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Author of 

"Under the Cottonwoods," "Winning or Losing?" 
"Land of the Laurel," "The Story of Daniel 
Boone," "A Practical History of Music," "His- 
tory of Preston County, W. Va.," "History 
tory of Pendleton County, W. Va.," 
"History of Highland County, Va.," 
"Pioneer Annals of Bath 
County, Va." 

Staunton, Va. 

Published by The McClure Company, Inc. 


Copyright, 1916 
By Oren F. Morton 
All Rights Reserved. 


HE archives in the capitol of Virginia and the public rec- 
ords of the parent counties of Monroe have contributed 
a very important share of the material out of which this 
volume is compiled. Several books touching more or less 
closely on this region have likewise been consulted, although it has not 
seemed necessary to consume space in enumerating their titles. Ac- 
knowledgment is freely and gladly extended to the writers of these 
oooks, as well as to all persons whomsoever who have extended their 
courteous aid to the author during his field work. Throughout his tour- 
ing of Monroe he was treated with unfailing kindness and hospitality. 
His contact with the county and its people has been such as to render 
the preparation of this work a pleasure and not a task. 

There are those to whom special mention is due. Had it not 
been for the liberality of Rufus K. Smith and his warm feeling for 
his native county, it is not probable that the author would have come 
to Monroe. He regrets that he never met Dr. Smith and that 
that gentleman did not live to see the completed volume. Even 
greater credit must be given to Albert Sidney Johnston for the un- 
selfish public spirit and boundless energy that carried forward to 
success the initial effort of Dr. Smith and steadfastly furthered the 
enterprise to the end. Judge A. N. Campbell and his daughter, Miss 
Nannie, have rendered very extensive and valuable assistance, par- 
ticularly in biographic matters. Isaac N. Ballard has taken a most 
lively and efficient interest in supplying information from the Green- 
ville region. John W. Boon has written up with much care and 
detail the history of Methodism in this county and a statement of 
the families of Springfield district. This is the more praiseworthy 
because a merchant has constant demands upon his time. Robert 
F. Fleshman has been particularly helpful in furnishing prehistoric 
data. The contributions of Cornelius S. Scott have been of much 
service with respect to the physical geography of Monroe and its 


pomological interests. John H. Cook has contributed most freely of 
his long acquaintance with the' Sweet Springs valley. And last, 
but by no means least, generous credit must be given to Hubert P. 
Tracy and Ashby A. Hlodge for their financial assistance. 

No two persons are ever precisely alike and writers on local 
history employ differing methods. It is now in order to call atten- 
tion to the plan on which this history of Monroe is constructed. 

The book that is classified as a local history is often a bulky vol- 
ume in an ornate binding and is sold at a very high price. There is 
a brief, sketchy outline of the general history of the county. The 
distinguishing feature is the biographical department, and it greatly 
overshadows the other. It is true enough that John Doe values the 
book for little else than the elaborate write-up for which he has 
paid a good price and which appeals to his pride and complacency. 
This sketch, which portrays John Doe as he wishes the world to 
view him and at the same time arouses the amusement and perhaps 
also the caustic comment of his neighbors, is in the nature of current 
biography and its permanent value is small- The book is primarily 
a money-maker and is written in response to an artificial demand. 

The present writer is not in sympathy with the method just 
pointed out. He holds that if every well-informed American should 
know his country's history, he should also know his county's history. 
Patriotism begins at home, after the same principle that geography 
is best taught by beginning with the school district. If this view is 
correct, local history should be presented with a fullness comparable 
to that of national history. It will throw a light upon the latter 
and receive a light in return. It explains when, how, and why the 
county was settled and traces the various phases in its development. 
It enables the residents of today to comprehend the share in this 
development which has been taken by the preceding generations. And 
by better understanding the past of the county, they may become more 
of a force in contributing their share to its further uplift. The 
true purpose of local history is educational. This purpose is largely 
defeated if the price is beyond the reach of the average man, and 
if the book is designed and used as a parlor ornament. But if the 
price is to be reasonable the book cannot be large. It cannot be sold 


at so low a price as the books that circulate heavily in all the forty- 
eight states of the Union. 

The views set forth in the above paragraph have governed the 
preparation of this volume. A large portion of the book is therefore 
devoted to the general history of the county. This feature interprets 
family history as well as local events, and it often presents facts 
relating to particular families. It is the one section of the book 
which is certain to convey a message to every inhabitant. 

At the outset a volume of about 350 pages was contemplated. 
To present within this compass the annals of an area that has been 
occupied by white men a century and a half, and to give fundamental 
genealogic facts for a population of 13,000, it was necessary to be 
concise in statement and to omit details of small general importance. 
Elaborate biographic sketches were out of the question and they could 
not be inserted gratuitously. Biographic mention is given where it 
is plainly called for, but it does not usually attempt to go beyond 
statements of fact. What is known as complimentary mention is 
sparingly used. 

There was found an unexpected wealth of material relating to 
the general history of the county and also a singularly large number 
of family names, both living and extinct. The number of pages has 
been increased. Even then it was found necessary to leave out a 
few chapters and also a few sections of several others. Although 
this was done with reluctance, these omitted portions will be pub- 
lished in the Monroe Watchman. Again, the very unusual diversity 
in family names and the comparative absence of very large family 
groups with a common surname have made it too inconvenient to 
follow the intended plan in arranging genealogic data. 

To the individual reader what is related of his own kindred is 
esteemed as of peculiar importance. He is liable to feel aggrieved if 
the account is not written with the minuteness of an article in the 
local newspaper. Yet a little thought should make it clear that in 
a volume of limited size, and with a great deal of ground to cover, 
it is quite impossible to write some family sketches in great detail 
without crowding out many others whose claims to similar attention 
may be fully as good. 


This volume does not assume to be a business and professional 
directory of Monroe county in 1916- The place for such an un- 
dertaking is a booklet or a newspaper supplement. A directory may 
be expected to vary from the actual fact even before it can come from 
the press. Within a few years the discrepancies are very noticeable. 
In ten or twenty years it reads almost like ancient history. 

The reader of local history likes to familiarize himself with lines 
of ancestral descent. Such research is in the main commendable. A 
Greek historian well remarks that "both justice and decency require 
that we bestow upon our forefathers an honorable remembrance." 
In using the chapters of this book that contain genealogic material, 
the reader should give close heed to the explanatory notes which will 
be found in them. 

Information as to genealogic and biographic facts and items 
of interest in other phases of local history were solicited during the 
progress of the work and much material along these lines was sent 
in. In nearly all instances it was of great help. The purpose of the 
author was not to publish it as original matter but to use it in such 
manner and to such extent as she might think best. As a rule this 
view seems to have been taken by the senders. Several of the sketches 
were written with great fullness and it was with regret that only 
a minor part could be used under the heading where it would nat- 
urally belong. But some portions of these sketches are interwoven 
with other chapters. As to the use that has been made of genealogic 
data, the reader is asked to read attentively the introductory para- 
graphs of Chapter XXXIV. 

To recapitulate, the author has sought to produce a book for 
use rather than display, and with the highest attainable degree of 
permanent value. He has followed a topical method, so that the 
reader will not have to look through the whole book to find what 
properly belongs under a single caption. No general index of names 
could be appended, but the genealogical and biographic chapters are 
arranged in systematic order so as to facilitate use. The author has 
also endeavored to be equitable in the space apportioned among the 
various family groups. Some of these would have been given more 
space had there been more material to work with. A stranger is 


at some disadvantage in writing a local history, because the field 
is new to him and he cannot become thoroughly acquainted with it 
during the progress of his work. But on the other hand, he goes 
entirely out of his way if he allies himself with some particular local 
interest or social group. 

The writer of local history is aware that so long as he remains at 
work new and more correct material is coming to light. But unless 
he is engaged in a labor of love, he cannot stand the expense of 
keeping at work indefinitely. And if he consumes very much time 
the interest of his patrons will wane. 

No person this side of the millennium can write a local history 
that will please all its readers. It is usual for criticism to be quick 
and sharp as to any and all shortcomings. But the person who writes 
the book knows that the chance for error or deficiency to creep in 
is continually and persistently present. No amount of care will 
keep it entirely out. The real question, as to any book of this kind, 
is not whether some other craftsman would have done better. The 
real question is whether in the long run he would have done as well. 
Where an error is noticed the correction should be written legibly 
on the margin of the page. Posterity will thank the reader for do- 
ing so, and the later historian will be glad to have access to such an- 
notated copies. 

Oren F. Morton. 

Sweet Springs, W. Va., March 16, 1916. 



Position — Size — Boundaries — Mountains — Altitudes — Surface — Streams — 
Geology — Soils — Climate — Animals and Plants — Political Di- 
visions — Natural Advantages. 

HE county discussed in this volume is one of the sixteen 
named in honor of the fifth president of the United 
States. The others lie in Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, 
Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. 
The Monroe of West Virginia lies so far south in its own state that 
it lacks only 10 miles of reaching as far in that direction as McDow- 
ell, which is the southernmost county. The parallel of 37 degrees 
30 minutes and the meridian of 80 degrees 30 minutes intersect about 
one mile eastward from Zenith. More than one-half of the United 
States lies in a more northern latitude. 

The longest dimension of Monroe, from the northeast corner 
of Sweet Springs precinct to the southwest corner of Red Sulphur 
district, is 39 miles. The greatest breadth, measured from the north- 
west corner of Wolf Creek district to the east side of Potts Creek 
precinct is 25 miles. The area is given as 464 square miles, or 
296,960 acres, and the population in 1910 was 13,055. The dis- 
tance around the county is about 116 miles. For about 60 miles of 
the way the boundaries are formed by watercourses and mountain 
ridges. By transportation lines the distances form the county seat 
to the capitals of West Virginia and Virginia are respectively 138 
and 255 miles. Washington, the Federal capital, lies 266 miles 
northeast. New York and Chicago, the first and second cities of 
America, are 433 and 484 miles distant by airline. 

The bordering counties are Greenbrier, Summers, Mercer, Alle- 
ghany, Craig, and Giles. The first three lie in West Virginia and 
the last three in Virginia. 


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No other county in the state sends its waters partly toward the 
Atlantic and partly toward the Gulf of Mexico. It is within our bor- 
ders that the watershed between these two drainage areas leaves 
the Alleghany Front and passes from mountain to mountain by 
a succession of saddle-ridges until it joins the eastern arm of the 
Blue Ridge in Floyd county. It is because Monroe lies astride the 
Alleghany Front that the valleys and ridges of its eastern portion 
display the symmetry which is so characteristic of the main Alle- 
ghany and all the mountain ranges farther east. But the contour 
of the western portion shows the irregularity which is almost univer- 
sal throughout that part of West Virginia that drains into the Ohio. 

The Alleghany Front enters Monroe as a group of six ridges run- 
ning very close to one another. The three on the west terminate on 
Second Creek. The next perseveres a few miles farther and touches 
the great bend in that stream. As close neighbors the other two 
keep on to the New River, but lessen in height as they approach it 
and they are much interrupted by watergaps. A little farther east, 
Peters Mountain, one of the handsomest and most uniform of the 
Appalachian uplifts, pursues its unbroken course from a gorge below 
Covington to the Narrows of New River. Beyond the former it 
continues as Warm Springs Mountain and beyond the latter as East 
River Mountain. South of the sources of Dunlap Creek Peters 
Mountain takes the place left vacant by the breaking down of the 
Alleghany Front. Still farther eastward, and forming for some 
distance the county boundary, is the almost equally massive Potts 
Mountain. The saddle joining it with Peters Mountain practitcally 
forms the southern line of Potts Creek precinct. 

In the west of the county are the short, irregular ridges known 
as Swope's Knobs, Flat Top, and Wolf Creek Mountain. 

The general slope of the county is toward the west. The lowest 
altitude is the bank of the Greenbrier at the mouth of Wolf. At 
Alderson, a few miles above, the figures are 1372 feet above sea level. 
Scarcely higher is the angle where the county line touches New River. 
It is this low elevation toward the west that lends to Wolf Creek 
Mountain a rather pretentious effect. Its highest point, Whetstone 
Knob, a mile and a half south of the mouth of Wolf Creek, is 2810 


feet high. Patrick's Peak is 2600 feet high. Bickett's Knob, the cul- 
minating point of Swope's Knobs, has an elevation of 3327 feet and 
Flat Top of 3375. In the central belt of the county the ridges appear 
lower than in the east or the west. Yet Eads Ridge, an outlier of the 
Alleghany, is 2,850 feet high, little exceeding the heights south of 
Union and beyond Turkey Creek. In Cove Mountain is a point 
3,426 feet in elevation. But near Peterstown the Little Mountain 
range sinks to about 2,200 feet. Peters Mountain varies so little in 
its apparent altitude that local names have not become very firmly 
fastened to the more prominent points. Just south of Symm's Gap 
there is a height of 3,438 feet. Nearly opposite the head of Sweet 
Springs Run is a point 3,886 feet high. Near the source of Drop- 
ping Lick is Peters Knob with an altitude of 3,958 feet. But within 
three miles to the southward are three prominences that pass slightly 
above the line of 4,000 feet and are the loftiest in the county. Ar- 
nold's Knob in Potts Mountain is 3,929 feet high. 

As to the plateau which extends through the middle of the county, 
very little of it has an altitude of less than 2,000 feet. The floor 
of the Potts Creek valley is about 1,800 feet high, and that of Wolf 
Creek a little less. Union, Sinks Grove, Sweet Springs, and Cash- 
mere all vary little from a height of 2,100 feet. Peterstown in its 
valley is 1,743 feet above sea and Greenville slightly less. Thus the 
mountain peaks lose somewhat of the imposing effect which the al- 
titude figures might seem to indicate. In fact the mean elevation of 
the county is scarcely less than half a mile above the sea. In the cen- 
tral tableland the general surface is not so very uneven. Its water- 
courses lie in deep narrow valleys. Bottom lands occur on all the con- 
siderable streams, but they are not continuous and the aggregate 
amount is quite small. 

Since the great divide runs through Monroe, there are no large 
streams wholly within its limits. New River borders the county 
only one mile and the Greenbrier only three miles. Potts Creek 
precinct is drained by the upper course of Potts Creek, a tributary 
of Jackson's River. North of the series of saddles running westward 
from Peters Mlountain are Cove and Back creeks and Sweet Springs 
Run, all which unite to form Dunlop Creek, another tributary of 


the same river. That part of the long valley between Peters and 
Little mountains, and south of the great divide, is cross-sectioned 
into several drainage areas, each with its watergap toward the west 
The northernmost of these is the Gap Valley, drained by the three 
runs that unite to form Second Creek. The united stream then pen- 
etrates Gap and Middle mountains by passes only a mile from one 
another, and turning northwardly through the glades of the Lewis 
place, it soon becomes hemmed in by river-hills. For several miles 
it skirts the county boundary and then leaves it to flow into the 
Greenbrier. Within or above the passes in Little Mountain beyond 
Second Creek are the springs which form the sources of Indian, 
Turkey, Dropping Lick, Rock Camp, Hans, and Rich creeks. The 
first of these is the largest of the srteams belonging wholly or mainly 
to Monroe, and until 1871 it was entirely within the county. Where 
it finally crosses into Summers, a little way below Red Sulphur 
Springs, it is quite river-like in breadth and depth. Turkey, Drop- 
ping Lick, and Hans creeks are its more important tributaries. Rich 
Creek, and its affluent Brush Creek, drain the extreme south of the 
county. Scott's Run, another tributary, forms near Peterstown a 
part of the interstate boundary. Wolf Creek waters the basin west 
of Swope's Knobs. 

In the deep valleys are some very bold springs. These mark 
the reappearance of the waters that fall on the limestone belts. The 
surface drainage sinks into the underground channels with which 
the limestone strata are honeycombed. Several of the streams of the 
central plateau lose themselves in the ground and reappear some dis- 
tance away. But in places a creek bed will be dry except in wet 
weather, although there may be running waters above as well as 
below. Small springs are not frequent except where limestone rocks 
do not prevail. 

The geology of Monroe is very ancient, being of the later pre- 
carboniferous age. True coal does not occur except in the extreme 
west, and then only in a very thin seam. There is indeed a vein of 
black shale so closely resembling coal in color and appearance as to 
be spoken of as such. Yet it does not take fire and it requires fuel 
to make it hot. And as coal is practically absent, natural gas need 


not be looked for. The existence of oil pools is very doubtful, owing 
to the age of the rocks and their crumpled condition. A thick for- 
mation of blue, massive limestone covers very much of the county, 
as may be observed from the frequent outcrops and the very numer- 
our sinkholes. Elsewhere the rock formation is usually of a sand- 
stone nature. From the rockbars in Scott's Run may be gathered 
a dozen varieties of stones differing greatly in color and texture. 

The mineral resources of Monroe are not diversified. There 
is an abundance of rock for lime, for building purposes, and for the 
piking of highways. Some of the limestone is of so fine a grain as 
to resemble marble. Even the existence of lithographic stone has 
been reported. The mountains in the east contain much iron ore 
and some manganese. But to quote the words of the state geologist, 
"those who seek silver, copper, tin, or lead should waste no time in 
West Virginia." 

The extensive limestone areas are covered with a clay loam emi- 
nently suitable for grass and for the usual field crops. But here 
and there the ledges rise to the surface to such an extent as to render 
it quite untillable. Paralleling some of the streams and valleys are 
slaty hillsides, where the thin covering of dry, rotten shale is of very 
slight agricultural importance. A blending of lime and slate results 
in a very fair soil. In the limited pockets of creek bottom is a 
darker, deeper, and better soil. The high uplands on Brush Creek 
have a yellowish, sandy covering, such as is observable southward of 
New River. , , , 

Exact weather records covering a long term of years do not seem 
to have been kept in Monroe. The elevation gives a cooler climate 
than is found in the same latitude on the seaboard or in the lowlands 
on the Mississippi. The yearly fall of rain and melted snow ap- 
pears to be about 45 inches. The mean temperature of the average 
elevations is not far from 52 degrees, varying from 32 degrees in 
winter to 71 in summer. The winter cold is seldom severe, and 
the summer heats are rarely oppressive. Extremes of 100 degrees 
above zero or 20 below are almost unprecedented, although a tem- 
perature of 102 was observed in Union in 1887. The first appear- 
ance of apple bloom varies from April 8 to May 10. The winter 


is least cloudy east of the great divide. The warmer months are 
particularly pleasant, and the air is pure and invigorating. High 
winds are infrequent, but the valley on the west side of Peters Moun- 
tain is subject to local winds of considerable force. Hfealth condi- 
tions are naturally very good, longevity is frequent, and among sum- 
mer tourists the climate has long been held in deservedly high repute. 
The limestone areas are rather subject to typhoid fever, the under- 
ground drainage appearing to scatter the germs of the disease, which, 
however, is largely a preventable ailment. Certain localities, partic- 
ularly one in the vicinity of Bickett's Knob, were once subject to 
the malignant fever known as milk sickness, which attacks the do- 
mestic animals as well as man, and is thought to be induced by some 
poisonous herb. 

Animal life is less varied and still less numerous than when the 
county was a wilderness. The last elk was shot by John Lewis of 
Sweet Springs, probably more than a century ago, and no buffalo 
has been seen in West Virginia since 1825. The deer, once very 
numerous, have all but vanished. The puma and the gray wolf 
were once great pests and have not long been extinct. The wildcat 
and an occasional black bear still haunt the mountains. Among other 
mammals are raccoons, otters, gray foxes, mink, weasels, skunks, 
opossums, beavers, woodchucks, cottontailed rabbits, muskrats, moles 
and bats. There are also fox, gray, ground, and flying squirrels, 
and the ferrydiddle, and wood and field mice. The gray rat and the 
house mouse are imported nuisances. The venomous serpents are the 
rattlesnake and the copperhead. The hog-nosed snake, or blowing 
viper, has the outward appearance of a poisonous snake, yet is entirely 
harmless and cannot be coaxed into using its miniature teeth. Its 
suspicious appearance and its hissing are some of the protective de- 
vices that nature often employs. Other serpents are two kinds each 
of blacksnakes and watersnakes, the gartersnake, the greensnake, the 
groundsnake, and the so-called housesnake. Other reptiles are the 
dry land terrapin, the mud turtle, the swift, the newt, land and tree 
toads, the bullfrog, and frogs of two smaller species. The principal 
fishes are blue and mud cats, trout, suckers, eels, chubs, sawfish and 


As to birds the list is more numerous. Of those that nest here 
the birds of prey are the buzzard, the squirrel hawk, the blue chicken 
hawk, the striped chicken hawk, the bird hawk, the hoot owl, and 
the barn owl. Of others the larger species are the turkey, the duck, 
the dove, the pheasant, the bobwhite, the rain crow, and the carrion 
crow. Of smaller birds are the following kinds: whipporwill, flax- 
bird, catbird, bluebird, white-winged woodpecker, chimney-bird, 
woodsparrow, groundsparrow, blue warbler, common blackbird, red- 
winged blackbird, hummingbird, indigo bird, kingbird, swampbird, 
bobolink, yellowhammer, bullfinch, goldfinch, sapsucker, meadow- 
lark, brown thrush, bluejay, robin, wren, tomtit, swallow, snipe, mar- 
tin, and peewee. The monarch of the air is the gray eagle. In 
1901 an eagle was killed in this county that measured 36 inches from 
the tip of the beak to the end of the tail, and the spread of the wings 
was seven feet. 

The rainfall is well distributed and the soils take naturally to a 
forest covering. When the woodland is cleared away, especially 
from the limestone belts, there comes in a carpet of grass, the foun- 
dation of Monroe's importance as a grazing county. 

The following is a list of native forest trees: white pine, spruce 
pine, yew pine, arbor vitae, black walnut, white walnut, sugar maple ; 
hard maple, cutleaf maple, white poplar, yellow poplar, Spanish oak, 
black oak, ash, black gum, white linn, yellow linn, yellow locust, yel- 
low willow, weeping willow, horse chestnut, sassafras, sourwood, red 
cedar, birch, holly, and dogwood. Fruit and nut trees other than 
those mentioned are the chestnut, mulberry, cherry, crabapple, plum, 
persimmon, and pawpaw. Qf shrubs there are the rhododendron, 
the hazelbush, the redbud, the Hercules club, the chinkapin, the buf- 
falo nut, the black haw, the service berry, and the witchhazel. Still 
more humble plants are the trailing arbutis, which is to America what 
the heather is to Scotland, and the goldenrod, the floral emblem of 
several states. The wild grapes are the fox grape, the parent of the 
Concord and most of the other domestic American grapes ; the pigeon, 
or bunch grape, the parent stock of Norton's Virginia and other va- 
rieties; and the chicken, or frost grape. Other wild fruit occuring 
in more or less natural abundance are strawberries, common and 



mountain raspberries, prickly gooseberries, dewberries, blackberries, 
elderberries, ground cherries, buckberries, juniper berries, the su- 
mach, the wintergreen, or mountain tea, and four varieties of huckle- 
berries. Non-edible berries are the white cherry, the cedar berry, the 
hackberry, the white and black thorn, the pokeberry, the black 
gum, and the spiceberry. Poisonous kinds are the fishberry, the 
greenbrier, and the deadly nightshade. Herbs, wild flowers, and 
weeds of both native and imported stocks are of course present in 
much variety. j , . j ,J jjj 

For the following list of native medicinal plants and for much of 
his data on the animal and vegetable life of Monroe the author is 
indebted to the kindness of Cornelius S. Scott. 

White oak 

black oak 

red oak 

white pine 

pitch or black pine 

spruce pine or hemlock 

red cedar 

yellow poplar 

yellow locust 

wild cherry 


white walnut 

white ash 

shellbark hickory 

slippery elm 


black haw 


white dogwood 

prickly ash 


witch hazel 

wild grape root 

ground ivy 







wild ginger 



yellow barbary 




deadly sumach 




jimson weed 




Indian turnip 

May apple or mandrake 




red percoon 


red pennyroyal 




black snakeroot 

Seneca snakeroot 

Solomon seal 


The following have been used as teas for table use: 

soft maple 
sourwood leaves 

black oak 
shellbark hickory 

chestnut oak 
black walnut 

Appalachian America is a highly favored part of the Western 
Continent, and in beauty of scenery as well as in several other char- 


acteristics, Monroe is one of its most attractive counties. The first 
of the following opinions of Appalachia is by the late Nathaniel S. 
Shaler, a very eminent authority on the natural sciences. The sec- 
ond is by William D. Kelly, a jurist of Pennsylvania. 

We find a climate resembling in its range of temperature those which 
characterize the most favored regions of the world, and it is there, perhaps, 
we may look for the preservation of our race's best characteristics. 

It has a finer climate, better water, and a higher condition of health 
than any other region of which I have any knowledge, and is, withal, one 
of the most beautiful regions of the world. 

The political divisions of Monroe are the magisterial districts of 
Red Sulphur, Second Creek, Springfield, Sweet Springs, Wolf Creek, 
and Union. Union lies in the center, Red Sulphur is in the extreme 
south, and Springfield is between. Second Creek lies in the middle 
north, Sweet Springs in the east, and Wolf Creek in the northwest. 
Red sulphur is subdivided into the precincts of Lindside, Peterstown, 
Cashmere, and Red Sulphur; Second Creek into Rocky Point and 
Highland Green ; Springfield into Greenville, Lillydale, Milton 
Htall, and Rock Camp ; Sweet Springs into Sweet Springs, Gap Mills, 
and Potts Creek; Wolf Creek into Alderson, Pleasant Valley, and 
Johnson's Crossroads; and Union into One and Two. 

The names applied to the natural features of the county have 
undergone very few changes indeed since the day of the pathfinder. 
An exception is that of Quaking Asp, or White Aspen, which has 
unfortunately given way to Stinking Lick, merely because an animal 
mired in the run and tainted the air a few weeks. 



A Vacant Land — A Remarkable Relic — The Wood Expedition — The Loyal 
and the Greenbrier Land Companies — Walker's Visit. 

HEN the country beyond the Alleghanies became known 

to the English-speaking whites of the seacoast, there 

were probably fewer than a half dozen small villages 

of Indians in what is now West Virginia. And yet it 

does not follow that this had always been a vacant land. 

The great number of arrowheads, hatchets, scrapers, and other 
tools of stone which have casually yet frequently been picked up in 
Monroe are not sufficiently accounted for by assuming that they have 
been dropped by visiting hunters. Arrowheads are tedious to manu- 
acture. The quraries from which the raw material was taken were 
of so great consequence in the eyes of the red man that they were 
sometimes neutral ground, even in the case of tribes that were at 
war. Thus it will be seen that the arrowheads could not have been 
used wastefully. Again, the mound containing sekletons does not 
by any means signify that it is only a sepulcher of warriors slain in 
some battle. Indian warfare was of the guerrilla type and the losses 
were small. Such a mound is usually a village burial ground, the 
heap growing in size as interments were added. The village might 
leave only faint signs of its existence, because the huts were of per- 
ishable materials. 

Village sites have been found within and near the borders of 
Monroe, and usually on rich bottom land. Near Shanklin's Ferry 
is one of these. Between that point and the Narrows are two more. 
The choice of the left bank is seemingly on account of the westerly 
winds. We are not justified in assuming that all these villages were 
occupied by only one and the same tribe. Between the oldest and 
youngest of the village sites in and around this county several and 


perhaps many centuries may have elapsed, and tribe may have suc- 
ceeded tribe. 

A relic picked up on Scott's Branch tends to prove the antiquity 
of man in North America. On a piece of white sandstone, about the 
size and shape of a one-penny match box, some prehistoric savage 
drew a picture of a tree. The work was done with a sharp pointed 
tool, and in that crude yet strong and well-defined manner which is 
characteristic of no one but the savage or the child. While this 
etching was still clear and distinct, the stone was tossed aside and 
became encrusted with three successive layers of hard dark ironstone, 
the whole forming a spherical nodule, like those so often seen in shale 
formations. Lumps of this character often contain rock crystals in 
the center, or else a fragment of rock different from the shell and 
carrying the fossil imprint of a leaf. But for one of these nodules 
to contain an unmistakable specimen of human workmanship is rather 
startling. It is just possible that a few centuries would account for 
the gradual incrustation around the white stone. And yet the ex- 
pert might not like to deny that the drawing may be one of those 
which are known as palaeolithic. If so, it was executed by one of 
those early people who carved on tusks very recognizable pictures of 
mastodons and other animals that have been extinct for ages. The 
stone in question may be 10,000 years old or more. At all events, 
the finding of the relic was under such circumstances as to preclude 
its being a fake. 

In many localities in Monroe arrowheads and stone implements 
are numerously found. There was a flint quarry at the mouth of 
Stinking Lick and another a few miles east of Peterstown. On the 
Dunlap farm near the mouth of Hans Creek was once a burial 
mound. It was about 60 feet across and contained many relics. 
Among these were sheets of mica that seem to have been used to 
cover the faces of the dead. They must have been obtained from 
the mountains of North Carolina. An excavation in Union in 1889 
for the foundation of the new Methodist church revealed 14 skulls 
and at least one complete skeleton. With the bones were found such 
relics as the Indians were accustomed to deposit in their graves. Many 
isolated graves have been observed and some of these have been dug 


into. The Shawnee grave was customarily lined with flat stones and 
covered with the same. Above it was fashioned a mound of earth 
and stone. i i 

Monroe is the first transalleghany county of West Virginia to 
be trodden by the feet of European explorers. This statement is 
not open to serious controversy. The visit took place only 64 years 
after the founding of Jamestown and at least 70 years before any 
white person attempted to make his home here. There were not 
then 40,000 people in all Virginia, and probably not three times as 
many in all the colonies. Even Philadelphia, for many years the 
largest city in the country, had not yet been established. Where 
now stands the city of Petersburg was Fort Henry, one of the fron- 
tier posts which effectually prevented another massacre like that of 
1644. The person in command was Major Abraham Wood, who 
had come to Virginia in 1620, when only ten years old. He was 
a man of energy and enterprise, and it was a part of his duty to 
carry out the wishes of the House of Burgesses in the matter of pro- 
moting trade with the natives. The merchants of England were so- 
licitous in this matter, and traders from Wood's post had already 
traveled 400 miles toward the southwest on what was known as the 
Occoneechee path. 

But it seems that even 30 years earlier the New River had been 
found. This was accomplished by an exploring party of four men, 
one of whom bore the familiar name of Johnson. The stream was 
given its name because it seemed very significant that so large a river 
should be flowing in a direction contrary to those of Tidewater Vir- 

In 1671 Major Wood commissioned Thomas Batt, Robert Ful- 
lam, and Thomas Wood to find out about "the ebbing and flowing 
of the waters on the other side the mountains, in order to the dis- 
covery of the South Sea. There were added to the party Jack 
Neasom, a servant of Major Wood, and Perecute, an Appomattox 
Indian. A few days later the explorers were joined by seven more 
of the same tride to serve as guides and scouts. 

The start from Fort Henry was made September 1, and in six 
days the Blue Ridge was sighted. This circumstance is one of the 


facts which disproves the current opinion that under Indian occu- 
pancy the Atlantic states were an unbroken forest. A map of 1719 
shows a "large savannah" lying a little east of the Blue Ridge and 
parallel with it. By a savannah was meant a prairie, the latter word 
not yet having come into the English language. Five years later 
Colonel William Byrd, in speaking of the Roanoke valley says, 
"there is scarce a shrub in view to intercept your prospect, but grass 
as high as a man on horseback." The Roanoke valley was followed 
by the party under Batt. 

New River was first touched about three and one-half miles 
north of Radford. Maintaining a northerly course, Peters Moun- 
tain was crossed, and doubtless by one of the Indian paths. The 
journal kept by the party now speaks of valleys tending westwardly, 
and adds that "it was a pleasing though dreadful sight to see the 
mountains and hills as if piled upon one another." An easy descent 
of three miles brought them about noon to two trees, on one of 
which were marked with a coal the letters Ml A N. The other 
was cut in with the letters M A and several other "scrabblements." 
These trees were close by a run coursing sometimes westerly, some- 
times northerly, with "curious meadows" on each side. Pressing 
forward, the party found stony hills but rich soil, and meadows with 
grass above a man's height. They also found "many streams run- 
ning northwest, and several from the mountains looking south- 
erly, all running northerly into the great river. In seven miles they 
came to a steep descent with a great run in it," their course by the 
path being west southwest. They turned west, and again meeting 
the river they made quarters for the night. The farther they went 
that day the richer they found the soil. It was "stony, but full of 
brave meadows and old fields." The encampment near the site of 
Union was September 13, Old Style, equivalent to September 24, 
New Style. The change in the calendar did not take place until 

Where the explorers now were is not difficult to guess by any 
person familiar with the geography of Monroe. This guess would 
be confirmed by a close study of the entire journal. The run near 
the marked trees can scarcely be anything else than Second Creek 


near Gap Malls. It is equally clear that the mountains "looking 
southerly were Swope's Knobs, and that the "great run" was Indian 
Creek. The "curious" and "brave" meadows and the old fields 
are clear evidence that much of the landscape they looked upon was 
bare of timber. This was due to burning the open spots, and at 
the close of every hunting season in order to attract the buffalo, elk, 
and deer. Reckless as has been the white man in destroying the na- 
tive timber, the red man was even more so. Hu Maxwell says that 
in five more centuries he would have made all Virginia either a mea- 
dow or a desert. The mention of trees marked with recognizable 
letters is rather startling. It goes to illustrate the fact that much 
of the exploration of the earth has been done in a very unobtrusive 
way. Many pathfinders have lived unknown to the world in gen- 
eral. It is those who are paraded, as it were, with the blare of a 
megaphone that receive public notice. 

After again reaching New River, the explorers kept down the 
stream and found cornstalks in the bottoms. They were told the 
Mohegans had once lived here. More marked trees were found. 
From the upland they went down to the river over ground where 
the natives had onaje lived, and the old fields were found so encum- 
bered with weeds and locusts that they could hardly get through. 
When they came to a quiet pool they imagined they were at the head 
of tide. From a river-hill they thought they saw a tidal estuary in 
the distance. They were now far below Hinton, and in reality 
were viewing a fog in the river canyon. The runlight glimmering 
upon the fog gave it the appearance of an inlet from the sea. When 
the party had been out sixteen days the Indians said bad weather 
would soon be coming on and they wished to return. Grapes, haws, 
and gooseberries were found, but their provisions were used up and 
not only was the game scarce but it was hard to get at. 

The Wood expedition was absent from Fort Henry just one 
month. As an exploit it is undoubtedly genuine, and it was much 
relied upon by the British government in its controversy with France 
as to the ownership of the Mississippi valley. Notwithstanding the 
energy of the French explorers the actual priority of claim is on 
the side of the English. But the idea of the explorers that they were 


almost within sight of the Pacific shows a strange ignorance of Amer- 
ican geography, even for that day and age. They seem to have been 
unaware of the extensive travels of De Soto, Coronado, and other 
Spanish explorers in the preceding century. 

The enterprise shown in the Wood expedition was not promptly 
followed up. The accomplishment of 1671 seems to have become 
half forgotten, although, when prospectors were examining the val- 
ley of the New, some 70 years later, the stream was commonly 
known as Wood's River. It was not until 1716 that Governor 
Spottswood undertook his celebrated junketing trip to the South 
Fork of the Shenandoah. Even yet the dwellers in Tidewater had 
hazy and very unfavorable ideas of the country beyond the Blue 
Ridge. But the veil was now permanently lifted and exploration 
became active. 

In 1732 John Lewis and his followers began the settlement of 
Augusta county. So rapid was this immigration from Ulster that 
the new county, authorized in 1738, was definitely organized in 
1745. By this time venturesome landseekers were building cabins 
on New River near where Radford stands, more than 100 miles be- 
yond the mother settlement by Lewis. Others, by occupying the 
valley of Jackson's River, had pressed forward to the base of the 
Alleghany Front. 

It is in 1749 that we find a definite beginning of settlement on 
the lower course of the Greenbrier. Virginia had a headright law, 
permitting each adult male immigrant who had paid his way to 
Virginia to take up 50 acres of the public domain. This was a 
wise policy, and it was similar to the present homestead law of the 
federal government. It tended to fill the colony with a class of 
thrifty immigrants and at no more than a reasonable speed. But 
the operation of the headright law was largely neutralized by what 
is known as the order in council. So far as this other method was 
followed, the public lands were parceled out in immense blocks to 
associations of influential men who stood in with the government. 
In theory these companies were immigration agencies. They were 
supposed to solicit bona-fide settlers and bring them to the land in 
question. The company was supposed to see that its lands were set- 


tied within some definite limit of time. But the colonial gov- 
ernment was very lenient in enforcing its conditions against its own 
favorites. The practical working of this system was to enable a 
syndicate to corner the desirable land over a very large area, and 
to extort a price from the settler which was seemingly low yet rela- 
tively high. The settler therefore had to pay this price or move 
farther on. Oftentimes he did move on. One result was to push 
forward too rapidly a thin fringe of settlement and expose it unduly 
to raids by hostile Indians. By giving little service in return, the 
members of these syndicates were permitted to line their pockets at 
the expense of the public. 

In pursuance of this policy of favoritism the Greenbrier Land 
Company was organized in 1749. Its president was John Robinson, 
Treasurer of Virginia and Speaker of the Hkmse of Burgesses. The 
other members were William Beverly, Beverly Robinson, John Rob- 
inson, Jr., Henry Weatherburne, Thomas Nelson, Jr., John Craig, 
John Wilson, and four Lewises: Robert, John, William, and Charles. 
Of these, all but Wilson and John, William, and Charles Lewis 
were planters from Tidewater. They were little else than silent 
partners, whose names were supposed to lend dignity and prestige 
to the enterprise. The active partners were John Lewis and his 
sons, Thomas and Andrew, both of whom were surveyors. By 
order of council the company was granted 100,000 acres, lying in 
the present counties of Pocahontas, (Greenbrier, and Monroe. It 
was allowed four years in which to make surveys and pay for set- 
tlement rights. The grant was not in one solid block, the company 
being allowed to pick out the choice parcels and leave the adjacent 
cull lands to take care of themselves. 

It is very plain that the Greenbrier grant was based upon a pre- 
vious exploration, but of this we have little precise knowledge. We 
are told that French explorers visited this valley and gave its river 
the name of Ronceverte. But in the French language "ronceverte" 
means a green brier. The tradition that General Andrew Lewis 
named the river fron the greenbrier thickets that caused him trouble 
in his surveying cannot be correct. The river had been visited by 
previous explorers, English as well as French, and was already 


known by its present name. One of these was John Howard, who 
was commissioned by Governor Gooch to "make discoveries to the 
westward." With five companions he went down New River in a 
boat the frame of which was covered with buffalo hide. From near 
Hinton they proceeded overland to Point Pleasant, and then boated 
800 miles down the Ohio and into the Mississippi. They were 
there captured by a party of French and Indians, but at length 

By 1755, when the Indian war put an end to his work, Andrew 
Lewis had surveyed one-half of the grant and had sold a number of 
parcels, the Virginia government holding out inducements to attract 
landseekers west of the Alleghanies. 

In 1749 another syndicate, known as the Loyal Land Company 
was granted 800,000 acres extending from the Greenbrier to the 
line of North Carolina. The surveying was to be done within four 
year, but in 1753 this time limit was renewed. Settlers were to 
gain title on paying the surveyor his fee and to the company three 
pounds ($10) for each 100 acres. After the war of 1754-59, the 
privileges of the company were suspended. Soldiers of the French 
and Indian war who were entitled to public land under the king's 
proclamation of 1763, began to settle on the grant. This led to 
a petition by the agents and settlers who had located under the com- 
pany to hold title accordingly. In 1773 permission to this effect 
was given by the Colonial Council. By a court decree of 1783, the 
title of the Loyal Company to surveys made before 1776 was affirmed. 

Settlers on Wolf and Second creeks made survey under the Green- 
brier Company. Those in the remainder of the monroe area *made 
survey under the Loyal Company. 

In 1750, Doctor Thomas Walker, manager of the Loyal Com- 
pany, went with five companions as far as Cumberland Gap on the 
present Tennessee line. His return was on the west side of the 

*As used in this book the expression, "Monroe area" applies to the 
territory contained within the present boundaries. By "Old Monroe" 
is meant the territory within the boundaries which were in force from 1802 
to 1806. The county was then larger than either before or since. 


Alleghany, and he reached the mouth of the Greenbrier June 28. 
We make the following extract from his diary for July: 

6th. We left the river (Greenbrier). The low grounds on it are of 
very little value, but on the branches, they are very good and there 
is a great deal of it, and the highlands is very good in many places. 
We go; to a large creek, which affords a great deal of very good land c.nd 
it is chiefly bought. We went up the creek four miles and camped This 
creek took its name from an Indian named John Anthony that frequently 
hunts in these woods. There are some inhabitants on the branches of 
Greenbrier, but we missed their plantation. 

In 1751, Christopher Gist, agent and surveyor for the Ohio 
Land Company, crossed New River on a raft, May 7, eight miles 
above the mouth of Bluestone. That day he went 13 miles east- 
ward, killed a bear, and lodged in an Indian camp. He was now 
in Springfield district. 

According to tradition, Andrew and William Lewis and from 
10 to 15 other men came up Dunlap Creek in the fall of 1754 and 
examined the lands over a large territory. In the party was Colonel 
James Patton, the most energetic of the founders of Augusta county. 
Other members were a Stuart, a McClung, a Campbell, and a Mc- 
Neer, the latter being the ancestor of the McNeers of Monroe. They 
were piloted by Peter Wright, who lived where Covington now 
stands. However, this could not have been the first time that the 
Lewises were in Sweet Springs and Second creek valleys. 



The Ulstermen — Earliest Comers to Monroe — Resettlement — Pioneers of 
1774 — Monroe Under Botetourt. 

F THE Ulstermen who "peeled and scattered" from 
their old home in the north of Ireland, between the 
years 1725 and 1775, a large share came into the 
middle and upper sections of the Valley of Virginia. 
The nucleus of their colonization in this quarter was the settle- 
ment near Staunton by John Lewis and his companions in 1732- 
Within a dozen years the Valley was occupied from the old line 
between Augusta and Frederick* to the New River, a distance 
of 140 miles. It was but another step to push over the mountain 
rampart west of the Shenandoah Valley, and occupy, one by one, 
the narrow but fertile valleys beyond. 

Thus the early settlers of Monroe were very largely the people 
from Ulster. Usually there was first a sojourn east of the Alle- 
ghany, and often it was the children of the immigrant families who 
were the first to move beyond the mountain barrier. 

But not all these early homehunters were Scotch-Irish. Among 
them were Germans from the families who did so much to occupy 
the lower part of the Shenandoah and the South Branch of the Po- 
tomac. As the years roll on the German names become more fre- 
quent. Restlessness was a trait of the Ulstermen, and in pressing 
eagerly forward to newer and yet newer places of settlement, they 
made room for the less nomadic and more persistent German. 

To find the name of the very first white settler in Monroe seems 
hopeless. In 1748 there were seen at the mouth of East River the 
ruins of a cabin and at the head of a grave the following inscription : 

* The north line of Rockingham on the western side of the county is a 
part of the old Fairfax Line. 


"Mary Porter was killed by the Indians, May 28, 1742." This 
spot is just outside the boundary of Old Monroe. Yet it shows that 
a venturesome landseeker reared his humble cabin 115 miles by air- 
line distance from the house which John Lewis had built near Staun- 
ton only ten years earlier. We are thus given a very broad hint as 
to the speed with which the Ulstermen were spying out the wilder- 
ness. The bottom-lands of the New were found very attractive, and 
we have no assurance that some other pioneer did not at nearly the 
same time attempt a settlement on the Monroe side of the river. 
Very soon after 1745 the Eckerlin brothers founded their colony of 
Mahanaim near Radford. They were captured by the Indians and 
taken to Canada, probably across Monroe soil. These Eckerlins 
gave name to the Dunkard Bottom on New River. 

Doctor Walker, as we have seen, speaks in 1750 of people on the 
"branches of Greenbrier," although he did not come upon their im- 
provements. These settlers had located on the grant to the Green- 
brier Company. Whether any of them except Baughman and Swope 
were in any portion of the Monroe area outside of Wolf Creek dis- 
trict, we have no positive knowledge. We do know that in 1751 
Thomas Lewis located on Second Creek two surveys of 1000 and 
400 acres. At least one of these was the nucleus of the well-known 
"Lewis place." But for some thirty years after this date no mem- 
ber of that Lewis family was an actual resident of Monroe. 

Although the Greenbrier grant dates from 1749, it does not fol- 
low that none of the settlers came any earlier. It was a common 
thing in the early years of Augusta county for a family to locate in 
advance of the actual visit of the surveyor. This was often with the 
consent of the holders of the grant. However, it is scarcely prob- 
able that any of the first influx to the Greenbrier came more than 
one or two years prior to 1749. The war of 1754 compelled such 
of them as were not killed or captured to return east of the Alle- 

On that side of the great divide, the original settler on Monroe 
soil appears to have been James Moss. We are told that in 1760 
he built a cabin at Sweet Springs. 

In the same year, according to McElheny's narrative, there 


was a second attempt to occupy the transalleghany country. In the 
Greenbrier area, important settlements arose near Lewisburg and 
on Muddy Creek. James Byrnside came to the sinks of Monroe, 
and his son John was born near Union in April, 1763. He could 
not have been the only settler here. 

In July, 1763, a fierce and very unexpected attack by the Shaw- 
nees wiped out this second immigration to the Greenbrier. Seeing 
his cabin in flames, Byrnside fled to his old home on the Bullpasture 
River and remained there several years. For six years the country 
west of the mountains was a solitude. 

In 1769 there was a third and permanent occupation of the Great 
Levels around Lewisburg. The resettlement of Monroe must have 
taken place quite as early. The repeated depopulations of the land 
beyond the Alleghany had thrown a cloud over the claims of the 
Loyal and Greenbrier land companies, and it was not until 1773 that 
the Virginia Council enabled settlers to again take claims under the 
Loyal Company. As a result of the new rule, the surveyor of Bote- 
tourt came in the spring of 1774, and made 54 surveys in Monroe. 
The Estills were already here, having come in 1773. Frobably 
some others of the men in whose name these surveys were made had 
arrived still earlier. Byrnside may have returned in 1769 or 1770. 
Of the 54 tracts just alluded to, 30 are described as on Indian and 
Hans creeks, nine on Wolf, five on New River, four each on Second 
Creek and Greenbrier River, and two on Brush Creek. There is 
no mention as yet of surveys in the fertile tableland of the Sinks. It 
was the bottoms and the coves with running water that always had 
the strongest appeal to the immigrants. 

The surveys along Indian Creek extend from the mouth nearly 
to the source. The preference given to this locality was not acci- 
dental. From Covington all the way to the mouth of this stream 
was an Indian trail, as good as the bridlepaths by which the settlers 
came to the mouth of Dunlap. Another circumstance was that 
Byrnside had spread the news of this promised land among his friends 
on the Cowpasture and Bullpasture- Among the settlers from that 
quarter were the Estills, Bensons, Kincaids, Blantons, Laffertys, 
Meeks, and Raneys. His own survey near the site of Union was 


bordered by those of Henry Kountz, James Alexander, John Cantly, 
William Hawkins, James Handley, Robert Noel, Nimrod Tackett, 
Thomas Stuart, Thomas Johnson, and Erwin Benson. 

The outbreak of the Dunmore war in the summer of 1774 found 
a chain of settlement all the way from Sweet Springs to Gap Mills 
and the head of Indian, and thence down Indian to its mouth. Other 
settlers were on Wolf Creek and on the bottoms along the New and 
Greenbrier in that portion of Old Monroe that became a part of 
Summers. By this time there must have been people in the south of 
the county and in the Sinks, but our positive knowledge of them is 

Until just after the resettlement in 1769, Old Monroe was a 
part of Augusta county. When this political division was created, 
it was defined as including all Virginia west of the Blue Ridge and 
south of a line drawn from the northwest corner of what is now 
Greene county to the Fairfax stone, which was set up in 1736 at 
the southern end of the westernmost line of Maryland. 

The first county taken from Augusta was Botetourt, which be- 
came effective January 31, 1770. The dividing line ran from the 
Blue Ridge to the source of Kerr's Creek, and was thence a straight 
course running north 55 degrees west to the Ohio. It crossed the 
Greenbrier a few miles south of Marlinton and touched the Ohio a 
little below Parkersburg. But west of the Alleghany the courts of 
Augusta and Botetourt do not seem to have taken steps to put this 
line into effect. 

Within three years Fincastle county was carved out of Botetourt. 
The line between the two ran all the way from the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha to the Blue Ridge- It came up New River to the 
mouth of Culbertson Creek, and then took a direct course to where 
the Catawba road crossed the divide between New River and the 
north fork of Roanoke. This left a corner of Monroe in the new 
county. William Woods, of Rich Creek, writing his will in April, 
1775, speaks of himself as a resident of Fincastle county. 

But Fincastle had only a brief existence- In 1776 it was blotted 
out by being divided into Montgomery, Washington, and Kentucky, 


For 30 years it was Montgomery county that the New River sep- 
arated from Old Monroe. 

In the court proceedings under Botetourt and Fincastle there is 
very slight mention of settlers who can be identified as belonging in 
Monroe. Yet by 1775 there were 2552 tithables in Botetourt, in- 
dicating a population of at least 10,000. The levy was $1870.73. 
The rates which tavern-keepers might not exceed were these: Warm 
"diet" 16 2-3 cents; cold diet, I0y 2 ; grain, per gallon, S Z A; pasture 
or hay for 24 hours, 10%; lodging, with good bed and clean sheets, 
8 1-3; the same, two or more in the bed, 5Vz; whiskey or continental 
rum, per gallon, $1.00; West India rum, $1.67; good cider, bottled, 
66 2-3 cents; the same, unbottled, 41 cents. 

The first mention of a county road is in June, 1774, when the 
court of Botetourt directed Thomas Lewis, James Mayes, and John 
Robeson to view a way from Warm Springs to Sweet Springs. At 
the same time, John Archer, Matthew Bracken (Bratton?), and 

Thomas Mc were directed to view a way from Captain John 

Stuart's to Second Creek gap, and James Estill, William Hutchin- 
son, and David Frazer were to view from the head of Hans to Pine 

The first positive mention of a constable is May 13, 1773, when 
William Blanton was appointed to succeed Archibald Handley. The 
same day John Vanbibber was appointed to take the list of tithables 
for the "Western Waters." Philip Love had a part of his precinct, 
seemingly the portion south of New River. One year later Boude 
Estill was chosen to return a list of the tithables on the "sinkhole 
lands on Greenbrier, Second Creek, Indian, Wolf and Hans creeks, 
and their branches, from the mouth of Muddy to the mouth of 
Greenbrier, New River to the mouth of Indian, and their waters." 



French and Indian War — Pontiac War — The Clendennin Massacre— The 
Point Pleasant Campaign — Local Incidents. 

NDIAN disturbances checkered the history of this region 
for a third of a century. Those which took place prior 
to the Revolution are mentioned in the present chap- 

Until the breaking out of the French and Indian war in 1754, 
the Augusta settlements had not been seriously disturbed by the red 
men. The latter continued to follow their trails through the white 
settlements- This was either to hunt the wild game or to pass 
through to attack some distant hostile tribe. It was an established 
custom among themselves for any hungry Indian to receive as ample 
entertainment as possible in the hut of any other Indian. They 
thought the same rule should be in force among the white men, and 
so they visited the cabins of the settlers to get something to eat. But 
the pioneers did not take kindly to this usage. From their point of 
view, the redskin was an uninvited and quite unwelcome guest, whom 
nevertheless, it was good policy to treat well. Doctor Walker, when 
he visited Jackson's River in 1750, says the settlers would prosper 
much better but for the amount of foodstuffs consumed by the In- 
dians, "much to their prejudice." 

That the red men would nearly eat the paleface out of house 
and home was not all. The roving bands considered that all ani- 
mals running at large were wild, and therefore common property. 
So they helped themselves to the horses, cattle, and hogs found on 
the range. The two races not liking one another, and differing rad- 
ically in the way they looked upon various matters, the relations 
between them could not be cordial. Neither paleface nor redskin 
was always discreet. Occasionally there was a worse depredation 


than the plundering of the livestock on the range, and several mur- 
ders had been committed. It is significant that while the Indians 
became sufficiently familiar with common English words to make 
themselves understood, their acquaintance with the white man's 
"cuss words" and his terms of insult and abuse was quite extensive. 
And this was in spite of the fact that the Indian languages were des- 
titute of profanity. 

For more than twenty years the settlements spread rapidly and 
with little let or hindrance. But in 1754 they began to suffer in 
consequence of the rivalry between England and France for posses- 
sion of the transalleghany country. The French displayed much 
the more tact in their dealings with the native, and they generally 
won him to their side. The easy victory of these allies over the 
army under Braddock left the whole inland frontier of the colonies 
open to the raids of the tribesmen. There were no adequate meas- 
ures for defense on the part of England and her colonies. The fron- 
tiersmen had to look out for themselves as best they could. The 
service rendered by the militia companies was very undependable. 

The disgraceful rout of the army under Braddock took place in 
July, 1754. The Indians immediately undertook to push back the 
encroaching settlements. During this year and the next the Green- 
brier was visited by the storm. In a letter to Andrew Lewis, Gov- 
ernor Dinwiddie says he is "sorry for the death of 13 of our subjects 
at Greenbrier, victims of the barbarous Indians." Writing twelve 
days later to Lieutenant John McNeill, a resident of the Greenbrier 
valley, he is surprised that the "59 people in Fort Greenbrier at time 
of Indian attack did not resist." He thinks they could not have been 
properly armed. 

The first of these letters seems to refer to the massacre at the 
fort of Henry Baughman, which stood on the south bank of the 
Greenbrier, between Alderson and the mouth of Wolf. According 
to what is known as the Preston register, this tragedy took place 
August 12, 1755- The document enumerates the following victims: 
Henry Baughman, John Couse and his father-in-law, Walter Fish- 
paugh, George White, old Christopher, M'rs. Consler, and an old 
man, his wife, and a schoolmaster. Scarcely any particulars of the 


event have been preserved. A vestige of tradition relates that all 
the people in the fort were killed except one small girl, whose name 
was lost and who married a man living in what is now Summers 
county. And yet we have documentary evidence that the killing of 
Baughman was witnessed by Valentine and Mathias Yoakum, Naph- 
thalim Gregory, Robert Allen, and William Elliott. The Yoak- 
ums find mention again in the Clendennin massacre, eight years later. 
The other men were settlers on Jackson's River, and appear to have 
been at the fort in the capacity of militia. The invoicing of the 
Baughman estate was witnessed by John Gay, John Warwick, Hugh 
Young and wife, John Meek, a settler, and Lawrence Henseman 
(Hinchman?). Fishpaugh's name appears to survive in Fishbock's 
Hill, just above the mouth of Wolf. The site of the stockade could 
be easily traced eighty years later, and seems to be the same spot 
which was described to the writer by the venerable George Alder- 
son. It is now overgrown with timber. It is worthy of remark 
that in all the annals of Old Monroe there is no mention of a more 
serious affair than the capture and destruction of Baughman's fort. 
The Indians rarely undertook an open assault on any stockade, and 
the most probable explanation of their success here is either a strate- 
gem on their part or carelessness on the part of the inmates- The 
heedlessness often displayed by the frontiersmen in time of peril is 
almost unaccountable. 

