. 


Peter C. Applegate, August 15, '62 ; to Navy. April 
18, '64; discharged from Navy June 3, '65. 

Anthony Borden, February 24, '64; same day trans- 
ferred to Company K, Second Regiment ; discharged 
June 20, '65, from Hospital Baltimore. 

Andrew J. Elberson, March 28, '61 ; to Navy 
April 18, '64. 

Joseph W. Fleming, August 15, '62 ; to Navy 
April 18, '64. 

John B. Grover, August 15, 62; to Veteran Reserve 
Corps, August 10, '(54; Discharged November 11, '65. 

John W. Grover, September 16, '(54; to Company A; 
mustered out June 18, '6~>. 

Lewis Herbert, August 15, '62; to Navy, April 18, '64. 

Edward Hilliard, August 15, '62; to Veteran Reserve 
Corps, June 18, '64; discharged July 13, '65. 

Thomas C. Hinkley, March 28, (55; to Company K, 
Second Regiment. 

Charles R. Lehman, August 30, '64; to Company I; 
mustered out June 18, '65. 

Charles L. Pearce, February 23, '64 ; to Company K, 
Second Regiment. 

William Petty, August 15, '62; to Veteran Reserve 
Corps ; discharged June 15, '64; disability. 



Edward Prickett, August 2, '64; to Company K, 
Second Etegiment; mustered out .Inly 13, '65. 

Joshua L. Prickett, April 7, '65; to Company K. 
Second Elegiment; mustered out July 11, '65. 

Levi S. Prickett, April 7, '65; to Company K, Second 
Regiment ; mustered out July 11, '65. 

Levi Scheek, July 28, '62; to Co. 15 Nov. 11, '62. 

Richard Skirm, August 15, '62; to Company F, First 
Cavalry, September 16, '63; Corporal, First Cavalry; 
mustered out July 21, '05. 

Samuel D. Vannote, March 23, '64; to Company K, 
Second Regiment; discharged July "is, '65, from Ward 
Hospital, Newark." 

Henry C. Havens, First Sergeant, August 15. 62; 
killed in action at Monocacy, July '.', '01. 

Lacy Poinsett, Corporal, August 15, '62; died July 
12, 01 Frederick City Hospital from wounds received in 
action at Monocacy, July '.», '04. 

John P. Truex, Corporal, August 15, '62 ; died June 

20, '64 in Judiciary Square Hospital, Washington, from 
wounds received m action at Cold Harbor, June 1, Oil. 
Buried in Arlington cemetery. 

George Britton, Private, July 28, '62 ; killed in action 
at Cold Harbor, Ya., June 3, '01. 

John S. Britton, August 15, "0)2; died in Danville 
Rebel prison, February 28, '65. 

Charles Brown, August 15, '02 ; killed in action at 
Cold Harbor, Ya., June 1, 01. 

Baselah M. Brown, August 15, '62 ; killed in action 
at Cedar Creek, Ya., October 1!>, '6-1. 

Patrick Diggen, August 15, '02 ; died June 10, '64, 
at Carver Hospital. Washington, of wounds received in 
action at Cold Harbor. 

Anthony H. Garrett, August 1-1. "02 ; died September 

21, '04, at "Winchester, Ya., of wounds received in action 
at Opequan, Ya.. September ID, '64. 

Oliver C. Gibersou, August 15, '02; died of fever at 
Fairfax Seminary, Ya., September 1, '63. 


Samuel Grover, August L5, <'»'2 : died of lung disease 
at Frederick, Md., November 7, '62. 

David Hall, May LO, '64 ; at Washington, May 28, '65. 

John Hall, August 15, '62 ; died in Danville Rebel 
prison, October 24, '64. 

Charles H. Haviland, Augusl b~>, '62 ; died July 15, 
'64, at Frederick, Md., of wounds received in action at 
Monocacy, July 9, '64. 

Obadiah Herbert, August 15, '62 ; died September 

11, '64, at Annapolis, Md., of wounds received in action. 

Charles Hopkins, August 15, i'>'2 ; died November 19, 
'C4, at Baltimore Hospital, of wounds received in action 
at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, '64. 

David C. Horner, August 15, '62 ; killed in action at 
Cold Harbor, Va., June 1, '64. 

James (i. Matthews, August 30, '64; died October 

12, '<i4, in Winchester Field Hospital, of wounds received 
in action at Opequan, Va., September li>. '64. 

Robert Maxon, August 15, '62; killed September 19, 
'1)4, in action at Opequan, Va. 

John Potter, August 15, '62; died in Danville Rebel 
prison, January 'ill, '65. 

Samuel 15. Rose, August 1.",, '62 ; died at Frederick, 
Md., February 8, '63. 

Samuel Seymore, August 15, <>*2; died in Richmond 
Rebel prison, December 10, '63. 

Henry H. Sherman, August 15, '62 ; died at Baltimore 
Hospital, .In IK' 1, '65. 

Samuel Southard, August 15, '62; killed in action at 
Monocacy, July '•>, '64. 

Jonathan Tice, August 15, '62; died in Frederick, 
Md., April -21, '63. 

George H. AVhite, August 15, '62 ; killed in action at 
Cold Harbor, Va., June 1, '64. 

Lewis \Y. Woodward. Augusi L 5, '62 ; killed in action 
at Cold Harbor, Va., June 1, '64. 

Recapitulation : Total strength of company, one 
hundred ami thirty-nine; of these, twelve were discharged, 
eighteen transferred, two promoted, twenty-seven died. 


l \! I l h >l \ I ES NAVY. 

Thomas Edwards, Acting Lieutenant. Acting Mas- 
ter, Oct. 22, lil; CJ. S. S. Oneida, '61 "2 '■> : commanding 
U. s. s. Stockdale, '64. 

William Rogers, Acting Master, Aug. 26, '61, U. S. S. 
Pembina : commanding U. S. S. Mary Sandford »i-!. and 
the Hetzel '64 5. 

Jerome B. Rogers, Acting Master, Oct. 22, '61 ; U.S. 
s. Restless, '62, U.S. S. Sebago, '63 4. 


The following is a complete and correct list of all 
- mis resident in this county drawing pensions in 1863 
from the United States Government, with the causes for 
which such pension is allowed, and the amount paid them 
monthly, as compiled from the records of the Pension 
Department : 


( reorge R. Worth, gunshot wound right arm, 810. 

Phebe Ludlow, widow, $8 ; Sarah Edwards, widow 
(Navy), $25 ; Tunis Bodine, survivor of 1812, $8. 


Jane C. Van Doren, widow, $8; Margaret King, 

widow. $8 : Ann Yoorhees, widow, $10. 

Charles T. Mathews, disease of lungs, 810; Joseph 
I. Yoorhees, amputation right arm, 824 ; Thomas Clay- 
ton, gunshot wound right arm, $10 ; John B. Hyers, dis- 
eased lungs and eyes. $12 ; Wm. H. Conover, injury of 
hack, SI ; John H. Mathews, disease of lungs, ss ; John 
G. Voorhees, gunshot wound left shoulder, -810. 


Mary Estel, widow 1812, $8 ; Daniel D. Williams, dis- 
ease of the lungs. 84; Lavinia M. Carter, mother. $8. 



Ellison Jamison, gunshot wound in head, $2 ; John 
F. Brown, gunshot wound in neck, etc., $10; Susan Haga- 
man, widow, $16 ; Lydia A. Brown, mother, $8. 
collier's mills. 

Lewis Southard, injury right side, $6. 


Samuel 11. Penn, typhoid fever, etc., $6 ; Ann Brit- 
ton, mother, $8; Ezekiel Lewis, survivor 1812, $8. 


Charles H. Hankins, wound right hand, si; John 
Errickson, wound right forearm, $6 ; Isaac Vanhise, dis- 
ease of heart, $3; Daniel H. Hopkins, $4; Deborah Hop- 
kins, widow, SS; Mary Likes, mother, $8; Zachariah Haw- 
kins, wound in left side, $4 ; Win. A. Parker, wound left 
shoulder and jaw, $8 ; Margaret Curtis, widow, $3 ; Henry 
H. Hawkins, gunshot wound right foot and right knee, $6. 


John J. O'Hara, gunshot wound left shoulder, $6. 


Thomas L. Reynolds, chronic diarrhoea, $8 ; Charles 
H. Rose, gunshot wound right forearm, $4; Rsbscca 
Burke, widow, $8; Sarah M. Cook, $8 ; Caleb Bennett, 
minor children, Samuel Lsming, guardian, $12; Jas. H. 
Hendrickson, injury left side, etc., $2. 


David Brower, gunshot wound right arm, left thigh, 
and sunstroke, $12 ; Thomas Fisher, gunshot wound left 
shoulder, $4 ; Holmes Johnson, disease lungs, $18 : Peter 
Reynolds. $15; John B. Estrelle, measles, typhoid fever, 
etc., $2 : Charles M. Dix, sunstroke, $4 ; David Matthews* 
$18; John W. White, gunshot wound left leg, -SS ; Mary 
Norcross, widow, $3; Mary Megill, widow, 1<SL2, $8; 
James White, gunshot wound right leg, $ > ; Eii/a Sterne, 
mother, $8 ; Emeline Holt, widow, $3 ; Hester Hager- 
man, widow, $8 ; Eunice A. Gordon, widow, S21 ; Henry 


Burd, gunshot wound Left forearm, $2; Sophia I). Adam- 
widow, L812, $8 ; James W. Grove, chronic diarrhoea, $4. 


Mary Gettier, widow 1812, $8; Catharine S. Carman, 
widow, $8 ; Benj. T. Phillips, chronic rheumatism, $24; 
Nimrod Nicols, gunshot wound right leg, $] ; David 
Noyes, gunshot wound in head, $6. 


Joseph Cranmer, gunshot wound forehead, $12 
Samuel Curtis, Navy, $20; Thomas C. Samson, injury to 
right knee, $4; Henry Allison, frosted feet, $12; Joseph 
Bishop, injury to abdomen, $2. 


Abraham YV. Osborn, injury to abdomen, $4 ; John 
Johnson, $18; James G. Truax, disease stomach, 84; Wm. 
H. Hall, $4 ; James M. Petit, chills and fever and 
rheumatism, $4. 


Charlotte Appleby, mother, $8; John Vaughn, gun- 
shot wound left hip, $6 ; Elizabeth Johns, mother, $8 : 
Charles Chaiey, injury left side, $2 ; William Berm, gun- 
shot wound left shoulder, $4 ; Charles H. Thompson, gun- 
shot wound left side head, $4 ; Benj. P. Bussom, effects 
of typhoid fever, $4 ; George H. Horner, gunshot wound 
right arm, etc., $10 ; George W. Dunfee, injury right leg 
and left hip, $4 ; Franklin S. Gaskill, gunshot wound 
both thighs, $0; George Yates, $18; Joseph Keynolds, 
necrosis right tibia, $6 ; Henry B. Wright, injury to ab- 
domen, $4 ; Joseph N. Emley, $4 ; William A. Wood- 
ward, chronic diarrhoea, si 2; John Reed, gunshot wound 
left forearm, $18 ; John W. Eldridge, chronic diarrhoea, 
$4 ; Curtis Fowler, gunshot wound right leg, $8 ; Hugh 
Dyatt, gunshot wound back, SS ; Caroline B. Archer, 
widow, $8 ; Edith Brown, widow, $8 ; John S. Mallouy. 
neuralgia, (Navy), $20 ; Amy Fowler, mother, $8 ; Harriet 
Loveland, widow, $S; Eliza Horner, mother, $8 ; Clemen- 
tine T. Carter, mother, $8 ; Mary Hulse, widow 1812, $25; 


Lydia Woodward, mother, $8 ; Mary Webb, mother, $8 
Isaac Sop«r, minor children, $12 ; Naomi Cant, widow, $8 ; 
Sarah Bell, mother, $8; John McGrath, disease of 
lungs, $16. 

Charles \V. Truax, disease liver, etc., $4; John W. 
J. Osborn, disease lungs, $4 ; Mary Jones, mother, $8 ; 
Hance H. (lant, chronic rheumatism, $4. 


Harriet E. Jones, $3 ; Aaron Irons, gunshot wound 
left thigh, etc.. $8 ; Roderick A. Clarke, $18; Joseph W. 
Fleming, injury right ankle, $6; Joshua J. Pearce, 
chronic diarrhoea and rheumatism, $8; John Stout, $18 ; 
Charles Stout, gunshot wound left thigh, $2; Elizabeth 
Folsom, widow. $8; Margaret Morris, widow, $8; Mary 
Jane Wilson, mother, $8; Herbert Havens, gunshot 
wound both thighs and left ankle, #1<>. 


Christopher Daly, gunshot wound left forearm, $10; 
Lloyd Appleget, injury of right eye, $4. 


John S. McKelvey, chronic diarrhoea, $6 ; John C. 
Irons, survivor, 1812, $8 : Alice Bunnell, widow, $8. 

Sarah -I. Aiterson, widow, $8 ; Mary A.pplegate, 
widow. vS: Thomas Johnson, injury to abdomen, $8; 
Ezekiel Giberson, injury to abdomen, $8; Wm. H. 
Hurley, gunshot wound, left shoulder, $6; Helena 
Grant, widow. $8; Charles T. Hudson, $4 ; Garrett V. 
Hyers, gunshot wound right shoulder, $2 ; Abraham J. 
Johnson, injury to abdomen, $8; George Walton, disease 
heart, $8; Thomas W. Middleton, $10; Robert S. Wither- 
all alias J. R. Noicross, contracted scar from abscess 
right shoulder, s-4 ; Charles S. Applegate, injury to ab- 
domen, $4 : Wm. H. Dorsey, gunshot wound right 
shoulder $8 ; George G. Irons, rheumatism, etc., sl7 ; 
Wallace [rons, disease lungs. $8; George H. Bryan, gun- 



shot wound Left shoulder, $10 ; Barriet Luker, mother, $8; 
Sarah McKenney, widow, $8. 

VAN IIIsl'.Vll.I.i:. 

Catharine Johnson, widow, *s : John Cole, $24; 
Reuben Camp, chronic diarrhoea and varicose veins Left 
Leg, ss. 


Samuel Ridgway, gunshot wound left thigh, $3. 


James Pharo, heart disease $4 ; Janus M. West, gun- 
shot wound left side of chest, $6; Ensign Miller, gunshot 
wound Left side of head, $18. 


Andrew J. Steelman, injury to abdomen, $8. 


Anna Perry, widow. $8. 


Dover township at cue time embraced a large pro- 
portion of the present county of Ocean, as it extended 
from Metetecunk river on the north to Oyster Creek, be- 
tween Forked River and Waretown on the south, and 
from the ocean to the Burlington county line in width. 

The Town Book of old Dover, containing lists of of- 
ficers from 1783 down to 1861, was found among the 
books and papers of the late Washington McKean by his 
son-in-law. Charles W. Potter. Since the decease of the 
last named gentleman, it is probable this book will be 
deposited in the office of the County Clerk at Toms River. 
The town officials named in it were officials representing 
a large proportion of the present county. In their day 
they were the prominent public men of what is now Ocean 
count v, and many of their names are herein recorded. 

The village of Toms River was burned in March, 
1782. The record in the Town Book begins with the first 
town meeting after that event. 


The following town meeting proceedings are copied 
from the old Dover Town Book : 

A list of the town officers chosen at a town meeting 
held at Toms River on the second Tuesday of March, one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty three (1783), for the 
township of Dover, are as followeth : 

Town Clerk — David Woodmansee ; Chosen Free- 
holders — Gabriel Woodmansee, John Rogers; Assessor 
— Gabriel Woodmansee ; Collector — James Woodmansee; 
Freeholders to assist the Assessor — Jacob Applegate, 
John Jeffrey ; Freeholders of Appeal — Isaac Potter, 
Moses Robins, David Woodmansee ; Surveyors of High- 
ways — Abraham Piatt, James Allen; Overseers of the 
Poor — John Stout, Jacob Applegate ; Overseers of High- 
ways — Francis Letts, Jacob Foster, Thomas Vannort ; 
( \ mstable — John Woodmansee. 

Town meetings were held annually at the residence of 
different citizens, and the ordinary public business, which 
was of course limited in character, transacted. 

At the annual meeting held March 13, 1787, the toAvn 
agreed to raise an assessment on the inhabitants of Dover 
for the support of the poor this year, the sum of fifty 
pounds (£50). 

The following items appear in later records : 

At the town meeting held March 11. 1788, it was or- 
dered as follows : 

" The town has agreed to pay the last county money 
that was ordered to be raised, out of the dog tax that 
was raised for the year 1787. Also the money that Abra- 
ham Piatt is indebted to the town is to pay the debts of 
the town." 

In 1792 the following record appears : 

" 1792. Be it remembered that the township of 
Dover has entered into a resolve this thirteenth day of 
March, 1792, that all foreigners who shall come within 
our bay to oyster shall be entitled to pay to the township 
»f I )over for the support of the poor, two pence for every 
bushel of oysters taken on board by said vessels. Also, 
John Price and John Woodmansee are appointed by said 


town tn collect the above duty for the use of the said 

At the same time, the poor of the township of Dover 
were sold to the following persons, viz : 

Abraham Piatt took one woman for £7 17 shillings 

for one year. 

John Johnson took one man for £4 lis. one year. 

Thomas Bird took one man for £11 17s. one year. 

Officers elected at the annual March town meeting, 
1793 : Moderator — Benjamin Lawrence ; Clerk — George 
Cook ; Assessor — Benjamin Lawrence ; Collector — George 
Cook ; Freeholders — David Wright, Gabriel Woodman- 
see ; Corns, of Appeal — James Allen,. John Kogers, Gabriel 
Woodmansee ; Corns, of Highways — John Price, William 
Williams; Overseers of Poor — Benjamin Lawrence, George 
Cook ; Overseers of Roads — Paul Potter, William Cham- 
berlain, Timothy Page, Bartholomew Applegate, Thomas 
Truex : Constables — John Richardson, Job Leming. 
Judge of Election — John Rogers. 

The poor of the township were sold as follows: Jo- 
seph Piatt took one woman for £8 10s. Timothy Page 
took one man for £4 15s. Elizabeth Johnson took one 
man for £1'2 10s." 

At the annual meeting. March 10, 179-"), "John Yet- 
man was cleared from tax on account of blindness of his 

The following record appears in the proceedings of 
the town meeting held at the house of John Millar. March 
10, 1798 : 

The town poor were put out for the} r ear as follows : 
"• ( rilbert Lane took one man for £12 ; the town to find him 
clothes, and Lane to make and mend for him and find him 
in tobacco. John Worth took a woman for £16, the town 
to find her clothes and Worth to find her tobacco." 

A special town meeting was held April 3, 1799, at 
the house of John Wildes, when — 

" It was resolved to amend the law about striking fish. 
so that it shall be lawful to strike any fish except sheeps- 
head until June 10th, yearly. 


" /,', solvt d, That the members of the Township Com- 
mittee be allowed one dollar per day for services. Wil- 
liam E. Imlay reported expenditures for the poor to the 
amount of £36 L2s. 2d., and thai be had in hand of town 
money, £111 13s. 2d., from which expenses deducted for 
poor would leave £75." 

The next year it was resolved that "the next town 
meeting be held at the house where "William E. Imlay 
now lives. Also, that the law about striking tish be re- 
pealed in full." Constables in those days were required to 
give bonds in the sum of one thousand dollars. 

The following is a list of Presiding Officers, or 
Moderators, as they were called, and Town Clerks of 
Dover, from 1846 to 1861, when the records in the old 
Town Book cease : 


1846, William I. James. 1847 to 1855, inclusive, 
Aaron B. Irons. 1856 to 1861, inclusive, Washington Mc- 



1846 to 1855, inclusive. James Gulick. 1856 — John 
J. Irons. 1S.57 8 — Benjamiu F. Aurnack. 1859 — David 
J. Bowers. 1860— Emanuel H. Wilkes. 1H61— Joseph 

The record of cattle marks and of estrays in the old 
Dover Town Book gives the names of many old residents 
not found elsewhere in the book, and in some cases, the 
parts of the township Avhere they resided. 


The following description of the Navesink lands was 
written March 4, 1650, by Secretary Van Tienhoven, of 
New Amsterdam, and sent to Holland : 

"In the bay of the North river, about two leagues 
from Sandy Hook, lies an inlet or small bay; on the 
south shore of said bay called Neyswesiucks. there is 
also right good maize lands which have not been culti- 
vated by the natives for a long time. This district is 


well adapted for raising ami feeding all sorts of cattle 
and is esteemed by many as not ill adapted for fisheries ; 

a good trade in furs could also be carried on there and 
'tis likewise accessible to all large vessels coming from 
sea which are often obliged to lie to or anchor behind 
Sandy Hook, either in consequence of contrary winds or 
from want of a pilot." 

[Note. — Information relative to taking up land in 
the form of colonies or private bouweries, X. V. Col. 
Hist, vol. 1, p. 360.] 

According to the familiar story of Penelope Stout, 
the fifst attempt to settle in Monmouth was about 1648, 
when Richard Stout and family, and live Dutch families, 
six in all, settled where Middletown now is and they 
remained there about five or six years when they were 
compelled to leave on account of Indian troubles. 

In O'Callaghan's History of New Netherlands is a 
list of patents for land granted by the Dutch between 
1630 and 1664 ; among them is one to Cornelius Van 
Werckhoven, granted November 7, 1651, for " A Colonie 
at Nevisinks." In a letter from Werckhoven to Baron 
Yon der Capellen, in Albany Records vol. 8, p. 27, lie savs 
the lands about Nevisinks and Raritan Kills had been 
purchased for him in 1649 and had not been allotted to 
him. Werckhoven did not come to this country until 
1652. His agent in purchasing these lands was Augus- 
tine, or Augustus Heermans, a prominent citizen of New 
Amsterdam. As Heermans received directions in 1649 
from Werckhoven, then in Utrecht, Holland, to purchase 
the lands, the presumption is that he had previously 
visited the Navesink Indians and ascertained from them 
their willingness to part with the lands and on what 
conditions, and also that his object was to establish "A 
Colonie at Navesink." The time of his doing this must 
have been about the time the Stout tradition says an 
effort was made to plant a colony at Middletown. 

. Heer Werckhoven came over to this country in 1652. 
His right to the lands was disputed by Baron Hendrick 
Yander Capellan, who alleged that lie had previously 


bought lands on south side of the Raritan claimed by 
Werckhoven and the matter was referred to the Amster- 
dam Chambers; their decision being adverse to Werck- 
hoven, he then directed his attention to establishing the 

settlement of New Utrecht on Long Island, near Graves- 
end. The first house put up in New Utrecht was one 
by Jacob Swart, of Gravesend, who tore down his house 
at the latter place and removed it to the new settlement. 
Augustine Heermans had also purchased this land for 
Werckhoven, and it is evident that he must have been 
acquainted at Gravesend with the settlers, of whom, in 
1657, Richard Stout seems to have been one *of the 
largest land owners. 

In the " account of a voyage to Navesink" in 1663, 
given in Brodhead's History of New York and White- 
head's East Jersey, it is alleged that an attempt to 
purchase lands in Monmouth of the Navesink Indians in 
1663 was made by a party of twenty Englishmen from 
Gravesend, L. I., among whom it names John Bowne, 
James Hubbard, John Tilton, Samuel Speer, Thomas 
Whitelock, Sergeant Richard Gibbons, and Charles 
Morgan. This account indicates that the English party 
Mere at that time acquainted along the shores of the 
Raritan Bay and around in by the Highlands. 

It is stated in Brodhead's History of New York 
that in the year 1050 an effort was made to induce Baron 
Hendrick van de Capellan of Ryssell and several Amster- 
dam merchants to form an association for the coloniza- 
tion of Staten Island and its neighborhood and a ship 
was fitted out, but the expedition proved a failure. But 
an agent of Van Capellan, named Dericklagen, shortly 
after purchased for him lands "on the south side of the 
Raritan river"; one reason alleged for this purchase was 
that it would tend to the better security of a colony 
planted on Staten Island. This was probably in 1051. 
During the same year Augustus Heermans purchased 
for Cornelius Van Werckhoven, an influential member of 
the provincial government of Utrecht, a tract also " on 
the south side of the Raritan opposite Staten Island." 



In speaking of early navigators, Rev. John Howard 
Hinton, in the Hist, of the United States, says: "It is a 
circumstance too remarkable to be unnoticed, that 
England, Spain and France all derived their transatlantic 
possessions from the science and energy of Italian navi- 
gators, although not a single colony \v;is ever planted in 
the newly discovered continent by the inhabitants of 
Italy. Columbus, a Genoese, acquired for Spain a coloni- 
al dominion great enough to satisfy the most craving 
ambition ; but reaping no personal advantage from his 
labors, excepting an unprofitable fame, after halving been 
ignominiously driven from the world he had made known 
to Europeans, he died in poverty and disgrace. Cabot, 
a Venetian, sailing in the service of England, conferred 
on that nation a claim, the magnitude and importance of 
which he never lived to comprehend. Verazzani, a 
Florentine, explored America for the benefit of France ; 
but sailing hither a second time for the purpose of 
establishing a colony, he perished at sea." 

One account of Verazzani states that he landed at 
some place not named with some of his crew and was 
seized by the savages and killed and devoured in the 
presence of his companions on board, who sought in 
vain to give assistance. Such was the fate of the navi- 
gator who gave us the first notice of the harbor of New 
York and adjacent territory. 

In that noted ancient work, " Hakluyt's Voyages," 
(vol. 3, p. 7,) is a statement from Cabot as follows : "When 
my father left Venice to dwell in England to follow the 
trade of merchandise, he took me with him to the Citie 
of London, while I was very young, yet having neverthe- 
less some knowledge of letters and humanitie and of 
the Sphere. And when my father died in that time 
when news were brought of Don Christopher Columbus, 
Genoese, had discovered the coasts of India, whereof 
was great talk in all the court of Hemy VII, who then 
reigned, insomuch that all men with great admiration 


affirmed it to be a thing more divine than human to sail 
by the West into the East, where spires grow, by a map 
that never was known before, by this same and report, 
there increased in my heart a great flame of desire to 
attempt some notable thing." 

The following extract is from page 6, vol. 3, of same 
work : 

" In the yere of Our Lord, 14*.)7, John Cabot and his 
sonne Sebastian (with an English fleet set out from 
Bristol), discovered that land which no man before this 
time had attempted, on the twenty-fourth of June, about 
five of the clock early in the morning. This land he 
called Prima Vista, that is to say First Seen, because I 
suppose it was that part whereof they had the first sight 
from the sea. That island which lieth out before the 
land, he called the Island of St. John, upon which occa- 
sion, as I think, because it was discovered upon tin- day 
of St. John the Baptist." 

The probability is that Cabot sailed northwest a few 
weeks until his progress was arrested by floating icebergs, 
when he shaped his course to the south west and soon 
came in sight of the shore, nani3d by him Prima Vista, 
and generally believed to be some pari of Labrador or 
New Foundland. Thence he steered northward again to 
the sixty-seventh degree of latitude, where he was 
obliged to turn back by the discontent of his crew. He 
sailed along the coast in search of an outlet, as far as the 
neighborhood of the Gulf of Mexico, when a mutiny 
broke out in the ship's company, in consequence of which 
the further prosecution of the voyage was abandoned. 
Some accounts state that Cabot reached England with 
several savages and a valuable cargo while other writers 
assert that he never landed. It is certain he did not 
attempt any conquest or settlement in the countries he 
discovered. And this is the substance of Cabot's dis- 
coveries, on which England based her claim. 



A list of (lie names of the purchasers of Newasink, 
Narumsunk and Pootapeek, who each purchased one 
share of land, except seven persons, who purchased from 
two to four shares each. 

(Note:- The names are here arranged alphabetically 
for convenience of reference :) 

John Allen and Robert Taylor, Christopher Allmey, 
Job Allmey, Stephen Arnold, James Ashton, Benjamin 
Borden, Richard Borden, John Bowne, John Bowne, F. 
L., James Bowne, William Bmvne, Gerrard Bourne, 
Francis Brindley, Nicholas Browne, Joseph Bryer, 
Henry Bull, Robert Carr, George Chute, Walter Clark, 
Thomas Clifton, William Codington, Joshua Coggeshall 
(see Daniel Gould), John Coggshall, Edward Cole, 
Joseph Coleman, John Cooke, Nicholas Davis, (2) Thomas 
Dungan, Peter Easson, (Easton), Roger Ellis and son, (2) 
Gideon Freeborn and Robert Hazard, Zachary Gant, 
Richard Gibbons, William Gifford, Daniel Gould and 
Joshua Coggeshall, Ralph Gouldsmith, James Grover, 
John Hance, John Hanndell, Thomas Hart, Tobias Han- 
son. Samuel Holeman, Jonathan Holmes, Obadiah 
Holmes, John Horabin, Robert Hazard (see Gideon 
Freeborn,) William James, John Jenkins, Henry Lippett, 
James Leonard, Richard Lippencott, (J) Mark Lucar, 
Richard Moor, George Mount, Edward Pattison, Thomas 
Potter, William Reape, (2) Richard Richardson, John 
Ruckman, Win. Shaberly (Shackerly?) William Shaddock, 
Nathaniel Silvester, (2) Richard Sissell, Edward Smith, 
John Smith, Samuel Spicer, Benjamin Speare, Robert 
Story, (2) Richard Stout, Edward Tartt, Robert Taylor 
(see John Allen,) John Tomson, John Throckmorton, 
Edward Thurston, Nathaniel Tomkins, John Townsend, 
Walter Wall, Eliakim Wardell, Marmaduke Ward, George 
Webb, Robert West, Bartholomew West, John Wilson, 
Thomas Winterton, John Wood, Emanuel Woolley, 
Thomas Whitlock. 



The uames of such as are entered as township men : 
John Bird, Bashan, Thomas Cox, Daniel Estill, 
James Grover, Jr., William Goulding, John Hall, Randall 
Huet, Sr., Randall Huet, Jr., Barth (?) Lippencott, Ed- 
mund Laphetres, William Lawrence, William Layten, 
Francis Masters, Henry Perey, Anthony (?) Page, Richard 
Sadler, William Shearman, Samuel Spicer, John Stout, 
Job Throckmorton. 

The settlement with William Reape, James Grover, 
John Tilton and others in July, 1670, gives the names only 
of those who were considered first purchasers ; it does not 
include the names of all who had settled in the county 
at that date. In the office of the Proprietors of East Jer- 
sey, at Perth Amboy, is a list of persons who took the 
oath of allegiance in 1608 ; this list is also given in the 
first volume of New Jersey Archives. And this doss not 
give the names of all settlers, as all would not subscribe 
to the oath presented by the Proprietors ; aud only two 
are named at Middletown. But it contains some names 
not found in the settlements above named. The list is as 
follows : 



" Christopher Allmy, Peter Parker, George Chute, 
Nicholas Brown, Edward Patterson, George Hulett, Jo- 
seph Parker, Lewis Mattox, Jacob Cole, Gabriel Kirk. 
Joseph Huit, John Slocum, Samuel Shaddock, Thomas 
Wright, Thomas Wanrite, John Havens, Bash Shaingun- 
gue, Edmund La Fetra, John Hall, Robert West, Sr., 
Robert West, Jr., Abraham Brown, William Newman, 
Francis Masters. 

The Names of the Inhabitants of Middletown upon 
Navesink that doe subscribe to the oath of allegiance to 


tlif King and fidelity to the Lords Proprietors. And \\i>- 

oath is this, that you and any of you will hare, &c. 

Jam ks Geovee, 
.John Bowne." 
In the list as copied in New Jersey Archives, the 
name of Thomas Wainwright is erroneously given as 
Thomas Wansick ; tlie copy at Perth Amboy has it 
Thomas Wanrite, which was meant for Thomas Wain- 
right, who was a settler at the time. 


The following persons named among first pur- 
chasers, did not settle in Monmouth, though members of 
the families of most of them came here : 

Job Almy, Richard Borden, Samuel Borden, Gerrard 
Bourne, John Bowne of Flushing, L. I., Francis Brinley, 
Joseph Bryer, Henry Bull, Walter Clarke, Thomas Clif- 
ton, William Codington, Joshua Coggeshall, John Cooke, 
Nicholas Davis, Thomas Dungan, Peter Easton (or 
Esson), Gideon Freeborne, Zachary Gauntt, William 
Gifford, Daniel Gould, Ralph Gouldsmith, Thomas Hart, 
Samuel Holeman, Obadiah Holmes, John Horndell, Wil- 
liam James, John Jenkins, James Leonard, Mark Lucar, 
Thomas Moor, William Shaekerly, Benjamin Speare, 
Nathaniel Silvester, Robert Story, John Tilton, Nathaniel 
Tomkins, Edward Thurston, Marmaduke Ward, George 
Webb, Edward Wharton. 

William Goulding, one of the patentees, remained at 
Gravesend until 1693, when he sold out there and it is 
supposed that then in his old age he came to Monmouth 
to live with relatives. 

William Reape, another patentee, died in 1670 ; his 
widow and children settled in Monmouth. 


The Town Book of Old Middletown, in its first entry 
dated December 30, 1667, shows that the home lots laid 


out in Middletown were thirty-six in number and in order 
from one to thirty-six and allotted as follows: 

John Ruckman, Edward Tartte, John Wilson, Walter 
Wall, John Smith, Richard Stout, Richard Gibbons, 
Thomas Cox, Jonathan Holmes, George Mount. William 
Cheeseman, Anthony Page, Samuel Holeman, William 
Laiton, William Compton, James Grover, Steven Arnold, 
Samuel Spicer, John Stout, Obadiah Holmes, Benjamin 
Denell, Job Throckmorton. James Ashton, John Throck- 
morton, William Goulding, William Reape, Edward 
Smith, John Bowne., Benjamin Burden, Samuel Spicer, 
William Lawrence, Daniel Estall, Robert Jones. Thomas 
Whitlock, Richard Sadler, James Grover. 

