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Haj) we the space we would with pleasure make ackoowlevlgmeiit 
by name to each of the manv persons who have rendered us material 
aid in our historical researches, also to the many published sources of 
the information comiiilol and presented to the public in this volume; 
but it would cover pages and add bulk to an already voluminous work, 
and, in consideration thereof, we trust all will accept this general ac- 
knowledgment. We have garnered from every avaihible source (in 
many cases a mere sentence only), couunLug ourselves ao f:u- iis pussible 
to original material, depending largely upon the memories of old set- 
tlers, and those whose lives and associations have made them familiar 
with the subjects portrayed. We have also, so far as practicable, cla-ssi- 
fied all matter, although the labor of compilation has been materially 
increased thereby. Yet we feel assured that our work as a book of 
reference receives an added value that will more than compensate us 
for the increased labor and e.tpense. We have also endeavored to make 
the history of each town and village niter its organization up to present 
date complete in itself, without too much recapitulation: to avoid this 
entirely were impossible, though we trust that to no considerable extent 
does it appear. 

Some incidents and anecdotes have been related more with the design 
to illustrate the past than to amuse the reader, for we have aimed only to 
show and trace the method of the change, in a concise, unpretentious 

way : how and by whom the wilderness has been changed to the garden, 
the log cabin to the brownstone front, tlie track through the forot 
and the lone postal rider to the iron rail, fast mail, and electric win; 
witli its lightning messenger, — the lands of the red man to tlie hoiiiL-s of 
the white. Honor and credit are certainly due to some. We liave 
named many — and the means, privations, and toil re<\uircd — but nut 
all, — only a few of the leading spirits, whom to associate with wa- to 
be one of. Too much honor cannot be rciJerod them. 

Instructions to our historians were, " Write truthfully and impartially 
of every one and on every subject." Their instructions have been as 
faithfully executed as was possible, and while some may have been 
omitted who should have had a place in these pages, yet especial pains 
has been taken to make it otherwise. 

We expect criticism. All we ask is that it be done in charitv, after 
weighing all contingencies, obstacles, and hiiulraiices that may have 
been involvetl; for if our patrons will take into account all the dllli- 
culties we have had to overcome, — the impossibility of liarinoniziiig 
inharmonious memories, of reconciling perverse figures and stiibliorn 
facts, of remembering all the fathers and grandfathers where tlicic are 
so many to remember, and, finally, the imocrtainty of all luimaii t-il.ii- 
lations and the shortcomings of even the most perfect, — we sliill lie 
content with their venlict. 

PeilADlLPatA., February 7, 1877. 





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With mingled feelings of wonder, admiration, and pride Americans contem- 
plate the vast, varied, and important chantres wrousrht by a people wii^iae consti- 
tution is based on equality, and whose triune priocipiea are life, liberty, acd the 
porsait of happioeas. He who views the harmonioua operation of poiiticai 
machinery need not seek the springs of action in a republic ebewhere than in 
«»innti«»s and in their Uk^ras. Power ia of th-; people, and be who tn 
and sees no insignia of rant,'no emblems of power, must coosu 
her counties, the records of town meetinjrs, to find the origin of ; 

Ancestral balls and hereditary succession, the ruins of tower and temple, mag- 
ni^cent and impnisaive in their decay, monumt-ntal shafts iojcribed with hiero- 
glyphics, and pyramids recalling the material age, are souvenirs of a ruder time 
when physical force held the maatery. , 

America is old ; her Iiigher order of civilization is new. Origin is recent, and 
the supremacy of intellect which "guided the pioneer to fell the forest and excite 
the earth to production is still manifest aa a potent, vital principle, developing 
mental power, utilizing the force of nature, and advancing to the highest reach 
of human capacity. 

New York is the Empire State, and the Genesee valley has become celebrated as 
her granary. Sons of New England sought their fortune in Monroe and found 
it given as the price of industry. With sinewy stroke and lusty blow the forest 
fell before them ; their descendants stand to-day upon the vantagt ground nobly 
won by their progenitors. 

The hlitory of Jlonroe aims to present the origin, progress, and culmination of 
that untiring industry which has yet higher aims and nobler porpost^. Whence 
come the m^teriab fur faithful record? There are thousands of volumes in the 
Athenseum at Rochester; hi.stories uf centuries ago tell of foreign climes and 
mighty cities ; but, treasuring the memory of others, Monroe is oblivious of self. 
A press is active to gamer in i^s many columns matters reple'^ with interest, but 
one toils in vain to discover more than ailu.-ions to the events of the day. An 
Ely, an O'Reilly, a Turner, and a Scraotom hav gathered fragments, and these 
have passed from prcsj to press limited in quantity ; valued as even these become 
« rarity. The records of Monroe, wh^se annals comprise but a lifetime, ore as 
meagre as the history of a nati m iu the days of legend and trauition. To augment 
material from the recullectiocs of the aged, the manuscript, the press, and the 
Tolome^ and to combine all ad a lesson fur present entertainment and future refer- 
ence and instruction, is no easy nor ignuble task. 

Herein is essayed the description of farms cleared, viilarres platted, and a city 
of agriculture, manufacture, and commerce, 
;, and striking scenery. Journeys and aettle- 

fbonded, the inception and pn.>g 
the note of rich soil, hc:Uthtul ell 

menta, rtmioi^cenccfl and records, and chronology of pioneer ata-cs of growth, 
ire rising m imp<5rtanct; as their value becomes apparent. Rt^garding the many 
living monuments of the energies of to-day. the constant and hiizher procrr&a of 
our people, and the confidtace in our future, li;w but dtsire to Uft the curtain of 
oblivion and gaze upon the pasL Occupants of farm house or city mansion are 
interested in those initial (.ffiirts which h;ive Jnducetl present enterprise, aud it is 
ft alight reward to combine the narac:» of actore with their deeds, and rescue honest 
worth from fopgctfu!iic-*3. Trominent notice is t;!Ven to the pinnccr both from 
character and achievement. The intelligence of the New En<;hndcr is proverbial; 
« toiler upon a soil whieh gave back scant return for labor, be saw alung the Gen- 

esee the broad fringe of woods which barred his occupation. The forest fell, and 
the reward of labor seemed Uke a tale of fiction. Thence arose the necessity of 
mills, the need of a market and means of transportation. The portrayal of early 
days in Monroe declares the present a proportionate effect. Occupation and loca- 
tion change character, and he who would know of the pioneer must learn from 
the printed page. We settk to make known the struggles of the tir^t settlers, their 
endurance, their patience, and their reward, and to contrast, as evidence of health- 
fuiness, their works and resources with the achievements and purposes of the 
present. In these pages biography is blended with history, and a class is pictured 
by an individual type. Science presents the lineaments of the pioneer and the 
distinguished, and an j.eue.L3 the akctcL of ruri! h;;n:c. city rcs-dcn™, 2!!^ ^i-e"'!- 
tifol scenery. The eye is pleased and the mind informed by historic and statistic 
page, views of nature grand and remarkable, and of architecture massive and 
ornate. Tradition recounts adventures connected with the dominauce of the 
Iroquois ; outlines of Monrje in the rebellion exhibit the e'ounige and patriotism 
of her citizens, while catalogue and minutes make known the standing of educa- 
tional in.stitutions and the progress of religi-m. A Russian ukaae transports a 
colony to the frozen fields of Siberia 'or the distant valley of the Amuor; >'ew 
EngLind migration prewnts a voluntary exile for Ufe, to a distant forest, of indi- 
viduals. The contrast in motive, the results of systems, is a lesson for the patriot. 
We are to consider the truth of the claim that on no other equal area can be sup- 
ported a greater population supplied with all life's necessaries, and with munv of 
its luxuries, tlian the valley of the Genesee river. Nature has lavishly done her 
part, and in this fiivort^i land it remains for the people to know and apply the 
means for the happiness and prosperity within their reach. 

The changeable character of American civilization, still in process of transition, 
renders the past obscure save through record and illustration, and hence an effort 
to depict true to life and nature the history of the early dwellers on the Genesee, 
the pleasant valley-pj. 

Eighty-six years ago the first white family located in all that territory now 
embraced in ^lonroe County. Prior to this date, temporary residents had allied 
themselves with the Indian tribes for trade and barter, or were there as captives 
adopt*^ into families. 

The ouUiue of our work begfns with the Iroqaoia confederacy, their chanicter 
and government ; the discovery and landing upon their shores of Europe-ios ; 
the consefjuent claims to ownership by France, England, and Holland, and their 
contest for supremacy ; English success, their allies during the Revolution ; mer- 
ciless barbarity in warfare, and stem retribution. 

Then comes the narrative of treaty, the settlement of State cl;um3, the famous 
Phelps andGorham purehaso, and the commencement of settlement. Proprietors, 
prominent pioneers, and typos of border chanicter claim attention. Initial meas- 
ures touching roadways, .-urvey^, and sales are followed by evidence of a higher 
civdization in dweUIng, mill, and cultivation. 

The menacing, dominant spirit of Englftnd is seen to result in a war which 
hurls back in utter rout the advance i«f t»ccupation. A squadron is held 
at bay by the adventurous stand of Gcno.see militia at the mouth of the Gcrt-^see. 
The close of war begins an active and permanent settlement. Despite priv:ui.»n, 
sickness, and poverty of resourw, the settlcri are seen to accomplish their wirk ; 
the village becomes a city; a canal. CTnnd in conception, womlrrful in execution, 
convi'ys a wealth of produce eastward, and bears back tho multitude of emiirnitior:. 
Another canal add.-* to public benefit. Railroads arc constructed, rude and thou-ht 
visionary, aud develop to the Gi»c-*t and most complete among hundnnin ot bt^-T 
origin. Trade, commerce, and manufacture, begun in trifles, end in the trau-if'T 



of miHio&s' ViJuaCiou. A wealthy comiuuniCT 'm soen to en>c 
laildiiiga, — n.fjtT=jtory, benevok-nt, oJucitionil, ajij reli'.-iuu. 
tnd Tilor .if the citii-a are shown upuQ the battlc-fieU. anj thi 
eioDJ are rtcwed ic healthful activitj. To realize these outU 
tlM Suiowmg chapters. 

ind op*'Q public 
The. punotum 
rajoj and profes- 
I ia the object of 



0^•« age Ksd s'!ci>k4<s] irntt.t-r linci? the fiat hid itme forth, " Let the dry 
hnd appear." The rcx-kj cramblo.1 and rivers bcrin their cour^. The cataracts 
of tlw Genesee and the filU of Nia^-ira poured a mighty volume with majestie 
power and thunder-sound ufon the lower river bodd. No eye dwelt open the 
grand scenery, no ear heard the solemn roar — emblem of eternity — which, re- 
werberating, died away in the endless wilJemtss. The law of development found 
lere its ample illustration, and the ■• survival of the fiuest" has been the rule in 

eTerj tuccession I 


L of eniii:htened 

Tradition, le-^.-eod, nice, and ?e<);;raphy unite to confirm the abori^ritial occnpa- 
tioa of the new world by migration to the, across Behring's Straits, ; 
from Asia. "WTioever they may have been, their mounds, their embonkmenta, 
and Implemeatj of lal»orious and rude ccnstmction survive their rpmembranee to [ 
excite cariosity and the fruitless invostitration of the antiquarian. | 

In 1492, Columbus found the West Indies populated by a peaceable and I 
pleasant people, ruled by caciques and enjoying existence. History Hula at this I 
period to speak of war^:ry, stake, and crimson trophy. Obviously they were not I 
koowD to the Spaniards. | 

In 1520, Cortet, conquerinjr Mexico, found the Attecs residents of cities, ad- 
Tancing in the arts of ciriliiation, buildera of causeways, dweilin^^, and temples, 
and tDIers of the soil. Later di^-overies present the entire rt^on known as 
North America as in possession of Indian nations, varying in character and ad- 
Tmncement in no greater degree than the citizens of Xew Mexico and New York. 
It is a question whether, left to themselves, the Mexican and Peruvian were not 
^pes of civilization which in time would have emulated ea.-^teni stores of pro- 
gression, had not a hii-her ordrr of intellect crushed out the rising national in- 
ituict and implanted itd germs u(K)n the ruins. 

Back from the Atlantic to the southern shores of the ^rcat lakes lived five 
bil^eA, established in boundaries, controlled bv an ackoowied::ed cr.-de of laws, and 
ooofederated for d- fen-ive or aggrcissive movements. They were known by the 
English as the Five Nations, and, joined by the remnant of the rujcaroiraj, as the 
Sii Nations ; by the French as JroqnoU; by the Dutch as Jhquai; and by them- 
■Jres as the Mlnyoa, or United People ; and to their league applied the name, 

Students of their character aptly denominate them the Romant nf (hit Wettern 
World, and, considered either in the extent of their conquests, or tbe wisdom and 
Sequence of their chieS, their impatience of control, treatment of the vanquished, 
mnd passion for war. the comparison is well taken.. There is a curious interest 
attached to the sites of great cvcnu, the scene of unwonted heroL-m, the conrw 
of a longVince perished army, its field of battle and rrlies of the conflict. The 
genera] existence of local pride in objects of historic interest warrants the follow- 
ing brief reference to the confederates, of whom, despite the published researches, 
Ettla i« known to the present generation. 

The confederates were known as .Uo/caiclit, Oiieiilat, Oanniiwjni, Caynyai, 
and Sinceat. The sixth nation, the Taicaraxcat of North Carolina, driven from 
tlietr country for an attempt to annihilate the En-lish .^ttltments, were adopted 
fcy the Iroquois in 1725, and pven lands between the Onrit/at and Onomdngat. 
The domain inliabitcl by these tribes is now the Kinpire state of the u-rcat re- 
public Uere were fertile landi upon the borders of the inland seas at the head- 
watcra of the Ohio, Delaware, Susquehanna, Undson, and St Lawrence, and in- 
dading a chain of small lakes, wliieh were beautiful in appiwrance. stored with 
ish, and TOrrouo'le-l by turcsts alwunJini In pime ; and wl«i iy the unitt-J nations 
here took their stand, where their wnmeit could Im11«.w a^ieuiturc and their war- 
riors diverge along a guiding .-trv.-im upon a (luiaiit funy. Tlinr suprenncy 
•xtcnded oter the country about the trrcat lakes, and their expohtifios advanced 
■Dothward agoiuat the tribes of Alabanu and other aouthcra States. By 

^ of the .^Iii.-Lv.tppi, and the 
nd the far *)uih. were not re- 


ccd j 
tho 1 

Iroqnoit, the £>!>», south of the lake which p,Tp.'t 

minatcd. the /['mm were driven to the bead-watei 

tribes of Hud-oDS bay. of the distant MU«;uri, a 

moved from their attacks. With few exceptions the Indians < 

York were masters of the vast retzion east of the .^lia-sisaippi 

pcr.rance of a single Moliatck upon the hilU of New EndnnJ pruduc-oil a pan:e 

amoo^ the tribes, and a dozen Otftiictis, pursued by n.leotles.s foes, suu-jht death 

by the waters of the great fills in preference to the ordeals of captivity. 

It was by such a warrior rn-c. on whom .so much of French and Endish iiiBuenee, 
propitious and adverse, had been e.\p.;nded, that the latter were LTii.irdL^l fp.ui 
attack and the former driven to extremity in later yeara. The territory of th- 
Srueeat lay eastward of the Oenesee, Tradition gives their at the head 
of Canandaigua lake; their villac-s, in eariier times, were comprised iriiliiu the 
limits of OiiLirio county, and Monnie was a portion of their hunting '.p-'uiid-. 
The keepers of the we=tem door were the iiioNt tierce and martial of the o.iii-.ii:^. 
and by their prowe:ss won the first great battle which brokcthe p'jwer of tlie neutral 
nation — the ErUt. Each nation wiw c^inipo-ed of three tribes, wliose emuleius 
were the tortoise, the bear, and the wolf. Each village was distinct in government 
NUtional concerns were considered by the eonfederacy at an annual council, held 
at Onondaga, the eeutnl cinton. \i this assembly full eighty sadieia^ were 
known to have convened on more than one occasion. Here were cw^iden-d the 
ijuestions of war and peace, with the solemnity and deliberation wurtliv of ihe 
occasion, and with a dignity and eloquence which drew admirition fr-m their 
foes and from the foreign writers whose every expression sought to disparage 
everything American. 

The confederates spumed control and resented the imputation of dependence. 
The office of sachem w.u the prize of wisdom, eloqueuco, and martial achievement. 
It was a^isumed by voiceless unanimous consent, and held by a practice of the 
excellences which made valid the claim to rule. In warfare servitude was for- 
bidden, and tbe captive was aestroyeu or incorporated witli the tribe. Jt-.iiuuj yji 
prertjgatives won by their powers, vengeance followed swiftly up>n tho violation 
of their laws, and tributary nations, at their command, gave up prisoners ui the 
English, and the decree of the Ii'-jii-jis was followed by involuntary ci^jion of 
lands. Arbitrary in enforcing respectful obedience, they were coosiderate and 
paternal in seeing that tbe white men did not infringe upon their rights and 
defraud them in negotiations. 

The relation of the Lcjiioit to French and English colonization claims atten- 
tion from its relevance to the invasion of the lands of the Sniiecas, and the tread 
of a hostile army across the northeastern p'jrtion of Monroe. 

Samuel Champlain, one of a company of French merchants, sot out, in 1603. 
upon on expedition to explore the country along the St. Lawrence, and to funad 
a colony upon a proper site. Primarily desirous of a depot for the fur-tmdc, a 
fort was built at Quebec. To favor the Iluroits and A'-joninins, he left behind a 
few of his party to complete huts for shelter, and with the rest set out to battle 
with the IroquoU. The rapids on the Sorrel barred farther pro'jircss with a vessel, 
which, with her crew, returned; and well it had hten for the if Cham- 
plain had gone with them, but himself and two others accompanied the Atjon- 
quiiu in their raid, and finally, the canoes emerging from the river, entered upcn 
the lake whose name rccalb its European discoverer. Traversing its siirlaec. the 
allies were approaching the outlet of L.-ike George, intemiing to reach and surpn..*.* 
a village of the Iroqnoit. when they were met at evening by a pany of tlie eueiu .-. 
and with satisfaction both sides m.idc for shore. Intrenched behind tlillen treea. 
" tho Al^onquiia sent a messenger to p.istpoiie the action till next day, to which the 
Irvquoii acceded. With Aiybreak the oppi.-ing forces, each numbering about two 
hundred men, took position, — the Iroquois certain of victory, the AljonnittHt 
trusting to their white ally, and both side's arincl with bows and arrows. The 
allies, is.suing from their defeii.-es. advanced rapidly until clo=e upon tlieir enemy, 
then, parting in two bands from the ceiii.-c, diaelu-^ed the armed white men. uho. 
leveling their firearms upon the Iruquois lenders, shot down all tlirev, two deaiL 
and wounding the third dangerously. With astoui.-.limeiit Champlain ^ pre?* :kx- 
had been met, and with dismay his destnietive weap<ms were olis^-rvcd. and when 
another discharge cut down oihcni, they lied precipitately. The Alj<jiiq'ii„t werv 
victorious, but it coat their ally deiir. At a council culled at ()iioii<lj-.r.h 'he sur- 
viving Iwinoii made known the eaus.' of tlieir dctcii. and it w.u there deter- 
mined to eltermin.ite the French. .\ war bciran, which endc'l only by the Mimiider 
to the English of all the domain now generally known as Caiiadx In v iin the 
Frenchman .sought to all.ay rcs-ntmeiit, — in v.ain the cralty Je-uit taui;lit pe-acc 
and giK>l will; and for well-iii-.'li a ontiiry and a half the contl-Jemtis alone, or 
alli.'d with the KnL-li-h ei.loni-is. proudly bore reverses ur fiercely loriL-^d upon the 
stttlemciils of the .'^t. Lawrence. 

Tho sclf-denving Ji-<uiia. with acconipaiiyiiis traders and cxphircrs. were the 
earliest agents of civiliiation in wcsUni New Vork. They camo with La Sollc, 


the &» 


belore h;i 

in th«:ir vU- 

Ugea. When & few loi; cabins marked the site of Lewi-^ton. and a truJcr'd ptjst waa 
a coalmen- ¥ men t at >*iagura, demoted misaionaried traversed the uarrow tmils to 
the homes of the S^n^cnt cadt and west of the Genesee river and rai<c-d the crosa 
unocg the savage warriors. A UttJe chapel was buiic by C':itliolic Indians upon 
die sbore of the outlet of St. Jcstph's ( Cayui:>i) lake, fifloen disciples of the 
Ofder of the Jesuits, arriving at Mocfrcal, found a welcome with tlie confederates, 
Kcd there was planted in the •■ wild^ untutored mind" a rcliiious principle which 
faded out with time, and left no record of ita advent save the form of the cross in 
laTer ornament. 

Eiidy in Janoarr, 1 *^* 0; La Salle had been received with kindness by the 
Seneca Iroquois, and conducted to their viilai;cs in Victor, Ontario county. This 
adventuroos explorer sought a knowledge uf the great western river, and, failing 
to prrxjure from the Indiana a guide throuL'h the forest, built and launched the 
"Griffin," a vessel of sixty tons, upon the uppt-rNiaiTAra river, and, having crecteil 
a hchitation and surrounded it with paJi^^des. Father MeliihuQ was k-ft in charge, 
and the intrepid voyager set sail, on August 7, uj>on his vuvage to the western 
lakes, whence neither he nor thid, the first vessel upon the upper lakes, would 
erer petum. La Salle perished by the shot of an assassin, in Tesas, and the 
** Griffin," driven a:)hore in a gale, was plundered by the Indians, and her crew pat 

The hereditary animositj 
ence of the Jesuits for a t 
BaiTB, governor-general of 
traden had been permitted 
two thousand men, to invadi 
It was in August, and the 
hraught the larger 

between the Iroquois and French, lulled by the influ- 
ime, was again enkindled by the expedition of De la 
New France. The Frenchman, angered thet English 
to share the Indian trade, set out in 1GS4. with nearly 
; the territory of the Iroquois, and landed ne: Oswetro. 

fevers which proved so deadly to our pioneers srwn 
of the French soldiers to the hospital. Too weak for 
ations were instituted and a conference held. Ciaran- 

gula, »n eminent iroquois 
marqois, as the representati 
iroDj, graphic allusion, and 
The French army retired 

:nier, escoriea uy a Douy oi youiii; w^nuis, mti. tiic 
ve of the League, and made a speech, which for keen 
deep reasoning is of rare excellence and celebrity. 
Co their former posts, glad to have escaped a dreaded 

A second expedition against the Seneca Iroquois was made by Marqais De 
NouTille, in 16S7. Grievances were not wanting, and this officer determined to 
hnmhle the ccnfederates a^ a security to French dominion and trade. Rendes- 
Tonsing hij troops and Indian auxiliaries at Niagara and Montreal, winter was" 
passed in preparation. Governor Dongan, of New York, remonstrated with De 
NoTxrille, supplied the Iroquois with anus and ammunition, and sent out trading 
parties to the lakes. The two divisions of the French army mot at Irondei|noit 
bay within the same hour. The force from Montreal numbered two thousiind, 
four hundred of whom were Indians. One hundred and titty bateaux were em- 
ployed as transports : the route followed the south shore of Ontario lake, and each 
oi^t the troops were landed and encamped, until, on July 10, the we:?tern con- 
tingent, five hundred and eighty strong;, and the main army united and landed at 
the fbot of the bay. A day w^l-* pa5;M?d in the construction of a fortified camp. 
surrounding it with gickets and palisaded. Four hundred men were detailed as 
guard over the boats and provisions, and on the 12th the line of advance was 
takea up the east side of the bay, and camp was made near the present village of 

Xa Houtoo wrote, " On the following day (12th^ we sot out for the great vil- 
lage of the T&OHHontoiwjis, without any ocher provisions than the ten biscuits 
whi^ each man carried. We had but seven leagues to march, through immense 
forests of bfty trees and over a very level country." 

On the morning of the 13th the march waj resumed along a traiHeading to 
Uie Seneca vill.ige of G'lnnagarro. Apprijse^l of their approach, the S^Mecu*, 
some fotir hundred strong, concealed themselves on the norihcastem vcn^ of a 
iwamp about a mile and a i|uarter northwest of their villaL'e. The French scouta 
adTaacing reported the clear, and the march was accelerated to insure the 
capture of the defenseless and straL'sicrs. At once there ro-<o a wild yoU from the 
dense underbrush, and a deadly discharge of musketry smote the leading raiik^. 
The regular troops and militia, seized with panic, fired uptm each other, and the 
5emeca«, noting their advantage. d;i>hcd amnng them, and a ma.<3acrc would have 
eomed but that the western and the Chrl.-tian Indians came to their rescue, repulsed 
and pureucd the iknecm, of whom eii:hty were slain. Do Nrmvillf's Ions was 
one hundred Frenchmen killed, twenty-two wounded, and ten of their sava^-e 
auxiliaries were slain. In vain the Indians urged the French gencnd to advance 
Qpoo the other vill.igcs; he h;dlcd at the battIc-*.rround over ni',;hr. and next dav 
marching to the larger vHla-c. found it burn, d and al.:»i.dnned. "\\\c Freiichmon 
occupied neariy » week in cultinc down the etrn with their swords; they then 
Tinted two other small villages, which they found in ashes. There were found in 

the country horses, cattle, poultry, and many s-.vine. Tlie .Vwirciij sent runners 
to the other nations with lidin;.;s of the pre.'S- nee of an enemy; a heavy fnrc« 
assembled and pursued, but before they rrached the bay the enemy had departed. 
Oliver Culver has said, " When I first came to Irondc<^uoit, in excwatinir the 
earth to build a storehouse we found a large quantity of lead, bulls, and flints. 
On a knoll on the bank of the creek there were the remains of a battery,* doubt- 
less the vestiges of De Nouville's fortification. 

In the summer of ItiSH De Nouville sought ptace; seventeen hundred Iroquois 
encamped near Montreal, and a treaty was conclude'l. On their return homeward, 
a party was attacked by a Huron chief at the head of a handre«J men; a number 
of the Iroquois were killed and othera captured. The crafty linron conveyed the 
impression that he was acting in French interest. The confederates, enraged at 
French faithlessness, aioembled twelve hundred warriors, and nn July 2G, ICSS, 
fell upon the settlements on Montreal island, killed a thousand inhabiunts. took 
captive and burned alive twenty-six, and broui^ht the French almost to de'^palr. 

The third and last French expedition to western New York was ommanded 
by Count De Frontonac. a man of nearly fourscore years. He concentrated a 
strong torce and crossed to Oswego ; thence he marched to Onomlaqa, which had 
been deserted and burned. Retoruinq to Montreal, predatory raids were made in 
retaliation until, in ITUO, a peace was ratified between the Iiot/uois and French; 
and during the war between the latter and the English, from 1702 till the treaty 
of Utrecht in 1713, the confedemtes kept the friendship of both combatantj. 

The tragedy of the Devil's Hole, whereby a body of Seneca Indians, on June 
20, 1763, massacred a detachment of English troops in charge of a train of wagons 
hauled by ox-teams, and iufiicted a Io.-s of sixty kill.-d upon a force which came 
to the rescue, and an attack made upon a body of Eoeiish troops en route from 
Niagara to Detroit, by the same tribe, are all the events of Importance prior to 
the Revolution in this region. 






To understand the character, sociality, religious freedom, and industrial ener- 
gies manifested by the early settlers of western New York, it is essential to learn 
the causes of emigration, the disciplinary forces of arbitrary power, and adverse 
circumstances of colonization. 

The discovery of America in 1492 excited emotions of astonishment, followed 
by Spanish avarice, cruelty, and desolation. Their vesscb did not explore the 
northern coasts, whase sterile, rock-bound shares prvsented no attractive features; 
this w;is left to Eni^lish enterprise. A new national right was recognized — the 
rir^ht of discovery; and to obtain a cl::im in the new world letters patent were 
granted by Henry VII. to John Cabot, a Venetian navigator, who, accompanied 
by his son Seb;istian, set sail to ac*)uirc the title. With no port to make, Cab-jt 
continued westward until the furLiddin:i, desolate coa.-<t of Labrador came in view 
on June 2-1; 1497, and- thus by an Italian mariner England became the discoverer 
of North America. The general national desire to discover a shorter route to 
the Indies found fruitless effort, but resulted in explorations of inestimable im- 
portance. The English kini; made no uso of his advantages. In 14'J8, Sehx^tian 
Cabot made a second voyage for purposes of traffic. Inclement weather drove 
him to southern exploration, and his vessels s.iiled from off the coast of New- 
foundland to Florida, whence arose the priority of English claim to a territory 
eleven degrees in width and of unknown extent westward. 

Francis I. of France, desiring the commercial advantages supposed to be oi>ened 
up in the west and emulating the cntL'rprisc of Spain and England, en;j;agud the 
services of Jeaa de Verrazano, a Florentine, and sent out an expedition in 1524. 
Verrruano coasted seven hundred leagues of the shore in frail vessels, was the 
discoverer of the b;iy of New York, and the first Eui\<pi'nn to tread the soil 
of the Empire St;ite. Treatment by the natives of New England was nunt 
cordial, yet the disposition to kidnap them w;i3 here a." elsewhere indulged to 
Europc;in disgrace. The return was safely made, and French title gained but 
not aswrtcd. The memory of srninire vLtitorH in wingixl !*hips had become tradi- 
tion amon- the lr->qn',i^ when, on i<. p.t.nnber 4, IGOIt. Henry Hudn-n, an En-Ii-h- 
man employed by the Dutch Kl-i India Company, discovering, entered the river 
which now be;ira his njme, and ascended the stream to a point near Albany. Ui^ 


jAcht, the " Half MuoD," a vessel of about ciL'hty tons' burthen, was observeii by 
cruwda of the .\f'f}>ttias. or .Ifohayrhs, and the natives were then.' tau'.'ht thoir 
initiatory Icasoos in inruiit'ciiiun. thirir fir^t use of Iit|Uor3. Civiiizati'^n'a primal 
oootict with bajbarisin was marked by unpnjvoked ma^'^acre and the introduction 
of the red man's cun?e. From the Indians Hudion obtained corn, beans, pump- 
kina, grapes, and tobacco, products of the country. Returning; to Kn-jrland. Hudson 
sent hia etuployera an account of his serricus. wi? funii-hci a ship by the English, 
ftod sect to find a northwest passage to the Pacific. He diijcovcrcd the bay which 
perpetuates hia meicory, reached its limits, waa put with othora in a smal! boat, 
and left to perish by a mutinous crew. .The fite of the adventurouii explorer ia 
oukoown ; hia memory is indestructible, Holland claimed under Hudson's dis- 
covery the territory from Cape Cod to the southern shore of Delaware bay. To 
thia thrice-discovered rcirion the Dutch crave the name New Xetherlands. A 
trading vessel was sent in 1310 to the Hudson river, and three years later fliur 
hooaes were built on Manhattan Island, while trading boats traversed every stream 
and inlet in the vicinity. In 1614. riirht was piven to all ori^nal discoverera of 
American buds to make four voyai^ca thither lor trade, and extensive explorations 
of the New York coast resulted. Dunn? thi.i year two forM were built, — one at 
the h^^d of niviLritinn below A!b?.nT. the other on the '"V'S rni-if of M .^h'ttin 
Is l a n d. Agents were sent in every direction amono; the Indians to secure their 
trade, and, i.T IGIS, at a poio': near Albany, a treaty was made with the Five 
J/iitions, which the Dutch strove to make lasting and the later English cultivated 
most assiduously and successfully. "The Dutch," said the Iroquois, "are our 
brethren \ we have but one council-fire with them; a covenant chain unites us as 
OM fiesh." 

In 1623, Fort Orange was erected within the present limits of Albany, and in 
the year followiog Peter \Iinuit arrive-l as the first director of Nu.f Netherlands, 
and with him came fjmilic^ from the Belgian frontier, known as Walloons. At 
their settlement near Manhattan island Sarah de Rapelja was bom, in June, 1625. 
She was the first child of European parentage bom in New Yo'-k. Staten Island 
waa bought m 1626 from the Indians for twenty-four dollars, and Fort Amsterdam 
erected thereon. Wouter Van Twillcr, a relation of Van Uensst^Iaer. succeeded 
Minuit in 1633 ; and at this time came the firet minister, Rev. Everardus 
Bogardus, and the finit sch'><il-mister. Roelandsen, to the colony. Five 
years later William Kieft bet-ame rlirect/)r. His intemperate acts drove the 
Indiana to arms, and a war wa^zed which threatened the colony with extermina- 
tion. Peace wa^ concluded by the powerful intervention of the Mokaurks in 
1645, during which Kieft wa3 recalled and Peter Stuyvesant appointed in his. 
place. From 1G40 the EiglL-h. who twenty years before had settled at Plymouth 
by Dutch permission, gradually -encroached upon the colony regardless of remon- 
strance, fearless of force, and claiming the whole territory through Cabot'a dis- 
covery. Stuyvesant restricted the privUeires of the c^lonisLs; a convention of 
delegates from the various towns met in 1653 at New Amsterdam to petition for 
redress, without avail. 

This refusal waa the knell of Dutch administration. On March 30. 16G4, 
Charles II. of England, ignoring the right of Holland, granted the whole of New 
Netherlands to his brother James, the Duke of York and Albany. A fleet, sent 
out under Admiral Nichols, forced the capitulation of the Dutch governor on the 
6th of September. The name of the c<jlony was changed to New York, the 
•ettfement at New Amsterdam to-jk the same name, and Fort Orange waa given 
tibe name Albany. The Dutch and En-zliah colonists had hailed the change of 
government with satisfaction, but soon found ihcnu^lves at i^^ue with the represent- 
atives of English authority. Colonel Nichols, the first English governor, admin- 
istered till 1667, with moderation and justice. Under his management an unsuc- 
oeasful attempt waa made to determine the New York and Conn-^cticut boundaries, 
and on June 1-2, 1066, New York city received its charter. He waa aueceeded 
by the tyranX of New England. Edmund Andros. who was followed by Colonel 
Dongan. In October, 1633, Dongan, being governor, celebrate*! his accession by 
granting permission to the p«.-opIe to elect an a.'^sembly consisting of a house of 
representatives, eighteen in number, chosen by freeholders. This, the fir^t coli>. 
nial assembly in the province of New York. to-:ik the present form of a pjvemor, 
coancil for senate and x'>embly, with this important distinction, that then the 
power rested with the irijvcrnor and the councd. while by con.>^tant and successful 
effort the count-il has been changtxl to a senate and the authority to the immediate 
representatives of the people. 

The French scttlemcnU persistently endeavored to curtail and destroy the Eng- 
lish colony, and but for the vigor of the wnfod.rate Imlians would have succeeded. 
The governors, tyrannous in control and inftEciont in protective measures, brought 
the colony into contempt, only rclievc^l hy the resolution and encrrv of Schuyler, 
ably seconded hy Fletclicr durinc the winter of 1603. The revolutions in Eng- 
land, the chang'^s of covcrnmont. » xtemled to her provinre'j, and gave rise to an 
erent of the highest importance to the subcei]uent relation bctwecu the two claidca 

known as proprietors and the people. The execution of Leialer and Milbourne, 
so manifestly unjust, drew wide and deep the line between a people whose hard- 
ships in a new land entitled them to a voice in their own government and the dis- 
position of theirown pniporty, and the " patruons." or br^e lande<i proprietors and 
intended ari3t<x:rata, who aimed to establish here the invidioua distincliona lung 
known and maintained in the parent-land. The strife so b'?gun continued to in- 
crease in ita intensity until the straggle for independenco called all to ann.s, when, 
under the d&^ignatlons of Whi:: and Tory, bitter feelings found vent in the cruel- 
ties which have made the name uf Tory infamous. It remains to trace the pro- 
gress of events in Albany and Tryoo counties westward till the war for independ- 
ence and the foothold of French and English upon the lands of the Senecaa in 
the region of the lakes. 

It was in 16S3 that the province of New York was divided into countless, ten 
in number. Of these waa Albany, which embraced all that p-jrtion of the t^^rritory 
north of Ulster and Duti.bes3 counries, and wc-^t of the Hudson river. The cii- 
ouiata so far had clung to the coiist, the sound, and the lowt-r portion of the river, 
and had located oriirinally for purposes of traffic, and had become permanently 
established through habitude. The commencement of improvement and settle- 
m-^tit west of Schenectady svxs made by men who sought in the wilds of the forest 
the exercise of the rights of conscience and freedom to worship God. No con- 
victs of an eastern nation, no adventurers for power and wealth were they, no scum 
of royalty nor dregs of populace, but refugees for cherished faith. 

With promise of bnda from Queen Anne, three thousand German palatines 
emigrated to this countay, and, landing at New York, the majority settled in Penn- 
sylvania, while seven hundred persons, directed by seven captaius, took their way 
to a tract of twenty thousand acres situated on the borders of the Schoharie river. 
Without resources save their own, they enterc<l upon their work of estabIi?>hiog 
their homes. The products of the forest and the stream iravc scanty subsistence, 
and in lanre bands they made journeys for grain to Schenectady, fearing else the 
attacks of wild beasts In 1711 their fir>t wheat was nu«pd: it wi<i o.,If!v.,fed 
with the hoe upon land cleared and prepared without plow or team, and, harvested, 
waa hacked to Schenectady for grinding. One Lindsley, a Scotchman, in 173U, 
obtained ownership of eight thousand acres in what is now the town of Cherrv 
Valley, and there settled with hid family. The ne:irest white neighbor, reached 
by Indian trail, was fifteen miles away upon the Moliawk. Fond of the cha-^, 
he found ample means of gratifying his taste. In danger of starvation from the 
deep anows of the winter of 1340, an Indian friend journeying upon snow-shoos 
supplied him with food. In 1741 a number of families joined- him, and the set- 
tlement of Cherry Valley had an origin. A grist- and saw-mill were in operaiion 
744, and a condition of prosf-erity was enjoyed, so ikr as they were eiempt 
','r3 of French and Indian assailants. 

rilliam Johnson, an Irishman, nephew of Sir Peter War- 
ren, an English admiral came as his uncle's agent to manage a tract of fii^e<_n 
thonsand acres, granted by government within what is now the town of Florida, 
Montgomery county. Johnson located near Port Jackson, and began a cloie 
study of Indian laoguaire, character, and habits, and followed up his intercourse 
by obtaining a controlling and lasting influence favorable to the colonics, perni- 
cious to the State. It has been supposed that he closed his own life to avoid taking 
part against the coloniea, since the receipt of favors iWu the British had plated 
him under strong obligations. Settlements crept gradually westward. In 171G 
a purcha,^ in the present town of Amsterdam was ma'ie by Philip Groat, who 
waa drowned while removing thither his family. The widow and her sons made 
the settlement, and in ITliO had erected a grist-mill. The first merdiant west of 
Schenectady was Giles Fonda, whose trade was chiefly confined to the confederates, 
and who had posts at Oswego, Niagara, Schlo=3er. and other points. 

Tryon county waa organized from Albany in 177-, and derived its name from 
the last royal governor. It included al] the province west of Sclioharie county, 
and was divided into five districts, called Mohawk. Can.ajoharic. Palatine, Gcnoan 
Flata, and King^latid ; die last two included the greater part of the western s*'t- 
tleraenta. The first coart was held in Johnstown, on September 8, 1772. Guy 
Johnson, judge, as were John Butler and Peter Conyne, assii^ted by five judges 
and six justices. Namca of officials show how the powers of law and izoveruuicnt 
were held, and the iiu|Kjesibility of American freedom without a rcvuluti«in. The 
acquirement of English supremacy in western New York oncp nl.taiUL-«l waa held 
tenaciously long after tho colonies had mined their in<lcpond''nfe, and wxs une 
ground of the war against Great Britain. It is a notable feature of hi>("ry con- 
nected with the Genesee country that its ownership was a subject of controversy 
between nations. States, and companies, and its proprietors, previou.-* to acttlcment, 
seemed instinctively to know its n;itural;ige3 and capacities. The losauns 
taught in school- tn-at ligfctly of thi.-* tnpic, and, save a few isolated facta, the his- 
tory of these western re'^>iid of the State is thought to be of limitdl iinpnrtao'X'; 
I should be tnie. The English claimed western New York from their 

from the inv:iJ','r3 of Fre 
Daring l^^lo, Sir Wi 



gHuiiCfl with iu uativp po^^'^soni. arni, ainzularly cfioush, the French hjd the 
gatne bails of rt-:i-?on. The S^iuvaj were in-lcpendent, anii scorn d the supremacy 
of either. French influence waa fostered by the Jesuit pricstj, but no une 
further pnimoteil their interr-its than JoDcaire. a captive Frecchman. adupted by 
the Se^ieca tribe. It li notable thai the F^nch allied themselves by marrixje 
with the Indiana, and couformed to their cusisma. The Engliah seldom ao tkr 
fcrgot or ignored thoir hi'iher culture. Id 1721, Joncaire had built a cabin at 
Lewi:»toD, and had founded an Indi.ui settlement He waa familiar with the cotirs*: 
ef the Gencaee, and the sulphur springs at Avon, and. fla<-nt in the lan:ruaee of 
the IroquaU, waa influential for hia elmiuence. . It waa in 1725 that Joncaire and 
French officers, divertin;^ the iS^neccu upon a hunting excursion, employed a body 
of Iroopa to erect a fort at Niagara so strun'.^ that, on their return, it waa sale frv>ia 
attack. A year later and the KDu'lish had built a fort at Osweso, and had eftah- 
lisbed a trading post at Iroodequoit bay. The war of supreiKacy to be cioee*! by 
the conquest of one p.^rty bci;an in 17.54. .\n English exp'^dition UL-.^inat Niairara 
vaa a failure. Id 175t;. Oswego was captured by Montcaim. In May, 1759, an 
army under Genend Prideain moved from Schenectady to Oswego. The force oom- 
pria«l two British rc-.Titn*'n*s. a btxiv of .\mericans. and many of the Iroquots. The 
army, provided with bateaux, set out July 1. and, following the southern Oataric 
coast, encamped by ni'jht uj on the ^hore. The bay at Sodus waa the first niizht's 
harbor ; then successively at Irondcijuoit, Braddock's bay, Johnson's creek, and 
finally at a creek eighteen miles from the fort As they had progressed the 
heavy guns had beon discharged at intervals, and their deep b.xim through the 
fcresta announced their coming and their power. The armament waa disembarked, 
and the siege began. It ended in the defeat of a bociy of French and western 
Indians twenty-five hundred strong, and led by General Aubrey, who tempted 
to succor the gturisiin, and in the surrender of the fort. It required all the com- 
mand of Sir Willuui Johnson to restrain the iro^^uots from a massacre, and the 
plucder of the fort w.ia given them as a diversion. With the fall of Niagara fell the 
French power, and the way waa opened tor the coionial struggle. F rancv. jealou^d 
and revengeful, gave her armies to America, and the surrender at Torktowa was 
the finale of European rivalry and American independeoce. 







From eril, good rrsulta. The horrors of war precede the greatest triumphs of 
peace. _The neutrality of the confederates would have entitled them to consider- 
ation, and ignoVance ©f the rich lands where fi-om time immemorial their villages 
had stood and com and fruit been raise-i would have deferred its occupation. 

With the breaking out of the Revolution. Johnson, Butler, Brandt, and other 
toriea removed to the west, accompanied by the Mohawk tribe or nation. Joseph 
Brandt settled the Indians at Lewiston, where be built a small log church. A bell 
brought from on Indian church upon the Mohawk was hung upon a cross-bar in 
flie fork of i tree, and servic-cs were occasionally held by the British chaplain at 
Fort Niagara. Tht influence of Johnson drew to the BritUh interea'. many set- 
tlers along the Moha«k, and the parties once peaceable neighbors became most 
implacable enemies. 

It waa in June, 1777, that Brandt appeared at Unadilla with a party of abont 
eighty Indians. He demandi-d fi>od. which being supplied, lie departed. On a 
day in July, General Herkimer, with three hundred and eighty militia, came to 
Unadilla, where Brandt appeared with one hundred and eishty warriors He was 
UTogaot and insttlent, and intimated that Wiu>ever gave the most presentj* would 
hmTs his support. .Vt a 5ii:nal, the Indians, shouting, repaired to their camp, 
whence they returned, raising the war-whixjp. Brandt manifested a readiness to 
fight, but Herkimer forbore in hopia of peaceful settlement. This was the last 
conference with the conft.'dcritcs to .'Secure their neutrality. Immediately there- 
after, Johnson calleri a council at (.)swo;io, and the Kn^lLsh influence prevailed. 
Colonel Gansevoort, with the Third Xvw Vork. had been p<.'-'ted at Fort J^t-huvlcr, 
a part of the present site of U^mie, since .\pril. and on .\ugu.-.t Z wxh bosictred 
by General St. Lcger, who had marched fn-m O^wciro with a force of seventeen 
hundred men. Genertd Herkimer, attempting to juio Gansevoort with seven 

hundred men, was ambu.«caded by tones and Indians under Butler and Brandt. 
The Tan was destroyed. The rear fled confu.^edly, hotly pursued; the centra 
facing outward, treed and held their ground.* 

The flghtin'.: had continued for .come time, when Major Watson, a 
law of Sir John .Fohnson, brought up a detachment of Johnson's Grv-ens. The 
bl.>od of the Germans boiled with indignation at the sight of those men. Many 
of the ''Greens' were pei-s-tna'dy known to them. They had fled their country, 
and were now returned in arms to subdue it. Their presence, under any circum- 
stances, would have kindk-d up the resentment of those militia; but coming as 
they now did, in aid of a retreating foe, called into exercise the most hitter feel- 
ings of hostility. They fired upon them as they advanced, and then, rushing 
from behind their covers, attacked them with their bayonets, and those who had 
none with the butt ends of their muskets. This contest waa maintained, hand- 
to-hand, for nearly half an hour. The " Greens" made a good resisuvnce. but were 
obliged to give way under the fury of their assailants. A sally was made from 
the fort, the camp plundered, and return made without loss. Genera! Herkimer 
behaved heroically, and, disabled by a musket-shot, was placed a little removed 
from the struggle, where he smoked a pipe and g:ive orders. His limb was am- 
putated, mortified, and caused hia death. The .Vraericana lost four hundred killed 
and wounded. The Indians had one hundred killed, thirty of whom were iSenecas. 
The tories and Engk-^h had one hundred killed. 

The siege of Fort Schuyler ended on .August 22. It vras raised partly by the 
approach of a brigade under .Vmold, and in part by the tale of a "foolish " 
refugee, who exaggerated the numbers of the approaching force as " many as the 
forest.|eaves," and caused the withdrawal of the Indians. Lieutenant Leger 
found his way via Oswego and .^lontreal to Bunioyne. Brandt and Butler, with 
their white and red partisans, laid wiste the frontiers, and many a Iol' house flamed 
at midnight, and many a family met cruel deaths. Two events illustrate the 
horrors of the border, the massacres of Wyoming and Cherry Valley. Colonel 

ward over the Genesee country down to the valley of Wyoming. Colonel Zebulon 
Butler, a Continental officer, chanced to be at home, and assumed command of 
the militia. TTie Americana set out to surprise their enemies, and failed. A 
battle resulted in which no quarter-was shown. The defeated militia found shelter 
at Fort Wyoming, which was filled with women and children, and indetensible. 
The fort was surrounded, and the garrison capitulated under a pledge of protec- 
tion, which was wholly ignored, and the mercile-ss savages swept the valley with 
ruin. Brandt attempted a surprise at German Flats, but the population escaped, 
and only their proy^rty was destroyed. A fort had been built by order of La 
Fayette in Cherry Valley during 177S. and a garrison placed within, under com- 
mand of Colonel Aldeu. This officer was notifietj of the approaching enemy, but 
took no precautionary measures. All rested in fancied security till the yella of 
the fierce Iroquois app.alled the ear, and their keen weapons speedily acc.implished 
their dreadful work. The fort repelled as.sault with a telling fire, and ali without 
were killed or captured. Night came, and a body of prisoners were taken to the 
woods, and pbced within a circle of fires, where they remaiced till morning, when 
all the women and children were set free except .^Irs. Campbell and Jlrs. .Moore 
and their children. They were taken to Kanadesaga (Geneva) and adopted into 
Indian familiea. By making up clothing for the squaws, and efforts at ple;ising 
them, Mrs. Campbell won influence and improved her condition. She was t-iken 
by the Senecas to Niagara, and finally with her children reached her old home. 

Sullivan's expedition against the eonfcdcratea to their homes in the valley of 
the Genesee in 177D grew out of the atrocitiea of which we have spoken, and is 
worthy of record for its bearing upon the settlement of this country. To this 
time the Sfnecaa had been secure through their LsoK-uion, and returned from 
their bloody raids to security. Now General W;Lshin'.rton determined to send an 
army to lay waste their villages and capture Foh Niagara, — the liepot of their 
supplies. General Sullivan waa appointed to command the expedition, and set 
out for Wyoming, where a force was concentrated, and advanced to 'TioL'a I'oint. 
Morgan's riflemen, and other troops to the number of fitleen hundred men, in 
command of General James Clinton, j'tlncd Sullivan on August 22, 1771), and 
the whole force under Sullivan set out with great caution upon the proposed cam- 
paign. The army numbered about five thoutind men, and, well supplied with 
artillery and a month's rations, proceeded up the Tioga. 

The Indians derided the aupposied folly of attempting to march a regular army 
through the foasta .such a distance to drive thcni from their villages, but when 
they found that army actually advancing, they rallied at Newtown. Butler and 
Brandt came from Canada; the former to head his rangem, the latter to command 
the Indians. Within a few miles of Newtown the Americans found the enemy 
posted behind a li'g brc.\-itwort, from which they were quickly driven with le^s. 

• Campbell'! Ammli. 


At * short distance, a second uland w.-u maJe Ivliiod anuther eitcn'ied bivftflt- 
leork. The armj wu diviMf^. auti tan;h win:: wjs onJ>*reti to mareii, the one to 
tkt right the other to the lA. and encomp.i.-3 the enerar : while to hold tCi^ra from 
retreJting shc-lla weru thruwn over them, which, bur-im^ in thiir reir. caai-d a 
dull throogh one wing ot" th>: army, whereby bu(h =iJe;* loct considerribiy. At a 
pl«« on tho river called the Xarrows many Indians -,rere killed. The road was 
BOW opeo, and the adTance wa5 cautii>usly rx.-=>umcil dirccily to the head ;if Seneca 
Uie, thence down the lake to KanjJ.>a-.-a, which was evacraaiwi by all but one— 
aboy of sevea jeara, found isk-ep in a hut, and adc^'L4ri by an o^i'^r. The women ■ 
sod children fled, a pitial>le throat', to Niairara. while in vain the Indians atretupted 
in ambuscaiie. Frum the mouth of Seneca bLe the advance wa3 made without 
resistaQce by the outlets of the Canandai.;ua, Honeove. and HemL-ck hk*^ to the 
head of Conesua lake, where camp waj made up.jn what is known a.i Henderson's 
txta. Tho Indians took their stand in vain ; hii scouts wcirc practiced riflemen, 
md the troops wer« constantly on the alert, trhiie morning and evenin;^ the boom 
of a single t^nnon told of advance and halt, — a .-icnai of humanity to the lielp- 
leas, a menacing dctianee to the w.arrior. 

The army lay in camp ; behind them was a well-marked rout«, and where the 
Tillages had stood a:ihes and smouldering lirea lay in heaps ; where large orchards 
had ^.tj*jw.-- -.4:^.'.- :...-. ''v3 ^vcs ^ -.d 1 ne ihe'r wnrl:. md wide over the 
eom-fielda lay the withering stalks. — a complete scene of dc-solation. At du.ik of 
the day io camp a party of twenty-one riflemen were sent out under Lieutenant 
Boyd to reconnoitre near the Gv*nesce river, between Genesee and .^Icunt Morris, 
and guided by Hanayerry, a friendly Oneida. The di?unce to Little ik'ard's town 
vas but seven miles; but tho rtiute, the dnrknc:ss, and the ref^uired caution mcde 
tdtance laborious, and the village waj reached at a late hour, and found but 
lately abandoned, as the fires were still burning in the huts. Boyd decided to 
halt till morning near by, and just before cLiyli^ht sent two men back to report 
th« enemy uodiicovercd. After daylight the party again approached the vilLi^re, 
Bear which two Indians were 3<?en skulkine. A Vir:riniaD, named Murphy, a 
SCtid scon?, shot one of the luJi.ina and to«k his scJp ; the o'her fled. Conceal- 
B>eat was no longer possible, and the party immediately began to retrace their 
way to the army. 

They were within a mile and a half of the camp when discovery was made 
that Brandt and Butler, in heavy force, occupied a ravine, interceptins farther 
RtariL B"iyd saw his forlorn hope of breaking throuirh, and. eno,»uragin'j his 
B>«D, gave the command to advance. At the Srst attack the riflemen killed 
aereral of the enemy and met no loss ; twice more the attempt to go through was 
VBSacce^£f\llly made. Mur|.hy and sis others e<car-eij. ten were kille-l, and Lieu- 
tenant Boyd and a soldier named Parker were captured. Boyd reiiuestt.Hi to <ee 
Bnodt, who at once came forward and was met by an appeal known to the initiated 
IS the call of " a brother in distress." The -chief promised his influence as a 
protection. The prisoners were taken to the Indbn villaire near Moscow of to- 
day, and, during the tei^.porar;,- absence of Bnindt. were interrogated by Butler 
reEp«cting the force and intention.^ of Sullivan. The infjrmaiion was rvr'u^ed, 
■fid Boyd was put to mo^t inhuman torture, which chjscd with euttinc: off his 
head. Parker wa3 beheade'i, but not tortured. The army, hearing the tiring, 
adTaoced towards the Genesee, and at the bat:le-CT0und found and burici the 
ilaJD. Arrived at Gene=ce, a crossing was effected, and the country was *cuuped 
along the river; villages were burned and all -"ubsistence destr^iyed. The muti- 
Uted-remaina of Boyd and Parksr were found and buried under a clump of wild 
plam-trees. The anjiy abandon<?d the advance on Nia'jara, returned upon their 
route, and went into camp at Morristown. Xew Jersey. 

Bnmdt led his Indians along the Niagara trail to .Canada, while Butler with his 
riogers marched to the mouth of the Genesee river, and s«nt a runner to Niagara 
fof boal3. They remained in camp several days, kindled no fires. dischar.??d no 
guns, and chx, in dread of discovery by the American scouts, and when 
the boats arrived were sufferin.- for tiAxl. 

The Indians never recovered from the blow. and. during the enauin'.' winter, 
hang about the Briti.~h poits, fmm whu^ suprlies suh-i.stencc was -mniily fur- 
nished. Haodreils died, and in the sprln-,- the vil'.a-_-es west of the Gene-'cc were 
those east lay as the army Irl't them till the time w.-w come fiT white 
The revengeful feelincr* implant*^ by puni-huiciit f.mnd vent in the 
year* following, and the life of many a .settlor was ruthlcs.-'ly taken. Peace VAmv, 
and the Seimat, sulhn and, Icll the war-path ujion which it was their 
delight to travel. 

There had come west with Sullivan m.iny a s-Jdicrwhiiw eye quickly contm-tnl 
the Batumi scenes of beauty and the numcpiiL-« ort-hardj and cum-field.s pluntt>d 
upon the rich soil with the sterile and unprumi-inc ea*tcm hntht. Irresistible in 
force, the mind wis Icll fn-c to observe the nature and rcjurces of tho country. 
The inarch through the Mohawk valley and along the interior lakes prcsent<sJ 
aaaj a fine farm site; but when they entered the valley of the Gencs«!, langua^j; 

d anticipat 
1 tho eiphir 
M cultivatio 
ast their v. 

e spot, w 

wonder the 

he lay 

nns escitcd. 
ition of an unknown 
a. .Many a soldier, 
■rmilion i;lare upon 
iou,-ht of the unav 
bile all around him were bu- 
Id result in wealth and indepi-ndencc. 
rovement and 

turned to tho 

was incapable of denating the hopes 
raid of Sullivan became famous; it ' 
the discovery of its highest ad.irtatinn U 
at night by the bivouac fires, which « 
trunks and mas«ive branches of tho dei 
as tenant or owner of sorae barren littli 
bounded tracts npon which like industry w 
Little retked they of the labor They s-aw the '^-radations of 
when JL-ain at heme, the tales of war with the lodiau-s were ble 
tions of the country they had s*.>en. and the attention of others 
distant field of promise. In the army, and acting as an aid to General Sullivan, 
was Major Adam Htwper, a I'hiladtlphian, and atterwards an inti[n.ate friend of 
Rfjbert Morris, whoso patriotism and financial ability had been so well shown 
during the war. Major Ilofjper brought back glowing accounts of the richness 
and beauty of the Genesee valley, and its desirability .as a home, and others con- 
firming these assertions, the minds of speculators and others were turned to these 
lands as a sate investment, either for profit or settlement. But a bar esisted t» 
action ; the ownership was to be decided prior to occupation. 

There lived in the Genesee country for many yeara a missionary known as 
Samuel Kirkland. He set not to sojourn with the Iroqiioa on January 16, 176.5, 
in company with two ^i^neca companions. Arrived at Onondaga, the influence 
of Sir William John3.-)n obtained a kindly reception. Proceeding to Kanadesasa, 
formalities ensued and were renciuded by his adoption into the family of the 
sachem. All went well till the sachem sickened and died, when a p'lrtion of the 
villagers determined upon Kirkland's death ; a trial followed and he was acouitted. 
During the Revolution and later his influence restrained the Indians to some ex- 
tent from siding with the British, and was aseful in the conduct of various sub- 
sequent treaties. 

Among Seneca captives were Horatio Jones, taken in 1781, and Jasper Parrish, 
in 1777; both after a time remained with the Indians in preference to returning 
to civilization. A son, William \V. Jones, bom at G»ineva in December, 17-^6, 

of 1790, Captain Junes with his family moved to the Genesee river, and resided 
in a hut left by the Indians. He was appointed interpreter, and held the office 
nearty forty years. His death took place in IS06, at his home on the Genesee. 

Parrish was set free by the treaty of 1734 ; received the appointment of inter- 
preter and sub-agent, and settled at Caiiandaigua in 1700. Hi.^ death occurred in 
1S36, at the age of sixty-nine'. His early life was one of hardship and terrible 
memories; in later years his services were invaluable, and his standinir, in the 
pioneer society and later, high and respectable. White and Indian held him in 

Brief reference may be made to the " ^Vhlte Woman," Mary Jemison. Cap- 
tured when a child, during the summer of T75.1. and ail her father's fiimily killed 
and scalped, she was taken to Fort Durjuesne and adopted by two Indian girls to 
take the place of a brother killed in battle. In later year3 she married a Dflatcart, 
whom she regarded with affection. She set out with a child in 17 J9 and traveled 
nearly sii hundred miles to the Genesee river, and filed her heme at Little Beard's 
town. The journey 00 foot-such a di:itance. throuch a forest swarming with wild 
beasts, of a woman and her child, thoughtl'ully considered, is little short of hero'ism 
and excitative of aiimirution. Her first husband died, and she arain taarried. 
The white soldiers destroyed her house and fields in 1773, and, with five children 
to support, she found an opportunity to husk com, and thereby earning twenty. 
five bushels of shelled com. placed herself above want. The " Gardeau reserva- 
tion," a tract containing thirty *jiiare miles, waa granted her, upon which she 
lived till 1K31, when she sold out and bought on the Buffalo reservation, and 
there among the Hi-n-cnjt closed her life on .■'optcmbcr 10, 1S3.'!. 

Of Ebenczer .Vllen little need be said. He was a native of New Tork, 1 ranger 
tinder Brandt and Butler, and a Cali-julu in cruelty and wickedness. By stratcsy 
he prevented the Sritecii from going to war io 173.'1, and was for months the 
object of vindictive pursuit by tbe di-vipp.Miitisl British. This nsleoming .ict was 
in consonani.v with others of like kind, and his cfl'nrts for peace were as ener.retio 
as they been novel. Further notice uf this rcni-gnda is found In the history 
of Wheatland and the early hi-tory of lloehester. In 17U1 the Seneca Indians 
dee«led to .\llen, in trust for Ins two dau^htcn, four Sf|uarc miles of land, now 
the village site of .\Iount .^(orris. The deed was signeil by S>;,eca !<.-u.hem8 and 
by Timi.thy I'ii-kering. rnite<l Staii-s commissioner. In 17!)7, .\llen went to 
Cinada \\'esr ; received fniin iiovomor Sinu-oc a of three thousand acres 
for the building of mills and a church; took no part iu the war of ISIli, and 
died in ISU. 

Tho garrisim at Niatrira were supplied with beef by dmvers from New Jerwy. 
During the summer of 17S7 a party of a dozen young men, among whom was 
Silas Hopkins, later a n-sident of Lcwiston, aet out to see the country and Co 


brin;; out from New Jer--v a Jrove uf ciLtle. 
Tan*8 ancj. The Ix-t white sOttltT was seea 
were t^to trader? and .sevenl whites, who were i 
Icdisos in the soTerai Ujwds levied a tribute of 
droviug erpeditiona were numeroua, and a num! 
later seulere. Seouti, traders, hunters, and a a\ 
through the country, and made t-empurarv sen 
disposition impelled. At the mouth of the G; 
cuncd Walker, whose cabiu m 17jI was the s-. 
the ooast now beloaging to the county of Monr 


oweJ the trtick of Salli- 
at Newtown Point. At Geneva 
aikin:; of ereciinu; a house. Ths 
a beeve from each drove. These 
■t^r who toot part in them became 
mi>or of Butler's ranirers traveled 
leraent as game was abundant or 
nesee river there dwelt a ranger 
le indication of settlement along 



■ lWi.L.N THE L.M*£,ij ar.».4^.5 A.'.'D :.l^ ^i.vTl'JS:'. AFT^It TH^ r.FV^LUTiOS 

England concluded peace with her revolted colonies in 17S3, with do pro- 
TisioDS for the Six Nationt, and, aa a conquered people, these Indiana were at 
the mercy of the republic. Many, smarting; under a sense of deadly injury, de- 
mred the territory of the Indians to be held forfeit ; but the influence of Schuyler 
and Washington prevailed in favor of purchase, and thereby prevented the recur- 
renoo of another war. 

It is observable that, aa the time for white occupation drew near, the elements 
aeemcd to have cunspired to render the wo*>Jb nntf-nable to the Indians. The 
winter of 1779-SO is memorable as one of uoprecedented seventy. Snow to the 
depth of full five feet lay like a blanket upon the surface of all western New York. 
Game, a chief reliance of the Indians, perished by thousands, and the dissolving 
.•<Dow in spring showed the forests filled with the carcasr^es of the deer. 

The Tarious provinces erected into States, settU^ by different races, classed, and 
religions, and united to obtain their independence, had a reluctance to the dele- 
gation of power to the general government which well-nigh proved fatal to the 
republic, and in the State of New York pro-iuc^d a collision resultinc: in favor of 
the former. It was in good ftith that the question of jurisdiction was claimed by 
New York, and as earnestly the United States assorted their prerog-ative. 

The State legislature p.L'?,-ed an act in April, i7S-t, by which the governor 
and a board of commissioners were made superintendents of Indian affairs. 
Governor George Clinton, as president of the commission, originally consisting 
with him of Abraham Cuyler, Feter Schuyler, and Henry Glen, was authorized 
to ally with them such others as were deemed necessary, and proceed to appoint a 
time and a place for a treaty. A partial arrangement was effected. 

Pending proceedings, CV>nirreA3 had appoint-'d Arthur Lee. Richard Butler, 
■and Oliver Wolcott commi&>ioner3 to neg-jiiate with the same parties; thus the 
* andefincd powers of the United States opened ground for conflict of interest and 
Aathority between State and Confederation. The Indians were more favorably 
-disposed to the government, and although deputies met the Sute board at Fort 
Schuyler in September, do action was taken and the council broke up to await the 
coming of the United States commissioners. The first treaty between the United 
States, and the InHjuou was concluded on October 22. 17S4, at Fort Stanwii. 
The terms were those of a conqueror, imposed aa the penalty of warfare. AU 
Ctptives were to he restored and a limitatiun of boundary acknowledged. Peace- 
able pos6<.ssioQ was guaranteed the Indians of their territories, and at the conclii- 
tioD of the treaty goods in considcruble quantities were distributed. Brandt was 
not present, and Cornplanter came into notice aa a sachem who bowed to the 
. inevitable and obtained for his nation whatever adv:intai;ea were possible. 

The first bnds purcha-e<i of the Indiane by New York included a tract lying 
between the Chcnantro and Unadillu river*. The treaty, as such transactions 
hare ever been designated, was made on June -S, 17S5, by Geoi^e Clinton and 
others with the Oiici</(ts and Tnscarorat, and the sum paid was eleven thousand 
five hundred dollars. This was followe<l on September 22 by a cession on the 
part of the Oneidiu of all their Linda excepting ruscrvations, and interest centered 

New York, Maasachusetta, and Connecticut, by their original charters, claimed 
jorisdictlon to the s.^mc wc-^tcrn territory, which wn.s made to extend "from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific wx-.m." The coi-lrovor^y between the firat-nam..d St.iU-a 
was amicably settled, — in the first place by a c- v*frion U) Cungrcsa of all lauds west 
of the present New York boun<lary, and tin.illy by a cunci'>siou to M:i5.-«achuHett3 of 
a pre-emptive right of the soil from the Indians of a tract west of a meridian 

a reserve of a siiiall 
lined sovereignty and 

r«JSolved to hold 


' Ne 

ntal of 

line passing through Seneca lake to a point on the Pennsyl 
miles west of the northeastern boundary of that State, with 
tract a mile in width along Niagara river. New York retj 
jurisdiction. Other tracts were thus dl=p«wed of, but. howev 
here be noted. The immense tract, comprising all the State 
was in the posse.ssion of the Seneca nation, wha-^e old men 
it, while, as later appears, the Knglish laid claim to the entir 
Matters were rendered more complicated by the actioti of 
during the winter of 1737-^^3 by sume eighty uealthy and prom 
of the Hudson. It was a law that the purch.ise of the fee ia Ian 
with the State. These persons named organized what was termed t 
Land Company," whose plan was, the lease from the .SVj; XadoiVi 
two thousand dollars yearly, for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, of their 
entire lands. It was thought that from this territory a new State could be erea'.t-d. 
and the settlement allowed to progress would in time become independent of In- 
dian or State. A branch company was organized in Canada, and the influence of 
the members over the Xutionjt was such that a '* lessee contract' was duiy sl^jiied 
on November 30. 1737, by Red Jacket, Little Beard, Farmers Brother, and 
others. The legislature took the alarm and, in [March, 17S8, enacted a law leveled 
at these iilegal companies, and authorized the governor to punish by fine and to 
remove by force all persons settling without State authority un the Massachusetts 
lands. These unabashed lessees, balked in their plans, now sought a grant from 
the State. They were so far successful that iu 1703 a tract ten miles Sf(uare was 
appropriated from a part of the military tract in the northern part of the State. 
Later, the lessees used their influence in bringing about an agreement between the 
Phelps and Gorham Association and the Senecas, and received therefor several 
large allotmenta, including several townships. Asa relic of the times and a reia- 
tion to the lands now partly included^y Monroe, the early contract of the lessees 
is here given : " An agreement made on November 30, 1787, between the chie& 
or sachems of Lue u<'x iVuc.''>-« of Indians, cf the one p^^T^, ind Jnhn Livingston. 
Caleb Benton, Peter Ryckman, John Stevens<m, and Ezekiel Gilbert, for them- 
ilves and their associates, of the county of Columbia and State of New York, 
witnessed that the said chiefs or sachems of the Sie yultons, 
on certain considerations afterwards mentioned, ' leased to the said John Living- 
ston, and his associates, for a period of nine hundred and ninety-nine years, all the 
lands commonly known as the lands of the Six Nations in the State of New 
York, and at the time m the actual ptissession of the said chiefs or sachems."' 
The chiefs or sachems were priviieged to make such reservations for themselves or 
their heirs as they might choose, and • said reservations to revert to the Ie^5ee3 in 
case they should afterwards be relinquished by the Indians." The payments were 
specified as '' a yearly rent of two thousand Spani:;h milled dollara," payable on the 
Fourth of July in each year of the nine hundred and ninety-nine for which the 
lease was drawn. The lessons taught by these efforts are fraught with the per- 
manence of the nation, the extent to which the general government shall have 
authority, and what rights shall vest in the sovereign State. The action of the 
government in its last treaty with the Sioiix of the Black Hilts, and the remon- 
strances of the tribes settled in the Indian territory, are a culmination of violated 
pledges, whose history, written in truth, by an Indian, would redound to 
American disirrace. The deaire to exterminate the red race has ita ori-^io in 
revenge for their reprisals, but the lessons of fraud and cvil'as>ociation3 wore not 
lost upon them, and their complaints were heavy with truthfuluess. It was held 
no dishonor to defraud the Indian, and the '• mill tract" obtained by Oliver Phelps. 
while regarded as " cunning strategy," was a fraud, known as such by the Senecas, 
whose history so far as known, presents no parallel. Yielding to the force of 
circumstances, the tribes which held sway over the lands of Monroe huve been 
seen to hold a kingly position, to repel armies, to by waste provinces, to hold the 
balance of power; hereafter, in their connection with settlement, their place, is 

I of the other i 







F.\MILIARITV lesst-ns the sense of d;i;igcr. Advcntuniua men advanced Wyond 

I the farthest limits of ^etflomcnt, .and t'«.k up their alnxic up.n lands whrn-on 

i they had determined to remain. Such was Hugh White, who moved from Mid- 


dletown, Connecticot, in 1734, with hia family, and planted himsolf at what ia 
DOW Whiteatown. Krcctins a lo;i habitition, and felling- the trws in tho vitiait?, 
1>« be--an to clear hjaise'f a farm, and for relaxation and poli'-y mingled with the 
lodiaiii, and for 3ociot7 er.juyol the company of hia wife and children. James 
Deui, ha.yins; served the Indians aa an interpreter, was rewarded by a gift of land 
KSkr the present site of Rome. Here he located in the same year of White's 
emigiation, and three years later Jos4^ph Bbckuicr moved nut and settled within 
» ahort distance of l>ean. on the trail westward. Mr. Blaclimer later avain re- 
moTed, md became a pioneer in ths town of Wheatland, JIunroe County. Asa 
Dmforth and Cvmfort Tyler, the former accompanied by his family, came in May, 
1788, to Onondaga Hollow. The journey was made by water to the mouth of 
Onondaga creek. To acoommod.ite the travoler he opened his lo^ house as a 
tiTeni. Joshua Fairbanks, who had married Sophia, daughter of Colonel Seth 
Reed, s settler at Geneva, in 1790. and had set out in a slui<:h with his wife to 
join him, thus describes the termination of his journey from Whitestown to Ge- 
neTa: *' Half way from Whitesborouzh to Onondaga Hollow night came on. and 
gladly we sou^iht shelter with a settler who had just got in, and had a lot: house 
oot yet finished. Some Indians were in the house — a novel .>iL'ht to Mrs. Fair- 

The presence of other settlers in the neighborhood was inferred from there bcins 
a small dancing party at the tavern that night. The next night was pas-»ed at a 
camp-fire kindled by Fairbanks ; supper was cooked, and the night was passed 
comfortably ; another night at Cavnga lake, with Harris, the ferryman." The two 
crossed on the ice, and next day reached Colonel Ileed's. We have named Com- 
fort Tyler as a companion of Asa Danforth. He was a Echool-teacher uprin the 
Mohawk, and a suneyor, and one of the party with James Clinton when running 
the boundary line between ^'ew York and Pennsylvania. He felled the first tree 
for a clearing, built the first turnpike, and made the first hand-mill in Onondaga 
county. Tyler and Danforth manufact.ircd the first salt made by whites at the 
works, ard their c^terxirLso was noted in the ore^s of the dav. 

The next settlement westward was made by John L. Hardenbargh, upon the 
present site of Auburn, and in 173!) James Bennett and John Harris were en- 
gaged in rtinning a ferry at Cayuga lake. Tryon county was chanced to Mont- 
gomery in 1734, and four years later all the region westward of Utica bore the 
name of Whitestown. The first town meeting was held in April. 1731), in the 
bam of Daniel White, and at the third town meeting, in 1791, James Wads- 
Tforth, of Genesee, was chosen one of the path-masters, and was therefore the first 
of that innumerable body of men under whose supervision the present system of 
h^hv.-ays has been reached. It was under direction of the Wadsworths, in 1790, 
that the first attempt bad been made to clear a pathway from Whitestowo to Can- 

The particulars of the Phelps and Gorham purchase should be familiar to all 
the residents of the Genesee country. Journeys and transactions now common- 
place from celerity of movement and conveniences of execution, were then at- 
tended by delay and danger ; little known and less appreciated. 

Oliver Phelfs was a native of Connecticut, and took part in the war of the 
Revolution. ^Vith p-oace he settled at Suffield, JIa.-«jachusetts. In business which 
brought him into association with Mr. Morris, acquaintance Wiis made with Major 
Adam, Hoops, and the favorable opinion formed of the western country was fully 
confirmed by the reports of this officer. Associatin;: with him Jud^e Sullivan, 
William Walker, Messrs. Chapin, Skinner, and others. Mr. Phelps arranged to 
attempt the purchase from Ma^-^acbusotts of one million acres. While yet com- 
pleting their plan of action, Nathaniel Gviritam made a proposal to the lesislature 
to purchase one million acres at eiirhteen pence per acre, payable in State paper. 
It was not accepted. The matter lay dormant till April, 17.-;3, when accompany 
being formed of all who wished to purchase. Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham, 
as their representatives, bousht the entire tract of nearly six million acres for one 
million dollars, to bo paid in three etjual instalments in the depreciated paper of 
Blassachnsetta. Preparations for purchase from the Indians, exploration, and 
aurvey were made. To .^Ir. Phelps was intrusted the huaincss of holding the 
Indian treaty ; Israel Chapin was to explore the country ; William Walker was 
made local agent of surveys and sales, and Mr. Gorham assumed the airency to 
confer with the St-ite authorities in reference to the pre-emption line. It was 
resolved to compromise with the lessees and secure their co-opention, which was 
(avorably arrangi>d, but no advance was made till Butler, lirandt. and Sweet, of the 
Niagara company, were included. When, in the summer of 17HS. Oliver Phelps 
left Granville, Masiiichusetts, with men and means to fulfill his task, the entire 
neighborhood assembled to bid him fiirewell. It was regarded as a dangerous 

Having reached Kanade"aga, a journey to Niainira waa rei|iii3ite and succi'ssf^ 
Returned to Kanadc.'wga, he visited by U.?d Ja.k't and others, who announci 
themselves as a deputation to conduct htm to a council at Bufi'alo creek, whci 

-( the party arrived on the Fourth of July. The Indians were willing to .wli a rirt. 
I of their lands, but for a time rr-fused the sale of any land west of the i.;< 
river, alleging that that stream was the find boundary between the rices. F.iiling 
I to obtain all, Mr. Phelps, who had already contractc^d with the Indians more tlian 
I he could pay the State for, now represented that it was hi'.;iily essentuil to pbl::io 
I some Und west of the river, at the fails, that mills misht be built there f-^r the 
I advantage of white settlers, and which would be of great benefit to the In.liaiis. 
MTien asked t^c quantity of land needed for the mill-seat, it was answered that a 
tract extending twelve miles west from the river, and from the vilhige of *' Cana- 
wagus" parallel with the river northward to the lake, would be sufficient. Thus 
was obtained the mill-scat tract whose purchase was confinULHl to the contractors 
by the Massachusetts legislature of November, H.^S. The land aequirod ctra- 
prised by estimate two million six hundred thousand acres, two hundred thous:i'.l 
of which was west of the Genesee. The work of Mr. Phelps being concluded. 
Canandaigua, at the foot of tho lake of the same name, was desi^ated for the 
central village, or capital, and he returned to make a eatiatactory representation to 
the company. It now remained first to determine tho pre-emption and then 
to survey the tract, in order to allotment and purchase. This labor wxs given to 
Colonel Hugh .Maxwell, by Mr. Phelps ; and as the lessees had formed a settle- 
ment at Geneva, they hoped that in a survey of the east boundarv-line a tract 
including the village site would fall to them. Two Indian traders, Seth Ki-e-.t and 
Peter Ryckman, in reality agents of the lessees, had made application to the State 
for the satisfaction of a claim presented for services rendered in negotiating with 
the Six Nations, and had made the proposition that a patent should be given them 
for a tract whose limits should be defined .xs extending from a certain tree ^hich 
stood on the bank of Seneca lake, southward along the bank until a strip of land, 
in area equal to sixteen thousand acres, should be included between the lake and 
the Massachusetts lands. The claim had been allowed, and a patent given. The 
traders proposed two surveyors. Maxwell for the Purchase <"'„nipany, Jenkins f:r 
thiiijtlTcs, «uJ, Luis being acceded, these men proceeded to the initial p.jint im 
the Pennsylvania line and began their work. When about twenty miles from 
Geneva, near the outlet of Crooked lake, provisions gave out. JIaxwell went for 
a supply, while Jenkina, continuing the work, gave the line a westward diver- 
gence, which, being unknowii to Maxwell, was by both continued, so that Geneva 
was passed on the east, as was the whole of Sodus bay on the north. The result 
of the aurvey was a disappointment to the purchasers, who. however, made com- 
plaint, and the " old pre-emption line" was made the ba-is of further surveys. A 
brief history of the " Gore," presenting a correction of this fraudulent error, is 
of the greater interest from the alleged variation and ct^nsequent uncortaintv of the 
compass. As we shall see, Messrs. Phelps and Gorham sold their undisposed of 
lands to Robert Morris, and, influenced by their belief in an erroneous line, further 
strengthened by an "offer" by one of the le-sees for "all the lands thev owned 
EAST of the line that had been run," specified in their dc<.'d to Morris a tract in 
a gore between the line and the west bounds of the militarv tract. Moms was 
satisfied that the survey was not correct, and, having sold to Pulteney and other', 
articled to run a new line. Under the superintendence of Major Hoops, Andrew 
Ellicott and Augustus Porter performed the work. A body of axemen were set 
to work, and felled the timber a width of thirty feet ; down this line the .-urvey 
was continued to the head of Seneca lake, whence night-signals were eniploved to 
run down and over the lake. The great care taken to secure accuracv established 
credit in the survey, and the '■ new pre-emption line" became known as the true 
boundary between the military and the purchase tracts. The lessees were compelled 
to abandon their claims ; persons who had locate<l land warrants on the disputc^l 
territory were given other tracts, and the title became vested in the Pulteney 
esute. * 

The plan of sur^'ey and the method of disposal of lands adopteil by Mr. Phelps 
were simple and efiicient, and, as such, were employed by govenimcnt in the laving 
off of congrc.'^ional townships and the ealabli^hment of local land ofiicoa. Walker 
first surveyed what were termed range lines, — running north and south, six miles 
apart, and seven in numl^er, numbered from the pre-emption line westward, one 
to seven. At right angles to these, also six miles distant t'rom each other, township 
lines were run, and numbered northward, from one to fourteen. Each trict. there- 
fore, cont.iincd tliirty-six s-iu-are miles, and was called a toiciiship. Tlic-io town- 
ships were designated aa in a certain number and range: thus. was 
known os No. 1-, fiUh ranu-e, and Brighton as No. I'i. seventh ranse. " .\a 
the Genesee river runs a)>oat twenty-four de:.TCe3 east of north below .Vvon and 
the seventh range of town-hips was continued to the lake, the fifth raiizc was left 
to contain hut twelve, and the sixth ranire hut ten townships, and to square tho 
tract lying west of the Gencacc, two townships, entitled the aliort rani/e, were set 
off near the lake. Tht-jc townships arc now coiupn.^-d in the towns of Gates and 
Greece. The towns of Parma. Ogden, Riira, Chili, Wheatland, and Caledonia, 
then four townships, were called the first range of townships icctt of Genexe river, 



io Gorharn anii Pli.-li-" pnn.-h.i5r.'' 
sjrvcy V.13 (Mnpletcd, and by the i 
were sold, small cash payments bein^ 
in MassachusctU scrip. Sales wore > 
meeting held in Janu;iry, 1TS9, a d 
properly that of lMiclp:i and Gi«rli:ira. 
to the rienesoe country and e--^tjL>iUh 
daj<rua had been laid off in ihc full i 


liddle of IT.-sU some tlurtj-dve township.'* 
made and notes iriven for tinal payment 
onfined prinuip^ly to .Hhare-holdors. " At a 
vision was made and tlie purciiase became 
The cvcnt-i of ITSD introduce the sottlem 

f ITSS. with a main stret^t ei-Jit rods wide 


»y, ITtJl), the a^'cnt arrived 

5 "Were issued. The feature was 

sretic settler, and hiirhly udvan- 

Tlie article ^rantoU pu^-^ession. 

and two miles Iodlt. and John D. Rubinsun h^.j 
ing and office for Mr. Walker, the laud agent, 
with others, and optMied an office whence Arlic/ta 
wholly American, favorable to the po<ir but enc 
ta^K)xi3 as a .«afe and rapid moans of scttlemtiit. 
but not the foe of the land; opportunity was si\ea for mafcini; tlio,--e fre'|uent 
changes commun amon^ new settlers. ImpruVements could be ;?oid, po.'=s«'ssi(pn 
aasi^ood, aod abandonment resulted in reversion to the proprietor. These !<4mDd 
measures have rendered the Genc=>ee farmers enterprising, and enhanced the 
¥aiaui.i ih...- i,.,^..„;..... T:.c ....■■j f O- * i, -v ,:'•;• 1 i- iT^-t .,pA 
included all the hind within the State west of the new pre-emption line. The 
capital or county seat was located at Canaiid.ii:rua. A dozen counties have been 
formed from this territory, leaving a proi>ortinnate area alxiUt the old county seat. 
Oliver Pholps was appointed first judiie, and General Vincent Matthews was the 
first lawyer admitted to practice in that court, who^e jurisdiction was so extended. 

During the abiwnce of Ioc;d laws it w;is a-rreed wich the Seneca saclieras that 
each race should punish the offenses committed by their own people, and it was 
with difficulty that the Itidiaus were induced to yit.-lJ this right to the white man's 
courts. Ao Indian, called by the En|:llsh •■ ^tiff-arm George," had murdered a 
white man, and Benjamin Barton, then sheritf of Ontario, was foi-biddcn by the 
chtpfii to niale an arrest. It was airrcod that the man sh uild be pn>>*?nt when 
court met. and on the trial Red Jacket .spoke with unusual ability. The prisoner 
was condemned to be hung, but was pardoned by Governor George Clinton and 
banished from the State. 

The assumption by Congress of certain State debts, among whieh was tlie Mas- 
sachusetts scrip, so enhanced itd value that Phelps and Gorham were unable to 
inake their payment, aod therefore propose*! to the State to reconvey that portion 
to which the Indian title was not extinguished, and provided that aay excos held 
over one-third of the whole tract should be paid for. at the average price of the 
whole. The offer was accept*:^. I'he same cause which compelled the reconvey- 
ance prevented early purcha.'-crs from making payments, and a brge pK.>rtioD of 
lands sold reverted to Phelps and Gorham, and, from the complex character of 
their affaira, the titles to lands became a ^[ue^tion of litigiou.s dispute. The lands 
surrendered to Massachusetts were purchased by Samuel Ogdcn.and by htm sold 
to Robert Morris, who, at a treaty at Big Tree on the Genesee, near the present 
village of Genesee, extinguished the InJian title by the payment of one liundred 
thousand dollars. The greater part of this land, comprising three million two 
hundred thousand acres, was sold to what was known as the Holland Land Com- 
pany, and the land became known as the Holland Purchase. . 

Od XovcmborlS, ITOO, Messrs. Phel{is and Gorham, reserving two townships for 
themselves, sold all tht-ir lands, comprising one million two hundrLd and sixty-four 
thousand acres, to Robert Morris for two hundrc<.l thousand dollars. M'»rris had 
made f^-w sales and executed slight improvements, when his a^'Ont, who had been 
Bent to Europe to interest f jreiirn parties in wild lands. elTocted a sale to Sir William 
PuUcney and othcra. Charles Williamson was appointed rcsldeut agv.'nt, aod *ipened 
Und offices at Geneva and at Bath. rutere.-t centered primardy at the will of the 
proprietors from the protective influences afforded and the conveniences .of inter- 
course. Colonics having purchased a township sent out a party to erect a tem- 
, and tiien came on witlrtlicir families. The survey of town.shipa 
ras done at the purchjisers' expense. Augustus Porter and 
I Wire employed upon tliis labor. Instances were observed where 
a Shaeffer or a Henchor planted themselves far aloof from neighl^rs, ,ind again 
an entire colony came on. as in the case of Caledonia, of which Wheatland 
originally constituted a portion. 

The county of OuLirio was formed near the close of the year 17Sf>. Town 
meetings were held in AprU, 1701. At Canand.ii-.iia Isnu-l Chapin was chosen 
Buperrisor, and at Canawaugus John Gan-^m elected to the >ame offiee at the 
Mine date. No court onraniaiti-m wa.^ cfficti-d until WJX A .-t.urt of oyer and 
terminer waj held at Geneva in June of the year named, at which Jolin S. Hobart, 
a judge of the supn-nie rmirt. prr-Idoil. A grand jury i-allod, hut no Indict- 
ments werr prcsentod. Tin* fir>t citnrt (if commun picas anil ;;eriera) session.s for 
Onario took place in Nuvemhcr. I'Oi. in the tavern of Nathaniel SaiiLorn in 
Cwiandaigu-i. Timothy Ilu^n.-r and Chariest Williamson prtsid.-d. and with tiicm 

porary habitati 

Frederick I 

Matthews and Thoa.x-. .Moai^. A grand jury was called, and a party w:u iiidicr^d 
for the thotl of a Another =es=ion of the court w;is hJd in Jun..^ ITL..',. 
at which Nathaniel W. ilowcll and Peter B. Porter were admitt.*d to pravtico in 
the courts of Ontario county. The first jury trial in the cnuniy west of HerkiniT 
waa had at this court. The case for larceny, xi stated, wis prus<xuted by N. \V. 
Howell and defended by Peter B. Porter and Vincent Matthews. T!ie Utter was 
long known as one of the ablest of the legtd profl.-ssion. He was held iu high 
esteem by the members uf the bar of Monroe, having' settled at Rochester up-.ii 
the formation of the county of Monroe in -Hif. /d ^ / 

In the settlement of Ontario, wherein for thirteen years Monnw was include-]. 
two classes of land occupants were recognized, — the temporary and the perma- 
nent. There were conver^iifins from one to the other, and a certain dcgrctj 
of restlessness p^J^sessed by all in the desire when searching for a home to obtain 
the best possible, but the distinction of the two divi-ions U strongly m;!rkcd. 
The gtiienl rale is, in early settlement, for a border cI.lss of trapper aud hunter 
to hang upon the fringe of advancing occupation. Tliey may Iw called op-enrrs 
or beginners, and seem averse to neishljors, and disappear as ^ign5 of settlement 
midtlnly. There w;w another class who erected small log cabins, cleared as thev 
were able, then, exhausted by privation and sicknes.^ or failing to make paymenL?, 
gave way to others, who, with the strength of numbers, built with bettor success 
upon their broken fortunes. An Ontario pioneer settled upon a farm near Can- 
andaigua thus speaks for a class: "The place for a man is not quite amon? the 
Indians, for that Is too savage, nor yet among good farmers, who are too jealous 
and selSsh, but in the woods, partly for clearing it up and partly fur hunting."' 
The histories of towns, dealing in the first settlers, often bear witness to a name!.^ 
class of stjuattera whose de-tcrted cabins gave a brief home to the p^.Tnianeni 
settler, and whose half-tilled dearin;;, grown up to rank weeds, made a l.K-aiity 
more wild than the surrounding woods. Klkauah Watson has noted the squatter 
class as " rude and uncouth." Maude, Liaucourt, and other early traveler* con- 
firm tlie statement, and express relief when leaving some won?e ihaii u,-ual bol 
and board. Litigations were fretiueot, and, when not settlcnj by physical en- 
counter, aggrievances were taken before the justice, and the docket of those eariy 
magistrates presents in the many cases a lesson of iotempcrance and povertv not 
pleasurable but by present contrast. Such was the social character of the 
"squatters" of Outario. 

We cannot better illustrate the class whose labor is the basis of jireseot 
enlightened society than ([uote the language of Everett. " What have we seen." 
said be, " in every newly s.ttled re<:ion ? The hardy and enterprising youth finds 
society in the older settlements ojm para lively tilled up. His portion of the old 
family farm is too narrow to satii-fy his wants or his desires ; and he goer* fonh 
with the paternal blessing, and often with little else, to take up his share of the 
rich heritage which the God of Nature has spread before him in this W..-scem 
World. lie leaves the land of his fathers, the scenes of his eariy days, with 
tender regret glistening in his eye, though hope mantles on his cheek. lie d>es 
not, as he departs, shake off the dust of the venerated soil from hia feet : but on 
the bank of some distant river he forms a settlement to perpetuate the remem- 
brance of the home of his childhood. He piotu4y bestows the name of the sp-.t 
where he was bom on the place to which he wandered ; and while he is 
laboring with the difficulties, struggling with tlic privations, languishing, perhaps, 
under the diseases incident to the new settlement and the freshly-opened S'-ii. he 
remembers the neighborhood whence he sprung, — the roof that sheltered his. 
infancy, — the spring that g\ished from the rock by his father's door, where he 
waa wont to- bathe his heated forehead after the toil of his youthful sports. — the 
village school-house, — the rural church. — the grave of his father and of his 
mother. In a few years a new community has been form*^. the forest hx-* dis- 
appeared beneath the sturdy arm of the emigrant, his chUdren have grown up- 
the hanly offspring of the new clime, and the rising settlement is already linked 
in all its partialities and a.s-.oc-iations with chat from which its fathers and founders 
had wandered. Such, for the most part, b the manner in which the new ."^tates 
have been built up; and in thw way a foundation is laid BV Natl-re nKR>ELy 
for peace, cordiality, and brotherly feeling between the ancient and recent settle- 
ments of the country." 

In recounting the inceuiives to we^^tern emigration, the ruHng motive wu i\\f 
hope of improving the condition. The land was cheap, fertile, and abundant. 
the terms of payment were favorable, and the prospects of a rising value certain. 
The laud agents aud proprietors, in many instances, g:ive a gooil farm traet in 
Ontario in oven exchange for a V-w Ku-land farm of one-fmrth Ho- an u 
Many in the cant beM:anie excited by ovor-wrou-.'ht talen of a " Paradise- io the 
West," and made tlie journey hith.-r only to suffer with .li.-s.M.s(., priv.niun. ajid 

of suffer 


ated Er 

Among the attorneys pre*« 


others, with ini 
won their way i 

manhood, resolved to make the best of it, aod gradual!/ 



■ ih.^. 


ihe P^pa 




anufui-ture nor 


astrial pur- 

r.icjicv au 

1 for d.-fc 

«. With 

sil.s b» 



became > 

Ihaso ..f 



e ori.^D, or 

r, pi^,«J 



of the pio- 

■itv w.u a 



uJ and the 

The choice of l.iuJi w:is the privilc-c of the t-a 
were 1-JCatoJ upon flnts in the riL-hctt land.H- To s*- 
A cleared tract vj.t civctcJ bj all. At .Vaph- 
Ocnes^s were ck.-.rinj5 whi..-h 5crve<l to inliiate 
With no roaili, Tchiil.-3, Dor commerce, with BO n 
•ait, the &n«ujcstdili.thed their vill.i::osilir conr, 
the arrival of emip^nL*, the platiini; of viiia-e 
game cf fortune. Short-lii-ed pro.~p.-ri;y attendwi 
deroid of Io*.~al or aurroundin;.: udvanta^'ia. Yea 
oeera had dipart^'d bef ire the crownin.- sue for • . 
eoODtj seat of >roiinw had oxi.5l.'nee. Neit to Cjiiandaiv'ii:i, the villj.,-e of I'itu- 
fonJ, chroQologically, wa.^ laid out, — it wa^ eontoniporary with Avitn, l>cncsee. 
LjoDS, and Palm^Ta, and the pinneer of what i.i now >[onr<>c. Upon a bluflf 
Tested the srtlioDicnt; at its base ira^ a valuc-f ^prin::. Now but an outpost of a 
great city, tioie was wlion it seemed like reir-hinir ciriliz.ation to ent^-r the streets 
of Pitisford, the home of merchants. d,xn..r<. lawyers, and preacher?,— the s.'at 
of trade for a wide rc-ion ; it is not that Pitf.-u.rd has now become less, but that 
Rochester has become more, that the pioneer village resta upon the record of the 

From the earliest a;:es th.' courso of streams had been the routes of travel, and 
the comomoicalion afforded by river and Lake thr.ju^h the State of New York 
■westward was a powerful agency in the development of Ontario. A hizhw.iy for 
Uavel was eitemporLzcd from the Indian trail from Albany to liuffalo, and 
by water and by land, — by boat, bateau, sleigh, wa^o. on horseback, and on 
foot, at all seasons, with varied e.Tpcrience, — the course of emigration, slowly at first, 
then accelerated, eame to the valley of the Genesee. The ori'.-inal course of travel 
was by boat or bateau from Schenectady up the Mohawk to Fort Stanwii i Rome). 
There boats were cnrri.-d over a porta'.-e of a mile to the waters of Wood creek ; 
down thi.1 stream the eniijrants pas>ed to Oneida lake, tbrouih the lake and itsout- 

(Seneca) Like to Kanadesac^a settlement i Geneva i. The naviL-ation wa.s inter- 
rupted only at what are now Seneca Fall.s and Waterloo, in the county of Senecx 
The firrt party, conducte-i by General Chapio in the spring of 17-9. fir the set- 
tlement of Can.indji_'u.a, came by water down the outlet of Canandai^-na lake to 
their journeys end; the instance was eiceptional, the head of navigation being 
ia what is now the town of Manchester. The water opon the streams was of far 
greater Tolume than at present, and the cmisrant, at times moving easily alone, 
had opportunity of obs-'rvinq the tlivcrsity of scenery; at others, a raft of lo-js in- 
terminably blended created delay of portaTe or the work of cuttioc a channel To 
those who made that voyage, looking back after an interval of poling, rowing, 
flooting, and transporting, for a period of from four to six weckj, the eastern 
Kome seemed far remote, the comforts of civilization left far behind. Another, 
and a southern route, led the emigrant ajoiig tue Su.viuehaniia and Tio-ja rivers 
to Newtown, thence to and down the Seneca Like. It was said by Maude that, 
"August 18, ISOO, a sciiooncr of forty Uins sailed from Genesee landing for 
Kingston, U. C, laden with pot.a5h, which had b'.'en sent from Cunindarriue to 
Rundicutt bay, and from thence ro'ind ab.iUt in b..,it^ to the landing;" the eitract 
presents the condition of n.avlgation at a date when many scttltraonts of Ontario 
were well advanced, and evidences the bck of roads and the unsettled condition 
bf Slonroe. For a brief time the water route found patronage, but efforts were 
«t once put forth and the cutting through of mad' U-jnn. 

The early scltlois upon the miliLiry tract came from New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
Tania along the well-marked route of Suliivao. The pioneers of Ontario from 
Jlassachusetts set out on foot and on horseback and drove throiiih their stock, 
while families came by water, or, as wa.< the rule, the heads of families or young 
men came on as land-hunters, made their selection, boui^it or aniclod. built a h'g 
boose, and then returned along the path or trail to pass the winter at the old 
liome. Fully aware of the intluence of rnads in facilitating travel and eonse- 
qoent settlement. Mr. Phelps, jointly with John Taylor. State a-jent. contracted 
with Ephraim Bl.ackracr to cut out a two r'>ds in width from Fort Stanwix 
to Seneca lake. This preliminary improvement the Indian trail and bbied 
trees was completed during 1T.S9. .^Icn were ncit employed to cut the brush 
between Geneva and Canandaigua, and from a point on Flint creek to the loot of 
Canandaigu.1 kke. -\ wa'.-on-road wa^ made from the head of navigation, io 
Manchester, to the site of Canandai~ua. In 1702. said Williamsnn, in a note to 
Maude's Travels, " the road fnmi Geneva to Canandaigua was but an Indian path, 
opoQ which but two families hail sctil.M. Tbe county town con>i3ted of only two 
•mall frame hoaxes and a few huLs inrl't*eil hy thick woods . From Canandateua 
to the Gone-w river but f,.ur famiii.s r, -id.-d on ibe r^. i.l or trail " Pitn.-k ( ■..nip. 
bell, who traveled tlir->M'_'li the wc-^n-ro nonfri- in M in-h. 17!*-. notiri^d hut one 
house and two ncwiy.,r,-euii huU in 'din-ilui lo>vn>hip, and .iays, '■ The wholo 
region from Onondapi Hollow to Cayuga was a f..rcst.' No more interesting or 

authentic de^'ription of the mutes to the G>'iiesec c^iuntry arc fiirnUhed than the 
journey by wat-;r, made in the spring of 17SL', by a party of which Jiid'.-e Porter 
was a member, and one made hy Williaiu-ion earlv in 17912. by land. .\u;ru>tiH 
Porter contracted to survey two towo.sliips purelia.-,ed in Ontario, and to that end 
met V.'illiam Bacon, one of the proprietors, at Schoneeiady, in May, 17'^9. Wbilr 


jf the company wont on by land, driving through cattle, others, with iw.. 
boats laden with p:ovisioni and farmin- tool.-i. sot out by water. The Uiata eai li 
carried about twelve barrels, and renuircd a crew of four men. Wau-ons w.-n- 
employed to tran.^port the boats and thoir loads around the Little Falls of ihi 
Mohawk, and at Fort St.inwil a portage a mile's di~tance wu re-|uiicd to launch 
their boats in Wood creek. At this porLjge ■' there was a for a saw-mill 
which, when filled, could be rapidly discharged," creating a flood upon which buai^ 
p.asaed down."' At Senoea fills the boats wore pass»}d up-strcaiii empty, each 
being manned by a double crew, while the loading taken around by a man 
n.imed .Toii Smitli, who had a pair of oxen and a rudely constructed cart. wh*v^- 
wheels were made by sawing off sections of a log, some two and a half or tbror. 
feet in diameter. 

Geneva consisted of a halfJozen families. A party of four, including Ponor. 
took the traU for Canand.^i'jua, each carrying up«in his back a pack. At Canan- 
daigua were a dozen p-rsoiis. recently arrived. Judge Porter wont to No. 1" 
fourth range, where he found Jonathan .Vdanis and quite a colony in occufiatinn 
of three loe houses, one beinT large, the others .■•mailer. East Uloomfivld bavin-.' 
been surveyed. No. 9, sixth range, came next. Its owner, General Fellow-i, offon-l 
a whole township i Livonia) to Porter and Saxton at twenty ccuta f«.T aire. 
Other surveys were made, and then succeeded the slow return journey to the 

The testimony of WiUianuson presents changes and first iraprevsions. " Feb- 
ruary 15, 1792. Albany wai left on my route to the Genesee river, but the conn- 
try was thought so remote, and ^ very little known, that the stage owner would 

the Jlobawk, one hundred miles from .■\.lbany. To Whitcstown a passible wau-nn 
road existed, thence to the Genesee was a trail widened for the p.T--.i-_-e of a .=led. 
and rough bridgia thrown over othorwisc irapa.«sable streams. Reaohing Whiter 
town, the Albany driver became alarmed for himself and horses, when he learned 
that for one hundred miles forage, provisions, and blankets had to lie carri"*! 
along, and carriage was changed. On from White.'itown huts were t"ound at in- 
tervals of ten to twentv miles, but affbrdcrl onlv shelter fnnn the snow, and the 
convenience of a fire. On the third day the east side of Seneca Like wis reached, 
and was found free from ice. Ploisure and admiration were affnrd'.-i by the siiht 
of a boat and canoe plying upon the lake. Gladly the journey was concludel ti> 
Geneva, where at its log huts rest was taken. To Canandaigua the route bv 
upon an improved trail thniugh land rich and heavily timbered. The countr 
town contained two frame hou-*es ; the people were hospitable, and venison was 
abundant. From thence to the Genesee river, twenty-six miles, it was alm<M 
toully uninhabited, only four families residing on the road. The coiinrry was 
beautiful and very open; in many places the openings were free of all tiiuborand 
varied by hiU and dale ; it reminded one of the Endish parks. At the Genesee 
river was found a small Indian store and tavern. The river was not frozen, and 
was fordable." .No considerable settlement existed in the tjimosee couiitrv, that 
of Jemima Wilkinson's followers, consisting of abont forty fiUuilii->. being tin 
largest. Indians were numerous, and rc-.-ardod hy the few settlor.- with appre- 
hensiL.o. The land wa.3 full of promise: cattle throve through the winter: clear- 
ing advanced with spirit ; ample returns repaid lal>cr ; and there was I'arlv promise 
that these and other pioneers soon to follow, by their enern" and -kill, w.nild sup- 
plant the forest with the field, the hut with the dwelling; would cut out roads, 
build bridges, and lay the foundation for later proajierity. 





Em.NTS now held 

II. in time, affonl no 1 
; details of early travel. 

ir inlerrst 

Tith the 1 


vcnrs. and 


n .Mi.nn... 


The tran 

ini--ion fnmi a'_-o 

to a::>. of 

id laborious 

effort ami 

■il-ius etmji.vture. 


pn-scnta contrast, and ^tiioul.itcs euiui-jtioii. Lotal histi.ry tr.ic\>3 Imrn.m pr.)2Tesa 
«nd naiurJ changes. Xcw En.-land colonua are soeii to occupy an Indian wilder- 
DCiS ; troop- of PavaL'CS, prcd.itory and Ulimael-minded, are located upon rc^rvj- 
tion5 or transported to distant regions, and the gmdationa of improvement lind 
ample demonstration. 

The main road leading from Utica westward to Buffalo crossed the Genesee at 
Avon, by th-i only Vridjc spannin- th.; riv.r, and led to an early and -eueral set- 
tlement of the lands adjacent that hi-hway, while ucrthward remained for yoara 
a. wilderness with here and there a log hut in a clearing, the occupants scourged 
by fevers, yet tenacious in pos-^assion till time and interest bnjUL'ht rtiief. 

From 17SS-90 a hall'-dozcn persons had effected a lodgment between Avon and 
Lake Ontario. At Pittsford were Israel and rimon Stone; at Pcninton, Gluvcr 
Perrio ; npon the site of Seottsville lived Peter rihaeffer; at Brighton, Orange 
[ Stone built a habitation, and at the mouth of the Genesee William Ilincher 
had 6xed his abode. For several years no neighbor intervened between the twelve 
mdes of forest which stretched from tlie log tavern of Stone to the solitude where 
Hincher dwelt by the lake. 

It WM the close of 17S9, when Peter Shacffer, orijinallv from Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, set out for the Genesee country to pruviile his sons and daughters 
each with an inheritance before his dc-parturo. for he was eighty-five years of age. 
During July a tract of one thousand two hundred acres was purchased in Bloom- 
field, and each of three daughters was given four hundred acres, uj<in which they 
settled. Shaeffer came in December to the mouth of Allen's creek, where dwelt 
Ebeneier Allen in a log house upon a farm of four hundred and seventy acres, 
part grajjted for services rendered Phelps andGorham in treaty with the Indians, 
and three hundred the gift of the Indians. Shaetfer found over tifty acres under 
tillage, and a field of twenty acres .sowed to wheat ; experience taught him the 
Talue of the property, aud it was purchased for his sons, Peter and Jacob, for one 
thousand one hundred and seventy-five dollars. This money enabled Allen to 

COmpieie his famous lulll upull the prcaeUt ali« of Iloehc=ier. Tlie Sliocucia, 

fiither and sons, became inmates of the Allen cabin, where they passed the winter 
while building for themselves a structure which was known as the first framed 
&rm dwelling from the Genesee to Lake Erie. 

The Either and brother died, aud Peter ihaetTer, Jr., wealthy, enterprising, and 
benevolent, was held ia high repute in public and private life. As he was the 
pioneer settler of southern Monroe, we learn with plciisure that his lite and char- 
acter were worthy of transmittal to p'jsterity in the records of its organization. 
Among reminiscences he speaks of laying a road from Allen's creek to the fails 
in 1792. He was assisted by his brother, and having no compass the ranges were 
taken from trees. Improvements in the way of bridging were made in the winter 
of 1793. Wild animals were numerous and troublesome. Wild pigeons were 
netted in large numbers. Trout were abundant ia the creeks. While en route 
to join the western Indians against Wayne, a body of Seiiecaa eneamp-jd up^in the 
flats near the creek, and threatened, if successlul, to return and war against the 
settlers. On cne occasion a detachment of troops proceeding westward al'^ng the 
Ontario shore lyecame shortened for supplies. Learning of Shaeffer. they came 
np to his farm, quartered in his bam, received a quantity of ration.s, and were 
guided by him to Caledonia springs, and from Tonawanda were led by the trader 
Poudry (o Fort Niagara, where they were the first to raise the American flag. 
Maude said of Shaeffer, '■ This respectable farmer lives off the road in a new 
boardeJ house, the only one of that description between New Hartford (Avon ) 
and the mouth of the Genesee river, upon which, excepting Indian Allen, he is 
the oldest settler." 

Simon and Israel Stone were proprietors of Pittsford, and settled upon the trail 
from Avon northward to Irondcquoit. Silas Nye and Joseph Farr were others 
closely following them. 

William Walker is rrcallcd as the land agent of Phelps and Gorham at Canan- 
daigna. Probably as a rciauncration for his services, township 12, range 4, 
became his propt.Tty. 

Daring the summer of 17Sn, Caleb Walker moved into the township, bringing 
with him Glover Perrin and his wife. Walker died, and was the first death of 
a white settler in Ontario. Glover Perrin was the first settler with a family in 
the town of Pcrrinton. The original log cabin stood a mile south of Fairport. 
The township first formed as Nurthficld w:is known ;is B'lvle. and then, in honor 
of the Perrins, took its present name. A year elapsed and Jesse Perrin came, 
and, residing with hi,' brother, cleared what is now the " Centre buryin._'ground." 
In 1792, Jes3.j Perrin brniiLrlit on his Kiiiiily, and for two years tla-se families 
alone ix-cupied the town. To those accustomwl to .society, this loneliness wxi dc- 
pru-sing. and the record says .Mrs. Gluvcr Perrin K-e:;me ■• partially denin-jsj.- 
What wonder that a scn-itive nature should shrink from the solitiry a'lid l..b.jriou3 
life, or rca.son should Iw finally overborne.' The utter despair with which 
many a mother firs.t cnten-d her log cabin and by night listened to the unearthly 

wolf pro 


in the clearing, or bv 

dav. he 



b-sent to mil! 



ullen and vindictiie 



,1 u 

realized. The 

f popula 


s denoted bv the fact 

that wh 

en it 

ivas ri-mirod to nise 


yet .sLinding on the 

north r 

art o 


farm of Bruce 

Hamilton, all tjie available help of I'errinI 
two days of hard labor \ 

settled in 

Brighton, Pittsfor.!. and 
3 employed to conclude the under- 

1790, and 

became well kn.,wn to traveler, I 

homes in the country boarded w 

drove through stock, cattle, and swine, 

and from his eastern home were made, until ISlU 

settler of Rochester, aud the owner of a farm now . 

portions of the city. He has written the fi.llowii 

stopping with my brother Orange, Chauncey Hyde 

hunting cattle. Wo saw a smoke rising at Irondeqi 

him. Enos Stone, Jr., w;ls one of those who 
ine, in the spring of 1790. 'Various trips to 

■ the most densely populaterl 


1 myself were out . 

; landing, and appn 
from a camp in which were two Indians, who rose from a couch as 
we drew near. One of the men was dressed partly as an Indian and partly as a 
white, was provided with a gold watch, and Intro'iuced himself as .Ios«?ph Brandt, 
on the way to Canandaigua. He had arrived in a boat, sent runners to the 
county scat for horses, and waited their return. Accepting an invitation, he came 
np and visited at the house of Orange Stone. Familiar in conversation, gentle- 
manly in manners, it was difficult to conceive him the leader of savages in a crnei 
war upon the borders. He manifested an interest in settlements, and gave as- 
surance that the Sfnecas would act ' iu good faith and give no trouble.' " 

John Lusk, of Berkshire, Mas.sachusetts, brought the first family to the lands 
of 3Ionroe, and during the progress of survey had set off to him a tract of fifteen 
hundred acres, near the head of Irondequoit bay. As the first in improvement 

county whose lands became his home. Contemporary with the founding of Can- 
andaigua, he was the first settler in all Monroe, and one of the first drops in that 
shower of settlers whose combined labor h;is resulted in so great changes. John 
Lusk, his sou Stephen, a youth of fifteen, and Seely Peet. a hired man, came 
west during the summer of 17S9. At Schenectady the father set out by kat 
with provisions) the son and hired hand came by land to bring out cattle. The 
three met at Canandaigua, made an ox-sled, loaded it, and cut their own road to 
their location. The log eabin was built, and, during the intermissions of tever 
and ague, land to the extent of twelve acres was cleartnl and sowed in wheat ob- 
I tained of Allen. The wheat was brought by canoe down to the mouth of Red 
creek, whence it was taken along a track cut through the woods. In the sprin:; 
of 1700 Lusk returned from Massachusetts, where he had passed the winter, and 
came from Schenectady to the head of the Irondequoit bay, by water, bringing 
with him liis family. Two sons, Erastus and Stephen, were of the party ens^ged 
in briniriiig out stock. The family settled in their new home, and Monroe County 
of to-'lay was occupied by its first white family of pioneers. Othem speedUy fol- 
lowed, some of whom, disheartened, returned. 

Allen, Shaeffer. the Stones, and Lusks, have been named as the pioneers of 
Monroe. .K. name recurs which has no merit save the fact that it belonged to 
the first white man who inhabited the present county of Monroe. When But- 
ler's Rangers, failing to check the advance of Sullivan, were taken by boats to 
Canada, one n.amed Walker remained behind- -i. lug cabin w;i3 built at the mouth 
of the Genesee, and two step-'laughters became his housekeepers. This refugee 
adhered to British interests, and found delight in alarming the settlers with tal.?3 
of Indian hostility. With the effrontery of his class, he boaste<l of his evil det^. 
and one day, at Canandaigua, was attacked by Horatio Jones, axe in hand, aud bat 
for assistance would have paid tho penalty of his crimes. He finally removed to" 

A second refugee to the Monroe shore of Lake Ontario w.ts William Ilcnclier. of 
Brookficld. Miissachusctts, a Revolutionary soldier, and a supp.jrter of Shay during 
the Micssuchusctts rebellion. He wxs conveying supplies to the rebels when over- 
taken by the luilitary, and, abanditning his teams, fled to the seclusion and safety 
of the western forests. He was joined by his family, and live-d nx Big Flat-s till 
August, 1791, when, with a Son ;igcd eleven, he went to the mouth of the Gene- 
see. The father and son cut at Long pond, as a provision for stiK,k. and, 
building a hut on the west side of the river, returned to the Flats. 

The family set out in February, 1792. for their new abtKle. They were ten in 
nqmbcr, — parents, a son. and seven daughters. Two t.'anis were UslmI with ni- 
sleds, aud the route iv;i3 by way "f S.'neca lake. Reaching Ir..n.le.|uo,t. chc 
way u-ruiinaled. -V w.m tlnu cut liy Ilcnclier westw.ird till tlie river »a.< 
reached above the fills, when the journey was coutinu-d down the cx-t siile to 



lily the 

cros-sed the 



took po5»ci<ion of the hut built the prcv 
koorJ oirer(?J the niftcn, simply the dri 
bton the fint hut of l.-.-iliruatc white lei 
Qtacxi »nrl Fort Nii^;ti. rpin i cl 
»« rsiifl while other land woa improve 
the freoucnt viiita of cnilj^nts and boatmen, who earoe 
the ligation wLtl^ niade. To a traffic which 'pnin'_' np 
Father »od sod, crossing the bte. caUL'ht fUh. which 
Bicuts fordlirj ptuduLla. and these in turn sold in Can; 
dreJ •cres of land were lK3u_-ht, and when ihe first title 
thfl tract waJ once more paid for in full. All seven o 
B>»rrie-1 to pioneers, lived Ion'», and saw their f.imilies •. 

Aagufltua Porter, the surveyor of many to 
past, «nd occounLs for pioneer settlers : " The 
to Bloomfield, where I built a saw-mill o 
I was employed by Jcn.ithan Fa^wt ( 
(Penfield). This I ran into lar^-e faru 
Ijing on Iromleiiuoitcreit, which were 
At this time Simon and Israel Stone ' 
atands. They were ori;^nal purchasers 
tod selected (his spot tn commence th.-i 

■< r.1!. Not CTen the primitive clop- 
wild ,mi.«. This is claim,.-.! to hare 
men: on tlU lake >h.,re b.'tw,*o the 
■in;:, n;jde by WallLr. a sumnir emp 
a lo- house 5upplaun\l the hut. and 

added a 
traded ■ 

le wn ^*hown to be defective 

1 of Ihe H'-m her cirls were 

3 ^w up alxiut them. 

f Ontario, thus reviews the 

snrinjilTOO) I ai-ain came 

Thelaiterpartof shesea'wn 

survey tnwn^hip Xo. K-1, fourth ran'.re 

lut=. elcept 9<JQje twcntv or thirty acres 

in into twelve hundred so-called city lots. 

ere iivin; where the villas of Pituford 

f the township from Phelps arid Gorham. 

settlement from its bcin.: directiv on the 


Indian paih Icadlnj both from the IrondeoJ 
wigus (Avon), and from the existence then 

Nye and Pau 
n Luak lived 

lit of N" 

k. and 

of the town were a .^Ir 
the widow of Israel Stone. Jo 
north side of the west branch of the < 
Pittsford road. Oranje .=tone was a re 
by the handsome elm-tree and the big 
cabin of Chauncey Hyde. The town was surrey 
of ft comp.itiy who purcltased during the year 17 
at the 8«mthwest and the great marsh of the b 
who mostly resold to Phelps-" The survey of 
(Perrinton'), into lots, was made by Caleb W-jIkc 
were proprietors of the town. Colonel Williaj 
Daniel Penfield, who, in 1TD7, sold to Mr. Dun 
his son, a later resident of Canandaicua. In 1 

li'.ndio'.^ and the Falls to Cane- 
' a fine spring. Among other 
Richardscin, who, later, married 
ear the landing; Allen on the 
• crossing of the Ilc>che5ter and 
0- 13, seventh rantre i Brighton), 
just to the west of him was the 
d by Captain John Gilbert, one 
9 The pro-cnee of sw^mp land 
y disappointed tlie proprietors, 
:ownship No. 12, founh range 
•. who with his bmther William 
I Walker sold the township to 
an, a .Scotchman, who left it to 
90, Ebenezer Hunt and othere 

1 Colonel J.rtiiih FUh. 
irs supervisor of the 

ell, in 

purchased of Phelps and Gt>rham twenty thousand acre 
tange. The first >ettlcr between Shaeffer's and the Falls i 
who settled at the mouth of Black, creek, an 1 wa:, for years supervise 
town of Northampton, which included all of the prc-^ent State lying we: 
rirer. The mill-site tract was sorreyed into town-hips by Huch Ma. 
1789. Ke erred by running his west line due north, and conformed the outline 
of the township to accord with it. The correete-i line, which is N. 2'1° E., was 
run by me io 1792, and corresponds with the course of the Genesee, and givei 
tb< obliiuity seen in the township lines. In 1797, I surveyed the twenty-thooj- 
ind-acrs tract into lots, and laid out village lots at Hanford's landing. Settle- 
BCDt was then comaienccil there by Gideon King, Zadoc Gnnicr. and others. At 
the same time I laid out the Allen hundrcJ acres, conformable to the description 
given by Phelps and Gotham's deed to E. Hunt and others. Thus directed that 
the centre of the tract up and down the stream should be the centre of .-Vllcn'a 
mill, and laid out in .-u near a s/^uare tnrm .is river winding would admit."' 

The formation of a new county, to be known as Gencsoe. dates from March 3. 
1802; the Genesee river became the boundary line between the new omnt'y and 
Ontario, and so remained all the later erection of .Monruc County from these two. 
The orgnnintion of these counties was the occa-sion of much disiu&fion, and at 
timca rose to the rank of i party .[uestion in the ori~inal county -.jke advantages 
of 1 eoonly seat and the cost of public builuinrs beini the sround of dis.scnsion. 
Joseph Ellicott was a prominent settler uj'on the Holland purchase, and. to further 
advance the interests of that section, pa.'*sed the first months of l->02 at Albany 
ID orying upon the legislature the neccs-iitv of forming a new county. He was 
opp«»od by James Wadsworth, who wished to cp^ct a county to include all terri- 
tory west of a north and south line p.issini midway between the Genc^oe and 
nad, with llanf.rd I Avon > as the county f^at. The 
a'.y was brought up and decided during the temporary 

Canandaigua at the ma 
bill to organize Gon.^^.x' 
abntnca of Wadsw.irth. 
Court wa, held in th< 
John H Jones, and Be 

, Pla 

use at Batavia during June. I'll 
licolt were judgrs, and Nathan Perry was nssist- 
taat jn-<ic«. Five lawyers were admitted to practirc; Gi-or;;e Hot-mcr, John 
Grcij:, and Richarl .-mi'tli havin-.- bc-.n atfrn.-)* in Ontario, a, d Tiumthy Burt 
and G. Opico being attorneys of the S'lpnme Cmrt. At this court wa.s orrranised 
the pioneer grand jury wet of the I'lcoc^-c rivor; l'n>m this cinum-tance llicir 
•amcs an given u follows: Alexander Uca, .Vsa Han.'H)m, Peter Vandcventef,,-1 Warren, Z.-rl Phel;.,, 
p-^on, John Gai.son, Jr., Isa...- 
■D,rtn,.tt, John McNaui:hi..n. 

Daniel Henry, Samuel F- G.^-r. Lovcll Chur. 1 
Jotham Bem'us, Seymour Kcllo-.-g, John A. Tl 
Smith, Kli=ha Farwcll, Peter Sbacft'cr, Hugh 
and Luther Coe. No indictments were prescn 
rei-ord was joined in a sosion of Novembt.'r, !■ 
baili-.! debtors were pre-st-ribed, and comprise-J alwut three acres of ^nund in tl 
vicinity of the j»il in Bat-ivia. A court of oyer and terminer wa.s held by .\i 
brose Spencer in June, HOt. An indictment wxs found for manslaughter again 
J.>sc-ph Rhiue'tKbrger, who wiS defended by Judjc Howell. - Found guiity. T 
years in the State's prison at New Vork were L-iven him. lu NuveiMb.r, ISO 
Benjamin Bary, Jr , was licensed to keep a fcrr>- betwc-en the towns of Northui 
bcrland and Northficld. The former originally included all land w.--t of the riv 
in the State. The first trial for murder was in June, l.*07. The pic:>iding jud 
Has D-aniel D. Tompkins. Judge HowoU defended the prisoner, who w.ts foui 
guiltv, and sentenced to be hung. 

The circumstances of the crime and capture are these : Three s.iuatter5 d 
puted concerning the ownership of a tree. McLean, the murderer, with an a 
killed one of bis companion.s, and when McLaughlin iiiteri'ered aUi struck hi 
down. Passing the night in a hollow log near hLs, McLean with niornii 
fled to the woods. The news circulated swiftly through all the scttlemciiLs w, 
of the river ; the militia were called out, and in small parties scoutf-d the wcwds 
every direction. A few d.iys had passed when McLcjn was identified at a tave 
cast of Canandaigua and captured. The 
almost the entire population 
with present 

in August was attended by 
women, and children, — a marked contrast 


T of each town of Monroe delineates the almost uniform experience 
sickness, losses, and adventure. It remains here to preeut types ol 
d illustrate the results of perseverance in the midst of hardship- 
unknown to the pioneers upon the western plains at the present date. The tid.- 
of settlcmeut has rolled far rcm'-te , it has swept acrcis the valler of the Mi- 
pissippi and spread upon the regions btely roamed by the buffalo and claimed by 
the Indians ; but the rail-car lands the emigrant by his claim and the treele-vi 
soil is ready for the plow. Settlement proceeds, but the hardships endured by the 
pioneers of Monroe have now no parallel. 

The Atchisons, piloted "by the hunter Parks, are seen to cut their way to Brad- 
dock's b.av; sled-boards and blankets afford them shelter; three out of four oien 
die, and with the survivor eight acr^s arc logged and prepared for cr>ips. The 
Leonards lo^e a father by the fall of a limb while chopping a tree, fir-e consumes 
their household property, and sickues-s paralyzes energy. Oliver Culver, opi^ratin- 
the pioneer ashery at Irondefiuoit landing, utilizes the ashes of the clearings and 
euables the settler to necessaries from trader and early storekeepers; ancl 
Judge John Tryon, having erected a store and store-house upon a villice silo 
three miles south from the of Irondequoit bay. receives goixis from the 
.sleighs of Augustus Griswold and the b<iat of Oliver Grace, and opens tlie piiv 
neer store west of Canandaigua, — the p.ayment of his goods, the product of the 
chase, supplied by both white and Indian. 

Common hardships are instanccl, initial improvement named. The interest of 
proprietors was identical with settler^, since occupation and improvement enhanced 
the value of their, and the utmost lenity was shown to the wonliy. It 
was under these circum.stances of difficulty that the first lands of Monroe were 
pcttled, and that resolute character imbibed so marked in their descendania. 





trait with the present. Then a proprietor or his r 
tendent of pioneer movement; now each emicrant arts for hiiiis.lf ntic- i''-" 
direct from covernment. The farmer method was favorable to pn-.-f" " 
conveyances were not defective. Two men, Jam,-s and William \V,d->frth n>- 
tivcs of C"nn.^-ticut, .a-s proprietor, ami a-.-ucs of Genesee lands, r.-i.l- f I "' ■" 
valuable service to the pion.-ers. Tliems. .:-.,. i. -. ,,,.,...., 


otlicr.- Tl"'- 

Mendon waa the laat sale by Phelps and Gorliam prior 


interests to the London wmpiiny. FrankliD and lk>u^htun were iho first pur- 
chuaers. Jeremiah Wud.sworth bcvaiue owuor of nearly one-half the township, 
And began sales io June, 173j. Zobulon Norton was the pimitT in the town, 
haWns acttled at Hurie*.ye falls in 170 K and there ort-ctyd milU. The town of 
Riuh was purchased by Jeremiah Wad.sworth and by a company of which Mor- 
gan was a prominent moniber. The Wad.'iwurths raised herdn of cuule, and these 
they herded several winters upon the ru>h meaduws of th : tiats. Tlio town hiu 
its name from the abun'iaat growth of rushes on ita lands. Joseph Morgan was 
one of the earliest pioneers. 

The town of Northfiold, formed in 1794, included all of Monroe east of the 
tlvt-r and north of Rush and ^lendon. The first town meetini; wxs held in 17D6, 
with Phiucas Bates presiding justice. Silas Nye was then elected supervi.sor. 
and John Ray town clerk. .The name of the town waa chanjied in 170S to Boyle, 
which in 1313 wad divided intu Penfield, Pcrrinton, and SmalKvood. Other 
changes fJIowed to pruduce the civil L-unfunuatioii'! now existini: in ISU and 
subsequent years. In North Penficld or Webster the forest was heiivy, tlie ground 
wet, and only by co-operative labor wa.s the community of s<_-ttlers enabled to make 
a eomxncncemont. The fir^t occuparioo n^ Hvorietta made in 17"0, by I.-aac 
Scott, to whom nine hundnMl acres were appi.rtioned of land.> bordcrias upon the 
Genesee. The tract was given by Phelps and Gorham lor :ser\ii;es rendered them, 
and upon it a log cabin was built, a few acres clL-an.-d. und then, after e.-vei-al years 
of the trjing experience. Major Scott abandoned the field to others, and it 
was not till ISOG that permanent fertlLment bv-gan by Lyman and "W'arren Hawley 
and Jesse Pangbum. Sale of lands was arrested in ISll by the discovery that 
the deeds of foreign proprietors were not on record as required by statute. A pe- 
tition, drawn by Wads'.vorth and signed by settlers, asked a year's delay t^ iuppiy 
omission, and it was granted. Title was made good in 1317, and all unsold lands 
were purchased of foreign holder* by Mr. Wadsworth. Pending the contract of 
lands between 1S09 and 1S17, Rocliester had aisumed importance, a canal was in 
prospect, and the early price of tour doiiars per acre was cluugeu io .ilx-oiu *»itli 
the improvements. The terms for unpaid contracts wore '• full payment at contract 
price in four months; payment in full for twenty or more acres at contract price, 
and a new contract at a two-thirds" advance upon that unpaid ; or no payment 
?ii dnlUra and sisty-sli ceuLs per acre.' The terms 
1 proprietor and settlers, but were unfavorable to the 
tlie enhanced value of lands w:ts the result of their 
^h in hand the third alternative of renewed i 
inable to make payments, sold at a sac: 

down and a new contract a 
were made in equity betwt 
latter ifi a dual sense ; firs 
presence ; second, with no 
■ had to be adopted. Jl.iny 

newed their effort, we hops under better circumstances, while others lust their 
improvements without equivalents. This was a misfortune ever creating dis- 
quietude in the log cabin, dreaded more than hardships, and prevalent in various 
sections of the Geuesee country, but mo.<t severe in the town of Henrietta. 