The raid into the Greenbrier was a thorough piece of work. The 
infant settlements west of the Alleghany Front were utterly wiped 
out and the wilderness resumed its reign. 

One of the very earliest settlers of Monroe was Joseph Swope, 
who visited this region about 1751. Instead of following the Indian 
trail down Indian Creek, he turned to the right and studied the 
landscape from the knobs which have since borne his name. In the 
valley of Wolf Creek he was observed by Indians, and being sus- 
picious of their intentions he concealed himself in a hollow poplar. 
This tree stood until 1860. The inroads of decay having rendered 
it unsafe it was cut down. A year or two after this visit, Swope 
returned with his wife and infant son, and built a cabin not far from 
the tree. Here his second son Michael was born, September 29, 


1753. It is claimed for him that he was the first white male to be 
a native of Monroe, but that a girl was born somewhat earlier. This 
other birth was probably at the Baughman fort. 

Young Joseph was stolen by the Shawnees in 1756, adopted by 
a squaw said to be the mother of Cornstalk, and held in the tribe 
nine years- An Indian boy played a practical joke on the captive 
by scenting him with skunk perfume. The young Indian was too 
large for Joseph to overcome in a fight, and by way of revenge 
young Swope put several grains of powder into some kindling which 
the other boy was blowing into a flame. The eyes of the Indian 
were put out. The captive was sentenced to die, but the interces- 
sion of his foster mother saved his life. Long after his return, and 
probably in time of peace, six braves came into his house, and with- 
out a word made a clean sweep of all the eatables on the table. They 
then grunted their thanks and went away, but soon brought back a 
large buck by way of recompense. 

We have given the Swope narrative according to the form in 
which it was published some years ago. It presents some difficul- 
ties. There were settlers on the Greenbrier for at least two years 
previous to 1751, and they were living at peace with the natives. 
The valley was already blanketed with a huge land grant which cov- 
ered such spots as were most inviting to the settler. We find no 
record until 1774 of any survey in Swope's name, although he could 
have been living on his land for five years prior to that date. The 
statement that the original house of the pioneer Swope is yet stand- 
ing is quite incredible. It is too substantial a dwelling for that 
early time- Burning the round-log cabins of the detested paleface 
was a feature of the Indian raids, and it was carried out with all 
the thoroughness possible. Not only was the Greenbrier valley de- 
serted for several years before the Clendennin massacre took place, 
but we are assured by so good an authority as Colonel Stuart that 
it was also deserted from 1763 to 1769. After the Baughman mas- 
sacre Swope must have refugeed east of the Alleghany Front and 
lived there until the permanent resettlement. The house referred 
to cannot be of earlier date than the time of the Revolution. 

In 1759 there was a collapse of the French power in America, 


and at first the Indians were inclined to accept the situation. In 
1760, or perhaps a year or two later, about 20 families had settled 
on the Great Levels and on Muddy Creek and a few others within 
the Monroe area. 

But the Indians soon became greatly incensed at the arrogant and 
untactful behavior of the British officials with whom they came in 
touch. Under Pontiac, one of the ablest men the red race has pro- 
duced, several of the tribes confederated and planned a desperate 
blow with their 9000 warriors. To Cornstalk, a Shawnee leader, 
was assigned the destruction of the new settlements on the Green- 
brier. The story of this raid belongs properly to the county of 
Greenbrier, and yet it has some bearing on the history of Monroe. 

It must be admitted that the Indians had a certain measure of 
excuse. By a treaty of 1758 the country west of the Alleghanies 
was set apart to them for a perpetual hunting ground. The settlers 
who had now come were trespassers, even in the light of their own 
laws. By a proclamation of the colonial governor the country be- 
yond the Alleghany was declared not open to settlement. But the 
American has seldom been scrupulous in observing the treaties be- 
tween him and the redskin, whenever the latter held possession of 
desirable land. 

Cornstalk suddenly appeared in July, 1763, and with his 60 war- 
riors blotted out at a single blow the settlement near the mouth of 
Muddy. Leaving a few of his braves to watch the prisoners, the 
rest of his band lost no time in proceeding to the house of Archibald 
Clendennin, Jr., 15 miles away in the direction of Lewisburg. Clen- 
dennin, who was a constable and leading man in the settlement, had 
moved here from the lower Cowpasture. He had just brought home 
three elk. The great animals, together with the novelty of a visit 
by Indians who were believed to be friendly, soon drew all the 
neighbors to Clendennin's house. The treacherous guests were given 
a feast, but at a signal agreed upon they began a massacre. While 
Mrs. Clendennin was gone to the meat kettle for a fresh supply of 
food, a woman asked an Indian if he could cure a sore with which 
she was ailing. He said he could and at once gave a fatal blow 
with his tomahawk. Clendennin might have saved his own life 


had he not taken his baby while the wife went to the kettle- He 
was killed while mounting a fence to get into a field of tall corn, 
and sank to the earth with the groan, "Lord have mercy on me." 
The only man of the settlement who escaped was Conrad Yoakum. 
His suspicions were aroused in time and he made his way to Jack- 
son's River, where he told his story to incredulous hearers. 

Among the people carried away was Mrs. Clendennin, who spat 
in a brave's face to provoke him to kill her. But while the squad 
in charge of the prisoners was crossing Muddy Creek Mountain, 
the captives occupying the center of the column, she gave her child 
to another woman, slipped out from the line of march, hid under a 
rock, and remained there until the sound of the cowbells had grown 
dim. The screams of her murdered infant failed to bring her from 
her hiding place. Something moved amid the bushes. She at first 
believed it an Indian on the watch for her, but it turned out to be a 
bear and it scampered away. When she got back to the ashes of her 
home her disordered imagination saw shapes all around her, and 
after covering the corpse of her husband she concealed herself in a 
cornfield. jShe had nothing to eat and almost nothing but an Indian 
blanket to wear. On Howard Creek she met a party of whites. 
These had heard all the settlers were dead, and had come to drive 
away any cattle they might find and collect such personal property 
as might have escaped the Indians- One of the men was the heir- 
at-law of the Clendennin property and he was much displased at her 
escape. Others of the party, less covetous and more humane, gave 
her some eatables. It took her nine days to get back to her old home 
near Fort Dickenson, although the airline distance is scarcely above 
40 miles. Four of her children were already slain. A son and a 
daughter were among the prisoners. The former was put to death 
after the arrival at the Indian town, but though the girl was restored 
after seven years, she was not at first acknowledged by her 
mother. A mark on her person established the identity, yet it was 
long before the parent showed any affection for the daughter. 

The double massacre seems to be one of the many instances of 
pioneer carelessness. It had been only a few days since Mrs. Den- 
nis, a woman taken from Jackson's River several years before, had 


been entertained by the Clendennins. After her escape from the 
Indian village, she crossed the Ohio on a log, and by the time she 
reached the Levels she was too weak to travel farther. She had 
been on her way three weeks, traveling by night. In fact, she passed 
the Clendennin house unawares, but was found by four men and 
taken there. After recovering some strength she was escorted to 
Fort Young on the site of Covington. It would seem as though 
Mrs. Dennis must have conveyed some intimation as to the feelings 
of the Indians. 

Joseph Swope was much embittered on account of the captivity 
of his boy. While trapping on New River with Samuel Pack and 
one Pitman, they found a division in the fresh trail of a large band 
of Indians, one party going toward Jackson's River, the other to- 
ward Catawba Creek. To give warning, Pitman set out in the for- 
mer direction, and the other men in the latter. But the hostiles had 
too great a start. The party going to Jackson's River committed 
some depredations in that valley, but were pursued by Captain Paul 
and his company. They met Pitman on Indian Creek, almost ex- 
hausted with running, but he joined the pursuers. Paul followed 
the Indians to the Ohio, but was not in time to intercept them on 
the east bank. On his return he suddenly came upon the other 
band in camp on the New, opposite an island at the mouth of In- 
dian Creek. A volley killed three of the foe and wounded several. 
One of the latter jumped into the river to save his scalp by drown- 
ing. This company was also pursued by Captains Ingles and Har- 

We are told that the above incidents took place in the October 
following the tragedy at Clendennin's. It is far more probable that 
the advance of the Indian party was almost simultaneous with the 
attack at the Levels in July. At the later date the three whites 
would have taken a greater risk in trapping where they were. Corn- 
stalk would have made his foray comprehensive as well as sudden. 
He would wish to wipe out the infant settlement in the Monroe 
Sinks. So it is highly probable that the firing of Byrnside's cabin 
was by the division going toward Jackson's River. 

The Pontiac war lasted little more than a year. It was brought 


to an end by Colonel Bouquet, who compelled the Indians to sign 
a treaty in October, 1764. The Indians were given 12 days to 
give up their captives, and many were returned. But means were 
found for holding back those to whom the red men were particularly 
attached. The treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1765 permitted settle- 
ment west of the mountains. But as we have seen, it was not until 
1769 that there was a third attempt to settle the Greenbrier. 

During the next five years there was a precarious peace. In the 
spring of 1774 an outbreak was at hand. Groups of irreconcilables, 
especially renegades from the tribes, were molesting the frontier. On 
the other hand, the hasty and thoughtless behavior of certain lawless 
frontiersmen was making equal trouble. It was arranged between 
Governor Dunmore and Colonel Andrew Lewis that each should 
]ead a force to the Ohio, there join forces and compel a peace. The 
column under Lewis, about 1200 strong, was made up almost wholly 
of the militia from the counties of Augusta, Botetourt and Fincastle. 
The various commands effected a partial concentration at Camp 
Union, on the site of Lewisburg. It was a picturesque assemblage 
of men in coonskin caps, white, yellow, red, or brown hunting shirts 
and leggings that came halfway up the thigh- The officers carried 
rifles as well as the privates. The army was of material naturally 
excellent. Many of the officers won renown in the war for Amer- 
ican independence. In physique the rank and file have perhaps 
never been surpassed- Not one of the 60 men under George Math- 
ews was under six feet in height, and many measured six feet and 
two inches. 

The battle of Point Pleasant was fought in Botetourt county, 
of which Monroe was then a part. The pioneers of this section had 
much at stake, and they helped to fill the ranks of the two Green- 
brier companies. Certain of the incidents of Indian warfare which 
are associated with the history of Monroe may belong to the summer 
of this year. Raiding parties then penetrated as far east as the 
Cowpasture. It was probably at this time that the blockhouse of 
Wallace Estill on Indian Creek was beseiged. The settlers around 
gathered into the refuge and beat off the foe. One of the redskins 


was killed and his body was left unburied as food for the wolves. 
The killing of John Cook may have occurred the same season. 

Nineteen days were consumed by the army under Lewis in open- 
ing a road to the Great Kanawha. The attractive situation at the 
mouth of the stream suggested the name of Point Pleasant. The 
pilot in this difficult advance was Matthew Arbuckle, who had gone 
down New River ten years earlier with a load of furs. Settlement 
had not progressed farther than 12 miles below Kanawha Falls- 
While Lewis was preparing to cross the Ohio to join the other 
wing under Dunmore, he was attacked before daybreak on the morn- 
ing of October 10. The assailants, perhaps 800 strong, were un- 
der the command of Cornstalk. The Virginians narrowly escaped 
a surprise. Several men in violation of orders had gone out of 
camp to hunt game. Two of these stumbled upon the stealthily ad- 
vancing redskins and gave the alarm. There was in fact little dis- 
cipline in the camp. It was not the custom of the American mil- 
itiaman of that century to obey orders except when it suited him to 
do so. 

The battle lasted all day, the lines being only six to twenty 
yards apart, and the woods resounded with the yells, taunts, and 
curses of white man and red. There was an aggregate of individ- 
ual fights rather than a conflict under military rules. Every man 
availed himself of any cover which the trees, whether standing or 
fallen, might supply. In the afternoon a flank attack on the rear 
of the left wing of the Indians made them think it was by the Fin- 
castle regiment, although that command was still several miles in 
the rear. The Indians now fell back, but the whites had been pun- 
ished too severely to pursue them. After nightfall Cornstalk made 
an unmolested retreat across the Ohio- The loss of the Virginians 
was never officially reported, and was probably not less than 200. 
Many of the wounded soon died for want of adequate attention. 
Several valuable officers were among the slain. One of these was 
Colonel Charles Lewis, brother to the commander-in-chief. Another 
was Captain McClenahan, commanding one of the Greenbrier com- 
panies. The loss of the Indians was never accurately known, but 
seems to have been scarcely half as great. Not one of their chiefs 


was killed except the father of the celebrated Tecumseh. They quit 
the fight only because of their habitual disinclination to sustain heavy 
loss. In this respect the borderer had the advantage, and he was 
a rather better shot. But he was entirely too lax in avoiding sur- 
prise, too negligent in taking cover in time, and so little amenable to 
discipline- that his usefulness as a soldier was much impaired. 

The following letter by Colonel Christian of the Fincastle regi- 
ment was written on the battleground: 

From what I can gather here I cannot describe the bravery of the 
enemy in the battle. It exceeded every man's expectations. They had men 
planted on each river to kill our men as they would swim over, making 
no doubt I think of gaining a complete victory. Those over the Ohio in 
the time of battle called to the men to "drive the white dogs in." Their 
Chief ran continually along the line exhorting the men to "lye close" and 
"shoot well," "fight and be strong." At first our men retreated a good 
ways and until new forces were sent out on which the enemy beat back 
slowly and killed and wounded our men at every advance. Our people 
at last formed a line, so did the enemy, they made many attempts to break 
our lines, at length our men made a stand, on which the enemy challenged 
them to come up and began to shoot. Our men could have forced them 
away precipitately, but not without great loss, and so concluded to main- 
tain their ground all along the line. Which they did until Sundown, 
when the enemy were supposed to be all gone. Our people then moved 
backward scalping the enemy, and bringing in the dead and wounded. 

The enemy came over on rafts about six miles up Ohio & set at the 
same place. They encamped within two miles of this place the night before 
the battle and killed some of our beeves. They damd our men often for 
Sons of Bitches, said "Don't you whistle now" (making sport of the fife) 
and made very merry about a treaty 

The battle of Point Pleasant is one of the memorable events in 
American history. It decided the campaign of 1774, and within 
three weeks the Indians had agreed to terms of peace. The Ohio 
was designated as the boundary of the Indian country. East of this 
river they were not to hunt without special permission. Had Corn- 
stalk won the victory, as he came so near doing, it is probable that 
the Greenbrier would have been deserted the third time. It is prob- 


able that the Alleghany range would have been recognized as the 
boundary of the Indian country. The British Board of Trade 
sought to curb the Americans by hampering their progress into the 
interior of the continent. It also wished to preserve the fur trade 
with the Indians. But the defeat of the red men had an important 
bearing on the war for independence. It not only advanced the 
westward frontier to the Ohio, but it led, almost as a matter of 
course, to the conquest of the Illinois country by George Rogers 
Clark in 1778, and therefore to the advance of the colonies to the 



The Fincastle Declaration— Local Incidents— Forts— Toryism. 

HE Declaration of Independence is sometimes miscon- 
strued. It went beyond asserting the independence 
of the Thirteen Colonies as an object to strive for. 
It announced a state of things that already exist- 
ed. Hostilities had been in progress more than a year. The 
authority of the British crown was everywhere a dead letter. All 
the colonies were exercising self-government outside of the few lo- 
calities overawed by foreign bayonets. 

The Ulstermen came to America with hot resentment against 
the British crown because of the economic and religious persecution 
from which they had suffered. It was for relief from this that they 
sought new homes in the Western world. To show the feeling of 
the time in Monroe and its vicinity, we quote the resolutions adopted 
by the freeholders of Botetourt, January 20, 1775. These were in- 
structions to Colonel Andrew Lewis and John Bowyer, their repre- 
sentatives to the House of Burgesses. 

We require you to represent us with hearts replete with the grateful 
and loyal veneration for the race of Brunswick, for they have been truly 
our fathers; and at the same time the most dutiful affection for our sov- 
ereign, of whose honest heart we cannot entertain any diffidence, but sorry 
we are to add, that in his councils we can no longer confide. A set of 
miscreants, unworthy to administer the laws of Britain's empire, have been 
permitted impiously to sway. How unjustly, cruelly, and tyrannically 
they have invaded our rights we need not now put you in mind. 

We only say, and we assert it with pride, that the subjects of Britain 
are one, and when the honest man of Boston, who has broken no law, has 
his property wrested from him, the hunter of the Alleghanies must take 
the alarm, and as a freeman of America, he will fly to the representatives 
and thus instruct them: "Gentlemen, my gun, my tomahawk, my life, I de- 
sire you to tender to the honor of my king and country; but my liberty to 


range these woods upon the same terms (as) my father has done is not 
mine to give up. It was not purchased by me and purchased it was. It 
is entailed upon my son, and the tenure is sacred. Watch over it, gen- 
tlemen, for to him it must descend inviolate, if my arm can defend it, but 
if not, if wicked power is permitted to prevail against me, the original 
purchase was blood, and mine shall seal the surrender." 

That our countrymen, and the world, may know our disposition, we 
choose that this be published. And we have one request to add, that is, 
that the sons of worth and freedom, who appeared for us at Philadelphia, 
will accept our most ardent, grateful acknowledgments. And we ear- 
nestly plight them our faith, that we will religiously observe their reso- 
lutions and obey their instructions, in contempt of power and temporary 
interest; and should the measures they have wisely calculated for our re- 
lief fail, we will stand prepared for every contingency. 

The people of Virginia were not sensible of any sweeping change 
in the working of their governmental machinery. They had not put 
on, so to speak, a brand new suit. The old coat was dusted and 
put on again. They now lived under a governor of their own 
choosing, instead of accepting a parasitic governor from England, as 
a local representative of the crown. The name of the governor was 
substituted for that of king in public proclamations- But the colon- 
ial laws remained in force. Burgesses, magistrates, sheriffs, and all 
other state and county officials were chosen as before. 

With respect to Virginia, the war for independence presents 
three phases : first, the campaign against Dunmore, ending with the 
expulsion of the tory governor early in 1776; second, a war with 
the Indians, beginning about two years after the battle of Point Pleas- 
ant and not ending until several years after the treaty with Britain; 
third, a campaign east of the Blue Ridge, beginning near the close 
of 1780 and terminating with the capture of Cornwallis in October, 

The inhabitants of Monroe and Greenbrier saw little of the 
war except the trouble with the Indians, which was the result of 
British emissaries. Their settlements included little more than 2000 
people. It was nearly as much as they could do to stand off the In- 
dians. And yet they bore a very honorable part in the conquest of 
the Illinois country by Colonel Clark. But for this achievement, 
the treaty of peace would not have recognized the Mississippi as the 


Avestern confine of the United States. It might not have been pos- 
sible to secure the Ohio as a part of that boundary- The Greenbrier 
settlements might have found themselves adjacent to territory still 

In 1781 the governor ordered that 137 of the Greenbrier men 
serve through the summer under Clark. The county court ordered 
a draft of 146 men. But as there were scarcely 550 militia in all 
Greenbrier, and as there was next a call for 34 men to join the 
continental service, the court concluded to ask an extension of time 
until the militia who had joined Clark could have time to get home. 
Andrew Donally, writing the governor March 27, 1781, says the 
militia ordered to join Clark had "gone with much alacrity." But 
in the following year, Samuel Brown would not permit a draft for 
the Continental regiments. 

Associated with the early annals of Monroe are several incidents 
relating to Indian raids. Not always are we able to point out the 
year in which they occurred. There was one in 1778, at the time 
of the attack on Donally's fort- In 1781 there was a foray on the 
settlers of Indian Creek. Next February Samuel Brown asked the 
governor for a garrison of 20 men at the mouth of Elk, saying that 
some of the people driven from there would return. The succeed- 
ing April the red men raided the settlements on New River. A 
petition of August, 1786, says the people on Bluestone had suffered 
so much that the settlements had weakened and prompt aid had be- 
come very necessary. Even so late as 1788 there was fear that the 
transalleghany settlements would once more be extinguished. So the 
governor directed the county lieutenant to have ready a company of 
rangers in case of another invasion. William Clendennin was its 
captain. No Indians are known to have penetrated the county, ex- 
cept one, who in company with a white renegade killed Thomas 
Griffith near Lewisburg. They were pursued and the renegade 

The only actual forts within the present limits of Monroe were 
Woods' fort on Rich Creek and Cook's fort on Indian. But while 
such defenses were very serviceable against the Indians, they were 
not regarded as government posts. On Crump's bottom was Cul- 


bertson's fort, and near the mouth of Wolf was Jarrett's fort. We 
hear also of forts that were no more than fortified houses. One of 
these stood near the present concrete bridge over Second Creek. An- 
other was on Pickaway Plains. Still others were on Indian Creek 
or in the south of the county. 

In building a palisade a trench was dug to a depth of some four 
feet and in it was planted a double row of logs, set in a vertical po- 
sition and projecting about ten feet above the general level of the 
ground- The row was double, so as to leave no crevices for bullets 
to pass through. The Cook stockade is said to have inclosed an 
oblong space of an acre and a half. Three hundred people found 
refuge here in 1778. The inclosure at Woods' was probably much 
smaller. Within the stockades were cabins, the palisade forming 
one of the walls, and the cabin roof serving as a parapet to shoot 
from. The people who assembled in these forts for protection ren- 
dered them crowded, uncomfortable, and insanitary. They would 
sometimes take too great risks, in order to escape for a time the stuf- 
finess of their quarters. Yet it required a great deal of hard labor 
to inclose even an acre. For this reason the stockade was much less 
common than the uninclosed blockhouse. The latter was a dwell- 
ing built so as to make the wall ball-proof. The door was very 
thick, sometimes studded with broad-headed nails, and was so firmly 
secured as to withstand a shock by a log used as a battering ram. 
The windows were too narrow for a person to crawl through. Where 
there was an upper story, it sometimes projected over the lower to 
enable the defenders to shoot an enemy coming close to the lower 
wall- These fortified houses could sometimes hold out against a 
formidable attack. The greatest danger was a blazing arrow di- 
rected at the roof. Hence it was important that the foe should not 
find cover within arrow-shot. 

Cook's fort stood about midway in the Indian Creek bottom, on 
the south side of the stream and perhaps 200 yards west of the road 
crossing at the ford just below Greenville. The swale close by 
may then have furnished water. The position was such as to com- 
mand the trail from Ellison's Ridge that crossed Indian near by 
and ran up Indian Draft. The statement in several books that it 


stood three miles above the mouth of Indian is very incorrect. The 
first marriage in the stockade is said to have been that of Philip 
Hammond to Christiana, a daughter of Valentine Cook. In 1778 
Hammond distinguished himself as one of the two messengers sent 
from Fort Randolph at Point Pleasant to warn the settlers around 
Donally's fort. They outstripped the Indian army by several hours. 
Both men had been disguised to look like Indians by an Indian woman 
who had come with her cattle to take refuge at the fort. It is be- 
lieved that she was a sister to Cornstalk. By the whites she was 
known as the Grenadier Squaw, on account of her commanding 

Woods' fort, built in 1773 by Captain Matthew Woods, almost 
certainly stood on the small promontory that makes into Rich Creek 
bottom at the house of John H. Karnes, some four miles above Pe- 
terstown. At the outbreak of the Dunmore war Woods furnished 
Colonel William Preston a roll of the men of the neighborhood who 
were fit for duty. Just three weeks before the battle at Point 
Pleasant, Colonel Christian, commanding the Fincastle regiment of 
the army under Lewis, camped a few miles away and sent 800 pounds 
of flour to the fort. With 14 men Woods joined the regiment and 
marched to Point Pleasant. Some of his men were ready to join 
the Illinois regiment under Clark at the time the Indians raided 
Indian Creek in the spring of 1781. It was a detachment from 
his company that pursued the hostiles and recovered the prisoners. 

The raid of 1778 was inspired by the murder of Cornstalk at 
Point Pleasant in the preceding November. Fort Randolph had 
been built on the battlefield and was noAV garrisoned by Captain 
Matthew Arbuckle. A large force of militia had arrived to join 
General Hand in an expedition against the Indian towns on the 
Scioto. A few of the Rockbridge men went across the Kanawha 
to hunt turkeys, and one of them, named Gilmer, was killed by 
some lurking Indian. Shortly before this event, Cornstalk came to 
the fort to warn Arbuckle against the hostile feeling of his tribe. 
The chief was joined by his son and two other comrades- Arbuckle 
thought it best to detain them as hostages. There is nothing to 
show that they were concerned in the killing of Gilmer. Cornstalk 


was on a peaceful errand and must have been aware that he was 
running a risk. He had been a redoubtable foe, and had carried 
havoc as far as Kerr's Creek in Rockbridge. JBut according to the 
Indian standard he was an honorable enemy. 

In a fit of blind and senseless fury, the companions of Gilmer at 
once rushed to the fort, and in spite of Arbuckle's efforts to prevent 
their purpose they shot down all four of the unarmed Indians in 
cold blood. Governor Patrick Henry was indignant at the dark 
blot on the name of his state, and made an earnest effort to punish 
the murderers. Next April Captain James Hall and Hugh Gal- 
braith were summoned before the Rockbridge court on a charge of 
felony, but as no witnesses would appear against them, both men 
were acquitted. Public opinion in Rockbridge therefore upheld the 
cowardly murder. 

Cornstalk was about forty years old and was born on the Ka- 
nawha. He was large in stature, commanding, intellectual, and an 
orator. Since the battle at Point Pleasant he had kept the peace, 
and he sought to live on friendly terms with the whites. On several 
occasions he brought to Fort Randolph horses that had been stolen 
from the settlers- Roosevelt speaks of his assassination as "one of 
the darkest stains on the checkered pages of frontier history." Point 
Pleasant did not prosper for many years and there was a belief that 
the town lay under a curse. 

Next season the Shawnees sought to avenge the death of their 
chief. Xhey besieged Fort Randolph a week, though without much 
effect, and then sent one war party against Donally's fort, eight 
miles from Lewisburg, and another against Indian Creek. Of the 
latter raid we have scarcely any accurate knowledge. It seems to 
have been by a small band and without serious result. 

The fight at Donally's fort was the most considerable combat 
of the Revolution within the original limits of Greenbrier. The 
fort was a large double log house of two stories and was surrounded 
by a stockade. Couriers from Fort Randolph arrived in advance 
of the Indians and found only five men in the blockhouse. Word 
was at once sent over the settlement and about 20 men collected to- 
gether with their families. Next morning before daylight a ser- 


vant of Doaally's went out for wood, left the gate open, and was 
shot dead. The Shawnees then attempted to break down the door 
of the house. Only two men were on guard, Philip Hammond and 
a slave bearing the name of Dick Pointer- When the second plank 
of the door was beaten off, the negro fired a gun plentifully loaded 
with buckshot, nails, and old iron. The recoil knocked him down, 
but the effect of the discharge was deadly. Three of the assailants 
were killed, several were wounded, and the others fell back. By 
this time the other men in the fort were awake. An attempt to fire 
the house from under the floor resulted in the death of several more 
Indians. While the battle was going on, the women were moulding 
bullets. A relief party of 66 men from Lewisburg arrived about 
four o'clock, escaped ambush by coming in from the rear, and by 
crawling through a field of rye, they reached the fort without any 
casualties. The Indians kept up the fight until dark and were pur- 
sued next day by Captain Andrew Hamilton with 70 men. Four 
of the whites and 17 of the Indians were killed in the battle at the 
fort. The latter were buried by Pointer in a sinkhole. Bullet 
scars in the logs were still to be seen a half century later. Pointer 
and his wife were abandoned by Donally when the latter moved to 
Kanawha. But he was given his freedom, a cabin was built for 
him, and he lived to an old age that was tarnished by intemperance- 
He was buried at Lewisburg with military honors. 

Owing to a partial paralysis of commerce, a lack of good money, 
and an absence of good roads across the Alleghany, the people on 
the Greenbrier had to undergo great hardships during the Revolu- 
tion. The Continental paper money depreciated until it became al- 
most entirely worthless. A claim of James Handley against Chris- 
topher Bryan of the Monroe Sinks was scaled down from 10,000 
pounds to exactly two-thirds of one percent of the face value. But- 
ter, deerskins, hemp, and ginseng were leading articles of barter. 

An Act of Assembly requiring an oath of allegiance to be ad- 
ministered to the free whites, the court of Botetourt appointed 
James Henderson to act in this capacity in his own militia precinct 
and those of Captains Gillespie, Vanbibber, and John Henderson. 
This was in August, 1777. 


The Ulstermen came to America to get rid of grevious oppres- 
sion. In most of these Appalachian counties they were the domi- 
nant element. It is stated in some histories that the mountain peo- 
ple were patriots almost to a man. But this does not accord with 
the facts. In some of the mountain counties of Virginia the tories 
were numerous and troublesome. One of the more conspicuous of 
those in Greenbrier was one William Hinton, a miller, who boasted 
that he could raise 500 men in the county to fight for the king. There 
were scarcely more than 500 militia in all Greenbrier, and many of 
them were in the army. And yet the boast indicates that disaffec- 
tion existed. Hinton was tried before Colonel Sampson Mathews, 
and sentenced to a fine of 400 pounds and imprisonment for four 

Another tory brought before Colonel Mathews was Alexander 
Miller, a college graduate and Presbyterian minister. He was ar- 
rested on Indian Creek at the house of William Hutchinson, who 
was holding him as prisoner. The witnesses were William Ewing, 
Silas Hart, Mary Erwin, James Montgomery, William Givens, 
Robert McFarland, Thomas Smith, and James Hill. At least some 
of these persons belonged east of the Alleghany. The sheriff of 
Augusta was allowed 20 shillings for attending court and summon- 
ing a jury. The two guards were allowed fourpence a mile each 
for taking Miller to Staunton, the distance being estimated at 120 
miles. Each guard therefore received twice as much as the sheriff. 

A letter by Miller was the cause of his arrest. In it he argues 
that property is by divine appointment; that "independency" de- 
prives Britain of her property, and therefore is unlawful and un- 
just, to say nothing of stopping trade, increasing taxes, and expos- 
ing the Americans to the vengeance of Great Britain; that claiming 
"independency" will subject the Americans to divine displeasure. 
The writer thus concludes: "To treat with Lord Howe for peace 
and safety is the best plan you can fall upon to save the lives and 
estates of your constituents-" In the light of our day such argu- 
ments look silly. They must have seemed alomst beneath contempt 
to the stern patriots of the Alleghanies. They stamp the cringing 
tory parson as standing for peace at any price and for the material 


comfort and even tenor of the business world. Civil liberty was 
perhaps beyond his comprehension. 

We now relate such incidents of Indian warfare as took place 
within or on the border of Monroe, and a knowledge of which has 
come down to us. T;his knowledge is usually by tradition, and the 
accounts by different persons have become indistinct or do not agree 
as to details. Yet it is well worth while to preserve them from 
further loss. 

John Miller once thought he could see a plumed head peering 
from an elevation at a distance. Picking up his rifle he walked off 
in the opposite direction, and by taking a long circuit he came up 
behind the Indian and killed him. 

Of two men who were on the Indian Creek bottom a mile be- 
low Red Sulphur, one was killed and one was captured. One of 
these was a Lewis. 

In 1780, Steel Lafferty, living at the mouth of Indian, was 
killed and so was a wife of a Bradshaw. On this or another oc- 
casion, one of the Laffertys heard what seemed to be a turkey, but 
found the noise came from an Indian peering from behind a tree 
that is yet standing. Lafferty shot the Indian and trailed him by 
his blood to a deep pool in Indian Creek. William Meek, who lived 
near by, saw the Indians, mounted a horse, and rode to a neighbor's 
house. No people were there except two women. They opened 
the door for him, and he fired on two Indians crossing a cornfield, 
wounding one of them. On the third day of the following March, 
eight of the Indians and two of the Canadian French burned Meek's 
house and corn, killed the parents and infant child, and carried away 
the other two children. Some hunters brought the news next morn- 
ing to Jacob Mann. He at once set out in pursuit with Adam 
Mann, Jacob Miller, and three other men of Woods' company. 
After going 50 miles, they overtook the foe, killed one, wounded 
several, and recovered the children and "plunder." The pursuers 
were "extremely scarce of lead," a common handicap during the 
Revolution. The account we have given is from the official report. 
A tradition in the Miller family has it that the six whites pursued 
the foe to the bank of the Ohio, arriving there at dusk and waiting 


till dawn to attack. Their six shots laid low six of the seven In- 
dians. The seventh took the river, but one of the assailants swam 
after him and inflicted a fatal knife wound- 
While taking cattle to the Muskingum, John Ellison was shot 
from ambush. Burns, his companion, escaped with his dog. A 
Shockley was killed on the hill still known as Shockley's, which 
stands below Crump's bottom. His companions, James Ellison and 
Matt Farley, ran to the river to consult, and hid in a thicket. Down 
the river was the sound of some person blowing into a charger. The 
sound drew nearer. Ellison went to reconnoiter and from a distance 
of 80 yards shot an Indian who was stealthily approaching from one 
tree to another. At the same, or more probably another time, Elli- 
son was wounded in the shoulder while cribbing corn on Crump's 
bottom. Farley swam the river. Ellison, who was a good runner, 
ran up stream, but was captured by the seven Indians. New moc- 
casins were put on his feet, and he understood from this that tor- 
ture was coming. He made his escape while his hands were bound, 
but sawed the thong in two on a sharp stone. 

An Ellis was killed beyond New River. The Indians took his 
boy Enos over Keeney's Knob to near Green Sulphur, and hid him 
in a laurel thicket, where he was sorely tormented by buffalo gnats. 
He was warned to keep still and a relief party passed by without 
seeing him, but on their return he was rescued. Ten Indians were 
counted as they were wading the New at its lowest ford and climb- 
ing a naked bluff. Nine scalps were taken from one family in the 
Graham settlement. 

In 1778 James Graham had been forting a few days in conse- 
quence of an alarm. He determined to go home with his family 
if some men would go with him. Not feeling well, he slept that 
night on a bench set against the door. Before daylight he was 
aroused by an attempt to force the door by a person who declared 
he was no Indian, but the door not being opened he fired through 
it, killing a man who was reaching for his gun above the entrance. 
Then an attack was made on the kitchen-house, in which were a 
young negro and a son and daughter of Graham. The negro was 
killed while trying to climb the chimney. By shooting up through 


the floor, the assailants wounded young John Graham in the knee. 
Finding him too badly hurt to stand, an Indian tomahawked him. 
Meanwhile Graham fired several shots from a porthole in the upper 
story, probably hitting one or more. At any rate, an Indian skele- 
ton was found in the neighborhood not long after. 

Elizabeth, the daughter of Graham, was a prisoner eight years. 
She was given up to her father at Maysville, Kentucky. It was 
only after much search and effort that this was accomplished. Ac- 
cording to tradition, the ransom of saddles, beads, and trinkets in- 
cluded the release of an Indian prisoner and the payment of $300 
in silver. Elizabeth had become much attached to the Indians and 
was loved by her foster mother. For several years Graham had 
to watch his daughter to keep her from returning to the red men. 
On one occasion her sister Jane was told by her mother to pretend 
to accompany Elizabeth. They crossed the Greenbrier in a canoe. 
Jane asked her sister what they could eat. The Indianized girl 
pulled up some bulbous roots and said they could find plenty of these 
to live upon. But Jane declared she would starve on such diet and 
persuaded the sister to return home with her. The wild nature grad- 
ually wore off, but to the end of her long life Mrs. Elizabeth Stodg- 
hill always stood up for the Indians whenever she heard them de- 

When in 1778 the settlers on Indian were beleaguered in Cook's 
fort, Jacob Mann volunteered to go out after food. He shot a 
buck in the Flatwoods, but being seen by the Indians on his return, 
he threw his game into a cavern at the bottom of a sinkhole, and 
then went in with his dog. He pulled weeds over the entrance and 
held the dog's mouth. After nightfall he regained the fort with 
his venison. It is related that on another occasion he was chased 
while he had three deerskins strapped to his back. There was no 
time to get them loose, but he succeeded in reaching the fort. He 
had just shot a bear and the savages had observed the circumstance. 

Perhaps the last visit of the redskins to Indian Creek took place 


about 1785, and it did not have a tragic result. While Valentine 
Cook was clearing ground near his fort he became aware that his 
horse and gun had been appropriated by seven Indians. Cook was 
made to accompany his visitors up Indian Draft to the Elijah Vass 
farm. They then gave him an old mare and a broken gun in ex- 
change for his own property, and motioned him to return. Cook 
hesitated, thinking he would be killed if he moved away. One of 
the braves then pointed toward the fort and gave him a kick from 
behind. The pioneer understood this hint and acted upon it. 



Revolutionary Pensions — Monroe Pensioners of 1832. 

HE most interesting of the laws relating to Revolutionary 
pensions are those of 1820 and 1832. A statement by 
an applicant under the earlier law is brief, except 
that it includes a schedule of the property of the vet- 
eran and thus gives an insight into the economic life of the period. 
Declarations under the other law are more lengthy and important. 
The applicant was required to state his age, his place of birth, and 
his present residence. He was also to give detailed information 
as to each item of his military service; the names of his company 
and regimental officers, and the general officers under whom he 
served; and some particulars as to his experiences in the army. His 
declaration was given before the county court, or in case of serious 
infirmity, before some magistrate appointed by the court. Interest- 
ing sidelights crop out in these declarations- But as more than half 
a century had elapsed since the war, an impaired memory is some- 
times disclosed in the hesitating and uncertain statements. 

Incidental facts of interest also appear. Perhaps the veteran 
cannot write or is in doubt as to his age, sometimes through the de- 
struction of the family record. He has perhaps lost his discharge, 
he knows very few persons who can indorse his statements, and has 
to rely on what is the common belief concerning him in the opin- 
ion of reputable citizens of his neighborhood. 

If the applicant served in a continental or state regiment, he 
usually saw considerable service and was in one or more battles. Not 
infrequently he had been wounded or had been a prisoner of war. 
But if he was in the militia, the reader is struck with the ridicul- 
ously short "tours of duty" — usually of one to three months and 
sometimes even less — and of the very frequent statement that the 


applicant "was in no battle." As a matter of fact, the militia of 
the Revolution were comparatively inefficient and their behavior in 
a fight was notoriously uncertain. Occasionally, as at Bunker Hill, 
King's Mountain, and the Cowpens, they fought well and to good 
purpose. But in more numerous instances their propensity to take 
to their heels at the first clash made them an object of contempt to 
the continental troops and aroused the profanity of the general of- 
ficers. Yet it would be very unjust to assume that the militiaman 
was necessarily ineffective. The trouble was not in himself, but in 
the lack of system with which the Revolution was carried on. The 
militia were inclined to obey their home officers only so far as they 
pleased- It was utterly impossible for the officers, even when they 
possessed enough technical knowledge, to turn this raw material into 
effective soldiers in a few weeks time. Consequently the militia 
could not cope on even terms with well-trained regulars. But when 
the Americans were thoroughly drilled by professional soldiers like 
General Steuben, the redcoats found foemen entirely worthy of their 
steel. The Revolution would not have dragged through seven years 
had it been less under the management of men like Jefferson, who 
with respect to military matters were visionary and incapable. The 
lesson of those days does not seem to be sufficiently remembered now. 

United States pensioners were exempted in 1830 from all county 
and parish levies. 

Below are the declarations on record in the Monroe archives. 
Matters of little general importance are omitted. 

Samuel Allen, born 1744, served in 1780-81 under Colonel Buford of 
the Sixth Virginia Regiment of Continentals. Term of service 18 months. 
In the battles of Guilford, Ninety-Six, Augusta, and Eutaw. Discharged 
for disability in fall of 1781, occasioned by a worm getting into his ear 
while ill and lying on the ground. Declaration, 1829. 

Jacob Argabrite, born 1760 in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, came 
to Rockingham in boyhood. Volunteered May, 1778, for six months in 
the militia company of Captain Craven and served at the forts in Tygart's 
Valley. Re-enlisted and served in same company three months longer. 
Marched to Fort Pitt and Tuscarawas River, serving under General Mc- 
intosh and helping to build Fort Lawrence in Ohio. Between Fort Mc- 
intosh and Fort Lawrence he saw the corpse of Lieutenant Parks, who had 


been killed by the Indians. In retaliation, Colonel Crawford wished to 
kill nine or ten Indians who had come for a peace parley, but was pre- 
vented by other officers. About September, 1780, he enlisted for 12 months 
in the cavalry company of Captain Sullivan of Berkeley county. Cam- 
paigned in the Carolinas and was in the battle of the Cowpens. His term 
expired at Bowling Green, Virginia. Then joined a rifle company under 
Captain Coker, and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis. Was 
discharged for illness late in October, while convoying the British prison- 
ers from Yorktown. Came to Monroe some years after the war. Declara- 
tion, 1832. Proof of alleged facts required by Pension Office. 

Henry Arnot, born 1762 in Orange county, New York, enlisted in 
Sussex county, New Jersey under Colonel Nichols and served five months 
on Hudson River. In 1777-81 served three other short terms. In no en- 
gagement except a skirmish at Morristown, 1776. Declaration, 1832. Af- 
fidavit by James Christie and Samuel Clark. Came to Monroe about 1800. 

John Boone, born in York county, Pennsylvania, 1755, enlisted 1778 
in the Continental service in same county under Captain Spangler. Served 
three years in a term of five. Marched South with the Maryland and 
Delaware troops under DeKalb. Was in the defeat near Camden, 
known among the soldiers as "Gate's Folly." Among the last to retreat, 
saving himself by flight through an unknown country. In 1775 went to 
Kentucky with his uncle, Daniel Boone. Declaration, 1833. 

Patrick Boyd, born 1759, enlisted 1777 in the Centinental line for three 
years in Colonel Gunb^s regiment. At Valley Forge, West Point, and 
Bound Brook. Sick in camp at time of Battle of Monmouth, 1779. Health 
failing after 19 months, hired a substitute for 100 pounds, though offered 
a lieutenancy if he would stay. Volunteered 1781 under Colonel Moffett 
and was in the battle of Guilford. Reached home in April, and in Sep- 
tember served under Colonel Bowyer to keep the British east of the Blue 
Ridge. The enemy burned Charlottesville as they retreated and were 
pressed so closely that they were seen leaving Richmond as the Americans 
entered. Discharged about October 1, 1781. Declaration, 1832. 

John Canterbury, born in Fairfax county about 1760, volunteered in 
Montgomery county against the Indians and served on Clinch River. A 
second tour of one month on the Bluestone. Later he went to live in Wash- 
ington county and went out for three months as substitute for Samuel 
Douglass, serving at Logan's Station, Kentucky. Still later, he joined an 
expedition to the French Broad. There were several skirmishes with the 
Cherokees, but no general engagement, the Indians abandoning their towns. 
Later yet he went out for three months as substitute, and marched under 
Colonel Campbell, joining the army under Marion. A scouting party of 
which he was a member took about 80 prisoners. After living four years 


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in Franklin county he came to Monroe about 1786. Affidavits by Johnson 
Keaton and John Roach. Declaration, 1839. 

Samuel Clark, born in Augusta, 1764, went out in September, 1780, 
as substitute for Thomas Means and served under Captain Samuel Mc- 
Cutchen. This and four other Augusta companies were stationed three 
months below Richmond but not in contact with the enemy. Drafted next 
January for three months and marched to within 20 miles of Portsmouth 
to join General Muhlenberg. While here there was a skirmish. Next 
May, he substituted for John McCutchen, a relative, who from the situa- 
tion of his family could not safely leave home. He now marched under 
Colonel McCreery to join Wayne. In the battle of Green Spring, near 
Jamestown, he received a sword cut on the head and was discharged from 
a hospital on the Pamunkey. In September he was drafted for three 
months and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis. In April, 1782, 
he volunteered for three months against the Indians on the Ohio, and 
marched under Captain John McKittrick to Tygart's Valley. He lost his 
father in infancy. Came to Monroe, 1780. Declaration, 1832. 

John Foster, born about 1759, enlisted for three years in the Tenth Vir- 
ginia Continentals, Steuben's brigade. At siege of Yorktown and in sev- 
eral skirmishes near Savannah. Discharged at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, 1783. His schedule of property shows a valuation of $300, inclusive 
of 100 acres of land. Declaration, 1829. 

Nathaniel Garten, born 1759, Orange county, removed with his father 
to Rockingham in 1768. Indian scout in 1777 under Captain Robert Cra- 
ven. Three months at Warwick's fort on Greenbrier to protect the inhab- 
itants from the Indians. No attack by them, but he was all the while 
watching paths. With several others he pursued them several days at 
the rate of 40 miles a day. A year later he served another three months 
in Tygart's Valley. Served three months, 1780, at Nutter's fort on the 
west fork of the Monongahela. Came to Monroe, 1780. In spring of 
1781, when the family of John Meeks were taken prisoners he spent three 
weeks at Lafferty's fort at the mouth of Indian, reconnoitering the country 
below,^ so as to protect the farmers while they were planting corn, but 
for this service received no pay. Griffith Garten was a brother. Declara- 
tion, 1834. 

William Hutchinson, born 1757 in Augusta, volunteered, May, 1776, 
one year under Captain John Henderson. From his post at Cook's fort 
he ranged the country west of New River. Volunteered, 1777, under Cap- 
tain Archibald Wood to serve as long as the Indians were troublesome. 
In the fall of this year Captain Wood marched to near the head of Blue- 
stone to protect the people gathering their fodder. In this service he re- 
mained four years, except one year that himself, Nicholas Woodfin, and 
Philip Cavendar were ordered by Captain Wood to scout. During all this 


period he was almost constantly ranging from Cook's fort to Woods' fort, 
and under almost every privation and difficulty. Often he could hear 
near him in the night the yell, the shrill whistle, or the wary tread of the 
Indian. If any orders were to be sent express he was generally the man 
selected. When lying out at night with no covering but his blanket, and 
no shelter but the forest, it was frequently the scream of the panther or 
the yell of the Indian that reminded him of his duty to his country. After 
four years Captain Gray of Rockbridge took the place of Wood, and he 
served one year under him. In the spring of 1782 he left the service, all 
signs of the enemy having disappeared. When called into service he 
lived in Greenbrier, but after the war he lived with his father on Rich 
Creek. In the fall of 1781, when he with 30 others were ordered by Gray 
to go to the head of Bluestone and they had marched 20 miles, no one else 
would go any farther. An old man named McGuire wished to go to the 
head of the settlement and David Clay undertook to show the way. After 
a short distance they found themselves pursued by some Indians, appar- 
ently 10 or 12. Sometimes they were in water to their necks, but going 
40 miles that day they came to their destination. Affidavit by Jacob Cook, 
a boy in 1776. Declaration, 1836. Claim suspended on the ground that 
the declaration was at variance with all historical facts touching the fron- 
tier service in Virginia. The Pension Office set forth that at the time in 
question all the settlers forted, and while a part worked their lands the 
others were scouting, in order to give the alarm in case of the approach 
of the Indians. Such service was not considered military, then or since. 
It usually began in the spring and ended in the fall. Neither Wood nor 
Henderson was in the regular service. Woods' and Cook's forts were 
blockhouses only, and were built for the protection of their owners and 
neighbors and had no connection with the military operations of the coun- 
try. (It will be observed that Hutchinson was too much inclined to ro- 
mance. A mountain stream neck-deep is too much water to wade.) 

Christopher Hand, born in Ireland about 1758, was drafted from 
Augusta early in 1781, and marched to Norfolk and thence to Guilford, 
taking part in the battle there. Was orderly sergeant. Came to Amer- 
ica a little before the war and to Monroe several years after. Declara- 
tion, 1833, when too infirm to go to the courthouse. Neighbors, Jacob and 
William Ellis, Jacob and William Johnson, and James Tincher. 

Field Jarvis, born in Westmoreland, 1756, vlounteered from Bedford 
for three months in 1776, serving at the lead mines of Wythe to keep the 
Indians and tories from seizing them. Served three months at Yorktown, 
1777. Settled in Bedford, 1773, in Monroe, 1781, in that year serving 10 
days at New London as guard to the prisoners taken at the Cowpens. 
Declaration, 1833. Affidavit by R. S. Shanklin and John Holsapple. 

James Jones, born 1761, enlisted 1777 in Second Regiment of Artillery, 


provincial service, being then a resident of Fauquier. Served full time of 
three years but in no battle. Campaigned in North Carolina, 1780. Dec- 
laration, 1832. 

Conrad Keller, born 1750, enlisted from Shenandoah in 1777, serv- 
ing three years in the militia under Muhlenberg. In 1781 or 1782 drafted 
two months, serving at Fort Frederick, Maryland. Declaration, 1834. 

Godrell Lively, born about 1763, drafted in Albemarle fall of 1780. 
Marched to Cabin Point, where it was expected Arnold would attempt to 
land. Company discharged at Petersburg after two months. Next May 
or June drafted one month and served around Richmond. Soon after the 
surrender of Cornwallis, enlisted three years in the cavalry under Ar- 
mand and served 22 months till the declaration of peace. Regiment sta- 
tioned at Charlottesville, Staunton, Winchester, and also at York, Penn- 
sylvania. Declaration, 1832. Affidavit by John Hutchinson who had 
known Lively more than 40 years. 

Benjamin Morgan, born in Philadelphia 1761, came to Berkeley county 
in boyhood. In 1778 or 1779 he was drafted three months, serving at 
Fort Lawrence in Ohio. Volunteered three months, May, 1781, but the 
command was turned back before reaching the North Carolina line. While 
scouting near Yorktown wounded by a sword cut. Later in 1781 he was 
drafted three months and was at the siege of Yorktown. He was one of 
the guards that convoyed the prisoners to Frederick, Maryland. Soon 
after the war he came to Monroe. Declaration, 1832. Died, 1836. Mar- 
ried, 1784, to Anne , at Hagerstown. She was born 1766 and ap- 
plied for a widow's pension in 1842. 

Samuel Martin, born 1761 in Kent county, Maryland, enlisted from 
said county 1777, serving 27 months in Fourth Maryland Regiment. In 
the battles of Brandywine and Monmouth. Declaration, 1834. 

Richard Neil, born about 1756, enlisted three years at Williamsburg 
in 1778. Was slightly wounded at Gates' defeat in 1780. Schedule $170.50. 
New application of 1823 rejected. 

Isaac Nickell, born 1752, served three months in the Point Pleasant 
campaign under Captain John Lewis. Lieutenant John Henderson was in 
same company. In 1777 drafted from Greenbrier three months against the 
Indians. Drafted same time, 1780 or 1781, but owing to the situation of 
his family hired Thomas Burchinal as substitute, giving him a mare worth 
$50. Declaration, 1833. Affidavit, Robert Coalter. 

Jonathan Roach, born in Rockingham 1761, enlisted from Orange in 
1779, serving nearly 28 months at Charlottesville and Winchester as guard 
to the prisoners taken with Burgoyne. Went out, 1781, as substitute for 
John Craig of Rockingham and served two months on the Yorktown pen- 
insula. Came to Monroe, 1785. Declaration, 1832. Affidavit by Chris- 


tian Peters, Jacob Meadows, and Matthew Meadows, comrades with Roach 
while guarding prisoners. 

Christian Peters, born 1761, drafted from Rockingham, June 1779, 
served against the Indians on North Fork, Pendleton county. While there, 
Robert Craven, his captain, received a commission from the governor of 
South Carolina to raise a company to serve in that state, 1000 pounds of 
tobacco* being offered each volunteer. Peters was made corporal. The 
company joined General Greene at Cheraw, January 1, 1781. Was one of 
a party sent to surprise a band of tories in the Black Swamp, and 14 
were captured. A part of the command took 28 prisoners and some sup- 
plies at Georgetown and joined General Morgan the day before the battle 
of the Cowpens. In that battle was with the riflemen on the right flank. 
They had the pleasure of taking 600 prisoners. His company a part of the 
detail to take the prisoners to Virginia. The British pursuit was so close 
that at the Yadkin the baggage wagon of the company was captured, but 
owing to rising water the enemy could not at once get across. At Pittsyl- 
vania Courthouse the prisoners were delivered to the militia of the said 
county and Craven proceeded home where his men were discharged in 
April. Peters' bounty went in part payment on a horse, and he gave up 
his certificate and discharge to the man to whom he sold the bounty. Next 
June volunteered as sergeant and was in the battles of Hot Water and 
Green Spring,! the former lasting two hours and ending in the retreat of 
the Americans before the re-enforcements sent to the relief of the British. 
At Green Spring one man of the company was killed and 14 were wounded. 
The last tour occupied four months, making a total of 13 months, during 
which time he carried his own rifle, tomahawk, and butcher knife. Dec- 
laration, 1832. Affidavit by John Peters. 

John Dunn in his affidavit in behalf of Peters states that he served 
with him in the campaign on the Peninsula in 1781. 

John Robinson, born 1749, was drafted in Greenbrier and served six 
months under Major Andrew Hamilton against the Indians. The inten- 
tion was to march against Detroit, but the command went via Cumberland 
Gap to McAfee Station, Kentucky, where the men were discharged, 28 
returning with Robinson. Through being away from home, he sustained 
a loss of $1600 in the depreciation of the paper money he held. Declara- 
tion, 1832. 

Samuel Sams, born 1758, served six months in 1780 as substitute for 

*Tobacco was once a form of currency in Virginia. At this period 
100 pounds of the weed equaled one pound in coin and 5 pounds equaled 
one shilling. One pound of tobacco was therefore the equivalent of 3 1-3 

tThese battles took place near Jamestown in the summer of 17S1. 


William Dickey, being then a resident of Augusta. Was at Cowpens. Un- 
der Colonel William Washington he helped to capture 100 tories at Ruge- 
ly's mills. June, 1781, drafted three months and in battle of Green Spring 
and siege of Yorktown. Was guarding prisoners to Winchester when 
discharged. In 1782 served three months at Clover Lick as substitute. 
Declaration, 1832. 

Thomas Steel, born 1752, drafted in Chester county, Pennsylvania, and 
served nearly six months under General Putnam. About two years later 
drafted from Lancaster county, same state, but order for service counter- 
manded. Can prove by Hannah Dunbar that he started in this service. 
About 1779 his wagon and team being impressed in Lancaster, he got 
himself appointed wagoner and during about seven weeks was hauling 
flour to Easton. Served again as wagoner in 1780. Never in any battle. 
Came to Monroe, 1790. Declaration, 1836 and 1838. 

Hemy Winckleblack — known in the army as Henry Squire — born 1755, 
went into the army as substitute, and was stationed nine months at Forts 
Pitt, Mcintosh, and Lawrence. Then substituted another nine months. 
From Fort Mcintosh went on a scout with 15 or 20 others and they killed 
several Indians in a fight. From Fort Pitt he went with another party that 
defeated some Indians and killed 10. Came to Monroe before the Revo- 
lution and was employed by James Byrnside to pack merchandise to Fort 
Lawrence. It was in one of these trips that he entered service as a sub- 
stitute. Declaration, 1832. 

Thomas Walker, born 1764, was drafted in Rockingham for three 
months, four days before he was 16, and joined Muhlenberg's army near 
Jamestown. His own portion of his regiment proceeded to Great Bridge 
near Norfolk, where there was some skirmishing. July 1781, again 
drafted from same county. Discharged for disability at Yorktown three 
days before the surrender. Declaration, 1832. 