Out-lots were also surveyed, numbered and granted 
to the settlers, and the lot given bo each one entered in 
the Town Book. 

The lots at Portland Point, at or near Highlands, 
were awarded in regular order as follows : 

John Horaben, James Bowne, Richard Richardson. 
Randall Huet, Sr., Henry Percy, John Bird, Randall 
Huet. Ji'., William Bowne, William Shackerlv. 


The record of cattle marks and of estrays in the old 
Dover Town Book gives the names of many old residents 
not found elsewhere in the book, and in some cases the 
parts of the township where they resided. 

The cattle marks of the following persons were 
recorded : 

Francis Letts, 1783, Gabriel Woodmansee, 1783, 
John Grant, 1783, subsequently transferred to James D. 
Wilbur, David Woodman, 1783, transfered to Jesse 
Woodmansee, 17 < .» < .», Job Chamberlain, 1873, Samuel 
Woodmansee, 1783, Thomas Woodmansee, 1784, Jane- 
Bird, 1781, Elias Anderson, 1784, Edward Wilbur. 1784, 
James Allen, 1785, John Chadwick, 1785, subsequently 
taken by William Chadwick, Abiel Akins, 1785, David 
Tmlay. 1785, William Johnson, 1787, Daniel Johnson, 


L788, Edward Flin, 1788, Patterson Worth, 1788, Aim,, 
Chamberlain, 1788, William Wilbour, 1788, James Irons, 
1788, George Cook, L788, Levi Piatt, 1788, John Wil- 
bour, L789, Job . Patten, 17-.' i 1796?), Benjamin Guy- 
berson, 1789, Thomas Bird, 1789, William Woolley, 1790, 
Nathaniel Dickenson, 1790, John Millar, 1790, Enoch 
Potter, 1791, James Chamberlain, 17'.»7. Abraham Piatt, 
1791, John Delong, 1795, Elihu Chadwick, 1791, Isaac 
Perce, 1791, Joshua Frasee, 1793, Green Worth, 1793, 
Peter Stout, 1793, John Irons,1794, William Gifford, 1704, 
James Fitzgerald, 1795, Joseph Piatt, 1795, John Russell, 
1796, Joseph Applegate, 17'.M'>, Joseph Richards, 1796, 
William Applegate, 1796, John Piatt, 1790, William 
Chamberlain, 1790, John Worth, 1797, Daniel Stout, 1797, 
Jacob Jeffery, 1798, Jesse Jeffery, 1798, Jacob Applegate, 
1798, Benjamin Lawrence, 18 > ), taken by Edwin Jackson. 
1822, GissbertGibeson, 1800, Joseph Waers, 1801, William 
King. 1801, Samuel Brindley, 1801, Zebedee Collins, 1802, 
John Havens. Jr., 1802, Warren Attison, 1803, William 
Haywood, 1803, Ambrose Jones, 1803, Francis Jeffery, 1809, 
John Vannote, 1810, Joseph Lawrence, 1810, Isaac 
Gulick, 1813, William Hulse, 1813, William I. Imlay, 1814, 
Jacob Stout. 1814, William B. Amacks, 1818, taken by 
Dillon Wilbur, 1846, David Hilliard, 1819, Daniel Rogers, 
1822, Josiah Brand, 1823, Abraham O. S. Havens, 1823, 
Moses Achor, 1824. 

The following persons recorded estrays: 
John Richardson, 1794. Robert McElvey, 1791, Edward 
Wilbur, Isaiah Hopkins, 1794, John Babcock 1795, Timothy 
Page, 1795, Patrick Rogers, 1795, John Piatt, Jr., 1796, 
Thomas Luker, 17'»<;. Isaac Rogers, William Polhemus, 
17 ( .»7, John Millars. Toms River. Samuel Havens. William 
E. Imlay. Toms River. Jacob Tilton, Kettle Creek, Mat- 
thew Howel, John Rogers. Bartholomew Applegate, near 
Ridgeway's Mill, 1798,' Peter Gulick, 1800, Enoch Jones, 
1804, Peter Jaquiss, Toms River, Jacob Applegate, Jr., 
Abraham Woolley, 1807, Margaret Bird. 1809, James T. 
Newell, John Pattens, 1813, John Wilbur, Ebenezer Apple- 
gate, 1813, Job Lemmon, Sr., Isl4, Jesse Rogers, 1815, John 


Bowker, Paul Potter, John Cornlin. L818, Elizabeth Piatt. 
1819, -faint's Irons, Kettle Creek, John Letts, south side 
Cedar Creek, 1820, James Blake, Dover Forge, Vincent 
Hires, Joseph Johnson, 1822, John B. Applegate, James 
S. Reynolds, David Jones. Kettle Creek, 1823, Henry Run- 
yon, ls-24. ( rarret Irons, Jr., 1825, William "Williams, Dover 
Forge, I. Stackhouse, Dover Furnace, Jonathan Lewi-. 
l s "27. Jess*- E. Piatt, Isaac Fielder, John Branson, for 
Samuel G. Wright, Dover Furnace, 1828. 



Applegate's 1 nook, 10; Applegate's creek empties into 
Manchester Cove, 87 : Applegate's mill, 32 : Applegate 
Eberner's old sawmill ( 17H1 1 near Abrm. Sehenck's, 
on a branch Kettle creek. 2-1 : Arney's Cedar swamp 
on Wrangle, 13; Arney and Cleggs' swamp i Hurri- 
cane ? . 17 : Allison, Benjamin, house Forked River, 
between Middle and South Branches (1770), 26; 
Allison, Robert, house, south side Toms River. 35; 
Aliens old sawmill, 33 ; Allen's old gristmill, 33 ; 
Allen, James, tavern (1825), 54; Allen, James, saw- 
mill (1800), 39; Allen, James, gristmill. 39. 

Berds, William, house, 27-52; Birds, John, 21 42 : Bow- 
als. Garret, wigwam, 8 ; Bennet's Run, 19 ; Ben's 
Bridge, 31 : Black's Brook, 10, 15, 18 ; Black's Swamp. 
3; Borden's Brook, 8-9 ; Borden's Run. 23; Bare 
Swamp (Obhonon 9), 11; Bsar Park Island in Black 
Swamp, 38; Beaver Dam, Black's Brook, 15; Old 
Beaver Dam, 15; Bonnell, Edw., Swamp. 17 21 : Bar- 
tholomew's Branch. -W 


Cedar Creek. Cedai Creek that empties into Metete- 
cunk, 11: Cedar Bridge Creek, near Metetecunk, 33; 
Calf Creek 1775: 1801, 28 39; Cold Spring, Cold 
Spring Run crosses road from Toms River to Cross- 


wicks, 19; Coward's Ford, or Deer Ford, above 
Schenck's mill, 34; Cournshannock, 13; (near Hui- 
rieane ?) Congasee Branch, 29; Congasee Pond, 29 ; 
( labin ( ireek, Cabin Branch, Cabin Brook, 211 ; Cabin 
Brook, (John Pierce's), 23; also called Pole Bridge 
Branch, 16; also called John Pierce's Branch, 1(5; 
Cowan's Branch of Ridgway, (13?), Crosswicks 
Creek, New Egypt: Cay Creek, Oyster Creek, 6-9; 
Cox & Mead's sawmill, Oyster Creek, 24; Collins' 
Xeb. 27-37 mill, 44 7,55; Cube linn, 41-2; Cum- 
berland Neck ion largestmap) between Borden'sRun 
and next Branch south; Cumberland (Shataquohong) 

8-23 ; Clayton, (Ashen, Swamp, 9. 


Davenport Branch, 12 ; Davenport Tavern Branch, (1750) 
13; Daniels' Branch, Cedar Creek; Dr. Johnsons 
Long Swamp, 24; Dr. Johnson's Island, Dillon's 
Island, (1761) 24-28 ; Delongs, 41 (42 ?) ; Deer Pond, 
(Davenport ?) 22. 


Elisha's Branch, Emley's grist mill (1792) on Jake's 
Branch, 32; Eagle Point, Toms River, 27; Eastwood's 
sawmill, Cedar Creek, '.) ; (old sawmill 15) Elbow 
Brook, or Lyells' sawmill branch, 16-18 ; Evering- 
ham sawmill (1750), 15-26; Emley Sand's Swamp 
(Black Creek?), 16. 

Fishing or Kettle Creek, 12-26 ; French's Swamp, near 
Hurricane, 13; Forked Branch, Hurricane; Forked 
Branch, Dene's Mill ; Forked Gully, on north branch 
Toms River, a little above Dene's Mill, 35 ; Factory 
Branch, Cedar Creek ; Fagan, (Philip,) house, 8 ; 
Federal Furnace, 33-7-8; Folly Dam Branch, 34. 

Grassy Hollow, on Toms River, 35 ; Goodwater, Green 
Branch (Wrangle ?), Green Branch Kettle Creek, 33; 
Gauntt's Branch, head Rancocus; Goodluck Road. 
(1750), 14, (17(51), 22; Grave, The 21; Gumbertson, 
Ben., sawmill, 37-8; Gulick's sawmill, (Obhonon), 
43 ; Graudin's Folly, 19, (on Bennett's Run?) 



Hurricane Branch, Hurricane Swamp, Hurricane Woods, 
25; Harris Branch, Hakamaha, 8; Half- Way Daven- 
port, 1(5; Holmes & Robins' sawmill, 32; Homer, 
Joshua, (1762) sawmill, (Ridgway's) 24; Hickory 
Tavern, 37 ; Hanover Furnace, Hulett's Swamp, 
(Cedar Creek?) 11; Hulett, Robert, (1748) dwelling 
Goodluck, 12-16 ; Hedding, Marcus, dam, (1748) 12 ; 
Holmes, D. and J., mill, (1766), 25; Daniel and John 
p. 27); On Sunken Branch, probably near where it 
emptied into Wrangle (1792), 32 ; Howell, Matthew, 
house, head north branch Mosquito Cove (1795), 34 ; 
Hellen, Joseph, field, now Van Nott's, between Kettle 
Creek and north branch Moscheto Cove (1796), 35. 

Imlay, David, (1799) grist mill, 38; Jake's Branch, 38 ; 
Irish Branch to Davenport, 37 ; Irish Mills (Elisha 
Lawrence), 18; Indian Stage, 22 ; Indian Hill or Stone 
Hill, 34-6-9; Island Swamp, 15-18; Ivins, Caleb, 
(1792) sawmill, 31. 


Jones, Christ; >plier, 41 ; Jack's Bridge over Pampshire, 

Jake's Branch (1761), 23; Jeffries' Branch of Jake's. 

31; Jeffries' Bridge, Joseph Lawrence's Swamp, 10; 

Johnson, Dr., Long Swamp, 14 ; Johnson, Dr., Island , 

14; Jacob's sawmill, (1700) 22. 
Kettle Creek, 11-19-20; Kettle or Fishing Creek, 12-26; 

Kettle Creek, sawmill thereon, 11. 


Lawn Swamp, Toms River; Lone Swamp or Wegnae- 
mesee, 9, 10, 24 ; Dr. Johnson's Long Swamp, 14 ; 
Luker Daniel's house, 12 ; Luker's Ferry 1 1749) 12- 
18 ; Luker's Branch, Wrangle 22, Davenport, 17, 22. 
1 1-4 miles from Tom's River, 22; Luker's Bridge. 
over Davenport, 21 ; Luker, Thomas, house 29 ; 
Lyell's Saw Mill Brook or Elbow Branch, 16, 18; 
Longacoming, 25, above Schenck's Mill; Lawrence 
(Jos.) Swamp 10. 



Mill Creek or Quail Kim ; Mamapaqua or Paqua, L740 9, 
L750) L5, L6, 26, 38, 10 ; Meteteconk Bridge i L761 i 22; 
Mirey Run, X. E. side N. E. branch Tom's River, 11, 
runs into about Irish Mills | Largesl map < )cean < !o. I; 
Maple Root, '•», 1-2, U; Magonagasa Creek falls into 
Success. 21; Millstone River, '.•. L3; Montgomery 
Bridge (12?) over Davenport, 22 ; Mill Bill, Forked 
River (1751) hi, 17; Moscheto Cove (1690) 17. 34; 
Moscheto Cove, South Branch, L7 ; Moscheto Cove, 
Timothy Willett's house, 17: Moscheto Cove Creek, 
18; Morgan Branch or Gully, 23. 

Naked Branch, Cedar Creek ; New England Branch, 27. 


Oblionon, 8-16 ; Oyster Creek or Cay Creek, 5. 9 ; ( >yster 

Creek or Forked River, 8, 9 : ( )ld Hokomaha. 8. 


Paqua; Pine Brook, 8, 15 ; Pumpshear's Creek, 18,34; 
32, 9, 41 ; Pumpshear's Branch, Moscheto Cove, -il 
( .) : Pumpsheai 's Swamp. 37 1 South side Moscheto, 39 ; 
• hick's Bridge Swamp, 39, els this the "Pompshire" 
of Smith's Hist. Indian Treaty?) ; Pole Bridge Run, 
South side Success, opposite Pole Bridge Run, 12- 
16 ; Pole Bridge Branch of Toms River, or John 
Pierce's Branch, 10; Pole Bridge Branch head- 
water of Rancocus in Manchester (37); Pas- 
conassa or Salter's Swamp, 10 ; Potter's saw- 
mills, (1775) 28; Potter's Run, 8 ; Potter's Creek; 
Polhemus' Landing, (1795; 35 ; Polhemus' saw-mill, 
(1800) 39 ; John Pierce's tract, 12 ; Pierce's Cabin 
Brook, 23 ; Pine Tavern, 37 ; Phillips' Road, (1749 1 3 ; 
Pangburn's Mill (1753) 18-29. 

Ridgeway or South Branch of Tom's River ; Randolph 
Branch, Cedar Creek, 29 ; Round Swam}) or Mana- 
paqua, 9 ; Riding Over Place, 9-10 ; Reedy Island, 
38 : Reedy Creek, near Kettle Creek, probably Met- 
eteconk Xeck, 38 ; Runnells, James, house South side 


Meteteconk; Ridgway's saw-mill 17ss 31 28 ; Ran- 
dolph — Rand all's saw-mill, 32. 

South llun of Tom's River, below Sutton's Cabin, 38 11 ; 
Stone Figure (1790) 37 ; Stone Hill or Indian Hill, 
34 <>; South Branch Tom's River, 38; Success Mill. 
12 (probably Edward Beake'si; Success Dwelling 
House, 16 ; Success Mill Brook, 10 ; Slab Branch of 
Toms River. (32?); Slab Bridge Run, South of 
Toms River, 32, 38, 40-3 : Sunken Branch, Toms 
River, of Wrangle 32 ; Shamoe, (Branch of Ridgway ;) 
Shataquchong or Cumberland (or Borden's Run?; 
Salter's Swam]> on Hurricane, 10 ; Salter's Swamp, 
Black's brook, 19 ; Sloop Creek, 10 ; Starkie's Cedar 
Swamp, | Hurricane, j 11; Starkie's Cellar 11; 
Shreve's Swamp, Obhonon, 11 : Schenck's Mill 
ilTlili Toms River, 23 3D: Schenck's house, 23: 
Schonck's Mill, Kettle Creek, 21 ; Schenck's saw-mill, 
formerly Applegate's, 32 ; Southard's Neck on 
Wrangle, 2s. 


Tk-e's Bridge, 33 : Tice's Brook, 33 ; Tice Van Horn's 
Brook ; Tice's Landing, Forks Toms River. 12 ; 
Tunes' Brook and Creek (1799) 38-9; Tilton's saw- 
mill, IS. 


Union Branch ; Union saw-mill, 32 -38 : Union Brook that 
falls into Wrangle, 18 [?]. 

Van Horn's Brook. 1752 18 : Van Horn's (Matthew) Mill 
[1752 IS; Van Horn, old mill, [1795] 33; Van Horn 
[Tice | Bridge and Branch, 33; Van Horn Mat. 
Bridge [1760] 22. 

Wrangle Creek[1750 13: Webb's Mill (1796) 36; Webb's 
Mill Branch : Wegnaemesee or Long Swamp, 9 : 
White Oak Hollow. South side Toms River road to 
( ..mi. Mounts, 11 ; White Oak Bottom : Wires' | Tim- 
othy 17<il saw-mill brook, 23 ; Williams, John, saw- 
mill 1 7.").") 19. 

I UtLl HI i;\ EY8 IN OCEAN mi \ n. 369 

Yankee Bridge Davenporl 22 ; Xetman, John, 40. 
Zeb. Collins, 'J7 :!7. 


It is evident that not Long after Middletown and 
Shrewsbury were settled, explorations were made in be- 
half of the proprietors in what is now Ocean County, 

particularly of laud along the seaboard and Barnegat 
Bay. In L685, the Governor and proprietors, from their 
»ffice iu Loudou, issued "Instructions concerning setting 
out of Laud," in which they say : 

VI. That wherever there is a convenient plot of land 
lying together containing twenty-four thousand acres, as 
we are informed will more especially be at Barnegat, it 
be divided and marked into twenty-four parts, a thousand 
acres to each propriety, and the parts being made as equal 
as can be for quality and situation; the first comers 
pres -ntly settling, are to have tin- choic ■ of the division, 
and where several stand equal iu that respect upon equal 
terms and time of settling, it be determined by lot. And 
that such properties as are in the rights of minors or 
widows, which as by accident may want proxies, or be 
ignorant of things there, may not be prejudiced, and yet 
such plots may not remain unsettled, the Deputy Gover- 
nor and Commissioners are allowed to let small parts in 
the chief places of settlement, upon the shares of such 
proprietors at some small fee per annum to poorfamilies, 
uot exceeding fifty acres to a family to secure the 

In old patents and surveys, all the water from Little 
! .__ Harbor to the head of the bay near Manasquan was 
called Barnegat Bay and the land adjoining was often 
called Barnegat. 

The following is a list of early surveys in what is 
nov Ocean county. The large tracts were for proprie- 
tarv rights. The smaller tracts were what were called 


"headlands." As previously stated, the proprietors, in 
their grants and concessions, agreed t< i give fc< i actual set- 
tlers a certain number of acres for each head in the 
family; to each man 120 acres; to his wife 120 acres; t< 
each child 90 or 60 acres, etc. The settler could take 
this land all in one bo ly or part in one place and part in 



The following sketch of Mr. Mills is by Rev. George 
A. Raybold, author of Methodism in West Jersey, whose 
ministrations in Ocean and Monmouth counties some fifty 
yearsago ara favorably ramemb jred by many old citizens. 

•■ Mr. Mills was a native of Monmouth, of Quaker 
descent. The tire of patriotic feeling induced him, 
Quaker as he was, in 177(3, to enter the American army 
in which he became an officer. He was taken prisoner 
by the British and svas sent, after being changed from 
one vessel to another, to the West Indies. At length he 
was carried to Europe, from whence at the close of the 
war, lie returned home and again settled in New Jersey. 
About the year 1792 the Methodist preachers came into 
the region of country where he resided. His wife soli- 
cited him to hear them, but lie resisted, stating his belief 
that he had been so wicked his day of grace was past. 
By a remarkable dream he was at length convinced that 
there was mercy for him. He then attended the means 
of grace, until as he sought the Lord with all his heart, 
he soon found peace. He became a member of the first 
class formed in the vicinity of Shrewsbury in Monmouth. 
Soon after, he began to exhort others and was appointed 
class leader ; and in the spring of 1799 he was received 
into the traveling connection. His labors as an itiner- 
ant began on Milford circuit, Delaware, from whence he 
was sent to various places and finally returned to Jersey. 

In 1818 he was sent to Freehold, the place of his 
nativity and the first field of his Christian efforts. The 


soldier who had faced death at the cannon's mouth on 
the laud and on the sea, now, aa hi* end approached, in 
reality fwlt no fear. He had a presentiment of lus death 
and told his wife that "death seemed to follow him 
everywhere." His zeal in religious matters increased. 
The last time he left home he gave his wife sundry 
directions and advice in case he should die. He started 
as well as usual, and tilled all his appointments, pleach- 
ing most fervently until a short time before his death. 
On the fourth of December he left Long Branch, met 
class, and then returned to Mr. Lippencott's at the 
Branch. On Sunday morning he went into a room in 
Mr. Lippencott's to prepare for the service in the church, 
which was to commence at half-past teu o'clock. The 
congregation was then collecting and the family, think- 
ing he stayed too long in the chamber, sent in to know 
the cause and found him fallen in a fit of apoplexy, 
almost deprived of sense. After a time he revived a 
little and on being asked if they should send for medical 
aid he replied : "The Lord is the best physician." At 
about twelve o'clock the stupor and other unfavorable 
symptoms returned ; he lingered until about six the next 
morning and then peacefully departed for a world of 

In the year 1812, the year previous to Mr. Mills 
being sent to preach in Freehold circuit, the number of 
members embraced in the charge was seven hundred 
and thirty-six. 


The following is an additional well-authenticated 
account of that noted Indian character, Indian Will, 
originally furnished to the Shore Press : 

They sleep together; their ancient halls molder away. Ghosts are 
seen there at noon ; the valley is silent, and the peo^ile shun the place of 
Lamoi.— Ossian's War oj ''((rod. 

Long, long years ago, when this section of country 

bordering on the Atlantic ocean was one continuous wild 


waste, with nothing save stinted pines and scrub oak to 
greet the eye of the unfortunate wanderer who might be 
traveling this way, there was a kind of half civilized 
Indian, who lived at Indian Field, at the head of Shark 
River, and was known to the inhabitants around as 
Indian Will. His old cabin was a half civilized looking 
affair, composed of mortar, stone, logs, and hides, the lat- 
ter formerly covering the animals that were so unfortu- 
nate as to fall beneath the fatal point of his index finger 
— for legend has it that Will was gifted with a strange 
power ; whenever an animal or fowl became the object of 
his desire all he had to do was to point at it with*his 
index finger, and the same would fall dead, as if stricken 
by a bullet or a Hint-headed arroAv. 

According to Indian fashion, Will was a married 
man ; his squaw came, so it is said, from the western 
section of New Jersey, and like himself, was from the 
old Delaware tribe of Indians, whose early history is 
enshrined in quite a halo of glory. Will was, despite his 
half civilized life, a true Indian, possessing all the 
stoicism of his race, and the same indifference to the 
taking of human life, when jt in any way conflicted with 
his whims. Hannah, like all Indian wives, of the two — 
she and her husband — had the hardest time of it. She 
dressed the game and cleaned the fish, and, in fact, did 
all the work there was to be done in and around the 
cabin, while her lord and master, Indian Will, was off on 
fishing excursions, or in the forest of stinted pines, point- 
ing his finger at a limping rabbit, opossum, or quail, as it 
chanced to be. 

One day Indian Will was out on a hunting expedi- 
tion, and left Hannah, who was sick with the measles, to 
get along the best she could in the lone cabin. In a 
little patch just back of the cabin Will had managed to 
get up sufficient gumption to plant some beans, and at 
the time to which we refer they were ripe and ready for 
picking. As I said just back, Hannah had the measles ; 
her appetite was not of that kind that made what she 
had been eating heretofore palatable ; she hardly knew 


what she did want; she hankered after something, and in 
an unfortunate moment her eyes rested on the beans ; 
they were just what she wanted ; so, without caring, or 
at least heeding the consequences, she picked them and 
put them in the iron pot in company with a bit of 
opossum. The fire was soon blazing on the rude hearth, 
over which hung the sooty crane, from which was pen- 
dant the iron pot containing the beans and opossum. 
Hannah ate heartily of the savory dish, and the results 
were, as far as her feelings were concerned, decidedly ben- 
eficial, but as far as her future welfare was concerned it 
was otherwise. The legend saith nought of the extent of 
time Will was absent,but,at all events, when he returned he 
noticed, the first thing of all, that some one had been in 
his bean patch and annihilated all hopes of his anent the 
anticipated feast. Hannah was still under the influence 
of her pleasant repast when she was confronted by her 
infuriated lord. 

"Who," he exclaimed, "has eaten my beans?" 

Poor Hannah, with a stoicism peculiar to her race, 
replied, "I did !" 

" Then you shall die," exclaimed her savage mate ; 
" I will drown you !" 

Poor Hannah made no reply, save a pantomimic one, 
which was the embodiment of resignation. 

Indian Will was unrelenting. He commanded his 
dusky spouse to direct her footsteps to the neighboring 
river, which was in full view of the cabin, and followed 
with strident gait close behind her. Arriving at the 
water's edge, he seized the unresisting offender, and, 
with apparent ease, plunged her head under the element. 
After holding her there for a number of minutes he 
drew her head out, when she gave a few gasps, indicating 
that life was not extinct. Will again plunged her, as 
before, and when he again drew her out, poor Hannah 
was dead. The place where she was drowned is still 
known as Deep Hole. Neath a gnarled willow in the 
immediate neighborhood, he buried her, with her feet 
toward the West ; by her side he placed a pone of 


Indian bread and some game, so that she might have 
something to eat while on her journey to the happy 
hunting ground. This being done, the savage went 
about his business, perfectly unconcerned, but in all 
probability pained somewhat to know that in the future 
he would have to be his own servant. Time passed on, 
I know not how many weeks it was, when Hannah's 
brothers began to wonder why they did not hear from 
her, or why she did not pay them a visit, as it had been 
her wont in times passed. Among themselves-they got 
to talking over the matter one day, when it was decided 
among them that the brother, who rejoiced under the un- 
Indian name of Jacob, should pay a visit to Indian Field 
and ascertain how matters stood. Jacob's journey was 
on foot, so it necessarily took him a number of days to 
accomplish the task. Arriving at Will's cabin, he found 
him just preparing some game for the appeasement of 
his gastric longings. 

Jacob was surprised — that is, in the sense that an 
Indian is surprised — to see the mate of his sister in such 
an ignoble occupation, and asked Will where Hannah 

" I drowned her," replied Will, " because she ate my 

"She was my sister," rejoined Jacob, "and it tails 
on me to avenge her death, so you must prepare to die. 
Let the struggle between us take place by yon bank, so 
that the same water that beheld Hannah's death may 
also witness thine." 

"Will Hannah's brother permit me to eat, and join 
witli me in the feast, ere Ave embrace in the death 

"Be it so," replied Jacob, and both sat down and ate 
of the food, while their respective faces betra} r ed no 
signs of the ominous thoughts that were burdening their 

During the repast not a word was spoken by either 
Will or Jacob. The ceremony was eventually over, 
when the two walked in single file, Will leading the way. 


until they came near to the place still designated as the 
Deep Mule ; here they stopped and for ;i moment stood 
face to face. Jacob was the first to move; he rushed 
forward and in an instant they closed in on one another. 
The struggle for mastery lasted for some time, but at 
last Will's foot came in contact with a stubble, and 
down he went, with Jacob at the top; the latter then 
pulled from his belt a long keen knife, with which he 
intended to fulfill his mission. Jacob had his victim, as 
it were, pinioned to the ground, and at his mercy, but 
being, as it were, controlled by a spirit of magnanimity, 
he said : 

" He who brought Hannah to an untimely end can 
now cast his eyes to the West, and for the last time gaze 
on the setting sun." 

Will availed himself of the opportunity, and when 
doing so, Jacob, thinking his victim secure, began fumb- 
ling around his belt for a bit of Indian weed, for he 
became possessed with an irresistible desire to exercise 
his molars, and in an unguarded moment relieved his arm 
from confinement, and seizing a pine knot, dealt Jacob a 
powerful blow in the temple, and over he toppled, as 
lifelesss as a defunct herring. 

Having escaped from his peril, Will arose from his 
late uncomfortable position, and with a grunt of satisfac- 
tion gazed on the prostrate form of his would-be slayer. 
He did not take the trouble to bury his victim, but left 
him where he died, thinking the wild beast and buzzard 
could attend to the case better than he could. 

A number of days following the last mentioned fact 
some circumstances led Indian Will to pass by the spot 
where it occurred, when from some cause he fancied he 
heard the bod}* snore, so he came to the conclusion that 
Jacob was only enjoying a long sleep, and fearing he 
might awake at any time and give him further trouble, 
jumped several times on the bod}*, and, finally, after sat- 
isfying himself that Jacob was dead, indifferently covered 
it with earth and leaves and passed on, and from all in- 
dications thought no more of it. 


Will was ail Indian, and so, for that reason, remorse 
was something that never bothered him. The days 
went by as days before the late tragic event had done. 
He wandered through the echoing forests, and during 
moonlight nights he indulged in his favorite pastime of 
bringing down the opossum and coon by the pointing of 
his fatal linger. When not engaged in hunting he would 
linger around the old village inn or his secluded cabin, 
and revel in imaginary bliss by drinking the white man's 
firewater whenever he could get it. 

One day he was stretched out at full length, under 
the shade of a tree which stood by his cabin ; he was not 
sleeping, but evidently was taking his ease, when he was 
brought to a realization of imminent peril by the appear- 
ance of Jacob's three brothers, who from the fact of his 
not returning according to promise, led them to come in 
search of him, and also to inquire into the matter that 
was the cause of his journey. 

AVill made no effort to evade the questions that were 
addressed to him by the three brothers. He told them 
poor Hannah was dead ; that he drowned her because 
she ate his beans ; also that Jacob was dead ; contrary to 
his expectations, in a death struggle Jacob was the 
victim and not he. 

The three brothers heard the story, at the conclu- 
sion of which they in unison gave significant grunts, 
when one, who acted as spokesman, told Will his time 
had come, and that he must make himself ready for 

With evident resignation, Will told his brother that 
he was willing to die ; that life had ceased to possess its 
(•harms ; but lie made one request, that was that they 
procure a gallon of firewater, so that they together might 
have a happy time before he took his final departure to 
join his poor Hannah in fch.3 land of thd Great Spirit. The 
brothers assented to Will's request, the firewater was 
procured, and in the cabin of the condemned Will the 
happy times commenced. The brothers were not back- 
ward in drinking liberally of the firewater, and in due 


course of time were fully uuder its influence, and event- 
ually dropped, one after the other, into a drunken slum- 
ber. Will, in the meantime, though he begrudged the 
brothers the whiskey they drank, made up his mind that 
life was dearer than it, and so pretended to drink a great 
deal mi >rc than he actually did, and from all indications 
was as drunk as they were ; but when snoring on the part 
of the three avengers commenced, Will cautiously 
assumed a new role, and began business. Will procured 
a tomahawk, which was near at hand, and began the 
work of destruction. The brother who received the first 
attention evidently did not know who struck him, but the 
second one who was the recipient of the murderous blow 
was aroused to that extent that he was enabled to give 
birth to several unearthly sounds before he resigned his 
hold on life. The noise made by the expiring Indian 
aroused the third brother, and would have been the 
means of frustrating Will's plan, had not the latter"s dog 
dashed to the rescue ; he was a knowing canine, and 
seemingly comprehended the whole affair, for he seized 
the awakened Indian by the throat and held him in posi- 
tion until his master came forward and culminated his 
murderous plan. Will stood up in his cabin, and looking 
upon the bloody work he had accomplished, stoically 
said : " Poor Hannah's gone — four good brothers gone, 
too — all because poor Hannah ate my beans! Ugh!"" 

Without much ado Will dragged the bodies of the 
defunct Indians out of his cabin, and at a spot a few ro Is 
distant gave them what he thought to be a proper burial. 
He then returned to his cabin and resolved himself into 
a committee of investigation to ascertain the quantity of 
whisky left for his consumption. 

Following his last achievement Will came to the 
conclusion that poor Hannah's relatives would give him 
no more trouble. The months rolled by and he still con- 
tinued his life of hunting and fishing, but for some reason 
a kind of cloud seemed to hang over his life ; perhaps it 
vas owing to the fact that Will's love for firewater 
increased and interfered with his success in obtaining 


that which enabled him to purchase the " Oh, be joyful." 
Near Indian Field, in Will's time, there stood an inn, 
the like of which were common in those days, where 
whiskey was unblushingly sold, for every one was privi- 
leged to become tipsy if he only possessed the neces- 
sary wherewithal. At the bar of this old inn. at the time 
to which I have a particular reference, Indian Will had 
•me an habitual hanger-on; he neglected his former 
occupation of hunting and fishing, and owing to this fact 
was frequently without means to purchase his favorite 
beverage. Will had already became a debtor to the inn- 
keeper, and so, when he asked for more Avhiskey on trust, 
he was flatly refused ; his only reply to the innkeepers 
fiat was an habitual " Ugh !" and with the tread of of- 
fended dignity he strutted but of the room, and directed 
his course toward the beach. 

"Y\ hether Will*s journey to the beach was for the 
purpose of philosophical meditation is a question that 
has never been fathomed ; at all events, to the beach he 
went, and with eyes directed toward the incoming wj 
proceeded to pace down shore, leaving his moccasin 
prints in the shimmering sand. Will had not proceeded 
far in his stroll when he discovered, much to his satisfac- 
tion, a number of pieces of shining metal half buried in 
the sand. He eagerly stooped down and picked them 
up. and. contrary to his expectations, they proved to be 
Spanish dollars. In these dollars Will saw visions of 
lire-water, and pushing his search still further, he was 
rewarded with a handful of the Spanish coin. Think- 
ing that the quantity of money in his possession was 
sufficient to purchase whiskey enough to satisfy his d 
for days to come, he withdrew from the beach, and with 
a vig and consequential step directed his course 

toward the old inn. 