To DO great extent was Ch.^.rles William.^on interested in that part of the Pul- 
teney estate known as the Mill tract. Mi-taken as to the course of commerce, 
hia early efforts were given to the lunds now conipri>od in S^teuben, and Bath 
became a settlement in 179-. lie is credited with tiie expression, '■ As nature 
has done so much for the northern plains, I will do stimething for these southern 
inoantainj." However, his enterprise wxs confined to no one spot, and the influ- 
ence of his operations was felt thrMiiLihout the entire Genesee country. Altliouirh 
termed the " Pulteney estate," John Hornby and Patrick Colquhoun were etiually 
interested, and the la'^t named was the active partner in the adventure of specula- 
tive purchase in wild western lands. The price paid fur what wj^ estimated at 
one million one hundred thousand acres, hue which was reallv one hundred thou- 
sand in excess, was thirty-five thousand pounds storlinir. The country could not 
have fallen into better hands. Tljcse proprict-jrs were patient under delay, gave 
long credits, and were- satisfied with re:u^onabIe returns. The settlers became 
such from their ncce>?sity and the company's liberality; and wherever the history 
of the " valley" is read, the name of Colquhoun and his ai:ent, Williamson, should 
be found. Mr. 'Winvamson foundcvi towns, built hote-U and uiilU ; and while he 
exercised almost a parental care over his settlements, provided fur communication 
by roads, and for their enjoyment by fair^ and race-course. Having reconnoitred 
the shores of Lake Ontario, and f.-unded a settlement at Sodus bay, he re-.rarded 
Braddock's bay as the next m.L-,t promising site umm the lake. Survey of a 

-At the mouth of the Genesee he saw x p 
improvement to others. It was daring a 
bay and the fall-* that he saw the value oft 
O^len the mill and it.-^ tract. The mill, fo 
t*'n'st centered el-wii.'re. The succ^^ir 

R.-bfrt Tr 



siblc adviintageous ailc, but left its 
lurncy made in llO-l to Braddoek'a 
latter, and purchased of Samuel B. 
d a ruin. w;is repaired, and then in- 
r Captain Wiiliamsen was O-toiiel 

ing, and he returned to . 
He wa.s eommhwioncd bv 

I November, 1798, having achieved his ofiji-et. 

am Pulteney to scU the lauds of the mill tract, 
including the present towns of Riga, Ogden, Parma. Chili, and parts of Greece 
and Wheatland. Mr. Wadswnrth scattered harnibills in the town.i of the east, 
offering to exchaiiu'e wild lands for farm.s. The uUer was by many accepted. A 
pioneer of Riga says, •In 1S08 I took wheat to Canandaigua ; tiiere was no 
price, sale, nor store trade for iL X removed it to Geneva at a coat of twelve and 
a half cents per bushel, and paid a debt due for a barrel of whisky with it. The 
net price of the wheat was twelve aud a half cents per bushel, or one L'allon of 
whisky for six bushels of wheat." Desirous, under those adverse circumstances, 
of helping the settlers, Wailsworth procured in Albany four potash kettled, paying 
forty dollars for each. Their conveyance to Cayuga bridge cost him one hundred 
and fifty-six dollars and tweuty-five cents. These kettles bciug sent into the 
township, the manufacture of black salts and potash was begun aud much relief 
affurdcd. From ISOG Riga settled rapidly, the system of exchange bringing in 
New Englandors. The people of tliat town of later settlement, with mills and 
markets already established, saw c-omparatively little hardship. W'udsworth wrote 
in 1S07, " When I began to invite settlement to West Pulteney ( Riga} it was a 
r.-adlesa wilderness. Ten years for sale, it had not one settler upon its limits. It 
has become the most respectable settlement west of the Genesee." Again, in 
Mriy, •' Mr. Mead has erected a saw-mill on Black creek ; nine new barns have 
been erected in West Pulteney." The settlement of East Pu!teoey,^with sli-ht 
exception, was long deferred by controverted title, which being arranged, the 
town rapidly advanced in line with others. The pioneer settlement was known as 
"Hannover." Israel Chapman located io Chili in 1802. His father, 
Chapman, opened several primitive roads, among which w;ls one from Rochester 
to Ogden. The " opening," whereby brush was cut and logs rolled to admit the 
passage of a team, was made in 1S07, and was a part of the ■■ State road." 
Ogden, known as township 3, west of the Genesee, was owned by John Mur- 

agent for its sale. He fixed the price at two dollars an acre, and offered a prize 
of six bushels of wheat and a barrel each of pork and whisky to the man who 
w«-,uld raise the first dwelling in the townsliip. The premium was won by George 
W. Willey, who moved in from Oouneciicut in 1S04. Himself and one Dilling- 
ham had erected log huts the year before, and to the raisiug of WlUey's house 
men had come from Braddoek's bay and the landing, and some twenty had assem- 
bled. Wadsworth was present, andtihared in the pleasantries cuitumary at that 
date. Settlement was rapid at the close of 1815, aud the pioneera of the town 
were mainly from Connecticut. The soil b of the best, and the surface has no 

} For the town of Parma, Wadsworth became agent in 1S06. The northern 

1 part was surveyed in 1736 by Joseph Colt, and was named "Braddoek's Ray 
' township." At one time nearly every settler in the town was suffering from 
! fever, and the agent wrote his principal, "I am afraid the settlement will be aban- 
i doncd." The settlers were energetic and the proprietora indulgeut, and after the 
! war steady progress was made. A tract of twenty thousand acres was bought in 
1790 from the Mill tract adjoining the Genesee, and now included in Roehe.--ter, 
! by Messrs. Ely, Pomoroy, Hunt, and Breck. The.--c sold portions, so that by 
j 179C the Porters and Messrs. King aud Granger had become proprietors. The 
general survey was made by Frederick Saxton In 1700, and the divisions into 
I lota by A. Porter in 1797. The first f.ur families upon the tract came during 
i the winter of 1790-97, and located at Hanfcrds Landing. During the eveetiou 
! of cabins their covered sleiiihs were their only shelter. The heads uf these fami- 
lies were the Kings, Tliomas and Simon, Elijah Kent, and Eli Granger. Their 
I first boards were from the old Allen saw-mill. The intention of Mr. Wadsworth 
I was to make a business point at the mouth of the river. Samuel Latta wo^ 
I made local agent, and settled at the Landing. In January, 1810, Frederick Hau- 
I ford opened a store at what was called Falltown, and from that circumstance the 
place took the name Himfurd'a Landing. The store of Ilanford was the first one 
' un the river Ijctween Avon and the lake, — a distance of twenty-five miles. The 
i Triangle tract, whose base re^ts on Lake Ontario, contained about eighty-seven 
1 thousand acres, lia origin h;i3 been given in a previous chapter. It contains 
! three towns of Monroe, — Sweden, CUrksun, and Hamlin. Having bought from 
Massachusetts lands relinquished by Plulps and (jorham, this tract was sold to 
I Mcssra. Le l^^y. Bayard, and .McKver.. nierchant-s of New V.-rk. It was sur- 
: veycd into ioU by Richard M. St-^Jdard in (he .spring of ISOl. The pioneer of 
the .^lonroe Triangle towns \v;is M.H,dy Kprnian. a settler during the year 1S03. 
In the year fullnwin,.-. Jnui. s ."^iiyrs and Elijah UKKliiett pureiiased lands in 
ClarL-M.n, and Jarura .Merais^.n m ido the fii-st piuehase in is now Hamlin. 
At the muuth uf Suely en- k liv.d a D..tehn,.in u..n.ed Str-.iok. He w,is llm 
first to venture in that deadly regiuit, and las life paid the penalty. The first 

per man en 





Ib mjrteJ cvutrj>t with the towns of to-il:iy n.u ihjt linowu .is >\iriliacip;on, 
botfu.Ieil •-■3«". I'V ibe Ceiicsoo, w.^t h_v tho Ni.ipira. north bj IjLc Ouurio, »<mlh 
hj Prni^-ylvjnia. S[ai>o of p(i[>iiUt'.'jn. i-no'i'L.u-* in arti. its mwii- h;ne Inhume 
• coonlies, ita haiulots ciiiis. The first town tnevtin'^ wi^, h-ld in Aiiril, ITOT, at 
the dwtllin.; of Pi;ti:r Sliji-ffcr. It wii otK-'ucd anJ supcrint.ii.lcJ by GaJ WaJ-u 
worth, j'ibtico of the pv;u-o of the town of HarttlinJ. Ju-iah l*i>h ffa:* cho-^^n 
•uperviAor and Kii Gmnjrer town cierlc. Fn.m p.ntcity of men one scttier held 
Uiree oEcea. Fifty dollars w.-w roti-d .'or toiyn exf«:nMrj. and eilhtein penuf for 
"election boxes." Tliore were liiree road di>ti-icu, and no niad pcnetnitc-d the 
fbreist ncslward. Two Jt-ars later, Ji-s-^ licuch waa ehos^n path-lnastor, the first 
west of Caledooix In ISOD, tlie fir^t .*iate tai was l.?vii-d in the GciLc^t cuun- 
try. Cyni3 Douglais, Michael Beach, Eli liriiTith. and Philip Keach were made 
g5se?8or3. The warrant was directed to Peter Shaeffer a.s cutlector, and w;t3 si-jned 
by Aogvfituy Porter and .Vmus Hail, eomnii^^ioDera of taxe^ for the county nf 
Ontario. The Dumber of names upon the roil ia l.-^s than one hnndrcd and fifty, 
Itujij of th.m cf D'^n-residenli. lu the e-ill^vtioo. .^lr. :^haetfer paid the a^^ead- 
ments of many in preference to looking; them up. The perfonnanee of liis duty 
required hi.Ti to cro;3 Niagara river and 2:0 upon the Canada side to reach Lewis- 
ton. Ilhi^lntiTe of the poverty of -^ttlor*, land beintr valued at one per 
tcre onifonnly, and aa a matter of bl-toric interest, the roll is herein presented. 


Ch>D>tl<rliD, Klads-.. 

Cnrtil'. JoC'trnZ!.'." 

Campbell, Tetcr 

Ch»pii., Hen.-7 

CliJipn.«D, AtJ — 

Coont, Saniiid 

CbamberlLO. Joshua,. 

5u^3, Cfcri«topher... 

DoHglaja. Cynil 

l>arii, Dan.el, SsjTtt 

■Fiih, Josith _ 

»aM..n. Ei,!h» 

Foll.r. DiriJ _. 

Granger, Eli 

Goodtiue, Gcof5e.„„. 

eaoion, Jobo. Jr 

OaoKB, James ._ 

Oriffiih. Ell 


Hitk.. .■=.»«; 

Httb. Ri-i.b>ii „. 


Harri,. .\l|,h.u. 

Hall, Fri.oJ 

Hunt, Joitpb 


Uajnf, John 



Hoyt.S(er*'C" — ■ 

Jobo-ia, .Mn.;-..".'.".'!; 
John«,o. «,llMa,..._ 

Keith, MicViai-l M- 


lane, Etcki-V."".".'.'.! 
Lajboura. Cbritlopb. 




.Win!.Ab.. = .ler_ 

Mills, ^i.moel 


Ma/I.loo, Timoihj 



MiilUo-h. M.rt.0 

Molk.,... ll.nrr 

S0.06 I llur;;an. Joieph 

.18 I McNiujbloii.Jubo 

.40 ] McPbtnon. Dio 

.61 t PatlerauQ. Lawrence 

.09 ! Pilmcryjohn .' .'" 

fi.jtf I Panrmjn. William^ 

■1 I Q.,v.., N„n.,„ 

, Leooani _ 

Shelly, Phiro! 

.^^tt. Salmoa....... 

Scuonover, Jacob.. 

Ullej, Asa. 

.1: Walther. f rtjcrick... 

.43 ! Wimple. Henry 

.14 i Kin^. Thoni.-n_ 

Phill.pi. "illiaiu... 


. Th..nial 

I .t Pb.-lp< lon.ii 

.W I Joseph tin Simmons. ( »"■■•'"■" '—■•-— 
M ' Total *4,78i,J« *«JS:.ll 



The close of the war of the Revolution ^as not followed by pe.iro, but rather 
by s prolonji-d es^a'ioa from active hostilities. The foru in th.- west were 
poi-^c^seJ without r^ja.-win, and a fureii:!* power was smcn to hold the po^i^ of 0>wto» 
and NiaL;ara and give willin;.: aid to stir up unfriendly f.-elir.-js U-tw.n^n the Indians 
tnd th-? scattercii settlers. Upon the Knirli-sh troops held.^wav, :ind Kii-jli-'b 
influence was >hown in blanket, trun, and amaiunition bestowed upon the St-'n'r^tt. 
What wonder if the pionocnt of Mc.nroe lived in apprehension, with de-irruetire 
surmundin'j elements ready at a -^piirk to burst forth in one wide,?? TW 
refugees fmm the .Muhawk, like Walker from the Mini.sink, lon.-ed f..r anotl,.r 
repetition of scenes upon the borders, and the Canadian govcrnoi-s trok nu pains 
to conceal their enujity, T.'nder preten--.e of arrestini|; deserters, the Indians were 
empowered to capture pers<in3 unprovided with pas.se3. and the domioetTin:: 
of the one side was secretly resented by the other. Israel Chapin Ma.s made 
Indian ayeot at Canandaijua. Eminently f|Uaiified for the position, his unlfjna 
justice won the afte-ction of many of the St^neais and held them in apparent amitr. 
Generals Harmer and St. Clair were defeated in the west duriu'.; 17!)3 by the 
Indians. British officers and soldiers went with 1 number of the /r.> and 
toot part in thos*? actions. The S^urcu became rude and overbearing to the 
settlers. They entered the \oq cabins without ceremony, and appropriatisl fi-«l 
from the tables without permLssioo. American efforts to secure paaee were 
hindered by English interference. A peace embissy was denied permission to ro 
by way of Oswego and Niagara, and commissioners were kept from reachin'.- a 
treaty ground. The United ,St;ite3 were fully aware of the sitnnti.-n. and sufpiied 
their agent at CMa.".dai;::ua with the me.-.DS by which the Ind:-.r.' w,:re k^pt 
neatral. Continued councils were held to obtain food, presents, and li<|uor3. C. 
Winney, an Indian trader at Buffalo, acted as sub-agent, and informed Ctenenl 
Chapin of every movement. 

In February, 17?4, Lord Dorchester, governor of the Canadas, addres.sin!.' an 
embassy of western Indbos. asserted that all act[uisitioo of Indian lands by the 
United States since I7S3 was invalid, and Governor Simcoe set out in April 
with a British force and built a fort at the foot nf the ^lianii ripids. The times 
wer« perilous, and at intervals settlers from the advanced cleariocrs joumeveti to 
Canandai^-ua, conversed with Chapin, and returned to watch and wait. The 
entire population were ready at a woni to desert their homes and seek satety by 
flight. An arrangement eiisted between Chapin and leading Indians, that he 
should be warned of hostilities in time fur the withdrawal of settlers; it was this 
reliance which caus'.'d the agent to hold his ground. On one occ-.tsujn a council 
of the Seiiccas had been held, and Chapin was notified tliat tho <'juestinn of poat»e 
or WJLT was to be decided and the result was to be made known by a ninncr. To 
guard against the worst, tho general statc-d the fiets to Mrs. Sanborn', a dL'crcet 
and prominent women, and by her the- people of C.mandaigua were m.idc ready tj 
depart at a moment's notice. Day was closing and the suu was just nUiut .setting 
over Ar^'nal hill when down the main street of the village came the e.\invtisl 
Indian runner. General Chapin hastened to meet him. and leanicd that his 
message was not war.- A dithculty aro^l r^^garding lands in Pennsylvania; 
GcnerU Chapin went thither as a mediator, and ,u-'csteil a general treaty. The 
■Six .Vdhonj were undecided, and while Creiieral W.ayno was m.irchingto battle 
with the western Indians, the /r.>.;iiiis were held neutral. Small parti.- pi-..hahly 
were in the action upon which so much dej-ended. Wayne's deSi^t w.,iiid have 
desolated the Genesee country ; his siiccts.s insured its security. A treaty was 
appointed to be held at CanandaiL-ua early io September, *id aiiipN provisions 
were made to fei.-t th« Indiana. The tn-aty took place, and the IimILius r, iiiiind 
(0 their towns highly phased. The fir^t f.iir in the ()cn.-s.-e country wn- li.ld .it 
■Williamsburg shortly after the- victory by Wayne, and .".ttlc-s ■.riili.-r.-d rliera 
from as far east as I'tira. .^lany Indians were present, and by f,..i-race and hall- 
play added to the ama'ements provided. The iKcaaii.n was memorable, and the 
influence to establi-h friendly intercourse was salutary. 

In the CDiitenii.lated r..poss<.-i-ion of the Gciiese* country by the Drite-li but 
one overt act comoiut.-d. A settlement had U-en made by (.'aptain W' 
aoa at .Sodus bay duno*.; 170 L Governor Simesie, in .Viiixit't, s< nt .in olneer. 

Lieutenant Sheaffe. to pf..t.-"t nciinst iL- 
"bcyood the old Fnnrll line." Moffa 

I .-^..lus, or at otl: 
, wa.s foun.l at .-. 

»cd by a do; 

rached .-^.hIu.s, and .s.».n alK-r their jrri>.il. I 
diers approached, lan-le-l Lieulenaiit .^licire 


Bod then pulleij Kict fntm thu shore, thcro tn r.-mnin till «ii:ii:ilc<! to rrriim. Mr. 
Morris met t!is British ufFooron the b>,ach, aiiJ accnaipanifl him to the In^ cabla 
»t which Captain Williamson had stopped. The mectin- was trionaly. In reply 
to tV.e prutcst, the lic-uti'naiit was directc*! to ^av t!i:*t it wouM not be hooded, and 
force would be met by force. Wiihin a haif-hour the inteniew terminate*! and, 
the boat returuing, the officer departed. The now? of this me*'tin*j spread rapid! j, 
%nd waj sooa known in all the backwoods sottli-uieiita. Kumor nj.Ji:niHtd the 
danger and threatened to break up the settlemeots made with so much of suffering 
ind andor w many dlscouraLrem.:nt3. WiUiLiaison sent an express rider with 
letters to the governor and to rreneral Kni»s, secretary of war. L'ivin> particulars 
and expressing a res')!ve to remain till driven off. Ho a!>o made a written state- 
ment of the acU of Governor Simcoe and sent it to Sir W'm. Paltcney. Ere the 
threat of Governor Simcoe could be executed, General M'ayne had lupt and de- 
feated the western Indians, driven them to take refu^'e in a British f.»rt. and. had 
its garrison dired to discharge a cannon, would hav-? Uiken the fnrt it-self. The 
newa to the Genesee settlers was glad tidings, and with renewed energy improve- 
menta went forward. Difficulties were adju^tcl respecting the western forts, and 
T' rt Xi-i-.ri ^15 5:irrend.'rpd by thr-. ]lri'ish in \7'^^_ ' As rr,. hnv- n-.r-d. a 
corapnoy of United State-s troops under Captain J. Bruff. while on their way to 
take possession of the fort, in bateaux encountered adverse weather, to<jk refuge 
at the mouth of the Gcnesqe. marched up to the mouth ci Allen's creek, and 
thence found their way throuLrh the forests to their destination. This force tt>ok 


of the fort. 

.«eemed a confirmation of securitv 

A bodv of 

Indian-* appeared before the gnrri-vin and made a salute after their fashion, and 
the discharge of artillery from the fort acknowledge*! the friendly overture. The 
chief difficulties encountered by the pioneers of Monroe from 1704 till 1S12 were 
those presented by nature, and we close the subject of war and its alarms for a 
time with a letter written, September 17, 1T94. by Wm. Kwing to Israel Chapin, 
from Genoseo. The letter gr'phically pre-^nts the events as though time had gone 
back eighty years and the reader was one of the interested residents of the dis- 
puted and war-endangered region along the Genes**. 

" Israel Chapin, Esq. Sir. — Aureeable to your request, the 26th ult. I left 
thisplace to go and see Captain Brandt, and brine him forward to Canandaiirua if pos- 
sible. As I passed through Buffalo Creek settlement, I was told by Retl Jacket, 
one of the Sttieca chiefs, that tlic Indians at tb:it place, and the Six Katinns in 
differtnt parts of the Cfiuntry around, had not yet determined whether thev would 
attend the treaty at Canandaigua or not; tint they were wjitins for Caotain 
O'Bail (C-ornplaoter ) and uthor chiefs to come in, wlu^e arrival was hourly ex- 
pected, when they should determine what answer to send to your invitation, thouirh 
himself and many others, from the first, was determined to attend your council 
fire. I was aL?o told by young Jemison. a Seneca Indian, that Colonel Butler 
kft that place a few hours bLfure I arriv.d, who bad been in council with the 
Indians some days past, and that he was of an opinion that Butler was trviii<j to stop 
the Indians, and he did not think they would ^zo to C.iuaodaii^ua. I, from this 
place, crossed the river to the British side, and proceeded down the river to Niaimra 
fort. I found that the British had been much alarmed at GenenU "Warren's 
advancin" into the Indian country. The news was that Wavne had an encounter 
with the Indians, that the action commenced in what b called ihcGiaize. and that 
he had defeated and completely routed the Indians, and drove them six or seven 
miles down the Miami of the lakes, below the fort, at the rapid.**, built bv the 
Brilbh. and that as he passed by the fort he demanded it, but tlio officer in com- 
mand refused to comply with his rerjucst, and he passed on without sivine any 
damage to the fort, tiiirae said there were one hundred Indians, s'ime one hun- 
dred and fifty, some sixty, and .some thirty-tive killed and t;iken, and that the loss 
on^ayno's side wa-» very great, two or three hundred. But the be-^t inf-.Tmarion. 
Anil what I most depended on was, I lod-od at what is called the Chipp-wa fort,' 
«t the head of the Great Falls and of the carr^'ing place, and heard a .Mr. Powell, 
who had just arrived fn^m Detroit, rriatint: to the nfficor the news of that countrv, 
and among the rest he told him he thou-jiit there was ei-ihty or ninety Indians 
And white people lost i:i all ; he said. aUi. there was no dep«^ndence to be put in 
the militia of Detroit, for when Wayne was in the country, they refused doing 
duty in the fort. Governor riiracoe had called nut all the militia of the country 
about Niagam, it was said, to man the p<^>sti throuirh. or tn send up to Detroit, but 
npon hearing that General Wayne rftumed bauk to his forts, winie were ditt-^'t-d, some deserted, and about sixty w.-re kfpt in barracks ; so that everythinj 
•eemod to bo suspended for the present. I, fmm NiaLrara fort, went fnrwanl to 
the head of I^kc Ontario, about twenty miles from Captain Brandt":* scttl'-m.-nt, 
whrrc I \cuTvcd that he had set .,ff S4.nie days inr l»etroit. IK-re T .>l.r:iimMl 
a It Iter written to ynu the day he started. It w:is held by a Dr. C:irr, and I 
aft-TwanlH cmtrive-l to g,.t it. ' It wxs .:iid th:.t Itmndts ,.bject w:..i to meet the 
»Hjthern Indians at Detroit, thnugh ho wa-< accompanied l)y one hundn^l and fifty 

or two hundred warrturs. llelurning by Niaganx and Buffalo Creek, I Icarnn 
the former place, that (iov-riK-r Simc-Hi would set off for Detroit in a d.ay or 
to meet Captain Brandt, and to strmizthen the Miami fort. The 13th in.-t 
Simcoe arrived at Fort Eric, opp^isite Buffalo Ooek, and Colonel McKay, t 
Detroit, mot him there. The day following, the Indians were called over to cot 
with them. (Simcoe belittled the Indian loss, exairgerated that of Wayne, 
announced that the fort would now be made strong, and a larirc garrison m 
tained.) The day followi.ig the council, Sim<-oe and McKay sail.-l for Dct 
After this. I saw Bed Jackilt, who sa'.d the Indians would ali -o to Canai.dai 
I cannot see a difference in the feeling of the Indians of Buffalo Creek, and asc 
their movements to the British." 

I The letter closes by the expression of a belief that Brandt, apparently hostile, 

was desirous of peace : and it w:is not without good reason that the settlers of the 
Genesee regarded the English as the occasion of their troubles. 



HlSTORT knows of no worthier theme than that of those pioneers in a prime- 
val forest, by whcse toil the wildcrDe'=s was claimed for cultivation, at whose will 
the heavy, dark woods gave way to fields of grain, log cabins, and initial indus- 
tries. Where fnur*e.>re years ago no s-mod was beard but that of natur" in her 
wildest phase, where the council-fires of the Stnecas illumed the forest, and fevers 
crouched among the marshes, is now the hum of industry, — the manuf.ictor}', the 
nursery, the railroads and canals. Belonging to the records of their tim.-s, most 
have passed away; their traditions are perishing with them and in them, but the 
printed page will bear testimony of their existence and endurance. Pioneers who 
had made the journey to Ontario, and were men of fearless ch.iracter, themselves 
looked with concern and surprise to see the early settlers of 3Ionroe push on and 
disappear in heavy forests and ague-haunted regions beyond the Genesee. The 
eye traces their laborious pro*jres3 westward, observes their strug-.ries with disc;isc 
and their persistent efforts at improvement. The pioneers of Monroe were plain 
men. Their intercourse was unaffected. Their fir^t work was to .set up an altar 
for religious worship. Later settlers were kindly and courteously received, and 
lor the straosfcr tTie l.itch-string was always out. ^fany frnm the same neiixhbor- 
hoods in Massachusetts and Connecticut were here, by common peril and like expe- 
rience bound together by tics of intcre.-t, friendship, and relation, and by united 
effort have impressed their ch;iracter upon the manners, customs, and fashions, nut 
alone upon the next succeeding but upon all future generations. Exceptional 
instances, as that of the elder Shaeffer, present the scene of wealth seeking an 
inheritance in Lind-s : but the mass of early pioneers came on poor, with nothiuL' 
to lose but much to gain. Fresh from service in the ranks, and animated bv hop^.- 
of a glorious future for their country, m.any a soldier came wo?t to Monroe, and 
the rifle which had aided to check the march of Burirnvne and compel the sur- 
render of Cornwallis, provided* the family with vciiison and trutirdcd the crops 
from depredations. The success following their labor a--tonished and impelled to 
greater effort. Wherever a mil! vas wanting there was a Stone, a Mann, or a 
Church to build it. When a cardinir-and fulling-mUl promised profitable support, 
a Wm. II. Bush and a Dr»nald 3[i.[verizie were pioneers to supply the want. 
Fnim necessity, the eariicst pioneer was a tiller of the soil, and if posjk's^ed itf a 
trade, pursued it in but the intcr\-ai of labor on the clcarini:; but among the pur- 
tic5 plodding'throutih the ("n-sta or p<ilin- aluML' the streams io reach thi- Genisee 
were men qualified by nature and education for any needed improvcnunt. 

•'New England! llich in intclicrt, thouL'h rude in soil, the intelligent enter- 
prise of her sons in a fertile land ha-* largely aid.-d in rendering the Genesee 
country the garden of this State.'" Haniboincly expressed, beautiful in its truth, 
and the expres-ion indii-ates the nativity of the pioneers. Followincr a line west- 
ward through Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, the most forward and enterpri.Mug 
are men of eastern lineage. Localities pride thcra>clvcs upon tiicir ruins, but the 
citizens of ^lonroc triumph in advanced cultivation, and their m-'nuincnri are their 

pinnL-er f.stiv;.!. Ih.-ld to commernonUc early s.tth'mrnt :it B!.,.x,.m-s li..u-l, 
lln.-h.Mcr, on .<. ''A. 1^17. (he -urvivurs, (..hnldin- the .-at., ixructure 
rvarctl np<m th.-ir f.Muuh.tu.n n-conntin_- the pa>t. w, re thu'^ addrc^s...n.y nuc uho 
still survives to l.K.k back upon yvt more prodi-ious cli;in-cs: " For New Kng- 


lingers there ' 
of the dr.y,' ii 

T luxury. I allu.le to the fjct th^ ' h-at and burden 

extent, borne by a'lvt-nturcn* from their Ftit/miautf, :ini\ n.-t only so, but. happily 
for the future, these sons of New Kn-laod very gcaumlly brnuLrht with them 'the 
principles and habits which have always 5o favnmbly distin^uijlied the land of the 
Puritans. Finally, one other luxury, peculiar to our iatuntilu State, was tiie tact 
that notwithstanding the large participation of New Kiiglander* in the enterprise 
and Tici.ssituded of our early furmin-.' State, other States, and even fDreigftJiidih, 
were well represented, and what he had here to note aa of pceuliar interest was the 
fact that, despite a socmindy hcterngenoous population, they were in a remarkable 
degree of one heart and mind rcjrardinir the essential elements of society. They 
readily united in a practicable demuiistrntioa of the importance of morality and 
intelligence, as well as enterprise and untiring industry in building for after -gen- 

The habitations of a people arc indices of rank in civilization. The Es<(ui- 
maui hut, the Karatchatkan 5ubteminean abode, and the Indian wigwam, charac- 
terize their builders. The pioneer of t^e Genesee, arriving alone and selecting 
hia lot, put up a brush shelter till, Incrs being prepare<l, a raisinir wa-s practicable. 
We have seen the Atchison-^, at Braddock's b:»y, live tenip-irarily in a shelter 
formed by boards from their sled :ijid blankets brought with them. Then a house 
waa built of legs, without board, or window-pane. Jo?iah Fi^h put up a log 
But at the mouth of Black creek, and hired the Indians to cover ii with bark. 
Henchor's hut wad thatched with the long, drj' grass cut at Long pood ; and 
Shaeffer's homestead, built in 17S0._with strap-door hinge and smith-wrought lock, 
handle and latch, still stands, a relic of the past. Emigrants arriving crowded in 
one cabin, and at Riga twenty-eight jiersons were occupants of a single small log 
bouse Says Elihu Church in Turner's History, " Isaac, Eli^^ha, and David Far- 
well, hearing that I was houseless, generously came and heij>od me to erect a 
building. We put up the body of it in one day, and had it ready to occupy od 
the fuufiu day. Tiie Goor was of split na5.--woou, the njof ol cedar shingles ; 
no boards were used in its constniction, and to Elisba Farwcll I was indebted for 
a few nails." The log bouse has been superseded by Eplt and more commodious 
structures, in consonance with the ta.stG and changed circumstanced of the people, 
but many a descendant of the pioneer stock recalls, with Edwin i 
composer, the following lines, entitled 


Bftck on the mist; track of time, in memory's Bickerinf^ Ti^bt, 
I »ce the KCDCS or other ila.ys, like mcleora ia the Dight. 
The garden, with its low-huilt fi-ncc. with aiakoa and wiihei tt 
Tha rude log bouse, my early home, and one wild maple by iL 

Than ftll that group of fncci brljtht upon the wide, wi.lo world : 

But itill 00 mcniorys page, in lij;ht which time cun nc'ur destroy. 

. Stand oot those sccocs, — that bouse and tree, — a lust but sacred joy. 

The early settlor, having provided a shelter for himself and family, not un- 

frequently improvised his own furniture. The chairs were represented by sec- 
tions of a tn^e, of required height ; the bods contained no mattress, sprinsrs, or even 
bed-cord, — the couch being spread upon the floor, and sieepinir-apartments made 
by hanging blankets. Not infrequently Indian and white guests lay upon blanket 
or robe before the huge open fire-place, and a familiarity existed strikingly in 
contrast with the not more exi mplary society of modern times. About the fire- 
place were fjund h^oks and trammel, the bake-pan and the kettle, and, as homes 
Taried, there were fiiund in many a cabin the plain deal table, the flag-buttonied 
chairs, and the ex«y, high-backed rocker. Upon the .^helf were spo*7lis of pewter, 
blae-edgcd plates, cups and saucers, and the black earthen teapot; pcrchanic a 
comer of the room was occupied by a tall Dutch clock, while in another stfM»d an 
old-fa-ihioned high-post and corded bcdsti'ad, covered with quilts. — a wonder of 
patch-work ingenuity and laborious sewing. In lieu uf a timp-picce. the Hur- 
Teyor may have cut a noon mark upon the threshold, and in place of the hell to 
call the chopper from the charing, a ch.ery call was given, or convh-vlull blown. 
The habita of the pioneers were influenced by thoir mode of life. Chopping 
in tho clearings for days alone, without loggini:!", raisingH. and other gatherings, 
produced a tendency to aileucc. Journeys on foot for hundreds of mile.^ were 
undertaken to Ti=it friend.". Woimn rode from Ontario to .Massachusctl.-* on 
horsttba-'k. It was a delight t<) L'lith.r at :^'njeone of the numtjer of I'-^ taverns 
and relate otori.-s of the Uevolutio,, and tales of adventure. Whisky aisrillcn'>s 
were built, and from corn and rye abundant lii]uor was pn>duced. This was u.sed 

upon all occasion.s, and was the cause of uu 

unnoted in respect to the living; but the 

many were ruined by the m 

raised, or a field of wheat ci 

sable. The evil attracted atti 

the indulgence in liquor is goi 

distillery ; it w;i3 no di'^grace 

for a biography, and it was 

character. The torms "side," 

as relating to wrestling, as wa: 

fi:ihting were attendants at tn 

, trouble. The ills of the pa.U a-e 
^timony of all the pioneers is that 
g liquors. Was a building to be 
:, the presence of the bottle or jug was indisjwn- 
ition, and has been opposed till the present, when 
jrally held disreputable. " Put it in that I ran a 
hen," said an old pioneer when supplying material 
true. Tbe pastimes of settlers w^u-e uf phy.siral 
"square," and -'back-hold" were well understood 
the '• ring wrestle." Boxing and nut unfrnjuenily 
ninsrs and town-meetinirs. Skillful mark.^man^lnn. 

young, and the evid 

At rcli-iot 

foot-races, and lifting or shouldering wi 
meetings all endeavored to attend, old 
feeling found espre^ion in voice and action, while tbe fervid eloquonce of uiini.-*- 
ters wrought the assemblies to the hiLbest pitch of excitement. PromiiRnt idex-^ 
survive the lapse of time, and the conversation of the aged backwood'Uian. refer- 
ring to the pioneer period, ia of det^r, wolf, bear, of trapping, huntioL'. and fi>hing; 
of prevalent sickness, and cutting roads, and of killing ratdesnakts. aad journey.^ 
to distant markets. A strict regard for justice was a general charactL-ristie. of 
which we have the following dlustrafions : William Mann was a sawyer, and, in 
1S12, a miller in Monroe. Slender of frame, he was uutiringiu etfort. His 
saw-mill was run by him for weeks wifh ouly the rest atfurded by the intervals ot 
setting the saw fur each board. ETe made " bees" to help the wcak-haiid':d, and, 
during a scarcity which prevailed in 181G, had five of ten acres of rye cut and 
eaten before any other grain was cut. Je.'^se Perrio moved to Monroe in 
1701, and brought with him a quantity of cloth fur future ne<:d. He was obliged 
to sell his cloth to obtain money to buy seed-wheat. The nearest mill was at 
Uoneoye Falls, to which he went upon his horse, with a bag to net wheat. The 
miller a.sked if he had money to pay for it, and if ho owned the liorso he rr.^dp. 
Atfirmative replies being given, the Duller said, '• Well, then, you must go farther, 
for I have so many neighbors who have neither, but must have wheat." Perrin 
had to go on until he could find wheat fur sale. 

The subject of food was all-important with tho settler, and hard labor creating 
keeu appetite, much account was made of the feasts at merry-makings, parties, and 
public gatherings. Quality was not so much regarded as quantity. Gideon 
Cobb obtained pnjvisions — ''beans and pork" — while transporting with his ox- 
team the trade of Rochester* to the mouth of the river. Seth C Jones, while 
cutting steamboat wood two and a half miles south of Charlotte, in attempting to 
vary his fare Ciught and cooked a fish known ag a "sheep's head" ; the etforc 
proved a-ftilart,and he fell back on pork at two shillings a poun-l. The salmon. 
trout, and other fish, which lake and stream furnished in abuiidana^-. the venison 
and bear's meat, and es'en the raccoon's carcass, were made available tor foo<l. As 
an illustration of the times, the following incidents are narrated : At fanandai- 
gua, upon the occ-a.«ion of the first tea-party, to which all the women in the vill.i'.;e 
Were invited, solid refreshments were provided, and when upon that or a similar 
occasion a huge pot-pie had given great satisfaction, curiosity developed t)ie fact 
that a pet bear had been sacrificed to furnish the ini^rcdients. Xk a husking 
frolic held at the hou.-=e of Nathan Harris, of Patmyra,^in 1700, Mrs. Eden Fos- 
ter, of Batavia, wa.s present, and h:is said, "We had a pot-pio baked in a five- 
pail kettle, composed of thirteen towU. as many squirrels, and due proportions uf 
beef, mutton, and venisHjn ; besides thisi were baked me;its, bean=. and huge pump- 
kin pies." It may seemstrange tb^it in a country where, as Allen had informed 
Williamson, wheat product.'d forty bushfU to an acre, there should be a want of 
food, but it must be considered that this whe:it grew upon the best of l;tnd, 
-cleared by rangers and Indians at Allen's command ; but before the settler could 
realize a crop, his own individual labor wx>( ref)uired to fell the hea.vy timber, tree 
by tree, and follow it by all the labor of preparation, and tlien, i>erhap=, l>e unable 
to obtain the seed to sow it. It was at such times, when there w^is little to cut, 
and hunger sharpened by labor made the future Iu«jk ginnmy, that a call to attend 
a •' raising" was promptly heeded, dnd the bountiful supply of oiiiblt-.s fully 
appreciated. Times were when the providential appeanince of a d'^er averted 
starvation, and tho fortunate catch of fi.>!i or the trapping of g:im.^ eked out a 
scanty subsistence. Tlw early history of tbe county of >I.,nrot; and the e.-untios 

made for a few potnnU of Hour, and its late ;ls lyiG. when the .-..Id season pro- 
duet-d ft partial fiinine. At such times it Is ple.isant to n-cord the un-.-lti-h 
actions of those who had a suq^hn of grain. The inhabitants kindly -liared 
their fund as lung :is there anythin-.- leR to divide. The name of Jonathan 
r'li.lerwofni. thc<*rigiM:d settltT of Parnui Cei.fre. deserves pcrpetuatiMO ,l^ that »{' 

life a 


I ho w:l 
[v had : 

ry brought i 


a t.i purch 

jsv, and tm>ted out 
to Jwoll upon tllU 

• ceneroMi 

t were liv no uipans 

surdid IL-ol 

11-, whi.-h duli-hts 

as not inu 

»n in the country. 

thn samt> in all sensoaa. The 

.-e tree, stroke loUowins stroke 

ur«o th. s 

nu\.-. Utile re-arJed 

dwelUos ^ 

ere warmed bv the 

worn wer 

geoerallT the pro- 

laudable pride, ; 

suited in jnwd cmj« uF jzrnin, Whon ilic sea 
Underwoo^i wilhli.ld from tlmse who the ui 
his 8urpla3 to all Km needy rciluw-3t:ttl.:ra. It 
phase of pioneer life in Monmo, since cxampK- 
rare uptju the Talley Bettlementd, aod the 'zr^sp 
in a monop-jly aiid speculates in man's neces.-ity 
The cluthing worn in early days was L,'eiiera 
settler, standing upon the prostmt*? trunk. of a 
of hia keen axe, and chip after chip whirring oi 
the winter tcnipcniture, and the inmates of the 
huge stick.s blazing in the fireplace. Tht 

duct of home manufacture — tlie result of necessicy and ecoooniy. Prior to the 
war of 1S12 hemp culture had l>t*cn carried on. but the cost exceeded the aellins; 
price, and the experiment was ah inJoneil after a tew years. Flax aUo wa.^ raised. 
and that became of creneml utiiity. Shirts were ordioanly made fr-^m flax and 
hemp, and those made from wool were a luxury'. Sheep required much care to 
protect them from wolves, and the cash price of the coarsest wool was half a 

use. Half a year's labor was retjuired to earn a suit of cloth<5s, and the use of 
boots and shoes was dispense*! with by roco now anluent until lonir after the first 
falls of SDOW. The price for an ordinary pair of cow-hide boots was «fven dollars, 
payment being made in wheat at sixty-two cents f»or bushel, and the use of the 
mocca?in, patterned from the lodiins, was not uncommon. The home-made pro<i- 
Dcts of the loom, and the then ubi.juitous spinning-wheel, were the handiwork of 
the matron.s and the maidens of li>n<r aero. The buzz of the spinnin'j-wheel and 
the double shake of the loom were pleasant sounds, and their uperatiou d. lovod 
avocation. The long web, unfurled like a carpet, bleaehed in the sun under their 
care and supervision, and, aided by the carding- aud fuliinir-mills. the wool from 
the sheep and the flax from the fiold were manufactured into houlespiin. and worn 
common. Sabbath aud holiday suits were worn 
akillful manufacture of mother, wife, or daughter. 

In large towns British goniilq were worn, and the sensible and did< 
Jiazarded the remark, with rofereuce to the fi-hionable attire of cit 
" they had better wear more clothta for comfort, and less for men 
It wa,3 not but that fashion had its votaries in those days, but its exactions were 
not severe, and there were le>s frefjuent changes of style. A calico dress, made 
tip by tlie wearer, served both for the reception of company at home and for the 
party abniad. The wearer lo-iktd no whit less attractive than tha^ clad in the 
richer fabrics of to-day, and there were few excuses from social gatherings upou 
the plea of ''nothins to wear." Society knew little of factional distinctitm. and 
there were furrued numerous warm and generous friemiship!?. The love of liberty 
and the inaintennn&.' of lofly sentiments arc cheri-heii by industry, and no di^mity 
of character is more precious than that derived from conscious wonh. The silent 
influences of the public, the sentiments of the worthy, were et^dmated at full value- 
True marhoud was exampled in f linciple, inteirrity and independence expressed 
in the siiying of an eminent old wrirer: "The inbred loyalty unto virtue which can 
aerve h^r without a livery." The amusemcntii of young and old were enjoyed 
with lesV There were hu.-kings and quiltinj:^, wood-choppings. loggings, and 
raisings, apple-parings, and s^x-ieties for benevolent objects. — and each was a joyous 
■occasion. There was a double sense of enjoyment. — consciousness of profitable 
employment and sociable communion. VUts were made without formaiiry. and 
received with genuine gratificatiori. To church or morrv-makinir the oTC-sled w;i.s 
the accustomed vehicle, and the party were full of life and freshne*?; and who 
would not remember the return from the dance, when the ride w.ts cnjnved with 
merry laugh and the chonisci son^;? Later, the lumber aleigli was deep and 
roomy, the horses fleet of foot, the boils of approved size and numbers, and a 
ride of eight or ten miles to the gnjhering none too extended. Horseback riding 
for business or pleasure was common to both sexes, sinee hors<'3 could p:iss where 
tree and stump forbade the use of wheeleii vehicles. A ride to view the fails, 
the springs, the lake, was a healthful recreation; and a visit ip the cataract at 
Niagara had the same interest tor them, that the thoa-'ands have recently ex- 
perienced in viewing the artistic productions of the nations at the Philadelphia 
'* Centennial" 

To^lay, society, labor, dre^s, and mode of travel are all chanced. There is 
more formality and less of happinc.s.s. There are fictiliona distinctinns of clas-ses. 
but a contrast honorini: the past nobly crcdira a pmuresa lonii to continue bevond 
the prraent, " I have lat^^ly found," .«ays Kdwin ricrantom, '• amonir the furniture 
of one of onr honored men dcee.T-»Ofl. the chairs that L'rnecl tlu^ dniwiirj-room of 
a pnvcmnr of Connecticut over u emtury ago,— a L'«HtI. .■.ul.-tantl.d eluur. bat not 
fit in style or de.-ign for our modi-n kiteheii:.. And. ia ..nuther housi- . flie L-arret 
in both instaneert h.h! the nrtielen., [ tunnd a -o-nl sp.H.-itn.ii of an ..Id-fa.^iiioned 
spinning-whec! and fwifts; the like artich'^ my own dear mother UMtl yearn ago 

to spin and prepare yarn ft 
garret wag revealed an oK 

be used to prepare tlie bed for an inv;did, or fir r 
in winter, and the latter. origin:illy got up and 
women in winter, especially in thrir churches, wh 
in'/, or for goin:: abrund in slei-jlis. Most of th< 
their day were indispensable, and but few 
useful nor ornamental, but the relic-a of ai 
ties, guide-marks of progress in scientific 

thin- of tho^e primitive days. In yet aiK.thcr 

g-pan and a Sfjuare foot-stove, — the former to 

ny who stayed over night 



iigned to the garret 
iiund in a higher c 

ew Knifland, !«y the 

ioned implements in 
icw they are neitlier 
;one by. They arc mere curiosi- 
iieciianical ski'lL Things of old 
great, clumpy splint ihairs of a 
tion upon st^Kjp and balcony, or, 
■eon reps." It is said that '• bis- 

modified and varnished, among ; 
tory repeats itself," and the evolutions of time are circular. Believe it not; 
they are spiral; and while a revoluti-'n approaches the past it is upon a hiLrher 
plane, and such is the plan of the Supreme and Kverlasting, Architect. 

Instances of methods of tnivol, the dangers incident, the viiul.-* unmet, and 
ih« heroism of wife and daughter, niay here have place, and each with varying 
phase stands as a single type of the many. 

Scth C. Jones sLirtcd in the sprihg of ISlti for the far west. He was a youth 
of fifteen years, ou foot, alone, with a sack upon his back. Wandering throush 
woods, he reached Pittsford May 20, with two dollars and two suiu of clothes. 
Two years later he came to Rochester, and went to Cutting and selling cordwood 
and getting out building timlier. The price per c<)rd, piled in the yard of the 
purchaser, was seventy-five cents. The best price tor the timber of the courts 
house was two and three-fourth cents per foot. In like sort e-jme Milton Bud- 
long to the east part of the county. He came west on foot; his property wiis 
bound np in a shirt, whoso sleeves answered as straps to bind it to his shoulders, 
" the place of entry being firmly sewed to prevent a fall of stocks." The future 
of Mr. Budloncr i.s that of enterprise rarely surpassed. We mention, as u single 
item, that in 1841) he drove to Albany and soiU eighteen hundred cattle. 

George Goodhue was one of the eariiest settlers at Braddock's bay, and made 
the journey hither from Canistco in .six days. His family and household effects 
were transported upon an ox-sled. He reached the Genesee river, at the site of 
Rochester, in February, 1S02, and "found the ice thawed along the bank out a 
tlistance of a dozen or more feet. Erecting a temporary bridge, he got up*jn the 
solid ice and crofiscd to near the western shore, wliere he found the ice untrust- 
worthy. He unyoked his cattle, and endeavoring to drive them ^) land, they 
broke through, and barely escaped drowning. Go*)dhue had left his wife, sled, 
and furniture upon the ice. while he on shore began to make a bridge. iVesently 
a large section upon which 3Irs. Goodhue was became detached from the rc-*t, 
and moved with the current towards the falls. The pioneer promptly seized a 
p«jle and threw it to his wife, who fastened one end to the sled ; the chain was 
hitched to the other end, and the ice was towed to the shore by the cattle, where 
all were landed. A few moments later the ice-cake went over the falls. 

Simon Pierson came out from Connecticut, November, ]SUG, and, crossing the 
Genesee river upon an old scow at Canawagus. located in the woods five miles 
north of Ganson's settlement, now Le Boy. A forest surrounded ; the soil was 
wet, and the air heavy with feverish exhalations. The wants now manifest seemed 
a ierioo. There were trees to fell and burn, and fences to make. A log house 
was essential to protection, and boards, nails, and glass to make it convenient. 
Roads cut tlirough the woods were to supersede marked trees ; log brid-.'c-s were 
needed at creek and slough ; a school-house wa.^ wanted for instruction of chil- 
dren, and a meeting-house for Christian assembly, and then, before theae, a njin- 
ister. When this last-named arrived, funds were necessary to his support, and 
the aid of the few pioneers in West Pulteiiey tlliTJ) surmounted the difficulty. 
It wad resolved to follow custom in his ordination. A messenger was sent to 
Cananduigua for brandy and loaf sugar, and the rehearsal of the choir was held 
in the new frame barn of Am:L**a Frost, uimn scats erected on the loft on both 
sides of the bam-fimir. Fur fv>.xi to the family, two bushel.n of smutty wheat 
were obtained, and this was taken to mill on horseback. Pierwm set outj pro- 
ceeding down Allen's creek till a dark, dense forest of evei^reena. ajipcartng like 
a ccd^ir swamp, came iu view. In the centre of this supposed swiimp w:is a small 
hut, which was entered. Donald McKcnz.ic and several workmen were found at 
dinner. The kind Sci>tchman furni.shed hi.^ chance iiue^t with a good meal, which 
the sharp air of November had made enjtiyahlc and memorable. 

In pioneer, as well as modern life, the Womeu bore their full ^hare of lalwr, 
and ntU'n the widnw, with her children, eunlinued the improvemi nts wliith a 
decea.**^! hu^hand had bcjun. Ami Kll.-worih came out to, the Geni-S4_'e country 
in IbOl, and was in.apa.itateil for labor by .Mcknes.-.. Hi-wifc, rxch in-n.,- her 

rh..f (he. 



horst-bnck, r>nie to Winder, obUjinLxi 
icl An 

uney, «nd ruH 

r settiLT nane^l 

icharJd, who, u 
i hv 1 iinchter 

arc«J bnd ; 

the ixjojtnt. 

Upon the OnUrio 8hori> Jwelt a soli 
Jean f^i&^-'d, nia<le a.*uiali clvarin-^. 1 

of twenty yc-jra, bolh stron,- and well, rLMnainel alunc in their soli 
eoDlinueJ the work of improvement. They (l,r,nr«.l tinber and 
ihej put up a log bam and pl'intcd an ovvhard ; ptowi!i?, sowing, and ljarve»lint: 
m&n done without the aid of men. A cow waa made accustomed to carry liwiU. 
and npoa her baek ;::rvin waa taken to mill. The road to the settlement was of 
their owts making; they twik carv of their SKk. and succi.-^sfuliy achieved their 
purpose of independently securing a home. The mother died aged ninety-three, 
ud the daughter be-canie the wife of Jeduthan Moffat. 

Jesie Ferrin had move-l in during IT'Jl. and wa.s s i. k with the ague all summer. 
He mana^ni to prepare for wheat a piece of ground cleared the previous Tear, but 
ke WIS cot able to §ow iL A friend *3we*l the wheat: then the oldest dau'.rhter, 
ftged six year?, put her mother's side-saddle upon the horse, and rode, and, with 
the lid of her little brother, two years older, contrived to harrow in the grain.' 
At the present age tnc =.»uic »v:-..^<j iie ;.--as(.;.;:ig i.. .1..; .".f n":it, :ir.d •h? 5itii« 
•pint, inherited from ancestors and developed by neeessity, has made and pre- 
terres tis a nation. 




Thi settler, alone or with his family, enters upon his journey to seek a distant 
kome with a sens.: of responsibility. He knows that from the soil must come 
that which will supply food; but a noble growth of timWr— sure token of fertility 
— CDcnmbers the ground, and must nrst be removed before grain or vegetable 
win grow. Hard bbor as it was, many found delight therein, and had no ob- 
itacles existed beyond the actual clearincr, the woodmen could have accomplished 
their object without great difficulty. The author ha.^ repeat^-dly beon ple-j,ed to 
Estea to the narratives of those'who, when children, came their present 
fiirms in the valley, and thereon have grown old in all but the ever-^reen memory 
of those first impressions. DitferinL: in names, dates, and l'>cality of M-'ttleroen;., 
the history of one of the pioneers of 3Ionrtie is that of all. As units in the force 
tsaailing Nature, the gre.itot ot'St.icle-i were niet by those who led the van. When 
Und hfwi been chosen and improved, when time bri»ught day of payment and no 
neaAS, and when, sickness endured and hun-.:er sulfered. default of payment or 
Ibreclosurc of mortgai;e deprived the tamily of their home, then, in truth, hard- 
ahip was kuown. Such w^s the reward of many who cleared land in Monroe. 

The inability to make payments wa.s met in more than one case by a novel pro- 
eedore. The backwoodsman articled for a tract, male some pro'jrcss in clearins, 
and then sold to a newcomer his '• betterments," and when he had repeated this 
process several times he finally was able to buy and [pay the purciiaic pnec. The 
lenity of the agent enabled many a man to ac*[uirc his farm in Monroe, who else 
Toald not have made an effort, or, makina:, would h.ave failed. 

In a rude age physical strength w,is roi|iiisite to the constant round of labor, 
bat iatclligenee directed eff'-rt and lessened the toil. Knowin::the lawsof cravitv, 
the chopper felled his trcc-s in double windrow inward, and when the of sum- 
■wr bod evaporated the moisture from the intcrlacetl branches, and all was dry as 
tinder, a proper wind drove an enkindled blaze with furnace heat from end to 
tod, and left the charred and blackened trunks for future di.-posal. The practice 
of girdling in vogiio by some, and was dcnoiniuated deadenin'.-. The trees 
were killed by the pnicc--5. and underwent a slow dcc-ay, and in time were cut and 
used for firewood or for fencing:; but the value subse<"|uently atuched to timber was 
too late to prevent its alni'tst utter destroclion. In one instance a locality con- 
tained choice grvvcs of cherry ; si-ine v( the st-ttlcrs io::::cd and burned it in com- 
Bloo with other timUx, and mils were made from iMinie of the tine*t tree?*, just aa 
along the Wab.ash and other western stn-aiu^ the black w,Unut ha.s bK^n used !ur 
feocioj, and a fortune dr-poihil by the owncr<. The idea of clearing was uppi-r- 
■wst in mind, and the ch.iic<-t was cut in hv-.-ing len-.-ths ,ind burned u|inn 
the gTDun.L Oi-tcams, now rare, were in pnerU u.~e. It was cu.-l"iuary for 
those who had no yoke of c:ittle of their own to go and hvlp their nrl-.;< who 
had to g>.< their higs in heapi ready for huriiio-. and then, when own logs 
Were ready, to have the cuniplimi-ut acknowli-«lu»-'l by return labor. 

Maajr a actUer, having spent the day luih-. away at a h-rging-bcc, has returned 

for ho 


og and kee 
being clc. 

The first 

agd if I 

winter for corn in the spring. The brush was burned where 
fire swept the ticld, it was all the better conditioned fur the crop. The 
roots of vo-'-'-ation and decayini: leaves contributed to fertilize the ground. In 
the early spring days the busy settlers tired log hca|is, or the windrow, utid 
the woods were filled with the clouds of siuoke. The ni^'ht seeuicd yet m.Te 
dark, lit up by the lurid tlairi'.-s, which cast strange shadows ujwin 'he .^urruundin-.; 
forest, and lent a weird aspect to the scene. There were pillara of fire in iheca-ar- 
ing, where the flames had crept within the hollow of some tall, dead tree, ii.d 
ran, Ob though eiultant, to the top, whence they issued as from a furnai-e, and ou 
the clearing were fires as if kindled by the .S^'.mii to hold their hcithen rii,-> 
again ; here is seen a freshly-kindlcl heap in lively H.tme, while at other poicis 
the red embers glowing in heat mark the sites of piles of lo::3 eon-uiued. Tl;i.^ 
who were destitute of team and plow, or all, if the season was tjr advance^i. 
planted their corn, pumpkins, and potatiK^, and scattered their turnip seed imv- 
ularly" amidst the stumps, and in the mould mingled ashes. The weeits which 
bter came to strive for dominance were not known, and it was but nee.|ful f..r 
the settler to iruard his crop from depredation, and iio through the field to pull or 
cut the fire-weed, which crew rank and luxuriant, from quotionahle serm, upi.Q 
the new-cleared fields. It was soon exterminated, to be succeeded by others less 
thrifty but more obnoxious. In cropping each executed his own desire ; some 
Bowed wheat and rye upon the fields after cutting the com. in wide rows of st'j«iks, 
while others sowed a piece of ground prepared during the summer for that pur- 
pose, and, in variety of w.iys, harrowed it under. The early farmer was ill sup- 
plied with tools, while hoes, dra:r>, and brush were used to ci'Ver see<i. A broken 
tool was not easily repaired, for the shop of the .smith was often far distant; in 
eon3e<|nenoe, strength was not fonrotten in utility. The dra^ made bv the 
attdcr or hi; neighbor. Two ronnd or hewed sticks were joined, the one end. 
longer, projected for the chain, and both were braced apart by a cross-piece. 
Seven heavy teeth were put in, four upon the longer side, three on the other. 
In many cases, necessity supplied the harrow with wooden tct-tli. Fields were 
cultivated several scisons before the plow was introduceil, to allow time for the 
decay of n>ots. The plows in tise were of clumsy make, of wrought iron, hcavv 
to handle, and served but to stir up the of the soil. With mauv. a 
wooden mould-board was in use, the plow-share only bavins been imp^-rtod. 

In the older-settled parts of Ontario, a traveler in 17D.5 observed the wheat- 
fields standing uncut, over-ripe, and harvest hands were so scarce that propriet.^r? 
were known to offer half the crop for cutting. The grain ::rew mo-t al.unJ.iotly. 
and while it would not brine: c-ish to pay for lands, it did funii^h wholesoiin' fj.^ 
It was related by Mrs. Emerson, that on one occasion, when wheat was ripe, her 
husband " cut it with a sickle; drew it out of the field up..n an oi-sIe<i; thre^o.-d 
it with a flail ; cleaned it with a hand-fan ; drew it to Rochester, and sold ii for 
thirty-one cents per bushel." Seasons varied greatly. In 1.^07, .\.mos Jtone. of 
Pittsford, had cut, threshed, and taken to 3fann's mills, wheat, in ^ood ci>ndition 
for grinding, by the fourth of July. In the memor.ible -eason of ISltJ, wl,-at 
waa not fit to cut until September. There was frost uiirhtiv during the e-rlv 
days of June; the com crop was a failure, and a famine was threatened. Kitremes 
these, while the average was abundance. The crop of ISOU, s.ay. Jo=<-ph Sihi.-v. 
wa-s so generally good that wheat and corn becanie drugs. They would not c-in- 
mand store-trade, nor could they be e.vehan'.:eil f t ordiiiarv ncee.^.aries uf iife. 
"I chopped," says he, "cleared, and .sowtni to wheat, twentv acrts dtirin-.; l^i'tl. 
in Rush. My harvest was over six hundred hasliels. A liloomficld bl.iek-miih 
received a bushel of wheat for putting i small wire bail up.'ii a ica-kcttle. 
Necessity compelled the-aeitlers to attempt vorious methods for rctiliiinj niomy. 
and rye was raised and made into whisky ; it not only found t'rec eirt-iilation ail 
through among the hcenscd taverns, but became, and lung continued, an ani.-lc oi" 
export. Samuel Brewster, a Connecticut farmer, had settled in Iiiir.i, "l-'ii a 
farm tract of e'icht hundred and fitly acres. In one year his wheat cn>p was 
three thousand bu."hel3. The price was nominally three sliiiiiii'.;? |ier Lu-lu-C 
There was a pood griat-mill where the uTaio was Houred. and this piuin^r n>-'i».si 
" to try the experiment of tran.sporting flour to Northampton, ("..uiif<-ticiit. 1.;. 
sledding. Fur this purpose, 3':venty b-.irrcis were manul.ictiirrd tr.>iii the b*-^t of 
wheat. .Six yoke of oxen were purchx«e^l. ami thnt; yoke were plare«l t-i en h of 
two sh-ds, and two span of horses each to a 8li-i'.:li. The sevi-uty Uirrels w.-re 
transportiii by the hmr teams to my market in twenty d.ivs. The flour j-jM a* 
six doll.lPi a barrel, and the men all for ,a i-;i.-ll in hand. T. iln-tirs 
men who d.s.rc.l like myself tu visit .\cw Knglai.d, and Ci.-t only li.r ilu ir l-a.-i 
snin.,' and rctuniiiig. The rt-t of the crop was .v.ld in ..f ilie l>.l^.w- 
ing at filty-.-l.i cents per bualiel. and iu.iri.eled in (.'.in , la. ' 

Fully aware of the inability to make wh. at-gmwinu' pn.fil.dile, the W.tI-w. nh» 

led off 



l»i«iiig, th'- cultivjliun of lii-nip 
cumbers. ClurlfS li 
the Gtiiesce 9aU. TLc cattle rj 
>'u^ram and Canada, and .siKiio ' 
ga^ed in hemp-raLiiu^ IVum ISUO 
aad fuuoJ sale io Alb.uij and Xc 

Tho oatiln wc 


.cU were MiU at B.iitimyrc aod PhiLiJcli-lua, at 
I new xetilers. 3i.'ttler3 aluoi: the Gcnt^iM? en- 
tiU a fL'W ye;iri later. Unpes were iaatiutaccuri.Hl, 
r Vork. Tho cultivntioa of t«'!jLicco wad princi- 

Icub The leaf wa^ cured and put 
Speuc-jr. an early merchant, manu- 

pally carried on by a comiwuy from C 

up for market in Vir^'ioia fa.-;hiou. ^ 

Cictured the leaf into plugs and supplied the suiAi dealers thru'i'j;hout Outario 

county for several yeary. 

The market opened up for the sale of "'blac-k salts" wa-n a timely aid to all the 
new scttlementa. All who could raise a kettle entered up«jQ the manufjcture of 
this new article of commerce. It brought money into the country, enabled settlers 
to pay taxes, buy necessaries, and promoted the clearing of bnd. It Ls on ret-ord 
thi^ Hon. Kphnim Hart, a B;vt;vvian merLliant, puruhuse-l one hundred 
kettles and stjld them, principally on credit, to the new settlers, thereby enabling 
them U) make use of their ashed aa an article of racrchatidlse. 

Proprietors were proinpt to uuLt Lut"udi:iiitu,i;o3 o^icrd- in :he cukin^ of pjtash. 
During the spring of ISUT. twu kettles were hv\i'j^\vi for the inhabitanis of Fair- 
field {^Ojrdefl ), and it wa-. notable the help given AVadsworth decUrcs, *■ I 
folly believe that the pntfita a fanner can make from the ashes on an acre of tim- 
bered ground is greater than those on an acre of wheat." The business owed its 
etart to bis enterprise, fie wrote in June, 1S07. to John Murray it Sons, *■ Our 
field a.^es now wasted would be of etmscquence. Fifteen tons might be made in 
the small town of Fairfield this season. Once started, the business would be 
generally followed. The ashes which can be scmped otf from an acre aftei .. good 
burn are worth four dollars to eight dollars." The restrictions of trade with 
Canada operated unfavorably to lake commerce. The first resource for money 
And Bcoie-ua-Je ia ■vvhst i:; no'Y Wph-^r^r was the starting cf asheries, and tha3 
creating a market for ashes and black salts, by Amus Duoniog, the Conungs, and 
Amos Harvey. 

la Clirkson, Henry McCall began merchandising, Joshua Field followed, and 
then Jatues Seymour. All tha^e engaged in making potash, which irrew to be 
the staple product of all the new country. The settlers first had no grain to sell, 
and then it became abundant and had no price. The trade in the product of their 
•shes, for which merchants paid half in cash and the re:<t in goods, seemed almost 
providential. Xew sertlers put up rou::h leaches, and .generally made black salts. 
When kettles were availahle. potash was manufactured. The lands tin.bered 
with elm, beech, and maple, supplied a value (a a^ibes to almost pay for clearing. 
It was an erpedient of the new settler to go into the forest, cut down trees, roll 

them in heaps, and burn them, havin 
eupply a want of store-trade or money, 
the clearings supplied many families w 
there would have been destitution. Oi 
relief thus afforded a providential aid. 

; in mind no thought of clearin: 
The proceeds of the burnt log- 
:h the neccssari.^ of lifo, where o 
c must be willfully blind not to se 
The massive and towering trees 

, but I 

■as obstacles t( 
i-which had see 

nation were now of value when reduced to ashes 
hindrance was proved a help. 
Another agency for g«>od w:is the demand for strives and for Sf(uare t 

and that 

«iport of the former durin<; 1819 being a full half-million staves. The flouring 
of wheat was yet another relief, and an interest which began in the burlesque 
mill of Allen, at the falls, expanded to such proponionsas made the " Flour city' 
known far as well as near, for unlimit^jd power and unrivaled escellcnce uf product. 
A lesson to the millwrights of t*>-day is taught by the expedients of the early 
period of primary growth. Simon Stone, so*m after 17i)0, erected a small grist- 
aod Sir^-mil! on the Irondorjuoit. near the great embankment. The .^aw u&ed in 
the pioneer mdl of Mr Stone was made by welding old scythes, and was the handi- 
work of Samuel Bennett, the blacksmith of tliat time. Stone's mills, and later the 
■ame property rebuilt and known as '• Mann's mill-?," from John Mann, the pro- 
prietor, were extensively patronized by .settlers from a great distance. West of 
the Genesee, it will have been ob.^erved that setilrment did not commence prior 
to 1807, and of a population of twelve thousand six hundred and forty-four in 
1810, full half had migrated during the last thru-e years. Spafford speaks thus 
of the domestic ni.uiufactures of Gene-ioe county in the year named: " One hun- 
dred and forty-two th-uisarnl seven hundrei! and twenry-nine yards of cloth made, 
and seven thousand fulled. There an: fourteen grain-mills, twenty saw-mills, and 
aixty-eight potitsh-works, which prmiuce one hundred and righty-sevcn tons of 
that article annually. To him who is accustomed to trace the etfect to itd cause, 
these brief stati.^tics indicate the course of jMimcer manufacture. 

A powerful element of no slight impoit:iiKr, rclatin-: Ut the past and present of 
Monroe County, and beyond the e.i..siderati..n of fertility and wealth, was that of 
climate. It Was bdicvcd that the land bLin- clcannl. the rcgi-m wmild excel io 
aalubrity. The iiittucncc of n.itural cau.-H.-i w;w p..'culiar to this latitude. The 

direction of winds was seen t*^ be cuntrollod by proximity to the lakes, and the 
prevailing tendency is from the southwcat. In evidence, the appearance of trees, 
ev-n to those of orchards, indicates a general northeast inclination. CHnsate is 
made to depend upiiii the course of the wind; since this is from the southwest, 
the climate is sensibly mitigated in severity, and made more uniform by the 
vicinity cf Outario. The water:, of Erie and Ontario imbibe the heat.-* of sum- 
mer and modify the temperature uf winter ; they prevent the transient heats of 
early apriog, so fatal to the growth of cereals and so destructive to the ni.-ing of 
fruits. The territory of Monroe is found, by compared Uibles of temperature in 
the same latitude elsewhere, to be most nearly uniform. Eastward the thermom. 
eter most frequently talis to and below z.-ro, and westward, while the temperatun: 
is a resemblance, it Is not so et^uable. This is particularly marked during the 
winter season. It follows, as a deduction, that the vicinity of the Genesee river, 
especially the lower portion, is free from extremes of heat or c«ild known cl.-ewhere. 
As the land rises southward, lake influences diiuinish. It has been observed that 
when i a early winter a rain falls at Rochester, a score of miles southward ^leet w 
seen, while farther on is a snowfidl. The influence of the lakes \i\ton temperature 
were observed by the eariy settlers and by travelers. President Dwight. having 
made a tour of western New York about ISOS, thus spc^aks of the climate: 
"There is a difference of cUinate between this country in several respects from 
that of Xew England, from that of New York along tlie Hudson, and parts of 
llie region itself differ sensibly from others. There is, so far as observation ex- 
tends, a circuit of sex'^ns embraced in periods of ten to perhaps fifteen years. 
From 1791, terminating with, 1SU4, a regular succession of warm seasons has 
existed. All summers were warm. The winters of 17S0, I70l', 1708, and 179'J 
were cold, the first-nauiol being remarkable for its severity. The opinion is given 
that the climate of this tract is milder than those in the same latitude eastward, 
and the proximity to water is adduced as an explanation. lu confirmation of 
theories advanced, the following items were found satisfactory. In the year 1SII7, 

vatioQS on the temperature of the water and air at the mouth of the river, and the 
mean temperature of the wind at Rochester was taken for the same days. The 
result of this fragment of the table, which notes the changes across the lake, is a 
striking illustration of the theories claimed ; 

;••■ ^»fo'■ 

. U. Sept, 4. (M.l 


A meteorological table begun by Dr. E. S. Marsh, of Rochester, on January 1, 
1831, and continued for seven years, shows the lowest average temperature for ilie 
entire period during February, when the result gave 2(J.5^, and the highest f.T 
the month of July, which is marked 72.1°. The lowest temperature for any 
one month was January, 1S31, the temj^erature being 23". The highest were July, 
1835 and 1837, both being 72°. Tlie moan temperature for every day of the 
seven years, derived from the table, is 48.7°, which may be taken as the true 
temperature of this locality. 

The lowest temperature was 6° below zero, on January 27, 1832, and the 
highest 95° above zero, on June 3, 1831. The earliest frost was on Augu.-:t 4, 
1837, and the btest on May 24, 1S32, unusual e.xircnies in each case. The 
average depth of rainfall, adduced from the yearns in r(uustion, was 24.5 inch-.'s 
armually, and the average depth of snow fur one year Wiis tJ5.4 inches. The tem- 
perature at Utica h^is rcachc'd 2lJ' and at Albany from 20° to 40°, when at the 
&iuie time it was 20° to 30^ warmer at Rocht-^ter. The conclusion is reached 
from these data that the lake operates as an immense heater upon the air in winter, 
and the immunity enjoyed by Monroe citizens is the advantage of it= cuu- 

Tlie medical topography, of western New York presents a remarkable improve- 
ment in health as a result of cultivation. The change has been such that, with- 
out ample proof, it would be subject to skepticism. A brief retrospect is compiled 
from an article in 0'R.illoy's Sketches of Koeliester. "On the 7tli of .lune, 
17U2," says Dr. Coventry, '• I arrived with .my family jt my former re?»idence near 
the outlet of Seneci lake, op[K)site the villjge of tlcncva. . . . The sea.-ons of 
1793 and 179 1 were very sickly in the Gcneaee country in proportion to the p.jpu- 
latioD. Ctses of fever wore more numerous than in tlie cities, but not m» f.ttai. 
I remember a time when, in Geneva, there w;ia but a single individual uho could 
leave her bed, and for several days she alone, like a ministering angel, went from 
house to house, bcsiowing the boon of a drink of cold water. In 1795, no niiii 
fell in June or July; llie w.ilcr in the lakct wa.s lowered; every little inlet be- 
Ciime a seat of piitr. I.i. tlon , the li.-.,vciis .secin.'d on tire, the earth scorclK-d, and 
the airsaturale.l >viili |,. -Ill- no- , li ■.- w.Te found dead in the woods; Hies tlinicd 

I miles of a thiniy-i 

:ibita;d roaJ, 

ok place' from d}s*.ulery.' 


! country. 

;liarji;tcr of preva 


npt tmm the 
V 1 remedy, 1 

TJia rt<»pit'Uation of thi.-* peritKl of trouMe fjils to convey the drcuJ realily, ye 
ttxo tostimonv of piomtirs contimi.-* the f^cta. 

The fv>liO(vinc; i.-i 'Jcriv..-(i from uit *?v<iy on the di3ea:sc.s of th* 
prepartti by Dr. l.tijlow : 

"The settlement uf this scetion boyin in 1791. For a few 
were scattered over such an extent of i-ountry th.i 
aiAea w not ittempted. The summer of l.^Ul w.-ia waruj, 
the (Uys were hot, the nid.ti very chdly. N.;ne wers < 
■liUeot fevers which prevailed. iVruviau bark was L'eat 
of rare um. Wlien left to natare, the symptoms became typhoid, and enJ-m'.iTod 
recovery. All fever?, except fever and avue, were caiUiii by the f>*-''>:dc {juLi or (?r/»- 
uiefcrxTt. The country very lio.ilthy trutu NovemiK-ron ihruU'.:h the winter. 
1802 was aimiiiir to the year previous. In 1 SUo, intcruiitt+'nts showiKl deeiine, arid 
eootioucd fever* prevailed. The sumlBer of lS')i waa moderately warm, while 
the winter «a.i intense'ly cold. Moeli jnow fell, and by lor.-er than ever 
loown. The netv settienients wore healthy; the winter uL^a.-«s were inaamcv.- 
torj. These dLjeascs cijntinued durifii; iS05 and ISUU, and the abusive use «'f 
ucrcQiy sacriticeMi numbers. The character of the inflammatory fever rarieii 
with- localities \r\ l**yT. Xear vtrevuiv; .whose ciur^. •■■^;'-5 -'iherructod by d;>'v i 
•Irong symptunu mirked attack, nliereas. on hi^-h frround, the approach was in- 
lidious ird more difficult of control. 0| lithalmia prevailed in July and Auju-^t. 
Infloenia was epidemic in Septemher. The sea.-on of liuS resembled the oue" 
previous. A typhoid appe-ared in January, and continued till May. The-treat- 
KenC was careful depletion, followed by judiciously-given stimuli. In l.Sll. 
bilioos fevera prcvaile-d. In the spririfr of 1S12. a few sporadic ca^es of /Jr^ru- 
moAta l%ii>Koidti, a previoufly unknown disease, tir^l came to notice. It was the 
nioet formidable epidemic ever prevalent in this country. The diiea-se became 
general in 1S13, and cao*;d ;^eat mortality. By 3pring,'l8U, it entirely di;ap- 
peircd. The principal dise.a.-o up to lS:ii was dysentery; it was most fatal to 
ehOdreo. CJculous d-.scase-s. .'mppoi-_-<l to prevail in a limestone countrv. are 
ilmoet unknown. Goitre, once common, is now the reverse- The chani.'e sin<'e 
1828 is suth that death from tevers became a rare occurreuce, and consumption 
toot precedpnce. Comparisons with other locaJities in health and longevity are 
tvorable to Monroe." 

Confirmatory of the reports given mav bo added those of settlers. The settle- 
Bents iJoog DIack and Sandy creeks were sickly as late as 1821. When Riga 
*od Chili were one town, sixty died from a population of three thousand in one 
jcir. At otie period, in a population of ei^hty-thrw. within a di.-taoce of a rrile 
ud * half on the Braddoeks bay road, .sixty -thre^ were >\<-\.. Entire families 
were prostrated. At Ilanford'a Lindini:, formerly King's, there were times when 
there was not euffieient strength to inter the dead. A score were buried in the 
woods near by. The mouth of Sandy creek was notably danirerous. Se-ttlers 
moved in by water, remained a ticae. and were taken sick, and had to be brought 
oot to the older settlements on o.^ -sleds. The use of the poisonous surfaee-nat.r 
wu one of the causes of disease. The country is now notably healthy, and, as 
early Himarked, it is dIEcult to conceive of tlie sickness and mortality of pioneer 
days. It is eaid that a tr.iveler prospecting for a locatipn saw at the innnrh of 
the river m man, wasted and thin, sunning himself a^iost a house, and asked 
him the repuUtion of the country as to health. -'Oh," said he. •■it's pretty 
gpoJ, take it by and by, when one gets acclimated !" " How long does it take?" 
"Oh, four or five years!" -'How has it be.;n with yon?" '■ Well, the drst 
jear I had the shakes, the nest year the intertuittenc fever; then for about two 
Jears I had iho bilious fever, and then the lake fever, and now I am closin',r op 
with the mud fever, and shall come out first-rate!" The traveler ha.steoed away, 
feariog that there was much of truth in what he had beard. But time and toil 
have varied the climate as they have ciiangcd circumstances, and the farnrs of 
aoitheni Monroe, high io value, a.'e the homes of healthy and well-to-do (annere. 





^ Tilt settlers of Monroe believed in the Iniportanci: of religion. The mjj.inty 

of them had been acc-astomed to attend at the hiiase of ln«l, and were ca-cr to i 

eojoy the occasional opp<'rTuiiitif^ alFurded by itiitcraling missionaries. There 1 

ven many members of churches among the piouecrs, and their faith was a com- I 

fort ia times of triid. They gladly ui.itcl to erect a building for worship, and 
sectional distinctions were lust in the mutual benefits Notic*! of preachio!: wa.s 
folloWL-d by a willing journey fnr miles on fOot or with the ox-sled to be present. 
The vicinity of a few families wjs speedily sueee-ede.1 by the «t..blishrotiit ..f 
Sabbath ob.servane-e. It is known that su^h meetings were hold where bat one 
-i_professor of religion resided. The einrcises consisted of prayer, ainu-ing, and the 
reading of a printed sermon. Where no one wxs willing t<> lead in prayer, the 
sermon was read and a psalm wi'c sung. There were localities where iiie ;sabb^itli 
was made a day fjr visiting, busines.s, and enjoyment. The present sLin-Jins of 
various communities are attributable to the impressions, religious or otherwise, 
made during the formative period of society. . The minister travcised the woo<ls 
apco his circuit, and when attieked with the ague chills rested by the nwijside, 
and then went on to 611 his appointment. There was a heroism on the part of 
those traveling mi,'e>ionaried whieh d»^servcs \ record of their lives and ch.tracter. 
Imbued with deep reiiL'ious conviction, their teachings were impressive, and thev 
were heard rrladly by all the pes. pie. ' We h.ivc sp*>ken of PitrsfonJ as the "rigin.d 
busioe-ss centre of the old town of Nortlifield, organized in 1734, four years after 
the commencement of settlement. This town represented the eastern part ui 
>!our;x'. The first sermon pteache-d to its pIooes;r3 was by i missionary reported 
to have come from Virginia. Esleoded notle-e was given of the date and locality 
of the propo.>ed meeting, which to'jk phice on a week-day, during the sea-soo of 
harverjt This was no bar to attt^nd.mee, and all who were able assembled id a 
barn to hear the gospel. It was ae-veral years before regular worship was estab- 
lished permanently. P^v. Jaraes U. Hotchkin, then a Uesjotiate preacher, held 
services on sii Sabbaths in the interval between Xovember S, ISOl, and February 
1, ISO'J, and this is regarded as the first iustance of the eni[.loyment of a preacher 
of the Congregational or Pnsbyterian denomination. A Congregational chnreh 
was organized there with ten members on May 11. 1S03, under the Charge of 
Rev. Solomon Allen, and was received into connection with the Ontario ass.)ciii- 
tion in June following. The townsmen of B..yl,v the n..m» fsC-Pn in \V\< in L-^ 
of XorthSeld, united in the year following, 179'J, to build a large log house 
uorthward a short distance from Pittsford. This served for a number of years 
as a town-house and a place <i^ Sabbath meeting for public worship. The rerrioa 
west of the Geueaec was early visited by missionaries sent out by various societies. 
It is believed that the first perscn on mis^ioQ employment to cross the Gene«e 
river was the Kev. David Perry, of Kichmond, Massachusetts. While m the 
service of the Columbia and Berkshire missionary soelety for three months during 
the summer of ISOO, he penetrated to Gansoo's settlement, where he preached 
and engaged in the labor of his calling. Through his Influence, a smile nuie 
prolessor of reliulon, .Mr. Carver, was induced to commence Sabb-ith meetings fur 
worship, but these were of brief continuance. At long intervals sermons were 
preached at this place, now I^ Roy, and Rev. Hotchkin, author of " History of 
Western New York," gave the settlement, then numbering from sixte-eo to eluhteea 
&m;lies, a sermon, which, from the rarity of such events io that locality, iheo 
seemed worthy of notice- In I13O6, Mr. Church, resident of West Pulte-ney dis- 
trict, town'of N.irthampton, had erected the first frame barn iu the district, and 
here the first religious exercises of the settlers were held prior to the org^iniiatoo 
of a Congregational church. The first minister to visit the settlement was a 
Baptist missionary named KIdcr Reed. Rev. Phelps and various Metho.list 
circuit-riders visited the k>eulity in early years. The circumstances connected 
with the organiiatiou of this church at West Pultency are as follows: During 
the fall of 13U6 Henry Brewster met Colonel Troup, agent for land sale:-, it» 
hotel in Canandaigua, where he was remaining over the Sahbath. There was do 
public worship in the village, and these gentlemen spent the day iu company. . 
Mr. Brewster, seeing that his friend wxs one who rezardc^l the Sahbath, su'.;'.;ested 
a donation of land for religious and educiitional uses as a stimulus to sals and 
settlement Colonel Troup responded, ''Go on and or.rinize a religious society, 
elect trustees, and select two one-hundre-l-acre lots, — one for the support of the 
gospel, and another for that of schools, — call on me at Albany on your return, 
and I will deliver you the title-d.xiis. ' A meeting of the sctth-rj in West Pulteney 
wai liefd, and aa agreomeot made to take the le'.ral ste'ps rcquire<l to form a ce- 
ll^ous society. One requirement was, that notie-e of intention should be read ai 
the " close of public worship, thas; Sabbaths in succession," rjf the place and time 
of the proposes! meeting for org-anization. There were but five famili---s in the 
settlement, and fifteen heads of fimilics were out arran::Ing to move in shortly. 
Of these, Nehemlah Frost and Henry Brewster were the only profe-son of re- 
ligioa. The meeting appiiintid fur thp-e .successive Sabbaths at the lot; 

and prayer, and every s-juI in the a.ttlement in attendance. The 3..ciety was 
duly orguiized by the choice of Deae.ii Frost, mo.Jerati.r; .^Ir. Brewst.r, seen- 
tary. The style or title taken wxs ■■The First Congre-.-atiuMal Society of West 
Pulteney, in the county of Genesee." The board of trusto-* were Nehemiah 



Frust, and 
'L-d. auJ within three yairs a 
K-'ttk-J as it.i pnstor. 
S04, made liia lo;^ house the 
the uiiwearyin;^ eircait-riders. 
; those ministcra of the ;;ospel. 
he path, and the mad. crussini; 
;Ir couch in the forest with the 

Frost, Henry IJrew^tor, Samu-'i Church, Satuuol 
Elihu Church. The djnationH duly bu-V.v^ 
church was formed, and the lujv. Alloa HuUiater a 
Geor^ \V. Willcy, the pioneer of O-den in 1 
welcome resort of the traveliui; missionaries and 
Close following upon the tract of tlie settler v^mc. 
bound on their mi>3iou of |ro*>d. Upon the cr;^i!, t 
»wamp3, fordin;; streanid, and, at time^, making tht 
aiiddle-bags fur a pillow, those heralds of j;ood tidings broUi^ht the n^ws to all. 
Upoa horseback the journey was taken, and in cabiu or school-house, week-day 
or evening, the me^.-tiuiTJ were held, and then on to the next station. The Meth- 
odi-sts were the first in tlio missionary field, and rode upon a circuit of full four 
hundred miles. The pioneer circuit-ridirrs of the western country were Jamc:» 
Smith, in 1703, then came Alw;uxl White; afl-r him followed Joseph Whitby 
and John Lockby, in 1793, Haujilton Jefferson and Anninj Owen, in 1796. 
JohnsoD Dcnham was the associate with Owen next year, then James Stokes and 
Richard Lyon in 1703, and Jonathan Batcmau in 171)1). Daniel Dunham and 
Benjamin Bidlack were known to the sottl^i-s of ISOO, David James and Jt^seph 
W^illiamson in ISOl, Smith Weeks and John BillinL-s in lSOl>. Grittirh Sweet and 
Sharon Booth in 1SU3, and Wv^'^r Benton and Sylvester Hill in K^t)4. The 
memories of these men are known to few, if any. now living. There is in the 
memory of the aged a remembrance of the ministers who came casting seed by 
the wayside, whose fruitage in directing the mind to thin-iS eternal is seen in 

J- present reIi_nous attainment. - The sermon in the old log school-house, and the 
prayer with the family ere rciirin;: for the night, are dim recollections, while the 
records of the books say, "The first preachers in this vicinity were Meihodist 
circuit-rider3.'^ Two upon the circuit traveled far and long, changing, as was their 
wont, each year, and small indeevl the settlement they did not visit. The names 
of Mit*:h».U. Jeuks. Vi.n Epps, Gatehell, and Lane arc recalM aa of those who 
early in the century visited the settlements of Geuesoe valley. The first settled 
minister in Ogdeo was Ebenezer Everett. Characteristic of the new country, names 
were given to designate localities and retained when the country had become settled. 
Tie term Metiiodist Hill indicates a tmth, that the first religious meeting's held 
in the town were by circuit-riders of that denomination, recalled in names of 
Lacey, Fillmore, and Puffer. 
"^^ The primary org-anization of societies was the result of accident, so far as de- 
nominations were concerDed- Whatever sect had the most members formed their 
society, and as the income of new settlers gave strength, others drew off for inde- 
pendent organization. It may be said that religion was not made a convenience 
but a willing duty, and contemporary with the shelter for the b<3dy was sought 
food for the eouI.^ A single instance is illustrative. Cpon a Saturday, Dr. Levi 
Ward, John Ward, and their families arrived from Connecticut in the dense, heavy 
forest called the " North Wooix" The first act was the notice of a meeting to 
be held nest day at the house of a settler. A dozen or more assembled from their 
scattered homes, a aormon'was read, prayer made, and singing was " excellent. ' 
During this year (1S07) a Congreratiooal church, the second one west of the 
river, was organized. The history of towns and city fully illustrates the progress 
from the formative period down to the present, and inspires hope and energy to 
advance them farther. The antipathies of sects, the intolerance of opinion^ and 
the warfare of schisms belong to the past. We find the churclics of Kochester 
occupied, during a conference, by tiie mlnistenj of that denomination ; in council 
we Bee harmonious action and brotlierly feeling; talented and pious clergymen 
occupy the pulpit*; missionaries depart for heathen lands ; societies for the spread 
of religious influence have long been operative, and evidence philanthropic en- 
deavor and libera! endowment. 
nV Education wa3 recogulzed as a softening and elevating influence, without which 
other Ubor was regarded as compai-atively useless. Upon the clearings there was 
work for all; the child could gather brush, watch the corn from dcpreiiators, 
bring home the cows, and ride to mill with the u'rist, yet the necessity of instruc- 
tioa in the essentials of learning was apparent and the want soon supplied. Vol- 
antATj action followed timely sugge^ion, and if families were not mahy they were 
large, and where seven and eiL;lit children were not uncommon the little, rude 
school-building wa.s generally filled. When a towns limits had the area of a 
county, it was not expi.-ctt:d that the schiKil insf>cctors. voted in at annual meet- 
ings, frcfjucntly visited the schools. Erom old reports we sec the full.iwing: 
" Vbits of inspectors of schools, none." Yet the foundation was laid upon 
which the general free school system hiw bten built. The sehool-buildlng has 
been frequently described ; it w;i.s consistent with the homes of the ciiildrun and 
youth in att*.nd.iui:e. The same necessity whiih suhstimteii grcj!K;d paper for 

__^^glaS8 at home wa.* apparent here. The sumumr terms, as now, wi-re tati-jlit by 
-ftjmales ; the young m» a attendini; in winter were instructed and governed by the 
school- muj/cr. (^ualificUiona were etjual to the nucd. Text-books were neither 

. numerous nor frofiucnily cliangei.1. Orthograpl-.y wai correctly taught from Web- 
ster's Elementary, and there were giKni readers study was confined to the 
American Preceptor, the English iieadcr, and the li>z\v Tt.-fltament. The authors 
Dilhvorlh and i'lke held a uiMiiopoly, and the tVderal Educator had few pagi-s 
but retjuircd study. It was the custom for the proposed teachr-r to visit the 
patrons, who signed for so many schohu^'at ix spv-t:i6ed rate, or the salary was 
agreed upon and paid by rate-bill estimate of att«-ridarice. Tiien the number of 
children sent determined the individual cost, now the wealth secured to the owner 
by a moral and intelli:;'-nt society is the basis of tn.tation. The custuniary rate 
was one dollar and a half fur a term of thirteen wci_ks. W;igcs nin^-'d from ten 
dollars to twelve dollars per month, and board around. The journey along fu'it- 
paths for miles was madu by the pupils, who biought their dinners, douiihnuts 
btiiig an e-fsential and staple portion. The nooning was employed in games of and drop-ball, or, if the weather shut them in, many an old, well-iriui-tuliiTed 
play w:t3 had, and cheerily the vuiccs mingktl in -^ The iiv-d\ci eye that sup- 
ply," etc. Traps for g:ime were set between home a-id school-house and vi5i[i;d 
morning and evening, and somLiimcs wlien the seliool was late in closing and even- 
ing's darkening sliadows fell the children hurried homeward, fearful of tlie hexsts 
which ranged the woods at night. I'robably the first school ever instituccd within 
the limits of Monroe taught by Mr. Barrow-" duiin:: the year 171)4, in a log 
house which stood one mile south of the village of Fittsford, then the 
centre of Xorthfield. The young men wanting to go to school during winter w.:re 
not backward in urging the establishment of school -ho uses. A log school-build- 
ing was erected at Irondequoit landing in 1SU2. Oliver Culver hauled logs to a 
saw-mill and furnished the roof-boards. A young man named TuriiL-r, employed 
as clerk in the store of Tryon and Adams, was Lnga,:ed to take charge of the 
school. In the year i8U5, Hinds Chamberlin, Alexander McPherson, Francis 
Le Barron, Gideon Fordham, and Philemon Xettleion rolled up some large bass- 
wood logs near the brook at the foot of Fort Hill, and thereby constructed one of 
the rudest of backwoods seuoui-liou.->cs. A huge fireplace, =;:pp!icd with fi:e! by 
the voluntary labor of the larger boys, was all-sufficient for winter fires, and the 
open door gave summer ventilation. The first teacher in this structure was 
Andrew McXabb, a Scotchman, the second w.i.s Siimuel Crocker, and the third 
Major Nathan Wilson. Among tlie' first schools taught in Henrietta were one 
npon the Wadsworth road n^ar Stephen's corners, opened in a log bnildin;; by 
Sarah Leggett, in 1S07, and another on the River road, commenced in 1310, and 
taught by Lucy Branch, later the*wife of Solomun Nichols, of' Cattarau-us 
county. The first school in the town of Ogden wus conducted by a sister to the 
pioneer Esquire Willcy, and dates with the commciict'inent of settlement in that 
locality. The primal school in what w;i3 denominated the Schoolcrail nei;.i!ibor- 
hood, in North Penfield, was started in 1810. under charge of a Scotohmnn named 
William Harris. Welcome Garfield, of Jlcndun, and Charlotte Cummin;?*, of 
Clarkson, were pioneer teachers of those localities. Free and select schools, uom- 
mou and high schools, seminaries, academies, and i 
struction and a choice of mode sufficient for the ^ 
Buildings are erected and funds applied to cducal 
which deserves n hearty commendation and ( 

_ , affijrd a range of i 
ied wants of the populati* 
ational purpostjs with a liberal 
sponding support. 

Some ri-'turn'jd east) and c 
on horseback to the home 
made brief courtships and 

om New En 

lesire of eomp 
cs of obcaini 
vedding-tour \ 

[ No uninteresting leaf of pioneer history is tha 

births, deaths, and burial-grounds. The young men from New Enijland, hav 
prepared a log house and made a clearing wlille boardin; 
at the house of some settler, like Orange Stone, from tht 
and the necessities of houic-work. Ijcthonght thcnisc 

■acted an alliance, and tlu 

Monroe; othe.'s, visiting the new families arriving, 
kss happy marriages. "^ Jacob Schoonovorand family 
had settled at the mouth of Dugan's creek, and the marriage of Peter Shaeffer 
to a daughter in 1700 was, in all probability, the first in what is now Monroe 
County. The second marriage on the west side of the river was that v( Thomas 
Ll-c to the eldest of the seven daughters of William Hencher. It is worth while 
to note further concerning this family. Accustomed to pioneer life, daughters of an 
old soldier, and 3(!ekin^ the west as their abiding plaee, the Misses Hencher were 
soon sought out and taken to the settlers' liome's. The names of their hu^bamls' 
were Bartholomew Maybee, Stephen Lusk, Jouatlian Leonard, Donald ML-Ketizic, 
Abel Rowe, and Clement. Seven pioneer wives and mothera from under the 
grasd-eovcrcd roof of the lir^t hut built by wliito settler on the lake shore between 
the river and Nijgjm,! With ev-Tythiiig to diseour.ige, yet the conjUL'id relation 
was a mutual suppnrt, and the hi'i'^ripliy of the :iged bears uniform testiuiony to 
the concord and aff^itiun existing throuuh lite. 

Asa Wri^Jht w.LH the lir^t bnrn of Perrinto.i. and date's 17'J7 ; WiUia.u E. Surlixg 
of Mendon. 17u:> ; Joseph Wo.kJ of Chili, IT J!). The first born nuN- cluld m 
Ogden was M. Colby, »)n of Abraham Coll^-, and the first burn f-male in 


tbe toirn was R;L<_v, ilau.-hicr of Kpl.rjini Culhy— Utii dnte 1S03. Cbrk-uina 
teojnl U a son t.> Mn. C'!.,rk-on :,.,J a .inu-iil.rV;. Mrs Pjliu.;r, and thai of lli.-a 
a diughttr to SjiuucI (.'Imr. h, anJ a !Oii Ilirim to i^iirnucl Shi'parJ. in HOO. We 
hiie given Aja WriL,lit aa tlio first white child b<.irn in Pi Trintnu, and he waJ 
the first to attiiii nntiirity; but on February 5. 1TU7, a boy Ht)IIL^tcr was b^irn 
to Jeaee Pcrrio. and survived but two months. Hit burial is thus nciticcl : " Thia 
Ultle child. bi> auso titere wa^ no minist^^r in all the surrounding^ country, was 
eonsigned to the ^Tave with only the aiinnie rites which affection framed for the 
occasion." It was in han-K C(<iitnut with the cu>tMnis of the old ca.-itern hotuc. 
The death of Peter Shaetfer, Sr, of Jiceph .Morgan, and of John .^Io.^n were 
imoog the fir>t r\-conJed. The veneration for the res-:ng-place of the dep-iried is 
Tarioualy indlcited by human races, .ind the precedence of life is cnmnieniomted 
bj costly sha't and mural tomb. The pro-.-ress uf civilization 15 marted by the 
cousecration of ccnieteries ; their ornament and care a:j diiunjui^h-.-d from the 
grave- and church-yards of , the pa.>t. Tlie opinions of the e.iriy ?e-ttler5 were 
eiprcssed on the o<--ca3ion of opening the firM buryin'Z-ground in the city of 
Rochester. This " ground" was located on 1 rise near and along Plymouth 
aveDUe, occupyini; the lot and vicinity of M. J-'. Reynolds* re-idence. Some 
citiiens regretted the cemetery was so near the village ; others held that it should 
be tmong the dwelliiigs of the livin-.-. It was 1 Xcw Eoiiand iJ^-a to inter the 
dead vithia 1 5.]uare surrounded by dwellin-js and stor''--j, and it t\a3 carried with 
the settlers westward. The c^meu-ry was cleared of undererowth and awaited its 
first occupanL A tenant was soon found in the pors^in of the wife of Pr. Gibbs. 
and IS time elapsed othera lay there and the gri.und wa.< no more occupied. Else- 
where has been noted the beauty, extent, and lo^.-nlityof Mount Hope and other 
cemeteries. Mount Hope, appropriate in name, is unrivaKxl in its scenery. Here 
is seeo diversity of plain, plateau, hill and dale, native and ejotio tr«H? and 
ahrubbery, and here, since the procrreas of a little more than fifty years, well-oi^h 
thirty thousand have been bid to rest. Its name ojmbioes holy attributes, and 
conveys the trust and anticipation of death and other life; henc« its appropriate 
application and popuJarity. 



Stohies of the wild animals which abounde-i in the thick woods of the Gene- 
aec; of their depred.itioos, numbers, and capture; of the deadly serpents which 
bad their dens among the rtxts at the fiRs. and of the fish and fowl so plentifol 
in and apon the streams and l.iys al 'ng the northern coast, possess a peculiar 
IDterest from their l.«^ality and authenticity. 

The Tallcy of the Genesee was the favorite hunting-ground of the Smecat. 
'Many sons of tbe eariy settlers were trappers, and Stephen Durfee received for 
the fur of muskrat .ind mccoon fifty .loll.irs in one season, and Henry Lovdl, a 
fcmoas hunter of early years, caught many beaver. The hills of Rush, Wheats 
land, and other towns wco f.ivorite ranges for the deer. Tbe howling of wolves 
vas a cotnmon sound, and the be;ir and panther were foes to dread. Pastimes we 

call ihein, the pursuit of game for fi"<l. or for the fur or bounty, — for such 

they were in the memories of piriieipanls. 

* The moel dreaded denizen of the wo<;d-i was the lithe and ferocious American 
panther.'^ Their haif-humun acre-ech. cat-like agility, and tenacity of life, made 
them objects of terror to the ilefen.-^ev-. and even the backwo<j'lsmen. ^nnod, 
ihrank fVom an encounter. On one ■Koi-ion an Indian found a panther at 
Damplin hill, and a .^hot kiile.l the animal. Tbe e.isy victory aiww from the 
&ct that the beast killed a and gor.;L-d hinun.lf stupid and hclpleis. 
At another time, a hunter, John Parks, who made hes headquarters at Hcncher'a, 
was out with Dunbar, a mulatto, who livt-d at Inrndciuoit. in pursuit of raccoons 
open the shore of the lake. It w:ls after dark when the d.-.->. as was suppo-ed, 
treed one. Dunbar elimbcl the tree >•> dislod.-e it. and having partially ascende-d 
observed a pair of eyes fi.teil upon his which bore no resemblance to those of the 
nccooo. Thu biidy was invi-il.le, but the briili.iot, unflinching eyes proclaimed 
DO ordinary animal. The muhillo laaJe t,. r. aeh ibc cr ,und. and, intarm- 
ing Parks, the two g:ithercd iiiatirinl and! fires, by which they remained 
tai dayli.;ht, when a b^r.-o p.i.nKer w.t >.en crouch. J 111 the tree. A well-aime-d 
ahol brought him to the gruund. and in.^und 1 bounty of at Icxst five dollars for 
the anlp. Dr. Juvl Urace, a pionvvr ductor, ru-ident uf Victor, was one duj 

riding along the "Id In 
abruptly st^'pped, and : 
ready to sprin-.:. Betl 
denly sp 

in.-e ahead .-howtd s panther crouchtj in the path and 
ing himself of an umbrella l.c^ad wiih him. he sud- 
animal arose and dinrippcMred in the timber. .More 
a p.Mt to those who attcuiptL-d to raise slurp, were the 
wamps by day, they iisued forth in nciuib.Ti .it nii;lit. 
, the»! beeamo the u-iK-cial object of 
terrific, and the liirc-t .-wemed hll.-d 
irded. and the 

d it, and the 
numemus. leis feared, and 
wolves./ Hiding in the swamps b\ 
and when a few sheep had been broi 
their notice. At times their howli 

with th,-m. Hi.-h fcu.:cs were built in which the -heep were 
sflttlers wore obli'.:ed at times to go out to scare the wolves off. Cattle were occi- 
sionally att;icked by them, but, save in packs by night and stimulat.-d by hunwr. 
they were not dangerous. One winter evening a settler named Hurlbut w.i* 
riding through a strip of w.wds, near the log hmis..' of Roswcll Turner, on the out, 
let of Hemlock lake, when a pack of wolves surrounded him b<-nt upon an attack. 
His dog created a diversion which enabled him to escape to Turner's hou-e. 
'•While sitting upon his hoivo," says Mrs. Farnum. daughter of Tunier.and an 
eye-witness, "the pack cume within fifteen rods of the hourf, and stopping up-^n 
a knoll, almost deafened us with their howl. Retreating into the wm.iis. they 
Seemed to have a fight among theni>elve.-', and in the morning it was iscertained 
that they had actually killed and eaten one of their own nutul>er." 

Captain Cornelius Treat, a settler in Mendon prior to 170 1, was belated one 
uight and attacked by wolves, wTiose determination was so persistent tiia? nothin-.: 
but the flectncss of his horse saved his life. Traps, deadfalls, and nits were re- 
sorted to, and the pests were soon thinned out. A trap]«?r named .John .-^tiiiL^in 
caujtht nine wolves ia one night, for which he received a bountvof 'lintfyUoUart. 
a sum sufficient to make a crediuble payment npon a farm tr.ict. Hunts took 
place ailer the war. and the wolves, save in few instances, disaj-poared. 
' The bear of the Gent-sts? w.xs a terror and a post. Their e.xpkiits in carrying 
a'.vay swine in brojd davliibt from near tho cabirj, and thcit liav.< in the corn- 
fields, form a large part of pioneer reminiscene'e. ' An instance or two of a score 
will illustrate modes of hunting them. Four men set out one night upon a bear 
hunt, and approaching a cornfield on the Big Ridge, found by the noise of break- 
ing 8talk.i that the g^^ime they sought was at hand. One of the party, named 
Tii'dall, a blacksmith in Rochester, went forward to reconnoitre, and cume sud- 
denly npon a large bear, which ceasing from her work cave him eiclusive atten- 
tiotu Almost overpowered by emotion Tindall leveled his gun, fired, and took 
to his heels. He directed his course towards the brush fence where he had left 
the main b<jdy, and running against a stump crawled'.ily to the top of it, call- 
ing for reinforcements. At the supreme moment, when ho had reached and was 
balancing upon the stump, the old bear closed in, and striking: him with one paw 
just below the waist, took his pantaloons completely off. His comrades tu.jt 
Tindall while the bear took his breeches. Firing their guns, the party hastened 
to retire. Some days later the settlers' combined forces got their dogs together, 
and the hunt resulted in the captijrc of a large she-bear. 

A story oficu recited around the great log fires of the old settlers during the 
social meetings of half a century ago was popularly known as " .ludge Hum- 
phrey's bear story." and as such we hand it down to posterity : 

" A deep snow had fallen one night during the winter of ISOT-^, and a little 
aflcr sunrise next morning I saw coming up the road Joe Jack-on, a boy some- 
what older than myself. Joe bad a dog and lun. lie a.-ked my ciMiipjiiy to 
hunt two b'-ars, a larje and a small one, which had recently pu-sed ahm-j, .is 
evident from the humau-likc tracts. I joined readily, taking with me my own 
dog. Uur only reliance to securo the gimc was Joe's old brcoch-loading fuvvliog- 
piece or fuscc. The tracks led off towards the woi.ds, into which the do-.-s 
dished under grea: excitement, and were soon 4ast to view. At a mile's distinco 
from the edge of the timber the dogs were ilmnd barking up a large whit«Mjak 
tree near the Hue roa«l between Victor and Ijloumtield. Tpon this tree the boars 
.hud climlK.-.l,— an old bcir and a large-»i/.>-.l cub. The laiter crawled out 
upon a lar.;c limb some ten feet from the ho-ly of the tree and well-niu'h seveniy 
feet fn>iu the sround. The old bear sat liiiL-ging tbe tn-e where the limb joinol 
the tnink. Joe delivered his first fire at tlic cub without other effei.t than to 
excite deraonstntion.s of aiicer from the old bear. Au'ain Joe's gun wxs dis- 
charged ; the cipl'ision rang through the forest; the smoke l.lew away, aitd no 
change in the situation. -V third attempt was al«4, a failure; and nmv aminuiii- 
tiou gave out. It was agreed that J.x: should •.•u.ird the tree while I went a 
supply or help. Tlireo men were .•<ecn chiming thruujh the w.-hIs, — my f.itlier, 
a man cauie<l Culver, and one other. Culver had a Ion-.' ritie of rmall calibre 
which ha had l.....le.| wiih two halU. With .-u.-|H.'n.* we siw him take p.,sitiun, 
level his p,.eee".illy and i-an fully, and th. n pr.-s the triL--.-r. A sharp cr.ick 

M bea 


shut di.iil. A .-^-cond time the whip like crack of the ritte was heani, and tha 
cub fell wounded to the ground, was otUckcd and killed by the dog^i. Wa 



returned home U-aring our yimo 
Bteak, »uJ ' bears '-frreawi' was pl.ji 
f In eaily years hu^rs roimod ^ 
river. They were derived from those 1 
wild, dangeruua, and uiiumable: They 
when wanted for pork or when found ii 
g^res in atatenii'nta that hoir* brnnijht in beenrn 
with do'j'S. j In combati with the bear the wild ! 
on ooe occasion when a settler had made a party ; 
capture his hogs, the con 

while the nei'^hbure f 
lade for s^'iue time at'lerwardi." 
'er the uplands alon'- :he Genesee 
irht liere by the Indians, and were 
■e huutod a^ any other wilil i.'atre 
ng the cn>p3. Hencher and Stone 
^en;ni- wild and were sliot or hunted 
.•g3 were ..tten victorious ; and 
nd gone out in the early fall to 
ng and dangerous as if they bad never 
been dome-ticated. J»ome tweiity ot thc.^ .ravage creatures were placed in a 
gtoatly-boilt pen of large size, and when the owner came to feed them they would 
rush forward witli archeil back and champing tuslies and endeavor to make an 
attack. One seemed in the forest to become the leader. Ue was seen to take 
bis position before the drove, and defeat all a.s'jilanls, bears and dogs. An 
Indian was once treed by him, and the siege was kept up until others brought 

f Peer were very ahundantj and a? far hack as Pe Nouville's expedition a party 
of Indians seut out from Niagara in advance of the main army had piled up two 
hundred when overtaken. During the winter of lS^G-7 a deop snow f^-il. a thaw 
followed, and the openings were b-fl nearly b.ire, while an ice-crust, formed on the 
snow in the woods, brought many deer to the open tracts, where Indian and white 
could kill all they wanted. In lSl.iS-9 a similar snow and crust occurred, and 
the deer were pursued by wolf, dog. and man. They wore known to take refuge 
among the stock in the farmers' yarfls. Venison wa5 of great assistance as a means 
of subsistence to new settlers. A smaller, but by far the annoying, animal 
early known was the racc;>on. Their ravages among the com were very de- 
structive. The settlers were obliged to hnnt them, and their fur paid for the 
tronb'e. The sketch of a pioneer cabin without one or more raccoon skins 
&stened to the logs would be incumpicte. 

/ All accounts of the Genesee country notice the dens of rattlesnakes along the 
banks of the river below the falls. They were known to find their way outward 
ten to twelve miles during the summer, and return to the den on the approach 
of winter. Hencher reports having killed forty in a day, and of an ocaision 
when a party ascended the river one day in cinoes and killed three hundred. 
Theie snakes were held in dread by the .«ettlers. and were found in most unei- 
pectcd places. At times they were discovered about the hnuses and under the 
beds. They were met in the harvesi-tields whil- reaping, and the habit of going 
barefoot rendered the dan::er of tieiug bitten greater. Considering their numi>er, 
the cases of injury from this ^"urce were rare. 

Pigeons, ducks, and geese came in flocks of countless numbers. The geese 
came fall and spring, and Braddock's bay was a favorite resort. Ducks were 
abundant on the river and its tributary streams. Pig'ons came in such numbers 
that it was difficult to protect the newsown wheat from their depredations. 
Koost3 were known on Mud creek, in a cedar swamp on Dugan's creek, and on 
the lake-shore. In 1S12 the rfxv=t at Dugan'a creek occupied the trees of nearly 
eighty acres. Full thirty nests were found on a single tree. The sijuabs were 
taken away by and made good eating. Large numbers were caught in 
nets. ' *Tbore were times in the tall when the ticlds and woods were alive with 
these birds, and, as they took flight in a cloud, the roar of their win;^ was as 
that of thunder. They were seen to retire as settlements to remote, 
unfrequented regions. Xot only were the settlers supplied with flesh and fowl, 
but with fish in abundance and of the best quality. Ijpeckled truut were plenty 
in the river and its tributaries. It is said that a string of one hundred and fitly 
could be taken at Allen's crcx-k without changing ground. It was nut till ISIO 
that pickerel and other lake fish w.-re placed l-y William Wadswo-th and dthers 
in Conesus lake. The introduction of these fi^h above the falls dates the disap- 
pearance of the trout. Sidmon were caught in the creeks leadini; into the lake. 
In 1792,'Xathan Harris drew a net acrD.^s JIud creek and caught eighteen large 
salmon. Pickerel and pike were taken in the bays, and both black and striped 
ba-ss were plenty in the rivers. .V rack of tamarack-jKiles supportim; a contrivance 
similar to an eol-wcir was pLiced below the tails of the Iroodequoit, and as many 
as ten barrels of fine salmon were taken there in one night. There were to 
whom the forest and stream cave a living for years, and when the settlements 
thickened these withdrew to find elsewhere a renewal of the life which was uot 
without its attractions. 






: Conscious of their isolate.1 and defenceless conditi.m, the tidings of war were 

1 heard with apprehen.>ion by the settlers along the Gene>ee. The proclamation of 
I MadLson was borne by exprc2:s riders through Geneva, Canaiidaiuua, RoehcMter, 
I on to Fort Niairara. These spread the news upon the main n.Kids, whence it w-a-s 
I soon dis.scmlnated to the farthest clearing. The settler ceased his labor and coun- 
I seled with his neighbors whether to hold their ground or peek safety in retreat. 
I Anticipating immediate invasion, s^ime came on and crossed the bridires over the 
\ Genesee and pushed on eastward, while emigrants moving the other way iindaunt- 
1 edly ignored the dangers of the frontier. Rumor magnified triflin-/ events, and 
-| the militia were mustered, drafted, and marched to the rendezvous at Batavia. 
I Both in Canada and New York operations were wholly defensive, and real danger 

did not exist. The Seneca Indians, at first neutral, so-jn joined the settlers, as did 
I the TnscnruTun, and interposed a defensive screen against the Muhmrks and 

other tribes resident of Canada. Upon the lake the British assumed a superiority, 
\ and the poverty of the settlements insured their immunity from attack. Cliar- 
i lotte. at the mouth of the Genesee, was not defended by any rei:ular force, although 

a temporary encampment of -American troops was several times made there while 
! embarking or landing. The militia and volunteers of the county were mainly in 

I The British commodore, Sir James Yeo, set sail in the spring of 181.? to make 

an attack upon Oswego. Balked in this by the weather, be continued on up the 

, lake, and arriving at the mouth of the Genesee, cast anchor, and sent a force on 
shore. There -^a; r.e epposi'io" nndf to their laudini;. whiLh took place ii: the 
latter part of the day. The few inhabitants of the place were unrestrained of 
liberty other than they were not permitted to leave and warn the country of an 
enemy's presence. The fleet was seen, however, and a force assembling at Han- 
ford's Landing, set out for Charlotte, which they reached in time next morning to 
find the enemy taking to their boats. A few distant, inefl'c-etive shol.s were ex- 
changed. The British found at the store-house of Frederick Bushnell a quantity 
of supplies, of which they took possession, giving to George Latta, the clerk, a 
receipt for the property. 

The -\mcricans built and fitted out a fleet during the summer, placed it under 

j command of Commodore Chauncey, and that ofiiccr frequently threw down the 
gage of battle without response. Both fleets were at the head of the lake about 
the first of October, but the British set sad down the lake, followed by tiieir 
adversaries. 'When off the mouth of the Genesee, the former were becalmed, 
and lay motionless, as though anchored. Warned by a previous experience, the 
residents of Charlotte sent runners and horsemen to arouse the settlors. Men 

i armed and unarmed gathered in rapidly, and if numbera were a criterion the 

i enemy would have naturally expected a warm reception if intending to land, w liich 

• they were not. 

; A breeze rippled the surface of the lake, and following shortly after came the 

i American fleet. With exultant cheers the Monroe pioneers saw the interposiiioii 

i of Chaiincey'a squadron, which sailed along within a mile of shore, and when 

' directly opposed to the enemy opened their lakeward guns with telling effect. 
The shore spectators Siiw first the white puffs of smoke rising to a cloud, ami thcu 

• came the heavy detonations, reverberating far inland. The British returned the 
I fire with slight execution. The breeze from shore carried -the smoke from the 
\ American guns as a screen, which hid their antagonists from view. It freshened 
! and impelled both fleets down the lake, fightiug aa they went, with the advantage 

upon the American side. 
! Misfortune and suffering befell the western settlements in the ret.-diator)- inroads 

1 of the enemy consequent upon the useless and d^isUirdly dcj-truclion of the villa;;e 
I of Newark, in Canada, fay the orders of General .McClure, who thereupon rctin-d 
! to Fort Niapira, and soon after e~talilished his headquarters at Buffalo. The 
1 British under Colonel Murray a.v.umed the offensive, and be'jin a relentless and 
I cruel warfare. It was not that his force, some five hundred In all, was llirniidable, 
but that the opposition wero lucompctently handled, that his movements were suc- 

On the early morning of Pwcmber 19, 1S13, licwist^n was surprised, captured, 
plundered, and burned. TI.e Indians preei-dln- the triH.p- f. II upon the village 
with sudden onsl.infhl. cli -^ly f.. II. .wed by the British ><.ldicrs. A panic spread 
r... ,„.! „:.!,. .,,,,1 tl... I,, ,,l' m,n. wonicri. an.l rhililn'n swcot eastward wilh- 

A band of Tn 

nervals ..f 
,1 Ir.lians 

w di>tr.;.vi 
iiubush tire 

,f the 



IniTans pursuin;.;. A l.iij 
cocLiin<xi arxiu anJ aiiiniut 
a fn.>r.t which 8iopp._'d pur 
of Monroe, Wavne, an.l O 
•ioQ of Fort N'iu'j;ara dot; 
debirvctlon of Van Horn's 

ilJin- noir l(..<r,ll'» crcA. <i.-n„iMM,tlt,-l an .-.r'cn'J, 
"U. iUre 1 f.-iv u|- iho b-i^ « hult.-J. nnJ pn-v.'nlcj 
t, but the cruw-i pu- hcii on into thv northern parta 
rio. A fow dav.-t elap^jt-d. nnil the enemy in pj?.w 
d a stMUtini: party, whose objective point wa-i the 
lills and the Huur there ai.jred. [t waj ordered tn 

burn every house, and in:*tri:ctions i 
work waa thoroughly done, yet the 
out « few barrei.-i of fiour for the ii 
of fsimiture bt-ture firin*^ h-'USfS, ar 
tunate that the name of thij huma 
preserved. The news of this foray 
aa Attack u[v)n liuffalo and advance 
of Blocm6cld, Ontario county, calif 
f olQot*?cr, and, bein'j; j.iint'd by the 

■onti-rapljt.-d no mercy to the Bett'.ers. .The 
ijlhvtT in command is known to h.ivc rolled 
*e of the de-titiite, removed essential articles 
id even ?par»d a tew dwcllinu-^. It i? antor- 
10 e.xeeutnr of unworthy duties has not been 
continut;-*! the uiintay panially subsided, and 

upm Batavia ».-re expected. ' lienenl Hall, 
d upon the tnwp3 of Wud.sworth'8 brigade to 

militia of tTent\-<f.e county, proceeded to arm 

found a motley, irregular b<Mjy of troops, which, beini auzioented bv thn^ hun- 
dred men from Cbautaipie. nuniberc-il over two thousand by Iicceniber 'iO. >"o 
tfTeclual organization was f->:^sible aithin the lime allowed. A movement of the 
enemy was made known late at ni'.;ht. DeeoDiber -9. and .1 iattrrv oe-.o- Black 
Bock taken. General Hall ordered Colonels Warren and Churchill to recapture 
the batK-ry and drive the enemy to their bo,ats. The resullin',- attack failed, and 
the force makin;^ it wa^ completely broken up. A second a.^-'^ault. led by C(,>lonel 
Chafin and Major Adams, terminated in manner like the first. An unmanly 
cowardice, on the part of many of the militia, share-j in by a portion of the officers, 
partially redeemed by pallant conduct oo the part of other?, and the ineftieient 
orgajiiiation, were a fiiU offset to trreater numbers oppo^ to a regular disciplined, 
Stnaller army. A di.^patch to the j?)verrior from tjeucral Hall presentd a con- 
dcasod ace-ount of the ineffectual d.-fen^e and forced abandonment of Buffalo. 
It ia tL, follow. • " A« the d^y i::-r-,'i. I di^covcrci a dcuJ.Uicii of uie enemy's 
boats cr&*eing to our shore, and bending their course towards the rear of General 
Porter's house. I immediately ordere<i Colonel Blake^lee to attack the enemy's 
force i»t the water's ei:;e. I became .<:ati.-tied w to the disposition and object of 
■ the enemy. Their left wini, compos<^ of about one thousand rc-^lars, militia, 
and 'Indians, had been landed below the creek, under c-iver of ni jht. 'With their 
centrt, conslstini of four hundred Smts. under Colonel Gordon, the action 
bejpiD. The ri^jht, purposely weak, landed as a diversi('ir near the main battery. 
Tie whole force n as in im'u..-.iiate iv.oimand of L'euteotnt-Colonel Dnimmond. 
and led on by ?l.,jor-Gcneral Kiall. ' They were attacked by four tield-pieces in 
the battery at the water's eil^e; at the same time the battery from the other side 
of tlie river opened a heavy fire opon us of shells, hot shot, and ball. The whole 
force now opposed to the enemy was, at most, not over sii hundred men. the 
rcirainder having: fled, despite the eTertions of their officers. These few but 
brave men disputed every inch of ground with veteran coldness, and at the ei- 
peoae of many valuable live-*. The defection of the militia exjws^-d the forces 
eog-jgvd to a fire upon both front a.nd flank. After .standin; a half hour opposes! 
by ID OTcrwheliuin;- force, and nearly surrounded, retreat became necessary to 
•afety, and was ordered. I then endeavored to rally the troops to attack their 
columns as they eniereii Buffalo, but in v^in. Deserted by my principal force. I 
fell back that ni.;ht to Eleven Mile cre^k, forced t.-. leave the flourishing villa^i-s 
of BI,.ck Kock and Buffal.> a prey to the enemy, by whom they were pilLe.-L-l and 
la'id in ashc^" The villa^-cr< soon Siiw in the retirement of s-puds of militia the 
tilare of defense, and such na had oien or horses hurriedly nthered their most 
eecotial effects and left the place. In many cases women and children on foot 
•el out to journey many miles in prarrh of security. The Briti-sh renchcd the 
▼fllap; as the inhabitants were leavins it. The Indians were on the p.5int of 
doain-npiin the defenseless with knife and hatchet, when Colonel Cyrcnus Chapin, 
oo hor^ack, with a white handkerchief uj-on the end uf his cane, .advanced to 
tJie enrmy, and while terms were considered, !;ave lime for all who chose tn make 
their frcaiie. A force of forty American n-.iilars, le<l by a Lieutenant Riddle, 
kaviog made a ho.slile demonstration alter the enpitulation, affo.-dcd a pretext for 
dttfc^njin^ its condition.t, and the placi^ was plunder*^], and all, save a halt'-dozen 
buildings were burned. By thr.-e P.M. the enemy had retir.-i. fir-t to lil.iek Rock 
WHi then aen«i the river A .Lay or two .iftcrward a party returned. bumi-.i all 
but the dwellin- of yin. .St. .folrn :ind Ri-eee's blacksmith nhop, a„d pes-ed down 
•o P.m Nia^nra. All d.ay ..f Dcec.nber liO. the lii-ht of citizen and settler 
•tmtinoed. Attempts to rally were fru-.trated by of the enemy, and the 
•cIL'ihDrM of the st-on',' wa.s cntrwled with the sutferini of the weak. •• Ualf- 
eW ehildrrn, ll„, wounded, the a-.-.-,l and inlirm, were w.vlin- throu..-h the snow; 
b.n.U ,^ .ble.b.Hl„vl, „rm.-<l n.en ol'te,, r:„-in..- them, niidess and unohservm;." 

lo^tavcms were srK»n^ted of ^ti[ipllc---, ami 
theit scanty stores with the half t'.imislod fii-itive 

Timely ind jeneroui aid was called for and 
addressed to Messrs. Philip S. Van Reijs.sclaer, . 
and others, succinctly explains itself, and illu^trji 
citizens of Ontario, a.s those of Genesee had been 
barn, and shed for the houseless and homeless, 
daisua, January S, 1S14, and reads :u follows: 

"GentLEMF.V, — Nirjara county and that par 
Batavii are cimplctely depopulated. All the si^t 
forty miles square, and which contained more than 


followin;; circular, 
Ambrose Spencer, 
ant feelcn-.-, of the 

I in thi 

waa dated C.anaa- 

t of Genesee which lies west 
tiements in a tiection of count 
twelve thousand souls, are cff.t 

ually broken up. The?e facts you a'-e undoubtedly acquainted with ; but the dia- 
trc-sea they have preHluce*! none but an cye-wit[ies.s can thoroughly appreciate. Our 
raids are filled with people, many of whom have been reduced from a state of 
oomp**tency and good prospects to the last deoree of want and sorrow. ,s!o sudden 
was the blow by which they have been crushed that no provision could be made 
either to eluile or meet it. The fugitives from Niagara county especially were 
d'lsporsed under circumstances of so much terror that in some cases mothers find 
themselves wandering with strange children, and children are seen aeeompaniisl 
by such 03 have no other sympathies with them than those of common sufferin'.r3. 
Of the fimilies thus separated all the niembors am never again meet in this life; 
for the same violence which has made them begT-irs has forever deprived thcni of 
their heads, and others of their brauches. Attlictions of the mind so deep as 
have been allotted to these unhappy people wc cannot cure They cm probably 
be !ub<iued only by His power who can wipe aw.iy all tear^. But shall we not 
endeavor to assuage them? To their bodily wants we can certainly administer. 
The inhabitants of this village have made larre contributions for relief in 



; pl.iee. D.s-rt.sJ 
iipicil by ilttjae whi 

Itutfalo nwl, clear to 
u the frontier. The 

clothing, and money, and we have boi-n appointe<J. among other thinT=, 
to solicit further relief for theiu from our wealthy and libcrrd-minded fellow-citizens, 
in pursuance of this appointment, may we ask you, gentlemen, to interest your- 
selves particularly in their behalf? We believe that no occasion has ever occurred 
in our country which presented stnm^er claims upon individual benevolence, and 
we humbly trust that whoever is willing to .answer these claims will always entitle 
himself to the precious reward of active charity." 

This appeal is signed by Wni. Shepard, Thaddeus Chnpin, Jloses Atwater. X. 
Gorham, Myroo Holley, Thoma.s Beak, and Phincas P. Bates, the e-ommlttee of 
.safety and relief at Canandaigua. In a legislative appropriation of fifrr 
thou-sand dollars was made, and early in 3Iarch the receipts from all sources 
reached sixty-three thousand dollars. 

Once more the British fltsst came to anchor off the mouth of the Genesee. 
Here was stationed Isaac W. Stone, with a company of fifty men. Two cannon 
had been sent down from Canandaigua by order of General P. B. Popter and the 
heavier piece was plante<J in battery at Charlotte. The male population of 
Rochester, led by Messrs. Brown and Ely, made a midnight march to the ex- 
pected battle-ground, and the militia of the northern towns n-cro S'wn ass'imhh'd 
re.idy fsr duty. The breastwork was located tipon the bluff, and was principally 
composed of tiers of ship-timber. The unaccountably strange actions of the 
militia aroused a suspicion among the British that it was feigned, and the oppor- 
tune passage of an American officer ami staff throu^rh an opening of the wr.od> at 
a distance confirmed the imprission that the Americans were in heavy f.iRc. and 
desired them to land. Meantime, the militia were gathering in until about ciLtht 
hundred had assembled. They eanic in pairs and in squads; some well armed, 
some with no arm.s. Many were serious and silent; others were loudly ho.i=rt'ul. 
Some carried bundles, while a large number wore packs, — Gld-tiuie srpiare . 
ba::s of canvas or leatlicr. There was little subordination, and an altercation be- 
tween an officer and one of his men was followed by an encounter, in which the 
former succeeded in asserting his superiority. During the forenoon a flag of 
truce was received, .and its bearer was not permitted to Land. The pro|»isal 
public stores be surrendered, while private prop«'rty should be respectnl. was pt-r- 
emptorily rejected. A gunboat exchan^-d shots with the American battery, a*l 
«<jme fifteen or twenty sixty-ei-^ht-ponnd shots plowesl up the sands without injury 
to life or property. General Porter anil toot command. A second flag 
of truce, gent in during the afternoon, demanded, on the part of the .\nieric:)ns. a 
deliverv up of all public stores, under a threat of landintr with troops .ind a lar^ 
force of Indians. It was answered that the forer. landed would be to, 
1} reeeive-l. The si^ctaelc si-ems ludi- 
id having on board a ilisciplioed and 
huiidn-d militia, many of whom were 
iiii.irmed, and would have uken flr.-ht at a .siie.-lo volley, while the remainder 
would have fought in vain. However, the lauding wa.s not made, and the flift 
luilcd away. 

On June i.'i, 1814, a force was enlisted far lii months' service on the " lines," 

It was answered tha 
and that no more communications woiili 

numerous force, standing in dread or' a 



ii.rchL-.l t„ Kh.ik Uock, 
olunrwri ^r.a « bo,iy of 

»a< I'liu-lu ali'itiv uUer 

.nd were known «3 tl,« New York Volunt.^rs. Thcv ni 
where they were joiii._-J by x rv^'imunt uf Pennsylvania v 
Sfneca warrlonj. Tiio turcc wa^ fon3Ulutt.'J a briiride. am] 
of General Peter S. Porter. The battle of Ch.|.peKa v 
their iniral, unj, all urnisej Ui the deadly trade of war, they did little service. 
Scott's bri„-ade of ri-;;ulara crof-ed N'i;i|rira river on July 3. and eapHirxl Fort 
Erie; they then aJvao«-d o[x_m the British, who wereenc:iiui>--i b<.i:ind the Chip- 
pew*, t deep, alu^-^-isIi stream, whose eour^ Sowa at risht an^-Us to the Nii^^rara. 
Ripley's briijade inside the passage uf the >"iL:nra aboot midniirht of the -Ith. und 
Porter's on the morning of the 5th. Thr two oppasin;.- foreia were drawn up 

«hout three-fourths of a mile 

ipart. At four p.m.. Porter's bnyudc, having; 
nude 1 dotour upon the American left, appni.ichcii the Chippewa, behind which, 
within an extendi^ tier<Lh, the enemy ol'^erved their movement.^. Itecf)'.rinzin5 
their opponents by their drc=3 as militia, and holding this branch of the force m 
eoptempt, the British b'jldly left their trenches, crossed the stream, and with con- 
fidence sdvaociog, the lines of battle soon bt-came warinly en^ged. Unable to 
withstand the onsiajgut, toiu.r .3 LoLao-.'.'.u brv'tie in o' i<^u-ion. mid. di>r'itii stren- 
uous etTort, could rot be brouiiht to take fiirthvr p.irt in the action. The clouds 
of dust and heavy Crio^ denoted the result, and Scott s veterans were advanced 
mpidlj to meet and check pursuit. The enemy, elated by success, and seeing in 
the regulars their only obstacle to victory, met them with a furious 5re, and the 
fighting became desperate. The Twenty-fifth re-^iara, under Major Jczi^up^ u-^ia 
»ent to turn the Biitish rijht winj, and was received with a rilling- Bre. both 
apon hb front and At this cri-^is the re;zimeot, promptly re-jiOnding to 
orders, came to a "support," and advanctd to a secure and favorable pcsitiou, 
whence they opened so eiTectuaily that the enemy were compelled to fall back. 
Towsoo, of the artillery, silenced the enemy's best battery, blew up an ordnance 

advancing to the charge. The enemy were beaten, and driven over the Chippewa 
bto their works, with heavy loss. The battle of Bridgewater, or the Cataract, 
aoon followed. A number of days were occupied in maoonuvring, while the 
British, gathering vesse-ls, began to loJid troops at Lewiston, thereby threatening 
the capture and destruction of the bag^ra;^ and supplies of the Amcncans at 

«o attack upon Queenstown. About sundoivn of July li, the rceonooUiance was 
<luinged to an attack, and the " rcinibr? ' swn found themselves hotly engaged 
with the entire British army. Porter's volunteer-i now advanced to Scott's sup- 
port with ardor, took position upon the extreme left, and in g(>xl order and with 
iotrepidity held their ground, repelled a determined and confident charge, and, 
•timulated by the voices and example of Colonel Dobbin. Major Wood, and other 
officers, pre^'ipitated themsekes up<jo the British line, and c-.iptured many pris- 



, thei 

_-ht, and 

tory. Among various wonls of commeudatiij 
Jacob Brown, in his olfieial report to the ; 
militia Toluntoers of N'ew York and Pencsylv 
hottest Bre, and repulsed the veterans oppe-sed 
Early in September the militia in all the 
called oat en nio-we aud ordered to Buffalo. 

and make 

about one 


sand efTective-s 

«r«a and 

a fo 

T:e of Canadia 



the Canada side 

«De basti 

n, m 

ounti'd with ca 

works, an 

d kn 

.wn as Towson 

nipt 10 
nd bcs 

ted 1. 

n to otficcr. we 

re those 

of General 

'■.^ret-^ry of ^■ 

jr. He 

.says, "The 

ania stood und 


amidst the 

to them." 

counties west 

f theG 

enesee were 

There volunte 

rs were 

solicited to 

he siege of For 


nT5uiiiHi by 

y about four tl 


British vet- 

militia. Fort Erie was located at the outlet of 
It consisted of " two lar^e stone mess-liou.-His and 
ilh cannnQ," and an artificial mound, created by bn^a^jt- 
battery. A pampet, connecte^l with the " old 
fort" a-id traverses, extended inward. The British had investeri this work the last 
of July, and gradually advanced their battcriii till August 15, when an a-^ault 
-was repulsed, and the siege was then re-ume-l. The volunteers were fcrrieri by 
night, to the number of fifteen hundred, across the river, and enc3mp»*d, under 
General Porter, near Towsnu's battery, 00 the Lkc shore. Gener.d Brown, in 
chief command, had learned of the Briii--li details, and knew that a German bri- 
gade would be on duty at the batteries on .-September 17. The besieging force 
had unmxsketj two batteries, and were on the point of completing a third, which 
was nearer the intrenchmcnt and iidvantageoiisiy posted. On the Itjth, two hun- 
dred men, half with axes, the others armcJ, s^.'t out under Maji^rs Fnzer and 
Kiddle, and, by a circuit, reached the vicinity of the new battery. There each 
officer, with a hundred men, underbru^hinl a chosen track back, undi.>e"ovcreil. 
Next morning the volunteers were paraded, and the intended' announivd. A 
handbill, with news ..f lll,^ victory at riall.-I.iri on jcpti mlicr U. w,ts read, and 
unaoimous and cnlhu.-ia.stic desire w is nianiliste-l to take [mrt in the .-.illy. Eaeli 
»oluntcer, in pl.nT of hit or cap, wore a strip of re>l glazed cloth. By the 
Volunteers were foninTl in two iroluutii-«. e:ieh pri-ee^led by parties of regular 
riflemen and dismounted ilngtMiiis. (leiicml I'urter was in i-oiiimaiid. The paths 

were traversed in silence. A rain set in. Two hours passed away. The heads 
of columns had arrived within pistol-shot, when the sentry diseove.-ed them eiul 
discharged his musket. A mingled shout and whoop by the entire ts>,iiling forcj 
followed, as they rushisl upon aud cupture<J the battery and its German guard. 
The voluatoery carridi the second buttery at the point of the bayonet, and, bein" 
joined by a body of regulars which had been posted in a ravine, moved ou and 
drove the enemy from the third battery. Reinforcements from the British camp 
were repelled ; the c:iUnon were spiked, the mag.izioes blown up. and a'e retreat 
to the fort cITected by sun.^t. The total British loss was full onc-i'ourth their 
number, and caus':d the siege to bo raised, whereupon the volunteer troops re- 
turned home. The six months' regiment was mustered out of service at Batavia, 
on November 3, ISU, and not lung thereafter the war closed. Tlies beginning 
in disaster and presenting scenes of coivardice and selfishness, we have seen the 
pioneers of western Now York repel the charge of British veterans, battle hand 
to hand, and capture siege b.itterie.s, and return with discharges entitled ■' Honor to 
the brave," to resume their homes and their work of improvemeut. 