Joseph Wiseman, born 1759, drafted from Berks county, Pennsylva- 
nia, 1776, and served three months on the Hudson. Moved to Rowan coun- 
ty, North Carolina, 1777, and next year volunteered under General Ruth- 
erford. Joined General Ashe just after the latter's defeat near the Sa- 
vannah River, and in time to cover the retreat. Next year went out as 
substitute, but discharged in Mecklenberg to await orders which never 
came. Returned to Pennsylvania, but settled in Washington county, Mary- 
land, where a call was made for one in every nine of the militia. Him- 
self and eight neighbors hired a substitute for 45 pounds. Came to Mon- 
roe, 1794. Declaration, 1832. 

Abraham DeHart served in the Third Pennsylvania, James Larkin 
and Francis Meadows in the Twelfth Virginia, and Samuel Hunt in the 
Second Virginia. John Rank, who came from Rockingham, served in the 
Tenth Virginia. 



The State of Franklin — Formation of Greenbrier — End of Eighteenth Century. 

FACT in American history which receives little notice 
is the attempt, just after the Revolution, to create a 
new state on the waters of the Holston. To the people 
in that valley a strong local government was peculiarly 
necessary, because of their remoteness from the old settlements east 
of the Blue Ridge. The effort was temporarily successful, and for a 
few years the state of Franklin, with its capital at Greenville, un- 
dertook to maintain a career of its own. 

It is usually assumed that the territorial limits claimed for Frank- 
lin were the same as those of Tennessee. But this is not the case- 
The Franklin memorial of 1785, presented by Colonel Arthur Camp- 
bell and seventeen other men, asked for statehood because of geo- 
graphical position. It petitioned that the new commonwealth be 

Bounded by a meridian that will touch the mouth of Little River near 
Ingles' Ferry, thence down the Kanawha to the Ronceverte, or Greenbrier 
River, then southwest to latitude thirty-seven, then along latitude thirty- 
seven to the meridian of the rapids of the Ohio, thence along this merid- 
ian to the Tennessee, or Cherokee, River to the part nearest of latitude 
thirty-four south; eastward on that parallel to top of Appalachian Moun- 
tains, and along the highest part of the same (the divide between Eastern 
and Wastern waters). 

A little map study will show that the proposed limits include 
nearly all of that corner of Virginia sometimes known as Little 
Tennessee; a part of Summers and Mercer counties, in West Vir- 
ginia; a narrow strip of Kentucky; rather less than half of Tennes- 
see; a very slight portion of Alabama and Georgia; and that nar- 
row belt of North Carolina which lies west of the Blue Ridge. A 
more natural boundary could have been found on the north and west, 
but the idea in the minds of Campbell and his colleagues was a 


sound one. The new state would have been wholly a mountain 
state. It would have been homogeneous in geography, population, 
social usages, and political feeling. It would have understood and 
looked after its own peculiar needs, and would have obviated very 
much of the illiteracy and other phases of backwardness which ob- 
tain in some localities of this area. Had the new state become a 
reality, Old Monroe would have been on its border. This curious 
circumstance is our reason for calling attention to the state that 
failed to materialize. 

Another state that likewise failed to come into full existence 
would have had Monroe on or near its border. In 1771 it was 
proposed to create the inland colony of Vandalia with its capital at 
Point Pleasant. The plan was favored by Franklin and other in- 
fluential Americans on the ground of convenience in local self-gov- 
ernment. It was favored by the British government, which desired 
a colony more amenable to arbitrary control than were those of the 

Botetourt, even after the erection of Fincastle county, ran from 
the Blue Ridge to the Ohio, and had an average breadth of about 50 
miles. The increase in population, and the inconvenience to many 
people of attending its court made subdivision inevitable. Two new 
counties were carved out of it at the same time. Rockbridge was 
formed out of a portion of the territory east of the Alleghany, while 
all the portion west was made into the county of Greenbrier. 

An Act of Assembly of October, 1777, is of this import: 

Whereas, it is represented to this present session of Assembly, by the 
inhabitants of Augusta and Botetourt counties that they labor under many 
inconveniences by reason of the great extent of the said counties and par- 

And be it further enacted, That from and after the first day of March 
the said county and parish of Botetourt shall be divided by a line begin- 
ning on the top of the ridge that divides the eastern from the western 
waters, where the line between Augusta and Botetourt crosses the same, 
and running thence the same course continued north fifty-five degrees west 
to the Ohio; thence beginning at the said ridge, at the said lines of Bote- 
tourt and Augusta, running along the top of the said ridge, passing the 
Sweet Springs, to the top of Peters Mountain, thence along the said moun- 


tain to the line of Montgomery county, thence along the same mountain 
to the Kenhawa, or New river, thence down the said river to the Ohio. And 
all the part of the said county and parish of Botetourt between and to the 
westward of the said lines shall be one distinct county and parish, and be 
called and known by the name of Greenbrier. 

And for the administration of justice, a court. .. .shall be held.... for 
the county of Greenbrier on the third Tuesday in every month, the first court 
for the said county of Greenbrier to be held at John Stuart's. And the 
justices for the said court.... or a major part of them being present, and 
having taken the oaths required by law, and administered the oaths of office 
to the sheriff. . . .the said court shall fix on a place for holding court in (its) 
county, at or as near the center as the situation and convenience will ad- 
mit of, and shall thenceforth proceed to erect the necessary publick build- 
ings at such place, and shall also appoint such places for holding courts 
in the meantime, until such buildings shall be completed, as they shall think 
fit, and shall have power to adjourn themselves to such place as it shall 
appoint; and after the publick buildings shall be completed, the court for 
the said county shall then be held at such place. 

We have omitted the few words that pertain exclusively to the 
counties of Rockbridge and Rockingham, which were created by the 
same act. Other provisions are the dissolution of the vestry of 
Augusta parish ; the requirement that the people of Greenbrier shall 
elect, before the first day of the next May, "twelve able and discreet 
persons," to be a vestry for the parish of Greenbrier; and certain 
provisions as to suits and petitions pending in the parent county. The 
clerk of Botetourt is instructed to make out a docket of such, and 
deliver the same to the clerk of the new county, together with all 
papers filed and a copy of all costs, and to take the clerk's receipt. 
No appointments of clerks of the peace or of places for holding 
courts were to be made unless a majority of the justices were pres- 
ent The collectors of Botetourt were empowered to collect and 
distrain for dues remaining unpaid by the inhabitants of the new 

It is very unfortunate that no record-books of Greenbrier, an- 
terior to November 21, 1780, seem to be in existence. The miss- 
ing records therefore include the details as to the organization of 
the county, and much other information that would throw consid- 


erable light on the annals of Monroe during the middle Revolu- 
tionary period. 

Although the courthouse of Greenbrier has always occupied the 
lot on which the present building stands, it was not until October, 
1782, that the town of Lewisburg was recognized by legislative en- 
actment. Until then, the locality was variously known as Camp 
Union, Fort Savannah, and Lewis's Springs- 

Kanawha county was set off from Greenbrier in 1788. An Act 
of 1795 aims to correct the alleged vagueness of the line between 
the old county and the new by making the west line of Greenbrier 
run with Gauley River from its mouth to the point where it crosses 
the line between Greenbrier and Randolph. 

In 1788 Greenbrier voted for the Federal Constitution. Ten 
years later it refused its assent to the disunion tendencies of the 
Virginia Resolutions of that date. 

The latter half of the period during which Monroe was a part 
of Greenbrier is a time of complete exemption from Indian raids. 
Population was increasing, new roads were being opened, and new 
farms were being cleared. Better dwelling houses were taking the 
place of the primitive cabin. By the time Monroe became a dis- 
tinct county, thirty years had elapsed since the permanent resettle- 
ment. Many of its younger inhabitants had been born here. The 
period of settling was giving way to a period of settling down. The 
pioneer period proper had come to an end. 

In Monroe, as in other American communities that have passed 
through a frontier phase of existence, the pioneer epoch is pictur- 
esque and full of life and color. It stands for the heroic age in 
American history. The people then in the forefront deserve great 
credit for their share of the work in transforming the wilderness 
into an abode of civilization. But theirs was no golden age of vir- 
tue and contentment, outshining the alleged degeneracy of our own 
time. It is well to remember that 

'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountains in their azure hue. 

A book containing a scrappy outline of the history of this and 
other counties, has these words for the pioneer: 


He was a soldier and true bravery and valor were displayed every- 
where and at all times by him. No timid shrieks escaped them; no maid- 
enly fears caused them to shrink from their self-imposed and onerous task. 
There was no feudal system to divide the grand estate among those who 
had borne arms in its defense. 

The historian of a certain county of West Virginia, while paus- 
ing to extol the "good old times," tells us that "personal liberty had 
not been curtailed"; that there was "a real Utopian dream of equal- 
ity and liberty"; that "laws were to be obeyed, not evaded." 

Such loose statements as these do positive harm to the general 
reader. They ask him to believe in a past that never did exist, ex- 
cept in the fervid imagination of the author and his impulse to give 
high sounding rhetoric in place of hard historical facts. Men of 
sterling worth, firm purpose, and generous impulse lived in the pio- 
neer era just as such persons live in our own time. But to allege 
that the entire pioneer population was of superhuman mould is 
laughable. In those days of empire-building there were shirks, cow- 
ards, and scoundrels; there were skulkers even at Point Pleasant; 
there was panic-stricken flight at the rumor of an Indian foray; the 
land claimant was often ousted by fraud or violence; magistrates 
were insulted while sitting on the bench; the fights between man 
and man were brutal in the extreme; might or privilege was often 
victorious over common justice; lawbreaking, drunkenness, gambling, 
profanity, stealing, and licentiousness disported themselves on every 
hand. The writer of this volume could support the above state- 
ments by filling page after page from the documentary history of Au- 
gusta and the counties formed out of it. Such authority is well- 
nigh incontestible. The age in which we live contains much that 
may very justly be deplored; yet, on the whole, the march of civi- 
lization is forward and not backward. 

That there was "no feudal system to divide the grand estate 
among those who had borne arms in its defense" is a very "irides- 
cent dream." Despite the arrogance and ostentation of plutocrats 
and the near-rich in our own time, the colonial age was still less 
democratic. It is true that this fact was less in evidence along the 
inland frontier than in the aristocratically organized society of the 


seacoast. Yet even in the mountains the feudal pretentions of wealth 
and privilege made themselves obnoxious. Something has been said 
in a former chapter on the monopolistic tendencies of the order in 
council. The growth of the Greenbrier country was hampered by 
the greed of the Loyal and Greenbrier companies, particularly the 
latter. The feeling of the settlers is thus voiced in a Botetourt 
petition of 1777: 

We have settled it (the country) in the west and defended it for years 
against the savage, in consequence of which we hoped to have obtained 
a just and equitable title to our possessions, without being obliged to con- 
tribute large sums of money to the separate emolument of inidviduals. 

William Blanton of the Sinks of Monroe bought the right and 
improvements of a man who offered to make declaration that he and 
others had applied to Andrew Lewis, spokesman of the Greenbrier 
Company, offering to pay any reasonable price for their "settle- 
ments," but that the offer had been refused. 



Extracts from Record-books and Petitions. 

N THIS chapter the record-books of Greenbrier and the 

petitions from the said county to the General Assembly 

tell their own story. Such extracts are given as are of 

most general interest and deal more particularly with 

that portion of Greenbrier that became Monroe. 


Justices present: Samuel Brown, John Anderson, William Hutchinson, 
John Henderson, William Poage. 

John Archer resigns as clerk. John Stuart elected. Andrew Donally 
qualifies as sheriff to succeed James Henderson, his deputies being John 
Rodgers, Adam Caperton, and James Thompson, and his sureties, John 
Henderson and James Thompson. 

Grand Jury: William Frogg, John Humphreys, Matthew Gwinn, Andrew 
Willson, John Wiley, Thomas Hamilton, John Benson, Charles O'Hara, 
John Miller, Sr., John Akins, John Riley, George Davidson, John McCan- 
lis, Martin Smith, Sampson Archer, William Hedding, Archibald McDowell, 

View ordered from for a road from Second Creek to Camp Union. 

Christopher Bryan given license to keep an ordinary. 

Three presentments for unlawful retailing of liquor. 

John Stuart was advanced $400 in paper for iron to be used in jail 
and transportation of the same; also $1,000 to buy necessary books. (Note: 
This paper was depreciated Continental money.) 

Ordinary rates authorized: breakfast, $15; lodging, $3; stablage and 
hay, per night, $14; corn, per gallon, $14; oats, per gallon, $6; whiskey, 
per gallon, $80; rum per gallon, $320. 

764 tithables, each assessed at 14 pounds of tobacco (47 cents), total 
levy being $356.53. 

James Warwick made constable in Captain Hugh Miller's company, 
Samuel Kincaid in Captain Thompson's, John Dixon in Captain Ander- 
son's, and John Carlisle (vice Michael Shirley, resigned) in Captain 
John Hendersons 

Clerk to certify to Auditor of Public Accounts a claim of $2,000 for 


a horse taken from John Henderson to take a witness to Richmond. James 
Byrnside allowed 200 pounds ($666.67) for damage to horse in taking 
a criminal to "gaol." 

Bond of Andrew Donally as sheriff. 100,000 pounds. John Hender- 
son and James Thompson sureties. 

Bond of Andrew Donally to collect, account for, and pay all taxes 
due in this county, per Act of Assembly, 10,000 pounds. James Byrn- 
side, Archibald Wood, sureties. 

Called court to examine James Stuart on suspicion of murdering John 
Estill. Adjudged guilty. Philip Hammond, Mary Faught, and William 
Bradshaw bound in 100 pounds each to appear at Richmond as witnesses. 


William Ward, a justice, authorized to buy a "compleat Wagon and 
Team" for use of sheriff, and procure a driver for the same. The sher- 
iff to collect 20,000 pounds to pay for it. 

MARCH, 1781 

Mary Trimble, servant to William Shanks, having run away and been 
taken back, agrees to serve one year over and above her time to repay 
him for the expense of recovery. 

Mary Ann, wife of Stephen Robinson, a soldier, in service, and her 
two children are recommended for legal relief from indigency. 

William Tincher to survey a road from James Byrnside's to Christo- 
pher Bryan's, vice Archibald Handley, discharged. 

Order, per Act of Assembly, for the viewing and marking of a road 
from the courthouse to Warm Springs, and the mouth of the Cowpasture. 

Ordinary rates: dinner, $25; breakfast, $20; corn per gallon, $10. 

Order for the refitting of the house which the court uses. 

John Hutchinson qualifies as deputy sheriff. 

APRIL, 1781 

John Day ordered bound in 10,000 pounds to answer charge of try- 
ing to incite an insurrection among the militia. 

Sheriff to let to lowest bidder a contract, payable in hemp, for a 
good wagon road to Warm Springs. 

MAY, 1781 
Grand jury: Anthony Bowen, William Crawford, James Thompson, 
Thomas Grattan, John Davis, Samuel Kincaid, George Blackburn, Arch- 
ibald Handley, James Lockhart, James Hanna, William Davison, Thomas 
Hamilton, George Gray, James Houston, Moses Hall, Joseph McClung, 
Archibald McDowell. 


Christopher Bryan, David Jarrett, James Graham, and James Byrn- 
side to view a road from Peter Vanbibber's to the mill in Second Creek 


Matthew Arbuckle and William Hunter Cavendish appointed com- 
missioners of the grain tax for the ensuing year. 

AUGUST, 1781 

Sheriff to let contract, payable in not over 50 tons hemp, for a wagon 
road from the courthouse to Warm Springs. The road to be 12 feet 
wide in deep places, 15 feet elsewhere, and to be finished by October 1, 
1782. Contractor to give bond in 5,000 pounds. 

Ordinary rates: dinner, $50; breakfast, $40; corn per gallon, $50; 
hay or fodder per night, $50. 


John Henderson to take list of tithables in Captain Wood's and his 
own companies, and James Henderson in the companies of Glass and 

Archibald Wood resigns as captain. 

APRIL, 1782 

Edward Keenan made constable vice William Robinson. 

Archibald Handley, Edward Keenan, Samuel Glass, and James Alex- 
ander to view a road from the widow Miller's to Conrad's mill on Indian 
Creek. Next month James Thompson made overseer of road. 

Ordinary rates: corn or oats, 8 cents per gallon; lodging, 8 cents. 

James Byrnside and Archibald Wood qualify as collectors of the tax. 
Bond, 10,000 pounds. 

MAY, 1782 

Samuel Gwinn, James Miller, and John Hall to view from the widow 
Miller's to the top of Swope's Knobs to join the road to Second Creek. 

Attachment for $40 specie by James Gwinn against the estate of 
James McAfee, "who hath privately removed himself." Return by John 
Hutchinson. Executed in hand of Israel Meadows 200 pounds saltpeter 
and in hands of John Thompson a bond of about 500 pounds paper. Sale 
of same ordered to satisfy a sum of $23.77. 

William Estill, constable, allowed pay for a laboring man for 23 
days at 50 cents a day; for two horses for two days at 33 cents a day; 
also provisions for man and horses, the work being the construction of 
a "grainery" for tax grain. 

One adultery case and eight bastardy cases. 

George Thornton presented for breaking the Sabbath by drinking to 
excess and saying he borrowed that day and would pay it again. 


Robert Armstrong to pay John Vawter, a witness, 370 pounds of to- 
bacco ($12.33) for two days attendance and 80 miles travel. 

William Dunn and Thomas Downey, presented for unlawful gaming, 
and not appearing in court, they are each to forfeit to the poor of the 
parish $20 in current money and costs. 

Agnes M , for bastardy, is to forfeit to the churchwardens of 

Botetourt parish 50 shillings to the poor and costs. Same judgment pro- 
nounced against three other women. 

Jacob Lockhart, for retailing liquors contrary to law and not coming 
to court, is to forfeit to the use of the commonwealth 10 pounds specie 
and 50 pounds paper and costs. 

Patrick Murphy fined five shillings for swearing in court. 

Thomas Ellis, whose sons were killed in the service of the United 
States, allowed $32 for one year. 

Colonel James Henderson, sheriff in 1779-1780, in arrears for $1768.08. 
Ordered that he pay the depreciation on the same. 

Order for levy of 50 shillings to buy a book for the surveyor. 

811 tithables. Head tax, 80 cents. Levy, $648.80. 

For taking a criminal to Richmond $2 allowed. $80 allowed for 
viewing road to Warm Springs. For handcuffs, five shillings allowed. 

JUNE, 1782 

This was a court of claims for provisions or other services rendered 
in behalf of the United States in the war with Britain. Numerous claims 
presented and allowed. 

William Estill made constable in Captain John Henderson's company. 

AUGUST, 1782 

William Myers, overseer of road from James Byrnside's to Patrick 

James Byrnside allowed $42.58 for damages done him by a party of 
Greenbrier militia on their way to Kentucky. 

Order for the laying off of a road from the courthouse to Ugly's Creek. 


Reverend John McCue qualifies as competent to perform the marriage 

JANUARY, 1783 
John Crain given 25 lashes for hog stealing. 

MARCH, 1783 
Summoned to attend surveyor in adjusting land dispute between Wil- 


iiam West and Martin Turpin in Second Creek: Archibald Handley, 
James Handley, John Handley, Matthew Patterson, James McNutt, John 
McNutt, Moses Higgenbotham, Samuel Ewing, William Robinson, James 
Allen, Thomas Wright; or any 12 of them. 

APRIL, 1783 
Hugh Caperton appointed lieutenant in Woods' company, Daniel Shu- 
mate, ensign. James Knox and Andrew Woods qualify as captains. 
915 tithables. Levy, $915. 

AUGUST, 1783 
Ordinary rates: "hott diet," 21 cents; cold diet, 17 cents; lodging, 8 
cents; corn or oats per gallon, or pasturage one night, 8 cents; oats per 
sheaf, 6 cents; "tody made of Rum with Loaf Shugar," per quart, 25 
cents; the same with brown sugar, 17 cents; whiskey per gallon, $1.33; 
apple brandy, 83 cents; peach brandy, $1.67. 

James Bradshaw and William Lafferty to divide the tithables under 
them to work the road from the mouth of Indian to Jacob Mann's. 

JUNE, 1784 
Caesar, slave of William Hamilton, to hang after 10 days for trying 
to kill John Leval with knife and gun and robbing him of hat and gun. 

AUGUST, 1784 
Per Act of Assembty, $200 levied to cut a road from courthouse to 
Warm Springs. 


Sheriff ordered to summon all gentlemen now in the commission of 
the peace to show cause why they do not attend to execute their duties as 

Sheriff to give notice to the surveyors of Augusta, Monongalia, and 
Harrison counties to attend him in extending the line between this and 
the said counties from between Samuel and John Vance on Back Creek 
to Ohio River. 

Road surveyors appointed: 

James Williams, from ferry on New River on William Hutchinson's 
to John Thompson's on Rich Creek. 

Moses Bostick, from Soward's on Dropping Lick to Conrad's mill on 

George Hutchinson, from James Henderson's to Soward's. 

William Hutchinson, from James Henderson's to Thompson's, and 


>< n. 

2 °r 
O 3 



the tithables on Rich Creek to Thompson's and on Hans to Roger Kil- 
patrick's to work under him 

Valentine Cook, from Jacob Mann's to where road joins William Laf- 
ferty's part of same. The tithables up Indian and those up Hans to 
Boude Estill's to work under him. 


Road order from William Scarborough's mill to John Kincaid's place 
on head of Indian. 

MARCH, 1785 
Allowance to sheriff, $40; to clerk, $40; to states attorney, $53.33. 
Levy for building courthouse, $800; bounty on 69 wolf-heads, $10 each. 

JULY, 1785 

John Smith declared he weighed 69 pounds ginseng due John Brown 
of Augusta. 

MARCH, 1786 

Order for electing three overseers of the poor on third Tuesday of 
April. First district to begin from courthouse and follow up the main 
road to the head of the Levels, thence down on the road that leads from 
courthouse to Andrew Donally's. Second to begin at courthouse and 
run down the main road that leads past Colonel John Stuart's mill, then 
extending down the Greenbrier River, including all inhabitants between 
the river and the road that leads from courthouse to Donally's. Third 
district to begin at courthouse and include all the rest of county. Cap- 
tain Renick to supervise election in first district, William Feamster in 
second, John Anderson in third. 

Ordinary rates: warm diet, 41 cents; cold diet, 33 cents; lodging, 10 
cents; good cider per gallon, 67 cents; country-made beer, 10 cents; 
good "Shampaign," $4. 

61 persons presented for failing to give a list of taxable property, and 
12 for selling liquor without a license. 

Appropriation of $210.80 for running the line between Greenbrier 
and Harrison. 

MARCH, 1787 
George Clendennin, county lieutenant, gives bond in 1000 pounds as 
one of the commissioners to open a road from the Falls of the Kanawha 
to Lexington, Fafayette county (Kentucky). 


APRIL, 1787 

Thirty-nine road surveyors, appointed: 

John Kincaid's precinct; from his house to Robert Knox's. 

John McNutt's; Kincaid's to James Henderson's. 

Patrick Boyd's; George King's to James Byrnside's. 

James Murdock's; his house to Benjamin Lewis'. 

Valentine Cook's; Jacob Mann's to where said road joins William 
Lafferty's part. 

John Hutchinson's ; John Thompson's to James Henderson's. 

George Hutchinson's; Soward's to Dropping Lick. 

Moses Bostick's; Soward's to Conrad's mill. 

James Williams'; ferry on New to John Thompson's on Rich. 

Matthew Patterson's ; Conrad's mill to forks of road leading from 
John Handley's. 

Samuel Ewing's; Scarborough's mill to John Kincaid on head Indian. 

James (?) Murdock's; Patrick Boyd's to nighest fork on Wolf. 

Joseph Swope's ; from said fork to John Alderson's. 

Charles Friend's; from Mitchell's old place to John Handley's. 

James Graham's; from John Vanbibber's to Wolf. 

Thomas Wright's; Conrad's mill to forks of road between John Hand- 
ley and James Dempsey. 

John Stodghill's ; Colonel Henderson's to Timothy Sullivan's. 

John Miller's; Wallace Estill's to John Caperton's. 

William Ward qualified as sheriff. 

Sheriff to send notice to the justices of Botetourt that the road to the 
county line on the turn of the waters on Howard is complete. 

MAY, 1787 
Order for a prison not to cost over 100 pounds. 

Servant's diet, 11 cents; lodging, 8 cents. 

APRIL, 1790 

James Kannaday given 39 lashes for breaking into James Handley's 
and stealing $4. 

OCTOBER, 1792 
Joseph D. Keyser made report on opening the wounds of Jacob Price 
and Abraham Nettles, disabled Revolutionary soldiers. 

JANUARY, 1793 
Ordinary rates: sleeping in feather bed, 8 cents; in chaff bed, 5 cents. 
Tithables, 1177. Levy, $313.87. 


OCTOBER, 1793 
Sheriff allowed $20 for building a sufficient pair of stocks. 

Henry Miller allowed $5.45 for repairing courthouse. 

Tithables, 1203. Head tax, 55 cents. 

AUGUST, 1795 

Processioners of land and their districts: 

William Maddy and Robert Chambers; in Isaac Estill's company. 
John Handley and John Byrnside; in John Handley's company. 
James Graham and Thomas Alder son; in Elijah Garten's company. 
Roger Kilpatrick and James McDonald ; in John Hutchinson's com- 

James Handley and Daniel Perry; in James Ewing's company. 

Ordinary rates: warm dinner, 25 cents; warm breakfast or cold din- 
ner, 21 cents; cold breakfast, 17 cents; corn, per quart, 3 cents. 

Five men presented for breach of the peace and profane swearing; 
a white woman for having a mulatto child. 

William Scarborough given leave to emancipate a negro man on be- 
ing responsible for any illegal conduct of the said York, and the eman- 
cipation is carried out. 

The second of the two overseer of the poor districts comprises all 
within the bounds of second battalion. Polling place at John Byrnside's. 

JANUARY, 1797 
James Alexander given ordinary license. 
John Arbuckle qualifies as deputy sheriff under Samuel McClung. 

MARCH, 1797 
William Frogg fined $2.50 for insolence in court 

John Hutchinson qualifies as assessor. 
1896 tithables. Levy, $549.84. 


John Erwin given ordinary license. 

From the Petitions to General Assembly 

1780: For collecting from the tithables 20 tons of hemp to pay for 
making a road from the courthouse to Richmond. 171 signers. 

1780: Asking higher pay for the spies on the frontier, they being the 
best safeguard against the Indians. The appropriation for the purpose 
insufficient, owing to depreciated money. 

1781: Complains of heavy tax to open wagon road from Camp Union 
to Warm Springs, about 48 miles by measure A "hard measure to 
build" at our expense through other counties (Augusta and Botetourt) 
"more especially in this distressing time of war and carnage." A for- 
mer petition for road was signed unadvisedly. County frontier runs 100 
miles north and south and settlements extend 20 miles westward. Every 
year the settlers suffer more or less from the Indians, who are a peril to 
road workers. The inhabitants cannot spare crop or stock to the value 
of one-half the expense of road, estimated at 40 to 50 tons of hemp. Pe- 
tition asks repeal of law. A road directly across Greenbrier cannot be 
useful to the settlers far to either side The people have enough to 
do to supply their families with bread. Signers from north of Greenbrier 

1781: On same subject, but by people south of Greenbrier River. Road 
will cost 2000 to 3000 pounds specie. The people cannot raise crops ow- 
ing to the time spent in service. 

1782: "Whereas your petitioners have settled upon lands under the 
faith of the terms of sale proposed by the grantors, and have made large 
improvements, and there being doubts whether we could even, obtain 
titles for our land before the opening of the land office. Your petitioners 
humbly conceive from the Act of Assembly entitled, 'An Act for settling 
and adjusting the titles of claims to unpatented lands under the present 
and former government previous to the establishment of the Common- 
wealth's land office,' wherein it is enacted that all persons having settled 
upon unpatented lands, they shall either settle with the grantees or their 
agent, or lay their claims before the Court of Commissioners to be ap- 
pointed by virtue of this Act, who are to oblige the grantor or agent to 
make title to the claimants, which claimants are to pay the composition 
money in six months', or the land to revert to the grantor; which from 
the scarcity of money it is evident the lands will revert. We therefore 
pray that an act may pass to repeal that clause of the law which says 
that the land shall revert, the people giving bond and sufficient security 
for the composition money, and itnerest to be paid in six months. Signed 
by Andrew Donally and 31 others. 


1782: Mentions no result from a first petition for a road, and mentions 
a counter-petition by "prejudiced men." A road indispensable to enable 
the people, "at present excluded from almost any kind of trade," to sup- 
port their proportion of the expense of government. Soil very well 
adapted to hemp. To meet objections, it is proposed that the part of the 
road common to all the inhabitants of the county (Warm Springs to Ugly 
Creek) be cleared at the expense of the whole county; the portion to 
the savannah at the expense of the people on the north side of Green- 
brier River. 

1783: Recites compliance with the law for adjusting claims to unpaid 
lands. Expresses surprise at decree by Court of Appeals that no grant 
issue until grantor is paid $10 per 100 acres with interest. Some of the 
people when they came here were given patent by General Andrew Lewis, 
agent of Greenbrier Company in 1773, asking them to hold under the 
said company to preserve it from the claims of the officers and soldiers 
who then threatened it. Of two evils the people chose the least. No 
land office was then open, nor was there any other promising method on 
any terms. "What handle hath since been made of this patent we cannot 
tell. Nothing but the danger which threatened us could have induced us 
to take such measure." 281 signers. 

1783: Recites decree of Court of Appeals that surveys prior to 1776 
fall under grants (to Greenbrier Company, etc.) No person entitled to 
patent without paying composition money and interest from time of set- 
tlement, and land will revert unless the same is paid by December. An 
Act of 1799 declared void all grants under order of council wherein the 
terms were not complied with. The commissioners under said law 
granted us certificates, holding as void all surveys under orders of coun- 
cil not in force. Now after paying considerable sums to commissioners, 
clerks, surveyors, and sheriffs, who were sent among us unasked, we 
considered these certificates good and sufficient title. According to law 
there was no appeal from the commissioners, yet the court has set aside 
al! the commissioners did. Our all is in jeopardy. We have settled and 
improved a country which otherwise would have been a lurking place for 
savage barbarism "Quietly and tamely to leave our homes and habita- 
tions, so dearly purchased, to men who have hazarded little or nothing 
to procure them, would be acting the dastard, and is unbecoming to 
citizens who have arrived at the dignity of free, sovereign, and indepen- 
dent states." If the law is misconstrued, "for Heaven's sake let us not 
be the unhappy victims. All we ever desired or expected was barely 

1784: Andrew Donnally declares that as sheriff he could not collect 
taxes. Sales of delinquent property were proposed, but not an article 
would be sold by reason of the great scarcity of specie. Sheriffs in other 


counties could discharge one-half the taxes in commutables. He was pre- 
cluded, because of the want of a road and had to pay in specie. There 
was delinquent tax of $1000. 

1785: Declares the people unable to pay taxes due. The Indians con- 
tinued their war after the peace with England, killing people, driving 
off stock, and by keeping us in forts we could not improve our lands or 
raise enough bread. The Court of Appeals obliged us to pay for our 
lands. We are also compelled ot pay into the Treasury $2.22 per 100 
acres, besides $1.77 register's fee. Had the money thus extorted from 
us been applied to the discharge of our national debt, we would have 
parted with it cheerfully But the greater part went into the pockets of 
those who perhaps never rendered as mnay services as ourselves. The 
magistrates have for two years totally neglected to rule the sheriff to 
bail for the collection of the tax. The debt is beyond our power to pay 
in any one year. We ask that a road be opened and that we pay our 
arrears in work on the same. 

1794: Against the claims of the Greenbrier Land Company. No re- 
gard to the same in the warrants issued in the King's name to officers 
and soldiers. The company applied to the governor and council to keep 
out these officers and soldiers from locating. Governor and council rec- 
ognized their claim no farther than to prohibit from locating on such 
lands where there were legal surveys or actual settlement. Option given 
to hold under the company or under the rule for officers and soldiers. 
Believed that the Council would not have done this had it regarded the 
company's claim as valid. Because of this indulgence, the company sur- 
veyed most of the lands where your petitioners are, took fees for sur- 
veying, but made no title to us. We had to survey under the certificate 
granted by the Act of 1779, which act held the company entitled to no 
lands, but those they surveyed prior to 1763. We do not excite pity by 
reciting our hardships, but affirm the company's lack of title. 

For the road from Lewisburg to Kanawha Falls 5000 pounds was 
voted. The distance of 70 miles uninhabited. We hold that its main- 
tenance is a matter of national concern, and that it should neither go to 
decay nor be kept up exclusively by its makers. 



Under Augusta, Botetourt, and Greenbrier. 

|HiE laws of colonial Virginia were modeled after those 
of England. And since British law followed the Ro- 
man code, it held that the crown is a personification of 
the state. Therefore, by virtue of a legal fiction, all 
public lands were held to be the property of the king, and patents 
for them were made out in his name and signed by the royal gov- 
ernor as the king's deputy. The Revolution swept away this rub- 
bish and recognized the public domain as belonging to the state. 
For many years after that event, however, the governor of Virginia 
signed all land patents, just as the royal governor had been doing. 
The colonial system was in force when the settlement of Mon- 
roe began. But as the Loyal and the Greenbrier land companies 
had cornered the public domain in this county, a deed by one or an- 
other of these companies, rather than a patent by the state, was is- 
sued in some instances. 

The landseeker, armed with a warrant from the state treasury, 
perhaps the result of military service, applied to the county surveyor 
and had a tract set off. This survey was the basis on which a pat- 
ent was issued after a lapse of one or two, or perhaps more than a 
dozen years. The survey might be assigned to another man, and 
several assignments might precede the patent. There was much 
trading in land warrants, and some money was made in these trans- 

Much of the public land in Monroe was undoubtedly taken up 
by men entitled to it by service in the French and Indian war. Dur- 
ing the Revolution the county courts of Virginia were often called 
upon to certify such claims. In this county we are sometimes told 
of "corn rights," "brush rights," and "tomahawk rights," whereby 


the homeseeker inclosed a clearing with a brush fence, planted it in 
corn, and laid claim to the land because of such improvement. In 
the newer portions of the transalleghany region this informal method 
was often resorted to, and sometimes it held, although it had no 
standing in law. But where, as in the case of Monroe, a county was 
blanketed with one or more land grants by order of council, the corn 
right was scarcely more than a form of caveat, to hold until the 
surveyor came around. The tomahawk right was most likely to 
be respected if it did not call for too much land. 

Regularity in surveying was seldom observed. The first comer 
ran his lines in any fashion that would secure him a maximum of 
good land and a minimum of cull land- The strips of cull land 
would often have complex and inconvenient outlines. A blueprint 
map of a county in the Virginias is suggestive of a crazy quilt. The 
lines run by different persons would often interfere with each other. 
This utter lack of system has therefore been a fruitful source of 
confusion and consequently of land suits. 

In this chapter we give the few known surveys under Augusta 
which fall within the M'onroe limits. The Indian wars and the 
opposition to the pretensions of the Loyal and Greenbrier companies 
explain why no surveys are on record during a period of about 20 
years. Next is given a list of the surveys under Botetourt in 1774. 
These cover more than 16,000 acres of the best land, or the equiva- 
lent of a tract more than five miles square. Finally, we present a 
list of the patents under Greenbrier between 1780 and 1795. 

The name of the surveyee or patentee is followed in regular 
order by the number of acres, an abbreviated description of the lo- 
cality, the company under which the survey was taken, and the date 
of survey. The details respecting patents are given in like order. 
The spelling of the proper names that are well known is according 
to the usage of the present day. 

L stands for Loyal Company, G for Greenbrier Company, n 
for near, adj. for adjoining, hd for head of. 

Henry Baughman— 780— mouth of Wolf— G— April 22, 1751. 
Thomas Lewis — 1000 — Second Cr. at great meadows — 1751. 


Thomas Lewis — 4-00 — hd Indian — 1752 

John Madison — 750 — Greenbrier River opposite McMullen's crabtree 
bottom — 1751 

John Madison — 4-50 — Sinks — 1752 

Bailey, John— 123— Indian— L— Mar. 30 
Baughman, Henry — 287 — Indian — L — Mar. 23 
Bradshaw, William — 230 — Indian — L — Mar. 17 
Bradshaw, Hugh — 37 — Indian — L — Mar. 24 
Burns, Isaac — 300 — Second Cr. — L? — April. 2 
Burnside, James — 237 — ? — G — ? 
Caldwell, Samuel — 265 — Indian — L — Mar. 28 
Campbell, James — 280 — Indian — L — Mar. 17 
Cantley, John — 500 — Indian — L — Mar. 29 
Cook, Valentine — 650 — Indian — L — Mar. 16 
Cook, Stephen — 150 — Brush Creek of New — ? — Apr. 9 
Dickson, Patrick— 65— Wolf— G— Mar. 11 
Ellison, James — 82 — New River — L — Mar. 21 

Estill, John— 800— New River, corner Boude Estill— L— Mar. 15 
Estill, John— 125— New River— L— ? 
Estill, Boude— 363— Hans— L— ? 
Evans, John— 170— Wolf— G—M|ar. 11 
Fitzpatrick, James — 187 — Indian — L — Mar. 17 
Graham, James — 175 — Greenbrier — G — 'Mar. 8 
Gwinn, James — 270 — G — Mar. 9 
Hall, Moses— 290— G — Mar. 11 
Ham, William — 90 — Second Creek — ? — Apr. 1 
Handley, Archibald — 550— Indian — L — Mar. 28 
Handley, John — 284 — Indian — L — Mar. 29 
Henderson, James — 413 — Indian — L — Apr. 7 
Hutchinson, William — 500 — Indian — L — Apr. 8 
Jarrett, David— 270— Wolf— G — Mar. 7 
Kincaid, John — 168 — Indian — L — Mar. 28 
Kessinger, Mathias — 100 — Greenbrier River — L — Mar. 21 
Lafferty, William— 244 — Indian— L — Mar. 18 
Lafferty, Steel — 567 — Indian — L — Mar. 17 
Mayes, Joseph — 230 — Indian — L — Mar. 28 
McChesney, Samuel — 317 — Indian — L — Mar. 25 
McGuier, Cornelius — 310 — Indian — L — Mar. 24 
McGuier, William — 53 — Indian — L — Mar. 24 
McGuier, William — 58 — Indian — L — Mar. 24 
McGuier, James — 100 — forks New River — G — Mar. 21 
Meek, William— 395— Indian— L— Mar. 17 


Meek, James— 176— Little Wolf— G— Mar. 22 
Miller, James— 286— Wolf— G— Mar. 12 
Parsons, Edward — 170 — Indian — L — Mar. 29 
Patterson, John — 128 — Indian — L — Mar. 29 
Pepper, Elisha— 115— Brush Cr — ?— Apr. 9 
Raney, Michael — 120 — Indian — L — Mar. 24 
Shirley, Michael — 527 — Indian — L — Mar. 14 
Simpson, Jenny — 316 — Indian — L — Mar. 29 
Skaggs, Thomas— 270— Wolf— G — Mar. 12 
Sullivan, Timothy — 171 — Indian — ? — Apr. 1 
Swope, Joseph— 200— Wolf— G — Mar. 11 
Swope, Michael— 167— Wolf— G — Mar. 12 
Turpin, Solomon — 367 — Second Cr. — G — Apr. 1 
West, Samuel— 215— Second Cr.— G— April 1 
Wiley, John— 89— Wolf— G— Mar. 11 
Wright, James — 232 — Hans — G — Apr. 7 
Wyatt, Edward — 141 — New River — L — Mar. 19 


Alderson, John— 214— Wolf— 1787 

Alexander, James — 80 — foot Swope's Knobs — 1795 

Allen, James— 300— Turkey, adj. Samuel West— 1787 

Bickett,, Thomas — 400— Swope's Knobs and Wolf— 1787 

Black, Samuel — 300 — adj. William Blanton, John King, James Cham- 
bers— 1787 

Bland, Jesse — hd Second Cr. — adj. Peter Kinder, Moleston Pettyjohn — 

Bland, Robert Sr.— 100— hd Second— 1794 

Blanton, William — 400 — adj. Thomas Stewart, Archibald Handley — 

Boden, John— 124— Wolf, adj. Col. Samuel Lewis— 1793 

Bostick, Moses— 100— Turkey, adj. William West— 1790 

Bougher, Daniel— 200— Rich, adj. John Hutchinson— 1787 

Bowyer, Adam— 283— Second, adj. William West— 1783 

Bowyer, Adam— Second, adj. Isaac Burns, Thomas Gulley— 1784 

Bowyer, Adam — 15 — Second — 1793 

Bowyer, Adam — 143 — hd Second — 1795 

Boyd, Patrick— 679— Sinks, adj. John Wallace, Christopher Bryan— 1787 

Brown, William— 230— Bradshaw's Run— 1789 

Brown, William— 100— n. hd Second— 1793 

Byrnside, James — 1000 — Indian — 1780 

Byrnside, James — 1180 — Indian, adj. Samuel and Lewis Caldwell— 1786 

Byrnside, James— 150— Brush— 1787 

Byrnside, James — 340 — Bradshaw's Run — 1787 

Caldwell, Samuel— 353— Indian— 1794 


Callaway, Isaiah — 98 — Rich — 1793 

Cantley, John — 400 — Indian, adj. James Byrnside — 1786 

Caperton, Hugh — 200 — Indian — 1788 

Caperton, Hugh — 554 — Indian, n. Lewis Booton — 1790 

Caperton, Hugh — 400 — Indian, adj. Wallace Estill, James Meek — 1791 

Caperton, Hugh — 62 — Rich, adj. Robert Thompson, Henry Banks— 1793 

Carlisle, John — 251 — Indian, adj. Boude Estill, William Kenny— 1787 

Carlisle, John — 325 — Indian, adj. William Kenny — 1789 

Carlisle, John— 165— Indian— 1792 

Carpenter, John — 100 — hd Hans, adj. Timothy Sullivan — 1787 

Cash, James — 318 — Quaking Asp Run (Stinking Lick), adj. Henry 

Banks' 999 tract— 1795 

Chambers, Robert— 116— Wolf— 1787 
Chambers, Robert — 120 — Dropping Lick — 1793 
Chambers, Robert— 90— Wolf— 1793 

Christy, James — 296 — Indian, adj. John Handley — 1787 
Clark, Alexander — 330 — Indian — 1785 
Clark, James — 168 — Quaking Asp Run — 1793 
Conrad, George — 1000 — Second Creek gap — 1792 
Cook, Valentine — 116 — Indian — 1793 

Cooper, William — 380 — Turkey, adj. James Trotter — 1787 
Cooper, Philip — 165 — Indian, adj. Daniel Scarborough — 1793 
Cooper, Philip — 175 — Fork Survey of Indian — 1793 
Cornwell, Edmund — 100 — Second, adj. Thomas Lewis — 1783 
Cornwell, Edmund— 100— Second— 1787 

Cornwell, Edmund — 500 — adj. Daniel McMullen, Samuel Ewing — 1787 
Cornwell, Edmund— 375— Second— 1787 
Cornwell, Edmund — 245 — Samuel Black's Run, adj. Yates and Dempsey 


Cornwell, Edmund — 472 — Second, adj. Robert Reed — 1795 

Cornwell, Edmund — 300 — Big Devil Cr. at Cornwell's meadows — 1795 

Crawford, Samuel — 317 — Swope's Knobs — 1787 

Creed, Matthew — 170 — mouth Hans — 1791 

Curry, John— 100 foot Swope Knobs and on Wolf— 1787 

Curry, Robert— 280— Second, adj. Robert Knox— 1791 

Dempsey, James — 295 — Second, adj. Edmund Cornwell — 1787 

Dick, David— 112— Indian— 1793 

Dickson, John— 116— Kelly's C4.— 1787 

Dickson, Patrick— 200— Wolf, adj. John Swope— 1787 

Dickson, Richard — Second — 1787 

Doran, Jacob— 445— Wolf— 1787 

Edgar, Thomas — 400— Rich, adj. John Wood— 1785 

Edgar, Thomas— 270— Rich, adj. Robert Thompson— 1785 

Elcan, Marcus, Henry Willey, David Nisbitt — 2530 — Brush, adj. Francis 

Keatley, Andrew Wilson — 1787 


Ellis, Owen— 290— Wolf— 1794 

Ellison, James, Sr. — 511 — Hans, n. John Estill— 1790 

Ellison, James— 600— Indian— 1792 

Ellison, Eli — 270 — Second, adj. James Knox — 1791 

Ellison, Asa — 62 — Fitzpatrick's Run of Indian — 1792 

Estill, Boude — 383 — adj. John Carlisle, Joseph Ray — 1786 

Estill, Wallace— 220— hd Dropping Lick, adj. John Miller— 1786 

Estill, Wallace — 280 — Indian, adj. Lewis Booton — 1786 

Estill, Zachariah— 154 — Hans— 1794 

Estill, Boude as heir of John — 400 — Hans, adj. William Young — 1794 

Evans, Major — 200 — Laurel of Indian, adj. Timothy Sullivan — 1788 

Ewing, Samuel — 350 — Indian, adj. William Shanks, Alexander Clark — 


Ewing, James, Sr. and Francis McNutt — 380 — Indian — 1787 

Ewing, William and Joseph — 170 — east side Swope's Knobs — 1795 

Farley, Francis — 80 — New, about 3 miles below mouth Indian — 1786 

Farley, Matthew — 157 — East side New, adj. William Lafferty — 1786 

Fitzpatrick, James — 187 — Indian — 1785 

Fleathers, Edward — 155 — adj. Patrick Keenan, James Parsons — 1787 

Friend, Charles— 100— Turkey— 1787 

Friend, Charles — 160 — Turkey, adj. Samuel Lewis, Nimrod Tackett — 1792 

Garten, William — 39 — Swope's Knobs, adj. homestead — 1793 

Garten, William — 150 — Lick Run of Hans — 1793 

Garten, Griffith — 226 — top Swope's Knobs and branch of Laurel — 1795 

Garten, Nathaniel — 74 — south of Swope's Knobs — 1795 

Gillett (Gullett?), W— 200— Second Creek, adj. Matthew Green, Thomas 

Kincaid— 1787 

Given, James — 400 — Little Wolf, adj. James Dickson — 1787 

Gold, Priscilla— 200— Hans— 1794 

Gromer, Frederick — 218 — Second, adj. Joseph Curry's survev — 1793 

Gullett, William— 460— Sinks, adj. William Craig— 1787 

Hall, Moses— 150— hd Wolf, adj. John Hall— 1787 

Hall, John— 314— hd Wolf— 1787 

Halstead, John — 96 — Quaking Asp Run — 1793 

Hamilton, Andrew — 400 — adj. John O'Neal, Christopher Bryan — 1787 

Handley, John — 150 — Turkey, adj. John Cantley — 1787 

Handley, John — 366 — Indian — 1787 

Handley, John— 300— Indian— 1787 

Hanna, Nicholas— 1050— Brushy of Second Cr. 8 miles from Sweet Springs 


Harriman, S— 542— Indian — 1787 

llaynes, William — 200 — Second, adj. Littleton West — 1793 
Henderson, James — 380 — Dropping Lick — 1785 
Henderson, James — 220 — Dropping Lick — 1786 


Henderson, James — 100 — Rich, adj. Adam Clendennin, John Thompson 


Henderson, James — 116 — Turkey, adj. James Trotter — 1787 

Henderson, James — 350 — Turkey, adj. John Bailey — 1787 

Higgenbotham, Joseph — 220 — Big Devil and Little Devil — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 500 — Second, adj. Thomas Lewis — 1786 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 4-00 — Big Devil and Little Devil — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 194 — Second and Laurel — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 228 — Big Devil — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 236 — Big Devil — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 192 — Laurel — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 330 — Second — 1793 

Higgenbotham, Moses — 4-00 — Second — 1793 

Hillman, Thomas — 143 — Bradshaw's Run — 1794 

Hinchman, William — 175 — Wolf, adj. James Gwinn — 1794 

Hogshead, John — 400 — Second, adj. John Reaburn — 1785 

Holsapple, Philip — 600 — Carpenter's Run — 1793 

Hozack, Alexander — 400 — Second, adj. Edmund Cornwell, etc. — 1786 

Hutchinson, Alexander — 400 — Elk Lick of Hans — 1791 

Hutchinson, Alexander — 190 — Valley Spring, between Little and Peters 

Hutchinson, John — 400 — Brush — 1788 
Hutchinson, John— 50— Brush— 1792 
Hutchinson, William— 890— Hans, adj. his 500—1788 
Johnson, David— 349— Second — 1787 
Johnson, Barnabas — 150 — Wolf, adj. Moses Hall — 1787 
Jones, John — 1000 — hd Turkey, adj. William Shannon, James Allen — 1793 
Keatley, Francis — 300— Brush— 1787 

Keenan, Edward — 316 — adj. Thomas Stewart, James Byrnside — 1793 
Keenan, Patrick — 316 — Indian, adj. Daniel McMillion — 1786 
Kincaid, Thomas — 120 — Turkey, adj. William Poage, etc. — 1784 
Kincaid, Thomas — 88 — adj. Matthew McGIamery — 1788 
Kinder, Peter— 194 — hd Second, adj. Robert Bland— 1787 
Kinder, Peter — 50 — Second, adj. Joshua West — 1795 
Knox, Robert — 300 — Second, adj. Archibald McDowell — 1793 
Lacey, Mlark— 357— Rich— 1788 

Larkin, James — 100 — hd Plank Cabin Draft, adj. John Reaburn — 1795 
Lafferty, William — 200 — mouth Indian — 1788 
Lafferty, William— 145— Little Wolf— 1789 
Lafferty, William — 244 — New and Indian — 1789 

Lafferty, William — 103 — New and Indian, adj. Matthew Farley — 1793 
Lewis, Andrew — 1200 — Sinks above hd Indian — 1780 
Lewis, Andrew — 400 — hd Indian and Greenbrier waters — 1780 


Lively, Cottrell — 292 — Brush, adj. John Blankenship on Butchers' Run 


Long, Francis— 397 — Scott's Run, adj. Martha Gatliff— 1787 

Longanacre, Jacob — +80 — Second, adj. Ann Morehead's survey — 1791. 

Loudeback, Jacob— 150— Second, adj. Thomas Gully (Gullett?)— 1787 

Lowe, Nehemiah— 74 — Indian— 1793 

Lowe, Toddoch — 220 — Swope's Knobs n. John Kincaid — 1788 

Maddy, William — 385— Indian, adj. Joseph Mayes— 1786 

Maddy, William— 321— Indian— 1786 

Maddy, William— 421— Laurel of Indian— 1791 

Maddy, William— 58— Indian— 1793 

Mann, Adam— 300— Indian, adj. Wallace Estill— 1788 

Mann, Adam— 51— Indian— 1791 

Mann, Jacob Jr.— 100— Indian, foot Wolf Cr. Mtn— 1788 

Mann, Jacob Jr. — 300 — Indian, adj. Jacob Mann, Sr. — 1788 

Mann, Jacob— 80— Indian, adj. Robert Ritchie— 1788 

McClure, John— 1516— hd Dropping Lick— 1793 

McDonald, James — 133 — Brush, n. James Williams — 1787 

McDowell, Archibald— 380— Second, adj. Robert Knox— 1791 

McGlamery, Mathias — 300 — hd Dropping Lick, adj. William Shannon 


McGlamery, Mathias — 75 — Dropping Lick — 1787 

McGlamery, Mathias — 200 — Dropping Lick, adj. Isaac Soward, Sr. — 


McMullen, James — 133 — Second, adj. Aaron Turpin — 1785 

McNutt, James — 250— Indian— 1787 

McNutt, Francis — 250 — Indian, adj. Samuel Ewing — 1785 

Meadows, Isreal — 190 — Turkey, adj. Charles Friend, John Tackett — 1787 

Miller, Jacob — 400 — Rich, adj. John Hutchinson — 1784 

Miller, Jacob — 184 — Rich, Dry Fork, adj. John Hutchinson — 1784 

Miller, Jacob — 200 — Rich, adj. William Henderson, including part of 

William English survey — 1787 
Miller, Jacob— 150— Rich— 1792 
Miller, Jacob — 140 — between Peters and Little, hd Pointer Run of Rich 


Miller, Joseph — 150 — adj. John Walter, Brice Miller — 1785 

Miller, James— 95— north side Wolf Cr. Mtn at Rich Birch— 1786 

Miller, James^78— Wolf— 1787 

Miller, James — 337 — Indian, adj. Paul Long — 1787 

Miller, James — 105 — Indian Draft — ? 

Miller, James — 10 — Indian — 1790 

Miller, James Jr. — 297 — Wolf, adj. James Miller, Sr.— 1785 

Miller, John — 97 — Indian, adj. Edward Keenan — 1786 

Miller, John— 397— Indian, adj. Wallace Estill— 1788 


Miller, John— 193— Indian— 1793 

Miller, West — 142 — Indian, adj. John Miller— 1791 

Murdock, David — 200 — adj. James Thompson, Richard Humphreys, etc. 


Murdock, James — 355 — Lickholes, adj. James Scott — 1787 

Nickell, Thomas — 500 — Second, adj. Frederick Cromer — 1788 

Nickell, Robert — 200 — Sinks, adj. Thomas Charlton, Henry Douglas — 


Pendouse (?), Michael— SOS— Second— 1794 

Peters, Christian— 385— Rich— 1793 

Pollard, Benjamin — 1390 — hd Bradshaw's Run and Little Wolf — 1787 

Pollard, Benjamin — 1125 — Johnnycake Fork of Bradshaw's Run — 1787 

Pollard, Benjamin — 2500 — William Bradshaw's on Bradshaw's Run — 1788 

Rawlings, Robert — 1036 — hd Brushy of Second, on road to Lewisburg, 8 

miles from Sweet Springs — 1787 

Reaburn, John — 4-00— Second 1787 

Reaburn, John — 100 — Indian, adj, Thomas Stewart — 1787 

Reaburn, John— 145— Plank Cabin Draft— 1794 

Reed, Benjamin — 200 — Second, adj. Edmund Cornwell, etc. — 1786 

Rice, William— 78— Dropping Lick— 1793 

Ritchie, Robert — 320 — Indian, adj. Valentine Cook — 1786 

Robinson, William — 190 — Indian, adj. William Mann (deceased) etc. — 


Robinson, John — 235 — Indian, adj. James and John McNutt — 1784 

Ruth, Joseph— 172— Turkey— 1787 

Ruth, Joseph — 70 — hd Turkey, adj. land bought of Thomas Soward — 1788 

Sawyers, John — 200 — Indian — 1789 

Sawyers, Joseph — 225— Indian — 1792 

Scarborough, William— 300— Turkey, adj. John Kelly— 1786 

Scarborough, William — 300 — Turkey, adj. James Scarborough — 1787 

Scarborough, David — 140 — Indian, adj. Philip Cooper — 1786 

Scarborough, James — 149 — Turkey, adj. John Handley — 1787 

Shanks, William — +00 — Indian, adj. James Burnside, James Ewing — 1787 

Shannon, William — 395 — Turkey, adj. James Allen — 1787 

Shumate, Daniel — 300 — mouth of Rich, adj. James Williams — 1787 

Skaggs, John— 668— Wolf, adj. John Hall— 1795 

Soward, Isaac, Sr. — 159 — Dropping Lick — 1787 

Soward, Thomas — 137 — branch of Dropping Lick, 2 miles below Mathias 

McGlamery's — 1787 

Soward, Thomas— 360— hd Rich— 1793 
Stiff, John — 75 — adj. John Gray, John King, etc. — 1786 
Stodghill, John — 4-00 — Hans, adj. William Hutchinson — 1787 
Stokely, Jacob — 192 — Butcher's Run of Brush — 1793 
Sullivan, Timothy— 373— hd Hans— 1789 


Sullivan, Timothy— 150— Laurel— 1790 

Swope, Joseph — 600 — Wolf, adj. Robert Johnson — 1786 

Swope, Joseph — 120 — Wolf, adj. David Jarrett — 1792 

Swope, Joseph— 400— Wolf— 1793 

Swope, Adam— 350, 260, and 238 on Laurel of Wolf— 1793 

Swope, Adam— 780— Laurel of Wolf— 1793 

Swope, John— 371— hd Wolf, adj. James Miller— 1787 

Swope, Michael— 445— hd Hans— 1787 

Swope, Michael — 65 — Hans, adj. John Stoghill — 1787 

Tackett, Nimrod— 275— Turkey— 1787 

Tate, David — 90 — Second, on road to Swope — 1789 

Thompson, Robert — 200 — Rich, between John Wood and John Thompson 


Thompson, Robert — 384 — Sinks, adj. John Madison, James Jones — 1787 
Thompson, Robert — 340 — Rich, including place widow Woods once lived 

on— 1787 

Thompson, Robert — 225 — adj. Robert Nickell and Solomon White survey 


Thompson, James — 200 — adj. William Davidson, James Warren — 1787 

Thompson, James — 215 — adj. Robert Thompson — 1787 

Thompson, James — 100 — Rich, adj. homestead — 1795 

Trotter, James — 300 — Turkey, adj. James Simpson — 1786 

Turpin, Solomon — 400 — hd Second, adj. David Johnson — 1787 

Wallace, John— 190— adj. Patrick Boyd, etc.— 1785 

Walton, John — 400— Indian— 1795 

Wiley, John— 377 — on the Knobs— 1787 

Wiley, John — 400 — Swope's Knobs, adj. hd Wolf and Laurel — 1787. 