\\ ill's entrance in the barroom was a source of sur- 
prise to those there congregated, who had so recently 
seen his departure, and their surprise was inciv. - 
when he strutted up to the bar and threw thereon his 
handful of dollars, exclaiming at the same time: 

A REM \KKAi;U: [NDIAN. 379 

■• Now will you Let Indian Will have more whiskey?" 
The innkeeper surveyed with mingled greed and 
astonishment the profuse outpouring of thai which was 
a scarcity in the neighborhood and before Will had time 
to again express his desire, took down the whiskey 
decanter and tumbler, and told him to help himself. 
Owing 1" Will's recent impecunious condition he had 
been without his usual portion for an uncommon long 
time, so the present occasion, so far as the magnitude of 
the potation was concerned, was an uncommon one. 
Owin<* to the transformative qualities of the whiskey, 
Will's truculent demeanor gave away to one of a more 
affable nature. So the innkeeper also assumed the 
affable, and. after he had safely stored away the Spanish 
dollars, persuaded Will to follow him into a private 
room, where he underwent a cryptic examination. The 
result of the interview was simply this : Indian Will 
agreed to conduct the innkeeper to the beach and show 
him where the Spanish dollars were found. 

The innkeeper did not think it policy to go immedi- 
ately to the beach, and so retained Will in voluntary 
confinement for a while. One after another left the old 
hotel, until finally the guests were all gone. At last the 
two. Will and the innkeeper, started for the beach. 
Arriving at the spot where the coin was discovered they 
began searching for additonal treasures. As the waves 
receded the innkeeper discovered a kind of iron chest, 
half buried in the sand. Fortunately the tide was fall- 
ing, and enabled the treasure trove hunters to obtain 
possession of the trunk without much trouble. T\ ith 
their united strength they brought it high upon the shore, 
and a brief examination convinced the innkeeper that 
he had possession of the treasure box from which came 
tin- coin obtained by Indian Will. From the action of 
the elements, the box had been unjointed enough to 
enable the coin to escape. Suffice to say that the chest 
was. as soon as circumstances would allow, taken to the 
inn .which upon examination proved to contain a princely 
sirm of money in Spanish coins. 


From the time of the discovery of the iron chest, 
the life of the innkeeper, or otherwise his mode of living-, 
underwent a radical change. He soon relinquished his 
hostship of the inn and built a residence more to his 
liking in the immediate vicinity. The fact of the discov- 
ery of the treasure trove was in a measure a secret 
between the innkeeper and Indian Will. Of course there 
was a great deal of talk about the innkeeper's sudden 
rise in point of wealth; there were surmises in reference 
to it, and they frequently fell little short of the mark ; 
in fact — 

Twas long the talk of the neighborhood 

The old innkeeper acquired considerable real estate, 
and this, when he had done with the things of earth, 
passed to his children, whose descendants to this day 
still dwell along the shore, and can thank the old ocean 
and Indian Will for whatever wealth they possess. 

Indian Will, after the rind, ceased to live in his old 
cabin, and became a part and parcel of the inn- 
keeper's household ; his wants were few, and were 
ungrudgingly provided by the innkeeper — the principal 
wants being tobacco and tire- water. 

Tradition has it that Indian Will had two half grown 
sons, who, like the ordinary urchins of our time, delight- 
ed in having to do with pyrotechnics. They got hold 
of their father's powder horn one day and in some way 
ignited its contents ; it Hashed up and horribly disfigured 
both of their faces. Like the Spartans of old, Indian 
Will did not think it to their benefit, or to those perfectly 
formed, for the young bucks to continue longer on the 
face of the earth, so he killed them and buried them in 
Indian Field. Their names, so it is said, were Dick ami 
Dave, and their mounds are still to !> j seen, as corrobo- 
rations of the tradition. 

Poor Hannah and her brothers — if the stories of 
the credulous are worthy of serious attention — "did not 
>l>'ei> quietly in their graves." At intervals in the last 
fifty years, local gossips have said that during the moon- 
lighted nights of autumn — about that stage of the 

was cromwell's brother \\ earls settler. 381 

season's progress when the hue of decay has enstamped 
itself on the foliage of the forest, and the withered blades 
of corn rustle in the faintest breezes — they have seen the 
diaphanous forms of the unfortunates rise suddenh from 
the earth, float gracefully along for a distance, and as 
suddenly disappear. There is nothing traditionary that 
indicates that he who should have been was ever 
"haunted.'' According to the most authentic versions, 
the closing years of Will's life were in harmony with his 
plane of thinking; perfectly happy, he lived to a ripe 
old age, and died some seventy-five years ago, the last of 
his tribe, and was buried at Indian Field. Contrary to 
what should have been his just deserts, Indian Will, 
during the last of his career, "lived in peace, died in 
grease, and was buried in a pot of ashes." 


A tradition handed down in some branches of the 
Crowell family in the United States that they descend 
from the noted Cromwell family of England, and that the 
name was changed by the first of the family who came 
to America, for fear of the persecutions which followed 
members of the family of the Protector. It seems evi- 
dent that some of the ancestors of the Crowell family 
were desirous of assuming a feigned name, for when 
they landed in Massachusetts they were first known by 
the name of Crowe, as may be seen by reference to Free- 
man's History of Cape Cod and other works, and the 
name of Crowe is found among the first settlers of Wood- 
bridge, N. J., as may be seen by reference to Daily's His- 
tory of Woodbridge. 

In the old Town Book of Middletown, pages 31-33 
and 57, an Edward Crome is named as having bought land 
in Middletown in 1670 and as selling the same in 
1(>74. The name of Crome is an unusual one and diffi- 
cult to account for, and it is probable that it should have 
been transcribed Crowe ; and that the person meant was 


Edward Crowe, whose name shortly after appears at 
Wbodbridge, N. J., with the Parkers and others who 
came from Massachusetts to that place. If this supposi- 
tion is correct, then it is probable that this man who was 
among the first settlers of Old Monmouth, was the one 
traditions allege to have been a brother of the noted 
Oliver Cromwell of England. 

Those familiar with English history will remember a 
tradition recorded that about 1638 several ships bound 
for New England, on board of which were Oliver Crom- 
well, who was subsequently Protector, Pym Hampden, 
Haselrig and other leading Puritans, were stopped in the 
Thames by the King's orders and all the passengers for- 
bid leaving England. Some writers doubt the story, but 
Paxton Hood, in his life of the Protector, says the rumor 
seems to be too extended to be altogether unfounded. 
He thinks these patriots were actually on board the 
ships. This tradition points to the supposition that the 
King did not wish members of certain families to leave 
England. And here comes in the reason why some mem- 
bers of the Cromwell family had to assume some other 
name that they might stand a chance to get to New Eng- 
land. This difficulty would not occur with the sons of 
Col. John Cromwell in Holland, for they could leave that 
country without trouble under their real name, and this 
will account for the John Cromwell at Woodbridge, N. J., 
who shortly removed to Westchester Co., N. Y. 


We copy below a curious document on parchment, 
some ss years old. The writing is very beautiful, but the 
punctuation and use of capitals, which we have given, 
exactly, seem regardless of rules. It is contained in a tin 
ease, outside of which is a little box with lid ingeniously 
arranged. This once contained the seal, which was of 
wax, and attached to the patent by a ribbon. It is a 
patent or right to wear a coat-of-arms, and is granted by 
" the King of Arms of Ireland," to the one. Daniel 


Craney and his decendants forever. It was found in a 
-arret of the Jacob Brown estate, of Matawan, by Mr. 
Cortentus Wyckoff. At the to}) of the parchment, 
beautifully painted, are the escutcheons, or coat-of-arms, 

the one to the left is that of the King of Anns, or Herald, 
himself; the one to the right shows the new insignia 
granted to Craney. The one at the left lias upon the 
scroll, underneath, the words, Arma Officeri' Ulsteri.' 
Above this is the shield, the lower part occupied by a red 
cross on a golden ground or field. The upper part of the 
shield, on a red ground, has in the center a Lion passant, 
in gold, to its right is a golden portcullis, and to its left 
is the Irish harp in gold. Over the shield is the crest, so 
called, which is a crown of gold, with ermine and crimson 
satin ; this is surmounted by a thistle in gold. On the 
golden band of the crown is the motto Miserere Me. 
The new coat-of-arms is painted at the right upper 
corner of the patent. It is described in the patent which 
here follows : 

flo all and lingular to whom the Presents shall come Siic 
^[ljiduster Jortecue j^ut. (J|lstcr King of Arms and Principal 
Herald of all Ireland sendeth ihrcding. 

j[jl|crcas Daniel Craney late of Portarlington in the 

Queens County and now of Fimchal in the Island of 
Maderia Gentleman has made application to me to grant 
unto him fit and proper Armorial Bearings. 

jhiou; \]t therefore that I the said iljlstec by virtue of 
the power and authority to me given DO by these 
presents iforant and (f onfjm unto the said Daniel Craney the 
Arms following Viz't, 

Argent on a mount vert an elephant proper, on a chief 

per pale molts and Ijcrt. in dextera crane proper, in sinister 


a wolf rampant OR, |or flrcst, an arm embowered vested 
%%axt cuffed i|iulcs, holding a cutlass proper. ^nd for 
otto Amor Proximi. 

i| he whole as above more clearly depicted to be borne 

and used by him the said Daniel Craney and his decend- 
ants forever according to the Laws of Arms. 

\\\ jljitnc'rt whereof I hereunto subscribe my Name 

and Title and affix the Seal of my office this fifth day of 
April one thousand eight hundred and eight. 
Chichester Fortescue Ulster King of Arms of All 


In heralding, every color and character is symbolic, 
and while each has a meaning of its own, when united, 
or combined with one or two others, it then assumes 
another meaning. Argent maans silver by itself, and 
symbolizes purity and innocence, but if combined with 
red, it means boldness. Gules means red ; Vert, green, 
Or, gold ; Azure, blue. The elephant from an Egyptian 
hieroglyphic, means wealth. The crane is a pun on the 
name Craney. The significance of the wolf does not 
occur to us. As wolves once infested Ireland, perhaps 
the Craney progenitors had performed some deftly deeds 
in their extermination. The emblazonry of the elephant 
is amusing, for it has its tusks growing out of tli3 lower 
jaw ; but as the heraldic limner knew no better, this 
would cause no trouble, it being on heraldic grounds 
orthodoxically correct. 




In giving the history of this church, it is proper first 
to quote the account found in the journal of the celebrated 


Rev. John M array, the founder of the Universalis! Society 
in America, as this account has made the Potter Church 
noted in the religious history of our country. 

The Rev. John Murray, the first preacher of Universal- 
ism in America, sailed from England for New York, July 
21, 1770. When he left England, though a warm advo- 
cate of the principles of that society, he was not a regular 
preacher, and had but little idea then of becoming one in 
America. During a thick fog in the early part of the 
month of September, the brig "Hand in Hand," on 
which he was acting as supercargo, struck on the outer 
bar of old Cranberry Inlet (now closed,) nearly opposite 
Toms River. She soon passed over, and was held by 
her anchors from going ashore. Here she remained 
several days before she could be got off. While lying 
here the provisions of the brig were exhausted, and after 
locking up the vessel, all hands proceeded in a boat 
across the bay in search of sustenance. Being unac- 
quainted with the main, they spent the greater part of 
the day before they could effect their purpose, after 
which, it being late, they proceeded to a tavern to stay 
all night. Mr. Murray's mind appears to have been 
much exercised by eventful scenes in his previous life, 
and he longed to get somewhere where the busy cares 
of the world would not disturb his meditations ; and 
hence as soon as the boatmen arrived at the tavern, he 
left them for a solitary walk through the dark pine 
grove. " Here," said he, " I was as much alone as I 
could wish, and my heart exclaimed, ' Oh, that I had in 
this wilderness the lodging of a poor warfaring man ; 
some cave, some grot, some place where I might finish 
my days in calm repose.'" As he thus passed along- 
musing, he unexpectedly reached a small log house 
where he saw a girl cleaning fish; he requested her to 
sell him some. She had none to spare, but told him he 
could get all he w anted at the next house. " What, 
this?" said Mr. Murray, pointing to one he could just 
discern through the woods. The girl told him no, that 
was a meetinghouse. He was much surprised to find a 


meetinghouse there, in the woods. He was directed to 
pass on by the meetinghouse, and at the next house he 
would tind fish. He went on as directed, and came to 
tin' door, near which was a large pile of fish of various 
sorts, and standing by was a tall man, rough in appear- 
ance and evidently advanced in years. "Pray, sir,'" said 
Mr. Murray, "will yon have the goodness to sell me one 
of those fish?" "No, sir," was the abrupt reply of the 
old gentleman. "That is strange," replied Mr. Murray, 
" when you have so many fish, to refuse me a single one ! " 
"I did not refuse you a fish, sir; you are welcome to as 
many as you please, but I do not sell the article ; I do 
not sell the fish, sir, I have them for taking up, and yon 
may obtain them the same way." Mr. Murray thanked 
him; the old man then inquired what he wanted of 
them, and was told he wished them for supper for the 
mariners at the tavern. The old man offered to send the 
fish over for him and urged Mr. Murray to tarry with 
him that night. Mr. Murray consented to return after 
visiting the crew at the public house. The old gentle- 
man was Thomas Potter. Mr. Murray says he was 
astonished to see so much genuine politeness and hospi- 
tality under so rough an exterior, but his astonishment 
was greatly increased on his return. The old man's 
room was prepared, his fire bright and his heart opened. 
'"Come," said he, " my friend, I am gLad you have re- 
turned, I have longed to see yon, I have been expecting 
you a long time." Expecting him ! Mr. Murray was 
amazed and asked what he meant. Mr. Pottei replied : 
" I must answer in my own way. I am a poor ignorant 
man, and know neither how to read or write ; I was 
born in these woods, and worked on these grounds until 
I became a man, when I went on coasting voyages from 
here to New York; I was then about getting married, 
but in going to New York once I was pressed on board 
of a man-of-war and taken in Admiral Warren's 
ship to Cape Breton. I never drank any rum, so 
they saved my allowance ; but I would not bear an 
affront, so if any of the officers struck me I struck 


them again, but the admiral took my part and 
called me his new-light man. When I reached Louis- 
burg, I van away, and traveled barefooted through the 
country and almost naked to New York, where I was 
known and supplied with clothes and money, and soon 
returned home, where I found my girl married. This 
rendered me unhappy, but I recovered my tranquillity 
and married her sister. I settled down to work, and got 
forward quite fast, constructed a saw-mill and possessed 
myself of this farm and five hundred acres of adjoining 
land. I entered into navigation, own a sloop, and have 
now got together a fair estate. I am, as I said, unable to 
read or write, but I am capable of reflection; the sacred 
Scriptures have been often read to me, from which I 
gathered that there is a great aud good Beiug who has 
preserved aud protected me through innumerable dan- 
gers, aud to whom we are all indebted for all we enjoy ; 
and as he has given me a house of my owu I conceived I 
could do no less than to open it to the stranger, let him 
be who he would ; aud especially if a traveling minister 
passed this way he always received an invitation to put 
up at my house and hold his meetings here. 

" I continued in this practice for more than seven 
years, and illiterate as I was, I used to converse with 
them, and was fond of asking them cpaestions. They 
pronounced me an odd mortal, declaring themselves at a 
loss what to make of me ; while I continued to affirm that 
I had but one hope ; I believed that Jesus suffered death 
for my transgressions, and this alone was sufficient for 
me. At length my wife grew weary of having meetings 
held in her house, and I determined to build a house for 
the worship of God. I had no children, and I knew that 
I was beholden to Almighty God for everything which I 
possessed, and it seemed right I should appropriate a 
part of what He bestowed for His service. My neighbors 
offered their assistance, but ' No,' said I, ' God has given 
me enough to do this work without your aid, and as He 
has put it into my heart to do so, so I will do.' ' And 
who,' it was asked, ' will be your preacher ?' I answered, 


' God will send me a preacher, and of a very different 
stamp from those who have heretofore preached in my 
house. The preachers we have heard are perpetually 
contradicting themselves ; but that God who has put it 
into my heart to build this house, will send one who 
shall deliver unto me His own truth — who shall speak of 
Jesus Christ and his salvation.' When the house was 
finished, I received an application from the Baptists, and 
I told them if they could make it appear that God 
Almighty was a Baptist I should give them the building 
at once. The Quakers and Presbyterians received simi- 
lar answers. ' No,' said I, ' as I firmly believe that all 
mankind are equally dear to Almighty God, they shall 
all be equally welcome to preach in this house which I 
have built. My neighbors assured me that I should 
never see a preacher who^e sentiments corresponded 
with my own, but I uniformly replied I assuredly would. 
I engaged for the first year with a man whom I gi-eatly 
disliked ; we parted, and for some years we have had no 
stated minister. My friends often asked me, ' Where is 
the preacher of whom you spoke V and my constant 
reply was, ' He will by and by make his appearance.' 
The moment, sir, I saw your vessel on shore it seemed as 
if a voice had audibly sounded in my ears, ' There, Pot- 
ter, in that vessel, cast away on that shore, is the 
preacher you have so long been expecting.' I heard the 
voice and believed the report, and when you came up to 
my door and asked for the fish, the same voice seemed 
to repeat, ' Potter, this is the man — this is the person 
whom I have sent to preach in your house !" 

As may be supposed, Murray was immeasurably 
astonished at Mr. Potter's narrative, but yet had not the 
least idea that his wish could ever be realized. He asked 
him what he could discern in his appearance to lead him 
to mistake him for a preacher. "What," said Potter, 
" could I discern when you were on the vessel that could 
induce this conclusion ? Sir, it is not what I saw or see, 
but what I feel, which produces in my mind full convic- 
tion. Murray replied that he must be deceived, as he 


should never preach in that place or anywhere else. 

" Have you never preached? Can you say you never 
preached ?" 

"I cannot, but I never intend to preach again." 

" Has uot God lifted up the light of His countenance 
upon you? Has He not shown you the truth ? ,: 

"I trust he has." 

" Then how dare you hide this truth ? Do men light 
a candle and put it under a bushel ? If God has shown 
you His salvation, why should you not show it to your 
fellow-men ? But I know that you will — I am sure that 
God Almighty has sent you to us for this purpose. I am 
not deceived, sir, I am sure I am not deceived." 

Murray was much agitated when this man thus 
spoke on, and began to wonder whether or no, God, who 
ordains all things, had not ordained that this should 
come to pass ; but his heart trembled, he tells us, at the 
idea. He says he endeavored to quiet his own fears and 
to silence the warm-hearted old man by informing him 
he was supercargo of the vessel, that property to a large 
amount was entrusted to his care, and that the moment 
the wind changed he was under solemn obligations to 

"The wind will never change," said Potter, "until 
you have delivered to us, in that meetinghouse, a 
message from God." 

Murray still resolutely determined never to enter 
any pulpit as a preacher;. but being much agitated in 
mind, asked to be shown to bed after he had prayed 
with the family. When they parted for the night his 
kind host solemnly requested him to think of what he 

" Alas," says Murray, " he need not have made this 
request ; it was impossible to banish it from my mind ; 
wdien I entered my chamber and shut the door, I burst 
into tears ; I felt as if the hand of God was in the events 
which had brought me to this place, and I prayed most 
ardently that God would assist and direct me by His 


So much exercised was he in mind that he spent the 
greater part of the night in praying and weeping, 
" dreading more than death," he says, " supposing death 
to be an object of dread, the idea of engaging as a public 

In his writings he gives the substance of his medita- 
tations on that memorable night. In the morning his 
good friend renewed his solicitations: "Will you speak 
to me and my neighbors of the good things which belong 
to our peace '? " 

Murray, seeiug only thick woods, the tavern across 
the field excepted, requested to know what he meant by 

" O, sir, we assemble a large congregation whenever 
the meetinghouse is opened ; indeed, when my father 
first settled here, he was obliged to go twenty miles to 
grind a bushel of corn, but now there are more than 
seven hundred inhabitants within that distance." 

Murray still could not be prevailed upon to yield, 
but Potter insisted and seemed positive the wind would 
not change until he had spoken to the people. Thus 
urged, Murray began to waver, and at length he tells us 
he " implored God, who sometimes condescends to 
indulge individuals with tokens of His approbation, 
graciously to indulge me upon this important occasion, 
and that if it was His will that I should obtain my soul's 
desire by passing through life as a private individual; 
if such was not His will, that I should engage as a 
preacher in the ministry, He would vouchsafe to grant 
me such a wind as might bear me from this shore before 
another Sabbath. I determined to take the changing 
of the wind for an answer." 

But the wind changed not, and towards the close of 
the Saturday afternoon he reluctantly gave his consent 
to preaching the next day, and Mr. Potter immediately 
despatched his men on horseback to notify the neighbors, 
which they were to continue to do until ten o'clock in the 
evening. Mr. Murray appears to have had but little 
rest that night, thinking over the responsibilities of the 

HISTORY OF Till' I'oTTKI! ( 'II I ' IK 'I I. 391 

avocation he was so unexpectedly about to be engaged 
in, ami of what lif should say and how he should ad- 
dress the people; but the passage: "Take no thought 
what ye shall say," etc, appears to have greatly relieved 
his mind. Sunday morning (hey proceeded to the 
church, Potter very joyful and Murray uneasy, dis- 
trusting Ins own abilities to realize the singularly high- 
Eormed expectations of his kind host. The church at 
that day is described as being "neat and convenient, 
with a, pulpit rather after the Quaker mode, with but one 
new pew and that a large square one just below the 
pulpit in which sat the venerable Potter and his family 
and visiting strangers ; the rest of the seats were 
constructed with backs, roomy and even elegant." As 
Murray was preaching, Potter looked up into the pulpit, 
his eyes sparkling with pleasure, seemingly completely 
happy at the fulfillment of what he believed a promise 
long deferred. We have no record of the substance of 
this, the first Universalist sermon in America, nor of its 
impression upon any of the hearers save one — that one, 
Thomas Potter himself, appears to have had all his 
expectations realized, and upon their return home over- 
whelmed Murray with his frank warm-hearted congratu- 
lations ; and soon visitors poured in. Said Potter to 
them : " This is the happiest day of my life ; there, 
neighbors, there is the minister God has sent me." 
Murray was so overcome by the old man's enthusiastic 
demonstrations that he retired to his room, and tells us 
he "prostrated himself at the throne of grace, and 
besought God to take him and do with him what he 
pleased. 1 ' 

After a while he returned to the company and foirnd 
the boatmen with them, who. wished him to go on board 
immediately, as the wind was fair. So he was compelled 
to leave. His host was loth to part with him, and exacted 
a promise from him to return, which he soon did, and 
preached often in the Potter church, and other villages. 
The first place he visited during this stay was Toms 
River. He relates two or three interesting scenes occur- 


ring here, iu explaining to individuals his peculiar 
religious views. The next village he visited was Mana- 

For many years, and though travelling in various 
parts of the United States, yet as long as Thomas Potter 
lived, his house at Goodluck was considered by Murray 
as his home. At length, after being away some time on 
a religious mission, he returned and found that his good 
old friend was dead ; his letter describing this visit, 
recounting some of the scenes of Potter's life, his traits 
of character, his own feelings, etc., is full of tender 
feeling and sincere grief, admirably expressed, and the 
substance of the discourse which he preached on that 
occasion, in that memorable old chapel, is a touching 
specimen of Murray's eloquence. A brief extract will 
serve to give an idea of Murray's style and of his feelings 
towards his departed friend. His text was: "For ye 
are bought with a price ; therefore glorify (rod in your 
body and in your spirit, which are God's." Towards the 
close of his discourse, pointing towards Potter's grave, 
which could be seen from where he stood he says : 

"Through yonder open casement I behold the grave 
of a man, the recollection of win mi swells my heart with 
gratitude, and fills my eyes with tears. There sleeps the 
sacred dust of him who well understood the advant. 
resulting from the public worship of God. There rests 
the ashes of him who glorified God in his body and in 
his spirit, which he well knew were the Lord's. He 
believed he whs bought with a price, and therefore he 
declared that all that he had and all that he was were 
righteously due to God, who created and purchased him 
with a price all price beyond. There rests the precious 
dust of the-friend of strangers, whose hospitable doors 
were ever open to the destitute, and him who had none 
to relieve his sufferings; his dust reposes close to this 
edifice, itself a monument of his piety. Dear, faithful 
man! when last I stood in this place, he was present 
among the assembly of the people. I marked his glisten- 
ing eve; it always glistened at the emohatic name of 


Jesus. Even now, I behold in imagination, his venerable 
countenance ; benignity is seated on his brow ; his mind 
apparently open and confiding; tranquillity reposeth upon 

his features ; every varying emotion evincing faith in that 
enduring peace which passeth understanding. Let us, 
my friends, imitate his philanthropy, his charity, his 
piety. I may never meet 3-011 again until Ave unite to 
swell the loud hallelujahs before the throne of God. But 
to hear of your faith, of your perseverance, of your works 
of charity, of your brotherly love, will heighten my 
enjoyments and soothe my sorrows, even to the verge of 
mortal pilgrimage." 

Potter, in his will, left the church to Murray. It 
was Mr. Murray's desire as well as Mr. Potter's, that the 
church should be kept free to all denominations for the 
worship of God. 

The will of Thomas Potter was dated May 11, 1777, 
proved May 2, 1782, and is recorded in the Secretary of 
State's office at Trenton. In regard to the church he 
says : 

" The house I built for those that God shall cause to 
meet there, to serve or worship him to the same use still, 
and I will that my dear friend John Murray, preacher of 
the gospel, shall have the sole direction and manage- 
ment of said house and one acre of land, where the house 
now stands, for the use above mentione ]." 

The house and lot was sold to Methodists by deed, 
dated November 7, 1809; the deed is from Nathaniel 
Cook, of Monmouth County, of the first part, and Paul 
Potter, Samuel Woodmansee, John Cranmer, Caleb Falk- 
inburg, Isaac Rogers, John Tilton and David Bennett, 
Trustees. Consideration, one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars. The church was rebuilt in 1841, while Ptev. 
Noah Edwards was pastor on the circuit. The Trustees 
then were Joseph Holmes, Amos Falkinburg, James 
Day, Reuben Tilton, Paul Potter and Joseph Preston. 
For rebuilding $703.70 was subscribed, of which amount 
$667.20'was paid in to Trustees ; the balance was not col- 


The last services held by the Universalists in this 
church was in the Fall of 1874. 

This church property is uow under the control of the 
Methodists ; the Universalists, although manifesting little 
or no disposition to dispute their claims, yet contend 
that its sale was through " the mismanagement of the ex- 
ecutor to satisfy illegal claims," etc. 

In the burying ground of the church a headstone 
was erected over the grave of Thomas Potter May 15, 
1833, and surrounded by an iron fence. The headstone 
bears the following inscription : 

In Memory 


Friend and Patron 


J H N M U R R A Y . 
An Early Advocate 


Univebsaubm in America. 
Have we not all one Father? 
Erected May 15, 1833. 


A few years ago the New Jersey Courier published 
a communication which, after reference to Presbyterian- 
ism previous to the Revolution, says : " Subsequent to 
the Revolution, we have found no written or traditional 
mention of Presbyterians along shore, until about the 
year 1828, when Mr. Amos Salter, who had been a mem- 
ber of the noted old First Presbyterian Church, at 
Newark, N. J., located at Forked River. Soon after his 
arrival here, he wrote to an old friend, the Rev. Solomon 
Carpenter, requesting him to visit and preach at Forked 
River and vicinity. Mr. Carpenter was, in his day. a 
noted Presbyterian clergyman and evangelist, who had 
labored with remarkable success in Essex and Morris 
counties and vicinity. In compliance with this request, 


Mr. Carpenter and his wife, who, by the way, was a most 
faithful and zealous helper in Christian labor, proceeded 
to Forked River. Mr. Carpenter Labored at Forked 
River and vicinity for a brief time, and was assisted 
at times by his wife whoian aged minister says) made the 
best prayers he ever heard. He died a year or two after 
this visit, and his wife subsequently married Rev. John 
11. McDowell, of New York, who was the founder of the 
American Moral Reform Society." 

Mr. Carpenter had a brother Ephraim who occa- 
sionally preached along shore about the same time. 

Rev. Mr. Newell, a young Presbyterian clergyman, 
came to Forked River about December, 1814, and taught 
school until June, 1815, and while here he held religious 
services as opportunity offered. 

About this time Mr. and Mrs. William Guliek, of the 
celebrated Guliek Sandwich Island missionary family, 
lived at Forked River, having returned to the United 
States on account of the health of Mrs. G., who was a 
most estimable Christian, of fine educational attainments. 
She taught a small select school, but though of Presby- 
terian proclivities, neither of them were able to do much 
in the way of holding religious services. 

About the first of June, 1850, Rev. Thomas S. 
Dewing, who has been mentioned in speaking of Presby- 
terianism at Toms River, located along shore. In a 
private letter written in 1877, Mr. Dewing states that 
he had seven preaching places from Toms River to Man- 

At Forked River he preached in the old school- 
house. He took especial interest in the Sabbath School, 
of which he was superintendent and which was the first 
regular Presbyterian Sunday school established at Forked 
River. Among the teachers who assisted him were Miss 
Angeline Holmes, since deceased, Miss Laura E. Holmes 
(now Mrs. Captain E. M. Lonani, Miss Sarah A. Rogers 
(now Mrs. W. A. Low), Misses Eleanor and Catharine 
Jones, Edwin Salter and probably occasionally B. 
Franklin Holmes and Enoch Jones. 


In the summer of 1860 a Sunday School was again 
established through the instrumentality of a Presby- 
terian, Miss Robbins, an estimable Christian lady who 
had charge of the district school. At her solicitation, 
Edwin Salter acted as superintendent and Misses Emelia 
Holmes, Mary J. Lonan, Adelaide Stout, Jane E. Jones, 
Elizabeth Sutphen and Lodisa Rogers, and Mrs. Edgar 
Thompson and Henry Howell acted as teachers ; Miss 
Robbins herself took charge of a class of young ladies, 
and Mr. Salter of the older boys. At another time, Miss 
Emelia Smith, a Presbyterian lady, who had charge of 
the district school and who made her home with Capt. 
Joseph Holmes, exerted a favorable influence in favor of 
the society to which she belonged. 


The Presbyterian Society of Forked River and 
vicinity bought the building erected by the Baptists at 
Cedar Creek and the certificate of the incorporation of 
"The Presbyterian Church of Cedar Creek" was recorded 
June 17, 1857, and names as trustees Joseph Holmes, 
James Jones and William A. Low. 

The building was taken down in 1865 and removed 
to Forked River. It had been bought of the Baptists in 
1857 chiefly through the agency of Rev. Dr. Charles F. 
Worrell. At Forked River it was put up on a lot pre- 
sented by Mr. James Jones. The certificate of incorpora- 
tion of the Presbj'terian Church at Forked River states 
that at a meeting held June 9, 18(55, the trustees elected 
were James Jones, Joseph Holmes and Benjamin F. 
Holmes. The certificate was filed in County Clerk's office 
September 19, 1865. 

In March of the same year a Sabbath School was 
established, of which Rev. Mr. Frazee of Toms River, 
became superintendent, and it proved very successful. 

Among the ministers who occasionally preached were 
Rev. Messrs. Darrach, D. V. McLean, J. H. Frazee, C. F. 
Worrell, Win. S. Betts, Frank Chandler, Thaddeus Wilson 


and Allen H. Brown. In January, 1871, Rev. Frank 
Chandler, of Freehold, presented the Sabbath School 
with a line library comprising 2(H) volumes of new books. 

June 17, 1873, a Presbyterian Church was regularly 
organized at Forked River. 

The following were the first members of the church : 
Edwin R. Spaulding, Josephine M. Spaulding, John 
Bowers, Anna M. Bowers, Theodosia Bowers, Randolph 
Lane, Joseph Holmes, Sr., Ann Holmes, Deborah A. 
Stout, Mary J. Lonan. 

On September 14, 1873, Rev. James M. Denton was 
called as the first pastor of the church. All efforts of 
ministers previous to that had been of a missionary 
character. He accepted, and was installed November 25, 


The same evening the new pastor, Rev. Mr. Denton, 
was married to Miss Theodosia Bowers, daughter of 

John Bowers. 

The superintendent of the Sunday School at this 
time was Elder E. R. Spaulding. 

This church being under the same pastor as the 
Presbyterian Church at Barnegat, the successive pastors 
were the same. 


The first Sunday School established at Forked River 
was in 1828, and continued, probably, with some intermis- 
sions, until about 1831. It was organized through the 
efforts of Mr. Amos Salter, a Presbyterian from Newark, 
N. J., and living at Forked River. The books for the 
school were procured in part from the American Sunday- 
School Union, and in part from some of Amos Salter's old 
Presbyterian friends at Newark. 

The Sunday School was non-sectarian, as there was 
no Presbyterian in the vicinity but the superintendent, 
whose unselfish labors and conscientious adherence to old 
Presbyterian precepts and practices, even to reading the 
Bible "and having family prayers morning and evening, 
made a favorable impression on the people of the vicinity. 