Tbx eariy history of Monroe has been traced as the common lot of an intcsral 
part of the ouiLc. The tii^ of pop'.!ijtion moved westward, and the eltre»r!^ 
frontiers gradually org-anizcd into towns, then counties, and, as uew cvinditioos arose, 
adjacent counties gave of their territory to the formation of yet others. 

Albany county was one of the nine original divisions of the colony, and at the 
first legislative a&sem'Dly, held in lOJl, Iiad two delegates. It included all nonh 
of Ulster and Dutchess, and its farthest limits were "terra incognita." occupied by 
fierce and martbl nations. Tryon county was formed from -\ni.iiiy in 1772, and 
embraced all the province west oi the centre of Schoharie. It was named Mont- 
gomery, in honor of General Montgomery, one of the bravest of Amt-ricao soldiers, 
in 17S4, and was one of the fourteen counties formed by the general organization 
act. In 17S9, Ontario county was erected from Montgomery, and extended from 
the new pre-emption line westward of the lake, including the entire pre-emption 
tract of .\Ia5S.achusett3. Genesee county was organized from Ontario, M.irch o, 
ISO-, and comprised at that time the entire territory west of the Genesee nver. 
The county of Monroe was taken from' Ontario and Genesee, and ereet/'d as an 
organization, in accordance with a l.iw pas.s.^d February 23, 1321. It was named 
in honor of James Monroe, President of the UniU'd States at that time, and the 
first term of the county court was held on May S, 1S21, at the Eagle Uvern, in 
the village of Rixhcster. .-Vs early as 1S17, Colonel Rochester attended the le^ns- 
l.iture at Albany, as the agent, to petition for the formation of the nc.v county, 
which step WIS delayed by the strong opposition encountered till the date given. 

The citizens of Caii.iiid.ii.ju:i and Batavia asserted that it was a wild and fijolish 
project to contemplate a now county in such a sparsely settled hike region. There 
is, in the Athen;euDi at Rochester, a volume uf a paper printed there in 1320. 
wherein the weak arguments ag-,iinst the erection of the county arc triumpliautiy 
met by the stitemcnt that Richester had beemue not only the wheat market of 
the Genesee valley, but for the most of what is now Ontario, Wayne, Orleans, and 
Genesee. The board of comiiiL-wioners appointed by law to locate county huild- 
ings was comp«isod of three persons, .\Iorris S. .^Iiller, Robert 3., .and Natlian 
Will'iams. They immoliately .selected Rochester, und .Messra. Rochester, Fitx- 
hugh, and Carroll donated a lot for that purpsus!. 

On SeptemK-r 4, 1821, the corner-stone of the first was laitl, and 
in ld22 the buiMing was cuiuplcte>l. The following is a description of that build- 
ing in l.'S27, then re.nirded as 1 superior structure. The lot given by the village 
pnjprictors"'ex(ende-d one hiindri-d andsi.vtysix feet on BulTalostnx't, and two hun- 
dnd and sixty-four feet oil Fit/hu'jh street. The natural di-clivity of the ■.■round is 
reduced to two platf.irins; tlic first, on the level of fiulTalo street, tiirniiiig a ni-at 
yard in front uf the building, which ns-edes -evcnty-tive feet from the line ..f the 
sttx'et; the other rai.s.-d alKiut six feet above the foi 
the buildi.c- iL-'lf. and two iving wall- of iiiiilorm ..ppearance. 
Uulfalo street tile aspect of an elcv.atcd terrai-e. I.ilt on a lei 
immediately .adjoining. This l.i,t, l.-.-etliir with the y.irl of ih. 

out in grXN9-pl.iLi and gravel-wulks, and ncnLs only thu furth 

nd divided from 


and valuable a--con]mnii.ition xi a pulilic w.ilk. This is uuw tnowii by thf name 
of Court square. The court-house builJina is filly-fnur fr,t l,w-, furly-four wi.le. 
and forty high. It pres<>ni3 two front.?; the .me facincr Court -^Jjuare, showing 
two stories and a bas<- the other towards BaCile «tre.t, two stories and a full 
basement. Eaeh front is fjiiished with a pn.j.Liinir jmriieo thirty fe-et lonsr and 
ten tect wide, supported by timr flut.-d I..iiic c.liann^. siirmounted by a rf?iular 
entablature and balustrade, which returns and cuutinuos along the whole front. 
From the centre of the building risc^ an octagonal Ulfry, covered by a cupola. 
The basement affords convenient offices for county and vill.e.-e purjKjses. The 
court-rootn is in the stvond story, extendiuL' the entire lencrth and breadth of the 
buildin?, and is a remarkably well-ii'jlit -'l aiul airy apartment.' Such was the 
old court-house, the former pride nf the \il!,iL'", a pr.^nt in.-niory. 

The first county jail situat.J on lli-h -'.rr, t. i.i tb.- rear of a haMd>ome and 
commodioH.'i brick house occupied by the jailer's family, and inelMsed with a hiirh 
and formidable wall of stone. Within are two tiers of celU, divided by a hall 
throilL'h the centre, inclo.'ii'd in a very stron? and si-cin-.- manner. Xonb Fitz- 
hugh was known, in IS'37, as Hughes stn-.-t, and tb? j-il stood on the later site of 
a Unitarian chapel. When a new jail w^is built in iS:ii). the old structure was 
ntilizc-d for a number of _vear3 as a reeniitio'.; oilice by the Uni-ed States officers. 

It was a proud day for the citizens of Rochester when, in Soptciuber, lS2fi, a 
session of the United States District Court was held in the village by Judge 
Roger Skinner. It was a great progress from the wilderness, the log house, the 
" desolate" sccnerr of eight years before, and a happy omen f .r the future, des- 
tined to be more than realiztsj. The first c.unty officials were Elisha B. Strong, 
first judge; Timothy Barnard, Sr.. Levi U. Clark, and John Bowm;in, associate 
judges; Nathaniel KMhe^ter, clerk ; James Seymour, sheriff; Timothy Childs, 
district attorney ; and Elisha Ely. survoL'-ate. At the organization of courts in 
May, tlisha Strung presi.lod ; i'lniothy liaroard was judge, and Joseph Spencer 
was assistant justice. A committee of three was appointed to draft rules of 
eoart ; these were Enos Pomcroy, Joseph Spencer, and Ashley Sampson. No 
issues were tried. Court convened again in September. At the fii^t term, or 
Boon after, there were added to the bar of Koehestor Vineect Matthews, Timothy 
Childs, William W. Slumlord, .Melanctoii Brown, William Graver, Daniel D. 
Barua:d, Fbcn..zer 0.-:.".., Wm. B. Rochester, and Charle. K. Lee. It woi an 
argument against division of Ontario that the Ic-gal talent wuu!d not be of as high 
rank in Monto.> ; the name of Matthews alone is an auswer. S^-vere as a student, 
he became famous as a lawyer, and to his ability in practice Wiis united the faith 
of the Christian. A mouuirivnt at Mount Hofie indicates the estimation of his 
fellow-citizens. Successive presiding judges were ElLsha B. Strong, A>hley Samp- 
eon, Moses Chapin, E. Smith Lee, Samuel L. Seldon, John Bowman. Joseph 
Sibley, Patiick G. Buchan, Harvey Humphrey, George G. Monger, and John C. 

The original territory -of Monroe, taken from Ontario, included the towns of 
Brighton, Pittiford, I'ei'.field. Perrinton. Henrietta, Meudon. and that part of town- 
ship 11, range T, north of Uoncoye outlet, now a portion of Bush. taken 
from Genesee, on the west side of the Genesee river, eompri.scd the towns of 
Gate^, Panna, Clarkson, Sweden, Ogden, Riga, and Whe.illand. The county 
contained, by the census of 1S20, a jKipulation of 2.'i..')-'i; ; and ten years later it 
was no longer " sparsely settled," since it contained 49,Si;l' souls ; and yet other 
ten years and it enrolled G4,'JUi, and was second only to Onondaga in the counties 
of western New York. 

A brief sketch will indicate the place whose development was the origin of the 
cotinty, whose claims as a county seat there were none to dispute. By AoLHist, 
1820, K.K-hc^t..T contained a populati .n of l.-.iiL'. while in l.-sl.'i it bad but 331. 
Settlements had grown old in other places betore it wxs contemplated to occupy 
the swampy land on the old " Jlill tract." The shanty of Enos Stone w:is built 
about 1809, on the west side, and a bridge across the river was finished in ISl'.'. 
The first allotment for a village was made by Nathaniel ll'xhestcr .and two others, 
in 1812, and the names '■ t'alltnwn" and "Genesee Falls" began to be heard. 
A store, tavern, and post-office, throe employments under one TO*->f. were inaug- 
urated by AWlard UeynoMs, still a resident of the city, [n ISl.'i, the siu-s of 
the present court-house and city hall were cleared and sown to wheat, and then 
became a pasture. lu ISlli, O-.mby bcL-an the p.iblieation of the AWAo/.r 
Giixllr, chaiiged on the erc-lion of the county to the .lA.//,".- fi'jiHUiain. and 
conductcl byDerick .ami Uvi W. Sibley; and. in l.SIS. tlie f!.,rhrs/rr T,hyrn,,h 
was established by Everard Peck & t.'o., piil.llsled by tin- Sihievs. and edited in 
1824 by Thurlow Weed, the wed known and hiulily-est- nied j.minahst of later 
years. A Pri-bWerian soeiely was tionied in I.sli; , St (,i,k, 's a.el tlie Frie,,.!,' 

and first .Metl,.4i.-t Epi.sev.pal in ISlJII. A mill w is by ILirford. in 1807 ; 
the red mill of the Elys and Bissell, in IM.'i ; tl.e lin.wns' mill in IMil.aiid the 

Cleveland mill in 
181T. Atwater, A 
river above the Cle 

aa. Incrponvtiou ;.s Uo, 
Irews, ami Munifird built ; 
and mill, and on Septembe 
? through the villatre. Ste; 

lesterville w;ls accomplish'.d 
toU-brid-e in 1S19 aero* :1 
28. 1819, the State enitiaee 

nboats were ann plyiu'.- on t! 

river, and an e.\port tnide had assumed notable prop-jrtions. Steps of proirress 
these which gave premonition of a coming city, and made Rochester the county 
scat of Monroe. 

There have occurtcd in Rochester several criminal trials of unwonted interest, 
one of which,— that .)f B.irun, for the robbery and murder of Lyraan, on Fr::nt. 
liu street. — from its being the tirst in the capital punishment of the dee[»est crime 
known to the annals of Monroe, has here a brief recital of fact : 

William Lym in was a grain-buyer for the city mills, and not late one night in 
October, 1837, closed his business for the day, and set out for his residene-e nea- 
the corner of Clinton place. He was not far from home when he was shot 
through the back of his head, and killed outright. All night a cold, heav-y raia 
fell, and morning brought discovery of a stiff, drenched body; and rlHed p-.^jkets 
disclosed the motive for the deed. This was the _^rs( murder in the corporation. 
and the excitement was most intense. Three persons were in:plicat':d in t.Ke 

others, namt^i Bennett and Fluett. They were arrested while atteiuptini: to It-ave 
the city on a west-bound train, and secured in the Monroe Coucity jail, on the 
island. Barron's trial was begun May 28, 1333, and occupied ten days. Crow'is 
of people, unable to get into the room, were gathered daily about the bnildinj. 
On June 7, Oct-avius Barron was by the jury found guilty of murder in th.e 
first degree. The district attorney was Wm. S. Bishop, amoni: whose assistants 
was Hon. Mark H. Sibley, of Canandaigua, a criminal lawyer of great ability. 
One among the counsel for Barron was 3Ir. Bennett, of Limx llie execution 
took place July 23. 1S3S, Davis Perrin Iwing sheriff. It is asserted ih it i<ever 
t)efore or since has the community known so deep a feeling as during this the 
first trial for murder, and its punishment, in Monroe County. Six exccutiotis 
have taken place in Monroe, four inside the jail, two in the y.ard. In 1330 a 
second jail was constructed, and still stands on the west side of the Genesee, a 
short distance south of Court streeL A part of the building is fitted up for the 
keeper's residene-e ; the rest has cells for one hundred prisoners. This old st^ne 
structure is now in use as a place of confinement for persons awaiting trial or 

The present ilonroe County court-hnuse stands upon the site of the firs? 
building, which was removed to make way for it. Within the corner-stone was 
deposited in a galvanized copper bos, hermetically sealed, a medley of am- -e^, 
among which were the first directory, copies of newspapers, bills of banks, ci.'i'is. 
Continental bills, a vial of California gold-dust, and papers containing predie-ioos 
of the progress of the next century. The building was completed in 1.^51. ar.J 
cost over seventy thousand dollars, which was jointly paid by the city and duiity. 
Within a few years .the west half has been rendered fire-proof by the coun:y 
The building has a handsome and substantial appearance. The foundation, sr^p^ 
and pavement of the portico arc of Onondaga limestone, and the superstructure i- o 
brick, painted and sanded. The entrance is ornamented by an Ionic i«)rtico. up 
held by four huge pillars. The edifice is of ample proportions, and cout-ains ihret 
stories and basement. Within the latter are fire-proof vaults, and furtuM- 
whcreby the building is heated by steam— an improvement of i.'!71. Upon tht 
first floor, to the right of entrance, is the office of the surrogate, and next bcy.'nd 
the cafacious room of the county clerk. To the left are the 4uaner3 of the 
district attorney, and, beyond, the office of county treasurer. An inner doable 
flight of stairs leads to the roof On the second floor are the rooms of the i.^juniy 
judge, supervisors, clerk of the board of 3Upcrvis<jr3, supreme court, and the law 
library of the court of apjieals, — this bet a State institution, in existence since 
1S49. Here are cont;iined ten thoiisaml voluuies. The librarians have h^n 
Gleason, Ch.arics Wheeler, and C. .^I. Crittenden, the last since 1371. Tl.e 
third fliior contains the old city hall, the county court room and jury p-'ne^. 
Ascending rtlrther, we come upon an iron-railed platform, whence the eye ei^tn- 
mands an extensive view of the city and its surroundings ; overhead ri-s.;s a d..-me 
whose summit is a hundred and fifty tiet from the ground. Slandin;; up.ia a 
surmounting cupola is an emblematic statue of Justice, an ornament to the struc- 
ture and a symbol of legal protection and impartial justice. 











io, and 

. "The last season there were shipped from this river, the Moncrcal martet, 
tTentj-6ve thousand nine hundred and ninely-sii l^arr.'ls of flour." S^i wrote H. 
Serantom, on January 24, ISlii; and in ls;j(i two liundred thousand bushels of 
wheat were imp^irtcd by Itoi'liu-ster di-alers. under heavy duties, frr'ni Canada. 
Prior to the construction of canaiii and .^«|ucnt railroads, the value of the 
Genesee, as a coninicreial interest, was of nu slight moment. Sn-.all ves-els 
afloeaded the river forty miles above the falls, and a snudl steamboat ran during 
two 9ea.s.ins from the city to landin'jj at .-^eott.sville, Avon. Vork, and other villa','e3, 
principally to espedite, by towinu-, tlie movein, nt of faijit-boat.s laden with the 
grain and other pro-lucts of the valley. Of these freiL'ht-boats there were sev- 
eral lines, and most of them were propelled by means of long poles. Thftie bo.-its 
were open, ciposod to the weather, and had runways on each ^ide upon which 
cleats were nailed. The boat w.xs propelled by a crew of sii men, three on a side. 
equipj^ed with the poles alluded to. which were shod at the wator end with iron. 
The operation was in this wi>o: each, placing his pole, braced his feet t'pon the 
cleats and urged the boat forward as he moved backward to the stem ; then the 
crew marched on each side, Indian tile, to the bow, adjusted their sweeps, and so 
continued for hours. 

The boats were owned by Kempshall, Ely. and others of the millers, while 
William Tone proprietor of several, with which a regular transportation of 
produce was conducted. The construction of the Valley canal put an end to this 
oavigation. and the atrial trade has in turn been superseded by the railroad. 

Ironde<iuoit'3 and Uraddock's bays, and Hanford's Landing, Charlotte, 
thagc, are places of interest in relation to early trading and commen 
name Irondcrjuoit is lutiiuatcly associated with early military and tr.uiic 
incnta in the west. A st.ation was made in 172G at thU point, by the 
in their endeavor to exclude the French from the lower end of Lake Ont 
secure the traffic in furs with the we.^tern Indians. 

It seems that an imprea.sion prevailed that somewhere in this region a city was 
to be founded, and prior to 1793 the Tryons, having become the owners of land 
three miles above the bay, laid out a vUl^ige near the line of the highway between 
Rochester and Canand.iigua. A store was opened in the spring of IT'JO. and in 
the fell a boat came on from the cast in charge of Oliver Grace. The freight on 
its cargo was three dollars a quarter. Oliver Culver for several years ran a pio- 
neer ashcry, and in ISUiJ shipped one hundred and eight barrels ot pcarlash to 
Montreal. Formerly supplies intendc^l for the we-:tcrn ports were sent to the 
head of Irondcquoit bay in.>tead of to the Genesee river. They were there shipped 
npOD bateaux to fallow the coast txt Niagara river ; there a transfer by p<:)rtage to 
Fort Sclilos-'^r, then up the river into Lake Eric, and on a-i fir as the incentive 
of furs aud the :*ptrit of adventure might lead. The first freighted sailing-vessel 
from Genesee river to Kingston. Upper Canada, Wiis loaded with potiish. '-sent 
from Kanadarque fjr Rundicutt bay, and from thence in b^jats round about to 
Genesee river landing." This occurred prior to ISOD, before the few settlers 
south of the bay had any kettles. The early settlers came fmiu 
to bri.ig in their ashes, and the price, a shilling a bushel, enabled them 
goods from the store of Tryon. The settlers from western ^Vayne. 
the northern towns of Livingston, and one from Orleans, were cust 
" Tryonstown." A great share of the coinmerx^e of the lake of this coi 
sent out from Inmdi^iuoit landing. The fir-t flour shipped to .^lont 
from there, and it was no fault of the '• citizens" that the pliee did not 
Prominent among whose efforts inaii'.:urated the lake trade was Mr. Cul 
who built a .vchcmer near the h,ay, to which it was drawn by twenty-six yoki 
oxen. At later iH-rio.U he construcU-d three others for the lake trade, ami when 
the Erie can:ll wa^ under way Culver built at Brighton the first packet-boat west, 
and the feunh built up.m the canal. The pioneer tnider at Charlotte was Erx-«tus 
Spauhling, who-.- first ves-cl. named the •' Isaliel." was capturt-d during the war of 
181:1. Pp.iuldin^ colnincnced the trade in butt-stiives. which grew to be of much 
'" ' ' ' " ' the earlv lake oomineree. 

nd bn 

lon^ dh 



imp.irtanee. Saniue; 



■r is named ; 

as one cn^'a 

The sehi«iners of (i 


..f tl„. Fori 

crs. Culver 

for early traffic, and. 



iition to pot 

and p..arl . 

small .|nanlili« of wl,c 

at : 

ind fl..ur t.. 

i.k |.lae... a 

Maude .s.aid of Willi 



Icincnt of 1 

clearly, on his lir-t ^ 


, to 

this .■;,untn 

1-. that the 

hawk, 1..- it, ■ 


' r,. 

■n,-,-c .-mnl 

Ty 1 hc.t I'r 

K, for at ihi, .l..y . 1 



,-ll.:,t is 1.. t 

sixty cvnIH at 



Ills dili'erene 

e ivid grow 

any, improvement can be made with the water couiniunieation from New York, 
while that to Baltimore will admit of ejtended and advantageous one." .Such 
were the conclusions of that periovl, de.-^titied to find a coutrary reidization. Even 
at that very date ctjmmeree was begun ujion the hike. The tiusi^uehanna route 
was el^<nsive and attended with much dillieulty ; boats almost ceased to run from 
Geneva, Seneca Falls, and LyoiLS , and the advantaires of lake traffic gradnailv 
became apprceiatovl and utilized. "Wadsworth wrote in July, IS07, to Samu< I 
Corp, Xew Vork : •' The tv^-ricultural pr.>lucts of this district i (Jiiea to Lak- 
Erie I cannot be transport<;d to Albany except in years of scarcity. The St. lAiwrcuee 
is the natural outlet of produce. Lake Ontario Is navi':able at all sea-^jus : Uuis 
may be sent down the St. Ltiwrenee almost eight months of the year." ■' .\(ontre:d b*;come an immense deposit for produce seeking iCuropeaii market." TLu-. 
while great public works destined to call forth the mighty energies of yet dornian-. 
soil were unconceivcd, did pioneer leaders seek to create and to divert the tiny 
rivulets destined to become a vast and constant stream of eastward flow. As a 
landing, Bniddock's bay was of note before Enos Scone had tliouglit ..f a brid-e 
at the Falls. It was otherwise known as Pridcaux, xs well as Evadloe bay. and is 
thus rcMialled by a writer of ISUd : " The nearest ports to the tienesee river are 
KunJicutt bay, five miles to the east, and Bradloe bay, thirteen miles to the west 
The first is situate on a creek, the channel of which is diSicuk to bo dLscerncd in 
the marsh through which it takes its tortuous coui-se ; and from the shallown^-ss 
of the water it is obliged to send its produce to the Genesee river in bateau.^. 
Four or five families are settled at Riindicutt; but Bradloe is abetter situation, and 
s more flourishing settlement." The hunter, trapper, and ander found more of 
profit in later years than the merchant, who elsewhere found a channel running 
broad and deep to a never-failing market. Time works striking changes. The 
foot of the promontory, east bank of the Genesee, bore the name Carthage, and 
was of note in its day. There stood many dwellings, two hotels, and warehouses 
with inclined plane for the transit of poods to vessels lying at the diK-k, two hun- 
dred feet b.'low. The first warehouse was erected by Levi Ward, Jr , II.mxD 
Norton, Elisha B. Strong, and Levi H. Clark. Business was transacted by Johu 
Thompson, agent for Messrs. Hixiker, Olmstead. and Griffiths. Between Carthage 
and Rochester was built the first railroad in the west. It extended lirom the 
eastern end of the old aquedijct, at the head of Water street, iJong tlie east line 
of the street to Andrews srreet, where it followed the west line of St. Paul street 
to the Elwood house; thence along the river bank to its terminus, Carth.ige. The 
president of the railroad company was John Grci^. of Canandaigua. The treas- 
urer was -K. M. Schennerhorn, and the secretary, F. M. Uaight. The ■■ road ' w;!s 
leased and operated by Horace Hooker & Co. Pleasure-cars ran ti .■ 
track, and horses were used after the fashion of the street-cars of tit-lay. .V 
suburban settlement, known as Dublin, was located between the Ceotrd .NJitwd 
and Gorham street, and the lands eastward were in wheat,.rye. and used as pi-mre. 
A rival to Carthage was H.anford's Landing, just below, on the west side. Hero 
Maude '• got a good breakfast on wild pigeons ' at Gideon King's, and here, in 
ISOD, '• all the shipments of the Genesee river were made." He continues : - I 
went to sec the new store and wharf; it is very difiiculr to get goods conveyeiJ to 
and from the wharf, in conseriuencc of the great heiL'iit and stei-'pness of the bank. 
This landing is four miles from (Ontario. The river channel runs cl.)se ai.Mi- 
shore, and has thirty feet depth." In January, ISID, Frederick . penol 
a store of gtwds at the L'pper Landing, or Falltown. a- did 0. Smith l.itcr in 
the year. And, to distinguish it from Charlotte, the name was ch.irig.d from 
Genesee to Hanford's Landing. The warehouses and wharves at this l.mJin.- were 
destroyed by fire in 1S3.">, and so per'ished the first shipping port of the G.:ncsc.;. 
In the year 1317 the first steamboat touched at this port. The ■* Ontario " was 
followed by the '• Martha Ogdeo," and in time the arrivals and departures of 
steamers became of daily occurrence, and the trade with Canada increased to large 

The harbor of Rochctster. at the mouth of the Genesee, is of artificial form.a- 
tion and a government work. This improvement, so important to commerce, was 
contraetcd by Messrs. Ezra M. Paisons and Silas Ball. From a report made by 
Lieutenant William Smith on October H, 1337, to Generd Gratiot, chief en- 
gineer at Washington, a brief outline ..f the work is obtained. ■ The pier 
is two thousand six hundred and seventy feet, and the ea-t pier two thousand .-ix 
hundred and thirty-four feet in e.Ment. The gener.d width is twenty feet. The 
piers are of crib-work, each crib thirty feet long by si.tcteen to twenty wide. The 
heilht above the w.iter averages three feet. The nidtli of ih.r h.irhor at the 
month is four hundred and f..rty-slx feet. The greatest depth of the chann.l 

At th.' harbor entrance there are „..v,.ntccii feet of water; up the river l'..r three 
mil.s the avcra'.;.' depth is twenty- i-'bc feet." As a contra-t with ti.e oii-i...d 1 

..k..d . 

ver eight feet. Entiauco could be made only when the wind 


^ij Jij^^ik^ tiJ-^^cdi^ ,^^ -.^^ ,,^,,„^ 



aat from a particular dircciioii. Tlie iliai 
depth of wa>*r any Tc-sol that navi'.-nti'S I 
September 30. "ijJT, was on.i hunJri'd 
prialiona have bet-o tnai^e and iufpnivomcnn 
WIS built by the United Sralca in \611, and 
Rochester or Genesee di>iriet, eileiidinu' ot 

ncl was Diada direet, vitli sufficient 
le Ut-s. The eost of the work till 
■iiihtcen thousand d'dlapj. Appro- 
elhlorcd ptruianeDt. A li,-ht-huuse 
ontinupj tn the present time. The 
Like Ontario from Oak OrcliarJ 

ereek, in Orlcani county, u, S'>du.s bay. in \Va; 
port of entry >ai catahll-hcd at the conflu'-nc 
Lfttta ippointcd 5rbt collector. Jesse IlawlcT ' 
beoQ preceded by J^cob Gould, appointed in 1 
PulteneyTille, Charlotte, and at the Untario steamL- 
prioci{>a!ly colIect.-d at the port of It'ihester, nhile 
where to prevent smusr^-iinj. S.alarics eiceeded re 
dalles Tere Cwenty-aix thousand dollars, and J 

e. was forineii in 180.>, when * 
of river and lake, liid Samuel 
w collector for i tiajc. He had 
:0. Deputies were stationed at 
indinir. Revenues were 
e officers were st;itloQed else- 
year following sixty thousand 




Monroe Couxtt is bounded on the north by I.,ake OnL-irio, Wayne and » 
tmall part of Ontario on the east, Ontario and Livingston on the south, and by I 
Genesee and Orleans counties on the west. The area is six hundred and ei'jbiv- 1 
two BOuaie tailoa. and its lch:ation is northwest of the centre of the State, two . 
kandred and two miles west of Albany, and between latitudes 42' 51' and 43° 
le* north, and between 3' 22' and 4° 03' west 'on^tude from New York. The 
tract extends southward from the lake about twenty-two miles, and twenty-one 
miles west and fourteen miles east of the Ttenesee river. 

There are at present nineteen civil towns, named and formed as follows : Chili. 
Gates, and Greece, in 1S02 : Parma and Rija, in 1808; Penfield. in 1810; 
Mendon and I'errinton, 1312; Sweden, 1313: Brichtoo and Pittsford. 1814 ; 
Ogden, 1S17; Henrietta and Ru-h. 1S13; t!arkv,n. 1810; T\"hc3Uand. 1321 ; 
Irondequoit, 1837; Webster, IS.'iS-; and Hamiin, lS.i2. Various names were 
gJTen to thc*e lands at earlier dates, of which the two most prominent were 
NorthBeld for the towns east of the river, and Xorthimpton for those lying on 
the west. Within the limits of the county there have sprung up of hamlets and 
Tillages over 6fty ; several of the latter incorporate*!, and a villajre of 1317 a 
large city in 1876. Rochester wiu made the capital of the county in 1821, and 
•ach remains. It is finely situated and well built. Streets are wide and pave.|. 
Edifices, public and private, command admirati'->n. The stone-built churches, the 
city hall, the Bank of Rwhester building, the Powers' building, Trevor hall, the 
public buildings, the mills, the bridgi's. and the aquetluct are but instiinces of the 
many which evidence liberality, enterprise, aiiii intelligence. Roehi^ter owes its 
piVeminenca to the water-power supplied by the falls of the Genesee, which 
amounts to two hi'ndred and sisty-eight feet within the bounds of the city, there 
being three falls besides rapi.U. .\n immcn.^ trade centres here from the rich 
lands adjacent and along the river. The Erie cnnal is still in use, as in the days 
of half a century ago. The packets have ili-appeared. but up and down the great 
work go and come a vast number of boat* laden with products of bulk soekjne a 
market. Railroad:* centerin.: at thL* city bring hither the surplus of the west, 
and from mill, manufaet<iry, and nursery go out articles superior in quality, im- 
mense io quantity. As a luanuf.ictory of flour Rjeh.-ster acknowlcdgi-s no rival, 
and for luany years her mills ^ruuntl y«-;irly halt a million borrcis, while the pro- 
duct of 1832 wa.s sii hundti-d thnusaiid barrel-. — rcjuiring three million bushels 
of wheat, of which one million thrc"- hundred and dtty-nine thousand live hun- 
dred and forty-six were broucrht in w.iu-in.s from the adiaeeiit farms. 

In Rochester, churches have muliiniii-d as p..pul.iii..n iucrcai-d , and while the 
towering spires l>:tJikcn no ni'."-';ird tiuilay. tlice structures .acknowknizc oo aid 
in their erecti.m bejond of the citizen-. Ri«htMer has U-en the l.irtli-piace 
ofmany eniincnt men, famed in literature, invcntii'u.s*'lf-denial. and in war. ilerr 
waa started the fir>t newspaper in the enunty. and here are banks wh»^ credit 
knows DO limit, and educational in>tituti"n3 of high rank. tho leading viil.._-es are I'lislord, ioe.irporated in 1327; Iloiieoye 
yjls, in 1838; (.'hurehv.lle, in 13lJ7. and the btiMness villacn of Unjikpn'rt. 
Pittaford has the advantj^t.-s of the .Vuhuni hranch ol' the New V»trk l."eutral 
tiUroad, and of the Erie canal There was a:iid of it in IbCO, '• It i 



and ten year't later an .th.r wro<e 

of hotels, 

stores, and mechanics' shops, and 

afacture, fa 

ilitated by the fall of water, which 

thin the ee 

rpor,itioo. An iron briJ_-e cros.-«» 

-ered ruilro 

id brid'_-e above them. There are 

ps. There 

are half a dozen churches, a bank. 

dustry and thrift. 

the nortbv 

est part of the town of Riga. A 

Iroad, it c 

otalns sevei^il churches, mills, and 

churches, a union school, and a fli 

about seven hundred inhahitants." 

KoDcoye Fails has a notable ma 
has an eit.-nt of nearly sixty feet 
the stream below the falls, and a i 
located here mills, facinrien, and si 
and a printing-oiSee. The indicat 

Churchviile, on Clack creek, is 
station on the New Vork Central 
st-ares, and a p.'pulation of over five hundred. 

The villigo of Brotkport lies in the north part of Sweden. It has developed 
since the construction of the canal, and has a reputation national in n>pect to the 
manufacture of mowers and reapers. Here was begun by Messrs. Seymour. 
Morgan i Co., in 1S;3. the manufacture of the MeCormick reaper. The im- 
provements made in this, the oldeat manufictory of reapers and mowers in the 
world, have continued for the firui the precedence in advant^incnt xn well as iu 
originality. Johnson, Huntley & Co. were an enterprising firm, having a large 
eat.''.blishment for the making of reapers. The tendency is to gather in-titutions 
of like purpose in same localities, and with the growth of the present firm^, the 
accession of others, and the development of branch industnes, the village may 
well hiy claim to prosperity and progress. 

Spencerjort lies east of Brockport, in the northern part of Ogdcn. Mills, 
shops, and churches have been erected, and the villagers may claim a residence in 
t pleasant and desirable locality. 

Fairport is no inconsiderable village, situated in the town of Perrinton, in the 
southeast part of the county. The one great interest in this village is the saler- 
atus factory of D. B. De Land, begun in 1852. Advertisements of the firm 
reached twelve thous.ind dollars in a year, and the sales of 1874 were five hundred 
aiid seventeeii thousand dolLrs. The business has reaciie-i en..rniovLS e^fnt 

Among the leaser villages of Monroe are Clarkson, in the south part of the 
town of the same name; Charlotte, a popular resort and a point for much of the 
lake commerce; East Henrietta, in the east part of the town, the seat of 
Academy ; Unionville, Bushnells Basin, East Rush, Webster, Seottsvilie, and 
Mumford, besides a hirge number of thriving and ambitious hamlets. Most of 
these places are local conveniences for groceries, mails, grists, school and church 

The northern boundary of Monroe is formed by the waters of Lake Ont.irio, 
whose value for commerce, health, and aiiriculture is incalculable. The principal 
lines of boats make Charlotte a stopping-point; contiguity to the lake renders the 
climate mild and e-juable. and favorable to health and to fruit and plant. The 
large num'ocr of persons Dow hviog at an advanced age. and enjityiiiir life, con- 
stitutes an excellent pro-if of the salubrity of the climate from lake vicinity. 

This lake is the northern of the great chain of inland seas which divide the 
United States from British .\merica. It is elliptical in couBguration, and while 
its greatest width is fifly-five mili-s, the average is much less. A central line con- 
necting extremes Ls one hundred and ninety miles in extent. The Niairara, on 
the west, receives the waters of the upper lakes, while the St. Lawrence foruis the 
outlet, by the gult of the same name, to the Atlantic. The lake is deep, but sup- 
plied with few gwxi harbors. Its largest river is the Genc-e-e, and among its bays 
in Monroe are Teoronto, Gerundegut or Irondetjuoit, Duck pond. L.jng pond, and 
Bradlue s or Bradd.^k's tay. The level of the lake is three hundred Ind twenty- 
nine feet below Lake Erie, and one hutidred and ninety-six fex-t alpove ti'.Ie-water 
of the Hudson at .\lbany. Spatfonl says, of what is now known as Iroiide*|uolt, 
" The Teoronto bay of Like Ontario merits more particular notice, if for oo 
other purjtise than to speak of Gerunde'.nit, Irondeiiuoic. and Ruii.licutt, names 
by which it has been known. The Indians called it " Tenruntn" — a sonorous, 
purely Indian name. The bay is about five miles long and one mile wide, com- 
municating with the lake by a very narrow opening, and Tche-o-ron-tuk, perhaps 
nearer the Indian prr>nunciation. is the pOjcc wlnre the tcares brcutlie anU Ui'. or 
ga*p and eipirt. Bordering upon Irnndequoit and its like-named cnxk. the sur- 
fiice exhibits an unusual and pictures-pie land.-<-ape. There is a multitude of 
cunie-a] mounds cumposod of s-ind and li^'ht earth, sometimL-s sei*n ixil.iti-d, at 
other points united, and rising to an altitude of two huiidrL-d i'ect. Projecting 
iuto the t-.wn of Grce-cc are Duck and Ling p.)nd.s and Unddoek'i. bay. the laitcr 
being the most ciinsiderahlc. These bodies of water have been noted is favoriti^ 
resorts of hunters and nn','lers. In early days bu-^-hela of the e-ggs of ducks and 
geese could be gathered from nests in the sumjunding marches. 

The river which bears the name (jeiit-H:e, siimlfying Pleasant Valley, is the 
principal natural fe.itiire of the rCL'wn of nhich .Monroe forms a part. lis scenery 
is picturi-s,iue ; its banks uiiexo lied in fertility. From its source on the table- 
land of western Penn-iylvania, seventeen liundred feet above the Atlantic level. 




oo to tb« hVe. there u much uf ihi- b<iiJ anj stt 

within itnct of thi.ty-sii Dnl« ».iu.>re, ri.v; stn 

ipart, DiiDsle wiih thosu of tho St. Lawrcoco, 

length U one htinjrcd and illy ajilra, uue hun. 

in Now Yort, tlTou;:h tlic w'uiil 

recetTcs the vtiien of L'jnascraia crwk. aoj (.' 

east, and the outlet of Silver bto and Allen's 

other smJIcr trlbuUries. Krora the Girdcau : 

of «ixty, the other of ninety feet, the river is 

ire three filL-*, one of twelve feel, above the c 

feet, »bout a q 

half niilca. terminating 

6ill of about ci-hty fe 

Uke. Raceways cut in the solid ruelc give uulini 


AIIe;riny, Livin.-bSon, and Monroe. It 
s [lod iieml,>et outlets oa the 
BUk creek on the west, with 
:itiou, where are two tails, one 
:ab!e lo near IWhester, where 
i|ueduct; one of ninety-seven 
of a mile below the aqueduct ; thence rapids for one and a 
nd tweuty rods below is a final 
jn betw.x-n hi^'h banks to the 
ittd water-power, whicii is to a 

n agr 

l^e appearance 
cultural wealth 

of the 

IS thus 

27: ' 


Geoe*?c fla 

13 must 


natural pra 

ties or 



he viilasL-s ■. 

f Geo- 

great extent employed, but far beneath the opporti 
county in the eoruminjlinj of natural beauty wi 
CoiiiQ,ente- u^:u i^ th:^ F j'.li-^^t^r Pir'.-'.tory of 1. 
strike the eye as peculiarly worthy of the name. 
Indian clcarin>::s many thuuiands of acres in eiteo 
tsee, Moscow, and Mount Morris, which now crown the opposite deelivities of their 
tarroanding uplands ; and contrasting their smooth verdure with the shag-jy hills 
that boond the horizon, and their occasional ciunips of spreading trees with the 
tall and naked relics of the forest, nothing can strike with .-t more a'.:reeable sen- 
BtioD the eye long accustomed to the uninterrupted prospects of a level and 
vooded country. Could those who named the valley have witnessed the fioeks 
and herds that now enliven its landscape, the busy towns, with .spires overlooking 
from the hills, the boats beariug its surplus wealth down its winding stream, and 
the 5^n'^ of intelleetual and moral fjliciry to which it contributes in the homes 
of its present enlightened occupants, and had they been able to appreciate this, 
they wonld have employed the choicest expression of their lao::uage to give it 
a name.'* One may loot upon the quiet stream as the lovely feature of a laod- 
■capc, and again upon a vast destructive tide of rushitig waters. 

A flood was tnowu upon the Genesee in 1S33 ; it swept through Rochester, 
tearing away Main street bridge and the buildings attached. Again, in 1S57, 
the waters rose and carried off a bridge j but it w;is in the spring of 1365 



Bridges were impelled from their foundations; buildings, nndcni 
IDg down ; railroad communication was severed ; and heavy individual and cor- 
poration losses were incurred. The premonition was seen on Friday, .^Iarch IT, 
when the river rose at Rcjchester one foot per hour ; cellars were filled, and the flats 
OTerflowed. Higher rose the water, heavier became iis volume, till the G.>nesee 
Tallej canal in the wo=>t, and the feeder of the Erie eanil on the east, ceased to 
be risible. The overflow of the Erie canal banks began at three p.ii.. and at 
Child's basin a torrent poured through Eichange into Buffalo street. The inunda- 
tion had increased till by sii p.m. Piatt street was naviirable to skiffs. Hill street 
received vast quaotitics of water, which poured towards Browns mill-race along 
AUen and Centre streets and the Central railroad. An hour later, and foot- 
pasaage, without wading, was cut off from the First to the Second ward on State 
street So far the water had poured from the canal, but now the Main street 
bridge, wholly of stone, was inadcjuate to pass the volume of water, uid a froth- 
ing tide awcpt over the bank, submerging the lower part of Front street, inun- 
dating miles of streets, and surging on to the river. As hours pas.-^ the tide 
■till TOW, and at midnight the water Ix-gao to pour over the top of the >rain 
street bridge at the west or lowest end. A powerful current, deep, wide, and 
strong, ran down Front street, coursed into Buffalo, on through the city, resistless 
io ita power. It was morning of March IS; niue-tenths of the streets in the 
Flrvt ward were under water, much of those in the Second, and in others. Anx- 
iety and admiration called not only the citizens but thousands from elsewhere to 
view the scene. A multitude standing in Main street gazed upon the floo<l. and 
OO Boffjlo, west of Washington, a vast crowd looked u[>*)n water one-third of a 
mile wide, its eastern portion boiling and surging as if stirred from its depths by 
subterranean gigantic tc*rcc. State strct;t for half a mile was under water from 
Oo« to four feet- Many skiffs were seen upou this inland sea, and occasional 
teams moved about. The eitcut of subraergemcRt is indicated by a depth of 
water at tb- comer of Buffalo and I'.-unt sirecU of six to .-iglii f,.ct ; at the On- 
tral dep.jt it wa* three I'eet ; in -VrcMde Ilall it w.ui twenty inches; and in the 
post-office a (u.A.. The territory s.ihjoet to the frc.hct w.vs a liail-mile i'uz by 
one-third of a mile wide, and thickly c-ivend by busiiii^ property and dwellings. 
Two railroad bridges were destroyisl. \t eleven o'eioek Friday ni-lit the bridge 
of the Central railroad near the upper fills gave w.iy and was hurled over rile 

.e>l up 

great precipice. But a l"e» minutes previous, people and engln-n hv 
npon it. The Erie railroad bridge in the up[)cr part of the eitv Iml f 
at four p M., S.turd.iy. Many buildings were damaged. One of a n 
abandoned street-cars was swef* over the falls. The water-miriu fei 
the river showed the water three feet higher than in l!3,;r>. .\o ,-rv. 
hjld in cburcbe-a on Sunday ; white Hags waved from buildiiiL-s inuiiaici di«.'rc«, 
and men in boats di.vtributcd bread. .V bureau was Uken from the- wuU-r on .U.-unt 
Hope avenue, in which, among papers, was a deed tor one hundred acrva of land 
at Mount -Morris. Small buildings were m.ived, and .nc'ttjcd here a. id then.-. Mnvta 
were injured, and sidewalks torn up. Samuel ilichardson and D. It. Barton i.^t 
by the fiill of buildings one hundred thousand dollars, and the entire losi «u 
about a million dollars. Up the valley was one vast lake of water, and .Mien • 
creek contributed no inconsiderable volume of waU'r. Tlic calamity bjd bi-ro 
foretold by Lyman B. Langwonhy, E.v|., on the occasion of laying the corner- 
stone of the new court-house, Juue 20, ISJO, but no steps had been taken to 
gnard against its occurrence. 

The surface of Monroe, like Orleans and Niagara, is divided into terraces by 
the Ridge rojd, and the mountain ridge crossing from east to west. This ru«il 
is distant from four to six miles t'roui the lake, to which it is nminly parallel, and 
above which it is elevated about one hundred and fifty ttict. There is a gruiual 
descent from its base northward and s*juihward. This ridge is regardesj as the 
result of waves, which formerly washed the northern side; it has been cut llir..u:;h 
by streams and artificially to effe-ct the drainage of low lands on the south .-ide. The 
pjnetal surface of the county is that of a level, elevated table laud. A di.ttuut view 
presents a plane surface, broken by the one narrow ridge, but cIo<*cr obst-rvation 
presents a surface eunsiderably diversified. The slope southward from the rid.:9 
is but for a few feet, and then ri&a to the summit of the mountain riiige. over 
three hundred feet above the lake. Southward the ridircs are eently undulateti. 
»id citcsJ toTfh "id south. The hi-host elevations on the south border n-ach 
over six hundred feet above tide, and four hundred feet above the lake, f erriutou. 
lying in the southeast, has an uneven surface. In the south part is Turk hill, 
the highest land in the county. Besides the Genesee and its auxiliaries, in .^Ion- 
roe are the Irondcij^uolt and Four->Iile creeks to the northeast, and Sandy, Liiiia 
Salmon, Salmon, Ix)ng pnind, and other smaller streams, which discharge their 
waters into the bays and inlets of the lake. These streams, flowing over the 
limestone ridge, coastitute an abundant and valuable water-power. 

The soil is a gravelly loam of creat depth, and. by constant di>iute"jrjtion of lime- 
Along the lake shore it is of a red, ar.;;!- 
ion being from the crumbiin*.: of Me-jioi 
and Niagara shales is the origin of a clay 
the south with lime and gypaum eteiiienta. 
In 1827 the following wm true: •■There 
1 of beeeh, oak, and maple, on a Jevp yclio» 


stone, ia rendered perpetually fertile, 
laoeous, loamy character, its uerival 
sandstone. The decay of the Clintnr 
material. The soil is impregnated tc 
fkvorable for the grewth of ' 
icmaia the reninauts of dense 
loam, cC'vere-l to a depth of six to ten 
sandy plains, alternately supporting t 
Oat openings; scattering oak woods t 
sond-mixcd; occasional swamps of tc 
upon the river and creek winding fla 
The soil is well adapted to raLsin 
culture of fruit, and the lands have e 
stock-breeding. It is a-sscrtcd that b 
for production. Marl is abundant it 
tides of gypsum are found in the laa 
to the settlers were different varieties 

nehes of black, vegetable eanh; some light, 
e oak and pine, a portion of the land e-ailcj 
1 a solid, cidcareous gravel, sometimes a clay, 
narack and pine, with black isU swale , and 
1 of the richest alluvial soil. 

grain ; attention is generally siveu ui the 
er beeu considerably in uac for dairyin.: and 
,t little if any land in the county is unhit4^ 
Chili, Riga, and Wheatland. Lar.;e qua»- 
■named town. Among the pn>luets kiiowo 
of wild plums of delicious flavor, and many 

1 the 

of the crab-apple. The first orchard planted 

river, was owned by the Shaeffen, ou the -VUcn farm, the se-eds ot wbieU wcr. 

in the ground in Decxmber, 17'J'J. T-he ^ip of the sugar-maple was made 

Bugar, molar's, and vincL-ar. Pumpkins were raised among the fir>l pnji 

Pared pumpkin, stewed, waj known as '■ pumpkin butter,' and wild be-rrie^ ■ 

used for sauce and for preserves. Later years have seen consid-rablo altei, 

given to raising apples aud peaches. Apples are succesafully grown ; p.-neli.-< 

other fruits arc not cert;iin crops. The grape and smaller fruits are crvwo ci 

aively, and they arc of superior quality. Graj^. have b< 

at tJiree cents a pound by podJleis in the city. The nui 

the most extensive in the country. They arc not only 

site ; elsewhere their history is detailed. In soil of incxh. 

of great uniformity, water-|«.wcr of unlimited extent, ri 

(ration, and railroads liir traii.-|»irLiliMU, .^lonnw Couni 

natural advaiita^c-s rarely found e..,i,bli,ed in the same arc 

greatest wealth, production, aud population. 

f the 

sold, du 

usliule I 



AowcuLTCRr fumis the tcadin;; utj 
development, anil the ba^ls of huoiaa 
Sata of the Gcnc5«x- lias hefo eilcnduj > 
elemeats of soil, but fruui the prtiit ar 
the hand of laclian Allen the finit wlc 
the Shacfferi fouod twenty acres in » 


■ct of fiurauit. It U the origin of speedy 
imnrnvement. The f.ime of the alluvial 
i'Liy. not froru a lcnowIed-_'e of constituent 
■i unexampled yioIJj of T-rnduc-.*. Fmm 
t wa3 sjjwn up')n the Genesee. In 1TS9, 
leat, and during the sea5.>a of IT'JO they 
loved ft hundred acres to this staple, planu-.! larse Kelda of com, «nd enja'^ed 
extensively in •.Tjiini. Ir'rom thii sourv-e settlers from far and near provided 
themselves *ith grain for seed, cauch of which they Sire away upon their harts. 
Early farming at the best wis crude. The cmp was ofien ljt;.-cly injured by wild 
beasts, large and small, and by birds. Tbo pioneer perf.,rce p!ace.J himself in the 
forest with llie confidence born of intelii.;eDce. and \vhile corn, potat'ies, turnips, 
and puuli''..;..j ^...c ijo.e ? Jp^jiy ul IiajU. an Ultimate purp^»e le*i mm 
to place large areas under cultivation. K.mote from ;'orcs. and destitute of means 
to acquire their g'.>jda, the pioneer farmers drow from the s^>il a suppiv for every 
orgent want. Stinding in the forest, his oien and oi-aled or the sleigh by him, 
the Kltler constructs a shelter from tlie trecH about him, and kirins a cultivation 
of u small patch of ground. Years go by, and changes transpire as the result of 
indnstry. The dwellings are improved, the brush fence is replaced by rails, and 
these by beards, or, mayhap, the farmer rejects the expenditure of value upon 
fences, and goes without them ; stumps are burned, rot out, or are pjlled ; stones 
are dog and piled in heaps, or made of use ; drainage is effected, and fieJds 

The mdo f/v>U^ c!'jm?y of Eate a-d r,";air:r.: a7d.:caj liar.uil tuil, Jiaduillv 
give place to farm utensils, models of lightness and eSciency, and depending for 
power apon the horses instead of upon men. Care was early taken to improve 
ftock «nd incre-ase variety and extent of cpips, and. lin.illy, we find the descend- 
ants of the pioneers, — the independent and prn^re-ssive men of to-day. 

Of early privations, hard labor, and niuch dUcouragemeot, we have spoken, 
and of tn export of surplus wheat and c^ra. Ely A Bisseli and Brown & Mum- 
ford created a home market, and b-^gan the pun:b;ise of produce from the -urronnd- 
ing country in 1S1,5. When the wheat and H..ur of western Xetv York were 
6r?t sent to the seaboard markets, a prompt acknowledgment was rendered of 
nperior quality. 

"The wheat of this part of the country bears tlie highest price in the Xew 
Tort market, selling for fourpi'ucc, eightpene'e. and a shillim pi.T bushel more 
than the North river wheat, which b recL.ned next best. The flour manufac- 
tured by Mr. Battles, from the mills on .^Iud cr..ek, between Bath and Geneva. 
was esteemed the best ever insp«.^tcd in Baltimore, to which it was fl.zated in arks 
through the Ccnhocton, Tioga, .Susque'naona, and Chesapeake." So wrote Maude, 
in 1800. 

The first market was Elmira. and tran-portation was difficult. The prices of 
Tarious products in ISO! were as follows : Wheat, To cents, corn. .37! cents, and rye 

50 cents per bushel ; hay, SU to S12 per ton ; bntu-rand ehet-»e. 11 to 10 cents per 
pound"; salt pork. cS to ?10 per cwt. ; wbL-i^y. .'iii to 7.') cent.s fwr gallon; xi\t, 

51 per bushel of 50 pounds, or J.') per barrel ; sheep. ?.' to $4 p. r head ; citUc, 
fcr driving, S3 to $4 per hundred; milch cow>. 510 to $2.i pi-r ; hones, 
$100 to $125 pijr span, working oxen, from 350 to $50 per yoke; laborers' 
wages, $10 to 515 per month, includm:: board ; a suit k}( horoe-m.uie clothes 
brooght W to S5 ; and sh'^es .51.75 to SJ .".0 per pair. Shipment of produce tr> 
Albany, in 1604, was made by boats in juamer aud sleigha in winter, and now 
and then by an enterprising faiiner. 

Crops were light in 1805, and, prior to the harvest of ISOO, wheat went up to 
$2.50 per bushel. During that year the s, was adv.inee.!. .ind wa.i cut 
on the 4th of July. Wheat and corn l>.'came a dnaz. and .-..ui.! i...t I.- (r>,le-i nor 
bartered. The season.s of 1S07 lo I5U w, re pn-luctive. and from 1-lJ u> IJIU 
wer« not so; it was in ISIO that the wheat did n.4 ripin nil ."^epieiob. r. The 
oora crop w;>s almost wholly lost, and ilnrv was a ni-htly frust fr..ra June 6 10 i J. 
The har^•ests of ISlT-l.'! were lair, and frr.n. l-l'J to 1-Jl. abu.elini. The 
home market was 3.> many nf wli.-.t u.r a cow, a yoke of o^en. a plow ; 
and Judge Prie-e p.ud ten l.udiels of o.m f..r .h.i.-i.r,- 1 h..rse. in tho e:.rlv .i.>y, 
• hileUvingin Rush. Wheat 

County, in .juaii 
unsiiiie^i to whe 

btPKluetion of hanler--reiniMr 
The while flint ilu 

. b.> n th.- 


celebrity for wheat, ns th.-y previously hud f»r e^orn. The yield per .tcre has be^** 
enormous. A few instances are types of many. Me-srs. P. aiitl 0. Mills, in 
18.15, cut 1:270 bushelsof wheat, or forty-.ieven bushels to the acre, a fiel.l of 
twenty-.«evcn acres, on the Gene.see flaLs, near Mount Morris. In 1S:;4. the sarae 
persons cut from ci.-hty acres ^JlJO bu,>hels of wheat, or forty to the .acre. During 
the iime year, W, C. Dwight, E*^.. on the Hats above (}ene»<'e. cut tnim twenty 
acres su averacc of forty-eight bushels per acre, and two acres, tifty-two bushels 
per acre. The greatest yield on record, autheiiiieateii, as rhe product of a single 
aero, was siity-four bushels. This was raised by Jirah Clacknjore, of Whratland. 
The wheat jield of lS4o was l.SoS.OOO bushels. In 1.S53, of winter. ,SI0,5l"J. nf 
.spring l,S3a,551 ; total, 2.65:5.1)80 busiiels; and in 1804, of winter 5'J7,0C8 
bushels. It is said of the Genesee wheat that it contains more saceharine matter 
than that from other localities, and will combine with less water in the composition 
of bread. The superiority of the Kour Is too well known to need remark. 

On the river flats above Porta:rcville the corn crop is very heavy, and th^s 
grain has be^n made the staple. The yield in 1345 was 453,46:1 burhcis ; and 
first in wheat, Monroe was twelfth in the qiuintity of com. The crop of 1304 
uas 938,849 bushels, showing increa.sed attention to that grain. In 1.S25, atten- 
tion was calk'd to the fact that the quantity of barley grown was inade^|uat^ to 
the demands of brewers. The yield was excellent. .\ single acre, f:um a field of 
twenty-six acres, in Brighton, produced 50 bushels. The farmers do not seem to 
have favored the crop, since the yield in 1S45 Wiis but .57,102 bushels, and in 
1864, 130,606. Rye h.a3 long been raised, to a limited extent, and light yields dis- 
courage production. Buckwheat is raised in -small amount. Flax has been a crop. 
Kxhau.-tive, ordinarily, it finds here no worn-out lands, and whore 10.7'JG bushels 
of seed were noted in 1843, there were, in 1604, but eighteen acres sown. Pota- 
toes have always been raised in large quantities; in 1S45, 007,491 bushels, and 
in 1964, 872,432 bushels. It has been observcMl the sowing of spring whe=t 
has obt-ained great proportions. Ooo«i hust^andry is shown by a sete'Ctioo of the 
best and cleanest seed, and a rotation of crops. Hemp was cultivated in eariy davs, 
but abandoned as unprofitable. Oats to the amount of nearly half a million 
biisheis were produced in 1SG4, Of tobacco there were half a million pounds 
harvested during the s.ame year; of hops. 41,234 pounds ; and of apples, 493,606 
bushels. The experience of .^lonroe firmers has confirmed the tho...rie3 of the 
scientific, and their n.'^^ciation has tended to disseminate discoveries to all indi- 
viduals. The growth of pernicious weeds h;\s been shown by the neglect of fartns. 
Old-time enemies of the agriculturist were what were denominated pigeon-weed, 
thistle, chess, cockle, daisy, wild mustard, may-weed, dock, and hind-weed ; there 
are besides, sorrel, mullein, and burdock. Drainage has been followed by marked 

The use of poor implements and high prices for bbor detracted heavily from 
the profits of farming- Instances occurred where fields of grain were reap-Ki to 
the halves. The invention of machinery has -.'iven the farmer command of his 
fields, and enabled him to di-^pense with much hired labor, or iiso it to greater 
purpose. Contrast the old plow with the new, the harrow with the cultivator, 
tho hand sickles and cradles with the MeCjrmick reaper of 1345. the Seymour 
& Mor-ran hand-raking reaper, the Palmer A Williams' selfraker, Johnson's self- 
raking reaper, and the Cycloid mower, and the Little Giant mower and reaper. 

alt made within the country demandinir their use. The ll.iil has long since yielded 
to the thresher, the boo to the cultivators of various kinds, and, extending the 
contrast, observe tho home manuficturi-s which have enabled the farmer to eier- 

The " William-son F-iir and Uaces. ■ held in 1704, novel and successful, inaugu- 
nt.'si cattle and horve fairs in western New York- Williamson intro<luccil line stock, 
and the Watlsworths c:ive this subject much atUMition. The fir^tmeelini:of a Monroe 
a^rricultural so* iety for a '• catlIe-.>how and fair," so far as Icarnecl, was held Octolier 
30. 182:i. James ."^pevry president. Jacob Gould corrcspontlini: socretarv, and 
S, P, Allcitt trea>urcr It was a rule tlie .-.arae ani:;ial could not win more than 
one premium, and that hut once. Tlieohjts-t of lesciiibly was to point out errors and 
communicate prnrtieai exiN:riiMent,s, Premiuiits on best horses were won by Klias of Clark,-«.n, B, It, itrown, of Gales, I,/-wiB II, lUmin.-ton, of rfwcden, 
and E. M.«.re, of Brighton. Catlle; Powell Carp-^nter. of Wli.atland, Wamn 
JIawlcy, Daniel Tho.n;is C-.U-v. I.ym.n llawkv- William It,vd-ar,d Kiehaid 
DmieU. U.^t oxen: J. G- I-.r.-lill..w, Whlin.-y .\[,iy, and Kraneij ,\lhri;;ht. 

Garbutt, ¥mV\A -M-r.-. Whiioi-: M .y. -.nd .1..- ph Coll, The l.-,t -wine were 
•h.,wn by U.nry Widn- r and Tl.on.-.s 6h., 1-, K.lli ..( Cl.ili, l|„r„o I'.a.ii had 
the bc-t -lere ol .I,-.l, lill)-iiiiio and on. -I'Morll, b.i-lnl. ; and W ilii,,n. tiarhult 

..r I I,. »r, fills..,,. i.,-M- .IM,u K lar.-.l,,.lh.-l ...„-..r,,.rn.o„el,ii„dr,-d 

„„1 li.rn f..„r loi-h.l.. ( I II, .>t I, .,ne huu.lre-l and twenlv-live and 



en bu 

nd, Ja; 

hdre^l and s 

t buslaU. 


Best yield of onu acre in ISil, four humlrKU aiiJ sixty-seveii ; ■.lcuoJ best, four 
hundred a-id thirty-five bu:jli-?ls. Coloin:l Caii;i> Clay was awiirUod u proniiuni for 
superior purljsli. IIo liad fat to Montnul niaikct ei^lit hundred and thirty 
barrels like samiilo from liia xshcry at I'larksuu. The plowiii^-niatch was observed 
with interest. Oliver Culver won the first premium tor pl..wiriL' one-eighth of au 
acre with oxen without driver; Junes' u-ata was s.-ound, Uubsell'a third. In 
1S25, Jonathan Ruiiell became first and Cl.allcM Kcllam second. The best 
yield of clovcrsced per acre in 182-1 was lliirty-Kve bushels, by Thomas Lclaud, 
of Jlendon. Mrs. Mary Smart, of the samj town, won a preuiiuui en bobinet- 
I»ce, "one of the best speeimens ever produced in our country." A fauning- 
mill was showu by Colonel Abner Hubbard, of ll.x-hestcr. Jesse Hawley was an 
early president of the society. Giles iJouL'htua correspcmdin;; secretary, Abraham 
Plumb recording secretarj*, Knos Pomeruy auditor, and Samuel Works treasurer, 
in lS'i4. Some of the towns took uo part, llearierta was prominentiv repre- 
sented, and her farmers obtained in 1825 citrhteen of seventy-seven preuiiums. 

Farmers have formed various societies, L-enerai and special, and have taken 
precedence in this direction. There have been societies for horticultural pur-, ti.V;Ce:ot:^r»s for yheep-hreeders and wool-growers, dairymen, mechanics, and 
farmers and laborers, and horse, eattle," and poultry shows. 

The- following table, prepared by il. D. Phillips, presents at a glance the officers 
.of the 


1840 I L. B. Lang 

1847 Samuel 

.M. Want, Rochester.- HeDry E. Roch^- 


Alfred Fiiih Ki -a 

1850 ' C. K. Iron. 

1841 1 L. B. LaDsnorlhl. 1 

1852 '■* P. F.,gs. Hoc 

ISil 1 Frederick P. Eo.,t. 


Stephen Let-selt. 11 

Be»j..M. lUker. R„. 

J). t>. s. !<.::„„. «, 

W7 Bo.j. M. l; u>., l:. 

L.,,.; .: .. 


L. P.i-kl.:.!. 


A. C. WKIt.omI,. Ro 


J. Ill 







-|J. I 



., J<.h 

alje, Roeheater. 

- John 



. Juh 




., E. f 

11 .1 




P...,.™. 1 8.c..,..,«. 1 !...,».■„. 


T. Brown. Jr., Whentland.... W. I. Wallaee. Rooheiter....! 1. W. Slchhios. Rocheiter. 
T. Bm.n.Jr., " .... Charles A. Pool, •• ...., J. W. SKbb.o., 

The Genesee a;_TicuItural society held their fir:t fair on Xoveraber 7 and 8, at 
Kochester. Exhibition of short-ho.n Burhams was one of the best held in the 
State, — native stock of all kinds fine and numerously represented. The fair has 
been continued with interest and success to the present. The accounts of meet- 
ings of farmers' clubs published in Mitorea Riiral Xew York fr. and .«cnt all over 
the countr}', have dune incalculable good to tlie cause of agriculture. We present 
brief statistics as a means cf comparing progress. 

Monnx Statistics cj 182.').— Acres improved, l.i(j,712. Neat cattle, 33,972 ; 
horses, 6S6li , sheep, 8.'),2.J7 ; hogs. :-!!),737. There were of gri^t-mills, 32 ; 
«aw-milb, 7ti; fulling-mill.s 21); cardiug-raachinci.. 23 : di-tillenM, 31. There 
was manufactured of fulled cloth, domestic make, 74,42.S yards ; nut fulled, 
19t),538 yards; and of lincu and cotton gwvls," 1 19.S2U yards. 

Monroe Slali'licn of l.Sl.'i. — .\uuibcr of neat cattle, :'.:i,3ii.'i ; horses, 16,811 ; 
nheep, 173,lt."'.2 ; h>.g>, 48. lj:t. I' of butter, I..-|ii4,:W7 ; cheese, :it!ti.782 ; 
and of wool, HJ2,'J27 ("junds. Value of article-' produced in griM-mills, $2,.''i3a.- 
S87 ; MW-mills, «147,:i.'i:i ; oil-mills, 81-2,'.lin ; fulling-mills, S74.102. 

machines, S:;i.770. WcKilen-factorie^ SU 1,849. Iron-works, S4U9,H.iD. 1 
tilleries, ?38,941. A»bcricH, S2«,:ili5. Uopc-factorics, SliOO. Olover-mills, ?2i 
Paper-mills, ?i;i,:V40. Tanneries, S244,'JU7 ; and breweries, 845,800. 

.IfMroe Statiilics nf 1SU5.— Cash value of farms, ?29,415,9'J2 ; of st. 
83,408,100; tools and implement.s, 5041,097; acres plowed, S1015. Ton; 
hay 18C4, 02,203; hops. 41,234 pounds. Apples harvested in 1804, 4;)S.( 
bushels. Number of milch cows, 14,002. Butter made, 1,374,800 poui 
Number of horses two years and over, l(j,759. Sheep shorn. 151,288; l.u 
raised, 55,672. Honey, 21,807 pounds. \'alue of poultry, 35.'!, 077. 33. Va 
of eggs sold, ?33,743.9S. Domestic manufactures rcnluced to incn-idcr: 
amounts. The number of acres of land improved, 316,840; unimi.roved, ' 
182. Agriculture, at onee the cause and evideuce of civilization, ha.'i reac 
high development in Monroe. Nowhere else ha.i the bounty of nature been-ni 
faithfully acknowledged. Here, where ample return repays the labor, the Tarn 
of the Genesee take precedence in all that relates to Imsbandry. 


> The Da3ie wna cbanjjij f 

. Coun.j Agnc, 


Abocndino in instruction, valuable in its knowledge, and 
varied features, the rock formation of Jlonroe presents a subje 
tance to the locality. The tails of the Genesee, the Ridge rood, 
the remains of the mastodon, are all themes of interest. The falls present a 

of aqueous attrition, carry the mind far into the past, and the " road" corrob- 
orates the theory of a changed and reduced area to Ontario. The facts .'^Uted in 
this chapter are b.ised upon an article furnished by Chester Dewey for (ll'ltcilly's 
Sketches of Rochester. It is the province of the geologist to show the earth, 
once only a gaseous formation, cooling, and a crust formin?;, ever deeper and 
changeful, upon the surface. Tribes on sea are succeeded by tho^e amphibious, 
and then by those on land- Subterranean pent-up gases produce earthrpiakcs. 
dbrupt the crust, and pile up mountains. Stratified rocks are disclosed by the 
canons of rivers, and petrifactions picture a former life. It been theorized 
that an inland sea submerged the surface of this r^ion, and observation lends to 
establish its truth. The famous Ont-irio Lake ridge shows seven distinct shores 
upon its side, from the present shore up to the crest. Oiice a vast sea swept 
southeastward, and by gradual subsioence the drainage took its present course. 
The rocks extending from the primitive or granite, at Little Falls, to the .shores 
of Lake Erie, are known as " transition." 'With no subterranean agencies, the 
strata would have lain one upon the other, unbroken ; but upheavals have placed 
them upon an inclination, and disclosed the variety and extent of each layer. 
The dip south is one foot in eighty-seveu, in an ascending series. The section of 
rocks on the Genesee river, from a level with the lake to the head of the rapids, 
a distance of four and a half miles : No. 1 is sandstone, eighty feet thick ; No. 
2, gray band, four feet ; No. 3, marl slate, twenty-three feet ; No. 4. argillaceous 
iron ore, one foot ; terriferous sand-rock, ten feet ; calciferous slate, with fucoidc.s, 
six feet; marly slate, twenty-four feet; siliceous limestone, twenty feet; blue 
limestone, with trilobites, forty feet ; calciferous slate, twenty-six feet ; dark ariril- 
lite, with nodules of gypsum, fifty feet ; graywacke limestone, ninety-six fe-et, and 
geodiferous limestone, four feet. Red sandstone, given as eighty feet, 1i;ls an up- 
ward extent of one hundred and twenty feet, and a depth unknown. It is 
termed salifcrous, as being the reservoir of salt springs. Not many years since, 
salt in considerable amount was manufactured from the waters of a sprinir in 
Greece, and one on the banks of Irondcpioit creek, b.jth in this rock. The color 
of this lowest firmation is dark reddish-brown, interspersed with gray, and the 
rock is idcntic-al with that of the same name known to English geolcgisLs. In 
this sandstone are found vegetable remains, and .splendid specimens of fucoides. 
The stone cannot endure the action of water and frost, and disintegrates easily. A 
stratum of gray sandstone lies upon the red, is of great extent, and contains 
particles of mica. 

The sandstone rises southward into cr 
canal is for a short d'lstance upon it. The 

and the rise is apparent .mly. .M:irly slate is sot't, fr.ngil.le. clave 
green hue; it re;.ts upon th.- gray sand.-tone, and alternates in thin 
other rocks. So easily docs it reduce to earth that it seems a clay 
banks of the Genoee dls<.-l.«; two thick str.ita of th'Li state. Argil 

liderable elevations 

In 0_'dcn 
be Uid-e I 


I ir p:irtly 



ore, ft foot In depth, lies n'^ar tiie Surface .it the hiudiiti:. 
petriPictions, The met is hard, ajid in loculitiM n...lii!ar 
is of great eitent, ind h;is been simlti^d to a finsidfrable ( 
■where it has i depth of three feet. I'pon tlie iron ore rL> 
It ia compact nn'l tough, cxcclleot for building, and conijins tine jinuns of quartz 
and spcciciens of native cupper. Cakifemiu slate is a compound with tts..-lf of 
other layers in its thick stratuin. It lies on the terriferous aand-roclc, and 
aboands iu inaa^es of beautiful pctrifactiims. Here is tuucd finc-!^rained gray- 
wacke, similar to that quarried on the Hud^son. Bitutninous shale b+;lnw the 
Middle falls, breaking away, has undermined the -nywacke above. This stone 
is extensively rjuarried. above the earial utjut-duct. for building purposes. Durin-.; 
a blast, a layer of stone beiner lifted, a cavity filled with pebbles w;is disclo^'d. 
It indicates a deposit of limestone closing the poc-ket. Holow the Middle fills 
are found sprinpi of hydrosulphuretted water, and ne'ar the river is a sprint: of 
Kpsom salt. Crystallized specimens of the salt are obtained with ease. There 
aie many such springs in this region. On the top of the Middle falls, upon the 
atone, are found the remains of sea-wcoi. A mile west of the river, on Buffalo 
atreet, is an extensive quarry of cal..-iferous slate, ralrif.-rovis tiif i or ■' petrifi.'<l 
moes," exists in lanie ma.sscs alonjr the river bank, (yeodiforous limc-rtck extends 
from Rochester into Drightou. It is hard, dark, and bi;uminous, .and of great 
thickness southward and Kc.-tward. It lies upon a level with the rapids, and 
when burned makes a superior quality of lime. 

i)iVi(Wum of sand and gravel is spread heavily upon the rocks beneath the rich 
soil. A mile south of the city, the diluvium rises to an altitude of two hundred 
feet and forms the Pinnacle, and the road to PitLsford is cut throuirh a depression 
ehowing undolating lines of fine and coarse gravel. Boulders of i,.;inite, gneiss, 
quartz and other foreign roek spread over the plain, present unmistakable evi- 
dence of the great power of a strong flixid. One of these m^is-ses was noticed near 
the railroad, a n:i!e from Maio street. It was seen to be ei'.:ht and a half feet 
long, c'l'^ni uroad. three deep,— a mass of granite. Along Irondequoit creek the 
dilavium is heapod in banks and conical hills from filly to one hundred and fifty 
feet high. On the banks of the stream, in Perrinton, were found the remains of 
a fossil elephant. They were found by William Maun while dig:.-ing a stump. 
Large tr«s of the ancient forest had grown over the.^ bones. In, 1837, 
the remains of another mammoth were uncovered \vlulc excavating for the Ijene- 
eee Valley canal. The skeleton was found about four feet beneath the surface, 
and resting upon polished limestone. Brick-clay, a foot or more in depth, exists 
beneath the l.>aniy .soil within and Rochester. Beneath it lies a bed of fine 
white sand suitable for the tL«e of the brick-maker. The surface of the rocks 
shows polish in a number of places where oxc:iv.itions have been made. Furrows, 
as of the passage of huge boulders, are marked on the smoothed surface. Kast of 
the river, at Rochester, the lines run east .and west. It ia evident that the earth 
and soil now covering them has bct-n dcpo.iited upon the polished rock, — when 
and how is the question. The Rid-^e road, a natural cau.seway of alluvium, is re- 
gfardcd as the former shore of Lake 0^^ario. It^ composition of sand and pebble 
13 not a disintegration but a deposition. Vegetable remains are fuind at depths 
of a dozen or more feet. Vegetable mould, nearly pure and a half-inch in depth. 
lay upon a bed of fine white sand. Some barrier giving w.ay on the St. Lawrence 
annklhc lake to its present proportions. We have spoken of the transportation 
of boulders. Halfway up the " Pinnacle" lies a graywacke boulder, in dimen- 
sions ton and a half by ten feet, and between three and four feet deep. What 
power could have borne it along and placed it there ? The retroce.^sion of the 
fclls is of 'nappreciablc extent. To have wore away the chasm below the cata- 
racts occupied a period so vast that the estimate is b^'vond human ability. 

The basis rock of the county ia Medina sandstone, which reaches the surface 
at the lake .'■horc. I'pon it li -s the Clinton group. -NVxt is found the Niairira 
group, rich in fo^.^Is, ind finally the On..nJagi salt group, containing beds of 
gypsum. The di-covery of the gypsum is thus narrated: "In the winter of 
1810-11, John G.irbutt employed workmen to excavate a bank for earth to 
constnict a race for a mil! he was buildiri',', and one of the men. a foreisncr, de- 
clared that they were digdng pl.-cster. Kxperiment proved him eorrret." The 
beds an; of large size, and have grown in value to the present. Salt springs exist 
in the county, but the brine is not of quantity and strength to bo available. 
There are numerous' sulphur springs, ^miw. of which are located in the town of 
Ogden. The Monrtw q.ring-s, live miles east of K.H.hester, are celebrated. .Marl 
abounds in the towns of Riga, Chili, and Wheatland. The discovery of the bed 
of argillaceous iron ore, extending from the Gener^' to the east limit of Monroe, 
was thought to be valuable at one time, but it is little worked. Small qu.intitics 
of the suiphurets of l.'ad and zinc, and blende ..nd gal-na, are foun.l in the county. 
Fire-stone, a magnosian earth uscil for liniiii and stoves, is abumlant 
in Ogden and Sweden. This outline prc^.iils the rocks as of various uses, bat 
none greater than of making and enriching soil. 


1 covNTY novi 

-\ll govertiment originates in the people, but an exletided and repub- 
lican legislation was an experiment, and .as such is still regarded in this centennial 
of national existence. The civil record of Xew York reveals a gradual change 
from a condition of vassalage to moro than kingly power. The process of eman- 
cipation was a lesson to victors as well as vanquished. Arbitrary and extreme 
measures by both parties have been checked by conservatism, and so originated 
parties whose political camp.aiiius have been marked by periods of great excite- 
ment, followed by me;i3nre.s subservient to the public good. 

Civil government was established by the Dutch in lii21, and, in lOiJO, .Vew 
York, then Xew Netherlands, received her first governor, in the person of Wouter 
Van Twiller. From lCG-1 — the date of the surrender of the province to tin- 
English— up to 16S3, James, the Duke of York, was sole ruler. He appointed 

The first Knglish legislative assembly w.-is organized in IbUI, and by that body 
H i^le of rules was formed in accordance with eidargtd powers. The pvovince 
was divided into nine counties, and the House consisted of seventeen delegates. 
.\n act of assembly for a national church, passed in 1(J03. received with 
discontent, and taught the necessity of perfect religious freedom, but entirely dis- 
connected with affairs of state. A second assembly convened in 170S. En- 
croachments upon popular rights, by'the royal governors, paved the way for their 
loss of influence and speedy downfall on the breaking out of the Revolution. 
On -\pril 20, 1777, was formed, and adopted by a conventron of delegates, a 
State constitution. \ first session was attempted at Kingston, September 1, 

in 1778, at Poughkeepsie, and annually continued thereafter Features of the 
constitution were obnoxious to the people, since it was framed after, the provis- 
ions of arbitrary power, and changes were demanded as the neccs.^ity became ap- ■ 
parent. A getieral organization act was passed, by the legijlature on .March 7. 
17S8, at which date the entire State w.'is divi led into fourteen counties, and thrse 
were subdivided by the organization of tonus, varying inversi'ly in area as the (Kqui- 
lation was denser. Xew diiisions were nwde in 1>01, making thirty counties and 
two hundred and eighty-six towns. • The legislature passed an act, in Viid, rccom- 

had in --^.pril, 1821, which resulted in a majority of 7li,4-l5 for the convention, 
which assembled iu ^\lbauy, -Vugust 28, concluded its labors, and adjourned Xo- 
vember 2S, 1821. The member of the convention from Jlonroc was John Row- 
man. The new constitution was adopted at an election held in February. lr?22. 
Xotable changea were relative to a council of 'revision and appointment and 
elective franchise. The council of revision, assimnnir to act as a thiixl legislative 
body, contrary to the constitution, was abolished without di.--ent. It had rendered 
itself obnoxious through the personal ami partisan character of its appoititments. 
The powers of both remaining councils were modified and restricted. Elective 
franchise was further extended, and many offices, till then vested in afipointmeut, 
were made elective, and solf-rule became a verity. 

We give in the following a civiHist of various incumbents r,pres.-nting the 
interests of Monroe County at home, at Albany, and at \\"3sluie.:o.n. Oomty 
superintendent-s of schools were, by act of -Vpril 17. 184;^. .q.pnintL-d by tli.^ h->.ird' 
of supervisors. The appointed in Monroe were Henry E. Reehe-rcr imd Alc\- 
inder Mann. The office was>hcd Match IM, 1817. Tin- roostuMti..n of 
1S21 provided for a division of the St.itc into circuit court districts, and by act of 
April 17, 1823, eight circuits were formed, and a circuit judge appointed to each. 
Addison Gardiner, of Uoehester, was appointed September 2'.i, 1S21I. liir the 
eighth circuit, consisting of .\.llegauy, Erie, Chautauque, .Monroe, GencM'C. and 

t,.d for 



I.s. M,. 

Surrogates under the first constitution we 
and appeals from their dei:islons were directed to ei.urts of pr 
By the second constittition. appointmtnrs v.-stcJ with the go' 
for four years, and appeal bay with the ehain-ellor. The surp". 
1847 we're: Elisha Ely, appointed March 1". H-'I ; Drrin ¥.. 
1823; Martm K. Delano, April ?,». ISO.'); Enos Poraei..y, .l.omary 2'J. IS In, 
Mortimer F.' Delano, .I.muary 2LI, ISH, and Sime.m B. Jcwett. 18(0. 

The first judges in the court of common plc:i.s were cntinu^d rr,.ui thecdoniJ 
p,Tio.l. Tho^' in .Monroe, M.ireh .'., HJl, to l-sl7. wee; Kii-lu B Strong, 
Ashley Sampson, two terms; .Moses Chapin. S;ioioel I,. Seld. o, aud I'alriik C. 

i The State,turc 

I part of the eighth sena 

,».sed ..f t 





ircre: Joseph Spencer, 182ii; Juhii B«'\ 
FreJiTiek V. Baclius, ISU-IT. Mii 
to 1S47, were: \athiiiil._-l Kuilrjsrcr w 
Johi; B-owman, Sf.,muil b. Uru.iley, j! 
Smith, and Enoa, lS2-i ; Liu?,! 

■ Mni.r, 

i of ti.r t!:o 

•rveJ in lli..^ ibrtj-Olth session r.f 1S22; 

Stune. ISJa; Peter Price, .M.jor H. 

Clark. HiMirv Fellows. :,n.i Thurlow 

Weed, 1S25; Ilcnry Fellows, [saae Licey, ;uij A'inccnt .Maihews. IS.'i; ; Peter 
Price, AbolarJ KcynoMs, and Joseph Sibley, ISJT ; Tinioihy Chilas, Ezra SI)eldon, 
Jr.. und KraneU'StoriQ, 1SJ3 ; Jolm G.irhutt, I!-i,.m ' Norton, and Ileubcn 
Willey, 182U; Ezra :<lalJon, Jr., Joa.-ph It.nJ.dl. -nd Thurloir Wei-d, 1830; 
Samuel G. Andrews, Is:lic L;u-ey, and Peter. Price, 1831; !>amu<l G. Andrews, 
Ir» Bellowj, and Williain B. Brown, 1332; Timotiiy C'hildi. Levi Pond, and 
Milton Sheldon, 1833 ; Elihu Church, Fletcher -M. H.iight, and Jeremy .S. Stone, 
1834; Qeorox Brown, Deriek Sibley, and EiiiK-h Stronir, 1S3.T ; Horace Gay, 
Micajah W. Kirby, .ind Joseph Sibley, 1S3C; Levi Russell. D. Sibley, and Silas 
Walker, 1837; John P. P.ittcrson, Ezr.i Sh.>ldon, Jr., and D. Sibley, 1838; 
■William S. Bishop, Henry P. Norton, and John P. Stuil. l.^SO ; George Brown, 

D. Sibley, and E. Stron;.-, IS-tO ; Alexander Ivclscy, Lucius Lilley, and E. Strong, 
1841; Henry K. Hi-frins, Frederick Starr, and Gcor-e S. Stone, 1842; Jerome 
Fuller, r,.,b,'rt H,.i;,-ht, und K Stvoi.g. 1S43; Aihioy S-.n.pson. .Mc-.-s Spcrr^-, and 
Edward Wadhau.s, 1.S41; William C. Blos.s, Job,. .McVean, rs.iac T. Raymond. 
1845; Maihias L. An^-le, William C. Bloss, and James B. Thompson,' 1846 ; 

■ W. C. Bloss, John McGone-al, and John B. Smith. 1S47. 

The office of district attorney was created April 4, 1801, and by act of 181S 
each county was constituted a separate district. The following served till 134" ; 
Timothy Child.", 1821; Vincent Matthews. 1831; Hector L. Stevens. 1831; 
Horace Gay, 1836; Abner Pratt, 1836; Jasper W. Gilbert, 1*43; and Nicholas 

E. Paine, 1846. ■ ' 
County Officers, 1821 lo 1847.— It was made the duty of the onnnty clerk to 

keep the county records. The term was three years. The incumbents were Na- 
thaniel Eochester, 1821"; Elisba Ely, 1822; Simon Stone (•2d), 1825; Wm. 
Graves, 1828; Leonard Adams, 1831; Samuel G. .\d.im3, 1834; Epbr;.im Goss, 
1837; James W. Smith, 1S4I) ; and Charles J. Hill, 1843. Sheriffs were 
appointed annually by the council of appointment, and none were eligiblu after 
four years' consecutive service. Ke could hold no other office, and must bo a free- 
holder of the coufity. ■ According to the second coustiHition, sheriffs were elected 
for three years, and were ineligible for the succeeding, term. The sheriffs of 
Monroe till 1847 were: James S^mour, March 7, '1021 ; John T. Patterson, 
1822; James Seymour, 1825 ; James K. Livingston, 1828; Ezra M. P.i:-soo3, 
1831.; Elias Pond, 1834; Dariiui Perrin, 1837 ; Charles S. Pardee, 1840; and 
Hiram Sibley, 1343. 

The Federal Congress meeta annually on the 6rst Monday in Peevmber. It is 
provided by the constitution that each State leirislature shall cho<isc two senators, 
whose term of office is six years. For the period considered Monroe furnished 

The representatives in Congress are composed of members elected by districts. 
Each new Congress k'gins on the 4th of March every odd year. The term of 
office is two ycai^. Apportionment of representation is determinc<l by the re- 
sults of a cemsus taken every ten years. The apportionment of New York Kgin- 
ning 1789, ratio 30,000, was 8i.x ; 17D2, ratio 33,000, ten, 1S02. ratio 33,ii00, 
seventeen; 1811, ratio 25,000, twenry-scven ; 1822, ratio 40.000, thirty-four; 
1832, ratio 47,000, forty; and 1842, ratio 70,680, thirty-tour. On on;auiz..tion, 
Monroe belonged to the Tivcnly-lirot di.slrict. compa-.L-d of Allegany. Cattaraugus. 
Chautau(|ne, Erie, Gonosee, Livi ngston, Monroe, Niavnira. and Ontario. Keprcsented 
in the Seventeenth Congress by Wm. B. Rochester and Elijah Spencer. By act 
of 1812, Monroe and Livingston were constituted the Tnenty-sevcoth district. 
Moses Ilaydcn, 1823-27; Panicl U. Barnard, 1.S27-23; and Timothy Childs, 
1829-31. By act of June 2U, lS:;i, Monroe vv.os conslitute.1 tlic Tw. nty-iighth 
district, and rcpre'scnted by Fri'dcrick Whittlesey, lSo3-35; George \^'. Say,. 
1835-37; Timothy Childs, 1837-30; Th.una.' Kcmp'hall. 1839-41 ; and by 
Childs again, 1341-43; Tlmmiia J. Patterson and Levi D. Carpenter. I84:^-^,5'; 
»nd Elias B. Holmes, 184.>— 17. Proiidenliid electors are cho.-H.'n by lencnil ticket. 
■Dd their number is cijual to that of s*'nators and representatives iti Con::res.s. 
One person is selected from each Congressional district, and two from the ."state at 
large. The elect..ral college m.-ets at Albany on the first Wednesday of LX-eera- 
ber, cast their votes for Pre^iilent and Viee-I'residout. and forward the result to 
the president of the sinate. The electors Iron. .Monroe have been Jos,ph Sil.lev 
»nd F:iisha B. Stronc;, lsi2t; James D. Garnsey, IS2S; Ahlel B.ddwin, 1832'; 
Joscplj Sibley, IS.iii: Wm. Garbutt, ISIO; and Klisha .Ldm.son, 1814. 

We have iuilicated the ass,im|,lion of direct control by the people fmm timcto 
time, and the ch.inges of constitution presint jnarked periwbf. A ciuivention fur 
a new constitution, to prnviile li.r popular el, -lion in place of govtrnora' appoint- 
ments was held in 1846, The delegates from yu nroe were Fa-derick F. Backus, 

Enoch .Strong, and Harry Caelvu^. .Vm.-ng .sit.,,,, < J^elais t'rom Monroe were 
Henry R. SelSen, iicutenant-gurernor, IS.'iO. T'lcm.;- U.iincs. trea.surer, !.s71. 
and re-elected 1873. Canal couiLnissiooer. John D. I'.iy, 1607, re-elected !,s70. 
Superintendent of banUni: department. Be ^Vitt C. Ellis, l^.o3. Insurance su. 
perintcndcnt, Ge'jrge W. Miller, 1870. Regents of the university. Rev. Samuel 
Lucky. D.D., IS \7, and Horatio G. Warner, 1871. 

School commissioners have been elected since l's59. The followin'.- have 
served: Alonzo J. Howe, John T. Brnwn, Henry H. Sperry. William W. .Nb.rsh, 
Luther Curtice, ^Vm. E. Edmunds, Wm. H. Bowman, John R. Garretsee, do-eph 

A. Tozier, Franklin B.-Garlock, George W. Sin.e, S. A. Ellis. E.lward .V. .Me- 
Math. The officers for term begiutiing 1875 arc W. Francis Hardiek and Allen 
J. Ketchiim. Judges of the court of appeals, Addi.son Gardner, 1 847- 1 .<.").") , 
Samuel S. Seldon, 1S5.-); and Henry R. Seldon, 1862 and 1S65. The jud-,-,- of 
the supreme court from Monroe in the seventi:4'nth district were Samuel S. Srlden. 

; 1847-1855; E. Oarwin Smith, 18:-.5 and 1862. Surrogates since l^lll have 
been elected in counties where the population exeeed-s forty thousand, flo; t.rni 
i is four year^." The following have served: Jloses Sperry, 1847; I)e.,r„n G 
! Stewart, 1831 and 1S67; Henry P. Norton, 1855; AltW_(i_>Ju.Ure, I SOU, 
i Wm. P. Chase, 1863 ; and for 1871 , W. Dean Shunrt. 

• County judges have jurisdiction in action of debt to two thousand dollars : triss- 

' C pass, to five hundred dollars ; and replevin suits, one thousand dollars. Ter>ure of 
1 office is six years. Incumbents of the office in Monroe have been Patrick ( i. Bn- 

■^ chan, 1847 ; Harvey Humphrey, 1851 ; George G. Munger, 1S5.J ; John (.' Cliu- 
: ' masero, 1859, re-elected 1863; Jenmic Fuller, 1837 . and Jerome Fuller, 1S72. 

*5 There are thirty-two s-;natorial districts und.'r the constitution of 1846. iMon- 
j roe, the twenty-seventh, sent Jerome Fuller to the legislature in 1848 ; Samuel 

V ^Iiller, 1S50 ; Micajah W. Kirby, 1852 ; William S. Bishop, 1854 ; and John E. 
i Patterson, 1856-59. Under act of 1857 .^Ionroe became the forty-eighth dis- 
I* trict, and elected Ephraim Goss in 1?B0; Lysandcr Farrar, 1862; George G. 
' Munger, 1864; Thomas, 1866; Irfwis 11. .Morgan, 1S68; Jarvis I^rJ. 
1 1870-74 ; and Wm. N. Emerson, present mcumbeut. 

I Monroe has three assembly districts, of which the city of Rochester constitutes 

i the second. The following IL-t is given for reference: Ezra Sheldon, A. .M. 
j Schermerhorn, and Isaac, Jr., 1848; Levi Kelsoy, L. Ward Smith, and 
j Elisha Harmon, 1849; M.. Pay" Hicks, L. W. Smith, and E. Ilaimou. l^M, 
. Nathaniel H. Fordyee, Wiruam A. Fiizhugh, and Caleb B. Coiser, 1851 ; ./, 
' Shoecraft, .loel P. Mlilimr, and C. B. Coracr, 1S52; Lyman Payne, Orlando 
I Hastin23. and James 0. Pottingni, 1?53 ; L. Payne. James S. Angle, and .Uiay 

B. H.)ldri(L-e. li ji ; Benjaniiii Smith, .John W. Stebbins, and N'. P. Stantoo, Jr., 
[ 1855; B. Smith, F:iii,haz Tiimmer. and Josi-pli llewey, 1856; Jeremiah .<. 

Baker, John S. Uaccy, and Robert Staples, 1857 ; Jarvis Lord, Thomas P.iis..n-. 
i and Robert Staples. i,s5S; Han^ison A. Lyon, Elias Pond, and Alphonso IVny. 
!., l.-.^O; Thomas J. Jeffords. E. Pond, and .\. Perry, 1860 ; .>taitin Roberts. Leuis 
I ^ H. Mor.-an, and lienj. R. Wells, 1861 ; geor-e E. McGoiieg-.d, E. Trimmer, and 
! B. R. Wells, 1862; r,. K MeGonegid, E. Trimmer, and Wm. BroHu. l.-i6:i; 
l" Fairchild Andru.,, John McConviU, and Wm. Rankin, 1S64-65; F, Anonis. 
I Henry R. Seldon, and Abner I. W.wd. 1866 : J. Lord. Henry Cril.ben, and A. T. 
j- Wood, 1867 ; John M. Davis, N. C. Bradstrcct, and A. I. W.v.d, 186S ; CleuK-s ' 
j S. Wright, N. C. Bradstreet. and Andrew J. IL.ndall, 1869 ; C. S. Wri^f.t, James 
j S. Graham, and Volney P. Brown. 1870 ; Richard D. Cle. Geor-o D. L.rd, and 
I V, P. Brown, 1371 ; George A. Gc-s, G. D. J^ortl, and Leonard Burtitr. l.sT2 : 
I G. A. Goss, Henry L. Fish, and L. Burritt, 1873; G. A. Gos-s. Geop.-c T.iylor. 
j and L. Burritt, 1874; Richard D. CIc, George T.iylor, and Josi.ih lUch, 1875; 
I and Willard Hodges, James S. Gr.diam, and Herman Glass, in 1876. 
I There are elected in e;ich county a district attorney, sheriff, clerk, and treusunT. 

' Besides these arc coroners, superintendents of the poor, and board of supervisors. 
I Term of office is for three years. 

' District A/lnriui/::—\\m. S. Bishop, 1847; -Martin S. Newton, Edward .\. 

I R.ayinond, Calvin Hiison, Joseph A. StuU, William II. Bowman, Christopher C. 

Davison, John M. Davy, and George Raines, twn teriin. 
] Coiinly Cfcr/b.— John C. Nash, 1846; John S. Lacey, W. B. Williams, Wil- 

i liam N. Sage, D. D. S. Brown. Joseph Cochrane, George H. Barry, Cli.irles J. 

Powers, Alonzo L. Mabhett. John H. Wilson. 

S/ienVTs.— Ge.)n.;e Hart, 1816; Oet:ivius P. Chamberlain, Cbauneey fi. Wo.J- 
worth, .-Vlcwnder Babeock. Hiram Smith, James If. Warren, Alonzo Clupnian. 
C.deb Moore, Isxic V. Sutherland, 1869 ; Jose-ph U. Campbell, Charles S. Camp- 
bell, and Henry E. Richmond. 

T'frn.tnrjrs.— Lewis Selye, 1848 and 185 4; H. Perkins, 1851 ; .ra.son 
Baker, 18lj7 , George N. Deming, lb66 ; Cbarle-s P. Achilles, 1872; jnd James 

Con_;rc.Ml'oau/ /Jr/irfjrn.'n/uv».— Monn* Twenty-ninth .listriet from 1S51 
to 1862. and wa.s represented by Robert S. Rose, 1847-51 ; Jedcdi;di Horseford, 

^^^^/ ^.^^^ ^..: ^m-if-y-^.^^J^ -/.. 


1851-53; Ai-inali Unu^y, IS.:.:!, Havi 
resigned; John \Villi;,ms, \<:,:,-:u ■ S,, 
Ely, 1859-63. MMumc and UrltMns co 
18G2 to lti73, with Iwllnwin- reprcs^nt-it 
Hart, 1365-67 ; Lswia rielye, ISCT-UU 
man Clartc, 1 ST 1-73. In lr<73 tliu 
district, with Geor^. G. Hoskins, 1S73- 

A peruskd of old 61e3 of newspapers 
tioQ prevails at pre.^i_'nt in cntnp:iri><:-n. w 
sod the eicitcioi-nt of [«ilitic-.d 
constitutiou of the U.iiicd .^t^tes, the ■ 
gated to the federal guvcrnm<nt created 

formed bearinj; the names llepnbli 
strict, and the latter to enlarL'i». nati. 
interests of the Federal party in IS 
Edos Stone. Of the" Republicans 
Henry Fellows, and James K. Livi 
Clinton two thousand five hundred 

(■.iMieiller, electl-d ill place of Boodv, 

r,„el i; .\M.lrrws lS57-.^;i; and Alfred 

stilnled the Twcuty-ci-hth district fiom 

>n : Freeman Clarke, l-iG3-U5 ; Kuswell 

.V.«.h Davis, Jr., lSUU-71; and Frce- 

lauie counties were made the Thirtieth 

75, and John M. Davy. 

eveals the fact that a de;-'ree of mo<lera- 

witiv the -severe language, the denunciation, 

l1 camj'ai'jnH. Upon the adoptinn of the 

■ {uestli,n of what powers should he dele- 

d a divi-'ion of sentiment, and jtarties were 

and Fedei 

lized in the canal 
ca.-iurcs fur build- 
upon the under- 

The former desired to re- 
d prenvjativcs. Amoni; thase active in the 
were Derick Sihley, James Seymour, and 
!re Thurl.nv Weed.'ono of the 'old school, 
ston. The rote for s^nvernor trave De Witt 
d fourteen vote-j ; Jjamucl Younjr, one thou- 

canal (be^nin in 1S17 and completc<l in l^'Jo ' created a divi.^iun of seTitiment re- 
garding the feitsibility of the underlakii-'. A party who rce. 
a great work of internal improvement, heartily sup|RirteJ the 
ing, and were termed Clintonians. Another party, who look 
taking as chimeric-.d, stronjily opposed '• tax for the bi^ ditch," and took the name 
"Bucktails." The pre-rs and politicians were decided in their expressions, and 
party spirit running high, a virulence of language prevailed which ^ -"ms intem- 
perate and revolutionary in ciimpanson with the present. A diversion was created 
during the summer of 1S26 by the '• Mors^in excitement." In brief, one Willtam 
Morgan, of Batavia. began a w.,rk exposing the secrets of Freemasonry. It was 
to be pablished by David C. Miller. Various efforts were made to snpnr-.; tl.e 
manuscript. Morgan was taken to Canandaigua and lodged in jail. lie was 
then ubductcd, driven towards Rochester, and disappeared. Ills fate is involved 
in mystery. Belief iii an existing strong oath-bound society enrolling citizens of 
high civil rank, and exercising jnri.sdiction over human life, aroused apprehension, 
€xcited animosity, and caused the organization of an Anti-Masonic party throughout 
the State. The press discussed the question with strong feeling ; members of the 
order seceded, lodges were broken up, and the society temporarily disappeared. 

Later arose the questions of tariff and currency. . The Whig parly was derived 
from the Anti-Masonic opgani.^ation, while the opposition became known as Demo- 
cratic. The language of the press in 1840 is indicated by the fjllowing extract 
from an editorial : " The question remains whether we shall commit this young 
nation to the tender mercies of a national bank, a high protective tariff, an in- 
definite internal revenue system. — the whoje rendered lasting by contracting an 
enormous and ever-increasing public debt, wresting power and wealth from the 
people and centering it in the hands of a few." Among Whigs of that time 
were William Pitkin, Isa;ic Lacey, and Eli.cs The Democr.itic candidates 
for assembly for 1S40 were K. Henry B.onard, Samuel Baylisi, and J.jsiah 
Howell. The county cast eleven thousand one hundred and forty-four votes. 
For Congress, Timothy Childs, Whig, received si.K thousand and. tifty-two votes, 
and Lyman B. Langworthy five thousand and ninety-two.— being a Whig ma- 
jority of one thousand five hundred a?id forty-five. The history of Rochester 
recalls the influential part borne by h'.T ciii/i ns in the consideration and control 
of State and national affairs. The Hon. John Qnincy Ad.nns reccive.1 from 
Monroe his first nomination to the presidency. Tlie names of Ganliner, Sclden, 
Gumming, and Carter, of Barnard. Oivode, and Weed, are honored for the 
memories of their eminent ability and rank in the p.-tst. The name of Thurlow 
Weed recalls one who made himsell' kn.orn and felt in every village and city in 
the nation,- — a man g::nial in spirit, powerful in exppission, and a actor on 
the public stage. 

The stirring and radical chan'-es since still progr.ssing, are viewed with 
the same patriotic spirit from different stand ]Htints, and find abb- champion: 
whom itwoidd seem invidious to name. The county is fully recognized as Kep 
lican, the strength of which party, c^mparesi with the Uemocnitic, is illnstmted 
by the popular vote of 1.S75 fur ."secretary of rotate. In the general election held 
in Monroe on November li, l'<7:., Fr. derick W .-Vward received ebven thnu.s.ind 
one hundred and scvcnty-fivc votes. John Bi-elow eijht tlinn-and eight hun- 
dred and eigllty-five votes. Geor.-c B. Ihr-inberre, Prohibition e-andidato. two 
■ ■ " nn a total of twenty 

<73 the Democratic 
V. and in l.-^74. for 


and f. 


vnte.s, an 


n-, t 

.rty-five, fr 




and Hftv- 



P..lled. In 1 


for So 

retary of 

State w,e 




and .*.v,n 




and nin 




e the U,| 


of Sta 

te in 167 

> was tw, 




hundred a 

tib- ! 

The fol 


l.S3(), -19.SU-J; 1810, 04,yo2 ; I.S4J, 70,S:t'J ; ISJO, S7,i;50 ; 
Utj,324. These last were chLsslfied by color, pe'litical relation, uativ 
tion as follows: White, 95,335 ; colored. 4S9 ; voters, 17,-J72 ; aliens, 
natives of the State, 53,939 ; of the United States, 63,043 ; and of 
counties, 33,270; and of those over twenty-one who couid not read i 
2105. ■ 

The population of towns for semi-decades from 1860 is shown as folio" 

in 1855, 
and e\luca- 































' The avenues of oimmnnication are an undoubted evidence of the st:ite of 
society. The coovcyance of products, facile and expeditious connuunication. and 
the movement of armies require an unobstructed highway, and. in proportion to 


uses, and the channels of trade 

The Irnqunis had used for centuries the narrow paths branching from a great 
western trail, and in movements upon their foes traversed the streams and studied 
strategy and ambuscide. Not so the Romans of old, whose broad stnne-ways have 
survived to remind us of their power and grcatnes.s. Mexican causeways, Peruvian 
roads, and the canals of the cast, attest the vigor of national life, and whatsoever 
remains is upon a scale immense and endurinir, indicative of indefinite perio«ls of 
construction and the employment of ma.sses of population, ^\'hatever may haye 



litch of grcatnes.s 
I worl.l to claim pvi 


or the old Albany turnpike. The trail tlirongh the fiircst and the light canoe 
upon the hflce and river were ample for the aborigine, and equal to his capacity. 
When the European first trod the country of tlio Seneca Ii-nquoU he foand narrow, 
well-be:itcn trails traversing the forests in various directions. Between villages, 
they showed frequent communication, and led away to other tribes or lost them- 
selves at the borders ..f favorite hooting and fishing grounds. A well-known 
ancient trail led from the valleys of the Ilud.-on and .^lohawk, on ihrouih C'anna- 
daigua, to the Genesee river at Avfin; there crossing, it bore .southward to a village 
and then northwest to Caledonia. It erossiil Allen's creek at I.e Roy, Ulack 
creek at St;iffnnl. reached the banks of the Tonawanda above IJ itavia. and con- 
linucd wcstw.ard to the Niagara. This w.x« the main trail to Canada. The 
Ontario trail. ori',-inatin'_' at Oswego, came upon the Rid^e road at [r.mdequoit bay. 
" It turned up the bay to its where a branch trail went to Canandaigua. 
Turning west, it crossed the (ien.'se,- at the aqueduct. pa.s3e<l diwn t!ie river to 
the r.idse road, and thence to the we^t line e,f Harllaml, Nia'.-ara county, where 
it diverged .southwest," and at ('..Id Sprin.-s formcil a jnnrti.m with tli.- .Via..;ara 
trail. .\t points along this pathway, worn de.p in the soil, latcrj trails led off 


lo corn-field, orchard, villu^-e, and lake. Westward from All.uny came the t'on' 
nectieuC and M-i-iachua'-tta sctl'jri aioni; tiie windings otthe old tiud, from nliich 
the brush wm cue away to aJi:iit the i i^-.ige ot'«led and cart. The ravines were 
dyked, the streams briJuTd, and t'.jrrics, rude and unvti.ldy, creased the Cayu.-a 
lake. In 17U2 but lour fanuUcs rt.-idcd on the road from L'auandavjua to the 
Gene*?© river, and Indians were the piinelpal travelers, as tiiey been tor cen- 
turies. On March 2i, 17U-1, three coinn.i-sioners were duly ai'poiuteU and ieirally 
authorized to lay out a road iVum 1,'tica ot* to-tiay to Cavu-.'n Icrry, thence to 
Canaiidai'jua, and thence to Avon on the Genesee, where wa.s erecteti the first 
brid^-e to span the stream. It vfas contraeted. The road was to be ;i.s direct as 
possible, and one hundred feet wide. The !ci4:islaturc appropriated $3001) from 
the saie of military lauds for a road throui^h that tract, and ;^To"U Ibr expendi- 
ture upon the p<.irtion3 east and west of the tract. This tract wa.-i lou<r known as 
the "State road," and was auxiliary to tlie settlement of western New York, it 
waa (wid by Colonel WilliamsoD that " tiiis road wa.s so much used in IT'JT by 
people on busiucss, or by those whom curio^iity had led to visit the FalU of 
Niagara, that a slalion wivs fixed at the Big Plains (thirty-ci^ht miles west of 
tlia Goiijs^^v.') ft J'rlit-r tr'treirr<ty >;ome fifty families had soon settled aloui: the 
road, and it was anticipated that it woidd not be, long beiore there wouid exist 
one continued settlement from old Fort .Sohuylcr to the (ienesee. The people 
turned out to work the road, and so far improved it that stagiucr began September 
30, 1797. A stage left Utica on the date ^iven, and arrived with four passengers 
at Creoeva at the close of the third day. Through the ensuing winter two stai^es 
ran from C^nindaigua to Albany weekly. An act was passed, prior to ISl'O, by 
which the State road was to be made a turnpike, and an estimate of $1UUI} per 
mile made. 

In 1800, a road four rotis wide was cut out from the Genesee, at Avon, to Le 
Boy, a distance of twelve miles. During this year a new was begun and 
completed in part, from Buffalo westward, to connect with the one terminating at 
Le Roy. Agents of the large laud-holders constructed roads lo iVIIiwit* s..Ic and 
settlement of lands. It was provided by legislative act, of date April S, ISOl, 
that "carriages or sleighs meeting on the great road from the village of Utica, 
Oneida county, to the town of Canandar'|ue. county of Outario, the westward- 
bound carriages or sleighs should give way, under fine of three dollars." By the 
same enactment, the Genesee river, from the great fall until its junction with 
Canaseroga creek, " was declared a highway, excepting privilpgcd for building 
stores and docks."' Cayuga bridge w.ns begun May, 17D0. and was in use by the 
&11 of ISOO. Its length was a mile and a r|uart>r, its width permuted the pass- 
age of three wagons abreast, and its cost was one hundred and tilty thousand dol- 
lars. Other bridges built at that point by companies proved very remunerative. 
In 1804, three commissioners,. Grover Smith, John Swift, and John Ellis, were 
appoinU-d to survey and lay off a highway full four rods wide from Saline, Onon- 
daga c<.'unty, " to the northwest corner of tlie township of Galen, theuce through 
Palmjrra and Northfield, to or near the mouth of the Genesee." The expense of 
the toad was equally borne by the counties through which it lay. In the year 
1810, a road was laid out by State authority from Arkport to Charlotte, •' to con- 
nect the navigation of the Su^f|uchanna with Lake Outario, at the mouth of the 
Genesee river." The eommis»iouei-s were Micajab Brooks, Matthew Warner, and 
Hugh SlcXair, who the same year laid a road to Olcan from Canandaigua. 
Another highway was explored and laid from Hartford ( Avun), on the Genesee, 
to New Amsterdam (Buffalo), during the same season. 

The year 1812 was marked by road improvements, and by the construction of 
the first bridge at Kuchestcr. Its completion give direction to roads centering at 
this point, and called attention to the locality. The construction of the bridge at 
the falls drew attention to the Hidge road, one of the best of natural highways, 
and, in 1813, five thousaud dollars wis granted by the Iciislaturo for cutting out 
the brush and bridging the streams along this causeway from Rochester to Lewis- 
ton. This route, unknown and impassable, was then developrd, and multitudes 
poured along its line and settled upon either side. Litcnil roads struck out 
towards the lake and simthward, and a mania for turnpikes began to rase. In 
1810 the nominal stock in turnpike and toll-brld'_'e charters w;i3 over eight mil- 
lions. All along the old Albany road were heavy wagons drawn by several teams 
ind carrying enormous loads of grain ; eastward with produce, westward with 
emigration, two long procc-..iiins c-jtitiuued to travel. There was oriirinatcd and 
carried forward to cnniplction that then crowning acliicvcment of an eni-rgetic and 
patriotic people, — the inaU'.;uration of the cjinal system by the construction of the 
Erie canal. The improNemcnt of inl-ind navig.uion w:u discussed as early as 
1725, but no a.ti.Mi was taken till IT'.H, >sli.n an ait was-pas.-cd dircciing an ex- 
ploration of the waters F..rt S(.inwii and crcrk. Two e.inip:inics 
were created bv act of March .i, ITU.'. One of ihcsc. the •■ W. st, rn Iula..d 

of opening the hfck i 


on March .'111, follow! 
navigable waters of th 

- t..r the purpo.** 
Hudson to Lakes 

Ontario and Seneca. General Schuyler was cho&^n president, and by 1T')7 the 
work was completed Work began ut Little Falls, in 17Uo. The canal, three 
miles in extent, had five locks ; ihat at German flats was a mile and a quarter long, 
and trom .^Iohawk to Wood creek, a mile and throe-iiuarters, — a total of six miles. 
The first boat p.Lv,ed November 17, 170o. lu HUG boats reached Oneida lake. 
The work had cost four hundred thous;.iid dullard by 17'J7. and tolls were made 
so high that l.ind carriage was preferred. The company wjld its riglits west to 
Seneca bke in 1SU8. 

The idea so far had been to improve natural channels, but in ISOO the possi- 
bility of a cinal from Lake Erie lo the Hudson was prcsentid by Oovernor Mor- 
ris. He spiAe of the plan, in 1S08, to Simeon De Witt, who, in turn, coniuiuni- 
cated with James Geddes, a land surveyor of Onondaga county. Mr. Geddes 
occupied the summer of 1S08 in examinations of all the route, save that portion 
lying Knween the Genesee river and the head-waters of Mud creek. We quote 
bis language: "In December, ISil.S, I agjin lelt home, and after discovcriic.; at 
the west end of Palmyra that singular brook which divides, running part to Os- 
wego and part to Irondequoit bay, I leveled from this spot to the (icnesee river, 
and, to my great joy and surprise, found the level of the river so far elevated 
•bovo the spot where the brooks parted, and no high land between. But to make 
the Genesee river run down Mud creek, it must be got over the Irondequoit val- 
ley. After leveling from my first line one and a h.-ilf miles up the valley, I found 
the place where the canal is Uiken ( by embankment and culvert) across that stream." 
No further action was taken till 1810, when Thomas Eddy, a hearty worker for 
internal improvement, consulting with Jonas Piatt, of the senate, induced him to 
prepare a resolution for the appointment of seven commissioners to explore a canal 
route through the State. The resolution pas.-;ed both houses, and Messrs. Eddy 
and Piatt designated Gouverneur Morris, De Witt Clinton, Stephen \m Rensselaer, 
Simeon De Witt, Benjamin Walker, Peter B. Porter, and Thomas Eddy. Wil- 
liam North was substituted for Mr. Walker. The route was explored during the 
=n„,m»r of ISIO. and the first report was made to the leL'islature in ISll, and 
promptly followed by a bill to increase the commissioners to nine by auuin'_' Robeit, 
Fultou and Robert K Livingston. A second report was made in 1S12. followed 
by an act authorizing a loan of five million dollars to construct the canal. The 
war with Great Britain came on and engios.sed attention. There were many who 
believed the work too great for the State, and, in 1814, the authority to contract 
a loan was withdrawn. 

(n the fall of ISIJ,' Jlessrs. Clinton. Eddy, and Pratt sent cards of invitation 
to one hundred persons of influence in New York city to meet at the City Hotel. 
On organization, William Bayard was chosen chairman, and .John Pintard secre- 
tary. The plan of an inclined plane was abandoned, and that of followin-,' the 
undulations of surface adopt*:;d. A memorial from the pen of 3Ir. Clinton was 
published with beneficiid result. A large meeting was held at Canandaigua on 
January 8, 1817, to press the construction of the canal. Colonel Troup was ap- 
p<jinted chairman, Nathaniel RiKhestcr was chosen secretary. Gideon Granger, 
late postmaster-general, ably and eloquently addres-sed the meeting. Jlyrun 
HoUey drew up scvcnd important resolutions, which were prc-entcd by John 
Greig, and passed by a unanimous vote. An act was passed April 17, ISIG, by 
a majority of seventy-three in the assembly and thirteen in the senate, to prrjvide 
for a deflnite survey. Five commissioners were appointed, — Stc[dien \-dii Rens- 
selaer, De Witt Clinton, S.imucl Young, Joseph Ellicott, and .Myron Holley. This 
board was given the right to select engineers, and twcnty-nine thousand dollars 
were appropriated for the survey and tor preliminaries. Mr. Cliuton was chosen 
president, Mr, Young, secretary, and Jlr. Holley treasurer. The line was divided 
into three sections, — the eastern, middle, and western. The eastern extended 
from Albany to Rome, the middle from Rome to Seneca river, and the western 
from the river to L.ike Erie. Engineers were ap^iointed for each division. The 
report to the legislature, early in 1817, was that five million dollars would be 
required for the work. Jlicajah Brooks in vain sought aid from CongTe.«s. and. 
without prospect of aid, a majority of the people desired the work to be dune, 
and twelve thimsand men of wealth and respectability petitioned for the 
An act passed by large majorities in both branchi'S of the legislature in .\pril l.J, 
1S17, authorized the l„;ji„ni„y of t/ii- t.oi"/. The .same commissioners were re- 
tained, and their first meeting; to receive proposals and make contracts prclimin.ary 
to actual comnieneement was held at Itica, June 3, 1817. S.imucl Young and 
Myron Holley took charge of the middle section, and the work was bi-gun at 
Rome on July 4. The section was n.ivig.ible in the fall of ISl'J, and the first 
boat passed from Ttica to Rome on the 2Jd of October. A slroic party ciistcJ 
whose efferts were directed to check work on the west seeli.,11, and, pas-ing from 
the middle s.,,i„n rf.i Oswe-o, and side cut around tin' Ni.ig.ra Falls, «„ h-scn 

Ri*hesrcr. ^cl.vclcd .■> cr..ssing at the l.itter [.laee. drove st,il.c-, and disid. d the 
distance into sections ready for contract. A meeting was held in Octobi-r, ial\f. 


bj thccomniiisioners ^t Utit-l. Mvroii llulli-y ni.ivcil " tlat all tli.: lino ea-t from 
Rochester, located and prep;tped, ^liouM t>e, aa sfion as pmclicnbli.'. let uut to cun- 

«U miles of t-anal fn.n. It. .cheat.jr, eastward, were let, and by the time the legi.v 
lature met iu J:inii:iry, lS:ii), a ^ood ilure of the wort h;Hl been done. It had 
been proposed to levy lo<;d tax alon^ the line, hut the general sood to be realized 
defeate<i the attenipt. The i»ppo>ers o^ the project were stroii-^ly represented in 
the legislature, and with mueh w.irnith sou;_'lit to put a st.p to farther westwanl 
progrcas. A canal committee was rit cd in the asseiublv, and tj-etir^e Huntin;i- 
toD, of Oneida county, was cho«;n' its chairman. The views of the commis- 
sioners were re.|UL-?ted by this coniniitti>e'. Myron Ilollcy prepansl an article 
with great care and ability. The conrntittee were led to report against interfering 
with the work, and so the legislature dei-ided. 

^ The present line the final choice of .several routes. The cut at Lockport 
was made advantageous from the ability to supply lake water ea.-tward to the 
Cayuga marshes. The route had been originally suggested by Jesse Hawley in 
articlw published in 1:^07 at Canaudaigna, in the Genesee .\kxsriijer. In March. 
1819, Henry Seymour wa.s ai.p..inte<l to fill the place vat-ate-d by the re.-ignation 
of Joseph EUicott. and William C. Bou.h took the place of be V.'itt Clinton, 
removed. Tl:- e'-i''' ■'.-■;"; ;is ive;;, Jauito GeaJej>. oi Ououda'.;a county, and 
Benjamin A\'ri;_'ht, .4" R..)uie, who performed their task without a precedent, and 
with only the knowledge j lined from land survey. Other engineers were Canvass 
White, David Thomxs, Nathan S. Roljcrts, u'avid S. Bates, Charles C. Broad- 
head, Valentine Gill, and L«aac Briggs. This corps of engineers, self-taught. 
honored themselves and their State by the perfection of their work. In Iri-l, 
from the Genesee to the Tonnewanta was put under contract, aid so rapidly had 
the work progressed on the extreme sections that boats could pass fro j Kochester 
to Little Falls. 

In November, 1S2:5, Rochester b.iats entered the bisin at Albany simultane- 
ously with the first boats from the Champlain canal, just com] leted. The western 
section, from Buffalo to Montezuma, is one hiindrpd and £!'tv eirht u.ili^ long, 
has twenty-one locks, and a fall of one hundred and six feet ; the middle section 
has a length of ninety-six miles, eighty-one locks, and a rise and fall of ninety-five 
feet; and the eastern one hundred and ten miles extent, eighty-four locks, and four 
hundred and seventeen feet fall. The Kochester level is five hundred and six 
feet above tide. The entire length of the is three hundred and fifty-two 
miles, and the whole expense of con.strueting the Erie and Champlain canals 
vas reported in Is^ii at 510,731,51)4. The tolls for 13311-32 were So,i35,4G9, 
and at reduced nites, from 1333-3.5 inclusive, were 84,209,001. 

A " grand canal celebration" announced tl.e completion of the canal eight years 
and four months from the date of commencement. W\ along the line, at inter- 
vals, heavy cannon had been planted, and setting forth at Lake Erie, festivity and 
enthusiastic demonstrations greeted the triumphal progress of the flotilla from 
lake to ocean. Jesse Hawley -represcntt'd Rochester at Buffalo, and deliverc-d 
there an appropriate address. On the day of the celebration at Rochestei, con- 
siderable rain fell, but when at twenty minutes past ten o'clock on the morning 
of October 2lj, 1824, the low. deep swell of a distant gun broke silence, the roar 
of a cannon at Rochester replied ; and soon was heard the boom of the Pittsford 
piece, conveying the tidings eastward that the flotilla were on the way. .\ll was 
enthusiasm and excitement ! At two p.m. of the next day, eight companies of 
militia turned out, and a vast crowd asseiubled. The compauies m:irched out 
upon the tow-path, formed in line, and 'jrceted the western boats with a fusillade 
of musketry. As the IwaLs entered' basin, they were grecteil with a salute 
from heavy artillery under command of Captain Ketchum, and from field-guns 
commanded by Captain Gould. "The Rochester and Cannndaigus. committees 
of congratulation then took their places under an arch surmounted by an eagle, 
and the ' Seneca Chief,' having the committees on board, being moored, General 
Vincent Matthews and John C. Spencer ofiered the eonirratnlations of the citi- 
icns of the respective villages. Appropriate reply was m.ade, and then, di.sem- 
harking, a procession was formed, and marehctl to the First Presbyterian church, 
where Rev. Jos*.'ph Penney otTercd jirayer, and Timothy Childs, Es-i-, pro- 
nounced an able and eloquent address." The company then marched to the 
Mansion House, kept by (."hristopher. and enjoyed a sumptuous dinner. General 
Matthews presided, assi^ti-d by Jesse Hawl.-y and Jonathan Childs, E.s.|rs. 
Among excellent toasts were the following: By his excellency — "Rochester, — iu 
1810 I saw it without a house or an inhabitant In 1S25 I sec it the nucleus of 
an opule'nt and populous city, and the centnil [loint of nutnerous and traoscendatit 
blesaings." And by the lieutenant-governor— ' The village of Rochester,— it 
stands upon a .rock, where the most useful of streams laves its feet. Its a^ 
promises to attain the acme of irreatn-'s.s." 

At hulf-p:Lst seven .he visitors re-einbarkcd. and the sipiadron departed, .\mong 
citizens of R.^hestcr who went on b.ard the ■' Young I,i,.u of the \\\st,' as a 

for New York, »,-ie Elisha U. Stron-, L,-vi Wa,d, Wm. R. !; 
Abelard R.'ynoM.s, Klish.i J..hnson. Oencnl E. .-. Beach. Rulus llea.'h. A .-trer.-! 
and B. F. Hurlburt. Over a half-eeutury has ..'one by. and but one of all n.on.d 
in this connection is alive, and he is the venerated Abelard Ueyt.dd.s. .1 '-grand 
canal ball" and a general illumination closed the eventful day. 

The visit of La Fayette w;ls a notable event connected with the Eric canal. 
This noble Frenchman, nursed iu the lap of luxury, had perile<l his liH- and be- 
stowed of his means to secure -American Indepi-ndence. .\n invitation to re- 
visit the land for which he had done so much was accepted, and his journev 
through the country a thrilling pageant. Fires blared from the hill-tops, lan- 
non thundered flora village and city, banners waved, and proc-essinns escorted him 
from point to point. Old soldiers rushed, weeping, into' his arms and told the 
story of former days of danger. The general arrived at Kin'_''s basin, in Grecs-e. 
on June 7, 1S25. A deputation of eighteen leading citizens Ind met him at 
Lockport, and at Rochester all bustle, expectation, and preparation. At six 
.\ 3!. a flotilla of twelve lioats, upon which were flaL-s and bands of music, ad- 
vanced to meet the general. The day was fine, the procecdini.'s impressive. The 
escort divided ; half led, the others followed ; La Fayette upon the central boat. The 
bridges, hou*?s, and banks of the canal were all crowded, and from ei-.iht to ten 
thousand people were assembled. A sla-je was erected over the centre arch of the 
aqueduct, from which an address of welcome was delivered by Honorable W. U. 
Kochester, to whom the general made the following reply : ■' Sir. when about ten 
months ago I the happiness to revisit the American shore, it w.xs on the bav 
of New York, and within the limits of her vast and flourishing emporium of eom- 

mercs that I made a landing On this western frontier of the State, where I 

am received in so affcx;tionate and gratifying a manner. I enjoy a sitrht of works 
and improvem. nt equally rapid and wondcrftd, chief among which is the Grand 
canal, an admirable work of science and patriotism, whercbv nature been made 
to adorn and serve as seen in the striking spectacle which is at this moment pre- 
sented to our view." A salute was fired a.s he landed. In c"!5pa-.y v.-th C.',^,.^ 
Kochester, he rode through the streets to Colonel Hoard's, where took place a 
meeting with veterans of the Revolution. Thence the general was escorted to 
the Mansion House, where at a repast full two hundred were present. At four 
P.M. the genenl set out for Canindaigua. where he lodged. 

Among the great public works which have special interest to the citizens of 
Monroe is the Erie canal enlargement .and the rebuilding of the great aqueduct 
across the Genesee at Rochester.. A meeting was held September 21, 1.S3.5, at 
the court-house in Rochester, where Jacob Gould, mavor, presided, and E. P. 
Smith was secretary. A memorial and resolutions were drawn up bv Mvron Hol- 
Icy, and expressed the desire of the citizens along the canal to have it enlar.'cd. 
.\gain a meeting was held, this time December 30, 183G, ■' to consider the subject 
of the enlargement." James Seymour, Esq.. was chairman, and S. G. -^odrews 
secretary. The meeting was addressed by Messrs. Brown, Gould, and O'Reiilv. 
In pursuance of arrangements a convention was held at Rochester, January IS. 
1837, to urge the procurement of a hian anticip.ating the canal revenue. Nathan 
Dayton, of Lockpt.rt, presided, assisted by Messrs. Seymour. Hawlev, Trowbrid<.re, 
and Ayrault. Samuel G. Andrews, Theron R. Strong, James L Barton, and A. U. 
McKinstry were secretaries. Among many speakers at the convention were Jlat- 
thew Brown, F. Whittlesey, E. D. Smith, fl. L. Stevens, Orlando -Ilnstings. Elisha 
B. Strong, Joseph Strong, Alexander Kclscy, S. G. Andrews, an.l others, of Roch- 
ester. The effort to secure aid from the legislature was .successful, anil an annual 
appropriation of fjur millions was authorized to enlarge the canal. The princi- 
pal feature in the Rochester -section the new aqueduct, constructed at a cost 
of six hundred thousand dollai-s. The engineers were N.ithan S. Roberts and M. 
il. Hall. Captain Buell was engageil with a large force to blast rock from the 
river-bed, and Mc-ssrs. Kasson and Brown, with a heavier force, were employed at 
Onondaga and elsewhere cutting stone. The following items arc given: Ruck 
blasted, thirty thousand cubic yards; ni,Tjonry in aqueduct and wciu'h-lock, tneuty- 
six thousand three hundred and eighty cubic yards. The dimensions are as fol- 
lows: The trunk of the ;iqucduct, exclusive of the winus and weighlu<'k. is four 
hundred and forty-four fc-et Ion;:, and including the wings at the east end and the 
weigh-lock at the west end of the trunk is eijht hundred and forty-eight feet 
long. The parapet w:dls forromg the si.les of the tnink are ten feet thick at ct>ping, 
and eleven feet and t.n and a half inches thic k at the water-table, and arc covered 
with a coping a foot thick and eleven feet wide. The width of ihe'watcr-way of 
the trunk at the top wator-lini' is forty-live fe.;t, and at the bottom forty-two and 
a half feet. The sinictnre is supported on .seven arch.s; the chord of each U 
fil>y-two feet, and the versed sine ten. Abutments and piers j re ten feet .wide' 

on its foundation Ls aevcnty-hvc and a half feet. The width ncr the coping in 



signnient of nierchundiso from tlie * 
» heat from Ohio to KocLc.-,lcr was bro 
3 line, on consignment to H;irvcy Kly. 

ality-nino ^nj uii.«iith ffct. Tlu- malcrial ii -r.,y llri>--lo«e. The slonca are of 
Urge diuiensious, ami cut lo palt' rna so exact that, when bid, no joint was more 
than oneuighth of an inch thick. 