Willis, Henry — Rich, adj. homestead — 1789 

Wilson, Andrew — 200 — Brush, adj. John Hutchinson — 1787 

Wright, Thomas — 385 — Indian, adj. Samuel Ewing — 1787 

Wyatt, Thomas— 260— Little Wolf, adj. William Lafferty— 1793 

Yates, Ralph and James Dempsey — 180 — Second — 1793 

Young, William — 100 — adj. Patrick Keenan and Edmund Cornwell — 1787 



Mostly Under Greenbrier. 

N this chapter are lists of some of the earlier land con- 
veyances that concern Old Monroe. It is not to be 
understood that in every instance the tract is actually 
inside the limits of the old county. The descriptions are 
sometimes too vague to determine this point without special knowledge. 

In describing each conveyance, there are given first the name of the 
grantee and next the name of the grantor. If either party is known 
to be of another state, or of another county of the Virginias, such fact 
is mentioned. The Christian name of a wife is given in brackets. 

Next, provided the particulars are known, there are given, (1) 
the number of acres; (2) the price; (3) the locality where the land 
lies; (4) date of survey and for whom surveyed; (5) date of patent 
and for whom patented; (6) date of deed. A c following a date 
means the approximate year. 

In many instances only a nominal consideration is named in the 
deed- This is usually five shillings, — written 5s, — the value of which 
is 83 cents. When the consideration is expressed in pounds, the let- 
ter p is written after the number of pounds. To reduce Virginia 
pounds to dollars, annex one cipher and divide by three. For in- 
stance, the sum of 3 pounds is equal to $10. 

We sometimes hear of a parcel of land being traded for a pair of 
boots or a pair of buckskin breeches. But ready money was not al- 
ways at command, and the article was a consideration to hold the 
deed. It is not to be supposed that the buckskin breeches would ac- 
tually pay for the land. 

An index of grantor names is given at the end of the chapter. 
Grantee names are given in alphabetical order in the list of deeds. 

P means patent. Other abbreviations as in Chapter IX. 


Abbott, John — of Francis Keatley — N. side New, adj. Matt Farley — 1810 

Abell, Jeremiah — of Edward (Nancy) Keenan — 203 — 5s — S. side Green- 
brier, adj. Thomas Stewart's heirs — 1792 

Adair, John — of Henry (Martha) McCart — Ss — Indian, adj. Matthew 
Patterson and Thomas Stewart — 1796 

Alexander, James — of Samuel Lewis — 386 — 5s — hd Indian — 1792 

Alexander, James — of Nimrod (Ann) Tackett — Indian, adj. John Byrn- 
side and John Swope — 1810 

Alexander, James — of Moses (Hannah) Hall — 150 — lOOp — hd Wolf, adj. 
James Hall and Barnabas Johnson — 1796 

Alford, Thomas — of Joseph (Margaret) Skaggs — Wolf — part of survey 
of 668 acres, 1787 — P. to John Skaggs, 1795 — conveyed to Joseph Skaggs, 

Allen, Samuel — of William (Elizabeth) Maddy — 4 acres of 365 — 5s — 
Indian Draft— 1795 

Allen, Samuel — of James (Margaret) Miller — 85 of 105 — 5s — Indian 
Draft — on road from Valentine Cook to hd Wolf — 1796 

Anderson, John — of John and Charles Rodgers — 450 — 200p — adj. James 
Johnston and James Humphreys — 1795 

Anderson, James — of Levin (Jenny) Benson — ? — 320p — adj. James Kenny 

Arnot, John — of Aaron Turpin — 115 — 5s — Second Creek — 1792 

Arnot, John — of Michael (Caterina) Penturff — 74 of 308 — 5s — Second — 

Askin, Michael — of Samuel Lewis — 516 — 2s — Indian — 1792 

Barrett, Edward — of James Byrnside, Sr. — 380 — 5s — Wm Shanks a neigh- 
bor— 1787 

Barry, James of Baltimore, Md.— of Robert Patton— 3215— $3215— 1798 

Beamer, Philip — of James Larkin — 100 — 5s — adj. John Reaburn — 1796 

Benson, Levin — of Joseph (Jenny) McClintock — 160 — $5.83 — n. Charles 
Lewis (deceased) — 1788 

Benson, Babel — of Boude Estill — 200 — 5s — Hans, adj. John Carlile, Rob- 
ert Young— 1792 

Benson, Erwin — of William (Sarah) Shanks — 100 — 200p — Indian, adj. 
Bradley Meridy (Meredith)— 1797 

Bickett, John and Michael — of Garrett (Elizabeth) Green — 103 — 5s — 
Sinks, adj. George and William King — 1797 

Black, James — of Joseph (Agnes) Dickson — 104 — 5:s : — Howard — 1789 

Blanton, William — of Matthew (Catharine) Gwinn — 350 — 5s — Sinks of 
Second Cr.— 1795 

Boggs, Francis — of Archibald (Elizabeth) Hutchinson of Kanawha — 
Hans — P. by William Hutchinson — 1806 

Booton, Lewis — of Stephen Conrad of Rockingham — 400 — 150p — Indian, 
where William Meek formerly lived — 1788 


Booton, Wiilliam— of Joseph (Elizabeth) Sawyers — 95 — 5:s — Indian, adj. 
Nicholas Null— 1791 

Bowyer, Adam, Jr. — of John (Magdalena) Wolf — 90 — 46p — Potts, adj. 
Michael Arrett— 1798 

Boyd, Patrick and Darrel Fear — of Davis (Susanna) Jarrett — 220 — 
$783.33— adj. Owen Ellis, Joseph Swope— 1796 

Brown, George — of Hugh (Margaret) Alexander — 196 of 300 — Ss — O. 
by Richard Mathers — 1795 

Buckland, Thomas — of Solomon (Sophia) Soward — divide between Hans 
and Indian, adj. John Rorebaugh, Bruton Smith, Matthew Creed — 1809 

Burdette, Willis — of Joseph (Catharine) Swope — Wolf — survey, 1788 — 

Burns, Thomas — of Matthew (Anne) Lynn — 100 of 295 — 5s — survey by 
James Dempsey, Second Cr. — 1797 

Byrnside, James — of James Ewing — 1000 — 50p— Wolf — Alexander grant 

Byrnside, James — of John (Priscilla) Miller — 4-50 — 5s — adj. William Gul- 
lett — survey by John Madison, 1752 — 1792 — (Miller married the wife of 
Richard Madison of Botetourt) 

Byrnside, James, Jr. — of James Byrnside, Sr. — 610 of 1180 — 5s — Indian — 

Byrnside, James, Jr. — of James (Isabella) Byrnside, Sr. — 4-50 of 750 
— 5s — survey, 1751, by John Madison — 1793 

Byrnside, James Jr. — James (Isabella) Byrnside Sr. — 1000 — 5s — Wolf — 
McClenahan land— 1793 

Byrnside, John — of James (Isabella) Byrnside, Sr. — 610 of 1180 — 5s — 
Indian— 1788 

Byrnside, John — of James (Anne) Byrnside, Jr. — 190 — 5s — Sinks, adj. 
Barnabas Johnston, James Alexander (formerly Samuel Caldwell's land) 

Byrnside, John — of James (Isabella) Alexander — 190 of 1180 — 5s — given 
Alexander by deed of mortgage and foreclosed — 1793 

Cabell, John of Amherst — of Sarah, relict James Henderson — 350 plus 
190 — Turkey — land Shannon now lives on — 1795 

Campbell, John — of Israel (Barbara) Meadows — 186 of 190 — 5s — Tur- 
key, adj. John Tackett, Charles Friend, Samuel Lewis, James Henderson, 
John White— 1792 

Campbell, John — of Andrew (Margaret) Young — 95 — 5s — Turkey — 1796 

Campbell, John — of William (Rebecca) Elliott of Woodford county, Ky. 
—187— $1250— adj. Christopher Walkup— 1798 

Campbell, William — of Philip Cooper — 100 of 165 — 5s — Indian, adj. Da- 
vid Scarborough — 1794 

Campbell, Samuel — of James (Jemima) Kilpatrick — Indian — 1807 


Campbell, Robert — of Uriah (Elizabeth) Warren — Back and Big Devil 
— Higgenbotham land — 1809 

Campbell, Robert— of Henry (Elizabeth) Winkleblack— 50— $140— Sinks 

Cate, John — of James Byrnside of Montgomery county — 340 — lOOp — 
Bradshaw's Run — 1796 

Chambers, Robert — of W. H. Cavandish, executor James Henderson — 100 
of 220— 5s— Dropping Lick— 1793 

Chambers, Robert— of Andrew Shower (?)— 56 of 297— 5s— Wolf— 1796 

Chapman, Henley of Giles county — of William Brown (deceased) per 
John Brown — east of Swope's Knobs — 1808 

Clark, Samuel — of John (Anna) Kincaid — 90 of 1000 — 5s — James Byrn- 
side survey, 1774 — adj. John Cantly — 1794 

Clark, Samuel — of John (Mary) Handley Sr. — 35 — 5s — Fork Survey Run 
of Indian— 1796 

Clay, Nicholas of Lincoln county, N. C. — of Martin (Catrina) Grider 
—180 of 385— 5s— William Maddy survey— 1793 

Clemm, Joseph of William— of C. Wiseman— 2000— 5s— 1793 

Cochran, Dennis — of James Byrnside of Montgomery — 150 — $500 — Brush 

Cook, Daniel — of David (Barbara) Garvin — Slaty Run of Hans — 1806 

Cornwell, John — of David (Margaret) Murdock — 200 — 5s — adj. Richard 
Humphreys — 1788 

Cornwell, John — of John (Polly) Curry — 100 — 5s — Swope's Knobs and 
Wolf— 1796 

Counts, Henry — of Barnabas (Jane) Johnson — 223 of 353 — 5s — sold to 
Johnson by Samuel Caldwell — Indian, adj. James Byrnside — 1794. 

Counts, Henry — of Barnabas (Jane) Johnson — 130 of 353 — 5s — Indian 

Crawford, Robert — of Joseph Conrad — 1000 — 800p — Second Creek Gap, 
adj. Solomon Turpin (deceased) — 1794 

Crawford, Robert of Botetourt — of John (Anna) Kincaid — 100 — 5s — hd 
Indian— 1794 

Crosier, Andrew of Botetourt — of Luke (Elender) Matheny — 77 — 5s — 
Turkey— 1797 

Ewing, Samuel — of Andrew Lewis of Montgomery — 400 — 50p — hd Indian 
—(survey, 1752— P. 1780—1798 

Crutchfield, Robert of Monroe — of Benjamin (Sarah) Burns of Ky. by 
John Smith — 50 — lip — Potts — P by Benjamin Meazings, 1796 — 1803 

Crosier, William — of Thomas (Margaret) Steele — 100 — $363— hd Sec- 
ond — survey by Robert Bland Sr. (deceased), 1786 — 1809 

Cummins, Robert — of Curtis (Esther) Ballard of Franklin county, O. — 
Hans— survey, 1796—1810 


Curry, John — of Andrew Showers, assignee James Miller — 130 of 297 — 
5s— hd Wolf— 1796 

Dew, Samuel — of William (Mary) Scott — Potts — 1789 

Dikes, James — of James (Ellen) Gregory — 51 — 5s — adj. Henry Holsapple 

Douglas, Henry — of Sampson (Polly) Mathews — 176 — $5 — Reaburns Mtn 

Dubois, John — of Conrad (Jean) Dubois — Wolf, adj. John Curry, Joseph 
Parker, Jacob Wickline, David Graham, John Dubois — 1809 

Dubois, Conrad — of Robert Gwinn — 1810 

Dunbar, Robert — of Owen (Isabella) Neel and William (Mary) Neel 
—Second — 1800c 

Dunbar, Matthew — of William (Jean) Gullet — 4-60 — 150p — Well survey 
adj. William Craig, John Wallace — 1793 

Dunn, John— of Thomas (Ann) Edgar— 270— lOOp— Rich— 1793 

Early, Samuel of Augusta — of Gibson (Molly) Legg — 1808 

Ellis, Jacob— of Owen (Christina) Ellis, Sr.— Wolf— 1812 

Ellison, John — of Isaac Haynes — 80 of 511 — 50p — Hanis — 1794 

Ellison, James — of John (Isabella) Cail — 6162? — 5s — Bradshaw's Run — 
includes George Kager's improvement — 1798 

Ewing, Samuel— of Robert Crawford— 100 of 390— lOOp— hd Indian— 
Kincaid land — trust deed — 1795 

Ewing, James — of Abraham Henderson per William Blanton — 50 — $1 — 
Sinks, adj. Blanton and Robert Wylie — 1798 

Farley, Matt — of Nathan (Sarah) Robinett of Madison Co. "Caintucky" 
— 131— lOOp— New— 1798 

Fife, Thomas of Botetourt — of Aaron (Jean) Turpin — 42 — 5s — Second 

Fisher, Isaac — of Daniel (Chloe) Shepherd — 147 of 170 — 5s — Indian — 
Indian Draft, adj. Samuel Dubois — 1797 

Fisher, Isaac — of Susanna, widow Valentine Cook — 50 of 1050 — 5s — In- 
dian— 1798 

Fisk, John — of Alexander Lewis — 48 — one pair boots — Dunlap, adj. Wil- 
liam Lewis, Jr. and John Lewis — 1797 

Fitzpatrick, James — of John (Susanna) Carlisle — 165 of 325 — 5s — 1798 

Fletcher, William — of George (Mary) Wikle and Philip (Ann) Wikle 
— Indian — deeded by Michael and Mathias Kessinger to George Wikle, 
1803 and 1804 — 1809 

Foster, John— of Patrick (Anne) Boyd— 116— 5s— 1789 

Foster, Nathaniel — of Isaac Foster (father) — 209 plus farm animals and 
household furniture — deed of gift — $1 — top Swope's Knobs — 1797 

Francis, William of Augusta — of Abraham Hanna — 150 — $100 — Swope's 
Knobs— 1798 

Friend, Charles— of John (Jean) Campbell— 8 of 95 — 5s — 1795 


Gabbert, George — of George (Elizabeth) Eagle and George (Mary) 

Hanger— 200— lOOp— Second' P, 1787, William Gullett— 1797 
Galahan, Edward— of James (Sidney) McNutt— 55— 5s— 1798 
Gallaway, John — of Solomon (Mary) Turpin — 90 of 400 — 5s — hd Sec- 
ond, adj. David Johnson and Martin Turpin — 1789 

Garrard, David — of Joseph (Charlotte) Pierson — 95 — $1 — Kelly's Cr. — 

n. James Gwinn, Conrad Keller, Richard Skaggs — 1798 

George, Thomas — of James (Jane) Ritchie — 155 of 400 — 5s — 1796 
Gillespie, Simon — of Field (Sarah) Jarvis — 144 — Potts — 1795 
Glenn, James — of Henry (Nancy) Douglas — 44 — 25p — Second — 1797 
Graham, William — of Richard (Susanna) Skaggs — 153 — $1 — Kelly's Cr. 

adj. John Milstead (deceased) and including John Stephens' survey of 


Gray, John — of James (Rebecca) Thompson — 215 — 5s — adj. Robert 

Thompson, John Madison, David Murdock — 1788 

Gray, John— of Henry (Margaret) Reaburn— 146— 5s— P of 100, 1785 

and P of 46, 1793—1797 

Gray, Richard — of Matthew Dunbar — 36 — $285.48 — Well survey, adj. 

John Wallace— 1795 

Green, Jesse — of John (Rosanna) Carlisle— 210 of 325— $1— Indian— 1798 
Grider, Martin — of William (Elizabeth) Maddy — 185 — 5s — Indian, adj. 

Joseph Mayes — 1791 

Griffith, Abel — of Catharine Doran and Robert Chambers, executors Ja- 
cob Doran deceased — 200 of 445 — 1796 

Griffith, Evan — of Barnabas (Jane) Johnson — 150 — 5s — Wolf, adj. Moses 

Hall, Joseph Swope — 1794 

Griffith, Patterson— of Thomas (Mary) Johnson— 21— 5s— Turkey— 1798 
Gwinn, Samuel — of John (Elizabeth) Osborne — 244 — 5s — Lick Cr. of 

New— 1799 

Hall, John— of Philip (Elizabeth) Cooper— 85 of 370— 5s— 1798 
Halstead, James — of Joseph (Elizabeth) Sawyers — 74 — -5s — Indian — 1791 
Handley, John, Jr. — of John (Mary) Handley, Sr. — 150 — 5s — Turkey, 

adj. John Cantley — 1796 

Handley, Archibald — of Andrew (Elizabeth) Crosier — Luke Matheny 

land — Turkey, adj. widow Kincaid, Isaac Kilburn, James Christy — 1809 
Handley, Archibald — of Mary, widow Thomas Kincaid — P, 1784 — 1815 
Hank, William of Rockingham — of William (Martha) Cooper — 267 — 5s 

— Turkey, adj. James Trotter — 1789 

Hargo, Elijah — of Michael (Mary) Swope — hd Hans and Rich — 1810 
Harper, John — of James (Mary) Fleming of Madison county, Ky — 225 

of 236 (10 taken off for James Wilse)— Plank Cabin Draft— 5s— 1797 
Harrison, Reuben of Rockingham — of Moses (Mary) Higgenbotham — 500 

"achers" — 5s — Second — 1792 


Harvey, Nicholas — of Thomas (Ann) Edgar — 4-00 — 5s — Rich, adj. land 
formerly John Woods' — 1792 

Harvey, Benjamin and John Mann — of Lively McGee — Peters Mtn — 1810 

Hawkins, John (Elizabeth) — of Robert (Mary) Carlisle — adj. John Gray, 
William Black— P, 1787, Robert (Agnes) Thompson— 1809 

Haynes, William — of Martin (Agnes) Turpin— 147 of 400 — hd Second — 
5s— 1797 

Haynes, William — of David (Sarah) Johnson of Botetourt — 349 — 5s — 

Haynes, Joseph, Sr. — of Miles (Mary) Foster — Kelly's Cr. — bought 1807 

Hefner, Henry — of Peter (Sarah) Gabbert — Wolf — formerly Barnabas 
Johnson's— 1809 

Henderson, Abraham — of William (Tissy) Blanton — 100 of 400 — 5s — 
adj. James Black — 1791 

Henderson, James of Israel (Barbara) Meadows — 4 of 190 — 5s — Tur- 
key— 1792 

Henderson, James — of George (Sarah) Sparr — n. Second Creek Gap, 
adj. David Henderson, William Haynes, John Arnot — 1808 

Henderson, David of Augusta — of John (Agatha) Stuart of Augusta — 
1000 — Second Creek Gap, adj. Solomon Turpin (deceased), David John- 
ston, Thomas Smith, James Dempsey — 1808 

Henderson, Sarah, heir of James — of William (Catharine) Shannon — 
195 of 395— 5s— hd Turkey— 1794 

Hines, Charles — of Abel (Magdalena) Griffith and Jacob Doran — 100 of 
445— 5s— Wolf— 1796 

Hines, Charles — of John (Dorkys) Dixon — 29 of 116 — 5s — Kelly's Cr. 

Hinton, Thomas — of William Maddy and wife — 145 — 5s — $1 — Indian 
Creek and Indian Draft — 1795 

Hogshead, Charles and John — of James Hogshead — 400 — $1 — Second, 
adj. Reaburn — 1799 

Honaker, Frederick — of Edward (Nancy) Keenan — 243 — 5s — 1798 

Humphreys, James — of Robert Ellison of Bourbon county, Ky — 270 — 
SOp — Second, n. James Knox — 1793 

Humphreys, Richard — of James (Jane) Kitchen — 150 of 400 — 5s — 1796 

Hutchinson, Archibald — of William Hutchinson — 340 of 890 — lOOp — 
Hans— 1793 

Hutchinson, John — of Jacob (Margaret) Miller — 117 of 184 — lOOp — hd 
Rich— 1793 

Hutchinson, Samuel — of William Hutchinson — 200 of 890 — lOOp — 1793 

Irons, Thomas — of Joseph (Janet) Parker — P, 1800 — 1809 

Johnson, Robert — of Jacob (Catharine) Doran — 245 — 200p — Wolf, adj. 
William Maddy— 1789 


Johnson, Robert — of Jacob (Catharine) Doran — 300 of 445 — one-half the 
annual increase during life and one-third to widow if she outlives Jacob and 
lives with Robert (son-in-law) — Wolf — 1786 

Johnson, Robert — of Abel (Magdalen) Griffith of Augusta — 100 of 445 
—5s— 1796 

Johnson, Barnabas — of Samuel (Anna) Caldwell — 353 — 5s — Indian, adj. 
John Kincaid and James Byrnside — 1789 

Johnson, Barnabas — of Michael (Cateria) Penturff — 234 of 308 — 5s — Sec- 
ond Cr. where Penturff used to live — 1795 

Johnson, Barnabas — of Peter (Levinah) Kinder — 194 plus 50 — 5s — hd 
Second— 1794 

Johnston, Thomas — of William (Mahala) Scarborough — 300 — 400p — adj. 
James Scarborough — 1797 

Johnston Thomas — of John (Ann) Kincaid— 195— $1000— Indian— 1797 

Keenan, Edward — of Patrick (Grizal) Keenan — 315 — 5s — 1795 

Keenan, Edward — of Edward (Clara) Fleather— 152— 5s— 1797 

Keller (Hellor), Coonrod— of John (Chloe) Vanbibber— 345— 400p— 
Greenbrier, adj. Samuel and James Gwinn, John Milstead, John See — 1792 

Kelly, Henry, late of Augusta — of Joseph (Mary) Higgenbotham — Devil 
—survey, 1796—1805 

Kepler, Lewis — of Henry (Elizabeth) McKinster, assignee Robert Craw- 
ford— 317— 5s— Swop e's 1 Knobs^l796 

Kerr, John — of James (Elizabeth) Murdock — 135 — 5s — adj. James Scott 

Keys, Humphrey of Botetourt — of Samuel Lewis — 182 of 1200 — 5s — Sinks 
and Swope's Knobs — 1797 

Kilburn, Amos — of Charles (Martha) Neal — Turkey — 1811 

Kilburn, Isaac — of Philip (Elizabeth) Cooper — 116 of 175 — 5s — Turkey, 
adj. Edward Galahan, Luke Metheny, William Robinson, Thomas Kincaid 

King, Robert — of George (Isabella) King — 50 of 210 — Greenbrier, adj. 
William Blanton, Andrew Wylie — 1794 

Kincaid, John — of James (Isabella) Byrnside — 390 — 70p — Indian — 1783 

Kitchen, Margaret of Botetourt — of Joseph Ruth — 233 — 5s — Second, adj. 
Edward Wyatt— 1797 

Kitchen, Margaret — of David (Keziah) Louderback — 150 — 215p — Second 

Knox, Robert— of Robert (Sarah) Curry— 280— 200p— Second— 1793 

Kouns, Henry — of Barnabas (Jean) Johnson — 130 of 353 — 5s — Indian — 

Kounts, John — of Nimrod (Anne) Tackett — 60 of 237 — 5s — Survey — Run 

Larew, Peter — of Thomas (Priscilla) Ray of Augusta — 200 — considera- 
tion a swap — Hans — 1798 


Larkin, James — of John (Elizabeth) Reaburn — 88 of 400 — Ss — Plank 
Cabin— 1795 

Lawrence, William — of Nimrod (Anne) Tackett — 67 of 150 — $1 — In- 
dian, adj. Charles Friend — 1798 

Lewis, George — of John (Nancy) Walton — 4-00 — 5s — Indian and Roar- 
ing— 1797 

Lewis, Charles — of William Lewis, Sr. — south fork of Dunlap — 1809. 

Lewis, John — of William (Ann) Lewis (parents) — 154 (patented 1771) 
and 115 — $2 — Sweet Springs, adj. William Hughart — 1796 

Lewis, John — of William (Ann) Lewis — 100 — $1 — gap of Peters Mtn. 
n. Sweet Springs— 1789— 1801 

Longacre, Jacob — of Nathanial Foster — 209 — $1 — assignee, Isaac Foster, 
assignee, Reuben Foster — 1798 

Loudebaugh, James of Botetourt — of David (Comfort) Tate of Botetourt 
—90— $200— north branch of Second— 1790 

Lynn, Matthew of Botetourt — of James (Rosanna) Dempsey — 100 — 5s 
— Second, adj. Ralph Yates — 1796 

Maddy, William— of Robert (Martha) Ritchie— 196 of 320— 250p— 1797 

Magart, David — of John (Francina) McMullen — 133 — Second, adj. Aaron 
Turpin, David Johnston, David Louderback — 1790 

Magnet, Henry — of Conrad (Jean) Dubois — Knobs, adj. James Collins, 
Robert Campbell, and — Hinchminger (formerly Best) — previously owned by 
(1) John Wylie, (2) Ralph Yates, (3) Henry Mannax— 1809 

Magart, Henry, Sr. — of John (Ann) Kincaid — 10 of 390 — 5s — hd Indian, 
adj. Thomas Stewart, Dennis Cochran — 1794 

Magart, Henry, Sr. — of Edward (Agnes) Heanon (Keenan?) — 85 of 316 
— 5s — hd Indian, adj. Thomas Stewart (deceased) — 1795 

Magart (McGart), David — of David Johnston of Botetourt — 146 of 349 
— 5s — Second, adj. Turpin — 1794 

Mahan, John — of James (Rebecca) Scarborough — 226 — 5s — Lick Run, adj. 
Michael Kounnse and others — 1797 

Malcolm, Alexander — of Joseph (Dorothy) Malcolm, Sr. — Sinks — P, by 
Robert Thompson, Sr. — 1810 

Mann, James — of James Henderson, heir of James Henderson (deceased) 
—84 of 380— Dropping Lick— 1797 

Mannax, Mary — of Ralph (Jean) Yates, heirs at law of John Wiley — 
400— 5s— Swope's Knobs— 1796 

Martin, John — of John (Catrina) Noiseman — 215 of 250 — 5s — n. Francis 
McNutt— 1797 

Matheny, Luke— of Philip Cooper — 59 of 175— 5s — Turkey — 1794 

Maxwell, Audley of Wythe — of James (Isabella) Alexander — 150 — $1 
—Wolf, adj. William A.lford, Joseph Swope — 1798 

McClintic, James — of Thomas (Jane) Irons — Knobs, hd Laurel and Rain- 
bow Run survey, 1794 — 1810 


McCulloch, Robert of Staunton — of Thomas McCulloch of the Western 
Territory — 4-00 — 150p — adj. Matthew Gwinn, Daniel Perry, Henry Douglas, 
Richard Humphreys — 1792 

McCue, David — of Hugh (Margaret) Alexander — 100 of 300 — Ss — P by 
Richard Mathews — 1795 

McDaniel, John — of Francis Long — 397 — 50p — Scotts Run, adj. Martha 
Gatliff— 1789 

McDougall, John — of Patterson Griffith — 41 — 5s — Turkey — James Scar- 
borough— 1798 

McDougall, John of Augusta — of Thomas Wright per Isaac Estill — 385 
— 5s — Indian — 1797 

McDougall, John — of James (Rachel) Scarborough and James (Sarah) 
Christy— 152— 5s— 1798 

McDowell, Henson — of Joseph (Elizabeth) Sawyers — 360 — $1 — Little 
Wolf, adj. William Lafferty— 1799 

McGee, Lively — of John Arbuckle — N side Peters Mtn — 1809 

McNutt, Francis and John — of James Byrnside — 300 — 70p — Indian — 1783 

Miller, Jacob— of Jacob, Jr.— 133 of 380— $200— 1797 

Miller, Valentine — of William Stephenson of Cabell — hd Wolf — 1810 

Miller, Henry— of E. (S.) Griffith— 92 of 150— 5s— 1796 

Morris, Robert — of John Beckley, both of Philadelphia — 19 tracts of 
20,555 A. No. 2 of 1422 — Brushy, adj. Andrew Hamilton on Second Cr. No. 
7 of 1150— Second and Brushy. No. 8— 1330— Brushy of Second— 1796? 

Neal, Walter— of William (Catrina) Shannon— 200 of 395— 5s— 1795 

Neal, Daniel— of Philip (Elizabeth) Cooper— 192 of 370— 5s— Dropping 
Lick— 1798 

Neel, William — of Christopher (Margaret) Hand — hd Second, adj. Rob- 
ert Dunbar — 1811 

Neel, William — of William (Katharine) Adair— hd Second — P by Mich- 
ael Penturff — sold to Barnabas Johnson — 1812 

Neel, John — of William (Jane) Cornwell — Second — Moses Higgenbot- 
ham land— 1809 

Neel, Owen (Isabella) — of James McDowell of Rockbridge — $500 — Potts, 
1 mile from Sweet Springs— 1796 (1790?) 

Neel, Owen — of John (Rachel) Gallaway — 95 of Solomon Turpin survey 
— hd Second— 1792 

Nelson, James— of Joseph (Elizabeth) Nickell— 165— $400— Second— 1788 

Nelson, William H.— of George Daughtery— 200— lOOp— Carpenter's 
Run, adj. Philip Holsapple — 1793 

Nicholas, John— of Samuel (Christina) Carroll— 150 pf 315— 5s— Wolf 
Hollow, Second Cr.— 1797 

Nickell, Andrew — of Robert (Jean) Patton and William (Martha) Pat- 
ton, now of Russell — 1810 

Nosman, John— of Francis McNutt— 216— 5s— adj. Thomas Wright— 1789 


Patterson, Matthew — of James (Isabella) Byrnside — 300 — 70p — Indian — 

Patton, Robert,, Jr. — of Robert (Margaret) Knox — 280 — 200p — adj. — 
James Humphreys — 1794 

Patton, John — of Christopher Hand — Second, adj. William Cornwell — of 
Moses Higgenbotham P of 500 A, 1783—1809 

Patton, Thomas and Robert — of Frederick (Mary) Gromer — 218 — $1500 
— Second, adj Isaac Nickell — 1797 

Patton, Robert, Jr. of Alexandria city — of James Welch — 3215 — $3215 — 
Big and Little Devil, adj. 1271 survey of Alyn Thruston, prior claims in- 
cluded: 326 plus 690 to Edward Cornwell; 100 entry by Moses Higgen- 
botham; 328 survey to same; part of 30 A survey to Joseph Higgenbotham — 

Patton, Robert, Jr. — of James Welch — 1096 — $1096 — Second, adj. survey 
by Thruston— 1798 

Pearson, Joseph — of Robert (Hannah) Chambers — 90 — 5s — Wolf, adj. 
Joseph Swope — 1795 

Perry, Daniel — of Alexander Hosick — +00 — 200p — Second, adj. Edmund 
Cornwell— 1794 

Plymel, John — of Mathias (Elizabeth) McGlamery — 75 — 55p — Dropping 
Lick— 1798 

Pritt, William — of John (Susanna) Cart — Second — 1811 

Ramsay, Richard of Botetourt — of Philip (Elizabeth) Cooper — 192 of 
370— 5s— Dropping Lick— 1798 

Reaburn, John and John Blanton — of Isaac (Ann) Poulton — 82 — 5s — 
Samuel Black land— 1797 

Reaburn, Henry — of James (Elizabeth) Murdock — 100 — 5s — 1789 

Richie, David — of Robert (Martha) Ritchie — 320 — 5s — Indian — 1792 

Robertson, John — of Joel (Elizabeth) Wood of Pendleton — Clin's Run of 
Rich, adj. Robert Langford — survey by William Rice, 1802 — 1809 

Robinet, Nathan — of James (Isabella) Burnside, Sr. — 131 — 50p — E side 
New— 1794 

Rodgers, Michael — of Samuel (Christina) Carroll — 123 of 315 — $100 — 

Rodgers, John — of James (Elenaor) Gregory — 100 of 265 — 5s — adj. 
Henry Holsapple — 1798 

Rorebaugh, John — of John (Rosanna) Carlisle — 250 — 5s — adj. — Babel 
Benson— 1798 

Ruble, John — of Thomas (Elizabeth) Garvin — 112, including 110 of 
Nimrod Tackett land — 5s — Turkey — 1797 

Ruth, Joseph — of James (Isabelle) Alexander- — 400 — 5s — Warren place — 
Potts— 1798 

Scarborough, David — of Jacob Pope — 80 of 800 — 5s — Warren place — 


Scarborough, David — of Henry (Elizabeth) Pope — 10 — 5s — Weaver's 
Knobs— 1798 

Scothorn, Lewis — of Joseph (Mary) Higgenbotham — 220 — 5s — Little 
Devil, adj. Reuben Harris — 1797 

Scott, William and James, Jr. — of James Scott, Sr. — Board Run of Wolf 

Shanklin, William — of James (Elizabeth) Henderson and William (Nan- 
cy) Shanklin — $1 — Indian — 1810 

Shelman, Lewis — of Joseph (Ann) Dickson — 53 of 70 — 5s — 1795 

Shumate, Daniel— of Henry Willis— 186— 5s— Rich— 1795 

Slater, Joseph of Baltimore — of Robert Crawford — 100 — 800p — Second, 
lately Joseph Conrad's — 1794 

Smith, Jacob— of William (Ann) Royall— 200— $200— Potts— 1811 

Sprowl, William — of Thomas (Esther) Soward — 139 — 50p — branch of 
Dropping Lick — 1793 

Steele, Thomas — of Barnabas (Jane) Johnson — 244 — 5s — foot Peters, adj. 
Robert Bland (deceased) — 1795 

Stuart, John and John Mathews — of William (Mary) Richmond — 180 
(adj. William Craig and David Dick) plus 100 — adj. William McKinster 
and John Burdette — $5 — Swope's Knobs — 1797 

Stuart, John — of Joseph (Sally) Slater — 100 — Second Creek Gap — made 
over as per court decree — 1799 

Swearingen, Van (Mary) of Isaac (Mary) Wiseman — Dropping Lick 

Swope, George — of Henry (Sarah) Miller — part of 150 — 5s — Wolf — 
formerly Barnabas Johnson's — 1797 

Swope, Joseph— of Evan (Susanna) Griffith— 58 of 150— 5s— Wolf— 1796 

Symms, John — of Thomas (Jean) Stuart — 165 — Indian — P by John Car- 
lisle— 1808 

Tackett, Nimrod — of John (Margaret) Swope — 60 — 5s — Indian — 1793 

Thompson, Adam — of William Craig of Bourbon county, Ky by John 
Byrnside— 391— 5s— 1793 

Tincher, Thomas — of Thomas (Hannah) Kincaid — 143 — 5s — adj. Mar- 
tin Phillips — including survey of Samuel Sollard, 1774 — 1794 

Turpin, Martin — of Solomon Turpin — 147 of 400— 5s— 1789 

Turpin, Aaron — of Solomon Turpin — 115 plus 42 of 400 — 5s — 1789 

Vass, John — of William Vass — Second Cr. adj. Charles Lewis and Ed- 
ward Cornwell — P, 1783, by James Dempsey and Ralph Yates — 1809 

Vawter, William — of Andrew (Sabina) Hutchinson — Brush and Elk Run 

Vawter, William — of Daniel (Rysanna) Cook — Slaty Run of Hans, adj. 
William Young — survey by John Kincaid, 1798 — 1810 

Watkins, Joseph of Goochland — of James (Phoebe) Moss — 272 — $204 — 
Dunlap— P, 1789—1797 


White, John — of William and Martha Cooper— 100 — 5s — 1789 

White, William — of Thomas Keener — 100 — 5p — Carpenter's Run, adj. 
Henry Winkleblack— 1797 

Wyatt, Thomas — of James Byrnside, Sr. — 331 — 5s — New at and above 
mouth Greenbrier — 1787 

Wiatt, Thomas — of Joseph (Elizabeth) Sawyers — 360 — $1 — Little Wolf, 
adj. William Lafferty— 1799 

Wickline, Jacob — of William (Euphemia) Linton — 295 — $1 — hd Dunlap 
—1799 ^ 

Wiley, Robert — of Samuel (Mary) Black — 218 — 5s — Sinks, adj. James 
Chambers, John King, William Blanton, Isaac Polston — 1792 

Wiley, Robert — of Moses Higgenbotham — 194 — 5s — between Second and 
Laurel Run— 1796 

Wilson, Andrew — of John (Sarah) Lewis — 200 — 200p — Indian, adj. Wal- 
lace Estill— 1793 

Wiseman, Isaac — of William (Elizabeth) Rice — 78 — Dropping Lick, n. 
John Hutchinson, Robert Chambers — 1797 

Wiseman, Abner— of Daniel (Sarah) Neal— 93— 5s— 1798 

Wiseman, John — of Edward (Nancy) Keenan — 84 of 400 — 5s — Lick Run 

Wolf, Jacob— of John Wolf— 108— 20p— Potts— 1798 

Woodson, George — of James (Phoebe) Moss — 272 — $204 — Dunlap — P, 

Yates, Ralph — of James (Rosa) Dempsey — 375 — 5s — Second, adj Thomas 
Lewis— includes P of 180 by Yates, and 195 of P of 295 by Dempsey— 1795 

Young, Andrew — of John (Jean) Campbell — 95 — 5s — Turkey — 1792 

Young, Robert— of Boude (Jean) Estill— 183 of 383— 70p— Hans— 1793 

Young, William — of Thomas (Priscilla) Ray — quit claim to 150 — Hans 
— 1809. Priscilla Ray was formerly Priscilla Gold and legatee of John Es- 

Young, Robert— of Robert Nickell— 60— 5s— 1793 

Young, James — of Samuel (Christianna) Carroll — 150 of 315 — Wolf Hol- 
low, Second Cr— 1797 

Young, James— of Edward (Clara) Fleather— 73 — 5s — 1797 

Young, James— of G. (E.) Eagle— 132 of 200— $450— Second— 1797 

Zickafoos, George — of James (Elizabeth) Henderson and William 
(Nancy) Henderson — hd Wolf, adj. James Miller, Patrick Dixon, Jacob 
Doran (now Robert Johnson) — 1809 

Abell Ballard Blanton 

Adair Beckley Boyd 

Alexander Benson Burns 

Arbuckle Black Byrnside 












































































































































Petitions to Divide Greenbrier — Act of 1796 — Act of 1799 — Organization 
of County — Attempt to Disestablish Monroe. 

T is not often that a county is divided for the simple 
reason that it is large. Local politics, factional feel- 
ing, and the logrolling of ambitious men will seek the 
division of a county that is not large. And whether 
the county be large or small, the seceding element may have a pro- 
longed and bitter struggle before it accomplishes its purpose. 

In view of the long continued good feeling between the counties 
of Greenbrier and M l onroe, it may come as a surprise to many persons 
to learn that the separation was effected only after more than ten 
years of persistent work, and that even after the establishment of 
Monroe there was a determined effort to disannul the new county- 

Kanawha county was set off from Greenbrier in 1788. But even 
then, Greenbrier ran about 70 miles along the Alleghany chain and 
about 35 miles westward. A separation of what was left, nearly on 
the line of the lower course of the Greenbrier River, was a foregone 
conclusion. But there was still a thin population, and this consider- 
ation was not lightly to be overcome. And yet it was in 1790, before 
the harrassments of the red man were definitely known to be a thing 
of the past, that we find the first recorded attempt to divide the 

A numerously signed petition of that year, voicing the people of 
the sinks of Monroe, asks for a new county because of the natural 
barrier of the Greenbrier River. It recites that the courthouse is 40 
miles from any point on New River. It asserts an inconsistency in 
Bath county being permitted to extend up the valley of Dunlap 
Creek. The boundary asked for the new county begins at the mouth 
of the Greenbrier, runs up New River to the Greenbrier line at the 


end of Peters Mountain, which is then followed to the dividing ridge 
between Potts and Stony creeks. Then the line follows the crest of 
Potts Mountain so as to cross Jackson's River at the Island Ford at 
the mouth of Simpson's Creek. The river is crossed again at Red 
Bank, where Thomas McCallister then lived, and the line follows 
a divide so as to include all the valley of Dunlap Creek to the top 
of Little Mountain. This is followed to the divide between How- 
ard's and Second Creeks, which in turn is followed to the mouth 
of Laurel, where Second Creek is crossed. The line then goes straight 
to the mouth of Muddy, and thence to the point of beginning. 

For five years the movement for separation does not seem to have 
been pressed with energy. Meanwhile the Indian warcloud had van- 
ished, and improving times favored a renewal of the attempt. In 
1795 a petition to divide Greenbrier received 542 signatures. In 
the same year was a vigorous counter-petition by the people of the 
Great Levels. The latter document sets forth that the public tax 
for this year was only $601.05; that the tithables numbered only 
1591, including 184 negroes and 250 delinquents, leaving but 1157 
white tithables of permanent residence within the county. It alleges 
that of the signers to another petition, — presumably the one above 
named, — several hundred have no existence. It further declares that 
the said petition exaggerates the extent of the county. It states that 
the mass of the population is confirmed to an area extending 20 miles 
north and 20 miles south from the courthouse, and reaching west 
only from three miles to six or seven miles, the remaining people be- 
ing scattered thinly along the creeks and branches. The paper goes 
on to say that emigration westward will be large and constant, and 
that any increase in the local population will hardly be noticed for 
many years. It claims that no county could be more compact; that 
as to the fords in the Greenbrier, no river can have better fords, and 
they can always be used except in time of high water, when there 
are boats for such emergency- 

A petition of 1796, signed by people on Jackson's River and Potts 
and Dunlap creeks, asks for a new county with lines as already men- 
tioned. It claims that the Greenbrier docket is habitually so full as 


to cause much delay, while because of the high mountains, the acting 
sheriff makes his visit only at rare intervals. 

A counter-petition of the following year is numerously signed. It 
affirms that "petitions of a similar nature (to the one just presented) 
have for some years past been presented and rejected, so that it seems 
the petitioners hope to obtain by importunity what has so often been 
justly denied to the merits of the case." In December of this year 
an affirmative petition repeats the request made in 1795, and insists 
it is true that many persons drown in the surges of the Greenbrier. 
This paper is well fortified with signatures, and is indorsed as "rea- 
sonable" by the committee of the Assembly to which it was referred. 
A similar petition of 1798 asks for a redress of "grievances so often 
complained of." It was not until this year that a bill was drawn 
for the creation of Monroe. 

The leader in this movement was John Hutchinson, who had 
been a delegate to the Assembly for the session of 1796-7. He was 
stiffly opposed, and for a while successfully, by Colonel John Stuart, 
William H. Cavendish, John Matthews, and others. They were 
able to defeat him for re-election- But Hutchinson was astute and 
resourceful. He undertook a flank movement on what, were he liv- 
ing in our own time, he would style the "courthouse ring." As a 
political general of the twentieth century West Virginia, Hutchinson 
would have been in his element. 

An Act of Assembly of November, 1796, states that great quan- 
tities of land in Greenbrier, Kanawha, and Randolph remain unas- 
sessed. It provides that in each county three men be appointed by 
the governor and council to assess all lands therein. Two copies of 
the lists were to be made, one going to the sheriff and one to the 
state auditor. This bill was put through the Assembly by Hut- 
chinson. It enabled him to win, as we shall presently see. 

In the session of 1798-9, Hutchinson was present at Richmond as 
a lobbyist. As a result of his wire-pulling, the legislature passed, 
January 14, 1799, the act creating the county of Monroe. It reads 
as follows: 

Section I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly, That all that part 


of the county of Greenbrier, lying within the following bounds, beginning 
where the ridge dividing the eastern and western waters joins Peters moun- 
tain, and with the said ridge to the ridge that divides Howards and Sec- 
ond Creek, thence with the said ridge westwardly, including the waters of 
Second Creek, to the waggon road at Robert Knox's ; thence with the said 
creek to Thomas Nichol's spring branch, thence a straight line to Alder- 
son's ferry landing on Greenbrier river, thence down the said river to the 
mouth of Muddy Creek, thence crossing the same to the ridge that divides 
tie waters of Muddy Creek and Griffith's run, and with the said ridge to 
Keeny's Knobs, and with the said knobs, including the waters flowing into 
Greenbrier river to New river, and up the same to where it breaks through 
Peters mountain, thence with the said mountain an easterly course to the 
beginning, shall form one distinct county, and be called and known by the 
name of Monroe. 

Section II. A court for the said county of Monroe shall be held by 
the justices thereof on the third Tuesday in every month, after the same 
shall take place. 

Section III. The justices to be named in the commission of the peace 
for the said county of Monroe shall meet at the house of George King, in 
the said county, upon the first court day after the said county shall take place 
and having taken the oath prescribed by law, and administered the oaths of 
office to and taken bond of the sheriff, according to law, proceed to appoint 
and qualify a clerk, and fix upon a place for holding courts in the said 
county, at or as near the center thereof as the situation and convenience 
will admit, and thenceforth the said county shall proceed to erect the nec- 
essary public buildings at such place, and until such public buildings be 
completed, to appoint any place for holding courts as they shall think prop- 
er: Provided always, that the appointment of a place for holding courts, and 
of a clerk, shall not be made unless a majority of the justices of the said 
county be present; where such majority shall have been prevented from 
attending by bad weather, or their being at the time out of the county, in 
such case the appointment shall be postponed until some court day when 
a majority shall be present. 

Section IV. It shall be lawful for the sheriff of the county of Green- 
brier to collect and make distress for any public dues and officers' fees re- 
maining unpaid by the inhabitants thereof at the time the county of Monroe 
takes place, and shall be accountable for the same, in like manner as if 
this act had not been made. 

Section V. The court of the said county of Greenbrier shall have ju- 
risdiction of all actions and suits depending before them when the said 
county of Monroe takes place, and shall try and determine the same and 
award execution thereon. 

Section VI. The Governor, with the advice of Council, shall appoint a 
person to be sheriff of the said county of Monroe, who shall continue in 


office during the term and upon the same conditions as are by law pre- 
scribed for other sheriffs. 

Section VII. In all future elections of a Senator, Elector, and a Rep- 
resentative in Congress, the said county of Monroe shall be of the same Dis- 
trict as the county of Greenbrier. The said county of Monroe shall be 
of the same district with the county of Greenbrier for which districts are 
holden at the Sweet Springs, and also be of the same brigade district. 

This act shall commence and be in force from and after the first day 
of May next. 

It does not appear who was instrumental in giving the new county 
the name of Monroe. Hutchinson does not seem to have favored it, 
because Monroe was not of the Federalist party, which was the po- 
litical organization dominant in both Monroe and Greenbrier. James 
Monroe was at this time forty- two years of age. He was a well 
known planter and public man of Virginia, but had scarcely yet ac- 
quired a national reputation. He did not become president of the 
United States until eighteen years later. It was Monroe's good for- 
tune to fill this position while the national sky was unusually serene. 
His administration was uneventful. Party feeling was at so low 
an ebb at the close of his first term that he was re-elected with only 
one opposition vote in the electoral college. Monroe was neither 
brilliant nor great and was the least able of the four presidents form- 
ing what is sometimes styled the "Virginian dynasty." It is signifi- 
cant that no county has been named for him in any of the states ad- 
mitted since 1848. His death took place on Independence Day, 1831. 
During his lifetime he made several visits to Red Sulphur Springs, 
passing through Union. 

Hutchinson also lobbied through the Assembly a bill to establish 
the town of Union, and another to relieve the people of Monroe from 
the Greenbrier taxes of 1799, assessed before Monroe was organized. 
But before coming to the last act in the drama, wherein he and 
Stuart were the leading characters, we must pause to narrate the 
organization of the new county. 

The house of George King, where the justices were required to 
meet, lay a mile and a half east of Union and not far from old Reho- 
both church. The log houses of that day were not generally com- 


modious and the august court adjourned to the barn. The first or- 
der-book opens with the following significant entry: 

Be it remembered that at the House of George King in the new County 
of Monroe on Tuesday the twenty-first Day of May in the Year of our 
Lord One Thousand Seventeen Hundred and Ninety Nine and of the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia the Twenty Third A Commission of the Peace for 
the said County directed to William Hutchinson, James Alexander, Isaac 
Estill, William Haynes, John Hutchinson, John Gray, John Byrnside, Wil- 
liam Graham, James Hanley, and William Vawter, Gentlemen was pro- 
duced and read and thereupon the said William Hutchinson took the oath 
appointed by Act of Assembly for giving Assurance of Fidelity to the Com- 
monwealth and the Oath for supporting the Constitution of the United 
States, also the Oaths of a Justice of the Peace and of a Justice of the 
County Court in Chancery which were administered to him by the said 
James Alexander and William Haynes and then the said William Hutchin- 
son administered the said Oaths to the said James Alexander, Isaac Es- 
till, William Haynes, John Hutchinson, John Gray, John Byrnside, William 
Graham, James Hanley, and William Vawter. 

The court was now ready to enter upon its duties. Isaac Estill 
qualified as sheriff, giving two bonds, with William Haynes and John 
Byrnside as sureties, for the execution of his regular official duties and 
the collection and payment of the public taxes. John Arbuckle qual- 
ified as under sheriff, John Hutchinson as clerk, and John Woodward 
as prosecuting attorney. John Byrnside was nominated as county 
surveyor. James Alexander and John Wallace were granted license 
to keep ordinaries. 

Next day, the court still sitting at King's, the site for a court- 
house was selected on the land of James Alexander. James Graham 
was nominated as coroner. The constables chosen were Thomas 
Lowe, Robert Dunbar, John Cottell, William Dickson, George Fos- 
ter, Isaac Cole, Enos Halstead, and Joshua Lewis, these men to 
serve, in the order of their mention, in the militia companies of Cap- 
tains Byrnside, Clark, Nickell, Graham, Jones, McDaniel, Farley, 
and Estill. Twenty-seven men were nominated as officers of the 

Following a usage of the time, the following minute schedule of 
prices was prescribed for the observance of tavern-keepers: 


Warm dinner, 2 shillings $.33 1-3 

Cold dinner or warm breakfast 25 

Cold breakfast 21 

Lodging on feather bed 12^2 

Lodging on chaff bed 08 

Corn, per gallon 12^2 

Oats, per gallon 10^ 

Pasturage for 24 hours 08 

Stabling, and hay for 24 hours 16 2-3 

Spirits, per gallon 5.33 

Teneriffe and Lisbon wine, per gallon 4.00 

Other wines, per gallon 3.33 

Madeira, per gallon 6.00 

Common rum 3.33 

Peach brandy 2.00 

Whiskey • 1.33 

"Sider" .50 

Beer .33 

As seems always the case in the pioneer period, the new sheriff 
objected to the "insufficiency of the jail," by taking exception as to 
the consequences should any prisoners be committed to his custody. 
The first county boarding house on the frontier was always a very 
small affair and doubtfully secure. 

And thus the May session of the court came to an end and the 
new county of Monroe was launched upon its independent career. 
The first civil suit came at the second term, when John Hinchman 
appeared against Levi Lowe to recover some money. The judgment 
of $12.83 and costs was in favor of the plaintiff. The first marriage 
bond was that in favor of Henry Miller, and Rhoda Brooking. 

But Stuart and his followers sought to undo what had been ac- 
complished. And within Monroe itself there was complaint as to 
the choice of courthouse site. During this same year a petition was 
sent up to the legislature objecting to the Alexander land as "far 
from the center," and the justices being "appointed and commissioned 
without the recommendation of the court of Greenbrier or the knowl- 
edge of the citizens of Monroe." The petitioners believed these do- 
ings to be the work of John Hutchinson. They said the court was 
already preparing to erect the public buildings. And since the Act 


creating Monroe said the courthouse should be "as near the center 
as conveniency would permit," they asked the appointment of com- 
missioners who should ascertain the center, etc 

In December, 1799, another petition asks a consolidation of Mon- 
roe with Greenbrier. The people of Monroe regarded this scheme 
as originating with the clerk of Greenbrier, aided, perhaps, "by a 
few disappointed persons." Greenbrier was denounced as "an un- 
natural stepmother, who still wishes to hold over us the scorpion chas- 
tisement, whips and fetters." 

Stuart and his friends replied that Hutchinson introduced a pe- 
tition to divide Greenbrier on a line running "near its courthouse, 
thereby leaving scarcely the shadow of a county either on the one 
side or the other." They insisted that a proper announcement of 
the petition was not made. They now asked a repeal of the act 
creating Monroe, and the formation of a new county out of Green- 
brier, Monroe, and Montgomery, agreeable to a petition from Green- 
brier and Montgomery given to William H. Cavendish, but never 
presented, although notice of the same was published in the news- 
paper at Staunton. The boundaries asked for the proposed county 
were these: beginning at James Allen's on Turkey Creek, passing 
thence to John Byrnside's on the head of Indian, and crossing the 
Greenbrier at James Graham's; touching the Kanawha line where 
the state road touched Gauley river, then following said line to the 
line of Wythe county, and running with the latter to the top of 
Walker's Mountain, which it followed to Shannon's Gap. The 
next point was the mouth of Sinking Creek, whence a direct line 
passing the end of Salt Pond Mountain, ran to the Botetourt line; 
then with the same to the top of Peters Mountain, and thence to 
the beginning. It was pointed out that such county would be 100 
miles long and 40 wide, its circumference nowhere passing within 
20 miles of any established courthouse. Its own courthouse could 
be 40 miles from neighboring courthouses and from Sweet Springs, 
and on a leading road from the latter place to Kentucky. A favorable 
answer to such petition was asked on these specific grounds: that 
Hutchinson presented his own petition without the knowledge or 


consent of the Greenbrier people; that if any division were neces- 
sary, it was on the side of the Greenbrier people, some of whom 
were farther from the courthouse; that the law dividing the county 
failed to point out a mode for nominating the first magistrates of 
Monroe; that Hutchinson had the address, by "obscure means," of 
having such members nominated as would secure him the Monroe 
clerkship; that the said members had the privilege of locating the 
courthouse, and "contrary to law and all propriety" have located it 
far from the center; that Monroe being of too small area, the county 
government will prove a burden; that the limits of the new county 
now prayed for are ample, and its abundant "backlands" will per- 
mit a large increase in population ; that every exertion was made by 
the interested members of the court of Monroe to place its court- 
house on their chosen spot, lest on petition of the people a special 
law should direct otherwise; and finally, that the law to divide 
Greenbrier was obtained surreptitiously and by corrupt means. 