The following list, though prepared from memory, 
gives the names of nearly all the regular attendants of 
the school : Elmira Eogers, Isaac Rogers, Katie Rogers 
(•leaf and dumb), Joel Worden, Martha Worden, Daniel 
Worden, Samuel Worden, Anthony Salter, John Salter, 
Daniel Salter, Elizabeth Salter, Emeline Salter, Silas 
Salter, Smith Salter, Sarah Salter, Edwin Salter, Joseph 
Parker, Randolph Lane, Alice Lane, Ann Maria Lippin- 
cott, Debby Lippincott, Hannah Lippiucott, Manly 
Lippincott, Jesse Bunnell, Miles Bunnell, Lydia Bunnell, 
Amos Bunnell, J. Snowden Bunnell, Melinda Bunnell, 
Augustus Conover, Joseph Conover, Angeline Holmes, 
Laura E. Holmes, Daniel L. Chamberlain, Sarah Cham- 
berlain, Robert L. Chamberlain, John Chamberlain, Jane 
Chamberlain, Leonard Brinley, William (?) Soper, 
Catharine List, Judith List, Amanda Williams, John 
Russell, Hester Woolley, John Woolley, Ann Woolley, 
John Worden, James Worden, Elizabeth Worden, Harriet 
Worden, John Cornelius, Lydia Tilton, Cornelius Lane, 
James Chamberlain, William Ferguson, Leah Soper. ■ 

Of the above, Elmira Rogers married Capt. Samuel 
Beatty, Hannah Lippincott married Capt. Anthony 
Camburn, Elizabeth Salter married Capt. J. Conover 
Williams, Ann Woolley married Capt. Randolph Lane, 
Hester Woolley married Capt. John Parker, Emeline 
Salter married Capt. David S. Parker, Amanda Williams 
married Capt. Jacob Vaughn, Laura E. Holmes married 
Capt. Edward Lonan, Martha Worden married John 
Barkalew, Sarah Chamberlain married Joseph Yarnall. 


The certificate of incorporation of this church is 
dated October 13, 1884, and names as Trustees Charles 
P. Bunnell, B. S. Chamberlain, Job Faulkinburgh, 
Annaniah G. Wilbert, Uriah Havens, Winfield S. Parker 
and Charles Williams. 

Services were first held in it in the fall of 1887, 
before the edifice was completed and while Rev. Mr. 
Tomlin was pastor in charge. The Methodists had held 


services in the «>ld Forked River schoolhouses almost 
from Bishop A.sbury's time. 


The charter of this Division, dated March 12, 1849, 
names as charter members Joseph Parker, Samuel Potter, 
Jacob Piatt, David I. C. Rogers and others ; and was 
signed by 'Wm. P. Searles, G. W. P., and Henry 13. 
Howell, Jr., G. S. of the Grand Lodge of the State. It 
was incorporated the following year, Cornelius Lane, W. 
P., and Charles W. Bunnell, R. S., and the certificate 
recorded December 21, 1850. 

holmes' old mill. 

The upper mill on the north branch of Forked River 
was formerly known as Holmes' Mill. On the first of 
August, 1759, a survey of one and one-half acres there 
was made to Jeremiah Stilwell "at request of John 
Holmes, the elder." This tract was by the mill-pond. 
In 1760, John Holmes, the elder, bought sixteen acres. 
In 1766 John Holmes, the elder, and Daniel Holmes 
bought 10.00 acres. 

John Holmes, the elder, died intestate and his 
estate went to his children, William, Jonathan, John, 
Huldah, who married Daniel Williams, Mary, who mar- 
ried Thomas Green, and Catharine and Sarah ; the 
estate was subject to the right of dower of the widow 
Catharine, who afterwards married Thomas Wright. 

William Holmes, son of John, bought out the other 
heirs August 6, 1795. 

In 1810 James Hankinson took up fifty acres adjoin- 
ing mill tract, but the survey was mislocated. In the 
same year he took up fifty-three acres in same vicinity. 


The certificate of incorporation, recorded February 
16, 1869, states that whereas the Evangelical and Relig- 
ious Society, usually, meeting for public worship at 
Waretown, did assemble October 30, 1868, and adopt the 
name of " The Methodist and Presbyterian Church at 


Waretown " and elected the following Trustees : Daniel 
Cambnrn, Joseph Camburn, Elwood Headley, Garrison 
Camburn and James Anderson. 


At a meeting held May 4, 1867, the following persons 
were elected Trustees of the " Universalist meeting, 
Waretown": Jacob Birdsall, James Edwards, R. Lathrop, 
John Warren, Enoch H. Jones. 

The certificate of incorporation was recorded Ma} r 7, 

In the fall of 1883 an addition of twelve feet to the 
rear of the church was made and the roof raised about 
two feet. 


At a meeting held at the Select Schoohouse, Ware- 
town, June 18, 1861, of which Samuel Birdsall was 
Chairman, and Jacob Birdsall Secretary, the following- 
persons were named as members of the Association : 
Benjamin Predmore, Sr., Jacob Birdsall, Ezekiel Bird- 
sall, Elwood Wilkins, Taylor C. Newberry, Enoch H. 
Jones, Joseph H. Birdsall, Samuel Birdsall. 

The annual meetings to be held the last Saturday in 
each year. The certificate of incorporation was recorded 
June 21, 1861. 

The cemetery grounds are located on rising ground 
on a road to the bay and an ancient graveyard is 
included in the bounds. The lots are large and some 
are owned by people living elsewhere who have ancestors 
buried here. 


General John Lace} was born in Bucks county, Pa., 
February 4, 1775. His paternal ancestor was from the 
Isle of Wight, and came to this oountry with William 
Penn. General Lacey's ancestors and all his descendants 
were Quakers. At the breaking out of the Revolution, 


his love of freedom predominated over his anti-war 
creed, and lie made up his mind to obtain it peaceably if 
he could, forcibly if he must. He took a captain's com- 
mission of the Continental Congress, January (i, 177f>, for 
which he was at once disowned by the Quakers. He 
left his home, his society, his mill, to do battle for his 
country. He served under General Wayne, in Canada, 
and performed the hazardous duty of carrying an express 
from General Sullivan to Arnold, when before Quebec. 
On his return next year he resigned on account of a diffi- 
culty with General Wayne. He was then appointed by 
the Pennsylvania Legislature to organize the militia of 
Bucks county. He was soon elected Colonel. He was 
now in the midst of Tories and Quakers, who were acting 
in concert with the enemy, some of whom threatened 
him with personal vengeance. These threats he disregard- 
ed as the idle wind. He brought his regiment into the 
field and performed feats of valor that at once raised him 
to a high standard in the list of heroes. His conduct 
was particularly noticed by Washington, and he was 
honored with the commission of Brigadier-General, Jan- 
uary 9th, and ordered to relieve General Porter. He 
was then but twenty-two years old. 

After the evacuation of Philadelphia, General Lacey 
was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature, and 
served three consecutive sessions. In 1781 he closed his 
military career, and like a good citizen married an amia- 
ble daughter of Col. Reynolds, of New Jersey, and com- 
menced a successful career of domestic felicity. He 
filled various civil offices, lived in the esteem of every 
patriot (not of all his Quaker relatives) and died at the 
village of New Mills, (now Pemberton) New Jersey, Feb. 
14, 1814, in his 59th year. 

In recent years a monument was erected to the mem- 
ory of General Lacey, in Bucks County, Pa., where he 
was born, and dedicated with much ceremony. 

The will of General Lacey was dated 1811 and 
proved March 14, 1814, and is recorded at Mount Holly. 
It named wife Antis, daughter Eliza, wife of Wm. Smith ; 


daughter Kitty, wife of William Darling or Darlington, 
daughter Jane C. Lacey ; sou Thomas R Lacey. 

He requests his wife Antis to care for his aged 
mother, Executors Caleb Newbold and William Irick. 

The will of Autis Lacey, widow of General Lacey, is 
dated 1815 and proved February, 1816. She lived at Xew 
Mills. She left to her sou Thomas R. Lacey all her 
estate at New Mills, now called Pembertou — dwelling 
houses, barus, mills, etc.. and the remainder of her prop- 
erty to her three daughters, Eliza Smith. Catharine Dar- 
lington and Jane C. Hough. 


Fires have been so frequent in the extensive forests 
of Ocean county, that it i^ a hopeless task to attempt to 
enumerate them or describe in detail the exciting scenes 
they have occasioned. Often thousands of acres are 
swept over and tens of thousands of dollars' worth of tim- 
ber are burned in a very short time. "With a high wind, 
the mar of the tire in the woods, the flames leaping from 
tree-top to tree-top and running along the dried leaves 
and bushes on the ground make an appalling scene never 
to be forgotten ; and the exciting work of righting fire, 
with the flames often leaping over their heads or on the 
ground escaping and surrounding them, is too familiar 
to our old citizens to need describing. 

About fifty years ago, a tire broke out in the woods 
between Oyster Creek and Forked River, and many per- 
sons from Waretown and Forked River endeavored to 
subdue it. A sudden shift and increase of the wind 
brought the flames down with such rapidity upon the 
men that they had to run for their lives toward the 
nearest body of water, which happened to be the old 
Frank Cornelius mill pond on Forked River ; but one 
man named George Collins, of Waretown, missed the 
right road, and was overtaken by the flames and burned 
to death. His shoes were left to mark the spot where he 
was burned, fortwentv or thirty years after. 



The first church built in Ocean county was the one 
generally known as the Baptist Church at Manahawken. 
It was built at least as early as 1758, as it is Baid the 
original deed for the land on which it was situated is 
dated August 24, L758, and calls for 1 20-100 acres, "be- 
ginning at a stake 265 links north-west from the meeting- 
house," by which it appears the edifice was already 
erected. There is a tradition that the church was orig- 
inally erected as a free church, chiefly through the 
instrumentality of James Haywood. That it was free to 
all denominations is quite evident, as in it meetings were 
held by Quakers, Presbyterians, and probably Metho- 
dists, and Rev. John Murray, the founder of Universalism 
in America, also preached in it. In Webster's History of 
Presbyteriani-m it is claimed as a Presbyterian Church. 
The author probably supposed it to be such because 
ministers of that society held regular services in it — in 
fact, they held them many years before the Baptist Society 
was organized, and were entertained by Messrs. Haywood 
and Randolph, subsequently named among the founders 
of the Baptist Society, as appears by a letter written by 
Rev. John Brainerd in 17(31. It is evident that the earlv 
settlers of Manahawken were not only anxious to hear the 
Word of Truth, but also believed in religious toleration. 

The history of the Baptist Society at Manahawken, 

- _iven in its old church record, was evidently written 

many years after the organization of the societv. It is 

well worth preserving in our local religious history. The 

following is substantially from the church record : 

■'About 1760, James Haywood, a Baptist from Coven- 
try, England ; Benjamin, Reuben and Joseph Randolph, 
also Baptists, from Piscataway, settled in this neighbor- 
hood. They were visited by Rev. Mr. Blackwell, who 
preached and baptized among them. Other Baptists 
settled among them from Scotch Plains ; so that in 1770, 
they were multiplied to nine souls, which nine were con- 


stituted a Gospel church that same year by Rev. Ben- 
jamin Miller. They joined the Baptist Association, and 
were occasionally visited by other brethren, so that in 
1770 they numbered fifteen. Rev. Henry Crossley 
resided among them some time, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Isaac Bonnell, after whose departure there was no 
more account of Maiiahawken Church ; so that in 1799, 
at a meeting of the Baptist Association at Great Valley. 
they were about to be erased from the records, but at the 
intervention of one or two biethren they were spared, and 
visited by ministering brethren, and that not in vain, for 
though there could none be found of the character of 
Baptists save five female members, two of whom are since 
deceased, } r et a number round about were baptized 
among them ; but not meeting in membership with them, 
it remained doubtful whether they could be considered a 
church. Next season, they were represented to the 
Association with flattering prospects, and a query was 
made whether they really were a church, which query 
was answered in the affirmative ; in consequence of which 
supplies were named, some of whom proposed the 
propriety of receiving into fellowship among them such as 
had been, or may be in future baptized among them. 
The proposition was generally accepted, both by the old 
members and young candidates, and in confirmation of 
which the first Suuday in July, 1802, was set apart for 
the above purpose, when Brothers Alexander McGowan 
and Benjamin Hedges gave their assistance. Brother 
McGowan, pastor of the church at New Mills (now 
Pemberton), by authority-, and one behalf of Sarah 
Puryne (Perrine ? ) Mary Sprague and Elizabeth Sharp, 
the remainder of the church in the place, receiving into 
union, by right hand of fellowship, the following named 
persons, viz : 

Daniel Parker and Elizabeth his wife ; Edward 
Gennines and Abigail his wife ; Thomas Edwards and 
Catharine his wife ; Samuel Grey and Katurah his wife ; 
Amos Southard and wife ; Mary Fortuneberry ; Phebe 
Bennett; Hannah White; Martha Headlev; Leah 


Clayton; Hannah Sulsey; Jemima Pidgeon; Hester 
Perrine." In the Foregoing, Mar} Fortuneberry, we pre- 
sume, should be Mary Falkinburgh. 

The Baptist Century Book furnishes additional in- 
formation to the above as follow- : 

"The Baptist Society at Manahawken was organ- 
ized August 25, 17~i». In October, 1771, there were 
eleven members, and Lines Pangburn was a delegate to 
the Baptist Association. There were seven appoint- 
ments made for that year. 

In 1772 there were twelve members; four preachers 
were appointed for the ensuing year. 

177:!. No delegates ; twelve members. 

1774. Rev. Henry Crossley, delegate ; fifteen niern- 
bers : four had joined by letter, one by baptism and one 
died. The church this year is called "The Stafford 

177o. Xo delegates ; members the same. 

From 177o there are no returns until the year 1800, 
when five members are reported. 

1 V| >1. Four members, one having died. The re- 
maining members of the church having some doubts in 
their minds because of the fewness of their numbers, 
whether they exist as a church or not, it is the sense of 
this Association that the church still exists, and while 
they rejoice in that prosperity which has lately attended 
the preaching of the Gospel among them, they exort 
them to proceed to the reception of members and the 
election of officers. 

1802. Edward Gennings appointed delegate ; four 
baptized, twenty received by letter, one dead ; remaining, 
•27 members. 

1803. Thirty-three members. 

1804 Amos Southard and Samuel Grey, delegates ; 
31 member-. 

1805. Samuel Grey, delegate ; 74 members ; 44 bap- 
tized ; two received by letter, and three dismissed. 

1806. Samuel Grey and Edward Gennings, dele- 
- ; G9 members. 


Here ends the record of this church in the Baptist 
Century Book. 

It will be seen by the foregoing, that from the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary war this society seems to 
have shared the fate of so many others in that eventful 
period, being virtually broken up for a time. Some of 
its principal members and supporters responded to their 
country's call ; Reuben F. Randolph became a captain in 
the militia, his sons members of his company ; Lines 
Pano-burn, who we presume was the same person first 
elected delegate, was killed by the Refugees within sight 
of the church, and doubtless others were among the 
patriots from this village, who did military service during 
the war, particularly in guarding against marauding 
bands of Refugees who were active until the very close 
of the Revolution. 

Rev. Benjamin Miller, who organized the church, 
belonged to Scotch Plains, where he labored for over 
thirty years, and died in 1781. 

For the items relating to the original deed of the 
church we are indebted to the researches of the late 
Samuel H. Shreve, Esq. 


The Baptist Century Book says that "the Baptist 
Church of Squan and Dover " was received into the 
Baptist Association in October, 1805, and the same year 
Samuel Haven was delegate, and the society had thirty- 
eight members. In 1807 Samuel Haven was again 
delegate; forty-five members. 

In Gordon's History of New Jersey, it is stated that 
a Baptist Societ}- was established at West Creek in 1792, 
which had, about 1832, thirty-tln-ee members. [This is 
believed to have been in Cape May county. J 


Island Heights, near Toms River, was selected for a 
Summer resort by Rev. Dr. Graw, who conceived the notion 


that a camp ground Dear the Bea ought to be found some- 
where in Being Presiding Klder, he traveled 
alongshore looking for a favorable spot. At length he 
noticed what was formerly known as Dillon's Island ; the 
location pleased him and he invited a few ministers and 
laymen t.» go with him and examine the site. All were 
please. 1. He proposed that 25 it :!ii persons unite as 
stockholders, buy the tract ami proceed to develop it for 
tli.' purpose of a cam]) meeting ground and Summer 
resort. His plan was agreed to, the laud purchased, and 
the company incorporated July 1, 1878. The director- 
chosen were : J. B. Graw, S. Vansant, G. H. Morris. ( '. 
E. Hendriekson and J. G. Gowdy. Rev. Dr. J. B. Graw 
was chosen President, "W. W. MofTett, Vice President ; G. 
Pi. Morris, Secretary, S. Vansant, Treasurer, and John 
Simpson, Superintendent. The certificate of incorpora- 
tion, dated July 1, 1878, was filed July 2. 1878. Capital, 
$9,000; share.. |50. The Rev. J. B. Graw took 102 
shares, amounting to $5,100, and the following subscribers 
six shares of $300 each : Chas. E. Hendriekson, Mount 
Holly : G. K. Morris. Mount Holly ; Geo. B. Wight, Cam- 
den : Samuel Vansant, Toms Biver ; Geo. L. Dobbins, 
Bridgeton ; Joshua Jeffries, Camden ; Annanias Lawrence, 
Millville, George Beed, Absecon ; Ralph B. Gowdy. 
Toms Biver ; Jas. G. Gowdy, Toms River ; David H. 
Schock, Millville ; Geo. H. Neal, Gloucester City ; James 
M. Cassidy, Camden; amounting in all to $9,000. 

At this time there were 172 acres in the tract 
proper, 154 acres bought of Mrs. A. S. Brinley and 18 
acres of the Westray estate. Work was commenced at 
once ; underbrush removed from about ten acres ; two 
avenues partly opened : a pavilion built ; seats arranged for 
camp ground; thirty camp meeting cottages erected and 
a hotel commenced ; a wharf erected, and yachts and 
hacks chartered to take visitors to and fro. In August a 
camp meeting was held ; on the 20th of August one hun- 
dred lots were sold, bringing 810,000, all of which went 
for improvements. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad built a branch from their 


main line from Camden to Seaside Park to Island 
Heights in the Summer of 1883. 

Island Heights takes its name from two sources ; it 
originally was an island and vessels once sailed through 
a channel which existed on the north side. It is situated 
by a steep bluff sixty feet above the river. It was origi- 
nally known as Dr. Johnson's island, being included in 
the patent granted to him in 1G80. The next century it 
was known as Dillon's island, so called before the Revo- 
lution, probably for James Dillon, a somewhat promi- 
nent man about Toms River. It came into possession of 
John Imlay of Allentown, who, in 1794, sold it to Isaac 
Gulick. In 1797 Isaac Gulick and wife Abigail sold it 
to Abraham and George Parker. In 1799 they sold it 
to Abel Middleton of Upper Freehold. 

A saw-mill was built on the stream from Long 
swamp, which in 1760 and thereabouts, was known as 
Jacob Jacobs' saw-mill. 

Tradition says that during the Revolution Indian 
Tom had his wigwam on what is now Island Heights. 

At the time of the whites first coming to this part of 
New Jersey, the vicinity of Island Heights was a resort 
for the Indians and they left behind them a memento 
which was noted among the whites for perhaps a century. 
This was the resemblance of the face of some large crea- 
ture on the south side of a huge whiteoak which was 
two feet in diameter, cut by the Indians ; the tree was 
also marked on other sides. The location of this tree is 
thus described in a survey for 189 acres, to Ebenezer 
Applegate, made in 1750 ; his beginning corner is 
described as "one chain northeast fioni Dr. Johnson's 
Long Swamp, the stream whereof runs into Toms River 
at the end of Dr. Johnson's Island, beginning at a white- 
oak near two feet through, marked in several places and 
on the south side with the resemblance of the face of 
some large creature, supposed to have been done formerly 
by the Indians." 

This whiteoak must have stood near the north-west 
corner of the island. This tree is referred to as late as 


17*.*:!, in ;i survey of Kenneth Hankinson and Matthew 

If this curious face was made with reference to the 
religious belief and worship of the Indians, as it prob- 
ably was, it is suggestive of the great contrast between 
the worship at Island Heights now and at the same 
place two centuries ago. 

The capital of the Island Heights Association was 
increased in April, 1880, when $21,000 was added to the 
original amount. 

The Island Heights Hotel Association was incorpo- 
rated January 19, 1888. Capital $50,000. Incorporators, 
Thomas D. Dilkes, Mary Tudor, William F. Lodge, John 
F. Vogle, Jr., and Howard D. Vansant. 

The corner-stone of the First Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Island Heights was laid August 29, 1882. The 
ceremonies were conducted by Rev. J. B. Graw, assisted 
by Revs. A. Lawrence, S. Thackera, J. O'Hara and John 

The church was dedicated August 17, 1884. Rev. W: 
W. Moffit, presiding elder, preached the sermon, Rev. 
Joseph Sawn was the pastor. 

The edifice was thirty by fifty feet, surmounted by a 
cupola. It seated three hundred persons and the Sunday 
School room attached, seated one hundred. 


The first Methodists in Ocean county held their 
meetings in the old Potter Church at Goodluck. In the 
dark days of the history of Methodism, when it not 
only met with opposition from other societies on account 
of difference in religious views, but also when during the 
Revolution, their enemies unjustly charged them with 
being in sympathy with Great Britain, and would allow 
them to hold meetings in but few places, the old Good- 
luck Church was always open to them, and the people of 
this vicinity gave its preachers a welcome which they 
rarely met with elsewhere. 


It is probable that the pioneers of Methodism visi- 
ted our county within a very few years after the princi- 
ples of the society were first proclaimed in America, and 
that occasionally some preacher would hold forth in one 
of the free churches, in school houses or in private 
houses, possibly as early as 1774. Rev. William Watters, 
the first itinerant of American birth, was stationed in our 
State in 1774, and it is possible that he and the noted 
Capt. Thomas Webb, of Pemberton, (then New Mills,) 
may have visited this section. That zealous, self-sacri- 
ficing minister of the Gospel, Rev. Benjamin Abbott, is 
the first preacher who speaks positively of visiting this 
vicinity, though before his visit which was in 1778, it is 
probable that some if not all the following named, may 
have preached here, viz : Capt. Thomas Webb, Revs. 
Philip Gatch, Caleb B. Pedicord, Wm. Watters, John King, 
Daniel Ruff and Wm. Duke. From that time up to the 
year 1800, the names of preachers assigned to this part of 
the State is given in the "History of Methodism in New 
Jersey." During the first thirty years of the present 
century, among the most noted preachers in this section 
were Revs. Sylvester and Robert Hutchinson, Ezekiel 
Cooper, Charles Pitman and Geo. A. Raybold. Rev. 
William Watters, above mentioned as the first itinerant 
of American birth, who was located in our State in 1774, 
published in 1807 an account of his labors here and 


The first Methodist Episcopal Church at Toms 
River was built in 1828, and dedicated in the month of 
November of that year. Revs. B. Weed and J. MeLaurin 
were the preachers on the circuit, which was then a part 
of Pemberton circuit. The building was 24 by 30 feet, 
with one aisle and open back seats. It was never 
painted and had but one coat of plaster. It cost $740.7*. 
It was free for anybody of orthodox Christians to 
worship in, when not occupied by the Methodists. The 
building was situated on Hooper Avenue, in the grave- 
yard, opposite the present location of the church. After 


thirty years of service as a house of worship, il was 
moved to the north-west corner of Hooper Avenue and 
Water street, where it now stands, and is occupied as a 


As everything of an authentic character relating to 
the memorable Battle of Monmouth is of abiding interest, 
the following additional accounts are given of that great 
event : 

colonel john laueens' account. 

Headquakters, Englishtown, ) 
30th June, 1778. j 

My Dear Father : 

I was exceedingly chagrined that public business 
prevented my writing to you from the field of battle, 
when the General sent his despatches to Congress. The 
delay, however, will be attended with this advantage, 
that I will be better able to give you an account of the 
enemy's loss ; tho' I must now content myself with a 
very succinct relation of this affair. The situation of 
the two armies on Sunday was as follows : General Wash- 
ington, with the main body of our army, was at four 
miles distant from Englishtown. General Lee, with a 
chosen advanced corps, was at that town. The enemy 
were retreating down the road which leads to Middle- 
town ; their flying army composed (as it was said), of two 
battalions of British grenadiers, one Hessian grenadiers, 
one battalion of light infantry, one regiment of guards, 
two brigades of foot, one regiment of dragoons and a 
number of mounted and dismounted Jagers. The 
enemy's rear was preparing to leave Monmouth village, 
which is six miles from this place, when our advanced 
corps was marching towards them. The militia of the 
country kept up a random running fire with the Hessian 
Jagers ; no mischief was done on either side. I was with 
a small party on horse, reconnoitering the enemy in an 
open space before Monmouth, when I perceived two 


parties of the enemy advancing by files in the woods on 
our right and left, with a view, as I imagined, of envel- 
oping our small party or preparing a way for a skirmish 
of their horse. I immediately wrote an account of what 
I had seen to the General, and expressed my anxiety on 
account of the languid appearance of the continental 
troops under General Lee. Some person in the mean- 
time reported to General Lee that the enemy were 
advancing upon us in two columns, and I was informed 
that he had, in consequence, ordered Varnum's brigade, 
which was in front, to repass a bridge which it had 
passed. I went myself and assured him of the real 
state of the case ; his reply to me was, that his accounts 
had been so contradictory, that he was utterly at a loss what 
part to take. I repeated my account to him in positive, 
distinct terms, and returned to make further discoveries. 
I found that the two parties had been withdrawn from 
the wood, and that the enemy were preparing to leave 
Monmouth. I wrote a second time to General Washing- 
ton. General Lee at length gave orders to advance. 
The enem} 7 were forming themselves on the Middletown 
road, with their Light Infantry in front, and Cavalry on 
the left flank, while a scattering distant fire was com- 
menced between our flanking parties and theirs. I was 
impatient and uneasy at seeing that no disposition was 
made, and endeavored to find General Lee to inform 
him of what was doing, and to know what was his dispo- 
sition. He told me that he was going to order some 
troops to march below the enemy and cut off their 
retreat. Two pieces of artillery were posted on our right 
without a single loot soldier to support them. Our men 
were formed piecemeal in front of the enemy, and there 
appeared to !>,• no general plan or disposition calculated 
on that of the enemy, the nature of the ground, or any 
of the other principles which generally govern in these 

The enemy began a cannonade from two parts of 
their line; their whole body of horse made a furious 
charge upon a small party of our cavalry and dispirited 


ami drove them, until the appearance 'it' our infantry and 
a judicious discharge or two of artillery made them retire 
precipitately. Three regiments of ours that had 
advanced in a plain open country towards the enemy's 
left flank, were ordered by General Lee to retire and 
occupy the village of Mourn >uth. They were no sooner 
formed there than they were ordered to quit that post 
and gain the woods. One order succeeded another with 
a rapidity and indecision calculated to ruin us. The 
enemy had changed their front and were advancing in 
full march toward us: our men were fatigued with the 
'•\n-ssive heat. The artillery horses were not in con- 
dition to make a brisk retreat. A new position was 
ordered, but not generally communicated, for part 
of the troops were forming oa ths right of the 
ground, while others were marching away, and all 
the artillery driving off. The enemy, after a short 
halt, resumed their pursuit; no cannon was left t<> 
check their progress. A regiment was ordered 
to form behind a fence, aid as speedily com- 
manded to retire. All this disgraceful retreating passed 
without the firing of a musket, over ground which might 
have been disputed inch by inch. We passed a defile 
and arrived at an eminence beyond, which was defended 
on one hand by an impracticable fen, on the other by a 
thick wool where our m3U would have fought to advan- 
tage. Here, fortunately for the honor of the army, and 
the welfare of America, General Washington met the 
troops retreating in disorder, and without any plan to 
make an opposition. He ordered some pieces of artil- 
lery to be brought up to defend the pass, and some 
troops to form and defend the pieces. The artillery was 
too distant to be brought up readily, so that there was 
but little opposition given here. A few shots, though, and 
a little skirmishing in the wood checked the enemy- 
career. The General expressed his astonishment at this 
unaccountable retreat. Mr. Lee indecently replied that 
the attack was contrary to his advice and opinion in 
council. We were obliged to retire to a position, which, 


though hastily reconnoitered proved an excellent one. 
Two regiments were formed behind a fence, in front of 
the position. The enemy's horse advanced in full charge 
with admirable bravery to the distance of forty paces, 
when a general discharge from these two regiments did 
execution among them, and made them fly with the 
greatest precipitation. The grenadiers succeeded to the 
attack. At this time my horse was killed under me. In 
this spot the action was hottest, and there was consider- 
ble slaughter of British grenadiers. The General or- 
dered Woodford's brigade with some artillery to take 
possession of an eminence on the enemy's left, and can- 
nonade from thence. This produced an excellent effect. 
The enemy were prevented from advancing on us and 
confined themselves to cannonade, with a show of 
turning our left flank. Our artillery answered theirs 
with the greatest vigor. The General seeing that our 
left flank was secure, as the ground was open and com- 
manded by us, so that the enemy could not attempt to 
turn it without exposing their own flank to a heavy fire 
from our artillery, and causing to pass in review before 
us the force employed in turning us. In the meantime, 
General Lee continued retreating. Baron Steuben was 
ordered to form the broken troops in the rear. The can- 
nonade was incessant and the General ordered parties 
to advance from time to time, to engage the British 
grenadiers and guards. The horse showed themselves 
no more. The grenadiers showed their backs and 
retreated everywhere with precipitation. They returned, 
however, again to the charge, and were again repulsed. 
They finally retreated and got over the strong pass, 
where, as I mentioned before, General ' Washington first 
rallied the troops. We advanced in force, and continued 
masters of the ground : the standards of liberty were 
planted in triumph on the field of battle. We remained 
looking at each other with the defile between us, till 
dark, and they stole off in silence at midnight. We have 
buried of the enemy's slain, 233, principally of grena- 
diers ; forty odd of their wounded whom they left at 


Monmouth, fell into our bands. Several officers are our 
prisoners. Among their killed are Col. Moncton, a cap- 
tain of the guards, and several captains i >f the grenadiers. 
We have taken a very inconsiderable number of pris- 
oners, for want of a good body of horse. Deserters are 
coming in as usual. Our officers and men behaved with 
that bravery which becomes freemen, and have con- 
vinced the world that they can beat British grenadiers. 
To name any one in particular would be a kind of 
injustice to the rest. There are some, however, who 
came more immediately under my view, whom I can 
nn-ntion that you may know them. B. General Wayne, 
Col. Barber. Col. Stewart, Col. Livingston, Col. Oswald, 
of the artillery. Capt. Doughty, deserve well of their 
country, and distinguished themselves nobly. 

The enemy buried many of their dead that are not 
accounted for above, and carried off a great number of 
wounded. I have written diffusely, and yet I have not 
told you all. General Lee, I think, must be tried for 
misconduct. However, this is a matter not generally 
known, though it seems almost universally wished for. I 
■would beg you, my dear father, to say nothing of it. 
You will oblige me much by excusing me to Mr. Drayton 
for not writing to him. I congratulate you, my dear 
father, upon this seasonable victory, and am ever, 
Tour most dutiful and affectionate, 

John Laurens. 
The Honorable Henry Laurens, Esq. 

We have no returns of our loss as yet. The propor- 
tion on the field of battle appeared but small. We have 
many good officers wounded. 



Exglishtown, 30th June, 1778. 

Sir : We esteem it a duty which we owe to our coun- 
try, ourselves and the officers and soldiers under our 
command, to state the following facts to your Excellency : 

On the 28th instant, at five o'clock in the morning we 
received orders to march with the following detachments. 


namely, Scott's and Varnum's brigades, Colonels Butler 
and Jackson in front, amounting to seventeen hundred 
men; Colonels Wesson, Livingston and Stewart, with 
one thousand men, commanded by General Wayne; a 
select detachment of fourteen hundred men, rank and 
file, under General Scott, with ten pieces of artillery 
properly distributed among the whole. 

About eight o'clock, the van under Col. Butler arrived 
on the left of Monmouth Court House, on the rear of the 
left flank of the enemy, who were in full march, moving in 
great haste and confusion. At this time our main body 
under General Lee, were formed at the edge of a wood 
about half a mile distant from the Court House. Gen- 
eral Wayne, who was in front reconnoitering the enemy, 
perceiving that they had made a halt and were prepar- 
ing to push Colonel Butler with their horse and a few 
foot, gave direction for him to form and receive them, 
and at the same time sent Major Byles to General Lee, 
requesting that those troops might be advanced to sup- 
port those in front, and for the whole to form on the 
edge <>f a deep morass, which extends from the east of 
the Court House on the right a very considerable dis- 
tance to the left. The troops did arrive in about an hour 
after the requisition, and were generally formed in this 

About the same time General Scott's detachment 
had passed the morass on the left, and the enemy's 
horse and foot that had charged Colonel Butler, were 
repulsed. The number of the enemy now in view 
might be near two thousand, though at first not more 
than five hundred exclusive of their horse. The ground 
we now occupied was the best formed by nature for 
defence, of an}* perhaps in the country. The enemy 
advanced with caution, keeping at a considerable dis- 
tance in front. General Scott, having viewed the posi- 
tion o: the enemy, as well as the ground where about 
twenty-five hundred of our troops were formed, re- 
passed the morass and took post on the left, in a fine open 
wood, covered by said morass in front. 


Whilst this was doing, Genera] Wayne, perceiving 
that the troops on the right from the wood to the Court 
House were retreating, sent General Fishbourn to Gen- 
eral L"e. requesting that the troops might return to sup- 
port him. In the interim General "Wayne repassed the 
morass, leaving Colonel Butler's regiment to keep post 
on the right flank of the enemy. Generals Scott ami 
Wayne then went together along the morass to the Court 
House, when Major Fishbourn returned and said that 
General Lee gave no other answer than that he would 
see General Waj ne himself, which he never did. The 
enemy having now an opening on the right of General 
Scott began to move on, when General "Wayne and Gen- 
eral Scott sent to General Lee to request him at least to 
form, to favor General Scott's retreat, but this requisi- 
tion met with the same fate as the last. The troops kept 
still retreating, when General Scott, perceiving that he 
would not be supported, filed off to the left. General 
"Wayne ordered Colonel Butler to fall back also. Thus 
were these several select detachments unaccountably 
drawn off without being suffered to come to action, al- 
though we had the most pleasant prospect from our 
number and position, of obtaining the most glorious and 
decisive victory. After this, we fortunately fell in with 
your Excellency. You ordered us to form part of those 
troops, whose conduct and bravery kept the enemy in 
play until you had restored order. 