The Srjt tunal-boat loaded with flour left Hill's basin, on the side of the 
Geneve, at Rochester, for Little Falls, on the Mohawt. on October 29, 1822. 
The first boat-load of flour that crossed the old a.|ueduct from the western side 
was shipped from the wardioiiac of D.iniel 1*. I'arker, who also received the fii^t 
; -over the s:ime work. The first cari;q 
niL'ht in 1531 by the old Hudson and 
On the oficnini.' of n,avig-.ition in the 
spring of 1S23, there were shipped duriri'^ the first ten 'd:iys ten thousand barrels 
of flour from Rochester eastward. As evidence of the business transacted on 
this great artificial water-way, the following amounts of toil are given for the years 
designated: To and including 132:',, Sl:iu,0,-..vriS; i,, 1-2.'), ?1'J2,66-1.23; 1S30, 
«!M3,515.35; 1S.35, 51,375"i;T3.1 2 ; isni. Sl.-,;iT.3:;t.4ii ; 184",, S2.3C1.SS4.- 
24; 1S49, $2,962,132.(19; IS.JO, S2,033.12.-..93 ; I?;5, S2,4S9,272.27. The 
Genesee Valley connects the Eric canal at Roch.-ster with the Allcpiny 
river at Olean. The len-th nf the route is one hunJrMl asd 5cven miles. The 
summit level is eleven and a half miles long, and nine hundred and seventy-nine 
feet .above the Erie Ciinal at Rochester. The lockage is one thousand and sixty- 
four feet, overcome by one hundicd and sii locks. A surrey was recommended 
by Governor Clinton in 1824. One was made in 1S2S, under direction of Judge 
Geddea. By act of 1S34 a survey was authorized, and was made during the 
season under charge of F. C. Mills. The estimate of cost was 81,890,614.12. 
The Rochester engineers were Frederic C. Mills, Henry S. Pe.\tcr, J. B. Stillson, 
Daniel Marsh, S. V. R. Patterson, George D. Stillsou. Burton W. Clark, and 
Daniel MeUenry. The canal was authorized by the legislature on May 6,- 1836, 
but no contract was let until June, 1S3T, when two miles were let. In Novem- 
ber, twenty-eight miles were put under contract. Frnm thejunction to Rochester, 
and the Dansville side-cut, a distance of fit\y-two miie^. was completed in iS-tu. 
By 1851, thirty-six miles farther to Oramel with the Genesee feeder were finished. 
There were finished in 1S53, to Belfast, two miles; in 1S54, to Rockville. three 
miles ; in 1S5C, to Olean, twenty-four miles. R^ 
years from 1855, and, from heavy freshets, the 
June, 1857. 

The canal is located along the west side of the Genesee river, through the towns 
of Chili and Wheatland, and has done considerable business. Although the canals 
are not as of yore, yet they are much in use, and the Erie ha.5 by no means 
become antiquated. 

ere contracted for five 
abandoned the work in 





The packets traversed the canal, and the Albany turnpike became deserted. ' 
A new method of locomotion had later arisen, destined in iu turn to eclipse the 1 
splendors of the eanal and lake navigation, and to carry through the forests out 
into the plains the ^encies of civilization. That method was the employment | 
of steam in railw.ay locomotion. The introduciion, in August, 1S29, of a loco- 
motive to America from England, by Horatio Allen, marked the inauguration of 
an inland growth which is a marvel in extent and without a precedent. Where ! 
the Cough of the locomotive is heard, there .see towns platted and upbuilt, lands 
enhanced in value, and the dawn of a permanent prosperity. The first railway 
in the Unite'd States was two miles lonir, and w;is located between Milton and 
Quincy, in Mi-^achusetts. It was in operation in 1S2G, and the cars were drawn | 
by horses. 

•The fipit passenger railway in .'Vmi-rica wasthe Baltimore and Ohio ; the road 
was built in 1S3U a distance of thirty mih-s. A locomotive built by D.a\is, of ; 
York, Penn-ylvania, was put on the track in 1S31. The first charter authorizing | 
the construction of a railroad In New York was -.rr.mted by the icjislaturc to | 
the M..hawk and Hn.l,..n River ll.oln.a.l It w.c limlt.-d to fiKy 
yeara, .and alloweil the State to b. eMOie its I ,uch ><.'r on the expiration <.f its ' 
charter. Although rud.' in construe lio,,, a,id'ii,v..K ing exee-ive ex|^-n:-o, its ad- 
vantagefl were aj^preeiahle, and s,Tvcd to ci:eoura-.;e the e.-lablishluent of a tran-it i 
Ay^teui, swift, sate, and expoliciit. A o^mmencciiient was made in 1S30, and 

during the f .llowing year the road was completed. The road lay betwe>.!n Alluny 
and Schenectuuy, a di.staiice of sixteen miles. Its sjicedy accunipli-'limeta was 
owing to its superficial character. lUiils wore of wood. Cars were drawn by 
horses. Stationary eui^incs on hill-lops were used to pull up or let down ears, to 
which, for that purjHise, strong ropes were attached. Brakesmen uSL-d hanil-ievcra. 
bolted to the truck, and operated by pressing downward with the hands. During 
the year \h'M an engine was imported from Knsland, and in l!?31 the first steam 
railroad passenger train in America was run over the road. The engine Wiis 
named the '• John Bull," and weighed but four tons. The engineer in charge 
was John Hampsen. The first p.Lssen'.:er coaches were modeled after the old- 
fashioned stage-coach bodies. They were hung upon leather thorough braces 
over the tiuck, with seats inside and outside. The initial train had two of these 
eoaehes and fifteen passengers. 

The Auburn and Rochester railroad was chartered in 1836, and the ri_'ht of 
way havini: been obtained over a greater part of the route, ground was broken 
ami work begun at Slab Hollow, near Fisher's station, during 1833. The bill 
authorizing the construction of this road originated in the assembly, and passed 
that body on April 27, 18.36, and met the like favorable result in the senate, 
where it was brouiiht to a final vote and pas-sed early in 3Iay. The estimate by 
Robert Higham. the well-known engineer and commissioner of the road, was sub- 
mitted in December, 1S36. Length of road, ninety-two and a half miles. Total 
eostofconstruction,fcnce3, depots, rolling-stock, etc., was estimated at 81,012,783. 
Books for stock sub3<jription were opened August 2, 1836, at villages alons the 

line. Prompt and liberal subscriptit 
made: Rochester, 858,000; Canandai 
Falls, 812e,900 ; and this added to ot 
of stockholders was held at the Frank 
which occasion a board of directors w; 
held at Lyons to take into considcratioi 

IS were taken, and the following exhibit 
ua, 8141,700 ; Geneva. 8103,500 ; Scncc-a 
lers.gave a total of 8395,600. A meeting 
Ml House, Geneva, on March 19, 1837, on 
! appointed. During 1836. a meeting was 
the project of a railroad through Palmyra, 
Lyons. Ci^ue, etc., to Syracuse, and in the S2!ne ye?r -i locunorive made its first 
trial trip from Buffalo to Niagara Falls. About the same time a heavy train of 
freight cars passed over the Utica and Schenectady railro:id, from the latter place 
to Johnsville. Books were opened for subscriptions to stock for building the 
Utica and Syracuse road, and a snrvey of the Erie route was begun. 

In 1837 a bill was passed in the legislature authorizing the Utica and Schenec- 
tady railroad to carry freight, and the act was shortly afterward so amended as to 
concede the privilege of transporting baggage free. Meantime, work upon the 
Rochester and Aubtiru railroad had been vigorously pushed by various contractors. 
The contract for grading the first seventeen miles east of Rochester was let to 
Messrs. Vcdder, Vedder &, Co. Hiram Darrow, a Seneca farmer in Ontario, was 
the "boss," and later conductor. Bartholomew Vrooman, of Canaud.ilgua, 
had helped to build the Albany and Schenectady road, and was employed as fore- 
man and track-layer. James BL'gins kcpt*the first boarding-house where work 
began. The first locomotive was called the " i'oung Lion," — a "pony" engine 
from the Norris shops. It was brought west on a canal-boat, and used for con- 
struction. Asa Goodale was the engineer, and Joseph Hoffman was the first fire- 
man. Other engines were the Ontario and Coliiinbus, later received. The On- 
tario was run by William Hart, and the Columbus by Newell. Closely following 
the grading came the laying of the track. On September S. 1840, the first time- 
table was published. Trains were to run on September 10, leaving Rochester at 

4 A.M. and 5 P..M., and, on their return, leave Canandaigua at 6 A.M. and 7 P.M. 
A train left Roelicstcr on the •morning of September 10, as advertised, in charge 
of William Failing, who is yet liviie,-. Heman Miller w:is baggage-man. The 
" Youug Lion" reached Canandalgu.i Saturday evening, and returned to Rochester 
on Monday. A second time-table, fall arrangement, for freight and passengers, 
went into operation September 22. Thlee trains were run daily, leaving Rocliester 
at 4.30 A.M., 10 A.M., and 5 P.M., and Canandaigua 6.30 A.M., 2.:10 P..M., and at 

5 P.M. The first coaches were conveyed on canal-boats from the shops of Lyon, 
of Utica. to R.iclicster. They were urdoaded at the United States hotel, and 
drawn t4, the depot by horses. The first car-load of frei'_'ht shipped on this line 
was of mutton tdlow.'loadcd at Victor, and drawn to R.xhester. As winter came 
on, trains were withdrawn. William Failing wxs placed in charge of a construc- 
tion train at Canandaigua, and worked upon a fill known as the P.adeltoid em- 
bankment. So .sleailily did the work progress during the winter and cnsuin; 
spring that, on Monday, July 5, I8U, an excursion train from Roche-tcr p.issed 
over the road to SenL.ia Falls and returned. The brldu'e ov.t Cayns. lake was 
finished the l.ust of Septemb.-r, ami by Novcmher the was op,n to All.any. 
The directors of tire In 1^17 wen. Henry Dwi-ht and Robert C. Nicle.lH, of 


.,ter; D.nid .MeNe 


1>'U U-twccn C.ilnV.IniL'Ua aii.l 

crude order, tfix by six sraiit- 

itliiiL'. u]. nilh the inner i;d^'e, a 
i of ;m in-h, Kns sl.ikcl. 
tmil c:.R under the cab, whiuU 
i a protection from the weather, 

WM chosen presidout. On .Inly L'l. l.SIIT, wu 
couM bi' i.l,R.ifi,d. A doiMe tr.iek wjs i:,id ii 

cient. T!ie loii-truotion of tliut road was of t 
ling were fxitened to tiie ties by I,->h;ip.;d c 
spiked to it and the tie bcncatli. L'lM-vn (he st 
strap of iron, two inelies n-ide and tlir.-etonr 
The 6rst cn.irlu.'a were single-drivers, witli 5ni:i 
•consisted of a roof from wliieh huu'j; oil cloth 
The first cars were four-wheeled. A djrk-hued sccoiid-clxss tr.iin was put 

its low fare, and wirhdcawn. In lS4:i the cars were low and ill ventilated. 
There were no projections over the platlonn to protect the brakenien. Knpnea 
with four drivers were placed on the Suiofcc-stacks were made upriL'ht 
from the boiler one-fjnrtli their len-rh, then bent backward at an an_dc of forty- 
five degrees for half their lcn;.;th, then veriind and in the .-hape of an inverted 
cone. This bend was to arrest sparks. There werp no pilots Tb" fir^t t—k 
was soon sopcrscded by an eiiiht by ei^ht inch timber track, with a narrow strip 
ujion the centre ot ilic wooden rail, the same width of the iron strap nil above. 
An iron rail was laid in ISi.S, and this and other roads were pruvided with steel 
rails in 1S75. In this connection we quLte the ]anmia<re of Reilly. made use 
of in ISoS as a prediction apparently vi.'iionary yet practicable and probable. 
"As the whole route between Auburn and Albany will be (?onipleted al-out the 
same time as the Itoehester and Auburn llailrnad. we may anticip^tte that, in the 
course of three years, the journey between Kochester and New York will be made 
bj railroad and steamboat within twenty-four hours, or between sunrise on one 
day and the same period the following day." 

The Jb-.'iK-an-^a liaihoad was chartered April 24, 1832, for fifty years. The 
capital stuck was SSDO.OUU, in shares of one hundred dollars each. The entire 

seven hundred thousand dollars. The pri-sident of the company was David K. 
Evans ; the vice-president, Jonathan Childs ; the treasurer, A. .M. Schermerhorn ; 
and the secretary, Frederick Whillle-sey. The road superintendent was Pavid 
Scott; engineers, Jlossrs. Hayden and Smith: ajents and collectors on train 
were Messrs. Lyman, Fitch, D..'iuerry. and Wilbaiky. The a^ent at Rochester 
was A. Sprague, and the road engineer w.x* Klisha Johnson. On November 21, 
1834, the road was completed west to South Byron, in Genc=*^e county, twenty- 
four Diiles from Rochester. Business was reported proinisin-j. and a fair return 
for investment. The speed attained w is an average of a mile in two and a half 
.minutes. Regular trips with a locomotive were annonnced for December IG, 
1836, from Rochester to Byron, and seven miles' staging to Batavia. On April 
4, 1837, great cKpectaiions be-anto be cherished from the passage of a train 
with fifteen freight cars, on which there were c )nveycd one hundr -d barrels of 
flour, besides other produce, and p.a-sseiiger cars, from whose poisengors a toll of 
' one hundred dollars was taken for the trip. On May 8, 1337, a meeting was called 
at the court-house in Rochester. Silas 0. Sndtb was called to the ihair, and 
Messrs. Sage, Barton, Iliight. E. 1). Smith, and D.iniels were appointed com- 
mittee on celebration. The excursion took place M:iy H, 18:iT. The rate wa.s 
thirty miles an hour. The day was line. The tr.,in was crowded. The;- reached 
Churchville in forty minutes. At B.ilavin. the terminus, the road w:vs 'lined for 
a mile with people, and the arriv;il of the train was greeted with the firing of 
cannon and continued cheering. The objt.-et of the road was the traM>p,irtation 
of passengers principally, but the BulT.ilu Cjmmfrcinl slihrrli'f. r \\\>i% anticipated: 
" The carrying of produce and merchandise will be a very important item of 
receipts. It will give, by conipari-son of business done upon the road last fall, 
«o ag_Teg:ite of more than (t;i thniis'iml v,ns mumnllij, rei(uiring at liist one 
hundred freight cars, drawn by locomotive.*. It will, at any rate, aid in defraying, 
if it docs not ipiite defray, the expenses of passenger trains; and leave almost the 
entire income from passengers a clear protit." The p;u;.-enger ears upon the road 
were about fifteen feet in length, with two cross-seats at each end. holding three 
or four persons each. -There was an up|>er story in the centre for the same 
number, and, the space underneath was approprl:itcd to bagga-e. A car would 
contain twenty-P»ur p.xssengeri. The construction of the road was anomalous. 
There were sl.epcrs twenty feet lon_'.— Ur.-e l...-s flattened ..n one side.— there 
were a three by four pine sraiitliM.- inl a tw.. ami a half-inch str.ip r.iil spiked 
tlown tog,-ther. This was f.mod u, .<„.;/.v-/,n„/, „r loose cuds, and a three- 
inch thicker band was substitnl. .1, I'm illy, ih,. T rail was (djtaincd. The n):id 

W.XS completed to in Isl'i, :o,d «,i n.~.!idated with the Attica nn.l 

Buffalo road in 18.-.1). As op|.,.,t,uui> |..r ...nirast, receipts of the road from 
Rochester to Byron for the iin-t lu.. w, k,- i.f operation in 1)<:W, are given: 
" September 2Jd, G tons sdt; .':; 1, .-|OiJ ll... fr, i_-lit : L'tlh. fr.i-ht. 2.') cl-s.r2';th, 
paiiscngcrs, 2.-i cLs. , 27th.»eiigcrj, i\.:,\\, and Ireight, Gnu lbs. ; 23th, passen- 

gers, .'iO cts. ; 2!ith,, Sl.OD ; 3litl 
3d, 7a cts., 3 bids, salt; 4th, passengcix, 8 
From such bcginnii\gs has the pres,Mit s;row 
TUe Jiiiffnh, and l!;ch^slcr 12„!l:„,i,] Co, 
The capital Sl.S2.-),iii)n. The company 
the Tonawanda and the Attica and Butlalo 

,81011; October 1st, l.S bbls. s:dt.; 
.G,!, 17 bbls. Sidt, freight, 200 lbs." 

!j,an!/ was organized October 8, ISjO. 
wxs formed by the consolidation of 
llailroad L'on[p::nics. At a meeting 

held December, ISO' 
mond, Ueni-y Marti 
Field, Frederick Wli 
field, James 
directors Joseph Vk 

, the followlng-nu. 
. F. II. Tows, G:i 
ttlesey, Asa Sprag, 
Samuel Dana, an. 
i was elected pres 

led direeto 
ins B. Hie 

D. \V. Tondinson, Joseph 
rge II. Muniford, lleman J. Il.'d- 
F. Weld. At a meeting of these 
Dean Richmond, vice-president; 

• Martin, superintendent ; F. Whittlesey, secretary ; and J. C. Putnam, treas- 
urer. The roa<l was opened for business in 1S52, and a year later was with 
others consolidated to form p:irt of the .N'ew York Ceutral. 

The Nmyani FalU lirancU of the .Vow York Central was begm as the Lock- 
port and Niagara Falls Road, organized April 24, 1834, with 8175 000 capital. 
0:i D^culuLcV 10, ISoO, a euuipany of New Y'ork capitalists purclutscd the 
Loekjiort and Niagara Falls Road, and set about the improvement of that fortion 
and the construction of a road c:istward to Rochester. It was conditioned that 
the local subscription for the Ni.igara Fails, Loekport, and Rochester Railroad 
should be S22Ji)00, while the capitalists pronused the complecn.nt of cost. The 
amount was proniptly raised. At a meeting of the stockludders the following 
directors were chosen : Joseipb H. Varnum and Edward Whitchonse, of New- 
York ; Watts Sherman, of Albany; Freeman Clarke, Silas 0. Smith, and A. 
Boody, of Kochester ; Alexis Ward and Roswell W. Burrows, of Albion ; and 
Ellas B. Holmes, of Brockport. At a later meeting, J. B. '^'arnum was elected 
president; Alexis Ward, vice-president; an*! Freeman Clarke, treasurer. The 
length of the road is seventy-seven miles. The road was opened in 1852, and 
merged in the New York Central in 1S53. 

The Rurhesler and Charlutte was organized with a capital of 3100,000, on 
May 3, 1852, and shortly after its completion in ISJo was consolidated with the 
New I'ork Central. The Rochester and Syracuse Road was chartered August 1, 
1850, and a company formed with a capital of .?4, 200,000. Consolidated in 1 S53. 

The New i'ork Central Railro,i,l is the result, of the consolidation of the 
various roads hitherto noted, together with others, thereby to obtain uniformity of 
time, rates, and general nian.igemcut. The act allowing the cuijsolidation passed 
the legislature April 2, 1SJ3, and was carried into effect on May 17 following. 
The united capital amounted to 823,085,000, and debts were assumed equal to 
$1,947,815.72. Stock w.ts taken at various rates, according to the standing of 
each road, and each stockholder received a like amount of stock of the ucw com- 
pany at par, except the Troy and Sehcncctady ro:id, which wja valued at seventy- 
five dollars per one hundred di>llars, and twenty-five d.jli.os was re'iuired as 
difference in exchange of stock. Bmids b.aring semi-annual six per cent, interest 
were issued for differences, these boirds bcir.g payable Jlay 1, 1883. The statis- 
tics of the road for the year ending Scptunber 30, 1858, give, length of track, 
555.88 miles; side track. 311.80; capital stock authorized by law, 82t.l.?2.400 ; 
funded debt, 814,402,034.00; total eo-t, 830.732,517.54; earnings for year end- 

' dends,81,919,501.; passengers, 2.124.4:;0 ; t,.„i freight, 142.ii:n,17S: Statistics 
of the condition and bn-iness of the New York Central and its branches, in 1S74, 
indicate the pro'.-re&s of the age and the growth of railroad improvements. The 
total length of the road 740.17 n.ib's; the length of double track was 405.30 
miles; the length of three-track road wiu; 23.G9 miles; the length of four-track 
road was 222.19 miles; the main track is laid with steel rails, weighing sixty- 
five pounds per yard; there were, he-ides. 2011. n:; miles of leased road; the total 
length of all the tracks w,is 2359.39 miles; the capital stock amounted to 

889,428,300, including 8 1::9, 100 of .soIid;ited certificates nut then presented 

for convcl-sion ; the floatiie,' del,t w:.s a trillc ; the average rate of interest on the 

funded del 

nl etp.ip- 

be ?n 

enrnine.. 5'.Mi:i; <,s, ?1.:;T. Th. C.ik, 
ri,cc.h- an.l ,„u(,,ii„N« Th,- -it.- « « .,r,ui.i..l l,v \k..,r.-. IVck ar,.l 
W.!i,r S. G..:lih, uM is loc;it..l b.-Uv..rn the w.>t hunk ■j{ tliL' G.TR-.-e and Jlill, u]..,, ul,„ h ,1 IVonls. Th..' M d.p.t was .-recu-d in 18(0. It wxs a lon._-, 
luvv, wood,,!. hu.l-Ji.i;,., within wliich w.TC =ix lr.ek., tho freight yurJ, and all cl«e 
of pcrtiuL-iicc t« a torininus. A single track IcJ out tuwarils Caiiainlaigua. To 
the west there was nunc. At the iiortliwi-st corn :r stooJ the o!J turn-table. 
Superintendent Robert Ili;;liaiu was sun-oedcU by .Kss Spra;^ue, fulloKcd by 
Charles Dutton. The first paymaster was Ijeor^-e A. Leet, then followed by A. 
J. Harlow, succeeded by Wm. J. Kurd. The lir.-t depot UKu-cer was John Shol- 
tus, followed by S. C. Donelly. The first ticket a-ent was John B. Kobcrtson, 
and his immediate successor was C. A. W. Sherman. In l.'Sjl, Jlr. C. A. 
Jones finished the depot now .•^tandinir. Tiie old one within wits demolished. 


Many mon 
h,i.s a h.iT.d 


ill., the d.. 


AU.0.1 ('. 

ed her, 

ihout the plaee. 
about the de|...t 
I. James has been 
..;ai;e-eallcr. There 
than at any o*hor ii. the Shite, save at the Gra... 
the depot are car insneetors, c;.r cleaners, police, and, the last two in the 
direct interest of tho tiaveli..g [.ublie. Men serve here for life. Robert Riy has 
served over forty years, James Gleasoa twenty-eight years, and others nearly as 
Ion;.;. The greatest s;ilo of tickets for any day wa.s to attend the State fiiir, in 
1SC4, when the amount re.ched S.-)000. Through the southern towns of Rush 
and Mendou, winding ca.stward from the (j\^nesee to Canandaigua, is a railroad 
built by a company December 10, IS.JU, m the Canandaigua and 
Niagara Falls I!..ilroan Co...p:>..y. The capital was one million. The road was 

. opened to Balavi.t, a di-tauce of fifty luil.s from Cana.idaigua, by January 1, l.?o3; 

' to Niagara Falls, forty-seven mil. s' farther, by July 1 f..llowiT.g; and to the Sus- 
iKMision bridge, one and one-half mii.-s. on April 1, ISO i. The road wa3 sold, on 
March :.'l', ISJT, to Jan.cs M. iirown a..a others, and the mime eha.,gcd to 
Niagara Bridge and Canaudaigua Railroad. The road is now merged in the 
New York Central. 

T/ie Rochtster nnil Gencscr VnVii/ R.iilroud extends southwest ward from 
Rochester to Avon, a distance of l^.'l'y miles. It traverses the towns of ISrighton, 
Henrietta, Rush, and its course in the latter town is near the casteru bank of 
the Get.csee river. The movement to construct the road was inatlc at a meetiug 
held December 27, IS.-.O, where John Vernam was ch.isen president. \Vm. F. 
Cuyler, vice-presi.lent, and B. Y. Howard ii.d J. R. liuud, scereta.-ics. At an 
adjourned Diecti...-, held in the village of M..unt .Morris, on January U, Is.jl, 
articles of association were drawn and adopted, and a board of thirlcxm directors 
appointed. It was decided to name the roa.l the " Genesee ^"alley Railroad." 
John Vernam was ch.wcn prcsid.^nt The subject was agitated, but nothing 
accomplished for some time. On M,,r. 1. V.\ 1 >.">!, the ("..llowiuj of .Jircctors 
was chosen: James Falkner, Charles H. l'arr..l. Jau,.s S. Wa.lsworth, J,>hn Ver-, Daniel Fitzhugh, Alle.i Ayiault. Elij,.l. F. Sn.ith, WiUL.m I'itkin, Az..riah 
Boody, Aaron Bronsou. Levi -\.. Warl. and I'l.rke. The direet, 
«Iectcd James S. ■\Vad.-worth, l;.-.|., p.e-i.lent of the i.iard, and Freeman Clarke 
accret:iry and treasurer. It was ajic-.l. by ,-abscrip:i..n t.. ariiclcs of association, 
that the capital should be S-.ill.oni.i. .md iho' ..f Rochester and Genesee 
Valley Railrwd w;u ad.tptod ;is c.irpoiatc iia.n.' of ihe Committees 
on subscription wcr.^ app...iiited. Tie- .[H 'i'l ■!' t ,;; i- IV .- the .'Ccasion of con- 
sider.ible controversy, and the citizens .,(' K ■ ; ' i, ::_- interested, it 

proposed to vote upon a pr.'p.»siti.,t. to a[.| r 'I ~ ■ ' ■ :. .li.i of the projiosed 

road. The vote was had September llii, 1- 'i , .■; i n .- ,-r ,itly in favor of the 
movement. Work was c.'miu.-nc.-d in l.^.'jj. and the r., t.l w,is opened to -\v.iii in 
185-1. In the f.ll ..f l-^.'iS there I.„d been paid in f."..j."). l."jrt.lij. and there was 
ouLstanding a d.-bt ..f ? I .'ilMMJII. The earnings for the year ending .S-ptcuiber liU, 
ISoS, wen; So7,-J30.5T. 

The L.<kc Ontiirm R.iUmn.l. from 0-wcOT to LcwLston, throu.-h the northern 
towns of .Monroe, wa.s coinplot.-.l crly in ISTii. The .s.ntract.irs were the firm 
of John Hunter & (.V. of ^^ti.-li.,g, 'Amoi.,- officers ..f the r..a.l were James K. 
Ford, chief engineer; J. .W. .Moak, sopcnnlcndent , and II. II. Houston, road- 
master. The line cvleiids thr.iugb a well-known fruit region, and promises a 
remunerative trallic. 

T/te Slate Line Rnifnuuf. from Rochester to Salamanca, is yet in process of 
construction. To this enterprise nia.le liberal advancement, and will 

doiibtles-s derive much b.r.efit from it.s i pleti,.n. The city has an..,ng 

its estimated as.scls stock in the RiK-hc-ter and Slate Line Kailroa.l t.. the a ul.t 

of Sllon,im(). The estimated est of c.instrmti..n is Sl.;;.'il',i;t". It is «- 
p.-ctcd that one n-snlt of building the r..a.l will b. a eh.aiKning of the cil 

«f C. s! Martin, ,hicf cglnccr, the r.,ad was in runn'ii.g onJer t., U R..y in the 

fall of lST.->, a.!d the rest of the r.,ad is pr.-parcd f.,r the track-l.yer 
cipal enginccing work was the Construcli...! of a trestle eight hui.i 
f.-c't in length, spanning a ravine, bmr uiih's fr.uu \Varsaw. The 1 
altitude of seventy-six feet, with twenty feet fill, through which pile; 

; drive 

The I!uche.,lcr, .V,i,„!a and l'e,t,,sy!mm» Ruilroml received aid fi-oni Rochester 
t.. tho amount of $l.-.0,(iOrt ; but, so far as known, the project halts in its career. 
Centering in Rochester, traversing the towns of Monroe in every direction, the 
network of railway lines, while drawing their support from the commeice existing 
between this and other great cities, in turn contribute, by f.cility of communiea- 
ti.m and cheap transportation, to remunerate the citizen for his outlay of means, and 
to upbuild tho great and growing interests of one of the finest of American cities. 

The i;/fe/Mv'rc/fr/,(,,.A.— Indispensable to the .system of railway managou.ent, 
a valuable adjunct to the business man and the daily press, is the tcleu-raph. Its 
trausaetio.Li are a go.jd refi.'.v of the wealth and cmmcrcial pro-i>erity of the city. 
The first telegraph olhce opened in Rochester, between lal 1 and 1S45, W:ei 
hicated in the b:i.sei..'Ut of Congress Hall. It was opened by the New York, 
.\lbany and Rutlalo Telegraph Company, whose head.|uartcrs were in Utica. 
After a brief occupancy of this room the office was moved to R.^yiioHs' .\rcade, 
where, for a short tiuic, it occupi.-.l the rooms at the ii.jrth cii.l of the west gallery. 
Its next removal was to ro..m No. S, later in use as D. .M. Dow.ys bo.iksto're, and 
again, in lS50-oI, it wms transferred to No. 11. At this time the office was 
managed by George E. Allen, of I'tica ; and the first operator a young man 
named Barnes. Allen was succccd.,'d in 1S.')2 by S. S. Pellet, who had prcvi.msly 
been engaged as line repairer and assistant operator. Pellet was assisted by 
Kmuiet Allen, who served until January, 1S34. Mr. Pellet resigned the man- 
agement in December, 1853, and was succeeded by A. Cole Cheney, who has 
been operator and manager till the present tinie,^-a period of twenty-three yeara. 
Records prior to 1S53 were mislaid or lost. Assisted by Governor Henry R. 
Seiden and Judge Samuel Lee Seidell, IIent_\ OTuillj buili ai..! oig....i.ied the 
first section of the telegraph range of about eight thousand miles, whereby Phila- 
delphia, and other sea-board towns, were connected with all sections of the United 
.States, as then existing. The original name of the omanizatioii was the '.A.tlantie, 
Lake, and Mississippi Tel.graph Range," but the early papers of Rochester head 
their dispatches " O'Reilly's Telegraph." .Mr. O'Reilly is still engaged in the 
business of quickening and cheapening telegraphic correspondence. A. C. Cheney 
received five dollars and fifty' cents the first day of sup.rint.'nd.'nee in the olHce 
at Rochester ; the heaviest receipts any day in the month were nineteen dollars 
and eleven cents. The amount for the first inoutli was two hundred and 
twenty-seven dollars and sixty cents. The ofHce labor for the first six mouths of 
1S.54 was performed by Mr. Cheney and two mcssen'.'er boys. One assistant was 
IRrllished after this tilUMarch, 1S5C, ; increase of business rc.|uired the addition 
of another. In ISCO the New York, Albany and Bulhiio T.legraj.h Company 
WMS consolidated with the Western Uuion, the present cflicleut O'-ganization. 
More room was needed between 1S03 and ISOl. and the instruments were re- 
moved to a room on the upper gallery, over the present receiving office. The 
room Still above this was taken for a battery-room, and a tower, thirty feet high, 
was erected over it to receive the win-s from the street, through which they passed 
to the switeli-board in the operating-room. During 1Sj4 tlie numb.";r of mcs- 
satres sent from the Rochester oflice was 7012, and the number received was 
7ri00. The total CiLsh receipts f..r the same year were .Sl."i2:). 91. The number 


ved 1 

cash receipts were S3.-,,-U0.7G,_a niuc-fohl inercas 

e in twenty years. The li.rce in 

1S.-13 was the operator and the two messenger U.y: 

,; later w.i'fin.l a force of fifteen 

a&sist:ints and eight messenger boys. In lS.''i3 o 

nly five wires were used ; there 

were in 1S74 lUrty/onr on the switch-b..ard, r.'. 

liiirii...' sixteen instruments to 

work them ami four main br.tterics. George R 

., b.i,,k.kccper of the 

ssenger in ISlll, and delivered the fir.- 
uiichI King, then in practice here. 


OF KEFlllE. 

Man'.s inhumanity to h-ei coiintlcs.s«an.l< mourn, and his 
comfort to thousands, who may well ble.-s the b.Micvolcnt spirit of the agi-. The 


a wiLs thu nppropna- 
J, tho aflvantairna of 

The iJea of self- 
wliich buildin-j 

ifj with suporiit- 

primary provision conso<]itent upon the oriT'inizatio 

tion of funds to sujijinrt the pt^-ir, and n.-. populiitin 

a 8[H*cial iD:^titutiiji) uuder eflicicnt oHlciah hecatne apparent, 

support, so fur jw practicLiliie, li:d to thu porch, ne of a fjrm, uf 

were erected, in size eoraniensuralo with the d^-niand. and su] 

teudents of undoubtc-d iftialiiiijations. 

I7i" Monroe OmhIi/ I'vtr-lIuHs'. situatrd three miles foutheist fnun Rochester, 
was erected by th.? county in ISJit. It was ron>tnict»J uf brick, and waj cal- 
culated to acoommudate from seventy-five to one iiundred pnu]>crs. It was man- 
iged by five aupcrintendents. and had, in IS:^7, thirty-five oceupant-s. about twi-nty 
of whom were employed in useful labor. Population increased, and the buildiii;: 
became old and overcrnwdcd. Tlie rivin'.^ maniac, the youn;^ cliiM, the infirm 
old man, and the seducer's victim, were crowded in a building whose remem- 
brance mu.«c scvra painful. Humanity called for a removal of the child from 
baneful influences, and a scpamtion of the insane from the sane. In IS.jd a 
school was taujrbt by >Ii.-s Benclict. and ccntaineil some forty scholars. A scliool- 
hoiue was finished in IS.)!). It contiined two stories, the lower beim; for a schocd- 
room, the upper for a dormitory. Miss Gorton wxs employed as teacher, and MUs 
Flynn as assistant teacher. Jliss Pepper succeeded Miss Gorton, and Miss Flynn 
in turn became the teacher. 

In 1S60 a builJmg wa.s set apart for the infirm old laen. Year aflcr year the 
boildings became more dilapidated, and the report in favor of new buildings passed 
unheeded until early in 1S72, when the eomraissioner^ be.nin to act in a manner 
which set the future at rest upon this ((Ucstion. A bulldini couimitteo, com- 
posed of Patrick Malone, L. M. Otis. A. N. Whiting, Josiah Rieh, William W. 
Bruff, and A. Crittenden, was appointed, and a contract was made for new build- 
ings with George H. Thompson and John W. .McElhiuy, on February 23, 1ST2, 
for 859,600. The alm.=house was located midway between the insane asylum 
and the penitentbry, and. fifty feet south. The architect employed was J. R. 
Thomas. The entire cwt of the work was S72.94S-44. The building was con- 
fitruclcd of brlcK, pariitions being ol the same material, and the cornice of iron, 
thus rendering the structure nearly fire-proof It-s dimensions are one hundred 
and eighty-eight feet fronting on South avenue, with wings on the north and 
south ends, running ea.--t one hundred feet from the front wall, and furty-clght feet 
wide each. A hall eighty-five feet wide extendi through the centre of eiich. A 
third wing is situated back from the centre of the main building, in extent sixty- 
eight fe^t, !>nd width thirty feet. Twenty-two fe.;t am t»o stories, for kitchen 
and bake-rooms, the rcmainini; thirty-eii;ht f.-et are used for heating purposes. 
The main building is three stories high, with euiwla rising from the centre; the 
whole presents a cumely and handsome exterior. The basement is in as 
kitchen, dining-room, cellars, etc., while the first and second storic-a comprise the 
day apartments and a portion of the dormitories, the remainder being in the third 
story. The hospitals are situate<l in the wings, on the same fl'vtr. The wards 
aie heated by steam. There are bath-rooius on the first and third stories. The 
chapel is on the first floor. There arc acci'mmod.itions for 400 persi'^as, and the 
arrangemeots are all that could be desired. The number of paupers supported in 
1857 was 901 ; in ISoS, ll'-'l ; aud in \i-o'.\ 118.'. The number in the house 
on succes.'ive years on October 1, b^i'innin.- with 15.'>-'^, were 305 ; lS51t, 291; 
18Cq, 2G1; ISGI, 274; 1S71, 1S5; 1S74, LSI; and 1S75, ISj. Among the 
keepere were Collins, F. 11. James, and E. A. Of the chaplains have been 
H. A. Brewster, J. MandeviUc. Dr. Samuel Lucky, who died October 11. ISOO, 
J. V. Van Ingen, John E. B.iker. and (Jr-ir-- F. Linficld. Dr. Azel Backus is 
the present physician, and Gorg'- E. Mcfromnl, supcrint.-udent. The expenses 
for the year ending September iiO, 1,S7.J. were S-*1.701.I>1. Admitted during the 
year, six hundred and ninety paupers. Born in the hou*^.', thirty ; died, sixty ; 
diicharge-d, six hundred and seventeen ; tlir.e hun IreJ an.l forty-nine were natives 
of this country, and three hundred .o.d fourteen of Ireland. The institution will 
compare favorably with any otiier in the trtate. 

77i« J/.,/iroe OiiiHl'J LiMM- Asi//iini U an outgrowth of necessity, and a prac-tical 
exemplification of humane fe-eling. .V brief history of the in-^ane ptjor is full of 
interest. The primary effort to improve their condition was made by the gratit of 
» charter, in 1791, to the Xew York Itori'ital, aj.d an approjiriation from the 
legislature of two thousand dollars aninrilly for twenty years. Inmates were re- 
ceived of the pauper ela"! in .^I.iy, 1797. aud .seven persons were provided for 
.monthly during 179"^. .\n avera.-e of twenty-two were .inniially c.-»reii for, 
1797 to ISO:!, and the total of adiniviions f.r the interval was two hundred and 
6floen. A law wa.s pe-viod, in IsOli. inc: twelve thousand five huudreil 
dollar?, to be paid ipiarterly cv. till l>.'i7. to the New York Ilo.-pital, to 
provide "suitable ap.irtments tor m.inia'--*. to the variou-* forms and dc.n"ee'3 

«f insanity." A buildin'.: nf limited eapeity was c pli'-ed in l.SO.-^. and hither 

the oSieials of several counties soot if their |..iuper iii-rine, and sixty-seven pcrson.s 
were rcceive<l, two of whom had been conlined f.jr eighteen vears in the cells of a 

I common jail. This marks the com 

the treatment 

nineteen insane ; of these, thre 
hundred and eight were in j.n 
at large. A. law was p.LSsed ii 
Is, but the act was i._-norcd. Ii 

In 1825 the Slate conUained eight hundreJ 
hundred and sixty-three were s^-lf-aupportiug 
or poor-house, and three hundred and forty. 
1823 prohibiting the confinement of lunatics 
his message to the legislature, in 1S;!0, Governor Throop cilled speeiai 
to the pitiable suite of the insane poor, and recommended an asylum fur 
care and treatment. As a result, an act was passed on March M, l^'. 
izin? the erection of the State Lunatic Asylum at Utiea, and making 

priation thei 

a noble and 

The asylu 

Tears ; if no 


aleted January Itl, 134 

.tended work, rcsultii 
received patients frt 

in incalculable good to thousands, 
the poor-houses, and treated them for two 
en cured thev were remanded back to the, and new 
cases received. It therefore happened that some who were (|Uiet, and might ulti- 
mately have recovered at the asylum, when returned to the alrnshoiue became 
violent, and were chained as a measure of safety. A dependence was placed in 
the State, and appeals for relief to the insane were made in ISoO, by county su- 
perintendents of the poor, to the legislature, but no action followed. At this time, 
the condition of the lunatic poor, in the Monroe almshouse, was truly deplorable. 
There were thirty-.scven insane confined in thirteen cells. These cells were low, 
unventilated, and unwholesome, and in dimensions but four and a half by seven 
feet. In this small space were crowded as many as four persons, some of whom, 
wild and raving, were chained and handcufi^ed. There was no out-yard, and no 
guards to stoves to prevent solf-inflieted injury. It was resolved to erect a per- 
manent and convenient building especially for the insane. It was constructed at 
a cost of somewhat over three thousand dollars, during 1S56 and 1S.'p7. The 
first visiting committee. eon.M.'ting of Dr. P. G. Tobey, Henry Churchill. H. A. 
Brewster, and James H. Warner, pronounced the structure " in conception and 
completion a credit to the county."' Tiie bnilding wrt« opene-i tor pati-.uts :r. :!;c 
spring of 1857, and the aeconmiodations for forty -eight persons wore fully occupied. 
The institution was placed under the supervision and management of Colonel J. 
P. WicL'ins and wife. An addition was completed by October, 1S59, at a co.»t of 
820,791.57. The building committee were Messrs. Moore, Wau'ner, and Smyles. 
The wing thus erected was three stories, high and constructed of brick. There is 
a hall in each story. The b.Tsement conLiined kitchen, furnaec, etc. ; the first 
floor, a dining-room, parlor, and bed-rooms, and in the upper story are fourteen 
fine brge rooms for patients. This wing served more as an accommodation for 
the superintendent and employees than a relief for patients, and the forty-four 
rooms were speedily crowded, and several placed in the same room, while a num- 
ber were compelled for lack of room to remain in the almshouse. The ease was 
improved, but the increase of patients demanded like increase of room. The fol- 

statistM exhibit the number of in 
1859," fifty-two; 1800, fifty-nine; 1861, 
sixty-three. This year there were twenty-five i 
each cell. There were seventeen Monroe Couu 
the insane of the countv for the year was eighty 
warden, and Charles C." H. Jliller was the physic 
untiring friend and worker for the poor for a 

i on October 1 of each year : In 

nty; 1SG2, seventy-five; 1803, 

cells in which there wen- two in 

iity insane poor at I'tica. so that 

•F. Wallace was in charge as 

ui. Dr. Samuil Lucky was an 

umber of years. The need of 

but unheeded, w 

y-four lunatics; 1 SCo. seventy : 1806, 
:hty-nine; 1SC9, eighty-seven; and in 

better accommodations was annually st: 
tinually increased. There were in 1SG4 i: 
seventy-three; l.'^G7, eighiy-threc; 180.5 
1870. eighty-eight. Two to four had been confined in a single room, and the demand 
for relief became imperative. A wing was erected in 1870. giving accommodations 
for twenty-five patients. The number of inmates arose in 1871 to one hundred, 
while there were rooms for but .seventy with single occujunts. In 1S72 a n.ain 
building w;i3 erected, at a cost of eiglitccn thousand dollars. This building is 
of thrc-e stories, and has a Mansard roof It gave a supply of forty-one rooms. 
Various improvements for heating, water-supi>ly, and other essentials, have made 
the cost of construction about fitly thou.sand dollars. The patients in the asylum 
October 1, 187.'!, were one hundr.'d and forty-three; 1874. one hundred and 
forty; and in 1>*75, one hundred and forty. The cost of maiulenance. including 
repairs on buildings, of each patient, is two dollars and thirty-four eeiit.s per 
week,— a rare showing, and much to tie' credit of M. L. Lord. .M.U , the w.ardcn 
and phy«ieian since 1803. The institution hxs a wide reputation for excellent 

compos,',! of Messrs. Henry Chuicliill, J. W. Crai-,-, and Charles S Wr.ght. 

The Mourne C'wity I'cnUr.u:,,,;, had its orlL-iii in the ule.i that the al.le.l....lied 
should contribute to their ,.wn .-m| p.,rt. and weuld be belter prepare.l f,.r lV.ed..m 

as 1820, 
lief. In 

nflictetl I 
,, Joshu 

Coukey, Sa 

Ezra Ii. True, and Le*is 



Solya KLT. 

uti-il a cniiuittce fur tlie i 
builJin^:! w;u 8'JJ.707.l 
h. R. Brockwuy, a juji^iuiu li 
tnd the institution bt'gan business with 
1854 was over iVMI. The expenses 
leaving, to conuncnco the year, but little ove 
hundred and fiflj-lour cuiiimitnicnts, of «hc 
eignera. In 1839, two worlishops were c 
thirty-two cells. The total expemlitun 
while the ioeonie was eighty dullare per • 

Tecti"!! of a vork-house. The contract 
10. Ninety-two cells were suitably fur- 
lanajer, was appointed superintendent, 
a caj^ital of 37000. The income for 

till a.-t„ber 1. 1S.0 

•■ere S7l;i 

of barrel-making was chanc;i 
wjs continued as the chief c 
so. The policy of r 


5ni lour hun.lred and ninety were for- 
ed. and a south wini^ was built having 
bed tiic sum of SU7.4-.'3.53, 
he till of ISUO, the business 
; of finLshin;; staves; Work in the shoe-shop 
int. and all v.ho could l.abor were called to do 
from other countii^ was found advantageous 
u,d continued. The total ineome for ISiiO wa.s Si2.7l'0.3(l, a i/ain of S3:;o5.23, 
and the second instance in hi-;tory of realizin; a profit from a penal iu-titutiou. 
Messrs. L. ti. K. Churchill contracted for five years, from April 1, ISOO, for labor 
in the shoe-shops; Hayden Sc Bromley, for three years, from June 1, ISjO, for 
fenuiie labor iu chali ■.'.o;:. , ....t I''i I'lge '^^dV-.,-,...,.,! fjr bjrr-lwnrk as 
early as the spring of IS.JG. Contracts have boon made, and various manufao- 
turt« attempted, from time to time, as they seemed to promise profit. lu IStii, 
tn addition was made to the cooper-shup, and a warehouse, fifty-five by one hun- 
dred feet, was constructed. 

On the 5th of January, 1SG3, a fire broke out and destroyed buildings and 
material to the amount of nearly twenty thousand dollars. The buildings were 
replaced at once by others. Ag.iin, on the ni^ht of October 1, ISGS, a fire de- 
stroyed the frame warehouse and other structurtrs and damaged the shops. The 
loss was over t«n thousand dollars. In ISGC new dry-houses were built, of brick 
with stone foundations. A reservoir of one hundred and fifty thousand gallons' 
cap-"-ify was ennstruetcd. and a well of Sve-inch diameter was bored a depth of 
one hundred feet. In 1873 a two-story brick workshop, one hundred and eighty 
by thirty-four and a half feet, was built on the site of a former pail and tub fac- 
tory, at a cost of nine thousand dollars. The penitentiary proper is a four-story 
-brick building with two wings. The north wing has cells for males, the south 
wing for females. One story of the latter comprises the female department for 
the manufacture of shoes. A high brick wall, inclosing shops, bounds the prison 
yard. Upon this wall sentries are stationed during the day. and when prisoners 
arc locked in their cells at night, the guards are tianil'erred to the halls as a meas- 
ure of precaution. The discipline of the institution imposes silence, non-inter- 
course, hard labor, and deference to officers. Terms being short, the inmates are 
changed about three times annually. The highest number remaining in the in- 
stitution on Octolicr 1 any year was in IStj.), when there were two hut^dred and 
ecventy-sii. The average number h;i3 been fxo hundred and twenty. 

The income of the p. niK-ntiary tor the year ending September ;;o, 1S75, wjs 
$U04.48 less than the current and amounted to 820,771.70, and was 
derived principally from the tub and pail factory and shoe-shop. The number of 
prisoners in confinement for the year was twelve hundred and sisty-four, and there 
Wert one hundred and forty-nine in the institution on September 30, 1375. 
Ninety per cent, of commitments were of intemperate persons, and over seventy 
per cent, were of persons unmarried. The cost per day for each prisoner was 
twenty-eight centa. There was an average of one hundred and twelve men em- 
ployed in the shoe-shop, and an al 

L- R. Brockway served three i 
take charge of the Detroit Hou; 
Ci.nnectiiut, ably supplied his pla 

cmpt is being made to employ a number of the 

rms as superintendent, and then 
of Correction. Captain William 
1 during the last of his unexpired I 

ned to 

ard, of 


tain Levi S. Fulton long and elKciently tilled the position, which rei|uires peculiar 
<|ualificatlon3. Alexander McWIuirter is the present superintendent. Benjamin 
K. Gilkeson, a former physieun, was succe-rded by Dr. J. I". Whitbcck. Rev. H. 
.\. Brewster first serve-i as chaplain, gratis ; Dr. Samuel Lucky served till his 
death, October 11, l.SG'J ; and Rov. Julin Parker has satisfactorily performed the 
duties of the office since. The board of in^iwlors for 1S73 were Patrick Barry, 
H. Mal.ine, Homer C. Ely. and Russell C. Bates. They report " excellent disci- 
pline, rigid economy, unusual good health fnjm exceeding cleanliness and good 

ur juvenile dclim 
llcnee. The act r 

Th^ W.^.rn lhu.eof Ref„r,. 
I>l^•h nputation and undoubted e 
• 1- p.i-ed May S. 1S4G. C.muii.-.sioners w 
fi*-! u|M.a the one now occupied. Fifteen a 
'nior, lieutenant-governor, and comptroller, I 
U-" .ime (heir duty to appoint a supcrintcnde 
thiny-.i^ht boys w.rc received during I^i4'J. 

I h*alcd ( 


a reform school of 
nuthorizini; Its establishment 
piiintcJ U> scloct a site, anJ 
a were apfMiint*.'il by the ^'ov- 
c without couipcnaatiun. It 
uilJin-s were L-miplL-ted ;ind 

aluable land, and hta a mile aud a 

high, furmod of 

ornamented witli 

Korhcstor A wall, tv.-.-oty-tw.i fctt in hui'.-ht^ ir.c!o^c9 sir 
upon which the biiildinL'3 sUind. A st,:>ckiiJi; f-jn^-o, uine feet 

cedar posts connected by iron ro",!,-!, incloses twenty acres, while 

in acres arc used as pasturage. Walks, play-grovuid^, and lawns 
trees and shrubbery give beuuly to the phicc and ci.niCuri to the 

centre buildini,' of tlio house prupor fruuts tlie eit^t, and is elu'lity- 

ty d.vp, an 

north and i 


ght above the basement, 
ch one hundred and forty, 
eight above the ba-S-JUien 

feet long, thirty-two I 
cepting the siiuare towers at the extremities, which are three stories in li(i_ht. 
The whole front of the buildings is three hundred and eighty-two feet in len-lh. 
Two other wings of similar dimensions, extendini: directly westward, connect with 
the front at the extremities, in the basement of the centre' building are kitchens, 
dining- and store-rooms for the superintendent and subordinate olTiciuls. On the 
first floor arc the parlor and visiting-rooms of the superinten.lent. manager^' room, 
and the ofiice. On the seennd floor are rooms for the superintendent's fauiilv and 
for the assistant superintendent, and on the third floor, occupun'.; the area uf the 
bnildin-, b the chapel, ne;itly arranged and affording abundant room fjr five Im.i- 
dred persons. In the basement of the north wing is a washin..; fuii.i-lied 
with a plunging bath twenty feet long by fifteen feet wide and three and a rpiarter 
deep, with a perforated steam pipe passing around on the bottom, to warui the 
water on bathing days, and with water-jiipes so arranged that each can wash under 
running water free from interruption. Thf.-ro Ls a large store-room on this win^-. 
On the first floor is a laundry, seamstress' room, and apartments for officers and 
employees. The northwest wing has in the basement a spacious dining-rootn with 
cook-room adjoining, a band-roo:'i, reading-room, and, on the first floor, a fine 
school-room. The basements and first floors of the south and southwest wings 
have rooms for w.ishing. dining, cooking, and school, corresponding to thost* on 
the north sid^, also a sewing-room for the repair of clothing. The upper floors 
of all the wings are used as dormttones tor the inmates. 

In the northwest and southwest corners of the inclosure are two brick-built 
workshops, each forty-five by one hundred feet, three stories in heiiht, and atfording 
ample room to employ five hundred boys. The hospital on the south side of the 
premises is of brick. Its dimensions are thirty-three by forty-one feet, and two 
stories above the basement. The ceilings arc ^ixteen feet high, and the building 
is ventilated and heated on the most approved plan. A fireproof boiler hnuse 
stands in the rear of the centre building. It is thirty-two by forty-two het. ceil- 
ing twelve feet in the clear, walls of brick and stone, roof iron, and chimney eighty- 
five feet high, with a forty two inch fine. The b...iler house contains three tubular 
boilers, each of twenty-five-horse power. The main pipe from the boiiers i.> the 
basement hall is five inches in diameter, and branches in every direction. There 
are thirty thousand linear feet of pipe in use, distributed through a million oibic 
feet of space. Even temperature aud thorough .ventilation are amply .■secured. 
The whole number of boys received into the house since its opening, Auirust 11, 
1849, is four thousand two hundred and eighty-seven. Of this number three 
thousand eight hundred and firty-scven have been discharged. The nniut.K'r of 
boys in the institution on January 1, 1875. was three hundred and ci^'hty six. 
The number received during the year was two hundred and twenty-nine. 
Discharged by order of committee, one hundred and seventy; by certiorari 
and appeal, one; escape<l, one; died, three. Remaining on December 31, 
1875, four hundred and forty. The total receipts for the last year were 673.L'^.').13; 
total disbursements, 587,312.11. The overdraft was met by a balance of SI ."lOOO 
in the comptroller's hands, remaining of the appropriation for the institution for 
the year 1873. The earnings of the boys were over -318,000. Messrs. Brooks 
and Reynolds employed one hundred and forty boys in the manufacture of ladies' 
shoes, and Messrs. Charles I. ilayden i Co. employ one hun.lred and twcnty-ftvc 
boys in cane- and flag-seating chairs. All the boys arc engaged in labor of some 
kind in and about the institution. The boy.s are in school wmicwhat less than 
three hours each d.ay, and receive instruction in the common branches and in 
iiistory, philostiphy aud book-keeping. The attend.ance upon services iu tlo' chapel 
is marked by a cheerful and h-arty performance of their part. The demeanor is 
earnest; the sin'.'ing is notably good. The s.anitary record of the institution has 
been generally favor.ible. Time and the means foramusement are amply be>toWLsl. 
A reading-room is stocked with choice mag.izines and periodicals, and rnilir.iry 
drill teaches the necessity of order, promptness, and regularity. The institution is 
not designeii lijr puni.-'hmeiit, but reformation. A system uf badges is in vo'jue. 
The badge of the graduating class is a (ierman silver .«hield, with a silver .oit of 
arms of New York Sl.ite in the centre of its face, surroun.led by the words, 
" Western House of R.fuge. " " Kxcelsior."' Before leaving the in^litulton. a 
good home, with a sati-f'ietury evi-lenee of prop-r care, instruction, and employ- 
ment is provided, either by friend.s or by tiie institution. 

Ojjwera. — The present board of managers, in three classes, five in each, aro 


■used *3 followi: Fimt class— William Otis. Jerome Kov.-.. William Purall, 
Wm. C. Sbvtoa, and V.'illiaTn N. t-a.-c. .Sec-)n.l clasj— Willi:i:n C. Rowley, 
•WfllLim H. Bri-,-„~i, l::ra R \nirev.-., 1".,no, and ;>L.:tinier F. RcvdoUi. 
Thinl c'.aas — Julin O'Donohui?, Gorgu J. Whitnty, Louis Clupio, Loais Em^t, 
tad CharUa H. MoncU. 

Oficm r./ ihe B'.ard.—deoT^fL 3. M'hitney, pri->i.lent ; ChirU-s H. Monell 
ud Wlu. Purccll, first and sccmd 7i.M-pr.>Md'ont5 ; William C. R.mley, i^-r^- 
tary and trca-iircr. Ruildln? and r. pair ctjcimittce: Gf-irL-c G. Whitney, John 
CDonohuc, and M. F. Reviiolds. Vi.itin- »-mavMv^ . Wi.i. Olij. K. 11. Ad- 
d.tw3, William C. Slayton, and P. M.ilone. Di-charaD- cr.mmitti-e : Wm. U. 
Briggs, Loui* Ern.'t, and Loui.1 Ch.ipin. School committee : William FurcoU, 
P. MaJone, and Jerome Kejea. Eieeutivo comioittee ; Jerome Kcyea, Louis, M. F. Keynolda. E. u' Androwi. and Wu.. C. Ko^vl.y. 

Ogictri of the Uoute. — Suporintcnd-nt. L-ri S. Fulton ; asjisUnt superin- 
teodent, Francii A. D.ikcr ; phyiician, Az.-l Baikua ; chaplain. Dr. T. C. R'.'ed : 
CsthoUc chaplain. Rev. Geo. I. O.hoin. 

&At»&.— Fin,t division: Rohcrt O. Fulton. princip:il ; Eliza J. Allen, 
usisSint; AdJie L. AWid, i« ; i[r«. S. J Xijliol-?. 
taclicr. P:c,^..l rV..y.„. W:r. If Wl-k'u^, ; :^ci,^^' . T.. Maria AIIc^l, 
tasistanl; Mary Gillman, asiiitant ; Anna Thomas. a.siUtant. Anna M. Hol- 
le&back, priueip.d of primary departiuent. fnit division. Elizabeth A. Taylor is 
malroQ, and there are a score ot" employees otJieiating in various capacities. 

Jhnale DepnitiMnt. — By the ori_'inal act. young persons of both sexes were 
to be provided for in the Western House of Refuge. A subsequent act desig- 
o«Ced boys alone as inmates. The nri:ent need of a like inititution for girls be- 
eamj apparent, and rcsulttfd in the passai-e of an act authorizing the managers of 
the House of Refuge to erect and furnish i female department, to be of size to 
•ecommodate one hundred girls, and to be located on the farm belonging to the 
State, iiid under the managers of the existing institution. The act was passed 
>I»T 3, 1ST5, and specified that the buihiing should not mv^f r/. eT~.«l ST.i iiiiO, 
and that three of the board of managers should he appointed a building committee 
to superintend its erection. .\t a regular mettin-.; of the board, held May 3, 
George J. Whitney, Jerome Keyes, and Willi.mi Purccll were appointed and 
authorized to procure plans from three leadinir architects. Three plans wcr« sub- 
mitted, and that of Charles Cools adopted by the committee, and duly 
approved. The contract w;is awarded to Gcor.:e H. Thompson, his bid boing the 
Jowet, and a contract was executed and approved on August 30, 1S75. Ou 
S'?ptemher 1 the ground was broken, and on iVtober 4. 1S70. op-.-ning ceremonies 
»eTe held. Two girls from Rochester became the nrst inmate-*, and others are 
being gathered in. A certificate of the completion of the work was filed with the 
governor, who, on October 2. ISTC, issued a proelamalion authorizin_- courts in the 
fborth, fifth, siith, seventh, and eighth judicial di.^tricts to send female delinquents 
to the Iloa^e of Refuge for juvenile dolin(|Uenis- The building is in the Norman 
Itjle of architecture, having a fiont.ige of two hundred and seventy-six feet ou 
Bickus avenue. The main building is t'orty-six feet wide by fifty feet deep, with 
a rear addition thirty-six by twenty-two feet. The eonnectin- wings are eighty 
feet long by forty feet deep, and the two main win-.-s are thiriy-threc feet wide by 
fcrtj.six feet deep. The centre butlJin- is four 'tnries in height, and the different 
wings are three stories. A basement nine fe-.'t in the clear ruD< through the entire 
tutlding. The foundations arc laid with Albion stone, and the structure of brick. 
The basement is divided into store-celUrs, and in each wing is a p!.iy-room. The 
first floor of the centre building is given to general office pnrp.-ise3, and includes a 
bath-room. In each wing are wort-, school-, and diuing-PX)ms. The height of 
the atory Is thirteen feet. The second finor of the main building is in use as 
ileeping-roonis and for oSic-es, and over the kitchen Ls the laundry. The wings 
are a^ as dormitories. This story is twelve feet. The third floor is the same as 
the aeeood, except that the hospitals are in each main wing, and the rhapcl over 
the laundry. The fourth floor of the main biiilJin: is used as a dormitory. The 
builder, and all eonccrnc^l, performed their pans in an efticient, -ub<t.intial manner, 
and it is a matter of con'.:nitulation that in the various charitable and reformatory 
.institutions of Rsche-'ter and iU vicinity, so gi'nernus prnvLsion of means has 
been et^iuled by so faithful and beneficial application of them. 


ritii,-ns were of the U-st a. 

supplies, and themselves volunteering to nurse the gallant sick and wounded ih 
thedrcadc-d and dre.idful hospital and battl,;-6cld. The history of Monro.: in th* 
rebellion would to a grap'hic reit.rd of the war i.i the cost, and lo Ir.iee marvh 
c.inip. and battle of all woulil make a v.iluaMe library. That some organizaiioas SnJ 
slicht mention is the result of inability to find reliable authority, and is no rei,.»- 
tlon np.iti their action. The men of Monroe were brave men, and oneopganiiatl.fl 
may find itself rellected in the de^p.;rate and heroic struggles dc-^-.rib.d of aooth-r 
As the Union was seen imi»crilcd and a war ineviuble, Monroe put torth h»T 
strength. The towns and the city vied in gallantry, and within fillccn noitt. 
over forty org-anizcd companies had h«n rai-e^l, and a total of nearly five th..ii^>l 
men. Therc*had gone out in the Thirteenth Regiment nine companies, and bnn. 
drcds li^er joined to fill up their depletcil ra^ks; the Tif enty-siith. two companies f 
the Twenty-seventh, one company ; the Fifty-sixth, two ciimpinies; the Thiny- 
third, one company; the Eighty-ninth, one company; the One Hundiclth. ote 
company; the One Hundn-d and Fifth, three companies; and for the Eicci>». r 
brigade, three companies. In the Eighth Caval.-y were throe companies, a lite 
number in the Ira Harris Guards, and one or more companies in D.iubK-day', 
.\rtillery and in the Van Buren Infantry ; and there was the L Battery of the 
Fii>v New York -Vrtillery, besides .-nuaJi of men for many other regimeuts. As 
it became apparent that yet stronger exertions must be made, retruitingwas rovie 
the businc^is of the day ; a camp was estahli.-heil at Rochester, war-meetings were 
held in villages and city, and hundreds enrolled to turn back Lee's columns from 
the Northern soil. 

A full regiment of twelve hundred and sixty-three men, and known as the On* 
Hundred and Ei-'lith, with a battery and o>mpany of sharpshooters included, was 
raised in Monroe before the 1st of :«cpteniber. and close following their departore 
for the front, a regiment known as the One Hundred and Fortieth was rapi.JIy 
organized in this county and hurried to the field. Regiments in the field were 
'ari^jly recruited, and the Thirty-third alone receiveii two hundred and forty meo 

four counties of the State had filled their quotas in the givca time; those four 
were Cayuga, AVayne, Franklin, and .Monroe ; the last had raise-i by volunteering 
three thousand one hundrci and twelve men. 

The Vartemth iVf c York VuhnlcfrB were organiied at Rochester. Eight 
companies arc credited to the city, one to Brockp.)rt, Company K, and one to 
Oansville, LivincT'ton county, Company B. Their colonel I. F. Qnimby. a 
professor of Rochester University, and a graduate of West Point. Lieutenant- 
colonel, E. G. JIarshall; major, D. M. Dewey; and among the captains were meo 
who rose to high positions in l.tter organizations. The regiment departed for 
Elmira on May 3, and were mustered into rervice on May !4. fur a period of ttr-c 
months. Clothed in a handsome suit of gray and presented with a beautiful stawJ 
of colors, on the part of J. H. Martindale for the ladies of .Monr.^' County, they 
.-el out for Washington M.w 20, and, with the Twelfth New York, p.isse-j ihrnngh 
Baltimore on the next day, beini the first volunteers to reach that city alVr the 
attack on the Massachusetts Sixth. On June 3 they crosse<J the Potomac and 
encamped at Arlington Heights. Trivial aff.iirs were noted tVom aoveUy. Jisopcc- 
f ,rts were felt, and the plaudits of the press were repeated wich pride, frar, 
went by with drill and review, and the men were gratified to be nrme-i with Re- 
mington rifles. The Thirteenth were l,rii.-aded with the .Seventy-ninth and Siitr- 
iiinth Now York and .Second Wisconsin, under General Sherman, in the divisioo of 
General Tyler. On July 16 the army was on the move. the troops «upplicd wiih 
three d.iys' tuitions. The brigade bivouacked the first night at Vienna, distant 
ten miles. Next d.iy the advance was continued slowly to and beyond Fairfax. 
and on the 19th a halt was being made at Centrevillc. A skinui-h to.ik place on 

the 16th adverse to the Un 
enemy, strongly posted on 

i with 

Run, V 

:Tard. At 

5l0!<it0E was true for the I 
diets, her pros was chi 

ing and devol.d, her war i-nnuMitt«\.-s were indefatii^ablc 
ia -exertion, and her daughters were seen pRsenling colors, g.ithering honpital 

hills alo 
two A..M. of the 21st of July the troops were called to arms, and the 
m.irchcd five miles and halted a mile from the " mn." Orders came at ten .v M. 
1.. adv.ancc acro.-^ the stream. The men dt-hcd intnand through the water, loudly 
cheerins, and ascending a hill eau-.'ht the first Jimp« of the enemy an.l L-ave 
them a volley. Firing and cheering, the rc-.nment reached and pa.s.<..-d the l»-«l.i-» 
of men killed or wounded, and ascending a s.-eond hill lost two men fn.m C.m- 
pnny C, cimmandt-d by Ca] 
a.s support l.) a battery bee: 
"troop* rush forwanl up th 
kick." Again called to act 
up a hillside t,. the vicinity ..f a slon.- l,...i-e.cncounter,-.l a s.-r, re fire, whi, h 
relumed with vijor. The colors wen- b..l,lly ,,y.-l. and -..-n..!..- . •, 
proving too stmn.-. the line fell back t-j -h.her, while a l.-iy ■■( i. ■lorlv 

inent w,tc ,n_-:.L-e.l sun-.-s.sfully when or. I. re. 1 tc rctr.nt. and wen- aiu..n-,- the 
to leave the field. When they reached the pjnic.stri.jkcn horde ab.jul aoJ b. j 

ators of the new scenes of war. Th 
e. fall on their (lie. loiul, rise, fire, a 
• fih-d alon.,' the valley and adv 


into pu'iiM anJ f^H back to \\'a>h 


f enlistment wllj fijr thrcMj 
perio'J, and many a good 
mutin<;er3, who, had thev 

Ih.. loss in ai 
en wounded, and seventeen nnSMng. Tl.g "Th: 

allautry, and ibe eulonel proved hU fitness to command. 
\\'a.-'hiii;:tun, a serious question arose, whether the time of ei 
mouths or two years. Government decided the la'tui 
loldier re^irded tho act unjust. Some were treated a; 
Uvo proiiiptlv discharged, would have a^iu entered the service with wiliin-^ mind 
Hid unclouded name. 

The fall and winter pasitcd away inactive, save drill, review, and picket, and with 
upriu" the army advanced on Manaa.-as to find it abandonefl. The Thirteenth 
Were iranslerrcd by transport to Yorktown, and took part in the sie^jo. On May 
4 a detiiil of two hundred men of the regiment, and a part of the Twenty-second 
M;L-.<ax-hu-^tts, were sent on picket, aad soon diseovere-i that tlie enemy had evac- 
uaii-d. The men deployed, advanced, and by five a.m. of the 5ih of Jlay were 
within the relxl works. Various movements fjilowed, and resulted in the com- 
uiand beinj; embarked upon the steamer ■• Hen)' and taken up York river. On 
the Sth the meu were lauded upon tl;<. uauii of '.he iiver and \,'''rt in^.^ cnmp. 
On the nioining of May 27 reveille wns blown at daylight, and the bri^'adc set off 
in drenchin;; rain, carryin;:; rations and rubber b'aukeis. Twelve miJes in the 
idvaDce, a halt was made to buUd a bridge for the passage of artillery, and again 
the march was resumed, and two hours later the battle-ground of Uanover Court- 
House was reached. The brigade continued on a mile and a half to destroy a 
bridge, and returned to find the enemy attempting to turn the Union let1; flank. 
The Thirteenth formed line behind the Forty-fourth New York with cheers. Skir- 
mishers were thrown forward, and an advance was made across a plowed lot, a 
piece of woods, and half-way across a corn-field two rebel regiments advanced and 
u{»cned fire. The men dropped, returned a volley, and then bc^an to load and 
fire at ^i!!. Flft^H-n mlntite.-i pa^.^eil. and the enemv were seen leaving the field 
on n double-quick. Ninety-one prisoners were taken and turned over to General 
Porter, and one hundred and twenty-seven dead and wounded were found on the 
field. On iMay 31 reveille aronsed the men at two a.m. ; they fell in and marched 
to Caincs' Mills and took position up.jn a hill within view of the Chickahominy. 
Next day the men in Hue stood under a scorching sun by the river, while the 
engineers constructed a bridire to cross it. On June 5 the regiment, with aic or 
spade, assisted the Fiftieth New York uponthe bridge, while a score of men were 
deployed in a swamp, waist deep in water. Relieved, and clothes were dried, a 
ration of whLiky taken, and rest enjoyed. Health wa3 never p.xirer, never so few 
reported for duty as at this time. Duty knew little intermission, and on June U 
> company drill was called. Here the men, from a camp commandingly placL-d, 
saw in the distance to the right the rebel pickets, and daily awaited the advance 
and the battle which should give them Richmond. E 
19 the regiment were gent down U]>on the Chickahoiui 
to Cold Harbor, five miles away, to guard against an espectcd attack. On Jlon- 
Jay, the 21sl, the enemy, from a battery in the woods, opened on the bridge- 
buildera; but a battery of tw<.niy-pound pieces to the right soon silenced them. 

Tuesd.ny, at midnight, tents wore struck, knapsacks packed, and a march made 
til Mi-ch^inicsville with no result. Other marches followed, and on June 27 the 
Thirtei'tith were hotly engaged, and inflicted a loss upon the enemy double their 
own numhrr, and likewise sutfcred very severely. On July 3 Jackson had at- 
i:.<k.d the right, and the Thirteenth, wi'th its briWde, were stationed in a ravine 
a." a Bupport. Trees wore felled and rails gathea'd, and a barricade was rapidly 
formed. A rebel regiment, the Fifth Tcuntssee, made an attack, and was ihlvcn 
baik with the loss of their colors and many men. A mov..-d to the at- 
iJ'k, and the fighting was continuous and deU!rniincd. The enemy closing upon 
the aaiiW compelled the re-iment to fall back to the flats. A number of men 
i-t'i-pj by the colors and attempted to kc-p the line steady. The re'-irucut lost in 
kill..,!, wounded, and missing one hu.idrcd and one men, and cros.--d the Cliicka- 
h..ininy with a loss of everything >avj arms and accoutrement.-*. wa'.ron3, and bag- 
(.■»gi-. Retreat was made to the James, where, at Malvcru Hill, the fighiing was 
d'-«p«Tale, and the Thirteenth lost four kilic<i and fifty-five woundcHl. The army 
rt-iDovcd to Harri.son'3 Landing, and threw up works and lay several wei'ks in 
amp. An attack on Au'.'Ust 1 from a rebel battery across the river resulted in 
id from a shell to Samuel Ikmis, of L'omp.aiiy E. The regiment 
ngthcncJ by tho return from the prisons south of thirty men, and the 

ng of June 
I pnxeeded 


val of William I)owncy with a company of eighty-one 

and hod an 

llarrivon , Landing w.lh 
*• id-, were cmhark.-d on 
U-.d.d. I..,iiy l,.ng and = 
•"■nth is found on picket ; 
J^y wu c..t.i ludeil at sii 

A"-ust H, and returning over firmer battlc- 
irts, and taken up to Ai|uia creek, and there 
iirclies followed, and on Au^l.-t 21! the Thlr- 

rcveille at two a.m., and a long ma 
mile of Manassas junction, and fol 
stint cannonade. At half-past sevt 

eh under a hot sun brought them to within a 
the few miles within h.-aring of a con- 

n A.M. of the 2'Jth, the regiment toot up its 
line of march fortlie battle-field, and being depli>y«l and advanced a.s skirmishers, ' 
remained through the night succeeding on picket. They were called in at day- 
light, and marched towards Ceiitreville, piusin-.' over the Bull Run battlc--ground. 
An attack made by the enemy upon the left wing of the Union lines was pressed 
so vigorously that the regiments gave way, and at this moment a charge was 
made by the Thirteenth, which swept up a hill-side under a galling and destruc- 
tive fire from front, right, and left. The loss was fearful. All the color-guard 
were wounded, and the flag was rent by balls. To remain was destruction, and 
amid a rain of balls tho rc^gimciit retired in some disorder, having lost twenty- 
nine killed, eighty-feur wounded, and Ibrty-seven missing, makins a total of one 
hundred and si\ty lost from a force of three hundred and seventy which went 
into action. A few days of rest were enjoyed, and on September G soft bread 
was drawn for the first time since leaving the James river. Next morning march- 
ing wa3 resumed at two, and having traveled fifteen miles to go ten direct, the 
men went into camp at Fairfax Seminary, and so far from e.xliausting them, the 

their frn 



body of recruits from Monroe, while en route to join the Thiitocnth. were involved 
in a railroad accident on the Baltimore and Ohio road, and fourteen men lost to 
the regiment. On September 8, the Thirteenth moved to a camp near Washing- 
ton, where they remained till the 12th. when they once more made a departure, 
and marching through Clarksville and Urbana, crossing the Monocacy river, they 
proceeded through Middlctown, and by niirht of September 15 had reached 
Boonsville. The battle of Antietam was fought, and Lee was jiad to regain 
Virginia. The Thirteenth lay all day in reserve, and, at one A.M. of .September 
18, cros.sed Antietam creek, and advancing to the -crest of tho hitl. rtjlieved the 
Thirty-s'xfh Ohio, and while deploying a picket line wore subjected to a lively 
fire. The shots became less frequent, and dnaiiy ceased, and as morning came, 
the wounded called out that tiie rebels had gone, and asked our men to come and 
bring them in. The brigade advanced toward the Potomac over the battle-field, 
and halted a half-mile from the river, and lay idle for several "lays. In a movement 
across the stream, on the 20th, the regiment with its brigade advanced about a 
mile from the ford, where they threw out a line of pickets, which were violently 
a.s.>ailed by a heavy rebel force, a pijrtion of them captured, including thirteen 
men of the Thirtijenth, and the entire command imperiled. Orders to retreat 
were given by Colouel Marsh.all, and the brigade retired the stream under 
the protection of the Union batteries, and rallied in the woods on the northern 
bank. No motive other than a rcconnoissance seems to have incited this move- 
ment, so disastrous to a portion of the regimeut. In camp at S!iepard-,town on 
the 21st of September, and called to go on picket on the Maryland side of the 
Potomac for tweoty-tbur hours, the command was relieved at three r.M. of the 
23d, to fall into line as a support of Griffith's brigade, and for a week the picket 
and daily drill occupied the time. On September iiO the regiment was reinforced 
by the companies of Captains Abbott and Downey, numbering one hundred and 
fifty men, and raising its effective strength to nearly five hundred men. Various 
changes of camps, coupled with picket duty, occupied the time till October '-J. 
New shelter tents had been supplied, and the Remingtons had been e.\cluing-.'d 
for Springfield rifles. The Potomac was crossed on the olith, upon a bridge laid 
by the ILmous Fiftieth ,Engin-.'ers, and the men looked curiously at the old 
engine-house where John Brown, with a score of men, bid dcfi.ince to the State 
of Virginia, as they marched through the villiigo, then a vast sutler-camp, and 
took their w.iy over the Shenandoah upon a second bridge, and went into camp on 
the Leesburg turnpike, about five miles from Harper's Ferry. On November I 
tho regiment turned out to muster, consolidate, and assign companies. Old Com- 
pany U was put in D, and their place taken by Captain -Abbott's men. Company 
K was put in G, and Captain Downey's men formed a new K company, and a 
large number of promotions Were announced. Next morning the regiincnc set 
out at six towards Leesburg, and turning to the right, completed a nincty-eight- 
mile march bv six P,M., and bivouacked a mile from Snickerville, towards wliich 
the division under Butterfield had conc.Miir.iied in expect.ition of an attack. But 
a day or two p.isscd, and on November ,') the regiment were called at four A. H., and 
at break of day set forth upon a march t-j Warrcntun. The march of nevent.-cn 
miles continued through Middlcbury, and a halt was made four miles beyond. 
Continuing the march at daylight, th- weather became stormy, and snow fell in 
con-siderablc quantity; the e.iiup was in.idi; for the night in the woods near U liiti; 
Pbina, Following the line of raiiroid throu-h New U.iltimore, camp w:i3 made 
three miles from Warrentoii, where the re-.:ini'eiit lay some time. Undoubted evi- 
dence of iiical-.i.-ily on the p.irl of .\Ic('l.-llan. and of by his Sllbord- 

command of the .\.rmy of the I'ocom.ic. The change was unpopular with tho 



ttoa(«, ind tha now leader it onco mnJe umniremenls to m.irch upon Frcdericlts- 
biirg. The del:iy in aitaclc enabled I^je and Juck^on to ocrupy ^nj fnnit'y the 
hci^htj, whence tr.'y ;rr!aily ob- rvoi! the approaching mass.h3, and ailcntlj allowed 
iLcm to u'.iiio tlii-ir crosiMni. 

On Dteeinbcr 1 th.; entire bricnde were ordered on picicet, aarched twelve 
oila, remiiQcd over ni^hf and murneil to Mmp neit raorninz. Pays passed in 
tipecUtion till D.ecaibcr II, when the m-n fell out to rolU-a!l at four a.m., 
ftruck tents, packed up, and were on the mareh at dayliL-ht towards Falmouth. 
All day they by within ai-ht of FreJerl.'k--hur:7, and before djrk move.! for the 
Bight into 1 pi -co of woods, rais.^ tenn. and enjoyed a :ro.5d rest. Roil-call at 
daylight, «nd then a march M the rivers bunt. All remained .i.uiet till nine A.M., 
when the heavy pins opened a thunderin:; but ioeifc<;tive fire. The Thirte'-nlh 
hj »1I day and the niilit sueceedinc; in position, and at ten .v.M. of December 1:1 
fell in ind started for the briil-e acrcss the river. Cro.vinj. they pxised on 
throagh the town out towards the The enemy np. ne-1 with shell, and 
ooc of his njissilc-s burbtin^, wounded t'To of the lut-n. The railroad was cut down 
about BIZ feet below the level flat in front of the hill up«ja which the relicl bat- 
teries were posted. The briL-ado t<i which the Thirteenth belon'.^ed formed bohind 
the bmt, fited hiy'.net.<. and, a* ■.■..:,:•« md, tni.ij'y :idvjiiccd i^-.-u^ the Sal toaurd... 
(he balteriea, five hundred yards distant. .V shower of biillet^, shot, and shell 
urept through the etuarging ranks and struck them down. To continue was de- 
jlractioo, and the men lay down, and for thirty.five hoars kept their eiposod 
position, receiving the fire of the rebel sharpshootera, and firing at any head or 
liaib shown above the enemy's rifle-pit:?. In this eharre Colonel Marshall was 
badlj wounded and c^-irried from the field, and thence t.aken to W.i^hingtnn. 

Believed at midni-.-ht of December 14, the eotnmand marche.1 down to Freder- 
icksburg, stacked arms on the river street, and rested until dark of the following 
day, wbeo the ord.-rwas given, ■' Fall in, Thirteenth," and, taking arms, the line 
idvaneed up to the in.ain street, and lay on their arms till t .vo A.M. next day. when 
they were again called up. and marched toivirdi the hrirl^j. Tr .t;- became 
apparent that a rctrctit was in progress. The brigade had cra^sed the bridge and 
reached the brow of the opposite b;mk, when they were countermarched back 
aetOBS the river up into the town, and a line of pickets thrown out. They tcere 
tht rtar guard to coirr the retreat of thr rctirvt<j army. No s*»oer had they 
left the bridge than it was taken up, and at daylight the men marched to the 
opper bridge, pas.scd over, and marched b.ack to caiiip. The lo.<3 in the attack 
vpoD the enemy had cost the Thirteenth five killed, siity-three wounded, and 
seven mining, a tot;d of seventy-five men. Fur wiki the regiment 1-vy in winter 
quarters, and, s.vve severe picket duty, were letl to rjuict. Preparations for a 
forward movement were seen in the removal of all the men unfit fir duty to a 
hospital formed at Aquia creek, and the order to march was daily eipocted. It 
came on the evening of January 19, and neit morning, after a mouth of rest, 
tents wer« struck. " Pack up" was sounded, and at one the line of march 
was begun, and an advance of five miles made l>ef ire going into camp. P.aio 
came down in sheets and in torrents, and the Virginia clay was so«>n chanced to 
a deep and tenacious sea of mud. — a continuous rjuai^Tnire. A mile and a half 
aod then the advance was aljandoniMi, and attention inven to retiirn. This was 
tffected by January 24, and now months p.issed away in winter quarters. Early 
ipring came, and once more ail activity. Joseph Hooker had superseded 
"Bumside, and hope of success was cherished. 

On April 7 the Fifth army corps were reviewed by President Linetrin, accom- 
panied by General H.x.kor. The men were not marched for miles to firm a 
pageant, as with McClellan, but simply drawn up on their own grounds, where 
promptly on time the review was held, and the men dismissed. An apparent 
triBe this, but deserving of mention among appreciative soldiers. 

There was every indication of a movrrncnt in which the Thirteenth was to bear 
BO part, for it was notified of its discharge hy rea.«nn of the eipiration of term of 
■errice. On Aprd 23 they !iad re.iched \V3shin'.rton, homeward bound. Kitcn- 
iive preparations were made in R.>chester for their rccc ption. On their arrival at 
half-past five p «. of May 2, an enthu-iaitic denion'tratlon took place The 
Biayor made a brief adlrrts of welcume, in which he said, " The sa.I and terrible 
airand opon which you went drew forth at your departure the sirrowing tears 
of a city. The lustrous honor with which you retum to as to-day evokes a 
Batioo'i praise." 

In a march throu.:h the city, the Thirteenth carried the oolors borne npon their 
battle-fields, and their prn^cs-s — a continued ovation — was " the L-rindcst thing 
10 its way ever seen in Kochester." .Vt the square, in front of tlie court-house, 
the regiment was ma-Hnl and addrr^ised by ,liid::e Chuinasero in lan'.,nia^ Ho-iuent 
and »j.d.»tirriii.- He said of the color., " That nohic banner you have '.iiarded 
Well; t«jroe throu-jh the 'battle and the breeze,' tattered and lorn, hut not dis- 
hoTKired. You bring it b irk to us un^l;iiu'.il and, *s as you tir*t received 
it, iaT« with the blu<>d of traitors. We take it at your lunds,— Ood bless yoa 

for its faithfji c-arel- Of battle-fields, "O 
Yorktown, Hanover. Gaines' Mills, Richmond 
and Fredericksburg, you liohly {^id your duty ; 
in your country's h'l^tory which record those 

the bl.K)dy fiehU of Rbckhur.. 
, Malvern Hill, S,.uth Moumj,„. 
bright pages for you will be tlo.— 
lemorable ei>ntrsti." And of th.. 
dead, " In the silent cave of death, fir from tlieir families and their homes, th.-:r 
ashes re?it; no marble marks the spot where they rep'^se ; it may, indeed, be f-r. 
ever unknown, but their memories die not, and as we drop a tear of pity for their 
loss, in our hearts and in our affections shall their cenotaph be reared." Re;«y-.nd- 
ing to the address with cheers, the men were dismissed to their h^'mes. Fi_i.- 
companies returoeii with thrct; hundred and sixteen men, including the >ii k 
.\bt:tut one hundred and ninety of these were original members. In all, i.^,r 
eleven hundred men have been enrolli-'d in the regiment since its formation. Tli- 
companies of .-Vbliott and Downey being held for thrci! years, were Jisigned to 
provost-giiard duty. On May 14, l.Si:3. the muster out of the Thirteenth w,,« 
fimpleted, and its existence had ee.ued. M.iny of the men enlisting in other 
regiments fought bravely to the close of the war, and won fresh laurels on eoiia- 
guined fields. 

The Ttcenty-f/tK lif^imeiit contained a number of Monroe men, whose ree\»rd 
is briefly given. The organization enlisted fjr two yearsj, and bore its pjrt in tb-- 
campaigns of the various eastern generals. During the long period of in:iciivitv 
following the disaster of Bull Run the regiment lay in camp, being perfected in 
drill, and, Man.a.sias having l-een found evacuated, went with the army to York- 
town, and when this, too, had been abandoned, followed the retiring erieray towani- 
Richmond. .\t two A.V. of May 27, the rrgiuiont was ordered into line, and 
made a forced march of fifteen miles, to within three miles of Hanover Coort- 
House; engaged the rebels at noon, and, after a hard fight, drove them back. 
The Twenty-fourth New i'ork and Second M.issachusetts were bri^dcd with the 
Twenty-fifth, and this force remained! as a reserve while the div'ision pushed for- 
ward. The enemy, circling around the flank through the woods, came in up.>a the 
lear and began an attack. Ine company of Captain Preston was emploved with 
the regiment in checking movements on the ri-.:ht, while the briirade sustained the 
direct attack. A brigade returning from the advance turned the tide, but not 
until the Twenty-fifth had lost half its force in killed and wounded. The Jlon.-^c 
company had gone into action with thirty-two men, and but ninewcre broucht oj. 
The firing was heavy and sustained. At the commencement of the action the 
regiment had b«n dcployLKi as skirmishers, and the greater part of Captain 
Harris' Company K were taken prisoners. The enemy op-^ned on the Second 
.Maine, and the Tiventy-fifth doubled quicked to their relief; and the contest be- 
came sanguinary. The enemy were posted in the woods, the Twenty-fit"th were 
on open ground. .\. rebel ad\anee was repulsed, and the groHnd was held till 
xs.sistanee had come. At the conclusion of the action, wherein from three hun- 
, dred and fifty-five men'thirty were killed, sisty ^ftunded, and sixty-five missinc. 
the remainder of the command were employed in burial of the dead and care f.'r 
the disabled. Much praise was bestowed for soldierly qualities, and '• Hanover" 
was ordered inscribed on the colon. Passing through the retrea't to the James, 
the battle of .Vntietam, and other actions, we see them take part in the chanre 
upon the heights at Frederiekslmrg on December 13. They were in the Firs 
brigade, Griffin's division. Fifth army corp.^, at the buttle of Chancellorsville. 
and were the last to leave the trenehL>s and cross the river. The brigade was 
assiiincd the duty of reojoving the pontons from the United States ford. The 
boats were drawn by hand up a long, stei-p, muddy slope to a secure point, where 
they could be load.'d.' The task occupietl seven hours, part of which time the 
rebel sharpsh<x»ter3, from the clzc of the woods across the river, kept up a fire 
• which wounded several men. Fortunately none were killed. The regiment went 
into camp on May 7, and soon after received orders to return to New i'ork, where 
it was mustered out of service. 

Tfif TSzenty-iixth Rejiinent was organized at Klmira, where it was mostered into 
the United States service for two years. It known as the Utica reiriinent, and 
contained two companies from ^lonroc County, — the one commande^i bv G. S- 
.lenning", who was subse<piently promoted ni,ajor, and the other by Thoiuas Davis. 

I The , 

eft R.v 

tor Klmira on >Iay 

under Colonel -William H. Christ 
the 20th of July, at midnight, order< came 
Dowell. Tents and ba-.Tg,: were l.-ft behind 
to .\icxandria, where, on the neit d.ay, durin-j 
the first battle, various onlert were received, 
finally, at cvenin..', the regiment took a train < 
was brou-ht near the scene of action. The 

in after the command. 

rdi red to \Va.shington. On Saturday, 

ne to join the array of General Mc- 

ind. and the command was transported 

pense and apprehension of 

idcd, fill, 
road and 

picket for a 
camp at Foi 
foru def.nd 
■ duty at Fort 

Onhr^ 1 

and two at Fort Kl 


iMi.ry 7, ISC', eight comp 
orth. The command had I 


bnffiJt-a, «nd emplomt in picketin.,' nmU. huildinj wurks, and on ■j:irri.-jn dntv, 
■nJ wx< now la"4ht hi:iv_v .artillery practice, at which creditable pr.ii;ros3 was 
nuilc during the win'cr. Wilh spring a'lJ active c;impaignin^ the Twenty-sixth, 
bri;r.ided with the Ninety-Cuurih and Ei-lity-ei-hth .Vcw Yurk and Ninetieth 
Pennsvlvania Infantry, Rickett 3 Battery, and fuur companies of the Ira HarrLi 
(Third) New Vorlt Cavalry, in the corps under McDowell, lay in camp after a 
TaricJ eiperience on the heiuhts oppn-ite Fredericksbur!». Co May lio march- 
in" orJeni were received, and the regiment took up the line of march ibr Wash- 
iu'ton Wu A'luia. creek. Upon the march the re:;iment kept well to<:Pther and 
hud few atrruKlera. Embarked at the creek and taken to the capital ; tiieo ordered 
tu Alexandria, and under ordcre procettded by rail to Manassas, where all was 
found iu confusion. The tro.ips had retrc-ited and .stores had been destroyed, 
while the enemy demonstrated with heavy force. On May 27 the regiment pro- 
ceeded to Br.iad Run, being in the advance of .McDowell's corps. The enf.-a?e- 
roenls at Cull Pain, Centrcville, and Antictam. close following the advance of the 
rebel army northward, illustrated the bravery of men contending with numbers 
overpowering. On July 15 the Twenty-sixth lay in timp at Warrentoa. They 
were in the best of order, full of determination, and under popular and efficient 
ofScers. Af>er Antietam-the dilatory action of McClellan permitted the enemy 
to retire defeated, but dcBant and menaein'jr. On October 30 the Twenty-sixth 
Gru.ssod the Potomac on a ponton bridge at Berlin, seven miles fielow Harper's 
F'erry, and with ita brigade marched to Lovettsville. Picketing and marching, 
the command finally moved in December to take part in the battle of Frederii-k.*- 
burg, and there bore a gallant part. Pending the advance over the Kapidan, 
orders were read in camp to prepare to return home. Soon at^r caiue an order 
to prepare to march, with several days' rations, .icrass the river. The men ob- 
jected on the ground of expiration of service. General Robinson adopted harsh 
measures to compel obedience, with no result save to dampen the zeal of the men. 
Shortly-aflerwarda, the regiment, together with all the two-year regiments, were 
returned to New i'orii, auu abuul, Ma/ H the T,.-citj-SLith -ij su^tcrcd out. 




Is the Twenty-seventh New York Volunteers there was a company of eighty-five 
men under Captain George B. Wanzer. It left Rochester for Elmira on May 13, 
ud was musterad into the United States service May 20. Ordered to Wa.ihin5ton, 
it was engaged at Bull Run, where Colonel Slocum was severely wounded, as was 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. J. Chambers. The regiment was in the thickest of the fray, 
ftnd, save the Fire Zouaves, lost the most m-.-n. The cnmiuand set out from camp 
on July 16, and late at ni.!ht encamped by the roadside. lUsuminij the march 
next day, halt was made four miles beyond Fairfax Court-Hou^, until Sunday at 
two A. SI., when the orders came to advance to and across Bull Hun, where the 
regiment met the enemy. It was the second to engaL'e, and, with fixed bayonets, 
drove the rebels before them. Suddenly a regiment came out of a piece of woods. 
the men waving their caps. Colonel Slocum thought them Federal tnxips, and 
did not fire upon them. They marched up within pistol-shot, threw out a seccs- 
»ion, and opened with rifles. The Twenty-Seventh returnol the fire sharply 
with their muskets and compelled a retirement, but when out of musket range 
they poun-ii in the bullets from their rifles and made bloody work. A.vistance 
Was a.sked and refused. The regiment w.i3 ordered to fall back to the cover of 
woods for rest. During the retreat the colonel was wounded and borne fn^m the 
fi'-Id. Later, the Twenty-seventh was ordered to join in a ceueral as-ault with 
other regiment", and the enemy was driven to the cover of his batteries. Finally, 
the panic ensued, and the army became a mob. The reiiment marched from the 
field in good order, but being charged by cavalry broke and scattered. The re- 
treat is a matter well known. The command lay for montiis b-^low Alexandria, 
en the south bank of the Potomac. Their colonel was Jaseph J. Bartlett, in 
fUi-e of Colonel Slocum, promoted. 

In comfurtahle quartern in huts with fireplaces, the men pa.-«.sed the time in the 
moline of ramp, drill, and picket. Spring came, .and the army moved on M,an;LS- 
"as. On March in, lSr,2, the Twen(y.«eventh Icll its camp, and. marching twelve 
■iii!.-. ramprd near Fairf ,v. c^peetinu- to renew the march at four .\.M- to Crutre- 
'ille. The nlir, moot of the enemy niu.'s.'d a change of plan, and the road wa.s 
laken l.a.-k t.i Alexandria. 

On April Is 

camp till May -1. Taken up the York 
landed at W.-st Point, the tir,t of the 
enemy close at hand and the woods aliv 
skirmishers, the enemy disappeared, an. 

Ship Point 

disembarked, and lay in 

the Twen 

v-sevcnth was, on May 6, 

ion, and fr 

rming in line, found the 

h cavalry. 

As the men deployed a.s 

ticket line 

wa.s e^tabli.shed. During 

the night several attacks we 
tured. The morning broug 
gun waa fired, and a strag-j 
vanced to support the picke 
hurried iuto position. Gen 
and Colonel Bartlett was in 
iuto continuous crashes aa i 

i marlo, and prisoners from the Fifth Tex.^s were cap- 
r the fleet with Sedgwick's advance. An occasional 
ing fire commenced along the line. RegmieDts ad- 
I. Brigades formed in line of battle, and batteries 
i;d Slocum directed the movements of the division, 
command of the brigade. The musketry deepened 
le fall of distant trees, and Sedgwick's' men, aa they 

inboats took 

venth met 

landed, doffed knapsacks and .advanced into action 
to repel any attempt at flanking. Forward and backward the lir 
finally the fire slackened, and the enemy withdrew. The Twcnt; 
with slight loss. 

The advance was continued to Cumberland Landing, thence to White House, 
and on M.iy 20 the regiment lay five miles beyond the 'White House, within 
eighteen miles of Richmond. Jloving to Mechaniesville,.the command there re- 
mained till noon of the .'^, when Cisey's division was overpowered and driven 
with heavy lass till aid came and turned the tide. The regiment fell in, and, with 
its brigade, formed line of battle, and then, under Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, tiled 
down through the woods to the turnpike bridge, and halted in the presence of 
General Slocuin, whom they greeted with three cheers. An attempt to draw the 
rebel fire failed, and the batteries shelled a train pas.-!ing at a distance. The river suddenly, as of a dam let Iciose. Remaining at Mechanicsvillc on picket duty, 
bridging, road-building, and intrenching, the men stood exposed like veterans. 
While awaiting the order to advance on Richmond, Jackson had moved upon the 
right, and, on June 27, firing, heavy and continuous, told where he was pressing 

driven towards Richmond. Morning came, and with it the thunder of cannon 
»cros3 the river, in close proximity to the camps. The tented srround occupied by 
Slocum's division was speedily covered by the blue lines of armed columns. There 
was a bridge crossing the Chickahorainy at the highest point in our possession, 
communicating with our forces at Gaines' Mills, and Mechanicsvillc. farther up. 
Here the division first marched, atid a part of Newton's brig-.tde crossed over, but 
finding the enemy uk> strong, fell back and destroyed che bridge. 

The action had now become general along the whole line. An incessant roar 
of artillery told that Porter and McCall were hard pressed, and needed help. 
Marching down the river to Woodbury's brid'_^e, the division cros.sed. and by 

three P.M. had reached the higher ground opposite and taken position. Thev 
were just in time. The fight had begun at Gaines' Mills, a mile distant from the 
bridge, and our forces been gradually driven back until they held onlv the' 
heights above the bridge. This position must he held, as a single narrow bridire 
precluded all hope of a tumultuous retreat. The day's heat was over, but dust 
clouds nearly blinded the eyts as they came drifting from the fields beyond. As 
Slocum's men advanced on a double-quick pi-^t lines of ambulances and streams 
of fugitives, it was cheering to see the division ni>hing unliiuchinsly to the rescue 
under a shower of shot and shell. To the left, sheltered under the brow of a hill, 
the streaming pennons of Rush's lancera were conspicuous, while reserve cavalry 
and artillery stretched from hill to hill. The scene was beautiful as a grand 
review, but the detonations of cannon dischar^e.^ and the cra-shini: volleys of mus- 
ketry with uointermitring rushing sound dispelled the illusion. The brigade files 
to the right over a hill, under a fierce fire from the enemv's guns, and takes posi- 
tion in a ravine, supporting a battery of Napoleons on the ridire above. The 
men lie flat upon the ground. In the first line was the Sixteenth New York, 
and behin.l them the Ninety-sixth Pennsylvania: on the left were the Fifih 
Maine and the Twenty-seventh. Colonel Hartlett commanded the brijude. and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Adams the rcriment. The cannonailing became terrible, and 

he Napoleons 


aincd a c 

insuint discha 

rge upon the adva 


rebels. At 

neo a caisson 


by riderit 

.s horses cam 


g down the roa.1. 

followed bv 

volley of mu 


The ti 

me had come 

for ac 

ion. The 


were clo,<c 

pon the batt 

rv as 

a forest 

f b.ayonets ar 

se and 

swept crandlv o\ 

er the hilL 

>)lonel Bartlett, wav 

ni his sword, exclaims. 

■• Forward— double 


— i-har.-!" 

and leads in pen>oa. Adams, on Pujt, cheei 
etiemj fell back a rapid fin* up«»n their ret 
woundnd in heaps wherever they iiiailo a .^ram 

liutte.'»t cnntei 


of h:0 

;imeiit coilMrkcd u>i the ^ 

lip-S. R. SpimMin-.-and, 

H. MeMuhot.. tb< 



other cnlor-bcirer, thrico raili^J the n-.-im. iit :irojr.J him anj lu-.l ihna on a:riio- 
Cloee to iLl" cuI: r- .-tcJ Ca,.t.-im V.'ani^r au.i hu ban,! ibjc l'..ii-Ut l.ko hertxj. 
ha coolly sDCourjjin^ hb m.-o. (.'ompinv II, l^ajiiain Bt-dino, 3Uxid ili^t oadnt 
fire, loBing Lieutenant Williams an J two -er^rcinu at the firat ch;ir:e. Lit^uteoaot 
BraJoanl, of F, shi»k hau'is with -a capturtd rebi.! major during the hottest of 
the Bglit. Cotnpany K sutftrcJ severe los«. The Lima bots, led on by their 
Joang captain, c!o.>eJ up their la-sl thinnin^j rarik.^, and advanced a^-un and a-j-jin 
to (he charge over their fallea comraJes, ti,'h:ing bravely to the la-t. C<juit.»iiy 
E oODtestetl eaeh foot of ground, 2nd the entiro couimand won a meed of praise. 
Pim twilight ^nihcteJ, and the aouud of battle ;;radually died away. The battle- 
field ab-jut the hou-^ wore a tcx/ible appearance. The -k-eno beyond where the 
eoeruj lay begyircd description. Crowds lay piJcd under tree and boah and on 
the open ground, while tosaing amis and le-.z-* betokened an a^ny of paio. Ktder- 
;le3S horses g;i!Ioped about, l.iy in .•^uttering, or 5t.>jd patient over dead inaaters. 
,Xhe brigiie ha.J fou,;ht tor life far in advance of the batrenci, wlm^ grape ai:d 
eanbter went rushing overhead into tlie rebel rants. A I'ta-h brigade of the 
eoemy odTinced at duak from the wood-i, and the battle-woru bri-jrade withdrew 
in lin? of b-ittle. thi-ir wounded hcg.-ing to be taken alons, but in va:a. Riehard- 
fon"» divLi'ioa came pouring over the bridge with cheer;, and relieved tho»« who 
hid borne the brunt of battle. At midnight orders came to retire iileiitij across 
the river, and at two A-3r. the old camp tvaj re.^rheJ. and the tired men lay down, 
htit not to sleep, — there waa too much of suspense. Cf^mpany E had la?t one 
killed tod ten wounded. Company B, of Lyorj, had one tilled and twenty-three 
wounded, and Company G, of Lima, had one Lilh^ and eighteen wounded. 
Before daylight orders came to prejare coffee and be ready to leave at a moment's 
Waniitig. Tents were struck, and troofvs were seen retiring, while wa^run-traioa 
were moving out. By ten A.M. our forces had all retired over the ChlckaU.'mioy. 
leariog their dead and wuunde'd to the enemy, and \\'o.)dbury s brid-.-e was blown 
Oft The rebels meanwhile were cr.^^Mng the river and swarruing before the 
Union lines. Every preparation was made to repel and delav them. The bri- 
gades of Newton and Taylor were busily en-gagcd in felling trees and masking 
batteries, while Slwuin's operated on the extreme right, marching and counter- 
marching to deceive and intimidate the rebels. Tents were struck immediately 
■ fler being pitched. Knapsacks were left, and a movement made to the base of 
the hill. A shell hissed over, followed by others in exact range, and the eom- 
pauie^ hajtencJ to recover their kna^-sacks. No reply was tuade, and at noon 
the brigade retired behind an abattis of f-Jlen trees. The w.^re away. 
and all was ominously riuiet. The brl:rade w-^nt on picket, and all nijht long the 
crash of trees bctokene-d fe-ar of pursuit. At midnight an immense amount of 
itores was destroyed. A few of the men made a hasty cup of coffee, but most 
■aw nothing of refreshment but hard cracker*. 

Franklin's corps wis now on the extreme right. At three A.M. the pickets 
Ktired, and the movement towards the J,.iue3 hal b.>guo. Silently the reciraents 
moved on, and behind them crashed the trees, bl' eking up the avenues of retreat. 
Daylight found the brigade at Sava-je rotation. "where the entire b3'..''ra'.;L^rain was 
p-'rlod. A thou^.ind wumided men lay scattered about, and during the brief hall 
the officers of the Twenty-seventh took every one po.viible. — hired vehicles to carry 
them; and one officer distributed tlio contents of his purse to those who had to 
be lefL Here Ileintzelman's tnwps were left, and the column, pushing on to 
White Oak swauip, crossed upon a corduroy bridge. The Twenty-seventh, in 
advance, was on picket, and passcl a third reslle-s ni-ht. Next morning Frank- 
lio'a corps was left in the rear, Slotuni's division being p<jatcd on the right and 
extreme rear to prevent the enemy fnmi crossing the brid-e. Catteries were 
posted and pickets thrown out while the infintry lay ooncealed in the rear. The 
niea had ecattervd, when a volley from the pickets -^.-ut the men double-quick to 
their regiments. The artillery took up the ii-ht and continued it till niiht. All 
attempts to cruss were fru.strated. Tcmj.>orary lulls were fullowed by furious 
firing. The brigade received orders to cross the brid'.:e and charge the enemy, 
but halted at the bank and retired to the sheUcr of the pin.-s. The march was 
naumcJ at two am. to .Malvern Hill, where the day was p:isscd; tlience to Ilar- 
ridoo'a Landing, where c;>nip w.-is made and fjuite a star made. 

August llj, the movement of the -Vrmy of the Potomac northward had biriun. 
The fii^t day cross.-d the ChiLLihoioiny. the seojnd at Williarnslmp.'. the tliirj at 
Yorktown, the fourth at Warwi.k Court- IIoum.-. and the fifih at Newi.ort .Vcw.< 
Embark.-d on the ■ I'.rooLs,' and were taken to Furtrc-s .Moiirw- Frii.kliu's 
corpe left .\lexandria on .Vn.-uat ::'J ; next day pas.^-d through Fairfax and Cen- 
tieville, eroa>H.-d Cub run, and lamc upon the tr.iins retri-alintr frnm the plains* of 
Mana.via.v The was callul to , he. k the tij- of ru-itiv« ffm Mcl).iw,ll-« 
•imy. CiTalry and iniantry ei.nilii:i,d cold not check the general movement — 
it WM the nut i.f an army. .\i.-Kt br.u,-iit th.: brigade on picket, and hour 
■Iter hour Ihu aoldien poured through the lin.-H, On Sptcmbcr 1 the r'-gimeDl 
lay is emmp at Centrcvillc, and moving iheiieo xS Alciaadria, over the Loug Ifridge " 

to Wishingtua. arsi ticn away towards the field of Antictam, each ni-hl's bi.ouae 
finding them jtc ix-jrer the invader. Xl Crampton'a gap the ou.a.v were found 
in po-=.--ssion, «■.■>. infantry and artillery. The Tivcp.ty -seventh, Jeplnvcd is skir- 
mishers, led the i;T;,.,ioo in the adwnec. The ni.a sou-.-ht cover till an i>n.-n plain 
was reached at t^ f.-H of the nviuntalo. A vollev froni the nneuiv w.w hi-irtilr 
returned. The =<-n stood bnively to their work, and fir..-d all amiuunitioa. 
They wer« reiier^ by the Sixteenth New York. .\ charge followed, and the ..-ap 
was won. The rec'.ment left the gap on the morning of ;«.-ptenib,T 17, and t.^ik 
position on the t"=ioa right, six miles from the ktltle-field. The r.-.;imcnt lay 
wmetime in ca^p near Bakersville. Early in Octolnir, Licutenant-Coloucl Adams 
was elected col-.-ti and Major B.j.line was promoted to the vac.itcd poj-itico. 
Captain George G. Waiiier bec-ame major. On OetobiT IS, the re-.imeiit was on 
the march by way of White Plains to Warrent-in, where the army halted. The 
army a cha-rre of commanders, and waj again on the move. Th»- field of 
Mana.s.=as was srarers^-d, and camp made within six miles of the I'otnraac, r..,-ar 
Aquia Lioding Tbeuee to near Spafford Court-II.juse. On the 2ilih of Lle- 
oeraber the re-..'iment set out on the mud c;impaign. The river was reached, and 
camp made withia four mile* of the exi>ected crossing, when night came and a 
torrent of rain. The march to the river's bank was achieved, but no cro^-in-j 
was po-Ssibie, as tie fiats beyond were submerged. For three days the divl-ioo 
lay watching the pjntons, and gladly they were seen returnin'.: from the river. 
The effort was abi.idoned and a return made to camp. Setth-d in coitifortable 
<|uarters, the winter passed away, and with Burnside exchanged for Ibnikcr. the 
army crossed the P^^pidan, and the Sixth army corps demonstrated before Frcler- 
ieksburg. The Twenty-seventh broke eamp on April '2i, lSi;:l.and niarchiu'.; al] 
day, reached the Rjppahanmxk about dark, at the point where, on Dect mber 13. 
they had made their previous cn>^-ing. Uavin:: reached the south side, the men 
busily intrenched when not called to picket, and so continued until Mav 3. *M ' 
that day the hei/nts of Fredericksburg were carried by Howe's divL-inn T'ae 
Twenty-seventh advanced thnjugh a ravine swept by a Lattery. Shot and .-hell 
flew lively overhead, and the men to.-)k shelter behind a ali_ht rise of gniund. 
lying flat upon their faces The skirmish line was warmly engaged, and the rebel 
sharpshooters infiicted a ioss on the regiment of two kiiicd and ten wounded. 
The well-packed knapsacks received many a bullet. As the enemv lost the beii'hts 
the division retired, the Twenty-.sevcnth being the rearguard, and. in eon,s;que«c.% 
the last to withd.'-aw. The epemy followed slowly till just out of artillery rang-, 
when they halted. The line of march led through the city, the eanliwoi'ts jiisi 
taken, and, at the summit, the regiment found the corps had gone miles in ailvantv. 
The march was hastened, but a wronj road taken. The hri::ade was pa.-'-e'i. and 
from a bill half a mile distant the Twenty-seventh were spectators of the eiisui.Tr 
baUle. The enemy had retreated in line of b.utlo along a plank-road le.adi;:s 
Test, till reaching B^jthel church, buf two or three mile's from Fred.riekjbur.:. 

action and fought overpowering numbers. They auffcrcl severely, but i;,ti;et,-J 
terrible losses on their assailanu. The next day the enemy had forme.1 line [ar-' 
allel to the road and captured the hei:;ht3. The Seventy-seventh njoine.! 
the brigade and was sent on picket, while the brig.ade, much reduced, was pLiicvl 
in support of the batteries. All silently awaited the iiuiendin-.- attaik. wl.icli 
was made late in the day. Thrice the rciimcnt, as skiriui^iier-. -.iieek.d the -i-l- 
V.1I1CC of battle lines, and not till the left was turned did they fall l^e k. The 
Union position was now en.langered. and Lees army had anived in lua^-s. The 
line was forme*! in hursc-sh'io shain.*, the opening at tiie river inclosing the bri-lL-i-*. 
The Tw.>nty-seven!h was in the place of the toocalk. Ab.)ut uine r.-i.. ord.-.-> 
came to fall back. The enemy, discovering the niuvemcnt, .i.lvaiic'd with r..n- 
tinuous yelling. Retiring a mile as skiruiishei-s, the rci,'inieni fell int.* line, ainl 
just then reveivod an order to double-riuick or be cut off. .V rnfiid n tr^at v.k.* 
made to the river. At tha-e n*'xt morning the troojt* bc-ran to n-*-n-.< an*! 
.pe-edily the corps „,ls tnuisf.rred to the other bank. The lo-~ to the rigin.. nl 
was three kilh^ and tiiiitccn wounded. The term of the re-.-oueiit havin-.- ejpired. 
it was sent homo and must*-red out on May .'1, ISIj:!. lu t.'..,,,,, ,i,y l), the 
captain had become major, and Ensign E. 1'. Gould had Ur..iiie e..pi .m. (.'..n- 
pratulatory orders were issiicnl to the Twenty-seventh by .M.ij..rl '..n. ral .<.-i-.- 
wick, comm,indlng the Sixth army eoq.a ; by General llr..oU, of the di>L~i.-i; 
and by J. J. Uartlett, the old my^. now co.nniaiiding the hrii-ade. Ii* c..l.-K-i 
had liecumc a corps t^jraman.ler, and from t!ie lir>t Hull Kun. when iieu*;ril 1 illed the ,.r_Mni/.iti.,n the " g-illaat Twenty-seventh." down t.. muster 
out, the cioht battles of ihc rc-,-iment had approved its v.Ji.r and li..n.m-d the .•^laf. 
77,r T^r,j.j^;,jklU Ii..j:,.,ci,t w.L. ..r.-ioi/ci at to -en.- tw.. y, ar-. It 
cnnlaiucd no di.-nnet conipiny, a .■luiuUr of men from .M..Mr,< Conly an.l 
WJ.S mustered into tlio 3*;r\iceof the L"lHtc-| Slates on .^lay -J. Ks,,| . f.,r i,., 
years. Uonorul.lo mention i^ made of the or.-anititi.m in all ..irieiii re|..rt. On 
March 21, 18G2, the coamaod w.ts under Shields at the ni..vement towani, Sln^ 





The fi'TX-e retired (owanls Winchester, wlicre the enemy appeared in force 
iv. A b<"iv of cavalrv adv:infcd, roeonnoitorinir. and drove in the pielcets. 
II". ihev Wire rfpt'llcii. Skirmi-hin-,' became severe, and four compaater*. 
««.■ frum the Tni'nly ei,L:luh, were sicnt out to hold the enemy in chcclt till the 
iMitu could be fomK'd. The regiment had m.vrchi-d townnls Centrcville, but was 
*It.-d and ordered back. It arrived at the cli»e of the action, and to..k part in 
ihe iiuh*e<|uent pursuit of the enemy. On May "JS. had em.'i.-.ed into Mary- 
Uiid; ri-cTO^-cd June 2, and arrived a^in at Winehester on June 5. On >[ay 
L'l, bad been eniracr.'d at Winchester for two hour.<. and thtn fell back to Uar- 
[«t'i Ferry, lo.»irig a number of men. On Au'.ni.-t 'J. l-'ljli, the re'/iment won im- 
Biortal honors at Cedar Mountain. Crawford's brigade had bi;on sent in h;i~te 
frim Culpepper Court- House, to aid in cheeknnz the rebel advance. A march of 
m-vrn Diile< brou-ht it to the front, in the rear of Bayards cavalry. The rehela 
gradually drew nearer, p-lantini: one battery in advance of another, and convonriiig forces upon the -round ocevipietl by the I'niim army They opened tlu'ir 
UitliTieJ with effect, and made it neces-sary to attempt their ciipture. Tlie Rivalry 
of liajard charged and took two guns. .Vbout six p.m. Crawford's bripide 
fhar;,'ed mo>t desperately, the Tbirty-ei^'hth \ew York and Forty-sixth Penni^yl- 
Tania in front, and hearing the bront'of the h vttle .^ ;pro,.d' nnd a tlonl -j.)- 
vancc was made, each time meetinir a terrible infantry fire and heavy loss. At 
ihe close of the action the Twenty-eishlh could muster but one hundreil and 
■ fil'iv effective lEen. Ag-aiu, at Antievam, the rCL-iment was enpa^-ed. and in the 
upring of 18G3 it took part in the battle of Chanccllorsville. where, being flanked 
bv the enemy, Lieutenant-Colonel C^:")k commanding. Captain Chaffee, of Com- 
pany D, and Terry, of H, with about one hundred men of Companies D, E. G. 
and H, were captured. Companies A and C were acting guard and a few 
of them were taken, while the remaining companies, under Major Fitzg-.-rald, were 
employed to guard supply and ammunition trains, and escaped without lo.*s. The 
regiment left for home in May, reached Albany on May 19, and on June 2, 1SG3, 
wa.-* muhtered out by rca.=on of e!^piration of term of si^rvice. 

/'Ac Thirty-third Hcfjiment from the beginning contained a company of Mon- 
ro.- men, and Later in the term of service the regiment was heavily recruited at 
Rochester. In September, 1S02. two hundred and forty recruits from Monroe 
joined the regiment. This number calls for a special notice of a gallant and re- 
liable body of soldiers. The regiment was mustered into the service of the 
I'uited States on May 22, 1361. An election being held, the following oificers 
were clioseu: colonel, Robert F. Taylor, of Rochester; licutenantr^^^lonel, Calun 
Walker, of Geneva; major, Robert J. Mann, of .Seneca Falls; and adjutant, 
Charli- T. Sutton, of New York. The regiment w.t, designated an the Thirty- 
third, and for a time was known as the Ontario regiment. A fine flag was pre- 
iH'nted by the ladies of Canandaigua, and Colonel Taylor, on receiving it, gave 
promise that " it should never be dishonored or disgraced. " On July 8, after a 
- tniubUius stay at Elmira burnickfl, the regiment dcparteil for Washington. The 
Thirty-third was, on September 15, bri-adcd with the ;?..ven!y-niuth and Forty- 
ninth New York and the Forty-seventh Pennsylvania, under command of Colonel 
!*li'\-ens. In the formation of divi>ion3, the Thirty-third waa under General 
Smith, promoted from colonel. A reconnoi«aneo in forfe made, September 
-'!i. U|>on Vienna; the enemy found, and an artillery duel ensued. The 
divi.sion returned to Cimp without exi>cricneing any loss. -VII winter the mo- 
notony was broken by routine of drill and an occasional brush with the enemy, 
■nd with s^pring the Thirty-third were embarked upon transports and conveyed 
to Old Point Comfort. Of their works here wa-s a log redoubt, to which was 
piven the name Fort Wright. In .\pril the army advanced upon Yorktown. and, 
on April 5, the division was in front of Lee's Mills. The Thirty-third was sent 
on picket, and a company ordered to suppirt sections of batteries. The loss in 
»n jrtillery skirmi.^h which succ'eJed was slight. The rejiment was relieved 
after b.MMg nndir tire fifly-four hours. The lines drew disc about Yorktown, and 
when a powerful bittery was prepared to open the evacuation of the place was 
di-eiivered to have taken place. Smiths division at once began pursuit, and 
•t»crtiiok the rear guard at Williamsburg. Here was a heavy work named Fort 
.Magruder, with a number of redonbls stretching across between the rivers. The 
national army advanced on these works, and Hooker's adv.ince was firmly met 
»ni| foreeil back. Hancock was sent to flank the rebel position, and found the 
fsLnbu di-serted. A redoubt was occupied by Lieiit<nant-Colonel Corning, with 
A. D, and F, of the Thirty-third, with the color* and their mard. The rt-st of 
Ih.' n-^-inicnt was deployed xs skirmishers, and advanced to the fnint and rii'ht. 
y^-w night, a reUd force rame up from Williamshurg and drove the force in eon- 
f'l-ion. Tl,e cry of ■' Rdi's lilo.ff' w.u derisively utt.-nd .as the national line 
w.v.-n-l C..|i,„el Taylor onlercd a eharje with part i.f the re.-im.nt, when the 
r-'-U w. re within .vvmty yards. (),ber re-onems fi.Il.oVisl. .mil the r.-b.^ls w,ro 
"•'ii-l. I!.n.rd XlcClcllan personally eomplim.oted lb,- r.jiment for its veteran 
«>• "in., and timely char,'c. The advance w.,- niicwcd till the While Hou-c on 

the Pamunkey wu.s rcaeheil, and'picke 
Richmond. On May 21 the division v 
rebel capital. An encounter (Occurred a 
vidson's brigade routed the enemy in 

ting was done near the enemy ct>verin>- 
as in position within eleven miles of Ihn 

Mechanicsville, wherein a charge by Pa. 

dismay. On o. Smith's division 

s baked a thousand yard 
Till remained here til 

moved forward from Gaines' farm, .and the Thirty-thinl i 
from the rebel lines, and but .six miles from Richmond 
June 2S. The enemy had not been idle, and Jackson came upon the right with 
ma'icd lines, and a heavy battle was fon^ht. [t.s result w;is a retreat to the 
James river. The Thirty-third was left on pi. ket during the retiremerit of the 
divL-ion, — a part on the line, the remainder in earthworks. A sharji sl,i.l|li|._. 
preceded a charge by the enemy. The pickets retired and disappeared behind 
the works, where all remain&l silent. Two Georgia regiments charged close u|.on 
the line, and were met by a volley which staggereil their advance. Rc|icateil 
volleys drove them back, with a loss of ninety-one killed, many wounded and 
prisoners. Davidson's brisr.idc formed a portion of the rear guard on the memo- 
rable retreat, and the Thirty-third occupied at White Oak swamp the extreme 
riiht, — the post of honor. Unceasing duty was performed till the rebels were re- 
pulsed at JIalvem Hill, and the army withdrew to rest at Harrison's I.»inding. 
The enemy detennined to attack the army of McDowell, numbering thirty- 
eight thousand men, before .McClcllan could come to the rescue. The old Poto- 
mac army began to move on .\iigust IG, and eight days later halted at Alexandria, 
whence they had gone five months since. 

Again the field of Bull Run wa-s contested, and lost to as. A cloud rests on 
the conduct of commanders who sacrificed a cause for personal spite. The in- 
telligent soldiery, perceiving the delay of help, gave way and fell back to the lines 
of those whoso advance would have insured a victory. Pope was relieved, and 
McClellan again led. The Thirty-third left knapsacks at Washington, and moved 
with the army to encounter Lee. On September 17 was fought the battle of 
Antietam. The Thirty-third beg.m their march at daybreak, and always as they 
proceeded the roar of battle; de,;r" nod and swelled in volume. They came noon 
the field .as the national troops wavereil and began to break. Franklin led two 
divisions upon the charge. The long lines swept forward with settled, determined 
tread and stem faces, and planted the national colors far in the advance. It was 
the decisive charge of the day. . Here fell fifty killed and wounded of the Thirty- 
third. On September 19, Smith's division was ordered to join Couch, on the 
Potomac, to resist an attempted cnjssing of rebel cavalry. On October 23 the 
regiment went into camp near Bajcersville. A lull in warfare followed, and the 
camp, the scenery, and an acoes-ion of numbers, gave encouragement, and, with 
rest, a real enjoyment. On October 29 the Thirty-third, with its brigade, 
inarched to Berlin, where it w.-is joined by Colonel Taylor, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Corning, and over two hundred recruits, mainly from Monroe County. On No- 
vember 3 the ponton bridge was crossed, and line of march taken through New 
Baltimore to Catlctt's station. On November 17 -Vquia creek wa-s eros-ed. and 
Burnside. having relieved McClcllan, essayed the capture of Fredericksburg, on 
the Pvappahannock. chanies were now made. Old Company D was 
transferred to Companies G and K, and the Rochester company of Captain Henry 
J. Griffith, his lieutenants being Charles D. Rossiter and ^Villiani K. Roach, be- 
came known as Company D. The Thirty-third arrived before Fredericksburg on 
December 11. .\ tremendous cannonade, unanswered, preceded the crossing of 
two regiments in boats, to drive out or capture rebel skirmishers. Four hriilg"s 
were then hiid, and by h.alfp; seven next morning the Thirty-third had crossed 
and drawn up in line of battle with the divi.sion, stood expectant during the day, 
anil laid on their arras the next night. The battle of Fredericksburg dates De- 
cember 13, 1SG2, — uiemorable to every surviving veteran of that day. t^encral 
history details the movement of corps; our record is of a regiment. On Saturday 
morning the Thirty-third was posted in the front of three lines of battle, and for 
an hour supported Reynolds' Monroe battery, which then moved to the left, and 
was replaced by the First Massachusetts battery. Towards ni'.'ht the rebels 
charged the skirmish line with three regiments, but were repulsed without, 
and, on the next day, the command w;i3 relieved and marched to the river, and 
enjoyed a rest. 

On December 19 the regiment marched to White Oak church, and went into 
winter quarters. During the succeeiling weK^ks numerous promotions were made, 
and the armv opportunity to n-cover from the dcprission of unsuccessful otTort. 
Burnside essayed an advance on January 20. .and scarcely had the array t.iken the 
road when a storm of rare sevi-rity began to ra-e, and foil.Kl the ctfort. The old 
camp w.xs reoccupied, and montlu went slowly by. .Vnother change of com- 
n,.ind,.p, _Iii,„,si,le r,~i-n,sl, and Hooker a.-vsumed' the command. DiirinL' Feb- 
ruary, I si;::, tlie Tliirtvlhird wis l.rl-iiled with the Forly-iiiotb and the One 
Hundred and Nm. ,, , „",1, I'l nn-vKaio.i. noder eimmianil i.f Coli.n.l TinLt. The 
winter bad pi— ^1, .iiid :it ihe i ul' April the army corps were a'_-:iin moving 
tow.inls the lL,ppaba,i,.iK.-k, Chaneell..r.i ille was fought, and Hooker was de- 


n^i thp 1 


featet), ind 

wick's SlMh cur^, l.iv ut K.ilir..,ul., wh.-re, on May J, 
broaght fdcrs to sl.Tm Ibo hci-liU uf Krv.)-ricl;.-lnr: 
Chancellorsvilis. The hlll< were hclj by i f>,re-e w.mnu 
dale, and wore detimeU impnn^able. The Tfiirts-thinl 

rur frum ll.»jt.r 
pudh en towinia 
by Ov-ncnl Barks- 
il the riv.!t. bel..w 

■d t:ll du 

FrederickAurg. during the ni-l,t of May 
entire oorf*i had g-jnc over and had occupied fhe city. Tw.-iitv-f ur n-^nmcntrf 
wera »ci.>\;ted to charg« the hfi'jiita ; one aiuoTp.; th, ra »jj the Thirty thirl. 
Artillery was freely u.<ed during the movenionts of pa'paratiou, and by too 
the order was giren M a<ivance. Neili's brigade le<l on the Ici^. with the Thirty- 
third 00 the front line. "Witliia fifteea tuiautos frvm the coninieacement of the 
charge the national colors were pbnted on the rebel works. A battery enSludcd 
the ciptured work. A.s soon as p.i-sitile the lines were formed, and with a cheer 
the re-gituetit startt^ on a run for the guns. Twenty minuie:4 of den-Jly >trife, and 
th« hili-U/p was gained. A hurricane of caniitc.r tore through the ranli^-i. and 
leTeoty men were cut dowu, wounded or dead. A h;Jf dozen standard-bearers were 
shot in Bucression, when Sergeant Vaodecar. rushing forward, misci the t/irn ctilurs 
c:. I'.- Dr..::tt sni n^nt f.r^-...rd .\ , 'Ha w>i.J^ wrr» left -v -h.i<vvr of h.ii!»!.i 
whizzed through the lines from the reU'l infantry, but on they w.-nt up, over, ind 
into the work. A thirty-two-pijund eanijii wn e-jptured, and the men lay down 
panting to rest. The rebel reserves fonued, and optneij a iraliing fire within a 
kundred yards. The regiment answered with a rapid Sre, eai?h man loading and 
firing at will and with a will. For forty minutes the hill wan held uaiupp.i:t«J. 
ITlc Seventh Maine arrived, and, together, the two re-zimenU drove the enemy 
oat of reach of tlioir fire. In the charge and later fight D lo^^t two killed and sii 
woonded. During atlemoon the moved to the right two or three miles, 
bot the regiment was not engaged. The defeat of the main array lelt Lee free to 
eoocentrat* on Sedgwiek, and a bloijdy battle was fought durins the day. Durini: 
the nisht the t-AcU occupied the hcii.-hL5, and tor.k post to imperil the national 
eor^. With d.'\ylight, Xeill's brigide was ^--nt to drive off a force which threat- 
ened the line, and, on the return, fortiHed its pisition. Masses of rebel troops 
were seen arriving. The men moved as though wearied, and extensive prcpa- 
ratioDS wete oWrveJ in all parts of the field fjr a d<_-oisive en^'^igement. At«>ut 
twelve M. a rebel brigade advanced, and wa'i met, repul:*ed, and, from a cuunter- 
eharge, lost heavily. The national lines were drawn up in arc-like f jrm. covering 
their bridges, and, unable to move, stood awaiting night or the enemy. The latter 
earae first. To-Arards evening their gray columns were seen in motion, and ai five 
r.ii., wi'h a wild yell, the storm burst upon the Sixth corps. Neilla brigade bore 
the brunt of att.M.k undismayed, and comp.lled a retreat. Re-forming his lines. 
Nelll fell back to a new position, leaving behind a thous.ind men killed and 
woanded, to attest the stubborn and de.idly nature of the b,attle. The retreat was 
accomplished, aided by the fire "f the ntullery. With night the rccros-ing becao, 
and at eight A.M. the Thirty-third was on the northern bank. Two i.eeks had 
elapsed since five hundred and fil'ty men bat! marched in the ranLs of the rt*giment 
to meet the enemy; but thr.-e hundred remaintsl. The loss in Company D was 
three kille.1, eleven wounde.1, jnd ten mis-inr. On May 12 the regiment *,j dis- 
charged and ordered to Elmira. N'ew Vork. for muster out. The recruits, number- 
ing one hundred and si.^ty-three, were fortiieiJ in one company, under (.'apuin 
Gtfford, and attached to the Forty-ninth Xew i'ork. where they performed e^.seo- 
tial and honorable service in the succeeding great engagemente of the war in the 



AbiJAB C. GraT was comrals-sioned on December 1, 1SG2, to raise a company 
of sharpshooters to be attached to the One flundri-d and Eighth Volunteers. 
The regiment left for Washingti.n, and was s<«in in the field, but the company 
lingered in camp at Roehcstcr until November 1^, IStiJ, when it prcKe<-ded over 
the .Sew York and Eric ll.droad u> the city of .V, w Vork. where it arrived at noon 
OD the day following. The ferry was crxwM.'d. anil the company went into camp at 
Wechiiwkeo, New Jersey, and there muained from >;ov,mb.r 14 till Janu,vy li, 
1SG3. At that d.ilc orders came t.. pn p.m- to march, and uelt d.iy thn mc-n 
Wen) taken .on board ajt,-am-tu- and land.-d at (■;il1,,n. Si iten M.ind. and went 
into camp. Here an oririniz-ition .rfccted and a batt.ilinci furiui-<l. In the 
rrgimcnt of sharpsliootert the Monroe men were dcsignatml a.s the sixth company. 
Captain Gray resigned February VJ, ISiiJ. Vulney J. Shipman, commisaiuoed 

firnt lieutenant Deojmber 1, ISii-, was pr 
discharged September 2d. Hti-l. Aipl: 
second lieutenant Peconibcr 1. l-^fii, to first lieutc 
January 2i>, lSi'..'>. The company left their cac 

1 (jipuin March 3, 1 Sr,3, and waj 

W. Starkweather advanced from 

-March 3, !Sli3, and captain 

' 3 month on February K. 