Another petition of the same year, asking that the Greenbrier- 
Monroe line be moved to a distance of 15 miles from Lewisburg re- 
ceived many signers. 

A general meeting of citizens was held at the courthouse of 
Greenbrier, August 29, 1799. William Bourland was its clerk. 
It decided to present a petition to the legislature; to print 150 copies 
of the resolutions adopted by the meeting, and also the assessment 
law. It asserted that any report that the citizens of Greenbrier 
were divided in political sentiment was not only groundless but was 
calculated to promote some private end. 

The petition drawn up as a result of the meeting shows the na- 
ture of the resolutions adopted. It also throws light on Hutchin- 
son's assessment law and its bearing on the division of Greenbrier. 
Our synopsis of the petition is as follows: 

Tihe lands of Greenbrier were duly and properly assessed under 
the equalizing law of 1782, and taxes have since been paid. The 
law of 1796, affecting only Greenbrier, Kanawha, and Randolph, 
had the effect of making all lands average according to the law of 
1782. Men of the Eastern states have in wild speculation taken 


millions of acres of mountain land in Greenbrier, regardless of qual- 
ity or situation. These are to be assessed as our own lands, — which 
do not cover 200,000 acres, — so as to put all lands on the footing of 
the law of 1782- We are therefore taxed much above other citi- 
zens of this state. Hutchinson was the principal mover of this law, 
which was to his own emolument. He did not hesitate to accept an 
appointment as one of the three assessors, and he performed his 
work in an unrighteous and improper manner, pretending to show 
a great increase in revenue. Reassessing our lands with ten times 
their quantity of barren mountain is not uniform with the tax to 
other citizens of the state, and is grievous oppression. The reas- 
sessment was improperly performed, generally after the expiration 
of the law, and without going on the lands or consulting the county 
assessors. One commissioner was a delegate to the General As- 
sembly. Another, John Rodgers, was a deputy sheriff who had not 
closed his accounts. The third, William McClung, was concerned 
in land speculation to the extent of 100,000 acres. The county be- 
ing without sufficient revenue, the general interest of the people is 
infringed upon. Greenbrier is one of the smallest and poorest coun- 
ties, and the mountain barrier which shuts it off from others is ruin- 
ous to its society. It therefore becomes our peculiar interest to en- 
courage a good school, good artisans and manufacturers, all which 
efforts are confounded by dividing the people, thereby preventing 
the development of our little village, which would soon become a 
mart to our citizens and a center that would promote a spirit of in- 
dustry and emulation among the inhabitants around. We had a 
county as commodious and convenient as any in the state, but it is 
now divided close to the courthouse, causing discord and uneasi- 
ness- The majority of the Greenbrier people were opposed to a 
division. (Here is quoted Article VII of the Bill of Rights.) The 
man who presented the petition to divide our county was privately 
interested. There are fewer tithables by 300 than when the county 
was formed. We ask an "adjunction" of our two counties, to be 
called and known by the name of Union county, with the same mag- 


istrates and other officers that were in commission when the division 
took place. 

The court of Greenbrier ordered that subpoenas be served on 
20 of the most reputable of the citizens of Monroe and Greenbrier, 
these men to testify as to the charges against the commissioners. The 
20 men were to be equally divided between the counties, and none 
of those from Greenbrier were to be members of the county court. 
The men summoned from Monroe were Colonel James Graham, 
Major John Hlandley, and Captains Isaac Estill, John Byrnside. 
William Maddy and Matt Farley; also William Haynes, Christian 
Peters, John Arbuckle, and John Henderson, the last named being 
ex-commissioner of the public tax. The Greenbrier men were Col- 
onel Samuel Brown, Captain Joseph Hanna, Captain Alexander 
Welch, William H. Cavendish, James Hanna (commissioner of the 
public tax), Linah Mims, Joseph Mays, Samuel Kincaid, Andrew 
McClung, sheriff, and James Reid, late prosecuting attorney. 

When the commissioners appeared, August Woodward entered 
a recognisance for them and presented a bill of nine particulars. 
These denied the jurisdiction of the court, pronounced the charges 
libelous as to legislature, governor, and commissioners, and affirmed 
that the commissioners were at all times ready to answer in a proper 
and legal manner, and to show that the charges were untrue- The 
court entered a replication to each article, after which the witnesses 
were examined. 

Graham estimated the inhabited lands at 150,000 acres and the 
uninhabited at 1,000,000 acres. He understood that the law of 1796 
caused the tax in Greenbrier to be forty per cent more than to other 
citizens in the same class. He valued the speculator land at one 
pound ($3.33) per 100 acres, hardly any of which was held by 
residents. About 1787 he heard the division of the county thought 
desirable. He was not himself friendly to Hutchinson, and thought 
the commissioners did not do their duty. He claimed that Hutchin- 
son lost $200 at Richmond in playing pedro. 

Handley said there was an attempt to divide the county before 


Peters said it was a matter of common remark that Hutchinson 
sold his county for a clerkship. 

Byrnside expressed himself as a determined advocate for the 
division of Greenbrier. A lack of revenue had been an obstacle. 

Arbuckle said persons were charged with land who had no right 
in Monroe or Greenbrier- Hutchinson claimed that the law did 
not require the commissioners to visit every tract. 

Estill said he would not give one cent an acre for mountain land 
unless he were sure of a market. 

Kincaid pointed out that the lands in Kanawha and Randolph 
were not assessed under the law of 1796. 

Brown said the reassessment was in the summer of 1798. He 
considered an acre of the best land worth 100,000 of the poorest. 

Cavendish said Hutchinson asked him as a delegate to move 
that the name Monroe be changed to Wayne, because he objected 
to the politics of James Monroe and feared his political belief would 
be objectionable to other people. The request was withdrawn. 

It must be conceded that a consensus of the testimony, quite ir- 
respective of whether a given witness were of Monroe or Green- 
brier, is to the effect that the law of 1796 worked hardship to the 
people of the two counties; that the reassessment was a fraud on 
the people and a political move to carry Hutchinson's point; that 
the commissioners made only a pretense of going upon the lands 
and were not deserving of their fee of $500 ; that the petition to cre- 
ate Monroe was not advertised; that the division of the county was 
not at once beneficial to a majority of the people; that Hutchinson 
was not clean-handed, either in the reassessment or the division of the 
county, and that he held back the share of the fee that belonged to 
one of his associates. 

One other petition we now give in full. It not merely speaks 
for itself, but it throws an important light on the feelings of the 
pioneer settlers of Monroe. 

That the inhabitants of the said county, having in early times pene- 
trated into these territories, of which now under a free and happy gov- 
ernment they are the lords and proprietors; having encountered the dan- 


gers and the obstacles presented by a race of men wild and uncivilized, 
possessed of no other title to the soil than that of their hunting over it 
might be conceived to bestow, a right which your petitioners conceive, by 
the law of nature and of nature's God, must in the train and providence 
of human affairs succumb to the superior claim derived from occupancy 
and appropriation; having in obedience to the laws of their country, for- 
tified by every legal prescription the fruits of their enterprise; and hav- 
ing borne for a succession of years the inconveniences incident to an in- 
cipient settlement, and particularly that of a remote seat for the adminis- 
tration of domestic justice; began at length to proffer to the legislators of 
their state an application for redress, by the erection of their limits into 
a distinct and independent county. 

United heretofore in the bonds of civil brotherhood with the inhabitants 
of Greenbrier, from causes as inexplicable as their effects were astonish- 
ing, this application excited in the breasts of their fellow-citizens of that 
county an animosity, which time as little promises to extinguish as a sense 
of justice and of acquiescence in the laws of their country dispose to alle- 
viate. In the pendency of the application of your petitioners, arbitrary 
and oppressive measures, the suggestions of individual haughtiness and 
rapacity, were interposed to deter and discourage the attempt. The first 
of these was an expensive and grievous levy for the erection of a superb 
prison. A small majority having postponed an acquiescence, with the re- 
quest of your petitioners, for one year, the burthen was met by them with 
a fortitude which eventually enabled them to comply with an exaction as 
much repugnant to natural rights, as the motive of its organization was an 
outrage on that sensibility of honor which is justly deemed the pride of 
civilized man. 

A renewal of the attempt for a division was but an invitation to a 
repetition of oppression. The former levy was succeeded by another, still 
more grievous, for the erection of a courthouse. The benevolent inter-, 
position of the legislature served not to palliate the passions of those who 
had been hostile to the reasonable wishes of your petitioners. After the 
passage of the Act of Assembly constituting the separate county of Mon- 
roe, a respectful application to the court of the county of Greenbrier to 
exempt from the operation of the latter levy so many of the inhabitants as 
would, on the first day of May, fall within the limits of the new county, 
was regarded with indignant contempt. Presuming that the county of 
Greenbrier wished to signalize its justice in a separate capacity, the pa- 
tience of your petitioners, long habituated to the insolent exercise of power, 
and to receive as matter of favor what was their strictest right, still pre- 
sented a distant hope of relief. But when the applications to that court, 
aided by the firm approbation of their proper county, shared a similar 
fate, the point was reduced to demonstration, that every hope of relief, 
grounded on the honor or justice of the court of Greenbrier, would prove 
fallacious and deceptive. 


Thus depressed, as it were into despair, the freeholders of Monroe cast 
around an anxious look to discover an authority competent to their relief. 
Not apprised of the limits which the construction of the judges might as- 
sign to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, they presented themselves 
before them, as the victims not only of an unjust, but also of an illegal 
exercise of power. The detail of this application will appear in a docu- 
ment annexed, to which your petitioners refer. The inclination to afford 
relief was far from being absent; but the power was disclaimed. The 
organs of the tribunal of justice have unfolded to your petitioners, that 
whatever may be the doubts, whether the imposition of this tax by a 
county court, it (is beyond) the exercise of the legislative or of an execu- 
tive power, they can by no construction define it to be judiciary, and how- 
ever glaringly unjust, or deviating from express law, they cannot assume 
the right to control the discretion by which it was rejected. 

The committee appointed by the freeholders of Monroe to lay 
the matter before the district court were William Haynes, James 
Alexander, John Hutchinson, John Byrnside, John Gray, William 
Graham, James Graham, William Vawter, James Handley, John 
Handley, Jacob Cook, Henry McDaniel, Tristram Patton, Joseph 
Alderson, Robert Nickell, and Joshua Leach. The signers to the 
petition numbered 426- An Act of Assembly, bearing date, Janu- 
ary 11, 1800, exempts from the levy referred to in petition such 
tithables as are in Monroe. It further provides that if any citizen 
of Monroe has paid in on said levy, it shall be refunded to him. 
But William Hamilton, sheriff of Greenbrier, was also in hot water. 
He stated that he employed a young man more than one year at 
100 pounds a year, to collect this levy, and that the law did not give 
him any commission. The commissioner in charge of building the 
courthouse sued him on his bond for the collection of the public levy, 
and got a judgment of $1000. He therefore petitioned the legis- 
lature for relief. 

It was through the lobbying of John Hutchinson that the As- 
sembly passed the bill just mentioned, which relieved the people of 
Monroe from helping to build Greenbrier's courthouse. The con- 
tract price of the same was 800 pounds ($2666.67). 

Whatever may have been the purity of Hutchinson's methods in 
securing home government for the people of Monroe and a clerkship 


for himself, he outgeneralled such redoubtable antagonists as Stuart 
and Cavendish. Time has vindicated the division. But Stuart did 
net take his defeat gracefully. He set up in Monroe on the road 
to Sweet Springs a board bearing in large letters the following leg- 
end: "Union County; Greenbrier and Monroe united." In the 
fragment of local history he wrote on the fly-leaves of a deed-book, 
he does not forget to excoriate Hutchinson for his attitude toward 
a road across the Alleghany. 



As Seen in a Personal Visit. 

E shall now try to describe a home and neighborhood 
in Monroe in the closing year of the eighteenth cen- 
tury.* This date is much beyond the personal knowl- 
edge of any living eye-witness. But since the changes 
between the year 1800 and the time of the earliest recollections of 
our very oldest people were comparatively small, it is possible to 
picture the life and times of the year in question with a high degree 
of accuracy. 

Ever since 1850 the conditions of life throughout the United 
States have changed enormously. In a very large degree, the men 
and women who founded Monroe lived in a different world from 
ours. Their opportunities were not what we possess, but they 
were not our inferiors in their capacity to accomplish things. It is 
well worth while to gain an intelligent idea of the circumstances 
under which they lived- 

The "John Bee" of this chapter is only nominally a fictitious 
man. He is a type of the men living here at the close of the pioneer 
period. Therefore his house does not stand in some particular spot. 
But to localize "John Bee," we will assume that he lives near Sec- 
ond Creek gap. 

Since his neighbors speak of him as John, and never think of 
calling him mister, we must do the same. He is forty-five years old 
and was born in a fort on Cowpasture River. A little before he 
had become his own man, his father decided to move to the only 
West which was then open to settlement. He was in debt, he had 

*The nineteenth century did not begin until the year 1801. And so 
with all other centuries. 

A FARM HOME IN 1800 119 

a growing family, and the rose-colored tales he had heard of the 
boundless transalleghany country were irresistible. So the elder Bee 
loaded the meager stock of household goods on packsaddles and 
trekked to the new land of promise. There was no wagon, and 
even if he had had one he could not have used it on the old Indian 
road up Dunlap Creek. The five horses carried the freight and the 
female members of the household. The masculines, large and small, 
had to walk and to have an eye to the cattle and sheep. 

For nearly fifteen years after the migration there was Indian 
alarm after Indian alarm, and there were several hasty flights to 
the nearest blockhouse. John has himself taken shots at hostile red- 
skins and can tell some hair-raising stories about them. But for a 
half dozen years there has been a growing belief that never again 
will the red man carry the torch and tomahawk even so far east as 
the bank of the Ohio. 

The name of John's wife is Euphemia, but she is called Feemy 
for short. She was reared on Catawba Creek. The couple have 
ten children, three of whom are grown. The others are of assorted 
sizes. The two oldest have left home. Two girls will soon fol- 
low, because they have beaux, and courtship in this community is 
followed by early marriage. 

The highway on Second Creek is broad enough to admit a wagon, 
and once in a while a wagon does pass along. But the bridle-track 
is far more conspicuous than the wheel ruts. The whole breadth is 
much infested with rocks, stumps, and mu dholes- We barely suc- 
ceed in getting over a branch dry-footed. The stream carries more 
water than is habitually the case at present. This is because the 
hills and mountains around are as thickly covered with wood as 
they were when the first white settler arrived. We turn into what 
seems a cross between a path and a wagon road, and following it 
half a mile through the woodland we come into the clearing around 
Bee's house. 

The dwelling is ten years old. The logs built into the house 
are broad, and the narrow crevices are carefully chinked. The roof 
is of riven clapboards held in place with weightpoles. The one 


door is thick and heavy, and is strongly secured. The few windows 
are narrow and the panes of glass are only nine by ten inches. When 
John put up this house he was moved by prudential considerations, 
for he had his doubts whether the last Indian raid had yet taken 
place. At one end of the house is an enormous outside chimney 
of unhewn stone. Underneath the floor is a pen into which lambs 
are driven at night to safeguard them from the wolves- Our atten- 
tion is struck by the almost total absence of millsawed boards, either 
in the house itself or its furniture. Sawmills are yet rare and they 
use only the up and down saw. Most boards are turned out by the 
whipsaw, and if too thick are made thinner with the adze. Even 
the benches in the house are puncheon slabs held up by pegs driven 
into augur holes. 

Passing through the open door, we find one apartment of mod- 
erate size with two smaller ones opening into it. The first of the 
three is a general purpose room. At one side is a cavernous fireplace 
broad enough to take in a nine foot log. In one corner is a squarish, 
massive bedstead. The feather ticks are supported by a network of 
creaking hemp rope, and on top is a figured coverlet of home man- 
ufacture. On a row of pegs are articles of masculine wearing ap- 
parel. On a mantle are two horn combs with some of the teeth 
missing, two or three badly used books, a cracked looking glass, and 
a few bottles stoppered with cobs or rags. The long table was built 
by a carpenter who lives in the same valley- He was not sparing 
of timber, and the strong piece of furniture will stand hard usage. 
The more comfortable of the two chairs has a sheepskin lying over 
its back. Seating capacity for the household and its frequent guests 
is eked out by the benches we have spoken of. A pair of deer ant- 
lers attached to the wall support the family arsenal, which consists 
of two muskets of the Revolutionary period and a rifle with a bar- 
rel forty-eight inches long. All these weapons are flintlocks. The 
prongs of the antlers hold up some powder horns and bullet-pouches. 
In one corner is a broom fashioned out of a block of green hickory. 
Above are short shelves on which are displayed some blue-bordered 
table ware, several wooden utensils, and some dishes and spoons of 


Commander 26th Va. Battalion of Infantry, 

C. S. A. 

A FARM HOME IN 1800 121 

pewter. There are no curtains to the windows and neither rug nor 
carpet on the floor. 

It being summer time, there is no roaring volcano in the fire- 
place. But there is a blaze, since dinner is in progress. Propped 
up on the firelogs is a pot containing bacon and vegetables- Near 
it over a bed of coals is a second pot in which something is bubbling. 
The dinner preparations are watched by John's widowed mother, 
who holds possession of the easy chair. In her nearly toothless mouth 
is a cob pipe actively at work. We accept a very sincere invitation 
to share the bountiful repast of cornbread, potatoes, garden beans, 
bacon, stewed apples, rye coffee, and milk. The only sugar is maple 
sugar, and the entire bill of fare is made up of the products of Bee's 
farm. Had our visit come in the cold season we would have found 
venison, wild turkey, or bear steak. The only fruit at that time of 
the year would be stewed apples or berries, the process of airtight 
canning being unknown. White bread is only an occasional article 
of diet. 

The head of the family wears in cool weather a hunting shirt, 
to which the modern sweater coat is a first cousin. It is of wool 
dyed with butternut. It has no buttons and is secured at the waist 
by a belt fastened behind and secured in front with a buckle. Fall- 
ing over the shoulders is a cape attached to the neck- The hem 
of the garment is fringed. Jeans trowsers and buckskin moccasins 
complete the visible part of the man's costume. His shirt is of 
linen. In winter he wears a foxskin cap and in summer a straw 
hat. His hair is worn long, but once or twice a month he shaves 
his face with a clumsy razor. 

The wife wears a dress of striped plaid. When out of doors 
she may be seen in summer in a coarse linen sunbonnet and in win- 
ter in a woolen hood. The older children are attired somewhat like 
their parents. The young girls have plaid dresses of rather pretty 
colors, and the "least child" has a flannel wrap that comes to its 
ankles. At the time of our visit John is the only member of the 
family with any covering for his feet. 

As we leave the room we catch sight of a skillet lid. When 


there are no live coals to start a fire with, John places on the lid a 
piece of maple punk, a piece of tow, and a few grains of gunpowder- 
Holding his rifle in his left hand, he kneels over the lid and strikes 
several sharp blows on the gunflint with his pocket knife. Several 
sparks fall into and ignite the powder, and thus a flame is commu- 
nicated to the punk and tow. The men of the settlement who are 
slaves to tobacco sometimes light their pipes with a burning glass, 
provided the sun is visible and no fire convenient. But the more 
expert among them can accomplish the desired result with flint and 

Behind the dwelling house is a smaller and somewhat decrepit 
structure. It was built by the senior Bee the year of his arrival. 
It is now called the loom house, but aside from the bulky loom we 
might find here a huge bear trap and a smaller trap to use against 
the detested wolf. Near the open door is a home-made basket. From 
a fresh, free-bodied hickory log a section of the bark was slipped 
off, the outer surface shaved down, and into one end was fitted a thin 
piece of wood. JSfo hooping is needed for a utensil like this. 

The barn consists of two pen-like inclosures of logs, a partially 
open space separating the two- In the hollow above the house is a 
spring of pure cold water, and near it, suspended from a tree, is 
a gourd drinking cup. There is little leather in the "gears" that 
John flings upon the backs of his bay team. The horse collars are 
of straw, bound together with hickory bark, and the lines are of the 
same material also. The bridle, the hames, and the back and side 
bands comprise the other parts of the harness. The doubletrees are 
hooked to the plow or harrow with a hickory withe, and the con- 
venient hickory bark is used to mend a sudden break. The saddle 
girth is a rope or buckskin thong- The plow is a crude and bulky 
contrivance with a wooden mouldboard. It runs shoal and hard 
and is liable to "ball up." There is a wooden-toothed harrow to 
cover a sowing of grain. The hand tools are of wood alone, so far 
as this one article will serve the purpose. The hayfork is simply a 
piece taken from a crotched sapling. 

The farming is done in a simple and wasteful way- The farm 

A FARM HOME IN 1800 123 

contains 200 acres, but only a foruth part is cleared. This open 
ground is mostly meadow and pasture. But the pasture is supple- 
mented by letting the cattle and hogs roam the woods. There is 
no thought of maintaining fertility. A newly cleared field is con- 
sidered good for some certain number of crops, after which another 
strip of ground is subjected to soil pillage. If at length the whole 
farm should become too poor to grow anything but mullein, John 
considers that there is plenty more virgin soil farther west. The 
very small acreage of grain is reaped with the sickle, three "hands" 
making a sheaf, and thirty to forty dozen of the latter a day's work. 
The expert reaper brings his narrow crescent blade close to the fin- 
gers that are gripping a hand of straw, and the left hand carries 
the scars of more than one miscalculation. All threshing is with 
the flail, and John can pound out some fifteen bushels a day, not 
counting the time spent in winnowing out the chaff. Potatoes do 
not mature until near the close of summer. The little inclosure 
near the house yields a smaller variety of vegetables than is the case 
today. We look in vain for tomatoes or lettuce- 

The acre of flax is no less essential than the little fields of corn 
and grain. There are no great cotton and woolen factories in the 
seaboard states, and the price of cloth imported from England is 
almost prohibitive to the lean purses of such men as John. But in 
the loom house the wool and the flax fiber produced on the place are 
woven into the cloth from which the family clothing, the bedding, 
and the grain sacks are made. Euphemia can weave in one day 
three yards of jeans or linsey, but as John has longer arms he can 
accomplish an output of four yards. 

There is considerable labor in growing the flax and converting 
it into tow. The first harvesting process is pulling the stalks. This 
is done while the stalks are yet greenish although the heads show 
yellow. When the threshing takes place all the heads are laid one 
and the same way. After this process, the stalks are spread out 
for some four weeks. Exposure to rain and dew renders them soft 
as well as ill-smelling. They are now broken by blows with a 
wooden knife- The tow is then separated from the splintered bark 


by passing it through sets of steel blades in the hackling boards. The 
swingling, as well as the breaking, is dusty work. By this time 
the fiber is very nearly free of woody particles, and it is now boiled 
in lye to soften it. The next step is to bleach it and this is done on 
the grass. Finally the tow is spun on the spinning wheel and it is 
then ready for the loom. The spinner is expected to know the 
number of threads to the inch, there being eight hundred in the 
finest linen. Counting them is done through a magnifying glass. 
Linen clothes are worn in hot weather, but the warmer combina- 
tion of wool and linen known as linsey is used for winter gar- 
ments. The immigrants from Ulster were proficient in weaving, 
but when the war of 1861 broke out, domestic weaving went into 
disuse in consequence of the competition with the cheap cloth of 
the great industrial cities. 

The homespun cloth is dyed brown with a cold solution of wal- 
nut hulls. By boiling this liquor a black color is produced. Mad- 
der gives a red color, maple a green, and hickory a yellow. If a 
blue shade is wanted the imported indigo is used. 

Hemp is almost as generally grown as flax. Like the latter it 
gives off a bad odor when handled. A small portion of the fiber 
is used with wool to make a coarse and almost indestructible fabric. 
This cloth is greenish at first, but gradually turns white. The 
greater portion of the hemp is sent to the seacoast cities where it is 
in good demand. In the colonial period Virginia paid a bounty 
on winter-rotted hemp, and the richer soils in the mountains are 
well suited to this exhausting crop- 
John has an apple orchard, and like many of the well-to-do set- 
tlers, he has a still, where most of the fruit is turned into brandy. 
The Ulster-Americans of that day were a very thirsty lot, and their 
whiskey displaced West India rum as the leading tipple in Virginia. 
There is no federal tax, and therefore John is not a moonshiner. 
Neither has he become so enlightened as to mix deadly chemicals 
with his firewater. Liquor in his day was in almost universal use 
by both sexes, and the amount consumed was very large. And as 

A FARM HOME IN 1800 125 

alcohol is alcohol, the world over, drunkenness was very prevalent, 
in spite of the popular delusion to the contrary. 

John Bee is one of the "best-to-do" in his community, although 
he never has much cash in his possession. He lives as much as pos- 
sible within his own resources. In his dealings with other people, 
he resorts to barter as much as he can. There is no cash market 
for the minor products of the farm. The chief source of ready 
money is in horses and cattle, but $25 will buy a good horse and $10 
a good cow. 

Money is reckoned in pounds, shillings, and pence, the pound 
being $3.33, the shilling 16 2-3 cents, and the penny a little more 
than a cent and a third. Such terms as threepence, sixpence, and nine- 
pence are in everybody's mouth- Silver coins from Spanish America 
circulate alongside those of our own mintage. And yet the currency 
in use is not so miscellaneous as before the Revolution, when also 
English, French, and Portuguese coins of both gold and silver passed 
from hand to hand, and it was necessary to compute their value by 
weight. A pair of money scales was then as necessary as a purse. 
But the Mexican dollar is the same as the Federal and is equal to 
six shillings. Eight reals make a dollar, and therefore the real is 
equivalent to the ninepence, or 12/^ cents. The half-real is accord- 
ingly worth 6/4 cents. Thus we are the better able to understand 
why such values as 6 T A, \2 l A, and 18M cents are so often mentioned 
in the account books of the first half of the nineteenth century. 

One of Bee's neighbors lives in a stone house and owns two 
slaves. But all follow the simple life. This is not from any dis- 
inclination to luxury, but because the remoteness of towns and mar- 
kets does not permit it. Some of the people in the settlement are poor 
and unambitious, and much dependent on the large landowners. 
Such families live in small, roundlog cabins, and as morality does 
not thrive in the one-roomed house, bastardy is not uncommon 
among them. 

Several miles away is a log church, a description of which we 
leave for another chapter. Considerably nearer is the little log school- 
house, where the rudiments of an English education are imparted 


to the boys and girls, especially the former, of such parents as are 
able and willing to pay for the service. The free school is far in 
the future. 

Writing paper is coarse and unruled, and a hog or a sheep will 
pay for only two quires. So when John Bee scrawls with quill pen 
his consent for sixteen-year-old Elizabeth to become the better half 
of Timothy Hay, he does not use a whole sheet or even a half sheet. 
He tears off a strip two inches wide, writes with ink made of nut- 
galls and copperas, and blots with ashes or dry dust. Finally he 
folds the slip into a small compass, as though he were a doctor put- 
ting up a dose of calomel. There is only one postoffice in the county, 
and the mails are few and exceedingly light. Envelopes being un- 
known, the fourth page of a sheet is left vacant, so that the letter 
may be folded in a special way, and the tuck secured with a wafer 
of sealing wax, provided any wax is at hand. Postage is paid by 
the person who receives the letter, and less than a ninepence will 
carry the letter only a short distance. The postage stamp is as un- 
known as the envelope. John receives two or three letters in the 
course of a year and writes as few. But he takes the weekly news- 
paper published in Staunton. This is about as large as one of our 
four page Sunday school papers, and as the editor has neither rail- 
road nor telegraph service, his weekly is very different in makeup 
from those of our own time. 

Scattered over the county are 4000 people, and yet there is no 
town. The county seat is only a hamlet. Lewisburg is only a 
small village. Staunton, a hundred miles away, is the metropolis 
of this mountain land, but contains only about 500 people. Ameri- 
can life is not yet dominated by the cities and towns. Many of the 
leaders of opinion live in country homes. 

The gristmill, the blacksmith shop, and the still-house are where 
the men congregate. The mill is a primitive affair and is run by an 
overshot wheel- At least one of these is to be found on every stream 
that is large enough to turn a wheel. The blacksmith is even more 
necessary than he is now. He makes farm implements, edged tools, 
all the nails that are in use, and he is even a manufacturer of cow- 

A FARM HOME IN 1800 127 

bells. Stores are few, small, and far between, but to some extent 
their place is supplied by the peddler. The store that John occas- 
ionally visits is a little dark room without showcases. The merchant 
brings his goods from Philadelphia and hauls sixty to eighty hun- 
dredweight at a time. He pays for them in deerskins, hams, gin- 
seng, and such other country produce as it will pay to wagon nearly 
400 miles. A year ago, the merchant sent for some coffee, but it 
was months before there was any call for it. Then a man took 
home a pound, but complained on his next visit that "the old woman 
biled them split beans half a day and then they didn't get soft 
enough to eat." 

All labor is hand labor, and although families are large, neigh- 
borly help is often in demand, especially when there is a house-rais- 
ing or a corn husking. After the work has been attended to, there 
is a square meal followed by dancing or other diversions. The purely 
social party is scarcely known, except the wedding occasion, winch 
is always a notable event- The Monroe girl of this period thinks 
little of mounting a horse scarcely yet broken, and galloping a dozen 
miles with no companions save those of her own sex. 

Doctors are few and unskilful, and being without the light of 
modern science, their methods would seem to us a suggestion of the 
dark ages. The quack doctor is more common than the honest one. 
There are quack remedies galore- But the "granny woman" is no 
quack, and with her very serviceable knowledge of herb* she is a 
fair substitute for the regular practitioner. These remedies she 
gathers from the garden, the woods, and the fields. Among them 
are slippery elm, white walnut bark, snakeroot, and mandrake. 

The world, so far as known and understood, is very narrow. 
It means little more than an expanse of frontier wilderness, inter- 
spersed with settlements more or less new. Only a few of the men 
and none of the women get so far away as Philadelphia or Richmond. 

*Some of these (not all of which are indigenous to this locality) are 
balm of Gilead, catnip, elecampane, garlic, horehound, horseradish, Je- 
rusalem oak, jimson weed, mullein, peppermint, spearmint, tansy, yarrow, 
and yellow dock. 


The ancestral home across the Atlantic has almost lapsed into a 
thing of tradition. As for the country beyond the Mississippi, it is 
less known than Central Africa is to us. The knowledge of the 
great Pacific is nearly as meager as our present knowledge of the 

The times are not those of sloth, ease, and gayety. They are 
crude, coarse, rough, and laborious. The restraints of law, religion, 
and morality are indifferently observed. Men are addicted to liquor, 
fighting, and lawsuits. Such contentment as is found is the con- 
tentment due to an ignorance of anything better. People expect to 
do things very much as their fathers have been doing them. With 
but a faint foretaste of the industrial appliances with which we are 
so familiar, they experience little of our social unrest. 


MONROE FROM 1799 TO 1861 

Civil Government in Virginia — Boundary Changes in Monroe — Progress 

During the Period — Contention Between Eastern and Western 

Districts — Mrs. Royall's Visit. 

URING the colonial period, and until 1852, civil gov- 
ernment in Virginia was quite different from what it 
was afterward. Prior to the war for American inde- 
pendence, the legislature was styled the House of Bur- 
gesses. The Governor's Council of eight members acted in a meas- 
ure as an upper house and also as a supreme court. Men charged 
with felony or treason by the county courts were sent to the capital 
to be tried before the Council 

The administration of local affairs was mainly in the hands of 
the county court, as is the case at present- But when a new county 
was to be organized, the governor commissioned certain of its citi- 
zens to act as "worshipful justices." When vacancies occurred, or 
when the court wished to increase its membership, one or more men 
were nominated by the court and confirmed by the governor. The 
justices held office indefinitely, except that the governor might re- 
move them for cause. Thus the county court was self-perpetuating. 
It was not responsible to the people of the county, and it levied taxes 
at its own pleasure. It was in its power to favor its own members 
and to be arbitrary and tyrannical. The justices belonged to the 
leading families, and it often happened that several of them would 
be closely related. But in practice, the system worked fairly well. 
The justices felt the responsibility of their position and they lived 
in close touch with the mass of the people. 

The powers of the county court were very broad. The mem- 
bers of it were magistrates, and a quorum acted as a board of county 


commissioners. They tried chancery cases and breaches of the peace, 
and could sentence a slave to capital punishment. 

At frequent intervals the court sent to the governor the names 
of one to three of the senior members, one of whom was commis- 
sioned by him as sheriff. But the sheriff sold out the office to the 
highest bidder, so that the actual work was done by his deputies. The 
court nominated the coroner, whose office was more important than 
now, since the incumbent was a conservator of the peace. It also 
elected the county clerk, the prosecuting attorney, the surveyor, the 
constables, and the overseers of the public roads. Commissioned 
officers of the militia were nominated by the court and confirmed by 
the governor. 

Each county had a county lieutenant, who in theory was a dep- 
uty governor. He had charge of the local militia, and in the field 
he ranked as a colonel. 

A minor share of the local government was attended to by the 
vestry, which was a parish board. A county contained from one 
to three parishes. The members of the first vestry were chosen by 
the people, but since the vestry rilled its own vacancies, it became a 
close corporation like the county court. Its executive officers were 
the two churchwardens. It was their duty to look after the morals 
of the parish, to build chapels and rectories for the established church, 
and to levy taxes for the support of that church. They also bound 
out orphans and bastards, so that their duties were civil as well as 

In 1776 Virginia asserted its independence of England, and 
adopted a constitution which remained the law of the state until that 
of 1829 went into effect. But as both these instruments continued 
things very nearly as they found them, the people of Virginia lived 
until 1852 under almost the same machinery of local government as 
existed under British rule. The most striking changes under inde- 
pendence were the disestablishment of the Church of England and 
the abolishing of the vestry, so far as it had to do with civil gov- 

During this period there was much restriction on the suffrage. 

MONROE FROM 1799 TO 1861 131 

In 1800 there were only three polling places in all Monroe. In 
1804 one of the presidential candidates received 60 votes at Union 
and the other received but 27. 

So late as 1829 two-fifths of the adult white males in Virginia 
were unable to vote. Even then the people could elect no state offi- 
cials except the members of the legislature, and no local officials 
whatever, except the overseers of the poor. Even the governor was 
chosen by the legislature and not by popular vote. It was only in a 
very limited sense that the government of the state could be termed 

But with the constitution that came into effect in 1852 there 
was a sweeping change. State and county officers were now elected 
by the people, and so was the county court of four members to each 
district. Until this time, the justices, of whom there was until 1830 
no fixed number, served without pay. 

Until imprisonment for debt was done away with, the jail was 
mainly used as a boarding house for delinquent debtors. The court- 
house yard was supposed to be provided with pillory, stocks, and 
whipping-post. The whipping-post at Union stood just outside the 
jail garden. The hands of the culprit went around it and were 
fastened with a clasp. The number of lashes administered to a 
culprit was seldom in excess of thirty-nine. The essential feature 
of the pillory was a pair of short planks coming together at the 
edge, but with an opening to close around a man's neck. The stocks 
confined the ankles instead of the neck. Neither punishment could 
have been enjoyable in fly time, or when jeers, pebbles, or even eggs 
of uncertain quality were flung at the prisoner, as was done in some 
localities. But before the middle of the nineteenth century the 
criminal code of Virginia became more humane. The pillory and 
the whipping-post and burning in the hand were abolished. 

After three years the county of Monroe was enlarged. But since 
then the boundaries have repeaterly been nibbled into. Appalachian 
Virginia is a land of mountains, valleys, and streams, and so it is 
comparatively easy for a neighborhood to convince itself that it is 
an intolerable hardship to go to the county seat. A mountain ridge 


becomes a frightful barrier. An intervening river has none but the 
most terrible fords. Political influence is called in to back up the 
petitions which are hurled again and again at the legislature. 

An Act of Assembly of January 2, 1802, taking effect from date 
of passage added to Monroe that portion of Botetourt within the line 
described in the next paragraph. 

Beginning at the top of the Middle Mountain, on the east side of Potts 
Creek, at the point where the Montgomery line intersects said mountain ; 
thence down the top of said mountain as far as that point thereof which 
is opposite the lower end of David Edgar's plantation on the said creek; 
and thence with a straight line northwest on such bearing as will include 
Samuel Logue's plantation on Dunlap's Creek, and so continued on to the 
line of Grenbrier County.* 

The above annexation moved the boundary much east of the 
divide between Eastern and Western waters and added about 150 
square miles of territory. But four years later the process of sub- 
traction began. Giles county, which became effective May 1, 1806, 
was formed from Montgomery, Monroe, and Tazewell, and was at 
the outset very much larger than at present. The original boundary 
on the northeast is defined as starting from the end of Gauley Moun- 
tain on New River at the intersection of the Greenbrier-Kanawha 
line, and running up New River with the Kanawha line to the in- 
tersection of the Monroe line. The line between Monroe and Mont- 
gomery is then followed to the upper end of Pyne's plantation, 
whence a straight line runs to the mouth of Rich Creek leaving the 
plantation of Hugh Caperton to the right, and then follows the 
Monroe-Montgomery line to the Botetourt line. 

The next paring away was in 1822, when Alleghany county was 
formed out of Bath, Botetourt, and Monroe. The line between 
Monroe and the new county is described as starting from "the top 
of the middle of Potts Mountain, where the Fincastle and Sweet 
Springs toad crosses; then with the Sweet Springs road to the top 
of Peters Mountain; thence a straight course to the Greenbrier line 

*The line on our map which shows this boundary is approximate and 
not exact. 

MONROE FROM 1799 TO 1861 133 

on the top of the Alleghany, passing between Sweet Springs and 
Red Spring." 

A curious circumstance attending the formation of Alleghany 
was that David Kean and Peter Wright, the sheriffs of Monroe and 
Botetourt respectively, were citizens of the new county. But by a 
special law Kean remained sheriff of Monroe for two years. 

In January, 1827, the court of Monroe was directed to have its 
survey or mark that portion of the Monroe-Giles line beginning at 
Wray's path on the top of Peters Mountain opposite Andrew Al- 
len's, and then running eastward, following the divide between 
Eastern and Western waters to Samuel Hutchinson's on the top of 
Middle, or Price's Mountain, and with the same to the Botetourt 

A third trimming was authorized by the legislature in February, 
1829. Giles was enlarged at the expense of Monroe by a line 
starting on New River at the mouth of Ford Hollow Branch and 
running direct to Rich Creek at the bend adjoining Elias Hale's. 
Thence the line ran up Rich Creek to the mouth of Scott's Branch, 
and up the latter to the top of Peters M'ountain. 

A petition of 1805 voices opposition to the creation of Giles. Two 
years later there was a petition by 146 men asking annexation to that 
county. But a counter-petition affirms that the courthouse of Giles 
is on the wrong side of New River. In 1809 there was a petition 
by 27 citizens, mostly Shumates and Fleshmans, asking annexation 
to Giles on the ground that bridle-paths were rare over Peters Moun- 
tain, and that it was more convenient to themselves to attend court 
at the county seat of Giles- Another petition of the same year has 
42 signatures. A third, with 25 names, concedes that eight per- 
sons are violently opposed to a change, while 16 others are condi- 
tionally opposed. 

Because the Greenbrier River made it troublesome to the people 
on Muddy Creek to attend muster at the courthouse, that portion 
of Monroe within the following lines went back to Greenbrier iu 
1827: From the mouth of Muddy down the Greenbrier to the mouth 
of Falling Branch; thence northwestwardly, leaving Thomas Grif- 


fith on the north and touching his land, to top of Keeney's Knob, 
where the proposed line intersects the previous county line. In 1811 
an alteration here had been asked by Joseph Alderson, who was then 

In 1835 there were 78 petitioners asking for a new county, to 
be taken from Monroe, Giles, and Fayette, but mostly from Mon- 
roe. The movement did not succeed, but in 1843 the whittling 
down of this county was resumed. In that year there was added to 
Alleghany all of Monroe outside of a boundary described as fol- 
lows: Starting from the top of Peters, or Sweet Springs, Mountain 
and running to that point on the county line where Price's Moun- 
tain turnpike ceases to be the county line; thence a direct course, 
crossing Potts Creek, to a sugartree in James Wiley's yard; thence 
a direct course to where such line will strike Price's Mountain turn- 
pike at the first ford of the run below Andrew Wilson's. 

Craig has nibbled into Monroe in 1853 and 1856. The first an- 
nexation was that part of Monroe east of a line beginning on the 
boundary of Craig at the top of Little Mountain and running with 
said line to a point opposite William A. Rowan's; thence crossing 
Potts Creek to the top of Peters Mountain opposite the said Ro- 
wan's, and with the top of said mountain to the corner of Monroe. 
Three years later there was added to Craig a strip outside of a line 
beginning on Potts Creek where the Monroe-Craig line crosses (near 
William A. Rowan's) ; thence up the creek to past George H. Car- 
penter's, and then to the Craig line near Jarvis's. 

The last of the subtractions from the county is mentioned in a 
later chapter. 

The counties of Greenbrier, Monroe, Kanawha, Cabell, Mason, 
and Bath were made into a chancery district in 1814. A superior 
court was to be held in June and November by the judges of the 
Staunton and Wythe chancery districts. 

Taxes, even until the close of the period, seem very light in 
comparison with what they are now, but in reality they were high 
enough. The United States was by no means a rich country until 

MONROE FROM 1799 TO 1861 135 

the discovery of gold in 1848. In 1832 William Arnot paid $3 
head tax for three polls and 82 cents on his land and four horses. 
In 1821 Monroe was allowed two commissioners of the revenue, 
one for each battalion district. Red Sulphur Springs was made the 
voting place for the lower battalion. In 1856 three commissioners 
were allowed. In the preceding year, a petition from the fourth 
district asks for a better voting place than the barn that was being 
used for the purpose- 
In 1824 processioning was suspended twelve years in this and 
other mountain counties. We are not aware that the practice was 
ever revived. It consisted in remarking the boundaries of tracts 
of land, and was done by men appointed for the purpose by- the 
county court. But the intent of the law was not so much the pres- 
ervation of boundary marks as it was to prevent trespass, especially 
in hunting. 

In general the period of threescore years prior to the war of 
1861 was quiet and uneventful. A slow net increase in the popula- 
tion a little more than counterbalanced the large outflow to the newer 
communities of the West and South. There was a gradual gain in 
the things that make for material comfort. At the close of the peri- 
od the county seat had become quite as populous as it is now, and 
relatively to other places around it was of more importance. Peters- 
town was a thriving village. There was much activity in the cause 
of good roads, so as to put the county within easier commercial touch 
with centers of population, east and west, and also to better accom- 
modate the throngs that visited the summer resorts. It was in the 
middle of the century that these roads witnessed their palmiest days. 
There was also a very practical interest in favor of better schools and 
a stringent control of the liquor traffic 

But the distribution of wealth was very unequal. A few fam- 
ilies had gradually come into possession of very large areas of the 
best farming and grazing lands. A numerous element of the popu- 
lation was thus squeezed into a condition of tenantry, and the influ- 
ence on the ambition and enterprise of such people was depressing. 
Some of the homes of the county were attractive rural manors 


and the abodes of education and refinement. But the log house, 
sometimes weather-boarded, was still the usual type- Perhaps the 
back door was fastened with a wooden button, and the front door 
with a wooden latch moved by a string which in daytime dangled 
outside. Locks were not always thought necessary, but the door 
was sometimes secured with a wooden bolt fastened with a bent wire. 
The amount of woodland, largely of the primeval sort, was still very 
large. Improved farm machinery, even at the close of the period, 
was little known, because it first came into use in those localities 
where the land is most easily tilled. The chaff-piler, a crude form 
of threshing machine, did not appear until 1840, and the separator 
not until 1850. Cyrus McCormick, a young man of Rockbridge, 
demonstrated the first practical reaper in 1831, but had to go West 
in order to make his invention a commercial success. Almost as 
late as 1860 the sewing machine was still a novelty, and the flint- 
lock gun was not entirely discarded- Flax was still grown and 
homespun clothes were very often worn. In short, the impress of 
the pioneer period was much in evidence until the great war. Could 
an industrial and social leader of 1800 come back to Monroe in 
1860, he would probably have said that the sum total of economic 
change during this interval was no more than he would have ex- 
pected. But a visit in 1916 would quickly cause him to rub his 
eyes in amazement and incredulity. 

The social customs of the period included some very pleasant 
features. There was little of the hurry of our modern era. People 
took time to inquire after the health and welfare of their neighbors. 
All-day visiting was a custom. Despite the differences in wealth, 
there was little of what would now be termed luxury, and in prac- 
tice, even if not in theory, there was a near approach to social equal- 
ity among the white population. The well to do were not gener- 
ally inclined to assume repellant airs. It was a forceful and cap- 
able type of manhood and womanhood that was nurtured in the 
ante-bellum years of America. M'rs. Elizabeth Burdette Miller, 
born in 1826, spun and wove most of the family clothing until after 
the war, besides helping to pull and scutch the flax out of which tow 

MONROE FROM 1799 TO 1861 137 

trowsers, table linen, towels, and other articles were made. Into her 
coverlets she could weave any leaf, vine, or other figure. She made 
straw hats for her daughters and trimmed them- Sarah Pyne Bos- 
tick lived to be a centenarian with mental faculties clear until the 
end and without having taken any medicine from a doctor. It is 
not without reason that the midcentury is thus idealized by a native 
of Monroe: 

Fifty years ago, life was a gleam in the sunlight, a lily, a pearl, and 
a rose. It was then that we shared with our playmates their toy-blocks, 
drums, and horns. In our childish imaginations, we sailed on invisible 
waters; we tunneled for silver and gold in dream mountains and fought 
in imaginary wars. In old field ponds we launched little ships of Colum- 
bus and voyaged upon the crests of perilous waves. In our imaginary 
voyages we discovered regions of wonder and islands of Crusoe. 

However, that period had a pugilistic atmosphere. The fist 
fight was an "affair of honor," a form of duel, and was often the 
climax to an insult, real or fancied, or to a difference of opinion. At 
the husking bees and other frolics were trials of strength or endur- 
ance, after the day's work was done. At one of these a budding doc- 
tor pulled off his shoes, stuffed the ends of his pantaloons into his 
socks, tied a red handkerchief round his head, and screamed that he 
could outrun the field. John Houchins, the beneficiary of the bee, 
was then a man of about 55. He told the incipient M. D. to cut 
a six foot withe and he would follow from the length of the withe, 
and whale him with the same as soon as he could get within busi- 
ness distance. The challenge was accepted, but the middle-aged 
man in his hunting shirt and rawhide boots soon overtook the young 
man and used his weapon so frequently that the junior was very 
willing to admit defeat. 

Until the war of 1861 Virginia recognized two grand divisions 
of the state. These were known as the Eastern District and the 
Western District, and they were separated by the Blue Ridge- The 
division was recognized in census, industrial, and other reports. The 
Eastern District was settled almost wholly by an English element, 
and its social ideals were aristocratic. Plantation owners were so- 
cially and politically dominant. Slaves were very numerous, and 


free labor was at a disadvantage. The Western District was set- 
tled by what we may term the American Highlander. He believed 
in free labor, owned few slaves, and did not like slavery. But the 
East was settled first. It made the laws of Virginia and deter- 
mined the nature of its institutions. It thought the West was peas- 
ant-minded. It had a love of political control and did not propose 
to permit its own section of the state to be submerged by the other. 
So the people of the Eastern Division were bent on keeping the po- 
litical center of gravity safely east of the Blue Ridge. But the peo- 
ple of the Western Division were not meek- Thus there was an 
"irrepressible conflict" within the Old Dominion, and it was bound 
to be settled in one of three ways. The West would either come 
into political control or separate, or else one district would drift 
into the same type of civilization as the other. 

Among the records of the period are several which indicate the 
feeling of the people of Monroe in this quarrel within the state. A 
petition of 1842, with many signers, condemns the inequality in leg- 
islative representation under which the Western District was la- 
boring, and it asks for a constitutional convention, wherein the mem- 
bers shall represent equal numbers of qualified voters. The agita- 
tion that inspired this petition had already been long continued, yet 
little was accomplished until 1851. As early as 1816 delegates from 
24 of the western counties met in Staunton, and issued a demand 
for a constitutional convention. One was called together in 1829, 
but it was dominated by the East, because that section had a major- 
ity of the state senatorial districts and consequently a majority in 
the convention. The constitution adopted was of such a standpat 
nature that only one of the delegates from the West voted for it. 
There was even talk of bolting to a new convention. The consti- 
tution carried in the popular vote, although the western counties 
gave an adverse majority of almost 7000 in a total vote of 9748. 
The West had asked for a loaf, and since it received a stone, its dis- 
content was greater than ever. 

The constitution of 1851 was much more liberal, although some 
of its provisions were not to be voted upon until 1865- 

MONROE FROM 1799 TO 1861 139 

In 1824 Mrs. Royall revisited this region and in her first book 
she gives a rather extended account of Monroe and Greenbrier. This 
visit falls toward the middle of the period sketched in this chapter. 
It also precedes the recollection of any person now living. As Mrs. 
Royall was a close and generally accurate observer, her mention of 
the county supplies a vacancy which otherwise could hardly be filled. 
She found the people moral and inoffensive, unsuspicious, very hos- 
pitable to strangers, and opposed to accepting rewards for entertain- 
ing them. The women were very domestic. [The crime record was 
found excellent, only two instances of murder coming within her 
knowledge. The leading exports, in the order in which they are 
enumerated by her, were fine horses, cattle, sheep, whiskey, bacon, 
sugar, tobacco, ginseng, cheese, wool, beeswax, feathers, tallow, poul- 
try, and hemp. 

The influence of the summer resorts calls out a word of sharp 
criticism. Mrs. Royall says the sight of well dressed visitors gives 
rise to an irresistible tendency among the resident people to ape 
their fashions to the limit; to put on airs and lie back from work 
and smoke cigars, not realizing that the mere possession of good 
clothes does not imply the possession of culture. She prophesies that 
the taste the people have acquired for dress, foreign manners, and 
such luxuries as coffee and tea will prove their ruin. She says that 
thirty years earlier sickness was almost wholly unknown, homemade 
cloth being a better protection against cold than "the present frip- 
pery." As a result tuberculosis had become prevalent. 

What would Mrs. Royall say as to our automobiles, moving pic- 
tures, and ice-cream counters? 



Abstracts from the County Record-Books. 

Order-Book, Sweet Springs District Court 

ECORDS begin at Greenbrier Courthouse, May 18. Henry 
Tazewell and Edmund Winston, judges. 

Samuel Dew of Hampshire appointed clerk. 
George Hancock, Francis Peyton, James Breckenridge, 
and Christopher Clark qualify as attorneys. 
Grand jury: William Royall (foreman), William Frogg, Robert Clen- 
dennin, William McCoy, William Johnson, William Ward, Jr., William 
Griffith, John Viney, Simon Shoemaker, John Miller, John Wallace, Will- 
iam Cooper, Richard McMullen, Samuel Taylor. 

Grand jury, December term at Fincastle: William Watts (foreman), 
George Skillern, Thomas Rowland, James Barnet, John Wood, William 
Davison, John Henderson, James Roberts, Henry Bowyer, William Roy- 
all, Alexander Smith, Jacob Cooper, Joseph Kile, James Simpson, Joseph 
Cloyd, Hugh Caperton, John Hutchinson, Samuel McClung, William 
Ritchie, James Robinson, William Wilson. 

Sheriff of Botetourt allowed $4 a day for attendance. 
John Carson of Ireland naturalizes. 
Samuel Blackburn qualifies as attorney. 

Ralph Elliott to hang for stealing a horse in Botetourt. 
Jacob Hunt, free negro, burnt in the hand for felony. 
Abraham Sovian, jailer, allowed $2 a day for attendance. 


William Graham, Sheriff of Monroe, allowed $5 a day for attendance. 

Trespass, assault and battery, burglary, and horse stealing are the 
principal crimes. 

Five men presented for gaming at the faro-bank of Samuel Brown at 
Sweet Springs. Benjamin Shacklet presented for keeping another bank 
at same place. The gamesters fined $20 each, and bound in $50 to $500 
for recognizance. 


Sheriff of Monroe to convey to Richmond a laborer sentenced three 
years for horse stealing. One-eighth of this time he is to be alone in a 
cell and on low and coarse diet. 

Monroe Order-Books 

June, 1799 

James Alexander enters into a bond to convey one acre for a courthouse 
and 25 acres adjacent for a townsite. 

Sheriff to let out a contract for a log courthouse and stone jail. 

The first overseer-of-the poor district to cover all the county west of 
the top of Swope's Knobs ; the second, from Swope's Knobs opposite to 
mouth of Turkey to said point, thence by direct course to top of Peters 
Mountain, thence to New River ; the third, to cover all the rest of county. 
Elections to be held at John Perry's, George King's, and the widow Kil- 

July, 1799 
James McCulloch to pay witness) fee to Peter Grass of 53 cents for 
one day at court, besides 4 cents a mile for 78 miles travel, coming and 

August, 1799 

Court at James Alexander's. 

First grand jury: Ervin Benson (foreman), William Gullett, James 
Boyd, Francis Best, James Rawlins, William Campbell, John Carr, Thomas 
Harvey, Henry McDaniel, John Blanton, James Byrnside, John Foster, Joel 
Stodghill, Lively McGhee, John Arnot, John Dunn. 

J M summoned for retailing liquor without license. 

Samuel Dew, clerk of District Court, qualifies as assistant clerk to 
John Hutchinson at such times as the latter might need to attend said court. 

John Byrnside qualifies as surveyor and James Graham as coroner. 

William Vawter, commissioner of the revenue under Greenbrier, or- 
dered to deliver such of his returns as are within the limits of Monroe. 

William White presented for assaulting and "battering" Richard Wil- 
liams, and Matthew, a negro man. 

Thomas Burns to build gristmill on Second Creek. 

Patrick Boyd given ordinary license at Union; also peddler's license. 
Mill of Tristram and Robert Patton ordered established. 
Isaac Estill sworn in as sheriff for two years from date of last com- 

Sheriff to have stocks and pillory built. 


For outrageous drunkenness, abusing the court, cursing in their pres- 
ence, and threatening mischief, Dennis Cochran is fined $28 and sent to 
jail until quiet and ready to confess his fault. 

William Hatfield presented for assault and battery. 

Charles Blythe, poor orphan, bound to James Gregory. 