We have taken the liberty of stating these facts in 
order to convince the world that our retreat from the 
Court House was not occasioned by the want of numbers, 
position, or wishes of both officers and men to maintain 
that post. We also beg leave to mention that no plan of 
attack was ever communicated to us, or notice of a re- 
treat, until it had taken place in our rear, as we sup- 
posed by General Lee's order. We are, Arc, 

Anthony Wayne. 

Charles Scott. 



On account of Barnegat Inlet being at tlie lower end 
of the bay and the distance vessels from the head of the 
bay have to sail to get out to sea, the need of an outlet 
nearer the head of the bay is seriously felt. 

While Cranbury Inlet was opened it afforded great 
facilities for vessels to trade in and out of the bay. As 
this inlet is laid down on a map of 1755 (Lewis Evans) it 
is probable that it was opened — broke out from 1750 to 
1755. It was closed about 1812. During the war of the 
Revolution it was much used. The question of the 
exact year when this inlet was opened has been in litiga- 
tion in our County Courts in a question involving title to 
land on the beach in its vicinity ; no decisive information 
was obtained upon trial. 

Two or three attempts have been made to open 
inlets towards the head of the bay. One by a man 
named Ortley about 1821 ; after working a long time 
(three or four } r ears, I have heard it said,) and spending 
much money on the effort, he finished the work one set 
day ; and that evening he and his friends had a merry 
time drinking and rejoicing over the completion of the 
work. But a sad disappointment awaited them in the 
morning, for the running tide, instead of working the 
inlet deeper, had made a bulkhead of sand and the inlet 
was soon filled up. 

Another effort was completed about July 4, 1847. 
A large number of men (about three hundred), under the 
supervision of Anthony Ivins, Jr., worked about three 
days to open one opposite Toms River ; when they 
opened it it was at high water in the bay and low water 
outside ; they expected the running tide would work the 
inlet deeper, but they, too, were doomed to disappoint- 
ment, as the tides immediately filled it up with sand, 

Barnegat Inlet is continually slowly shifting and 
changing, and always has been from our earliest accounts. 


Six or seven years ago the old lighthouse washed 
into the sea, but a aew building had already been built 
in anticipation of this event. 

Shrewsbury Inlet (Monmouth county) opened in 
1778 and closed in 1800. In 1830 it opened again, but 
was again closed some thirty years ago. 

At Little Egg Harbor a new inlet broke through 
Tucker's Beach about the year 1800 and Brigantine 
Inlet closed up. 


During the war of the Revolution, salt works were 
quite numerous along Barnegat Bay ; two or three at 
Barnegat, Newdin's at Waretown, Brown's at Forked 
River, and one or two Government works near Toms River 
being among the number. 

From the following items it would seem that off 
Toms River the State of Pennsylvania had salt works 
and also that there was one there built by Congress. 

In the Pennsylvania Council of Safety, Nov. 2, 1776, 
it was 

" Hesolved, That an officer and twenty-five men be 
sent to the salt works at Toms River (erected by this 
State in Toms River, N. J.) as a guard, and twenty-five 
spare muskets and two howitzers and a sufficient quan- 
tity of ammunition to defend in case of attack." 

In Continental Congress, 1776, the President of 
Congress " was requested to write to Gov. Livingston of 
New Jersey, for two companies of militia to guard salt 
works near Toms River." 

Mention of Government salt works near Toms River 
is occasionally met with in ancient deeds an 1 of a wind- 
mill connected therewith. 

During the war nearly all the salt works along our 
bay were either destroyed by the British or by storms, 
('some notice of which will hereafter be given.) Those 
destroyed by storms appear to have been built up again. 

I know of no salt works along our coast of late years, 


except at Absecou (Atlantic county), some fifteen or 
twenty years ago, which probably was not much used 

Iu the New Jersey Gazette, July, 1778, is a notice 
from the Board of Proprietors, signed James Parker. 
President, calling upon owners of salt works along the 
bay, who wish to buy wood of them from their outlands, 
to meet them at Freehold in August and they would 
dispose of it in parcels near salt works. 



It must not be supposed that evils inflicted by the 

refugees upon our ancestors were such evils as are 
usually incident to war. Our ancestors suffered these 
in addition. It is not probable that all who were called 
Jersey Refugees were native Jerseymen ; too many were, 
it is true, but the thrift and industry of the inhabitants of 
old Monmouth, which county at one time was the richest 
in the State, the advantage of deep swamps and forests 
for hiding, the proximity of Raritan Bay, and the sea- 
board rendering it convenient to send plunder to New 
York, all formed attractions to villains from other places 
— villains whose chief object was plunder, often robbing 
Tories as well as Whigs, who scrupled at no crime to 
obtain booty, at no outrage to gratify revenge. Their 
character is clearly set forth in the following extracts 
one from a Whig, the other from a Tory : 

Said Gov. Livingston, in his message to our Legisla- 
ture in 1777 : 

" The Royalists have plundered friends as well as 
foes; effects capable of division they have divided; 
such as were not, they have destroyed. They have 
waived on decrepid old age and upon defenceless youth ; 
they have committed hostilities agains't the professors of 
literature and against ministers of religion ; against 
public records and private monuments, books of improve- 


ments and papers of curiosity, and against the arts and 
sciences. They have butchered the wounded when 
asking for quarter, mangled the dead while weltering in 
their blood, refused to the dead their right of sepulture, 
suffered prisoners to perish for want of sustenance, 
violated the chastity of women, disfigured private dwell- 
ings of taste and elegance, and in the rage of impiety and 
barbarism profaned edifices dedicated to Almighty 
GocL' : 

The following is the testimony of Gallaway, a Penn- 
sylvania Tory of wealth and position, who at first was a 
Whig and afterwards turned Tory, and had property 
confiscated to the amount of £40,000 sterling. Speaking 
of Refugee outrages he says : 

" Respecting indiscriminate plunder, it is known to 

" In respect to the rapes, a solemn inquiry was made, 
and affidavits taken by which it appears that no less than 
twenty-three were committed in one neighborhood in 
New Jersey, some of them on married women in presena 
of their husbands, and others on daughters, while the 
unhappy parents with unavailing tears and cries could 
only deplore their savage brutality.'' 

After reading such authoritative statements of the 
character of these wretches, who will wonder that our 
ancestors were aroused, determined to drive them from 
the soil they polluted. 

Our ancestors in old Monmouth did all that was 
possible for brave men to do to bring these villains to 
justice. Besides those hanged and killed at other places, 
thirteen were hanged on one gallows near Freehold Court 

The particulars of the capture, etc., of several of 
these villains in Monmouth is extant, but not necessary 
to introduce here, as they are given in some modern 

At the close of the war the Refugees generally went 
to Nova Scotia, but some went to the Bahamas by invita- 
tion of General Browne. In September and October, 


1782, many left New York for Halifax and the Bahamas 
by his invitation. 


John Bacon, the Refugee leader, bad as he was, yet 
probably was the best one of them of whom we have 
any accounts. In the previous accounts it will be seen 
he worked at Manahawkin before the war ; was engaged 
in affairs at Cedar Creek, Manahawkin, Forked River ; 
killed Studson at Toms River or Cranbury Inlet, killed 
Steelman, Soper and others, on the beach, etc. He 
plundered also the house of Renben Soper's father, 
above Barnegat, and when shot, had on, it is said, a shirt 
stolen from Soper. The day before he was killed at 
West Creek, it is stated, he was on the beach aronnd a 
wreck and being very officious in ordering men about, 
they found out who he was and planned to trap him at 
night. A woman, overhearing it, told Bacon and he 
escaped to the mainland just in time to lie at Rose's 
house when Crookes' party came up. One tradition 
differing from Governor Fort's statement, says he begged 
for quarters and held up the table before him, but was 
shot through the table. Bacon's wife, it is said, lived at 
Pemberton where he left two sons. (See elsewhere.) 


Colonel Creiger, of the American schooner, General 
Putnam, cruised in and out of Barnegat five days about 
June, 1776. 

April, 1778. About the first of this month the 
British under Captain Robertson, landed at Squan with a 
strong force and destroyed a number of salt works on the 
coast ; one building (probably the one near Toms River,) 
they said, belonged to Congress and cost .£6,000. The 
New Jersey Gazette said of this affair: 

"About one hundred and thirty-five of the enemy 
landed on Sunday last about ten o'clock on the south 
side of Squan Inlet, burnt all the salt works, broke the 
kettles, etc.; stripped the beds, etc., of some people there 


who I fear wished fco serve them ; then crossed the 
river and burnt all except Derrick Longstreet's. After 
this mischief fchey embarked. The next day they landed 
at Shark River and set fire to two salt works when they 
observed fifteeen horsemen heave in sight which occa- 
sioned them to retreat with the greatest haste; indeed 
they jumped into their rial bottomed boats with such pre- 
cipitation they siink two of them. One of the pilots 
was the noted Thomas Oakerson. The enemy consisted 
chiefly of Greens, the rest Highlanders." 

The owners of salt works along our coast must have 
experienced a streak of ill luck about this time, as a 
letter in the New Jersey Gazette, dated April 1, 1778, 
says : " The late storm destroyed many of the small salt 
works along our shore with all the salt in them." (The 
storm here* referred to must have been of unusual 
severity. Some accounts relating to it confirm the re- 
ports that it caused many shipwrecks on our coast.) 

May 22, 1778. A British vessel with a cargo of Irish 
beef and pork was taken by Capt. Anderson and sixteen 
men in an armed boat and brought into Toms River. 
Several other prizes about this time were sent into Ego- 
Harbor. Twenty-one prisoners (13 from these vessels) 
were sent to Trenton. — N. J. Gazette. 


The following interesting story has claims to be 
mentioned in annals of Ocean county as Colvin, men- 
tioned in it, lived in the county many years, and it 
was owing to a citizen of our county that the man referred 
to was not hanged. The story may be familiar to some, 
but it is worth repeating : 

Two brothers named Bowne, and a brother-in-law 
named Colvin, living in Manchester, Vermont, got into 
an altercation one day in a field, and the brothers beat 
Colvin so severely with hoes that he fell bleeding pro- 
fusely, and the brothers were afraid they had killed him. 


The brothers at night went to look after Colvin's 
body, but it had mysteriously disappeared, much to 

their surprise. The Bownes were generally suspected of 
having murdered him, but nothing was done until some 
seven years afterward, when some bones, thought to be 
human bones (and afterward found to I33 sheep bones)* 
were found partly burned ; this and other evidence caused 
the arrest and trial of the Bownes. One was sentenced to 
be hanged and the other sentenced to imprisonment for 
life. The chief evidence was a confession of gnilt by the 
younger Bowne who was sentenced to prison, though the 
elder stoutly denied the accusation. While the two 
brothers were in jail after trial, a man residing at Pol- 
hemus' Mills, Ocean county, happened m New York City 
and met with a paper containing an account of the trial ; 
while reading it he became convinced that the man said 
to be murdered (Colvin) resided near him at Polhemus' 
Mills, with Tabor Chadwick. He sent word to the Ver- 
mont Sheriff, who came on privately to Polhemus' Mills, 
identified Colvin and took him back, arriving at Man- 
chester only the night before the day appointed for 
execution of the elder Bowne. The villagers at the hotel 
were earnestly discussing the trial, some justifying it, 
others condemning it, as no dead body was found, and 
some insisting that Colvin would yet turn up alive. 
"While thus debating, the stag.; drove up and the Sheriff* 
and Colvin got out. The latter was instantly recognized 
and his arrival caused the most intense excitement ; guns 
were fired, bells were rung and people ran through the 
streets crying, "Colvin has come." The jailer, upon 
refusing to liberate; the prisoners without Judges' orders, 
was brought to submit by a cannon planted in front of 
the jail. The younger Bowne, in explanation, said he 
thought they really had killed Colvin, though he could not 
account for the disappearance of the body, and he was told 
he would not be hanged if he confessed. Colvin, always 
after was partially insane, and returned to this county 
where he died. He fancied he owned everything around 
him — otherwise his insanity was hardly observable. 


There are people in Ocean county, ye\ living, who 
remember Colvin. In the New York Tribum (about 
L855 or thereabouts, I believe,) was a long account -two 
columns — of this Colvin affair taken from the lips of one of 
the Bownes last living -forty years after the trial. I 
understand the case is reported in " Greenleaf s Vermont 
Reports." It must have occurred near sixty years ago. 


Since the Revolutionary war the only murder Inow 
remember of having been committed within the limits of 
Ocean county, was the murder of a lad named Thomas 
Williams, by Peter Stout, at Goodluck. The lad was 
driving cattle to the meadows alone- the north side of 
Stout's Creek oue morning and met Stout and began to 
ridicule him, calling him " eelhead," etc., which it seems 
was a name sometimes applied to Stout. Stout let the 
boy pass him and then slyly ran up behind him and 
struck him over the head with an axe, which he was car- 
rying on his shoulder. The mother of the boy, anxious 
at his lone- absence, went in search and found the body. 
She carried it home — a distance of half a mile — but was 
so distracted that she never remembered anything from 
the time she saw the body until she came to her senses 
at home, and found herself rocking the lifeless body. An 
inquest was held and among the Coroner's Jury was 
Peter Stout. An idea is often current in various places 
that if the murderer was in the room, and touched the 
body with his fingers, the blood would start afresh from 
the wounds ; this was started here and all the Jurymen 
touched the body except Stout, who reached out his 
hand part way then jerked it back, turned on his heel and 
went off whistling. Some blood being observed on his 
hand he said he had been killing a chicken. He was 
tried at Freehold, found guilty and hanged. He made a 
confession which was afterward printed in pamphlet 
form. His body was buried on the south side of Stout's 


Very many people — and among them relatives of the 
lad Williams — opposed the hanging of Stout, as he was 

'deficient in sense, and generally thought to be almost 
crazy at all times. The spot of the murder is still 
pointed out nearly opposite a pathway across Stout's 
Creek. This murder occurred Nov. 19, 1802. Young 
Williams is buried in Goodluck graveyard. The follow- 
ing is the inscription on his tombstone : 



Aged 14 years. 9 months and Is days. 


An Inquisition was held in Monmouth county Aug. 
20, 1778, to inquire into charges against persons disaf- 
fected, and a number of names in Monmouth and Ocean 
are given as having been found guilty. The Commis- 
sioners who tried the charges were Samuel Forman, 
Kenneth Hankinson and Jacob Wikoff. 

Oct. 14, 1778. We learn that on Wednesday last 
the enemy left Egg Harbor after burning several vessels 
and houses belonging to gentlemen who have distin- 
guished themselves by their attachment to the American 
cause. They have, it is said, bent their course towards 
Toms River, in order to destroy our salt works." The 
burning of houses, spoken of in the foregoing, refers to 
the burning of Chestnut Neck. Atlantic county, when 
Pulaski's guards were murdered. 

Vessels of the enemy would occasionally got stranded 
on our beach during the war, as in the following instance : 
• Dec. 9, 1778. We learn that a few days ago a 
British armed vessel, bound from Halifax to New York, 
and richly laden came ashore near Barnegat. The crew, 
about 00 in number, surrendered themselves prisoners to 
our militia. Goods to the amount of £5,000 have been 
taken out of her by our people, and it is said a number 
of prisoners have already arrived in Bordentown ; other 
particulars not yet come to hand. 

Dec, 28, 1778. Capt. Alexander, of the sloop Eliza- 


beth of Baltimore, was taken by the British, but was 
permitted to leave in his small boat and landed at Cran- 
berry 1 nl. -t Dec 28th. 

March, 1779. The sloop Success came ashore in a 
snowstorm at Barnegat about March. 177'.*. She had 
been taken by the British brig Diligence, and was on her 
way to New York. She had a valuable cargo of nun. 
molasses, coffee, cocoa, etc, on board. The prize mastei 
and three hands were made prisoners and sent to 

The At ><• Jersey GazetU savs that in January. 17.'.'. 
a Refugee named John Giberson was shot near Toms 
River. My impression is that this item is incorrect as to 
the place named; tradition locates the place where he 
was >hi.tjustbelowTuckertononaplaceonce occupied by 
a 1. ranch of the Falkinburgh family. Mickle*s Reminis- 
cences of Gloucester gives a very minute account of the 
affair which is moreover substantially corroborated by 
tradition in this section. Mickle gives the nam. 
William Giberson, not John. During the year 1780 
Edward Giles, of Philadelphia, in the schooner Shark, 
was taken by a sloop of ten guns. Giles was left in 
schooner and a prize crew of four men put on board of 
her. Giles had on board of her some choice old liquor 
with which he managed to get his four captors drunk 
and then run tl. - >ner into Little Egg Harbor. He 
helped take the four to Philadelphia. 

Verily it does seem that a proper use of good liquor 
sometimes effect- good, as here it is shown that a man 
captured a vessel and four men with only a bottle of 
choice run. 

About the middle of December. 1780, a British brig 
in the West Indian trade was taken and brought into 
Toms Piiver. This brig had run short of water and 
provisions, and. mistaking the land for Long Island, sent 
a boat and four men ashore to obtain supplies. The 
militia hearing of it manned two boats and went out and 
took her. She had on board 150 hhds of rum and spirits, 
which our ancestors pronounced " excellent. " so they 


must have considered themselves competent judges of 
such articles ! 

The British brig Molly was driven ashore in a snow- 
storm m-ar Barnegat : her prize crew were taken prison- 
ers by our militia and sent to Philadelphia. 

March 19, 1782. The privateer Dart, ("apt. William 
Gray, of Salem, Mass., arrived at Toms River with a 
prize sloop taken from the " Black Jack" a British 
galley belonging to New York. The next day his boat 
with seven men went in pursuit of a brig which was 
near the bar. A letter from Toms River written a few- 
days after they left said they had not been heard from 


The coasting interest must have been quite impor- 
tant at an early date, as numerous small vessels would 
be required to carry the lumber to market from the 
various mills on the different streams in the county. On 
some of the streams, as on North Branch Forked River 
and on Oyster Creek, the lumbar was mile up into small 
rafts and floated down to the bay where the vessels were 
anchored, and there taken on board. About the close of 
the last century and the beginning of the present, the 
cedar rail business began to fail and the owners and 
masters of vessels feared they could get no remunerative 
employment for their schooners and sloops. And to add 
to their anxiety, about this time they began to hear 
rumors that Fulton, Fitch and others had made inven- 
tions by which vessels could be run by steam and not be 
dependent on capricious winds and tides, ami that they 
would soon displace sailing vessels. The coasters were 
incredulous, and ridiculed the idea of a vessel being 
driven by " a kettle full of boiling water."' Nevertheless 
steamboats proved a success, and not only a success but 
proved the salvation, instead of the ruin, of the coasters' 
interests, for the steamboats required pine wood for fuel 
which the vessels supplied from various points along the 
bay, and eventually from Virginia. 


rn \i;coAL. 
Between ls;»() and 1840, the supply of pine 
wood suitable for market began to fail, and the coasters 
again began to inquire " what business could next In- 
found for vessels.'' This was satisfactorily answered to 
many by the starting of the charcoal trade. The long 
ranks of cordwood near all our landings, so well remem- 
bered by oldest residents, gave place to piles of charcoal, 
the dust from which made it almost impossible to tell 
whether a seafaring man was white or black. Then 
came the demand for coasting vessels to carry hard coal, 
anthracite and bituminous, from Philadelphia, Alexandria 
and other places to other ports. 

Before any very large business was done in ex- 
porting charcoal, considerable quantities of it were made 
for the use of furnaces and forges. The " coaling 
grounds" for Federal Furnace and David Wright's Forge 
are named in 1795 in ancient deeds for lauds near Hurri- 
cane and Black Swamp ; the Federal company's coal- 
ing ground on Hurricans Neck is named in 1797. In 
1825 "Jack Cook's Coal Kiln Bottom" and "Morocco 
Kiln" are named. 


In looking over the Revolutionary history of Ocean 
and Monmouth (as well as of some other parts of the 
State) our notice is frequently attracted to the number 
of blacks who aided the British and Refugees through- 
out the war. In some of the reminiscences herewith 
published, the fact of the Blacks being with the enemy 
has been noticed, as for instance at Forked River ; the 
Refugee leader, Davenport, had forty with him ; at Toms 
River, the Blacks aided the British; and the history of 
Monmouth furnishes numerous instances proving that 
the Blacks were active and valuable aids to the enemy 
as in the case of the noted Col. Tye and his company, 
who were with the British in the attack on Capt. 
Huddy's house at Colt's Neck. It is no difficult matter 


to tell why the Blacks aided the enemy — they received 
their liberty by so doing. The question naturally arises 
in the mind, "Would not our ancestors have gained by 
freeing the Blacks and thus securing their aid against 
the British ?" They undoubtedly thought they could 
not afford the expense. It will be remembered that 
although Rhode Island and Massachusetts freed many 
slaves to join the American army, yet their value was 
paid to the owners — Rhode Island giving $750, and Mas- 
sachusetts si, 000 each, for them, making it quite a costly 
undertaking. New Jersey, and particularly Old Monmout h 
was noted for liberality in furnishing men and money 
and it was thought, doubtlessly, that to buy the blacks 
of their owners to fight on our side would prove more 
costly than they could afford. Suppose there Avere two 
thousand able bodied male slaves in tin State ; these at 
the price paid by Rhode Island — the lowest price then 
paid — would amount to a million and a half dollars — -a 
very serious tax to a people already taxed seemingly to 
the utmost. The question then was not about freeing 
the slaves of the enemy ; that was a point about which 
there seemed but little dispute ; the British used run- 
away slaves and no protest against their right to do so 
i although jn'otest was made against Lord Dunmore 
afterward selling them). But when we read how valua- 
ble these blacks proved to the enemy, informing them 
who had money, plate, horses, cattle and valuables of 
any description ; where they lived ; acting as pilots or 
guides through by-roads and paths — helping destroy 
all they could not carry away and fighting with desper- 
ate, undisputed bravery. These considerations alone, to 
say nothing of the many valuable lives lost, would seem 
to show that our ancestors, in the mere selfish view of 
dollars and cents, were clearly the losers by their policy 
— certainly so in Old Monmouth. 


The following is an abstract of the memorial of ex- 
Governor and Judge Joel Parker prepared at the re- 
quest of the New Jersey Historical Society by Maj. 
James S. Yard, Editor of the Monmouth Democrat, Free- 
hold, and road at a meeting of the Society at Newark, 
May 17. 1888: 

It so came about, under the guidance of Divine 
Providence, that Joel Parker became Governor of 
New Jersey at the most critical periodinthe history of the 
War of the Rebellion. He was then forty-six years old, and 
in the prime of his intellectual and physical strength and 
vigor. In 1847 he was elected to the Assembly, and in 
1852 he was appointed as Prosecutor of the Pleas for 
Monmouth. In both of these positions he discharged 
his public duties with signal ability. In the Assembly, 
although the youngest member of that body, he distin- 
guished himself throughout the State by introducing a 
measure, which afterwards became a law. to equalize 
taxation by taxing personal as well as real property. 

In December, 1857, at a meeting of the Regimental 
Officers, he was elected Brigadier General of the Mon- 
mouth and Ocean Brigade of State Militia, and proceeded 
to thoroughly organize the corps. At the outbreak of 
the war Maj. Gen. Moore, Commander of the Third 
Division of the State Militia, resigned on account of age 
and infirmity, and on the 7th of May, 1861, General 
Parker was nominated by Gov. Olden, and unanimously 
confirmed by the Senate as his successor. This appoint- 
ment was made for the purpose of promoting volunteering 
for the suppression of the rebellion. Party strife at this 
time was rife and bitter, but Gen. Parker's patriotic 
efforts were generally recognized and commended alike 
by party friends and foes, and put Xew Jersey in the 
front rank of the loyal States. 

In the Fall of 1862, after the defeat of the operations 
against Pdchmond, and the famous seven days' fight on 
the Peninsula, and when the fate of our national existence 


seemed to tremble in the balance, Gem Parker was 
nominated for Governor and was elected by a majority 
three times greater than had ever before been given in 
the State for any candidate for that position. His elec- 
tion gave a new impetus to the national cause, and his 
administration, which in all respects was eminently a 
successful one, was especially distinguished for its 
efficiency in promoting enlistments in the army, and for 
successfully keeping up volunteering for this purpose 
for a year after all other states had been obliged to 
resort to the draft to fill their regiments. 

Through these efforts New Jersey is enabled to 
boast that no man was ever taken unwillingly from the 
State to fill the quota of troops demanded by the general 

His action during the invasion of Pennsylvania hj 
the rebel forces is still fresh in the public mind. Before 
the people of that State had recovered from the panic 
caused by this invasion, he had rallied regiments of 
Jerseymen to the standard and was marching them to 
their defence, for which service he was publicly compli- 
mented by President Lincoln and Gov. Curtin. In 1804, 
when Maryland was invaded and the National Capitol 
was threatened, he did not wait to hear from the 
authorities at Washington, but immediately set about 
the raising of reinforcements to drive the invaders back. 
These are but instances of the foresight, vigor and 
patriotism which characterized his efforts throughout 
his administration down to the close of the war. 

In 1863, after the Battle of Gettysburg, and without 
waiting for the action of the Legislature, Governor Par- 
ker dispatched an agent to the battle-field to personally 
superintend, with great care, the removal of the remains 
of the New Jersey dead. A plot of ground was secured on 
the field, the bodies were carefully re-interred, and the 
ground was set apart for this sacred purpose, with appro- 
priate ceremonies, in the presence of a vast concourse of 
people assembled to witness them. 

But his efforts did not stop at the operations in the 


field. They extended also to the care of the Jersey 
soldiers in their camps and hospitals and of their 
families at home. One of his first acts as Governor was 
to establish an Agency at Washington to look after the 
welfare of the New Jersey troops, to facilitate transfers 
and discharges in deserving cases, and to alleviate the 
sufferings of the sick and wounded. The agency also 
received money from the soldiers in the field and 
transmitted it to their families without expense to them. 
Hundreds of thousands of dollars were thus received 
and transmitted, and thousands of soldiers and soldiers' 
families remember with gratitude, to-day, his efforts to 
promote their welfare, and bless him for his kindly 
sympathy. He also instituted inquiries into the con- 
dition of the disabled soldiers and their families, and 
appointed a commission to report what legislation was 
necessaiy to relieve them. In his second annual message 
he recommended the establishment of a Soldiers' Home, 
or Retreat, out of which grew the present admirable 
provision made by the State for that purpose. 

Under most, if not all of the State Constitutions, 
during the first years of the war there was no provision for 
taking the votes of soldiers in the field. This omis- 
sion was not discovered in time to provide in New Jersey 
for the election of 1864, it requiring two years to amend 
the Constitution ; but the Legislature of that year adopt- 
ed resolutions requesting the military authorities to 
furlough the soldiers entitled to vote, so far as it could 
be done without detriment to the service, to go home and 
vote. Gov. Parker, in transmitting these resolutions to 
the President, expressed the wish that all New Jersey 
soldiers, without distinction of party, who could be 
spared, should be allowed to come home on election day, 
and particularly desired that soldiers in hospitals who 
were able to travel, be allowed to visit their homes for 
that purpose. He also wrote to the State Agent at 
Washington, instructing him to assist the soldiers in 
getting furloughs. The Constitution on this point was 
afterwards amended. 


Gov. Parker was always frank and outspoken in his 
views in regard to the conduct of the war, as he was on 
all other matters of public policy, and while frequently 
differing in opinion with the administration at Washing- 
ton, he never faltered in the discharge of his duty to 
sustain by all means in his power the effort to restore the 
Union, or in his belief in the ultimate success of the 
National cause. He was a man of strong convictions, 
and necessarily and essentially a party man, neglecting 
no honest and fair opportunity to advance the interests 
of his party, yet his first consideration was always the 
public interests. In all of his appointments, military 
and civil, he carefully scrutinized the character and 
qualifications of the candidate. Xo question of party 
ever entered into any of his appointments to the*militarv 
service, while in his appointments to the civil service the 
fitness of the appointee generally silenced the clamor of 
the friends of the disappointed candidates ; and while 
this is the rock upon which the popularity of the 
executive is usually wrecked, and while he made 
more appointments than any other man who has ever 
filled the executive chair of our State, yet he returned 
at the close of both his terms of office with his popularity 

Joel Parker was innately and thoroughly a Jersey- 
man, proud of his State and of its history. He neglected 
no opportunity to eulogize it, and warmly resented any 
indignity aimed at it. But his patriotism was greater 
than his State pride — it embraced our whole country. 
In his love for its institutions and in his faith in its 
future glory he never wavered. He was beyond dispute 
the foremost man of his generation in his native State in 
all those qualities that go to make a man useful to and 
beloved by his fellow-men. In his private life he Avas 
pure and above reproach. He was not a brilliant man, 
as the world reckons it, but he was a great man, broad, 
liberal, conscientious, faithful and true, and deserves to 
be conspicuously honored by tic; generation that he 
served so long and so well. 



Joel Parker was bonr in Freehold township on the 
■24th of November, 1816, in a house still standing on the 
Mounl Holly road about four miles west of Freehold, in 
what is now Millstone township. A small village known 
as Smithburg has grown up around it recently. His 
father was Charles Parker, who was born in the same 
neighborhood, and who was Sheriff of the county, mem- 
ber of the Assembly, and for thirteen years State 
Treasurer and at the same time State Librarian. His 
mother, who was also a native of the county as it was 
then constituted, was a daughter of Capt. Joseph Coward. 
of th«- Continental Army. He received his primary edu- 
cation at the old Trenton Academy, and was prepared 
for college at the Lawrenceville High School. In the 
meantime he spent two years as manager on a farm 
which his father then owned near Colts Neck. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1839, and immediately com- 
menced the study of law in the office of the Hon. Henry 
TV. Green, at Trenton, and was admitted to the Bar iu 
1842, when he located at Freehold and commenced the 
practice of his profession. 


In 1810 he cast his first Presidential vote for Martin 
Van Buren, the nominee of the Democratic party. In 
1844 he entered the political arena in support of the 
election of James K. Polk as President, and distinguished 
himself in that campaign as a public speaker. 

Although his long and busy life was crowded with 
great public cares, he did not forget the minor public 
duties nor the obligations of social life. He was one of 
the original members of the lodge of Odd Fellows of his 
town and always retained an interest in its welfare ; in 
his earlier years he took an active part in its affairs, tilling 
the different official positions and representing it in the 
State Grand Lodge. He was also a member of the Ma- 
sonic lodge of his town. In both of these organizations 


be remained an honored member up to the time of his 
death. He was for many years a member of the Union 
Fire Company of Trenton, and of the Fire Department of 
Freehold, aiding both with his counsels and his purse. 
He was also a member of the Commandery of the State 
of Pennsylvania of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States ; a member of the Tammany 
Society of New York City, and an honorary member of 
the Society of the Cincinnati of the State of New Jersey. 
In 1881 he united with the Presbj'terian Church of Free- 
hold, on confession of faith, and afterwards remained an 
acceptable member and communicant of that church. Iu 
1813 he was married to Maria M., eldest daughter of 
Samuel R. Gum mere, Clerk in Chancery of New Jersey, 
who survives him, with two sons, Charles and Frederick, 
both practicing lawyers of some years' standing at the 
Bar of Monmouth County, and a daughter, Bessie. On 
Saturday, the 31st day of December, 1887, after holding 
a special session of the Burlington County Courts, he 
went to Philadelphia, and feeling unwell he called at the 
house of a friend, where, in a few minutes, he received a 
stroke of paralysis. He died on the following Monday, 
shortly after midnight, surrounded by the immediate 
members of his family. He rallied sufficiently on Satur- 
day evening to recognize his wife, but afterwards never 
regained consciousness. 


His personal appearance was imposing. He was 
slightly over six feet high, with a massive frame admira- 
bly proportioned, a head well poised, manly and dignified 
in his bearing, easy and attractive in his manner ; in 
public, free and self-possessed, easily approached by the 
humblest member of the community, but never conde- 
scending to unseemly familiarity. He was persistent in 
the pursuit of the object in which he was interested, and 
in support of the cause which he had espoused ; never 
domineering, but persuasive and conciliating ; avoiding 
personal antagonisms he skilfully laid his course between 


contending factions and reached the goal while others 
were wrangling by the way. Conservative in all his and sometimes considered so almost to a fault, he 
was always a safe leader in public affairs and reliable as 
a personal adviser. 

When he died his fellow citizens throughout the 
State — all ranks and conditions of men — alike pressed 
forward to lav their tribute of affection and regard upon 
his bier. The Governor issued a proclamation reciting 
the eminent services he had rendered the State, and 
caused public honors to be paid to his memory ; the bus- 
iness of the courts was suspended while eulogies were 
pronounced and resolutions of respect and condolence 
were placed upon their records ; organizations, public 
and social, vied with each other in manifestations of 
friendship and esteem, and the press united in one com- 
mon expression of high appreciation of his life and public 

At the session of the Legislature of 1888 a joint 
resolution was passed b} r both Houses providing for the 
purchase of a portrait of Gov. Parker. This portrait 
was afterwards painted by Julian Scott, and hung with 
appropriate ceremonies in the Assembly Chamber on the 
4th of February, 1889. 

" Strong, 'mid the perils that beset his time, 
Stbong, in the chair of State he honored long, 
Strung, in devotion to his home and friends. 
Wherever fortune found or placed him. Strong. 

•'Kind, with a kindness words cannot express. 
Kind, with a sweetness born of noble mind, 
Kind, let the tear-drop pathos started, speak: 
To youth and age, to poor and sorrowing, kind. 