I and arrive.1 at Washington on the evening of the same 
I Arlington Heights, there encamped, and remained till February 'Jl), when it left 
j for Sutfulk, Vir.;inia. Desertions from the organitatioo were reportcJ numerous. 
I Shortly after their arrival, the rebels, approaching the place, s*'nt iu a tl,ig of truce 
I demanding a aurrendcr under threat of bombardment. Preparations for re- 
sistance had been made and the lines drawn in, leaving a signal sutiun at a dis- 
! taoce outside. About ten of thj day, the enemy were seen near this station and 
I along the edge of the woods. Several of the enemy asceuded to the top of the 
'■ signal Ojwer, and, with gl.isses, rcconnoitered the Cnion position. One lingered 
when the rest dt-sccnd<.-d. A .s<pjad of the sixth company went out. and when 
; within range fired, and the outpost fell. The les.son needeil no repetition. The 
I stAtion was not again occupied. During the day the skirmishers eschanied 
fret^uent shots, and on the day following. Several of the sharpshooters were 
i wounded, and among these were George Walters and George Sherry. The casu- 
I alties taught caution, and at dark pits were dug to guard against the rebels 
} skulking in the bushes opposite. 

The company left SutTolk on June 18, and traveled by boat, car, and on foot 
I over the country. They marched up and down the peninsula, and, arriving at 
I Yorktowo, reported to serve with the Army of the Potomac. Performing their 
i part in the various movements of corps, they were finally engaged in the assault 
i opoD Petersburg, on August IS, ISti-l, where they were captured almost to a 
I man and taken to Belle Isle and Salisbury prison-groncds. Sergeant Leake, 
i with other?, tunneled beneath the stockade at Salisbury, and, atwr a series of 
adventures and sixty-seveu days of travel, reached the national lines at Knoiville, 
] Tennessee. Exchanged, the company returned to Rochester, and was muftcred 
oat June 3, IStij. 

The Snyiiufrs was organiied by General Charles B. Stuart during the 
I summer of 1301 at Elmira, N. i'., and mustered into service September IS as 
" Stuart's Independent Volunteers." The needs of the service were seen to re- 
quire an increased force to pertorm engineer duty, and this organization was 
: effected for that purpose. To this regiment the citizens of Monroe County gave 
many men, who were organized in Companies L and F, with many in G and other 

i The engineers started for Washington September 18, 1S61, and, receiving 

supplies at Meridian Hill, marched throuirh Georgetown on to Fort Corvoran, 
and pitched their camp on disputed ground. Enlisted as engineers, the War 

: Dcp-TTtment had made no provision for them in that capacity, and the men were 
ordered to the field as infantry. A 3ubser|uent special act of Congress placed the 
regiment upon proper footing. The regiment was ordered to Hall's Hill, ^'i^- 
ginia, to report to General Buttcrfield, a brigade commander in Porter's division, 
which was largely conipose-d of regulars. The drUl was vari.ei and constant, and 
several reviews were held by General JlcClellan. About Xovember 1, the r^-i- 
ment ordered to Wa-hlngton to practice bridire-building at th.3 navy y.ird. and. 
early in the spring of ISGJ, moved into Vir'rinia and assi'jned to JIcDowell's 

i corps, then covering Washington. The fiftieth embarked at Alexandria on April 
10 Bf'on the steamer ■' Louisiana, ' and was conveyed to Cheeseman's Latulinc. near 
Yorktown, and, dis'.'mbarking, was at once en'.:nged in throwing bridges across 
obotmctiog streams, opening roads, and erecting batteries. On May 4, Yorktown 
was found evacuated ; gathering; up the siege material and the trains, the regiment 
marched up the peninsula t-iVi the Pamunkey river, from West Point to White 
House, thence to the Cliickahominy. Six bridges were constructed within a line 
of ts many miles, and their ciUtenco was the salvation of the army. The Seven 
Days' fight began, and the enL'ineers were buvied in building and destroying. Two 
bridges were constructed at White t)ak swamp t'ur the passage of Keyes" corps, 
in the advance of the retreat on the James. The men iiastencd forward throil-jh 
the woods with their muskets sIuol', plying their axes viirorousiy, opening parallel 
roads for the heavy trains hurrying on to lilendale and Malvern Hill. At the 
bst-named locality the rei;iiucnt made an extensive slashing, and placed formidable 
obstructions along the ri'.;ht of the line. After the battle nn the Janice, while 
th« army was at rest, tho regiment was constantly at work devisio',; delenses 
opening roads, and ficilitiitiiig the p;Ls.-i!gc of su[iply traias from the landing to 
the outposts. On .McClcllan's nioieraent to Washington the rc,:im,nt pn-ei-ded 
to .\leiandria, and ill SeptemU-r '•■t out for Harp<r'ri Ferry, with bn i_-'s to n- 
place those dc:,tr..y.'d by the enemy on ih. ir retreat from the baidc .-niiind .A 
Anlletara. A brid-_-o was bid .at the ferry, mar the " enL'inc Ij.hi*- ' of J..l,n 
Brown notoriety. About Scptemb<.'r l'r> a long ponton bridge was built ii n««i 
the Potomac at llerlin, .M.irjiand, -il miles below the ferry, and by that caijs.w.iy 
tlie Army of iho Potomac made another entry into Virginia- In the coiutrucuon 


,f tlii-t t'ri'L>- ('■im[-.jnv l-' wji ciu-i^']. ati.i. wi:!i C a:iJ K, rcm^iiu'l :if cho ferry 

Oil ihe Jito Ctvt-n, Major Spauldiii^r, commanding: the TLinl battulion, was 
urd. n-J l>v i!ie cJ^iL-fciii^inL-tjr uf the army to prwx'od to U'iL^bini^on, theru to make 
at. Ut-c brid^'i- trains tu up'-rute ui::ir Frt-dcriclabur.:. on the Rappahannock. The 
4.r\l. T U>ri' dato November 7, the day ot* McCIcilan'a relief from ajnioiand. Major 
Si-tiiMini: L-a!ted (.'iiptain .>IcD^riald to m;te the ref.i.'piioti of th • nnltT aix daya 
•ill. V- its ii-ii^.'. Company F 50t out with a portion of the bridge material for the 
cji'ital, and. hiivini; made nils of 3e*'tiun3 of half a dozen pontons, these were 
U.».-.| bv h'>rses down the Chc:;aptake and Uhiu canal, and the company arrived 
at \V;i>hin_'tuii on the 17th. Boats aud material wore loaded up<in wai:on«. and 
t\f re-.-iment !*et out for Falmouth, on the llappiihannock. In the train were fifty 
piiiitun b-iat--*, and to dniw tlicoj aud t!ie matL-rial reiiuired neariy a thousand ani- 
UiaU. The uian;h waa reutlered cstrem-?ly dificuU fnmi the fearful state of the 
ru'I', ad Alexandria had scarcely been reaelied when the rain bt-zan to fall, and 
ihruiiirh the Iflth and iMJth continued to pvur down in torrents, so that but eight 
Ut u-n mill's could be traveled per day. Often the heaviest hill^ were surmounted 
bv altaijliing dnii-ropo?, and so drawini; the wagons by hand to the top. Six days 
■ml ni'.'hts of unremitted tuil exhaustc-d men and horses, whde the roads became 
uu.Tly impa.s.-*able. 

Arrived at Oeeoiiuan cteek, at the head of tide-«-atcr, a bridge was thrown 
acriLvs the stream, some three hundred feet from shore to shore. The operation 
n'^juircd but few hours, although the wau'ons had to be drawn some hundred yards 
by hand to get the boats to a conT.*nient point to be launched. The pas.>jge of 
tlie train occupied most of the niL'ht of November 22, and un the next morning 
ihe fK)nton bridj;e was converted into rafb and taken in tow of a large tug to 
Bi-lle I'lain. Arrived at sunset of the 24th, and the b*.»uLs were immediately 
loadi-d on wagon?, and with fresh teams set out for Falmouth, where tents were 
piiehed in sight of Fredericksburg. A few days were pa:>sed in camp, and then, 
u ordered, the engineers feii back fn^m lue aud »cui inio csip it White 
Oak church. Precious days were passed in reconnoissances, repairing roads, and 
Uying miles of corduroy. A change of plan was made and a crossing at Fred- 
erivksburg determined. Captain McDonald, with F and K companies, was ordered 
to construct a bridge over the river at a point abjut three hundred yards below 
ihe ruins of a railroad bridge. On the morning of Oecember lU the eonimand 
moved uear the position, and at night the engineers had. at one .t.ii. of the 11th, 
begun the work. A dem*e fog concealed the movement Tweuty-three boats 
Were required to span the strea-u here, bct^vecn tijur and fire h>indred fe-'t in 
width. Two regiments were drawn up to eupp'jrt the men. The work was 
pu^^hed with energy, and the bridge was completed to within some eighty feet of 
the opposite bank, when a regiment from behind a stone wall, about two hundred 
yards distant in front, operie^l a convergent tire np*5n the men clustered at 4lie ter- 
minus of the bridge, killing .nnd wouudiun ievuraJ and driving the rest ashore. A 
fn-ah detail was raaile, and with cheerfulness the men followed McDonald to the 
nnei>uipleted end of the work ; but scarcely bad a boat been placed when a yet 
more murderous voll-y was tired, wounding McDonald in the arm at the elbow 
and killing and 'nounJing as before. From a detail of sixty men the two attempts 
cau.M.-i a iosa of two killed and seventeen wounded, — nearly a third of the force. 
Infmtry were now t.ikcn over in boats by the engineers; the enemy were eap- 
lund and the bridge completed. After crossing the army and back a-jain to the 
n<«rtliem side, the bridge was taken up and the regiment went into camp. 

During tlic winter of l^'03-tj4, headf[uarter3 were near the navy yard at 
^\a-hingt(.n, the Fiftieth and FiiVx-nth consiituting the engineer brigade, under 
<;.-i..rd U. W. Benham. The compaui.-s were employed in fitting out, repairing. 
and preparing for service, and those at White Oak chureh, aave the movement of 
J.iii'iary, ISlill, lay in camp for three months. On March 2D marching orders 
w.Ti- received, and the column moved out. Kain fell heavily all day. At Alex- 
•ndria, ihe ears were t.ikcn to Raj>pahannock station, where camp was made. The 
l-'hi'in and ambulance train now numl>ore>l over two hundred wacons. The retri- 
nt.-nl wa.H s^parati-d into detachiueuta. Company L w.-y detailed for piumxT duty 
in the Sixth anny corps. After the cn-.-igement of Chaucelior^villc. the en- 
pn- rs mi.ved to Wn!<hinL.ton. whence they si-t out on July 6 for llari^T a Ferry. 
A'Ti.vo ihi' rotomai- and t^heuandoah bridgi-a were laid, and, on July LS and 20, 
M'-^do'a nrmy ru.min poured into Virginia on the hivls of the second retiring host 
«f i'lv.i.Uri.: Brid-es were laid during the summer jt Be-verly s Ford, Keilcy's 
V"-rd. Happahannu.k station, M.mntam Uun.and Freeman a Ford, and during the 

'■rid.-.- .•p:,nnirr_' the U.ipp;ihannoek. Corupany F was. on April 12, ISiU. doi-- 
i>»'-J a p^.n of the Third bati-ilion. Filtirth Kn-m.-er-., under .M.jor Ford, and 
>*-'-n.-.l lo tin- Fifth c.rp-. under Warren. At daUi-ht of .May :;.nrdenj came 
• r>inMV«' iho hrid.-i- at the ^fatinn wich all hn-te to (iermania Fooi. nn the Rapi- 
*l*n- ihon- to L-rwM the corps. The battalion, three hundred aud fifty strong, set 

t evening, rested till daybreak i 
;is thrown across the stream \u ji_ 
mi. The bridge w;is croased. on 
i.-ith, and Ninth, aud on the evei 
left with a small guard, and the 1 

out at daylight, and aniving , 
bridge two hundred feet long v 
rapid work won official cncnui 
three army corps, the Fiftli, S 

day Meade ordered the bridu-e left with a small guard, and the battalion to m.ircli 
to headquarters, to tight on the following moraing. The n.en re^jvonded prnui{itly, 
and, rationed lor three days and with forty rounds of animuniuoii, rep'.rt-d l-. 
General Meade at one A.M. liivouaekiiig near by, thoy moved at d-tylmht wuh 
the First division of Grithn's Fiftii corps in the second line of battle, whose 
works they strengthened with abattis and other devices. The enemy at d.nk 
made a movement upon the right, and the battalion was hurried thither and re- 
mained til! one A.M. of May 7, when one company was left and two taken to 
the bridge, which was di'^mantled, and re-laid for the pa>s;ii;e of an ambulance 
train over Elys Ford. Rebel cavalry held the rear, and the bridi:ewa> fhcnime 
removed, and the train taken to t^alem church, and thence to Frcdcriekaburg. to 
crois reinforcements. Two bridges were laid at North Anna river on May 27, to 
cross Hancock's corps, and a third at Hanovertown. Dismantling the bridge.s. a 
march was made to Cold Harbor. During the battles here tliey erected several 
batteries, one being within one hundred yards of the rebel works. They also con- 
structed several hundred yarJs of the advance line of trenches during the nighta. 
During the afternoon of June 12 the engineers arrived unce more on the 
Chickahominy, at the ruins of Long Bridge. A small party of the enemy were 
seen on the opposite bank. With darkness a chargini party of national infantry 
were taken acn^ss in pontons, and then proceeding to Cole's Ferry on the lower 
Chickahominy, the detachment, assisted by a portion of tlie Fifteenth Engineers, 
laid a bridge of sixty boats, makin-j a structure twelve hundred feet in IcnL'th. 
On rafts these were towed down to the James, and up that river to Fort Powha t tan 
and City Point. A sheltered camp was formed July l,and here the bridi:cs were 
left under guard while the men moved to the front to prepare material for invest- 
before this place. Here were constructed forts, redoubts, and covered ways, a 
wonder in size and strength, and wel!-nigh impregnable to fli^ault. Under the 
direction of enirineers, infantry was set to work to make wbions and faieinco. 
and by the end of the month, begirtning June 1, there "were made twenty th-.u- 
sand gabions and five thousand fascines. During the two months the engineers 
built twenty forts, batteriea, and redoubts. One fort was constructed of size suf- 
ficient to hold fifteen guns in position. The work was chii-fly done by night. 
The battalion was engaged on the lines with the Fifth corps on the We!dt)n Rail- 
road, and the 1st of September, 18G4, constructed a railroad eight miles in length 
from City Point to the left of the line. About the 1st of December, Warren 
made an extensive raid on the Weldon R.dlroad, and was inteieopted on his return 
by a stroni; force. On the night of December 10, the engineers traveled tweuty- 
two miles to the Nottoway river, in a snow- and rain-storm, to ero.->a the corps. The 
bridge was laid, tlie men crosacd, and then returning resumed their work oti the 
lines. On March 29 the final struggle began by the advance on Ilatcher'ii Run. 
Supply and ammunition trains were mired on the roads, owing to heavy rains. The 
engineers built cnrdurov ahead of the trains, lifted them from the miio.and ur_'< d 
them on. The bridges being moved to a point near Petcr^burg, M:.jor MeL)..ii;ild 
reported to General Wriudit. of the Sixth corp.s. On April 2, at Farmen-viHe, 
was constructed the last ponfon bridge u^ed by the Army of the I'ot..nKie .T_'.iin-t 
that of General Lee. The engineere, on the surrender of the Army uf Northern 
Virginia, were employed in repairing railroads and bridges. The regiment had 
marched twenty-two miles, and were preparing suppers, when Colonel rfpanlding 
received a dispatch from General Meade, s.iying that if the engiiie'^ni could ri.:ich 
the city in time next day they would be placed at the beail of the cohimn in the 
rc\iew of the army. The men unanimously decided to continue the niareh- :ind 
made the eighteen miles without rest. Pursuing their northward way. th.y laid 
bridges for the cniasing of Sherman's anny at the old points on the Rappahan- 
n.>ck, at Fredericksburg. Then marchin- to Wa-hingt,)n, they went into .innp 
June 1, at Long Bridge. Having participated in the grand review, the engineers 
returned to Elmira, and were mustered out. 



TiIF. S''j:fy"ev^"th I^rfim^nt wa.s 
mustenxi into service of the United ; 


loIJi«rs, Cjmp.uiiit. 11 Mill I) won- 
oroiteJ r>T the KicuUior br',-jJe. ( 
gooiery, the other by Ciptam Goodi 
Slitj-»-iventh many of the men left, 
• igned. JIont;^omorys men furmeii 
GcKxInjia's Cuuii^ny D, Cipuin K. 
diTuioa of Key 
The two c>3nijM 

furuicJ on tlie lifl. The re-.-imn 

le ojtnp;iiir wii r;u5c-J by Abel S. Mont- 
10. they were trjnsf.;rTOj to the 
p were dl^ehar^i-'J. iind boih e:iptaina re- 
port of If. uiiiier Captain Denaou, aad 
. n..l.K The n!-.-in,ent KTV.-d in Co'icha 
pa. Il wi-i hotly cn'.-.i'je-J ut fair O.iti, ami ht-haveJ well. 
>t six killeil and twentv-threi- wouiide'i, with three mi.-<Mn'.r. 



sustaice'l. Ou the repuUe 
•oieoth waa ordered u> the ! 
tttempt to silenoe tho^c of t 

U h,-id io n-r 
jf Reynolds' e< 

At Fre.l.riei:>b. 
on I>xiiniber U 

rhieb 1 

V sii-ht lo.»< Wit 
18i;.', the .<ixty- 
re i:n:ri;;ed iu an 


n.' artillery poured in a -dlia-' 
It cru-s>ed to FaUn-.uth, where, 
■A. They left the [tipp-ihan- 
I to Warrenton in July, liavin;; 
e battle of OT-ttyshiire. There 
reiriment. The re-.;i;uent was 
. in the series of battles which 
except veterans, were mustered 
■« transferred to the Siity-6fth 

?Dc!uy. Th 
tnfilalins fire, which cexMsi at dark. The i 
cu picket and o<.oasi»n3l ilrill. the winter w. 
nock on June 13 to mareh northward, and n 
traveled over four hundred miles, and eti'ja-.'e 
were then but ten of the Rochister tiien left 
in the campai;^a a'^inst Riehniond. and i.« 
terminated in its capture. The ori:rinjl mei 
out on July 4. 1SC4, and these and the recrt 
New York volunteers. 

TAe Sei^iilieth R'^giment, otherwise known as the First Eieelsior, was ortraa- 
iied ia New York city, to serve three years. It wa? maiteroi int.5 service of the 
gOTemment durin:: the month of June, iS61. Its colonel was Daniel E. Sieklca; 
lieuteoant-colonel, William Dwi'.-ht; m.ijor, J. EL-Wrt Famum ; and its, 
W. J. Kay. In the Seventieth was a company from Monroe, known as G. under 
command of Captain Henry B. OKeilly. Their fii^t eniajement was at Willi.ims- 
burg, on May 0, when our forces were h.ird prc-oed and the tide wn *ettia^-a;rainst 

left. Reckless of the dccimatin!^ fire which strewed their route with the killed and 
tnalmed, they charged forward Ions atter their ammunition had jriven out, and 
ihrice broke the Conf.Jerate lines at the fwint of the bayonet. It was said of 
them by the general c>jmmandinr, •■ They decided the fate of the day." In this 
char^ Captain Reiliy wu kilh-d, and the first heutenant, Charles U Youn^, 
ranked a? captain till roetnber, ISii.'. whei> he wjs oimmissioned captain. Auiin. 
at Fair Oaks, the Excelsior bricjJe. marehin; on June 1. Mdl. from their camp 
in the wocls, moved to atrack tlie reiw-U near the Wiiliaiuaburg road. Filinijout 
into a wheat-field, the line of battle wa.4 formed in fruot of a wood. On their 
advance, they were ^ected with a rapid and heavy tire from aloo? the entire rebel 
line. The Second re-ziuieot of the bri'.:ade made a most rrallant charcre. and broke 
th<! reW line. At Charles City Cross-Koa-i-. .tt White Oak swamp, and Mai- 
Tern Hill, at Brisi^w Station. Bull Run, and FreJcricksbunr. their b.?arini and 
their bravery won commendation. At Monocaey bridge, on September 13, ISO J, 
the Seventieth received orders, witb the Thirty-third, to drive the enemy from 
Jefferson's Pa.v. The service was executed in fin.> style, and without loss. The 
original members were niustere<l out of s-.'rvice July 1, ISG-i; the others were 
transferred to the Eiehty-sixth New Y'ork volunteers. 
J The Eiyhty-itiiitk Jit^jiiiitut, known as '• Dickin.*oo Guards," was organized at 
Elmira, New York. It was mustered into United Statea service on December 6, 
1861, for a period of three yairs. Its cilonel was IIiwLs.5n S. Fairrhild, of 
Kochestcr, commissioned December IS. ISCl. and mustered out with liis rc;.-!- 
ment as a bri^Mdier-g'-ncral on Augvust 3. 181)3. Company D was from Monroe, 
and was reputed to have been comiwacil of excellent men, many of them from the 
country. Thiy were comiiiandcd by Jo^«ph Murri^-^n. The regiment was or- 
dered to Wrishinjton on December 2, ISOl. It rep<jrtcd at Anna|H.lis. n-auved 
arms, and embarking on the morning of January 'J, ISiiJ. sailed for Ilatteraa 
Inlet, on board the ship " Aracan." .V storm cnuie up, and for seventeen days the 
Tcisel rode at anchor, haviiiy; thniwn ovcrlward four hundred aud fifty tons of bal- 
lasL On January 2iJ, IM2. the .-hip w.w towisl in. and the were finally 
landed. The Eighty-ninth wa.s bri-aded with the Ninth New I.>am|-hin.-, Eleventh 
CoDoreticut, and Forty. third IVnn^vlvaiiia. under evimuund nf General T. Wil- 
liapm. The n-.-iment remained in camp .a ilie iid, t until April IS, when it 
embarked ou the traii.-iH.rts " .\U-.s.i.^.,t' and '• Iphia." aud pnwo-ii-d on an 
expedition to destroy the locks of the Di^ui-J Sw.mip eaual. near Kliiaheth City. 
Thc bri^-ado wxs irkid at two .\.«. uf .Vpril I'J. and. the Ninth New York 
to advance, followisl by the Ei'.;liiy-nniih, b.-.-.m their march. 

Advancio'^ circuiloii-ly a di-tatK-e of thirty milas. a halt was ordered two milfts 
from Camden, to allow the atrau^len to clo-c up. Artillery in fr.iot. and 
orders to " pn»c\'ed at once" were ris-iiv.-d. The rneniy w.-nr f..iind behind a 
ditch, with rail fence ill front. The Ki.lityniulli formed line of battle and joined 
the Ninth on thuir Lfk. on a hill in fn.nt ..fa r.l»l battery. A hairh..ur paised, 
and the Ninth, char'riii'^ for tlirce- fourths of a mile under a destructive fire, were by the Ki-l,:y.i,inlh. which, 
Sred as it advaiiL-ed till the Ninth pctiri^l acniss their front and st.-ppcd 
Re-formiug in an a.ljacent ti.-l.l, the re'.:imcnt advanc.-d al.m;^ a fence and n:n.-w..| 
nrin;. The enemy bejran to leave their p<i.sition. and, aa the advance cuniinu.d. 
made a 'general retreat. 

In this, the first aeti.m of the n-.'imont, Cimpany D l.Kt two men. its fir-t aivl 
third ser?»>flnLs, who were left behind sick at Cam.len, and fell into llie h.ind< .,( 
the enemy. The forc\} rctuniisi to camp at U.» on May IS. 

On the invasion of Maryland, iu the fall of ISoL', the Eicrh'ty-ninth was hrr.,,.;!,, 
up to take part in the pursuit of Lee. They Lay for a time at Nevipnrt X. «-.; 
and left for Aquia cree^k on AuLiu-t 7. Haviui; marched to South .M..unt.ui,. 
were there enca'..'ed on S.-p!eniber 14, and a',-ain at Antictam im the 17th. Dar 
in:; the d.iy the brigade charged on a rcUl force fs'Sted bchin.l a wall ..n 
the brow of a hill. The enemy opi-ned with artillery, both on their fo.nt an.l 
flank. WTien n.-ar the wall the men fired, and rushed on with the b.iy.uict. ari.1 
the Monroe company took a stiind of colors; but, unsupported, the line was n.iu. 
polled to fall back. The regiment hat fony killed and one hundred an.l thirty 
wounde'J, b-Mo'g three-fourths of their number. Gjmpany D lost very h..nvilv. 

Again, at Fredericksburg, on December 11, when the Fiftieth Engin.iT- at- 
tempted to lay the bridge oj.posite the city, they ware earnestly and gall.mtly -up- 
ported by the regiment, who p.mre<l volley volley upon the rehe!^ bi'liin.l 
the stone wall in the endeavor t.i dispo-sses.? them. The loss of Company D it 
Fredericksbung was one killed and five wounded. 

Tilt One Hundred ami fifth R,.jim'nt wa.s formed by the consoli.l.ition of the 
Irish regiment, recruited .-it Camp ilillhouse. Rochteter, with a regiment nrgan- 
ize-l, or attempted to be orjaniztsJ, at Camp Upham, Lc Roy. On Novciubcr IK. 
ISbl, the first man w.xs mustered into United States service at Camp Upham by 
Colonel James M. Fuller. lie continued ti work for the completion of his r.'gi- 

broueht ab.>ut the consolidation, each nvinient forming five companies of a new 
regiment, to be designated as the One Hundred and Fifth. The men ftDui M..n- 
nw County were m.ainly fatriotic Irishmen, whase discipline during the wint.-r 
following prepared them for the arduous service of the succeeding campaitin.s. 
The regiment was fully organit.d on JIarch 2'J, 1302, and was s.ion after orden'd 
to Washington, and ou :*Iay 20 were at Manas.-,TS. under JIcDowell. The bri-.-ade 
of which the One Hun.lred and Fifth formed part was commanded by General 
Duryca, and had left Cathtt's Station for Cristoe on May 24. Two days l.itcr 
they had advanced ei::ht miles to, whence they were ordered the same 
night to CVntreville, and there encamped until the 29th, when the whole briga.le 
left under orders for Thoroughfare Gap. The brigudc pa-sed the gap. and marclusl 
on to Reetortown and Piedmont. On June 3 the whole dirisi.,n arrived at Fr..i.t 
Roy.-d, the One Hundred and Fifth bringing up the rear as its g-uarj- .B.v-i-.-e 
had principally been left behind. Part of it followed by rail to Ymm R..yal, 
during the entire journey the men were without their tents. 3Io.-t of and 
men stood these csjntinued and rapid marches .>ver the worst of roads .|ui;e wvil, 
despite lying out three or four nights in a drenching rain. 

To the inexperienced only the reeonl of battles indicates the re--olutioo of tin- 
soldier; but, strangely enouu'h, the march is more drea.Ied than the battle, and the 
sound of mu-ketry wUl rally the cdumn when the road is filled with t..iiin.- str.ig. 
glers. The hot sun. the C..1.1 niin, the dusty or .-piagmire road, the =hort a.ivan.-s.-s 
and long waitin<r^. the ni-jiit marches, — each ciinp lit by fire^ is near tli- ir 
own,— tho galled shoulders from heavy,''and the blistered feet, all these .in- 
but hints of the hardships of the march. 

Front Royal was \c\\ on June 12, by the railroad, for Callctt's Station, an.l th.- 
regiment wxs briL-aded with the One Hundred and Seventh Pcimsylvani.i in.l 
Ninety-seventh New Y'ork, with tw.i hittalions of Rhode I.-I.iu.l c-.ivaln.-. an.i a 
Maryland battery, — all numliering al^jut twenty-five etf.ciive ui- 1.- 
McClcllan lay in e-anip on the J.iiues wh.-n Jack.son engnge.l I'.'pc ..i the -H 
Bull Run field. The One Hun.lrcd and Fifth were to th.'^car vrlien or.l.r- . toa. 
to move fi^rw.inl. Pnimpt in advance, they did not reach the batile-fi.jl.l nil ri. .r 
dark, when they were fired upon by r. I.el artilhry with..«t l.v-s. The On.- 11.... 
drcd iind Fourth R.'gi.nciit. cont-iining a number of .^(onroo 3..1.1iei^, »-s with the One Hiin.lrcl a,i.| FU^h. 

The hattleof Centreviile wis f..u.-ht .... Aug.W :il», lSi;2. Durin'- th.' ...■li...i lli- 

where the Fifty-seventh New Y'ork found. ThLs P.'gimcnt had bc.n c-m- 
p.'llcd to fall back fr.i'U an'cd p..sition. to which. ab.iut one P.M.. the l.ri'.::.'le 

s,d..-ral.le fon.-.v in.i.f- his a|.p. .riii.-e in.l ..p.ii,-.| witli f..ur guiM. wh..s.: elcvili...i 
insured s.afcty t.i the tr.,..p<. This firing e..ntii.ued l.~. I,, ' 
sido for h.ilf an hour, (i.n-rd Duryi w,..ind.:d in the hind by lli.i fi '-• 
meat of a ahcH. Tho hai.d was ban.iaged and he kept the field. The bri-ale 


UO.J f..i 

humir^.i Tirin Ui tli 
ovenJ koun. wlien 
qJciI. aiiJ an aiiv^in 


V, o.-dor ^vma U, : 
ce to the original p-i; 
;pfK)rtfHl heavily by 
li a:iJ upeiitnl on tl 
ill t'fO '^cat torce ;ia 


;r.-, 3ud- 
le! Tho 


.ThU wu .t 

Al~ut six P.M. a b-ittcry of thrM zui 
Jrtilr enjtr-i-J from cuiicealunTit in tho 
njtioiui! bri.-aJe ilur.-L'J, b.a the cncruv 
U>k. They thcD r.-tip.-d thruu-h the w.»d3 and nliied upon a hill in th._- rear. 
The 6 -htin^ wja severe, and the r<.'jimeQt8 were badly cut up. To this time the 
One lUndrol and Fifth bud b.nen in lour batttci.— Cedar .Mountiiin, ILippahjin- 
m,<V TlioroUi,'ht>e G-.ip, and aocond liol! Run. On September 5 iLe reinraent 
Ijt rui-aJopeJ Wii.»hini:tou. Company I, which entered the List action 
atron^, lo^t three killcil. lire badly wi.undcd. ;uid twelve mis.>in:;, — 
tlie lcfe..^e4 guataine-i in the unci|ual ?trUL'-'te. Colonel Fuller re^istied 
.Ka-iL'-t -i, IStJJ, and Lieutenant-Colonel Howard Carroll was at the 5atae date 
r.<uiui!<iioneJ colonel. The One Hun-irvil and Fir:h wis in action at Chintilly, 
S'lith Mouat-iin, and Antietam. In thi.< last battle Colonel Carroll was mortally 
w.>iind..d, and died on September 20 tollowin'i. Major .John W. Shedd wai com- 
Biii-ioned oloncl October lU, aud so remained uotil a ^o:LT.Jl.Lti„.i, ^h -n he wji 
nia-tered ouL In the ill-st.'.rre.l battle of Frederiekiburj, P.;cembcr 13. the re-_-i- 
imiit waa present, and in January, 1363, enjoyed the common espcrieoce of a 
Biarch amid a pelting rain in a wa of mud. Shariu j in the general ill-fortune of 
M splendid army, we ..Jec the regiment settled, with thinned ranlca, in catnp 
Dear Belle Plain, Vir^'inia, where the winter is passed. 

Thji Kb*ety-fourth Rejtv^nt wxs, on March 19, crjnsolidated with the One 
Hundred and Fif.h, and supernumeraries mustered out. Each regiment fiir- 
ni-hed five corapauies. Adrian K. Root, of the Ninety-fourth, was colonel of 
tlie new orginiiation. The One Hundred and Fifth, now lost to sight, had 
entered the serrice a thousand stn.oi. and had contended with the enemy in 

thrw!-fourths, leaving two hundred and fifty tit for duty, and well-ni^'h as many 
BKire in the rarious hospitals. Hooter was defi-ated at Chancellor^ville, and 
ivtired north of the river, but not to re^t in camp. Lte believed it pos-iible 
to *rtat« terms of pojcc on northern ground, and marched into Pennsylvania. 
Hooker gave way to Meade, and Pmvidence dictated that the decision of the war 
•hould talc at Gettv!bnn:r. Thither by ton.-ed marches the Union corps 
ha.itened, and on the fir^t da\-s of July. 1S63. the tpull of thi; Confederacy was 
Ciintly, but distinctly, *jundfd. The Xioety-fourth hurrie<i into action oo 
the double-quick. A reckless, insane order was ^ivco tij charge a rebel briijide 
■croes an open field. The command obeyed, aud planted their tattered fi.ig far in 
advance of any other repmental en^i^. Back over the tield. swept by the brigade 
during the advance of fitV'eu lung minutes, the dead and wounded were thickly 
atrewn. The position proved uutonable. The brigade v-a.* enlilad-il on U^h fiariks, 
and an order to retreat wis eiven. Another stand w.ij att^-mpted, and the rtbels 
Were che<:kcd so ai to permit tiie arrival of Union Inxips on the crest of Ceme- 
t«.ry HilL The noble soldier) savt gronod cni.lginL-ly, and lost most he:ivily. 
Id tho regiment there was a lo.*3 of s^-ven killed, ?isty wounded, and one hnnured 
and sixty missing; leaving of eoliste.! men but one hundred and sixty. C*n the 
day;* following, the Ninety-fourth was uniler fire aud iust several men. Pa..*sing 
the interval of a year, we find the Ninety-fourth eoLTiged with the enemy at a four miles north of Reams' Station. In the midst of a forest, the first 
inliinotion of the rebel preienre was their appearunce in the riizht rear, flanking 
the Union troops and firing lively. The men sprang over their breastworks and 
f.ici^J about An Alabama colonel ordered a surrender, but pushed on with his 
c-Jiioin without ita enforcement. The Ninety-fourth resumed ag-.Tcssive meas- 
■r.-v A KjuLd of rebels p,TS--ing ti> the rear with a body of pris.>n.}rs w.-is intcr- 
npied and captured. A heavier force of rebels appeared, and the L'uiun troops 
«••»¥ forccil to yield. This strange scene was several times enacted, .as both sides 
*«rv Rinforeed; but the enemy finally won. and a Lireat share of the re^raent 
»a» r.reed to Kcomp.iny the rebels to Petersburg. The losses of August 13, 1^, 
and iM were, in killed, wounded, and mi.-sin- one hundred and forty-thri:e. The 
r^-mnant of a rrirment \tas enL-aced, dunng the fall, in the extcosioo of the lines 
•<-»t «.f Pctcnburg, and, under command of Captain (jeor),-e French, did honor- 
aM.- tcrrii* at Uatcliera Run ia l5ti5. 



N the .unm.r of LSiV.' the revers. 

••iiH-l cff..rt In ,„ppr,.i. the rtb. 1 

at! .■ and well-nigh invincible army 

d w*.:<t for a m >re dctcr- 
pition \n\ to the a<* of 
thcru tcmtorj. The President 

.!! f.i 


nobly re^p'jnded. Her choicest you 
new Monroe County reiiuient — the 
at Camp Hillhouse, R^-.-hester, and 
The field- and 3tatfH)ficer3 were, cc 
Charles J. Powers; major, G.-jrgs 
quartermaster, Joseph S. Harris ; su 
Thnmas Arner; and ch:>plain. Jam 
August ly, and proceeded, vi'i tho 

lisand men. 

and the c 


5 of M„„n>e n,.„i 

uiii; men wen 

■ enrolled 


by Au~u.,t lb the 

Mcond uni 

er the e^ 

11— » 

as fully QfL-aniiM 

under orde 

rs to on 


to the seat of war. 

oinnel. Oliver H. Pal 



= B. Force; 


, Jul 

n T. C'huma.*:ro ; 

un:.,m, John 

V. Whit 


a.ssistant sur.-eon. 

les NiehoN. 

The re 


h-ll K,Kh«ter on 

Central Ra 

Iroad, to 


ly, theu down tho 

Hudson by 3t*amer. and r 
march through the city to 
were rtH-X'ived with joyous 
on after batlle-ficMs. Gu 

chcd New York on the evening of the Jl.nt. 1 
uiirters in Park barracks was a grand ovation. 1 
uhu.^iasm, and its remembrance may have been a 
1 were supplied, and next day the command dejc 


for Washingti^n. and went into camp five miles from the city. The men showed 
rapid progress in the use of .arms and in the evolutions of drill, and s.jon evinced 

Oo Anoiust Ih tents were struck, and the camp of the old Thirtt-cnth of a year 
previous, uppo:>ite Georgetown, was occupied. Almost a thousand letters home 
announced this fact, so general was the resort to correspondence during the first days 
of soldieriDg. On August M, the old troops from the James river were seen on 
the march to Pope's a..ssist3nce. and the sound ofa cannonade was heard away towards 
Bull Run and Centroville. On September 4 the regiment was called to arms at 
three A-M., and stood in line till daylight, — to them a new experience. The orrani- 
latioo was now brigaded with Whipple's command. Franklin's division, and Sum- 
ner's corps, and on the evening of September 6 received orders to march oo the 
following morning. The re;.:iment, leaving the camp under a guard, marched at 
five A.M. for Rocks'ille, where it arrived at four P-U., aud camped for the night. 
The men were employed in felling trees, digging pits, and marehioir, aud by the 
ll-.h had reached Clarksburg, forty miles from'Washington, and furuied line of 
battle. Short marches, with caution, were made as the euemy w,ij a^prdclicd, 
till the morning of the 13th. when the regiment pushed rapidly forwani, and at 
ten A.M. he:ird cannonading in the advance. Generals McClellan and Buniside %\*- 
peared, and were greeted with cheers. Sunday came, but it was unheeded; the 
regiment marched thirteen miles. A mountain was scaled, woo-is were threaded, 
and about one A.M. of the 15th rest was taken in a field, which d.aylight dis- 
closed covered with the dead and maimed. They were upon a rei^ent battle- 
ground. In';or|iorated with the Second brigade, French's division, the regiment 
pushed on to Bo^jnsboro', where it arrived at half-past four P.M., formed in line, 
and lay down to rest. At ten A.M. of the 16th a terrific cannonade began, and 
the strange, exciting sound of battle continued till dark. The regiment marclie.J 
from Kectysvilie at six .\.M. of the 17th, and al'^er an advance of two miles fonueil 
line of battle, and went into action on the crest of a billion the left of the brigade, 
io the front line. The enemy occupied a line of riflo-piu in a corn.field in front, 
distant not thirty rods, and upon these the One Hundred and Eighth opened a 
rapid, incessant fire, with a dL-rermin.ation which astonish'^! and completely cowed 
their !',.,€. Standing unprotectini. not a head dared show itself above the rebel 
trenches, and when a chari:e was made, the colors of the Fourteenth North Car>- 
lina were captured, and one hundred and fit\y-nine men. Abijut>t twelve 
the command was relieved by the Irl-h brigade, and fell back about one huodre-i 
rods, re-formed, with a reduced line, ution the colors, and was sent, by order of 
General Richard>on, to the left, to fill a gap in tho line. It remained here, under 
tire of the enemy's batteries, until d.irk, when it went on picket, and there n.^ 
mained till relieved at nine .K,i\. on the next day. The regiment met a heavy lorw. 
Major Force was killed, as were Lieutenants Tarb.ix and Holmes. There w^re 
twenty-sLX killed one hundred and twenty-four wounded, and tbrty-seven mi-sing, 
a total of one hundred and ninety-five. Througln-ut tho army the conduct of the 
One Hundred and Eighth rendered it well known as a fi'.-litin.,; n-.'iniunt. The 
surgeon wrote home. " I am proud of the One Hundred and Eighth. NnMy and 
unflinchingly it answered the call of duty t.j enter the field, an<i well jud bravi-ty 
has it done its work. It is an honor to .Monroe County." The bilt.riie^^ of 
loved ones lose was sweetened by this atttat of heroism in a jxiultryin-.- orJ. al. 

From Antietam the rc.-iiuent m.irched to Harper's Ferry, foni.-l tl.e n>cT. 
waist deep, and enc-am[^.■d for a ni-.-ht a mile from tho Pot-.oia.-, on B-Jirar 
heights. Shelter tents were fumi.-hed at ShaTsbup.-, and ScptemU-r 'JT the 
command was on picket a mile west of the camp. Picket duty wis ni..n- Irv- 

the column 16 triHips be;ji 
las.-i'd bv, and nnivi.,l up 

: Ch irh. 

in large btjdies, and 
, X briel 

id the CM 
ad wimc 

C.jnJingly, .at livrt 
I the bhenaiidiiah, 

uped on the U 


teM, ad»s'cpt nnJor b'ankeU The next day's march brnuiht tliem to SnicW- 
trville. Hire were fjur.U the Tliirtcenth snj One llunjrol and Tertieth, and 
plea-iaot calls were inten ii.inL'ti. The we:itlier cliiiijeJ to ct)!d •nJ nipping; the 
men shircrci aruunj thtir camp-fires, and dadiy heard ihn order to " till in." 
They oiarehed to L'pf-erviUe, when fur.ij;in;; wiw frvely inJu!;rtd in, and bliiiin;; 
fires, kindled from rails, were employed to clficl the depreisi.iii of a prevailinsj 
•now. storm. Colonel r.ilmer was here in tetupcmry eummajid of the brisjde. 
The company of Captain Yale was presented witl. b.;:iutifiil culnrs by the bdies of 
the town of Brighton. The re'jiment \kI\ I'ppcrville for Warrvntnn, where it 
made a brief suy. Orders came, November U'>, to march to Kalmoaih. Thence 
> »ery unpleasant tri;. wai made tu Belle Plain, a place for the lanjin; of snp- 
pliea on Potomac eretk, which enters the river at this p->int. — a mud-covered dat of 
tevend hundred acna, dreary and hoasele.^. The briL.-ade was hero employed in 
nnloading supfilics shipped to the army. Two hundred wa^ns were lo.ided per 
fcour, and for miles the n.iad w.x-* bl'vked by the unendio'.; tr^iins, eomin-^ empty, 
leturnin^ loaded. Oa DecemU.r 7 the One Hundred and KiL-hth was relieved 
and went into camp near Falmouth, as preparations progrci^ed tor a battle. 

Oo the tnomin;^ of December 111 the regiment cros.'«d the ponton over 
too Rappabanuojic, aod dr.ii\iiii; up in line along one ol the alreela of Fredej- 
ickstnrg, stacked arms and remained there till neit mornin;. The. order to 
■dranco was given and obcved. A brief halt was made nejir by a lar^e church, 
being prepared for the division hospital. The building was just then a tjir«t for 
rebel artillerymen. The fourth shot went through the church and the line of the 

The division of French, of Sumner's corps, was drawn op for a charge, with 
the One Hundred and Ki^-lith in the front Une. Then was performeil a deed of 
heroism which won for the participants undying honor. The following extract 
•attests the fact: " It soon became evident that the first ridge of hills, on which 
the enemy wa-s p.«ted behind earthworks, could not be carrii-d eicept at the point 

charge on the batteries. Howard's division was drawn out in support. The ■ 
'troops sprang forward to obey the order with much enthusiasm. S^r-addy they 
marched acro^ the plain and never faltered until within a few yards of the ridge, 
•when suddenly met by a gJling fire from rebel infantry posted behind a stone 
walL A momentary confusion ensued ; then, re-fonuinz, the men retired to a 
lavine within rou.sket-shot. Reiirforeod by the second division, the line advance-l 
tt a double-quick, under a concentrated fire of infantry and artillery. The loss 
Was terrible; the sIioc'k wa-i unh arable; a hilt eniu.:Ki ; the c-;ntre gave w.iy and 
fled; itwii rallied and brought back." Again and again, but vainly, the attempt 
to dislodge the rebel artillery was made. Then Sumner brouirht all his cannon to 
play, and the roar of cannon was incessant. N'ight rame. and with diiEculty the 
•wounded were remove-i. The army recros.sed the river, and the One Hundred 
and Eighth returned to its old cainp rt-duced in numbers, and for a time suffering 
from sickness. On Januuy 20 they took part in the mud campai_-n. and on 
their return settled quietly down to pass the winter in quarters. Save heavy 

details of men fut 

kct, ther. 

;.dl for duty, and uU the close of Feb- 

ruary they were yet in camp near Falmouth. 

On March 5, the Secoud corps w;is reviewed by Oencral Hooker. Colonel Pal- 
mer was d'lseharged March 2, aud Charles J. Powers was promoted colonel on 
*the 13th. Francis E. Pierce was at the s-imc time promoted lieutenant-coLmcl, 
and Harmon Uo'j:abo".im, major. Numerous minor promotions were made at this 
period, and payment of the troops and a long rest put them in good spirits. On 
the morning of April 2.S the Third divUion left camp at sunrise, and the re-.ri- 
ment was halted to build corduroy for passage of trains. About three P..M.. of 
April 30, they marched to the fords of tlie IiaplJ..n,an.l cro^^>d at United States 
ford, ten miloa above Fredericksburg. Pu-hin,- on till ten P.M., a recent b.ittle- 
ground WiS reu^-hcL A batch of prisoners passintr, one remarked, " Farther 
00 you'll c.itch hell, " aud his espre-sion proved a prophecy. On .May 1, at 
aunrise, the Second brigade, under General H.iys, marched up-'jo a rtx-onnuis- 
saacc, without re-»ult. .Vt sunset of next day, J.icks«in, with twenty thousand 
moo, came on a charge upon the Eleventh eor^ks. driving them by thou>:uids. 
Amid the wild tumult, the brigade .-Mien advanein-.; boldly into the caldron 
of the conflict, and there stoiid I'asL The voice of Colonel Powers was heard 
laying, "Don't div.'race the One Hundred anil Kighlh! Don t disgnec the 
Third Div'iiion !" and they did not. It was nine P.M. when the rebels cbartred 
in masses aiuid the wood.s and darknc^.'*, and opened a fien-e tire, which r.i:s\yi till 
midnight At aunri-su of .^ :i unearthly yelping announced a reUl charge 
Bear division headquarters, and a hot fi-bt rii-ued. There wxs a lull lor a time, 
and then again the gray rinks >w,pi out from the wi««l.i. only to hv drisen baek. 
The One Hundre-d and lii.-bth i.tiio l'..rth from the ooiriut wi;h honor and 
antamished fame. They I'ou.lil splendidly, and more tli.ui jn-liSod iJie higll 
•ipectation entertained of them from previous aetiooi. Two men werv; killed, and 

thirty-four wounded. There were sharp passages atar 
and oa .A!ay 6 the regiment re-crossed the llapidan, 
in good spirits. Lee resolved t.) invade the north, ai 
of the determinauoa with exultation, and gladly bro 
and deadly gnipple. The regiment left Falmouth Ji 
from heat aud dust, marched ni-_'ht aud dav northwari 

and returned to Fa 


a rti't was uken; then atjrtin- at thne 
over, the run was fjrdod, and June 20 a 
picket dfLiils were sent out. The mart 
land, vhsK a halt of five days en.sued. 
olds, at Gettv-^burg, and thither the columr 
motion, which indicated the peril threatened, 
bravery of the regiment in the grc, 
in support of a batterv which made 

be old Bull Run ti-ld was pa-.i 
3 made at Gainesville, while hi-ji , 
nntinucd to Frederick City, Mar^'. 
enemy was eueountcred by K,,„. 
is ha.stcue<l with a swift, stea :v 
and a challenge 'accepted. Th. 
battle of Gettysburg was notable. Pla„,i 
re execution among the rel-'ols. thevelLirj-l 

in two linc-3 to take it. They were met at the brow of the hill by the One llur,. 
dred and Eighth, and given a deadly greeting. The stru-.-ls wa.s fearf.ii 
Ninety of one hundred and twenty horses of the battery were killed, and tb,. 
batterymen nearly swept otf, when the brave captain called on the (Jue Hundn-i 
and Eighth for help. The men sprang forward, hauled the truns below the bf..w 
of the bill Loads of canister were thrown in, and the men, puttin',- their 
shoulders to the wheeU, pushe-d the guns to the brow to be dlsebarged. While 
the contest continued. General Hays, attempting to bring up a rcjiment. poiat.-l 
to the One Hundred and Eighth, saying, " See bow that gallant band fi',-ht !" TU 
men gave no ground, and fought to win or die. Their loss was severe. Thi-re 

inty-seven wounded, and forty-eight mining. Total. 

The loss of three commissioned officers kilh-d, ai^J 

to the struggle, .\fter the action, the army foilow.d 

1 July It) the One Hundred and Eighth lay at Harpi-r . 

irJers amie to march; and on the 22il, L'prerviile vzj 
made at .v.hbys Gap. "vVarrenton was reached on the 2i;!h. 
£ted stay was made. .\ midnight recoonoissance was made t»Q 
September 24, to dislodge an outfiost. The enemy fled, the buildin'.-y were tin>l. 
and the regiment, returning, heard the long roll beating in the rebel cam|a, 
which were effectively stirred up. 

On October 10 the regiment left Culpepp*:r Couit-House and starts towards 
Washington. Two army corps had been sent weat. and Lee, aware of the fact, 
had begun a fiank movement. On the morning o.f the I2th the Second cji^-i 
formed in line two miles west of Culiiepper. The armies, marching on paroiiri 
roads, came in collision at Cedar Run. The One Hundred and Ki-_'!ith m-.t 
by the fire of a rebel battery, and attacked on the flank. Sklnuisiitr* wtrv 
thronu out, and a charge of cavalry repulsed. Meade cuncentratvd his forces at 
Centreville. It was about three P.M. of the 14th when the Third division reacb.-.! 
Bristoe station. The enemy had come in position to attack the rear of tlii; Fildi 
curpi, and opened heavily from a hill-side un<ju the division. The division w.-s 

one hnodr- 



nd fortv 

I protr 

ordered oo the double-<iuick to 



of the railroad cut 


were s 

een hastening for the s 


point. Tl 

e national troops w 

>n, and 


op.--ued vigorously 


r upon the 

enemy. Then stain 

nj the 


the Second brleade dro 

e tl 

em in diso 

rder, capturing- f.ur 


flags, a 

nd four hundred and &(t 


u. About 

eleven p.m. orders 

am... to 


in quietly," and the march was i-esumed to Bl.ickbiirn Ford, wliere the eneinv "1-,- 
monstrated heavily. Next day they were found to have fallen liaek to Culi^-i'i^-r 
and the army rested in cauip. On November 7 the re-gimcnt nianlnsl to K.ily s 
Ford and encauiped. Three dais later the camps were early astir, and by suiin-; 
the ojlumns were on the road On the lOth the One Hundred and Ei-lith wrv 
located at a point on the Culpepper and Fre'lerlcksbuig The last ■•( 
November, Meade advanced to the llapidan. Warren cros.sed and marehol s^.iuli- 
ward, and devclop<d the enemy at .^line rvuii. The army ariiv.-.!. and c.i- ii 
awaited att.ick. Warren marchcil to turn the rebel flank, and rearlnsl |..,iri.-ii 
at dark. .Moruiii'.' came, and the enemy had .sO streii'.-tlieneil his d.leiis.- tlmt 
attai-k .seemed presumptuous, and wjj uot uiide. The corps r.tunied tu their olu 
camjis on Decvmbcr 2, built winter quari4;n near Stevensburg, and eiijoy'.-'J a 
long resL 

A reconnois-saocc was nude February C, 13114, at Morton's Ford, on the R.q-i- 
Jan. The bng.ido was in line a mile north of the ford at oi.,'ht .v.m. of d..v. 
and aw.iitetl the of the division. The Third hri-ide rini.d th,- -...iili 
hank, deployed xi skirmishers, and ailv,iiie''d close up-m the reln-l hatT,rn-s- 
About one P M. the Si-eond bn-^.ule f.rded tlie stn-ani and line "f I. .tile 

d on 

yards distant In 

lattcry from hi-.-h ; 
ludiaiely following 

ick of infinlry u?..* 


the i«Lirini3h line, which wjs Loin^ driven on the ri-^ht when the Soirorid bri^de 
fclvai...-,a l^ iho crat of the hill. The Ono.nui.da'J and Kii^hth lay dunii on 
(he crest ntar iho huuw, wliile the Fourteenth CoMri_via-ut w^fsenf. to re'juia li.«t 
m.uuJ aicJ h.rld it. Tliev iveru hard pressed, and tl:.' (Jne ll.indrej ajid Kiirhth 
gild Tenth Now York were sent tu tlie same place, when the three re^ini-.-uLs 
Bjide » firm advance of five hundred yank. Musketry continued till after dark. 
lU-licved at ten P.3i. by the Second divUioo, and reero*>ed to the former position. 
The o<rpi retired, leavin;.- the Lri^ide as rear ;;uard. On the evenin- of the 7th, 
(he Fourt.enth Connecticut beini: left on picket, the bri;.'-jde returned to camp. 

A {.Tand review wi3 held on Febnurj •2^, and fire days later the five corps 
were reduced to three, — the Second, Fifth, and Sixth. Warren had the Fifth, 
Kaiiock the Second, and Sed-wick the Sixth. .May. ISUt. found U. S. Grant 
een.Tul of the national armies. He had two objectives: Sherman waa to move 
ui-in .\tlanta and ileade up<jn Richmond. On May 3 the One Hundred and 
Ki-'hth left winter riuarters near Morton's Ford and joined the bri^de under Car- 
rull. at Steven.-»burg. at midui-^ht. Gibbon's division, with the rust of the old 
Second corps, pushed on to Ely's Ford, on the llapidan; crossed May 5, unop- 
pused, and bivouacked at C'hanceilorsville. In the action of May 6 the One 
Hundred T.'.-hlh Was cn;-i-..i, ,:..i .--uffered a hvr, of four kill.d and forty- 
two wounded. Eight of twelve olficcrs who went into battle were wounded. 
Colonel I'owers, while gallantly leadin'.; the command, was struck and severely 
injure'd- Lieutenant-Colonel Pierce was wounded in the right hand, and Adju- 
tant Parsons was also badly hurt. For days there w;is now coniinnous heavy 
Bghting under oppressive heat. On May 1 1 several desperate charges had been 
made upon formidable rifle-pits of the rebels, and were repulsed. About four 
A.M. of May 12, during the prevalence of a heavy mist, the Second corps, formed 
in line of brij^des, approached, undiscovered, the reb«?l works, and, with a load 
batthycry, rushed forward and quickly carried a part of the main line, capturing 
four thousand prisoners and two general officers. The enemy rallied, and fought 
with reckless bravery, fully c-jualed by our own men. On .May 18 the regiment 
bad lost nine killed and ninety-three wounded or mining, and the eighty which 
remained evinced the same fine spirit, and stood their eround with the same fear- 
leu determination, so characteristic of the command from the very first. Three 
-days later. Captain Joseph Devcrell was in command, and other officers on duty 
were Lieutenants Kavanaugh, Dutton, and Locke, while the regiment was at 
Marye's Heights, Freilericksburj. Early and late the One Hundred and Eighth 
bad marched, when on Sunday afternoon. May 21>, a halt was made near the bank 
of the Pamunkey, twenty or more mi'es from Kiclimoud. Xeit day. Warren's 
advance was attacked by Powell's corps at Tolopotomy creek, aud repulsed by 
Barlow's division. 

On June 3, at Cold Harbor, a charge was made by the One Hundred and 
Eighth and other regiments. Lieutenant John S. Kinleyside was killed, and 
«harp skirmishing continued throu;:h the day. \t sunset the rebels made a fu- 
rious charge on the breastworks, but were repulsed with severe loss. Deverell was 
wounded in the assault, and the c^^mmand devolveii upon Lieutenant P. C. Kav- 
anangh. With lines two hundred yards apart, the air wns alive with whistling 
tod mewling balls and bursting shells, and. the cont(--st knew no cessation. On 
June 5, Wm. H. Smith, of G, was killed .and buried side by side with Kenley- 
«ide, Wood, and Skinner, kUled on the 3d. On June 12, after eight days and 
nights of constant skirmishing on the front line, which was not at seveml points 
Diore than fifty to seventy-five yards apart, (he regiment left Cold Harbor, and bv 
continued marching reached Charles City Court-IIouse on the Uth. James rivi:r 
WM crossed at ten P.M., and the march was terminated within two and a half 
miles of Petersburg, when the work of besieging was begun. The regiment was 
employed on fatigue duty and n>rt-buildiug until September 24, when they took 
p.-ill"n on the front line near Fort Hill, and frum behind their works and gopher 
b'lles witnessed daily artill.rry duel-, and I'ccanie accustomed to the sound of shot 
■nd wlicll. Winter Ciime, and still the besieged held on gripping the enemy at 
IVletalmp^'. On January 27, ISlIo, salvos of artillery announced the fall of Fort 
Ki'her, North Carolina, .\fter a previous attack the rebels had shouted across the 
lini-s, " Have yo'uns heard from Fori Fisher? " Now the retort went b.ick, - We 
nns have heard from Fort Fisher." As the months wi-nt by, the One Hundred 
■nil Ki^'hth gained strength by the return of the wounded and convalescent. It 
wa.i claimed that few if any regiments in the field, after nearly three vears' arduous 
fc;rvirc, could show a better record in maintainiiig its originid mcml-crs. But 

»>gilant, and self-disciplined. The banner presentcti by the ladies of liri'.-hton 
and [rond<H|iioit was ever cherished with pride anrl defi'n<lcd with ilevotion. 
Haleh.r's Itun was a hard b.itlle. and the fierce as.saulls of the enemy were as 
off-n M-ndy npnU-d. A review of the Se.-.mi and Third divisions of ih,' Se-c- 
nn.l ,•^,^„ was hehl in March. The I liie Hundn-l and Ki-luh sustained a cred- 
ilal.le part under command of Lieuteiiant.Col.jnel Pierce. The struggle ended 

with the surrender of Lee, and the reciment rested in camp at Burksville until 
May 2, when the march beian towards Washington. On the evening of the loth 
a halt was made eight miles from -VIejandria, on Munsi'n's Hill. On May 31 
I the cars were taken for home, where, having arriveii on June 1, a most cnthusi- 
I astie reception wm sivcn them. In the companies there wera one hundred and 
I sixty-nine enlUted men, all hearty, sun-burned, and travel-stained. Well was it 
! said at such a time, — 

" d»y thrice loFeij, when at length the soMier 


M&rshal.s. the c:ipi and htlmels ftre nit ^nrl.inded 
With green boughe, Ihe lust plundering of the fields." ' 

The court-house bell struct a signal a quarter to seven, and, as if by magic, 
the streets were crowded with people. The several militarv and civic swieties 
proceeded to the Genesee 'Valley depot and escorted the regiment to the court- 
house, where a welcome was uttered by Mayor Moore. Cheers were eiven, the 
column re-forme<J,anJ at the Braekett House a supper enjoyed and the men dis- 
missed to gbdden many a home, f lithful as soldiers, estimable as citizens. 



Scarcely had the One Hundred and Eighth received orders to leave lor the 
seat of war. when a new regiment, the Fourth, from Monroe, was authorized, and 
by the middle of August, lSt32, one company was full, and others rapidly being 
formed. The regiment was foil and mustered into the United States service on 
September 13, for three years, at Camp Porter, Rochester. On September S 
Patrick H. ORorke was commissioned coloneh Louis Ernst waa commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel two days later. On November lU Jlilo L. Starka became 
major, and Ira C. Cl.ark was the first adjutant; surgeon, Theodore F. Hall; as- 
sistant Burgeons, William C. Slayton and 0. Sprague Payne. 

On September 15 the youns Ladies of Rochester presented the regiment with 
a beautiful stand of colors, and four days later the cars were taken for Washin"- 
ton t;i'a Elniira, where arms and aceoutremenLs were obtained. A week was 
passed on .A.rlington Heights, and September 29 a march was made to Washing- 
ton, where the men lay on the sidewalks that night. Cars were taken for Sandy 
Hoi)k, Maryland, where picket duty and drill occupied the time till October 25. 
The regiment w;i3 bripded under Jackman, Geary's division of Slocum's corps. 
Colonel Ernst was in command till the arrival of Colonel ORorke on October 8. 
There were then nine hundred and thirty men in the camp. The firit death in 
the regiment was that of Patrick Moran. Marching, on October 28, across the 
ponton bridges over the Potonuc and Shenandoah, the One Hundred and Fortieth 
wound their way in the midat of romantic scenery to Alvaden Heiihts. bivouackc-d, 
and sent four hundred men on picket; marched to Snicker's Gap, ascended the 
mountain, and saw the Shenandoah two miles away on the other side, and the 
camp-fires of the enemy in plain view. The air was cold and searching for men 
withoutf tents, bhinkets, and fires, and at daylight, November 3, they moved to the 
eijge of a wood and built fires, and made themselves more comfortable. Several 
days were passed expecting an attack, which was not attempted. The re"iment 
was detached and joined to Warren's bri'.-ade, Sykes' division of Porter's corps. 

Marching orders were received on the evenin.; of November j, and next morn- 
ing the One Hundred and Fortieth t.«ik up the line of march, and passing throuuh 
Middleliury, whose secesll femah'S begrudged the men water t.j fill their canteens, 
encamjied for the night in the woods twu miles beyond. Renewed the march 
next moniiug, and encountering a snow-storm at White Plain, continued on to 
near Warrenton, and there encamped. The boom of cannon .s.>unde.l mit fir ahead, 
and the expectation of a battle w;is general. JlcClellan w;is relieved and Burn- 
side took commaiiil. He resolved on a winter campaign. Ia-c had retired south 
of the Rappahannock. It was determined to move U|>on Fredericksburg. No- 
vember 17, the One Hundred and Fortieth started .at noon for Falmouth. .Vo 
road was followed, and it seemed indiffer.-nt whether advance w;is made bv dav or 
ni^'ht. so buth were used ; and un .Vovemk-r :;3, the command 
brief march from the river, and slicrtly .iflcrwards moved to wil 
Frederiek.luirg. Remaining here till D.eember 10, (he attei 

picket cuipl 

..Id bv St. 

l.y bank,, 

L'rc hi 
earth ar., 

to obt;, 

sugar, two of coffee, 


"hardJict" the size of aoda-Frackora and a triflo ihakcr 
wbith fried Wuuld muk.- three to fuur onlinurv sIilts. and 
wbich WIS fried with the fjrk. Dishes were a tin cup ai 
tnd fork. Each cooked for hioisulf. In stiuails of fnur, 
pan. In this crackers were soaked and fried, Can.s, wiih 

. a pi.-co of fn\t pork 
ucra^ional frc=h b.;.>f, 
id plato. spoon, knife, 

wire froi.1 the broken 

telegraph for bails, were used to make i>)ffi-e. Water wa3 poureil in frjin the can- 
teen. The p.iil was held over the fire, and when the water had reached the b-ji!- 
ing point, i.otTee was thrown in, effervL-aced for a minute, and the meal was rc;idy. 
Beans, rie-e, and occasional desic'CaUKi ve-etahles were added at times. Marching' 
orders were received on December 10, and at three a.h. the re-,;imcat was called 
up. Camp was left at si.\ a.m., with seven humlred and two men. Three hours' 
marching brought the One Hundred and Fortieth upon the hei-'hts opp<isitc 
Fredericksburg, wher« the men lay all day expecting momentarily to be ordered 
to move. Cannonading began with a erdi at twenty minutes pant five, and was 
kept up all day. On the memorable l"th of December the One Iluiidied and 
Fortieth was ordered to march, but was halted when half a mile was g>ne over. 
A short time before dark the division received ordcni to cro^s. Sykes* regulars in 
advance. Several *?r?ot.i of the city were fravcr'.'-r an'I n* nl-Iu luel eo-ne fh,. 
line of battle was formed, and at half-past si.t p.m. marched into the field back of 
the city, within musket -shot of the enemy, and lay on their arms all ni-.-ht. The 
battle scene was vivid, unearthly, and exciting. Artillery thundered from either 
aide ; red spouts of flame burst from the guns ; and shells whizzed and crashed 
among the houses. Later all beciuue quiet, and at daybreak the command was 
ordered to the city, and lay in house and yard awaiting orders. At eight p.m. 
the regiment was drawn up in line and posted to protect the crossing of the army. 
It was one of the last to leave the city, and reached the north bank at daybreak 
of the 15th, barely escaping being left behind by the removal of bridges. Linicr- 
ing a day or two at Falmouth, they finally returned to the old camp and estab- 
lished winter qucirters. 

On January -0 a general movement was attempted ; the brigade marciied two 
and a half miles and encamped, wet and weary. Rain poured down ail nisrht. 
Next day, after a toilsome eflbrt, the troops turned into pine woods, and staved b<?- 
tween two and three days. The mud deepeneil. Wa:^ons and artilierv stuck 
fast. The whole army was ernployci to build corduroy, and move the suns and 
pontons back. The regiment returne-d to camp on the :;4th, a tired and hungry 
band, but glad to see their old Cjuarters. Promotions, parades, and picket were 
topics of camp talk till April ;;i», when, under Hr«iker. the army onee more awak- 
ened to action. F.jitra clothing and bagg-.ige were packed and sent to Washm'.'- 
ton ; wagoo3 were loade-d, and so were haver-.icks, Furloughed men returned, 
and on tlie 27th the regiment was on the march towards the Kappahannock- 
The third day's march was long and tire^oiue ; the river was crossed by the men 
io water to the wai^t-beit, and bivouac was made ten mik^ from Chanceiiorsville. 
On the next day this historic spot was reached, and the day passed in ^uiet. 

On May 1 the division was ordered to move and attack the enemy. A brief 
manly address was given by Colonel Ernst to the One Hundred and Fortieth, and 
the advance began under fire of artillery. The Union batteries respcnde-d, and the 
troops advanced to near the hill where their guns were planted, and there formed 
line of battle. A halt of a quarter-hour was made, when, the shells coming each 
moment faster, the regimcut started on a doubIe-<iuick towards their battery. 
The men d'u>carded knapsacks and blanketa in preparaiioo to advance, when the 
regulars were sevn retreating, followed by the enemy. The re^gimeut retired to 
their last night's bivouac ; formed line, and stacked arms. At evening the pick- 
eta were driven in, and the hostile hues of battle were seen advancing, when the 
One Hundred and Fortieth begau its first cng:i-joment. The men. lying down or 
kneeling, openi-d and kept up a steady tin- till ordered to evase. As the rt'bela re- 
t'lred the regiment celebrated their suce.-^3 by a rin-ing cheer. 

At two A.M., Jlay .1, the ren-'iment marched past Chancellorsville. — a sinL'le 
brick house,— and s.)on the whole eorp> were busied in felling trees and ihrowini: 
up works. At five P,M. a cr.L~h of musketry and a continued cheer annouiieed 
the charge of Stonewall .raek>.iii ui"in Howard's Eleventh eori«, Unsiu-iic.iin'.; 
their datigtT, the men had thrown up light pits, fronting southwani. when frum 
tbcir right rear the gray m:i.vjes were s<in advancing. The corps was routcvl. 
The Third corps was rapidly thniwn in front of the enemy, while the Fifth w.i.s 
ordered f)rwar.l to sustain them. The (.)ne Hundred and was double- 
quicked through wo.)ds. and drawn up in rear of a b.ilt.'ry. which finil a few 
shot*. There wa^ no ri'si-iu'-e. and the battery withdrew. The n-giment movol 
at two A.M., and was st.iti..ned alon- the e-.lge of an open field, and l.iy d..wn with 

pear. Morning c;iine, and the men threw up w.riis and buiit aballis. The corps 
of Sickles held their •.•n.ond unaiJe.l. re|K.Hed ,-aeh rebel ailvancc. and captured a 

On May 4 the pickets kept up a const.ant fire, while the regiment awaited an 

attack. Their 1 
personally compll 

was two killed and eleven wo 
nted by Ucneral Hoiiker for hi.- 
thid action. The movement by Hi>oki 
the tro*»ps Ixira up proudly, and 

failure, bu 
to the old 

northward, and the old P. 
Fortieth left camp at ni; 
Their route lay through wtiods, acrora lota, and, 
Court-House was reached and a few h<»urs' rest t 
five miles Ui Weavertown, where they arrived at 
On the Itith a long, trying march began at 
severing regiment liad reached Manass-is June 
stragglers, weary and foot-sore, mostly got in bef< 
army marched to cover \Vashin'.;ton, and fouii 
n July 1 

ed. Col..nelO'R<.rke.j3 

•n conduct and that of ;l.e 

ras a costly and di.-tiTace:'ul 

g the river, took their «.iv 

but not to RMcaoi Lee marchci his arciv 

y followed rapidly. The One Hundrcl ar.d 

13, and marched till three .^.M. next dar. 


inset, wearicHl and dust-eovereii 
X A.M. By two this f*r- 
.n. A halt was madr. and tlj- 
! the march was resumed. Tlii- 
md found Lee heade-d northward. T)-e 
On the li the One Hundfu and Fortieth 
was hotly engaged, and lost heavily. Colonel O'Rorke fell at the head of :}.e 
regiment while holding and waving the colors, struck by a shaqishooter's bul' i. 
Oaptiins Sibley, Starks, and Speir, and Lieutenants Klein and McGraww,re 
wounded. The in the regiment up to the night of July 4, in killed, wound:-!, 
and missing, was one himdred and ninety. Out of seventy men of the ..Id 
Thirteenth who, on the discharge of that regiment, had on November 10, l-oi. 
joined the Oue Hundred and Fortieth, eighteen were killed and twenty wounde-l 
Following this battle, long and weary marches were made, desperate encounters 
had, and many a brave man hurried to his death. Promotions filled vacancies, 
until of the original staff which to<jk the regiment from Rochester not one 
remained. Able and meritorioas men filled their places, -iftcr marehins: across 
the Rappahannock and Rxpidan, and countermarching, the rcgiutent settled down 
for the winter at 'Warrenton Junction. Log shanties, each with a good fireplace, 
were built, and, with the light duty of guarding a part of the railroad, time pu^seJ 

On January 7, 18C4, the brigade was changed to zouaves, and donned their 
new. handsome uniform with pleasure. The cloth was of good quality; in cjlor, 
a dark blue trimmed with red. The pants were bag-style, gathered at the w-aist 
and knees. Leather and cloth leggings inclosed the limb from knee to ani^Ie. 
There was a short jaeket, representing jacket and vest, with red tnmniini^s. A 
blue, red-bound s,ish was al»ut the waist, and caps were red, with blue ta.«sel and 
white turban. The camp put on the appearance of a city. Streets were '.o^de^ 
and ditched. Each log hut was uniform in size with it^s neiirhbor, and upon e:ich 
door was a number and the names of those within. On February 11 three min- 
isters of the Christian Commission put up a tent, and held religious service each 
evening and every Sunday. Many soldiers attended, and much religious mattei 
was d'lstributci to them. 

lu May iha army had found a leader, and once more, and for the last time, 
began its march m<in Richmond. The Puipidan was crossed, and the enemv 
encountered in the second growth of pines denominated " the Wilderness." On 
Thursday afternoon. May 5. the One Hundred and Fortieth charged upon the 
enemy over an open field from one-fourth to a half-mile wide. In a pieiv of 
woods ou the farther side w:is the enemy, behind strong bre.T.stworks. As the 
zouaves advanced in gallant style they were received with a gdling tire. ^i;t 
pushed on close upon the rebel front without faltering. The fire redouble-"!. :. id 
became terrific. For twenty mitiutcs the combat lasted, when columns of :!ie 
enemy were thrown upon each flank, ami extended far to their rear, threatonin; 
capture or annihilation. The few lell t.i contend with so many fell back, when 

nearly surrounded. The loss t.j the rc;;imeut twentytwo k]l 
and forty-fimr wounded, and one hundnd and two mis>in_', — a t 
dred and aixty-eight. At eidit P.M.. M.,y 7, the One Hundred 
out and marched all night to the left, reaehiii'; Sl.olLsyleariia ai 
next d.iy. They were immediately se'ut into action, and, al.Mie 
behird which lay a h.«ly of the enemy. Th,-,- were driven al 
when a hot fire was opened! in fomt and upon the ri::ht. CoImii 
who had been commissioned .VugUsI HI, ISi'-': lell v, 
Milo L, Starks. c.mmissioncd November lU, l.-Mj:;, received a'de; 
the, .and Captain .John Buckley, aetiuL- adjutant, had his r 
He crawled to a rail fence, Ijand-e.-cd his Innb with a handker, 

on his back to a place of security, lu this acii.m the loss was e 
two wounded, and five mi^in- Total, sixty-five. The loss in 
was thirtv killed, one hurelred and ninety ,-ix wounded, and one lie 

lal of t«-., 

Days of d,,: 

r. iiiu-hls of wakin,.. ' Cnst-int on the hattle-ScId, tlie hard; 
the honor of tlie.r,.o and ..f country, a.- li.> 
II right to left and. cri>s,,ing the James, environed Petcr^buig 



:ri; an.J ih,- line of march 
t at llil.;lii.T3 run. The 
the Vau;^h njad and oc- 
jn the left of the roiJ. 

lines, and dn>ve them to 
: to advance o\er the open 
larticularlv distin;:uishod itself, the 
The One Hundred and Foniech 
Relieved at five p.m.. the men replenisheil 

1-3 of the uity at eleve 
ut in tlie (.haru'e next d.iy, nor wad the Secnnd divL- 
uuiubered the First. 
\Vic:t.T p.iS5>.-d, and the hues were extended to the south and wi'-t undoi 
rvaUtame. At ci:;ht .\.M., February 5. ISt'.j, eArap woj 1 
uli-0 'I'Oa til'' Halifai ruad. to take part in a movemeii 
Ln^iJ-l' Ij)' '" ''"•= '"" uiidu'jht, w!;en it moved baek on 
tuiii.'l a i'"" "f breastworti a mile west of the run 
(jn-'"'s eaTalry was skirmishing heavily with the enciuy when, at one P.M. of the 
Gih thv Fifth corps movetl to their support. The One Hundre<1 ami Forty-silth 
ml One Handred and Fortieth New York were deployed to relieve the cavalry, 
«hi. h advanced to engage the rebel infantry. They were rouzhly handled, and 
f.'li hack coufusediv, followed by the enemy. The First brii^ade, led by Ocneral 
\S'inthr'>p. wa.-* ordered up, encountered tlie attaci 
i.vk shelter in the woods. Actio an attempt was i 
6.ld. bat was repals'-^l by the brigade, which partic 
lr..[i.< E^htin;; with great bravery and spi 
l,Bt two killed and fourteen wounded, 
theii eaii.riJ-..-oo.rj and iual uu yh.'cc^. Cu.7crin,' the ruaJ t-- la. ...,'^ -^'..'.i. 

The march of Sherman had reached Goldsboro', and Grant resulved to win 
liiehm'md without his aid. A simultaneous effort wa.s made all along the lenuth- 
cued line, and Lee, abandoning; the defen.Je3, moved rapidly westward. 

The pursuit of the Army of Xorthern Virdnia began at one o'clock, March 2S, 
■ nJ the re-^mont marched till ten P.M. On April 1, while the cavalry were dis- 
mounting and coming up in tiie woods, the First brigade came into position. 
Cautiously and silently the troops stole near the enemy, halted briefly to align 
iheir ranks, and then, with a long, wild cry, rushed forward upon the flank and 
rear of the reboU, but fifty yards away. A terrible volley [was firc-d, and the rebels 
by hundreds, dropping their muskets, threw up their hands, and. "as prisoners, 
bnike for the Union lines on a run. On AprU S the men were on the march 
with tireless step and swin'.'ing stride till long after midnight. E^ich threw him- 
»elf on the ground, supperless, to sleep. Aroused at five A.M., and in five min- 
otcs the column was moving off. leaving many of the regiment asleep. At seven 
A>M. a halt, a cup of coffee, then on again across lot5. heedless of roads. A mile 
or mure in advance was heard a brisk musketry fire. The supply train of the 
cavalry are seen coming from a piece of wi>xls. Into the woods went the corps, 
moving Dy plawons in paralici columns tor a mile. •■ tV e are glad you have come, 
boys," says a cavalryman. Two regiment.s of cavalry have been holding two rebel 
brigades in chock all the m'>ming, although driven a mile and a half Lines of 
battle were formed through the woods. Cavalry were posted, then forward with 
fixed bayonets. Emerging from the wonids and from the ridge, the Union battle 
formation was seen. Over a beautiful, rolling country stretched concentric lines, 
four ill number, at intervals apart of two hundred yar-is. and extending for miles. 
Lee was surrounded. Four corps and Slierid-tn's civalry were arrayed, and bat^ 
teries stood ready in position. Upon a fine ridge, a half-mite distant, seen 
Ihc rebel line of works. The skirmish line advances slowly. '• Forward !" gt)es 
down the lines, and they move steadily on. The artillery is silent. The skir- 
ml-<hcrs are close upon the works, when a hasty movement is seen in the rebel 
lines, a.s of*ctreat. From the right comes the command, ■• Halt !" The lines are 
j^Tf.rt .and excitement is intense. Another cry comes down the lines, " Lee has 
surrendered !" A momentary stillness, then hats and caps were flun j in the air. 
Then- w^is cheering, crying, singing, and shouting.— a tumult of heartfelt glad- 
oea«. '• Forward!" and the advance w;w made one hundred and fifty to two hun- 
dtwl yank '-Halt! Stack arms!" General Ayres rode up in front of the 
oilirs of the One Hundred and Fortieth, and, amid a breathl. sa stillness and with 
onc^ivered head, thus spoke: "I have the honor to announce to the army 
Ine surrender of General Lee, in accordance with terms now being agreed upon." 
Then. Were many weary miles between Rochester, in September, 1S62. and Appo- 
Biitl..!, Virginia, .\pril 9, ISB.'), but all w;i3 forgotten in glad victory. 

The return was made to Washingtcm, where the regiment was mustered out of 
KTviCT! June .3, ISG.'i, and on the Gth returned to U'vhestor, under command of 
• '..I"n.! \Viili.,ra .S. Grantsyne. It went out a thousand strong, had addition of 
iu to *'Ven hunilrcd recruits, and came back with two hundred and ninety men. 
Th.- One Hundred and Fortieth took part in seventeen regular battles, whose tilU 
•Hin.ation demands a volume. An outiine we h.ive given far less than their de- 
••-•nrmg, yet in its veracity most valuable. 


THE out UU.SDRED .\ND riFT-ir-FIH.Sr .\ND ONK 

The One Hundred and F'lfUj-first Regiment was organized at Lockport. It 
was mustered into United Suites service on October 22. lSti2, for three yc-irs. 
The command letl Ijockport, October 23, with ten full companies, making a 
thousand men, under command of Colonel William Emerson. Company E was 
raised in Rochester, by Captain Peter Imo, wlio went with it to the field. The 
resiment was first eng;e.:ed in guarding dralYed men, at Baltimore, Maryland. 
They were in barracks upon an elevation commanding a view of the city from its 
northwest limits, and, in connection with the routine of drill, were, on November 
S, cuardlng the Stewart Mansion hospital. Ordered to western Virginia, camps 
were made at varinns points, and in May, ISGiJ, it lay at Buckhannnn. Virginia. 
Fur a lung period unengaged, its time finally came, and at Wapping Heights, the 
Wilderness. Spottsylvania, Cold Hariwr, Petersburg, and Monocacy they bore 
•li-m-selvM with rndit. Th,- One Humlred and Flfty-first entered the engage- 
ment at Monocacy, on July 9, 1SG4, with two hundred and forty muskets. Four 
days later the regiment had but ninety-two men in line. It had lost twenty-one 
killed; the rest were wounded or missing. It was engaged at Opequan, Fisher's 
Hill, and Cedar Creek. Edward S. Hussell, of Rochester, was commissioned 
adjutant on January 31, 1S65, and Captain John C. Schocn, of Monroe, was 
killed in action at Cold Harbor, on June 3, IStU. The One Hundred and Fifty- 
first returned home the last of June, IStJo, having been mustered out of Unit<:s] 
States service on June 20. A hearty greeting was received at Lockport on their 
arrival. During the last of November, ISC-l, the companies had been reduced to 
five, and ojnstituted a battalion. It came back with twenty-one officers and three 
hundred and eight enl'istcd men. Company E, under command of Captain George 
J. Oakes, as well as the entire regiment, were handsomely entertained during 
their brief sojourn at Rochester, and the mayor briefly addressed the Monroe men 
at a dinner given them at the Brackett House. 

The One BnnJred and Ei^htii-*:}^hlh was a one-year regiment, organized at 
Rochester, and mustered into servic-e in the fall of 18C4, It was commanded by 
Colonel John McMahon, commissioned October 10, It was engage! at Hatcher's 
Run ; to what extent it was otberwis*; useful wc have not K-eu able to ascertain. 

The Fl/ty-foitrth Regiment, New York Xnlinnal Guard, was an organiz-ation 
highly deserving of honorable mention. From itsranks went scores of officers, whose 
ability and discharge of duty attested the discipline and character of the orpiiii- 
z.ation. On July IC, 1S63, the regiment was ordered to New York city, to assist 
to quell the riots which had resulted in an effort to enforce the draft. The com- 
mand, under Colonel Clark, left Rochester four hundred strong, and arriving at 
Albany, were halted, as fears of a disturbance were there prevailing. They re- 
turned home on the 23d, having received from Eli Perry, mayor of Albany, a 
testimonial of soldierly good conduct. The capture of thousands of prisoner? 
from the southern army led to the establishment of a prison at Elmira, and the 
Fifty-fourth was employed as a portion of the guard. There were at one time 
nine thousand rebel soldiers at this place, and the regiment saw much service. 
When the war closed the veterans from the front were met by this organization 
as a guard of honor, and escorted through the streets of the city. Although as a 
regiment in no battles, vet the influence of its pros.'nce. and the service actually 
performed by its members, place it among the most meritorious. 



The Third R.gimenl Ncic Ynrk Cavalnj. early known as the " Van Allen Cav- 
alry," was mustered into United StaUs .service during the summer of 1 St) 1. The fivld 
and staff officers ori'.;inally were: Col.mel. Jam,-, H. Van Alien ; lieutenantK^doncl, 
Simon H. Mil, of UM.:hcstvr ; major, John .Mix; surgeon, William II. I'.dmcr; 
assistant sui-geon, John L. Van Alstvne; and reglnicntd ailjutant, Samuel C. 
Pierce. Five companies of the re..'in.cnt were from .Monroe County. The Third 
proceeded to Wosliin-ton, where it quartored .-^cptemher li, ISCl, two mil-s 
north of the city. T«u c"m|.ank^ -. nt to lleiRral Hanks' hiadqnarten'. and 

body-guard. On oJtoh.r 7, A, (', 1', H, ani K, under .^l..j■.^ Lovis. *.rc in 
camp at Darnatowu, .^laryland. Tlic remaining coiiqanics were at I'oolcavillc. 




-0 (X.t. 

n. and 



: ot' the rehol 
re«n»*«l the 

The cot 

ferrr, twj milci bcl.,iT II ill'i Rluff, ju« :ilur th» tlUi-rn.u.i cr™,i 
were taken aTo.« tlio riv.rr on the :;::J, ufn a, to 
party of the eoi'ray opp..-.irviJ the wyxLi anj atLjcw.-(J the ' 
repelled. A portion of a oriuipjnj a<lvanccd next Aiy within si 
camp and rui-eive.1 the fire of the ni'keU. The (Mnimand th 
Potomac, and was onlere'i In ji.iu tl:o rc-.'ini.?nt nl Pi»U-~irille. 

The work of soutiiii: and picket ocvupie*! the lime durintj the winter, and 
early in March, ISii'J, the rcpimeiit set out f.>r Harpers Ferry, cro^-l. and prr,. 
ceeded to BenTville. M.ijor Mij. iviih a batt^iliim. had coten-d thij pU.-e .March 
7, close en the hceU of the rebel cuvaJry. A ehar-e wj.« made hy part of the 
regimcDt during Banks' advance fwm Winchester which was creditible to the 
participants. Adjutant Geor_-e E. GounnJ and Che*.bon>, with a 
platoon, charged a ?qiiad of rebt'l cavalry at NVwtown. pursued thora four tulles, 
and nude six prisoners. ,0n April 20 the re-jinacnt wa-- at Wasliip'^.n. and pn> 
eee^Jed thence to Newbem, Xorth Carolina. On DecemKer 11. Gencml Fuatcr 
left Ncwbcm on an e\pe<Iition lo'iking towards the capture of GiJd--boro' and 
WeMin, nrA '.hr in-'-rintir-n of nilrn.' e.,,rion on this line, f'nlonel 
Van Allen had resigned April 8, ISoJ. and C'loncI .^lis at onee succeeded him. 
Tkat officer employed the Third Oariilry to scout the advance and protect the 
tides of Foster's line of mart- h. and ais.i to protect houses from Etrai-jlere alooi 
thu road. The force moved op the Trent river road, a distance of ten miles, and 
halted for the night. The march was re^umeii at "unrLse. and at ni;:hi the cul- 
omn encamped in line of battle, within eleven miles of Kinston. Colonel Mix's 
cavalry skirmished all day with the enemy, and cleare-l the way for advance. At 
•even o'clock in the morning the march was resumed at slow pace, the enemy ap- 
pearing in force seven miles from Kinston. at the junction of the Whitehall and 
main Kinston roads. Mix's cav.T!ry drove the enemy like chaff, md the infantry. 
elurging, carried the rebel battery. The tij,,rch Wie> resumed to within three and 
t half miles of Kinston. At daybreak, next morning, the Third l>eran its ad- 
Tance, feeling their way cautiously up the road for two miles, when the rebel 
pickets were struck, and driven three-f)urth-< of a mile back the rebel breast- 
works. Here were six thousand troops under General Kvans. .-V ba-llc ensued, 
ind eleven guns and four hundred prisoners were trophies of the contest. Cap- 
lain Cole, with Company K, charged the enemy at Soatheist creek, but was 
Qoabie to cfocu, fivrii t'ue bndgt} being pirtiy uiad-aiaied. Major Garritd s bat- 
^lion dLslInguishcd itself Captain Jacobs char^. and saved an itiiportant 
bridge, over which the United States t'om-i enu?re-J Kin=ton. In a close contest 
the Third routed the Second >'erth Carolina cavalry. From Kinston, K wus 
•cQt down the river to attack a battery planted to prevent the passage of the 
Union gunboats. Captain Cole found a semieinular work one and a half miles 
in extent, and within ^as a f >rt contalnin'.: seven cannon — an eiilit-inclt colurnbiad. 
two thirty-two-pound iron guns, and four sis-p-iund piec»^. A gnard fled and 
left the smaller guns lo.ided and primed. The heavy guns were spilled and their 
the light raos back with them to Kinston, 
le was sent with his trophies and two recap- 
n his way took a number of prisoners. On 
April 18, Companies A and E captured the battle-fiag of the Seventh Conlkleratc 
^valry, in a gallant and snccc-o^l'iil charire against superior numbers. Thii flag 
was presented to the rcirinient by Major-l.Toneral J. G. Foster, commander of the 
Eighteenth army corps, in an order hi-hly lau.l itory. "as a dii-tiujui-hed mark 
of the &vor and appreciation in which Colonel Mix s command is held." On 
May 8 the company of George W. Lewis, which fouiht at Bull Run as infantry, 
with the old Thirteenth, and was subseciuently transfern-d to the Third ciivairy, 
•a Company K, or a part of it, riurno 1 home and were mustered out. They 
were bat thirty-four in number. On }h\r i. Meutenaot-Color.el Lewis, with 
Companies .V, E, F, and G, left N'cwK-rn up.)n a rcconnoissancc. A bridjt; at 
Mill cre-ck, thirte^co miles out, had been difltn.ved. This was n-buiit bv three 

carriages bonied. The cavalr 
where they arrive^! at mi.ini^l 
tared brass guns to Xewbem 

;c for' 
.ipany of n 


Youngs Cn. 

ide for twel 
■ompany E. 

; to tllu.e 

111 there 

vhen tht 

P.K., and thi 
learned that 

bright and moon-lit. ai\d pursuit k:i.- 
rebel camp was seen by the road side, 
charged acr.)s« a narrow brldL-e. which s.ion hr 
to the camp, dcm.inding a surrender; the cue 
fir« was returned, and two men killed. Four 
were Uken, and at d.ivbreak next day Newb^i 
May 21, an expeditiim under Colonel Jone 
Toluntiscrs, four cuip-mics of the Third nn.i 
lattery, with other left Newl-fn. Tw. uty mcies out a halt was m.ide 
build t bridge, which was cr(;rM-,l at P.M. At^ik the rebed p.. ke 
were found and driven in. Line »n fornie<l. and the bmstw.irks werv ■•i-in e 
tending along the GulJsboro' and .\Iorehcad lUdrmd. Colonel Jones, with part 

of th 

iwn. Those over galloped up 
cd, and turn, d to ran. The 
rLsoncD and thirty-aix hordes 

Fitiy-ei^hth IVnn.sylvania 
in .lacobs. and a howitzer 

the force, had marched during the ni;ht to the r.iilrnad, f ll...wsl dmn tnwar.1, 
the rebel position, and then struck into the wo..«ls. lie cut his own way thn.u.-l, 
to the rear of the enemy's first and second linM. between the second and thinl 
As they came in view they were taken for rcinHtrcements. and the Cnie.n fotvc in 
front received the rebel fire. With a cheer the li.-ic advanced, capturing a twelve- 
pound howitler, it? cipfain and command, and one hundreil and ei_'litv tjien ..f 
the Fifty-sixth Nort.h Carolina. The enemy lost fifty killed and wound;-,|. 
General Gamett mirrowly escaped capture. The force, on its return, was clos,.|v 
f-jllowcd and shelled by a battery. Next day a heavy force under Ransom attaiki d 
Jones' camp, shelling his works, and then charging. The cavalry arrived, and 
the enemy fell back. 

On Jnly 1.? Lieutj?nnnt-Colonel Lewis embarked a force, in which were Com- 
panies A, B. and F, of his regiment, and proeeefj-jd to Fort. Anderson, wherv he 
landed. The column moved forward seventeen miles to Swit't creek an-i 
encamped. Early next day he proceeded to Gn'enville. on Tar river, thence to 
Sparta, and bivouaek.>l till six .4.M. of the 20th. Flere Major Ja.-.ib«. who hj 1 
been promoted, June 29, from captain, was detached to Itocky >'o:int. on the 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, with six comp.anies. Xt evening a train was 
seen in motion as the advance neared the road. Private White, of .\. Third 
cavalry, galloped alongside the loeoinouve, sprang from his horse and upon the 
cab- He placed his revolver at the head of the engineer, reversed the entrine, 
and brought back the train, on which fifteen of the enemy were found and cap- 
tured. The main colomn was rejoined at Tarboro', eight hundre'd bales of cotton 
being destroyed on the way. Sharp skirmishing took place during the day, while 
public stores were beini destroyed. Retnra was he-gun, while thg rebel cavalry 
following annoyed the rear. 

The idea of a furlouih for thiny days, after a re-enlistment as veterans, was 
generally carried out during the winter and spring of 1304. On January 10, 
1SC4, about rhree hundred men had -cterancd. and hovie with ColonelMi:. 
The remainder of the regiment remained at Newport News, uccler Lieutenant- 
Colonel Lewis. On -May 4 General Kautz set out from Getty's Station on a great 
raid, to cut the Weldon and Richmond Railroad. His command consisted of two 
brigades. The first, under Colonel )Iix, embmccd the Third New York and the 
First District of Columbia cavalry. The enemy betanie apprisci of the movement, 
and placed stn>ng guards at their brid'.:e3. A. crossing was etfected at Wall Brid-.:e, 
and by dark the cav.alry were at Wakefield, on the Norf .Ik and Petersburg Rail- 
road, and tore up a long stretch of track. Next morning Captain Pierce, of the 
Third, d.ashed into Lyttleton, and made a capture of wairons toadeil with amnnt- 
nition and supplies. At Bellamy's Bridge, over the Nottaway, the enemy were 
behind rifle-pits on the farther side, and the flooring of the bridge had been taken 
ap. Pierec. with his squadron dismounted, charged across, and drove the enciuv 
into the woods. Repairing the bridge with fence rails, the command erus-ed and 
moved rapidly to Stony Creek station, and there defeated the Holeom Legion. At 
White's Bridge and at Jarrett Station there were d.^spcr.ite cneouuters. and ihe 
destruction of the road at these points delayed the transit of troops goini' nool:- 
ward. Resting at Sussex Court-Housc, the command headed for Citv Point, 
scattering opposition. At dark the Petersburg and Norfolk Railroad rcaelu-l. 
the track torn up and the bridge burned. City Point wxi trained .^Iay 4. with 
one hundred and fifty prlsonei^. The Third lost three killed ami «jvcn wounde-L 

Oq June 1 j Kautj's division, siipp-irted by infantry, advanced upon Petershnrg 
stJTj.ishing with and driving the rebel cavalry within their works. The command 
moved to the left, to the line of the Petersburg and Norfolk Kailroa.l. and cn- 
coontercd the outer works a mile away. A. .section of artillery was put in lait.ry 
and opened, while the Third New York and Fifth Pennsylvania, under Colowl 
S. H. Mix, were ordered to charge npon a battery of six guns. The gallant 
colonel fell, mortally wounded, while swinging his hat and calling. '• Come on. men 1 ' 
The severity of the rebel fire prevented his removal, and he fell into the hand" of 
the enemy. 

On Juno 10 a sharp action took place .at Reams' Station. The Thinl nniie 
heavily. Followin-.: this event the coniinand went into camp at Bermuda lluiida-'l- 
.At the close of the war. the reiiiment wa.s. on July 21, l.'^li.'i. eon.s,.ii,L(eil uilh 
the First Mounted Rifles, .and designated the " Fourth Provi-ion:,! C.nalry" 

Vw SUlh Cur.i/ry, •' Si-cond Ira Harris Guard," was a three yean' n-.-inicnl, 
orgriniied at New York city. It conLiined a number of .^Ionrl»e men. Tlie 
corapaniL-s were mustered into .service at various dates fmm September 12 t-t !*.■- 
cember VJ. ISGl. The first colonel wa.s Th.m.xs C. Dcvin. who was proniore.1 i" 
brigadier-gencrU in .March, l.'^i'.j. Lieutenaiit-coioncl. Di.nean MeViear. kill"! 
April :ill,;:!, in action near Spoftsv |v ,„l., Coort-liou-e. Vir.-iiiM. Mij-c. 
James I!. Darh-v , John Crw.irdioe. and Flo,,l ( T.rkson ; rr_-in„ mI.,1 a.ljiilai.l. 
John J. -M.iin. who vviLS e"niniissi„„ed July 12, 1st; I, and killed in aetion m-ar 
Str^i-sburg. Vir;.inia. OctoUT I'J, ISIil. 

On being mastered into .service the n-giment went into cnmp at York, I'cnnsyl- 



una I' «'»■' 'irJerod to tuVe part ia McDowell's aJvance un Frctloricksbiirs:, and 
li.,t ilu- IcaJ .pii April 17. ISt'l. Tivolve niii.-> b.'yui.J Catlutt 3 titalioti a rebel force 
W11 i-li.iii.i<l udJ ^Uteeii priscjners taken. Tlio Sistli bivoiu-.-kfil in the racateJ 
-auiii of tlie enemy after a march of twenty-six milt'.-*. Tiie enemy were annoyed 
Juriie' the ni'_'ht, and in the inoruint; i:ailantly charged by t!ic Sixth, led by 
Ctlunel Kil'-atrtL-k. Altliou'^h behind a barricade acres.- the road, the rebels were 
Jriviii with lo55. 

The comuiund moved forward and forced. the enemy across the Rappahannock, 
lo the hei^'hts Uyond. Two of the three bridges were di-streyed by them on 

(In May 17 two com pa 
iiiia. To merely note tl 
Merible history. 

ics. under 

When I.c« I 



commanded the Harper's I'erry road, 
iuj; five, held the enemy in check at . 
onlered to develop the enemy in front, 
bup^' tnrnjiikc, threw .skirmi.«hcr3 to 1 
h'lired under a heavy fire of shells ai 
j.ike, and from 
prei.' ■ 

Major Clarkson. were at Whit* Ho 
which the rcirinient bore part is i 
into jraryland, In the fall of 1S02, t 
iin. Colonel Devin, with si.'ven co 
while !Maiur f'arwardine. with tht 




He crossed the stone bridge 00 the Sh.arps- 

front, ascertained the rebel pocition, and 

i and bullets, from a battery on the left of the 

n front. The command moved from the ground with a 

Uu tlie advance of Burnside's corps to Frederick, as it had been the rear guard 
of IVpe when retiring from the Rappahannock, the Sixth occupied a post of 
honor, aud in the action at South Mountain was support for Campbell's battery. 

At eleven at night, October '21, the call "to hor^e"' was sounded in the camp 
of the Sixth, and it was soon on its way to Harper's Ferry. The bridges over 
the Potomac and Shenandoah were crassed, and the regiment joined a brigade of 
infantry and a battery, all und r General Oeary, and set out on a scout. The 
Sixth rcacheil Waterfi.rd, and charged through the tiwn. The iofantry, battery, 
and two companies of the cavalry halted, while the rest of the cavalry prrtceeded 
on towards Lovettsville. At a distance of four miles a rebel force wa^ found 
drawn up in line. These were charged by Lieutenant Kllerheck and completely 
Muted. The command then returned to Harper's Ferry. 

From an instance all may be judged. On May 3 the regiment left Louisa 
CuurtJIouse and reached the Fredericksburg Railroad at daybreak, May 4. burned 
the depot, aud tore up the tr.ick IV.r s.-v.^r..! inil.-s. Oro-iin'^ to Brock pike, rebel 
pickets were struck and driven in upon a battery, which was forced to return to 
witliin two miles of Richmi'nd. Lieutenant Bi'own. aid to General Winder, and 
eleven men, were captured inside the fortitication. The troops p;iAsed to the left 
of the Meadow bridge, on the Chiekahominy, ran a train into the river, and re- 
tin-d to Hanover Bar, on the Peninsula; crossed and destroyed the ferry just in 
time to check the advance of pursuing cavalry; burned a train of thirty wagons 
liadcd with bacon, captured a number of the enemy, and camped five miles from 
iho river, ilarched at one A.M. of the 5th to Catlctt's Station, surprised three 
hundn-d cavalry, capturing two officers and thirty-three men, burned the depot 
aud twenty thousand bushels of .urain. Crosse-l the Mattapijny, again destrtiying 
a ferry in time to check pui-suit, and laie at night destroyed a third train and 
ili>|Kjt a few miles above and west of the Rapp.ihannock. Thence a forced march 
w.-M made of twenty miles, while behind came a superior force in hot pursuit. 
.Vt >un.set the advance discovered a body of cavalry drawn up in line at King and 
<Ju.i-n Court-House. Advancing to attack, the force was found to be Union 
ravalry, and the Sixth, passing on, found itself by ten Ail. of the 7th within the 
lines It Gloucester Point. Kilpatrick spoke in highest terms to his superior, 
• ••■neral Stoneman, of the gallant conduct of the regiment. Their battle roll re- 
cords tlie names of twenty-three actions, including the most decisive and san- 
P'lmary of the war, and the tiles of the press contiin fretpient notices of important 
^■nicc rendered by them. The ori:;inal members were on expiration 
••f period of service, while veterans and recruits were retained, and, on June 17, 
1 ><;:>, coosolidatetl with the Fifteenth New York cav.alry, as the Second New 
lork provisional cavalry. 



Til T. h::,,hih RrjunnU Xew ll.rt Oir.ilry was organized in the eity of Roihester 
•n ih.. fall „f ISOI, uuler Colonel Samuel J. Cronk.., to serve for three yean.. 

-^' '-• •■"■■■■'■r- wen. I,i,utenalit.('oh.nel Charles 11. U,il,l,ilt, Maj.m \Vilii.,ni L. 

>l.rk.ll and W.Uiam II. 1! -njaLuiu. Ke-imenta! Adlutani Alb.rl L. K.^rd, and 
<h.l-'in.l..l.n 11. Van In-,.n. 


winter quartert at 
aen hud enlisted lo 
were not mounted. They were called upon 
ly oppiised this measure that they were re- 
1 to picket; along the canal from H ir- 
this they were furni'^hed with Hall's 
the spring to General Banks, in the 

The regiment was ordered to \Va 
Camp Sel-lon, and engaged in drUI 
serve as cavalry, but for nearly a y 
to do duty as infantry, but so str 
quired bat once to bear mu-kcts. Th 
per'a Ferry to Washington. Shortly i 
carbine, an incfhcicnC weapon, and .set 
valley of the Shenandoah. The regiment was posted along the Winehcatcr and 
Potomac Railroad upon guard duty, when, on the morning of .^lay 'Zi. companies 
A, C, D, U, and I were ordered to Winchester to relieve the Sixteenth Maine. 
Four companies went by rail, I being left behind, and reached Winchester at. 
three P.M. A placed on picket. Reveille was blown at daybreak, and the 
line was formed at half-past six. The enemy came on with superior numbers, 
plying cannon and musket, while our men surged indiscriminately to the rear. 
The Eighth moved forward at half-past seven, and beheld troops of all arms 
rushing by. B.iUs whistled past. Finally the rebels apj-eared at 1 block's dis- 
tance, and the order was given to retire. A battery planted in their vacated 
position gave the regiment its first experience in shelling. Lieutenant-Colonel 
B.ibbitt withdrew, the last fl:)rce to leave Winchester, and .as he came from the 
town the danger was most threatening. A battery opened at twenty rods' distance, 
while the gray ranks were seen advancing upon the right as well as rear. A 
donble-quick was taken for a distance, when a halt was caused from a disabled 
field-piece blocking the road. The men then broke ranks and scattered. .\ num- 
ber were captured. Part took to the woods parallel to the road and reached 
Bolivar Heights at midnight; others took to the Blue Ridge mountains, but 
found their way back. Colonel Crooks had resinned in February, aijd Benjamin 
F. Davis, a captain in the regular army, had been commissioned June 7 to com- 
mand the regiment. In July the Eighth wls stationed at the Relay House, be- 
tween Washington and Baltimore. The colonel sewn had his men equipped, 
mounted, and weii disciplined, and hardly recoi^niza'oie as tiie siraggiliii; 'uauu that, 
.fled to Harper's Ferry before Jackson. Recruiting had been actively carried on 
at home, and by September 9 fall six hundred men had joined the regiment. 

About September U the Eighth were surrounded by Jackson's force at Har- 
per's Ferry. A demand to surrender' was made by Jackson of Colonel Miles, the 
commander of the Ferry, and as it was seen that the place could not be lield. 
Colonel Davis asked the privilege of making his escape with his regiment. He 
was refused permission. On tlie nigh't of the 14th he called his oEeera together, 
and told them of his intention. At midniirht he led them across the pcntou 
bridge, and as soon as the Maryland bank was reached, the column dashed on at 
a break-neck pace over the rocky roads of the Blue Ridge mount.ains, passing di- 
rectly through the centre of the army environing Harper's Ferry, and. in the 
darkness, regarded in the camp as rebel cavalry. At daylight they came upon 
Loogstreet's ammunition-train on its way to Antictam, captured it. and turned \a 
the direction of Greencastle, where the regiment arrived about noon of the 15th, 
and found .McChllan adv.ancing towards Antictam. In the al'ierMoon of the 17th. 
the regiment was engaged until night. The Eighth followed the rctreatini; army, 
and harassed their rear. A few days' rest was taken at Hagcrstown, Maryland, 
and October 1 the rebel army was pursued up the .Shenandoah towards the Rappa- 

An encounter took place at Snicker's Gap, Virginia, wherein a loss of men and 
horses was sustained. After this, in rapid sucee-.«ion. came the ennriicments of 
Pbilemont, Union. Uppcrville, Barber's Cross-Roads, and AmosviUe. The hist 
named was the final action of the year 1SG2, and took place November 7. 
The weather had ^rown cold, the men were tentless. and camp was imperative. 
The reciment went into camp at B.lle Plain, where supplies were furnished, tents 
and clothin; drawn, and a rest enjoyed. Picket duly was pertbrmed along the 
Rappahannock until after the battle of Fredericksburg, when the command 
ordered to Stafford Court-House, where winter quarters were built and occupied 
until April 1^, 1S(J3. During winter a reguhr routine of picket and patrol duty 
was performed. On February '.il three squadrons, including three new couipanies, 
came to Dumfries, and eampol four miles west of the place. The region was 
wild and sparsely settled, covered with a scrubby growth of pines, and infested 
with bushwhackers well acquainted with the ground. The cavalry picketed for a 
distance of six or eight miles, and foraged on the people. On .^larch 2 a foraging 
party was attacked, and two men captured. A more serious attack soon fulluwcd, 
involving a loss of sixteen men and twenty horses. .Vctions to.ik pl.ico ai Free- 
man's ford, April 14, and at Rapi Ian brid-e, .May 4. .V prominent part w;u 
taken at Chan.eilon,ville. under I'ha-ontnn.and heavy los., nieurred. On JoiK'rf 
the re-im.nt marched toward- LVverly ford, winch w.., r, aelb d ,,t luidni.-ht At 

xsh.vl I 


he foi 

ved ; 

Lieutenant Cutler, of Company li, kil 


Tbs picV. £s 9, J to the miiia Cimp. vihnie t'ur 

»d»anc«I in column of lours f,,r a r|ii,irt.r 

from •iLinnL'liora in ihc wixJa on each sije ol 

mo 1 force ofcnTalry in line anJ a bjum' it 

LiDfl could Dot be formed, and the re-jimcnt 1 

rUnois, and nilyin,-. rc-forracd. While kaJi 

Atebel soldier from behind a tree hud tired tn • 

the third was fat.d, Adj-jtant far-.ns, wht- 

his tabre cleft the aoldior'j head. Tlie aetiut 

regiment recms'*cd t!ic river, havioc ioit ten 

hegan hia invasion of Pennsylvania, and clas-e 

of eiralry which included the Ki-liih r.-^.-i 

Jnoe 15, and halted n ni^ht on the Bull Rui 

fight between the First division and the corai 

Eighth picketed the ground, and then inovf-d 

fouad in force, and the Ei'.-hth nerc ilrawn u 

a b«ttery. The enemy sulfercd severe los«. ; 

Aldie was left June l^S, and next tuomiii-/ t 

Ferry. Tlie coluu-.n pas.-H.'d through Middl 

Sooth Mountain, .Vcxt tuornins the cavalry 

Scarcely halting, they rode on towanls Gctl 

npidly. The division halted near the seniiuary for an hour, while Companies H 

and M were sent on picket eijht miles out. On July 1 these cavalrymen fell 

back to within two or three miles of 'jetrysbunr. and posted pickets on the various 

loads. The Ei^'hth cavalry was the first to tire a pju in the battle of Gettysburg. 

Thnj fought partly on horseback and partly on twt. and charged the enemy boldly, 

to enable our intantry to Ibrm line of battle. It is ciaimel that to their courage 

■was owing at one time the safety of a corrs of infantry. Bufords divUion. con- 

^nio^thc Eighth. v»ajs ordered to di^uounc and &::ht on foot. The Second and 

Eleventh corps of infantry were bein.- driven, when Buford received orders "to 

coTer the retreat and eiposo flanks." Ho took p.>ition on Seminary Hill, and 

•e wa^ .non in p.„Inon. The K 


of a mil., when a tire rec 


'the rr.J. while lown the 


p-isition. awaitin;; the order tu 


111 back to th- rear of the E 


n- hU men. Ciloncl Davis wa.skill^<l. 

-hou fn>m a revolver without e 


ciin- hu hnrse. by a ri^-lit cut 


continued till late at ni'.;ht. 


kiile.i and ei..-hteen wounded. 


upon his columiui came the div 


nent. Catlett Station was Ic 

ft on 

tiel.L Ald.e was reached jui 

as a 

uiand of FiizhuL-li I^e ended. 


on to .Mlddl.bur- The enemy 


p on the eitp.nie riqht in supp.,rt of 

nd were driven ei^hi to ten 


le Po'.imac was cross-l at Edwanls' 

eton, and cnrnj--^ June --'9 b<- 


stnn..-d for Euimittsbur.-, >U^^ 


■sbiirj, throuL'h which tliey p\. 


=Tay rank 

there awaited the on><:t. The \ 
received the rapid lire of Spencer's seven-st 
fauces met like repul-e, and the golden mo 
■were turned as the rammand was forced to 
On July 3, Ihc cava.ry marched to W 
On the next day the route was pursued to 
the enemy's wa^n-train ivas atucked nca 

10th at Funkstown, and on the 14th at V 
captored a fine twelve-pound Parrott <;un, a 

ing the Potomac, a rapii 

».tcrs, and fell hack. Successive ad- 
lents were wisely employed. Flanks 
ill back to Cemetery Ui'll. 
jtminster as iruard of supply trains. 
nd l«-\i)nd Frederick, and on July 6, 
Willnmsport, and their skinuishers 
cniaced on the iJth at Boonsboro', the 
llin:; \\'ater9. Companies H and M 
d turned it on the enemy. Recroes- 
;id ride was made to Theater s Gap, whore the enemy had 
arrived three hours previously and taken sirons f-jsitioo. .\fter a few davs of 
•coating and pickettn;; the division letl on the Iltith for Beverly Ford, and en- 
camped within a mile of the river. 

On August 1 the rebels were att.ickcd on Brandy Plains, and on the 3d be- 
came the as.saitants. \ fortoi'.:hc passed and camp was removed to Bristoe Sta- 
tion, where a like p-'riod was pa.«ed. 

* On September 13. two si|uadron3 of the Eiihth accompanied Buf ird's division 
ID an advance upjn Culpepper. A detachment support'^! Battery L'. Second New 
York, whose guns were kept up almost upon the line of ikirmislicrs till the enemy 
turned at bay. A sfjuadron of the Ei|.;htli, led by Lieutenant Coiupsoo, bv order 
of General Biiford char.-cd upon and capturc<l a battery. The Hampton Ix^ion 
■wept down upon the victors and environed them for a brief space. A hand-to- 
band fight of furious chai-actcr ensued, and then throuch the enemy came the 
•tinadroo at gallop, followed by a shower of ualLs. The division pushed on to 
Raccoon Ford, on the Il.ipidan, skirmishini with .ind drivinj the enemy. . En- 
g^emccls took pl.icc on September -'.'. .at Jack Shop; October 10, at Germania 
Ford; October 11, at Stev. nsbun;; vd for a third time at Brandv Plain?, on 
October 13. There were »kirmi.-hcs at <Jak Hdl. October 15: It. Iton Station, 
October 26 ; Muddy Run, .Novcmlicr .S ; and Locust Grove. Novenil^r •-'7. The 
regiment now went into winter quarters at Culpepper Court-Uouse, rcmainlD'* 
theiv ontil the .■^prin-.- of lb(J4. 

On February li, l;i;4. Merntt's division wa.i •••nt on a reeonnni-ance actoM the 
Hapidan at Hamcit s Ford. The Ei'.-hih in adv.-.iice. I and .M dismounted, ad- 
vanced as skiraiijlicrs. The enemy peruiittd an advance some di.-tancc, then 
emerging at a double-'iuick fnim the wo^kJ'', drove the men Sack upon the sup- 
port, who advanced to their avi,tanre. The cavalry I'. 11 hack out of raci^e and 
was reinnjrced by tlie entire rr--iment. Several sf]uadn>ns on advanceil and 
drove tho enemy to shelter. Iteturned .i ly to camp. 

On March U, tw) liuuda-d men returned to .VIonroe on a furlough of thirty- 
tho nien who left Rucbcstor 

were killed, w.uind. J. cajilured, or abs.?nt without leave. Seven hnnjre-i re'ermt., been received, and of sixteen hundred men, there were ready for duty in th., 
field but six hundred. Thirty-three actions had been fought. Tlir.'e hui„lrc| 
men had been killed or wounded. .\mnn'.r the killed were Colonel lUvis, Car, 
tains B. F. Foote, H C. Cutler, B. 0. Efiier, and C. D. Follett, and Lieutcnam, 
Reeves and Smith, while .^f ijor FMmund M. Pope wa.s held a prisoner, lienenl 
Buf.rd having died, G.'ner.d \Vil.~,n was xv,i:ncd to the Third C.ivalry divi,i„„ 
The division crossed the Ripidau at Germania Ford on May 4. the Eiudith m 
advance. The enemy were encountered ne.Tt day, and the regiment narrowly 
escaped capture. The cavalry held the left from Chancelloroville tfl Frederick<- 
burg until the morning of the 0th, when General .Sheridan set out on a mi.l 
towards Richmond. Duriiii: the forenoon of May 11, Stuart's iind Lee's eavalrr 
charged on the rear u-uard, composed of parts of the Third and Tenth Xcw Vorl 
cavalry. The road lay through a and the advance could render no ai.l 
The enemy were ehe-.-ked by artillerv, and finally driven ofl^. Marciiimr nearly all 
night, the outer defenses of Richmond were reached before daybri'ak. and several 
charges made to occupy the enemy while a bridcre was being constructed acn^^ 
the Chickahominy. At tmi p.m. the column began to cross, and in three houtv 
all were over. Sharp skirmishes occurred .Tune 3 at Hawes' Shop; 13th at 
^S■llite Oak Swamp, and 15th at Malvern Hill. The command then went („ 
Petersburg and engaged in picket duly in the vicinity of Prince George Coun- 
Houic until called to accompany General Wilson in a raid upon the railroads 
leading from Richmond. The Eighth was constantly hans-ed by the rebel 
cavalry, whom they met at Nottoway Court-House. June -3, Roanoke Statiou 
the 'Jjth, and Stony Creek the 23th, on their return. The enemy had planteil 
himself in a Ibrtified position in heavy force across their way. Wilson fircl signal 
guns, and threw up rockets to call for help from the troops around Pi^'tersbur^r. Mii 
was sent, but not in time. At night the command was -surrounded, and at day- 
light the enemy closed in. A portion of the Ei'.-hth, under ^lajors. Moore nH 
Compson, were flanko^i and cut off from their horses and from the command. 
Resolved not to surrender, tho detachment continued four davs on a journey to- 
wards the Union lines. Stumbling upon a relwl camp, its occupants swarmcl 
out, and attacked the hunger- and toil-ivorn band, capturing five officers and thirty- 
five men. The rest escaped amid the underbru-h and darkness. The band pro- 
ceeded on, despairingly, with thoughts of southern prisons, when a mountei 
trooper rode up, and joyfully the party arrived once more in camp at City Point. 
Rested and recruited, the Ei^dith were present and under fire nearly all day, .-^u 
gust Hi. in the action at Winchester, and engaged the cavalry of the enemy at 
Kameystown. Auzu-it 2.i : at Oecoquan Creek. September 19; Front Roval, 
September 21 ; .Milford, SeptemU-r 23; Fisher's Hill, September 30; and Jones' 
Bro.ik, October 9. On the morning of October 19, one month since the Win- 
chester battle, the enemy rapidly and stealthily advanced, made a detour of the 
Union works, and at daylight attacked the Ei'jhth and Nineteenth army corps. 
All efforts to form were futile ; they had no time. The compact lines bore dowa 
all opposition. 

General Custer, commanding the Third division, attempted to clieck tho retreat 
in vain, and pushing on to the estreme left, firmed line of battle and delayeil the 
enemy. General Sheridan arrived and reatore<l order and coDfiJenco. The di- 
vision formed on tho ri'.:ht and took a prominent part in the cnsiiinir action, as U 
evidenced by the following e.ytrict from a congratulatory order is.-ued October 
21, 1SU4, by General (^u-ter In his division : " Transferred from the right flank to 
the extreme left, you materially and sueccssfully .assisted in dcfeatin'j the eneniy 
in his attempt to turn the flank of our army. .Vgain ordered on tho riiht fljnk. 
you attacked and defeated a division of the enemy's cavalry, driviiij him in con- 
fusion across Cedar creek. Then, chan'.iing your front to the lefk at a irallop. vou 
chatTTcd and turned the left tlank of the enemy's line of hntile. and pursued his 
broken and demnmlired army a distance of five miles. Nieht alone put an end 
to your pursuit. Among the suh-^tantial fruits of this great victory, vou can boa"! 
of having captured five h.attlo.fl:igs. a laru-c number of prL-«ners, ineludini Major- 
Generul Ramseur. and forty-five of the fortyH;i-ht pieces of artillery taken from 
the enemy day, thus making fiftyonc piece's of artillery which you have op- 
turcd from the enemy within the short p.'riod of ten ilays. This is a record of 
which you may well be proud, — a record won and established by your gallantry 
and perseverance." 

The regiment, which gone into wi 
denly attacked, on Novcuiher 12. by Ro 
direM-tly into camp. AVittiin five niinurc-' 

• quarters near Winchester, w 
's eavalrv. who charred the 
m the Rrsl shot, hordes were - 

Are days, as re-culisicd 

ncmy was driven to s-ek .-:,fely south „f Cclar creek. The rc^o. 
arch up tiic valley duriii'.- Deeembcr ; on the l:t<t day of If^G I they i 
nd a hand-to-hand fight ensued. Mure 

again attacked at Lacy Spri 


,,rv » ill ilii' iction by sabre stroke thun 3^ any other time in the term 
iKTiiiv. Tlie weather vtxs very cold, and there waa tauch aufferiug letore ciiup 
«,. r.-.-sini-d. 

Flarlv on the moTiiin-^ i)f February 27. IHGj, the division marched southward 
li..iu \Viiii-li.~ter, ii:iv,cd ihn.ii^h Staunton, th. u tuniins to the left muVL-d upon 
\Vii\nt-!»l»"ri'', wluTO. on March '1. Gt'neml K^arly was touoj with infatitry behind 
InistwurU The Kighih bciu'j on the of Cust.r's command, waa 
orhreti to rhar^'C, ti''.'etlicr witli the Twenty-second cavalry, upon this position. 
>l C.iup'i'ii. in command of the Eighth, placid :i battalion of the Twcnty- 
■.^ mi laih wiii'4. and his own ri'|_-iment u! on the mad in the centre. He then 
i.lux-d !^i-r;;-ant Kelioe, with tlie rc;_'imental flag, nresent.d by Ri« hcstcr friends, 
i.\ his i-ide. and. saving, **Serfreant, we U !o^ the flaj; this time or briii|; more 
Iji--^ hacW along with us !" eave the command to chanrc. and srailoped furiously 
f..rward. Twice the rebel cannon were dischari.''Hl, when over them rode the 
lr.-'|i-™ and captured the worlcs. It »n a slight lo>-<. Scri.'cant Carr killed and 
twenty men wounded, compared to the magniliceut results, — ten battle-flags, six 
^Tiiis and oviivijns, and thirteen hundred prisoners. It is said that Kariy nar- 
ntwly escaped c-.ipture, his horse having been shot by Major Com^ison. Soon 
■rter this action Major Conipson was detailed by fjencnil Sheridan as a bearer of 
diipaiihes to the Secretary of \Var, taking with him seventeen battle-flags, ten of 
which had been captured by the Ei_-hth cavalrr. 

The Kighth cavalry was ordered to Rumpuss Station, and fell in with Morgan's 
n.mmand of e.iual numbers, and routed them arter a sh.irp fidit. The property 
at the station was destroyed, and the regiment proceeded to White House Land- 
ing, and thence to Petersburg. Sheridan, tollowei by throe corps of infantry, now 
ifc't out for the right flank of the enemy at Petersburg. Colonel Wells, in com- 
mand of tlic brigade to which the Eighth was attached, was ordered, on April 1, 
ti> charge upon works three miles west of Dinwiddle t'ourt-House. The Eighth, 
led by Major Bliss, routed the enemy and captured many pri-oners, although at 

fullowcd hard after the retiring army, engaging them at every opportunity, till 
April 8, when a rapid detour was made from the left flank, and the advance 
pained at App*.iniattox .station. The line was held till the infantry clo-^ed around, 
wTien a flag of truce was rconved by the Eighth cavalry, which w;is on the skir- 
llli:<h line, at four P.M., .\pril 9, and the surrender of the Army of .N'orlhem Vir- 
(rinii WM soon eoMinrnmnfed The cavalry relumed to Petersburg, and thence 
m.irched to Washington and took part in the STin,1 r-view of May 2l'. Itarriv.^ 
in Rochester on June 'IS, under command of Col-incl EdmuDd M. I'uj>e. Of nine 
hundred and forty men, who went away in l-SiJl, one hundred and ninety came 
back. In the ranks came eight hundred and fifty men. The battle-flag bore the 
names of sixty-four actions. Among the slain were one colonel, eleven captains. 
two lieuleuanta, and one color-bearer. The organization was disbanded July 3. and 
entered once more upon p.:aceful pursuits; the troopers of the Shenandoah are 
merged among the citi7»'iis, as active and indu^trious m business a-s they had 
Im'n brave and untiring UfKin the battle-field and midniizl.t foray. 

Thf Ticeiift/'Jirst JifgimenI New Vork Cavalry was organized at Troy, New 
York, to serve three years. Four eomp.auies. It. L, M. and H. were from 
K.N-heatcr. The regiment was mustered into United States service during 1863. 
It wal with Sigel in his southern movement up the Shenandoah. -and at a later 
|-ri«i<l with Hunter in his great raid, whercia it pertormed a L'allant part. On 
Ih.. return of Hunter, the Twenty-first followid and harassed Early's raider<, 
and thereby suff'cred some loss. On July 1 j, three hundrcil of the Twenty-first, 
and fevcnly of the Maryland cavalry, all under command of I.ieutcnant-C'oloncl 
<"hirli-s Fitiiimroons, rc-capturcd fifty-two wagons from Early, and buined many 
niMri\ The ri'gimentw.-u sharply engaged at A^hby's Gap, where Colonel Wm. B. 
libblits wa.'i wounded, and a los.-* sustainei of scvcnty-two m'-n killed, wounded, 
and miwing. At Kcrnstown. a skirmish took place, and on July 24 a sharp 
ariicn took plaec, where the Twenty-firsl lost thirty-ei.-ht men. The regiment 

Tht Turcnly-Kcoml Rrgunent New York Cavalry wai< organized at Rochester, to 
•erre three years. It was mustered into service February, 1804, and out on 
August 1, 186j. In record, though brief, is brilliant. Samuel J. Crooks was 
e..mroi.v-i,.ncd colonel. May 4, 1SG4. On June 13. the regiment was engaged 
•eT»« the Chickahftininy for several hnuxB as the advance of the brigade. Line 
■»" formed, and the Cre of the enemy promptly returned till his withdrawal. 
The l.«i w„ ihirtj killed and wounded- While upon a raid, the Twenty-second 
•" rncami.d at Ford's Station ; its four !i.|uadrons were placedtwo on each side 
of ih» rmil. at an interval. The position had scarcely been taken when a body 
"f the cMimy chnrgrd upon the advance .squadrons. When within r:--y carbine 
p".-". Ilie mm 6r,.l, and checked the oi.-ct. When taking the, they fell 
rear nf i(ic other .snuadnins, and showed the same front as previously. 
. ri-.-arding theuisi-lves aj) victore, char^^cd, were roughly handled, and 

; withdrew. The Twenty-second waa brigaded with the Eighth and Fifteenth New 

I York and Third Indiana, as the Fir^t brigade. Third Cavalry division. An order 

I issued April 9, ISliD. at Appomatox Court-House. by General G- A. Custer, com- 

mnndioL-, outlines the action of the Twenty-second, in common with their gallant 

comrades of the division: •' During the past six months, althou-h in m.nit 

instances confronted bv 

. have 

turcd from the 

I open battle, one hund.-cd and eleven pieces of field artillery, sixty-five battle-flags. 

and upwards of ten thousand prisoners of war, including seven general ofliecr^j. 

You have never lost a gun, never lost a color, and have never been defeated: and, 

notwithstanding numerous engagements in which you have borne a proujincnt 
1 art, including those memorable battles of the Shenandoah, you have captured 

every piece of artillery which the enemy has dared to open upon you. . . . 
,' ■ And now, speaking for myself alone, when the war is ended, and the task of the 

historian begins, when those deeds of darin',', which have rendered the name and 

fame of the Third Cavalry division imperishable, arc in.seribed ujion the brii^ht 
, pages of our country's history, I only ask that my name may be written as that 
I of the commander of the Third Cavalry divi.^ion." 

I The Twenty-faurlh Catalrij was organized at Auburn, for three years, and 

i mustered into United States service in January, 1.SG4. It was officered by vet- 
I eran soldiers. Its colonel was William U Raulston ; lieutenant-colonel. Walter 
1 C. Newberry ; first major. Melzar Richards ; second major, George G. Wanzer ; 
i adjutant, Richard L. Hill ; and ijuartermaster, Alexander K. Cutler. Company 
1 H, Captain Charles E. 3Iartin. and First Lieutenant Edward Pollard, was recruited 

in part in Monroe. 

The regiment moved first to Washington, and encamped near the city till April 

29, 1864. The government was un.ible to supply horses, and the command 
! marched as infantry to Warrenton Junction. V'irsinia. It was brigaded with the 

Fourteenth Heavy Artillery, and commanded by Colonel E. G. .Mai-shall. The 

Twenty-fourth proceeded to Brandy Station, thence to Germania Ford, where the 

b.itlle-field of the Wilderness, where breastworks were built, and precautions taken 
against assault. On the night of May 7 they began a march to the lofl, and on 
May II arrived near Spjttsylvania Court-House. Colonel Raulston, with his t^ro 
regiment.^, nominally cavalry and artillerymen, but really ineNperience^] infantry, 
had the duty of holding the extreme lel^ of the front, and for service rendei-ed 
received the congratulations of -^lajor-Gcncral Buniside. Up to -^lay 2lJ, the 
regiment had snfl'ered little loss. A batile-roU of fourteen actions sliows the s.-r- 
viee rendered during a brief period. Finally mounted, they forme*! part of 
Sheridan's invincible cavalry, and at the close of the war were consolidated, June 
17, 1865, with the Tenth New York as the First New York Provisional Cav,alry. 



TnE First ReyimeiU Light Artillery was organized at Elmira to serve 
years. It was mustered into service from August 30 to November 19, l.'^Ol 



commanded by Colonel Guilford D. Bailey, who was killed on May 31, 1S62. at 
Fair Oaks, 'Virginia, and succeeded by Charles S. Wainwright, who serveil to the 
war's close. In this rcgimeut was Battery L, better known r.s Ueyiiolds' 1! it- 
tery, after its commander John A. Reynolds. coinpo.scd of .^lonroe County men and 
independent in service. Wc give its history as a distinct orL'onization. Thi- bat- 
tery proceeded October 8, 1861. to Albany, thence to New York. Phil.adelpliia, 
and Washington, where puns and horses were supplied and camp formed. In 
February, 1S62, it was ordered to Baltimore, and remaine<4 till May 13. when 
ordered to service, and took part in a reeonnoissance on the 28th towards Charles- 
ton. A section, under Lieutenant Lwlcr, was engat:cd with the enemy near that 
place, and the force was driven by the enemy in turn till reinforced "ny the Sev- 
enty-eighth New York and aseriion under Lieutenant Reynolds. The expedi- 
tion then returned to camp. The battery was assigned to Cooper's brigade, Sigcl's 
division, and with that force advanced to andbeyond Winchester, and cneam|*d 
June 10 in a large open field, where it remained till ordered to Kcrnstown. !!■>- 
views, drills, ami thorough discipline prepared the organiz-ition for the eA'cctiva 
service soon to be rendered. 