Annulling of contract with Joseph McNutt to build courthouse. 

John Wallace and James Alexander given ordinary license and James 
Graham ferry license- 
Mention of Thompson's racepath. 

County expenditures: sheriff, $41.50; coroner, $4.98; surveyor, $17.23; 
deputy attorney, $67; use of Alexander house for court, $10; underpinning 
of courthouse, $37.50; work on jail by Joseph Alderson, $55; wolf boun- 
ties ($2 and $1), $20; "depositum," $522.76. 

Levy, $917: rate, one dollar per tithable. 

Thomas Fife and Robert Rowe to judge work on courthouse. If they do 
not agree, Alexander Dunlap to act as umpire, his decision being final. 


Jail accepted. Joseph Alderson, contractor. 

Christian Peters and Henry Willis petition for leave to build gristmills. 

In the cases against Muntz and Hunt, 50 cents a day allowed for guard, 
17 cents a day for prison board, and 10 cents a mile for conveying pris- 
oner. Dr. John linger turns in a bill of $45.91, Hunt having been shot 
through leg with rifle ball when caught in a meat house. 

James Davenport to purchase a county seal, the same to show a spread 
eagle surrounded by the words, "Monroe County." 

October, court at Humphrey Keyes.' November court in new court- 

Levy, $722.27; rate, 75 cents. 


Adam Kline qualifies as jailor. 

Materials for courthouse cost $731.95. 

"Staunton Phoenix" mentioned. 

Grand jury returns four bills for assault and battery and one for 
breach of Sabbath; the largest number yet. 

Sheriff to let the plastering and papering of courthouse. 

Joseph Ruth acquitted of murdering his daughter with laudanum. 

William Johnson has mill on Wolf. 

Henry Douty fined $5 for insulting a witness while drunk. 

Notice posted that any person playing at fives or ball against the court- 
house, or any other dismeanor to or at the same, is to be dealt with as 
law directs. 

Levy, $703.12; rate, 62^ cents. 

Christian Peters given ordinary license. 



Order for clerk's office; to be 14 by 16 feet in the clear, built of stone 
and fireproof. Plans to be made by Alexander Dunlap and John Hutchin- 

Sheriff protests at insufficiency of jail. 

Certified that Alexander S. Walker is a man of honesty, probity, and 
good demeanor, and has resided in county over one year. 

Richard Johnson has a mill. 

William Frogg fined $5 for an affray in door of courthouse. 

Levy, $878.40; rate, 80 cents. 


William Patton a licensed peddler. 

Edward Legg indicted for murder of Elijah Cornwell, and Thomas 
Washburn as accomplice thereto. 

William Taylor indicted for housebreaking and for stealing $70 out 
of a chest. 

Levy, $586; rate, 50 cents. 

Hugh Tiffany licensed peddler. 

James Higgenbotham held for district court on charge of murdering 
Joseph Dixon. Andrew Higgenbotham held as accomplice. 

(Records lost from June 18, 1805, to March 29, 1811.) 
Betsy, wife of John Carr, sues for separate maintenance and the same 

is allowed. 

Simeon Jarrell jailed 48 hours for attempting to rescue a prisoner from 



Eleven true bills in one court for breaches of peace. 

Seven wolf bounties this year. 

Levy, $677.50; rate, 50 cents. 

Materials of old jail to be sold and proceeds applied to inclosing public 
square. The alley between courthouse and A. and G. Beirne's store, and 
leading to Budd's, to be inclosed by fence. 

Bounty on any wolf, $8. 

Two women sue for alimony. One claim allowed. 

True bill against John Young and Andrew McLaughlin for fighting 

Rates at Pack's ferry 6^4 cents for man, horse, or mule, and V/i cent 
for each hog or sheep. 


Road surveyor presented for not keeping an index in forks at Samuel 

Levy, $446.49; rate, 33 cents. 

Samuel Pack has ordinary license. 

Thomas Reynolds to build gristmill on Second Creek. 

Christopher Shaffer has gristmill. 

Isaac Cook has gristmill license on Laurel. 


Ordinary rates: 

Warm dinner or breakfast $ .33 

Cold dinner 25 

Cold breakfast 21 

Feather bed 12J4 

Chaff bed 08 

Corn or oats per gallon 123^ 

Pasturage, 24 hours 12^4 

Stablage and hay, 24 hours 37^4 

Whiskey, per half pint 12^4 

Peach brandy, per half pint 25 

Apple brandy, per half pint 12^2 

Cider, per gallon 33 

French brandy, per gallon 6.33 

Port wine, per gallon 6.00 

Jane Tygart, indicted for killing John, her husband. 

Levy, $528.08; rate, 37^ cents. 

Levy, $411.51; rate, 29 cents. 

Allowed for patrolling, $16.15; for sign posts, $10. 
Mention of legislation on the banknotes of other states to decide which 
ones are current. 

In August court 16 presentments, 9 being for breaches of the peace. 
Levy, $504.57; rate, 33 cents. 

Levy, $761 ; rate, 50 cents. 

William Clark has ordinary license. 
Levy, $2180.75; rate, $1.37*4 
Allowed to sheriff, $167; to contractor for new courthouse, $1586. 


Stephen Hensley indicted for passing counterfeit banknotes, knowing 
them to be bad, and escapes from prison. 


Rates at Alderson's ferry raised to 12/4 cents for man or horse. 

Allowed for courthouse, $2000. 

Levy, $2712.85; rate, $1.67 2-3. 

Ordinary rates: warm dinner, 37^2 cents; warm supper or breakfast, 
33 1-3 cents; lodging, 12^2 cents; common cider, per gallon, 25 cents; 
boiled cider, 50 cents. 

For keeping livestock taken on execution, 9 cents per head for cattle, 
17 cents for one horse or 5 sheep. 

Alexander Kitchen given ordinary license. 

Samuel Hilton married in Grayson county, moved away, and "by the 
instigation of the devil did feloniously and (in) wickedness marry again." 

Magistrates divided into foiir classes: one for March, May, and July; 
one for January, September, and November; one for February, August, 
and October; one for April, June, and December. 

Levy, $3224; rate, $2. 

Sheriff allowed 40 cents a day for boarding a prisoner. 
John Martin has contract for building courthouse. 


Quite a number of licenses about this time, especially of store and 
house goods. 

Levy, $622.12; rate, 37^ cents. 

Courthouse formally accepted in August. 

Stephen Hensley sent to state prison for five years and six months. His 
counterfeit notes to the sum of $5175 filed with county clerk, and burned 
in presence of court, except one note on each of the banks, which was 
filed with the prosecution papers. One note of $20 supposed to be good. 

Stove for courthouse ordered. 

For working on roads, 50 cents a day allowed; for putting up a guide 
board, 50 cents; for blasting rocks, one dollar a day. 
Levy, $829.48; rate, 50 cents. 
John Peters given ordinary license. 

William Clark has ordinary license. 
Levy, 989.35; rate, 52 cents. 
Old office of county clerk to be rented out. 


John Hank allowed to teach singing school in grand jury room. 
Road surveyors get 25 cents a day. 
Levy, $1041.60; rate, 60 cents. 


Andrew Summers given ordinary license. 

Levy, $937.70; rate, 52 cents. 

William Connell, jailor. 

Appropriated for roads (including $50 for a bridge), $606.01; accounts 
allowed, $76.30; state's attorney, $75; jailor, $80; sheriff, $60; firewood 
for courthouse, $10; patrolling, $25.39. 

Levy, $892; rate, 50 cents. 

Order for bridge over Indian at William Vass's. 
Rather frequent felonies, especially breaking into barns. 

Levy, $743.77; rate, 50 cents. 


Levy, $1917.77; rate, $1.02J4. 

For poorhouse, $600 appropriated; total cost not to exceed $2000. 

Levy, $1600; rate, 85 cents. 
John W. Kelly recommended as escheator. 

Ordinary license, $18. 

James Dunlap ordered to build porch to courthouse. 
Robert Williamson charged with stabbing William Derieux. 
Levy, $2296.80; rate, $1.20. 

Levy, $1166; rate, 62^2 cents. 

Madison McDaniel given ordinary license. 
Levy, $1306.25; rate, 68^4 cents. 

Charles Houchins, John Peters, and Joel Stodghill keep houses for 
private entertainment. James Handley, Nathaniel B. Kelly, and Philip 
Rodgers given ordinary license. 


254 men delinquent in tax. 
Levy, 656.48; rate, 31 cents. 

Robert Coalter, William Nelson, and Henry Kelly keep houses of pri- 
vate entertainment. 

Several persons pass counterfeit money. 
Levy, $1353; rate, 62^2 cents. 

James Trucks given ordinary license. John and Conrad Peters keep 
houses of private entertainment, the former at Peterstown. 
Levy, $998.35; rate, 46^ cents. 

Randolph Stalnaker given ordinary licensee. George W. Shawver and 
Andrew Miller have houses of private entertainment. 

Levy, $2493; rate, $1.12H- 

Levy, $1333.88; rate, 76^ cents. 

Voting places are the courthouse, Jacob Wickline's, Andrew Gwinn's, 
and Red Sulphur. 

Religious services to be allowed in courthouse. 
John Hinton to open a ferry. 
Levy, $1456.57; rate, IZYt. cents. 


Courthouse to be painted. 

Several fights and forgeries. 

Levy, $1939.29; rate, \iy 2 cents. 

County expenditures embrace 178 items, the largest number yet. Fox 
bounties are $86, the rates being $1.50 and 75 cents. State's attorney is 
paid $100, the county clerk, $100, the sheriff, $75, the jailor, $50, the janitor 
of courthouse, $30. 

Allowed for surveying roads, 50 cents a day: for putting up a sign- 
board, $1.25. 


Levy, $1612.50; rate, 50 cents. 
Elliott Vawter has ordinary license. 


Alexander Humphreys and Jacob C. Humphreys keep houses of private 

Levy, $1055.01; rate, 62 J / 2 cents. 

Levy, $1173.76. 

William Bolinger and Franklin F. Neel keep houses of private enter- 
tainment, the license being $3. 

Moses Mann has a mill on Indian. 
Levy, $1163.59; rate, 50 cents. 

John Dickson has ordinary license. 
Eleven constables appointed. 
William Hole has sawmill on Laurel. 
Levy, $1408.98; rate, 62^ cents. 

Levy, $1369.71; rate, 57 cents. 

William Hinchman, Robert Gwinn, Jacob Wickline, and Daniel Wick- 
line keep houses of private entertainment. 
Clock peddlers's license is $50. 
Samuel C. Humphreys has ordinary license. 

Smallpox at James S. Ballard's causes county expense of $57.62. 


J. and J. Zoll and George Alstadt have ordinary license, and Robert 
Shanklin, William Early, John Dickson, George Moss, Henry Gilmer, and 
William Hinchman keep private entertainment. 

Only one wolf bounty. 


James and George A. Mann keep private entertainment, and Edward 
White and Company have ordinary license. 

John A. Hull keeps private entertainment. 
The justices under the new constitution meet and organize, July 19. 


Floyd Crawford has ordinary license at $27.50. 
Lewis A. Shanklin and James Keatly keep private entertainment. 


State election, Thursday, May 25. Voting places: courthouse, Dickson's, 
Miller's store, Haynes', Rollinsburg, Red Sulphur, Centerville, Mrs. Peck's. 

Tax delinquents in First District 123 ; in Second, 175. 

Grand jurors allowed one dollar each. 

Rates at Pack's ferry: 6%. centsi per person, horse, ox, wagon, or wheel 
(of light vehicle) ; 12^2 cents per 20 sheep or hogs; 25 cents' per 20 cattle. 

D. Watts and Brother (merchants) remove from Pickaway to Salt 

Smallpox prevalent and regulations ordered. 

Private entertainment by John L. McCorkle and Thomas Johnson. 
Wolf bounties are $8 and $4. Fox bounties are reduced to $1 and 50 

Edward White has ordinary license; John Symms, Rufus Pack, Good- 
all Garten, and Lewis A. Shanklin keep private entertainment. 

John P. Ross, Samuel C. Humphreys keep private entertainment. 
Levy, $2730.37; rate, $1.25. 


Over 200 persons subject to jury service. 

Levy, $2588.73. Itemized expenditures cover eight large pages. Roads 
cost $635.78, fox bounties, $59, wolf bounty, $8. 

Thomas Johnson, A. M. Hawkins, Samuel Kincaid, James Vawter, An- 
derson Brown, G. C. Landcraft, James Keatly keep private entertainment. 

Henry Steele has sawmill. 

William Connell still jailor. 



Early Events — Local Occurrences — Disruption of Virginia — 
Reconstruction Period. 

HE war of 1861 is the most striking event in Ameri- 
can history. Both the contending parties were entirely 
honest and sincere, even if they could not see alike. 
The points of view between North and South were 
very unlike, and the time has not yet come for a history of that con- 
flict which will meet with as general approval in the one section as 
in the other. Hundreds of volumes have been written upon the 
subject, and it is among these that the general reader must look. The 
topic is much too large to be treated briefly and at the same time 

Virginia was rent in two as an effect of the war, and this county 
is on the dividing line- Such facts are of peculiar interest to a 
county situated like Monroe. Yet our space does not permit us 
to go much outside of those events which were of local importance. 

Although Southern in position and sentiment, the mass of the 
Virginians were reluctant to take sides with the cotton states that 
seceded just after the November election of 1860. [The statesmen 
of the Old Dominion tried hard to secure a peaceful settlement of 
the matters in dispute, but the times "were full of passion and rash- 
ness." The governor called an extra session of the legislature to 
determine "calmly and wisely what ought to be done." That body 
met January 7, 1861, and as it decided to call a state convention, 
an election of delegates to the same took place February 4. Vir- 
ginia had never yet had a convention not authorized by popular 
vote, and by a vote of more than two to one she now reserved the 
right to pass upon the doings of the present one. The convention 
met February 13. Little more than one-fifth of the delegates came 


to Richmond as avowed secessionists. But the popular excitement 
was intense and the secession element was very aggressive. The 
line was finally drawn when President Lincoln called for troops 
to put down the secession of the cotton states. A majority of the 
Virginia people were unwilling to indorse coercion, and an ordi- 
nance of secession was finally adopted by a vote of 88 to 55- Allen 
T. Caperton and John Echols, the delegates from Monroe, voted 
with the majority. 

An election set for May 23 was to approve or disapprove the 
adoption of the ordinance. But neither secessionists nor anti-seces- 
sionists waited for this. The state government entered into an ar- 
rangement with the Confederacy April 24, and was formally ad- 
mitted May 7. By this time the northwestern counties were or- 
ganizing in opposition to this step. 

The people of Monroe very generally upheld the Confederate 
cause, sent their young men into its armies, and made great sacri- 
fices in its behalf. Excepting the few occasions when the county 
was occupied by Federal armies it lay within the Confederate lines. 

There were, however, a number of people who at heart were 
unsympathetic toward the Southern cause. But sometimes this feel- 
ing appeared to take the form of opposition to military service on 
either side. 

While there were thirteen battles and skirmishes in Greenbrier, 
there is chronicled for Monroe only the very insignificant affair at 
Wolf Creek, May 15, 1862, and the slight skirmish at Second Creek 
bridge the succeeding May. Yet certain events in the adjoining 
counties are closely associated with the war history of Monroe- 

The first of these occurred very early in June, 1861. The war 
was yet a new and strange thing, and it was a time of tense excite- 
ment. The superstitious saw battle-flags in the heavens. They 
would have it that fowls were laying strange eggs with signs and 
letters on them, and that the locusts had a W on their wings. On 
the third day of the month, a greatly excited courier dashed up to 
J. W. Johnson's store on Wolf Creek, and reported that 3000 Fed- 
erals were on their way from Nicholas Courthouse to Meadow Bluff, 
and that they were killing men, women, and children, burning 


houses, and committing all manner of depredation. The news 
spread like wildfire. The crazy raid of John Brown at Harper's 
Ferry was called to mind, and it intensified the excitement. Men 
left their work and women cried. John G. Stevens mounted a 
horse and rode away to learn the truth- Near Blue Sulphur a 
friend told him that the enemy, 1500 strong, would reach Meadow 
Bluff that night, that one column would then proceed to Lewisburg 
and another to Union, and burn both towns. He was also told 
that citizens were felling trees across the road. 

Stevens returned and was that night ordered by General A. A. 
Chapman to muster his company at Union. It was understood that 
Lewisburg had sent for aid. So in the morning Stevens used his 
own discretion and marched his company toward Alderson's Ferry. 
On the hill just south of the present town he was met by Colonel 
Ellis and his men. It was now learned that no Federals were be- 
lieved to be nearer than the Ohio River. The men were ordered 
into a hollow square, and were complimented for their promptness 
by "Uncle" James Miller. On their return to their homes, the 
men under Stevens encountered a host streaming northward. These 
people were armed with flintlock muskets, squirrel rifles, shotguns, 
rusty horse pistols, pitchforks, and corncutters- Among the crowd 
was the militia company of Captain Green Lively. All were as 
intent on giving the supposed invader a hot reception as were the 
farmers of Massachusetts who came so near annihilating Pitcairn's 
redcoats 86 years earlier. Chapman had said he would put his men 
in Monroe Draft, occupy both sides of the road, and wipe out the 
enemy. He was not taking into account the probability that the 
foe would send his scouts in advance. It is said, however, that one 
Monroe man, when he was told that invaders were coming, picked 
out a hollow tree, but when he got to it another man had crawled 

The next approach of war was in May, 1862. Early that 
month Lewisburg was occupied by the Greenbrier Riflemen under 
Captain Eakle, and by Company E of Edgar's Battalion under Cap- 
tain Hefner. On the 12th, the town was entered and held by 300 
Federals under Colonel Elliott of Crook's Brigade. Other troops 

^ CI -r; 

o .£ 

K « o 


O £ 

Major General in the Confederate Army 


of the brigade soon arrived and went into camp on the hill just 
west of town. General Heth with a column of Confederates re- 
ported by Crook as 2500 strong advanced from the Narrows of New 
River. He entered the town from the east and gave battle at 5:15 
on the morning of the 22d- The Federals were nearly taken by 
surprise but behaved well. 'So did the Confederates until flanked 
and enfiladed, when they fell back to the hill east of town and then 
recrossed the swollen Greenbrier, burning the bridge behind them. 
The action had lasted about an hour and was fought mostly in the 
streets. General Crook states that he had 2500 men and six guns. 
He reported his loss as 11 killed, 55 wounded, and 7 missing, a 
total of 72 men. He claims that his foe left 38 dead and 66 wound- 
ed on the field, and that 100 prisoners and four guns were taken. 
General Heth gives his own strength as 2000 infantry, 100 cavalry, 
and three batteries. He supposed he had not more than 1500 in- 
fantry and 150 cavalry to fight, and complains that a senseless panic 
seized his men when victory was in sight. But he was blamed for 
unskilful conduct, particularly in ordering the artillery to join in 
the charge. When the battery that lost the four guns was about 
to have them replaced, they asked that the cannon be provided with 
bayonets. The Confederate dead were buried in one trench about 
fifty feet long. Crook states that while some of his wounded were 
going to the rear they were fired on from the houses and one of 
them killed- He threatened to hang the snipers in the open street 
and to burn their houses. 

Near this time there were some very minor operations along 
New River, below the Narrows. One of these was by Colonel 
Wharton, who with 900 Confederates and two guns marched by 
night from Peterstown, and at sunrise, August 6th, shelled Colonel 
Scammon's brigade at Pack's Ferry. Each side claimed the ad- 

In August, 1863, General Averill with his Federal cavalry 
started from Winchester and raided up Dunlap Creek as far as 
Callaghan's. All the saltpeter works within reach were destroyed. 
He reconnoitered toward Sweet Springs, but at 4 A. M., the morn- 
ing of the 26th, he moved toward White Sulphur, intending to 


seize the law library belonging to the Court of Appeals at Lewis- 
burg, so that it might be used in the river counties of the state. When 
12 miles out, he met the Confederates in force at Dry Creek, or 
Rocky Gap, and fought them ten hours with varying result. Scam- 
mon not coming up with reinforcements, Averill fell back next 
morning, fighting and felling trees to cover his retreat. One of his 
cannon burst from being struck in the muzzle by a ball- He says 
he did not have 1300 men in the battle, and gives his loss during 
the whole raid as 218. General Patton, commanding the Confed- 
erates at Dry Creek, says he himself had about 1900 men and Chap- 
man's Battery of four guns. He gives his loss as 20 killed, 129 
wounded, and 13 missing, a total of 162, and reports taking 117 
wounded and unwounded prisoners. Chapman, who is compli- 
mented in Patton's report, says his enemy fired rapidly and accur- 
ately, disabling one of his guns. 

The battle of Droop Mountain was fought November 6, 1863, 
near the line between Greenbrier and Pocahontas. There were 
seven organizations on each side, General Echols commanding the 
Confederate column of 1700 men and six guns. After an engage- 
ment of six hours the Confederates were flanked on both wings 
and pursued to Lewisburg. They lost 275 men, one gun, and one 
flag. General Averill, in command of the Federals, reported a loss 
of 119. Duffle advanced from Meadow Bluff to his support, and 
finding his enemy had passed through Lewisburg, pursued him to 
the burning bridge over Second Creek, where he lost three men in 
a skirmish and took a few prisoners. He also took 110 cattle dur- 
ing his pursuit. Echols fell back to Sinking Creek in Giles county, 
and in his first report General Jones considered the defeat a serious 
matter. But it was later claimed that to the Federals there was 
little material advantage. 

Echols soon reoccupied Lewisburg. A few weeks later he made 
a hurried march by way of Sweet Springs to the top of Peters 
Mountain to intercept Averill on his return from a raid into South- 
west Virginia. Other troops were hemming the Federals on the 
other flank, but they escaped the trap set for them. While at New- 


castle, Averill sent for a physician named Wylie, shrewdly knowing 
that a country doctor could not fail to be well acquainted with the 
roads in his territory. Wylie at first refused to pilot the Federals 
to Covington, but yielded to the threat of being shot, and led Aver- 
ill 's troops to the desired point. Wylie was given a reward for the 
very unwilling service, and was regarded by his own people as a 
traitor. The smoke of the burning bridge over Jackson's River at 
Covington apprised Echols that his prey had eluded him. 

Near the middle of January, 1864, General Crook with a large 
force entered Monroe and lay a while at Union. An incident of 
this occupation was when Nelson Nickell and a few daredevil com- 
panions dashed into the south end of the village, captured the picket 
at Chapman's corner, and made their escape amid a shower of bul- 

Later in the same year, General Hunter marched through the 
Blue Ridge to capture Lynchburg, but found it too strongly de- 
fended, General Lee having sent a large force under Early to its 
relief. Hunter fell back to Salem, and was so vigorously pursued 
that he fled through the mountains to the Ohio River, leaving the 
way open for General Early to pursue his famous campaign in the 
lower Shenandoah Valley. Hunter passed through Sweet Springs, 
Union, and Lewisburg, resting two days at the last named place. 
Being cut off from his supply train, he had to subsist his army off 
a thinly peopled mountain region. Provisions and forage were 
scarce and his men nearly starved. 

The final skirmish in this region took place a few days after the 
surrender of Lee. It was at Big Rock, seven miles east of Hinton, 
and Thurmond's Rangers were the Confederate force. No one was 
hurt on either side. 

During the four years of war, farming and other home indus- 
tries and the public business were kept going, but only after a fash- 
ion. Nearly all the able-bodied men were absent in military service. 
Some of the slaves had fled or were kidnapped, and others had been 
sent away. Only one span of horses was allowed to each farm, 
any surplus being impressed. The roads were almost wholly neg- 
lected- The markets being cut off or demoralized, there was no 


free movement into the county of the commodities it had been cus- 
tomary to purchase abroad. The armies, whether of friend or foe, 
made heavy drafts on the limited amount of the foodstuffs and 
forage produced. During one of the four years the wheat crop 
was almost a failure. Rye and corn had to make good the shortage 
after a manner. Real coffee was displaced by parched rye and 
chestnuts; real tea by a drink made of birch or raspberry. Cotton 
became worth $60 a pound in Confederate money. There was nec- 
essarily much privation and hardship. But fortunately there was 
no widespread depredation, such as took place in the zones marched 
over by the great armies. Yet an undated petition by A. T. Caper- 
ton and 17 others complains "that many of the citizens as well as 
soldiers have become so lawless that it is almost impossible to pro- 
tect our growing crops or any inclosure upon our lands." 

With the three Wheeling conventions in West Virginia and the 
war constitution of 1863, Monroe county had nothing to do. For 
a while it was not the intention of the Wheeling government to in- 
clude in the new state the counties of Pocahontas, Greenbrier, and 
Monroe. The boundary as finally determined took in several coun- 
ties which did not support the new state movement, nor did they 
sympathize in any large degree with the Federal cause. It would 
look as though this arbitrary action should subsequently have been 
passed upon by a popular vote in the communities thus affected. 

Thus the close of hostilities found this county in West Virginia 
without having had any voice in the matter. For a while there 
was a chaotic condition of civil authority. During more than half 
a year there was no local government. The last session of the 
county court under Virginia was held May 15, 1865. Not until 
the last day but one of the following November was a board of 
supervisors organized, in accordance with the West Virginia prac- 
tice. Even then the county government was not truly representa- 
tive of the people. A large majority of the citizens were disfran- 
chised in consequence of the test oaths exacted by the Wheeling gov- 
ernment. That there was some impatience and resentment is not 
to be wondered at. 


Narrow, bitter prejudices and a lack of constructive statesman- 
ship were in the saddle in those days and were not confined to either 
faction. The registration laws and the test oaths enabled the gov- 
ernor to say who should and who should not vote. In the ex-Con- 
federate counties a large majority of the men of voting age had been 
"rebels." As a matter of course they represented the greater share 
of the wealth and intelligence of their communities, and yet they 
were disqualified as being unworthy of trust. Without their aid 
it was practically impossible to reorganize competent local govern- 
ments. For illibejrality in this trying time West Virginia was 
conspicuous among the states. 

In 1868 it was alleged that the registration boards were intim- 
idated in this county. The presence of the Ku Klux Klan was sus- 
pected, and national troops stood guard at the polls. In the elec- 
tion of that year only 326 men voted. 1511 were debarred. In 
1870 the troops were present again, and the Democratic and Re- 
publican votes were respectively 454 and 303, thus indicating that 
only about two men out of five were able to cast ballots. 

Relief came through a constitutional amendment offered by W. 
H. H. Flick, the representative from Pendleton. Flick was a na- 
tive of Ohio, and had been a Federal soldier. He was a statesman 
and enjoyed the respect and esteem of the men he had fought. He 
was one of the party in power who believed the proscription laws 
were neither necessary nor wise. In Monroe this amendment was 
indorsed by the Democrats and denounced by the Republicans. The 
county adopted it by a vote of 618 to 101 ; the state, by 23,546 votes 
against 6,323- It is alleged that owing sometimes to laxity in en- 
forcing the registration, and sometimes to intimidation, many of the 
disfranchised voted for the amendment, and thus legalized their own 
right to vote. The Flick amendment was proclaimed as a law of 
the state in April, 1871, and it ended the reconstruction era in West 
Virginia. Another result was to transfer the control of the state 
from the Republican party to the Democratic. A third result was 
the state constitution of 1872. 

The war constitution of 1863 was very largely patterned by the 


men of the Northern Panhandle. They used an Ohio model, and 
is was too radical to suit a majority of the West Virginia people. 
The county court was abolished and a township system of local gov- 
ernment was substituted. The township chose annually a supervisor, 
a clerk, an overseer of the poor, and surveyors of the roads; one or 
more constables to serve two years, and one or more justices to 
serve four years. The county officers were the recorder, the sheriff, 
the county surveyor, the prosecuting attorney, and one or more as- 
sessors, all for terms of two years. 

In the constitutional convention of 1872 the opposite element 
was overwhelmingly in control. Provisions of the war constitution 
were reversed, not because they were good or bad in themselves, but 
because they were "Yankee innovations." The old county court was 
restored, and the name supervisor was spitefully cast out, although 
retained by Virginia as one of the innovations of her own reconstruc- 
tion constitution. 

To add to the unhappy situation of Monroe at this time, it was 
afflicted with a most corrupt judge. Nathaniel Harrison, a scion 
of the family that has given two presidents to the United States, 
came to Monroe in early life, married here, and entered upon the 
practice of law. He was a man of fine personal presence and much 
legal ability. At the close of the war he connected himself with 
the party in power, and was made judge of the Ninth District. 
Under the forms of law he outraged decency and oppressed and 
plundered the people, almost after the manner of an Oriental satrap. 
During several years complaints were useless because they were from 
"rebel" sources. But at length Harrison resigned under fire and 
spent his last days in Colorado- It is said he received threatening 
letters while judge. Almost the only good act related of him in 
his official capacity was his sentencing a deserter for five years and 
in this way abating the trouble from horse thieves. 



Quotations from the County Order-Books. 

N this chapter the order-books relate their own version 
of the events of the war period. Extracts on the 
more important matters are given for the interval be- 
tween the beginning of 1861 and the end of Virginia's 
authority in this county. 


John Chewning licensed to keep a house of private entertainment. 

G. C. Landcraft succeeds William Connell as jailor, the latter having 
had a long term of service. 

Special court, April 29. "for the purpose of putting the county in a 
proper state of defense in the present crisis." Voted unanimously that 
$10,000 be appropriated to put the county in defense, equipping volunteers, 
and paying for the support of destitute families. James M. Byrnside ap- 
pointed agent to get a loan of $10,000. Ordered that volunteers, including 
musicians, be allowed $1.50 a day for 10 days, the same to be paid out of 
this loan. George W. Hutchinson to disburse the said fund on draft from 
commanding officer. 

Captains Samuel C. Waite, Irvin B. Hull, Hugh A. Lynch, and George 
N. Brown, with five men each, assigned, May 20, to patrol duty. On this 
day, Edward Hennessy and John Greeves were naturalized as citizens of 
the United States. 

Byrnside to pay one dollar to each member of Beirne's Volunteer Com- 
pany for each day of drill, not exceeding 10 days, Date of organization 
of company, May 20. 

Thomas F. Parke's hotel license is $73.33. 

Captains John H. Nickell and L. C. Thruston assigned to patrol duty. 

It appearing, June 17, that there are four companies of volunteers or- 
ganized in this county, and that perhaps another will be formed in a 
short time, all members of which will have to be drilled before they are 
mustered into the service of the state, ordered that each member be paid 
$1.25 a day for 10 days. 

Byrnside reported on loan and was allowed to pay Robert L. Shanklin 
$120.72 for boarding the Centerville Rifle Company while drilling. 


Captain Waite authorized to buy a drum. 

Thomas E. Dickson, George W. Hutchinson, A. M. Hawkins, James W. 
Johnson, William Adair, Richard V. Shanklin, and James K. Scott are 
commissioners to furnish necessary supplies to such families of volunteers 
as are proper subjects of relief. 

Levy, $6348.27. Rate per capita, $2.75. 

Of the levy, $3600 to be a "depositum" to meet payment of $3000 on 
county bonds. But this order was annulled July 15, when $1.20 per tithe 
was set aside for the purpose, and 60 cents per $100 on personalty and 
land to meet principal and interest on loan of $10,000 was ordered. 

Lewis Ballard and William Smith indicted for instigating others to 
establish a usurped government, etc. Lewis and Jeremiah Ballard plead 
not guilty and give recognizance in bond. 
Justices present, July 15: 

John E. Alexander James W. Johnson 

Robert C. Brown Jesse Jones 

Michael Beamer William L. Lewis 

E. M. Brown William Lynch 

James Carpenter John Maddy 

William Ellis Abner Neel 

Jehu Hank * Archibald Pack 

Samuel Hamilton Rufus Peck 

John H. Hansbarger William L. Peck 

A. R. Humphreys William Scott 

John H. Vawter 
The justices took an oath of fidelity to the Commonwealth and appointed 
a regular police force, any member of the same being authorized to take 
before a justice any person he has cause to suspect has violated any state 
law, such as tampering with slaves, or aiding and abetting the government 
of the United States, or any officer or agent thereof in any invasion of 
this commonwealth, or any of its citizens acting under the proper authori- 
ties thereof, or any person who shall by letter or otherwise communicate 
to the United States government, or any officer or agent thereof, directly 
or indirectly, any information touching the action of the commonwealth or 
its authorities. 

Captains assigned to patrol duty, November 18, with three or four men 

John E. Alexander John A. Nickell 

Henry Ballard James M. Nickell 

Thomas Biggs Caperton Right 

Washington Brown William S. Ruddell 

James H. Burdette Richard Watts 

Wilson Watts 
Lewis A. Shanklin became justice, December 15, vice Fleshman. 



John Echols appointed agent for Monroe to sell, assign, or transfer 
bond, number 13, C. S. A. to Monroe county, $1500 of same being redeem- 
able January 1, 1867, with interest at eight per cent. Date of bond, De- 
cember 17, 1861. 

One Taylor, a slave, for burning the barn and washhouse of Moses 
Arnold, the property being worth $200 and the slave $500, was ordered 
transported out of Confederate territory. 

An unusual number of deaths lately and no one to act as administrator. 

Eight indictments for the illegal retailing of liquor — March 18. 

Monroe and Greenbrier being declared under martial law, A. T. Ca- 
perton recommended for provost marshal, upon request by General Heth. 

John Echols to deal as aforesaid with bond 104 for $2200, dated March 
18, 1862, and redeemable after January 1, 1864. 

May 19: — Ordered that Monroe issue notes to the amount of $10,000, 
in denominations of 10, 15, 25, 50, 75, and 100 cents, said notes to read: 

''The county of Monroe will pay the bearer cents, redeemable in 

current funds at the clerk's office of the said county," pursuant to the pro- 
visions of an Act of the General Assembly passed March 29, 1862, entitled, 
"An Act to provide a currency of notes of less denomination than five 
dollars." George W. Hutchinson to sign and number these notes. 

Pursuant to Act of Assembly for 10,000 bushels of salt, John M. Rowan 
appointed agent to arrange with Stuart, Buchanan and Company for the 
purchase, the salt to be delivered at Union and James Swinney's. Rowan 
gave bond in $2000 and was to be allowed his necessary expenses. Dis- 
tribution of salt to be at the rate of 20 pounds per inhabitant for the year, 
and the price — to allow for waste — to be 25 per cent above cost. 

Levy, $2092.43. County expenses cover three pages of items. Appro- 
priated for roads, $79; for patrolling, $173.84. No fox bounties. 

August 21: County notes issued to the amount of $9374. 

November 17: "An alarming scarcity of the necessaries of life resulting 
from the withdrawal of a large amount of the labor of the county, an un- 
precedented drouth, and the presence among us for a considerable period 
of time of the army of this department, and fearing that there will be 
great want and distress upon the part of families of soldiers now in the 
service," an appropriation in small notes to the extent of $15,000 ordered. 
A. A. Chapman, A. T. Caperton, and G. W. Hutchinson ordered to com- 
municate with the Confederate States for whatever supplies the said gov- 
ernment can furnish, and to address the commanding general of this de- 
partment, asking him if possible not to impress any further supplies. Com- 
mittee appointed to purchase and distribute supplies, and to make diligent 
examination into the condition and necessities of the families of the county 
as well as the prospects and resources of supplies. Said committee thus 
constituted : 


First District: James Carpenter, Abner Neel. 

Second District: John A. Nickell, Wilson Watts. 

Third District: John W. Reaburn, A. M. Hawkins. 

Fourth District: Z. A. Woodson, Oliver Skaggs. 

Fifth District: James K. Scott, Green Riles. 

Sixth District: William Adair, Archibald Pack. 

Seventh District: James Swinney, Riley B. Cook. 

November, 17: Rowan, salt agent, to be paid $1000 out of the sale of 
small notes. 

Salt distributors not to sell to anyone who has provided himself with 
Kanawha salt. 

December, 15: Five free male negroes chosen to work as laborers in 
Army of Southwestern Virginia, per order of Quartermaster General of 
said Department. Sheriff to notify them to report to Major Thomas P. 
Lewis at Salt Sulphur by January 5, 1863. 

Order for assessment of damages to Richard and Joseph Dickson by 
state troops under Colonel Swan. 


A. A. Chapman provost marshal. 

Committee appointed last November to buy at once supplies for those 
unable to procure them and in need. Committee now to draw upon the 
clerk for funds and to buy upon the best termsi possible. Supplies also 
furnished to those without them but able to pay. 

February 16: Leave given the Confederate government to take the 
saltpeter from under the floor of courthouse. William Connell to super- 
vise this work. 

March 16: Certain citizens of North Carolina offering to supply cotton 
yarns to persons not Speculators, this county being unable to get such yarns 
except at extortionate prices, and John McCreery being willing to purchase 
from said factories without fee or reward, he was therefore appointed. 

April 20: Surveyor and his deputy both absent. 

Committee being unable to obtain the necessary supplies for needy fam- 
ilies, impressment of the same is ordered. 

Thomas E. Dickson qualified a justice, having been commissioned in 
place of John E. Morgan. 

May 18: G. W. Hutchinson, clerk, reported $2000 spent for cotton pur- 
chased by McCreery, and $4500 spent for salt; also that $25,000 had been 
issued in notes of 10 centsl to one dollar, face value. 

Levy, $5500. Tithables, about 2423. Spent on roads, $6. 

William Adair and James Ml Nickell appointed to go to the factories 
of North Carolina and purchase 2500 bunches of spun cotton and 5000 
yards of cotton cloth; or as much thereof as they can, and on the best 
termsi they can secure, and distribute in such quantity as will meet the 


absolute necessities of each family, and for such price as the county shall 
pay for same. The clerk is to turn over to them his unappropriated funds, 
and they are also to borrow from the Bank of Virginia, now at Christians- 
burg. The court to pay off this) loan in 120 days. 

The board of prisoners fixed at $1.25 a day. 

Amos A. Hansbarger granted tavern license at Union for $159, the 
liquor retailed to be drunk only on premises. 

June 15: 40 road overseers appointed. 

The order for cotton reaffirmed as to Nickell, he to buy 9000 yards of 
cotton goods, or as much thereof as he can, and in paying for the same, he 
is authorized to borrow for 90 days on the credit of the county; also au- 
thorized to buy cotton yarn and 200 sacks of salt. 

Many attachments issue about this time. 

July 20: Harrison Woodram appointed salt depositary and agent. 

Cotton order again affirmed. Citizens unable to supply themselves 
with cotton to have enough to meet actual needs. 

September 21: Salt depot ordered at Rollinsburg, with Daniel H. Kes- 
ler agent. 

Of the cotton and yarn purchased, one-half to be delivered at Union 
and one-half at Salt Sulphur, and to be distributed at a price that will 
cover costs. One bale yarn allowed each family for its exclusive use. 
Of cloth, two yards allowed each person over five years old: one yard to 
each one under five. 

Felonies somewhat frequent. 

Salt depot at Jesse Jones's. 

December 21 : The following committee appointed to purchase food, 
clothing, etc., as per "Act for the relief of indigent soldiers and their fam- 

First District: Thomas E. Dickson and Thomas ML Crosier. 

Second District: George Kouns and John A. Nickell. 

Third District: George W, Reaburn and A. M. Hawkins. 

Fourth District: J. W. Johnson and Z. A. Woodson. 

Fifth District: Henry Milburn and James K. Scott. 

Sixth District: Joseph Ellis and Lewis E. Symms. 

Seventh District: Riley B. Cook and James Swinney. 

J. M. Byrnside agent to redeem the small notes issued by the county. 

G. W. Hutchinson allowed $42 for removing county records. 

Prison board raised to $2. 


March 22: Committee of seven to enroll all the able-bodied free male 
negroes — between the ages of 18 and 50 — in the Confederate service as per 
Act of Assembly. 

April 18: J. M. Byrnside to buy raw cotton, cloths, and yarn, and 
cotton and wool cards for the people, the amount of such not to exceed 
$75,000 at any one time. Bond of $100,000 executed. 


"It being represented to the court that there is at this time general 
suffering on the part of poor families in this county, and that there are 
persons within the county having a supply of provisions but who withhold 
the same, it is therefore ordered that the commissioners for the respective 
districts make diligent inquiry, and upon ascertaining that there are pro- 
visions which can be spared, they are to represent such cases to the. sheriff, 
whose duty it shall be to seize and impress the same, if a purchase cannot 
be made." Further ordered that John McCreery be appointed a commis- 
sioner for the purchase of supplies anywhere, either within the limits of 
the state or without, for the poor families of the county, and that if money 
cannot be furnished for that purpose, he is authorized to borrow upon the 
credit of the county, executing the obligation of the county for such case 
or cases, and the said McCreery is further authorized and directed to 
make diligent inquiry for any provisions which may be withheld, and upon 
ascertaining where there are such, he shall call upon the sheriff, whose 
duty it shall be to take possession of the same, upon the power to impress, 
if they cannot be procured upon other terms. Further ordered that Gen- 
eral Chapman be appointed to open a correspondence with the commanding 
federate Secretary of War is requested to permit the supplies! to be thus 
families of soldiers in the county who are in a suffering condition. 

June 20: Sheriff allowed 10 per cent in the collection of levy. 

A bushel and a half of salt to each individual ordered. 

Levy, $1801. Expenditures mainly to keep the county government go- 
ing. Appropriated for roads, $1 ; for foxes, $7.50. 

July 19: All civil business continued to next court. 

Charges authorized at Lewis E. Shanklin's ferry: — man and horse, 50 
cents; wagon and two horses, $2; wagon and four horses, $3. 

In collecting taxes, sheriff may give credit for negreos taken by the 
enemy or lost to owner since last June court. 

J. M. Rowan to buy 3000 bushels salt and pay for same on credit of 

In compliance with circular letter from the recorder of the Virginia 
forces, order for a committee of one from each county "to make a record of 
the wrongs committed within their respective districts by our vandal Yan- 
kee foe, and tories and traitors, preparing narratives carefully, sustaining 
each item by proper and sufficient evidence, and putting it into such shape 
that it can be readily referred to." 

October 17: Indigent agents to receive or take from all persons detailed 
for farming purposes one-half the supplies they have promised in their 
petitions for detail and receipt therefor. If this is refused, impressment 
may follow. 

November 21 : Ordered certified that at least one-half the supplies — as 
per paragraph above — will be necessary to indigent families. The Con- 


federate Secretary of War is requested to permit the supplies to be thus 

Salt distributors allowed $1 per sack for their services. 

Rowan to buy 214 more sacks of salt. 

Secretary of War replies that the commissioners are entitled to pur- 
chase from detailed men one-half their product. The commissioners con- 
strue this to mean one-half the surplus after deducting for the support of 
the families of the detailed men from the whole product stated in his bond. 
This causes nothing to be received from such persons in this county. The 
commissioners think the intention is one-half the product less support, and 
Secretary of War is to be written to accordingly. Indigent families can- 
not otherwise be supported. Secretary is asked to accept one-third the 
tithe of supplies due the government. 


January 16: Commissioners of supplies to purchase potatoes, turnips, 
cabbages, and beans, in addition to supplies heretofore authorized. 

March 20: Order to impress wagons to convoy county cotton from rail- 
road depot to this place. 

April 30: Smallpox in county. 

May IS: Last session under Virginia. Parker, Nickell, Kouns> and 
Neel present. Four business settlements attended to. Families of George 
Foster and Jane Bland to be furnished bread and meat till further order 
of court. 



URING the war of 1861 the Reverend S. R. Houston 
was living at Union in the house now occupied by A. 
S. Johnston. Doctor Houston was an observant, schol- 
arly man who had traveled abroad. His diary relates 
day by day the occurrences at home and the thoughts of the people. 
It mentions their hopes and their fears. It gives the rumors, some- 
times grossly incorrect, which floated in from a distance- It men- 
tions the tidings, often distorted, which were read in the newspapers. 
A very important feature of the diary is that it is calm and judicial 
in tone and does not display the rancor which is so often seen in 
wartime utterances, both North and South. This circumstance 
much enhances the historical value. Only the matters of more gen- 
eral interest are given in the quotations below. 

November — 

7 — Bell and Everett majority in this county, 176; in Greenbrier, 495. 

16 — The affairs of the South yet more threatening; the people crazy with 
excitement. "Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad." I fear 
this will be exemplified in the precipitance of our Southern brethren. 

19 — Some speeches from A. T. Caperton, John Echols, and Tristram 
Patton on the present state of the Union and in reference to what action 
Western Virginia should take at the present time. Some advised inaction, 
others thought it best to condemn the precipitance of the South. No reso- 
lutions submitted. 

30 — Newspapers full of accounts about the excitement in the cotton states. 
A dissolution of the Union seems to be inevitable! Then what? 

December — 

3 — Demons at the North and South seem bent on our ruin as a nation. 
I have not yet entirely despaired of the Republic. Some great good is 
to come out of this terrible convulsion, I think. 

15 — Dined with Major Echols 1 , A. T. Caperton, and Dr. Waddell. 
Talked a great deal about the unhappy state of our country. Civil war 


and perhaps servile war seemed to us all extremely probable. Trade is 
paralyzed. Thousands thrown out of employment threaten to plunder in 
the cities for bread. 

25 — Can't do much these Christmas times. Heard that the captain of 
our patrol had received letters warning him of an intended insurrection 
on the part of the negroes. 

30— The forts at Charleston have been seized by the people. The gov- 
ernment, it is thought, will now be obliged to assert its claims by the 

January — 

1 — Our beloved country is in fearful peril. There is every appear- 
ance of a rapidly approaching civil war, and all unite in the belief that 
it will be awfully desolating if it occurs; that there will be a perfect 
disintegration of the nation and our glory as a people will perish. Every- 
body seems oppressed with sadness. Many devout prayers are being daily 
offered up. 

4 — The day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer recommended by the 
President we have tried to observe. 

5 — There seems to be such a preparation for civil war everywhere. 
7 — Lincoln's inauguration may be resisted. 

19 — Some little hope that our national difficulties may yet be adjusted 
and that no fratricidal blood shall flow. 

20 — Four speeches by lawyers today to a great crowd of people in the 
courthouse on the unhappy state of the country. It is distressing to think 
that a civil war may be the result of the present tremendous agitation. 
The people in this community seem ready to fight if the rights of the South 
be denied. 

February — 

4 — Caperton and Echols elected without opposition. Flour $8. 

13 — Political affairs more hopeful. Peace conference progressing har- 
moniously, it is said. 

18 — There will in all probability be a Southern Confederacy estab- 

March — 

1 — Oh, that a kind God would interfere to calm the political caldron 
which for so long has been casting up mire and dirt. 

4 — Mr. A. Lincoln has this day been inaugurated president of the 
once United States. We are anxious to know the spirit of his inaugural. 

6 — It has come to us today. It breathes a warlike spirit. He de- 
clares his determination to collect the revenue and hold the forts in the 
seceded states. I fear consequences of a most fearful character must come. 


What our convention will now do we are anxious to see. They will prob- 
ably pass an ordinance of secession at once, and then unite with the already 
Confederated States. 

11 — Newspapers contain the same unhappy intelligence — disunion! 

18 — Major Echols gave the people a full account of the proceedings in 
our Legislature and Convention. No secession ordinance to be passed. This 
is as it should be. The border states are to determine in convention what 
they as a body will do. The major was a good deal interrupted by J. 
H , who evidently had more feeling than knowledge. 


7 — Our political troubles engage the attention of the people too much. 

17 — Fort Sumter taken without the loss on either side of a single man! 
What a kind providence ! Is not this a token for good ? 

18 — The Presidents, Lincoln and Davis, have both issued their proc- 
lamations, calling out the forces of their respective confederacies. Our 
convention has passed an ordinance of secession. The other border states 
will doubtless follow. Then there will be a united South against a united 
North. And I trust that as the folly of undertaking to subjugate fifteen 
states is patent, the war cannot last more than a few months at most. Very 
great excitement extending among the people. 

21 — People too much excited by war news to think on. spiritual subjects. 

22 — Several secession flags raised here today, one by the high school 
students, and some speeches made. There was far too much noise for 
my taste. Profound seriousness should mark our conduct. 

24 — The sound of war is rousing all around us. A letter from William 
at Washington College says that three companies have left Lexington. 

25 — Superior court met today. Several exciting speeches delivered on 
the war. All are unanimous in the belief that the North must be resisted 
to the last extremity. Many rumors afloat. It is said a New York regi- 
ment has been cut to pieces between Annapolis and Washington and 600 
killed — needs confirmation. A letter from Rutherford says a company of 
volunteers formed of seminary students is drilled every day. 

26 — The excitement today is great. A Home Guard is being formed 
in which I have enlisted. Special prayers for George Edgar, the son of 
one of our number, who was before Fort Pickens. 

27 — Rumored that Fort Pickens is taken by the South with a loss of 
1000 men. It is thought that the South has already made an assault on 
Washington. An insurrection among the negroes on the Kanawha is ap- 
prehended. In other places free negroes are enlisting in the Southern 

28 — Two confederacies will now undoubtedly be formed, and after the 
war has terminated it will be long before the great questions of strife can 
be settled. 

29 — Our 25 magistrates met today. Companies of about 100 infantry 


















and 75 cavalry have been formed. Much enthusiasm. The ladies meet 
daily to make uniforms, caps, etc., etc. Last Saturday a Home Guard was 
formed of men over 45. About 35 have already enlisted. It is expected 
that a guard of some 50 or 60 men will be formed in each magisterial dis- 
trict. Great excitement. Much going to and fro. We feel that we have 
justice and righteousness and truth on our side. 

30 — The demands on either side cannot be easily or readily acceded 
to. Our Home Guard to drill every Saturday. No uniform but a scarf. 
Rifles if we have them. About 70,000 volunteers have offered their ser- 
vices to Governor Letcher. 

May — 

2 — The cloud over our unhappy land is evidently gathering blackness. 
New York Tribune advises the driving off of the people of Virginia and 
Maryland and the distribution of their lands and other property among 
the invading forces ! ! ! ) 

3 — We don't hear much about what the South is planning to do. Every- 
thing is kept secret. 

6 — Glad to hear that it is the policy of our government to act strictly 
on the defensive. Great enthusiasm prevails in this county. The people 
are wild with excitement throughout the state. 

7 — The state rapidly being put into a posture of defense. The sense 
of security will then be a comfort to all our families. 

8 — The people of the North think our design is to overthrow this 
government, and that our efforts if successful must necessarily bring about 
anarchy or a military despotism. Hence all are united in effort and prayer 
to subjugate the South. 

9 — The volunteer company ordered into camp at Staunton. A com- 
pany of 58 mounted riflemen has been raised in the lower end of the county 
under Captain Fleshman. The cavalry company has failed to make up its 
number. Great activity in town fitting out the volunteers to leave on 

11 — How sad the countenances of mothers, wives, and sisters. 27 3 r oung 
men leave our little village. 100 in all leave our community. 

13 — The saddest day in all my life. Our 108 volunteers left for the 
perils of war. Address by General Chapman. Reply by Colonel Echols. 
Then I commended them to the gracious protection of Almighty God. Al- 
most all wept. 

14 — Sensational rumors constantly afloat. 

15 — The stage driver brought intelligence that a disturbance among 
the negroes in Lewisburg has just occurred, and that the leader of the re- 
volt with many others has been put in jail. It has produced something 
of a panic among us. Patrol walks the streets till midnight. Our two 
guns and a large horseman's pistol have been loaded. 


16 — A meeting of citizens to form a more efficient police. Never did 
I see so gloomy a time. 

17 — General muster. About 400 men on parade. 

18 — We have heard that some of the negroes of Monroe are impli- 
cated in the disturbance at Lewisburg. Their real designs we cannot tell. 
Under such circumstances most persons always fear the worst. Floating 
reports of discontent among the negroes are producing a great deal of un- 
easiness in neighboring counties, but no organized bands have been dis- 

19 — Had little sleep last night. Our home dangers more feared by 
some than by the invading North. 

20 — Court day but no business done. War rules everything in the land. 
Almost all our schools and colleges are broken up. 

21 — Another company being formed, but its character does not promise 

22 — Our volunteer companies highly commended for their good 
order and discipline. Have heard that the negroes express a strong dis- 
like for the sermon I lately preached, proving that the war on our side, 
being defensive, is a just one. 

23 — Only two votes against secession in this precinct. The Panhandle 
and some of the northwestern counties will probably go the whole length 
with the North. Perhaps this is best for Virginia. Currently reported 
and believed at the North that some one placed an image of a negro on 
the statue of Washington at Richmond as a symbol of the Southern Con- 

27 — Our papers tell us Alexandria was occupied on the 24th. Virginia 
is now invaded. All the South may now rush as one man to the conflict. 

28 — Rumor of battle near Fortress Monroe, in which the Federals were 
repulsed losing 700 and the Confederates 500. Much exaggeration prob- 
ably. Our crops all look well. Coffee rising rapidly. Flour $8. Some 
things cheaper than formerly. 

31 — Vote against secession in northwestern counties much greater than 

June — 

1 — The postal arrangements of the new Confederacy go into operation 
— 5 cents to 500 miles, 10 cents to 1000. 

3 — A man from Blue Sulphur calls for men to go immediately to 
Lewisburg to meet a large invading cavalry company, said to be advancing 
from Braxton or Nicholas. An attack expected this evening or tomorrow. 
The volunteer company collecting ordered to march. We begin to think 
of removing the women and children to the retired places in the county. 

4 — No sleep at all last night. Volunteers were coming in from all 
quarters, some of them shouting and alarming the ladies. Noon: alarm 


false. Originated thus: at a Methodist meeting in Nicholas some one re- 
ported he had heard 1100 Federal cavalry had suddenly entered Braxton 
and laid Sutton in ashes. Scouts sent out returned saying enemy only IS 
miles off and marching on Nicholas C. H. A courier rode full haste 50 
miles to Lewisburg arousing the people. Our companies reached Lewis- 
burg during the night and found town illuminated bright as day. Battle 
expected seven miles out. Enemy reported 3000 to 5000. About 3000 rifle- 
men collected at Lewisburg. 

5 — Hundreds upon hundreds of men have been on their way from 

Giles, Mercer, Craig, Alleghany, Pocahontas, etc. Not one seemed to have 

any other feeling than that of defending his country to the most deadly 

extremity. What a delightful calm has succeeded this tremendous turmoil ! 

8 — Apprehension of servile insurrection, etc., etc. 

12 — Beirne Sharpshooters left 10:30 A. M. I presented a flag by the 
ladies. Response by J. Summers. Company under a wreath of flowers 
suspended by rope across street near our house. The scene impressive. 
The men are stalwart laborers or hardy farmers and look very determined. 

13 — Day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer recommended by Davis 
observed. Church fuller than ever before on such an occasion. 

14 — Some ladies from Richmond recently arrive seeking a refuge from 
the storm hovering around our eastern front. 

17 — Our ladies asked to help make 400 tents. 

22 — At Centerville 50 or 60 ladies making uniforms. 

25 — Centerville volunteers arrived here and were apportioned among 
the citizens. We received five into our house. 

27 — Report of heavy cannonading heard in Bath. 

29 — Negro leader at Lewisburg hung yesterday. 

July — 

20 — A good deal of excitement at the rumored intention of McClellan 
to occupy Lewisburg. 

23 — The advance regiment of Floyd's brigade passing through this 
county to join Lee at Monterey. 