"Great, in the virtues that adorned his life, 
Great, in the annals of his native State, 
Great, in his fearless championship of right, 
In every trust ami station, truly Great."* 

*Franh P. McDerrnott. Freehold, in the Monmouth Democrat, Jan. 12, 1888. 



Edward Wharton was one of the most zealous 
Quakers of his time, and lived at Salem, Mass. In 1669 
he gave an order to John Hance to hold and enjoy his 
lot of land. 

George Wharton and John Harwood, of London, 
appointed John Hance, of Shrewsbury, as their attorney. 

Edward Wharton was a noted man in the history of 
the Society of Friends. He was in Salem as early as 
1655 and was called "glazier." His business or " out- 
ward occasions," as Bishop's "New England Judged" 
terms it, required him to make frequent journeys to 
Rhode Island and other places, and he frequently 
accompanied Quaker preachers on their visits to various 
places, sometimes as far as Long Island. He first began 
to suffer for his faith in 1658. In 1659 he was given 
twenty-four lashes and fined £20, which a friend paid, as 
he would not pay it. In 1661 the stripes were again 
given to him and to John Chamberlain, supposed ances- 
tor of the first Chamberlains of Monmouth, for protesting 
against the brutal hanging of William Leddra, who was 
hanged on Boston Common for preaching his faith. It 
is not stated that Chamberlain was then a Quaker, but 
his feelings of humanity prompted him to protest 
against the act. Wharton, despite all threats, remained 
with Leddra until he was executed. In 1662 he accom- 
panied two Quaker women, preachers, named Alice 
Ambrose and Mary Tom kins, to Long Island. Here the 
Dutch authorities arrested all three of them, and also 
John Tilton and Mary, his wife, William Reape, of New- 
port, who was with them, and others, and kept them 
prisoners for ten days, and then put them all, except 
John Tilton and wife, on a ship and sent them out of 
their jurisdiction. 

In 1664 Alice Ambrose and Mary Tomkins came to 
Boston from Virginia, where they had been pilloried and 
then " given thirty-two stripes with a whip of nine cords 
and every c^rd three knots." 


Mary Tomkins, while in Boston, was taken so sick 
she thought she would die. Edward Wharton and an- 
other Quaker named Wenlock Christian, went Erom Salem 
to see her. The constables took her to jail and both 
women and the two men were ordered to be whipped. 
Colonel Temple interceded and got three clear, but they 
vented their wrath on Edward Wharton against whom 
they had no charge but that of leaving his home in 
Salem and coming to Boston to see a sick friend. Gov. 
Endicott issued his warrant to have Wharton given thirty 
stripes on his naked body, " convicted of being a vaga- 
bond from his own dwelling place." This warrant was 
dated June 30, 1664. Wharton was taken to the market 
place and stripped, and his arms bound to the wheels of 
a cannon. Constable John Lowell bade the hangman to 
whip, which was so cruelly done that it was testified that 
peas might be put in the holes made by the knots in the 
whip, on his flesh, arms and back. Wharton was not cowed 
by his cruel treatment, but after it was over he said, " I 
think I shall be here to-morrow, again ! " He was well 
off and next day he said to Lieut. Governor Bellingham : 
" How is it that I should be a vagabond yesterday and 
not to-day ? " Wharton had been in this country some 
twenty years and had supplied Governor Endicott with 
necessaries of life when he was in humble and suffering 
circumstances. A lengthy letter is given in Bishop's 
" New England Judged," complaining of Gov. Endicott's 
ingratitude and of his injustice. This letter was written 
by John Smith, possibly the one subsequently in Mon- 
mouth, whose wife Margaret had been imprisoned all 
winter by Endicott's orders. Smith upbraided him for 
his "hard hartedness to neighbors to whom thou hadst 
formerly been beholden to and helped in a time of want 
when thou hadst no bread ! " Wharton w r as punished at 
other times, but the foregoing statements are sufficient to 
show why he aided in establishing the settlement in 
Monmouth where religious toleration should be insured. 

The persistence of Wharton in travelling with Qua- 
ker preachers, visiting them in prison and aiding them 


in every way to the best of his ability, despite stripes 
and imprisonment, show an unselfish heroism rarely wit- 
nessed. He was highly esteemed by his Puritan neigh- 
bors for everything except his Quakerism. 

Eliakim Wardell, who was first named inMonmouth, 
was a son of Thomas Wardell, who came to this country 
and was made a freeman at Boston. 1634 He had four 
sons. The father was disarmed in 1G37, for being an 
Antinomian, as the followers of Ann Hutchinson were 
called. Some years later, when the Quakers began 
preaching their views. Eliakim harbored one of them 
named "Wenlock Christison, for which the Court in 1G59 
fined him, and. as Wardell would not pay the tine, the 
officer levied " on a pretty beast for the saddle (says 
"Bishop's New England Judged") worth £14, which was 
taken for the fine, which was less than the value of the 
horse, the overplus, to make up to him, some of the offi- 
cers plundered old William Marston of a vessel of green 
ginger, which for some fine was taken from him and 
forced it into Eliakinfs house, where he let it be and 
touched it not. In process of time Eliakim came to be 
fined again, and whereas, according to law, he should 
have the overplus of the beast restored to him, yet the 
executors came and took the ginger away as aforesaid, 
which was all the satisfaction that was made to him. 
And notwithstanding, he came not to your invented 
worship, but was fined ten shillings for his absence and 
his wife's, yet he was often rated for priest's hire. And 
the priest, Seaborn Cotton (old John Cotton's son), t> i 
obtain his end, sold his rate to a man almost as bad as 
himself, who is named Nathaniel Boulton, who came on 
pretence of borrowing a little corn for himself, which the 
harmless, honest man, willingly lent him. And he. find- 
ing thereby that he had the corn, which was his design. 
Judas-dike, he went and bought the rate of the priest and 
came and measured as he pleased. Another time he had 
a heifer taken from him for priest's rates, and then 
almost all his marsh and meadow ground taken from 
him. which was to keep his cattle in winter." 

rALES OF I 0BE8T AM' SEA, 441 

Eliakiin Wardell was at one time sentenced to be 
whipped with fifteen Lashes at the cart's tail, for all< 
disrespectful remarks of Simon Bradstreet, which re- 
marks he made because Bradstreet had spoken disre- 
spectfully of bis (WardeH's) wife. Hi> wife's name 
previous to her marriage was Lydia Perkins. In 1662 
Wardell and a man named William Fourbish witnessed 
the whipping of t\v<> Quaker women named Mary Tomp- 
kins and Alice Ambrose, at Newburyport, and for pro- 
testing against the punishment, both men were put in 
stocks. His wife Lydia had been a member of the 
church, but when the Quakers promulgated their doc- 
trines she joined them. She was also a victim of the 
lash of the Puritans. 

Eliakim Wardell and wife Lydia, at this time lived 
at " Hampton, fourteen miles from Dover." There is but 
little doubt that Wardell and wife, and Edward Wharton 
of Salem, and James Heard, all Quakers, were induced to 
aid in the settlement of Monmouth by the energetic 
Quaker merchant of Newport, William Reape, whose 
business led him to various places. 


The extensive forests in Ocean county have been 
witness of many exciting scenes occasioned by tires in the 
woods, children lost, etc. Fires in the woods have been 
too numerous to attempt to particularize. Often hun- 
dreds of acres are swept over and tens of thousands of 
dollars worth of timber are burned in a short time. 
With a high wind, the roar of the tire in the woods, the 
appearance of the sky, etc., are appalling. " Fighting 
tire " is familiar to hundreds of citizens of Ocean county. 
Occasionally life is thus lost as in the following instance : 

About fifty years ago, many persons were fighting fire 
near Forked River. A sudden shift of wind brought the 
flames with such speed down upon the men that they had 
to run for their lives to a mill pond not far off ; but one 
man named Collins missed the road to the pond and was 


overtaken by the flames and burned to death. The fol- 
lowing is a case of a child lost in the woods' : 

About thirty years ago a little boy named "Warren 
Conklin of some six or seven years of age, living at Bar- 
negat, started to take his father's dinner to him in the 
woods, a mile or so from home. The boy got lost and 
search was made next day and for weeks after, and by 
hundreds of people, but of no avail until three months 
after, his body was found, partly decayed, close to where 
persons had been many times. The search was so gen- 
eral that it was estimated that it would have taken one man 
seventeen years to have gone over as much ground as the 
number did in searchinc; for the boy. The feelings of the 
agonized parents of the lost child at such a time may bet- 
ter be imagined than described. 

Tales of shipwrecks not only of foreign vessels on 
our coast but of shipAvreck of our citizens, loss of life, etc. 
are so numerous as to be impossible to attempt to give 
particulars here. 

Some of our citizens like Forman Grant, John F. 
Jones, and John Parker have lost their lives in nobly en- 
deavoring to save the lives of shipwrecked persons, and 
many have received gold and silver medals for risking 
life to save life. 





Ahf.aha.m- James Abraham, b. Northamptonshire, Eng., <1. Sept. 
13, 1765, a. 69 yrs., 6 m. 1* d. ; wife Janet, d. April 3, 17-17, a. 43 yrs ; 
daughter Elizabeth, in. Enoch D. Thomas, and d. 1762, a. 34 yrs.; then Mr. 
Charles Abraham d. 1760, a. about 40 yrs. 

Adah, Adams Alexander Adam is named 1700. He may have been a 
Scotch emigrant. Robert Adam was a Scotch emigrant, named in White- 
head's history of Perth A in boy. The will of Thomas Adams of Freehold, 
dated Jan. 12, 1732, and proved Jan. 26. 1732; names wife Margery; speaks 
of four eldest children, but does not mention their names. Members of the 
Adams family early settled in Burlington county and branches have lived 
in Ocean. The will of John Adams of Chester, Burlington, dated March 
16, 1699, names wife Elizabeth and seven children. Executors, Samuel 
Jennings and Francis Davenport and wife. The will of one John Adams 
of Burlington, dated March J, 1704, names wife Elizabeth as executor. 
Alexander Adam bought land 1694 of John Reid; was grand juror 1700. 
John Adams of Woodbridge, had 97 acres 1670 granted by Gov. Carteret. 
John Adams and w Elizabeth of Woodbridge, X. J., m. June 1, 1671; son 
John, 1676. Thomas Adams of Middlesex made will 1695; filed at Tren- 
ton. Thomas Adams, yeoman, had 224 acres in 1724, and Jedediah Adams 
had 113 acres same year, whose grandfather, John Adams, bought said land 
1691 of John Rodman. Joseph Adams m. Ann Newton in Burlington 
county 1801. In Moorestown, Burlington county, John Adams was one of 
the first settlers; daughter Deborah m. Judah Allen. In 1692 Elizabeth 
Adams, dau. of John, m. William, son of John Hollingshead. At Shrews- 
bury Friends' meeting, 1695 — 7 mo. 2d, James Adams of Burlington 
county, was m. to Esther Allen, Shrewsbury. The first of the name of 
Adams who came to America were : John, Plymouth, Mass., 1621-2; 
Henry, with eight sons, Braintree, Mass., 1634; William, Cambridge, 
Mass., 1635; Robert, Ipswich, Mass., 1635; Richard, Weymouth, Mass., 
1635; Richard, Salem, Mass., 1635, Jeremy Braintree, Mass., 1637; Fer- 
dinande, Dedham. Mass., 1637; George, Watertown, Mass., 1645; Christo- 
pher, Braintree, Mass.. 1645; Ralph, Elizabeth City, Ya., 1623; Robert, 
Martin Hundreds, Va., 1624; Richard, embarked for Va. 1635. The name 
Adams is of Welsh origin, signifying "Son of Adam." 

Aejns — Abial Akins was a prominent citizen of Toms River, Justice of 
the Peace, etc., during the Revolution and for some twenty-five years subse- 
quently. Among descendants of Stephen b. 1739, is Thomas, b. 1811, who 
in. Anna Salter of Newport, N. S., and is (1886) keeper of public docu- 
ments of the Province. The Thomas (b. 1734) came back and finally 


settled al Dartmouth, Mass. Abiel AMns is named in Freehold Records 
17(17, when he gave a mortgage for £300 to John Longstreet. In 1769 
Abiel Akins and wife Patience deeded land to John Forman. Benjamin, 
Joseph and William Akin lived in old Dover township in the early part of 
the present century. In Essex county Elizabeth Akin, was administratrix 
of John Akin 1746. Thomas Akin and w. Lydiaof Perth Amboy, made 
deed Aug. 17, 1752, to Jeremiah, Richard, Joseph, and Benjamin Borden of 
Monmouth. Among licenses to marry recorded at Trenton are the fol- 
lowing : 

Timothy Akin, of Monmouth, to Elizabeth Woolley, Jan. 28, 1748; 
Elizabeth Akin, of Perth Amboy, to Andrew Kelly of same place, Aug. 18, 
1752; Stephen Akin, of Monmouth, to Elizabeth King of Shrewsbury, April 
1, 1761; Lydia Akin to Kraghead Ryle, March 27, 1779. 

Among New York marriage licenses were the following: 

Abigail Akin to John Toffey, Dee. 12, 1775; Joshua Akins to Elizabeth 
Briggs, October, 1781; John Akins to Mary Brooks, April 22, 1783. 

Algoe, (or Alger) — Benjamin Alger and Ruth, his wife, are named at 
Middletown, 1722. About the first of this name in this country was 
Andrew Algor, who was at Scarborough, Maine, 1651, who had wife, and 
children named John, Andrew, Matthew, Elizabeth and Joanna. Branches 
of the Algor family settled at Lyme. Benjamin Algor m. Ruth Cottrell, d. 
of John and sister of Nicholas, who deeded land to her 1722. In tax list of 
Shrewsbury township, 1764, Benjamin Anger and William Auger were 
among persons assessed. 

Allen — John Allen, with Robert Tayli >r, purchased a share of land 
among original purchasers named 1667. George Allen also one share in 
1670. Jedediah Allen of Sandwich, R. I., bought in Nov. 1683, of Job 
Almy, his share of Monmouth land George Allen in. Elizabeth Hulett 22d 
of 2d mo. 1694, by Peter Tilton, both of Shrewsbury. In February, 1694, 
on estate of Ephraim Allen, dec'd, letters issued to his widow Mary. Mary 
Allen was m. to Thomas Forman .May 27. 1695. John Allen, named 
among the original purchasers l r >67, was probably the same named in 
Friends' records of Newport, R. I , as marrying Elizabeth Bacon, Oct. 14, 
Ki5l). He had children, Elizabeth, b. 1651; Mary, b. 1652; John, b. 1654; 
Priscilla, b. 1659; Samuel, b. 1661. All of his children were born at New- 
port. And he may have been the same John Allen named a few years 
previous at Rohoboth, Mass., where in 1644 in allotment of town lots he 
was given lot No. 42. George Allen of Sandwich, was a man of note in his 
day and his descendants are exceedingly numerous. He was b. in England 
about 1620 and d. after 1685. It is said that Ralph Allen, noted among 
early Quakers of Plymouth colony, whose descendants came to Monmouth, 
was also a son of the first George Among the eleven male members of the 
Puritan church at Sandwich, Mass., in 1644, were Geo. Allen, Ralph Allen, 
Peter Gauntt and Richard Kirby, all of whom have descendants in New 
Jersey. Matthew Allen, son of the first George, of Sandwich, m. Sarah 
Kirby, June 5. 1657; he left Sandwich and settled at Dartmouth, and had 
by wife Sarah: Dorothy, b. 1659; Miriam, b. 1661; Deborah, b. 1663; 
Mary, b. 1668; Ahazadiah, b. 1671; Matthew, b. 1677. George Allen, 2nd, 
had by W. Hannah children: Caleb, h. 1648, Judah, b. 16511; Ephraim, b. 
1652; Eliza, b. 1654; and by second w. Sarah: Matthew, 1). June 16, 1657; 
James and John, twins, b. Aug. 5, 1658; Lydia, b. 1660; Daniel, b. 1(163; 
Hannah, b. 1666; Eber, b. 1668; George, b. 1(172. Most of these names are 
familiar in the early records of Monmouth, as they were handed down 
among descendants. Ralph Mien, one of the persecuted Quakers, said also 
to have been a son of the first George of Sandwich, had descendants who 
came to Monmouth, some of whom became quite noted. He m. Easter 
Swift and had five children, the first of whom, Jedediah, b. in 1646, came 
to New Jersey, and was a member of the colonial assembly in 1703, and is 
frequently named in ancient records. Ralph, son of Jedediah 1st, m. Ann, 
dau. of Aiahlon Wright of Burlington county, and a Judah Allen, possibly 
also his son, m. Deborah, dau. of John Adams, 1701. Allentown, it is said, 
derives its name from a Nathan Allen, who was probably the son of 


Jedediah, b. L673. Rev. George Swain in Historical Discourse of the 
Presbyterian church of Allentown, says that Nathan Allen bought in 1 7< ><". 
of Robert Burnett, 520 acres more or less, on Doctors Creek and other 
lands. An abstract of his will is given hereafter, and from the will of his 
bod Nathan, it would sn-m that the widow of the first Nathan had married 
again. In a recoid of Quakers 1704, given in Pa. Hist. Mag., toI. 7. p. 370, 
Nathan Allen is named as a Quaker from Burlington. Rev. John Allen ol 
Woodbridge, came from England about December, 1680, and was minister 
of the Presbyterian church therefor a few years. He was married three 
times. The name of his last wife was Deliverance Potter. The last names 
of the others are unknown. Tn Daily's History of Woodbridge are records 
copied at considerable length. In the Revolutionary war Jacob, John, 
Judah, aud Nathan Allen of Monmouth were soldiers, and also Edward, 

Joseph and Peter Of Bui lington. On the side of the Loyalists was Isaac 

Allen of Trenton, who owned land in Monmouth, who was Lieut. -Colonel 
in the second battalion of New Jersey Royal Volunteers. At the close of 
the war he went to St. John. New Brunswick, and was given lots No. 56 7 
in 1783. He was appointed Assistant Judgi 1806 and his grandson, John 
Campbell, b. 1817, was appointed i hief Justice of New Brunswick 1875, and 
still holds (1885) that position. Among the Loyalists who had laud 
granted to them in 17s:i. in St. John, were William. John and Benjamin 
Allen. The abstracts of wills of Aliens, recorded at Trenton, include 
persons of the name in the upper part of the State. In the early settle- 
ment of Elizabethtown a John Allen is named. In Morris county ('apt. 
Job Allen was a prominent citizen as early as 1730. Deacon Gilbert Allen, 
a man of note in Morris, was a son of Jacob Allen, who possibly was a son 
of Charles, b. 1702 and d. 17sc>. A long list of abstract of wills, and of 
appointment of administrators and guardians relating to the Allen family. 
are recorded in the office of the Secretary of state at Trenton. 

Allmy Christopher and Job Allmy were among the number of origi- 
nal purchasers of land 1667. They were brothers, and sons of William 
Almy las the name is now spelled i who came over from England with Gov. 
Winthrop and was at Lynn. Mass.. 1631, ami in 1637 was among the num- 
ber who founded Sandwich in that State. In 1642 he removed to Ports- 
mouth, R. I. It is said that when the Quakers began promulgating their 
faith about Kio7. he joined that sect. He was b. about 1601 and d. 1676. 
He had children: Ann, b. about l<'.-27 who m. Deputy-Gov. John Greene. 
and Christopher, John. Job and Catharine. Christopher was generally 
known as Captain, from his commanding a vessel that traded between 
Newport. Monmouth and other places. He returned to Ehode Island to 
live by or before 1678, brrt occasionally canie back on business. He was a 
Deputy in Ehode Island 1690 and the same year was elected Governor, but 
declined the position, "giving satisfactory reasons." In 1693-5 he was an 
agent in England for Rhode Island. Christopher Almy was one of the 
first to settle in Monmouth, and was here at least as early as 1665. 

Anderson — Capt. John Anderson, who is frequently named in county 
and State records in the early part of the last century, was b. about 1665 in 
Scotland, and said to have been baptized and educated in the communion 
of the Episcopal Church, Scotland, and had the ''Right Rev. Father in 
God, John Lord Bishop of Ross for his Godfather." He was a sea captain 
for a time and commanded the ship Unicorn in a Scottish expedition to 
Darien, and, after a cruise of over three years he brought his vessel to 
Perth Amboy, where he probably stopped awhile before coming to Mon- 
mouth. He m. Anna, d. of John Reed, the noted Deputy Surveyor of East 
Jersey. Capt. John Anderson was a justice 1710. member of th-- Colonial 
Council 1713. and in subsequent years was President of the Council in 1736, 
when in the early part of that year the Governor of New Jersey. William 
Cosby, died and the government of the State devolved upon Capt. Ander- 
son, who. however, held the position but eighteen days, when in 1736, aged 
70 years, he also died, '•lamented by all his acquaintances." Col. John 
Anderson had children John. James. Kenneth. Jonathan. Margaret, Helena. 
Anna, Elizabeth. Isabella. His will was dated Jan. 20. 1733. and proved 


April 8, 173(i. The son Kenneth Anderson became a colonel and had a 
daughter [sabella, who married Colonel Nathaniel Scudder, a hero of the 
Revolution, who was killed by the Refugees Oct, 16, 17*1. Among tax- 
payers in Freehold 1770 were Kenneth Kenneth, .Jr., Joshua, James and 
Matthias Anderson. 

Anioniiiks -Johannes and wife, Joanna Kourvenhoven, were mem- 
bers of Marlborough Brick Church, 1724. Jacob* Antonides, b. Oet. s, 
1780, m. Elizabeth Sutphen Dee. 18, 1800; she wash. Oct. 1, 1781; they 
had children: John, b. 1801;Abram, 1>. 1807; Archibald, b. 1808; Phebe, 
b. 1810; Deborah, b. 1812; Eliza, b. 1816. The son Abram married Lydia 
of Reuben Tilton and had children: Delia Ann. Charles, Elizabeth, who 
m. Charles W. Ten Brook, Ira, Eleanor, Deborah Jane, Emeline, who ni. 
Charles Curtis, William \V., Laura, who m. Louis Lane, and Stephen S 
Johannes Antonides, the tirst of the name in Monmouth, was m. to 
Annetze Willenne, daughter of William Gerretse Van Couvenhoven and 
wife, Jannetse Montfoort Couwenhoven, of Flatlands. Johannes was her 
second husband, her tirst having been Aert Williamson. 

Antkim — The Antrims of Ocean County are probably descended from 
John Antrim, who was b. about 1(>57, and was m. in 1682 at Salem, N. J., 
to Frances Butcher, d. of John Butcher. He subsequently settled in 
Burlington County and in the census of old Northampton Township, taken 
1709, it is stated that he was then 52 yrs old, his wife, Frances, ;">(); chil- 
dren, John, aged 24, James, a. 23, Thomas, a. 19, Ann, a. 17, Mary, 16, 
Isaac and Elizabeth, twins, 14 John Antrim, second of the name, b. 
about 1685, m. Amy (Mary ?) Andrews in 1714 at Chester Nichols' meeting. 
About the first of 'this family in America was Thomas Antrim who left 
Southampton, England, on the ship James, in 1635, and landed at Boston 
June 3, and subsequently settled at Salem, Mass. He had children, ( >badiah, 
MaryandJohn. His will was dated 11m. 24, 1662, and names son Obadiah and 
d., who m. at Burmah. John Hance, in his will, names d. Mary Antrim. 
John Antrim is named 1692 as a member of Burlington Yearly meeting. 
In 1724 James Antrim owned 300 acres in Mansfield, Burlington County. 
1796, April 10, Joseph Antrim, of Burlington County, m. Hannah Stockton. 
In upper Freehold John Antrim and wife were living at close of last century. 

Apple gate —Thomas Applegate and Bartholomew Applegate are 
named in Freehold records in 1674. They were from Gravesend, Long 
Island. Though Bartholomew visited the county, it is not probable that 
he settled in it. Thomas Applegate m. Johannah Gibbons, d. of Richard, 
who was one of the twelve Monmouth Patentees. He d. about the be- 
ginning of the. year 1699. He left sons, Thomas, John, Daniel, Joseph, 
Benjamin and Richard. His w., Johannah, survived him and she and her 
father, Richard Gibbons, were his executors. His will was dated Feb. 1, 
1698, and proved Feb. 29, 1699. His eldest son Thomas, settled at Perth 
Amboy. He had w. Ann; and sons Thomas, John. James and Andrew. 
Among the licenses to marry recorded at Trenton are the following: 

Benjamin Applegate, of Middlesex, to Elizabeth Parent, of same 
county, July 18, 1729; John Applegate, of Middlesex, to Sarah lVttitt, of 
same county, Oct. 6, 1736; Ebenezer Applegate, of Monmouth, to Mary 
Imlay, July 9, 1743; James Applegate, of Middlesex, to Elizabeth Buckalew, 
Feb. 21, 1744; Daniel Applegate, of Monmouth, to Elizabeth Hulett, Jan. 
31, 174r, ; William Applegate to Hannah Potter, Monmouth, Oct. 'is, 1747; 
John Applegate, of Monmouth, to Mary Cottrell, Sept. 27. 1748. 

Among marriages recorded at Freehold are the following: 

Jacob Applegate, Jr., to Margaret Luker, July 10, 1796; by Abiel Akin, 
of Toms River: John Applegate to Sarah Hudson, Jan. l!t, 1799; by Ben- 
jamin Lawrence of Toms River. In the patriot army in the Revolution 
were the following Applegates: Daniel, John, Bartholomew, Benjamin, 
Robert, James, Joseph and William from Monmouth; Andrew, Asher, 
Charles, Joseph, Nathaniel, Noah, Robert, Thomas, William and Zebulon 
from Middlesex; Daniel, from Morris; William, from Hunterdon; another 
William, from Burlington. In the old Dover Town Book the name Apple- 
gate frequently occurs. 


Applegates of Ocean County: (From old family Bible of Elijah 
Robins) Ebenezer Applegate and Sarah, liis wife, had children, viz: 
Apollo, b. May 25, L798; Salem, b. 180U; Angeline, b. 1802; Ebenezer, b. 
L805; Joseph, b. L808; Moses, b. 1810; Sarah, b. 1813;James, b. L815; 
Amanda, b. 1818; Helen, b. 1821. Of the above, Amanda m. Judge Wm. 
[.James; Sarah, James Robinson; Angeline, first, Clayton Robins and 
second, Col. Samuel c. Dunham. Joseph was the well remembered Jus- 
tice of the Peace of Toms River. 

The following ncit«s an- also iii this Bible : 

Ebenezer Applegate, d. Oct. :i, 1851; Sarah, d. April 24, 1861; Jacob, 
d. Oct. 6, 1818, a. 95 yrs; Lucinda Akin. d. Dec. 6, 1820; Moses, son of 
Ebenezer, is living 1887. Descendants of Thomas and Johannah Apple- 
gate must now number many thousands, and are widely scattered through- 
out the country. Richard Applegate of New Jersey, m. Amy Fenton and 
they had twelve children The family moved to Westmoreland county, 
Ph., and thence to Louisville, Ky.. when' he died in 17*2. The Apple- 
gates lit' this line are described as having ••very large heads, and much 
natural mechanical and mathematical talent," as being "a quiet, steady, 
solid race and were held in high esteem by their neighbors." The founder 
of the Applegate family was Tims. Applegate, an Englishman who is named 
among the patentees of Flushing, L. I., in the patent dated Oct. 19, 1647, 
issued by Gov. Eieft. In regard to the origin of the surname Applegate, 
Lower, the best authority on surnames, says it is from the ancient Saxon 
word Applegarth. In England were ancient families named Applegarth, 
Appleyard and Applethwaite, all meaning substantially the same -an apple 
orchard. Thomas Applegate was of a party that resid d for a short time in 
Holland before they came to Long Island, and their residence in Holland 
indicates that they left England becatrse their religious or political views 
were objectionable to the government of Charles I. 

Arney- Joseph Arney was taxed in upper Freehold 1758. The name 
occurs at an earlier date in Burlington county. John Arney lived there in 

Archer- -George Archer was taxed in Shrewsbury 17G4. The name 
Archer appears early in Rhode Island; John Archer was a freemen at 
Portsmouth near Newport in 1G55. Members of this family were alsi i early 
settlers in Westchester county. Descendents of the first Archers in West 
Chester are given in Bolton's History. In Burlington county Isaac Archer 
was m. to Sarah Stokes Nov. 24. 1799. 

Arnold - Steven Arnold was among the original purchasers of land of 
the Indians in Monmouth named 1667. He paid as his share £'.i, and was 
awarded "home lot" No. 17 in the allotment at Middletown, and also an 
outlet "in Poplar field and Mountany field." At the first General Assem- 
bly, Dec. 14, 1667, he was a Deputy with James Ashton from Middletown. 
In 1668 his cattle marks are recorded. In 1669 he was named as an arbi- 
trator in a land case. At Barnegat, Ocean county, members of the Arnold 
family were settled during the last century, and were leading members of 
the Society of Friends. This branch probably descended from the Arnold 
family of Long Island. Richard Arnold was perhaps the first Quaker of 
the family in New Jersey, named in 1680. In the Quaker graveyard at 
Barnegat are small tombstones to the memory of Samuel Arnold, d. 1817; 
his w. Lorany d. 1839; John Arnold d. 1818. By his side is buried Rachel 
Arnold, d. 1823. In 17!)5, at Little Egg Harbor Quaker meeting. James 
Arnold was m. to Phebe Inman. The same year Samuel Arnold was m. to 
Rany (Lorany i Cox. Levi Cranmer, one of the founders of the Quaker 
Church at Barnegat, who was m. in 1743, had a d. who m. a John Arnold. 

Akk iwsmith — Edward Arrowsmith was named in Staten Island about 
K',s:j and Joseph a few years later. In record of New York marriage 
licenses is one Feb. 1, 17<>2, for Joseph Arrowsmith and Martha PoUom. 
Joseph was a mniilierof the Court (1712 1 on Staten Island. Edward 
Arrowsmith was m. to Margaret Angle, Jan. 2, 1783, both of New Jersey. 
Major Thomas Arrowsmith of Monmouth, was State Treasurer 1843-5, and 
was Judge of the Court of Errors and Appeals for several years; he m. 


Emma Van Brakle, d. of Matthias. George Arrowsmith, b. April 18, 1839, 
fourth son of Major Thomas, a native of Monmouth, was a Lieut. -Col. of 

the 117th \. V. Volunteers, and was killed July I, 1863, at the battle of 
Gettysburg; he was a graduate of Madison University; of fine intellectual 
attainments, ami his daring services in the army gained him the name of 
the "Young Lion." Of the first of the Arrowsmiths there were two on 
Staten Island the fust half of the last century. Thomas and Edward. They 
i re Englishmen and appear to have aspired to an aristocratic position in 
society. Their public services were chiefly of a military character. In the 
burial ground of Christ church, Middle town, are tombstones erected 
to members of the family as follow;; : Thomas Arro Smith, who d. in Ikuii 
in the 48th year of his age; Gertrude, w. of Peter Flinn ami former relict 
of Thomas Arrowsmith, d. 1846 in the 78th year of her ag< ; Joseph Arrow- 
smith, d. Feb. H, 1816, in the 24th year of his age; Sarah, relict of Joseph 
Arrowsmith, d. July 8, 1842, in the 48th year of her a^e. -Robert Arsley in 1678 received a warrant for 60 acres of 

Ashton James Ashton of Rhode Island, settled at Middletown 1665, 
and is named in the settlement oi accounts. 1667, among tin- original pur- 
chasers. May 25, 1669, he was chosen a deputy to act at the "general 
court" or assembly to meet at Portland Point. He is subsequently fre- 
quently named in ancient records. At Middletown in Monmouth County, 
Rev. James Ashton was the first regular Baptist minister and his son 
James was also a baptist minister at Crosswicks in Upper Freehold. In 
1670 James Ashton received a warrant for 1517 acres of land. Under Grants 
and Concessions he claimed for self and wife, as actual settlers in 1665, 240 
acres of land. In 1698 he executed a deed of gift to his son James for 480 
acres at Crosswicks. The records of Rahway and Plainfield Quaker meet- 
ings state thai Joseph Ashton was permitted to m. Mary Fitz Randolph, by 
Wbodbridge Monthly meeting 7m. 20, 1711. Among taxpayers in Upper 
Freehold, 1731, were John Ashton, Esq., and Joseph Ashton. In same 
township, 1758, Joseph Ashton was taxed for 200 acres oi land. In 17*>1 
there was a John Ashton taxed in old Shrewsbury township. The follow- 
ing marriage licenses were recorded in the Secretary of State's office, 

Joseph Ashton to Mary Stillwell, Eel). .">, 1740; John Ashton to Catha- 
rine Taylor, June 2, 1741; both of above, Monmouth County: Robert Ash- 
ton to Hannah Farnsworth, Feb. 15, 174N; Joseph Ashton, of Bucks 
County, Pa., to Susanna Nutt, Jan. 26, 1756; John Ashton, of Bucks 
County, Pa., to Mary Fenton, of Burlington County, N. J., Feb. 13, 1765; 
Joseph Ashton, of Burlington, to Ann Helsen, June 19, 1770: Thomas 
Ashton, of Gloucester County, to Hannah Hugg, June 1!), 1771; Eden 
Ashton, of Hunterdon County, to Margaret Louderbank, Aug. 17. 1780. 
In 1806 Isaac Ashton and wife .Mary, and Elizabeth Ashton lived in Dover 
township, now in Ocean County. The Ash tons were an ancient, honor- 
able family in England and the pedigree of the main brandies has been 
preserved. The Ashtons, or Asshetons as the name was anciently written, 
of Ashton under the line, date back to the time of Henry II to Orm Fit/. 
Edward, who m. Ermina. d. of Baron Albert de (iresly. Sir Ralph Ashton 
of this family, was Knight Marshal of England in the time of Edward VI, 
anil was known as the Black Knight of Ashton. under the line. 