On June \\) the battery .set out on the Strasburs mad for ^liddlctown, and en- 
camped near that place. The command was here joined by the Fourth and Sixth 
.Maine, new batteries. Again on the march southward towarJs the muunlain.<. 


Mat: C-Uar 

«ek, the li 

e uT> 1 31- p hill icihi- ]c\\, f^rmcl b..-.;crv, 
and wltii ei:.'Iitct;n ^uti^ in fH^itiua ilio tLree b^i'cries wore ojiidJcut of llt«.ir 
ability t) h j!J th.if ^.Tuunl azmtu! iti-u^^t. Tlie time p^-.-ol io ur.ll ai,J iar„'et 
prartice. On July 3 L ^t out fur Front U.ijmI zvA eniitnpt-i on tiie buikt of ilii; 
SbcaanJouh. Six dzji btcr teiit3 were struck and line of uiareii Cak>*n through 
Front Koyil. GjichV Crc^rpids, on to \Vj>liinitoli, tlie nmniy *-il of ll.j |U. 
bmntiock ; tlieuce to the HappaluiintKrL river, n.jLio^ ^ixt(.-en niiles iu a forenoon, 
and OQ JuU 1 1, cn)!H'in-^ the stream, a halt for the i^i'jht wxi lu^tde, and cext d,iy 
fouod the littery in camp four m\'.■:^ west of AVarrenton. H<'re the corps of 
Banka tis-uitlcd and reniaiueJ til! Au-u-i 'J, when eni-.-.-ud hr JaeL..jn. Rey- 
noldj' balterj-, after various marehes, was at Wa^iiiii::ton t'ourtllouM; oo the oih, 
»hen ordered to march without bj'."ja-_-f: to Culpepper, when! the Iniun troops 
were being attacked. Fii:iiiiii2 wn goiicj ou as the bittcry t*jok position iii a 
lar^ field in line with three ..thcr- At dark, L advaii..T:d a •.hort way t., p.>^ition 
Otl a hill The tijitin^- was fterce and deadly, and thj -round was hotly Con- 
tested. On the lOih of July ^harp skinnishin;: Ik-.'ju early. The horses st.iod 
bitched to the guns while two batteries j'clt the enemy without re^[Ou»e. Klags 
of truce were eicaan-^ed to care for the «ouuded .*„o t.j o^.^ ij^ U,.-«l. T!»-_ tai- 
terj was held iu reserve dtiritii; the sul*?c'|ucnt action atC'eilar .^loulltain. and fell 
back with the ariuy at Culpepper. The cuemy. cuutemj latin- i tuove n.irth\v;ird. 
attacked McDowell on the llappahnnnock. At noon of Au-u^^t 1^ the rebel skir- 
mishen fired upcja the cavalry stationed four niitcs west of the Rappahannock. 
There was sharp firin;.-. but the cuemy was busy brin-.'iu;- up his forces. Kejiort- 
ing to General McDowell. Reyuoldi battery was a->jiinc<i to Duryeas brirnde, 
■■herein were the Ooe Hundred and Fourth and Oue Hundred -lud Fifth New 
Torfc volunteers. About eiiht ah. of Au'^t 19 the rebel guns opened on 
CiuuQSe's battery of the First New York and 'ilenced it, A section crossed 
the river aud shelled the retiriu- tatury. McDowell iu person orderv-d the bat- 
tery ready for aeiioQ, iud jcQl I'itrick'j, Ki--.--! diTl5i?r>, •!?'■.• j-«''inn 
tht«-fourths of a mile from the river. At eleven a.m. the relwl artUlery was 
firing heavily as L was ordered into the field. Away went the battery, the last 
balf-tnile on a lively trot, the enemy's shell flyiii.- and I'jrstlu- all ar.uud. Bat- 
tery was formed in front of Patrick's brii-adc and one eiuht hundre-i 
jards from the enemj. The men had come up.jn n?al work for the fir^t time. 
From the fci!!-crp«r the -^ps were slowly, coolly, and effectively served, aod 
vithia two and a half hours the opposing lattery four times L-ea.-.-d firinv- and 
changed position. Two a^.-e-tions niiW advanced, formed battery in an open field. 
and drove the rebels across the river. An advance by the rebel skiniii^h line 
was greeted with canister, and checked. Ni;lit came, and the battetr, remaining 
in position till four Friday moruin^, was relieved and fell back to re-st. Scarcely 
bad ih'is been done when a heavy cannonade opened, and the battery was recalled 
to ita previous po<itiou. On .Vugust -1 the camp were .iroused at three .v.31. by 
a reported rebel crossiut:. About ei^ht a.m. a battery entered a whcasfieid across 
the river in front. L opencJ upon and silencd it. and then did the same for a 
batterj a inile tn the lelt partially citncealt-d by some luy-3tr.-k3. tj-oenJ Double- 
day aimed the gun in several instau -.a with -ood cl7--t. The deu'onjtrations of 
the enemy reudered a retreat essentul. L retired to Warrentc.n next diy aud lay 
tiiefe till Au^-ust 26, when it set out towards While Sulphur ."?prin;;3. The sound 
of cannoD quickened the march , arrived near the field, aud the hasty j.rcpaiu- 
tiofis for battle Were made, while apjKaraoec indicated the advance of an army. 
Skirmisher werv deployed ri-ht and frout, and musketry ston oi»cned. Sharper 
umI Jet heavier became the multitudinous crackle of inl'.intry fire, and the crash 
cf twenty-four cannon increased the territic din. L was ordered forward and 
took position opon a hiU-cre^t. The I'nion infaotrj- drove the enemy, and from 
the ridges beyond the river the artillery opened a lieav}' Hrc. L formed in bat- 
terj, and alone answered the tire of eizht to ton pie-ts for five to seven hours. 
Against great odd< the men fircii steadily and with effect until ni-ht. Next day 
the lines had fallen back, ind early on the 2>th L m^ireheJ with the Firit division 
for Mana.<si9 Junction. 

Near Bull Uua the enemy were found in force. It was dccide'd to attack. 
Lieutenant lU-ynulds oponnl with a scciioo, aud drew the fire of au entire b.ittcry. 
The other seetioos took part, and several battencs he:irtily n.~p<iudL-d. The rebel 
^lu were too many, and the b-ottery limU-rcil up and hl't. .VU>ut iuidni'.rht llic 
division made a detour and reached the junction. .Vll nr\i d,iy the sfc.nd UuU 
Eun battle ra;.--!, and L 5lo.«J idly lo.Aiie.- on. On the mornin-.- ..f :iiJ 
»U was ominously quiet. About thn'C r.M. the hittlc w.ij renewed ; L was |>.i-tcd 
in the cntre. n|..n a ri-c nc ir an oreh;ird. with uiw.n tin- ri-.-lit and 

p.~'.-d A F.I. rd hitl.ry in fioni ..p. n-l nn I v..n ..•h. r hatt. ri,- ner- r„.',.-.l. 
dudd. nly ,h. iU and =l,ot,'thiek and f.i,l, .:ime In.m the rel« I n-ht, and the Inien 
bottcrir., a< if pwiie^tricken, liuibcn-] up and retreated. ( )ne battery was ordered 
back, aud ropMic-J. The rebel infantry advance-1, and turned tin- Union left 


flank with desperate fit;htin5. L remaiued til! 
the rl-ht a.nd rear, began un effetiive lire. A rebel re:;lment chjn.-.-d upon ih.j 
batu-ry, and were driven back aiuid a storm of canister. With oi-lit ciiue ritrrjt 
to Centreville, and thence to Fairfax, and eneamp.'d at Lpt m's hlil. 
in sight of Wa:,hin.-ton, tor a day or two, .and, as Lee nnde his w.iy towards 
Maryland, was the lost of the old tro.jps to leave the defenses in p'n>uit. .\-_-ain 
at Middlclon, and then t.> South Mountain and Antietani, where, on SeptcmLr 
IT, posted on high ground, the battery opened a rebel opp-iueiit, at one 
hundred and fifty yanis' dl.-tance, tor an hour and a half. Hooker ordcreil the 
l-attery forward to the left, where an attempt was made to f.irui batt. rA- on ih.- 
right of a wood, but uo (Kjsition could W found. The rebel infantry, ehargih-,- 
upon the Union lines throuih a coni. field close io front, were stoutly resi-ro.1. 
Thompsons battery, from the crest of a slight cmincm-e, hurled cani-tcr into the 
de-ipcrate ranks till horse and man were picked off, when the national tr...|., 
began to waver and give ground. The irray line-s swept on with wild yells, jud 
the tide seemed setting in their favor, ivhen, clear and di-lincl. . :ime the Union 
Iturruh, as fresh divisions iiup.'iled the enemy back and recovered the gniund. 
Reynold ( op-ned on a virulent battery, and silenced it. Ammunition gave out, 
and was repIcuLshed from au abandoned caisson. A peri-id of rest after the battle. 
Thirty new uieu and seventy horses were received, and camp made at Berlin. 

Various marches from point to point folhfwcd. Warreuton. Rappahannock 
Station, and, on December 3, Falmouth, on the banks of the river opp.j-ite 
Fredericksburg, was reached. On the llith the battery crossed, and hurrie-J for- 
ward on a double-{uick. went into battery, and be-an firing. Next day the 
enemy began a he:ivy fire, and niaintaiiied it. L, supported by the Thiny-third 
New York, opened for a brief time, when onlered to the left of the left winv: to 
guard that fljnk. A hot tin- was an-uered a-< sharply as ^-j-slble. with slight l.-s. 
till ni-'hi R.-tn-at followed, and L was so"jn in its old position, and irent into 
winter quarters till April 13. ISOU. Camp at Waugli I'oint was left on that iliy. 
and at four p M. battery wa.s formed on Falmouth Heights, where L remaineil till 
April 20. On ilay 1 the battery cro-'Sed the river, and took f.)siti..u iThind 
a semicircular line of bre-astworks with embrasures. At ei-aht .%_JI., May 2, two 
batteries of ten and twenty pounds calibre njiened at two thousand vards. The 
cannoniers sprani: t>} their guns and replied. A half-doztMi shots, then whiz came 
a shell, butit. and a fratrment disablcMl W. S. 4'hasc, of Palmyra. Ciu^h came a 
ball into the mid-t of a limb.-r team, and two horses fell— shot dead. Thicker 
and hotter the ir..n missiles came, plngdng the earthwork ilefenso and plowiug the 
earth around. A soiid shot severcil the leg of Charh-s C.irpenter. of Palmyra, 
broke the legs of two hors.s, and ricoehetted across the river. The duel ctnitinui^l 
for an hour aud a ludf, L rcplyin- with cireful aim ; then, moviu*.: off a piece at 
a time, the river was recrosood. .\l four P.M. line of march was taken to the 
right wing, and United States Ford was reached at midnight, and thejivcr crossed 
on a p^jnton bridge. During the battle of Chauceiloi:»ville iu position ou the ex- 
treme right, but not en-^aged. Covered the retreat ant! returned to Wauul: 
Point. On May U, John A. Reynolds was prnmoicd major ami GiliHirt II. 
Reynolds comuiLssloned captain, Lee was marching to the Potomac, and L. 
reporting to General Wadsworth. Fir-t division, parsed through Warr.iiton and 
Catlctt's Sution. and h.-dte<l at I 'eiitreiillc. I-eaving here June I", the m^n.h 
was made northward to tjettyabur.-, w hei-e it amred amon- the tiist. The rcixls 
.\ttaeked and took the place, the battery retiring witii th.- re-t of the army. 
Captain Reynolds was wounded, and fell into the rebel hands ; w.ts not p^irolcil. 
and was retaken. Lieut«-nant Itreck uitanwhile ••onimatnletl the battery. Furi'-ns 
attacks were repelled. A '.tin was lo»t \Mih all its horses on July 1. Lieutenant 
Wilber, with a s-ctiou, was falling back, when the enemy sud.lcniy o|-ncl villi 
a volley of musketry, which klUed all six horses attachcl to the •.^ln and shot thi- 
horu; fmm under Wilber. The cn.uiy almost within biiyonet tlmi-t. and 

Cemetery Hill, and ihcfc renial 1 on the Dd and -lib cl..,-ely cni:.e.-.Hl with l-ili 

infantry and artillery, and nearly encin led with a terrific fire. Doperne char.'.s 
were made alnio-t to the muzzU- of the gnn-. .V rebel was seen to nc-h up i- a 
gun and fpiU it. A rcl*l was kiil.-l by stroke of the mmmer. and a Iki>..iui 
thrust W.TS made with like effect u[-"n an.illnr. XhU occurred in a IVnn-ylvania 

n^r .Middlctown, .M.irjland. Various marches till the i-n^niaiid rea. bed 
Rappahann.^k Station on Ancnst 4, and w, nt into i-au.p. A ivinr. r .-niupai-.-n 
was uttemptc^i the l.i.-t of Noveiiil»T. The army line of I..,itI,- ;.t K.-l, rt- 

As the Uni'n lines cruue in' vow. ih.y fi.und o|.;«n>ent. drawn np ""b '-'•' 
open front, apparcnlly ciiallen.Miig att.iek. .\ battle seemed immiii. nt. ami I.. 
with other batteries, In-gan CrinL-. .V h. .avj rain set in, ami, the siuoLe shmu.ili.i 
the sight, termiuated the action, lluth sides inlrcnclnrj ; the ivbebi heaiily 



; the in 

Oiunuii w*n; tliitlcly \ linlcu, but finally tlic siteinpt iv^ abanJonc-J, an 

Rtiinl. Od Iktembtr 4 L vfaa at KcUjs Fur I, and finaJly »ent into i»iDt*r 

BrTuuIiU' battery wa« present, but not cn^iqeJ. at the Wi!Jern.;>3. On ?[ay 7, 
■t ei-'ht P.M., luoveJ eistwarJ tonania ^pottsylviinia, wiili GriSii's divi-iua, Fifth 
iniiv ivri-i, in advance; en^.Mz-^l the unemy wiihiu twu and a hall" mii.ii of the 
Tilb',1-', aided to rcp<;l a cliari;e. and ci)nlciid<.-d with a reb-.l battery, ll-'ly en- 
piTeJ on May 1-, and ac|uittL-d iticlf with cfciiL llejcbed llie North Anna 
(HI the a'>erDo"n of the -od, and o]n-ncd <'0 a liody of iufaiiiry drivias uur line. 
\t etidoncw of the severity of the fizht. it la stated that amun:; the trojps being 
Jriivii «J3 the IrDn bri'.-ade. AiJtd by L and other Latteriei. the mca turned at 
Lay and the rcU.U were driven in turn. The battery was euiri^ed in the varioiu 
ai-ti<jos luoviiig to the left and ?f.uth, and Au-^st -1 aided in resisting aa at- 
t»-iDpt to drive the Union tro.ips from the ^Ve'don llailr'aJ. Aisi'.-ned to the 
>'inth aruiy cor^-s, the battery wa.* distributed alon-.: the lined it Peter;burj, and 
when the place fell into our haiidi L was placed in the artillery reserve. The 
killcry reached Kochcster June 2U, IsCj. with one honored and lliirty-seven 
Bien, and was mu>tered out oi» t!ic ITih f.^llowing. 

Tlw F.ijhtfiUh Ballery Li-jlit Ailillcry, liesi^.-natcd as "Mack's Battery," was 
tiiseJ aud or^:aniied at Kocheit«.T to ;jo out with the One UunJred and Eighth. 
The i-ouipiiny, nuraborin^ one hundred and furiy incn. were retained for montha 
in camp, and finally departed on November 13, ISui. for New Yort. to join the 
Texas expedition under General E.iiiLs. Having put to sea on the transport 
" Illinois," orkra were op.'iied and their destioatioo was found to be Ship Island, 
ice the batttry pnjci-eded to New Orlean.^. 
the sie-^e of Purt Hudson, the ba^.Jry 
tet^^i the fire of heavv siece cuos. On 

which was reached December 1: 
la the movement upon Bisiai 
took p-irt, mi at the latter olu 

cnder c 



.n .May 3. lsG4, 
iion-g-e. I>juisiaua 

■ Orles DS. It was 
irmly engaged at 
Clinton, thirty-five miles from Baton lion-^-e. I>juisiauj. The battery took part 
ia tlie attack upon the forts at .Mobile, and reached the vicinity of Spanish Fort 
at seven of Maich '10, 1SG5. On April 1 the command entered works 
•even hundred and fit\v yards from the main fort, cniacred the enemy's cuns 
during two days, and at hdf-p:i^t five P.U., April 4. a general bombardment look 
f *icc. Four d-xyi of quiet, and at five P.M. of the ath the jruns a;.riin opened, and 
at holf.past eleven p.m. the enemy were found to be evacuating. I'pou the cap- 
ture of the works, the Eighteenth pia<.i:d t«aif/ir.:rJy in Fort Bbkely. The 
battery returned with one hutidred and thiay-one men. and was luustcrtd oat 
July 20. The command was then employed in tJie southwist. and performed 
efficient service. The fjllowin'Z is the record of actions: Pattersonville. April 12, 
186:»; BUIand, Aprd 13 ; Cumitc Endge, May 3, 1.<G4; Port Hui,on, May 24 
to July 8 ; and it Mobile, .Man,h 27 to .\.prd S, ISii."., 

Tlie Tictnty-iu[(H Batttry Light Artillery was organii^d in Roch-ster, aud 
•lustcred into the service of the government on February 25. 1SC3. It was 
«ri(:inally commanded by J. Warren Barnes. George \V. Fox, «-ho was com- 
di^ioned second li.utenant December 24, 1S'J2. by resignation of superiors, was 
promoted to first lieutenant and captain, and as such mustered out with the 
Uattcry on S«ptember 12, lid'). The battery was opicred to the far south, and 
aervt^l in the cipoditions under Banks in the southeast, and was enj.-aged at Cane 
river .ind at Avoyella Prairie. 

The Slevenlh ArtilUry, Colonel W. B, Barnes, was recruited at Rochester as 
bcavy artillery. The idea of service iu the I'or-s of Wa-hington to relieve the 
Itifaiitry there stationed was very popular, and a numl/er of large regiments thus 
ratvil made cicellent icfantty during the final campaign of the war. On June 
I<:. 1S(;3, U-e WIS known to ha>e invaded Pcnnsyi^;■i every available soldier 
Was put in retpiiaition. The Kleveuth was ordere-i to proctMni at one-e to ilarris- 
burg and report to Gcuend Couch. The prospect was not relished, yet the com- 
Biaii.l was c.ns'jlid.lted into four companies, and. sotlin- out for Harrishurg, it 
f-a.-hoj its destination on June 25, and next morning -larted for Cariule, where 
• fight seemed imminent. Returning to the State capital, they reviiiy engaged 
in wi.rk npon the trenches and in preparations for the defence of the 
DrdireJ to New York, they were distrihute->l in the several harbor forts and whcQ 
Ih.- rioU broke out Colonel Barnes tendered their services to General Wool, who 
■iir.Me-d him to pick a i-ompany of old s.ndier>. (roiu the regiment, a.-m theoi as 
liifantry, and go to the city. Sixty men were >. Iccted and led into the notous dis- 
•ni't*. Several eneTunt''n were had with the mob without the lo^ of a man. 
"y a .p.-clal Mplcr of the W ,r the rr-.-lm,-nl was lrao>ferrrd to the 
^'■">flh l;.-,;ini,nt Arfiliry. .Vw V„rk v.-lunevr-, asiis.thir.l bat:aip .,. ,m .(uly 
-■' I*';:;. AVilham Cluireli. the eai.taiu. was tmnsferred on Oclooer ItJ, 1.>G3, 

The l,.,ii.,li„n w.„ ^.„t l„ W.e,hin.-l and pi .e,.l I., girrix.n Fort Ethan .AJ- 

'• u. ,.r ll„. J, r^..n,ive works on the -julli .>ide of tli.- Potomac-, Here they 

quietly remained till the spring of 1804, On the evening of March 26 mirch. 
ing orders were received, and ne<t day. at halfpjst nine A..M , the Fourth lie-i. 
ment letl the fort two thou-viud f mr hundred s'.roie.;, and in thrc^ hours had 
marched twelve miles ; went on board the cars at Alexandria, and were conveyM 
to Brandy Station. The regiment took a prominent part in the battles of iha 
Wilderness, Sp->tt-*ylvania, North Ann.a, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor, l^etersburg. 
Deep B<.'tto!u, an.l Roams' Station. At the close ..f the day, .^lay ti, the enemy 
massed on the L'nion right rear, .and uuder cover of night moved ui«m the lines, 
which wavered and fell hack in the campaign with alight loss. The break occurred 
close to the supply trains, guardi^d by a company of the Fourth. A battalion was 
ordered up, and eng.iged with spirit. 

General Meade, by Sf.etijl order, said of the brigade, "The gnllant manner in 
which this command, the greater part f «r the first time under fire, met and cheeked 
the pcr-.i-s.tent attacks of a corps of the enemy, hxl by one of their ablest generals, 
justifies the commanding general in the special eouimendation of troops who 
henceforward will he relied uf».n a.s were the tried veterans of the Sexond and 
Fiflh corps, at the same time engaged." 

This prompt acknowledgment was well timed, and the losses of the regiment iii 
the almost constant encounters from May 4 to June 17 indicate the severity of 
the orde.d and the stanch courage of the men. There were killed during the 
interval named seventeen men ; wounded, one huodreKl and ,six ; and missing but 

On June 24 the regiment lay in a fortified camp, three miles south of Peters- 
burg, having leil the advanced line, where it had relieved two regiments. While 
in this line sharp skirmishing had been in progress, whereby one man was killed 
and three wounded. The eiplostvin of a mine beneath a rebel fort was made the 
signal for a tremendous cannonade, followed by a charge. 

On July 28, Company G, with six Cohom mortars, — one hundred and twcnty- 
poand pieces, — passed to the rear of the Ei:;hteenth army corps, which was res^rvf 
tor the Nintu eoips, by Trhc=: the :;--:jt!!t w^ tn be made. The e-ompany tvorkcd 
all night to plant their pieces and prepare their position, and were supplied with 
three hundrL.d rounds of ammunition. As the earth, guns, and garrison rose in 
the air from the exple>sion, fire was ojH;ned, and two hundred and seventy-seven 
rounds delivered, A battery, their mark, was silenced,- and the company were 
complimented for the abilities shown. Companies I and K were ou the skirmish 
line, and lost lightly. Nine companies eoga^-ed in the disistrous charge sustained 
a loss of sixteen kille-l, thirty wound.;d,-and three hundred and twenty missin-g. 
The regiment met heavy loss at Reams' Station, and worked hard upon the forts, 
redoubts, and breastw...rka. so formidable in extent ami strength. Other organiza- 
tions were transferred to the Fourth in June, 1865, and the regiment was mustered 
out September 26 following. 

Tht FourleeniU Rfjimenl, Veteran Heavy Artillery, originated at Rochester 
shortly after the muster-oat of the old Thirteenth Infantry. Colonel Elisha G. 
Marshall was duly authorized to enter upon the work of enlisting a rt-giment of 
heavy artillery, and by July 15, lSo3, had about three hundred men in camp .m 
Lake avenue, mainly veterans of tlie Thirteenth. The evening of that day, 
orders came for the command to leave for New York city, to aid in restoring 
order. There were about two hundred men in the ranks when the cai-s wer.: 
taken next day. .-\.rrivcd at Alb.iny, they were there halt«l and provided with 
arms, rations, and quarters, and remaiued till August 15, Two detachments were 
sent on sp..-cial duty, — one to Loekjwrt, the other to Charlotte. 

On September 2 Henry R. Randall had enlisted one hundred and fil'ty men. 
Two companies, three hundred men, left for New York by special train on De- 
ccm'oer LS, l.-i|J3, The lieutenant-e-olonel was Claren.-e 11. Cornin-, the major. H. Reynolds; adjutant. Job C. Hedge;.; .luartermaster, -U.lph i,\n,- 
bert; and surgeon, Isaac 'V', Mullen. The ojiumand lay .-]iuctly in eanip till the 
advance across the Rapidan. early in .May. 1 804, and whether iu the eliarje atSj."!!- 
sylvania and Petersburg; in action at Cold Harbor, Weldon I', P..;.lar 
Spring Church, or Hatcher s Run. in each and every trial the ciu.maii.l ae.|nitt.-.i 
itself with credit. When the ule-.-raphie summary brought news fn.m (irann 
army, the lint of casualties bore testimony to .gallant an.l veteran l»e-h.ivn,r. W l.,-n 
the awing to the left hail bnmjlit the Ninth army corps bef.rc IVter-l.ur.-. tiio 
Fourteenth Regiment, nine hundred and thirty strong, was on June IG dra»n up 
in line of battle with the dlvi-ion to make a char.-e upon the w.irl.i and mjav-.r 
to take tlie pbcc. The Fir^t bri.-a-l,- le.l the division. The F..urle, mh .\e. V...k 
on the Se-cond line, the Sccon-l Pelilisylvaina on tiie thml line. Ihe ur-l.-r Tinm 
to fix b.ayonets, an.l not to tire a till the br.-a,iworL.s were taL. ii. Tl..' i'n -t 
move-l f..rwar.|, an.l met a euirirn: fire, which routed the fir-t lin.-, wi,.-„ tii.- F-ir. 
t<-«ntli eliar,;.-d over tliein, .-i.liaii.-e-l two th..n-.ind }ai.l., .-eal.-l ti..- en. n., • 

The w..rks were lieM t»., 
coming down fr.iu Uiel.u, 



&om thtir hard- and well-won ;:Tound. In this charp; Coloml Jtamhnll wm 
wouod<>d. JInjor Jul) C. IK-d.-ca «.l- sb"t doad vtliilc k-udiu? his batulion. Major 
W. n. and l'a[ita:n SnyJcr wore captured, and J. P. I. liry. aijuunt, 
Dtrrowlj c^cjp.- J Of nioc hundred and thirty lui-n who cTitcre<l oq the char.-v, 
«ix }\undn>d and fortj-nine cime out. The n-yiuieol occupied the worts when 
Rtakco, and toot ila turn on the front line, .^bjor Ix)renzo I. Ji-'nei W the 
Fourt^enlh from June 17 till Aucu--- 19, at whieh litre he ».li wuui,ded. On 
tie oiornios of Juir 2S the Pcier^bur- mine wxs cinlodi-d, and the Fourteenth 
led in the nnlutky and illenn.lueied charge- which followed. The lo« su-stjined 
WM about Gtlj in killed and wonnucJ. br-'ides many tni-i^in^. On the momiiii; 
of March 25, ISCi, a rebel divi^nn chanrod upr.n Foru Ste.dman and Ha,kcll, 
garrisoned by the Fourteenth, and carried both works. The enemy were soijn 
drifen out with heavy loss, havin.; kilh-d, wounded, and caj'tured two hundred 
ud fifty-thr« men. The regiment lost no prcstire in thij reverse, and won ao 
•ndnring and honored name as a stanch and reiiable organixation. 

The history of the various or.-anij 
indisputable evidence that Monroe cii 
fcjiUcOcld aj ihej .,..c .u,..,y, O.VU 
disaster and panic, tiie Monroe solditi 

tions so far outlined, and not overdrawn, U 
zens were as devoted and patriotic upoo the 

lua.^trious una law-uliiaiui; at hotue. Amid 
I bore themselves with honor, h-st no colors, 

And retijmed to receive the eongratulatiocs of fellow-citizena with laudable pride. 
Breaking tanks, the old soldiers coDunioglcd with the populace, and the war of 
tli« lebellioQ passed into history. 



Thx lunita of knowledge : 
made into the re-^ion of the | 
Monroe- We have beheld h. 
■ificence, when the damp ri'-h "oil wa^ den 
Genesee roUni in unmarked prandeur and 
ledges at the " Falls." to the level of the 
peopled with the fiercest of the aboriirinai ti 

but the mapjin of truth. Ii 
:. We h.ive ess.-xyed an outli 

have been 
of the hiitory of 
3 native lururiance and solitary mag- 
[! with f.TMt jrcwtb, and the noble 
undiminished volume over the ru*.ky 
northern lake. AL-ain the land wiS 
Iks ; ;rame of all kinds abounded in 

proved wonderful in fertility, 
their westward march, estab- 
; outposts of civUliatioD, — the 

1 of France and England to win 

rked the ineffectual expedition of 

oroc, ^^ be met and cowed by a 

Acain Sullivan's evenin" Pun. 

the woods ; the Indian orchard and the field of c 
and the ventureii^me pioneers from the east bo^ 
Kihjng their 8.>litary huts in spots of clearing oa 
Duclei of setdement. 

BrieOy we have contemplated the overture; 
»Diance from the confe^Jerated nations, and ma 
'Pe Nouville throujh the eastern bound, of Mo 
hastily-assembled band of Senrci warriors. 
reTerbcratin; ami.Ist the forests, pive waniin; to mercilesj Indians to remove 
thfir families from villages to be burnt and fields laid waste, while State conven- 
tions, seconded by private enterprise, prepared the western region fur survey, sale, 
tnd occupation. 

Parties and families, colonies and individuals, journeyed or Toya::ed to the 
badi bordering upon the Genesee ; villages sprang up in locations of convenience 
•od natural advantage, and the site of a nido and Ion*'!y mill, in the reuioo of 
neks, the dens of innumerable serpents, rapidly developed to tho proportions of 
s magnificent and ptipulous city. The growth of numbers and the call of com- 
Derce instigated and compelled the formation of Monroe, while the survey of 
highways, the building of bridges, and the discovery and utiiizatioa of the Ridge 

road opened the way for thi 

Wayne's victory in the west crumbli 

ranco of the colonist, and the 

of prwJuce •„ 

1 of the Irr^pioU, and PI. t. 

and introduce l 

the lu^ 
of Indi 
the up^»er tlcneeeo, while schooners ply upon the 
io pearlash, lumber, and the best of grain. 

In geographical feature, we have noted a region equal in temperature, salu'i,r:. 
oua ill climate, picturcsfjue in bcen*:ry, and rich in the natural products of t),„ 
soil, and, withal, favorc<l by a watcr-povrcr l^eautiful to behold, valuable a.s a ni.,i,,. 
No land ever yielJod Mich wheal ;is the valley of the Genesee, or in so great abu.i. 
dance, and no eomniunitv of aL'ricuIturists has done murt: for husbandry than th. 
farmers' societies of Monroe. For years the Rural iVew I'urker w.os the or_iri 
of intelligent cultivators, and the innumerable valuable 3U2'.rj=tions wiiich eurich-1 
its columns have been of intiucnee unknown in citcnt and unmea.surable in vaiuf 
The carion of the Gcne-ee, below the fall.s, has opened w ide the book of nature, aa I 
revealed the structure of tho rocks, to excite the curious and inter^'stthe student. 
Rapid in growth of population, and famed for the steriing qc.ilities of her citi- 
zens, wp have rceanleif a community ever prompt and decided io measnres ef 
polity and public utility, whoso ranks have furnished numerous examples of hivh 
personal worth, honoring distinguished public station, while the masses have 
achieved a noble record as a Law-abiding and industrious people. 

Again the route of the Eric canal has been surveyed, the war of words and 
the of confiicting opinion has been closed by popular vote, and an official 
&nd popular demonstration has marked the opening of a grand water-way frcia 
lake to ocean ; then was seen to begin a prosperity for the county whose coo- 
tinuauce has produced the elegance, taste, and refinement of the highest civilitj. 
tioa, and a^ssociated industry in manufacture and transportation, famous in extent. 
And celebrated in its quality. 

The packet-boat was seen to be withdrawn vrhib yet the teams upon the tow- 
path go and come across the Genesee, over the grand aqueduct, and numerous 
beats convey, as half a ceotury since, the bulky prudu 

1 of thi west to eastern 

The nitl<ar ran along the Tonawanda, and the locomotive made its first excur- 
sive trip to Canandai^Tia ; then everywhere, all over the land, the mania forrailmad 
building spread, and knew no abatement in Monroe until the grand New York 
Central, immense in extent, wealth, and buniness. vitid to the city, and a creature 
of its enterprise, transports the traveler with celerity and ease, and conveys its 
tons of freight » ith cheapness and dUpatch. 

In Monroe private cnterprL=e has no lack, public institutions have few superiors. 
Aberrant intellect finds Samantan treatment io an asylum conducted by the most 
skillful ; moral depravity in youth of both sexes is arrested and extirpate-d by the 
benevolent and disciplinary agencies of a well-conducted St; 
the sturdy vagrant and the petty offender are made, by their labor, t 
society for the burden of their support. 

In warfare against English arro'jancc and oppression, the bearing of Monroe 
mUitia has been s-^en to intimidate a s*(uadroo, and, in a contest for national ex- 
istence, the young men of this county, exceptionally equaled, were never excelled 
in heroism upon the march and hattlc-field, and in contempt of danger where 
called by duty, as is seen io their history as organixations and their record as in- 

We have written with interest, and gleaned from manuscript, volume, and nkl 
files of papers with dili'gijnce. The result accepts a progress encouraging as a 
contrast, wonderful as a speclaclc, and simple in the tracery of unusual natur-J 
odvantin^cs wisely and generously turned to account. Early anticipations have 
been more than realized in past and prcM-nt achievement, and the future of .''ion- 
roc is a dctiny of unfaltering progrcsi. .^Iay tho fVuition of the noblest and 
fondest expectations of her citizens meet ample realiiation, and the prosperity of 
her varied and extensive industries experience no decline I 




■— -% 

iC-!^^--.-^ -■--.-■ i 














I i -^fe ^:i-i?*^ ':'■"w'-^■ ''"^i;•^^'^--'^■-C-"'^ 





t/^i|n;-: }■ 

V ! 


It has bcea the policy of meo io ill a;^ to preserve by tradition, inscription, 
Bjonuai<-Qt, or m;iriu5cript, the memory of iDJividual.-» an*! evenu ab^ociatcd with 
llii' fuunJin^- of « cii.y, st.ite, or nation. Aj lliore U a s<.rn)ii and solemnity in 
»h,' Jitlinc or fall of a great comiuvrJal man, ll^rc \i an interest attithed to 
initial uiovemcnti and an importance '.^iven to characters irho.-e real worth major 
ojay not have to do with tltcir part of the primitive stage of development. 

America h;^ been prudueu<d uf at^uiir.^ ehiij'^^. K.^r.'., l.av.- irjr.jpired 
within (he domain of the republic whose effects sl;il impress and swsy the older 
cations dtates have boon carved trom an eip.Tn:>e of wiidcrnesi. and cities have 

pown up 


rrcsae^e and optn 

; been at tault. conve 

mod facility have been potential, and the traveler of one period, looLin^ upon an 
•ttracllve natural scenery in the seclusion of a forest, has returned to behold a city 
with swarming thousands, replete Titli the products of the soil, resonant with 'he 
bum of manufacture, and abounding: with the treasures of art. At the commence- 
•lent of the present century it was said of the present site of Rochester, that " it 
was a God-forsaken place, inhabited only by mu-trats and visited only by strag- 
gllii;: trappers, — a place throu:^!i which neither man cr^nld tnvel nor beast callop 
■ Ithout fear of stcrvatiun or tever and ^crie " Cbii.irpn of the orunaal founder 
have not yet p;issed away, and a great and beautiful city stands by the Falls of the 
Genfse«. Asc-end the tower of the Powers block, and look out at midday upon 
the scene beneath and streU'hing far around you. Ljfly buildiiiL-s, bciutiPil 
churche;*, handsome streets, a teemio:; myriad of population meet the sij^hL 
Along the stone-walled canal boat after boat i^ passing ; from the Central depot 
frvi'/ht and pnwenjer trains come and so at brief Intervals. Indu,-try, alHaence, 
and enjoyment are evidenced in every quarter. There seems no merehandise but 
has iu mart, no intere.-t without its rctrescntatives. All fa-.iliiies for travel 
aljound— the cai upon the stony .street or the milea of wait for the passio™ throng. 
The melody of bells proclaims the parsing hour, and the shriet of the steam- 
whistle announces the cessation or renewal of a multifonn industry. Tell no 
•trangcr that within a human lifetime this vast and varied chancre from solitude 
to highest form of civilization, this tran.,iurmLition of a forest to a m-igniacent 
city, has taken place. Realization has exceeded promise, and truth has been 
•Irangcr than 6ction. 

I»«)t we now up'in the causes which rendered growth uncertain, and consider 
the ageneies^uhich sprang into operation and have ren-iered the future as brilliant 
in pn>mi^c as has been the post in fruition. A score of towns and villa::cs hod 
atiained considerable siic and much prominence while the forest remained un- 

broken whei 

re a city was soon to be. Canandai-jua had been the capital of Ontario 
a •|iiartcr<a:ntur7, and lon'jer yet ijeneva had had an occupation and a name, 
U-firc an evidence given that tlie city of the valley of the Genesee would 
have an origin. It was not that the advantages of hydraulic power were not seen, 
f*»r the falU were frujuently visited by tourists and enterprisini: men; and it was 
B"t (hat a mart »as not nccdt'ij, for from the earliest times an idea prevailed that 
fc'Oiewherc in .^lunroe of to-day a town would grow up eummcnsuratti in impor- 
lanee with the temperate climate, cicellcot soil, and increasing population. 


The village and then city is a result, nol 
'•ri.Hn may be accidental ; growth d.-per.ds 
••^"irces. Pioneer life rcf|uired little .s 
ln.|,.,o.on had beToroe farmers, and the s 
hi: cabin were the industries of det.iched v 
A-ide fnini sufplving the w.ints <if new 
»« hi. a,.,,!.,., 

»iaan outward supp..)rt and inherent 
c the products of home industry; 
p by the »iysldc i.r the loom in the 
lemcnts and provided for I.j*:al wants, 
looked aw.ay to Albany 
and relumed with indis- 

of western Xew York. Not until a 

Lake Ontario found complete settle 

route, but along the old liutf.ilo roa^ 

growth to hamlets now the sites of t; 

dense ftiogc of firest, abounding in 

of the pioneer settler. Individuals ai 

SJid had Eearccly made an opening in the f jre.^t cl 

families pnjstrate. It It on r«ord that in those 

one year from a p..pulation of less than three tl 

date have the lands bordering npon 

Commerce centred not upon a water- 

uclei of .settlement gave a temporary 

IS. All along the lake w.ns a dark. 

s, and the haunt of the fever pla-ue 

parties adventured into these regions, 

attacked and laid nhole 

rs si.Mv persons died in 

iiid s-'iiiotimL-s almost a 

neighborhood would emigrate temporarily to the older and healthier communities. 
making their exodus with cart and sled along the winding roadways of the fore^^. 
The traveler, meetincr such a western caravan, was impressed with the reality of a 
strife with nature, and these, the disabled, seeking hwpitablc lare to recuperate 
and then to return to the perilous eneiunter. The upas of fever reigned in all the 
region about the Falls of the Genesee, and the Panama canal .of later celebnty 
seemed no less burdened with the miasma of an exceeding fertility. Illustrative 
of thediscourafrin'.- ro-ult of pioneer etiort in this quarter, Whecloek Wood, a settler 

Golly creek, within the present city limits, and had but fairly begun labor ere his 
workmen were Liken siet and were reijuired to be removed to their homes. The 
mill went tn ruin, because there were none willing to brave exposure to disease 
almost certain to follow its operation. Men will march sternly with bowed heads 
to the charge, they will traverse the w lld.jst lands and the bnjade.t seas ; but to 
settle in a spot where the insidious attacks of an enervating disease are sure of 
being made, was as if the portals of a treasure-house were guarded by a potential 
evil, whose ruthless influence repelled every invasion of its province. 


Oliver Phelps, general agent of the 
lands, made a treaty near Canandaigu 
title to all that region east of the Gene: 
looked uneasily upon the encroachmeii 
their tcrritorv west of the river named. 

to build a mill at the falls I 
if the former would sell 
tract extending twelve raih 
was sold to the ( 

for the purchase of Genesee 

on July S, ITS.S, by which the Indbn 
e river was extinguished. The Sentcaj 
i of the Amerie-ans, and refused to sell 
ver named, llowever, the proposition of Mr. Phelps 
• the mutual bene6t of the Indians and white settlers, 
milljite, w.u favorably received, and accordingly a 
neat of the Genesee, and nortliw.ard to Lake Ontario, 
and this was confirmed to them by the legislature of 
Massachusetts, in November following. It was luiitually agreed by the Indians 
ind Mr. Phelps that the mill-yard should bo bounded east by the (ieocsce. south 
by a line near Avon, west twelve miles, thence to the lake. The western line run due north by Hugh Maxwell, the surveyor, and :i3 the river bears cist of 
north, the mill yard was in excess of the purch.ise. It is not here that is notc-J 
the Triantrle tract, but to give the dimensions of the celebrated and historical 
mill-yard.' The good faith which ever characterized the dealing of Oliver VliLlpi 
with the native propriet-irs of the land won their contidence and nth.s;tioo, but 
when, soon after, the null was built, and that diminutivo structure was comi ared 
with the area of the "yard," their stoicism could not restrain their esprcj-ions 
of astonishment. The gilt was permitted to rest unchallenged, but the exclama- 
I tion, " kaiiskonchicos," the &«rca for waterfall, ever after became the Indian 
i name for .^I^. Phelps. 
I .Soon after the conclusion of the treaty, a gift was"niado to Ebcncicr Allen of 

I During the summer of ITiD, a saw-mill was put up at the falls and timb-r cut 

1 fi.r a irist mill, which was raided in the early period of the following winter. It 

is intere,liie.' tc i.ute ll-r.- the details eoiieernilig this -truaiire. l.-au-e it wu 

..e th. 

, the ! 

The building ■ 



was twenty -sir by thirty feet, w.-u of the lieavii^t liml'or. An invitatioo was 
sent to all the stttlere iu the valley to attend the raising, and thoy came. Two 
days were occupied at the task, and the lacicwootUnicn numbered fourteen persons. 
Rum was procured from a tr.idcr, who carue up the river in his boat while the 
raising was in progress, and a lively celebration marked the completion of this 
initial enterprise. With all the advanta^^es natural to the locality, the race was 
so constnictcd that it w:ia dry in miilsunmier and surchar.;ed with water in winter. 
The one pair ef mill-stones were takeh from a neiyhborins ((uarry, and found well 
adapted to their purpose. The mill as run could grind but ten bushels a day. 
and had a capacity, under proper uianagement, for sixty. To this pioneer mill 
came inhabitants from places far remote, and settlers had their grinding hcK 
whose cabins stood full a score of miles to the eastward. When the Allen mill 
was raised, there were not in the country, we:st of the old pre-emption line, tifteen 
hundred while people ; and, save the Indian clearings and the improvements upon 
the fluta of the Cana.soraga and Genci^ee, there were not two cleared sections in 
all that expanse known as Ontario. 

Jared Boughton, of Victor, in the fall of ITOO set out with a double ox-team 
for the Alien mill, and while yet four miles from the river came to the terminus 
of the road. A dense forest and marshy grounds lay on the direct mute, and 
the pioneer was obliged to make a detour and cross the hills east of Mount Hope, 
and thence reached the river. Here be belled his oxen and turned them loose to 
browse while he backed bis grain across and down the river to the mill. When 
succeas was attainable only by such means, every expedient was tried to supplv 
mills nearer home, and the Allen mill, isolated from settlement and wanting in 
converging roads, found little to do. In general, a miller was kept at the stnic- 
tare, and he alone was the occupant of all the pre.<ent site of the city of Koches- 
ter, and he had not enough of business to en.abic him to make repairs. There 
were times when the premises were deserted, and when the mills of Mendon, 
Wilder's Point, and other places were not in running order, settlers repaired to 
the lone mill on the Genesee — by canoe upon the stream, along the Indian trail. 
or by the road from PIttsford, to :^tones', and following the ridges south to Mount 
Hope; arrived at the cabin repairs were made, the wheel started, the grist 
ground, and the mi'l again left in solitude. The mill and the one-hundrcd- 
acre tract were sold by Allen to Benjamin Barton, Sr.. in the spring of 1792. 
Samnel Ogden, of Xew York city, bought of Barton, and in 1794 transferred its 
ownership to Charles Williaiason. This energetic agent was not ignorant of the 
capacities of the location, hut the lands whose increase In value he sought were else- 
where, and while Sodus, Geneva. Bath, aud other places were seats of hotels, mills, 
and stores, the Falls of tho Genesee were ignored. In 1795 the mill property 
was placed in charge of Colonel Fi^h, by whom improvements to the amount of 
five hundred dollars were made; yet little was done, and the mills gradually went 
to decay. In 1793 the saw-mill was in ruins, and a few years later the grist- 
mill became neglected and gave way to other structures. Mr. Maude, an intelli- 
gent EnglUh traveler, visitiug this region in 17L*3, wrote concerning the falls, aud 
spoke of having minutely inspected them He says, " Rittlesnakes are fre- 
quently seen at tlic.*e Falls. I ascended the hank at the middle falls, which bank 
is in some places perpendicular, and joined my servant, who had been waiting two 
hours,* and had begun to fear s^juie accideut had befallen me. In a few minutes 
I joined Colonel Fish at the mill. This mill is so much out of repair that the 
settlers on the west side of the river arc obliged to resort to the mill at Rundicut, 
which from Bi-adloo is at least eighteen mile.", be-ides having a river to cross. 
The saw-mill built by Allen is already ruined, and Colonel Williamson proposes 
to build a new grist-nnll a few feet higher than the present one. It will be then 
out of the way of ice and backwater ; and, by taking the race from a more favor- 
able part of the river, where, in the drie-t sextons, the channel h.xs six feet of water 
close along shore, it will have a never-failing supply of water; and a?, in conse- 
quence of the falls, there must be a portairc at the place, the race is to serve the 
purpose of a canal, not only to float hv.?* to the saw mills, but for the river cnitl to 
discharge and take in their lading." Mr. Maude states that Colonel Fish, the 
miller, had no accommodations for travelers, not even a stable, and he was com- 
pelled to go down to the landing, wh.Te, at Gideon King's, he enjoyed a hearty 
meal, consisting princip.illy of wild plizwous. and expresses his satisfaction by 
the assertion that " Mr. King is the only respectable settler in this township, in 
which there arc twi'lve families. — four of which are at the landing." Such were 
the imprvs-ions and cxpre3.sions of a traveler of nearly fourscore years lasn. The 
changes of recent dale wouhl preM.'nt foo^i f >r reflection, subjects of admiration, 
and satisfaction. It may be briefly sai.l .if Indian Allen that he a fiend in 
cmelty, n Turk in yoluptuonsiies.e. the first white resident upon the site of 
Ri>chcHfer. and the connecting link of fe\vai;c sitrt between rude baekwtHidsraen in 
primitive riviliz.atIon and tho alioriginaU of the forest. He died in |S1 1, in the 
Delaware town on the De Tr.nell, and Kft behind him "Iwo white wid.iws and 
one s^iuaw to lament his los?" 


Knowledge of the past should inlbrm the future. The transition of forest to cliv. 
of trail to railway, of hut to stately building, of wafer-sealed epistle, carried „„ 
foot or horseback, to the fl:ush of the current conveying the telegram, now hi,-t.,ii,- 
in the ca-t, knows a continual progress and cxiatenee westward. .Vlong tin- rail- 
ways creeping over the plains of the once Great American desert the .•'peculator 
lays out a town ; rows of shanties line the streets, a business of millions is tran*. 
acted; yet as the road is pushed fljrwanl the population surges with it, and tli.. 
terminal city returns to its solitude to await its chances in a eomin'.r day. Th,- 
ukase of an emperor or czar may establish a site and give it population, but in a 
republic cities thrive as attractions are 

We have said that Williamson had bought of Samuel B. Ogdeu the Allen prop, 
erty, intending some improvements there; and when the fact was made known to 
Christopher Dugan. who had married a sister of -Vllcn, and had been pl.ieed in 
charge of the mill by him, he penned what may be said to have been the fir-t 
business letter written from the site of Rochester. In that light we give it fartlur 

*' Falls OP GesKSEe, Au*. 0, l:'J4. 

" The mill erected by Ehenezer Allen, which I am informed you have purch.ascj. 
is in a sad situation, much out of repair, and unless .attention is paid to it will s.»,n 
take its voyage to the lake. I have resided here for several years, and kept watdi 
and ward without fee or recompense, and am pleased to hear that it has fallen imo 
the hands of a gentleman who is able to repair it, and whcKe '-haraetcr is such 
I firmly believe he will not allow ,in old man to suffer without reward for his ex- 
ertions. I wish to have you come or send some one to tike care of the mill, as mv 
situation is such as makes it necess;iry soon to remove." What a revelation of 
character and indication of the times are seen in those few lines ! 


Samuel Street, of Niagara Falls, Canada West, had bought a fann at Dugan 's 
creek, on the river; improved- by Allen and Dugan, it was well stocked by Sirect. 
Some time near 179-1 Jeremiah Street's brother-in-law. came from Con- 
necticut, accompanied by his family, and settled on the farm. Well mi'.-ht the 
Genesc>e fever excite apprehen.-ion. for from the farm bands and the faniiiy ten 
persons, among the number Mrs. Oiiu.-tead. were uumbercJ among its victims. Iu 
1798, or the year following. Olm.-tead came down the river and oc-cupii.-d a shanty 
built by one Farwell upon the later site of a brewery, and to the south of the Hou-e 
of Refuge. There he felled the timber upon a chosen spot, f.-nceo it in, and 
sowed grain upon a small clearing. He remained but long unoiigh to reap the 
first crops grown upon the site of Rochester, and then moved upon the ridtre, 
whence lie changed his residence to Hanford's Liuiding, where, on the year "f his 
removal thither ( 1S16 ., he died. We have .said that Colonel Jo-iah FL-h was liiied 
by Mr. Williamson to take charge of the mill, and this be did for a peiio.l ol'-ix 
yeai^,— from 1700 to 1302. Colonel Fish was from Wyndhani, 'Vennoiit. aiul. with 
his son Libbeus, moved iu 179j to a larm at the mouth of Black creek. A log 
hut was built, and by Indians roofed with bark. Several acres of land were pli.wcd 
by the team of Mr.'sh.aeffcr and pl-mted. and then Mr. FL-li and his .s.'ii w>-i,t to 
live with Sprague, then op^-rating the uiill. As a specimen of pioneer life on the 
lands now known as Iloehcster, Libbe is Fish says, " We had raccoon ll.r bn-ak- 
fct, dinner, and su|iper. with no vegetables ; and upon e.xtra occ-.isions we liai^ 
cake fried in raccoon oil." Leaving his son with a neighbor at Canawaugu-. the 
fiitherwent cast fur his family, and brought them out to his iinprovcnient at Blai k 
crvek. Sickness overtook them, am! continiuil to aflliet the family diirioz tin- 
season. Hired to take charge of the luill, Colonel Fish removed thitlnr in .No- 
vember. Cooking was done in a board shanty, and sleeping-room Wiis partition. -I 
off in the mill. A year went by, an.l they built a threc--walled log house, the 
fourth wall being the ledge of rocks on the rivcr-biiiik, the .site being later o.e.i- 
pied by the old red mill. Firepla.-c and i-hinincy were tjuarried from the ris.k. 
Cloiiel Fish ri-maincd in charge till 1304, when he moved to his farm, which he 
sold in 1307, and moving near Parma, there died in 1311. 


Aaron Burr, the sl.aycr of Hamilton and the eon.spirator Df the Mis 
was a heavy dealer in town silc-s .awl tracts of wild land, and in ITU.". .->t,i. 

mi-nl.< of them. Pi..o.-ers came up the riv. r in bateaux, an. I l„.>k..l ^ 
up.m the oran.l hy.lraulie power and the valn.ible sit,-, but tin f.iLiJ.lMi. 
..f the piai-.', with Its miasma-la.l. n air, ri-p.-U.d ami drov.! tin-iii t.. ..'Ii. 
inviting but less inip.>rtant points. The lirvt up..ti the riv.-r. - 


Biillcn at the Hills. uQtl William Qencher, boluw the mouth of Black crct.'k, were 
/a(JcM.-k O'atiirP'i I'iJeon Kiirj, and s-ima otlien* ; tlif>e tiirujcj ;i !icttl<-:!ioDt at what 
U-cjuio knuwu XI Kini's, and then Hanfurd V. landini:. It was said of thi- landing 
that It was the |Hirt of sliipniL-nt fur the GL-ticsee river, jcl its impruvenifiit was 
h.-IJ in cht-k hv i|uosli..nable land titles. Mr. GrjEr.'er hud buu^ht tiirc^ thou- 
Mud ocn.'S uf land troiu Mr. I'lielj-ia t\>l ten thousand dollars, and M.i.urcd payment 
b/ » mortLiije on the land, (i ranker soon died; a part ot the lands had been 
mM; the rest not i.-lcarius the ineuiubrancc, the estate cuuld not be adujioistered. 
IMielps foreclosed and took jHi-session of the entire traet, iiieludini the portion sold 
lod improved. Some scttlera left; some repaid the purchas'- price, and oiheta 
iKiughf a settlement. In 17'JS a uew store and wharf had been built, but the 
heiL'ht and precipitous character of the bank made conveyance to and from the 
wharf difficult, ilr. Williamson, writin?; hipmc to Knsland. sava uf the vicinity 
and its aeeessinr. of settlers. •' The navi'^-ation of the river is interrupted by four 
Buecestive maj^ifieent falls, the hiirhost of them nincty-iix fceL .\round these 
falls a carryiug-piacc was made, and the inhabitants for the first time ber.m to use 
the navigation. They received salt from the Onondaga salt works, and their 
stores from Albany, with a Tory trifling laud earriace compared with what they 
were before neeessitatcd to undertake from Geneva, aiid it has opened to them a 
rv'ady market for their produce." 


In 1797, during the month of Jene, Louis Philippe, the last king of France, 
his brothers, the Puke de Montpensier and the Count Beaujolais, in eompan ;.ith 
Tbuoias Jlorris, of Canandaigua, rode to the present site of Rochester to obserre 
the falls. Not a habitation of any character was to be seen; the nearest settler was 
Orange Stone, at whose house they found refreshment. Little could the courtly 
and royal Frenchnjen iniggin<* rhp tra;He sepne^ of thfir native land, or the won- 
derful transformation to be wrought where they had gazed upon a scene of beanty 
in a lonesome wilderness. Vaguely the population cherished the idea of a coming 
town, and witliin a half-score of miles from Rochester, inside its precincts, five 
villages sprang up, aod then faJed from the view to become choice farms or eligible 
sitefl for private residences. Frankfort is not thus included, its original independ- 
ence being lost in the eijiansion of the vast and onward-growing city. Augustus 
Porter had sun-eyed the territory of the purchase, aud on his maps had marked 
with care the places wl.cre mill or village were, or would be. and ou that map 
FalUuwo had no place. Castletown U a memory ; its site was at the rapids near 
the dirision line of Gates and Chile. -Mr. Wadswurth owned lots including the 
lower part of the rapids, aud there conceived the plan of fouuding a village at 
the foot of navigation, and at the head of the portage from the river below the 
falls. Survey was made, lots sold, a store and tavern built, and a few families 
settled there, one of whom was Isaac Castle's, and hence the name of the now non- 
existent village. 


In the first directory for the village of Rochester, published by Elisha Ely, ~ 
and printed by Everard Peck in 1S27, is presented a ."ketch of the place, which - 
ha-* a invatcr inten-st from the view of those years, ind the evidence of hopet'ol 
pride which made the village notable as the city h.i3 become famous : " The 
vill-ige of Uochesler is situated on both the eastern and western banks of the 
• ii'iii-^-c river, seven miles from its mouth at I^ake Ontario, and includes the third 
anil fourth nf the six several Hills on the river: the third, or upper one. is a small 
fall itf twelve feet, situated at the foot of the rapids, and iuiuicdintely above where 
tile canal ai^ucduct is erected ; and ;he other is the trreat full of ninotv-scven 
f"t. situated eight rods below. It is two and a half miics south of where the 
AJI'iri<tt ic'ty Of celebrated Uidiie road intersects the river, and at the fir^l brid^ing- 
pl.iec south of the lake, with acccs.-iblc and convenient banks for eru.-sins it. and 
al*<» for pas^lncj around the head of Iroudei|Uoit .or Teoronto bay as it is called 
by Dr. SpalTord), giving an ea^t and west continuation to the Uidgc road. It is 
al** three miles south from llani'ord's landing on the west side of the river, and 
two mile' from Carthage landinL", the head of the slo.ip navigation from the lake 
on the ea.-t >ide. and about thirty-five miles by land, and M^vcnty by w.ater, from 
Mnunt M..rns, lowhiih place the river is navigable at all limes, and fifty mdes by 
nnd. and tiiuety by water, from Gar<leau, or the second of the upjier fall.^. which 
i« the h. ,d of navi.-alion durinu- frc-hcts. The two lower falls are at Cartha-.-e, 
"II'- und a half milt-" beli.w the vil!,i-e It is two hundred and oi-liteen mili-s 
»• ■' "f All. my, twenly-eight^t of ('anan.lai:;ua, and thirty-live nearly 
n'Tth- 1-t of llat:tvia. It U situated in latitude 4;!^ north, aud abiuit 77° west 


The mill-lot, bo called, lay on the west side of i 
fails, from who^e diim the water was conve-,-ed by racd 
machinery. It was 8.5ld by Charles Wiliiainson, ap 
in 1S02, tor seventeen dollars and a half per acre, u 
purchasers, with an intention to there lay otf a vi 

fie river, abreast of the first 
sub.-?equenfly to run valuable 
>ut of i-ir W liliam Pultcney, 
id three persons beeaiue the 
lage site. These three were 

Colonels Nathaniel Kochestcr, William Fitzhu-.-h, and .Major Charles Carroll, who 
visited the Gene.-*e country in IKOO. Colonel Rochester made of mills, 
water-power, and lands at D-ansville, while his companions invested near .Mount 
Morris. It was when revisiting this region that Failstown tract was purchx-ed, 
and then permitted to lie unsuneyed and unoccupied. The plai e was but biding' 
its time; and, in a valuation of the different parc-els of land, made Janu-ary, 1SU2, 
Israel Chapin, Joseph -■i.nnin, and .\mort Hall put in the mill and its one hun- 
dred acres, at one thousand and forty dollars. Five years went quietiv bv, — years 
when hope had stimulated the pMprietoi-s of village .sites to hold last their prices, 
and seek an early harvest for investments. Meanwhile, a company of seven pur- 
chasers, back in the year 1791, had bought of Phelps and Gorhaui a tract of 
twenty thousand acres on the west side, and partitioned the land by lot. Charles 
Harford, one of the number, became, in 1807, the pioneer settler up3n that part 
of Rochester west of the river. Harford was tin emigrant from England, in about 
1791, and wrote Captain WiUiamson, in 1791. to secure for him a body of hind 
for grazing, and some town-lots, as he was preparing to go to England to bring on 
his family. He ultimately became located, as stated, in the northwest part of the 
village, and built a block-house and made a small clearing on what was later State 
street, near the terminus of the Lisle road. Here he had one hundred acres 
allotted to him. and the remainder of his land was in Gates, where descendants 
located. The Allen mill was unfit for use, and settlement demanded a flourin-;- 
miil in this vicinity, and in 1307 Harford built a sm.all mill at the main falls. 

This mill did the grinding for four years for nn e.'itensive region of the hackwooils. 
As was usually the ca;*, a saw-mill was built upon the same race. Settlers upon 
the original mill-tract had obtained their first boards by repairing the old .\!!cn 
■ saw-mill, at the fails, and later had been supplied from the mill of Nathaniel 
Jones, CR-eted near Hanford's Landing. The mills of Ha.-ford obviated consider- 
ably the inconveniences previously experienced, .^s a contrast to later establish- 
ments, a description of the early grist-iliiil of Harford, bv Edwin Scrantom. who. 
living in Rochester to-day, has seen the rise of the city from such like germs, will 
aiford interest, as it shows ingenuity, and is a-uiusin? from its odditv. "The main 
wheel," says Mr. Scrantom, '■ was a tub-whe<-i ; iu the top was inserted a piece of 
iron, called the spindle, and the stone tliat run rested upon it, so that, in raisinc or 
lowering the stone to grind coarse or fine, the whole monster wheel, '.vith the stone 
npoD it, had to be raised with the bottom timbers. This wis done with a mon- 
strous lever, which ran the whole Uugth of the mill, taficring to near the end. 
which was managed by a leathern strap put twice around and fastened to the 
timbers at one end, while at the oilier end hung a huge stone. The bolt was 
carried from a screw made on the shaft under the stone, into which a wooden 
cogged wheel was geared in a manner similar to an old pair of swifts. The -.rrDuiid 
meal, as it ran trom the stone, fell upon a horizontal strap, about sis inches wide, 
and ran over a wheel at the far end of the bolt. This strap ran in a box at the 
upper side, and, as it went over the w icel, the meal was emptied into a spout ai-.d 
earned into the bolt. In grinding co n this spout w.i.s removed, aod the meal fell 
into a box made for the purpose. The holt, however, to go con?tantlv, an 
the .science of mill-making here had not reached that very important imnrovement 
of throwing out of gear such machinery as is not wanted running. That was to 
me a charming mill ! It rumbled arid rattled like thunder, and afibrdcJ much 
amu^-ment to the boys, who, like myself, ibnncriy assisted In the ponderous 
operation of 'hoisting the .gate.' Tlie gate hoisted with a lever similar to the 
one that raised the stones; a bag '.I' heavy weights was hung to it, and then it 
was a half-hour's job for a tuan to hoist it alnin;. When once lioisted it Wiis not 
shut again till night, the .-jtones heiie- let tn.:ci!ier to stop the mill between prists." 
In ISlli the mill wa-i bou-ht by France Urown & Co., who enlarged it to three 
run of stoned, and improved it for flour manufacture. It was consumed by fire 
in ISIS, and upon the ruins the Pha-nix mills were built. 

The next settler following Harford, and the pioneer upon the east side of the 
river, was Emw Stone. His brother. Orange Stone, had located in 179il, near 
llrlghton village, and, creeling a log house, almost at once began to keep a tavern 
upon ihc outskirl.s of civili/alion. and receive, ns his iruests. trapper, hunter, 
Indian, and Iravil-jr. I'^ios ^tc,iui wa^ one of a parly to drive west a largo ilrovc 

was made to Cayii:;;! lake, where four d;:y- weic oec-.pied in crossing the stock in 
two Durhani boats. Provisions failed, and they reached Geneva in i state of 


chase, auil lived at Uuok until ISIO. wI.cq, in March, lie cjuiii' oLt with hi-i 
(kaiily and houjuhnld •.•o.<1j tu tlie hciuso of his brothor. Tliu latter and =<,m-j of 
his neighbors aided tu help the pi'iiieer to the river, where he e.-itabli.-hed hiaLselt* 
in a log cabin, — hinisolf and family the s'llo inhabitant:' .if all Riwhestcr east of 
the Genesee. In 1S(>S, Erios .Stone, rir.. had rai.-<ed a saw-niiU un the river-bank, 
and a freshet had swept it away. 

The pioneer suffered some of the most severe hardships and vicissitudes of 
frontier life; and his eiperience in aliemptin'.; to provide tuiid tor his family upon 
s tract where tliuusinds nuw dwell in comlert and abundaiiee examples the .swift 
evolutions wrought by time and eireuiu^tanee. Durini; Oei'ibcr the nei-d of more 
room induced Mr. Stone to put up a frame building, in size sixteen by twenty 
feet. The timber wa.s felled, the .-tructure laistJ. and inclnsure made within three 
<iaya. Four persiins were eniragtvi at the raisin'.', — Mr. and >Irs. Stone, a hired 
man, and a hired girl. Thi.~. tin- first frame buildiag elected upon the site of 
Rochester, is still in exi-tcnce. and in use as a wood-shed. Having been well 
built, it sur^-ives to uiark the eoiitra.<t of beginning and present. A journey made 
by Mr. Stone fur whe:it was nn^iieces^ful till hi.s .irrival ut the hou.^e of Judge 
Chipumij, in ritt»(o.vii. While .-cone, having uiade Iviiuttii his extremity, sat at 
a tabic to ~itisfv hi.^ hunger, Mr. C'hipni.m pmeeeded t.. make a viait and obtain 
wheat of his neighbor. The ainuuut wis sold to Stone, at a dollar a bu.shel, U-s.s 
than the current price. When the grain was taken for grinding to the mill of 
Zebalon Norton, at Mendon. the hon.-t n:iller took no toll, but added a bushel 
«f his own wheat. Again the meat-barrel became eluply. the last of the meal 
had been taken from the sack, and there was no bread to place upr.n the table; 
the pioneer knew not wliere the n:;xt mcul would be found, when. ,y.-king out, a 
large dccrwa-* seen moving slowly up from the river-bauk, and offering a fair shot 
from the c-abin-d.Mjr. The supply thus afforded was providential, and" as such 
gratefully and gladly accepted. Mr. Stone died Oct-iWr :;3. ISjl, aged seventy- 
James S. Stone, born May 4. 1810. was the Brst white pcr«)n native to the 
area now included by Rochc-ter. The tide of settlement and the rise in value 
uplifted Mr. Stone from his p..verty and bore him on to atiluenoe. 

The third settler was taac W. Stone, lio relation to Knos. from whom, in 1810, . 
he bought five acres of lan.l. and on which he eugagi.-d !,ome men to build a frame 
house, the boards being sawed at Stone's mdi. With the completion of the 
atmcture a tavern was opened, as travel began to tend in this direction ; an(J 
Stone's tiivern during the war the pioneer public-hMil=e of Rochfrster, and en- 
joyed a monopoly of pati'.nase. A conimirfioncd officer. Mr. Stone wis active in 
measures of defense, and while on his return from the frontier, in ISlo. was taken 
ill at Sutherlands, near Batavia, and there died. Ilis wife continued the Uvcm 
till 1817, and continued to be for many years a resident of this city. 


Among distincuishcd persons who made journeys during 1810 to Genesee Falls 
was De Witt Clinton. A journal, treating of localities and exp«.rience in detail, 
attracts the reader in a refcrenc-c to the fulls, and recounts a troublesome and far 
ftum solitary experience of a night's ludgiug in flea-haunted bed in the tavern of 
S. Felt, in I'crrinton. We .(Uote a day's visit to the site of RoehesU-r : •• We 
departed from here i Felt's tavern 'i at s. vcn o'clock, after breakfast ; and, after a 
ride of eight and a half miles, arrived at a ford of the (jenesee river, about half a 
mile fnim the great falls, and seven and a half fnim Laki- OnUrio. This ford 
is one ruck of limestone ; just bchiw it there Is a fall of fourteen fc-ct. An excel- 
lent bridge of uncointuon strength is now erecting at this place. We took a view 
of the upp<T and lower falls. The liist is nincty-s.-ven and the other is sev- 
enty-fivc feet. The b.wiks on each side are higlier than the falls, and ap(K.-ar to be 
composed of slate, but principally of red frcotone. The descent of the water is The view 'is srand, considering the elevation of the bank and the 
•mallness of the cataract ur sheet of water." The description deals in geologic 
remark, which fuiind no noiii-e in a sub^quent visit, when a different scene — the 
wonderful transfurni.ition wrought by nuin — met hi^ gaze. Clinton rjfjT! to 
HanforJ as a mer..-hant a.s well as landlurd, and further s.iys, ■' There is a yreat 
trade between thi^ country and Montreal in stavis, p.jta>h, and flour. Mr. Hop- 
kins, customs oflicer, states that one "thousand barrels of flour, the siine number 
each of pork an.l uf pora-li. and upwanls of one hundi-ed thousand stavia, had 
been already sent this from here to JI..ntri-a! , that -.tavis now ,s..ld there 
for one hundred and fori V dollars [ler thousand, and one tiui.- br.>iiL'lit four 
hundr<.sj d..llars. Trm...p...tation of Slav,', tu M..ntr, al is. .luhtv-li^e .h.llars to 
nin.jty d.,liar3 per ihous-an.I ; acn-s the la'^, . forty-live u..llai^ to fifty d.llar,. 
that of a b..rrcl of po..ash, tw.. .h.llar.,; tw.i; and ..Ifleur, »»,■ d..llar 
and twenty-five .-ents ; but the che.ipne;^ -A thi;i a.-lielc Is uiving to tompctitiuu. temporary .s. ton of g.^.'is can be tninsptrted from Canandaigua to 
by lai.d for twenty fi v.. dollars." Xhu.5 are affonJed glimpses of ■» couiing 
which in latc'r yeara [K)un.d, and still pours, by a niagnilicent canal and an 
lent niilway, between Rucheater and the lluitoo. 


From the Falls of the (Jenesee the river flows between precipitous banks, whi. h 
gradually approach the water level as they near the lake. At Roche^i.-r was i!i.. 
only point where dredgiin: was practicable betwc-en Avon and L.ike Ontario. In 
18on, the Ridge road, elsewhere treated of, began to assume importance, and «h1i 

ford. The settlers of Pittsford. Perrinton, and other northern towns of Way.,,. 

of a bridge across the (jenesec at Rochester. The session of the iegi-lature ai 
Albany was attended by both the elder aud youn.ger En.a Stone, whose influcn.-,! 
aided to secure the f.a-sage of a bill ieg.ilizing a ta-x upon Ontario an.l Ijeuc-.-.- 
counties for buildiiii; the bridge. The law was denounced in severest tc-ins; tli,- 
folly of ta.xing the people for a bri.lge in '-such an ..utlandish place" was Ire- 
.[ucntly reprubate.l during the election ..f the foih.wing year, and re^nll. .i 
in the defeat of the Democratic lumibers, and dctenuined the ascendancy of 'ii.- 
parties in the legislature. Opponents of the bridge alleged that there was ilhImi".: 
about the place to justify its cou-truction at point. The uppo^iti.iu fioni 
those along the Buffalo road was from fear of a diversion of travel froui that main 
thorou..;hfare, and from the south as an entirely unnecessary exi«:nse. Tlieex.e;- 
gcrated representations of R.iehe»t.^r, as unfitted for the "abode of man or betist. 
coincided with prevalent belief; but while a portion of the city lands were wi-t 
and tnar^hy, eligible sites arc rare wh.Te cfjuid territory more ab*junds with health- 
ful and beautiful locations for residence or business. The bill had passes! Ky a 
Close vote, aud iiie bridge, commenced in Islo, was c..mpie:cd just prior to tin- 
war of 181-.*. The expense to the two counties was twelve thousand dnllar^s. The 
builder was named Hovey, and the building commissioners were Dr. /iac-eheus 
Colby, of Goaosce, and Caleb llopkins. of Ontario. The bridge spec-dily began i , 
bring travel t.) the frontier upon the northern ro 
have hasten-:^ settlement. The first company . 
crossed the river un the uucovered timbers. We have remarked the perils of liie 
old ford, which was a few rods south of the canal aqucjuct. During the spviiig 
freshet of ISO.i, three men in a canoe narrowly escaped being hurried into eternity 
over the awful chasm. Two were passengers — Wiilis Kcmpshall and William 
Billinghurst i the third, William Colo, was the ferryman. An oar l,n;ko while in 
the flood, and but for the branches pnjcctin^' from Brown s island, by which the 
party arrested their descent, th.y would have pluiered over the cataract. At ilie 
same pLicc, during the spring of 1^1*2, bel'-jrc the bridge w-:is fimsiied. a farm.r 

life while endeavoring to illustrate t!ic Kiying that -'some thiie.'s can l.j d.uie as 
well as others." Till Work was Kni.shed upon the briiige. few indulged saiiguine 
expectations .if a village growth, and the rise in values was as surii.-i-^ie.- 's 
pleasant to the i'':^ early occupants. It is said by Elisha Ely, "• It may t.-nd (■» 
give an idea .if the commercial and civil Importance of all points at thai 
time, to stiitc that the mail was then carried from Canandr.igua ..oce a week, -ii 
horseback, and pa-^t of the time by .1 woman." 

convergence o( travel routes, it is not surprising tliat the one hiiM-lnd .i, i.-s nc'.i 
its valued a.ljuncts, miU-sitcs, siiould have .Ulractnl public attc'iilim an.l si;.,, .. 

i, and. but f..r the \ 
troops mareliinz t.. 

latc.i private enterprise. Experienced and far-sceiie,', Mr. 
interests at Charlotte and Castlcton. s.iw the of trade 
towards the navigable waters of L.;ke Ontari.i, ami expressed his 
written August, ISlo. to .Mr. Tn.up : ■• [ wish that tract ..f ..ii. 
could be purchased of the Maryland genlkman. The bridge an.l 
it very valuable indeed. " 


ISIO, C..l.iiicl Rochester rcm.ivcd t.i his at Pan^ 

; pioneer p,,per-mill ..f the cs.nntry. .S aft.T s. ttlen 

o his rner Ir.ict, an.l in .Inly came thitlier, and survey. 


■1. T.i 


El.oneitr Kelly, 
r™ West, >-..>. J 

H.incT P.'l'c. 1.. N 1 

.' : if 

lOU Ro. 

J.^^mb lli.-cll, Jr.. S. 

11 !.... 

;;;'.; 21^0 rha 

flrplnr. I..: V. No. «.. 

W,ll,.m R..hh. Xo,. 6 


Slirhm.! Cully, X». TU 

H'o 1 y^' 

or all these purchases bat one reverted ; the rest were (aid fW either by orisi- 
nal imrchasura or by those to whom they tninslcrred their contraof". The table 
pn^scnt» nearly all the sales mude ptior to the declaration of peace, when the actual 
pruvrth of Rochester began. Mr. Rochester made frefiucnt visits to the embryo 
filiate, and personally 9up«^rvi^ed iti> affairs until 1817. when, the proprietors divid- 
ii!;r interests, each assutaed the care of hijs own property. 


.\nothcr allotment for settlement waa made daring; 1312. Lota Nos. 4S and 
V.K Innp lOitDediatoly north of the Rochester tract, were purchased by Matthew 
Itfwn, Jr.. Franci-s Brown, Thomas Mumford, and John .McKay frJm Charles 
II, Samuel Parkman, and Oliver Phelps. The lands were .abreast of the 
Ml.Mlc f JU and cntained U..rford's grist- and SiW-milL-, a 1....' and a plank house, 
■nd lictwccn these and the landing was a cabin or two. Mumford bought McKay's 
int. re:<t and became owner of the south one hundred acrc:>. and w;is half owner 
Willi the iimwns of the north l.)t. The services of Benjamin Wright were secured 
•luriii'.; ISrj. and p.ut of the land w.xs laid out in village lots and njmed Fnink- 
f"". The Urowns were from Ma5.,acliusctt3, .Muran,rd from Connecticut. Francis 
r.r..«M. nsidict of Detroit and tr.iding with the Indians. shipwrecked on 
Kn,-. ;,t,d n;irr'>wly .-scaped death. In a caii'ie, obtained at Xia-jara, he journeyed 
•i-iwird al..n._- Ontario's Ninth shore. When off the miiutli of the Genesee river 
« ^torm arose, and he was compelled to land. He tlien came up and e.tamined 
th. f.dU and vicinity, and hence the Brown purchase. Mumford was a lawyer, 
«'>1 ««ttltyl in 1704 to practice in Aurora, county of Cayucr.i. He removed to 
Cjup. Hri.lge in ISno, and lat.-r b.iught"of the Porters a twelfth of a twenty- 
<h"ii<aii.l air- tract, .if which the Hrowns aki aciiuired a lar-e interest. The 
llr..»n l.n.lh, rs came west during the winter of 1S12 by sIcil-Ii. an.l brought alons: 
» niill«ri..-ht to plan inipmvemcnts. which were carried forward in the .spring. 
Kr.n, i, Itrown brou-ht mill-irons, some goods, and w.-irkmen. A race 
•1- l.uih nii.l lb,, mill iniprove.l. A boar.iing-li.mse was kept m a c-abin bv 
A'-.nm- Wh.-cl„-k, and the Ur.iwns buill a small hou-e l..r .an cniplnvce. Ezra 
*' i-wh.. m.iv,-d in with bi.l f.nnily. The Urowns w. r..- tlMTg.-lic and kept 

cii-Ie lb it they wh.ise prc.-s-nce and have made values greater should share 
in the idvance, not only betokcn.i the justice of Colon.-I lloch.-jtcr. but n>doiindc.l | 
lu hi- advantage, as reports of liberality were rapidly di5.--niinated and drew 
l.,;.-tlier men of enterprise desirous of profitalile employment. The loiter is xs | 

■•Dassfilo. iugHH U. LSI). 

- De-vb Sta, — Inclosed I send you a plat of the village of Kocboter. at the falk of 
the Uene.see river. I have sent on ailve.-tisements to the printi rs of Canaodaigua 
and tieneva, mentioning that I have laid out a viiUge. and that \ ju will show the 
luL.and make known the t.-rms on wl.icli the lots are to be sold. The terms are for 
lut., Xoa. 1', 3, 4. 5. 17, 1>'. 3", fifty dollars ea. h ; for lots \os. li. 7, 8, 9, lU, 11, 
12, 111. -Ill, -'1 , U'2, :!3, 24. 2.'), thirty dollars ; No. 1 . two hundred dollars ; the rest 
Diiiubered are sold. Persons purchasini; must build a dwelhiiir-house or store- 
hiiiise not less than twenty by sixteen feet, by October I. 1S12. or the lots will 
n-vert to tho proprietors, and the advance of tive dollars be forfeited. Five dollars 
tn- to be advanced on each (| lot, and twenty dollars on lot No. 1, the 
n->idue to be paid in two annual instalments with interest thereon. If any per^n 
»,:;■ . :•. ! r ,.t. -; f*- ■ 'v-id of tlie <-i- or flie river teM th.-m that I will be down in 
October to lay out lots along Mill street up to the river, and these lots can be had for 
building warehouses on the river at fifty dollars for a ooe-founlr acre lot. Bridge, 
Buffalo, Mill, and Carroll streets arc si.t rods wide ; other streets are four rods, 
and the alleys twelve feet. Vou will observe that lots No. 2tj. 27 are to be but 
three tods on Bridge street, but eitcod back more than ten n>ls. owing to the 
angle in the street. When I go down in October I sh;Ul lay out the streets, alleys, 
and luts agreeable to the enclosed plat. NATHANIEL RocUESTEK. " 

Lot 36 was taken by Enos Stone, at fifty dollars. The following list gives the 
purchasers, tho lots. »n(i the prices paid for them, beginning with December 29, 

and conducted a nierc-.intib business of a scale corresponding to the sparse settle- 
ment. They empl.jycd a-i their clerk Gains B. Rich, who bec-ame a merchant in 
Attica, then a banket in HulTalo. Francis Brown left R.-)chester in 1S21 ; a son 
Francis became a Koche-;ter merchant. Dr. Matthew Brown became a resident 
of Rochester aller the war, and survived to a good old age ; members of .the 
family were known as energetic business men, and they were held in high esteem. 
Mr. Mumfiird was ropresi-ntcd in Rochester by his son William, who came in 
about ISIS. Philip Lisle, who had become intcrcr^ted in the Mumford lands, 
was the a-,'cnt f.,r .si.les till 181S. Lots 4U and 47 b.?low Frankfort, owned by 
Mumfonl, were sold to Chancellor .Tones, and an interest was ac.|iiircii later by 
.James L. Graham. Dr. .\lexander Kel-iey had the agency and control of the 
estate for a more recent period. 


Hamlet Scrantom, of Durham. Connecticut, moved to Li.'wis county in 1805, 
and there resided until 1S12. Desirous of engaging in tanning, he arranged to 
r-'-no-c to the fills -js a promi--ing location. Encouragement w:is given by Henry 
Skinner, the purchaser of lot .No. 1, known as the Ea'jle Tavern corner, and Mr. 
Skinner, resident of Geneseo, proposed to erect a log house upon it for Scrantom's 
nse. Men went down, put up the body, and, being attacked by the fever and 
!u;ue, left without completing their work. Mr. Scrantom arrived at his future 
home on May 1. 1S12. The family consisted of parents, four sons, and two 
daughters. Edwin Scrantotn, an early printer and editor, and a present auctioa 
and comrabsion merchant, has been for years a writer of early scenes in Rochester; 
and from his papers, kindly pl.tced at our disposal, we present the Rochester 
which met h'ls boyhonid's eye : " With a yoke of steers and a light wa-gon Hamlet 
Scrantom and three sons worked their way through the tangle of small gi-owth 
and came in sight of the roofless, unchinked house boilt upon the Powers lot. 
An open place in front, facing east, was left as a good place for a door, and a 
squi re hole on each side suggested windows." The family found temporary 
lodging in a shanty belonging to Enos Stone until .August, when their cabin was 
finished, — mud filled the chinks, pa[..er3 were used as windows, and a heavy door 
swung on wooden hin-ges. with wood 1 
hanging through on the outside; and 
lot on which stands an imposing stru/.-t 
in its material and workmanship a million dollars. 

Hamlet Scr.mtom addressed his father a letter on July 28, 1812,' and his ei- 
pressions revral the seneral e.-spectation of the settler and the intelligence which 
ignored the present, in h.ipe •? the future, -is coming from one of the very first 
residents of the future city, the of the writer is preserved: " I have 
purchased a lot in the village of Rochester, a place which is almost in a state of 
nature at present ; but the prospect is very promising for busiiicss in case diffi- 
culties are settled between the .\meriean and British nation.s. A bridge is almost 
completed, to which roads centre from all directions. The village is laid out on 
the east side of the river, and my lot ;2G i is the second from the river near the 
end of the bridLTc. Just above the brid..:e are falls of twelve feet, which make 
the situation one of the best for securing motion to all kinds of machinery. Th'e 
lake is seven miles distant. A mill is being built at the great f:ills below the 
village, calculate.1 for seven run of stones, only three of which will be set troiiig 
this season. The land is fertile, and the country plca.sant. The timber is of oak, 
whitewood, chestnut, hickory, black-walnut, and many trees are of an enormous 
size. If an V one has a wish to see the place, whether raechanic or fanner, let 
him in.^uirc at Can.tndaigua for the new bridge at the Genesee fulls. 

•■The declaration of war miido a great iipmar tbr a lime ; many taniilies move.1 
eastward, but have generally returned. About three tb.iusaiid tnnips. regulars 
.and militia, are at Niagara, and we do not apprehend danger. Ail remains ijuiet. 

three davs. and cut as many thousand feet of lii>:irils. I had been liviii;; in a >niall 
house on the cast side of the river, but have n..w moved acr.e« and purpose to put 
up a small hou-se on my lot. The town wl„-re I reside is Northampton, c.iunty of 
Genesee, but a letter betur be addrcssixi Falls of Genwe.-. t.iwn of B.iyle, 
county of Ontario. A post-office will st.on be e-tablisbed lure. " Tlic la.>t .--ontence 
wa.s a verity, for in N.:,vember, 1S12, Abclaid Reynolds, a saddl,-r l.y tn.le and a 
native of PittsKeld, .Mas-^, n-ccivcd the appointment of p..stmast.-r and 
deputized .Mr. until he could ..-et .settled. The office thus .stablished was 
held bv Mr. R.-vii..|.ls f.-om 1S12 till l^<21l. The growth of the vill„-c is situ in 
the quartirly r,-h„-ns. The prcrcls of the ..aic- up till April I. Ibl:!. lici'D 

one until .\u2ust. when the 
were used as windows, and a 
eh and catch, and Ion? leal 
this structure dwelt the re 
■e elsewhere described, and i 

three doll 
182-:i. tli- 

,d t.. tw.i 

ll,.- ..m.e t 
and five .1.. 

nd when retnra- 



10^ to die Strata to ni:i\ie :irT:inp^ment9 to out iiis HiniilT in ch 

1812, stopped fur » ri.;ht at UloornSclJ, w1„tl- CuIon^-1 lIopLins rn,l 
Tiwd him 10 vL-it Clurloit.-. ai t!ie moiuh i.f ihe Genesee. He act oiit for 
loca!i:j, noil ic the ».,uJ.<, mar Otmxe l-'Jl-i. met tuoa Stone. »lio 
to ioduci! him to pureli.;-* a lot in ihe naur viILl-t. The ruin» of a u 
e»bin, nod an nii6nL-l.e<i brldL-e dij n^i sLwnJ the ap|wal. Ho the riviT. 
visited CHarluttc, and went up-ut lii-* juurn»*y ; he rv tieeunl upon the new Ti!ia-.n; at 
tlie falls, and returnin- boujlit lota '12 .lud L'4. upon whieh the ArtaiJe .-lanJj. i 
joke of OTOO and a stone-lxut vferc t'lirne-heJ by Knea stone, jnd stone drjwD fnup 
the river bed. With th.-^ u fouudaiion wxs built, twenty-four by thirty-si.^ feet, 
a frame raL^-d, and h.ivin'.; eripe,'cd a curpMiter t<i cnxer and inciiHe it returned 
to Bertaliire. Vi>itin-.' the plaei: in Noveiuber. he found tiie building aa left, put 
up a smaller fr.ime, and fi«.i-dily had it tenable. Thia wa.-. the fir^t frame>l build- 
ing enxted on the lloeliraler tract. Hi-, fuuily was brnu-lit on in the fail of 

1813, «nd his wife's bn.llier. who aided in the reuioval on his return ct.-!, ^[.«■ke 
«f Rochester u a plaee where ReynohLs must •• inevitably starve." Jlr. Reynolds, 
BOW ninety years of aje, ia known as Roehtr-tcr s first siddler, first postmaster, 
Crtl ina^'-.i- .';, .I'? •'.■ '■ "p.- -f •' ■ •!-! taverr- ijrA .n rhp nri.-!-;! riot of the 
eitj. Mortimer F. Reyni>ld3 was the tirst while ehiid born on the hundr^l.acre 
tract ifiet it wai plotted as a viil.i._'e site. It b a stnkin-,- feature of Amerie;m 
progress that pre-ent.s for historic note. the_ fact of an individual in his prime, 
irheu the wild K-ast raitucd the torest. aud lieii.i of ralllt^^nakes were f^und amon;; 
the rocks of a hxality where he sees to-day utiles of streets. ihroagLHl'with eitizcn 
•ikI stranger, and a bpjad cxpau.^' of bu.^iueis block and daeilinL-, the abode and 
iodustrial 6cld of thrie-seore thousiuid people. lu July, ISIJ, the drst oier- 
chjint'fl store in Rochester was o|>eDed by Ira West ; his store was at di-st ou East 
•venue, near the tavern of Oliver Culver. Afterward he removed into the vil- 
lage, tod for unmc year^ wx^ a merchant on State stn-et, abtout the prttjeot site of 
A. S. Mann's store. He married a daiu-htcr ot Colonel I, W.^tone. the fii^t inn- 
keeper, whose tavern was on .South Saint I'aul. near Ely street. Mr. West was a 
•uccessful merchant, and one of the founders of the brick church, corner of Morth 
Fitibogh and Allen street*. He buiit the hou.-c. the residence of Hon. E. Dar- 
win Smith, and therein lived untU his death many years ap). 


Soc'iality a Lading feature of the pioneer-, and herein we describe the first 
party in Rochotcr. west of the G^ne^^e river. In the fall of 1S12. Colonel 
Bochestcr hearin- that a surveyor had loc:ited at the falls, came down from Daniville 
to complete his plot of villa^ lots. The colonel wxs accompanied by his wife and 
Nathaniel T., a b-jy of ten years, and the [arty put up .it the tavern of Colone-1 I. 
N. Stone. BiL<lnis.a was tran.-acied, and then an invitation to tea extended and 
accepted. The choice plate and ^Idcn china of Saratoga were not of the cnibel- 
liahments of the pure white linen cloth spread over the table, but it was in style 
with ky^ walls and hewed ceiling'. The ehairs we.-c split, of the b.'ft. and flas. 
The b'lscuit was made from fiour hrou'.-ht OQ horse-liack from Webster's milU. nine 
miles away. The tea and sugar came from Canandaicua, twcnty-ci'.'Iit miles dis- 
|ttQC. Sauces were of the crab-apple and wild red pliim that crew abun-Janlly 
where now stands Corinthian Hall. Cake there was not. but " co<jkies" plenty, 
«uch a.^ n^call a loving. >;icrilicini mother; and butter and miik. the contribution 
of the Erst cow on Roelicsler's west side, who-o pasture was of unbounded rin-.'O. 
The colonel, his lady, and M.-. and .^Irs. Scraniom. and their eldest, .Mrs. 
D. Baraar^ — five in all. — sat down to tex The momenta ?petl. and, as twilight 
came, the colonel, wife, and son reeros.sed the bridge at .^lain street to the tavern, 
and the first party w.-s ended. 


rin,of. 1 

habitation, [it de^'pcrate frame of mind. Mr. Stone turned out with a boy .n.,d i 

r. ad- 

rusty jrun to nitaek the intruder about two o'cioek one uiorniD-j. The bear tli.n 

or the 

look rcfuv;e in a trt-e. whence she was sixjn dislod.-ed by the smoke of a fire ki,.,l 


beneath. She fell near yU. Stone, and, atler a short contest with the trio, man. I.,v. 


and do-, re'treatetl to another tree. She was'.-ed fnini four trw-s. one afii , 

was in the fall of ISU that Ei 
1 in extent. This corn patch wa.a 



bridge was yet unfinished, fn 
tt any price, cictpt to prevent « 
anxiety, knowln,- well the cxte 
winter. Towards the ripcninv; . 
lest from the deprtsl.itiuna of th 
hcnsivo fir the whole fiild. wl 
devistationa upon it, di-trovin 
kept her at bay by I.- iviie.- out 
encij pursued the d.;; even lo 
moat be done ; a contiouiiion u 
partial crop, and 

Stone had a patch of com about si.t 

I the pa.«t and south sides "of his little 

-• river, bosi.le the fiirdin^- place. Sir the 

sions were cxc* cdin-jly scarce, and not to bo had 

rvation. .'^Ir Stone n-garded his corn-field with 

of his dependence upon it for the appmachint; 

he preeioiis cn-p. he found that much would be 

wild If-Lsts. .Tiid at iciiuth he boc^m to lie appre- 

1 he fnind tiut an old -1,-b.Mr bad n.nimene,-d 

:'.,r tl. in -;„■ ,l,.o„red. F,.r a wbde he 

. ■I-.: till at 1. i,:-l, ll, ■ b.^r b.-eonrin-_- cnibold- 

ed.-i si,p. \ ,n-,s li:„l arrivid. .soui.llon- 

ilion of d-'lireo.itiioi Would ruin the pnisitect of even a 

Id not be taken with such an animal prowling about the 

another, by kindling fir.s beneath, when, more p.nvder being, a Im.kv 
shot so disabled the f.Ki she fell from the tree-. F.dlen, but uneon.,m-itd. il,'.. 
bear, unable to stand, fouirht upon her haunches, kept the dou' at bay. and parried 
the blows of ussailanta with a skill not unworthy of a piol'ession.d li..\er. iM.ially. 
her shaggy hide betunie the trophy of hini wli-^s- corn-Held she had laid wast... 
Thus, sixty five years a.-o. was slain one of the l.irgest bears f.mnd in this n-aion. 

machinery of a populous city are established, and where, for aught of present in 
dicalion, a city may have stood fur centuries. 

Interest attaches to the topics treated in this connection from their initiat..rv 
character. The agcnU of civilization are men ; of them an.l of their eSirt. 
made for personal advancement, and enhancing public w.dfire. pioneer historv- 
linda its -lie material. The origin of villages tells of individuals, f.mihes. ami 
parties of two and three who come in, pureh.xse. wnrk for th.iso there li.tore thorn, 
or, with capital, engage in business for themselves. Some halt for bri. f inrirvai-. 
an.l, discouraged and restlcas. leave ; some aid to bring in others, and laier l>.e.,ui,. 
residents, and .xs the pro.spcrity of the place becomes assured, many rush in a.. 
Waters to a vortex, and increased activity deepens confidence. In.lividual lif.'. 
however prominent, is forbid.len later mention from the multitu.le dcserviiii:. 
buildings yearly improved in style, size, and material are indicated by .'xampli-. 
and the attention is diverted lo acta of societies, public works, increasing p.ipn- 
lation. exp,inding Umits, retrospection, contrast, and evidences of progression. 
History givt-s way to annals and statistics ; tT;miniscences to a brief chronology. 
During the fall of 1.512. the Scrantoms. Stones, and other bovs chised the 
squirrel and such like game where stands the Third i'resoyterian church of i.h 
day. There was no clearing east of Enos Stone's. The Pittsford rnad, n..w 
Monroe street, was not op.:ned f >r years, and the fore-st was unbroken and thii k 
from Stone's farm east u far as David S. Bates' firm and Oliver Culver's tavoni. 
On the south, adjoining Culver, Miles Xorthrup had made a small clearing an.l 
pot up a log house; and on East avenue, south side, westward of Culver, was th,- 
farm and clearing of .lolm Culver. Oliver's brother. Farther west was Mos,\s 
Hall, brother-in-law to En.js Stone, upon a fann where are now the palatial re-i- 
dences of Hiram Sibley, D. X. Power, and men of like reputation. ILiil's clearing', 
small in area, was the first one on E.ast avenue. Down the cast bank of th.- 
river to the falls stood an unbroken wood, and on the sloping sides n.-ar Andrcw-i 
strex't were clumpa of towerinu. wide-spreading co.lars. whose^. low. tniilin:: 
br.inches in after-summers attracted to their shade the vill.v.-e resident.-. 
The few surviving pinueers, Charles .J. HiU, Abelanl R.vnolds. Edwin Scrantoni. 
and others will remember those sylvan bowers, where. Jotui .^Iasti. k. th.j pi.incer 
lawyer of Roeheater, u.^ed to say, all early m.itchcs were made. Truly it may k- 
said of the present gre^xt and giowing population, and their mijity wiirks. th.ii 
'*tbo wilderness and the solitary places shall be for them, and the desert h.itli 
blossomed like the rose."- 

The first settlers arc characterized by works of necessity rather than art; sur- 
prise has been manifested that ao few have placed their knowledge upon r.'e.inl. 
The act seems pu:!rilo to .l.iy. which a century hence will si.ind xi provident a.i.i 
wise. Jehiel Barnard'earae to R.ichester in ISI:.'. and thirty-six y.'ais later wi- 
present at the first pi..neer festival llel.l at's hotel. He wa- the Imil.l.r 
of a two-story structure whieh sto.xl on the north of Buffalo siroet, n.'t tar 
east from State street, and a little west of the prevnt entrance to the Ar. ;..l.- 
In dimensions the building was hut eighteen by twenty-six fe-et ; it was not l.-r 
its size that it 'is made historicil. but from its,viati..ns. Here B.nnard. a.lail.T 
by trade, inaugut^ted the business in R.ichester. and found ampli' riiipl..ym.-iii 
In tills .shop. sKoetuaking in thepla.-.' had its ori-in ; here were held il..- first ni..' 
ings, an.l within its walla the boya and lirls were .a5-cmbled to alien. 1 th.' tirvt ..-h.-.i- 
Fond of society, the tailor, released from his week day-l..bnr. w,in.lor.'d ab.oii ".• 
village, and. like a Selkirk upon the oc.:an islan.l. seemed bani-hed lo a s..lii.i'l 
Preston Smith, Uidon Cobb, .T.mah Rrown, and the Elys. Harvey and Eh-I. ■ 
were of the pi.iMc.TS of LSI:!. Smith was W.-st Sprin-.-li. I.I. and «.'til. ■! >" 
his then wild home when a doz.-n laniilies c..mpris.-.l tho p..pul.itioii. C..I.I. w " 

made his h.nne at il..ehester in lSl:i, during whieh year he esLibli-h.-l the lir-i 
public ee.ivevan.e R..ehes,er ever a.i.l ran it in Him -t>l.> f .r .e..r.- than f. • 

yean.. It was a vehicle drawn by tw.i y..k.' of ..v,n. .Irive,, i.y 1... If •'■> 

made a trip s.-mi-werkly between the vill.e.;" .iii.l il..' ia...ll..-' l.ii"i; ""'■ of that period, .-.n.l wrr.- lull ..I' nil* :.n.l li"!. «. I'lo' P 

teamster, subsisting upon rough fare, found b.tanl with Willis Kenip-Ii .a at 11. r-.- 


B- at bnim ,.r lunc;. Vmi-d 
..lenily attacked, spth<dily died, 
itiun Kas difficuli. and the ei- 
thc utmost: tlie lancet, opium, 
«.s often called to conduct the 

dolUrl per week, and lod^-in;^ " under :i work-bench." He cleared up ; 
Monroe strctM ; built by eonlract, at an expcn3e of ^ixty thousand d.^ll; 
»nd splendid edifice for the courts and public offices uf Monroe Co 
griduated as one of Briu-hcon's ablest farmers. 

The health of a locality has more 
During ISl:!, typhoid pneumonia bec- 
It differed from preceding epidemics by locaiii;] 
aymptoms caused different troalment. Some, v 
Severe cold chilU amiounoixl the attack ; respii 
tn.Diities became cold. Medical skill waa tried t< 
ind tonics were employed, and (he physician wai 
treatment us to prescribe. Under these cinrumstances and in such needed times 
caaie Jonah Brown to Ilochester, in 1813, as the earliest physician of the place. 
An office was built, and practice bo-jun. Visiting a patient at the Rapids, he 
narrowly escaped the claws of a panther when in tiie woods two miles south of 
the village. He was ot^en called to act as nurse, cook, and doctor, aud found 
entire finiilies prostrated, and not one able to cook or nur^e. The firs: deed given 
fi)C real estate piid tor on the - oue-iiuuditd-a^.e u_.. ' v.^ t!ii-. :f Dr. ?-oir-. 
It was for the lot oo Kschanire street, where the Rochester bank fonucrly stood, 
nearly opposite its present site. Dr. Brown found tempt)rary board with Mr. 
Covert, but lod:j;iiif; was most difficult to obtain. During the winter of 1813-14 
he slept with the floor for a bed. saddle-bags tor a pillow, and his horse-blanket 
for a covering; visiting the sick at Stone's tavern and passing through the bar- 
room, he groped his way with difficulty along the floor, which was literally 
packed with lo'ijers. For over a score of years in practice, he became wealthy, 
and retired from the profe-ssion. 

Wo have spoken of Mr. Reynolds as a pioneer of 181 2! His wife Lydia 
moved to Rochester in February, 131;^, and experienced the privations of a back- 
wood.-** Hie. SiiC ~r^ ;r. attendance vpon the first funeral aller her arrival. It 
was that of Mr. Piernere, at his house, which occupied the site of the later old rod 
mill. There was no funeral service of any kind. a.s there was then no clergyman 
here, and no one present was willing to attempt a prayer. As a contrast to later 
prosperity, the extremity of the family became at one time such that the taiior- 
ahop of Mr. Barnard was sought and work obtained which paid lier fifty to sixty 
dollars during the vear while her husband was absent on the " lines." 

One of Rochester's benefactors and most reputable and valued citizens was Silas 
O. Smith. Thau he, few were more enterprising or successful. .\ native of N"ew 
Narlborongh, Massachusetts, he came early in March, 1310, and located at Han- 
ford's Landing, and saw of Rochester but an old mill in the midst of a cleared 
half-acre of ground. During the spring of I8I0 he built the first store in the 
acttlciucnt then designated Rochcsten"ille. The building was of wood, and was 
erected on Kxchang'.- street nest north of the former site ot' the Rochester bank. 
During 1814, Smith cleared some four acres of laud on which were later built 
two churches, — the First Presbyterian and St. Luke's, — the court-house, and 
school-house No. 1. This land was sowed in wheat whose harvesting was done 
by 8<]uirrcls, raeoooiis. and other denizens of the torcst, who took the crop for 
p;iymcnt. Kre December of 1S17, this land, destined to different use than tillage, 
■was mainly covered with buildings, and the liberality of the proprietor found 
ample repaj-nient. Mr. Smith lived to witness the origin and growth of a great 
city, and in later years withdrew from .active life, and died m 16G3. A son, 
L. Ward Smith, was member of A.-senibly from .\lonroc and acting adjutant-gen- 
eral of the State. Other sons were George H. and E. -Meigs, and a daughter was 
the wife of Samuel Stevens, of Albany. 

Matthew Mead, of Connecticut, arrived within the limits of Rochester on 
October JI, 13Ui. He came with Mr. Stoddard, a blacksmith, as his apprentice. 

The young man walked the 


distance, and 

with bis w.ird 


the old 

house of K..08 Stone. After 

a few 

months, his a 

pprenticcshi|i en 

ded, he hirc^l aa 

journeyman for somewhat ove 

r a year, and then 

stablishid hiuis 

■If in a s 


the cmer of liuffalo and Fr. 

nt St 

ccts. and a f.' 

T years later moved up n 

car the 

•ileofthc 'old pump." He 

has b 

ccn known as 

the uianuf.ictur 

r of the French 

burr milKtoiie, and with an a 


irtuuc rotirei 

from business. 

Thrremon, JIarveynnd Kl 

.slia t 


liis-cll. Jr , con 

lituted an early 

business firm of Rochester. 


Ely br..tliers 

were nepliews c 

r Justin 

Ely, a 

Ma..achu.s..tt3 capitalist, who, hav 

ing loa.u-d ra 

onev to Oliv^-r 


|'mprict<,r in the twenty-thou 


cr^ tract.. K 

isba Kly first s 

w U.icb 

stcr on 

June l:i, l,si:(, and, standing. 


the bridge 

that d.iy, resol 

■cd to ni 

kc the 

Pl.-'ce hi^ fniure home. He 

went to Mn««a,-i, whence 

be n:lu 

inil in 


.1 by 

o>. n to biuh 

a ~,iw-mill on 

l,c west 

side of 

'lM-riv,.r.;,w. l,y,^snulll,..,' 


l.oilt by tl,.- 

v,„ km .,..., il„. 



standing on the corner of South Saint Paul and Ely streets, has disappeared. In 
November, Harvey Ely, aged twenty-two, and very careful of his personal ap- 
pearance,, came to the village, and about the same time Josiah Bissi'll, Jr., made 
his advent from Pittsficld, Mafwachusetts. He was a man of remarkable ability 
to plan and to execute, ami it was not long-before the firm of H. Ely k Co. was 
formed and the a.-sociates engaged in the mercantile busine^a within a store build- 
ing which st<.od on the corner of Buffalo and Suito streets, — the s.ime corner th:a 
is now the EUvood block. Provisions and machinery were brought on from 
New England, the stable was converted to a boarding-house, aud the saw-iuill 
which stood on the present site of the old Childs' saw-mill on Ac|ueduct street 
was completed in December. It was thought the easiest way to dispose of the 
cabin by the mill would be to burn it. Accordingly, it was set on fire, and it 
burned so well that it calliHl for the utmost exertions of the populaticm to prevent 
the combustion of the mill, which was saved, although several times on tire. 

The pioneer blacksmith was James B. Carter, who ioc-ated in 1S12 upon the 
hundred-acre tract, and built a small onc-and-a-half-st<try house on the corner 
later occupied by the Elwftod block. l[is shop was on ground now part of Front 
street. The house w:is ocTupicd in .March, ISl 1, by his brother. David K. Carter. 


in Rochester were held in the spring or summe 
Jehiel Barnard's tailor-shop. During the year 
increased from eight or ten to fifteen or twenty 
God on the Sabbath was fit^t held .at the insta 
Wheelock, "women of faith and prayer," and tht 
prayer, singing, and reading a sermon. Mr. 

1813, in the upper story of 
population of the place had 
lies. The public worship of 
of -Mrs. Serautcui aud .Mrs. 
isted of extempore 
rnard, whose marriage to a 
daughter of Hamlet Scrantom was the first nuptial ceremony celebrated in Ro- 
chester, and Mr. Warren Brown, conducted these primary meetings. All denom- 
inatiotis worshiped in tlie same locality, uiau iu Ll.o -ippcr, th^n in the lower r.>nm 
of the shop, and afterwards in the school-house, finished for occupancy May, 1.S14. 
After some months, Rev. Daniel Brown, Baptist minister at Pittsford, and Rev. 
Mr. Parmalee, Congregational or Presbyterian minister at Victor, came occasion- 
ally and preached to the pcxjple. During the summer of 1814, Rev. Comfort 
Williams was for a few mouths employed to preach for the people. Very rarely 
had missionaries visited this wild and ill-reputea region; fishing and hunting were 
the usual occupation of many of the valley settlers, and not unfrciuently had the 
crack of the rifle broken the stillness of the Sabbath. At early meetings sectarian 
feelings were not indulged: Christians were only too glad to enjoy religious privi- 
leges. Jlr. S. 0. Smith, Episcopalian, had brought out from M.assacbusetts three 
books of common prayer. At the first mcetnigs, Mr. Harford read the Episcopal 
service, Silas 0. Smith gave out the psalms, and Jlr. Barnard and Delia Scrantom 
were the principal if not the only singers. During the summer. Rev. Chauncy 
Cook, a relative of Mrs. Carter, visited Rochester and preiicbed a tew times. It 
is a subject worthy of notice that, till sufficiently numerus, all met together and 
contributed of their scanty means to the support of the gospel, and gave mutual 
aid to build the first houses of worship. A harmonious and charitable spirit has 
always been a distinguishing characteristic of the various churches and congrega- 
tions organizetl in Ruclicster. A lesson is taught of fraternal and generous spirit, 
whose exercise made each society self-supporting. It is said that so far .as known 
no religious body ever received a dollar from abroad to aid in defraying the ex- 
penses of building chuiehos or the salaries of ; 


The imporunce of direct and well-constructed ro5d.s was early appreciated, but 
the State authorities failed to note the natural highway furnished by the HidL;o 
until the construction of the first bridge at Rochester withdrew travel from the 
Buffalo road and gave an impetus to the construction of roads leading towards 
Rocholcr. As an iiitermediatc crossing-place between Avon and the lake the 
bridge at the falls began to be k'nown, and to rise in popular esteem. In l.^^li!, 
the Stiite legislature pusscd an act appmpriatir.g five thousand dollars to cut out 
the roadway and to bridje the streams on the Ridge ro;id between Uocbestcr and 
Lcwiston. The route being almo,st impass.ibic, Gustavus Clark, who l< 
nes.s in Clarksun in ISIJ, set out from Rochcst^-r for that place with a load of 
goods on the Ridge road, and the bridges were of such I'rail tenure that the w.igon 
broke down most of thcui, and this discloses the secret of non-travel on that nat- 
ural highway. 

■ by S. o 


or sliding duwh-hill, v,-as an anmsemcnt in the winter of 1.31:1-14, pari 
by bijth Indi.m and white boys, and has always been a favorite [>.mIiiiu 


Eopland youth. Thts lotlian method, pracriceu on Andrews street hill, is thua 
outlined: A strip of bark, a foot in width and four fitt io Ifuslh. was t;iken. and 
one end trimniod to a poiut and held in the hmd. The courser Mt^jod .upon the 
baric, with knees liulf bent, head and arms thru>t forward, and shot dowii the hill 
like an arrow-flii;lit. A yelp of cxultailuu and dehjit at-uonipanivd each ten feet 
of pro<jn-^, and at the b;L>e a rinirini: whtM.p woke the echoe.-« of tlie forcat. One 
afU>r aoyih.T ptrtMrtiied the feat, which was rept.*atcd fur hours. Tliu white boyd 
attenipteil competition, bt-;innini; :it the lower part of the aseent, but di^a.-^ter al- 
mo6t iiiTariably rtMiltod. In Marv-h a heavy spray from the falU had settled 
OTer night on the snow ami f-jrmcd a gla.-sy vwt. upon which, ni-xt .l.iy. a youug 
Indiao made the trip from summit tu base with almi^st incredible rapidity. The 
alidincr-placea u*ed by the pi'tocer white boys were Brighton hill, ber-re Starr and 
other? cut it down. and. in Franklin, down thr Brown >treet hill, by McCracken's 
tivern. Eiclun^ street hill was al^o used. sUdine down to EaLile tavern. Of 
the boys and ;nr!s of that day but one of each id reeailed by 5Ir. Scrantom, — 
Benjaniin F. Hall and Clurbsa ^stone ; the re>t are no more. 


Many of the Indiana .sojourned about the falls during 1312-13. They came 
here to pa^ the winter, and nrimerou3 families w.-re scattered about the place. 
There were families camped on the ground north of the Eptscopal church in Saint 
Paul street, where in 1S:JS sto<^ the dwellinL-^ of the Messrs. Ward. Dr. Elwood, 
Mrs. Shearman, Jud-e Lee. Dr. Henry. Mr Graves. Mr. Galu.sha. Charles M. 
Lee, S. G Andrews. Colonel Pnitt. Rol^ert Wibon, and Samuel Hamilton. In- 
dians resided about tbe hill in the southeast of the city, upon land owned by Mr. 
Tiffany, Charles J. IIill, and others. the site of the later cemetery, and yet 
others of the race ha-1 their habitation about North street, near the later residences 
of Dr. E. O. Gibb:?, Dr. Faulkner. Mr. Bardwell. AchUIes, and other?. Some 

swamps back of the old .Mansion House 
the bathing-house on Buffalo street, betwe 
Hotel, were filled with rabbits, partridges. 

almost any day, by watching at the lick near the horticultural t 
Reynolds & Bateham, at the corner of Buffalo and Sophia streets, and during 
1813 a pioneer shot two deer where now is the heart of the city, one at the west 
end of the main bridire, the other near wliere Childs' buildinij^ .-tand. opposite 
the Rochester House. The Indians came down frum Buffalo creek for wild fruit. 
Cranberries were Piund in the fall very abundant at the mouth of Black creek, 
and often in Liter yeara could have been seen two or three .«^uaws, single file, 
coming from there into the village with baskets of cranberries hancrin*: to their 
backs by a strap supported asain^t their foreheads. The wigwams of Indian 
fiunilies grace*! tlie south and ea^it sides --f the elevation whereon may now 1 1838") 
be seen the Free Bethel church, and the rc^>idenre^ of General Vincent Matthews, 
Jonathan Child, Mrs. Ira West, Mrs. N. Rochester, Thomas H. Rochester. H. 
B. Williams, William S. Bishop. Joseph Strung, Henry E. Roclit-'ter. Dr. Maltby 
Strong, Harvey Ely. Judge Chapin. and others of that date. 

I the site of the market, and around 
the Eagle tavern and United States 
,d other game. D'?er micht be seen 
ablishment of 


At the encampment last located were celebrated the rites of the -^sacrifice 
the dog." It was the final sacrifice of the Sineca* upon srround r iw covered 
the many thousand bl'wks an<l building which make up the city of Richest 
and iKCurrM in January. 1813. Not as a revelation of Indian religious ccreu 
nial, but as another manifcstiition of the changes from the heathen rite to Chi 
iian worship, from the repellent group about the fir*^" to the enlightened cf 
gregations seated wirhin the throc-.<c«.re b.-nutiful and sub-Tantial churches of i 
city, is quoted, from O'lieilley'^ • Rochester and Wi-^tem New York.' an airot 
of this final Indian ceremonial. The final rites were ■M-en by the few wh 
settlers, and among them Kdwin Scrantom. a pn-^nt re-idcnt of the eitv. wh( 
account coincides with th:it of Rev. Kirkland, missionary amor.^ the /roy/r 
and with that given by Mary Jemison. the "white woman" of the .Sfi.ierns 
was a cu.«tom, when returned from huntin-z. for the Indian.s to app«_>int rcrt: 
of their number to snporititend the festival. • Preparation-s were made at t 
council-hoviso or otln r place of meeting for the aceommt»4lation_<if the tribe duri 
the ceremonial. Nine day- was the period, and two du-.'S the numWr and ki 
of animals formerly rcinimd for th- festival; tliMU-h in these later days of 
form and retrenchment the time hxs been cnrt-iile*! tn seven or five iV.\\% an* 
single dog Wart the seapecoat to b-nr away the sins of the tribe Two do 
Ma nearly while as i-onld be pn)nurcd. were u;«nally seleetixl from the-.- bilnri-i 

*0'Roillev'» ?kelchp« of Ito<-b<-Mer. 

to the cribe, and were carefully killel at the door of the couneil-housa by means 
of Mraegulatjea; for a wound on the animal, or an effusion of blif-jd, would n^,\\ 
tbe victim for the sacrificial purp*)se. The dug^ were then fantasrically paintf,] 
with various colors, decorated with feathers, and suspende«J ab<jut rw.-ntv fivt 
high at the council-house or near the centre of the camp. The eercnionial in 
then commenced, and the five, seven, or nine days of its continuance are marked 
by feasting and dancing, as well us by sacritice and consultation. Two .select 
bandS; one of men and another of women, ornamented with trinkets and fe-ithers, 
and each person furnished with an ear of corn in the right hand, dance in a 
circle around the council-fire, which is kindled for the iKX-asion, and regulate their 
steps by rude mu.>tic. Henct? they proceed to every wigwam in the camp, and. in 
like manner, dunce circling around each fire. Afterward, on another day, several 
men clothe themselves in the skins uf wild be;Lsts. cover their faces with hideous 
maskd and their hands with the shell of the tortoise, and in this garb they go 
among the wigwams, making horrid noises, taking the fuel from the fire, and 
scattering tbe embers and ashes about the floor, for the purpose of driving away 
evil spirit.". The persons engaged in these performances are supposed not only to 
drive off the evii spirit, but to concentrate within themselves all the sins of the 
tribe. The^^e sins are afterwards all rransferre*! into one of their own numW, 
who by some magical dexterity works off from hini.self into the dc*^ the cun- 
centrated wickedness of the tribe. The sacrifice is then placed on a pile of wo<jd, 
to which fire is applied, while the assembled tribe throws tobacco or other incense 
upon the flame, the scent of which is deemed cc>-operaiive with the sacrifice of 
the animals in the conciliation of the favor of Xan Wanetc, or the Great Spirit. 
When the dogs are partly consumed, one is taken off and put into a large kettle 
with veiietables of various kinds, and all gathering around, eagerly devour the 
contents of the ' reekioL' eaidron.' Finally the war and peace dances are per- 
formed, the calumet smoked, and all are ready for a new year." 


To the inhabitants of Rochester during the year 1S14 there was much to give 
discouragement. Improvements came to a stand ; few families moved in, and 
some left. Doubt and depression mingleti with apprehension, and all desired 
peace. In March, 1814, the settlement contained some fifteen hoas-is, old and 
new log structures, a plank and a frame. There were three stores, — those of 
SUaa O- Smith, Ira West, and Harvey and Elisha Ely; one grocery, kept by 
Abram Stark, who was by trade a brickmaker, and whose -.irocery occupied but a 
part of the house, the rest beins used as a dwelling; the blackamith-^hop of 
Jamea B. Carter, the tailor-shop of Jehie! Barnard, the saddler-shop of Abelard 
Reynolds, and the law office of John Mastick ; besides there were the Ely saw- 
mill on the west side, and Stone's saw-mill on the east side of the river, and the 
tavern on the west side, owned by Colonel Isaac W. Stone. The nucleus of the 
town lay east of the present Powers biock, upon the north side of the street. 
The forest surrounded ch-sely on all sides from the river. Farthest north, on the 
we^t side of State street, was the store of Ira West. Upon the opposite side of 
the street southward stood Abram Stack's dwelling and grocery. Next scmth of 
Suck waa the office of lawyer Masticlt»,and on the corner of State and Buffalo 
(now West Main ) streets was Harvey and Elisha Ely's store. Nest. ea.stward. in 
succession, were A. Reynolds new houst^, his house and shop, and J. Bamai-d's 
tailor shop. Back a short distance from the street was the new house o<cupied 
by Uamlet Scrantom, Esq.-, then. again on the line, the houses of Mr. Whechx'k, 
joiner, Aaron Skinner, school-teacher, and D. K. (.^artcr, K-'p, carpenter and miS- 
wright. and between him and the river James U. Carter's blaek.-mith-siiop. Near 
the .ximer of Buffalo and Exchange streets, on the west side. sUtoS the store of 
S. O. Smith, and southward, on the same side, was the dwellini: of Dr. O. E- 
Gibbs. Westward on Buffalo street, near the edge of the clearing, w;i3 a lime- 
kiln ; and near bv was, soiin alU-r the date given, erected the primal schiKil-house. 
and named from use also the pioneer 

Such had been the progre>.s of two yean*, when savages menaced the whole 
country with desolation, and misfortune bijfell the American armies. TV-^pite 
sarrouudings, .some effort at improvement was niailc ; and ILunlet Scrantom. 
writing cast to his father a letter intende-d for general information, says. "The 
village is flourishing beyond all expectation; price of lots has risen one-half, 
there arc eleven fiimilic-i in the village: and not only ha-^ every lot on the uiain 
strret been taken up. but also a numl^er of back lots. There must bo twentr 
houses built during the next summer. Ely &. Co., of Pitt.-field, have b..nghi =» 
lot upon which is an attoniey's office. They have a store, and opcnc*! their '.t'hxI^ 
on DeccmUT 2. ISKl .ind n.i.-^d a s.iw-mdl .M;.rch 11. ^■^l4. I' are 


lars per hundred ; 

..d for divti 
ur dollars 

md fifty ( 

and butter, oi'.;liteci 


vt ^\^J> 


.■.-Bm. ^n^^c^j^ 

.1 El"' 













!, ^'j 

''? ^ '"l^r^-'^t 

i St 




^5 V . - 


"is j 



J, and haj paid 

.,.r i«M]tiJ. Liinil»;rin;^, ooebalf pine, has b«;n steadily 
til w«in;,' ""■= J""-"' ^""l ei:;litj-.-isven cuuUi per tliousand." B.'ard-ra wep; 
thar^i'd '»" Ju'liira »"<! twonty-tive cenu per »t.:lc ; and Barnird, the tjilor, 
WAtf cn>wded with wort. Warren Brown, in the aujaeent settiemenc ot" Franii- 
fort, wa^ supplied with a i;ood a^^jrtment of dry gu'jda aiid gnjCL-ried. and con- 
u-njplal<'d the addition of an apotheeary store. Henry Sirantum,<_T a well- 
kuiiifii U.wheiter raerehant, was at this '.ime clertini; fur Brown, who wjs a 
c»uiin to Captain Brown, the mill proprietor. 



Rochester wa.s tau-ht by Mi=,s Huldah M. Strone, sister to Mr^. 
Abeljrd Reynolds. For some time after her arrival she made her heme with this 
relatiie. and occasionally officiated in the office as postmistress. The school was 
njadc up of some fifteen or more pupils, some of whom came from a distance of 
three or four miles, and yet lived within ojnveuicnt limits. At the forma- 
tion "f this school the children were seen to be t(x> few to warrant employing a 
l^-arhrr. unless aid could \xi obtiiined frotu other than [»eriKjn3 of family. There 
were found el^lit unmarried men m the community, v»iio rc.-pc-ctiveiy voiunteeted 
to ]i.iy the rate bill of a supposed pupil, and the seh.xjl went on. .\s early as 
XK'cimber 1, ISK!, it was pro|iosed to build a schcHil-ho'ise durini; the ue.vt season, 
and the strmture was erected and ready for use by -May. ISU. Hamlet Scran- 
lom, as one of the tru:.teea, was active in the work, which found some opposition. 
The Erst teacher employed was named Aaron Skinner. The biiilding was of one 
Btory, and in dimensions fifteen by tWcnty-four feet. The old red school-house, 
standing on the site of schoul-hou^e number one, was and is remembered , having 
j^jod teacher?), strict in j^overnment, practical in instruction. Those pioneer school- 
children of Rochester were proficient in the useful rudiments, and found prompt 
cm|>loyn)'^nt when.:vcr aire and de.-ire combined to ni.ike their services valuable. 

«io a Saturday afternoon. The teacher was Dr. Hammond, then a student of 
medicine with Drs. Elwood and Coleman. The school was joined by the Frank- 
fort school, then Uujht by Moses Kin'_-. who b still livinj in Rochester. The 
"scholars chose sides, and all arose and stood ; whoevt- r nii.-^-ed took a seat. Two 
boys, brothers, were the last up, and kept the floor till dark, when to the younger 
was adjudged the first prize. 


The virinity of Lake Ontario, upon which a British fleet held mastery, gave 
rise to more than one scene. More esj>eciaily was this the case after the burning 
of Buffalo. The Indians, with knife and hatchet, might at any moment be upon 
the Kttlers. and the flight from the frontier was general Daily, towards the last 
of December, families passed over the bridge with sleighs and '.vairons. Some had theirall, and, destitute of provisions or money to purchase, with children bare- 
fiKiteil. depended for subsistence upon the charity of the t«o[.!e. On the l'3d of 
IKT-iDber an express reached Rochester at daybreak, and reported the enemy as 
landing from their boats at Oak Orchani creek, forty miles diilant. and prficeed- 
ing inland, desolating the country. The settlers expected another force to land 
at the mouth of the Genesee, and the militia were calleil to arms. Captain Stone 
«eiit nicsscugers to assemble his company of dragoons, rcniovci hU eliildrcu to 
Bl'-'lnficld, and prepared to gather up valuables at short noticf The merchants 
Were busy packing their goods, and the villagers mainly either removed to the 
wooiU or prepared to do so at a moment's notice. Militi.* marched through the 
(•»wn townnls the landing and the mouth of the river, and all was in stispense. It 
prux .h| a false alarm, yet only two famiiics remained in the vUlage that night; 
the rc^t had ero.s.sed the river. 

It was in .\pril that two cannon were sent from the arsenal at Canandaigua, by 
"t'l. r of Genend P. B. Porter, to the care of Captiin I. W. Stone. One was an 
•■iL-hl.,n.p.iunder, the other a four-pound piece. Seventeen yoke of o.'cen were 
" to draw the heavier gun from Culver's to the fdls on account of the 
bad r.vid-. P.,wder and ball accompanied the iruns. The villacets were desirous 
*»f !• -tinL' the executive capacity of the eiglueen-ptunder. and accordingly fur- 
i»«h,-.l ,he |„wder. The -uc was planted on -Main »lr«t at the eoroJr! and, 
l-nd,-,! .i„J alu.ed by K Stone. K. Ilandford. and E. Ely. was tired at a tli-tant 
«"■•■ The mark was «nick and the Iree-ti.p. .severLxl, fell. The boys found and 
bt^^icht back the ball. Report c.imo that the British fleet threatened the coast. 

. o.mmi.s-ionc,l colonel, » 
:iay mm 1,0 w,-i,t to tlic n 
il.r.-.„t, .Old directed the 
All the av.ul.l.le popiilil 
istwork ou the .south side 


r. Bender, of Frankfort; t 
1, were lo.rsui,L-d. .so as .„ 
ight and fli.-ht. On .May 1 
ud of the Roeh.stcr force. 
Muht, hut that thiv need n 


by evening, and called Fort Be'iider, ia h. 
planks of the bridge, whiili had been pii 
readily taken up. and every arrangement 1 
about sunset, orders came to Elislia Ely, i 
notify the inhabiiant.s that the British Hi 
come until morning. Ab-iut eleven o'clock P.M. another order was received from 
Colonel Stouc to inarch at once. f[. Ely & Co. had rceeiveil fifty mufkets and 1 
supply of car;riJgc.s. Each man was supplied with a musket and twenty-tour 
rounds. There were thirty-three men in the settlement; one was left to guide 
the women and children to the wim,us, if danger L'cs-ame prc:ssing; one was iioii- 
combative, and the rest set out at two o'clock in the moruliiL', in a heavy rain 
and upon muddy roads, difficult of travel in the darkness, and reached the mouth 
of the river just after d.aylight. A fog covereil the lake, upon which was heard 
the of boats rowing from vessel to vessel. It was proposed by Colonel 
Stone that Captain Francis Blown and Elislia Ely should liian an old boat, onm? 
u.'wd as a lighter an.l lying near, and make an attempt n[HjM some of the British 

Twelve volunteers with muskets were concealed in the bottom of the boat. A 
. mile out and tbrte rliot.s were firt>d from the shore ; the fog presnntly disappe.ired, 
and there in line were thirteen vessels of all sizes. The boat headed for -bore, 
and a twelve-oarcd barge starting in pursuit gaiue-d rapidly. Preseiiliv the British 
boat stopped, and so did the American, .\gain starting, the on-', fearim: strategy, 
pulled for the fleet, the other returned to shore. -About ten o'chjck a flaiiof-truce 
boat put off from the enemy's flag-ship, and Colonel Stone gave instructions to 
Captains Brown and Ely not to let them come into the river nor laud. Tlu-se 
men went up the lake just above the mouth of the stream, to where a large tree 
had fallen into the lake, and upon its trunk awaited the enemy. The boat came 
alongside the tree and an officer in full dreas proposed going on shore, which was 
positively declined. A party of twelve men, armed, approached the lake shore, 
when the otteer bearintr the fla^ asked if it wxs their custom to rL-eeive a flair of 
truce under arms. He was told to excuse them, as they were but citizens, and 
the men were reijuested to retire. The olBcer then communicated the term.- of 
the commander, Sir James Yeo, which were, " If public property will be given 
up, private property shall he respected." A paper signed by (Jswego citizens was 
produced, wherein it was stated that government stores and munitions, left with- 
out adequate defensive forc-e, would not be defended by them. Brown remained 
with the officer while Ely toi.ik the message and pajier to Colonel Stone, who sent 
back word that " The public property is in the hands of those who will defend it." 
The flag returned to the fleet, and a sl<x)p-rigied gunboat, mounting .several 
cannon, approached, towed by four boats. Judge John Williams, with a dozi'n 
riflemen, took pijst behind a gravel ridge east of the river, to which they were 
ferried by a small boat, which crossed up the stream out of sight. When this 
ambuscade, marching throunh the rank grass of the marsh, had reached pt-sition, 
the lighter was again manned, and all made ready to attempt the capture of the 
approaching ves.sel. The officer in eommaud of the cannon was e.^jiressly ordered 
to hold bis fire till the colonel should give the direction. When near the place 
where she was wantinl, the tow-boats gave way right and hit, and a shot was fired 
which fell into the river below the store-liousca. Immedi.itcly the heavy suu 
replied, and the scheme of surprise was thwarted. The ves.-cl fired fitU-en or 
twenty heavy shot, one of whicii stru..k the atore-house. The balls wore u.sed in 
Rochester long afterwards in breakim: stone for buildiuL'S. General Porter now 
arrived, and, at four P..M., sent .Major .M.'ore to meet a second truce-boat. It was 
threatened by Commodore Veo that, uuless public pro[-erty was given up, he u-iuid 
land his army a'ld four hundred Indians and lake it. Porter replied, if ir'^.ps 
were landed, they would be taken c.ire of, and warned Veo not to send aii"tlier 
boat, under penalty of being tired upon. 3Ii!itia gathered in constantly in small 
parties, and, by night of the second d.iy, some sis to eight hundred men had 
arrived. Ou the third morning the fleet set sail, and the militia triumphantly and 
without loss returned to their homes. 