24 — News of the Confederate victory at Manassas. The victory will 
I fear greatly exasperate the foe and cause them to redouble their efforts. 
Captain Tiffany and five others of the Monroe Guards are killed and 11 
wounded, most of them slightly. 

29 — Much uneasiness at the report that Wise has been ordered back 
to Covington to protect the Virginia Railroad. The people talking of 
taking their families away. 
August — 

5 — Started with my family for Rockbridge, arriving at Lexington four 
days later. 

14 — I return to Union. Put up tomatoes, etc. 


26 — Committee of five to solicit contributions for the sick soldiers in 
hospital at Lewisburg. 

September — 

8 — How this dreadful civil war has broken up our congregation in 

10 — Three prisoners taken near Hawksnest brought into town. 

15 — 300 sick at Lewisburg, 400 at Huntersville; more at all the houses 
along turnpike between Lewisburg and Hawksnest. Three to five die every 
day at Huntersville. 

17 — Typhoid fever doing sad work among our soldiers at all the camps. 

October — 

4 — Six Union men brought to town last evening. Many articles of 
food and raiment are becoming very scarce. 

9 — 200 sick at Meadow Bluff. Some are without anyone to attend 
to them. 

18 — Brought family back. 

31 — Potatoes in this region have nearly all rotted in the ground. Very 
difficult to procure suitable clothing. Common jeans $1 per yard and 
but little to be obtained. 

November — 

1 — Six rifled six pounders under the care of Colonel Jackson of Floyd's 

Brigade passed through on its way to Floyd in Raleigh. Colonel Jackson 

spoke harshly of Lee and Loring for falling back from Sewell Mountain. 

5 — Married a couple today; only the third thus far this year. 

9 — About 100 wagons of supplies for Floyd have passed through the 

last few days. 

10 — 1500 sick at White Sulphur hospital and about five deaths daily. 

12 — Profanity, intemperance, gambling, Sabbath-breaking, and fighting 
seem to be awfully prevalent. 

20 — Some 70 or 80 soldiers, lately discharged from hospital, stopped 
here for the night. They occupy the courthouse. They generally appear 
in good spirits. 

23 — We hear that Floyd's forces are going into winter quarters; some 
at Red Sulphur Springs, others at Princeton, Meadow Bluff, Greenbrier 
bridge, etc. 

26 — Willie's mess consists of six soldiers occupying a cabin they have 
built; 12 feet square, puncheon floor, clapboard roof, large "kitchen 

December — 

31 — Several negroes have left their homes in this neighborhood and 


made their way, it is thought, to the Federal army. They will never find 
as comfortable and happy homes as they have left. 

January — 

2 — Some 80 or 100 cavalry gone to drive off a marauding party in 
the neighborhood of Pack's Ferry. 

3 — The enemy in force at Fayette C. H. 

6 — A prominent citizen named Landcraft on New River apprehended 
for harboring the Yankees and giving them counsel. He is to be tried 
at Red Sulphur Springs today. 

9 — B sent off today under a strong guard. 

20 — Court day. Colonel Echols addressed the people. 
25 — Five militiamen from Potts Creek imprisoned for refusing to come 
out when notified by their officers. Many a day there is no mail. 

29 — Early this morning our town thrown into great excitement by a 
dispatch stating that 250 Yankee cavalry were only 22 miles from Lewis- 
burg night before last. 

31 — Another similar report. 

February — 

17 — Court day. Speeches by Caperton and Chapman urging to a vig- 
orous defense of the country. 100,000 Federals against 60,000 Confed- 
erates at Fort Donelson. 

25 — A letter from General Heth to A. T. Caperton states that this 
county is in extreme danger from the inroads of the enemy and that im- 
mediate efforts ought to be made for a determined resistance. 

27 — Many making arrangements to remove as soon as the roads get 
better to some place less likely to be overrun by the enemy. 

28 — A day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer appointed by the pres- 
ident observed. 

March — 

17 — A great meeting on court day to petition the government for more 
aid to defend our region. Stirring addresses by Chapman, Caperton, Price 
and General Heth to the dense crowd in the courthouse. The petition nu- 
merously signed. 

24 — The militia of the county assembled here to make arrangements 
to join General Heth at Lewisburg. 

25 — Our western border of Monroe has been given up to the enemy 
and fortifications are being prepared at the Narrows. 

26 — Almost impossible to get fuel hauled. 

31 — Sherwood, a militiaman who refused to go into the service and 
tried to make his escape was shot through the knee today. We hear that 
the Union men have hung a secessionist in this county. 


April — 

10 — Wheat $2, corn $1.25, bacon 20 cents, sugar 30, salt 10, molasses 
$1.75, coarse shoes $4.00, soldier's boots $10 to $14. No coffee. 

23 — Received $5 to buy tracts for the soldiers in the west, and $5 a 
few days ago to purchase Testaments for themu 

30 — A Union man was brought to town yesterday and will probably 
be sent to Richmond for imprisonment. He has given the people much 
trouble in his neighborhood. 

May — 

5 — Some Union men stole three horses from farmers within nine miles 
of this village last Saturday. A suspected accomplice was brought to 
town yesterday. Eight men, 20 wagons full of provisions, and 90 horses 
taken near Wytheville (?) a few days ago. 

8 — An advance guard of 200 men passed up New River and entered 
Pearisburg yesterday. 

9 — The Moccasin Rangers (Confederate) here from Greenbrier. Their 
captain (Hammond) from Marion. 

10 — I have no vindictive feelings toward even the worst enemies of 
my country. 

11 — About 100 at Meadow Bluff banded together for mutual defense 
against both parties, who want to keep out of all fighting and will prob- 
ably become a band of outlaws. There is said to be another body of such 
men in Peters Mountain not far from this place. Skirmish at the Nar- 
rows today. 

13 — Enemy in full possession of Greenbrier county and guarding the 
fords. They have demanded bacon, but have committed no enormities that 
we have heard of. They are said to be treating the people of Lewisburg 
with much kindness. 

15 — 30 of the enemy's cavalry came within six or seven miles of this 
place today and drove off some 60 or 70 head of cattle belonging to Gen- 
eral Davis of Greenbrier. 

18 — We expected to have our communion today, but almost all our 
male members being absent, the community much excited, and the enemy 
on two sides of us, we thought it best to defer until a more favorable 
time. We learn that the militia have been called out. 

21 — Heth at Narrows, Humphrey Marshall at Mercer C. H. Sent off 
yesterday for meal, so we may have a good supply on hand in case of 
a siege. Soon after 4 P. M., Heth's advance entered Union. Quartered 
in courthouse, one of the churches, academy, etc. Many of the soldiers 
appear much run down. Generally rather raw and undisciplined. 

22 — Heth's forces all passed through toward Lewisburg. Some 30 or 
40 sick and exhausted left behind without supplies of any kind. Before 
evening we had about 18 comfortably accommodated in the high school. 


23 — Heth repulsed at Lewisburg. His whole army arrived here about 
4 P. M. much fatigued, hungry, and somewhat demoralized. They unite 
in the belief that Heth did not manage matters right, and that it was 
imprudent to attack. Some of the men behaved in a very cowardly man- 
ner. Battle lasted one-half hour. Major Edgar reported killed. Heth 
burned Greenbrier bridge. Our town filled with extreme sadness. 

24 — I have given 100 men our church. Nine supped with us last night 
and five lodged. Army left at 10, except two batteries and an infantry 
company, to Salt Sulphur. River too high for enemy to cross. 

26—36 Confederate dead taken into Lewisburg Presbyterian church. Six 
wounded have died and 10 more probably will. Union dead said to be 
about 85. 

27 — Yesterday pickets driven in from Greenbrier river. Heth put his 
forces in battle array near north end of village. Removed my family to 
Mr. Hutchinson's, three-fourths mile out. 

June — 

7 — Returned to Union after taking family to Rockbridge. 

12 — Two deserters whipped in presence of whole regiment. Eight or 
ten others punished less severely. Some 400 cavalry arrived. 

13 — All our infantry on the move. About 500 cavalry are left. The 
convicts have been moved away. Orders given for the removal of the 
cattle from this region. All the people are sad. 

18 — J. M. Nickell's tannery burned last night. 

20 — The soldiers are abusing the town in a variety of ways. The pas- 
tures are becoming commons. No one drunk. 

22 — 1600 Federals reported crossing at Alderson. 

23 — Village in great commotion. Cavalry ready for action at a mo- 
ment's warning. Army to retire to Narrows. 

30 — The enemy — 1200 to 1500 infantry — stayed in Union but three hours. 
Burned a mill at Centerville. Carried off 22 negroes, 80 cattle. Many 
negroes refused to go, though offered $10 to $20 per month. 

July — 

1 — Firing at Richmond heard distinctly. 

22 — Great difficulty in getting my horse shod. Coalbanks within en- 
emy's lines and no iron brought into the county. My pasture appropriated 
by government. 

24 — Took the teeth out of my harrow lest they should some day be 
missing. Many of my potato hills robbed by soldiers. 

25 — Forty-fifth Regiment and Edgar's Battalion returned to this place. 

26 — Grand review by Loring in a field near town; 35 companies of 
four regiments, one battalion, three artillery companies, five or six cav- 
alry companies. Line over a mile long. A very large number of the citi- 
zens present. 


28 — Large body of prisoners taken at Nicholas C. H. brought in. 

29 — Prisoners sent on to Lynchburg, all but Dr. Rucker, who has been 
ironed and will be tried in a day or two. 

30 — We in some danger crossing Sweet Springs Mountain. Deserters 
very numerous there. While the police officers were bringing to the hotel 
three of them yesterday, they were fired on by 16 others, and one deserter 
was killed by mistake. 

August — 

4 — The Federals are everywhere becoming more cruel. 
29 — Army left here this morning and encamped at Centerville. 

September — 

17 — Our forces in possession of the Kanawha salt-works. Farmers in 
great numbers going there for the salt in the captured wagons. One mil- 
lion pounds for disposal at 35 cents the bushel. We have been paying $5. 
The county has been purchasing wheat at $3.50. 

October — 

9 — Brought family back. No supplies scarcely. Hard to obtain any- 
thing. Prices are two, three, or four times higher than formerly. 

17 — 28 prisoners arrived here captured at Gauley Bridge ; a rusty look- 
ing set. 

21 — Preparing wood for winter. We can get no help. 

28 — Bryan's artillery lodged in town last night — six cannon, bound for 
the Kanawha valley. Few of the enemy now on this side of the Ohio 

November — 

1 — Some hundreds of wagons on their way for salt turned back on 
account of the entrance of the enemy into the (Kanawha) valley. 

12 — Enemy's cavalry invaded Greenbrier and burned 600 bushels wheat 
in wagons. 

16 — General Echols has returned on sick furlough. Speaks discour- 
agingly of the state of our country. A larger number of deaths from 
disease during the past year than in any year previous. 

19 — The Confederate soldiers very bold in taking whatever they want. 

22 — It is thought a famine is threatening us. 

29 — Two regiments, a battery, and a battalion arrived today. It is 
thought the provisions will all be swept off and much suffering ensue. 

December — 

8 — A store (Riggs) opened in town. Great rush of the people to get 
goods; sold very high. 

23 — The force in this vicinity has moved toward Lewisburg. 


25 — Ladies had a "tableau vivant" for the benefit of the soldiers and 
raised over $100. Repeated two days later and $60 more raised. 

January — 

5 — Jeans $2, linsey $2, flannel $3. The dresses of my little girls 
cost $18 to $25 apiece, and the servant girl's living dress about $15. 

12 — A boy hunting on the Knobs saw seven Yankee cavalry one and 
one-half mile from town. They asked for General Echols, laid up with 
a broken arm. But the report turned out false. 

February — 

9 — Sugar selling at $1. Have let out over 200 trees for one-third their 
yield. Direct tax of one per cent on every man with above $1000 prop- 

March — 

26 — The regiment in this vicinity,, finds it difficult to get supplies. 

May — 

30 — No fresh beef or mutton for a long time. Have bacon and occa- 
sionally a chicken. 

July — 

17 — Hard to get laborers. $5 a day offered. 

August — 

25 — Dispatch from General Jones advising the people to remove their 
effects out of the way, as a raid may be expected at any moment. 

27 — Our village greatly relieved at the result of Dry Creek battle. 

29 — 56 prisoners passed through. 

September — 

4 — Paid $16 for just putting single soles on two pairs of gaiters for 
Mary and Helen. Vile extortion practiced all over our land. 

5 — Wharton's Brigade passed through on their way to the Red Sul- 
phur; 700 men. 

6 — Many of the principal persons seldom or never attend church, and 
all now seem to have their minds absorbed by the war and worldly things. 

November — 

6 — Echols retreated from Droop Mountain to Union — 45 miles — with- 
out stopping. 21 killed, 130 wounded. Much disorganized and demoral- 
ized. Passed through today and encamped near Salt Sulphur. Great ex- 
citement. Farmers driving off stock. 


9 — Jackson's 600 cavalry in battle array in our very midst, having heard 
enemy advancing in force. Excitement of the people now intense. 

December — 

11 — Enemy approach Lewisburg in two columns. Our troops fell back 
to this place. Enemy got around our men at the Sweet Springs and pro- 
ceeded to Salem. 

19 — Echols sent a dispatch stating the enemy would probably cross the 
mountain on their return from Salem and be in the midst of us immediately. 

24 — Echols again near Lewisburg. Damage at Salem $1,500,000. 

January — 

10 — No services at night. Extremely difficult to get tallow and lard, 
and oil cannot be obtained at all. 

March — 

2— Woods alive with sugar-makers. Everything now selling at enor- 
mous prices. My taxes this year probably $500. 

21 — Court day. Addresses by Chapman, Price, Caperton and General 
Breckenridge, the latter making an effective speech of some 15 minutes. 

April — 

9 — 900 of Echol's Brigade here. 

May — 

7 — Almost all our troops have gone to join Lee. 

14 — Enemy took possession of village, and sent out pickets and foraging 
parties in every direction. They fired on our provost guard and swept 
through the town in the most terrific manner. They fired on a man near 
my house, but gave no trouble, and soon encamped in a field quite near. 
Mr. H. and I went to Colonel Phillips and asked guards for our homes 
and many others. They were sent and as long as they remained we felt 
comparatively safe. But they did not stay all the time, and we were vis- 
ited by squad after squad of hungry soldiers, sometimes civilly asking for 
food and at others demanding it most rudely. We were obliged to give 
them all the cooked food we had and also flour, meal, meat, etc. My grain, 
meat, etc., were hidden and not found by them. 

15 — 8.30 main army entered and did not get through for six and one- 
half hours. 10,000 men, 200 wagons, 35 ambulances, 213 prisoners, over 
100 negroes. Encamped all about the north side of the village, extending 
three or four miles into the country. They desolated the farm of Oliver 
Beirne, killed sheep and cattle, and occupied his fine house as a hospital. 
A. T. Caperton's, house was entered by 50 at the front door and almost 
ruined. For five long days — 21 to 26 — the town and country for 10 miles 


around were preyed upon by the hungry troops. They had lost their ra- 
tions to some extent, and hence were more destructive than would other- 
wise have been the case. 

June — 

8 — Our cavalry left here to intercept the enemy toward Staunton. 
16 — We are cut off from all communication with Lynchburg and Rich- 

July — 

2 — No papers for over 20 days. 

? — Between Salem and Charleston — 171 miles — Hunter's men ate birch 
bark, bran, potato roots, and cornstalks. No rations for almost the whole 
way except a small quantity of beef picked up. People stripped of every 
thing, but two-thirds the way nothing but barren mountains. 

No entries from August 18 to April 1. 


13 — News of surrender of Lee. 

15 — Soldiers returning and some horses disappearing. Thieves pretend 
to be impressing them for the war. A great deal of excitement, appre- 
hending evils from the Yankees and the disbanded soldiers, who are far 
from home without current money and without provisions. Our condition 
is at present truly lamentable. 

20 — A letter from A. T. Caperton produced quite an excitement this 
evening. The legislature and other public men are requested to meet in 
Richmond and agree with our conquerers upon terms of peace. 
Very liberal terms are offered by President Lincoln ; no further confiscation 
of property, state governments as heretofore under United States constitu- 
tion, a general amnesty, etc. A conference to be held at Staunton. 

25 — Mr. Caperton returned from Staunton. Nothing accomplished. 
President Lincoln's death arrested their discussion. 

May — 

8 — Opened the high school with 23 scholars, eight of them my own, 
Dr. Waddell assisting me. Two departments for the present. A band 
of Yankee soldiers now in the county collecting government horses and 


FROM 1872 TO 1916 

Progress in the Period — Formation of Summers County — Notable Gather- 
ings — Annals 

URING the seven years of reconstruction there was a 
harsh feeling between the faction in power and the fac- 
tion under civil disability. This necessarily worked 
against the best welfare of the county. But with the 
removal of the source of irritation and the return of material pros- 
perity, a kindlier feeling came in. The! animosities engendered in 
wartime are now effectually buried. The ultra partisan of the one 
side is on the most friendly terms with the ultra partisan of the 

The record of the county since the great war is one of steady 
and substantial progress. The increase in population has indeed 
been very moderate, because of the rural nature of Monroe and 
also because of the continued outward drift. This drift is no longer 
exclusively to the West and South. Railroads have come near, but 
they have been chary of creeping inside our limits. The summer 
resorts are of less importance than during the turnpike period, but 
on the other hand there has been a growth in the cleared acreage and 
in the rewards of agriculture. The farmhouse of modern type has 
become frequent, and there is a high degree of intelligence, pros- 
perity, and comfort- 
In 1871 came the last of the several curtailments of Old Mon- 
roe. A new county was carved out of Greenbrier, Monroe, and 
Mercer, and named for George W. Summers. The part taken from 
this county comprises the districts of Talcott and Forest Hill. 

A boundary dispute between Monroe and Summers was not 
settled until near the end of the century. There was a difference 
of opinion as to just where the straight line should pass that was 

FROM 1872 TO 1916 181 

run between the two counties. To settle the question John H inch- 
man was appointed by Monroe and William Haynes by Summers. 
These commissioners elected James Mann of Greenbrier as umpire. 
A question was raised as to the legality of this commission, but the 
line as determined by them remains in force. 

In 1894 Summers directed its surveyor to run the line between 
Summers and Greenbrier. The result impressed the court of Sum- 
mers with the idea that the Monroe-Summers line should go farther 
to the east. The prosecuting attorney was directed to take action 
toward having the boundary line determined in a more conclusive 
manner. The attorney became convinced that neither the line de- 
fined by act of legislature nor the line determined by the commis- 
sion had ever been surveyed. Summers county held that it was 
entitled to Alderson and North Alderson and some additional ter- 
ritory. Both Monroe and Greenbrier entered vigorous protest, be- 
cause the loss of the strip would cause a considerable shrinkage in 
their taxable valuations. The people living within the strip were 
divided in sentiment. Some were animated by a patriotic feeling 
toward the old counties and were not in favor of changing their 
allegiance. Others were influenced by the fact that Hinton was 
within easier reach than Lewisburg or Union. 

The commissioners now appointed by Monroe were Cornelius 
Leach and J. R. McPherson, the latter being county surveyor. Sum- 
mers chose Matthew Gwinn, J. B. Lavender, and S. K. Boude. Mr. 
Boude died and M 1 . A. Manning was chosen to the vacancy. Judge 
A. N. Campbell of the circuit court declined to sit on the case, on 
the ground that he was a citizen of Monroe, one of the interested 
counties. His place was taken by A. F. Guthrie, judge of the Ka- 
nawha circuit. The petitions in behalf of Monroe and Greenbrier 
were dismissed, but were upheld by the Supreme Court. Ex-Gov- 
ernor A. B. Fleming was chosen umpire, but being unable to act, 
George E. Price of Charleston appeared in his stead. The trial, 
which lasted several days, was held at Alderson in April, 1897. The 
attorneys appearing for Monroe were John Osborne and A. G. Pat- 
ton. The decision as to the Greenbrier-Summers line being in 
favor of the older county, there was a decision in favor of Mbn- 


roe almost as a natural consequence. The court held that Sum- 
mers was too tardy in presenting its claim, and since the older 
counties had been in undisturbed possession more than twenty years, 
the new county could not equitably gain title. The adjudication 
was therefore on very much the same grounds as in the case of the 
long-drawn-out boundary contest between Maryland and West Vir- 
ginia. There may have been an intent in the act of legislature to 
give Summers a broader confine than the one it actually has; but if 
so, the intent was thwarted by fogginess in the phraseology. Tax- 
able property to the amount of $400,000 was saved to Monroe. 

There was no urgent call for the creation of Summers county. 
Monroe was not so large as several other counties, even before its 
last curtailment. The area of Summers does not come to the limit 
of 400 square miles which is the statutory minimum. The surface 
is of inferior agricultural capability. The existence of the county is 
justified only because it is traversed by a trunkline railroad and con- 
tains a small city which has been called into being by that road. 

During the last twenty years there have been some notable gath- 
erings in Mionroe. At the Confederate reunion of August 31, 1895, 
the orator of the day was General John B. Gordon of Georgia. Two 
years later the oration was by Senator John W. Daniel of Virginia. 
4000 people then assembled in the Patton grove, just north of Union. 
The centennial of Monroe county was held at the county seat, Au- 
gust 10, 1899, and despite some adverse circumstances, about 3000 
people collected. An able and appropriate address was given by 
Virgil A. Lewis, state historian. In 1901 there was an unveiling at 
Union of a monument in honor of the soldiers sent by Monroe to 
the Confederate army. The cornerstone had been laid September 
6, 1900, under Masonic rites, and with an oration by John W. Ar- 
buckle. A still more memorable occasion was the homecoming of 
August 26, 1909, held also in the Patton grove. It was attended 
by an immense throng of people of the county, as well as by many 
persons who had gone out from Monroe to make homes elsewhere. 
The address was by Colonel J. H. Crosier, and the response was 
by the Reverend B. P. Pennington. A poem entitled "Our Home 

FROM^1872 TO 1916 183 

Coming," was written for the event by Mrs. Ellen F. Craig, and 
another, "In Old Monroe," was furnished by Mrs. Rose O. Sell. 

About 1904, in response to a general appeal by the Fresh Air 
Society of Baltimore, 116 children were sent in a special car to 
Fort Spring, and thence delivered by vehicles to the summer homes 
that had been secured for them. Next year about 50 children came. 
On each occasion they spent two weeks in Monroe. 

In 1872 Monroe land was assessed at an average of $7.25 an 
acre, yielding a total of $2,063,582, as against $2,482,264.18 for 
the much larger county of Greenbrier. During the next fifteen years 
the assessable value rose a little more than fifty per cent. In 1889 
a new courthouse was built at the cost of $15,000. 

For some time Monroe has been free from the licensed barroom, 
notwithstanding the adverse influence of the summer resorts. The 
prohibition amendment of 1888 was defeated in this county by a 
majority of 334 in a total vote of 1760. But that of 1912 carried 
by a vote of 2064 against 552. 

In a political sense, Monroe seems never to have been a one- 
sided county. During the long antebellum period it was in the main 
an adherent to the Democratic faith, although the Whig party had 
a strong leadership and a strong following. The complexion of the 
county since 1882 will appear in the following tabular statement: 

1882:— C. P. Snyder for Congress, Democrat— 693 ; J. H. Brown, Re- 
publican — 624. 

1884:— Cleveland for President— 1176; Blaine— 973 

1888:— Cleveland— 1338; Harrison 1222 

1890: — Democratic majority in every district for the first time since 
the war 

1892:— Cleveland— 1373 ; Harrison— 1141 

1896:— Bryan— 1577; McKinley— 1325 

1900:— Bryan— 1533; McKinley— 1557 

1904:— Parker— 1504; Roosevelt— 1486 

1908:— Bryan— 1525; Taft— 1523 

1912:— Wilson— 1570; Taft— 798 ; Roosevelt— 742 ; Debs— 17 

1912: — Thompson for Governor, Democrat — 1684; Hatfield, Republi- 
can— 1418 

We close the chapter with selections from the county order- 


books, beginning with the first session of the county court as restored 
by the constitution of 1872-1873. 

First session, February 10. Members present: John W. Gray, presi- 
dent, John Wickline, J. M. Shanklin, James S. Harvey, Archibald Miller, 
George W. Nickell, S. I. Warren, Napoleon Patton. 

April session: Two justices assigned for each term. April and August 
terms to be devoted to police and fiscal concerns. Grand jury terms to 
be in June and December. 

June session : Liquor licenses given to Oliver Beirne at Sweet Springs 
and Thomas J. Peyton at Red Sulphur (August). Tavern licenses with- 
out liquor given to A. E. Scruggs and Lewis F. Clark. 

October session : James G. Vaughn given tavern and liquor license at 

Road precincts: 22 in Sweet Springs, 18 in Wolf Creek, 26 in Union, 
21 in Springfield, 23 in Second Creek, 20 in Red Sulphur. 

Voting places: Sweet Springs; Watts' store and Napoleon Patton's; Wolf 
Creek; Wolf Creek, Alderson, and Jones' store; other districts have each 
one voting place. 


Court organized March 21 under the commissioner system. Hinchman 
drew the six year term, Neel the four year term, and Symms the two year 
term. Court to meet in April, July, and November. 

Justices!: Springfield: James S. Harvey and Granville Houchins; Sec- 
ond Creek; J. W. McDowell and B. S. Cook; Wolf Creek, A. A. Carden 
and George Alderson; Union, Archibald Miller and S. I. Warren; Red 
Sulphur, Luther C. Hale and E. P. Williams; Sweet Springs, Robert A. 

Bounties: wolf and bear, $3; wildcat and catamount, $1.50; red or 
gray fox, grown animal, $1 ; cub, 50 cents. 

Chesapeake and Ohio stock sold for $10,488. 



African Slavery — Slavery Times in Monroe — The Race Today. 

HE school histories tell us that slavery began in the 
United States with the landing of twenty "negars" at 
Jamestown in 1619. This is not correct. Slavery was not 
sanctioned by Virginia until 1661. Until then the very 
few negroes in the colony were servants and not slaves. -Until then and 
for some years afterward, the white servants were more numerous 
than the black ones. The former were brought from Europe, of- 
ten against their will, and were sold into servitude for a term of 
years. The one distinguishing mark of slavery, as contrasted with 
servitude, was not the absence of freedom, but the fact that the ab- 
sence was permanent. The white servant had somewhat greater 
privileges under the law than was the case under slavery, and when 
his term of indenture was over he became as free as other white 

The black man appeared in Monroe almost as soon as the white. 
In the early pioneer period the larger landholders had their slaves. 
Even among the victims of the massacre at Baughman's fort was 
"old Christopher." 

The mountain belt of Virginia was not suited to an extensive 
development of the plantation system. Neither was the institution 
of slavery ever popular in this region. Consequently, the negro pop- 
ulation was never large in Monroe at any time. It was only the 
large and wealthy landholders who were likely to possess field hands, 
In general, the negroes were kindly and indulgently treated- They 
fared better than where the slaves were so very numerous as to 
render a sternly repressive control a matter of public safety. The 
field hand worked by the side of his master, and toiled only when 
he did and only so long as he did. The servants in the "big house" 


looked down on the field hands, but both house and field servants 
looked down on the poor class of whites. Except so far as the slaves 
were quartered in the "big house," they lived in huts and suffered 
somewhat in cold weather. Mrs. Royall, writing in 1824 and her- 
self the wife of a slaveholder, states that the winter season was hard 
on the negroes. 

The appearance of the negro in Virginia was promptly followed 
by the appearance of the mulatto. The latter was defined by stat- 
ute law as a person not more than one-fourth white. If his mother 
was a slave, he was a slave also. 

The practice of manumission was encouraged by a state law of 
1784. In Monroe the freeing of slaves, especially by will, was rath- 
er common. Perhaps the first local instance of emancipation was 
in 1795, when William Scarborough of Turkey Creek was given 
leave to free his man York, on being responsible for any illegal 
conduct on his part. 

In 1832 the Virginia Assembly came within one vote of passing 
a resolution declaring it expedient to abolish slavery. This reso- 
lution had the support of all the delegates from the counties along 
the Alleghany chain. These mountain counties upheld the view 
that slavery was "ruinous to the white, retards improvements, roots 
out our industrious population, and banishes the yeomanry." Gov- 
ernor Letcher was one of many who proposed that the institution 
be eventually excluded from the section of the state west of the 
Blue Ridge. 

Slavery led to a code of laws and regulations in its own interest, 
and to an administration of justice somewhat unlike that which ap- 
plied to the white population. For example, the county court could 
sentence a slave to death but not a white person. Again, no negro 
or mulatto might be a witness except in casej of the state against 
a negro. 

Local records throw many interesting sidelights on the working 
of the slavery regime. Those of early Greenbrier mention an order 
that Frank be given "fifteen lashes on the bare back, well laid on," 
for stealing sheep and hogs and breaking into a dairy. For making 
"seditious speeches and seducing a negro woman out of the service 


of John Stuart," Peter, a mulatto, was in 1796 given thirty-nine 
lashes and sent to jail until ironed with a ring and chain and a 
twenty pound weight, which ornaments he was to drag around until 
the next term of court. 

William Haynes chastised a man and his wife for some petty 
stealing. Because of their racial belief that after death one passes 
to some other land and lives more happily, they thought to go to 
Africa by suicide- Accordingly, they committed suicide in a cave 
and they were buried there- 

Cuffy, slave of Margaret Kitchen of Gap Valley, was made 
levy-free in 1799. jThis fact indicates that he was old and no longer 
able to do much work. 

Harry, alias Harry Wilson, brought suit against James Glenn 
for false imprisonment and presented an affidavit from James Ward. 
The jury decided that Wilson was a free man, and that he should 
not only recover his freedom but damages to the amount of 40 shill- 

In 1801, Jack Hunt, a free negro, was shot in the leg while steal- 
ing from a milkhouse, and died of his wound in the jail at Sweet 

In 1802, negro Will, for stealing and selling 100 pounds of to- 
bacco, was branded with an O in his right hand and then discharged. 

Moses, a slave of Samuel Ewing, murdered Will, a slave of 
Oliver Ewing, in 1811. Will was stabbed in a kitchen while Moses 
was drunk and quarrelsome. The murderer threw his knife into a 
chimney corner and fled. The witnesses were chiefly negroes. Moses 
was sentenced to hang near Union, March 29. His owner was 
paid $275, it being a provision of the slavery laws that a master 
should be indemnified for the loss of a slave by capital punishment. 
This was the first hanging in Monroe and the spot became known 
as "Mose Hollow." Beck, the negro woman who murdered a little 
girl of Robert Coalter, was hanged on the road leading to the Alex- 
ander farm. 

In 1812, Peter, slave of Andrew Beirne, stole a sheet and some 
brown sugar from the wagon of Jacob Haynes. The value of the 
goods was $26.04. It was ordered that an R be branded in the 


palm of his left hand until the mark should fully show, and that he 
be given six lashes well laid on. About this time, Lymus, slave of 
John Gray, was punished with ten lashes and an R for stealing from 
the store of Shanklin and Caperton 24 yards of orange colored bom- 
bazet worth $30. Jim, another slave of Andrew Beirne, stole hose, 
saddle, bridle, and a pair of boots. The articles were recovered, but 
it was ordered that a T, an inch and a fourth in diameter, be burned 
into his hand and that fifty lashes be administered. 

In 1824, Billy Ligging, supposed to be a runaway slave, stabbed 
George Moss and resisted arrest. It was ordered that he be given 
thirty lashes on the bare back, well laid on, and that he be trans- 
ported from the United States- His value was fixed at $400. In 
another instance, a committee to whom the value of a runaway was 
referred, reported him too crippled to be worth anything. 

Misdemeanors, especially stealing, were at times rather fre- 
quently brought before the county court, but the negro was some- 
times cleared. 

The following is the form of manumission used by Colonel 
Royall: j 

Know all men by these presents that I, William Royall of the County 
of Monroe and State of Virginia, do emancipate a certain negro Boy of 
the name of Richard, who is now my property and the grandson of a cer- 
tain free negro man of the name of Edward, for sundry and divers causes 
and on the following condition, to wit: that he, the said Richard, shall 
remain as fully my Slave until he arrives* at the age of twenty-one years, 
as if this Deed had never been made. In Witness whereof I have here- 
unto set my hand and seal this 15th Day of May, 1805. 

Even after the negro was freed, the former master was answer- 
able for his support, in case he were liable to become a charge on the 
county. And when the institution of slavery was most flourishing, 
there was a reluctance to allow the freedman to remain in the state. 
He might not remain in the county except by and during the per- 
mission of the county court. In such a case a description of his 
person was filed in the office of the county clerk. 

As early as 1806 we find mention of the following free negroes: 

Jinny Hargrove — housekeeper — Rich Creek 


Elijah Hargrove — farmer — husband of the above 

Betsy Corder — at Jacob Miller's on Rock Creek 

Susannah — wife of Jacob Buckland — Indian Creek 

Henry Wilson — Farmer — at William Gullett's 

Sharlot Hunt — has two daughters, Sally and Katy 

Yock Nelson and wife — farmer — near Adam Bowyer's, Gap Valley 

Ned — on John Larew's land 

Ben Montgomery — Peter's Creek 

Harry Gluesberry — jobber — Sinks 

Daniel and wife — surname not known — Sweet Springs 

Nan and Susannah 

Jeremiah, freed by William Vawter and unwilling to leave Vir- 
ginia, where his friends and relatives were, asked permission to 
remain in Monroe. This was in 1827. In 1850, the petition of 
Edmund Briggs was signed by 51 persons. He asked leave to remain 
on the ground that he was 69 years old, had been in the county 22 
years, and could not think of separating from his old wife, who 
was a slave. The petition of Emily Covins in the same year reads 
much like that of Briggs- 

In 1829, the sheriff was ordered to sell into slavery eight free 
negroes for their failure to pay taxes. Three years later, several 
freedmen were charged with felony and larceny. In 1843 a de- 
scription is recorded of the six negroes emancipated by Griffith Gar- 
ten and the two by Adam Thomas. They were allowed to remain 
in the county. About 1845 quite a number of free negroes were 

It is significant that in 1858 John T. Wilson, of the hotel at 
Sweet Springs, was prohibited from selling liquor to any negro, slave 
or free. 

One of the last punishments under the reign of slavery was in 
February, 1862, when negro Taylor was ordered transported out 
of the Confederacy for burning the barn and washhouse of Moses 
Arnold. The property was valued at $200. The indemnification 
of the master was fixed at $500. 

One feature of the slavery system was the patrol. This was a 
semi-military device for keeping all slaves under close inspection. In 
Monroe the patrol company was divided into five squads for tours 


of one week each- In 1822 the captain of a squad was allowed one 
dollar for twelve hours' service, and the privates had seventy-five 

The present negro element of Monroe is partly derived from 
other communities. It is largely concentrated in two suburbs of 
Union, only a few small settlements occurring elsewhere. In most 
country neighborhoods a colored person is almost as infrequently 
seen as in the North or West. Since he attained his freedom, the 
negro is commonly a town dweller in the counties where he is least 

Slavery taught the negro to work after the manner of the white 
man, but racial traits stood in the way of his developing into a hus- 
tler. Yet those of the race who show themselves to be industrious 
and law-abiding are well thought of by the dominant color. 

A particularly useful citizen was the Reverend Charles L. Camp- 
bell, who was born a slave near Pickaway on the plantation of Rob- 
ert Campbell. After the close of the war he spent three years in 
Ohio, working by day at his trade of blacksmithing and going to 
school at night. Returning to Union he became active in the im- 
provement of his people. He taught several years and was ordained 
as an elder by a board of white preachers. In 1870 he organized 
the colored Baptist congregation at Union, was its pastor several 
years, and was instrumental in the purchase of its house of worship 
from his former master, who was a trustee of the church when used 
by the white Baptists. His life of usefulness came to a close in 
1912 at the age of 72. He was then the oldest minister in the Val- 
ley Baptist Association (colored). 


Union — Alderson — Other Places. 

HEN Monroe county was organized it had nearly 4000 
inhabitants and not even a village. It would now be 
difficult to find in the whole Union an organized county 
of that size without a town of at least 400 people. 

About a mile from the courthouse to the south James Byrnside 
had made a home about 1762. In 1774, James Alexander, then a 
young man of twenty-two, built a cabin a little north of the town. 
He soon sold a part of his land to Michael Erskine. But so late 
as 1799 there does not appear to have been any dwelling within the 
present town limits except that of Alexander himself. 

That the farm became a town was solely because it was chosen 
for the seat of government of the new county. On the second day 
of the first term of the Monroe court, Alexander entered into a 
bond to convey one acre as a courthouse lot and ten acres adjoining 
as a town site. The bond was made out in favor of William Haynes, 
John Gray, John Byrnside, James Handley, and James Alexander, 
acting as town trustees. The sheriff was then ordered to let out the 
building of a log courthouse and a stone jail. 

At a session held August 21, 1799, the trustees resolved that 
"the size of buildings on each lot must be one square log house, of 
the same size of 16 by 18 feet from out to out; two stories high of 
a common height, roof of shingles, and chimney of brick or stone; 
to be floored and finished in the inside in a workmanlike manner." 

There was a prompt remonstrance against the choice of county 
seat. A petition with many signers condemns it as being far from 
the center, thus disregarding the act creating Monroe, and also as 
illegal, on the ground that the justices of the new county were ap- 
pointed and commissioned without the consent of the court of Green- 


brier or the knowledge of the citizens of Monroe. The petitioners 
laid the blame on John Hutchinson. Another grievance was that 
the court was already preparing to erect the public buildings. The 
paper concludes by asking for a commission to determine the center 
of the county. 

Nevertheless, the Virginia Assembly passed the necessary bill, 
January 6, 1800. The other towns included in the same act were 
Springfield in Loudoun county, Elkton in Fauquier, Madison in 
Madison county, New Port at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, 
Rocky Mills in Hanover, Kernstown in Frederick, and Monroe (for- 
merly Neal's Spring) on the Little Kanawha. The sections relat- 
ing particularly to Union read thus: 

Section Four: That twenty-five acres of land, the property of James 
Alexander, at the courthouse in the county of Monroe, as the same have 
been laid off into lots and streets, shall be established a town by the name 
of Union; and that William Haynes, John Gray, John Byrnside, James 
Hanley, Michael Erskine, John Hutchinson, and Isaac Estill, gentlemen, 
shall be and they are hereby constituted trustees thereof. 

Section Nine: The trustees of the said towns respectively, or a majority 
of them, are impowered to make such rules and orders for the regular 
building of houses therein, as to them shall seem best, and to settle and 
determine all disputes concerning the bounds of the lots. So soon as the 
purchaser of any lot, in either of the said towns shall have built a dwell- 
ing house therein equal to twelve feet square with a brick or stone chim- 
ney, such purchaser shall enjoy the s'ame privileges as the freeholders and 
inhabitants of other towns, not incorporated, hold and enjoy. Vacancies 
by death or otherwise, of any one or more of the trustees of the said 
towns, respectively, shall be supplied by the remaining trustees, or a 
majority of them; and the person so elected shall have the same power 
as if they had been named in this act. 

The earliest lot purchasers on record are the following, the lot 
numbers being bracketed: 1804, Michael Alexander (64), Andrew 
Beirne (35, Joseph Burk (61), Henry Chapman (14), Adam Cline 
(52), Lewis Forlander (44), Benjamin Hall, (23, 24), James 
Handley, Sr. (34), Richard Shanklin (51); 1806, Thomas Beirne 
(53), Henry Stever (54), George Beamer, Joseph Alderson, Will- 
iam Blanton. All but Beamer and Blanton bought directly from 
Alexander. The only purchase price named in the deeds is $51 in 


the case of lot 44. In 1806 James Alexander deeded one acre for 
a courthouse lot and 25 acres for a town site, so long as the ground 
should be used for such purposes. 

Richard Shanklin is said to have been the first merchant, open- 
ing his store the year after the town was founded. In 1802 Henry 
Alexander and Hugh Caperton formed the partnership of Alexan- 
der and Company. Soon afterward came! Andrew and George 
Beirne, known as the firm of A. and G. Beirne. Andrew Beirne, 
Jr., later entered the firm. Benjamin F. Steele and Madison Mc- 
Daniel formed the partnership of Steele and McDaniel. A post- 
office was opened in 1800. 

In the election, April 1, 1802, for overseer of the poor, the) fol- 
lowing men voted: James Alexander, Matthew Alexander, John 
Byrnside, Joseph Burk, Jonathan Dunbar, Alexander Dunlap, Lewis 
Forlander, Benjamin Hall, Reuben Leach, Matthew Ralston, Rich- 
ard Shanklin, George Spickert, and Henry Stever. 

There were Methodist and Presbyterian churches within two 
miles, but after the town was established there was worship in the 
courthouse, and in pleasant weather in a maple grove. 

By a statute, of 1804 the lot owners of "Union Town" were al- 
lowed seven more years in which to make their improvements, this 
period to begin with the last day of 1803. But in 1816 there was 
a further extension of seven years. 

A statute of 1820 made it unlawful for the people of Union to 
allow sheep or hogs to run at large. For the first offense the penalty 
was half a dollar; for the second, it was one dollar; for thq third, 
it was the sale of the animal, the proceeds going to the improvement 
of the streets. In 1827 there was a petition for the repeal of this 
law on the ground that Union was a small place. 

In 1826 the free white housekeepers and freeholders of Union 
were empowered to elect seven of themselves as trustees each first 
Monday of April. The sheriff was to supervise such elections. This 
board was to appoint a clerk on such salary as might be deemed rea- 
sonable; to levy a tax of not more than $100 a year; and to make 
by-laws, rules, and regulations. Vacancies for a remainder of a 
year could be filled by the board- 


Mrs. Royall has this to say of Union at the end of its first quar- 
ter-century : 

Union is a poor little village, remarkable for nothing but a very ele- 
gant brick courthouse and the residence of the renowned Andrew Beirne 
and his famous rival Caperton, both of whom have amassed great wealth 
as merchants and speculators. Both began poor and have succeeded with- 
out a parallel, taking into view the nature of the country. They used to 
call Beirne the "greasy peddler." He began with ginseng, taking it from 
people's doors instead of their taking it to Staunton. He covered several 
counties, bringing his goods from Philadelphia, and doing a barter busi- 
ness. The country teeming with ginseng, cattle, and poultry, he wrested 
the trade from the merchants in the lower country. 

But while Mrs. Royall pays a graceful tribute to the more pleas- 
ing qualities of the two rival merchants, she is very severe on their 
business methods. She says they were fleecing the people and reduc- 
ing them to insolvency and vassalage. The people had to take what 
the merchants were offering them. She adds that the inclination of 
the people for dress, foreign manners, and table luxuries was caus- 
ing them to play into the hands of the merchants. 

Early in 1838 the town limits were extended on the north so as 
to take in some land belonging to the heirs of Matthew Alexander. 
This addition was to be laid off in quarter-acre lots which were to 
sell at not less than $25 each. 

In 1839 the trustees were authorized to make such alterations in 
the lots and alleys as they might think best, but none without the 
consent of Hugh Caperton, guardian of the heirs of Matthew Alex- 

In 1849 the Monroe Savings Bank was incorporated with a cap- 
ital of not over $50,000, its negotiable notes to be on the same foot- 
ing with those of the Bank of Virginia. Its incorporators were 
James H. Alexander, Andrew Allen, Richard F. Allen, Charles 
Baldwin, Andrew Beirne, Matthew Campbell, Robert Campbell, 
Augustus A. Chapman, George W. Curry, John Echols, Samuel 
Hamilton, Samuel R. Houston, George W. Hutchinson, Madison M. 
McDaniel, Benjamin F. Steele, Andrew Summers, Jeremiah Tracy, 
and Jacob Zoll. 


Yet the very next year there was a numerously signed petition 
for a bank with a capital of $100,000. It stated that there was no 
bank within 70 miles to the east or 100 miles to the north or south. 
The trade in cattle and horses in this and the contiguous counties 
was represented as about $500,000 a year. It was remarked that 
there were heavy losses through the bank paper from abroad. 

In 1853 permission was given to the Bank of Virginia, the Farm- 
ers' Bank of Virginia, the Bank of the Valley, or the Exchange Bank 
of Virginia to establish at Union an office of discount and deposit- 
In March, 1861, the town charter was amended. The trustees 
were to appoint a sergeant, who was to give bond in the sum of 

Union was incorporated August 14, 1868. Under this act the 
first mayor was Alfred Phillips, and the first sergeant was D. C. 
Callaway. The councilmen were George W. Davis, William Mon- 
roe, Andrew Prentice, A. G. Tibbetts, and John R. Wiseman. 

The first tavern license was granted to Patrick Boyd in 1800. He 
was followed about 1801 by Zachariah Decamp; by Charles Friend 
in 1803, Henry Stever in 1804, Henry and Matthew Alexander in 
1813, and Robert and James Dunlap in 1824. Keepers of the Un- 
ion hotel in antebellum days were Samuel ML Wallace, 1844, Zoll 
and Shanklin, 1852, Madison McDaniel, 1853, Snead and Com- 
pany, 1855, Zoll and Dunsmore, 1858, and Zoll and Campbell, 1859. 
Keepers of the Bell Tavern were John W. Lanius, 1844, William 
McCreery, 1846, Walter Douglas, 1847, and Joseph Zoll, 1855. 
The following year, Zoll kept the Virginia Hotel. 

Mrs. Sarah A. Osborne was born in Union in 1823. Among 
the residents she remembers as a girl are the following: Dr. Bald- 
win, Andrew P. Beirne, a merchant, Undrell Budd, a tanner and 
harness maker, Thomas Burns, a brewer who kept a bowling alley, 
Hugh Caperton, George Chapman, a lawyer, William Clark, a 
tailor, William Crebs, a wagonmaker, William Derieux, a tailor ( ?) , 
John Dickson, a tailor, Henry Francis, a carpenter, one Harris, a 
hotel keeper, Dr. Nelson Haynes, James Hundley, tavern keeper, 
John Wiseman, blacksmith, and Jacob Zoll, a saddler. Mrs. Os- 


borne remarks that the first geraniums and fuchsias ever seen in 
Union were brought there by Mrs. Henry Alexander. Tomatoes 
appeared about 1830, and were grown for display, not being thought 
fit to eat. 

A gazetteer of 1835 states that Union then had two hotels, two 
tan-yards, two saddlers, one school, two churches, one attorney, two 
doctors, 45 dwellings, and 400 people. Unless the population was 
overestimated, as was probably the case, the county seat had as 
many people 80 years ago as it has now. But until nearly 40 years 
later, the iron horse had not yet crossed the Alleghany and travel 
still followed the wagon roads. In a commercial sense Union was 
a more important place than now, since it held sway over a wider 
radius. In this particular it is like other county seat towns that 
railway development has left to one side. In the middle decades of 
the last century the town was the home of men of statewide repute 
and there were special facilities for secondary education. 

Facing the north end of the main street, but unfortunately not 
reached by any open thoroughfare whatever, is a monument to the 
Confederate soldiers who went from Monroe- It is of white marble, 
is almost 20 feet high, and stands on a limestone pedestal. The un- 
veiling took place in 1901, on which occasion some 12,000 people 
were present, including about 250 veterans. The latter marched 
under Colonel Charles S. Peyton, who delivered the address of wel- 
come. The battleflag of the 27th Virginia Infantry was carried by 
R. S. McCartney. The unveiling was by 15 young ladies. There 
was a sponsor, as well as seven maids of honor, for each of the 11 
states of the Confederacy. The marshals were L. E. Campbell, C 
E. Lynch, and J. L. Rowan. The first speaker was Edward Echols 
and the second was Colonel W. W. Arnett of Wheeling. 

Beyond the monument and in plain view is Walnut Grove, once 
the home of Andrew Beirne, Sr. Here President Van Buren was 
entertained a week by Colonel Beirne. A crowd of people assem- 
bled to hear the president speak at the barbacue given in his honor. 

The town cemetery, known as Green Hill, occupies a sightly 
position on the summit of a knob. Its white monuments are visible 


from some distance. The first interment was that of Jane Ingle, a 
maid of 17. 

The high school building, erected in 1876 at a cost of $4700, 
stands rather out of town on the road to Salt Sulphur Springs. 

The present business and professional interests of the county seat 
include two banks, two general stores, two hotels, one grocery, one 
drugstore, two flour mills, one garage, one planing mill, one printing 
office, two telephone centrals, three attorneys, two physicians, one 
dentist, two blacksmiths, one saddler, one barber, one shoemaker, 
and one milliner. 

The town of Alderson is built on the homestead of John Alder- 
son, who settled here in 1777. The site remained farm land almost 
a century. But it was not long until a public ferry was authorized. 
The mouths of Wolf and Muddy are near by, and it very early be- 
came an important place of crossing. One of the reasons for this 
importance was the location on the north bank of Old Greenbrier 

When the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad came along in 1872, 
a station at this point was a business necessity. The town thus oc- 
casioned has become the largest one between Ronceverte and Hinton. 
But since it lies in a corner of Monroe, much the greater share of its 
tributary region lies in Greenbrier and Summers. As a railroad out- 
let the usefulness of the town to this county is thereby much lessened. 
And of "Greater Alderson," only the business section lies in Mon- 
roe. A large residential suburb lies across the river in Greenbrier, 
as a result of good building ground being more plentiful on that 
As a tri-county town, Alderson soon grew into a brisk commercial 
and educational center. In June, 1872, there were already three gen- 
eral stores, two steam sawmills, two shoe stores, one doctor, one 
blacksmith, and a carpenter shop. Near by was a woolen factory. 
A Confederate reunion in 1883 drew a crowd of from 500 to 1000 
persons and led to a permanent organization. 

The number of business concerns has now risen to 36. These 
include a wholesale grocery house doing a business of half a million 


dollars annually; two department stores, a milling company, a 
national bank, a power company, three general merchandise houses, 
two hardware stores, one furniture store, one drug store, an automo- 
bile agency, a cable office, a theater, two hotels, and three restau- 
rants. There are also two jewelers, two clothes cleaning establish- 
ments, a confectioner, a meat shop, a shoestore, a barber shop, and 
a dealer in ice and coal. 

The higher educational interests are looked after by the 
Alleghany Collegiate Institute, a school under the care of the Meth- 
odists. In North Alderson is the Alderson Baptist Academy. 

Within the past year a new concrete bridge has been put across 
the Greenbrier at this point. 

Peterstown began its official existence in 1803 as the result of a 
petition by Christian Peters, in which it is stated that an area of 
18 r A acres had been laid off in lots and streets. The earlier home 
of Peters was on Trigger Run, two miles above, but after the town 
was started he came here to live. He also built a flouring mill. 
The earliest purchaser of a lot of whom we have any definite knowl- 
edge was Isaac Dawson in 1807. The size of the parcel was 48 
rods. The place grew and prospered, the fine waterpower on Rich 
Creek being an important factor. In 1835 there were 20 houses, 
three tanyards, one sawmill, one gristmill, one store, one wheelwright, 
one blacksmith, one tailor, one saddler, and a school. The Virginia 
P.ailroad is only two miles away and the Norfolk and Western but 
little farther, these lines running on opposite sides of New River. 
This nearness has enabled the place to more than hold its own and 
to rank third among the population centers of Monroe. It has now 
a population of about 350, and the following business houses: One 
bank, six general stores, three mills, and one electric light plant. 
There are Methodist and Baptist churches, one doctor, one dentist, 
three fraternities, and a graded school with five teachers and a 

Sinks Grove was formerly Rocky Point, and is very often spoken 
of by the old name, which it should have retained. The location 
is in a hollow fronting the great depression between Swope's Knobs 


and Middle Mountain. Looking down upon it is the truncated cone 
of Bickett's Knob. In size Sinks Grove ranks fourth among the 
towns of Monroe, and without prejudice to any of the others it may 
be remarked that it is surpassed by none of them in the generally 
modern look of its houses and its trimness of appearance. Yet the 
town is not so new as it looks, since there was already something 
of a village in the days of the great war. The first house erected 
here was the Burwell Hotel, built by Alexander Leach about 1839. 
Six highways branch out like the spokes of a wheel, and the well set- 
tled vicinity gives it a high degree of business importance. Fort 
Spring, the nearest railway point, is six miles away. The village 
contains a creamery, two general stores, one blacksmith, and one 
barber. There are Presbyterian and Baptist churches, a two-roomed 
school, two fraternities, two doctors, and one resident minister. The 
population is 100. 

Greenville was formerly called Centerville. It lies at the con- 
fluence of Indian and Laurel Creeks, 11 miles from the county seat 
and about the same from Lowell, its railroad outlet. The village 
came into being partly from the fine water power just above the 
mouth of Laurel, and partly through the influence of Cook's fort, 
which in its day was a rallying point for the settlers over a consid- 
erable distance around. The almost forgotten site of the stockade 
is about a quarter of a mile below the footbridge over Indian and 
in the midst of the bottom on the south side of the creek. As a 
river village the situation of Greenville is somewhat unusual. A 
high peninsula thrusts itself upon Indian Creek from the north and 
for a brief distance confines the stream to a gorge, leaving broad 
pockets of bottom above and below. It is on this shoulder that 
Greenville is built. About 1870 it stood some chance of winning 
the courthouse, and its failure to do so was instrumental in creating 
the county of Summers. The possibility of separating itself from 
the county seat led the Union interest to consent to a division of the 
county. The population is about 75. There are Methodist and 
Presbyterian churches, a bank, a grist and saw mill, a hotel, two 
general stores, a furniture store, and an undertaking establishment. 


Lindside, 14 miles from Union and 10 from Peterstown, may 
be styled the youngest of the population groups of this county- Its 
growth has been almost wholly since 1872, It commands a large 
country trade, in which it is helped by its position at the mouth of 
an important gap in Little Mountain. This gives it ready access 
to Peters Mountain valley. The village has about 50 inhabitants. 
There are two general stores, three hotels and boarding houses, a 
furniture and undertaking establishment, one livery stable, a tele- 
phone exchange, one electrician, two resident physicians, and sev- 
eral mechanics and teamsters. There is no church within three- 
quarters of a mile. There are three fraternities. The public school 
library has 75 volumes. 

A cluster of population can hardly be called a village unless it 
includes within a very limited distance one or more churches, a 
schoolhouse of not less than two rooms, a hotel, two or more gen- 
eral stores, probably a flouring mill and a few other business con- 
cerns, and a resident physician. A center which falls conspicuously 
below the above minimum is a hamlet rather than a village. Of 
such Monroe contains, in addition to its summer resorts, Waiteville, 
Laurel Branch, Gap Mills, Willow Bend, Rock Camp, Cashmere, 
Ballard, Hunter's Mills, Pickaway, Hillsdale, and Hollywood. 












Oh & 



Sweet Springs — Salt Sulphur Springs — Red Sulphur Springs — Minor Resorts. 

WEET SPRINGS is the oldest, most permanent, and 
most interesting of the watering places of Monroe. 
James Moss, said to have been the first settler on the up- 
per course of Dunlap, reared his cabin about 1760 near 
the mineral spring. He did not acquire title and disposed of his 
interest to William Lewis. Patent was issued in 1774. Like his 
more famous brothers, William Lewis was an indefatigable land pros- 
pector and secured choice tracts in several localities- But Sweet 
Springs was the spot he selected for a home. The Lewis brothers 
often conducted their land operations in partnership. So Thomas 
Lewis deeded to William in 1786 his interest in 1220 acres on "Sweet 
Springs Branch," the consideration being 1000 pounds, or $3333.33. 
The conveyance recites that a division had been agreed upon in the 
lifetime of Andrew Lewis, in whose hands had rested the deed of 
partition. The consideration in this instance was $200. This pa- 
per was not found among Andrew's effects, and an acknowledgment 
could not be made because of the suspension of courts of justice upon 
the dissolution of British authority in Virginia. The deed by Thomas 
affected all the Lewis land above the falls in Dunlap Creek. 