Aumack John, Tunis, Stephen and Thomas Aumack are named in 
Freehold in the early part of the last century. The will of John was dated 
Jan. 23, 1719. Tunis Amak and w. Lena were members of the old Brick 
church, Marlborough, 1723, and Stephen and w. Jannetse Janse were mem- 
bers in 1727. Stephen, it is said, had a grandson Matthias or Mattavus, 
who died at Middletown 1853. The name Stephen was common in the 
family. Tunis, son of John, it is said, m. Lena or Helena Lane. In 1761 
Stephen and Tunis Aumack were taxed in Middletown. In 1764 Stephen 
Aumack was taxed in old Shrewsbury township. In 1766 Jacob was taxed 
in freehold. In the Revolutionary Army were Tunis, John and William 
Aumack. The tirst of this family in this country was Theunis Jantz Van 


Amach or Amak, who came OTer from Holland in 1673. He settled at 
Flatlands, Long [aland, and in 1698 he had then a wife (Eyke?) and five 
children. The Van was soon after dropped from the name. In the records 
of the Marlborough Brick Church Stephen seems to be the first whose Bur- 
name is spelled Aumack. Sarah Aumack was m. to Gilbeii Lam Jan. 10, 
17%, bj Esquire Abie] Akin of Toms River. In Howell township William 
Aumack was m. to Sarah Stout March 2. 1 x< m,. William Aumack was a 
prominent citizen and merchant at Cedar Creek, Ocean county; he d. Dec-. 
15, 1851, a. 71 yrs. He had sons John, Elijah, Eiley, and Benjamin 

Austin, Austen, Aston The ear mark of William Austin is given in 
Middletown Town Book 1677. and it was tranferred to Richard Stout, Jr., 
1695. In 1687 Wm, Austone (probably the same) received a patent for land. 
Th.- will of Wm. Aston was dated Oct. 7. 17o.">, proved January, 1707, 
named w. Jenett, daughter-in-law Hannah Mills: mentions his daughter 
Mary living with Abraham Brown near Crosswick's Creek, who, he is in- 
formed, ism. to an Indian named Peter Powell. Executrix, w. Jennett. 
He made las mark to will. 

Auckman Thomas Auckman of Freehold, May 20, 1714. His will 
names w. Rachel, d. Auch (?) Sarah, Ruth, Hannah, and Mary: sons John 
and Thomas, Gives to Thomas land in AmwelL He empowers executors 
to si'll certain lands in case of death of any son. Wife, executor. 

Baker— -John Baker bought a tract of 1(10 acres of land on Doctors 
Creek, of the Indians, the deed for which is in the library of the New Jer- 
sey Historical Society. The consideration paid was 3 guns, 3 kettles. 5 
match coats. 4 cloth coats. 4 shirts. 20 knives, 1 pound powder. 12 bars 
lead 6 pounds shot. 1 anchor, tobacco, 1 barrel beer, :>n quarts rum. Per- 
haps this Mas the ('apt. John Baker noted in the early history of Elizabeth- 

Bakkai.ow. Bakkklo -Derick Barkelo and Janeke Van Arsdale, his w., 
were members Marlborough Brick Church 1711. Derick Barkelo, weaver. 
Freehold, bought land 1719 of Thos. Foreman and Mary, his wife. This 
Derick was b. in Flatlands. L. I., and named in assessments there 1676; m. 
Sept. 17. 17o'.i. Jannetze Van Arsdalen of Flatlands. Dirk or Derick Bar- 
kelo was a son of Wm. Janse Van Barkelo. who came to this country 16-57 
from the town of Borculo or Borkeloo, in the earldom of Zutphen in the 
province of Guilderland. William Janse Van Barkelo resided for a time in 
.New Amsterdam and afterwards at Flatlands, L. I., at which place he was 
tssessed 1676 and '83. The will of Derick Barkalow of Freehold, dated 
July. 17'.»4. proved Aug., 1744. mentions wife; sons Daniel, William and 
Cornelius: daughters Helena. Jennet and Mary: grand-daughters Elizabeth 
and Jane Suydam: sister A eltee Wyckoff. In 1758 William Barcalow was 
taxed in Upper Freehold for 24- r > acres. Among taxpayers in Freehold 1776 
were Cornelius, Daniel, Stephen and Samuel Barkelo or Barkaloo. 

Bated —John Baird of Freehold executed a release to John Nismuth 
1714. The Brick Church Memorial states that John Baird came to Mon- 
mouth about 1680, and it gives the following amusing story: -'The 
Bairds endeavored, but without success, to introduce a new mode of court- 
ship. The first of that name was John, and tradition declares that one day 
he met Mary Hall, whom he afterwards married, in the woods. As both 
were bashful, they halted at some distance from each other under a tree. 
It was love at first sight, and in a short time John, who was a Quaker, 
broke the silence by saying : "It thou wilt marry me, say yea; if thou wilt 
not. say nay.' Mary said -yea' and proved a noble wife and mother.'' In 
Freehold 1776. among taxpayers were Barzillai. Jonathan, Obadiah, Zebulon 
and David Baird. Caroline E. Herbert, d. of Joseph, b. July 8, 1821, m. 
Zebulon Baird, and they settled in Southern Illinois. The following mar- 
riage licenses are recorded at Trenton: Zebulon Baird of Monmouth, to 
Ann Smith. Feb. 1, 174M; David Baird to Sarah Compton. Oct 27. 1744. 

Samuel Baird to Susannah Rogers, 1762: Andrew Baird to Sarah , 

Oct. 27. 1762; Zebulon Baird to Lidy Hildreth. 1765. In Topanemus 
graveyard are following inscriptions on tombstones : John Baird, wh< i 


came from Scotland 1683, d. April, 17;1~), a. about 90 yrs, and of honest 
character. John Baird, Jr., d. Feb. 6, 1717, a. 4<> yrs., 10 days. Zebulon 
Baird, d. Jan. 28, 1804, a. 83 yrs., 3 mos., 15 dys. Anna, w. of Zebulon 
Baird, d. Dec 28, 1794, a. 63 yrs., 4 mos., 11 dys. 

Bashan Iii 1678 Mrs. Micall or Micha Spicer, of Gravesend, gave a 
deed for land in Monmouth to Henry Bowman, excepting a small tract for 
Bashan, a negro man, to live on. Possibly he was the " Bash Shamgungoe" 
named in Perth Amboy records and in N. J. Archives, vol. I., among those 
who took the oath of allegiance 1668. Mrs. Spicer owned lands on Long 
Island, in West Chester county, X. V., and in Monmouth. She was the 
mother of Samuel Spicer. Her deed to Bowman except "so much of same 
as one Bashan, a negro that was sometime my servant, shall in one place 
choose to make use of for his lifetime." Dated 4th mo., 24, 1678, and wit- 
nessed by John Tilton, Sr., and Thomas Morgan. 

Barnes Thomas Barnes, for self and w. Mary and maid servant, re- 
ceived a grant of 180 acres of land 1(>76. He is named as juror same year. 
He died, and in 1682 a grant was made to Mary Barnes and her children of 
1 Hi acres in right of her late husband, Thomas Barnes, of Shrewsbury, 
lands adjoining Abiah Edwards, Lewis Mattox, John Williams and others. 
It seems the family subsequently removed to New York, as in 1679 Susan- 
nah and Sarah Barnes, both of city of New York, deeded lands of "their 
loving father, Thomas Barnes, late of Shrewsbury," to John Stuart. Wm. 
Barnes is named 1656 at Gravesend, L. I. Some of the persons persecuted 
in Massachusetts left there and went to Rhode Island, from whence some 
came to Old Monmouth. A Thomas Barnes was for a time a resident of 
Rhode Island, and he may have been the one who subsequently came to 

Barclay— John Barclay is named as a Grand Juror, 16 l J0. It is not 
probable that he was long a resident of Monmouth. He was a brother of 
Governor Robert Barclay. He came to America about l(is-j and returned 
to England the following year. A year or two after, he returned and first 
took up his residence at Elizabeth town, then at Plainfield, and about 1683 
at Amboy. In January, 1689, he was appointed Deputy Surveyor of East 
Jersey, under George Keith. He subsequently held other positions and in 
17(14 he represented Amboy in the Assembly. He died in the Sprint; of 
1731 at an advanced age, Leaving a son, John, who was living in 1768. In 
17ol a deed recorded at Trenton was from Robert Barclay, of Try, Scot- 
land, one of the proprietors, to his father, Robert Barclay — land in 

Bailey, Baley — Nathaniel and Elias Daley were taxed 1761, in Middle- 

Baylis— Elizabeth Baylis, of Middletown, deeded, 171*, to Thomas 
Applegate, blacksmith, lands formerly belonging to John Baylis. There 
was a John Baylis at Jamaica. L. L, 1660, and Elizabeth Baylis, who, in 
1664, m. at Gravesend, James Hubbard, ancestor of Hubbards of N. J. 

Beakes Edmund Beakes, of Burlington Co., was a witness to 
Friend's marriage, Shrewsbury, 1720, and in 17:>:> purchased land in Son- 
man's Patent, in what is now Ocean Co., and built a sawmill. His saw- 
mid was frequently referred to in subsequent years. In 174"» it is referred 
to as an N. E. side of North Branch Toms River, and as opposite Poll 
Bridge Branch. In 1758 William and David Beakes were taxed in Upper 


Belle, Beedle, Biulle —In Topanemus graveyard is a tombstone erect- 
ed to Jeremiah Bedle, who d. in 17:52, a. 79 years. Benajah Bedle, of Middle- 
town, was licensed to m. Sarah Orchard, of Middletown, July 21, 1750. 
L*n the' Revolutionary Army were Joel and Thomas Beedle. Israel Bedell, 
a tory, of Stat en Island, in 177'J, had property in Monmouth which was 
confiscated. Joel Beadle bought, Oct, 2, 1772, property of John and 
Thomas Walling, executors of Thomas Walling. His name is spelled both 
Beadle and Beddle. In 17'J4 Elijah Beddle and w.. Elizabeth, deeded land 
to ( iornelius Covenhoven. In 1796 Thomas Beddle and Amy Beddle deeded 
land to Thomas Smith. In 1801 Thomas Beddle of Middletown, bought 


land of Eendrick Van Dome. In 1807 Thomas Beddle bought land of ex- 
ecutors of John Wall. The same year hi- ami v., Amy, Bold to Gilbert 
Lam-, and be signed his name Bedle; in 1809 Thomas and Amy Beedle sold 
land tn Richard Beedle In 1810, John Bedle and \\\, Ann. are named. 
Oct 12, 1800, Joel Beadle was m. to Mary Willett by Benjamin Bennett V. 
D. M Thomas I. Bedle settled at Middletown Pointin 1826, and m. Han- 
nah Dorsett and had two sons, Joseph D., 1). 1831, who became Governor 
of New Jersey. Richard Bedle died near Mattawan, Sept. 7. 1872, a. 63 
years. The name nf the noted Biddle family of West Jersey, to which 
belonged Commodore Biddle and also Nicholas Biddle of United States 
hank fame, was sometimes spelled in ancient records Bedle. In 1686 
William Bedle took up 270 acres of land in West Jersey and was the an- 
cestor of the Biddle family of West Jersey. In 1826 Elijah Bedle was 
murdered by a negro slave named Tony, belonging to Joseph Dorsett, of 
Bethany, near Keyport. Tony was executed on the old race course about 
a mile from Freehold Court House by Sheriff John J. Ely. who was in 
office 1825 to ls2s. Janus Bedle, a brother of Elijah, had a son named 
James Madison Bedle. who was murdered in Calvert Co.. Mi, by a negro 
named Albert Saundas, in 1873. Young Bedle was of a roving disposition 
and left home in 1858 and for some reason had assumed the name of 
Eugene Archie Burdell 

Bennett — Isaac Bennett was one of a company to whom was granted 
whale fishing privileges, 1679. Arian is named in court proceedings 1700. 
William Bennett is named among founders of the Presbyterian Church, 
Freehold. 17or.. Thomas Bennett, of Shrewsbury, made will dated Oct. 17, 
1717. In tax list of Middletown. 1761, Hendrick Bennett, John Bennett. 
Winance Bennett. "William Bennett. Sr., William Bennett, son of John, 
and William Bennett, C. M., are named. In tax list of Shrewsbury, 1763, 
William Bennett and Thomas Bennett are named. Kev. Benjamin Ben- 
nett, born 1762, was a Baptist minister and Representative in Congress 
1815-19. He died at Middletown, Oct. 8, 1840. In what is now ( >ceanC6. 
Moses Bennett was m. to Patience Imlay Aug. 26, 1806, by Gabriel Wood- 
mansee. About the close of last century David Bennett m. Polly Holmes. 
d. of John Holmes, of Forked River. Some of the first of the Bennetts 
in Monmoirth descend from William Adrianse Bennett who with Jaques 
Benton, both Englishmen, bought of the Indians in 1636, a tract of 900 
acres of land at Gowanus, on New York bay. The following m. licenses 
are recorded at Trenton: Edward Bennett, of Monmouth, to Ann Boles- 
berry. Oct.. 1767. Jacob Bennett to Errphame Davis, Aug., 1764. Jere- 
ruiah Bennett to Ann Randolph. Sept., 1780. 

Beere. Beees — In Freehold records is a copy of a power of attorney 
from Thomas Clifton and his d. Patience Beere, authorizing John Hance to 
collect balances due from Abraham Brown for lands, goods and chattels. 
It is dated at Newport, R. I., April 14, 1675, and recorded June 26, 1688. 
Thomas Clifton was one of the original purchasers 1667, but did not settle' 
in Monmouth. He had been a victim of Puritan persecution in Massachu- 
setts because of his Quakerism, and his d. Hope Clifton was banished from 
that province 1658, not to return under pain of death for her zeal in her 
faith. His other daughter, Patience, m. John Beere. There was a John 
Beere, shipwright, at Newport 1712-18, possibly a son. In West Jersey, 
Jonathan Beere was member of provincial assembly 1697 — 1701. Nathan 
Beers of Middletown, was licensed to marry Sarah Wame of Perth Amboy, 
Nov. 25, 1749. He is among taxpayers 1761. John Beers and Ann, his w., 
are named in Monmouth about close of last century. 

Berky — Henry Berry of Freehold, 1736, sold land to James Newell, 
Perth Amboy. He was probably son of Henry Berry of Perth Amboy, 
named in city charter 1718, who had son Henry. 

.Bibbt, Bibbe — In 1719 John Bibby, of Northampton Co.. Va., planter, 
eldest son of Esther Bibbe, of said colony, widow of Thomas Leonard, of 
Shrewsbury, is named in a deed recorded at Freehold. Thomas Bibb and 
Sarah Kettle, of Burlington, were m. July 27, 1693. 

Bicklet — William Bickley, of New York, had d. Sarah, who m. 


Thomas Potter, of Monmouth; he had also a son, Abraham Bickley, who 
settled in Burlington Co. In 1696 Abraham Bickley and Elizabeth, bis 
w.. deeded land to Thomas Potter. En 17oi Sarah Potter deeds land to 
her father, William Bickley, of New York. In 1707 Win. Bickley, of New 
York, deeds lands in Monmouth to Xath'l Milner. 

Bigelow— Samuel Bigelow in 1773 lived near Wrangle Brook, above 
Randolph's saw mill on Davenport branch of Toms River. He is named 
among the adventurous privateers who sailed out from old Cranberry 
Inlet, in the Revolutionary war, and was called Capt. Bigelow, and he 
seems to have commanded in some expeditions. In the roster of officers 
and men of the Revolution he was rated as "mariner." 

Bills— Thomas Bills of Burlington, bought lands in Monmouth 
of John Stirkey of Middletown, 1697. In 17i>3 he bought land of Richard 
Hartshorne, and same ye ir he and w. Johannah sold half the land he occu- 
pied to his son-in-law, Divid Killie. Joanna Bills m. George Williams. 

170S, 27th of 11th mo. The following marriage licenses are r< rded at 

Trenton: Silvanus Bills to Rebel Lippencott, 1744; Richard Bills to 
Hannah Rennels, 1753; Gsrshom lulls to Margaret Chamberlain, 1755. 
Thomas Bills, probably second of the name, of Shrewsbury: Gershom and 
Richard Bills were among taxpayers 17('4 in old Shrewsbury township. 

Bird — John Bird was among the original settlers at Portland Point, 
near the Highlands, and had assigned to him town lot No. 6 in 1670. The 
Bird family was prominent among early settlers of Connecticut. Thomas 
Bird settle! at Hartford and left sons Joseph and James. John Bird was 
taxed 1761 in Shrewsbury, probably in that part now in Ocean county. 
Members of the family lived along Toms River during the Revolution. 
Catharine Bird m. John Johnson March 7, 1796. In 1805 "John Bird's 
old road" is named in Thomas Parker's deed on North Branch Forked 

Blackman — Bryan Blaekman was an early settler; letters of adminis- 
tration on his estate were issued to Samuel Leonard 1687. His place was 
referred to in 1693 in a road survey. 

Boels, Boell — The will of Thomas Boell of Freehold was dated March 
20, 1709, and proved Feb. 28, 1710. Thomas Boel, first of the name, was 
surveyor of highways 1694. Garret Bowles is named 1700-1, in troubles 
between the settlers and proprietors. The first named Thomas Bowels was 
originally a Quaker, but followed George Keith into the Episcopal Church. 
On Jan. 1, 1703, Keith preached at his house and baptized all his children 
— two sons and three daughters, and preached there subsequently. The 
ground on which stands St. Peter's Church, Freehold, was the gift of Thos. 

Bodixe — The Bodine family, in the southern part of Ocean county, are 
of French Huguenot descent. The first members originally came to 
Stateii Island, and from thence descendants came to this county. Mr. 
Clute says the first known member of the family in America was John 
Bodine, who purchased land on Staten Island in 1701. John Bodine and 
his wife Hester are mentioned in Staten Island records in 1736 7. He had 
a son Francois, who m. Marie Dey, and they had a son, Jean or John, who 

m. Dorcas , and had children, John, b. Feb., 1753, and James. 1.. 

Dec. 17, 1758. The last named John died March, 1835, aged about 82yrs.; 
James d. May 13, 1838, in his Nllth year. John m. Catharine Britton and 
had children: John, Jacob and Edmund, and perhaps others. Of the 
sons of James Bodine, two came to what is now Ocean county in 1816, 
namely, Tunis and James. They originally located at Manahawken, and 
entered into the mercantile business. William Bodine, son of James and 
Margaret Bodine, who m. Rosanna Willets, had children: George James 
who m. Emeline Williams, William Oakley, Margaret, who m. Edwin 
Salter, and Abraham. 

Bollen — James Bollen of Middletown, was m. to Elizabeth Godfrey, 
of New York, Feb. 21, 1689, and the marriage recorded in Freehold. He 
was clerk of the count}' 1700 and thereabouts. 

Booeaem, Bookem, Borum — Arian Boorum and Sarah, his wife, of 


Freehold, sold land to Samuel Hoffmire L705. B t poor in 

Freehold 1707. Himself and wife were members Brick Church, Marlbor- 
ough This family descends from Willem JacobseVan Boernm, b. 1617, 
ime with his Bons from Amsterdam in 1649, and settled in Flatbush, 
L. I. He had sons, Hendrick X\'ill«-iJir<- and others. Hendrick Willemre 
Van Boerum, b. 1642, m. about 1663 Maria Ariaens and bad children. 
Hendrick, b. about 1665. Arie or Adriaen (of Freehold), b. 1666, m. Sarah 
Smock, dau. of Hendrick Matthys Smock; Louise, baptized Oct ~1\. 
Hendrick, baptized July 22, 1683. 

Bobdrn, Bxjbdkn Richard, Benjamin and 1 the 

: this family named in Freehold records. The rirr,t two were anion" 
the original purchasers of the land 1667. They had ten children The 
Freehold records make frequent mention of Francis and Benjamin Borden 
and of members of their families. The courts were occasionally held at 
the house of Francis in Shrewsbury Township. Des ■:' the Bor- 

den family went with other Jerseymen to the Valley of Virginia about 17:54 
and subsequently. Most of the Holmes family of < >1<1 Monmouth, have 
Richard Borden for an ancestor as Sarah Borden, sister of Francis and 
Benjamin, m. Jonathan Hobnes, and their descendants are very numerous 
in Monmouth and elsewfr 

Bower, Bowers — William Bower was taxed in Upper Freehold in 1758. 
In lT'.T John Bower and Elizabeth, his w., formerly w. of Wm. Hoffmire, 
I land to John Covenhoven of Middletown. Joseph Bower of Mon- 
th, had license to m. Sarah Mayple, June 15, 17 

1 ! iwkb — William Bowne, ancestor of the Bownes of Monmouth, settled 
at Salem, Mass., some four years before the arrival there of Obadiah 
Holmes. In 1636 he was granted forty acres of land at Jeffries Creek. His 
eldest son, John Bowne. was subsequently named in the Monmouth 
Patent. This John Bowne was a friend of the first settlers i if Mi inmouth, 
and paid for a share of land bought of the Indians, though he did nol - - 
tie in the county. William Bowne. the father, probably d. about 1677. 

Bowkee. Bowgab— William Bowgar had 250 acres of land in N 
Hanover township. Burlington county, in 1724. Among marriage li 
recorded in Trenton during last century there were a dozen or bo persons 
of this family in Burlington county. In what is now Ocean county. 
Michael Bowker was m. to Lucratea Applegate, Nov. 17. 1805, by Esquire 
Benjamin Laurence. Samuel Bowker bought land near Waretown in I s !! 
of Eli Soper and w. Abigail. A brother named Michael Bowker, probably 
the one who m. Lucratea Appleg I - imong fir^t emigrants from what 

is now Ocean county, to Ohio. His sister Abigail m. Samuel Wi 
b. 1797, and they moved to Highland county, Ohio, about 1818, and had 
I chiblren. She was living I X- Lexington, Ohio, in 18S7. in her 
>>7th year. 

Boudk, Bowde — John Boude, or Bowde of Freehold, carpenter, sold 
land- 17' 1 1 to Richard James, and bought land of John Pie- 1 an 1 Eve, his 
. ild, 1717. He also bought land of John Emans 171 s . The 
name is spelled both Boude and Bowde in Freehold records. 

Boyo — Rev. John Boyd was first the Scotch Presbyterian 

Church, organized about 1705. He was qualified as preacher by the court 
May 29, 1706, and d. in 1708. 

J; v-. Buys — Joha:. >r Boys, bought land 171 s of John Ro- 

mine and w. Gertrude; Boys or Buys said to lie 'late of Middletown, now 
of Freehold." 

Beat — John Bray had wan-ant for 50 acres on Hop River. Ma; _ 
H- is named as a Grand Juror 1695 and 1699, and in the troubles of 
1 7' h i and 1701, between the settlers and the proprietors, he was quite active 
on the side of the settlers. John Bray holds an honorable place in the 
history of the Baptist S of N Jersey, as _ -"the land. fe>ur 

and one-third acres, on which to build the old Baptist Church Middletown 
and fi >r pars. raage and burial gr< rand. The church was long known as Bray's 
Meetinghouse. It i- said that he was a "man of gifts' and a preacher, 
but possibly not ordained. In the year 1711 an unfortunate dirt 


arose in the church ;ui<l one party excommunicated the other and imposed 
silence on John Bray and John Okison. The church difficulty whs referred 
to a council which met May 12, 1712. The advice of the council was "to 
bury the proceedings in oblivion and erase the records of them" and to 
sign a covenant relative to future conduct. Accordingly, 42 signed it 
and 26 refused. This record shows that the number of members in 1711 - 
12 was 68. Andrew Bray and Daniel Dray are called brothers by Nebe- 
miah Downe in his will 1736. In 1739 Andrew 1! ray of Freehold, bought 
50 acres of land of James Rochead. In 1761 John Dray and Samuel Dray 
were assessed in Middletown. In 171)0 Daniel Dray bought land near 
Toms River. In 1713 John Dray had 500 acres in new Indian purchase 
above Falls of Delaware. 

Dreese — Sidney Breese was taxed 17(14 in Shrewsbury. Samuel 
Dreese bought land of Deter Van Brock Livingston, who m. Mary Alexan- 
der, in 1772; Samuel S. Dreese was for many years a Justice of the Peace, 
and Judge, and held other positions. Joseph Dreese was a settler at 
Goodluck in the early part of the present century. His dan. Sarah mar- 
ried Captain Benjamin Stout; his daughter Jane was married to 
John Lane, Aug. 3, 1800. Sidney Breese, the first of the name, 
was born in Shrewsbury, England, in 170V) and died in New York in 1767. 
He was a Jacobite. He came to New York in 1756 where he in. Elizabeth 
Pinkerman. He was an eccentric character and wrote the following epitaph 
over his grave in Trinity Church yard: 

" Ha ! Sidney ! Sidney ! 
Lyest thou here ? 

I here lye 
Till time is flown 
To its extremity." 

He had been an officer in the British Navy. He was a merchant in 
New York, but owned property in Shrewsbury. The only son of Sidney 
Breese was Samuel, who came to Shrewsbury about 1767. He m., first 
wife, Rebecca, dau. of Rev. Dr. Samuel Finley. Their dan. Elizabeth Ann 
was born Sept. 29, 1766, and baptized in First Presbyterian Church, New 
Y'ork, Nov. y, 1766. It is said that this dau. subsequently m. Rev. Jede- 
diah Morse, author of early school geographies, and father of Prof. Samuel 
Finley Breese Morse of telegraph fame. In regard to Elizabeth, the second 
wife of Samuel Breese, she is said to have been the dau. of John Garland ; 
by others that she was dau. of Rev. James Andei'son. Samuel Breeze was 
appointed Colonel of the 3d Regiment of Monmouth militia, but resigned 
in July, 1776, on account, as he stated, of the great backwardness of the 
people. It was ordered that his resignation be accepted. Col. Breese was 
early active in the patriot cause. 

Drinley, Brindley — The first of this name mentioned in Freehold 
records was Francis Brinley of Rhode Island, who paid for a share of land 
bought of the Indians 1667-70. He did not, however, come here. He 
was a prominent citizen of R. I. — Governor's assistant, leading Judge, etc. 
He was named at Newport, R. I., 1652, and was son of Thomas Brinley, 
who was auditor of the revenues of King Charles I, and b. 1591. A de- 
scendant of Francis Brinley named Edward, m. Janet Parker of the Perth 
Amboy Parker family, and their son was Francis W. Drinley, the well- 
remembered surveyor in Ocean and Monmouth counties thirty years ago. 
The first of this family who settled in Monmouth was William, son of Wil- 
liam Drinley of Rhode Island. He m. a dau. of William and Sarah Reape. 
The son William is named in Monmouth in 1697. In 1704 hem. Elizabeth, 
dau. of George Corlies who refers to them in his will, and the will of Sarah 
Reape refers to him as her grandson. In 1742-3 and thereabouts William 
Drinley took up much land in what is now Drick township and vicinity. In 
1751) William Brinley, Esq., and his son John, deeded land at Potapeek 
Neck to Joseph Warded, son of Samuel. Joseph Warded was a son-in-law 
of William Drinley. Thomas Drinley, son of Samuel, m. Elizabeth, dau. 
of John Woodmansee and had children Leonard W., Hannah and Eliza. He 
moved to Ohio about ls:{2, where his children married. 


Hkiiimn. Barrros John Brittain and w. Elizabeth were named 17l> 
as living in old Shrewsbury township, in a deed to Jeremiah Stillwell. It 
is probable that he was related to the Stairwells, who at one tune lived at 
Gravesend, L. I., where Nathaniel Brittain is aamed 1660 as a son-in-law 
ol the noted Capt. Nicholas Stillwell, ancestor of the stillwells of Monmouth 
ami elsewhere. In Burlington county, N. J., Joseph Britten owned 255 
acres in Nottingham, 1724 In Upper Freehold among taxpayers 1758 were 
Abram and Richard Britton. in Freehold 177(1 Israel Brittain was taxed 
Joseph Britton, named frequently as a town official in old Dover Town 

Bbown Nicholas Brown of Rhode Island was among the original pur- 
chasers of land in Monmouth 1667; Abraham Brown and Nicholas were 
among the first settlers, and took the oath of allegiance in Middletown 1668. 
He d. 1694 and left will. His children were Nicholas, Abraham, Jane and 
William. The first two are supposed to be the ones aamed among tirst 
Bottlers of Monmouth. Nicholas Brown m. Katherine Almy West, widow 
of Bartholomew West, about 1673 or '4. It seems possible that he was 
twice married, as cue Nicholas Brown, an extensive land owner, m. Mary, 
dan. of John Chambers; she wasb. about 1675. In 1711 Nicholas and 
Mary Brown deeded land to Gawen Drummond. In the Itevolutionary 
war there was a noted pat lint named Samuel Brown, who lived on the 
south branch of Forked River in Ocean county. After the war he removed 
to Manahawken. In 17'.»3 he bought land in Stafford township of Thomas 
Letts. The descendants of this Samuel are quite numerous and widely 
scattered. Clayton and Thizza Brown had several children, one son. Tims. 
Brown, b. 1800, living at Dayton 1885. Most of this family went West, 
some about 1813 aud others about 1820. Some lemain in Ohio and others 
are scattered in Indiana, Illinois, San Francisco. Taconia, Pngets Sound, 
etc. The following marriages are recorded at Freehold : Elizabeth Brown 
was m. to John Crane March '_':!. 1811; Mary Brown to Ephraim Predmore, 
Feb. 10, 1810; Catrine Brown to Kenneth Hankinson, July 12, 1797; Nancy 
Brown to Samuel Malsby, Sept. 1, 1*03; Mary Brown to Nathan Cranmer, 
Jan. 12, 1 7 '. t o . In .Mount Holly records it is stated that Samuel B. Brown 
in. Ann Eempton July 'I'l. 1707. The will of Joseph Brown of Chester- 
field, Burlington county, was proved 1811. The will of Thomas Brown 
was made 1806, and names w. Sarah and sisters Elizabeth Coalman and 
Theodosia Blew. No children named. 

Brower, Brewer— The founder of the Brower family was Adam Brou- 
wer Berckhoven (so styled), bom at (Vulen (Cologne)and came to this 
country about 1642 and settled in New Amsterdam, now New York, house 
of lot of Hendrick Jansen. In 1656 he lived on Long Island. The son. 
Jacob Brower, in. Anna Borgardus. He died 1733 and his son Adam came 
to Monmouth. Adam Brouwer, b. in Brooklyn, March 29, 1696, came to 
Monmouth and it is said, settled in vicinity of Farmingdale. His wife 
was Deborah, dau. of George and Elizabeth Allen. He d. 1769. In old 
Shrewsbury Township 1764. among taxpayers were George Brower and 
George, Jacob, Lazarus, William. William, Jr., Samuel and Adam 

Bryan — Isaac Bryan for self, wife, four children and eight servants. 
received a warrant in 1679 for 840 acres of land at Poplar Swamp, Shrews- 
bury. In 1683 Morgan Bryan is named in a bill of sale to Hi chard 

Brter — Joseph Bryer was among original purchasers of land in Mon- 
mouth 1667. He did not settle in the county, but his right was transferred 
to Sarah Reape, who took up 120 acres of land in his right. 

Bockalew — In 1773 John Buckalew of Middlesex bought land in Mon- 
mouth. A tradition states that the first of this family came to America in 
the noted ship Caledonia on her last trip about 1715. The date is evidently 
erroneous, as the first of the family came some time before. Peter Bucka- 
lew of Middlesex bought land in 1688 and in 1711. He probaby d. in 17ls. 
In 17nj Frederick Buckalew of Berth Amboy, bought land at Cheesequakes. 
He was constable 171K. In 1741 Peter Buckalew had lands at Cheese- 


quakes. The well-remembered James Buckalew, for whom Jamesburg 
was named, d. May 30, L869, in the 68th year of bis age. He was of 
Scottish descent. The family settled about a mile and a half from what is 
now known as Jamesburg, on the road Leading to Half Acre. Mr. Bucka- 
lew was b. Aug. 13, 1801. He was m. December, 1829, to Miss Marga- 
ret D. Snedeker of Cranbury, who survived him. Six children were b. to 
them. He took up bis residence at the place which appropriately hears his 
name, in 1832, and here his long, active life was passed. He took an active 
interest in the Camden and Amboy Railroad, which came into existence 
during his residence at Jamesburg. He was also closely connected with 
the Delaware and Raritan Canal, having had exclusive charge of the towing 
husiness until within four or five years of his decease. He was one of the 
original projectors of the Freehold and Jamesburg Railroad, and likewise of 
the branch to Farmingdale. His son. Hon. John D. Buckalew, was a 
member of the Legislature from Middlesex and Sheriff of the county. 
Another son, Colonel Isaac S. Buckalew, was known as one of the most ac- 
complished railroad superintendents in the country. 

Bunnell, Bonnell — In Monmouth county John Bunnell is named at 
Wequatunk, 1737. This family is said to he of Huguenot origin, and 
about the first members named in this country wen- Nathaniel, William 
and John and Benjamin, who took the oath of allegiance 1657. Edward 
Bonnell's cellar swamp on North branch of Forked River is named in sur- 
veys 1750, and frequently referred to in other surveys subsequently. The 
late Capt. Samuel R. Bunnell of Bayville said his grandfather was named 
Joseph Bunnell, who m. a Pittenger from Arneytown. Joseph Bunnell, 
Sr., lived about 1800-10 by Forked River millpond, and Samuel R., when 
a child, lived with him. 