With the close of the war the tide of emigratioa resumed its westward How. 
Certainty of security and permanence surrounding settlement, and the natur.d 
concentration of cnterprisiiur men iiiau'.;nrating manufacture and creatinir a o'n- 

reeollettioiis. rufleient d.ites are gucn to ihc etuistruetion of ihe old ll.,rvey 
Ely or •• red mill." This may be de-l-.-nan-d the pimu-er mill of R.^l.esier, 
alliiougil the ruins .,f the old .\llel, noil w..,e ilill vl-llile ,m A.|i. .|uet -He, t 11 

• tlie ^ 


two d.i 



were t;Ql up wi*h much '.iiffioilty on thi- first iLiy. Jtany crosi-tiinb^r^ and irird- 
tn **ire pat in ptaio aiiii pinnctl in tu make it arruriL'. und a ^upL-ort to rji^v. tLe 
c<hcr tuo. Tarllc-Huclta wicii ropoj attji iicJ lo thf coriu-rs of tlic rjiseJ 
part, othtr blotU •ere rii.-_-«l to iho prostrate bcot ; spme manned the " tb!l." 
Otlier« »i:h bauds, bars, arid liaiuLspikL'S lilted upon the heavy tramework. The 
bcot rOM' tt the ri;,-iilar "yo heave" of the builder. A little way up and the 
rrat wt.i::ht rtuiaiiied stationary. " Kvery in.ui and b«y tuke bold.*' waJ the 
order, prutuptly obeyed. At a puii and united elTort the taeLle-rt»pe on one uonier 
parted, scj but for a stroii;^ "skid.' which, following up the rijinu- bent. cau;ht 
U u it fell, the result would have been made painluUy nicinoral-le. One man. 
Mr. Woodruff, received injury to iiis spine, producin.; paralysia, and. withiu » few 
months, death. With renewed etfort and rciuforcemcnts the Sr>t rreat raising 
vns coaipleted, und the event was eelebr;\ted by great hiKirity auirmentcd by li<;uor:$ 
freely used, as wa-s the geueral custom of the d.iy. Ni^lit and d:\y Harvey Kiy 
had supcnised the cuuatructiija of his mill, and fi.r yeai^ f.iniiers reported hither 
from far and near, and often passed the niu^ht in the mill waiting- their irist, 
poking and beguiliuq the time witli storied. The tir?t red mill was equaled only 

The old miil stuo.] on Buffalo street, where now the Van Zandt buildin js are. ueit 
north of the city milb. It ran f,ur p.iir of stones. In time, having beeu disused 
for fiooie years for millin'^, it was titted up fur various Diechanics as the '"hydraalic 
bttilding," and was burned October 4. 1S37. 


It iras during the year 1815 that there was incorporated in ' liochester a com- 
pany known as '■ The Genesee Cotton Manafacturin;,' Company,' whose designa- 
tion is ir.dlc-atlvc of its purj^ose. Araons the stockholders are found the names 
of Edoj Stone, Oliver Culver, S. 0. Smith. M. Bn..wD. Fisher Builard. and W. 
Kempshall. In the fall, contract with Russcl Smith, of llopkinton, .^laisachusetts, 
wa< toade to furnish the following maehioery. namely — twelve thmstle-frames of 
eighty-four spindles e.ieh. and two mules of one hundred and ninety-two spindles 
each, giving a total of one thousand throe hundred and uinety-two spindles, to- 
gether with all the needful ap[uratu3 to their operation. .\ buildiii',- was erected 
at tlie foot of Factory street un Browns race, the niaehinery was put in, and by 
the apricg of 1S16 the factory was rv:idy for busines.*. When built, this manu- 
fcctory conLiined the only cotton machiuery west of Whitestowu. and on the 
bcilding sas hung the first bell west of iJenesee river. 

Much difficulty was anticipate by the tympany in startiir.;. sinee they were fuU 
one hundred and forty miles from any place where experienced operatives could 
be obtained; hut bel'ore the enterprise was completed ready tor running, all 
the help Wanted was furnished by the atri\al of three or f"ur lar.-e tamilics of opera- 
tives from the Black-river cuintry, from which there seems to have been .juite a 
hegira westward. No flight obstacles had to be encountered, and pro-jresw was 
limited. The prices paid for material and the difficulty of obtainiuu' it are thus 
illiL^tratcd : The price p.ud per [-imd for ctton wits thirty ccrls in New York, 
iod transportation was three dollars and 5<'veniy-five cents per hundred. FUiier 
Billiard, superintendent, paid Silas Smith twenty-five ee-nls |-cr pound for chalk. 
asd 6vu dollars a ^'alloii tor eoTiiuioii lamp oil. and when the loc-al supply was thus 
eihiusted, -Mr. Bullard proeeedisl to CanandalL'ua aud purelii-.i-d by whole-ale at 
tJin : dollars and seventy-five cents per gallon, l-'i.r inlerior poik as high as 
thirty-five dollars per barrel was paid, and it was dealt out at twenty cents per 
pound. Money was seare-e and hardly de^-ning the name.^d and 
dishearteoeMl, the c-ompany, havin*.: disbur^il all their available meaus in buildings 
and ni-chiiiery, were v^tthont money ur credit v;lth which to e^irry on m.-.nufaoturx:. 
The fjclory was kept running until January, 1*18, when couipleiity of difficulty 
prevented further operation^ In lieu of >|>innin'.: cotton, there were writs, exccu- 
tioGs, and injuiielions, and the whole establishnieiit fell into the sheriifs liauds. 
Si'ickholdeia were notified to p.iy balance due on .stock or fljiTcit their rights in 
tho coucem, and most preferred the latter alternative. A few pai^l their stock in 
full, with an undersLinding when sold by th<- "heriff it could be bi.l in to 
them, and w) they could s-ivc their property and realize full value on stock. .V 
person authurizcil bid a merely nominal sum on jcile, and the whole property was 
•truck off to him. Liti-.ritioii fallowed, and we Umvo this pioneer enterprise with 
iu wreck of hopes and lo.-a of means till a liter pen*!. 

and all the populace of Canandaigua turned out to cut a canal from (he fi-.t ..f 
the lake across a bend in the Outlet to furnish watcr-powcr for the pioneer n.i.i, 
down the stream; but in Ri>ehcvter there were strong and willing hands enL:a.-..! 
in openin- the mill-rac-c south of Buffalo strc-et. by lloehester i Co.. and in Isr, 
M. Brown, Jr., F. Brown, and T., bc-.-iunmg their mill eanal at the i,. ,a 
of the great falls, consummated the t.csk in 1810 , here was no creation uf w: t,,. 
power, but a utilizatioQ by a diversion of a portion of the immense water. [^tt,,.^ 
here awaiting intelligeut applicatiou. 


Prior to (he dl-covery of steam as a motor, and 
effort, wo fin.l the c.m^tructiMn ,.f the niill-raee li..i 
totr: as hi-hwjys for iiiler-c<.nimiiiiicalion do to » 
whiia lide-d in digging the nic-c of the old Bear mil 

the early : 
C-mkIi rel; 


1 consiJe 
t,l ISU 

It was during the year in ijuestiou that the purelr. 
quantities from the adjacent country was eommenevd. It was not ii 
flour be'_-.m to bo manufactured in R^-eliester. -\. few hundred b.urels were -em 
to the Niagara frontier, yet, army c-ontractors not having money lo purcli l-', 
there was no incentive to flouring, and ciisiing mill-power was used ui griiulin-.* 
the grists of the neighborhood. With peace, came an opening of trade viith 
Can.ida. and during 1815 soveral hundred barrels of Rochester flour were expon.^i 
to Montreal and other ports on Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence. The wl,. -it 
crop of the year was short in the Cicncsee country as well as in Canada, and 
for four weeks the price of flour in Rochester was fifteen dollars a barrel. Imliau 
corn was shipjied in considerable quantities to the Canadian shore of the lake, and 
«old at York (Toronto) readily at three dollars per bushel. The a'most omni- 
present distillery was an unworthy airont for the consumption of corn ard rye. 
During the year a building was erected and a large dUtillcry started, upon a new 
principle, difficult of deseription. A process was devised to evade duties and 
cheapen priw-s. Sixty gallons a day were run on one boiler, which did not have 
i a capacity to hold over thirty gallons of water. The other distilleries, unable to 
i obtain the secret, denounced the lirjuors as injurious, and the ijuestion of good 
I whUky was generally canvassed; n-garded as essential to hcaitii, the subject was 
one of great importance. 


' The mail had K-en brought once a we-ek on horseback from Canandaigua by 

I Mrs. Dunham, whose husband was a government ci.ntnctor; this mail f.icility cm- 

i tinned till 1315. Dr. Levi Ward, a settler in Rochester in 1817. had obtaim-d 

j authority, in 1S12. from General Gideon Graie.-cr. po>tinaster-gcnerd. to designate 

i the location of post-offices in such places as he would contract to deliver the mail 

I country lying between Canandaigua and the Niagara river, and from tho Cani.i- 

I daiiua'and Buffalo road to the shores of Ontario. There was included in 

i tract an area over twenty-five miles wide by one hundred long, ineludln.- the 

i present populous counties of Monroe, Orleans, aud Niagara, and the cities therein 

I situated. It was in 1815 that Samuel Hildreth. of Pittsford. bezan to ran a 

I two-horse stage between Rochester and Canandaigua, distant twcnty-cit;ht mii.-s. 

; The trip wa.t made twice a week, and the mail-bag was transferred from the I'-'-t- 

rider to the mail coach. During the year pri\ate cnicrpriso a weekly 

i mail route between Rochester and Lcwiston. on the Niagara river, the e.\p<n-e 

being met by ihc income of the offices along the route. Not till LSIO did ('••"■ 

I gress, on motion of General Mieah Brooks, direct the committee on Jiost route- lo 

i •■ ini|uire into the expediency of establi-hini a mail route from Canandaigua lo 

' Lcwiston, by way of the village of Rochester." 


ilcr. ihe 

ell as 

The growth of the villagt; called for more accommodations for i 
land-hunter, the spe» ulator, and the settler awaiting llic comidelinn of hi- lie"--, 
and during this year .\belard Reynolds o|K;ned a tavern on the we>t >ide ..f il'' 
river, on Buff.ilo' street. This wa.s the first inn on tho " hun.lrcd acre." H't^' 
.Mrs. Jonah Brown, prior to her marriage to the doctor, occasionally cave her ■■*'■ 
vices as bar-lender, and here wa.s kept the post-office in its early eii.-tcncc. 


in Rochester a triple interest, from being the fir^t from its spirit .in.l >>' 
ffictho<L In both the last-named chance has be-cn creat. 
•Ignificant, for n-ccnt liriti-h injuries were recalled, and a 
later were many Rcvolntioii.ry olnc, rs and -.i.lier-i. lb 
as heroic .h-cils wen- rfiiear>ed. an.l how the youth veneraird tho 
=ilcn<." arrayL-d in the unir..rm of the conlincntals I lint that el.'m. 
the last old patriot borne in a carriage, and seatc-d upon the pl:.l 
wo live in to-day. A religiuuH feeling, a ncnlinicnt of 

\ eelcbralinn then 
he s.thcrincM then 
their s,.e, dies th. 


,„i„^,|„l with tlie .'iliw uf a Ji'cp irliliiiritiuD. nnd i>ir;us mm ami niiiiistiTs took ] 
^■tii'c p^irl un.l ■lircilcil tho ttstivilius. Tho iiiliabil;.nt= coii-ropilL.d at lti;vii..l.Js' | 
Iji.TCi.aiid urnin'^i-d a pmnraniiue which w.ns to end in a hl^arii b.ittl.:. Mr. Itcy- I 
ii,.lj.s tttid othcl-s made spcrehcs t'rora tliu stoop in front, of the iio^t-otSec, and their I 
patriutie espresaiuns were heartily applauded. A line was formed, and the coiupany ' 
BcI off acro.-« the briJ;.;e on to the hill-top on the erst side, where the bojs of 
that tkrlion joined in. The trttop then marched to the Diu^ic of drum and tife 
down to tlie four corners, where they were well drillcil by a St'otchuian named 
Wallace, who had fou'.;ht at LuTidy'a I,ane, under Sent, and who burnt the first 
lime in a tiln up>jn the later siti; of the old Itoeliester savini; bank. TUe battle 
wa- nctt in order. The British assembled near tlie end of the l.rid-e, the Vaiikues 
in the street opposite the Arcade entrance. The contest ended in UrilLsh defeat, 
and refreshments were served in tho diuijigrooDi of the tavern. A settler ordered 
a pailful of "black-.-.trap," and the fiend of alcohol, insidiously concialed. first, as 
Is his wont, hei.Lihtuncd the spirits, only to close the day with a feeling not unmiied 
with distrust and di.ssatisfactioD. 


Various centres of trade early existed, which, as time wore on. l>eeame suburbs 
and ultimately a eomponent part of the prowing city. Samuel J. Andrews, of j 
New Haven, Connecticut, was a brother-in-law of .Moses Atwater, of Canandaigua. ; two had visited the vicinity in ISIli, and conjointly made purchase from 
Augustus Porter of a large tract of land on the river, embracing the upper tiills, [ 
and joining the farm of Knos Stone on the north. In 1S15, Mr. Andrews brought t 
on a limited stock of goods and engaged in merchandising, using the I' of Enos ' 
Stone. The fimily of this early storekeepx r soon arrived, and, Jlr. Stone having 
Inld nff a few lots On Main street, Andrews bought what is now the corner of | 
Main and Saint Pan'., and erected upon it a stone house, the first building besides j 
wo.>d known to Rochester. He was hopeful of the advancement of the settle- | 
iDcnt to a business mart, and did his part towards a realization, under supervision j 
of bis son, S. G. Andrews, Jr. The original Andrews and Atwater tract ciimprised | 
in one hundred and forty acres has been surveyed and sold in village and city lots, 
and. as long ago as IS.ifl, had been mostly occupied with private dwellings, and j 
was known as the sixth ward. 

John G. Bond, of New Hampshire, was a gTand=on on the maternal side of | 
William Moulton, one of the first settlers of Marietta, Ohi.\ in IT.^.S, and, being | 
educated to tho mercantile business, became in 1799 a partner of General Amasa i 
Allen, in Kei-ne, New Hampshire. Partly upon busiuess and in part to explore 
the locality he came to Rochester in June, 181.'), and with confidence in the result ! 
pua'hascd the lot upon which the Pitkin block was subsenuently erected, and on i 
which was a small frame In the fall Mr. Bond, acconipanied by Daniel D. ; 
Hatch, his partner and relative, bought in the cities of New York and Uo.ston what ! 
wa.-* then regarded as a large stock of goods, and set out for Rochesterville. ! 
Transp^irlatioD from .\lbany cost four and a half dollars per hundred pounds. | 
The Barnard house and shop, no lon'.:er needed fur school and church, was en- | 
largtHl, and transformed from tailor- and saddler-shop to .1 dry-goods store, the i 
finh in the place ; Smith, West, Bissell ct Ely, and R.iswell Hart having been '■ 
preiliccs-or^ in trade. Mr. Bond moved to Luikport in lS:i:i, and became one of 
the jud-cs of Niagara county, W'lllu Kempshall, .son of Richard Kerap-liall. an 
emigrant from England to Pitt.sford in ISuti. had learned from his fuih.T the trade '. 
of a firpentcr. Ho was euiployci by the Messrs. Brown, of Frankfort, in 1S13, 
and bi-mnic a resident of Rochester in 1814. Thomas Ivempshall, a brether to 
^^■dli., found employment during the winter of lSli-1 1 a.s clerk for Ira West. j 
H.- advanced to a partnership, and, on the rttirenicnt of Mr. West in 1824, con- j 
linue.1 busiiicss alone for several years, when John F. Bush, a clerk in the store, j 
*-i.« taken into partnership. Business was conductcil for some years as the firm of 
Kinifi-lnll & Bush, and then gave place to a large and mills furnishing 
wlablishmcnt. Mr. Kcmpshall engaged in other enterprbes to be mentioned j 
'''•■r Kiitcring the --ettlement the orphan of a foreign emigrant, Thomas Kcm|i- 
»liill saw a village incorporated, a city orcanized, and was elected OQ March 7, 
'**-M. to the honorable position of mayor. | 

In ISI.i, the pioneer silversmith and watch-repairer, Erastus Coi>k, came and ' 
••-^icl in Rochester, and grew old at his employment. Isaac and Aldrieh ( 'olvin 
■"•re pioneer hatters, and, later, farmersi in Henrietta. Jaeob Howe starusl a ] 
l'>l..ry during this year, and carri.-d on th,. business till his dc.ith ; he was si.c- 
«^s-l.,| in thn s.ime business by his .son J.a.s.l,. Haniel Mack was .in early niaster- 
>""ld.r. and Kn..s Pomrroy, of Ma.-saehusctls. si„,|icd law in the olllee ,.t G. 
►'"i.laiMl. and (his year opened an .iffice in the place. The ,-llM,ts of .Mr. I'miie- 

the villa: 

181!^. In the month of Deeembcr the first census of 
,d pave a population of three hundred and thirty-one 


th and durable imp 

The year 1816 was marked by a rapid 
incubus cast upon enterprise and speculation by the war was removed, and the 
season opened auspiciously. BiLsincss sprang up so vigi^rously and healthfully 
that a great want for habitations wherein to accommodate the fam'ilies of 
those who, as principals or employees, had engaged in the various lines of indus- 
trial pursuit. Reynolds' solitary tavern was besieged by many desiring to board. 
While a few were accommodated, quarters were straitened for those who. travel- 
ing, nightly sought its hospitaiitiis. Private fatuilins were beset to take boarders, 
and the early settlers aided their own limited resources, and furthered the public 
welfare, by a sensible effort at compliance. In such a state of affairs there was 
great activity in building, and shanties were a uiushroom growth. The saw-mills 
ran night and day, and the filing of the saw at midnight by Ezra Mason, sawyer 
at Brown's mill, was heard as ivgularly ;is deep-toned bells and musical steam- 
whistles proclaim the midday hour for rest and refreshment to toiling thousands 
of to-day. Families moving in would bivouac for weeks in their wagons before 
they could find other shelter. One family bought a lot on Buffalo street, on the 
later site of the National hotel, cleared away the brush, and, driving into the clear- 
ing, began to build about their covered wagon. Working busily by day, and by 
the light of pitch-pine knots by night, a week's close found floor, roof, and three 
sides complctesj. The wagon wa-s then unloaded nnd run out, and by evening of 
the seventh day the front and last part, with its two S{[uare, paneless windows and 
its batten door, were finished, and one more family was domiciled in Rochester. 
There was no lack of socialitv among the women and children while waiting the 
raising and roofing ot dweiimgs. On bench, ciiair, and log the covereu-w(agon 
community disposed themselves, exchanging words of cheer, kind sympathy, and 
relating incidents of the journey. New comers were not obliged to wait an intro- 
duction ; the hand was taken with cordiality, and hearty welcome given as a rein- 
forcement in the determined effort to plant a village in this unpropitious spot. 

In the spring of this year the timber was cut from Buffalo street as far as St. 
Mary's hospital, formerly Halsted Hall, when but a wagon-track existed on the 
Scflttsville road south of Corohill. A rough log causeway led from Rochesterville 
to the house of Oliver Culver. To make a trip over it with a wagon was a good 
hour's work. Half the year the street was but the similitude of a viaduct. It is 
recorded that, in those days, a passing villager threw out a plank to reach a hat 
lying on the mud. On raising, it, a voice Issued from under. " Hallo there? whift 
are you at?" " I beg your pardon," was the reply, '* I was not aware there was 
a man under it." " Well, you give up that hat, 
as good a horse, too, as there is in this infernal ( 

With the erection of buildings, stcpping-stoi 
placed for convenience of pedc-trians. There wi 
dred acres of cleared laud on the yillago site. 
Pittsford, there was in all the region surrounding little more than small openings, 
on which sto«xl the primitive log house. Judge Bond has written, '' In February, 
1816. with my family and that of Mr. Hatch, my partner, I came on from New 
H.anipshire. With chani,'ing leather, runners gave place to wheels, and. on 
arrival, a sudden thaw had left .hi; roads in a horrid state. Houses were scarce 
and rents high. I changed residence four times in lass than a year. The first 
house was built by Francis Brown, where Dr. Brown was a later resident; the 
second, by John Mastiek. on the Brighton side; the next resting-place was the 
house of In West, on the west s-idc of State street ; and the fourth, a house owned 
by John Rochester, just south of the Rochester of an elder d.ay. I built 
the house, the residence of General Matthews, on Washington street, in 1S17, 
and had previously, in ISlfi, in lit the store which Dr. Pitkin occupied fir many 
vears as a drugiist-shop." Th_-old tailor-shop of Barnard •' was used successively 
by Dr. J.ibez Wilkinson, Dr. ISackus, and John A. Granger as a drugstore. 
When I began, in June, ISlG. t.. clear ground on Washinston street on which to 
build my house, my nei-bbors were astonished that I .should think of building so 
far back in tho woods. I told them that within thirty years this would bo a -reat 
city. Most demurred, anil said if the population reached two thousand five hun- 
dred, it would be beyond their exp«tations." In ISlf,. Bonds was the only 
house west of Sophia street. Himself .and Harvey Ely set nut sugar-maple and 

you will find there Ls one, am 

anil slabs for sidewalks wer 
\t this time less than one hun 
ivc at Brighton, Penfiold, am 


'..•e and Ontar 

id Ju 



broli'.-lit thr 

.ost.l r.,,-s. tnJa 
i-tcd in the enteipii- 


anva. and Ihf «!,i^l, thrw lh:c^ Uii^- 
iiia'jy. ' In Jiinc, a tri-wetkly tovir-holN^ 

at were ftiilcd for in a day, anJ the RiJ;^e 

ill ill inf:iniv, marie the villain the chief 
vailt-y and fur most of whut now firiiis 
Teriras came cn*wjiif^ in, and wheiit wa-s 
d a h.ilf cenl5 tu twn dollan 


Id June. lidS, Auui.- 
the rublicatinn of th.- f! 
•nd fully up to the bu^iiuT-i tvniinn 
io I'tira, of M.^r-, ScwunI A- Willi. 
type «nd niatcnad nwilcl. and wiili t 


rr prin 
fnlin «l 

Ct. rViiiby. the I 
./n- Gn-.Hl'. a • 


lir of Rxhotcr. ho;.-an 

ftml.y punliL-.-,! 
prcv-i, with an i.titfif nf 
3 bet uiit friiin hll home 

journey to I< •l«l<.n, ooupvins ( 
broken do»o ly comin;: in toiiMit 
ooach was put on, and this wa.i n^-,' 
before the year clo,^ three or fou 
road rapidly became a preit hishw 
The ci.iL-truction of mills, a bu- 
wheat market for the entire (le 
Ontario, Wayue, Orleans, and (jcii 
•old at prlcc~< rau^-in!: from m.e .1.: 
»nd fifty cents (*r biLsliel. and Hour, ilurin'j the fir>t two inonihs of the year, 
•old for cine dollars a barrel. The arrival of new comers, the entry and exit nf 
teams, the sto»« trade, and the activltv in huildinsr were a prfmnnicion of the future. 
Commerce bejran to be worthy of the name. Hanfoni's I^ndins was the leading 
•hippin.s p..iut. Vc.-eU b.van to run reinilarly from thv landin- and the 
mouth of the liver to other [«.rt.s. The leading artiehs of e!Lpi.rt durinir this 
ieasoD were flour,, p.;t ami pi'arl a.-h. whisky, and staves. The >hipiaeni3 
of the fir^t tiazued during the year had re:uhed a total i^i ^veu to eisht thousand 
batreb. Xhcr« was no difficulty in tindini pupiij for the school, and the red 
• leeeived an enlargement to furni.=h room. 


We h»TC spoten of R.iche>ter as the seat of a rising; viUa'je and t growing 
, tr^de; meantime other atlotineuts were made and lcb» laid off a.s p:rminal points 
of 1 fiiture unity. To the northward, and on the east side of the river, Elisha j 
B. Strong and Ellslia Beach, in company, made a purchase, from Caleb Lyoo, of i 
one thousand acres embnicin^ the =ite of what has been known as Carthage, ' 
Lyon had been a resident for time, and made a sn-all clearing. A few . 
families were living upon the tnict Id log cabins, but were chieay of iiie *|uaLier 
class. At this time, access to the site of the purchase was obtained only by the 1 
merchants' road, which had been made chiefiy by merchants of Canandaigua | 
•everal yeans previous. It ltt"t the Brighton pj..d ju-t e;ist of the farm of 0. j 
Culver. A wo<»Js road, with blazed trees as i^uides. had been made by Lyon on \ 
the rivcr-bant to the Brighton road. We shall see. in arvother place, the daring 
length to which the proprietors of this purchase carried their projects. 


Gideon Cobb, the oriLTual public conveyancer, has been noted. A brother, 
William, had been .lisoeiatcd near R.)me. wuh Dr. .Mitihew Brown, in the aie 
and scythe minnfaclure. and iu 181U traotcrrcd the work, to Rochester, and 
added a machine-?hop. A cliantte of location w;w made in lS:iO, when Laws.^n 
Thayer became a partner. The site later occupied by D. R. B.trton was ptirclias..'d. 
Thomas Morgan, on the rear of the lot, ^tarted the first cut-nail manulactory west 
of Albany. I'lior to 1S:{0, ."ilr. Cobb went to Aliens hill, under contract with 
Nathaniel Allen, to auiHfrintend a tool-shnp [here commencc-d. Both Allen and 
Cobb died at Louisville. Kentucky. Atnoni the pioneer mechanics who made 
BJchestcr their home in 131 li were .I.M.athan IVkard. ?ri~tou ,<miih. and Wil- 
liam Bte^^ster. .Mr. Kukard came flora llawlcy. .M:i.-viLhu><its. and wa.s the 
third to cng,-iguiu silvcrsmithing iu the vilb'.-e. E. Cc-k and <almou Sehotield 
havini; prcvedi-d hira. [n I.SIT, Samuel \V. I**e carae on and made the fourth. 
Mr. Packard continual the bu.-inc^s many yi-ar<. and was the latent survivor of 
thoae who, in that early day, workcil at trade. Hi- made the first stove-pipe 
ever maouf.icturcd in Kmhister. and t.«ik part in unking the first ea.stings. 
Preston S.nlih aJ.d Brewster w.iv in the eabiu-t bu.-incs.s in 181H. and 
three yeat^ later Frederick Slarr also toiik up the trade. These latter parties so 
enlarged their and reached muI. .-kill in workmanship, m to hold a lead- 
ing position •omon-.r like estahli-shmeois throughout the older citivt* of the cuuntry. 

A tavern-houise Wics built this vear lu lliat part of the citv known in tho.>s.' days 
•• Frankfurt. The builder was'w. .J. McCr.eken, who w.cs a citizen of Roib. 
eater till more tlun half a century bier. The -^ind known later as the .North 
American hotel was a place of convenience to trivcler and stranirer, and lite only 
frame building then existing between thert and the Ea'.:!c comets. 

f .r the Ge 


fell thn 


Oneida Ca.- 
broken bott 
ualitv Hill. 


ai.d relurEiing, Iniith— . 
the boxes and 
under a lapgc stump. It was agreed that the b<jies shnuM be opened in pre 
of the natives, who were very eav-er to sc-c the contents. At Oneida C.i-cl, 
government yearly paid the Indi.-ins their annuities in coin, brxiu'jht in h.rxi 
those holding the type, and this explains why they had bci'ti cotrceahsl. 1 
the first b*»x was oprened all silently irazed upon the contents. Th;* t\|K.- 
taken out and exhibited. .U last, an Indi.ui,dr.ining a long, sigh-like breat 
clairaeil, " N*o L''x>d money — whi>op ! — no gt.«xl money!" and departed, fol 
by all the rest, grunting their dis.ippoititmcnt. 

Dauby jgjin set out. and came tlm.u-h in sifciy. He found a buildin- 
able for an office ui>oii the sp.)t near the river, where the office of the Dei,, 
and Clinnkl- is li«:ated. The stnieturc wxs of two stories, b.dow Smith A 1 
the first butchera in the vilkigc, who had established a stall ab-ive, reaelie. 
platform running from the brid'.-e. Some fifteen feet away, the material of ih 

printing office wa.s ciuiv. 

ofJRaehestcr- Mr. Pai 

of the Rochester Guzet 

Abncr Wakilee's buildi 

and then rcmovci] to Exchange stn 

child's school-house. Mr..5heldoi 

L printer, livwl fifteen 

icured his s 

ng Ju 
public. The otfice was s<«.n i„ 
root, over Austin Steward's m.-.u-sh..),. 
lo a building known later as Filer \ Fair- 
ascd In be connected with the office, and 
we nt to De troit. Edwin Scrantom and A. M. Harris became apprentices, ami fiT 
two or more years A. tj. D.iuby and hLs two as,sLstants performed the office work. 
In the fall of ISIS another removal was made to a story and a half wood build- 
ing on the north side of Buffalo street, near the pre.-s.'0t entrance to the Reviioi.ts 
arcade. The catirc upper story was given to the office, which had ampl.^ room ; 
below were two stores, one for drugs, the other grueeries. It wa.s ra-t mi.lniLda 
of Satunl.iy, December \. 1S19. before the master and his apprentice h;,d 
finished working off the fit^t side of the Gdzrtli. which published on Tm— 
days. About two A.M., Sunday morr.iiig, the unasual cry of " Fire 1'' raiis throu«_'lt 
the village. Once befor» tlic devouring element had appeared iu the s.oa- uf 
Bond k Hatch. This second tire in Rochester be-.-an iu a buildnig owned by A. 
Reynolds, £s.i.; the second story a saddlers shop, the lower ruoin useii a-s a -tore 
by C. E. Barnard. The fire caught the next buildin-, one nwni the store of 
John Harford, the other that of Dr. F. F. Backus, for the ssile of dru-s. and, 
above the printing office, a third buildintr, that of West, Clark i Co.. was .lU. 
burned. The store of Lc.avitt i Hill, near by. escaped, as did R^'yoolds' tavern. 
The citizens formed lines from the enirine to the river, and. con-iderio'.; their in- 
experience, did well. There were strau'gers in the village, to whom the citi/.'-n- 
cxpres.scd obliL'ation for hearty service*. The GazetU lost all save f,v,i c;u-*-'s "f 
type, thrown out by Scrantom, who barely s.ived his life, and cau_-ht. one by I, vi 
W. Sibley, and the other by i<^^ Feck. This cmfla^-ration endc-d the nnhlicari..,, 
of the paper for the time, and dL-hcartcncd the publisher. A.ssistc-d by friends. 
Mr. D.iuby opcneil a new office on Buffalo street, over the store of John W. 
Strung k Co., which stood near the bankin- office of M.^ssrs. Stettheimer. Ton.- 
k Co" In 1821, Derict and Levi \V. Sibley bouu-ht the establishment, wh. n 
Dauby rcturncxi to Utiea and sUrtcsl the OU'mr. He was api-iiu.-l 
postmaster of the in 1S'J9 b • G.'uend Jaek.son. and held the othce tor .> 
.■^:nrc of ye:ir9. Els< where is given he history of the prcs-s. and its peru-,i ".l 
prove that A. G. D.uiby. the pioneer printer, mi'.'ht well regard with prid.- il- -:.eiv 
prtigTCSN, keeping with the iucrca.M,' of |»opulatiou and the urowtli of I.ii-in' -* 

till the publications of lh76 are an honor to the city— a necc-.-ily to il '• 

The original post-rider of Roehestei , ■Stephen B. B.inlctt. of New I[am|.-li0' 
To the business of conveying news|Mpers to cu.-t.jmers were the pi.jr.-i-"- 

mittisl to ■• the seventh s<ui of the s.-\enth «on. ' ami his ability as a tea. Ii. r I- m.: 
prctnincnr as a reader, wherein he deliLdUed. In the Rnch'^i^r /,/..//•'/'/' ■' 
November 21), 182U. " the p*ist-rid* r's noric-e*' reads, •* I must eoll*et live lniiidn-'l 
snudl debts wilhoitt delay, to pay one lar.-e. My patrons arc left t-i .I.ei'- 
whether I must do it yirocm/./y or /o/v/Wy." Bartlett was a ■• di-iid-lieail. an' 

doubtful mode of gitting a li\ ing. xs «. tilers were generally poor, and ..wi.l I' 
their lands. Many a p..-t-rider. in d. ht and starved out, had a hcavv li-l of r "^' 
acCDUnH not separately worth the of collection. Our post -rider a bin ' 
Canadian pi.ny. stron- and, and acro^ss the saddle w:us .-irn-l • 
large pair .if s;iddle-b.e.-, the rccep'.nl.-. of the p.ipers. Mounted aiel ~.y'x.\v I- 
B.irtlett .-I off np..n his ri.le. At hut. eaUn. .iml viil.e.-.- tiie bl.i.t ..I Io- '■" 
horn annoiinci-d his approach, and letters from distant hoin. s .cssured i. conli d " 
i-eplion. He lived and u|-,n a si I f.irm ...p,..s,l,: Fall., fieid. ou -N-i'l' 




i„ |t,.li.^t.T. pvf« ihe lulluwiDs: AshM St.;cl.;. Cuu.fort Williau-. Mcx.H ai.J 
Ur^'llorJ Kill-, Mr. W:.k.-ti.l.l. Jolin C. U.kI,c>-,t, Dr. Jonah Brou.i. Di. Gibls, 
mu>vn Oil.lrt. II. L. Sill and GrnriiL' Sill. Alxl.ird R-vii.,iai ai.d lu>. father's 
f,u,ily,Juhn .Ma-li.k,llaivi_v .MonlL'uUifry, D. Carter, H.' R B.nd>r, C. Harfurd, 
Ilaiiiitc SLraiiiuin, Mr. Hamlin, Philip Lisl.-, Silaa O. Smith, the Bmwn.-, Tm 
W.^. Kitewell Hart, Bi-scll and the KUs, Daniel .Mack, J. Hoit. 1;mo3, 
S.l.iiiun Close, Thomas Kcmpsh.iU. Eiioa Pumeroy. Seth Saiton, Luther Doirell, 
'l!...«ell B.ibbiit, Preston Smith, Bemdiet Harloid, WillU Kemi-shall, Chaunc-y 
>|,mJ, Samnel J. Andrews. Ruloff Hannahs. .Vzel Knsworth, Erastus C'u'jk, 
ii.,ni.'l Tinker, KellnL-g Vo.-hvir.'h, William R„L:ers. Libheus Kllioit. AJuuijah 
Cnvo. James Irwin, Au-ustioe G. Dauby. A. and I. Colvin, M. P. Covert, \Vm. 
W. Jobsou, Henry Skinner, and James Sheldon. Many .:.f these fnim mention 
»re familiar; a number were, at the lime, unmarrie.]. 


A nuih of settlement had coDtinue<l throuiih the year, and the population by 
the fall of I'^ie had doubK-d, yet the forest clun;; close to the outskirts of the vil- 
lam-, »3 if reluctant to yield its suprem.icT, once '_'one lost forever .\.3 its bst 
Tear without a name and government, a retrospection as presented by Jud^e Chapin 
l« of unusual interest: " The principal settlement on Buffalo street was between the 
K3j;le tavern and the bridu'e over the Genesee. The buildings were rows of small 
("hopiioneachsideof the street, mostly a story and a half hiuh. Here and there was 
a building farther west on that street, and the bnish had lately been burned to 
fU-ar the street along in front of where the court-house and the Methodist chapel 
(1847) now st.ind. A frog-pond occupied a part of the cjurt-house yard at the 
base of a high atone ledge. From the bathing-house on the weit wai a log cause- 
Washington street west there was an unbroken forest. Suite street had been 
cleared of trees, but the stumps were remaining. The forest came almost to the 
we^t line of tlie street, between Ann and Brown streets. On the west side of 
Kiehange street a small framed building stood perched on a high ledge of stone 
about wher« Allen & Seymour's bo«3k -store now is ; farther west was a dwelling- 
house OD the site of the Bank of Rochester; then on south there was oceasion- 
ally a Bmall building. On the west side of this street buildings. A yard saw-logs occupied the ground of Child's basin. On .N'orth Fiiihugh street 
there was no settlctuent rmrth of the site of the Baptist ,\ ciirt^ 
track then led north to adjacent wcwds From North Sophia street, oa west be- 
yond Washington, an ash swamp filled with water the most of the year. The 
Iting pendent moss from the bouirhs of the trees in this swamp presented a pie- 
lureS4|ue appearance. The land south of Troup street was a fore-t. On the east 
»idc of the river was a cluster of houses on .Main and South Paul streets. From 
i'linton street east, from Mortimer north, and from Jackson south, was mostly 
fon-itt. A black walnut-tree of magnificent proportions stood on the north part of 
I'liblin. not far nortbe-ast from the falls, and attracted many visitors. ' In the 
vi-ar following Chapin bought and cleared land on Troup street. A winding path 
led Ihniugh the woods to ■'Spring street, and the wild doer were seen on his clearing. 
-\ picture thi.s not rich in coloring : nature, never lavish of her gifts, presented here 
a 6ltiug field for the eiercise of human iutelligcnec. 


Four yean had elapsed since Hamlet Scrantom had completed his log liousfi 
built u|H>n the lot of Henry Skinner. Regun durim: a time of war. it tenaciously 
held ii!« footing until, with the dawn of peace, it awoke to a magical increase of 
pnr.|n.rity, popularity, and population. The demand for oneclassof settlers called 
I'T a correspondence of others. Individual enterprise found free sway, social in- 
•liiutiuns sprang up in response Ui appaicnt c.iU. and the infant city put on the 
apparel nf childhood. Xa .ict of incorporation wa.s,-ed by the legislature in 
■Vpril, 1817, and the vilKige received the name of Rochestcrville, in honor of Na- 
thaniel Rochester, its founder. 


5, and five trustees were cho.«en under the nc 
Fn,ne„ Bn.WM, Evera.d Peck. Paniel Mack, 
Fran, i- Bruwn w,i3 made pre>i.l.nt, lla-lin-- 

election was held. Me ^^ra. Cobb and Barnard retired after the first year, and were 
succeeded by Isaac Colv in and Ir.i West. Moses Chapin became clerk f.r the bvard 
during IHIS, while F. F. Backu.s continued treasurer until the sprinrr of 
ISliy, — an example of trust and confidence repovnl by the populace in an able 
and reliable citizen, a worthy and estimable man. Time ha, sped on. and a!! the 
members of that village council of 1S17 have cros.nJ the my.stic river of death. 
In the first year of vilhige existence Isaac Colvin, Hastings R. Bcn.Ier. and 
Daniel D. Ha'teli served as first assessors, and Ralph Lcstor as collector and con- 
stable. Security against firca wa.s an early precaution ; every citizen was reiiuired 
to be supplied with fire-buckets, ami arrani:ciuents were made for hi>oks, ladders, 
and the paraphernalia of a tire department. The t'ollowing, Roswell Hart, M'iliis 
Kempshall, John G. Bond, Abner Wakelee, and Francis Brown, were the fir>'t tire- 
wardens, all iif whom were changed at the next election. -\t a meeting held on 
June ID there was voted a •• tax of three hundred and fifty dollars for defraying 
expeuses of corporation, for procuring tire-hooks and ladders, and to take uther 
pre<?autionary measures to guard against the destructive ravages of fire in said vil- 
lage, and to cut a ditch from the swamp or slough westward of the dwelling-liouie 
of A. Reynolds sulEcicntly high up to completely drain the swam|. and continue 
down said swamp, pa'v^ing the dwelling of Willis Kemp.-.hall, thence to the meadow 
of Thom:i3 Mumford near the river; and, further, to cut another ditch from the 
low grounds in the rear of the dwelling of David H. Carter, so as to drain the 
waters, which now settle there and stagnate, into the river, and further SL-ek the 
health and safety of the village." Measures, these, initiatory t.i vast enterprises 
which have followed, and typical of the New Ein:land chanicter. 

In 1817, D. K. Carter associated with Abner HoIUsUt and built the old man- 
sion, the first three-story building ever erected in the place. In this .structure the 
first Masonic lodge in Rochester was instituted, and was known as Wells Lo<lge, 
No. 2S-. Another society, known as Hamilton R. A. Ch.apter, was organi2ed in 
the spring of 1S19. 


Matthew and Francis Brown had the previous year finished a mill-canal on the 
west side of the Genesee at the head of the ^eat falls. U was ffuarried through 
a rock a leni'th of eighty-four rods, a width of thirty feet, and a depth of three feet, 
and formed their mill-race, and furnished power to the cotton factory and to many 
another establishment. From this canal the water has a fall of nearly one hun- 
dred feet. The name of Elisha Johnson is prominently and closely dissociated 
with improvements of like and more extensive chai-acter. He w;is ason of Captain 
Ebenezer Johnson, a pioneer of the county of Chautaut|ue. and brother to I>r. 
Johnson, one of the leading founders of Bufi*alo. Prures,-ionatly an engineer, he 
became later known as a constructor of the tunnel of the Genesee Valley canal, 
at Portage, and in 1S38 was mayor of Rochester, and in 1S44 .in elector for 
president and vice-president. Mr. Johnson came from Canandaigua to Rochester 
and bought the greater portion of Enos Stone's farm, the scene of the bear-fight, 
situated at the first fall, on the east side, and opposite the Rochester tract. This 
purcb;ise included the land lying between North street and the river, some eighty 
acres of which are now a compact, solidly-built Section of the city. For this 
property ten thousand dollars were paid, and the whole tract was laid out in vil- 
lage lots. Work was begun to construct a dam across the Genesee near 'by the 
old fording-place, and a large mill-canal was excavated from that p-iint to the 
bridge. The work was some sixty or more nxls long, sixty feet wide, and four 
deep. Aided by Oraon Sheldon and other energetic citizens of Canaudaitua, an.! 
at an expense of twelve thousand dollars, the enterprise was consummated, and 
extensive water privileges were furnished and have continued down to the present. 
It was bargained with Enos Stone to construct a niceway on the, norh 

to the Ci 

i:uard-lock i 

[icrty of to-day, and to build : 

This raco was constructed as far dowu as the mill of William 
.\tkinson, now the mill owned and occupied by C. J. Hill & Son. .Much jKiwdcr 
was consumed in lifting the great .quantities of solid rock necessary to make the 
water-course, and this iitirU of broken stone was dumpci into the nvcr. fi.c 
mill of Mr. Atkinson, havini: three run of stone, was the first one built on the 
race, and the first water that was used let into his flume his whceLi. 
Messnj. Atkinson and J.)hnson, and many otheta, celebrated this event as one oi 
great importance to both vill.T.-c and the country. Atkinson s mill w.-vs followed 
during this season by those of Eli.-ha B. Strong, Heman N..rt«ii, an<i E, Ikaeh, 
with four run of stone, and situate.l at the upper step of the Icw.r f.dU 
Later ownel^ wer.' I!o.,ker, i Griffiths, an.l Georirc -A -Vv.ty ami 
Philip TlmrL.r I'niin- the n. it year P.dnoT Clev.'land built ih.- mill .n ill. 

, Ke 

au.l 1 

v.. Sc ( 

A Gi 

i.l hid 
.■ t.. five 



r the brink of the i 

; the structure waa of four stories besides 

wooden buildiuj « 

and a hilf bv fiftj-( 
ind a l^alf hi'.-h, anc 

Its iuau.Tiai was 

by thirty-eight f« 


These worlis brought in a rush of populatiun, and made 1817 a marked da^e 
ia the calendar of the city. Such lucci as ."^mith. Keynnhis, Stoce, 3Ia.-:ick, Ben- 
der, Johnson, Biisel. and the Brumis laid lartre plans for mechanical wnrks, mer- 
chandising and millini:. and ;niy othrr enterprise that pruini->c<l well to the newly- 
founded Ti!Lr.:e ; and tlicy were j-iined. and their efforts i4*condfd. by busine^ men 
like Roswull Hart, Sesh :>aN-toa, B..nd A Hatch, WiUiaui Pitkin^ Childs, 
Jacob Graves, Samuel Works, Levi Ward. Jr., William Cnbb. and many another 
citizen who had hoped for ju.-t ."^uch an activity. Cupper, tin, and sheet-iron bnsi- 
ness was started by Ebenczcr Watts, and received in time the a idiiiuu of a large 
hardware cstablishnictit. ,11; Shi.-ldoa euL'nired in the sumo hu3ine:>s pureuit, 
and second to Mr. Ileynolds in saildlery and harness-making was Pelatiah, brother 
to Ira West. John Shethar was also in the .«ame trade. Following the Colvins, 
John aud WiUiani Ilaywu^id were the second firm engaired in the raiinufacture of 
hats. Jacob Graves and Samuel ^Vork3. arriving from Vermont, bounht out the 
Email tannery of Kcllu.-.- \'o-liurgli, and engaged in a b'lsiness which, as cirried 
00 by Graves & Sons, was an industry of great magnitude. Tlie manufacture of 
looking-glasses was begun in 1S21, by John II. Thompson. The early tailors 
following Barnard, and the first to do any considerable business, were Smith and 
Holdcn. Early master-builders were Daniel Mack, the Kings, Robert and Jona- 
than, Phelps Smith, and Philip Allen. Pioneer coopers were Charles .^I.t^oc and 
Eggleston. The first to start a shoe store was Abner Wakelee. .Jae>jb Gould 
waa a pioneer at the busiue?s, and his establishmenf and that of Geonre (jouid i 
Co, kept pace with the growili of the viUare. Seven lawyers, attract*^d by the 
location and ppjspccts of Koche-iter\ ille. had made tl.i? rheir rccidcr.oc. The 
Genesee river was the boundary line between the counties of Ontario and Genesee, 
and courts were held at Canand.iigua and Batavia. These lawyers wore John 
Mastick, Hastings U. Bender. An-on House, Roswell BaKbitt. Knos Pomeroy, 
Jof«ph Spencer, and Moses Chapin. Mastick, the pioneer, died in l.^liS. Bender 
was from Venuout, a Darlniuuth graduu'e. House was known better as a busi- 
neaa man than as an attorney. He was the founder and owner of the Minerva 
block. Babbitt wius from Lewis county, and d;..>d at Saratoga Sprin?^ about 1330. 
Pomeroy was of Massachusetts. Later in hi« life he became a r* .sidcnt upon a farm 
io Brighton. Joseph Spencer, cf Connecticut, was son of Isaac Spencer, at one 
time State treasurer. He graduated at Vale, and began practice here in 1S16; 
was a State senator, and died about IS.-IO ; and Chapin was a Vale graduate, beiraQ 
practice at Rochester in 1,'^ltj, and wfc the first judge of Monroe from l.S:i5 to 
1829, and a member of th-: Pioneer Society of 18 17. .Ashley Samson, of Vermont, 
came to the village in ISIO, and was twice appointed first judge of Monroe. 
Among the phyiiciins of Uocheslcrville were Frederick F. Backus, a permanent 
resident from 1S16, and conspi.uous among the city fathers: Joiin B. Klvcn-d. a 
resident since January, 1?17. ;itid for t\vu-s'.s.;re year- held emini'ni.e in h's pro- 
fession and influence in society. The first s^'ttlcd physician "ullowing Dr. Eiww.d 
duriog'thc Siime year w.xs Anson Coleman. Otiier plivsician.s later in the village 
were Drs. 0. E Gihbs, Wilkenson, Oyer Eicsworth, Jonah lirjwn: and occasional 
practitioners were Mattlvcw Brown ami the elder Ensworth. ComS.rt Williams, 
noted as the first rcsid<:il clergyman, was the purchxscr of fur v .icrcs in woods, on 
what later was known .as .Mount Hope avenue, and was next after C«rt.;r and Scran- 
was sold out in city lots by Chas. II. Williams, a «u.. The Carter tract near by 
was owned by Lyman >!unger. by whom the early improvemi nt.» of that incality 
were made. John Odcll and Harvey Mont^nmnry were of ihc early merchants. 
In 1S17 there were not twenty acres of cleared ground on th. Brighton side. Of 
the residents were Aaron Newton, .Mc^s,... Hall, ajid Ebemzer Titus Along Saint 
Paul street was a growtli of hemlock, spruce, and c.\lar. and the woods 
were close in every direction. Two brothers, named McC'acken, came to the 
Ticinity of Batavia about ISDj. and left for Uocl„?5tcr s-jon after thc_war. A 
tract of hnd purcha.-«Hl by Dr. David Mtl.Vacken. on the river, near Di-ep 
Hollow, is now included in the city. William J. McCrackcn. a tavern-kcvper in 
Frankfort, Charles .Millcrd, Henry Draper* and Elliott, were landlords of the early 

We have named .VIdrich and Isaac Colvio as the pioneer hattcra in a buiidinir 
where now on State stre<t stands the stnne block of stores owmsl l.v M.irtin 
Briggs. They had a sfn- later "up in the villaL-c." on ,<:.itc street.' n. ,r tl... 
comer of BulTalo. The C.lvins were l^uakcrs. and in 1>^1; r..rmcd a -M,„-y aod 
opcne<l their huiisi.-s f.r ueckly mcctinL's, Mci'tiiiL'S wen; lul-l eat ii Kriii.iy. and 
Daniel Quimby. of Henrietta, a venerable old man in broad-brimmed hat, drab 

clothes, and white neck-tie, came regularly, regardlirss of the weather, on httrse- 
back to the meeting. The Colvins were among the first Frienils who bon:;ht tli.; 
lot, and in 1,H'J2 built the first Quaker meeting-house, next Deacon Sa'je's. ..i. 
North FitzhugU street. That old building, wherein the s.xes sat on opp-.-it,. 
sides awaiting the movini: of the Spirit, has disappeared. In l.S3t the numlj(r 
of families in the Fricnd.s' society was about thirty-five. Th-ir hours of wor-hi|, 
were at eleven a..\i. on the first and fifth days of each w,;ek. Thev had no ri-.:u- 
larly scttle<l preachers.- As a result of discussions wherein the name of 
Hicks was of fret^uent use, another society, known as Orthodox Friends, nas 
formed in 1S2S In ISJS the ttuseees of this latter bram:h society were Jesse 
Evans, Siliis Cornell, and L. Atvvater; those of the other society were Samuel 
Post aud Joseph Green. 


The village area of abiut seven hundred and fitly acres had on Julv 4. 1S17. 
a population such that, joined in by the villagers on both sid.:s of the river and 
the towns outride, there was made quite a memorable celebration. U[mn the site 
of the recent theatre on the e:ist bank a long arbor was built ; beneath, ruimioL' 
the entire Icm.'th, were enacted rough board tables, whereon a good dinner 
served. The principal women concerned in this public repast were .Mrs. E. Stone, 
Culver, Hall, O. W. Stone, Ely, Scrantom, Johnson. West, and Mack, then in 
life's prime, now departed to the laud of rest. Seated at the long table, Elisha 
Johnson was at one end, Enos Stone at the other ; Rev. "Williams said grace. 
Then tame toxsts, honored by the discharge of twenty blasts put down in the 
race by Mr. Johnson. The first toast was, '• Our country— may prosperitv attend 
her!" Two blasts touched off caused the woods t*) resj-und, and cheers, livelv 
given, followed. The day was fine, and when the last blast, deeper in the rock 
and heavier charged, was fired, the brpoming sound died away in the forest an.i 
ail uuiYOuteu silence foiiowed; ttie owfs hoot, the foxs bark, the wolfs howl, 
were not heard, — the blasts from Johnson's raceway had awed them to silence. 


The village of Rochcsterville wa? of such promise by l.Sl'.l that the affii 
"ville" was removed, and childhood had entered upon youth. •' Coming events 
cast their shadows before," and the outlines of events for the years 1.^13, I81D. 
and 182ii. in commercial, public, religious, and benevolent measures, were true 
indices of the future. 

A perusal of the vilhige records shows a youthful vigor and a Franklin's pru- 
dence in ordinances for health, travel, trade, convenience, and security o!' propertv. 
On May 7, 1813, Matthew Brown, Jr.. Roswcll Hart, William 'p. Shernion. 
Moses Chapin, Daniel Mack, and H. R. Benson were appointetl street patrol, and 
from time to time appropriations made for defraying resultant An 
aqueduct w;is begun in December. ISIO, starting from the flume of the grist- 
mill of Rus-ell i Ely, extending to the central junction of Buffalo and Carrod 
streets, and continued and improved by later appropriatious. 

On .May 1. 1S20, a compensation of twenty dollara was voted to each village 
trustee for services during the preceding two years. These puhlic-spirited men 
relinquished the claim, and upon the hooks is iuscrihod a record of the (han'^s of 
the village for pre.-ent liberality and fur able and faithful discharge of dutv. 
Acts looking to the purchase' .md preparation of a burial-ground, for the cunsiruc- 
tion of public uells and of st.ine sidewalks, to purchase a hearse, to build a hospital. 
and to erect a public m.irket. rcvt-al the emblematic meaning of the corpnration 
seal, — an arm with a hand grasping a hammer. It would be pleasurable and in- 
structive to trace the origin and ilevelopinent of the city as indicated by her 
records ; but the open field — broad, rich — claims its measure. 



As a d.aring feat in the ci 
fate, and ruins. — the Cartli 
named Elisha B. Strong as the proprietor of Carthagi 
EILsha Beach. Heman Norton, and Francis Aibridit^ i: 
pany to erect a brid- 

f bridges — interesting in view of i 
is an antiquity of Rochester. W, 


Hi / . . .- 

<i^*^5f ^.^.^ ^-.-^'^ ^^^^^y~^ '^^^ 


fret on each side of it. The 
, L-<>niit iitii by brateJ Ifvelt-rs 
i'^ injii bolts. The tctit of the 

leasure. besides 

braces at the extn-aiitioa of the arch projet-t fifteen 
ari.h conaisc*:d of oine rlls, two feet f.uir inchc:f thivi 
above and bi;!ow, und sec-ureil by elirht hundrud stru 
arch rcst*.-d upoQ the solid rock, about sixty loet b 
bank. It contained seventy thousand feet of timber, i 
sixty-four thou.-^nd six hundre*! and twenty fc-et of boarl measure. It waa built 
upon a Gothic anh. the vcirex ttf wlitch was about twenty feet below the floor of 
the bridge, and wad, in point of mt'chanical iuircnuity, as L'reat a curiosity a:* the 
bridp? itself. The famous bridire at ;>chaft hausen. riwiiz.erland. which stood for 
fifty years the pride of the Eastern world, was hut twelve ftet loniitT span than the 
bridge at Carthage. The most lofty single an h at present in Eurupe is one hun- 
dred and sixteen feet less length, and the arch is less in heidit by one liundn.d." 
The completed lirbK£e was re;rarded as secure, and loaded teams with more than 
thirteen tons' wei'jht pa-<sed ovlt on it without eauslui; a trt-mor. This work, *> 
creditable to the projectors and to the in^-nuily of the builders, stood a year and 
a day. The day saved the builders ios-*, a.s their ;:;uanintee was for one year. 
The great wei;jht of timber, not braced to prevent an up\iMrd sprin-.; of the arch. 
threw it from its c«iuilibrium, and it fell with a cnu^K to the waters below; but 
one who saw it tall was alive in ifOJ. and he, Ru^^lI Green, bad then become a 
resident of a weBiern State. A few old timbers mark ihe site of that remarkible 
and temporarily m:t£:nifi" cnt brtdLre. At this place the att^-mpred founders of 
Carthage built a public house opened by Ebenezer Spear. Uarvey Kimball and 
Oliver Strong started stores, and Levi H. Clark loGited there as a lawyer; but, 
like its famous namesake, its name and fame have becvime historic. Time was 
when Hooker, Trowbridge, Hart, and others gave life and means to improvement. 
when the Carthage railroad ran-from the Water .-treot niilU to the bank at Car- 
thage, and discharged freight and pa^-sengers to the river's level with the lake by 
means of a truck, over an iDclined plane. 


The steamboat '• Ontario" commenced running from Sackctt's Harbor to I^wis- 
town in 1813. and touched at the i^ort of Genesee, t^trnng k Albright built a 
mHl having four run of stone at Carthage, and yet the attempted rival of R'xh- 
ester lived in expectation and exists as a project not realized. The year ISIS 
was a bu=;y season in llochester. New measures were begun, older ones com- 
pleted. Night and day the flonr-mills ran. and a few huudred> in place of former 

the lake began 
by canal packe 

■iness and 
• river-banl 

flcoTCS were end-avoring to make proviMou fi 
niodation vf families. Gihnan k Sibley built : 
a site long occupied by J. Hall in the manufacture of ihreshing-machioes. The 
Browns beg-an their Frankfort mills. Palmer Cleveland bcgau his prepiiratlons fur 
a mill, and Colonel R<)chester. taking up his residence here, confirmed expecu- 
tion and gave an inspiration tu public and priv.xte work. In the fdl of 1619. 
Frazsr & Sheldon opened a hardware store on ^tate street, where Scrantom k 
Wctmore have their book store. They removed in IS--* to a site near the grocery 
of Smith il Perkins. The store of Frazer i Sheldon was of brick ; the front was 
painted red, lines were drawu diagonally and c.oiscd. f -rming diamond shapes, and 
this utructure was advertised as the '■ checkered store." The firm dissolved. Joaiah 
Sheldon purchased a lot north side of the canal, fronting on Exchange street, and 
built a lonir, large stone stmcture. extcndinir through to the street near the First 
PrftsVytcrian cliurth.the whole roof sloping south. The building was constructed 
of Hi ne fmm the foundation and from the river-bed. and was used on the Ex- 
change front for an iron and hardware store, the rear for .'■toracre and manufacture. 
The under story fmnting the canal wa.^ divided into stures and rented, but Sheldon 
lost hi^ money, left the stone store, which lately burnt, and ultimately was laid to 
n-t in the nccrojwlis of Ilocliester— the Mount Hope Cemetery. 

the best steamboaLa 

choice of convcyan 

westward by raiiro^d U) ii.itavi:i. 

tain Van Clcve ; (he '-Traveler." ' 

regular boatd. and others made it 

bound up, down, or across the lake. 

to touch at this port, and travelers had a 
, like steamboat. Kidire-road stai'es, muX 
SoS the dteambuat " United States,' Cap- 
air, Sutherland, and the " Oswego. " were 
ible to find a boat any day at Reehester 


from the Genesee river for the Canada mark, 
was asfoiluws: In IhlS. fluur. 20,000 barr 
rels ; pork. 1173 barrels ; whisky. 190 barrels 
with smaller quantities of other articles, bad 
of 1S19, durinc: the se;ison of navi-nt 

. fur the years 1818-20 inclusive, 
s; pot and pearl ashc-, otjoo bar- 
doubie-butt staves, L'U.Ono, which, 
value of ;5:iS0,00O. The expi.rts 
a,li4S barrels of flour. 1451 
of pork, and 3073 of pot and pearl ashes, tOiicthor with oOO.OUO staves. oO.OoO 
feet S'juare timber, and sundries, giving a {.jtal value of $lOO,onO; ;ind in ISJO 
the exports were of flour, (J7.-IGS b irrel^ ; pot and pearl ashes, 5310 barrels; beef 
and pork, 2643 barrels; whisky, 70'J barrels, and but I7y,00ii staves, the entire 
trade being estimated at S37o,000. Prices fell greatly: fluur brought but two 
dollars and twenty-five cent.s m two dollars .ind fifty cents per barrel ; wheat thirty- 
seven cents per bushel, and corn but twenty cents to twenty-five cents. The year 
1821 saw trade diverted e:istward to better markets, and the low prices in the 
Montreal market ceased to make transportation for the time remunerative. 


The years in question were marked on the part of the villagers by a deep in- 
terest in the great subject of internal improvement. Several of the most influ- 
ential agents in establishing the cauiil-policy were of their number, or lived in the 
adjacent country. The conformation of land, the iiiterlo-.-king of water-courycs, the 

Various parties canvassed the subject of a .-anal from Erie to the Hudson. A 
notable as-semblagc at Canandaigua, on Junui»ry 3, 1S17, refers in eulogistic terms 
to the efforts and language of Myron Hulley. The canal bill passed the as.-embly 
on April 14. The route was uncertaio. and, when the northern course \rjs chosen, 
the particular point where the Gene-^'e would he cro.iied beeuiue a matter of nui- 
siderable moment and much di?ous.^ion. The location had been mads to Monte- 
zuma, when the question had to be decided. It was proposed to cross at Carthage 
and at Black creek, and. while the uncertainty prevailed, a route by Oswego, 
I.^c Ontario, and a canal .iround the Niagara Fall> w;u advocated and received 
with a degree of favor. News came to Rochester that the canal board were 
undecideil to take the land or the lake route. The citizens heard the report with 
alarm, and a meeting was called in the couuting-roum of Tuhn G Euud. which 
resulted in a handbill drawn up by Eiios Pomcroy, signt>d bv uunv ci:iz"u-'. 
printed, and circulated broadcast over the entire region. This Rochester hand- 
bill, issued just before the State election, and favoring (he L-lection of I'o ^Vitt 
Clinton as governor, and of his friends to the legislature, in its earnest appeal 
to maintain the local interests in the west, probably decided the contest. The 
vote was close, as the contest had been determined. This handbill, entitled 
" Canal in Danger,'* as a matter of interesting reference at a period when a n. w 
and powerful agency outstrips the packer, as it had rcndcivd ohsok-te the stiu'e- 
coachand Penn^vlvania w;i'j')n. becomes historical. It was >ii:ned bv Rnswc!! Ifar:. 
Thomas Kemp^h.dl. Ira West, Russell Enswnrth. Ralph Paikor. diaries' J. Hill. 
D. I>. Hatch, J. Ludden, Benjamin and En-.s Blossom, John G. B-nd. Diarl.^s 
Harfljrd, Anson House, Solomon Close. Oliver Culver, Enos Stone. Azel Ens- 
worth, and Samuel J. Andrews,— Rochester's ablest and best men. 


■ railroad, river and lake were the dependence for trans- 
^■ate^s of the (jeucsce were of no slight importance, 
rity the lower part of the river U navigable to the 

)lc vi-ssels of light ilrauglit to asi.cnd a di--t,inee of 
able event when a small steambuat. as noted in town 





and the nav 



north limits 



.• fr..m the so 



Ih of water 


8. It was a 

ouclicd at .^^e 
piie.l l>ctw..« 

hl-l.TT, CTinO up the Gl'UCSM i 

r"""». and for a couple of w; 

••li..i.-.. p-:,in of the Tall.-y :ind 
>>"ill at llie l,.w.-r Ti!Iau-.-H. an.l flour nianuKu-turera of this j.laei-, owiur.;- a num- 
'-t of l„,,,t.,, hrou.^-ht va-t .(oaiituits of whoat to their niilla, Tho «voud sto-.m- 
'-»! to touch u the port of Rochester wxs the •• Martha Ogden.' About ISJO 

Ih-. Avon, Vorl,. and ..ther 
luliestflr and th.^e viILot. 
ladon b..ats wliich h.)re to market the 
.■uniulatod pro,luct.s. \Varohou«es w.-re 

Odc or more ^hmpses backward, and then turn we to the future, golden with 

As rcsiilents of the ol.lcn time are aware, the milla, Ihe churches, the houacii. 
arch, aqueduct, w.^ili, and bridge found their material froul the river-bank luid l).d. 
Swift .xi an exhalation, wiiid as the monuments defying time, It.tehtster ro^e t'rom 

the ground upon which its c 


work., o 

value stand. 

n the old world, . 


eitu.S relapsed t 

) ruin 



if the venoniou 

rep.dc; upon the 


of the Gciiesce 

at the Falls 


do.« of 

serpents have 

given way to a b. 


a>id subst,inlial 

■ity.-the ,i 



ccure. the loeation of public insti 


the happy honi. 

., of an in.h 


us and 

utelligent propl 

Do tlie hi'jli 

In.k ..pp..- 

le t 


is the old i|u; 

rry where the 8t. 


obtau.ed t.. e..o 

iru. t the lira 

t ai 


Joab lirittoD. 

a contractor, brou 


hU men and le: 

uw, put in : 

Qber of 

blasts near the 

top of the bank a 


J yJ^K -<^'^^y -t-f"^ ^^,^^.- iP^^.-^^ -zr/ 



tliem off. The v.orkn,,;!., «l,il^ ilirv,«.nL- ■-■ 
diaJodgtxl • br-e Kh..5.> rcoijval uu-,^io.-<o u tjvicy fillcl \mcIi r.i'.'i«- 
•nik«. The .ii.^coverv w;i3 mj Jc ut the cIo.k' of a culii Dcx-cmbcr d.iy. a;; ! ji! 
hands qui: work. Xcit iii'irnin;,- rha stf.nw wi-re ivniov«l. and witli rjlwi itai.y 
of the U-rpid rcfiilc? irere lifti-d out and thrown down tho bank. The numb.-r 
was »o great that the ni'ws wjs t.iteii to the nilla-e. and all thfl mJc p.ipaljii.-u 
waj tttnicted to the .-^ikjI. U'hiie 3tjndi:i: in doubt, a man drove uj- ^\,rh a 
lumbcr-w3L-on and i'<kod for a number of tlie snakoi. to ..^;t their oil. The cro*d, 
with fork's) stickj. »Hin filled the U.Itom ot' his wajon with nttlc=n;ikei, and, a 
he droTe off into an i.hsourity whit-h hides his n.iuie and the re.-,ult ot his enu;:- 
prisa, 1 shout was rjiied hy the men, who rcturn',-J to the den and cli-aroJ it of 
occupants, s-jme thrown over the bank, .jihers bum.Hl in .i latere lo^-herip fired fjr 
the purjKWC. The story is a verity, ami few of tlie old citizens but bi'ar wiliin;{ 
testimony, aud this icL-tance was but coe of the manv told of that day. 


Reptiles inhabited tlie rocks. ludians camped in the vicinity of the viilauTi, and 
wolves prowled throu^ih tlie^ts surrouiitim?. In IblS-JO a bounry. nr.L'iug 
from SLS. djllars lo ten dollars, was p:iid ler the scalp .>f each wolf tilled in the 
county, end any justice, on presentation of the tmphy, wos authorized to tuake 
the payment. The Indians apparently b<>cnnia very successful in hunting. A 
doien at a time av^mUed at the office of Mi-iick .i Pumeroy. and the magistrate 
▼as astounded t*i find the country so full of wolves. f*u«picion was aroused; 
cxamiDi:tioa followed, and it was discovered that the scalps were mainly of do^, 
and the Indians had furmed a '- rio^ ' to utilize the bounty. 


The building on the lot No. 1 was, io 1318, moved back, and used as a stable 
for a large wooden house, built on the comer, and named the Ensworth house, 
after the proprietor. Dr. Azcl Ensworth. Adjitiuns were put on, and boarders 
"Were numerous. Liter an attic was tuilL and this was the first room in Rochester 
tLsed for a puhlic hall. ^\'lIether for hiW. lecture, theatre, or concert, its services 
Tvere reijuired, and. in 132-1. Philip Phillips therein rave the first concert heard 
in the city. The buil.lin;; was removed in 1^20. rr.d A. M. Seheraierhom. on iis 
aite, built the tjgle hotel, known £ir and wide liny years as a popular rcsnri of 
the public. The first landlord. >Ir. Crane, was succeeded by K. H Van Rens- 
selaer, nephew of the Albany patro*5D. He was followed by Coleman and Stets-ni. 
jouoger brotlier of the A.-'tor and the Coleman iu New York. Tltese men si.iyed 
a brief period, and pive place, on .lanuary 1, 'l-i'J. to Hall and Thomj-jQ. 
Thompson retired, and I. M. Hall, in IS4'J. passt-d the hotel to S. D. Walbridi^e. 
■who became its puRhas«T and hndlord till lilJ3. when it was changed tn a bu.'incss 
block. Excavations for the present noble structure were made iu ISGS, and the 
vork was completed in September, 1372. 


As an evidence of > religious faith in God and Heaven, and a true indc.t of 
the culture and refinement of the people, a J-abbath. school was first organized at 
Eochester in the summer of ISlS, with thirty pupils, and. save a lew months 
aAer its original establishment, baa continue-d to the present. The plan at first 
adopted was a stimulus for each pupil to loam the largest possible number of 
Terses. Many would memorize ten to twelve hundred versos per week. The 
number of pupils in IS ID was one hundred and twenty, and in 1S20 one hun- 
4lred. There was no superintendent durin-j anv of these years. The school was 
held in the old near St. Luke's church, and was directrtl, amon;^ 
others, by Messrs. Peck and Schoficld. The pioneer school, after a few w-cks, 
vu closed on account of cold weather, but resume-J. and. as will I« hcn-aUcr 
abowD, had a growth which has made the at^oncy potential to the be^i interests 
of the churches. 


"The future who can tell? This spot m; 
mart, or — a wilderness again. The pn.«cnt a| 
fancy, promi-w; that here the bb-^sinja of piet; 
civilizjtion and lilnTty. may be long enji.y.ii 
in the n-ions of prob.ibiiity, we may ,ve ri^ii 
Utor^, philoAophcrs and hero,?*, who ••b ill .id, 
kind." Thus sp.kc the Rev. J„-.-,,h Penny, i 
of the cuTOcr stone of the Fir»t Presbyterian 

fr^.m tin., pi lee di' 

bins of the 

fionex-r s 

.ige d 

t in a Lt,.i 

t tide of I 

nular iner 


in n 


tn ere-et a 



ty fro 



■cess a law er 



.so. and Nj 



an.H b 

• buildin-s 



his deceav, he »aw a realization. The ye: 
to exertion, a,id aatonLibing results. Mill, 
the space for description, and t! 
ever. A furore of emigration brought 
buildings went up by hundreds with ai 

Fruni 1:^18 efforts had been nude 
towns of Ontario and the cistern of 
on February 20 the Siatc le'jislaiuro p 

Monroe. Morris .S. Miller, Robert ri. Ruse, anu .-latnan n luiams otin'.; ap|» 
commissioners for the location 
lot donated for the purpose by Roehester, Fitzhiiirh, and Carroll, the eonier-.ston.. 
of the first court-house was laid on the 4th of September. Court was hel.l m 
the house of Azel Ensivorth, but no issues were trieil. 

The (^oal was laid to eni..v3 the Genesee at Rochester, upon an a,|iie«luet iIkh 
considered s great work. Joab Critton was hired to '^l out anti furnish .stone, 
and engaged the labor of thirty convicts from the Auburn Slate prison. T|„. 
work on the ajueduot was begun by the contmctor, Alfred Hovey, on July 17. 
1322, and completed September 11, 1S2:!. The e-ost of this work was ei-hty- 
three thou.sand dollars, and from a census taken in September, l.-s22. four hundn-d 
and thirty hborers were employed upon public works in the village. The ul.l 
aqueduct has passed away years ago, and lei\ behind slight, if any. reminder; I,m 
viewed in the light of those times it held rank, as fir-st in inteiv^t and im^s,rtaiKi-. 
and is entitled to a brief description a^ given by its .superintending eivil en'_'in,-vr 
' This stupendous fabric is built on a ritl of the falls, about ei-hty rods south ol 
the great fill. The Erie canal approaches the river from the east upon a steep. 
bold bank, at wh'isc fo.:it ran a raeeway. This artificial water-way wxs plansj 
outsi-de the canal, till, at crossing, it is pas.sed under on an arch of tweiity-sij 
feet chord. The river is surreounted bv the race, the race by the Erie canal, and 
the canal by the table-land, on whose edu-e is a main thorouglilare of 1-aist Roches, 
ter. The aqueduct, between extremities of parapet walls, is eight huudied and 
four feet long, and is built on eleven arches; the one named, nine of fit'ty t'lst 
chord, and one on the west, side of thirty feet, umler wliieh water for mills and 
manufactories in West R.Khester The structure rests on solid loek. The 
pier^ are thirty-six feet long, ten wide, and ornauieuted. The height of piers and a half feet, rise of arch eleven fe^l. thickness at the f.s.t three, and at 
the apex two and a half feet. Parapet walls are five and a half feet high. The 
whole building is of cut stone, many of which are of great size. In-n Ifolfs 
trenail them to the rock, and the m.iss has immense strength. The material i» 
red sandstone, the pilasters and coping of gray siliceous limestone. The iioilh 
wall is suiEcieiitly thick for a tuwing-path, and the whole b> of most soiid and 
elegant workmanship. With pride the citizen regarde'J this strueture; yet the 
soul of man, never content, soon found occupatiuu in the planning and execution 
of other and greater achieveuicnls. 


The construction of the canal rendering this the punt of shipment, the nenr-- 
sity of warehouses was apparent, and their buildiiit; b,"_'an. The .Jatk.""' 
Leavitt i Hill was the irst structure of the kind built in the vill;,-..- 
C. J. Hill and Andrew V. T. I -avitt were leading merehants on the n.'Ol. 
side of Buffalo, near the bridge. During 1S21. Hill ciuscil a warehouse t" I-- 
erected near the present weigh-loek. The building was seventy-five by one linn 
dred feet, and the frame was corrcsiwndingly strong. J. Jackson beiaiue a j'lrt 
oer, and the following notice appcaroJ in the Roch'sUr Te/ejruj^U >•( March 1 1. 
1322 : 

Stnraje on the Erir Cnutl. at Ri^lualer. — The subscribers are ismipletin- i 

, bisi 

side of the G 
1 re-:eive pn,p,-rty 

in store, destined for tin- ea-i. 

JaCKSOS, LF..VV1TT i lllLI.. 

iiiflide of the prir^e 
and northern mark< 

Later, Jamas Seyuiour became a partner, and the firm were in eonncetion wH i 
8. DeonLsoQ A Co., at llanfonis Unjin-.-. the great p.)int for norlheni and *'■■" 
ada trade. J. S.-yniour the Sr-t sheriff of .Monroe, and lor y.-ar< wa- pr^-i 
dent of the old Bank of Rochester. .Mr. ilill is the oUcst miller in R,ch.-n ' 
and the s-ile survivor of that company to enga.-e in the lanal trade, .^i 
one time the larv'C warcroom.s were neariy tile-d with fce»l sliipp. d tlirou-h il" 
canal by the N,.rthw.-st Caii.d,|.anv. The was h.iallv lemot.^l ••■ 


olUTt » ■• 

the sesond built: it-t 

.-! M the f..-. 

and was used =s a .list 

ril i.lii.s d.<|H 

Evan, and V>-ilHjm G 





lU'l a •ourcc of private rtvei 
lu^ioi-^ June in tUe shipcuei! 
wrtt loiJ north siJcj ut tlia 

CMM'h basio WJ3 thf early miH-y^rJ of 
oniplftcd, '.lie Ljairi bocutue a publu btinlit 

Liryc wjrcliuusfS wcro LiiiU, and a heavy 
ro»j<U, ^rain. and pot anil pearl allies. The 

were almost siitiilly uecupicl by stores and 

Mont^ruQjerv epvti_>d aiiiU with 
•, Harvey Kly built milU at the fir>t 
: of produee sank low ; flour duritii; 
barrel, and in March three dollars and 

Thomiw 1(. Koihcster and H 
lhr« run of *tone, and, in the jarae year, 
fJU, with four Pin of stone. The priee 
January and February was four dollar 
«'H-nlv-5ve cents. — the tide was at its lowest ebb. 

The ;;«niu3 of Boi-hester waj early manifested by the patents ori;nnaunir in 
ihi" city. Prior to ISllO, nearly ;ne Uuudrctl nml n/'y patents had been -panted 
to her ciliicns. The first recorded patents bear date ISlil, and arc John G. 
Vou?lif» pill?, and Kli..ha Ku-.-les ,<i,.w's fire-tenders. On the :;!ith of (X-to- 
brr.l.^i-. the first cjnal-boat loft tlie b.isiu for Little FjlU, on the Mohawk; 
the aqueduct bi-ing incomplete, and the canal navisrible no fartlier than t!ie point 
named, eastward. The boat was loaded with flour, and tlie c-.inal trinsponalioQ b.^r-'O. ^n February 5 \%T1. the mills of Kochcster and Carthage took in 
terea ihouiond bushels of wheat. — a fact -^fioaking rolumea for the ^cat interest 
which made lU-chL-ster famous for the number of its niiiis, the quantity of mana- 
fecture, and the superior excellence of its f.onr. A censuj ukcn in September 
pTc a permanent population of two thousand seven hundred. The third house 
fur public worship was built by the Friends, and the fourth, a brick chapel, was 
commenced by the Methodists. The Female Charitable Society met February 
26, 1822, and or^nized ; its object, the relief of the poor, suk, and distressed. 
and the establishment of a charily school. At the end of five years, forty chiU 
dren had b«n admitted to gratuitous instruction, Mrs. Saddler beini the teacher 
in charge. A v.-hooi-house wis erected by the society on Franklin street, upon a 
lot donated by William Fitzhuzh. 

The first band in Ri-vhester was formed in the spring of ISit. The first meelr- 
ing was held at Reynolds' tavern, and arrangements made to procure instruments 
from Utica. Preston Smith wa.s cho!?cn leader. Members were Joseph Stone, 
Bradford King, Edwin Scrantora. Jehiel Barnard. Perkins. Preston Smith. L. L. 
Miller," James Caldwell, Jedediah Staiiord. Mc("»«>n.'e, builder of St. Lute's 
church, Nathaniel T. Rochester, Sclkrc-, Myron Strong. Emstus Ciot. who 
brought the first piano to Rochester. Jonathan Packard, Samuel W. Lee, Horace 
L Sill, who, with his brother Geor^'e G.. openeil the first book-store, .\ltVed 
Jaiim, Alpheus B;aiham, Levi W. Sibley, and Isaac Loomis. The band m^t 
for practice at the Clinton house, Exchange street, and instruction was girea by 
Ocorge Pyer. 

In 1827 the first directory of Rochester was published by Elisha Ely, — a basis 
of tit aubsof^uent histeiry ; practically not in existence save a copy or two. A 
Tirw of the village and its advancement, as therein shown, will be of ir.u-rest at 
this period of ita records. The othcers of the corporation contain the names of 
M. Brown, Jr., president of the board of tru-itees; Uufus Beach, clerk and at- 
torney; and V. F. Backu.s, treasurer. The lire departc.ent ten wardens. 
Samnel Works was chief engineer, and there were two en^ime companies' and one 
book-and-ladder company. Daniel D. Hatch was foreman of Xo. 1. David C. 
Wert of No. 2, and Isaiah Tower, Jr., of the hook-and-bdder company. 

There had grown up ten reliL-ious 5.x-ieiies, and seven houses of public worship 
hn< bo.-n built. Most of the societies supporte/i a Sabbath-school. There were 
«.-vrn benevolent societies, namely, the Female Charitable Society, numbering one 
hundred and forty-three, having tor president Mrs. J. K. Livinu-ston. and .Miises 
Kwin;^ and Stone superintendent's of the school. The Monroe County Bible 
Si-cicty, 'I'incent Matthews, pr.:sident; Levi Ward, Jr., tr-'-aiUrer ; and office in 
ll.<- cuntlng-room of William H. W.rd >t Co.. Carroll ^trect. The .Monnx: 
CiMinty Missionary Society, fonncd July 11. 1S2S, with Ira West, president; 
f J. Hill, treasurer; and Ev'cranl Peck, secretary. Tiic FemJe Misi>ionary 
^4 iely. The Female Benevolent and .Vul.liary .Mi^.sionary S.«;iety of St. Luke's 
tbunh, formed February 23, ItJJT, .Mrs. Elisha Johii.-on, president; .Mrs. W. 
Pitkin, secretary; and )(r3. T. U. Rochester, tnasurer. The Monroe County 
rlj*lH.><pal As-vK:i.ation, onranized in February, 1S2T, and the Monroe County Tract 
»^*i^tT, formed in 1S23. In October, 1S26, the latter was merged in the 
IWhcstcr Tract Society. 

The villa^ had no public library nor seminary of education, but attention was 

k^'ng directed to thcs« wants, and llicy would not Ion; exist. Private and dis- 

^ uSrt ^hchvU had sprun-.: up and muitiplie'd until about twenty were in ofK:ration. 

Klfvrn hiin-tred and fit'tv youth and tluldren here tound in.-trucl^jr* in the v-irioua 

bran. h.-» .if ela-wicMl an.l common cducauon. 

Th.. Frwiklin In-titotc. or..-;iniz<'d Oct. Ur U. l>2lj, for the .-tabli.-hment of 
a nbnry i.f wt.rks ii[«mi arts. S( iencc, and m-inutaetore, of a museum of models 
"t luaehiims. A cabinet of minerals and chemical substaneva was lijroied, in the 


ark it cut a 

a the a 

ts by scent 


tive ind.estt 


member, wc 

belief " that the condition and pro-.|h.-et3 of oi:r i 

demanding jcnlous efforts to establish and i 

to benefit that part of the community en'ji;:p.'d 

advantigcs and plea.iurcsof mcnul cultivation " 

The aJiirs of the [nstitnie were conducted by a committee of seven. The i-otn- 

mittee in 1S27 were Uev. .Io»eph Penney, Rev. F. H. Cumin-, Levi Wanl, Jr . 

Elisha .Johnson, .Jacob J. Gravei, Giles C.lton, and Edwin Stanley. The placw 

of meeting was No. U .Johnson's buihlin^.-, corner of Main and Canal streets. 

Tbere was a lo.lge of .Maswns, a Chapter, and a Knights Templar F.non 

Of newspapers there were four political and misevllaneous. on< 
Christian monthly, viz.: The M;nrr^ R-imUiotn.ihc R'tcUstcr Trl-jrujih. *:om- 
weekly ; the All,u!n, weekly ; R-ichatfr Dnily Adfctiirr, the RocUe./rr ULiirirr, 
semi-monthly; and the Gospel Luminary, monthly. The Rodit.^trr Te/>-^,ii,/i 
was issued weekly for the country, as was the Ruchattr Mercury, published from 
the office of the Duily Advertiser. 

The postolEce. in charge of .-Vbelard Reynolds, was situate-J on Buffalo street. 
At the othce there were re-ceived twenty-six daily, two hundred and ci-hty.iour 
semi-weekly, and six hundred and ninety weekly newspapers. There a daily 
mail from the ca.-.t and west, and mail was received daily from Palmyra and Scotu- 
ville in summer, and thr-je times a week in winter; one mad per week from 
Oswego, and three a week from Batavia, Genesee, and other points. The receipta 
for the fit^t quarter of 1S12 were throe dollars and forty.two cents, and for the 
bst quarter of 1S26 one thousand seven hundred and eighteen dollars and four- 
teen cents. 

The bank of Rochester had been incorporated in 1S24. with a capital of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollar?. Elisha B. Strong was president. A. M. Sehim- 
merhorn, cashier; John T. Tallman, teller and notary; Henry Roser, discount 
clerk; and Levi Burnell, book-keep«r ; and a board of thirteen directors, em- 
bracing the names of the solid and enterprising men so frequently noted in pre- 

It is stated in reference to the popubtion that it was chiefly from New England, 

other States contributing a portion, and a con-siderable number bein^ from tjtr- 

many and Great Britain. The following illustrates the accession of numbers : 

! the first census in 1515,331; ISIS, lOW ; 1S20, 1502; 1S22. 27ilil ; l.;25, 

I 4274; December. 1S26, 7t;C3 ; and January. 1S2S, 10,S13. It is stated as a 

remarkable fact tha 

of Ihr, i-illngt. Til 

population of lU.OOO uut one adult y>ei*on w^is a ua'ttx 
ployment of the' people is indicated by the following 
25 physicians, 2S lawyers, 74 merchants. i'J clerks. S4 
grocers, 33 butchers, 4S tailors, 8 book-binders, 124 shoemakers. 20 hatters. 73 • 
coopers, 23 clothiers, 2tl millers. 21 millwrights, 304 carpenters and joiners, IK 
inn-keepers, 31 printers, 17 coach-makers, 67 bl.icksraith.-i, 14 gunsmiths. lU chair- 
makers, 05 ma.«on3. 25 cabinet-makers, 5 comb-makers, 26 pn'ntcrs. 2i wheel- 
wrights, 21 saddlers, 8 tallow^:handler3, 23 tinners, 2U tanners, 14 bakers, 423 
laborers, 16 goldsmiths. 


The products from the rich regions embraced in the valley of the Genesee were 
brought to Rochester, and thence e.^ported. The export of leadin:r articles t"or 
the years 1S23 and 1S26 are thus contrasted : Flour, 64.114 barrcL-. in 1^23. t.., 
202,(JOU in lS2ii; whe-at, 20.500 bushels in the former year, none in the l.a.-ter; 
pork, 1250 barrels, contrasted with tOIHJ; beef, 528 barrels to 750; pot and 
pearl ashes, in 1826, Odiiii barrels; and whisky. 52,003 gallons, in I.-<23. had 
increased to 135,0li0 in 1S26. Imports were of every article known to mer- 
chandise, and rapidly augmenti.ig in volume, keeping pace with greater area >tf 
tillage and increased means of a'..rricalturist.s. ,V wholesale trade had spnin-.: op 
between the village and other p..int8 more distant. Xs an index of retail traJ.-. 
the following is given of the number and character of the stores, ninety one in all : 
Of merchant, forty-two ; hanlware, five; dru-L-ist, five; book and statiomry. 
three ; boot and shoe, fourteen ; hat, four ; goldsmith, five; milhncry, seven ; lo. k- 
ing-glass, one; clothing, four; and military troods, one. 

There w.-is a thriving trade in lumber, originating in loo;J demand. Timber for 
ahip-building was shipped ext*n-ively by canal to .Vew York. A demand at hi.-h 
prices was rendered inutile from the canal tolls and cost of transport.ilioo. and the 
husinew becime profitless. The quality of white-oak timber wii not cxc ;i,J 
elsewhere in the country. 

The freight-boat, on the canai numbered one hundred and iltty, the bor^e. 

tun. Merehanls'. Troy ...wi Erie. Hudson and Erie, an.l Cnion, and ti.e o-ner- or 

chief ag..:.ts K. re rishhnt., of the villa.-e. U. =id.-. th.-sc, a nnuiU r ..I L-.-ia 

i .iwiie-d il. the villa-e pli.-l n-gularly on the canal. Tran:.f«irtation of rt-ur lo the 

I Hudwn, in spring and fall, w« one dollar per barrel ; in summer, eighty «:»rn 


and a hatf coiiL-. BoaU nm ni,.;lii »n.l .hy, un.l ui:..i« jii ;iv.:nj-> of >ijty u.ilo= 
in twenty hours. I*is.scii-er3 were char;-.Hl one ami a half c.nw [.rr niilo, :ind an 
extra charge for board of tifty ceuU per day. Tlie packtts an; aJvcrtisiil as of 
"easy motion and rapid prcp^ress. with opportunity, by reading; and social con- 
Teree, to be;^ilc the todiou.sDes.i of a iwui; jouniey." Tlio packet comp:iny had, 
in 1827, twelve boats and one hundred and tliirty hursea. 

Of canal basins there were ei-ht. namely, GilWrta. Johnsons, Child'.i, Fitz- 
bugh's. Fishers, Kly's, WasbiuL-ton. and \Vaj-ibou.»e. There were three dams, — 
the one above the rapids, with mill-raco on each .-ide of the river, the west side 
supplying nine watcr-|»wer establishments, the e;ist side ten ; Brawn's dam, 
below the great falls, supplying ten establishments ; Cleveland's, on the brink of 
the falls, giving power for two mills, — besides others in course of eonstruction. 
The manufacture was promising; sevi-n merchant-mills were mariufaeturing flour, 
with twenty-four run of stone, and two of twelve run of >tone were eontraetcil 
to be built during the se.x-a>n. The mills the names of B>ach, Brown, .At- 
kinson, Rochester, Cleveland, Strong, and Ely. and their returns of flour m.ide 
daring 192H ;.!ave a total of one humlred and fiftv thousand one hundred and 
aixty-nine barrels. It is said of the K!y mill, that the wheat taken in and floured 
daring much of the fall equaled two hundred and hlty barrels daily. IJe.-ides 
the^, there were three custom-mills, with ^^evcn run of stone. A cotton-tactory, 
in charge of S. S. .\lleott, had one thousand four hundred spindles, thirty power- 
looms, and employed eighty youths and children, for whom a schiwl was main- 
tained five evenings in the week, at the employer's expense. There were three 
furnaces for melting and casting iron, two trip-hammers by water-power, and 
breweries, distilleries, tanneries, and a lengthy list of miscellaneous tL jiufaeturea. 


y licrnn's gr.uited by this board during th.; i 
the office of mayor of this city, 
was chosen to succeed Jlr. Chi'ld. and in Jan,, 
■ks on retirini; from olEee at the year s do-,. 

i>hcd for /I'lcr and ffooil ,,r.l 
> the property and the pe-til,., 
:he period of mv otfice. n-.-arlv t 

izcd to sign .dl airl .;r 
the present ineumiieiit >hall 1 

On July L'. lS:',j, Ja.ob Oould was chosen 
1S3G, was re-elected. His remarks on rctiri 
well worth a place in this connection : 

" Our city hxs also been remarkably ilistii 
and happily ilclivered froui the fire that dev 
that destroys the lives ,d" our citizens. Duri 

called upon to interfere, nt.r has there ever been occasion to do so, for the.-«up[,n ,. 
sion of riot, mob, tumult, or even an ordinary c;i3e of assault. This fact .spi.-ak. ,, gratifying eulogy Cr our cui'/ and rrjvjmns and for the ,'„/./;, 
;;eiice and moraliti/ of the community in which we live." 

These and successive mayors, having tin- public weltare in view, saw with -j 
noble pride the continued growth of the city, public improvements pcrt'ected. tli. 
various branches of trade and manufacture prospered, and ihe best interests of all 
made paramount. Truly, in many respects the city is remarkable. 

. the 


aluable in tlieir power, beautiful in their appear 
1 noble curve at the foot of precipitoits rock, flo 
olunie, rushing over the ledges, pours downwnr, 
rainbow hue, while a glance revcaU the various s 

0. The deep, worn chaniiei. 
from f.dl to fall, and a suoity 
nd sends up a mist rertei-tni-.' 

gist the lessons of the 
great falb Sam Patch r 

■rod his 

these falls destitute of incident. At th.- 

Repeated applicxtions finally met success, and in the f=pring of 1334 the legis- 
ktnre passed an act granting a charter to the city of Rochester. The limits of 
the city were enlarged to include four thousand acres. It was extended northward 
in a narrow strip, and made to embrace the lower falls and the Ontario steamboat 
landing. These lands, thus included in the eorp.Tation, were a pijrtion i.f the 
Carthage tract on the east, and the McCracken tract on the west of these localities, 
—the falls and landn.g. On June li, Erasmus D. Smith, Abraham M. Schermer- 
born, and Horace Ho*iker were elected sup-.-r.^sora. and the -ilderm^u for the five 
wards were, beginning with the first ward. Lewis Brooks, Thom;cs Kenipshall, 
Frederic F. Backu.?, A. W. Riley, and Jac>ob Graves. 

On the 9th of June the commoTi council elected Jonathan Child as mayor of 
the city; Vincent Matthews, attorney and counsel; Samuel Works, superinten- 
dent; John C. Nash, clerk; E. F. -Marshall, treasurer; .,nd Wiilum II. Ward, 
chief engineer. Isaac Hills was the first recorder, and held the office for a number 
of year3. 5Iayor Child was inaugurated June 10, and on that occasion thus re- 
marked : 

" The rapid progress which our place has made, from a wilderness to an incor- 
porate city, authorizes each of our citizens proudly to reflect upon the agency he 
bas had in bringing about this great and interesting change. Rochester has had 
little aid in its pcrnianent i[uprovement from foreign capital. It has been settled 
and built for the most part by mechanics and merehants. whose capital was ri-oimmy, 
industry, and jteyMiiirunrc. It is their lab-jr and skill wlii. h has c<jn\erted a wil- 
derness into a city ; and to them sorely this must be a d.iy of pri-le ,oid joy. They 
have founded and reared a city before they have p.csse.! the meridian of life. In 
other countries and times the city of Rochester would have been the r.i-uU of the 
labor and aecumuh-.tions of successive generations; but Till; sikn who felled 
IHB FOREST that grew on the spot where we are as.sembled .IKK SITTING \T THE 
COtlNCIL-BO-tRD OF OLR CITY. Well, then, m.ay we indnl'.;e an honest pride as 
we look hack upon our history, and let the review elevate our hopes and animate 
oar ezenioQs. Together we have slrugjled ihrou-.^h the hariUhips of an 
settlement and the embarrassments of straitened circumstances, and toiretber let 
U3 rejoice and be happy in the glorious reward has crowned our labors. In 
the intercourse of 5,)cial life, and on all ix-casions involvin- th.' intercsis of our 
young ci'.y, let us forget our politics and our party, and sock only the public good. 
The fortunes of us all are embarked in a common bott.mi. .md it cannot be t.>o 
much to expect a uiuon of coun:^?ls and exertions to s.x-ure their safety. ' 

On June Zl, IS:;,",, Mr. Child presciit.^i his r.-i.-nation of (he may'.ralty. A 
majority of the newly-elected council had been in fivor of lieensiiej gmci rics and 
taverns to sell spirituous liiiuors, on the '-.-round of e.Kjwdiency, and aj .'^Ir. Child 
would have the papers to sign, or act ag;,i,ist the wi-I„s of a;..' p,..| 
of the hoard, the resi-iiation m;ele. The leiter ..f r.-l-jnaiien iv is r. lerr.d to 

R. Elwood. Ou motion ..f the last, it was resolv-d ''that the recorder be author- 



Sam Patch was a man of weak ■ 

nind, fond 

of stron..' dr 

ink ; and as Blondi.i. 

Weston, Bates, and others, had cae 

h his way 

of atiractin',- 

the porulace 

for his 

jwn benefit, so Patch r-sorted to'the 

orisin.d d, 

:vicc ..f jiimpii 



At Patei'son, New .Jersey, and at Ni.i 

r.-ara F.dls 

he had been s, 


conn 11'.- 

to Rochester, he put up notices that he would jump down 

the Genesee 

fills .„: 

November 3, 1820. The day came 

. and a lame coucourse 

assembled to' 


the act. Promptly on hand. Patch. 


led by a tumr 

l.rn,: took the 


leap, and came up sifcly. to the gi'e, 

It relief of 

the spcetatois 

He now proposed, on November 

13. to ju 

nip from a -c 

affold put up 

on the 

brink of the full, twenty fesH above 

. thus mak 

;ing a de.scent 

much more tl 

lan one 

hundred feet. The excitement lia,l 

; spread tar .md wide, an 

d an enorm.iu 

s croiv.i 

gathered upon the river-banks, roofs 


s. trees, and e> 

cry prospc-tiv 

e p.)inl 

For several hours the multitude stood waitin'i 

. and at tl'.e ti 

m- spce.ficd b 

e cam. 

upon the platform, added one more te 

I the nunii. 

er of previous, 

iIraiightsof!i.| a.l- 

dressed the crowd, and then took the 

awful phi, 

i-c. -'Aprol 

'■.lUnd silence pi 


over the vast multitude ; every eye 

rested on t 


ives where he 


the water; ahushof nigh ten mlniil. 

■s. wh. , 

iiiyavoieeprociairn'od. -He 

. is|..-l' 

he U dead!'" A prWiatlm of ielii 

„'. took p." 

^ses-i.,nof the 

spcet.itois. aoe 


brief spice of time all had lle.l the pi 

h enc'tions im 

ie-eribable, .~ 


the water not feet forenio-t, but .., 

I his si.le. 

and with tor 

rifie force f r . 

m -11. 1' 

momentum, the last leap of .'^.un I'a 

leh was ei 

i.led. His he 

■ ly. found nexl 

t spr,u_ 


n' deserves notice, as his life wa- lost thron._'h admiration of 1 

1S30, the Mcch.inies' Institute, n..w the Athen.i'uni, cm 

- artist, to paint a p..rtrait of Ue Witt Clint'.n. The w,.i 


r l.v a voun- br..thcr. This vu„n- nrin ha.l'.l h" 

ssio'n, an.l .s.'t „iit on.- line inoinin'.- np-n a of the i:.!!- 

ich sta'.-e as ina.le the scene b.'.util'nl. The curve r,f .!" 

ric r,....'n:arity, ,in.l vertically from the level of the I..!.. 

Catlin .lesc.'ndcd to the river mar'.;in bel.iw the l.iwer I'.ill- 

and s..iight t.i re ..h .i aaiel n.'ar the centre of the stream from whence l.i l-o" 

a better'view or !;ik.' l sk.'l, h. The yillll f..iin.l hin.s.-lf in p. ril, iiii.l ral-..l • 

dealt foully, but thi'se gaie way hef'.re mvesiig^uion. 

! , hrou..-ht to Koch 

-: cMer br..tlicr's p 

The water wa.s ai 

banks was ..f gc 

to the high plate: 


/^^^ fii 

^f^^\<^{- ,^^l^iWo <?l-vn^ S ^V>--^..-vW .Z^'-^'-^^ 



T1>- .J.1 .„., 
- N'"l"<-t. i 


(Tlic tiajs of the summer of IS:12 were Jart an.l el.iomy. for iho choleri— lh< 
I JririJ<-J pl^S"* "f '^^ ^^'' — a[ipfireJ in R .)chi>ter. Its first ap[«;anin;e wm on 
' June J-. a' a house uluh the canal ua ?aiiit Paul street, ana the ■ieath-ani.-cl 
(l3[,|»J hU broaJ \i\nzi over the community, fiilin^; the min^i with t.rmr anJ 
irk-oniT f^^reboJloL'. Through July anj Aiiiru.-'t the scounrc waj at iu liel:;ht, 
' anJ oTi-r four hundred (vrsous were carried off by it. At this time it was tl.ffi- 
i-ult to SnJ nurses for the aid. The in('.,tled were rc^anl.,..! with, and 
liranJy bc^-amc the ^tneral panacea. It Wiis then that t'>ilonil Aj.hbel V>. Riley, one 
» uf ihr U'arJ of health, entered upon a career as wonhy of reniemhrance as a llow- 
ar>l iu the prisons or a Ni^htin;:ale in the Crimean ho^piLali. He went without 
j r.-ar atu..n;.' the Ji.^trefSe^l ; himself alone plao.'d the h-jdy in tho e-.tfin. and hating 
J MjiK-l it up. the driver of the djad-cart aided in its reni'jval. Nobly he bore his 
I part, and by bis devotion and philanthropic etfort deserves this brief tribute. 
I The L-i'rautic labor3 at iiradin'^, draininir. pavinir, -ind maeadamizins; the -streets'. 
I llie elTuieut police rvc;ulatLon.«. the reuiuval of decomjiosed vegetable matter have 

wh..!ly chan.'e.l the locality, and Rochester Li rc-.-arded as among the hcalthic-t of 
ciiiex, and has no drcid of the pcsti!enc« which from time to tin;e b;:s rioted 
in uther citie:*. 

The Kuchester Inocklnj;?, a wealc imposture, Uive be«n a subject of personal 
■ nJ prcris comment and given the city a certain notoriety. The Foi >l;ter3 were 
»l.!c to produce the " kooctings' under the rigid eiamination of the mo>t intel- 
li;,'vnt, and finding their area too limited removed to New York, there to continue 
their jugglery. • ) 

The demands of commerce and manufacture have diverted the waters of the 
tit-nt^ce from their bed above the atiueduct, and a bread bod of stone marks the 
i-ltannci of cetiiuiici, but in e5r!y -'.ly^ the volume of water was uniform and 
•ja-ater. Now and then a fiood sweeps down, strikes terror to the citizens and 
Liy.< wa.«te property. The great flood of 1S3J was unprecedented, and the roar 
of waters foaming and ruihing over the fills S'.ainJed ominously to the city, and 
pres<inted a scene of unwonted grandeur. The quantity of water piissing was com- 
|>utfd at hta milliims one huitjrej and $ixty-/uur thousand cnbic fret per minnte. 
\ new bridge at the lower falls was carried off; much care was re<|uired to save 
the main bridge in the city. Baff.ilo street wai flooeied to the Arcade, and much 
*»f pvh dan-.a^eJ. 


wi' an event of 1S3T, which aroused the city and threatened war and rebellion 
ill Canada. During the summer the indications of trouble were manil'csted by 
iiKi-ndiary fires, and a pafier conductcl by one .^IcKenzie poured oil upon the 

• lul.-r'. In the fall, Van Rensselaer and a party toi.k possession of Navy Island. 
in ih.- Ni.a~ira river. Proclamations were iasued and a force collected there. A 

• •■n»iiiittoe of sympathizers in Rochester advanced money ani sent on men. The 
«-'aiiitrj was excited and wagon-icads of material were accumulated at the river 
ni irki t. Then came the news the British had cut adritt the steamboat " Caro- 
Uiu;" M*t her* on fire, and se'nt her, with siity souls on board, over the cataract. 
Th.- di-pil.h was read from the Eaile balcony, and the warlike feeling became 
int. II,.. The lapse of a few d.iys wa., fjllowcl by a cortrtrm.iti m of the lo.s of the 
•t--tiiiUQt, but not of life. The excitement continued till tht gnvemraeot, inter- 
f'-rin.-. cleared the island. The Canadian authorities -Hint a dozen men to Botany 
llii Ct life, and Americana were pardom-d and returned home, and so ended the 
I'.i 1-I..I1 of Canada. 


Th- -y..( t,f militia training, long in vogue, had J>ocoine .-» farce. At a com- 

I oi\ nuMer in RcK-hester, John Robinson a[)peured on parade in fantastic cos- j 

I -In ■ ..f i|„. l,^^t material. Orderly and soln-rly each eocimand was promptly i 

■'•.>"! The company were not in uniforia and cx«-ption« could not be taken, | 

• ■' ill ..rder was lost and the drill wa.s a failure. A tew days later, there 1 
" •• h. I ihrou-h the sin^els a motley array .-^ ludicrous that it lijund full descrip- | 

►"^ in til*' prx-v. The pcrfurmancc was emulated el3^.where. and despite legisla- 
' 1 ih" ..IJ militia .•ijtem wa.i cevolutionizeci. 


luntesl building; but in l.-^:W Win. 11. Chen.y renL-.l the stcleio: 
Dr KIw.-mI, f,r a furnace and foundry R.pairs were inadt 
"1 iB.aeriiU Were brought by cunal from Alb.iny, aud ba-ioi-s 

eomuicoccd. Hero was the first cookioL-'.tove made in this part of th- 
ccuntry. The pattern originated in Philadi Ipliii, and the rough plates were a 
quarter-iuch in thickniivi. The steam-engine wxs a great attraction, and a sourve 
of wonder and inquiry. When the Jte.ara from Cheney's furnace lirst awoke the 
neighboring echoes. Dr. Long h;L-.tened from his residence, on Alexander struvt. 
rMid, viewing the machinery, s;iid to the proprietor, " If you an; suslainett this will 
be evidence of proere?s." Eight years the served a.s a foundry, tluii 
Cheney transferred bis establishment to South Saint Paul street, and the building 
relapsed to ruin. In ISJU it used for storige, and then fur a tik-poltery. 
In ISCi, Mr. Oo'thout purchased the properly, which serveii four years as a stoie- 
house. The old building was enlar.-ed and rai-cd. Originally, its .limcn=ioo~ 
were forty by one hundreil fevt; the present is .«eventy-five by one hundre-i and 
fit^y, five stories, an attic, an iron roof and from the centre re-es a tower. The 
building occupies all the ground betwem t!ie Feeder and .M.mnt Hope avenue. 
The old structure has had a varied history, and now, among other like buildings 
which are viewed with admiration, shows little of the old-time loneiineiS and 


In 1S27, Asa and Saul Carpenter bought the site of the City mills, and erected 
a large saw-mill thereon. In 1830 the Carpenters sold to \Vm, Baker. inJ he to 
Maliby Strong, who, in 1S31, removed the saw-mill, and on its site built the 
original City mills, its eastern part of stcne, the front and over the race of wo...d. 
It passed through various hands to Ebenezir S. Be.ich, who. s.>cn after obtainin.: 
title, began to operate the mills. It was near the close of navigation in Ib^li. 
when wheat was rapidly accumulated for the winter's stock. Ten thousand 
bushels had been put in, and there remained one or two canal-Kut lo.ids un- 
touched in the basin. Whca an additional thous-ind bushels had been cramnie-l 
to the tim'uera gafc «iT, a"d the et^riir quantity was projecte»d into the raceway, 
and a great portion was swept into the river. The destruction was marked by 
sympathy, as if each had met the loss. 


With uniform, healthy growth, the city, which was chartered, in 1534, with 
twelve thousand two hundred and firty-two inhabitants, and c-overed fiur thous:ind 
acres, reached, in li?tjO, well-nigh fifty thousand citizens, and had spread 
their public and private structures to nearly the eitrcmc corporation limiis 
From the river, east and west, a mile each way. the streets were lined ce-iu- 
pacily with structures, public, business, and dwelling, all indicative of 'jeH-l 
sense, generous spirit, prosperous business, and architectural taste. From north 
to south, the distance of four to five miles, building was not so dense, and at tiie 
outskirts was yet sparse. Soil, water-power, canal, and lake unitedly had attraet --i 
labor and capital, and rendcrctl both productive. Railratds were of ineiiK-ntal 
benefit, and the city gave them so much of tr.ide that her niaUrial injury wi.nid 
prejudice their interests. On the old mill-lot, now the most valualde portion ..f 
the city, lots twenty by one hundred feet sold for twenty thousand dollars. Tli- 
a.ssc3sed valuation was numbered by millions of dollars, and its real value wa- 
triple the assessment. The farm of Enos Stone, bought by Eiislia .Jolin-.n io 
1S17, had risen in value till its estim.itc was m.ido in roilii..ns. The Frank;.. it 
tract, lying north of the Centml Railroad, was entirely built over, while the 
Andrews and .\twatcr tract, slowly developing, finally settled with a rapidity 
to any other locality. 

The bridges, from 1827 till ISGO, are worthy of brief attention. Tlie middle 
bndga of 1SU7 was replaced by the .\Iain street bridge, which w.ns rebuilt sevenl 
limes, and the last time, in IS5G—i7. of cut stone, at a coste.xeccdin-.: siity 
dollars. The old IS12 bridge be-c-.imo ins-.cure, and was removed. In ISl.i a 
toll-bridge was constructed betwc-n the fills and the .inda'ws street bridiic. be 
.Messrs. Andrews, -Vtwater, and .^lumford. This structure was in use but a fw 
years. A brid'je was erected in IS.'U, at Court street. Followin',' the con^tmc- 
tion and fall of Caaba-e bridge two others were subsequently aero-, the 
river, near the lower fails, one of which stood its late as 1S3.'> ; and. in \^''i'' 'he 

city erected a suspnsioo brn 
from the time it was bcjtun i 
city cca-scd for a time, .\nd 
was rebuilt in 19.-);. of, a 
bridge, in the south part ol ih 

on the CrthaM site. Within 
I. and bridje-buildins in llo- n 
-trcet brid'.-c was first built 



any other single town 

.Iter liour manut 
rid." There-ii 

ind i 

e in a day th.m I 
of El» k lies-. II 

■io; c-^^. ,^v^-^ -^^-^ M<.^,^-^-.:^ ' :^^^i, 

'"'^fl^i^ ._^ Z^ c.o~.>^ ^^^ ^ (f^.-M:d 

Vi <^ ;>.-C--t^-<C -^^.-^t ->-^^-2-^A c-/ 'Z^ 1/-'..*^^^'-^. 


;.rti A-AC wa-. buru.d a' ont IS.*, i, alU-r 
, ..f ISIO, >till stood an the -'Goncsci 

tlio west side, had 


, tbe.i liie Fi, 

, erected I.n 

ataiiJIug tliirty-six }e:ir^. C'lfvcljir 
f.ills mill," a3 Ji.l tlu- Wl.itn.y mW\ 

AboUrJ llo'i">lJ^- !>"• uriL'inal 
b> well-ni-h two l.u.Mhv'i i..n-kc. j. 

Baptist society, frum 1<.H lu l>:;i 
was dcstro\ei.n>y firo. rUurch soi. 

some stone eJificL"*, \\W\y ii were t^rn down ;tt Itiier jicriuds to bo npl^ic-il In < 
still more eustly. One after anuilior bi-:iutiful :uitl cumuioiiiou-t pJitice5 
■urc a. city containing: wcU-nlgh 

iih all ntlior. An excellent ' 
ueadeniic had been built, seminaries and priv:»te 
ublir si-hutil :^ysrt.'m inauixuratt-U at a cost in build- 
hou.'.ind tb.ilar^ and of annual cost of maintenance 
There were Li^hteen public schools, mo.>t of them 

rai>od, until the citi 
thurches, many of wli 
Educatioi-al projrrc: 
had been foundoil, a half-doze 
schools were niinieious. sind a 
ings of one hundred and fifty 
of over sixty thous-aiid dollars 

S.W with ,,le 
;id kept pace ■ 


in 6iic bullJin^, 

liciicvoicnt a=?':'i latloiis -.'ii 
widened, atiility iii.T,:i-uil nod 
schools, and other liiniinuitari 
liborslity in accord with tlie be 

The press kept pace \ 
up thence after brief « 
cndurin- Of tbe p., - 
title, — the Dui/y A,lrr,i 

ilvinz = 

y of over ten thnusand dollars. 

otliers •jprant: up, and, a.s their liili 
aii;rnenii-d. Ilr.spitals, asylums, eli.trit; 
; were oriLrinated, and supported with ; 
f the p^.-ople and the pro-ress of the city 

other eductive aL'oucit^s. bome publicafu 

ii:e on the cnurs.-; nthers prospered, grew str 

;tiii:: in 1S2T. but one survived under the 

The publieuti.jus of llochcster in IStSO ' 


.veckly, and three d.ailics. 
ly utiier citv in the SUite, 
;ued four to five thousand 

Their oggreg.Ue cireul.ition was jreater tliuii that of : 

thousand copies. The Dailt/ L'ntim ami A'lnriiscr i: 

copies in a day, and the daily issues of the prus-s of Rochester were above tcu 


A single bank w:ls noted in 1S2T, while in ISGO there were eleven, whose 
agj^reiiate capital would fall little short nf three millions. In o^-cupation, the 
population varie»l in number with the de-Mv o( one industry and the origin of 
others. Of the prMfei-ions. ",-re luar -iMy cicr.-yuifD, one hundred physi- 
cians, and two huiidrt-d Ilt-vlt-, Th,- old ;i'jin.-!.i'_-t l.-'i^ since had ]> tssed away. 
and another, built abuut IS^.' a ci.?t ..f >!i. liuujrcd thvu-an 1 d.. liars, had l.iken 

over seventy tiiou-^aiid doUat^. The ol-l j.iil had pa-sed from memory, and a new 
jail, erected .since ISiO. had i(self b.^.m, old. The market huildimz.'to cost three 
thous.aud dollars, -'hailt upon the plan .if the n;w marke: in Boeion," wa- being 
constructod in 1S27, and w;vs an object of .'atisr.ictii,o. It stood on the corner 
of Main and Front streets, and .about l-io.i fell into the river. Its success.)r 
has recently given place to yet a third. 

The travel of the earlier' day had ehaojed It had bm-.nie more rapid and 
more cheap. Sta::es were few. and renii?idei> of the past ; boats conveyed freight, 
and the packet was no more seen. In pi, ice of one steamer a week upon the lake, 
there were three per day. No I.'ss than sixty trains of e.irs arrived and deparu^d 
daily, and upon some of tiiesc it nut inrrc.juent to carry five hundred pas- 
sengers. The statistics of tr.ide and mauufa. sli.)wed proportionate t-iin. and 
■ in cnterpri>e, however considered, the iH'pulati.m had nobly built upjn the foun- 
dation laid in hope in former years. 

PoUtics and statesnian.^hip had in R.jclir^tor aotivo and influential representa- 
tives. Hire John flainty .\dam3 receiv,-.i h,' tirt niniin irion to the pi.a'dency. 
Hon. AddLson Uardin.r and lion, ll.i.ry K, .Seli.u li,.d jr. -ided over the sen.a'te 
tt3 lieutenant-governors. Thomas li. Cuniniiii- atlin^- governor of Nebraska at 
one time, Wits a native ••f lioehe-ter ; and ^. was lion. David K. Carter, member 
of Congress from Ohio H..n. D. l>. I!,ua,ard. ..nee United Stat.^s minister to 
Pru.ssia, long resided here, as did Hod. r,,v.«Je. laember of Con-ress from 
Pennsylvania in lSi-'.0. Of clerks in the J'tate ^.nale were Samuel I}. Andrews, 
Isaacll. Elwo.5d, and .■^.on.iel P. Allen. L. Ward Smith, native of this city, W;i3 
adjut:int-gcneral nf the ."^tate in l^.'^l-.■|:; ; and Tliurhov Wi^ed, Esu., be:;an his 
career here about l>-7 as e lilor of the A''.< /,, v'. r T-J''iy"fli. 

Of patents, there had b. en .me hni, In.] an.l filty taken ont hv eilizens of 
Rochc-tcr. or the-.-, five w.^re for ni-in..- ..-,nal-l..,als. lour f..r i^.lary steam- 

railroad car-wheels. An.oir_- th..-; ..f in.i-.vr.nee were l!u-h ,V So nvs 

inally patented hv li.-nj.wnio .M, Snii.l,. ( If line arts. Ilenrv lln-.-ell. the di.-!in- 
guished voe.di.-t an.l halhel c,.m]..-T. Ci,;.r, h, tl,.- lan.Ueap.. painter. an.| ti. S. 

Of manuficture a -y.i..pMs miL,t suffice for the present. Twenty-one flouring-inills 
contained one hundred and sixteen run of stone (exelu>ive of eustom-mills,.an.l by 
their empl.iyment su>tained a population of full five thousand persons. Jv,:al,li-h'- 
nienls for the m.inufacture of hoots and sh.ies agL'regated one tln.usand live 
employees, and gave su).port to live thousand more of the population. One lirn. 
sent out daily one thou.s.ind pairs of boots and shoes. A dozen heavy tirm.. v^.-r,^ 
engaged in the manufacture of garmouLs. A single firm employed twii hunur.;.! 
hamis. n. R. liarton began the cdie-tool business in 1S:U. ami in ISiin had in 
his establishment one hundred and lifty hands. In the work.-hops .;f Ki.M >V ('... 
one hundred persons were engu-jed in the manufacture of car-wheels, are! 
other castin.js, consuming f mr thou.sand tons of iron, and a'-TLrreiratiiej -^aljs ..f 'lir j 
hundred thousand dollars per annum. There were thre^e stove maunf.i t .;,.-. — 
French k Co., Ih-niiett & Co., and Do Witt k Galusha. The tiist . i„|.|..u J 

iiidred and 

! portr. 


hundred stoves per week, and made yearly sales to the value of three hnudred 
th.jusand dollars. Besides these wore the iron railing and Covert bank lock work- 
of Martin liriggs, the scale works of Duryee it Forsyth, the paper-mills of .\tr. 
Jones, and the steam-engine works of D. A. Woodbury & Co. On the suburbs . 
were four thousand acres of land given to the culture of tree, shrub, an.l llower. 
the annual sales of which raiigotl from seven hundred and fifty thousand to ori.. 
million dollars. 

Rochester had come to contain the largest fruit and ornamental nurseries in 
the world. The pioneers and pre-eminent firm in this department were Messrs. 
Ellwangcr i Barry, and besides these were numerous others. 

Thus briefly have we outlined the in.Iusti ies and energies of Roche-ter prior t.. 
the civil war, wherein, a-s elsewhere shown, her Thirteenth regiment was one of 
the first to tread the streets of erst rebellious B.altimore. 


Fifteen years have [ away, and the Flour City has known no eheik to her 
material prosperity. The ..Id five ward., have been iiicrease.d to sixteen, and the 
area now includes eleven thou-and one hundred and sixty-one acres. The fid! 
cash value of renl and personal estate in IST.j was over sixty milli.)n-. of .h.llars. 
and the amount of tax a>.-es.-e.l upon the city in ISTli is ..ver one milli..M d..llai^. | 

For railroads, hri.lgcs, and streets, for buildings and water-works. f..r fire-en^-inc-, i 

sohlicrs' relief, and schools, there is a total debt of over five millions mainly '■ 

incurred in the construction of water-works. The populati..n, by the cnsus of 
ISTII, gave ^ixty-tw.. thousand three hun.lred and eighty-six persons. TJiere wen- 
twelve^thou^and two hundred and thirteen f.milies, and eleven thousand six hun- 
dred and f...rty-nioe dwellings. Every trade, business, and occupation is fully 
represented. Every agency cjicul.ited e..nverticnce, security, and health in iiill 
operation. Good order is maintained by a police force numbcrin.j eighty-li.ur men. 
and scenes of riot have never marred the taiue of the noble city. Every prccau- : 

tion is taken to guard against fites. Four ste.imers are constantly ready far dutv. ;Jjj 

and the department numbers ..'le'd and sixty-seven men. Many lar^e 
establishments are i.r..vided with means to extingui-h any fire hreakin.j .,ut in 

gration.s. Of cemeteries there arc hve. Chief these is that of .M..unt II..j.e. 

nature and cmhclii-lie.l by art. V .cln'stcr City and .-^aint M,iry-- Ho-pilaU, We,-t- 
ern House of Refuge, and House f..r Idle and Tru.o.t Children are among the 
public charitable institutions. The ..ity is .well lighted with oil- and gus-lamps, 
the toUal number at present bein.' three thous.ind nine hundnd and twenty-six. 
The number of churches ineicasc.l to si.vty, and the rmnii.,T of public .-chools 

thousand two hun.lred and tliiite.'ii T'iie a\-.'ra'_'e iinnii.. r 1.. li.iigii.L', seven thou- 
sand four hundre.1 an.l f..riy-<ix. The ,uiMil..r .,( ehiMr. i. I..,t«e.-,i live an.l 
twenty-one in IST.'J. ..n the e.i-t -i.le. ninet.'.'n tli.m-.unl ihre.. h Ire.l and 

six thousand five hundred an.l thirty-two, Cp...! I'rini-.. slr.'.t i< l.xat.;-! ih.. Uni- 
versity nf Rochester, and this cily is the s. at ..f th.. H..(lie-!.r 'f .-;. nii- faciliti.-s wantini;, for (he int..lli..r.-nt p.,pul.t<.. li.iv.. .o.d. it- ■(. -i tl... 
wants of .all cla-e-. C.nviyanee by rail t.. ..r tVoni the eil; i- lu,i„-., I Lv l,i.. 
lines: the N.-w V.irk lIo.U..n Kivr. the I!... h. -i- r ar.l 1 1. ... -.■. \ .11. v. 
the Avun. (J.n.aee an.l Mount M..rris the K...I,..M. r, .Nii.eii ai..l 1'. t.:,m |-,,iM.a, 
and the U,.eli.-l,-r an.l .<tat.., P.a.l^ «l:ii.. -ti.vt ,ir- \. , i,.,.- :l, i..- 

hank ..f,e. uf U.K-h.-t.r. the City, the Com r, ,al, the II...- Cily .N i 

lioual, an.l the Tra.lerj' Nali..ual. are lour .v.vifi,- l.ank, the E.ct .Sid.v 


,!„• .Mftliniiics' uf Kiichcstcr, the Monroe County, aiij tlio Kochostcr. A safe 

11- of a citi.ze 

lh.t f 

IikI •' K.K-host«r hail never seen the failure uf unc uf her bank^, aiiJ the 

itiiUnee uf the p«uple in tlic integrity of the banters anj the •<.ilijity uf iheir 
rwytun-es i^ uuliuiitej." Within tlie eity liiore exist une hunilred and sixty-nine 
„,ieiii-i anJ aiiociatiuns, nineteen uf which ar« Masonic, and eighteen of the Inde- 
'^od.iit UrJer of Odd I'elluws. 

ItotlieJcr is Vnuwn as East and West side. The former lias the greater popn- 
Ijlioti and largest number of handsome residenees; the fitter the bulk of manu- 

banking institutions. The < 


Stale, and twenty-sceond in order among the cities of the nation. 1(3 area often 
»nd * hiJf miles is laid out with admirable skill, the wide, cloan streets give ample 
ri».m fur travel, while as they diverge outward they are intersected by many avenues 
l«.rdrri-d with ornaiijcutai and shade trees. At convenient points are small parks, 
iniiiialty growing more beautiful. These parks, eight in number, add much to 
ihe attnution of the city. Special points of interest arc as follows : Powers Block, 
.Munn« County Almshouse, Monroe County Court-Uouse. City Hull, Monroe 
I'uunly Jail, Western House of Refuge, Rochester Orphan Asylum, the Genesee 
Kails, the Aciueduct. the chain of old flouring-mills, Trevor Il.-dl, University of 
|t«hc-ter. Saint Mary's, Kocliester Theological Seminary. Rochester 
Tublic Scboob, Saint Mary's, .Saint Joseph's, and Saint Patrick's Asylums lor 
Oq.h.iu3, Episcopal Church Home, Home for the Friendless, Jlontoe County In- 
Mnc Asylum, Rochester Industrial School. City Hospital, County Penitentiary, 
Arsenal, and Jlount Hope Cemetery. 

Having shown in a general w.ay Rochester's inception, rise, and progress, we 
now propose to take up its leading institutions, churches, business interests, civil 
guvemineot, etc., and by following them through in detail from the outset to the 
pre>eiit d,ite, not only add a valuable rcferenct; to our work, but more perfectly 
iliu.-.trate the rvmnrlahle growth and chauL'es in this city, which, in the lifetime 
of xime of its citizens of to-day, changed from rock and swamp, forest aud bramble, 
the home of Indians and wild beitsts, to a city of over eighty thousand inhabitants, 
pnmd in its wealth and prosperity, of its business palaces, temples of worship, 
luxurious houses, multiform industries and manufactories, a centre of trade and 
n>iQmeice, canals and railroads, leading to every point of the compass. Pen can- 
not, in brief, do the subject justice ; it must be studied in detail that one may fully 
understand and appreciate ihe whole. 


The following persons served as tru.'-teo at different times from 1817 to 1S34 : 
Ira West, Isaac Colvin, Moses Ch.ipin, Elisha Taylor, Charles J. Hill. Matthew 
Ilrown, Jr., Wareliam Whitney, S. .Melancton Smi'h, K. H. B,-nder, William P. 
.<herman, Abner Wakelee, Jacob Graves. .John W. .-trong. Ans..n Coleman, Jona- 
than Packard. AshW W. Riley, Phelps Smith. Frc-lerick St;uT. Gilbert Everiug- 
h.ini, Jr., William lt;.thborn, Vincent Mathews. William Brewster. John Ma^tick. 
Sila. !i„lton, El'tsha Ely, Eli.sba Johnson. Frc-lerick Whittlcs-y, Andr.-w V. T. 
l-a»itt, Ezra .M. Parsons, Jonathan Child. Ebeaezer Elv, Ephinim Moore. .Na- 
ihaniel Ru-^itcr, William H. Ward. K ,bcrt L. MeColluin,'s. S. Aleott, John Hay- 
»•.«!. Joseph Mcdbury, William IV.ise. Adonijah Grei.-n, Harmon Bis.sell. Rufus 
M.nvli. Jar-ob Thorn. Orrin E. Gibbs. William E. Uthrop, F. M. Haight, E. F. Xathainel Draper. 

Of the above the following are living: Eiisha Taylor, C. J. Hill, Abner Wake- 
I"'. A. W. Riley, Ezra M. Parsons, Joseph .'Medbury, Harvey Humphrey, and 
Willi.mi E. Uithrop. 


IS:;i._I„n,ithan Child, mayor. First Ward, Lewis Brooke, .lohn Jones; 
*•- •■...! Ward. Thoioa.- Kenipshall. Elijah F. Smith; Third Ward. Frederick 
ll>-ku.. J.u-uh Thorn; Fourth Ward, A. W. RM.y, Lansing B. Swao ; Fifth 
^V»r.|. .r.unl, Graves. Ibnry Kennedy. John C. Nash, clerk. 

I «:;.-, _J.vcob Gould, mayor. .Jonathan Child served as mayor nntil July 2 
-f thi. year, when he n-igned. First Ward. Hester L. Stephens, Willlaiu E. 
I-Jihh.p; S.,.,„„l Ward, .'Matthew Br.iwn, Hirain Bl.mchard ; Third W.ird. Jain.'S 
•■••vn...„r. Kr,-tus Cook; Fourth Ward. Jo;.eph Hulsoy, XathanicI Binu-ham; 
*'>M, Wanl. I. U. Kllwoo,!. Rutler liardwell. Ariel Wentworth, clerk. 

I-::i;.-_.T.„.„l, (;„„|,1, „,:,v„r I'ir>t Ward. Al.-Tander S. Alexander, John 
"■>"— I, .<.eond Ward, WaRhani Whitney, All.yn ; Third Ward. 

■'■•:'. Si,,,,,.. .I„,„,| l-.,eli,r.|; Fourth Ward, .M.inlcv G. U'wdburv, Mitchell 

'--It, |.-,r,l, \V;,rd, II. Ward. D.vid Scovillc. P. G. liiichorn, clerk. 

'--T-A. M. Scheinerhoru, mayor. Fir=t Ward, H. L. Stevens. K. H. 

Van Rensselaer; Second Ward, S. H. Packard, William B. AVilliams ; Thirl 
Ward, Joseph Stone, John Hawks ; Fourth Ward. .Manley G, Wwdbury. Schuy- 
ler Morse ; Fifth Ward, L. C. Faulkner, James William.?. J. W. Gilbert, clerk. 

1838.— Elisha Johnson, mayor. Fu-st Ward, Abelard lleynohls, S. Charles; 
Second Ward, John Allen. I."f. Mack ; Third Ward, Elias Pond, .Matthew G. 
Warner; Fifth Ward, Samuel G. Andrews, Owen E. Gibbs. I. R. Ellw.jod, 

1830— Thomas H. Rochester, major. First 'Ward, S. C. Charles; Second 
Ward, George Arnold; Third W.ird, E. D. Smith; Fourth Ward, S. W. D. 
Moore ; Fifth Ward, William Pitkin. T. B. Hamilton, clerk. 

1S40. — Samuel G. Andrews, mayor. First Ward, 11. Whitbock; S.-o.,od 
Ward, L F. Mack; Third Ward, Henry Cady ; Fourth Ward, Porter Taylor, 
Fit\h Ward, D. J. Southerin, D. R. Barton. W. K. Montgomery, clerk. 

1841.— Elijah F. Smith, mayor. First Ward, J. I. Robbios; Second Ward. 
Lewis Selye ; Third Ward. Joseph Field ; Fourth Ward, W. W. Howell ; Fifth 
Ward. Aaron Eriokson. W. K. Montgomery, clerk. 

18-12.- Charles J. Hill, mayor. First Ward, Hamlin Stillwell ; Second Ward. 
John Williams; Thir.1 Ward, H. Campbell; Fourth Ward, G. C. Benjamin; 
Fifth Ward, W. B. Northrop. J. A. Exstman. clerk. 

1843.— Isaac Hills, mayor. First Ward, S. Richardson ; Second Ward, Lewis 
Selye ; Third Ward, Eleazer Conkey ; Fourth Ward, -■*!, B. Seward ; Fi!-ih 
Ward, Joshua Conkey. A. S. Beers, clerk. 

1844.— John Allen, mayor. First Ward. Alfred Huhbell ; Second ^Vard. John 
Williams ; Third Ward, Simon Traver ; Fourth Ward, Thos. Kempshall ; Fiilh 
Ward, Rufus Kceler; A. S. Beers, clerk. 