Burrows — Steven, John and Thomas Burrows are called sons by Mary 
Oakley of Monmouth, in her will dated 1712. The name of Burrows occurs 
early at Providence, R. L, where "William was freeman 1655. At Newtown, 
L. I., Joseph Burrows, of English birth, was progenitor of those who spell 
their names Burroughs ; he was at Salem. Mass.. 1635, and went thence to 
Newtown, L. I., where he became a leading man. During the Revolution 
the house of John Burrowes at Middletown Point, was attacked by Refu- 
gees, principally for the purpose of trying to make prisoner his son John, 
Jr., who was a major in the Continental army. They were unsuccessful 
in that particular object but took the father prisoner, who, however, was 
soon exchanged. John Burrowes was Sheriff of Monmouth 17*1 5. 
Among persons taxed in Middletown in 17<d were John and Edward Bur- 
rowes. Rev. John Burrowes became pastor of the Middletown Baptist 
church in 1738, and d. there Nov. 24, 1785. He was never married. Many 
oi the old members of the Burrowes family were buried at the old Mount 
Pleasant graveyard. 

Purtis— This family, it is said, descends from Peter Cesar Albertus, a 
Venetian who came from Italy to New York at least as early as 1639. A 
deed March 26, 1806, from Samuel and John Burtis, executors of William 
Burtis, their father, to their brother William for 253 acres, speaks of the 
tract as being the same conveyed by Richard Burtis to his son William by 
deed, dated March 2:',, 17<'i7. This land was situated westward of Homers- 
town, near Crosswicks Creek, and is now owned by descendants. The 
will of William Burtis of Upper Freehold was executed April, 1804. The 
will of James Burtis of Upper Freehold, who d. June 11, 1874, was dated 
Nov. 21, 1861. Executors, sons John W. and Richard W. 

Bui k John Buck is named in a suit with James Johnson 1686. Aaron 
Buck, in 1764, sold land in Toms River. He d. about 17*7, as in that year 
an inventory on his property was taken by George Cook and Abiel Akins, 

appraisers. It is said he committed suicide. He m. Dillon and 

left two dan., one of whom. Catharine, m. Judge Ehenezer Tucker, for 
whom Tuckerton was named; the other dan. m. John Rogers, father of the 
late Samuel and Janus 1). Rogers. When Toms River was burned in 1783. 
Aaron Buck's house was one of the two spared. It is supposed that this 
was because his w. was a niece of the Refugee pilot Dillon. In 1804 Ethoda 


Imlay, widow of l>r. William E. Imlay, of Ton 
dower to Margaret Buck. 

B kdge In 1758 Jonathan Burdg and w. Mary, sold land to William 
Whitlock for £503.10. I b< ;■ signed their name "JJnrdg;" Among tax- 
- in Middletown, 1761, were David, John Patience and 1'riah Bnrdge. 
In Shrewsbury 1764 ph Bnrdge ;m<l Widow Mary Bnrdge. En 

_ Samuel bnrdge and w. deeded land to Win C<>x and they are named 
in other deeds. In 1712 Samuel Bnrdge of Philadelphia, gentleman, was 
an administrator of an estate in West Jersey. The name of this family ap- 
pears early in West Jersey. In 1705 William Bnrdge in right of his w. and 
her sisters had 570 acres Id I He is named in land grants 

also 17b". and other datea William Burge i> also named in Morris County 
1715. It is possible that tin- Monmouth family may be descended from 
Jonathan Bun Hempstead, L. I.. II - 

Butchjku — John Butcher and barzillai Burr bought th< I hat 

is now Burrvilh . ago, and it was long known 

The Butcher family i- an ancii-nt one in W< >t Ji 
Tin- first who came John ami William Butcher who arrived 

>ndied ami his w. Margaret, married Georgi Hasel- 
wood; his dau I . 1682, 3 hn Antrim. Members of the family 

early settled in Burlington In 172-1 John Butcher had house and lot in 
Burlington and Samuel owned 141 acres in Springfield Township, in 1733 
John Butcher owned farm in Springfield 

Campbell — John CamelTs cattle mark - rded Feb., 1687, in 

Middletown Town Book. He was witness to will of Thomas Con 
1 Id, 1723. In 1690 Archibald Campbell, •■workman." bought land 

of Peter Bury. In 1701 he claimed, in right of his father, Lord Neil 
Campbell, 1,350 aci • were two Archibald Campbells; one 

brought over by John Campbell as servant tor John Dobie about 1681; the 
other s son E Lord Neil Campbell, who came over with hi> father 1685. 
The nr>t named Archibald d. 1702 and appointed J* Jin Campbell his heir 
and executor. The son of Lord Neil returned to England and was known 
as Dr. Archibald Campbell. He became an eminent divine, Bishop of the 
Episcopal Church in Scotland 1711, and died 1744. 

1 lMBURN — This family is mainly found in the lower part of 
It is probable that William Camburn, who had faring man. was 

tin- first of the family and settled in the upper part of Waretown about 
the place occupied in late years by Capt. Jacob Birdsall Jr.. and then re- 
moved neai ek. He had two sons, William ami Joseph. William 

settled in Barnegat about 1793. Wm. Camburn. Sr., it is said, m. a dau. 
n Cranmer, and had five m^ and two dans. The dauls Kachel m. 
Union and E^th^r m. David Rulon— two sisl - irrying two 
brother-. Joseph Camburn m. Mary A. Carr, Sept. 20, 1810. Lon-_'evity 
1 quite usual in this family. William Camburn of Waretown, d. 
April. 1884, aged 84 years. John Camburn oJ \ 'lied the same 

year, s - - Daniel Camburn. of Oyster Creek, and Samuel Cam- 

burn, of Barnegat, were also probably over 80 yi - at their d< 

S^me of the older member- of thought the name ('ami urn was originally 

Camock —Nathaniel Camock had patents for land 1681 and lo*7; lie is 
named as Grand Juror 1693, etc Ln his will, which i> dated Shrewsbury. 
171'i. he i> called Cammick He had five children. 

< Annan. Cannon Patrick Carman, of Freehold, 1690, sold land Jos. 
Carman, cooper, and Wm. Cannan. tinner, sold lands inherited from their 
lather. The nam-r was originally ;_dven as Cannan. but subsequently, very 
commonly as Cannon. 

man — Samuel Carman's will dated Aug. 20, 172>. and pi 
1"<. 1729, named wife Sarah. >ons John ami Timothy: dau. Sarah Langlun. 
John and Timothy. John Carman, d. 1741. left widow 
Margaret, and on his estate letters of administration were granted I 
Carman and John Dorset. Elijah Carman, of Monmouth Co., in 1^«i»'i had 
wife Many, and sons George and John. 


Cassaboom During the lust century a person of this name settled 
in Barnegat, where Capt. HowardSoper now, 1886, lives. At that time must 
of the settlers lived near the bay. He eventually removed to Smith Jersey. 
The Cassaboom family, it is supposed, descend from Jan Evertzen Kar- 
senboom, who took the oath of allegiance in Bergen, NT. J., 1665, and is 
also named in New York same year; he joined the Dutch Reformed Church 
New York. Feb. 27, 1679. 

Cabe Robert Carr, of Rhode Island, was among those who paid for a 
share of land 1667-70. In May, 1635, Robert Carr, aged 21 years, and ('aid, 
Carr, aged 11 years, came from England and settled in Rhode Island and 
both an- named as freemen at Newport, 1655. Caleb was Deputy and in 
May, 1695, was elected Governor of Rhode Island and died the following 
December. The Carrs of Ocean Co. are probably descendants; it is said 
that a Caleb Carr was the first who came and settled near and below Mana- 
hawkin. Mary A. Carr m. Joseph Cambum Sept. 10,1810. Phebe Carr 
in. Joseph Ridgway Oct. 25, 1810, In 1740 Caleb Carr came from Rhode 
Island to Little Egg Harbor. He had five sons. James Carr, one of the 
sons, had w. Phebe, and settled at Manahawkin and they were progenitors 
of the Carrs of that place. Catharine Carr, possibly a dau. of Caleb, m. 
Asa I 'raiimer. 

Cabhaet Thomas Carhart, weaver, of Middletown, sold land 1684. 
Thomas Carhart was was second of the name, had w. Mary, who d. 1737, 
aged 41 years. John Carhart was taxed 1761 in Middletown. There was a 
Thomas Carhart came to America 1683. He had a tyrant for 165 acres on 
Staten Island in 1692; Thomas and w. removed to Woodbridge May, 1695. 
But there was one Thomas earlier named in Monmouth. 

Carter —Thomas Carter was one of the first, probably the first, of this 
name in Old Monmouth, named 1689, in Court proceedings. 

Cahwithet — David Carwithey, whose dau., Elizabeth, in. Wrn. Oran- 
mer, from whom descend the Oranmers of Ocean, lived at Salem, Mass., 
1644; he shortly after removed to Southold, L. I. His will is recorded in 
Surrogate's office, New York City, Lib. 1, page 8. It was dated Aug. 30, 
1665, and proved proved Jan. 4, 1666. It named sons Caleb and David, 
daus. Elizabeth Crowmer (Crannier), Sarah Curtis and Martha, dau. Sarah 
('urtis, sole executrix. To Elizabeth Crannier he gave £9. The will ap- 
pears to be dictated and is not signed. His son Caleb and son-in-law, Win. 
Crannier. were among original settlers of Elizubethtown, New Jersey. 

Chad wick— The name Chadwick is often pronounced Shaddock and some- 
times given as Shattock, whichname properly belongs to another family. 
In Freehold records Thomas and William Shaddock are named as paying 
for land. "William Shattock eventually removed to Burlington County; 
Samuel Shaddock is named among inhabitants of Shrewsbury who took 
the oath of allegiance 1668. Thomas and Samuel "Shaddock" probably 
were first in Monmouth named of the family who now spell their name 
Chadwick. Among taxpayers in old Shrewsbury Township, 1764, were 
Wm, chadwick and John Chadwick. Thomas Chadwick was a captain in 
Third Regiment, State Militia, during the Revolution, and incidents in his 
service are given in notices of Refugee raids in Monmouth. His dau. 
Anna, m. Esq. Daniel Stout, of Goodluck. Jeremiah Chadwick was a lieu- 
tenant in the company of Capt. Thomas Chadwick. Tabor Chadwick was 
b. 1773, d. 1S43. Hem! Deborah Lon»street b. July 25, 1787, d. Sept 14. 1883; 
they had 12 children. Tabor Chadwick w's prominent and active in religious 
matters. Francis Chadwick. son of Tabor, was b. at Fed Bank and m. 
Sept. '.i. 18S5, Margaret A. Parker, dau. of Capt. Joseph Parker, of Fed 
Rank, and had children, Richard L.. Joseph P., Mary H., who m. Henry 
Wood, of New York: Frank T.. a physician of Red Rank; Alvin, Margaret. 
Deborah and S. Matilda. He d. May 3d, 1882. The first of the name of 
Chadwick who came to this country were Charles and John, probably 
brothers, supposed to have come in Gov. Winthrop's fleet, 1630. The 
chadwick family is one of the most ancient in England and the pedigree 
of the principal line has been preserved for near a thousand years and it 
seems a great stickler for preserving family names, as the names William, 


Thomas and John are found in almost every generation bach fco and before 
the Conquest. 

( 'h wihi'.Ki.AiN William Chamberlain sold land Nov, 19, 1687. In 1691 
William and Henry Chamberlain bought land in Shrewsbury. In L697 a 
patent for land was issued to John Chamberlain. In 174(1, William Cham- 
berlain had house on south side of Forked River, referred to in a patent to 
Jacob Applegate In 1742 -lames Chamberlain took up land south side of 
Forked hiver. another tract in 1751 at same place. This James is fre- 
quently mentioned in ancient records In 1804, -Jan. '2, one .lames Cham- 
berlain lived on south branch of Forked River; deeded to Francis Asbury, 
Bishop of M. E. church, for live cents, a lot for use of M. E. church. 
Among marriages recorded at Freehold are the following: William Cham- 
berlain to Lydia Worth, Sept. 10, 1800; Richard Chamberlain to Silence 
Richards, April 23, 1801. Among persons taxed in Shrewsbury township 
17(')4 were Wm. Chamberlain and William Chamberlain, Jr. Members of the 
Chamberlain family were settled, as before stated, at Forked River and 
vicinity before the Revolution, and some were among the earliest friends of 
Methodism in Ocean county. The celebrated Bishop Asbury mentions in 
his journal that in 1809 he stopped at the house of Thomas Chamberlain, at 
Forked River. Twenty years later James Chamberlain was a leading Metho- 
dist in his section. During the Revolution and subsequently Samuel 
Chamberlain was a well-known resident of Forked River. The first of the 
( hainberlain family in old Monmouth, it is supposed, descend from John 
Chamberlain, a currier, named in Boston, Mass., 1651. He m. Ann, dau. 
of William Brown, May 19, 1653. He was a sympathizer with the Quakers 
in their persecutions, and was himself imprisoned as one, and finally ban- 
ished from Massachusetts on pain of death. He went to Rhode Island and 
he and his son Henry are named at Newport. 

Chambers— John Chambers received a warrant for KM.) acres in Shrews- 
bury 1679 ; in 1681 he received warrant for another tract. In 1694 John 2d 
bought land of Caleb Shreve of Freehold, and 1695 and 1698 sold land to 
Jacob Lippencott, Jr. It is stated that there is traditional evidence that 
the Chambers family of Middlesex county descend from Robert Chambers 
of Sterling, near Edinburg, Scotland. He was a Presbyterian and suffered 
persecution with thousands of others during the reigns of Charles II. and 
James II. in 1683 and 1685. Of the Chambers family of Monmouth and 
Mercer, there appears to be at least two different lines, and the name John 
occurs in early mention of each family. 

Cheeseman — William Cheeseman was assigned lot No. 11, Middletown, 
1667. In 1731 Joseph Cheeseman was taxed for 150 acres in Upper Free- 
hold, and in 1758 for 158 acres. 

Cheshire- John Cheshire was m. to Ann Sutton 1692. His name was 
sometimes spelled Chesear. Mary Cheshire m. Jesse Woodward in 1764. 

Child — Samuel Child is named as juror 1692, grand juror 1693, &c. In 
1691 he bought land of George Corlies and sold the same 1695 He also 
sold land 1693 to William Austin. William Jeffrey of old Dover township, 
in. Margaret Child, and their dau. Margaret, m. the late Judge Job F. 
Randolph of Barnegat. 

Chute — George Chute, of Rhode Island, was among original pur- 
chasers 1667; took oath of allegiance 1668; was commissioned as captain of a 
foot company same year and juror 1676. It is said the family descended 
from Alexander Chute of Somerset, England, 1268. 

Clark, Clarke — Walter Clarke, named as one of the twelve patentees 
1665, and also among purchasers 1667, to whom was awarded a share of 
land, was one of the most active of those who established the settlement in 
Monmouth. In Rhode Island there was formed "a company of pur- 
chasers " to aid in buying the lands of the Indians, of which he was secre- 
retary. He was a son of Gov. Jeremy Clarke and was b. 1640. He died 
1714." The first Clarks who settled in Monmouth were of Scotch origin. In 
the old Scotch burying ground in Marlborough township is a tombstone to 
the memory of Richard Clark, b. in Scotland 1663, and d. May 16, 1773, a. 
70 yrs. The will of William Clark of Freehold, 1709, named w. Elizabeth 


and sons William and Alexander; both of these suns are frequently men- 
tioned in records of deeds and court proceedings. Among taxpayers in 

Freehold 1776 were three Alexander darks, John Benjamin, Doctor "Wil- 
liam, Samuel Cornelius and Richard Clark. Dr. William Clark was a 
physician at Freehold at least as early as 1760. 

Clayton— John Clayton bought land 1677 of John Slocum. His will 
was dated at Chesterfield, Burlington county, May 16, 1702. His dan. 
Leah was m. to Abraham Brown 1692, by Friends' ceremony at the house 
of John Clayton, who then lived in Monmouth. In Burlington county 
Hannah Clayton was m. to Abel Gaskell 1797; David Clayton of Shrews- 
bury, was m. to Catharine Strickland of Freehold, 1798. The earliest men- 
tion of the name Clayton in this country appears to have been that of Thos. 
Clayton at Dover, N.H., 165(1, who it is supposed went from thence to Rhode 
Island, where Sarah Clayton was m. to Matthew Borden, who was b. 1638. 
The John Clayton of Monmouth seems to have eventually settled in Burling- 
ton. In Burlington county William Clayton, Sr., and William, Jr., were 
named 1678, among first settlers, probably from England. 

Clifton — Thomas Clifton was named among original purchasers of 
Monmouth, 1667, at which time he lived at Newport, R. I. He was among 
original settlers of Rehoboth, Mass., 16-13, neighbor to Rev. Obadiah 
Holmes, Edward Patterson and others, who subsequently aided in the set- 
tlement of Monmouth. When the Quakers began preaching their peculiar 
views Thomas Clifton became an early and earnest adherent of that sect 
for which he was made to suffer severely in fines. His dau. Hope Clifton, 
was among the victims of Puritan intolerance and has an honored name in 
the early history of the Society of friends. In 1658 she was banished from 
Massachusetts under pain of death if she returned. In Freehold rec< mis 
is a copy of a power of attorney from Thomas Clifton and Patience Beers 
to John Hance in relation to dues from lands, recorded 1688. 

Clothiee — Henry Clothier of Monmouth, died 1732. He was of 
Upper Freehold. 

Codington — William Codington paid for and was awarded a share of 
land in Monmouth 1667-70. He did not settle in Monmouth. He was 
one of the most noted men in the early history of Rhode Island, of which 
colony he was Governor 1668-74-6. He died 1678. 

Coggeshall — John Coggeshall paid for a share of land bought of the 
Indians 1667; The Coggeshalls were from Newport, R. I., and sons of John 
Coggeshall who came from England in the ship Lyon, the same ship which 
the previous year brought Roger Williams, John Throckmorton and others. 
When the noted Ann Hutchinson began to preach her peculiar An tinomean 
doctrines, Coggeshall, with William Coddington and others, joined her 
society for which they were banished. These Antinomeans settled on the 
Island of Rhode Island about 1639 and founded the settlements on that 
island of Portsmouth, Middletown .and Newport. Coggeshall died 1647. 

Cole — Edward Cole, probably of Rhode Island, was awarded a share 
of land 1667, and took oath of allegiance with other "Inhabitants of Nave- 
sink," 1668. In 1677 Jacob Cole and w. were given 240 acres under Con- 
cessions. Jacob Cole probably d. in 1692. His dau. Elizabeth m. first 
Thomas White and second John Ashton. 

In 1698 the cattle mark of John Coal was recorded in Middletown Town 
Book. In 1670 one Jacob Cole bought land of David Parker. Edward 
Cole who was awarded a share of land 1667, did not come to Monmouth, 
In 1688 Robert and Mary Cole were granted 120 acres under Concessions. 
Cole is an ancient Plymouth colony name; George Cole was at Southwick 
1637; Daniel and Job at Yarmouth 1643. Robert Cole was a noted citizen 
of Rhode Island and a personal friend of Roger Williams. He came from 
England in Gov. Winthrop's fleet and was made freeman in Massachusetts 
Oct. 19, 1630. 

Coleman — Joseph Coleman paid for a share of land bought of the 
Indians 1667. Benjamin Coleman, blacksmith, is named 1711 as grand 
juror. This is an ancient Plymouth colony name. Samuel Coleman was 
taxed in Middletown 1761. 


Collins Ebenezer Collins had license to marry Aim Woodman 
Dec. 27. 171 s !. Mis v.. was a Bister of Gabriel Woodmansee, a prominent 
Quaker of Goodluck. Be ultimately Bailed for Smith America and was 
never after heard from. John Collins, son of Ebenezer, m. Phebe Bird- 
sail. He was a leading Quaker of Barnegat. He had four children and d. 
in is:;7 in his ssth year. James Collins, son of Ebenezer, m. Elizabeth 
Birdsall in 1774. Thomas Collins, son of Ebenezer, m. Deborah Edwards 
and had six children. John Collins, b. 1 7 7 1 ', . son of John, m. Anna Willetts 
in lsti2. He was a leading member of the Society of Friends and for some 
sixty years he hardly missed a meeting of tin- society. He had a remarkably 
retentive memory and to him. more than to any other one person, the 
writer is indebted for valuable traditionary information of Barnegat and 
vicinity. He d. March 31, 1863. His w. Anna d. 4th mo.. 14. 1866, a. 80 
yrs.. 'J mos. -lames Collins, son of John 1st. hail nine children. 'Within 
the limits of the present township of Dover. Zebedee Collins settled before 
the Revolution Tradition says he was an Englishman by birth, but joined 
the Americans in the Revolution and was killed at the battle of Monmouth. 
He left sou Zebedee. The name is frequently mentioned in old surveys. 
Zebedee Collins, of the fourth generation, is now (1887) living near Bamber. 

Colveb— Samuel Colver received a patent for land 1685. His cattle 
mark was recorded 1682. Samuel Colver of Shrewsbury, sold land 1716 to 
John Green of Newport, R. I. Timothy Colver or Calver was taxed in 
Middletown 1761. 

Colwell Francis Colwell of Freehold, in will dated Aug. 14, 1730, and 
proved Oct. 16, 1733, names sons William. Thomas. John and Henry. 

Combs — Richard Combs of Freehold, 1700, bought land of Samuel 
Leonard. Shrewsbury. In 1736, Jonathan Combs sold land to George, 
Walker of Freehold. The first of the name in Monmouth was Richard 
Combs. In Freehold, 1776, among taxables were John, John, Esq., 
Thomas and John Saddler. Thomas E. Combs was assemblyman 1838-9 
and Senator 184:5. in the old Tennent churchyard is a tombstone to the 
memory of Doctor David Combs, who d. Jan. 11, 1795, aged 21 years 
and 8 months. 

Compton — William Compton was among original settlers 1667, and 
had town lot number fifteen in Middletown. Compton received a war- 
rant for 280 acres. There was also a William Compton who settled at 

Coxklin — John Conklin who paid for a share of land 1667, was proba- 
bly the one named 1656, at Gravesend, Long Island. The writer has 
found no mention of John Conklin settling in Monmouth. Members of 
the Long Island family of Conklins settled in what is now Ocean county 
during the last century ; Stephen and John Conklin lived near Barnegat 
and left descendants. 

Cooke, Cook— John Cooke, Thomas Cooke, Hannah Jay. alias Hannah 
Cooke, had warrants. 4687. for land in Shrewsbury, dated 1667-87. The 
greater part of the family of Cookes of Monmouth appear to be descended 
from Thomas Cooke, who was at Taunton, Mass., 1639, and removed 
about 1643 to Portsmouth, R. I. The will of Edward Patterson Cook, 2nd, 
of Howell, was dated 1825, and proved Aug., 1826. It named eight sons 
viz: Peter, John, Amer, Job. James, William and Edward P. — to each of 
whom small amounts; to one Benjamin the yreater share, w. Alydia. 

Cooper — Simond Cooper (surgeon), bought two shares of land of Chris- 
topher All my. In 1679 Cooper received a warrant for 330 acres. He 
was from Rhode Island. John Cooper and Deborah Cooper were taxed 
in Middlewn 1761. Phillip Cooper was taxed in Shrewsbury 17i'4, and 
Catharine Cooper in Freehold 177ii. 

Corlies George Corlies had patent for so acres of land in Shrewsburv 
in 1680; 1686 for 7<> acres. 16*7 one for 100 acres. In 1698 Wm. Shattock 
deeded land to him and calls him ' ' loving son-in-law. '' George Corlies m. 
first w. Exercise Shattock in 1680. She d. 1695. Hem. 2d w., Deborah 
Hance, in 1699. He had by 1st w. six children; by 2d w. seven children. 
He d. 1715. In deeds and in his will George Corlies is called shoemaker. 


John Corlies m. Naomi, dan. of Abiah Edwards, and had two children 

. (allies and John, named 1714 iu will of Edwards. In 17:5'.) Benjamin 
Corlies was deceased. Hannah Corlies m. Henry Allen 1702, shed. 1712. 
Elizabeth Corlies ni. William Brinley 1704. William Corlies m. Sarah Wing 
1731. Deborah Corlies m. Walter Herbert, Jr., 12th of 10th mo., 1728. In 
1st II Samuel Corlies, mariner, and w. Catharine, sold half an acre of land 
on north side of Toms River to Dr. William E. Imlay. 

CoTTBELL — Eliezar Cottrell of Middletown received a warrant for 60 
acres of land 1 C76 ; in 1677 another for 120 acres and in 1687 for KM) acres. 
In Middletown, 1761, among persons taxed were John, Nicholas, Robert 
and Samuel Cottrell. 

Courtney -In 1796, Luke Courtney and Silas Crane bought land 
jointly in Stafford. Luke Courtney was a soldier in the Revolution in 
Capt. Reuben F. Randolph's company of militia and also in the 
Continental army. The Courtneys were an ancient family of Devonshire, 
England, and earls of the shire. 

Covenhoven, Conoveb— In 1695, Cornelius Covenhoven, Peter Wikoff, 
Garret Schenck and Stephen Courte Voorhuy (Voorhees) all of Flatlands, 
bought of John Bound, 500 acres as described March 10, 1685, on a patent 
to Bowne from Proprietors, land adjoining Richard Stout Derick Tunison 
and Jonathan Holmes. In 1696, the cattle marks of Cornelius Cowenhoven, 
Garate Schenck and Peter Wikoff were recorded in Middletown Town 
Book. Among members of Brick Church, Marlborough were, 1709, Peter 
Kowenhoven and Patience Daws his wife. The first named Peter Kowen- 
hoven was an elder in the church, 1701). The common ancestor of the 
greater part of Conover family was Wolphert Garretson van Couwenhoven 
who immigrated from Holland 1630, with the colonists who settled Rens- 
selaerwick, near Albany. In South Jersey a branch of the Cowenhoven 
family descend from Peter Van Covenhoven, son of Wolphert, who came 
from Holland when a boy in 1630, and was for many years a leading citizen 
of New York. Joseph Covenhoven or Conover, who settled at Forked 
River, was in 1824 a member of the Legislature from old Monmouth. His 
brother, Esquire Daniel Conover, was a well-known hotel keeper at Forked 
River. Peter lost his w. in 1633; she was buried in New York. Many de- 
scendants of this family of Van Cowenhoven are now living in New York. 
The late Col. E. F. Applegate,the well remembered editor of the Monmouth 
Inquirer, was positive that traditions in his time stated that his ancestors 
were of French origin, and the ancient names given above seem to confirm 
this tradition. Another familiar New Jersey surname of Yard, we find as 
we teace it back becomes DeYasse, also denoting Norman origin. The will 
of John Conover, Jr., 1804, named father John, and mother, property to 
be equally divided between his brothers and sisters. The will of John P. 
Covenhoven, dated 1810, named sons William, John and Robert, and dau. 
Elizabeth Robinson and Sarah Ten Eyck. In 1796, Jan. 31, Garret Coven- 
hoven was m. to Sarah Stout, by Esquire John Covenhoven. The follow- 
ing Covenhovens or Conovers have been members of the N. J. Legislature, 
viz: 1776 John; 1792 John; 1821-2- 3-4 William I.; 1824 5 6 Joseph; 1S41-2 
John R.; 1851-2 William H.; 1858-9 John V.; 1869 William H., Jr.; 1875 6 
William V. In the State Senate William H , Jr., served 1872. The follow- 
ing were Sheriffs: Holmes Conover, 1844-7; Samuel, 1847-50; Holmes 
1853-6; Samuel 1856-9. Surrogates, Arthur V. 1848; John R. 1858. Pros- 
ecutor of Pleas, William H., Jr., 1872. 

Coveet — Abraham Covert bought land of John Powel 1716. In 1721 
Abraham Covert and Echte, his w., sold laud to Frances Hoffnnre, widow 
of Samuel. Among persons taxed in Freehold township 1776 were John, 
William, Daniel and Isaac Covert. The Covert family descend from 
Teunis Janse Covert, who came from North Holland 1651; settled in New- 
Amsterdam, belonged to Dutch church until 1660, then went to Bedford or 
Brooklyn, L. I. He had ten children. The son Abraham probably was 
the one subsequently named in Monmouth; he m. Egbertje Eldertre 
Voorhees . 

Cowaed — Hugh Coward, a sea captain, who, it is said came from Lon- 


don had license to marry Patience, dan. of John Throckmorton in New 
York. -I nl \ 6, 17o;s. In i7o."> Hugh Coward and w. Patience, rhomas Stil- 
well and Alse his w., Moses Lipet and Sarah his w. Deliverance Throck- 
morton, sign deeds as heirs of John Throckmorton, 2nd Miss Coolej in 
her work on First Settlers of Trenton and vicinity. Bays L'apt. Hug] 
Coward had a son Rev. Joa Coward, who had a son -Ins.].]! who died 1 7«',« ►. 
aged 50 yrs. who married Lncretia dan. of Jacob Scndder ; they had a son 
( apt. Joseph Coward, a hero oi the Revolution, whose dan. Sarah m. Hon. 
Charles Parker, formerly State treasurer of New Jersey. In 1731, John 
Coward was ta\rd in upper Freehold In same township, 1758, John, Jr., 
and Josepb were taxed. John Coward, probably son of John whose will 

was dated 1760, was an extensive owner of timber land in what is now 

Ocean county ; about 17t',o, he united with James P. Randolph in buying 

land around Toms River. Randolph was the leading business man of 
Toms River before and during the early part of the Revolution. David 
Coward m. to Betsey Rouse Oct. 10, 1799, by Rev. Joshua Dunham of the 

M. E. church. 

Uowdbich Jesse Cowdrick, the favorably remembered hotel keeper 

of Toms River, once kept a hotel and store at Cedar ( 'reek and at one 
time a tan yard at Blue Ball He onee ran tor Sheriff in old Monmouth 

hut was defeated. He kept the jail there once. He d. May 21, ls.",7. a. 
over 57 yrs. He bought the Toms River hotel, it i.s said, of Israel and An- 
thony Ivins. This hotel was originally built by Ivins Davis. 

Cowperthwaite — Hugh Cowperthwaite of Springfield. Burlington 
county, bought laud in Upper Freehold. Monmouth county. Mar. 29, f 74*. 
This family came from Burlington county where a John Cowperthwaite was 
named. 1698. In Little Egg Harbor there was a Thomas Cowperthwaite. 
settled about middle of last century who m. Margaret dan. of Reuben 
Tucker. Sr. Their descendants are named in the History of Little Egg 

Cox — The tirs- of this family in Old Monmouth was Thomas Cox who 
was among those who bought the land of the Indians 1667. He settled at 
Middletown and in the first division of town lots, recorded Dec, 1667, he 
was allotted lot number eight; subsequently he was awarded other tracts. 
In 1668 he was appointed with three others to make ••prudential laws." 
John Cox. who may have been a brother or son of the tirst Thomas, was 
one of the founders of the noted Baptist Church at Middletown. Gen. 
James Cox, a hero of the Revolution, was of this family and was a member 
of Congressfrom Ohio and d. in lspi before his term expired. Hon. Sam'l 
S. Cox. the late distinguished member of Congress, formerly of Ohio, subse- 
quently of New York, is a descendant of Gen. James Cox, who was b. at 
Cox's Corners. Upper Freehold. In 1790 Wm. Cox. Jr., gentleman, of the 
City of Burlington, and w. Abigail, made deed of partition with John 

Craft— Joseph Craft was m. to Esther, dau. of Job Ridgway, of 
Barnegat, 1786. Their son. Job Craft, was m. to Ann Cox June 15, 1810. 
There was a James Craft who was m. to Susannah Moore about 1 7 '. * 7 . Job 
Craft and w., Ann, had son Eli and dau. Esther. It is said that they emi- 
grated West. 

Crane— Members of this family settled at Manahawken, in Ocean Co., 
previous to the Revolution. In the State Militia during that war were 
Nathan Crane who was a lieutenant, and Seth Crane, a private, in < apt. 
Reuben F\ Randolph's company. Silas Crane was a member of the State 
Legislative Council in 1811 and again in 1814. Atwater's History of New 
BZaven says that the tirst Jasper Crane probably came from Loudon. Jasper 
( in 1651 removed to Branfordand thence to Newark. N. J. Jasper, sec- 
ond, was a representative in the Legislature from the town of Newark in 1699. 

Cranmer — The cranmer family of New Jersey, descend from William 
Cranmer, an early settler of Southold. Long Island: he is named in the 
Hisf ay of S< mthold by Rev. Epher YVhitaker. among original settlers i >t 
that place 16-h»-7'J. He m. Elizaheth. dau. of David Carwithy, who had for- 
mer!; lived at Salem. Mass.. where he is named as freeman. 1644. The 


tradition handed down in the Cranmer family states they descend 
from the family of the noted Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, b. lis 1 .), who 
was burned at the stake 1556. The father of the Archbishop was also 
named Thomas and he had another son named Edward, who was Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, while his brother was Archbishop, and it is possible 
the Cranmers of New Jersey may lie descendants of Archdeacon Edward, 
who had five sons and eight dans., and d. 1604 aged 69 years. Around 
Forked River and Cedar Creek, William Cranmer took up land 17 is '.) and 

Craig — John Craig appears to have been first of this family in Mon- 
mouth. In December, 1705, "At ye request of Mr. John Craig, Walter 
Ker, Win. Rennel, Patrick Imlay, in behalf of themselves and their breth- 
ren, Protestants, desenters of Freehold, called Presbiterians, that their 
Public Meetinghouse may be recorded." It was so ordered by court. The 
Craigs were well represented during the Revolution in the ranks of the 
patriots. John Craig was a lieut. , James Craig, an ensign, David Craig, a 
sergeant, and John, a private, all in ('apt. Epher Walton'