1845. — William Pitkin, mayor. First Ward, Ahram Van Slyck ; Second 
Ward, S. C. Jones, two years, P. D. Wright, one year; Third Ward, Everard 
Peck; Fourth Ward, J. H. Bahcock ; Fifth Ward, Jarcd Newel ; Sixth Waid, 
a. Kerney, two years. L. A. Ward, one year ; Seventh Ward. J. Hildreih. two 
years, W. I. Hanford, one year ; Eighth Ward, E. Scrantom, two years, .John 
Briggs, one year ; Ii'inth Vi'aru, C. B. Coleinan, t~s ycirs, John f iske, one yenr 
C. Nash, clerk. 

1846.— William Pitkin, mayor. Firat Ward, A. Hubbcll ; Second Ward. S. 
F. Witherspoon; Third Ward, Chas. Hendris ; Fourth Ward. T. B. Hamilton; 
Fifth Ward, Henry Fox ; Sixth Ward, L. A. Ward, two years, C. L. Pardee, ono 
year; Seventh Ward, Wm. G. Russell ; Eighth Ward, S. W. D. Moore; Ninth 
Ward, C. Robinson. C. Nash, clerk. 

l&l".— John B. Elwood, mayor.' First Ward, S. Richardson ; Seu-ond Ward. 
J, Disbrow; Third Ward. Jas'. M. Fish; Fourth Ward. Joseph Hall; Fifth 
Ward, N. H. Blossom ; Sixth Ward, John Rees; Seventh Ward, L. Ward Smith ; 
Eighth Ward, Hatfield Halsted ; Ninth Ward, James Gallery. J. S. TiTon, 

1S4S. — Joseph Field, mayor. First Ward, IT. Scrantom ; Second Ward. Ezra 
Jones ; Third Ward, Wm. Churchill ; Fourth Ward. John L. Fish ; Fifth Ward. 
I. Van Kuren; Sixth Ward, J. S. Beuton, two years. Phil Davis, oi.e year; 
Seventh Ward, John Greig: Eighth Ward, S. W. D. Moore; Ninth Wari Se- 
bastian Syke. H. L. >\'inants, cierk. 

1849.— Levi A. Ward, mayo-. First Ward, John Dawley ; Second Ward, 
3. B. Stoddard; Third Ward, J 3. Caldwell; Fourth W.-.rd, G. S. Copelaiid. 
Fifth Ward, N. B. Northrop; Sixth Ward, Philander Davis, two years. Samuel 
P. Allen, one year; Seventh Ward, George T. Frost; Eighth Ward, £. S. Bough- 
ton; Ninth W.ard, Peter A. Smith. Newell A. .Scone, clerk. 

1S:;0. — S.imuel Richardson, mr_ or. Fir=t Ward, William F. Holmes; Secood 
Ward, Martin Brings, two yean,^ W. H. Wait, one year; Third Ward. L. R. 
Jerome; Fourth \\^rd, T. T-'Moojc; Fifth Ward, Jod'iua Conkey ; Si.xth W.ird. 
0. A. Jones; Seventh Ward, Hiram Banker; Eighth Ward. Henrj- L. Fish; 
Ninth Ward, Henry Suggett. J. N. Drummond, clerk. 

1851.— NiehoUm'E. Paine, 2i,iyor. First Ward, Benjamin .M. Baker; Second 
Ward, W. H. W.dt ; Third Ward, Amon Bronson; Fourth Ward. Schuyler M..,e5; 
Fifth Wanl, J. B. Robertson; Sixth Ward, Thomas Pardons; Seventh Ward. J. 
H. Bahcock; Eighth Ward, H. Sc.iniour; Ninth Ward, L. Farrar, two yar,. 
John Fiske, one year. E. B. Shepardsuo, clerk. 

18.12.- Hamlin StiUvell, m.ayor. First Ward, William F. Holmes; S.vond 
Ward, B. F. GilLc-on ; Third Ward, J. M. .Mar-h ; Fourth Ward. Geor-c Slu Itoii ; 
Fifth Waril, Geor-e li. Rcllleld; Sixth Ward, .Michael Filon; .Seventh W.ird. 
E. .M. Smith; Eighth Ward, George G. JIunger; Ninth Ward, EJg.r Beideii 
W. Gibbons, clerk. 

IS.'i.'!.— John Williams, mayor. First Ward. Ambrose Cram ; Second War!, 
J. C. Marsh ; Third Ward. Anion Bron.«on ; F.mrth Ward. J. C. Chiim,i,icro ; Fifth 
Ward, .M D'HiJa'H; Sixth Ward. Cnarlei H. Clarke; Seventh Ward. P. P. Th;;ver; 
El'.;htli Ward. Hani.-I II. I.ymh ; .Ninth W;ird, B. Schu-ITel ; Tenth AVard, Thomas 
Parsons. W. GiLb..n3. clerk. 

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,;ij4._MjIib/ Struni. wxror. Firit War], J..ha3ia I. RoLUni ; S. t-oad 
W»rJ, A. J- Harlow; ThirJ Ward, Willijm Sm',L; l\.ua\i Ward, Geor-e 
Sb.ltoo; Firih WarJ, E. K. Warren; SixtTi WinJ, MitV.ael iW^a ; Sc-vea!!i 
\V.rJ, SiophfD Charles; E.ghth WarJ, William H. Moore; Xinth W.rJ, J. 
IliluiD ; Tenth Ward, John Qjin. W. Gibbons, clerk. 

jgiJ.—Charlos J. Hay Jon, njaycr. First Ward, Edwia Panoost : SecopJ 
Winl. Monin Briggs; Third W.vd, Tfacmai C. Moot^i.tnery ; Fourth Ward, J. 
M. Wiadow ; Fil"th WanJ, M. Douglaid ; S.iih Ward. Charlea H. Clarke; Seventh 
WtrJ, E ^'- Sabin ; Eighth Ward. J. B Bennttt; Ninth Ward, Louis Bauer; 
Troth' Word, John E. jforey. W. Gibbonj, clerk. 

1856,— Samuel a. Andrews, mayor. First Ward. W. 3. Thompson, U. C, Ed- 
pfrtoo; Second Ward, G. W. Parsons; Tuird Ward, AJolphus Jlorje ; Fourth 
Ward, John T. Ucey ; Fifth Ward, >I. McDonald , Sixth Ward, G. G. Cooper; 
S.-«Dth W;rd. ChauDcey Perry; Eighth Ward, Henry L. Fish, Ninth Ward, 
Lrwis Selye ; Tenth Ward, C. Dutton. C. N". Sismons, clerk. 

1857.— Rufus Keller, mayor. First Ward. Jacob Howe ; Second Ward, Keman 
Ijyotula; Third Ward, A. G. Wheeler; Fourth Ward, H. S. Hebard; Fifth Ward. 
P.M.Bromley; Sisth Ward, J. Sehutte; Seventh Ward. P. Cn'^niniham; Eiihth 
WmJ, Obed M. Rice ; Ninth W»rd, John Lutes ; Tenth Ward, Thomas Par.^ns, 
C. N. Simmons, clerk. 

1838.— Charles H. Clarke, mayor. Fit^i Wird, W. Madget^ Jr. ; Second 
W»id, G. W. Perrj ; Third Ward, W. A. Reynolds ; Founh Ward. G. W. Lewis ; 
Fifth Ward, L. B. Twitchell ; Sixth Ward, D. W. Perry ; Screnth Ward, H. 
Billioghurst ; Eighth Ward, Henry B. Knapp; Ninth Ward, Lewis Sclye; Tenth 
Vitri, H. S. Fairchiid ; Elerenth Ward, J. W. Phillips, one year, L. Bauer, two 
few. C. N. SiiomoDS, clerk. 

1859.— Samuel W. D. Moore, mayor. First Ward, Wm. F. Holmes; Second 
Ward, B<'n. Butler; Third Ward, W. Holii^ter; Fourth Ward, H. 3. Hebard; 
Fifth Ward, N. C. Bradstreet; 5.ith Ward, Jol^c C. N-jh ; 3cTe::th W-,rH, 
Aaron Erickson, H. G. Moore ; Eighth Ward, N. A, Stone ; Ninth Ward, John 
Lutes; Tenth Ward, Geo. Sbelton ; Eleventh Ward, J. C. Mason ; Twelfth Ward, 
W. T. "Curbing, H. Billinghurst. F. 3. Kew. clerk. 

1860. — Hamlet D. Scnutom. mayor. First Ward, James Bracketl; Second 
Ward, D. A. Woodbury, Ihird w'ard. Eben. N. BueU ; Founh Ward, J. S. 
Waring; Fifth Ward, Alex. Longmuir; Sixth Ward, Gottlieb Goetimaa, two 
je»r», AJonzo Stearoi, one year ; Seveath Ward, Henry G. Moore: Eighth Ward, 
Ix-n Palmer; Ninth Wa,-d', 0. L. Aogevine; Ter th Ward, Fred. A'ose , Ele.-eoiH 
Ward, ChriitUn Scbaeffer; Twelfth VVard, Patrick Barry. F. S. Rew, clerk. 

1861.— John C. Nash, mayor. First Ward. W. F. Holmes; Second Ward, 
B,-n. Butler; Third Wani, John H. Brewster; Fourth Ward. Henry S. Hebard; 
Fifth Ward, N. C. Bradst.-eet ; Siith Ward, Chas. H. Williams; Seventh Ward, 
Jason W. S-.;ward ; Eighth Ward, Daniel Warner ; Ninth W.rd, M. C Mordoff ; 
Tenth Ward, S. B. Rjymond , Eleventh Ward, John Cody ; Twelfth Ward, Geo. 
N. Hotchkin, N, A. Stone, clerk, 

1862. — Michael Filon, mayor. First Ward, Luther C. Spen^r ; Second Ward, 
Ocorge Dirlicg; Third Ward, E. N, BueU; Fourth Ward. C. M. St. John; 
Tifth Ward, P. M. Bromley; Sixth Ward, John Hotfinan , Seventh Ward, 
Jl.nrj G. Moore; Eighth Ward, Ileary L. FUh; Ninth Ward, Uurace A. Pal- 
Oi-r; Tenth Ward, Louis Ernst; Eleventh Ward, G. A. Sidler; Twelfth Ward, 
llnirj Hcblng. Charles N. Simmons, clerk. 

1863 — Nchcmiah C. Braditrect. mayor. First Ward. .\mbr ie Cram; Second 
Wanl, William C. Rowley ; Third Ward. Daniel D. T. Moore ; founh W.ird. Wal- 
la.-e Darrow ; Fifth Ward, E. K. Warren ; Sixth Ward, James O'Maley ; Seventh 
Wanl, James Ufton, Eighth Ward, D-,niel Warner; Ninth Ward, M. C, .Mor- 
"•"(T; Tenth Ward, Alonro Chapman; Elevenih Ward, Thcmaa M. I Ijnn ; 
T.,.lfih Ward, Hamilton McQuaittrs. Charles N. Simmons, clerk. 

H64.— Jam.^ Brackett. mayor. First Ward. Luther C. Spcocer ; Second 
W«rd, S. A. Ho.lgman; Third Ward. William H. Grr«t; F.>-irth Ward; G. S. 
ropcland; Fifth Ward, Nchcmiah C. Bra.istnet ; Sixth Warl, Joseph Schutte; 
S-r,.„ih Ward, Rowland Milliman : Ei-hih Ward. Henry L, r Uh ; Ninth Ward, 
•l..rvc A, Palmer; Tenth Ward, William Wagner; Ele'venth WaH, G, A. Sld- 
l«T. Twelfth Ward, Henry Ilcbing; Thirtwiiih Ward, George P. Draper, one 
.'ear. Laurence Se!lin,:er. two yeara. B. Frank En,«, clerk. 

1 ^65,— Daniel D, T, Moore, mayor. First Ward, .Ambrose Cram ; Second Ward, 
J"vph Qualtrough, one year, Gcorgo B. Harris, two ycir^; Thinl \'."ard. Wd- 
•i>ni Holli,t,r; Fourth Ward. Slephen Remington; Fifth Wani, Martin Heber- 
1-" 'ne y.-ar, E. K. Warren, two y,-ir, . Siuh Ward, J.w.pli ; ,>evcnlh 
^* 'r-l, W,ll,.:,„ II Cnr-iiKC,'w,ird. i;.,.r.-c T,iy|..r, .Siolli W D 
' ■' -'T. T.Mih Ward, John Q^miui, Ki.-v.-.iih Ward, rh>,.i M Fl;.nn , T.vllih 
**■•"!. HaniilloD McQualtem; Thirteenth Ward. Ge-irgc V. Draper. li. Frank 

Second Ward, J.Mpph Qualtrough; Third Ward. William H. Groo'. ; Fou.-th 
Ward, John Graham ; Fifth Ward. William Gug-.'-nlicim ; Sixth WanJ, Herman 
MucKhler; Seventh Ward, Daud C.-polaod ; Eighth Ward, W. M. Brown; 
Ninth Ward, James H. Kelly; Tenth Wanl, Cyrus F. Paine; Eleventh Ward, 
F. Adeiman; Twelfth Ward. B. Horcheler; Thirteenth Ward, John Mauder; 
Fourteenth Ward, H, S, Hogoboom, B. Fmnk Enos, clerk, 

1867.— Henry L. Fish, mayor. First Ward. Ambrose Cram ; Second Ward, 
John Lutea: Third Wanl. Ezra R. Andrews; Fourth Ward, Stephen Reming- 
ton; Fifth Ward, W. Carroll ; Sixth Ward, Lodowiek F. R, lyea ; Seventh Ward, 
William Ratt; Eighth Ward, George Tay!.>r; Ninth Ward, P, Burke; Tenth 
Ward, Samuel R. Woodruff; Eleventh Ward, Robert R. Charters; Twelfth 
Ward, A. Biogemer; Thirteenth Ward, Henry Miller; Fourteenth Ward, John 
Qninn, two years; Cornelius R. Parsons, one year. B. Frank Enos, clerk, 

1868,— Henry L., mayor. First Ward, A. G. Whitcomb . Second Ward, 
J. Qualtrcugh: Third Ward, U, E, Boehcst4.T ; Fourth Ward, G, W. Crouch; 
Fifth Ward, Jam-a Cochrane: Sixth Ward, Wm, Sidey; Seventh Wanl, C. A. 
Jeffords; Eighth Ward, Patrick Caufield; Ninth Ward, W. S, Thompson; 
Tenth Ward, Elijah Withall , Eleventh Ward, J, P. Roach ; Twelfth Ward. F. 
S. Stebblns ; Thirteenth Ward, John .Itauder ; Fourteenth Ward, C. B. Parsons. 
B. H. Schooley, clerk. 

1859.— Edward M. Smith, mayor. First Wanl, C. W. Briggs; Second WanJ, 
John Barker; Thinl Ward, Eira R. Andrews: Fourth Ward, S. Remington; 
Fifth Ward, W. Caring; Sixth Wanl, L. F. Relyea, two years, W, F, ^Mor- 
rison, one year; Seventh Ward, P, J, Meyer; Eighth Wanl, Henry H, Craig; 
Ninth Ward, J. H. Wilson; Tenth Ward, S. r' Woodruff; Eleventh Wanl, 
Jacob Gerling; Twelfth Wanl,- Edward Dagge ; Thirteenth Ward. John Nagle ; 
Fourteenth Wanl. William Aikenhead. R. H. Schooley, clerk. . 

ISTO,— John LotM. mayor. First Wanl, A. G, Whitcomb; Second Wanl, 
Georre W.iite ; Third Ward, H, T. Ro-.-ers; Fourth Ward, George Henlwr-er; 
Fifth WanJ, M, M, Smith ; Sixth Ward. G, W. Connolly ; Seventh \^ ard, tl A. 
Glover; Eighth Ward, W. A, Stone; Ninth Ward, J. H, Kelly; Tenth Wanl, 
W. Mandeville; Eleventh Ward, R. R, Charters; Twelfth Ward, F. S. Stebbins, 
Thirteenth Ward, J. Mauder; Fourteenth Ward, C. R- Parsons. Wm. F. Mor- 
rison, clerk. 

1371 — Charles W. Briggs, mayor. First Wani, George W. AMridge; Second 
Ward, R. K. Gould ; Third Ward, C. F. Pood ; Fourth WanJ, M, Heavy ; Fifth 
Ward, William Caring, Owen F, Fee (vacancy); Sixth Ward, Abrim Stem: 
Seventh Ward, R. Y. McConuell; Eighth Ward, H, H, Craig; Ninth Wan!, 
Lewis Selye; Tenth Ward, John Stape : Eleventh Ward. J. Gerling ; Twelfth 
Wanl, V. F. Whitmore: Thirteenth Wanl. Frederick Stade; Fourteenth Ward, 
William Aikenhead. W. F. Morrison, clerk. 

1372. — .A. Carter Wilder, mayor. First Ward, John Cowles ; Second Ward, 
James 0, Howanl ; Third Wanl, H. T, Rogers ; Fourth Wani, John Gorton. 
Jr.; Fifth Ward, Owen F. Fee; Sixth Ward. G, W, Connolly; Seventh Ward, 
Charles C, .^leyer; Eighth Ward, W, W. Croft; Ninth Ward, J. H. Kelly, 
J. H. Nellis ; Eleventh Ward. Thomas Mitchell ; Twelfth Ward. 

nth Wa 

nth Wani, J. .Ma 

•; Fo 

ard, J. P. Farber. 


W. B, Mo. 

Wanl, Luther C. Spencer; 

E, H. C. Griffin 
W. F. Morrison, clerk. 

1373.- A. Carter Wilder, m.ayor, Fii^t Wanl, G. W. .Udridie: Second 
Ward, A. H. Cu.hman; Third Ward. John McMullcu : Fourth Ward, Gm. 
Herzberger; Fifth Ward, Henry Brinkcr; Sisih Ward, Abram Stern: Seventh 
Ward, W. G. .^.nthony ; Eighth Ward, D, M, Anthony; Ninth U'ard, V.'m, 
Shelp ; Tenth Wani, John Bower ; Eleventh Wani, Geo, Flcckenstein ; Twelfth 
Wani, V, F. Whitmore; Thirteenth Ward, J. Marsrandcr; Fourteenth Ward, 

F. S. Skuse. W. F. Morrison, clerk, 

1874.— George G. Clarkson. mayor. First Wani, Wm, H, Tracy; Second 
Ward, J, 0. Howa.-d ; ThirJ Ward, Geo. D. Lord ; Fourth Wanl, W, White- 
locke; Fifth WanJ. Charies P. Bromley ; Sixth Wanl, W. .V. Emers..ii ; Seventh 
Ward, C. R. Parsons. Eighth Ward. N. \. Stone; Ninth Ward, James E, 
Booth; Tenth Ward, Walter Wel.lon ; Eleventh Ward, .M. J. .M.aher; Twelfth 
Ward, B. F. Thomas; Thirte^.-nth Wani, John Mauder; Fouru-cnth WanJ. 
Louia P. Beck; Fifteenth Ward, A. H, Martin, James Gorsline, M. H. .Mern 
man, S. DubWcbeiss (elected by Council,, W, F. .Monrison, clerk. 

1875 Goo, Ci. Clarkson. mayor John .Mauder, president oT council. First 

Ward, W. H. Tracy, Geo. W. AMridge ; S-.cond Ward, James O, Howard. An- 
drew Nai;le; Third Ward. Geo. D Lord, David H. Westhury ; Fcurth Ward. 
Wm. Wbit.-I...te, A- G, Whii.-.mb ; Fifth Ward. C. P, Bn.mley, Hen.-y Brinkcr , 
Sixth War.l >,iMo,illa-,.. W N i:..., r-.r., F, 11. S.oith , to ni! v,...,„, v) , ;...->...l-. 
Ward, rorn.lui. U, l',.rson-., F ■^. Hunn ; K,.-hth W.rl. Ne.=. ii A ,M.n,. J, W. 
Martin; Niatli Ward, J,.ni,:i E lln..,i, .Jamot, H. K.JIy , >V.rd. Wail.r 
Weldon, E,I.Tin Hu.iiin.-i m , K;.v,-iiil, Ward, M, J. .^Iahe', li... F:c^k.-nii^.n , 
Twelfth Ward, 1), F, Thomas, John M. llraw, -d , Thirtconlh Wanl, John .Mauder, 


Jacob NuniiuM; F..urlwrah Wur.l, Loms P. Be k, Wim. S. Siir.tli : Fifiocnih 
Ward, Anthony II. Jbrtin, J. T. Uick.n-d; Siitciuh Ward. J. Geo. Baetzel, 
Wb. E. Buill. W. F. Morrison, cltrk. 

1876.— Cornelius II. Pnrsons, major. J W. Martin, PrcfiJ.nt of Council. 
First Ward, Geo. W. Aldridje, W. H. Tracy ; .-'.■cniid Ward, .\ndrew Na;lo, 
John M. Crown: Third Ward. David fl. AVi-stbMr>-. Thomas IV-irt; Fourth 
Ward, A. G. Whitcoiub. Palmor; FiHh Ward, IIenr>- Urinkcr, Iwi- 
erick Morhanlt ; .Sixih Ward, r^imon Ilav.i, Willis (.'. Iladlev; Seventh M'ard, 
Francis S. llnnn. G. A. Redman; KL-hth Wanl. John W. .Martin, A. It. Bon- 
oett; Ninth Ward, Jaujcs H. Kelly. Ktuory B. Chaeo ; Tenth Ward, W.ilter 
Weldon, Edwin (luntin-Wn; Eleventh Ward, Go., f leckeostein, .lohn Br.yer ; 
Twelfth Ward, John .McGraw. I'd, Benjamin F. Thoni,T.s ; Thirteenth W.ard, 
Jacob Nunnold. F. C. Laaer, Jr. ; Fourteenth Ward. Wm. S. Smith, Louis P. 
Beck; Fifteenth Ward, Anthony H. Mmin. J. P. Rickard; Sixteenth Ward, 
J. George Baetzel, Geo. Hilbert. Edward Ang.vine, clerk. 


The mayor, clerk, and aldermen are meiitione<J above. 

Treaaurer, George D. Willi.inis. 

Game Constable, Wm. S. Brown. 

Justices of the Peace, Henry N. Allen, Lodowick JI. Wooden, WinSeld S. 

Executive B-iard, Thomas J. Neville. Philip J. Jleyer, Valentine Fleckenstein, 
Henry L. Fish, .\mbroie Cram. Chauncey C. Woodworth. 

Board of Education, Henry Bemis, Michael II. Fitz Simons, Ilenry May, Jr., 
Hamilton H. Howard, Gco.'h. Newell, John E. Relyea, Wm. K. Caul'kiner, 
Robert J. Lester, Fav B. Brownell. Hcnrv M. Plant, Luke R. Flynn, Valentine 

F. Whitmore, W. G. .Marlcws, Geo. P. Davis, Nicholas L. Braver, Jacob J. Hart. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, C. N. Simons. 

City Messenger, Frank J. Irwin. 

City Attorney, J. Ereck Perkins. 
** City Surveyor, 0-scar H. Peacock. 

City Scaler, Cornelius McDonald. 

Overaeer of the Poor, Joseph Schuttc. 

City Assessors, David JI.Kay. Ebenezer T Oatley. .\ugust. M. Keoih. 

Assistant A.vessor, Chas. .M. St. John. 

The Health Department is comi'osed of the lu.iyor, clerk, and mess».'nc:er. 

Commissioners, James 0. Howard, Wm. S. Smith. John McGraw, Jonas Jones, 
M.D., Enoch V. Stoddard, .M.D.. Joseph A. Biegler, M.D., Cbas. Buckley, .M.D., 
Samuel Donnelly. 

City Physicians, Julius E, Kempe, Julius Schmitt, Ge 
B. Gallery, FrancLs L. T.iylor. W. W. Arohor. 

Inspectors, John H. Ma,-on, Radcliftc. Benjamin 
McQuatters, Joseph Thompson, Julius A. Post. Willian 

Keeper of Hope Hospital. Health Officer Buckley. 

Police* Commissioners. Hon. Cornelius K. Parsons, Geo. G. Cooper, Frederick 

Police Justice, Allien G. \\'heclor. 

Chief of Police, Alex;,nder .McU-an. 

Police Oerk. B. Frank Enos 

Captain, P. II. Sullivan. 

Fire JIarshal, 0. L. .S.n;evine. 

Chief En-ii.ecr. L.uv S. Gib-on. 

Assistant En'.-inccrs, John C. Counolly, San.uel, James Malcorab, 
Anthony H. Ka>sel. 

Superintendent of Fire Alarm Telegnpli. B. F. Blaekall. ' 

Excise Comnii.»sioners, James l!ak, r. Herman Mutsehler. Edwar.l E. Fenner. 

Water Commissioner-. Iloswell Hart, Chas. C. )Ioi^. Maurice H. .Merriman, 
Oilman H. Perkins, .lames C 


In the year 1817, Rochester at that tinu! h.ivint: become a viilaijc of ."omc im- 
portance, the attention (»f the citizen.s wa.s called to the subject of prcp.arin2 for 
extinguishing fires, ami every man wxs rt<|ii.'Sl,xi to b; .5U[.[.iied with tire buckets. 
Five fire wardens were .il*o appointed. Vw. . i;..swcll Hart, Willis K.■ulp^hall, J. 

G. Bond, Al.ner Wakelee, and Thos. lirow,,. 

Juno 10, ISIT, a tax ofthr.-e and fifiy dollars wxs voti-<l for defraying: 
expenses of corporation, for procuring- tire-hooLs. l.iddcrs, etc., and to take other 
precautionary measures against tires. 

Beoford, Frank 

B. Leap. Hamilto 
Roeers, Henry M 

On the ninth day of the folio 
consisting of the following-naii 
assistant ; EverarJ Peck, .secret; 
Backus. Roswell Hart, Jehial 
neicr Watts, Moses Chapin. Ho 
Warren, Jedcdiah ."Stafford, ^\'i 
Darius C. West, Chas. J. Hill. 

g October the Bret fire company was organized, 
portons: Daniel .Mack, foreman; Wm. Col.h. 
Wm. T. Shearman, Jo^lah Itl-ell. Jr., .VlUrt 
nard. Isaac Colvin, Hastings R. lie.ider. Ebe- 
: Bates, R,Kiwell liabbett. Cidcs.n (Jobb. Daniel 
a Brewster, K. Darrow, Ira I'. L. Clark. 

r of thi 

held at 

the house of Azel Ensworth. Of the twenty-three pirsoiis compoiin'j 
zatioo only one survives, viz.. Hon. Charles J Hill. The dcp: 
organized as a paid department in April, 18C3. 




follows ; 

Plunkett, Jan 

.Maleonib. John 

Fire Marshal, 0. L. Angevine. 
Chief Engineer, Law S. Gibson. 
Assistant Engineers, .Samuel Beniish, Ja 
C. Connolly. 

Steam Fire Engine Company No. 1, .36 Stone street. — Edward Loughlin. tbre- 

Steam Fire Engine Company No. 2, corner Stillson and East Main streets. — 
John Teller, foreman, eight men. 

Steam Fire Engine Company No. 3, Piatt street. — Geo. E. .^liUer, foreman, 
eight men. 

Steam Fire Engine Company No. 4, 21 South Ford. — Wni. Boham, foreman. 

city building, 61 Front street.— 


i . Empire Hook-and-Ladder Company No. 
I ^Joseph Ringi-lstein, foreman, fourteen men. 
I Alert Hose Company No. 1. Fitzhueh street. — E. Byron Biir-e^?. foreman. 

Active Hose Company No. 2, North St. Paul street. — Adolpbiis S. Otto, fore- 
man, thirty men. 

Protective Sack- and- Bucket Company, Mill street, comer of Market. — Llewel- 
lyn H. Van Zandt, foreman, forty men. 

Wheel Babcock E.vtinguisher Company, 61 Front street. — Jerome P. Dowd. 
foreman ; Nicholas Oldficld, pipeman ; R. P. Pendelbury, driver. 
! Engineers receive sixty dollars per month, drivers fony-fivo dollars per month. 

I and foremen and hosemen two hundred dollars per annum. Members of hook- 
' and-ladder comp;mies receive two hundred dollars per annum ; Ibrenjan of ho-^k- 
and-ladder company three hundred dollars; tillerman hofjk-and-ladder companv 
, 6fty dollars per month. The Alert and .Votive hose companies, and the Protectiv,* 
1 Sack-and-Bu-.ket company each receive twelve hundred dollars per annum. 

An interesting feature of the fire department, and one that reflects much credit 
' upon the city, is the fire alarm telegraph. ThLi was con^trnctcd at a cost of 
i twelve thousand dollars, and was accepted by the city in March, \^J\'). Alarm i» 
\ given instantly from the alarm-bo.ves to the office of the fire deparlrjcnt, to each 
j of the engine-hou-es, to the City Hall, to the Arcade, to the water-works, and to 
j the residences of the chief engineei and fire marehal. The taps can als.j be heanl 
at each of the other boxes. The number of taps indicate the box from which 
the alarm is given. 

Tlie city is now furnished with one hundred and twenty-five sigual-h...\e-. 
located as follows : 

2, North Clinton, c-irncr of McOonald avenue; 3, North Saint Paul, corner oi' 
Gorham; 4, Chatham, corner of Nassau; 3. North, corner of Webster; 6, North, 
corner of Atwater; 7, Andrews, corner of Franklin; 12. East Main, corner oi" 
Water; 13, Engine No. 2; 14, E.ast .Main, corner of Seio; 1.5. Ka-t 
avenue, corner of Alex; IC, Coart, corner of Chestnut; 17, .Monroe avenu.-. 
corner of Union: 21, Jlount Ho^e avenue, corner of .South avenue; 2;;, .VIex. 
corner of Broadway; 24, Moupit Hope avenue, corner of Clarissa; 2."., Glasioiv. 
corner of Plymouth avenue; 21), G. V. Canal, corner of; 27, FiancLs, 
corner of Perm; 31, Troup, corner of IMymouth avenue; 32, National Hotel; 
34, West avenue, corner of Fold; ilo. West avenue, corner of .\Iadisoii; :'.*:, 
Allen, corner of Kent; 37, .'Mill, comer of Pl.itt; 41. Brown, corner of Ware- 
house; 42, Grape, corner of .r;iy ; 4.'!, t^rchanl. corner of Orange: t.'j, Tomp.e,-!!. 
corner of Lyell; 4i;, State, corner ..f Lvcll; 47, Lake avenue, crn-r -( .M..r- 
tinior; 51, West M;iin, corner of .\i[neduct; .■*i2. State, corner of .Uiimfiir,! . ."i.;. 
Court, corner of Exchanu-e; h\. Nortii Water, corner of An.lrcw- JO. E.,--t .Main, 
corner of North Clinton; Tm, of R.|-ie..v; (il, .Vorlh I'Unloi, and .Vew 
York (Vmral Itadroad; lij, Hod-on. ooncr of Khino; il:;. r,uv.r-,>v ;,v.-,o,e. 
corner of Piino-; (U. .-■ou.ll Saint I'aol, croer of .r,-U..n ; o.", .-.ol I, ..vcmu.-; 
corner of Grrg.irv. 7 I , W.-t avenue, eornor of .-^aint Marv< lt..-|..t,l: 7.', lipovii. 
comer of West , 73, Plimoutli avcnno. cirner of Frost avenue ; 7 I, Lake 
avenue, corner nf Perkins, SI Canal, near \\'cst ,>Iain; 82, North Saint Paul, 

:^-3 . ^^> 










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c»nier of Miis'^; 31, cutt.m fattory, tVnlro sircot; 121!: Nonh avi-nm;, a)incr u( 
Biv; 1-^1 GooJmin, corner of P^rk aveDU»; 125, VacuuTo oil work-., Mansion 

The lity hall bell « struck daily at twelve M. by telegraph. 


Id the year ISCO a waterworks conipnuy was in existence in this city, of 
»hich Chailes J. Hay.lcn, Esq.. wu prcsi.K-nt. In Scpt.mjber of that year a 
re)«irt recnranicnJing Flemlork lake as a source of water supply wa.* maje to the 
inuvor anJ common council by the late Daniel Marsh, Ksfp, civil en^neer. 
I'nJcr the cliarter of this company, work prosecuuni between Iloehcster and 
Suilthtoirn, for the procurement of water from a mill-pond in iloueoye creek, 
and after the reported expenditure of about seven hundred thous;ind dollars, 
realiicd principally by the .^le of the bond:5 of the company, the enterprise 
proved a failure in consequence of defective plans and the uao of imperfect 

April 27, 11^72, an act passed the legislature authorizing the appointment of 
five water commissioners to prepare and submit a plan for supplying the city 
with pure and wholesome water, which plan, if appr'ivetl by the mayor, wajs to 
Ite carried out by the said eomraissi(,nera, and the funds necessary were to be 
rai.'H.Hl bv the sale of the bonds of the city, payable in not less than thirty years. 
November 15. 1S72, the commissioners submitted their report recommending a 
double system ; first, the Holly direct pressure system, specially designed fur 
(he suppression of fires in the busine.^5 portion of the city, by water from Genesee 
river; and a supply for d,''mestic purposes, by gravitation, from Hemlock lake. 
The mayor having approved the plan, the contracts for same were let April 12. 
1S73. In January, 1S74, the Ilolly works were put in operation ; and the offi- 

fulu: Thirty one-inch streams were thrown at the same time, to an average 
height of one hundred and thirty-five feet ; i two-inch stream was thrown two 
hundred and ten feet in height; a three-inch vertical stream was thrown to the 
height of two hundre<l and eighty-five feet ; a four-inch vertical stream to two 
hundred and ninety-four and four onc-hundredlhs feet ; and a five-inch vertical 
i»lream reached the height of two hundred and fifty-sis and eight one-hundredths 
feet. A four-inch horizontal stream was thrown T'ur hundred and sixty-five feet. 
These tests were given under an averagt: pressure of about one hundred and fifty 
[pounds per square inch, ranging from one hundred and twenty to ou» hundred 
and seventy-five pounds at the works. 

The JTemloek lake, or gravitating supply, involved the construction of two 
largo reservoirs, one in the town of Rush and the other in the city, and the lay- 
iog of an iron conduit a distance of twenty-eight miles, and also necessary workj 
•it Hemlock lake to tap the same one thousand feet from shore. From the date 
when the Holly works were first put in operation, as fast as the city mains were 
laid, although belungiug to the Hemlock system, they were filled with water from 
the river, and kept under pressure by the Holly pumps, until the amount had 
ri'achcd a total of fifty-four miles. January 23, 1876, the Hemlock water was 
let into the rc.-^rvoirs, and soon thereafter in the city pipes, except about seven 
.TO,1 a half miles belonging to and operated by the Holly works. Both systems 
an- now in successful operation. 

The following are some of the statbtics of the work : 

Miles of cast-iron pipes in Holly system in city, seven and a half 

Miles of cast-iron pi]>c in domestic system in city, fifty and a quarter. 

Miles of 24-inch cast-iron conduit pipe, fifteen and a half 

Miles of 24-ineh wrought-iron conduit pipe, two and a half. ^ 

Miles of 3C-inch wrought-iron conduit pipe. ten. 

lirnhnk lAike. — Seven miles long. three-<|uarters of a mile wide. Water- 
shed f,>r1y-two .si(uare miles. Height above lii>clicster, three hundred and eighty- 
eight f.-ct. Depth of water, forty to one huiiilred fe-et. 

Iti'fh Reserroir. — Distant ten miles from eitv hall. Height above the city, 
""' hundred and forty-five feet. Cap.aeity, eighty million gallons. Depth of 
w-itf-r. nineteen to twenty feet. Length of embankment on inner front angle, 
Ihmo-iu.irtera of a mile. 

M-.t'iit Il^tjje JiesfrmiT. — Distatit from city h.all ab^iut one and three-quarter 
"■ih-*. Height above city, one hundn-d and twenty-seven feet. Capacity, thirty 
milli-n g:,llons. Depth of water. fiiV-tn to ,ist.-cn feet. Total cost oV Il.,|ly 
•••rk-, al„ut f ,ur huudn-d ihousind dollars. Total of domestic system, 
''"■"I !«„ n,|!li„„ eight h.indr,.l th.,n=and d..llars. T,.I:J r.atcd capacity of eoii- 
■'"" loi- fr,.,n lake, nine niilli,.!! galhms daily. rate<l of Holly 
»■■'!.•. -.■'.,■» niillien g-allnns d.iily. 

A..i/,' l,ct,f,u/inj to the o'ti/ uird Jot iratcf-tciirkii. — One punqi-hou^e 

:ht.-( on Urom'f 

e, being ti-i'ty f«t front, and 


lot, with five wa 

t--> the fieueseo river. 

One lot fronting pump-house, and Ijing between Mill and Race str 
fil^y feet front on M.ll -street. 

One pipc-jard lot lying between Pinnacle avenue aud Erie canal. 

One Mount Hopu reservoir lot, with dwelling-house aud gate-bouse, 
eighteen acres. 

One lot between Keservoir and South avenues, having a frontage of forty feet 
on the former, and considerable more on the latter. 

One Rush reser\-oir lot containing about twenty-seven acres. 

One lot on shore of Hemlock lake, containing one and one-half acres. 

One lot on shore of Canadice lake, eoutiiining about twelve acres. 

The following are the names of water comiuissionere, from the commencement 
of the work to Octoucr 1, 1S76 : 

Roswtll Hart, Edward )I. Smith, P. M. i?romley ( deceased 1. William H. 
Bowman, C. C. Mors-.-, Gilman H. Perkins, John Bower, James C. Cochrane, 
Maurice H. .Mcrriman. 


The first fire in this city occurred un the morning of Sunday. December ."i. 
1S19. It was first discovered about three o'clock, in a wooden buildintr owned by 
A. Reynolds, and occupied in the upper story by him as a saddler-shop, and in 
the lower story by C. E. H.arnard as a grocery store. From this building it 
spread quickly to the stores of John Harford, Backus i West, and Clark i C. 
Above the store i,f Harford was the printing-office of the Rorhtst-.r Ga-.ctir. owned 
by A. Cr. Dauby. The large mercantile establishment of heavitt i Hill, located 
east of where the fire originated, was several times in flames, but by the persistent 
efforts of the citizens was finally saved. 

All thp linlldiiigs de.-troyed and d.imascd by this fire were locited on the north 
side of BulTalo (,Maiu) street, on the site now occupied by the .Vreade and Pitkin 
bli.Kik. In that early day this was considered a destructive conflagration, and it 
was thought at one time that the fiery element would sweep the entire street on 
that side, which included many mercantile establishments and A. Reynolds" 
•'tavern." At this writing — De-cember, 1S7G — the only persons known to be 
living, of the great number who were then in business on Buffalo street, are — A. 
Reynolds. Charles J. Hill, and Edwin Scr.mtom. of this city, and A.V.T. Leavitt. 
of Widlingfi.rd, Vermont. 

At the time of this conflagvation, Edwin Scrantora, now one of the oldest and 
most respected citizens of Rochester, was an ai)prentico in the G'l-etle office; an,l 
\jhile the flames were raging, he, together with a fellow apprentice, were asleen 
in the building, and luight have perished but for the effin^ts of a humane citizen. 
James Frazer, a liardware merchant, who wrapped about him a wet blanket, and 
dashing through the flames, bui^t open the do'ir, and aroused Scrantom and his 
sleeping companion. When the door was burst open, the flames, which entirely 
enveloped the stairway, swept iuto the office. Mr. Frazer aud the aj.prentices 
made their exit b}' aside d<K,r in the second story. A number of men below 
caught them as each in turn leapcl out. Jlr. Scrantom recollects, after comins 
to the door, of going back to get a chcit. the gill of bis parents, which conlaine<l 
his clothes atid also S4.)Uie presents which he had received for good perl'. .rinanciTi 
in the early schools. Up.m coming to the d.jor, the cry '• Don't stop a m..ujent -. 
jump out! the will fall in I ; :.Ti-etcd him, when he 1.hj.-,-J his ho 
chest, and leaped from the d.x)r just as the roof of the burning structi 
down with a criush. 

..f the 

t con.scqucnce 

)f this fire the main i 

:ile trade 

■ed location to St; 

street. After a few- years the building was crecteii. when business grad- 
ually came back to BulTalo street, an.l for many yeats the chief location of trade 
was on this street between State aud the river. 

THE FIRE OF 1858. 

The laying of the Atlantic cable was completed August 5, ISjS. The succes.-^ 
ful termination of this gigantic enterprise immorfalizcd the name of Cyrus \\ . 
Field, and threw tw., -reat counlri.;* into wihl enthuslrusm. Nearly all the ciiic-* 

the great event. In this g.-nera! rej..iein- Itoelu-^ter was am..n= the very first of 
the cities of .New y..ik, and the e.-l.l.ration of,! 17. 1S.-|S, was )« rli..i.-~ tli,- 
most brilliant deui,.n.-.lnition ever witn, -.sed in this city. The iinmens.- cncours.: 
of citizens as,eu.l,lc.i at (^.urt-lI,.n^e .-^.-luare, where a,l,!r.->es w.-re delivered by 
R„swcll Hart and J. II. .\| ulind..!.-. Publi.- an.l pri^.,le building's w.-re illumi- 
nated, lircw.rks burn..l. »liilc the of b. Us and liriie." ,if cannon 


the evcnin;.' a ni .rtar Cip.loilcJ, killi'i^- uno uian, Jci.-hua llu^-ei Lurry. anJ iojiirin!: 
several others, lint fur tliis nkI event, aiifl tlic dtsa^irous cuntf.iirniti*-a which 
followed soon after, the dciiioii>tratiiin uf l.SJS would Ion;.: have remained l"re:ili 
ia the lutnda of the pcojile a3 one of the most joyful events in the nan;ds of 

The citizens had seinely rctir.'d to rest when they were aroused by the fire- 
bolls tinging out loud and el-;ir on tlio uil.lniu-lit air. The fire ori::inated in the 
liverj stable of Ileavoy i MeAn.dly, on .Min-rva all.y. The flames .spread with 
great rapidity, and soon the Third l-r^-l.yi. nan ehureh, on Main street, was eon- 
sumcd without a drop of wat.r [•rln,- tlip.wn upon it. The briek block at the 
corner of i-ione street, owned by Mr. itutts. was the nest to succumb to the fiery 
element. The flames then leaped westward, and the thrccstory brick block 
owned by John i\ Bu-h was (piickly consumed, coiuniunieatins the destroyer 
to the block ncit to Minerva alley, and here it was thoujit po.ssible the llainp^ 
might be stayed. A moment, however, .<u!liced to dissipate the hui»e, when the 
fire burst through tlie walls, and the lurid tiames lapped and seethed ahme the 
structure, and in an incredibly brief perieJ this fine block was a mass of ruin.s. 
The fire cutitinued upon ita uevasiatiii^' course until fiiWn stores were c-onsuuied. 
Tbo linchesltr fnion, speaking of the conflagration, says, "The fire was one of 
the grandest spectacles we have ever beheld. It carried terror as well as awe to 
the mind of every beholder. The city and country about was lighted up with 
the flames, and the cinders and burnini: flukes floated aw.ay for a mile to the east- 
ward, jeopardizing buildings fir I'roni the scene of disaster." The principal losers 
of real estate in this fire were An.~on Hou.^, People's Bank of New York, G. C. 
Ensign, of Buffalo, Wm. Walker, Mi^. K. West. Thinl rre.-bytcrian ehnrch, 
Isaac Butts, John F. Bush, O. W. .Mere. (Jn the day following this confla- 
gration a fire broke out in the old Koohe.-ter cotton factory, on Brom's race. 
This building was rapidly consumed, and the tiames communicated to 1>. R. 
Barton's tool manufuetory,. which it entirely d.-^troye.! 


St. Luke's ClIl-'Rcn. — This parish was organized July U, ISIT. under the 
corporate title of St. Luke's Church, Genesee Falls. The organization was 
effected by Rev, II. U. Oudcrdonk, rector of St. John's church, Canandaigua, 
in a school b-iilding on the east side of the river, owned by .-anuiel I. Andrews. 
Colonel Nathaniel Rochc-tcr and ,■<, I. Andrews were elect, d w.rden^; and Silas 
0. Smith, Roswell R.ibbitt. John Ma«tio. Lewi» Jenkins, Eii.-ha Johnson, John 
C. Rochester, 'William Atkinson. (.Iliver Cuivor, were eli..»en vestrymen. Occa- 
sional services were held for the parish by Revs., It. II. Xortou. A. 
■Welton, and others, and in the month "f September, ISl.^, Bi-hop Ilobart visited 
the parish and administered the rite of eootirination to four persons in a building 
owned by the Fir^t Presbyterian :*ociety. The first church eilitiee was erected in 
1820. It was a frame structure thirly-ei-ht to f .rtysix feet, and first occupied 
on Christmas day. Rev. Francis II, Cnunning, deacon, lust served this cloireh 
ss rector, entering upon his duties on the lirst ."^uiiday of T'eceuiber. ISl'tJ. This 
primitive church was duly consecrated by Bishop I'lobarl, IM.ruary liO, ISl'l, 
and on the following day Rev. Mr. Cnmmnig was advanced to the priesthood. 

The membe.ship of the church n.pidly increa-cd, and not three years had 
elapsed from the consecration of the little church ere it became .apparent a 
hrger edifice must be crec ted. The vestry decided upon the rection of a stone 
building, and the corner-stone was laid in 1S23. It was fifty three by seventy- 
three feet, and fii>t occupied on the first Sunday in September, li'Zo. The bishop 
being in Europe at the time, its consecration did not take place until September 
30, 1826. 

In 1827 fifteen communicants were Jismis-sed from this chiirL-h to organize a 
pariah on the ea.-,t side of the river, to be called St. Luke's. 

In the same year the church edifice w,l-> eidar^ed to a sea'.'ng capacity of one 
thousand persons, and a bell co-~tirig nine hundred doll.irs was pl.-.crd in the tower. 

After a sueeessful rectorship of eight yeai^. Rev. .Mr. Comming, in March, 
1829, resigned, and was succeeded by the Rev. Ilcnry J. Whit, hou,^-, D.D., L.L.D., 
who was instituted by Bishop ilobart. August VJ. \aM. In \>'.V1 a Siind.iy- 
school and leeture-room was erected, and in the following year a eliarity-s--hool 
was esLihlishcJ by the ehunh. it bcinir really a cnnliMiiati..n of a free-sch.iol 
heretofore supported niahily by St. Luke's Voiing Ladies' IJenevolent Soei.iy. 
This school was continued in operation until the iuioptiou of the present school 

Rev. James A. Holies was appointe.1 a.-sistant rector fo,r one year, during the 
Kev. Mr. \Vbit^llou.•^.•'s ahsetice in I'.urope. entering his duties in Septem- 
ber, \?,i:;. Ill lSuO-;i7 the Rev. >. V. Ilruee. D.O., olhciated as assistant min- 

May 1, ISll, Ilr. Whit, house resigned, after a suc-ccssfnl pastorate of fourteen 

yc-ar^ and five nioorhs. lie was succeeded by Rev. Thomas T. Pitkin. D.D.. who 
took charge of the pari-h July U, IS 14, and was instituted by Bi-hop Do Laneev 
on the eleventh day of the following month. In the month of April, IS-lli, 

of a parish from St. Luke's,— Trinity,— which was formed in \\ilf>. 

In eonseiiuenee of ill health. Rev. .Mr. Pitkin resigned the rectorship Julv Vi. 
1S4-, after a successful ministry of three year!. In die following O.toher. a call given to Rev. Henry W. l,eo. D.D.. LL.D. Cantab .which he accepted, and was 
insiitiited by Bishnp D,. Lancy on the Istli of Febrmiry, ISH. Rev. F. I'. 
WarJwell, deacon, was appointed assistant rector. The f illowing also officiated ;ls 
assistant rectors during the pastorate of Dr. Lee: Revs. Edward .Meyer, George 
II. McKnight, Bethel Judd. D D., \V. U. Harris. George X. Cheney, George W. 
Watson, and V. A. Hopkins. During the administration of Ur. Lee, a new org;in 
was placed in the church and a peal of bells in the tower. 

His prosperous ministry of seven years was conclnded in consenuence of his 
election to the bishopric of Iowa. Ur. Xxe's consecration to tin; episcnpal office 
took place on Saint Luke's day, October 11. 1S.'>4, in the presence of his Roek_ 
by Bishops Hopkins, Eastburn. .'McCoskry, He Laiicey. Burgess, and Whitehouse.' 

On the ITth of Iiecembcr, li'54. Rev. Benjamin WatJin, U.D., chosen 
rector, and entered upon his duties on the 29th of the ensuing April. Rev. T. 
A. Hopkins, who was assistant rector at the n-signation of Dr. Lee, conducted 
services until the Rev. yir. Watson assumed the pastoral office. Ho was instituted 
February 14, ISdl!. He was assisted in his duties by Revs. Robert W. Lewis 
and C. E. Cheney. It was in ISS.'j, during the ministry of Dr. Watson, that 
Christ church was organized, and he conducted the first services. During the 
first year of his ministry St. Luke's was repaired at a cost of five thousand dollars. 
In consequence of ill health, he dissolved his connection with the parish, after a 
pastorate of four years and three months, on the first day of .VuL'ust. l,Sj9, and 

the following Dcecinber, and on the 20th of February, iu the ensuing wis 
instituted by Bishop De Lancey, Bish.ip H. W. Lee preachinL- the sermon. Dr. 
ClaJton was an inJefatigable worker, and thr..uL'h his instrumontjiitr was li.unded 
the Church of the Good Shepherd. During his pastorate a rectory was purchased, 
and the Sunday-school accommodations greatly enlarged. His assistants were 
Revs. Joseph Kidder, Frederick .V. Lnson, I)e 'Cvitt C. Loon, Frederick M. Gray, 
and Horatio Gray. He resigned to .accept the chair of professor of pulpit elo- 
quence and pastoml care in tlie divinity .school of the Protestant EpisC"pal ehureh 
in Philadelphia. His resign.ition took effect October 1, ISiJj. The parish was 
served from this time until April 211, ISUtJ. when the Rev. Henry -\nstice was 
appointed to the rectorship by Rev. W. J. Clark. On the second Sunday of .^lav, 
13Gt>. Rev. Mr. .\nstice assumed control of the parish, and is the present rector. 
During the first year of his ministry the interior of the church w;is thorouitlilv re- 
modeled and refitted ; the society in the mean time worshiped in the First Presby- 
terian church. Jlarch 10, ISGT, Saint Luke's was reopi'iied by the Rt. Rev. .V. 
Cleveland Coxe, D.D.. and the in-tituti..n of Rev. Mr. Austice'took phee on the 
14th of the same m.inth. William P.tkin. Es.,., presented the keys of the ehureh, 
an oflicc (HTformed by him ,it ttie institution of every previous rector. .Julv 21^, 
IStiS, the rector laid the c.rncr-stone of the Chapel of the Epiphany. The eliureh 
has been highly pre-peroos under the charge of Rev. Mr Anstioo. 

Loailion, Fitzliugh street near .Main. 

St. Paul's Ciilkiu.— This' was the second Episcopal parish or'_Mniz!d in 
Rochester. It was formed in 1S2S. and Rev. Ch.irlcs P. Mcllvaine i subsequently 
bishop of Ohio) presided at the meeting for orgmization ; Rev. F. H. Cumming 
being rector of St. Luke's. It his been stated that •■ the leading men at the or- 
ganization, and for many years afterward, were .Nlessrs. Wiili.iiii Atkinson and 
Elisha Johnson. For many years St. I'aul's v,\s ealleil Johnson's church, he being 
the leading spirit in the enterpri.-e. ' 

superior to .■iiiythin-.r at lliat dite in w. stern New York. Its sfiire was desii:ned 
to esceod in height any in this p.irt "d" (he State. The workmen succeeded in rai.s- 
ing it, but it w.Ts soon aftcf blown do.vii. and replaced by the present tower 

The first rector of this cloirch v>as ILev. Sutherland" Douglass, who in c-nse- 
quence of impaired be.ilth resi'.:ned in li.-s than one year, ami succeeded bv 

Rev. Ch; 


:il Is 

V. D. Johns W.13 called, who pr.Mchcd om 
Burton H. Hickol. The Rev. Mr. Hick 

a., and 

nained from l^'M 

his p;>storate was very succes.jlol. 

Rev. 0.a....-e Cl.irk. I> P , was callcl in 
period of four, and was l',,l|.,w,diy Ke 
control of ibe pan-b in .\[ ril. ls.;;i. ||,. r. 

, is::.-, 

<. and rontinucd as 
liio-ten VaoZiinl, 

his resigliati..n was a, e. pt; d. and the cloire 
'•The history of this period, 's.iysDr Van I 

h for a 

1 Ion- tune was with 
•was one of disaster 



,r it. Bui it w..ulJ be i 
fjit that during; this in 

■ d.'sii;iieil to tunli 
in.-t ilic uses of hi 

L<?t a veil be drawn | 
nut to record here I* 
was laid upon the i 

neuntbcney poremptory i 
K-niotit ot'daiieiniT. in case of youn'4 pervjns comin-^ to conlirmation or to the 
a mtuiinloii iu this parish." llcv. Willi:,m K. Kl^cnhrodt w;is called, from 
briJ-e, New York, and entered upon the duties of his office June 12, 1642, aud 
aui-d until Dcicniber, 1S43, wlicn he resiirned. The rcctoi-=hip of the Rot. 


ssful, i.lso that of Ke 

li. H. lllcko 

In ISi: the 

>Ir. t, 

cierted a powerful influence for good in the parish. 

,^, re»:ued from iocuuibrance and tlie title placed in the c«rpi 

church, where it remains. 

In Julj, ISn. the church buildioi; was destroyed by fire, and 
efvviion of » now ciiDce was bccun, which was consecrated as 
iWmber IT, 184S. 

The following have served the church as rectors and sut.pli 
period of forty-oi--:ht ycirs : Revs. Sutherland D..u-la.'y, 182S; C 

, both of whom 

t, lsa2-3.i : Orantre Clark. 
1 K. Elceobrodt. 1842-43 ; 

ll.l'iatt.Jchn .V .Norton, 
iiedlct. Joshua Smith, Syl- 

lon E. Ooe, Albert Wood, 

IS28-32-, H. D, V. Johns, 1832; Burton l[ Hi. 
lH;i,'.-3a; Washington Van Zant, 1839-40; Wil 
bicplien Um-L^s ■i»ha V, Van In.ue.i, l).D. Cha 
Jonathan L. Katon, Walter Ayrault. D.D., T, N. Bei, 
vanus Kc<.^, Wentworth h. Childs, W. H, Burris, Pbilei 
John B. Calhoun. 

In 1848, Rev. Dr. Van Ingen was called to the rectorship, and remained until 
ltJo4, when he was succeeded by MaunscU Van Rensselaer, D D. Dr. Van Rens- 
iclaer officiated about four years, and in May, 1853, his place was taken by the 
present rector. Rev. Israel F.mte, D.D. Durin; the administration of Dr. Foote 
the parish has been attended with prosperity, and many additions have been made 
to the church property, the church ediScc bavins; been enlarged, improved, and 
beautified, at a cost of twenty-seven thousand dollars. 

Dr. Eiicnbrodt rcDorted one hundred and ei'_'ht nomnmnicants in 1843, »nd 
now they number four hundred and sisty-eiiht. The following are the officers 
fur the year 1S76 : Rector, Rev. Isniel Foote, D.D. : AssL-itant Rector. Rev. 
Benjamin T. Ual! ; Wardens, Arthur G. Yates, Rinaldo S. Kenyon ; Vestrymen. 
R F. Woodbury, E. A, Gay with, Joieph A, Blgier, M,D.. H. H. ^S■arne^, A. 
Collins, George B. Humphrey, Esi^., and Fred Goodrich ; Clerk, Ge-jr^e H. Hum- 
phrey ; Treasurer, W. C. Dickinson ; Superintendent of Sunday-school, 0, W. T. 
Slirtwell ; Sexton, George Years, 

Location, North St Paul street, near East Main. 

Trinity- Cdv:rcii.— The movemjnt to organize this parish originated in 1336, 
with the Rev, Dr, Henry J, Whitehcuse. then rector of Saiut Luke's church, and 
•ubscfiuently the distinguished bishop of lllinoin. The project met with much 
•ynipathy, and one thousand dollars were subscribed in its aid. A lot was soon 
purch.Tsed opposite Brown's square, and Seth C. Jones. Esq., a parishioner of St. 
Luke'i church, inaugurated a Sunday-school in the school-house at that place. 
In 1844, when Dr. Whitehouse bade farewell to St. Luke's, he earnestly exhorted 
his parishioners to advance the interests of the church, and organize the new 
parish as «oon as po>.'ible. Happily, Dr. Whilchouae's mantle fell upon the 
nbouldcis of the Rev. Thomas Pitkin, of Ijouisville, Kentucky, who heartily ex- 
frted his influence for the realization of his predecessor s wishes. 

During the month of August, 1845, the subscribers to the church fund, and 
others interested, a.-sembled at the school-house, on the corner of Centre and 
J >nea streets, and under the direction of Dr. Pitkin began church services. 
tcrviccs were conducted by Dr. Van Ingen, Dr. Pitkin, and others, until the 
27ih of October, 1S45, when the church was org:inize.J. On that day an orgaoi- 
tatiiin was effected, and the following officers elected, viz. : Henry E. Rochester 

• t^d Selh C. Jones, wardens, and George R. Chirk, Samuel F, Wlthersfwon, 
G>-orge Arnnld, Daniel Hoyt, I'atrick G.Bui^han, William E. Lathrop. Le^is P. 
Il-vn., and Scth M. Maltby, vestrymen. Rev. Vaodervoort Bruce, of New Y'ork, 
wi. called to the rectorship in December, 1345, and on the Sth of January fol- 
'■■wini: preached his first sonnon. 

A movement for the erection of a church edifice was immediately planned and 
'he huil.ling commencetl. The corner-stone w.ts laid June 14, lS4t). and in the 
f"llowing Deccmlier divine service was first held in the church, the rector delivcr- 
'ng the discourse, und Revs. Fortune C. Brown and W. Ayrault assisting in 

• h» «.Ti;ii-cs, The holy euchjrist was clch rated for the first t'nie February 2. 
1"*". to twenty-two comniunicaiit-*. The sacrament of holy baptism was first 
••lmini.|.rc.| March 8, and on the 2:ld of August, following. Bishop Dc Lanccy 
a-iiniiii-ii-rcJ the sacred rite of confirmation to ninelwn p-rsons. 

M .y 12, ls|7. Rev. .Mr. Bruce rc-igneJ the rectorship of the parish, and was 
ti'.T.,!.,) h^ n,,, Ch.irlcs D. Cwer, who as-umwl euntn.l of the l.ari^i t.lct..bcr 

I . t tU, 



of February 15, 1818. 


the worship of 

[enry W. Uv, 
P. Stryker, J 

■ red upon 


Almighty God by Bishop Do Laiiaiy, aisistcd by the Revs. 
D.D., J. V. Van Ingeii, D.D., S. BeneJict, Mason Gallagher, 
A. Bowles, A. Lockwood, and Samuel Chipiuan, December HI, 
Cooper rcsignol, and was succeeded by Rev. Robert J. Parvin, who c 
his lab..irs February 10, 1850, August 12. 1852, he resigned, and ii 
bhed on board the steamer " United States," burned on the Ohio rive 
Rev. .\ddison B. .\.tkins was called, and, October I, 1852, began 
He remained about two years, and was succeeded by the Rev, Gei>rge 
of Penn Y'an, who took charg-e of the parish October 1, 1854. Mr. 
ciated as rector of this church a longer period than any other ever cor 
the parish. He remained until .May 1, 18C3, when, in consequence of impaired 
health, he resigned. 

During the rebellion he went to the front as chaplain of the g;il!ant Thirty- 
third regiment. New York State volunteers. He died at the residence of iils 
father-in-law, in Yates county, June 12, 1SG3, " A beloved brother, and faith- 
ful minister in the Lord." is the inscription uiwn a mural tablet, on the .^anetuiry 
wall above the altar, erected by Trinity parish in mcmoriam of him. 

In 1863 the church edifice was enlarged and improved, and Rev. John W, 
Clark, of Brooklyn, New York, was called, and assumed the px=torate Dcceml«r 
G of the aame.year. He remained but a short time, and was sueee,uod by Kev. 
John V, Van Ingen, D D., who labored with the parish until July 1, ISiJS, when 
he resigned. The pulpit was v.acant for a period of eight months, when Rev. 
Charles W. Stocking took charge of the parish March 1, 18U0, Through the 
untiring efl'orts of the rector the church was again placed upon a sound basis; S, 
F. Wiiherspoon re-organized the Sunday-school; the church edifice was greatly 
improved both interior and exterior, and on July 11, Ibfii), it w.\s re-opencd by 
the Rt Rev, A. Cleveland Coxc, D.D., bishop of the diocese, who confirmed 
twenty-two persons. 

Rev. Mr. Stocking remained until December, 187 1, and was succeeded by >L 
R St J, Dillon Jannnry, 1872 H- omclnted nntll (Vtr.K-r 1 --7:-;^ .nH 
was followed by Rev. C. J. Machin, who remained until January, 1S75. Ucv. 
■W. W. Walsh assumed the reetoratc. and is the present incumbent of the pas- 
toral office. The present wardens are: James Brown. Frank G. Ranney ; ves- 
trymen, S. F. Withcrspoon, F. A. I*e, J. R. Hoare, D. Knapp, R. Keilley. C. 
S. JLuton, S. P. Robin.s. At -the time of writing a movement is on foot to re- 
move the church to a more eligible site on Lake aveuue. 
Location, Frank street, corner of Centre. 

Christ Cnuacii —This parish was organized in 1855 by the election of the 
following ofiicers . Wardens, Silas 0. Smith and David Hoyt i both doceaswi . -. 
Vestrymen, Andrew J. Brackett, D. B. Be.ich, D. -M. Dewey. John Fairbanks. 
J, M. Winston, Charles R, Babbitt, Delos Wentworth, and Edward M, Smith. 

Services were held for the first time by this parish in Palmer's hall, on Sunday. 
April 29, 1855, Itev. Benjamin Watson, rector of St. Luke's, olficiating. l>>n 
nomination of Bishop De Lanccy, the Rev, Henry A. Neeloy elected rector. 
Rev. Mr. Neelev continued the rectorship with great satisfaction to the parish 
until 1862,when hevcsigned and accepted the chaplaincy of Ilobart College.ticncva. 
Rev. Anthony Schuyler, D.D., next served the church as rector, who remained 
nntil 1867. 

Under the administration of Jlr. Schuyler a tower was added to the church 
edifice, and subsequently many substantial improvements have been made. 

Rev. Walton W. Batcrshall was installed rector of this church January 1, 
1861). The present rector is. Rev. Joseph L. Tucker. 
Location. East avenue, near William street. 

St. Clement's CiU'RCII. — This parish is the outgrowth of a part of the work 
begun by the city mission under the Rev. R. M. Duff, as general missionary, in 
1SC5. A year or two later the parish of Christ church took the mission under 
its special care, and during 1870 it was in charge of the Rev. Daniel Huct, then 
the assistant at Christ church, of which the Rev. W. W. Batcrshall was rector. 
July 13, 1871, an independent parish was organized, and called St. ricmcut's. 
Rev. W. Fluek was elected the first rector, and the services were held in the 
school-house of the German society on Jefferson street until their removal to 
South avenue, near Ale.tandor street. Here, in a dwelling-house, was the chapel, 
guild-room, sewing- .and Sund.ay-schools. 

Julv 19, 1873, the bishop of the diorcsc laid the corner-stone of a piTinanent 
structure at the corner of Monger and Ashland s(rect9, desilncd by .Mr. R. -M- 
Upjohn, of New York. It is a beautiful edifice, constructed of red brick and 

trimmed with Milwankoc brick, and crcc 

ted at a cost of seven thousand dollars. 

In 1874 a rectory was a.ided to the pro] 

criy at a cost of over six tlo.usand dol- 

lars. The present valnali.M. of church, 

rr'perty is twenty thousiiiid doil.irs. In 

Octob.~r. !S7;!, the l!ev. .Mr. Flock res 

^ncd the rcitoratc, and a few months 

anerward was succeeded by the Rev. D. 

.\. Bonner, the present efficient pastor. 

Location, .Monger street, corner of A; 



CHtarn OF THE l.;oo[i StCEfiiKRD. — Tiiis .hiircli u of recent origin, lia.-iog 
been oruinizel iu March, l^i'j^. It wiu ffniierly a mi-^ion of St. Luke's f arl-h, 
and eatahllshed as such in 1803 by the Kev. Dr. Ulasion, rtictnr of !*t. Luke's. It 
was organized aa a acparate pari^^h by Rev. Dr. An.stice, successor of Dr. Claxton, 
and St. Luke's present rector. 

The first wardens ciiosen wens Jolin (Treenwotni and Gcon:e Cummincrs, and 
the first vestry ci.nsi.itcd of Thomris Thcmas Tilnlblin■.■v<■^n. 'William 
Attridt'e, Jr., Samuel Attrid-e, C. H. Finch, Uobert (>. Xewman, 'ft'Uliain 'VS'ebb, 
and Walter Williamson. 

The fir.t rcetor of the Church of the Good J^hep.herd was Rev. Jawb Miller, 
who resigned September, IStiU. and wa3 sucoee^led by llev. J. Newton Spear, who 
was followed by Rev. Jamr.^ S Barnes. Kev. .>Ir, Barnes was succeeded in the 
rectorship by Rev. Frederick W. Raikes, who remained until April 1. 1873. 

Rev. Benjamin W. Stone, D.D.. assumed control of the parish April 1, 1S73, 
and is the present popular and cneriretio re'.tor. 

The church offiecr^i fur ISTli are — Wardens. John Grc-nwood and Georse Cum- 
mings; A'e.-,trymen, \V. M.Webb, R. G. Fcwman. William Attridu'e, Thomas 
Biiendale, Thomas R. Baxendale, Andrew Erhardt, William Morris, and James 

Location, Grape street. 

Eprpa.\NY CiiiRCH. — This church wa-; orisinally ,i mis.sion of St. Luke's. The 
church edifice wn commenced in ISiJS. and in July of that year the conier-stone 
wa^ laid with appropriate ceremonies. It was opened for service February 23, 
18G9. It is neatly built, Knijlish style, sixty by forty-two feet inside, slate roof, 
with four double-lancet stainod-tjl.Tss windows on each .=ide, and a window in front 
on either side of a central tower eiehty-two feet in lieiL-ht. A neat and substan- 
tial rector)' has since been erected. The church is under the administration of 
Rev. Chailcs M. Nickerson, to whom much of its present prosperity is attributed. 
Mr. Nickerson was manv years rector of St. John's parish, Canandaijiu. 

This church was or^imized into a seoanite parish Wo^JnCiday, September IH 
1876, with the followin;.'-named persons as wardens and vestrymen: Wardens, 
John H. JIartiudalc, Romeyn Bouphton ; Vestrymen, John Hancock, David 
Fairman, F. W. Bcn:h, Jaiies Ratcliff, W, H. Cruss, F. R. Plummer, J. H. 
Stsdman, John Clements, 

Location, South Francis street, opposite Adams. 

There m al.-to an Episcopal chapel, called St, John's chapel, located iu the 
Cochrane block, on State street, and under the control of John J. Landers. It 

First PKF.siivTnti.iN CiiCRfil. — The first public relldous services within 
the territory now occupied by the city of Rochester were held in the spring of 
1813, in the upper room of a tailor-shop owned by Jehiei Barnard, and standing 
the first door west of the present entrance to the Arcade. They were conducted 
mainly by -Me.-^rs. Barnard. Warren. an.I Brown, and consi.'ted of sin-in?, readina 
of Scriptures, experience, and prayer, and the readin;,; of a sermon. Soon alUr 
they began, Rev, Daniel Brown, a Baptist minister of Pittsford, visited the 
people and preached for them ; and, durin;^ the summer, they were also visited 
by Rev, Reuben I'armelee, a Presbyterian minister of Vicor, In ISU a small 
»cl,o-jl-hou5e was erected on the site now occupied by the free academy, and the 
services of the society were there held, .\uu'ust '27. 1S15, this church was 
organized, with sixteen members, only one of whom is now living. — Mrs. -Magne, 
of Biltimorc. 

Tl e first pastor of the church was Re- 
in a store on Exchange street, in the wint 
of the church until June 10, IS-'l, He 

The first house of worship was erected 
south of occupied by liriggs Bros, a- 

V, Comfort Williams, who was installed 
er of lSl.i-16, He remained as past.)r 
died in this city August 2G, lS2.i, 
in lS17,ou Suite street, on the first lot 
. a seed st.ire, and was fir^t oei.upied in 

1 forty by fiay feet, « 

thousand three 

May of that year, 
dred dollars. 

Jviseph Penny, D.I>., the second pastor of the church, was installed April 3, 
18'j.i, and hi.s pa.storato continued until November 22. 1832, when he resigned, 
«nd wa.s succeeded by Rev. Tryon Edward-s, D.D., who entered upon his duties 
July 22, 1334. 

The second church building wxs erected nn the site now occupied by the city 
hall, and dcdicati-d Uct...ber 28, 1S24. Dr. Edward" remained as pastor until 
Jn\y 2.'>, 1844. He wu.s followed in the pastorate by Rev. .Malcolm N. .Mcljren. 
D.D., who was installed .Vuirust 27, 184.''i, and his p:i.>i(.ral relations di.ssolve<l in 
February, 1847. Uev. Joshua 11. Mdlvaine, D.D.. became pastor July 13, 
1843, and tcrmiii.itcd -luiust 8, l.'^liO. Dr. Mellvaiue was s«oi,-ceded by Rev, 
Dr, Calvin Pea^e, who remaineil about one year, wliei. his pajtnnte close! by 
death September 17, IStiii. Uev. Dr. Ellas R. IVadlc was the m-.vt pisior. He 
rcmainc<l but f>ne vcar, and was succH^ed.d by Rev. C. M.iuri(*e Wines, who otli- 
ciated until July 14, ISiiS. 

Rev. J. L. Robert.son, the present [wpular p^L-stor, was installed Dect^niher 17, 
1S7II. Ik is a graduate of the Geneva College, Ohio, and the Allegheny The.v 
logical Seminary. 

The present fine church edifice, on the corner of Plymouth avenue and Sprio:; 
street, was completed in 1872. and -ost ninety thimsand dollars. It was de<li- 
cated June 23, 1872. The present officers arc— Pastor, Rev. J, T, Robcrt,son ; 
Elders, E. W. Aniistnu,.,'. .M.D.. John W. Adams. C. J. Hayden, S. II. Terry, 
William Burke. A G. Bas.>ett, and George Kreck ; Deacon. Julin L. Fox ; Sun. 
day-school Superintcn.lent, G. C. iluell : Trustees, C. J. Hayden. G. K. Jennirj^-s. 
C. F. Pond, i;. C. liuell. A. -McV'.an, S. H. Gould The church membership is 
four hundred, and the Sunday-school membership five hundred. 

Location. PIvmouth avenue, crner of Spring street. 

Second or Brick Cut kcii.— This church was organized N'ovember IS. lS2.i, 
with the following members; T. L. Bacon, Silas liawley. Linus Stevens, Lydia 
Bacon, Catherine Brown, Lydia W. Blanchard, .\sa Carpenter. Seth Case. Pauline 
Case-, Fiijah Cherry. Lotta Chcrr>-. Richard and Amelia (iorsline. G. A. Hullister 
Sally HolHster, Sarah Hawley, -Mary Rust. Catherine S. Russell. Irene Sibley, 
Derrick Sibley, Nabby Sibley. Thomas Sheldon, Jane Sheldon, Thankful Stevens. 
Delia Stevens. Of these two only are living,— Seth Case and Amelia Gors- 
line. ■ 

The corporate name of the church w.i3 changed November 10. 1833, from the 
" Second" to the " Brick Presbyterian Church in RochesU;r," and so reported to 
the presbytery in February, 1834. 

The first church edifice was a brick structure, located on the corner of Fitzhugh 
and Ann streets, and completed in 1823. This church wai used until the ere<;- 
tion of the present fine and substantial structure in 1860, It cost, together with 
the furniture, etc, sixty-one thousjind eight hundred and eighty-one dollars and 
seventy-three cents. 

The fii-st pastor of this church wa.s Rev. William James, D,D,, who serve.! 

from IS?*; to 1SS1, nnd w-,» s„enee.leH hy Rev Wllilnn, WUner, L> , -.-h'! 

assumed control of the church in 1831. and remained until 1831). In 18:;8, 
Rev. George Beechcr. son of the late Rev. Lyman B -echer, became pastor, and 
continued until 1841, when he was succeeded by the present pastor. Rev. James 
B. Shaw, D.D. Dr. Shaw has officiated in the p;istorjl office of this .six-icty 
more than thirty-five years. His career has Ik-cu uiarked with success, and the 
Brick church has flourished under his guidance. 

Location, Fitzhugh, corner of .\llen street. 

Third Cucsch, — This society w.xs incnrp<irated in December, 
1826, and its first place of worship was a school-house standing on the corner 
of Jlortimer and Clinton streets. This soon became inadopiate to th.' incre;»siiig 
numbers of the church, and a new building was erected on the Siune street, twent;. - 
four by sixty feet. This building was erected in one week, Josiali Bissell. Jr.. 
superintending its construction. February 23, 1827, the church was formally 
organized with hineteen persons from the First and Brick Presbyterian churches. 
The first eldei^ were Salmon Scofield and Josiah BL^scll, Jr. 

The third house of worship was erected on the comer of Main and North 
Clinton streets, which was finally sold to the Second Baptist s.-.ciety, and in ab.iut 
the year 1840 a neat stone edifice was built on the south side of Main str.ei. 
which was subsequently cnlan:ed, but was eventually destroyed by fire iu ISijS. 

The fourth and present church structure wa.s erected in li:>'J. at a cost of 
about thirty-eight thousand dollars. 

The fir^t p,istor of this church w^is Rev. Joel Parker, D.D., who was succeeded 
by Rev. Charles G. Finney, who .jfficiated six months. Rev. L>ike Lyons next 
assumed control of the church, and was followed by liev. W. C. Wisncr, D.D. 
who remained but a short time. In 1834, Rev. William Mack became 
and officiated until 1830. when in February of the following year ho was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Albert G. Hall, D.D., wh.i continued in charge of the pastorate 
until 1S72, when the present pastor. Rev. Gi»rgc Patton, was installed. 

liOcation, Temple street. 

Cestb,\l Pre.suvteria.v CiiiRCH.— This chur.h was organized in 
1836. under the name of the '• Bethel Presbyterian Churcli of Rochester." Th- 
following were the first members- -Michael B. Bateman. Preston. Eunice. H.-nry 
F,. William P,. and Eliza N, Smith, ,Jo,-eph Farley. Theodore B and Julia ,M 
Hamiltrm, .lo^.ph, Nancy, and Newell A, Stone, Mary Jane Porter, Thoma.s Adams. 
William S. Bi-hop. Gei.r-e A. and Frincis Avery, Richard P. and .Mary .V. 
Wilkins, Spencer l>:ivis. Kb,nozcr and Polly Knapp. Appolln. Luce. Amelia S 
Adams, Marv M. Omk. Eliz;i l).ivis. John F. Hush, .roliu Bi.len, Jr, Walt.-r S.. 

H-..-nry D.. and Eli? 
Newell, John and I 

,b.lh S 

OUl^l S 

itt, Lv. 

a and 


are yet li 
Allen— ar 

in- and 
' still m.- 

Ihrcs — 

The tir. 




A. Avery 

and I'res 



ok. .To 

nd M . 


The 6.-5t eliurjh e-lifice w^^ frectcJ iu I33B, on WasMngtoo iTtre«t, «t >n 
MfKin.-* of fille^.n thou^^snU JoILr. 

In ISjS the presoDt commudlo'is church cUificeon Sophia $tr>^t waa -iixiicati^. 
mJ the njoiL' c!iar-/ud frjtn \S'a5hin^ton Street church, to Cooiral Pp.'5DyixTiaD. 

Rev. George S. Bo^inlaijo wu ;ii»uillL-d m first pjstor of the church October 
19, I&IT. nti.l rcmiinfj until July, 1«4-.', when he was succeeded bv Revs. Juhn 
T. ATcrj, Mr. Bjiictt, G, H. R. Slu.ravcaT. Freaencli W. Gra^ra,' aod Pardons 
C. HMtiniri 03 sufipliea, until Fchruary '.iS, lalj. when Kcv. >Iilo J. Hickok, 
D.D., was in3lalle<l pastor. Dr. Ilick.ik c-ontiiiuej in the .icrvice of the church 
ODlil March 15, 13.i4, Khcii he rcljncJ. T!ie ihinl pctor waa Ke». Kr:jnk F. 
Eili«"0od, D.D., who a^.-»unied control of the church in January, 16'jo, and remained 
eleven jcars, resigning January .H. Istid. Rer. Samud M. C'anipbeli, D.U., 
vaa iniitalli.'d p.i.sior June 14, IStJG. and i:i tiie present acceptable pastor. No leas 
than two thousand and thirty-seven persona luve be<?n r«.i.ivcd into the church. — 
one thousand and sii on prorc>>iun. and one tboa-viod and thirty^one by letter. 
Of thle number ciiiht have entered the njuiistrr, and nve l.;dlei have gmie to the 
foreijni missionary work, two as the wives of miisionarics. and three as teachers. 
The church h now in a very thrivinu' condition, aid "never before was this 
church." Mjs Mr. William Allinj;, "doio'.; so good and great a work ; never was 
rt equally strong" and pro.«perius. 

Location, Sophia, near West Main streeL 

St. Pn-EB's PRtsDTTESUN C'uiRCH was orpaniied December 12. 1853, 
'm the chapel of the church, by the presbviery of the city of Rochester. Ita 
Bret members were: Mr. Levi A. Ward.. .Mrs. Harriet Ward, Mis .Mury £. 
Wu-d, Jlr. William H. Ward, Mr. Ixircnio D. Ely, Mrs. Caroline C. Elv.'Mr. 
Lowell Bullen, .Mr^. Chloe Bullcn. .Mrs. Susan W. <clden, Mi.s., Ellen M. Kemp, 
Miss Jane Bradbury, .Mrs. Emily C'hum:.seix), Dr. John F. WbithM.-ck, ilrs. Eliza- 
beth A. WhitbL^'k, Mr. Edward A. Raymond, .Mrs. Eugenia C. Raymond. .Mr. 
Samuel B. li.iymond, ilrs. Harriet .M. Uavmoud. .\Ir3 Car(,line E.' McAlpioe. 
Mrs. Caroline B. Dwindle. Mr. James Murrey, Mrs. Resinah Murray, Miss Ann 
E. Murray, Mrs. Bet^y L. Oothout, Mrs. Emily R. Beckwith, Mrs. Mary Ann 
Holyland, Mr. John S.', Mrj. Chloe Dean. ' 

>Ir. L- vi .K. Ward and Mr. Edward .\- Raymond were the first elders of the 
church, elected at the time of ita ortraniiation, December 12. IS53. 

Mr. Marcus K. Woodbury was the first deacon of the church, elected Xovember 
10, 18.')S; and .^Ir. Joseph B. Ward was elected to the same office March IC, ISfrl. 

The first board of tru.-.te(y of the soeisty coa5i--e-i of Mes.-rs. S. B. Ra;.Tuond, 
J. B.Stilliin, C. F. S["ith, B, R. .MeAlpin'e. L D Ely. C. A. Jones. S. L. Seldeo, 
J. W. Bissell, C. H. Clark. It was or5anizcd by the election of Mr. S. h. Selden 
president, Mr. S. B. Raymond clerk, .Mr. J. W. Bis?i-ll treasurer. 

The first pastor of tJie church was the Rev. Richard H. Richardson, instdled 
June 10, 1S56; rc-siu-ned November .XU, 1S5T. 

The Rev. Joseph H. T..wne, D D.,]ed second pastor of the church, 
(>ct<.bcr 23, ISdS; resi-ncJ. .March 9. IsCO. Rev. J„lm T. C-it became the 
third pa.-tor of the church, June 3, l~i;ii; died. January 23. 1SC3. Rev E. D. 
Yeomans, D.D., was installed June 7. 1S63: n->u,Tied. April 2S. 1S67 ; di-sl, 27, 18GS. Rev. James .M. frowell. DD., was tlic fifth pastor of the 

church ; 

Mav 16, isey-. 

led, December 

The sixth 

tor W.13 Rev. As;i S. FUkc ; installed. January 1, 1372 ; dl.-missed, at his n^uest, 
S'ptcmher 12, 1873. The present acajrapllshed pastor, Kev. Herman C. Ri;^, 
Was installed June 8, 1876. 

The first church buildinL' was b^-cun in May, 1S52. and the corner.«tnne laid 
Jone 7 of the same year. Rev. J. H. Mcllv.iine. D.D , of Rochester, delivering 
an appropriate address, and other seniccs of the occasion being fulfilled by the 
Revs. Hill and Ward, nt the Presbyterian church : the Rev. W. H. Goi«lwin, 
I'.D.. of the Meth.Kiist Episci.pal church; the Rev. Mr. Howard, of the Baptist 
church; and the Rev. Chester Dewey. D.D, of the CouL-nyitional church. 

This first buildini: was ci.mplete-J at a cvvt of ibirty-tivc tiu.usand dollars, and 
wa." di-diented October 25, IS.Vi ; the Rev. J. 11. Mcllvaine, D.D.. pre:uhmg 
Ihc dc-dication sermon, and the Revs. .V 0. Hall, D.D.. V. D W. Ward. D.D., 
and others, c^nductini the other .scr*i(<^. Jlarih 18, 1SG8, this budding vjn 
diMn«ycd by fire, and nnmciliatelv rebuilt at a cost of titty-six thousand di'Uars. 

The pre«?nt officers of the chiirth arc the i;.llowin'.': Kev. Hcnnan C. Ri'.-js, 
P=ctnr; Mosrs. Levi A. Wanl, Jerome B. 8til!-..u. J.mtith.m E. I'urpoot. .Marcus 
K. WiKKlhury. Ashman Re.ho. John W. Slil.iiins. .^lauru■e H. .Meminan, elders; 
.Messrs. Joseph U. Wanl, Harvey W. Un.wo. deacons : .Mi-ssi-.. L. D. Ely, W. 
n. Wanl. C. K. Par-.ns, TlK,.l,.re ll,.e..„. 11. W. Bn.wn. J. 0. Cutler, D-anicl 
'""rey, (.1. E. Rip-.m. J. B V.'ird, tra-t, -s 

The S.nhbalh «h.-il w:e. ..rjanira-d in D:-.-.mi,U r. 1R.-.3. with a memUrship of 
fodyHui,. s,|,„l,rs. .Mr. Ed>.,.rd A. R.iy;n„nd wa^ lU, fir-t si.i» nntendent. The 
prr^-nt superintendent is Mr. Jonathin R Pierj-.nt. The o.ll .if the cun- 
•aina at present the names uf three hundred and fitly scholars and forty^ine 

officers and teacher 
ofthesehoel. It e 
.Vr. Wm. H.Ward 


LS founded ut t! 
hundretl and 

rary id the 
the pre-**Mi 
St, and Mr. W. ri. Kimball i.s the proent librarian. 

The number of members roixiivtsl into the church from the be-.:inning is five 
hunda'd and thirty-eiu'ht.of whom two hundred and ninety-six have been a'ccived 
by letter from other churches, and two hundred and larty-two uj-kju profe-^-ion rif 
Christian faith. The present membership of the church is three hundred and 

In accordance with a c<.inviction of the founder of the church, Mr. Levi .\. 
Warl. thit the entire congregation should participate unitflly and actively in the 
worship of the sanctuary, a speH:ial order uf worship was adopte<i in the beirinnmg 
of the church's historv, which, with unessential chan^-es, has been consuntly 

Location, Gibbs street, corner of Grove. 

CALV.tRT CtlCRCiI. — This church was originally organized as the Saint Paul 
Street Congregational Church. The ortranization was effected Maah 20, 1!'4S, 
when twenty-six enrolled themselves as members. 

The first church edifice w:is begun in May, 1.S4S, and on the 3d of November. 
1850, was dedicated by President Mahan, of Oberlin, Ohio. The church prop- 
erty was sold to L. A. Ward, and finally became a church of the 
Presbyterian order. 

June 15, 185i;. a committee, consisting of Revs. X. G. Hall. D.D , J. H. Mc- 
Dvaino, D.D-, R. H, Richardson, James Harkness, and Elders Ward. Cushin-. 
and Benton, convened in the South Saint Paul Street Congregatioual church, and 
organized the "Calvary Presbyterian Church of IWhester." consistiii'.; of the 
following persons: Wijiiam .-^tcbbins, Eliza B. Stebbens. William T. CiishiuL'. 
Arabella" Cushing, Olive Howes. Helen .M. Howes. J. G. Stothoff, Henrietta 
Dempi.!T, Hannah Ray. Mercy Ingnham, Eliz-ihcth Blum. Eliza Barrett. James 
Barton. Charles Barton. Jamc-s B.idger, and Catherine K.idgcr. 

after the organization Rev. Charles Ray became pastor, July 30. l,~jt;, and e^m- 
tinued his labors until August 10,, when be resi^rncd. and the pulpit was 
filled with the following supplies until IStiO. viz.. Rev. F. De W. Ward, R.-v. 
J. Nichols, W. H. Taylor, and others. In April, 1800, Rev. Bellviile Roberts 
waa placed in charge of the society, and remained aKnit four years and resijiied. 
The next officiating pastor was Rev. .-Vlfred Vcomans. who remained but one 
year, leaving in IS'X. Rev. H, W. Morris became the nctt pastor of Calvary 
church, and still continues a successful ministry, embracing a period of ten yc.irs. 

A new and substantial church edifice was commonce'-J in 1871. and dedicated 
April 11, 1S72. The following are names of church ofiici.als for the year I87G ; 
Pastor, Herbert W. .Morris, .M.A.. D.D.; Elders, Willum ftebbens! David L. 
Honn, F. T. Skinner, Thus. Oliver. F. S. Stebbens. James B. Reeves. Jud.^jn 
Knickerbocker ; Trustees, F. S. Stebbens, John Putnam, -\ugustu* J. Reibling, 
Thos. Oliver, Isaac Blackcney. 

Location, South avenue, comer of Hamilton pbce. 

iMemorhl Pbf.sbvterun Cml'RCII. — ■' Next Sabbath aftermon, at half past 
three o'clock, a Sabbath-school -ii'l bo organized in the second story of district 
sch(X)l-bousc No. IS, on Draper s.reet. G'Kjd spi^kinu' and gocKi sin^rini will be 
had. The singing will be under the direction of Profe-sor A. J- Warner ; speak- 
ing by Rev. Dr. Shaw, of the Brick church. Rev. Dr. Huntington, of the Asbury 
church, Geo. W. Parsons, of the Central church, and Geo. W. Kanson. of the 
Second Baptist church. Come parents, come young men, come younir ladies. 
come children, come all, — all who are nut enu'aired in any other school at the same 
time, — come and aid in establishuii: .i Sabbath-school in this house." Two hun- 
dred hand-bills, of which the above ia a cvipy, were circularcd in this city nn 
Thurs<i.ay, June 10. 1SG9. under the auspices of the Brick Presbyterian eburcii. 
of which this church is a branch. In response to this call five liiiudrcd p-.-rs.-'iis 
a&semblcd at the school-house at the appointed time, and the Sabbath-schoiil was 
organized, with .Mr T. .i. Newtjn as superintendent. Sixin after, a lot was pur. 
ehasesi of Hiram Davis for the sura of two thousand six hundred dollars, and 
early in 1870 a subscription was started among the members of the Briik chunh 
to raJs-; funds for the erection of a clt.i|H-l as a memorial of the ret 
place that year between the old and the new school Presbyterian 
contract was soon after let for I 

eh took 

he cha 

atone was 

laid, a 


the 20lh 

nf th. 


• Septeiii 

ber tl... 

new ch 




It is 



X fe-cl 

and cost 

seven lliou.sand li 

ve hu. 





and t 




St re'.'ula 


w.w Rev. (. 

. L. 




ed l.ur 

.Mrs. and w.y , 


by K.> 




who rem. 

iiie-1 a 


time, nil 

1 WIS 


bv Ch.e.. 

F. G.^ 


of I 


labt.rers being su 


. The , 



astor. R. 

V. ( 'h;.s 

P. C 



his labors 



I, 1875, 

rid was iiislalh-i 


2, 187 


Location of church 



uf Wllso 

a street. 


•J Sunday, April 5, ISmS, In ti.f CcMtral 
iipl.oll, th.' pastor, .Tssbtc.l by Dr. F. F. 

' -M. Mutt-y, and the drst elder; were 
Tlie original membership numbered 

•dit females, — all from the Central 

Westminster Curmrn wx^ orvanij 
Presbjtcrbn church by Dr. S. Jl. C'.i 
Ellinwood. The Srst pxst„r wj3 Rev. Huor; 
George N. Mitchell and Truman A. ('lark. 
eighty-two, — twenty-four males and fifty-* 

The fir3t church edifice was erected in 1.S5U. at a cost of seventeen hundred 
doUirs. This was a mission chapel, built by the Central church. In 137(1 this 
chapel was rebuilt and enlarced at a cost of ten ihou^nd one hundred and seventy- 
four dollara. The mission chapel was Jcdicited Sunday, January 1, ISliO, Dr. 
F. F. KllinwooJ, pastor of Ontral church, preachinir the sermon, and Dr. Jas. 
B. Shaw, of the Brick clmr-'h, o^ering the prayer of consecration. The church, 
«s rebuilt, wa.s dedimted January 26. ISTl, Dr. S. M. Campbell conductini; the 
services, assiste.i by Kc». II. M. Muscy. The church is located on the north side 
of West avenue, above Xcrtli Francis street, on a lot sistv-sil bv hur.dri;d 
«nd sixty-five feet, the joint gift of .\ristarchus (.'hampion and Joel B. Bennett. 

Rev. H. 81. Mosey was tlie first minister. His labors commenced -A.pril 5, 
ISeS. He was installed pa.stor of the church April u, ISTl, and remained until 
October 5, 18T4. The present pastor. Itev. C. B. ilardner, was installed Febmary 
. 4, 1875, liavin^4 begun his ministry to this church on the Srst d.iy of the pr jvioui 
month. The membership, Septeuib'-r 15. IS7ti, is two hundred and twenty-two. 

Location, West avenue, near -North Francis street. 

United Presbyterun CiiURrn was ori^anizcd on the 21st of September, 
1819. Previous to the or janization services had been held in the schoiil-house 
which stood near St. Luke's church, by Rev. Jolin Van Katon, of tl j -Usociate 
Reformed synod, who also officiated from .\uOTSt. 1S43. to May, IS-t'J. in a 
achool-housc on the corner of Troup'street and Plymouth avenue. The follow- 
ing were the first communicants of this church: Robert Bell. Mrs. Martha Bell, 
Rnhert. .T,.hnsnn Jr,n,es and Kmx Reid. William an,l J.inette U. Jnhn Biir- 
doct, William Hamilton, Mrs. (Rev.) Van Eaton, Willuim and Rachel Hart, 
Hannah Burdock, Jane Hamilton, -\nn and Christina Semple, 'Wm. and Cath- 
erine G. FLsher, Alexander and Mary J. Adams. Alexander and Margaret Blair, 
and Margaret Hamilton. nine are deceased, eleven have reraoveti, and 
three arc still in communion, viz. : Robert BeU. William Hart, and Mrs. 
}^ret Niveo. The first elders of the church were William Hamilton, Jame3 lieid, 
"William .Muir, and William Leslie. 

The first pastur of this church was liev. John Van Katon, who remained three 
jears and nine months. 

September S, ISJO, the house of worship was consumed hy fire, and on Jan- 
nary 1, 1S51, a purchase was made of the church building known as the Court 
Street church, on the corner of Court and Stone streets, and there they contin- 
ued to worship until the third Sabbath of September, ISti4, when they purchased 
and removed to the church which they at present occupy, on Allen street near 

Rev. W. T. Mc A dams succeeded Mr. Van Katon as pastor of the church, and 
■was ia«tal!ed June 6, 1S54. He remained two years and eijjht months, and was 
followed in the pastorate by Rev. Thomas F, Boyd, who 6:rved tour years and 
one month. 

Rev. James P. .Sankey, the present faithful and energetic incumbent of the 
pastoral ofiioe, was installed ,Tune 30, 1SG4. the services beinii conducted bv Rev. 
F. M. Proctor, Rev. J. Van Eaton, and the Rev. Donald Mc ".aren. D.D. 

This church wa.s origin.illy organized as the First Associate Keformod Church 
of Rochester, and -May 20, IS6S, changed to its present title. The following are 
the present ofStials: Pastor, Rev. J. P. Sankey; Elders, Rol>ert Bell. Rcbert 
Stcrrit, Thos. Lisle. .lames Hutchinson, W. 13. Geddes, John Bamher, and 
James Hart; Sunday-school Superintendent, the p.istor ; numi.,>r of scholars, 
two hundred and sixty ; church communicants, throe huntlrcd and sixty ; Trus- 
tees, James Hutchinson, Jo-cph Stephenson, (ico. Hall, Sa-iuel Lemon. Jas. C. 
McKcDzle, .John Malloch, James Envin, James Sprout, and William Fletcher. 

Location, Allen near Fitzhugli str^-et. 

Tre Refobsied I'BEsriVTEiiHN CitURCii Was or-anizod in ISiio, with twenty- 
nine members. Of these the followin-,' ore still in the communion: Joliu Boyd, 
Elizabeth Boyd, Mrs. Jane .Montlomery. and Mr^. .Martha Robinson. The first 
place of meeting was the hi-h selux.l luiil.lin::, which stood on the site of the 
Third Presbyterian churcli. corner of Liin<-x«tcr and Templo streets. Some yean 
after, a church building' was erected on the corner of .Main, and Still.snn streets. 
This the congregation occupied until the f.dl of ISO I, when they cntcivd the 
church they now occupy on Nnrlh S.iint Paul str,-ct. For some time sul)sc.-]iient 
to this organl7.ition they were without a p.\stor, dining which piriiHl Rev. Jvhn 
Fislirr supplied tho pulpit. Ill I ?;;.'>. Ucv. C. B. McKcc bicamc p.i.ii.-r i.f ihc 
church, and olliciatcd until ISl'J. Rev. D. .Scntt installed pa.stor in ISU, 
and served the congregation liathfuliy until 18(J2, when he resigned, after a highly 

successful pastorale, embraeiiig a poriiid of eighteen years. He died in this city 
March 23, l!i7I, aged 3eventy-.six years. 

Rev. R. B. Sproul, the present pastor, is a native of Allegheny City, Penn- 
sylvania, and graduated at JetTcrson Colle;e, in tho class of 1S57. He w;u( 
insialleil pastor of this church in Jlay, ISGj. Under his pastoral care the ci.n- 
gregation has increased in numbers and influence, and though one of the smidlest, 
thtz is als.5 one of the most prosperous churcli societies in the city. 

Location, ^furth Saint Paul near Andrews street. 

FiE.ST Methodist Ki'Iscopal Culhcii. — The history uf this church com- 
mencod in tiie spring of the year l.SlI), when a meeting w:i3 held in an uld build- 
ing southwest of the Whitney mills, on the lower race. In a sketch written b? 
Rev. D. W. C. HuntiuL'ton, D.D., and published by Erastus Darrow. Es.)., it is 
stated that the first .Methodist mcetmg was held in 1817, by Rev. Elisha Housi,, 
at the residence of Fabritius Reynolds, where the free academy now stands. 
Another writer iiys that Cynis Story organized a c1;lss in 1817, while the vener- 
able Edwin Scrantom is positive that ISIU was the period. 

The church was organized September 20. 1S20, with -^htdard Reynolds, Elam 
Smith, Daniel Rowe. and Nathaniel Draper as trustees. The first church edifice, 
a brick structure furtv-two by fii''ty-tive leet, was completed in 1825. The build- 
ing lot was donated by Elisha Johnson and Enos Stone, and occupied the' site of 
the present Opera on South St. Paul street. .\n addition was made to 
this building in 1S27, and in the year 1S31 a new edifice was erected on the 
corner of North Fitzhugh and West .'Main streets. It was i brick building, eighty 
by one hundred and four feet, and constructed under the supervision of Willis 
Kempsball. This house of worship destroyed by fire January 5, 1.S'?.5, and 
in the following year rebuilt. The present church edifice was bnilt in 1855. 
The following persons have served this society as pastors, embracing a period of 
nearly sixty years: Revs. Oren -Miller, 1S2U-1S21 ; Reuben Aylesworth, 1S21- 

1825; John Dempster, 1S25-1827 ; Zachariah Paddock, IS27-1S29; Gideon 
Laning, 1S29-1S3U; Glczen Fillmore. 1830-1 S32 ; Robert Burch, 1832-18.33; 
Glezen Fillmore, 1833-183-1; Elijah Hebard. 1S34-1S35; John Copeland, 
1835-1837; Daniel P. Kidder. 1S35 (^as^istant) ; Wilbcr Hoag, 1S37-1S3S ; 
Jonas Dodge, 1S3S-1839; G. Fillmore. 1S39-1S40: Thomas Carlton, 1S40- 
1S42; Moses Crow, 1842-1843; Samuel Luckcy. 184:>-1 844 ; Schuyler Seairer, 
1844-184G; John Donn'is. 1S4G-1843 ; John' G. Gulick, 1343-1850; John 
Copeland, 1850-1851; A. C. George, 1851-1853; Henry Hickok, lS.53-1854 ; 
Jonathan Watts, 1854-185C ; Daniel D. Buck, 1856-1353 : Israel H. Kellogg^ 
1S58-1860; Jabez R. Ja,|ues, 1860-1S03; S. Van Benschoten, 1803-1861;' 
James E. Latimer, 1866-1869 ; George C. Lyon, 1869-1S71 ; William Lloyd, 
1371-1873; D. H. MuUer, 1S73-1S75; R. M. Stratton, D.D.. 1875,— present 
pastor. This church is now in a prosperous condition, and has a membership of 
four hundred and sixty persons. 

Location, Fitzhugh street. 

African Methodist Episcopal Zio.v Chcrch. — This religious society was 
organ'ized in the year 1827, with about twenty members. Among the number 
were the following: Charles Dixon and wife. William Earles and wife, Elizabeth 
Gaul, Rebecca H.1II, Hannah Dorsey, GeorL-e Sampson, Alfred Williams and wife, 
and Caroline Hawkins. The churcli was formed on Ford street, in a brown school- 
house on the site now occupied by the residence of Mr. Sutherland. Its ineor- 
poratioQ was effected in 1836. 

The church edifice was erected in 1831, on High street, now Caledonia avenue, 
and fronts on Favor street. 

The first trustees were Charles Dixon. William Earles, Alfred Williams, and 
tho fiist class-leader was \Vilii;im Earlts. The present board of trustees consists 
of -Mr. Briggs, Fred. Gibbs, John J.ickson, Lewis Sprague, Jesse Rucker, and 
John Andrews. Rev. J. W. Lacey is the present pastor. Zion church was 
founded by the venerable Rev. Thomas James, who resides in the city, and fur 
nished the data for this sketch. 

North Street Methodist Episcopal CncHrH wiis organized March 27. 
1849, by Rev. Dr. S..mucl Luckcy. The pastor was Rev. D. D. Buck. D.D., 
and the first trustees were A. U. jud-on. John Stewart, and A. Wilkinson. Th.i 
first sermon w:ts preached by Rev. Jnlui E. R..bie. April 1, 1-19. 

The first members of this . hun h w, re .a.s ll.llows: A. B. Judson, L. Jud.-on. 
Alexander Dobbs, A Dudley, Cl.iris-a Clark, Albert Cy.n, .'»[., ry (i,..-,>v.:l, .8..niuJ 
Goswell. F. .V. Sku.-e, Eli/.a Sku-e. A Wiiki,,,.,,,, ,S.,r.,h llr,,.|,l;an-, .M.iry llnd- 
sliaw. A. irin, Stewart, Jr.. .V. I'.. 8t.w..,.. E. Si.unt .1.1,,, -■.,>.,-,. >r . 


M. .-I. 


I'hilander Davi.., Jolil 

•lees were S. Moulder 


It <vas fortj-fiv 
.r,l, wxi 

The firat church edlBcc Wiis finished i 
f.vt in siz-:, aod cost six tiuta^anil doibra. 
ber, lS3:t, by Rcv- S. Sin;zer, D.D. 

The followin'.- is i ilit of the past.irs wh.) havo officiiited for this cimrch : Rcr. 
D. D. Ui!'k, DD., S. W. AlJen, S. L. Cou'.-don, S. I-uckoy. D.D, S. Van Bea- 
.nhutco, i).D., Alpha Wright, John ManJoville. Join. N. UrDWD, Nathan Fel- 
lows. Dr. I.uctcy, Martin NN'hpcler, Israel Kvlhv.-;, A. II. tJhurtluff, D. Lisenring, 
John N. Brown, R. D. iMun-cr, E. hansins Newman, (he present pastor. The 
church ia in a prosperous condition, and has a meiiibor?hip of one hundred and 
Kveiity-five per«jns. 

Location, Xorth street, opposite Ontario. 

The Cott.-i HtLL Methodist Episcop.vl Ciiukcu was founded by consti- 
tulini; a legal board of trustees at t!ic residence of William P. Stanton, in Roches- 
UT, June S, \So2. The followinq persons were elected truste«, vii. : Caleb H 
Bicknell, Ileury Wray, William P. Stanton. Coles C. Se,^ G-wr^e Harrison, and 
Hcinun Lyon. The board was organized by electing Henry Wray president. Coles 
C. Sc« secn-taty. 

A subscription was opened at once for a new cliureh. A contract was made 
with CoLs C. Sc-c and John Bell tu put up the buililing for three thousand three 
hunJre.) and five dollars. Th;! tower was not then included in the buildinc:. 

I cost of about ! 

nd dollars, incluJiDi 

the ten thousaud dollars 
s in Rochester was appro- 

This was completed in 
eipenses of general repairs. 

It is due to Mr. Champion to say that a port 
which he contributed for building Methodist c 
priatcd to this church. 

Rev. A. C. George was appointed the first pastor of Corn Hill church, in 1S53. 

The oienibers compt)sing the first organization were from the First Methodist 

Kpi-MX)pal church, but had been meeting as a sort of missionary class or society 

during the summer of 1S.')3 in the old orphan asylum building on Adams street. 

The number was about thirty. 

Soon after the organization of the Corn Hill chun-h. the Third Methodist Epis- 
copal Society, worshiping in a little church, since transformed into a livery stable. 
on Caledonia avenue, became connectcMl with it by transt<;r of membership, and at 
*hc end of the first year the number in society was about seventy. 

The edifice was completed and dedicated in June, 1S.J4, Dr. Cummings, presi- 
dent of Geiie-see College, at Lima, preaching the dedicatory sermon. 

The first board of stewards was composed of Henry Wray. Silas A. Yerkes, 
«nd C<)les C. See. Henry Wniy was elected recording steward, which otSce he 
h.Ts held and honored ever since (September, ISTuV 

The first quarterly conference was held June 14, 18.53; John Copeland, pre- 
siding elder. 

The first Sunday-school report shows that from the beginning there has been a 
flourishing Sunday-school in connection with the church. The pastor. Rev. A. C. 
George, was the first superintendent. The number of ofEcera and t.^acbcrs was 
twenty-two ; different scholars enrolled, one hundred and eighty-five; volumes in 
library, three hundred. The present members are, teachers and officers, twenty- 
fttur ; scholars, one hundred and seventy-five; volumes in library, five hundred 
aix'. twcoty-sii. N. L. Button, superintendent; John Baker, secretary; Fraoeis 
B. Fulton, librarian ; Thos. Atkinson, assistant librarian. 

The firat presiding elder, as stated before, was Rev. John Copeland. Succeed- 
in- him were Wm. H. Goodwin, John Mandcvillc, John Dennis, K. P. Jervis, 
• n- K. D. Nettlcton. The pa.stors have been in 1853-55, A. C. George; 1855, 
J. W. Wilson; 185(^57, S. Seager and J. A. Swallow; lo38, J. Ash worth ; 
IS.iU, S. Luctey; ISGU, Isaac Gibbard; 1861, John Mandcvillc; 1862-03, A. 
N. Fisher and J. T. Arnold; lSt;4-Cii, W. B. Holt; 1867-69, George Pad- 
d'^'k; 1871, R. 0. Wil.^n. .Mr. Wi!-on died April 14. 1.S72. and the year 
wxs filled out by Itcv. J. S. Norris ; 1872, W. U. Bcnhain ; 1873-75, A. D. 
Willior. Present pastor, A. D. Wilbor; number of members, one hundred and 

Present trustees, J. B. Looniis. president, Henry Wray, N. L. Button, C. R. 
Bennett, F. B. Fulton, Francis Tulley, Thos. Gledhill 

Stewards, Henry Wray. recording steward. N. L. Button. Thos. Bell. J. B. 
l-Kimis, Geo. Olms'ted. Jas. Co-il:, John Baker, Gemge L.-at, Wm. C. Crum. 
Chiis-leaden, N. h. Button, Samuel Giles, Henry Wray, and pastor. 
Location, Edinburgh street. 

The Alf.x.vnukb SmsKT .McTnonisT Episcoiml Cih.rcii was organized 
in Brighton, October 12, ls.'i2. The meeting w^is called to order by Rev. Samuel 


y, HI)., and Rci- 



I'anirl Slocking, Godlrcy Tj1Icii-o 

the fir-t board of trust'-^s. A ehi 

•ireet, and during the sauio year n 

The lollowing persons have scrv 

elected secretary. 
-,n. and lin 

Gid.-nn Cobb, 

■din 1853, on Alexander 

Janrs prchlin-. 

.rs : Rovs. Alpha Wright, 

one year; Thos. Stacey, 
years; Israel H. KelioL' 
two years; H. Van Be 

year; Ei;,r.h Wood, two years; John G. Guilck, '.wo 
years, John Xiaincs, three years; E. J. Hermans, 
jten, one year; A. Sutherland, one year; D. W. C. 
Huntington. D.D., two years; J. D. Kegna, one year; John A. Copeland, throe 
years. T. J Leak became pastor in 1875, and is the present incumbent. Thii 
church has had a fluctuating history, at times enjoying a very large degree of 
prosperity, and again makins but little progress. In 1873 the church was re- 
modeled, and its seatin-z capacity cnlartred, since which time, under its then pastor, 
Mr. Cojieland, and its present pastor. Mr. Leak, it has enjoyed a constant growth 
in numbi-rs and intere^-t. Its present membership is two hundred and sixty in 
fiill connection, and twenty-five probationers, — larger by about seventy-five than 
reported in any previous year. 
Location; .Mexander street. 

ASBURY Methodist Episr.OP.\L Church was organized under its new and 
present name February 1, ISOO, This society mi;iht bo styled a continuauon of 
an organization — in the words of Dr. Huntington — which ■• was formed Septem- 
ber 26, 1,'^30, and a church edifice of stone erected on the of Main and 
Clinton streets, and was dedicated in February, 1843, the otficiating clergyman 
being Rev. Drs. John Dempsoy and Samuel Luckey." The church edifice has 
been greatly improved, and is one of the most attractive and comitiodious church 
structures in the city. The following is a partial list of the pastors who have 
served this church since its organization in 1860 : Rovs. J. W. Brown, Mr. Wilk- 
ins, F. G. Hibbard, D.D., L. D. Watson, Charles Eddy, and D. W, C. Hunting- 
ton. D.D. Asbury church is in a very prosperous condition, which is l.irgely due 
to tho untiring efforts of the efficient pastor, Kev. D. W. C. Huntington, D.I). 
Location. East Main street, corner of South Clinton. 

Fk.vnk Stkeet Methodist Episcopal Ciuucn.— This church was organ- 
ized December 16, 1852. Aristarchus (,'hampion. Es'^.. with that liberality which 
was ever characteristic of the man, gave to the Methodist denomination the sum 
of ten thou.s.and dollars to be used in building a number of Methodist churches in 
the suburbs of tlie city. Of this sum a portion was donaUu io\>.ud the cii...t.ou ..f 
this church edifice. The building was commenced, and in 1S53 dedicated to the 
worship of Almighty God by the Rev. J. S. Peck. D.D. This society has done 
good service, and is to-day active and progressive, with good promise for a fruitful 
future. At the preseut writing^ 1876. Rev. Thos. E. Bell is pastor, and Wm. 
Cochrane superintendent of Sunday-school. 
Ijocation, Frank street, corner of Smith. 

The Heddino Mission. — This is a flourL.hi!ig mission in the northern part 
of the city, and was named in honor of Bishop Ilcdding. A church edifice was 
erected in the autumn of 187G, and dedicated on the 24th day of the following 
December. It is under the pastoral care of Rev. H. 0. .\bbott. Trustees. 
John Stewart, George D. Gunn, James J. Bennett, James Fitt, E. W. McBurney, 
D. B. Durgin. 

Location, St. Paul street, corner of Scrantom. 

First B.\itist Church. — This church was formed in the year 1S18, and 
called the First Baptist Church of Brighton. It consisted of twelve mcmbc.-s, 
none of whom are now living. During the first eight years the largest number 
at any one time was ninety. In 1833 it had increased to three hundred aifd 
sixty-nine. The large emi!.Tation to the western States, and the orjinizaiioa of 
the Second Baptist chuich in this city, dimini.dicd the number to two hundred 
and forty-four; and then commenced again its upward progress, and in 1844 it 
numbered five hundred and thirty, and there remained until 1860, when aiain it 
began to increase until 1871). when it numbered seven hundred and sixty, — the 
largest in the history of the church. 

1371-72 witnessed tlie departure of lariio numbers to organize in part the 
three churches. Lake Avenue, .Momijrial Rapids, and E^rst Avenue, which, with 
other di-niis,<als, retluccd the tncnibership to five hundred and forty-five. The 
number is altout six hundred and thirty, making an average for fitly- 

eight years of four hund: 
largest seven hundred an 
Nine pastoi-s have ser 
Eleazer S.u-age, three y 
Church, D.D, fourteen yi 
years; Richard >I. Noti 
K. Bobbins, D.l 

iibcr bei 

ivelve, and tho 


Tho clerks 
B. She.lnan, 
Latter has sor> 
long since pii 
Sage, .Vi.Mon 
deacons, E. I' 

'j. yi. Spencer, one year 
eight yeais; Pharcclln 

Its ; Jacob R. Scott, ihre, 
D.D.. supply, one year 

1 was .-ucccdcd by tli. 


Deacon M\r 
nd Dr. Hcnr 


nd William M. S.r 


, Lewis 

have been with thU cli'jn.-h nnd r-oricty iiearlv fifty yoai-s. The ( 
four— J. 0. I'ettinsill. L- R^ .-<:a!>.Tl..-.-. S. A. Ellis, -Ind Ausiin }1. Cu!e— liave 
long been in the d*Tvice uf the cliurch. T!ie prcnenr board of trustees 
O. Sage, Martin W. Cuok, E. T. tlutlcy. J. K. Buoth, E. R. 
Sunderhn, E. Griffin, \V. [I. M..utL-on\er>-. 

At the organization of the church, njeetinga were ruaintv held in No. 1 school- 
house, located where the Rochester free acaJetnv now stand-s. when they were 
removed to the old court-hou'se and sometimes met in the jury-room. In the 
year 1827 the church was turned out by the slieriff in obedience to the direc- 
tion of the board u.'"supcrvi*jr3, beio',- a feeble band and cnr.sidered of no political 
importance. The church then removed to Colonel iliram Leonard's ball-room, 
over a stable in the rear of the old (;iintnn House, and there remained until 1S2S, 
when it purchased of the Rochester uieeiins-house company the first mtwtins;- ever built in the city of Rochester, and located upon State street, not far 
from where Chark-^ Bri^'i^' seed store now stands. The me«^tin^-housc company 
Bold the old buddini; to the I'irst B.ipiist church for some fit'teen hundred dollars. 
Five member*— Orcn Sage, -Myron Strong, Zloas Freeman, \V. L. Achilles, and 
£van Griffct — gave their notes for the purchase. I'his. fitted up at an expense of 
■boat one thousand dollars more, became the church till the year \KiO. when the 
new house of worship was comrleted upon the ?p*>t wh^'re it u- now located, 
boilt and paid for by the sale of other property and contributions made for the 
aame, amounting to eighteen thou.-^and dollars from both sources. It was then 
considered a model of beauty as well as cftnvenience. but opinion changed very 
much in subsequent years. That building was enlarged in the year 1852 by 
adding galleries and extending it thirty feet in lem.'th, at an expense of Sf-me 
ten thousand dollars, and that was removed the p.ast season to give place to the 
present structure, with the enlarged facilities of doing good. Adding the cost 
of the present building to others ab«jve spoken of, we have some one hundred 
and 6fty thousand dollars as the contribution to the church edifice fund of this 

structures in the State. 

Location, Fitzhugh street. 

The Second B-\ptist Chi R'H was organiied May 12. 1S34. The society 
first worshiped in an edifice pur^.-hased of the Presbyterians, located on the coiner 
of Main and Clinton streets. On the flight of December 10. Isj9, this structure 
was destroyed by fire. In the year 1861 a new church edifice was erected on 
North street. n>ar Main, at a cost of forty thousand dollars. The following-named 
persons have served this church as pastors: Revs. Elan Gaiusha. thrc? years ; 
Elijsha Tucker, four years; V. R. tiotchki>--, three years; Charles Thompson, one 
year ; Henry Davis, one year ; W. G. Howard. D.D., six years ; George I>. Board- 
man, D.D.. eight years; J. H. Gilmorc, three years. T. Edwin Brown com- 
menced his labors Xovember 1, 18ti9, and is the present efficient pastor. This 
church has reason to be satisfied with its progress during the forty two year^ of 
its existence, having grown from that little band of fitly-six to a present member- 
ship of five hundred and eighty-five. 

The following are the present church officers: Trustees. C. B. Woodworth, W. 
W. Mack, C. D. Tracy, J. B. Moselcy, Charles Staot..n. M. A Culver ; Dcace ns, 
A. Moseley. Thomas Johnson, ti. W. Rawson, F. .M- Mack. 0. H. Robinson. M. 
G. Seely ; Clerk, E. Bottum ; Trea-urer. Creorge Brown. 

Location, North street, corner of Franklin. 

German B-^itist CHiRrH. — In lSlS-49 several German Baptists came 
from New York and other places to this city, when thoy commenced holding 

meetings in pn' 

rate dwellir 

l-house No. lU. 


These services were conducted first by W. G. Englehard, a colporteur of the 
American Tract Society, and afterwar'ls by Rev. C. Roos, of Warrensville, Penn- 
■yhanla, who labored here nine months. 

In October, 1850, A. Henrick came to the city from Buffalo, and, through his 
efficiency in concentrating the scattered elemi-nta, may be .«tylcd the foumlor. The 
church was onranized June 2y, l.'^.ll. and recognized by the n-latcd judicatories. 
Rev. Mr. Henrick w;i3 ordained as first piLstor. Amonu' the ei)nstitucnt members 
were Messrs. John Dopplor, Jacob Bopeer, Conrad f^tcpplLT. and Joseph Richard. 
In 1858, Rev. Mr. Henrick removed to Anthony, LycuminL- county, Pennsylva- 
nia. K«v. Prof A. Rauschinbusch, of the Roch.-'tcr Th.H.lo:iical .Seminary, sup- 
plied the pulpit six motitiis. when the Rev. tierhard K«»opmaii became pastor, and 
continued four years, and was sui'ce,'d'-<l in l^'Gil by Rev. Henry St-hneiilor. and 
he in ISCJ by Ucv Ernst Tcliircb. who nniaincd until l,ST:i The church 
without a regular pastor about two yc;irs. the pul[iit U-in*.; supplied by Professors 
A. Rauscheubusch and H. .^ihulfor. and by the students, (i.i.rgc Fetzcr, 
William Pap<'nhau5cn, and otiicrs. 

Rev. P. Ritter, of Cincinn:iti, ( accepted a call ..f the chunh. and took 

charge of the s:> 
Mr. Ritter, the > 



the able 

itry of I 

ety hius largely 

ndrcd and 


At the organitil 
n otreet, and subsenuelitly in 
ntrd in 1870 by a neat chu 
)t. fifteen thousand dollars. 

ion of the church, .<er?;co. 
a school-house on An.ln^v 
rch edifice eunstnieted of 
fhe church is ecclesiastic 



the Monroe County Baptist As.-«:iatinu. The following an- the church otKci i!,> 
fur lb7G: P.l.stor. Rev. Peter Bitter; Deacons, Rudolph Wi.lmer. Jacob Aren.l. 
William Trump; Sabbath-schuol Sup.Tintendent. Gcrge Ki-eher. Nuniher of 
Scholars, one hundred; communicants, one hundred and forty-two. 

Location, Andrews street. 

The East Avenie Baptist Church grew out of amission Sunday-sch.j..! 
which was established in 18i7, by Dr. Guistiniani. f .r the b<'uefit of the German 
population of tlie city of Rochester. 

This mission Sunday-school — one of the earliest in the city — was at first a 
'•union" school, but towing to the facility with which teachers could he obtained 
from the university and theological seminary) it gradually pte^sed into the h.iTids 
of the B.iptists. In 1SI>3 it was n-organizcd as the " Bethlehem MiMon .~unii.iy- 
3che«l," under the esjiecial supervision and control of the Second Baptist ehur'.li. 
For several years its sessions were held in McClcllan Hall, corner of New M.ou 
and Scio streets, under the efficient superintendence of S. G. Phillips. Es>|. 

In ISOS a ci.mmittee of the Second tjaptist church purchased lots on the corner 
of East avenue and Anson park, for five thou.s;ind dollars, with an immediate view 
to the accommodation of the Bethlehem Mission Sunday-school, but in the hune 
that the site might ultimately be occupied by a church. In 1809 the foundation^ 
were laid for a plain but commodious chapel, which cost, with its furniture, about 
eight thousand dollars. 

The mission Sunday-school entered npon its new r(uaners April 17, 1870. and 
speedily became one of the largest Sunday-schools in the city. ( )n the 2d of No- 
vember, 1871. the East Avenue Baptist church was organized, with .sixty-ei;;lit 
members, representinir eittht different churches, although fifty-f uir of its constit- 
uent members came ln>m tiie Second Baptist church in Rochester. The new 
church was recognized by an ecclesiastical council, >lay 9. 1872, and received 
into the Monroe County Baptist Association, October 2, 1872. 

For more than a year atler its organization, the pulpit of the church was re!;u- 
larly and very acceptably supplieil by Drs. Buekland and Strong, of the Rocluiter 
theological semin.ary, while Prof. J. H. Gilmore, of the university, had the 
toral oversight of the new interest. The Rev. Henry L. Morehouse, the present 
pastor, entered upon his labois<, at the unanimous call of the chureh. January I'.i. 
1873, — the church then numbering one hundred and fifty-one members, of whom 
thirty-five had been receive<I by baptism. 

During the pastorate of 3Ir. Morehouse the church has enjoyed marked and 
uninterrupted prosperity. Ninety-one h:ive been added to its membership hy 
baptism, and its present membership (September 1, 1876) is two hundred and 


The estimated value of i 


r-five thousand dollars. 

Location, East avenue, con 

ZioN FiE.sT German Li 

the denomination of the Evai 

took pla 

r of Anson park. 

EiKRAN Church. — This congregation belongs to 
relical Lutheran, of the Unaltered Augsburg Con- 
Kcv. William lloppe, a member of the Evanirclical 
State of New York, etc. The first organizaii'-n 
12, and in 18i>G the corner-stone of a church edifice was hiiii. 
and the building de-dieated December 14, 1838. 

A new ehurch was erected or the site of the old building, corner of Grove and 
Wa.shington streets, and dedic:..ed January 29, 1852. This structure was en- 
larged, to meet the wants of the congreg.ition. in the year 1870. 

November 4, 1372. the congregation resolved to est:iblish a new Evangelical 
Lutheran church in the northern part of the city, and a site soon after pur- 
chased on the corner of St. Joseph street and Buchanan park, and a mission 
commenced. The congregation is now fully organized as St. John's Evangelical 
Lutheran church, and has erected a fine house of worship. It is under the pas- 
toral care of Rev. E. Heydlcr. 

Location, Grove street, corner of Stillson. 

Trinity Gkrman EvanhKoICAl Chi rch. located on Allen street, was organ- 
ized April 17, l.s;42. In the ycir 1850 a parochial school in connection with the 
church w:ei organiz.Hi. which is s-tiU in sucecs.s|ul oi^'ration. 

In 1857 an English Sunday-sch.iol formed, to which w.i.s added, in 187 4. 
a German Sundav-schcxd, org;inize.l by the present pastor. Both arc in 
successful operation, and exerting a go,.d inHuenco. In 1 8(!2, under the p:,-loraie 
of Rev. J. Ph. Conrad, a seee.-sion place, and the German EvanL-elie.d St 
Paul's church on FitzhuL-h street was organized. The year 1.^71 n-ifie««ed a 
similar secession, when, dun"- the pastorate of Ilev. C- Siebcnpfeiffer. the S il. ni 
Gennan Eving.lieal cimreh on Franklin street was formisl. lip to August 1» 

y were confirmed, four thousand four hundred and 

ttiousand one I 


sixteen wrre baptized, one thousand five hundred and thlity-three couplti ujur- 
rit^d, lu.a one tliou>anJ five ImndrtJ and 3ixl_vthr,-c p.n«jn5 hjrk i 

April 15, IS74, Kcr. Bcnjhard Pick a.-j<umed tonuul of the church, and is the 
present pastor. 

Lo<.-a:ion, Allen street, 

Gkruan Umtkd EvANdKLiCAL ."-AI-EM CiiiECH Was erected ill the j-exr 
lte73 The con^^reixation was started a tcvr tnuulhs previous under the pastorship 
of the Kcv. C. Sicbenpfeiffer, who is still the oBicialin!,' olerjvman. Rev. tj. was 
twelve }"ear3 pastor of the Geruiim Kvan^oiicd church oa Allen street, and it was 
through his in^trumeutality that the society w:is or.;ani2cd and the church erected. 
The ediSce stands on Fraukliu street near North ^alnt i'jul street, is one of the 
bandsoniesl church buiidini.'S in the citj, and was constructed at a cost of about 
sixty-five thousand dollars. A r,erriiari parochial school is connected with the 
church, and is under the efHcient management of D. S. Poppco. A large Sunday- 
school is also connected with the church, conducted by its ever watchful and ex- 
c-llent suf^rintend, nt, Thomas UrausficIJ. Ab.iUt fjur huDilrcd f.imilies belong 
to this church, and it has probably the largest Protestant coni;reiratioa in the city. 
Its denominatiooaJ character is a union between the Lutheran and the Reformed 
chualics as instituted in (ierUiiiny iu 131T, when the third centennial of the 
Keformatiun was celebrated. The Salem church ranks hiiihly in the estimation 
of the German population, and has a large influence. 

Location, Franklin street, near Xorth Saint Paul. 

Reuben Hill, October 31, lSt>8, and received its name from the great event of 
the sixteenth century which the 31st of October cottunemorates. It is the only 
Kuglish Lutheran church in the city. The chief object in its organizaf--^Q was 
that the children of the German Lutherans, as they became aoslicized by attend- 
ing the common schtxjls and associating with EDLrlish-speakin;: people, might be 
kept in the Lutheran church. The firvt officers of the church wtre C. C. ^leyer. 
WilliiL-. S!ei!!h-."«"r .Inhn B. Snyder. John S. Kratz. and William Maimer. 
The services were held during the winter of 1S6S and 1360 in Zion Lutheran 
church, on Grove street. Afterwards the third striry of the parochial school- 
house belonging to Zion German church was rented, and in it the congregation 
*orshiped until the completion of the church e-Jihcc on Grove street, near North, 
which they now occupy. In July. 1372. the corner-stone of the church was 
formally laid by the pastor, assisted by Kcv. S. H. Sample, of Pittsford, New York, 
and in the following December the church was dedicated to the service of God 
by the pastor, assisted by Revs. S. H. Sample and Frederick Rosenberg. The 
present membership b one huudrcd and sixty. In April, 1ST4, Rev, R. Hill 
resigned his office as pastor, and the vacancy was soon filled by the election to 
the pastoral office of the present inoiinibent, Rev. Charles S. Kohler. The pres- 
ent officers are as follows ; Klders, C, JI, Meyer and John Swylcman ; Deacons, 
William Arnold, Jacob Hoehn, Jacob Scoter,' John -M, -Miller, S, F, Tallingcr; 
Trustees, C, C, Meyer, William Stcinhauscr, John B, Snyder, L, V. Beck, John 
S. Krati, J. M. Lenner, Frederick Fiaugott. The cjngregation is small now,— 
nine-tenths of the people know not of its existence, — but the prospect for the 
future is very promising. All its members are young, and may reasonably bo 
expected to be spared to the church for some years yeL 

Location, Grove street, near North. 

Cblrcii of the Germax Kvasoelical .\ssoci.vtio.n was organized in 
lB-19 by J, J. Marguardt. The present church edifice was ertcted at a cost of 
four thousand five hundrc'd dollars. The following are names t ' the pastors who 
have scr%'ed this church since its organization: 

Revs. J. J. Margnardt, 1S49 and 18.i0 ; John Schaaf, 18J1 ; Martin Lauer, 
1852-53; Jacob Wagoer, 1854-55; .Martin Lauer, 1856-57; Levi Jaerby, 
1858; Aug. Klein, 1859-00; S. Weber. 18U1 ; Adolph .Miller. 1SC2-63; 
PhiL Miller, 18r,l-C5; George Ekhardt. 1800-67: Andrew Colywarth, 18U8- 
60 ; M, Lchn, 1870-71 ; G, F, 1872-74. 

Albert Tnlioltz took charge of the parish in 1875, and is she present pastor. 
The present officers are Gcorce Fi.^h.^r, Fred Klein. Jacob '>"olk. The church 
has a membership of one hundred and fifty-three. 

Loc:ition, St. Joseph street, corner of Xa.ssau. 

The Jewisu CoxoBF.dATIo.v Bkrith Kodf.sii was founded in the year 
1*13, and incorporated on the Kith day nf October. 18.54. In 1356 they pur- 
chased a Bapti.1t church buildini:, on Saint Paul, near .\ndrcw street, which was 
oecupio.! OS a of worship until tlie ere, tion of the new temple. The temple 
f I fine and imposing structure — built on the site of the old church — completed 
in I S7t; at a cost of about twciity-five thousand dollars. The number of memhcrs, 
»i'h ih.'ir faniilics. is five,',!. The pr.-scnt prosperity of the con-rc-ation 
'■• due, In a great degree, to the untirin- labors of the uHieicnt p:istor, Kev Ur, 
Max Lind,berg, 

location, .S'orlh Saint Paul street, near .\dam.s. 

CoMiRKdATIos Air/. Raanos wn,< or- 

rcet was mainly erc-ctcd by the liber.ility ol 
in a flourishing cnditi'in, and Ls under the 
Location, St. Joseph i 


It was funned by 
i;uc Oh St, Joseph 

; of Uev, V, Ruuetbake 

U.NITABIAS Cm RCH. — This church was organized in 1841 by Rev, Mr. 
Storer, of Syracuse, who preached in the cou