After the restoration of peace, William Lewis began to develop 
Sweet Springs as a health resort. As a related step in his own in- 
terest, he offered to provide a home for the court of the circuit that 
embraced the counties of Botetourt, Greenbrier, Kanawha, and 
Montgomery. The inducements included a courthouse and a jail. 
Until these quarters should be built, which was done in 1795, the 
sessions of the court were to be held alternately at Fincastle and 
Lewisburg. A view of the buildings was ordered to take place by 
May 1, 1796. 


The plans of Lewis did not stop short of the creation of a town. 
Section Three of an Act of Assembly of December 16, 1790, thus 
reads : 

That thirty acres of land on the southeast side of the Sweet Springs 
in the county of Botetourt, the property of William Lewis, shall be and 
they are hereby vested in James Breckenridge, Martin McFerran, Henry 
Bowyer, Matthew Harvey, John Beal, John Wood, John Smith, Robert 
Harvey, John Hawkins, Thomas Madison, and Sampson Sawyers, gentle- 
men trustees, to be by them, or a majority of them, laid off into lots of 
one-half acre each, with convenient streets, and establish a town by the 
name of Fontville. 

As soon as laid off, the lots were to be advertised two months 
in the Virginia Gazette, and sold at public auction at the best price 
to be had. The title was to be conveyed in fee, and the money paid 
to the proprietor. Purchasers were to build within five years from 
the day of sale houses at least 16 feet square with chimneys of stone. 
The trustees were empowered to make rules for the building of 
houses, and it was left to them to pass upon boundary disputes. The 
Act contains these further provisions: 

Section Eleven: And be it further enacted, that three acres of ground 
to include the said Sweet Springs, shall be and they are hereby vested in 
the trustees of the town at the said place, and their successors forever; in 
trust to and for the use of all such persons as may from time to time at- 
tend the same for the recovery of their health. 

Section Twelve: No person shall hold more than two lots at the Sweet 
Springs, nor shall the trustees convey more than that number to any person. 
Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to au- 
thorize the trustees of the town at the Sweet Springs to sell the land 
whereon the courthouse of the said county and the tavern of the said 
William Lewis are built. 

But Fontville did not spring into actual existence. Whether 
the movement were premature, or whether the public lacked the in- 
clination to make it succeed, we have at this late day no certain 
knowledge. William Lewis has been styled the "civilizer of the 
frontier." He wished to establish a town that would be thoroughly 
attractive to seekers after health. No tannery, distillery, or butcher 


shop was to be permitted within its limits. Lewis was far-sighted, 
yet he met with much opposition. 

Sweet Springs was the seat of the District Court only eleven 
years, and it was a period of discord. An Act of Assembly decreed 
the removal to Lewisburg by February 1, 1807. The proprietor of 
Sweet Springs and the county court of Greenbrier were each to ap- 
point three commissioners to value the jail and other buildings erected 
by the proprietor for the use of the district court. When the amount 
of such valuation, collected by voluntary subscription or otherwise, 
should be paid to the clerk of Greenbrier for the use of the proprie- 
tor, or his legal representative, the clerk of Greenbrier was to cer- 
tify the same to the next court at Sweet Springs, which court at the 
end of its term should adjourn to Lewisburg. 

This removal was a result of an agitation that seems to have 
arisen at a very early date. The paragraph below is our digest of 
the report of a committee to examine into the title to the courthouse 
at Sweet Springs. The committee consisted of Samuel Blackburn, 
George Hancock, Augustus Woodward, Allen Taylor, Thomas 
Rowland, William H. Cavendish, and John Hutchinson. The dic- 
tion of the paper is excellent and the, criticism of Lewis seems re- 
luctant. It was recorded October 21, 1799. 

It is so usual to have the seats of superior courts at county seats, that 
in the few exceptions ample provision does not seem to have been made. 
This is peculiarly the case here. The court was to alternate between Fin- 
castle and Lewisburg until the proprietor of Sweet Springs) should at his 
own expense build courthouse and prison. This inconvenient way lasted 
several years. The records were twice every year taken horseback over 
several mountains and dangerous watercourses. By later Acts, the "ad- 
vention" of the court to Sweet Springs was hastened, but there was no 
provision to vest in the commonwealth the title to necessary grounds or 
buildings. The proprietor now has the freehold. The commonwealth has 
no other claim than merely the provision that the courthouse be here. The 
buildings were erected with the verbal consent of the proprietor. Between 
the last and present terms of court, the tenant now at Sweet Springs has 
with the consent of the proprietor commanded the jailor to leave, and has 
molested him in his use of the tenement. The clerk has avoided such 
treatment by keeping his papers at his house six miles away over a diffi- 
cult mountain, but has exposed them thereby to dangers, and this is incon- 


venient to suitors. The courthouse is used in vacation as a boarding house 
for hotel guests, is never in the custody of the jailor, and is now in ill 
repair. The jail is totally insufficient, and several escapes have occurred. 
It is recommended that a town be created to destroy a monopoly preju- 
dicial to the public and oppressive to individuals. The committee was of 
unanimous opinion that the present seat was by no means adapted to per- 
manency, and that therefore there was embarrassment to the public and 
probably injustice to private individuals. The proprietor has a slender 
claim on the commonwealth, because the building put up as courthouse will 
answer his private purposes. To make the prison secure necessitates an 
expense equal to the original cost. If indemnity to the proprietor is in 
order, it will be small. The interest of the public may be subjected to 
a dangerous association with the interest of a private citizen." 

John Lewis, son of William and present proprietor, made reply 
a few days later than he understood the buildings were vested ab- 
solutely in the commonwealth so long as the court might sit here. 
In case of doubt he was willing to convey the necessary land under 
the condition that when the commonwealth should vacate, its right 
to it should cease- He was also willing to grant land under like 
regulations for clerk and jail. 

A petition of 1800 asks that the court be moved to Union on 
the ground that the proprietor's tavern is given a monopoly "under 
the most inconvenient charges and regulations." It asserts that the 
expense to a witness is equal to the fine for his absence. The jail 
is alleged to be so weak and undesirable that prisoners often escape. 
It says the peculiar circumstances of the place lead to a "lamentable 
train of continuances. The records are kept in no certain place and 
are therefore unsafe." Union is represented as in "the heart of 
a compact and plentiful settlement rapidly progressing." The court- 
house is large and commodious, and the jail is strong. The signa- 
tures to this paper are numerous. 

A counter petition by Lewis, backed by 42 signers, says there 
are two houses of entertainment at Sweet Springs, other than the 
proprietor's, and still another at Red Springs, less than a mile away. 
Within three to five miles are other houses where the cheapest liv- 
ing may be had. Altogether, Sweet Springs can shelter 200 guests 
and Union only 50- The charges by the tenant of the proprietor are 


the same as at the public houses in Union, and his house alone can 
receive all the people who come to court. It says the delays com- 
plained of are chargeable to the lawyers, who have a long way to 
come. The clerk's office is "one of six rooms in a log house, and 
but for the grasping individuals who try for removal," a better of- 
fice would be put up. Sweet Springs is central to its district and 
convenient to reach. 

In a petition of 1802, the proprietor of Sweet Springs argues 
that his courthouse is of stone, much larger than the one at Union, 
and- has walls two feet thick. The jail has two rooms, whereas the 
jail at Union has a single room 18 feet square. Only two felons 
have escaped from his jail. He adds that Union and Lewisburg are 
not agreed, each wanting the district court. 

The petition for removal which we have described is only the 
first of several- The persons in favor of such step seem to have 
been a large majority of the people interested. The movement was 
gaining headway. Yet in 1804 there were 419 petitioners asking 
that the court remain at Sweet Springs for the reason that its court- 
house was more commodious than those at Fincastle and Lewisburg- 

Since the removal of the court the history of Sweet Springs has 
been that of a well known summer resort and very small social and 
commercial center. Next to Berkeley Springs and the resorts of 
Warm Springs valley, it is the oldest watering place in the Virginias. 

The waters of the mineral spring, which undoubtedly became 
known to the whites through the Indians, are mildly alterative and 
cathartic, and are serviceable in ailments of the digestive organs and 
in debility. They are thermal, having a temperature of 73 degrees, 
or some 20 degrees above the mean atmospheric temperature of the 
locality. Their properties are similar to those of the famous hot 
wells of Bristol in England. 

The Lewises came to Sweet Springs to live in 1782. The first 
building at the mineral waters is said to have been a log hut known 
as the "wigwam." It probably antedates the arrival of Lewis. The 
hotel, about which there was so much controversy in the papers we 
have quoted, was built in 1792. Before the close of the century 


Sweet Springs had numerous visitors. Washington was a guest in 
1797. The biographer of Ann Royall states that during the sum- 
mer season and the sessions of the district court, the house of Col- 
onel Royall, which stood about one mile away, was filled with 
guests. Mrs. Royall herself says in 1824 that "people from nearly 
every state go to the springs." She remarks that the Northern peo- 
ple are reserved, the Virginians frank and sociable, and the South 
Carolinians still more so. 

Several of the presidents, including Pierce and Fillmore, were 
guests at Old Sweet Springs. Henry A. Wise was a frequent vis- 
itor. It is said to be the spot where Jerome Bonaparte wooed and 
won Elizabeth Patterson, the American wife whom his despotic 
brother forced him to put away. 

Of the original buildings little or nothing appears to exist. The 
present main building dates from 1830-33. A second large building 
and five cottages were erected in 1857. 

The original Sweet Springs Company was incorporated January 
16, 1836, by John B. Lewis and associates. The capital stock au- 
thorized was 1000 shares of $100 each, three-fifths of which amount 
was to be held bona fide by other persons than the proprietors. The 
stock was to be taken within three years and the water was to be 
analyzed. Incorporation of the Red Springs Company took place 
the same year, but that of the White Sulphur Springs Company did 
not take place until 1845. 

In 1852 the property passed out of the hands of the Lewises, 
and a new company was incorporated by Oliver and Christopher J. 
Beirne, Allen T. Caperton, and John Echols. The capital stock 
was not to exceed $500,000. The company might build saw and 
other mills, but might not acquire more than 4000 acres of land. 
In 1856 the license paid by the company was $225. 

In 1902 the property passed into the hands of Charles C. Lewis 
and J. D. Logan, the former gentleman representing another branch 
of the descendants of Colonel John Lewis, the founder of Augusta 

Though not so numerously frequented as in the palmy days of 


the management under Oliver Beirne, there is still a very fair 
amount of patronage. The buildings can not be termed modern, but 
present a good appearance. The great lawn, well shaded and grass- 
ed, is an inviting spot. Water for general purposes is brought from 
a mountain spring and distributed from a reservoir. The scenic 
surroundings are very beautiful in the summer, and the climate of 
this sheltered valley is very tonic and healthful. > 

A short mile down Sweet Springs Run, and beyond the interstate 
boundary, is the sister resort of Sweet Chalybeate Springs. Less 
than half a mile up the valley, and in full view except as screened 
by the fine oak grove, is the manor-house of Lynnside. On this spot 
lived William Lewis, son of the founder of Augusta county, and 
he has been succeeded by four generations of his posterity. The 
present brick mansion was built about 1845. Here was kept in 
1884 a private boarding school. 

Among the tavern-keepers who have dispensed entertainment at 
Sweet Springs, the earliest names we find in the local records are 
those of Robert Douthat in 1802 and Jesse Munter in 1803. In 
1848 James Shanks paid a license of $60.12. In 1851 Christopher 
J. Beirne and Thomas J. Johnston paid $70.25, in addition to $10 
for their ten-pin alley. In 1857 a tax of $22.22 was levied on each 
of the three billiard tables. 

On Indian Creek where it is yet a small stream, and three miles 
from the county seat is Salt Sulphur Springs. The fine lawn of 
eleven acres is a cross-section of the narrow creek bottom, and it lies 
between lofty bluffs. On this lawn are the two mineral springs, the 
waters being chalybeate and sweetly sulphurous and containing iodine. 
The land was once held by a Benson family, and two daughters 
thereof married William Erskine and Isaac Caruthers. As the firm 
of Erskine and Caruthers, these men were conducting a summer 
hostelry in 1823 and they continued many years later. Their li- 
censes in 1857 amounted to $219-17. 

The largest building is of stone, 45 by 206 feet in size, contains 
72 rooms, and cost $30,000. It overlooks the lawn, the other build- 
ings standing along the brink of the stream. For several decades 


prior to the war of 1861 Salt Sulphur Springs was a famous water- 
ing place, and was numerously frequented by people from the lower 
South, especially South Carolina. Many Virginians from the tide- 
water counties also came here. The high water mark was in 1860. 

The old time patronage was interrupted by the war, and has never 
been recovered. Since then the guests are mainly from the lower 
Kanawha valley and from Ohio. During recent years the attend- 
ance has been quite small. Extensive repairs, however, were made 
in 1880. Shortly afterward, the resort became the property of Gen- 
eral John W. M. Appleton, a native of Boston and a Federal sol- 
dier. He acted as host until his tragic death by a horse in 1913. 

Around the year 1873 Salt Sulphur Springs was a camp meeting 

Among the South Carolina visitors of August, 1844, was the 
famous John C. Calhoun. The circumstance is well remembered 
by the venerable Baldwin Ballard. Calhoun was accompanied by 
his wife and an invalid daughter. While the hostlers were mak- 
ing a change of horses at the Arnot place, the apostle of nullifica- 
tion asked for a drink of water. Robert Cummings, one of the 
hostlers, gave him a drink from the horse trough after the manner 
in which he was accustomed to quench his own thirst. In relating 
the incident Mr. Ballard speaks of Cummings as inexcusably care- 
less or lazy. He could have offered the best of water by going to 
the spring house 70 yards above the trough. 

Another reminiscence is related by John B. Cook of Centennial- 
When a small boy he rode on the Salt Sulphur pike in the same 
carriage with Henry Clay. The bluegrass statesman was a ready 
mixer. He took the boy on his knee and amused him by winking 
his ears and telling stories. 

Red Sulphur Springs lies in a deep hollow, near the mouth of a 
small tributary of Indian Creek and 12 miles from Lowell, its 
principal though not its nearest railroad point. The elevation is 
1600 feet. The waters, which have a temperature of 54 degrees, 
derive their name from a peculiar sulphur compound which is held 
on solution. It is separated in the form of a jelly by atmospheric 


air and also by acids. Mixed with a small quantity of common 
water and raised to a temperature of 80 degrees, this compound de- 
composes and gives off a powerful odor. But the spring water itself 
is colorless and transparent. 

These waters have long been known to have a quieting effect 
on the circulatory and nervous systems, reducing the pulse and pro- 
moting sleep. In catarrh, diabetes, chronic diarrhea, and other af- 
fections of the secretory organs, and in functional derangements of 
the heart and liver, they have been used with great success. But 
their greatest repute is in the treatment of pulmonary consumption. 
The water appears to combat the "great white plague" by building 
up the system and enabling nature to rid itself of the germ that 
causes the disease. 

As a resort Red Sulphur Springs was opened in 1832 by a Har- 
vey. In the spring of 1837, a company was incorporated, with Wil- 
liam Burk as proprietor. Next year the Assembly authorized it 
to increase its capital stock by $50,000. In 1844 the license paid 
was $35, showing that the patronage was not so large as at Sweet 
Springs or Salt Sulphur. During the war the buildings were used 
as a military hospital. The property was finally purchased by Levi 
P. Morton, of New York, who is still in possession. Mr. 
Morton paid $10,000 and spent $40,000 in improvements. His 
representative at the resort was Dr. G. O. Glavis. 

During the administration of Governor Dawson, the legislature 
of West Virginia appropriated $95,000 for a sanatorium for con- 
sumptive patients. Mr. Morton offered as a free gift to the state 
the mineral spring and ten acres surrounding it. A committee went 
through the form of inspecting the offer. The members came in 
bad winter weather, took a casual look at the place, and went back 
to make an adverse report. It would look as though such a report 
was predetermined. Mr. Morton was not even thanked for his 
proposition. A site was chosen at Terra Alta in Mr. Dawson's 
home county, and this meant a purchase instead of a gift. The un- 
savory nature of West Virginia politics lends a suspicious air to 
the performance. 


The report of the committee was a mixture of prejudice and 
misrepresentation. Red Sulphur Springs is surrounded by a well 
peopled farming community, and there is a large extent of bottom 
land on Indian Creek. As a source of country produce it would be 
as promising as that around Terra Alta. It is true that the spring 
is in a deep hollow, but the open plateau above, 400 feet higher in 
elevation, affords a more suitable site for consumptive patients than 
exists at the other point. On the whole, Terra Alta possesses no 
advantage over Red Sulphur, except that it is on a trunkline rail- 
road. As a practical question, Red Sulphur is not too remote, and 
a small outlay would vastly improve the ease of reaching it. And 
finally, it possesses that in which Terra Alta is totally deficient; a 
mineral spring with an indubitable record of its healing power in 

Red Sulphur Springs is practically a closed resort. Since the 
contagious nature of consumption has become generally understood, 
the public has grown suspicious of buildings that have had every 
opportunity of becoming infested with the bacillus that causes the 
disease. But the water is there, and some way should be found 
to make this hygienic resource available. 

Perhaps it should become the property of the national govern- 
ment, as in the case of the Hot Springs of Arkansas. 

Just outside the springs property William Adair conducted a 
hostelry before the war and it was largely attended. Another of 
the same period was that of T- S. and Dunlap Campbell. 

Not one of the three historic resorts of Monroe lies even close 
to a railroad. One is no longer open, another is almost in suspended 
animation, and the third has but a fraction of its old-time patronage. 

A few other mineral springs occur in the county. Gray Sul- 
phur, a mile east of Peterstown, has not been open for a long while. 
About midway between it and Sweet Springs is Crimson Spring, 
which has never developed into a watering place. On Hans Creek 
is the Larew spring the sulphur waters of which attract summer 



Indian Paths — Early Roads — Overseers and Precincts of 1799 — The 
Turnpike Era — The Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. 

HE entire Alleghany region was threaded by Indian 
trials. Some of these were through lines of travel. 
Y Others were only of local importance. In some and 
perhaps many instances these paths were doubtless first 
opened by the herds of buffalo, as these animals journeyed from one 
feeding ground to another. When the white man came on the scene 
he found it very convenient to use the Indian trail as a bridle-path. 
Here and there it was accepted as a public highway and given into 
the care of road overseers. Such converted thoroughfares were 
termed Indian roads. Elsewhere the trail lapsed into disuse, and 
after a century of tillage it is only now and then, especially in th'e 
woods, that it can be recognized. 

In Monroe as in other mountain counties, the Indian paths were 
the ones first used by the early settlers. That the Gap Mills valley 
and the basin of Indian Creek were favored points of settlement was 
largely because of the trail that came up Dunlap and down Second 
and Indian creeks to New River. Near Gap Mills it was joined 
by a path crossing Peters Mountain. The trail then took the gen- 
eral direction of Indian Creek to its mouth, passing south of Thorny 
Hollow and intersecting the present road from Union to Willow 
Bend near the Alexander farm. From Ellison's Ridge a side-path 
crossed Indian below Greenville and went up Indian Draft, reach- 
ing the Greenbrier near Lowell. From the mouth of Indian an- 
other path came up Stinking Lick to the vicinity of Ballard, and 
then ran eastward, crossing Peters Mountain at Symms Gap. Near 
Ballard this path has been traced a considerable distance, while on 


Little Mountain a section of the Dunlap path is still perfectly ob- 
servable. The last named path was used by the many immigrants 
from the Cowpasture, Calfpasture, and Bullpasture valleys. Other 
settlers came direct from the upper James, the Roanoke, and the 
New by means of the trails crossing Peters Mountain or penetrat- 
ing the Narrows of New River. Thus in large degree the Monroe 
area was settled independently of that now covered by Greenbrier, 
and the two localities came to have divergent views in local mat- 

It was not until 1782 that Lewisburg secured a wagon road 
across the Alleghany to Warm Springs. This road must have been 
quite good, since loads of 2500 pounds were being hauled over it in 
1785. iBut because of the Greenbrier River it was not of great 
service to Monroe except in the north. 

Some mention of the very earliest roads is given in preceding 
chapters. The first road orders under the Monroe court were in 
August, 1799. Alexander* Montgomery, Owen Neel, and John 
Louderback were to view a way "from the county line at the turn 
of the waters" to Ralph Yates'- James Alexander, James Handley, 
Edward Keenan, Ralph Yates, and William Blanton were to view 
from Yates' to the courthouse, and Felix Williams, Henry McDan- 
iel, Jr., and Alexander Hutchinson were to view from the county 
line at the end of Peters Mountain on New River to Indian Creek. 
But since nothing was done, Daniel Shumate, Jacob Cook, and 
James Henderson were added to the committee and Williams was re- 
moved. James Alexander, John Byrnside and Isaac Estill were to view 
a route from the courthouse to join the last named road. Michael 
Erskine, James Gray, Robert Nickell, James Glenn, and James 
Young were to view from the courthouse to Second Creek on the 
most direct course to the Saint Lawrence ford on Greenbrier. Wil- 
liam Graham, Robert Johnson, and James Gwinn, Sr., were to view 
from the Greenbrier opposite James Graham's to the top of Swope's 
Knobs, and James Alexander, Zadoc Lowe, and Francis Best from 
the Knobs to the courthouse. Joseph and George Swope, L. Lowe, 
John Alford, and Thomas Alderson were to view from Alderson's 


ferry to the dividing waters at Lewis Castle's in a direct course to 
the courthouse. Matt Farley, Daniel Jarrett, and James Ellison 
were to view from the mouth of Indian to Jesse Green's. From 
Green's to Isaac Estill's, the viewers were Jesse Green, James Fitz- 
patrick, and William Maddy. John Handley, Samuel Clark, and 
Nimrod Tackett were the viewers from the courthouse to the wagon 
ford on Second Creek at Robert Knox's. 

It will thus appear that the establishing of a county seat, where 
previously there had not been even a hamlet, made necessary a new 
network of roads radiating from the courthouse. 

The overseers of roads and their precincts, as defined in the sum- 
mer of 1799, were as follows: 

Joseph Swope: from his house to Lewis Cottle'si All male laboring 
tithables, including those of Moses Hall, down Wolf Creek to Swope's and 
on both sides of the road to the top of Swope's Knobs were to turn out. 

William Brown: from Cottle's to Patrick Boyd's field. All tithables 
to turn out within three miles on each side of the road from Reuben Leach's 
to Joseph Miller's. 

Matthew Alexander: from Boyd's field to Elkin's mill. All tithables 
on each side of the road from John Sparr's to Erskine's. 

Ralph Gates: from his house to the lower end of Edward Keenan's 

Michael Counts: from Keenan's field to the courthouse. 

Robert Johnson: from the top of Swope's Knobs to Abraham Dixon's 
place. Tithables from Isaac Skagg's to Hall's old place, including the 
waters of Wolf, Gartner (Garten?), and Edwards. 

William Hinchman, Jr.: from Abraham Dixon's to the Greenbrier ford 
opposite James Graham's. Tithables from William Johnson's to the mouth 
of Greenbrier, including the Ballengees, Meadows, Masseys, Esom Leech, 
William Dixon, and others. 

James Roach; from George Dixon's to join the other road opposite 
James Graham's. 

Frederick Lowe: from courthouse to the top of Swope's Knobs. 

James Gray: from his house to courthouse, crossing the race tracks, and 
to intersect the old road to Robert Knox's near Robert Thompson's, 

John Byrnside: from opposite his house to the mouth of Turkey. 

Alexander Montgomery: from the turn of the waters to Ralph Gates. 

Curtis Ballard: of road to be opened from Estill's to Hans Creek. 

Lively McGee: from William Vawter, Sr., to Hans Creek. 

Henry McDaniel: from Vawter's to Brush Creek. 


Daniel Shumate: from Brush Creek to Henderson's ferry. 

Alexander Montgomery (?): from county line above Adam Bowyer's 
to Joseph Slater's house. 

Owen Neel: from Slater's to Ralph Gates. 

In 1800, James Gray, Thomas Garvin, and William Young were di- 
rected to view from the "fork of old road to Patrick Boyd's near William 
Leech to where road leads through Boyd's field." 

There seems to have been a public ferry at Alderson's at least 
ten years prior to the organization of Monroe. In the year the 
county was formed Alexander Stuart petitioned for a public ferry, 
on the ground that he was living on a road from Union to the 
Bluestone, and that it there joined a road to Kentucky. He had a 
fdrry boat to use when he wished to visit his lands on the Mont- 
gomery side. 

In 1800 James Graham was licensed to keep a ferry. 

Out of the county revenue for 1813, $300 was applied to the 
completion of the road then being opened down the Greenbrier to 
New River. The commissioners were Joseph Alderson, David Gra* 
ham, and William Hinchman. 

In 1812 a road authorized from Lynchburg to Sweet Springs 
by way of Fincastle asked for a connecting road through Union to 
the mouth of Bluestone, whence a newly built road ran on to the 
"lower loop" in the Kanawha. Five years before this date certain 
arrearages of tax in Botetourt were applied toward the portion of 
the road between Fincastle and Sweet Springs. 

By an act of 1819, Alexander Kitchen, near the head of Sec- 
ond Creek, was authorized to put up a tollgate and collect tolls for 
six years, in order to reimburse himself for the $550 he had paid 
out of his own funds in building the road. After having maintained 
the road in what he termed excellent order, but without fully re- 
couping the sum named, he was granted an extension of time until 
1830, but the tolls were reduced one-half. Until the latter date, 
people journeying between Sweet Springs and Gap Mills were 
levied upon as follows: 

For 20 cattle $ -30 

For 20 sheep or hogs IS 


One horse .06 

Vehicle with two wheels 20 

Wagon with four wheels SO 

For each wheel of a cart and for each animal attached 

to the vehicle 06^4 

During the first half of the last century the question of good 
roads was a very live one in the Appalachian counties. Until after 
1850, the lines of railroad were few and short and nearly confined 
to the lowlands of the Atlantic slope. In 1811 the Virginia As- 
sembly passed the following resolution: 

Whereas, it is a matter of the greatest importance, not only to the good 
people of this state, but to our brethren of the Western States, that a 
better and more direct communication should be opened betwixt the eastern 
and western waters, resolved that Wilson C. Nicholas, James Breckenridge, 
William Caruthers, Andrew Donally, Jr., and William J. Lewis be ap- 
pointed commissioners to mark out the most practicable way, if any, from 
the mouth of Dunlap's Creek for a canal to the Greenbrier River; and to 
view that river to its mouth, as well as New River to the Great Falls of 
the Kanawha, and to take the difference of altitude of the mouth of Dun- 
lap's Creek and that point on the Greenbrier contemplated in this resolu- 

It bespeaks a crude idea of civil engineering to assume that it 
was possible, even at that early day, to build a canal across the Al- 
leghanies on the route pointed out. The project was futile, yet 
it shows a determination to secure a better commercial thorough- 
fare. A more practical plan was the incorporation in 1817 of a 
turnpike company to build a road from the mouth of Dunlap to 
the Great Falls of the Kanawha. The citizens of Monroe author- 
ized to open subscription books were Hugh Caperton, Henry Alex- 
ander, Andrew Beirne, Alexander Dunlap, John Gray, and Adam 
Thomas. Mrs. Royall has this to say in criticism of the scheme: 

Virginia proposes to take merchandise from Covington to Kanawha Falls 
by pike and transfer it to steamers. In my opinion it will be long before she 
furnishes the West as low as the North does. It is the universal practice 
of West Virginia and Tennessee merchants to buy at Philadelphia, despite 
the extra distance. Virginia lacks not genius or public spirit, but does 
lack the genius for commerce. 

In 1826 it was ordered that $10,000 be raised by a lottery to 


make and improve a road from the courthouses of Monroe and 
Logan to the forks of the Big Sandy. At that day funds for church 
purposes were sometimes raised by the vicious and demoralizing 
method of the lottery. This fact is one of those which show there 
is a good deal of humbug in the imagined high standard of hon- 
esty and virtue in the "good old days." 

In 1829 the Jackson's River Turnpike Company was incorpor- 
ated with an authorized capital of $20,000. This road was to run 
from Warm Springs to the Kanawha Turnpike at Callahan's. Sub- 
scription books were to be opened at Union. Two years later com- 
missioners were appointed to raise by lottery not over $40,000 for 
the building of a turnpike from Covington to Red Sulphur by way 
of Sweet Springs and Salt Sulphur. Two years later still a road 
was authorized from the Monroe line to the crossing of the Guyan- 
dotte below Isaac Adkins in Logan. The road was to be 25 feet 
wide with a driveway 12 feet wide. 

The White Sulphur and; Salt Sulphur Turnpike was incor- 
porated in 1834. The road was to be 18 feet broad, with grades not 
to exceed 3% degrees. The commissioners appointed at Salt Sul- 
phur were William Erskine, Isaac Caruthers, and Alexander Calder ; 
at Union, Hugh Caperton, Andrew Beirne, Sr., and James Hand- 
ley. The very same day witnessed the incorporation of the Salt 
Sulphur and Red Sulphur Springs Turnpike, also with a capital of 
$10,000, and with the same conditions. The above named commis- 
sioners at Salt Sulphur were to act for this company as well. The 
Commissioners for Red Sulphur were William, Burke, William 
Vass, and John Vawtet. The state was to take 80 shares in each 

The Newburn and Red Sulphur Turnpike was incorporated in 
1836, not required to sand or gravel its roadbed, and was permitted 
a grade of five degrees. In 1840 it was revived and given two more 
years. The incorporation of the Red Sulphur and Blue Sulphur 
Turnpike came also in 1836. The capital was $12,500 in 250 
shares. The commissioners for Red Sulphur were James A. Dun- 
lap, James Harvey, John H. Vawter, William Adair, Jr., and 


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Thomas Fowler, or any three of them. Another enterprise of the 
same date was the Sweet Springs and Price's Mountain Turnpike 
with a capital of $7,000 and permission to keep only one tollgate. 

With the same capital the Indian Draft Turnpike was incorporated 
in 1838 to run from Salt Sulphur to an intersection with the Blue 
Sulphur and Red Sulphur Turnpike. It was permitted to cross the 
Greenbrier by a ferry instead of a bridge. Another incorporation 
of 1838 was the Sweet Springs and Blue Sulphur Turnpike with 
a capital of $18,000. The road was to go by Alderson's ferry or 
the mouth of Wolf. The incorporators at Sweet Springs were 
John B. Lewis, Philip Rogers, John Shawver, John Hull, and Jacob 
Wickline; at Union, James B. Shanklin, Benjamin F. Steele, An- 
drew P. Beirne, John McCarty, and Andrew Miller; at Joseph 
Hill's, John Alderson, Joseph Alderson, Andrew Miller, William 
Ellis, James Hill, and Joseph Hill. In 1840 the company was 
granted an extension of two years in which to build the road. In 
the latter year the Sweet Springs and Salt Sulphur Turnpike was 
incorporated with a capital of $10,000 in 100 shares. The minimum 
and maximum widths of road were to be 18 and 30 feet, and the 
grades not to exceed four degrees. Under the same conditions the 
Gap Mills and Price's Mountain Turnpike was incorporated in 
1841 to connect Salt Sulphur at some point in Giles with the Cum- 
berland Gap and Price's Mountain Turnpike. The capital was 
fixed at $12,000. The Gap Mills and New River and Salt Sul- 
phur Turnpike was incorporated the same year with a capital of 
$10,000, widths of 15 and 25 feet, and maximum grades of four 
degrees. Still another incorporation of the same year, and under 
the same conditions was the Peters Mountain Turnpike to build a 
road from Red Sulphur into Giles. The capital was $12,000. 

In 1842 came the Jackson's River and Sweet Springs Turnpike 
to build from Shirkey's mill in Botetourt to an intersection with the 
Sweet Springs and White Sulphur pike in Alleghany. The follow- 
ing year a relocation of the last named pike was ordered. In 1849 
the Sweet Springs and Salt Sulphur Turnpike was chartered to run 
from Sweet Springs to the mouth of Indian Draft with a width of 
18 feet and a grade of not over three and one-half degrees. In 


1851 the Red Sulphur and Blue Sulphur Company was allowed 
$1400 for bridging Indian Creek and for other purposes- 

In 1856 a new road law was voted for Monroe and Green- 
brier. It provided for one commissioner in each magisterial dis- 
trict. He could draw two dollars a day when in actual service, and 
the county board was authorized to elect president and secretary. 
Roads were to be 30 feet wide,unless a narrower width were or- 
dered, but roads adjoining a town might be 60 feet wide. There 
was to be a signboard at every fork and a foot-bridge over eVe!ry 
stream. Wagon bridges were to be 12 feet wide. An overseer 
for each precinct was to be appointed by the county court. The 
cost of working the roads might be met by taxation, but only when 
so ordered by a three-fifths vote of the people. Such taxation was 
not to exceed two dollars per tithable, nor more than ten cents per 
$100 of taxable property. 

The Lewisburg and Union Turnpike Company was incorporated 
in 1860 with a capital stock of $25,000 in 500 shares. Toll-gates 
were not to be less than eight miles apart. 

It will thus appear that for a long while before the iron horse 
had reached the Virginian Alleghanies there was an active demand 
for better roads than the crude pioneer thoroughfares- But not all 
the roads authorized by statute were actually built. There were 
paper turnpikes, just as at a later day there were paper railroads. 
It was not always easy, while the United States was still relatively 
poor, to raise the capital stock required, even though the sums men- 
tioned in the acts of incorporation seem utterly inadequate, when 
measured by the purchasing power of the dollar in our own time. 
The pikes of the middle of the nineteenth century were not always 
better than the public roads of today. The cost of building a "good 
road," according to the modern conception of that term, was en- 
tirely prohibitive. But if the antebellum turnpike was in reality 
only a passable road, we may imagine that the wagon of the pioneer 
period was a sorry apology. 

In 1850 it usually took 13 days to make the round trip with a 
four-horse wagon to Lynchburg or to the salt works on the Ka- 


nawha. About that time a journey to Philadelphia, if speed were 
an object, was by stage to Lynchburg, canal boat to Richmond, 
steamer to Baltimore, and railroad the rest of the way. 

The Louisa Railroad, begun in the middle 30's, was the first 
movement of the iron path in this direction. It crept forward very 
slowly. A petition of 1846 asks that it be extended to the Ohio. 
Some persons wished it to stop at Buchanan, and then have a good 
macadam built to the Tennessee line. The petitioners are willing for 
the macadam, but think a part canal route to the Ohio will be too 
slow. Early in 1850 the railroad was named the Virginia Central, and 
was authorized to extend its line to Covington from the Blue Ridge. 
But in 1857 it had come only as far as Jackson's River near Low- 
moor. At this time it was permitted to charge its passengers six 
cents a mile. The stress of civil war caused a suspension of work 
until 1872, when under the name of the Chesapeake and Ohio, it 
was pushed rapidly forward and opened to the Ohio River in 1873. 
The town of Alderson now arose, and the whole north of the county 
was placed within fairly easy touch with the iron rails. 

To a person familiar with the topography of Monroe, it seems 
rather strange that the Chesapeake and Ohio should have chosen 
the difficult route between Callaghan and Ronceverte, requiring 
long tunnels and heavy cuts and fills. From Covington to Peters- 
town there is one continuous valley. The watergaps through which 
Second Creek escapes from its upper basin look as if specially de- 
signed for a railroad to use. It involves no very difficult work to 
follow Dunlap to one of its sources, then pass through the Second 
Creek gaps, and down Indian to New River. 

Had this course been followed, the economic consequences to 
this county would have been striking. Sweet Springs, Salt Sulphur 
and Red Sulphur would have been on or very close to the line of 
railroad, and would not be now in their rather moribund condition. 
At least one town of quite respectable size would have arisen some- 
where within the county limits- The Greenbrier division would 
start from Hiinton instead of Ronceverte. White Sulphur would 
indeed be off the road, but only at a dstance of about seven miles, 
whether from the east or the west. 


The route in question was surveyed. Why the plain hints of 
physical geography were disregarded is an illustration of how large 
moneyed interests can induce a public service corporation to see a 
"great light" and act accordingly. The influence of White Sul- 
phur and Lewisburg was the double magnet that drew the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio into its difficult course. It is true that Greenbrier 
would not be quite so well off as it is, but if Greenbrier's loss would 
have been Monroe's gain, so under existing circumstances, Green- 
brier's gain is Monroe's loss. 

In 1889 there was an agitation that the Chesapeake and Ohio 
build a line on the Monroe survey, so as virtually to give it a 
double track, just as it has double lines between Clifton Forge and 
Richmond. It was urged that the Big Bend tunnel could not ad- 
mit a second track. A paper railroad, the Monroe Central, came 
into notice in 1904. But at the present date there is no early like- 
lihood that a steam railway will be constructed through Monroe. 

In 1850 this county voted $50,000 in aid of what is now the 
Chesapeake and Ohio, but in 1881 this stock was sold for $10,488- 
The people of Monroe have since been somewhat suspicious of rail- 
road performances. To the same corporation the sum of $200,000 
was voted in 1868. It was not paid, but $35,000 was spent in se- 
curing relief from the obligation. In 1905 the county voted down 
by a majority of 860 votes a subscription of $50,000, Union being 
the only district to support the measure. 

The Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio, which later became the 
Norfolk and Western, was built from Norfolk to Bristol in the 
50's. In the later 80's it became a very prosperous road, especi- 
ally as a coal carrier. One of its extensions is the Potts Creek Rail- 
road, finished in September, 1909. This branch leaves the main 
line on New River, climbs the divide between Stony and Potts creeks, 
and follows the latter stream to Paint Bank. The stations in Potts 
Creek precinct are Waiteville and Laurel Branch. Only mixed 
trains are in service, anl timber products form the chief item of 
freight. Even before the war of 1861, Newburn and Dublin, on 
the old line to Bristol, were supply points for the south of Monroe. 



John Alderson — Old Greenbrier Church — Indian Creek Church — 
Other Organizations. 

HE Baptist Church appears to have a priority over 
others in establishing a definite local organization with- 
in the confines of Old Monroe. This fact and also the 
strong foothold of the denomination in this county 
are the direct result of the missionary labors of John Alderson. 

From his home on Linville Creek in Rockingham county, where 
he was pastor of a Baptist congregation, John Alderson began mak- 
ing trips to the Greenbrier River in 1775. In one of these he bap- 
tised John Griffith, Mrs. Keeney, and one other person. He soon 
concluded to make his home here, and did so in October, 1777. It 
was the dearth of pastoral work in this frontier region that moved 
him more than anything else. The times were wild and lawless, 
and there was a crying need of missionary effort. In going from 
point to point he was often attended by an armed escort. Some 
of the rough frontiersmen would declare they would keep him out 
of their stockades and blockhouses, but such threats were never car- 
ried into effect. 

In 1781 he organized the Old Greenbrier Church, the first 
Baptist organization west of the Alleghanies. The first members 5 
including himself, numbered twelve. The others were Mary and 
Thomas Alderson, John, Joseph, Katharine, and Lucy Skaggs, Bai- 
ley, Ann, and James Wood, John Kippers, and John Sheppard. Two 
years later, a chrch building was decided upon, and it was built 
on an acre lot granted by William Morris. The church, 17 by 
25 feet in size, was finished in 1784, but was decrepit in 1793, 
It is now represented by the present edifice in North Alderson. 
At first the new congregation considered itself a branch of the 


Linnville church, but in 1782 it connected itself with the Ke- 
tokton Association. Later it joined the Greenbrier Association, 
which was organized about 1801. 

Some of the members of this early church lived 30 miles away, 
and yet the records say they attended regularly. In 1785 the con- 
gregation decided by a unanimous vote that frolicking is not right. 
Next year it thus expressed itself on the slavery question: "Our 
church having but few (slaves), we hope our brethren will not 
think it hard if we lie neuter in this matter." Until 1856 there 
was rigid discipline. In 1848 it was voted an inconsistancy to 
save sap or make sugar on Sunday. Until 1820, the title "reverend" 
was not used. The minister was called the "laboring brother." 
So late as from 1854 to 1859 his salary was but $125, and it was 
paid in trade. • When Sarah Alderson put a quarter of a dollar into 
the fund in 1805 it was considered a very large contribution. Yet 
in 1814 an ebb in religious interest was observed, and in 1830 
the membership was only 29. The benevolences in 1848 were 
$22. During the twenty years previous to the close of the Ameri- 
can war, it is recorded that there was great worldliness; that there 
was scarcely a meeting when some member was not under discip- 
line. The vices most complained of were dancing, gambling, swear- 
ing, drunkenness, and immorality. In 1856 the church condemned 
checkers, violin playing, backgammon, shooting matches, and "rowdy 
and burlesque serenading." It had already — in 1850 — discounten- 
anced the use of liquor as a beverage. In 1867 there is mention 
of "45 cents and some tallow collected" for lights. But with an 
easier financial condition the minister's salary was raised to $500 
in 1885. i V"] 

John Alderson remained pastor until 1804. He was followed, 
consecutively, by James Ellison, James O. Alderson, Lewis Aider- 
son, James Remley, John P. Corron, William Margrave, Martin 
B. Bibb, Silas Livermore, Matthew Ellison, William Fisher, Theo- 
dore Given, Baylus Cade, Martin Bibb, B. H. Phillips, W. H. 
Adams, C. T. Kistner, P. G. Meath, Harvey McLaughlin, M. A- 
Kelly, J. C. Killian, George E. Davis, J. W, Morgan. 


We have not succeeded in securing full and complete data con- 
cerning the various church organizations of Monroe, whether of 
the Baptist or other denominations. In the absence of more than 
partial information we cannot give a comprehensive account of any. 
But so far as our knowledge goes the following congregations have 
sprung from the parent church at Alderson: Indian Creek, Red 
Sulphur, Sinks Grove, Peterstown, Broad Run, Rock Camp, Sweet 
Springs Valley, Oak Grove, and Pine Grove. In addition to these 
are the colored Baptist churches at Union and Ballard, and a few 
more church buildings are shared with other denominations. 

The Indian Creek Primitive Baptist church is the first offshoot 
in Monroe of the parent organization, and is the oldest within the 
present limits of the county. It dates from 1792. The original 
building was a plain log structure with no chimney and with an 
earth floor. In wintry weather the fires were made of bark in the 
middle of the floor. In time of Indian alarm sentries were stationed 
outside. And yet the worshippers often came long distances to the 
monthly meetings. One of the rules of the congregation was that 
"no member shall have liberty of laughing or whispering in the 
time of a public speech." There is sometimes mention of disorderly 
conduct of brethren in divine "sarvis." The brethren were oc- 
casionally "sighted" for "neglect to hear the church," or for join- 
ing some other communion. The second building was also of logs, 
but had a gallery and a puncheon floor. The third and present is 
a frame structure and stands in a bend of the creek a mile above 
Greenville. The first pastor was John Alderson, who was often 
assisted by Josiah Osborne of the Big Levels. He was succeeded after 
a short interval by James Ellison. In the early history of the church 
the male members were assessed 25 cents each for the benefit of the 
poor of the congregation. Any member failing to be in his seat 
three times in succession was made a subject of discipline. The wash- 
ing of feet was discussed but never practiced. The communion serv- 
ice is held on the first Sunday in June. Thousands of people then 
gather under the broad roof or under the spreading trees. They 
begin to assemble early, and they come in almost every possible man- 


ner. Many of them bring dinner and horse feed, although services 
are held only in the morning and usually close before all have as- 

Red Sulphur Baptist church was organized in May, 1815, at 
the house of Benjamin Halstead and was at first called Union Bap- 
tist church. The first house of worship stood at the east end of 
the present iron bridge over Indian Creek. There was a stone 
chimney in the middle with a fireplace on each side. To avoid con- 
fusion the name was changed in 1845. The present church is a 
handsome white structure near Ballard. 

The second Baptist church on Indian was built about 1848 on 
the land of Samuel Phillips. Three years earlier a church was 
built in Union. It is now the property of a colored congregation. 
The church at Sinks Grove was also organized in 1845. Matthew 
Scott gave the land on which the church was built, and as it con- 
tained a beautiful grove he named the spot Sinks Grove. This 
name has since attached itself to the village near by. That at Peters- 
town followed in 1846. 

Broad Run church on Wolf Creek was the result of a petition 
for the establishing of a branch of Old Greenbrier church. The 
first building was log, and the first pastor, the Reverend M. F. 
Bibb, took charge in November, 1853. The present brick church 
was dedicated May 6, 1855. In 1908 the total membership had risen 
from 56 to 148, although in 1871 it was 283. Picnics and festivals 
are not permitted within the inclosure. 

Rock Camp, Sweet Springs Valley, and Pine Grove were or- 
ganized in 1855, 1859, and 1870, respectively. 

The division between the Missionary and Primitive branches 
of the Baptist Church in Monroe took place about 1842. 



Good Hope — Presbyterian Ministers — Daughter Churches — New Lebanon. 

HE Ulstermen, who were dominant among the pioneers 
of Monroe, were staunch Presbyterians, and they could 
not fail to bring their church here with them. That 
the valley of Indian Creek was visited by their minis- 
ters as early as the dawn of the Revolution is more than probable, 
although we have no very certain information. The first local 
church was Good Hope, organized by John McCue in 1783. The 
little log structure stood a mile southeast of Union near the brink 
of the tableland overlooking Indian Creek. The spot is yet known 
and should be marked. The little building was about 25 feet square, 
of round logs, and was shaded by a grove of tall oaks. "The pioneer 
church had clapboard roof, and floor of hewn slabs. Large fires 
were built outside in cold weather." 

Mr. McCue had a hard struggle to secure his bachelor's de- 
gree from Liberty Hall Academy, now Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity. His father could help only by letting him retain whatever 
wages he could earn. The youth would cross the Blue Ridge from 
his home near Afton, work all day in the fields on South River, 
and return at night. He was licensed at Timber Ridge in 1782, 
the record stating that "Mr. McCue is appointed to supply two 
sabbaths in the forks of Holstine, two at the Knobs, four on Hol- 
stein and Chucky, four in Greenbrier county, and the rest of the 
time discretionary till our next meeting." He continued to preach 
in the Greenbrier settlements until 1791. Mr. McCue is said 
to have studed theology under James Waddell, the famous blind 
preacher. He was self-denying and faithful. He withdrew from 
the Masonic order, not because he found anything in it that was 
inconsistent with his religious views, but because he found his mem- 
bership a stone of offense to some of his congregation. 


Mr. McCue was followed by Mr. Grigsby, and he in 1808 by 
John McElheny. Meanwhile the establishing of Union caused 
the congregation at Mount Hope to beign worshiping at the county 
seat about 1802- There are no records of the McCue and Grigsby 
period, and when McElheny arrived, Presbyterianism in Greenbrier 
was in a decline. Its first church building in Unoin stood in the 
southeast corner of the corporate limits. The session house was 
also a schoolhouse. A brick church was built about 1840, but the 
wall proving defective, a new one was dedicated in the north of 
the town on land donated by Allen T. Caperton. It is the one 
which is still in use. 

The earliest elders of the Union church of whom we have record 
were William and Robert Shanklin, Owen Neel, William Haynes, 
Robert Dunbar, John Hogshead, and George and Robert Walker. 

Mr. McElheny preached his first sermon in Monroe at the 
house of William Haynes at Gap Mills and his second in the 
courthouse. His home was at Lewisburg, but until 1842 he al- 
ternated between that place and Union. Mr. McElheny was de- 
voted to his ministerial duties and was never sparing of the time 
he gave to them. It was customary with him to preach two ser- 
mons with a half hour interval between. On communion days the 
double service was sometimes four hours long. For many years 
after he came there was no fellow minister of his denomination nearer 
than Lexington. His semi-centennial sermon, preached at Lewisburg, 
in 1858, is of special interest, because it gives a bird's-eye view 
of religious progress during the fifty years since his arrival, and 
in other denominations as well as his own. Among his hearers 
that day was a man who was to have been baptised on the day the 
news came to Lewisburg of the attack on Donnaly's fort, eighty 
years before. 

In McCue's time Good Hope, afterward known as Concord, 
was one of only three Presbyterian churches in the whole Green- 
brier valley. All were of unhewn logs and had slab floors. When 
Mr. McElheny came in 1808 there were only 40 to 50 Presby- 
terians in this region, and none of them were young persons. In 
Greenbrier and Monroe were 169 Baptists, and within the Green- 


brier Circuit were 504 Methodists- There were a few Menno- 
nites in the valley, and a Lutheran church was visited occasionally, 
The five churches in Monroe were two of the Methodists, and 
one each of the Baptists, the Presbyterians, and the Associated Re- 
formed Church. All these were of the most ordinary construction 
and could seat but few people. Much of the preaching was in 
school rooms, groves, barn floors, and private houses. At Union 
Mr. McElheny always preached in a grove in fair weather. During 
these fifty years he had himself preached 7800 sermons, but not 
altogether in the two counties. He had conducted 1000 funerals, 
baptised 1300 persons, and married 1500 couples. At the end 
of the century he could report that there were in Monroe five or 
six each of Methodist and Baptist churches, five of his own denomi- 
nation, and one of the Associate Reformed Church. The half a 
hundred Presbyterians had become 910, the 169 Baptists had in- 
creased to 880, the membership of the Associated Reformed con- 
gregation was 120, and in the Greenbrier Circuit were 1410 Metho- 
dists, besides some Southern Methodists in both counties. The 
rapidity of Methodist growth he attributed to the itinerant system, 
which he thought was better adapted to a mountain frontier than 
the settled pastorate. But since that date the number of Presby- 
terian churches in Monroe has about doubled- 

McElheny was followed in 1842 by Samuel R. Houston, whose 
pastorate lasted until 1885. He was to preach at Union and Mount 
Pleasant once each Sunday, at Carmel, Indian Creek, and "Corner," 
or Bethany, on week days. He was also to give a lecture every 
Wednesday evening and act as superintendent of the Sunday School 
at Union. Neighboring preachers came to his aid at times, and 
at length he was released from all his appointments except Union 
and Carmel. 

The first congregation to branch off from the parent church at 
Union is that of Carmel at Gap Mills. Its first home was a hewed 
log house built on land given by Colonel Andrew Summers. It 
stood a few yards to the rear of the present church, which was erected 
in 1858. The organization was by the Rev. D. C. Pharr. The 
first elders were Owen Neel, Abner Neel, William H. Neel, and 
John Dunbar. Of the 36 signers of the petition asking, for a sep- 


arate church at Gap Mills, all but two were the descendants of 
four sisters who wedded four pioneer settlers. 

The next church to set up for itself was Mount Pleasant at Sinks 
Grove, which was organized in 1854. Its membership the fol- 
lowing year was 172. The first .elders were James Curry, John 
H. Remley, James Young, and William G. Young. The first dea- 
cons were Robert Curry, James Hogshead, Joseph Parker, and 
James M. Nickell. 

The next offshoot is Centerville, also organized in 1854. But 
long before this time, McElheny had preached at Robert Shanklin's. 

Among the early settlers of Monroe were many members of 
the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. These worshipped 
with the Presbyterians at Good Hope and Union until they had 
a minister of their own. They built New Lebanon Church, a 
log structure standing a mile from its brick successor, which was 
put up about 1819, and torn down fifty years later. The present 
New Lebanon was built on the same site and dedicated in 1870. 
The first elders were three Scotch immigrants, Andrew Ballantyne, 
and Andrew and James Miller. The first resident minister was 
William Adair, who came in 1807. He was a man of learning 
and pastoral efficiency, but his hatred of the British government was 
so intense that it colored his sermons and was aired in the church 
yard. It was because of this that he was compelled to flee from 
Ireland. His proneness to inject foreign politics into his pastoral 
work led to his deposition. Adair was followed by John Wallace, 
also a native of Ireland. Beginning with him the succeeding pas- 
torates are as follows: 

John Wallace 1824-1832 J. H. Moffett 1891-1895 

James Dickson 1835-1837 E. E. Patterson 1896-1897 

J. G. McLaughlin 1844-1856 W. H. Hunter 1898-1907 

J. H. Simpson 1867-1891 T. B. Stuart 1907- 

The Rev. T. B. Stuart is a native of South Carolina, where he 
married his first wife, Anne Latham. In 1909 he wedded Virginia 
E. Williams, of Monroe. 

It is worthy of note that New Labanon is the only church of its 
own denomination in West Virginia. 



Origin of the Rehoboth Society — The Church Building — Its History and 


T WOULD seem fitting to devote a chapter of this 
book to an account of the oldest house of worship in 
all that portion of the Virginias lying west of the Shen- 
andoah Valley. It occupies an inconspicuous site, is in 
a decrepit condition, and is anything but imposing in size. But 
associated with this humble structure is a history of great interest. 
By way of further introduction, it may be remarked that Metho- 
dism was introduced into America only eighteen years previous to 
the building of Rehoboth church, and into Virginia only fourteen 
years previous. The Methodists had been an independent church 
only two years. Until 1784 they constituted a society within the 
Church of England. The established church of that day had grown 
cold and formal, and the object of the society was to promote per- 
sonal religion. At the outbreak of the war for independence the 
Methodists in all America were so few as to be almost insignificant 
with respect to number. Many of them, especially their preachers, 
were of British birth and fell under suspicion because of their con- 
nection with a church whose ministers were so generally British 
born and of British sympathy. John Wesley, the founder of Metho- 
dism, went so far as a loyal son of England to use his great influ- 
ence toward keeping his followers in America loyal also. But this 
was a matter beyond his control. The success of the Revolution 
made it impossible for the American Methodists to remain a society 
within a foreign church. In 1784 they accordingly organized them- 
selves into a wholly independent church, although Francis Asbury, 
their first bishop, was sent from England by Wesley and spent the 
rest of his laborious life in this country. The simple mode of wor- 
ship of the Methodists, the flexibility of their itinerant system, and 


its suitability to pioneer conditons caused the new church to grow 
with remarkable rapidity, and to have its principal following among 
the most American of the Americans- 

Among the people who were living in the Sinks at the close 
of the Revolution were several Methodist families. Among these 
were the Blantons, the Christys, the Johnsons, and the Warrens. 
They held religious meetings at their homes, and as their member- 
ship was growing, they organized a regular society late in the sum- 
mer of 1784. This date, it will be observed, is also that of the in- 
dependence of the Methodist Church. Their meetings were often 
at a schoolhouse near where their church was afterward built. 
Among their local preachers were John Wiseman and James Chris- 
ty. The numbers who attended, many of them coming on foot 
from a long distance, made it necessary to have a regular preacher. 
Early in 1785 Edward Keenan wrote to Bishop Asbury to send 
them one. In response to this call, a young man named Wil- 
liam Phoebus was sent. He was a favorite with Asbury and is 
often mentioned by him. 

Although an interested attendant at the meetings, Keenan was 
not at this time a member of the society. The parents, both of 
himself and his wife, were Catholics, and his wife was Catholic 
also- When the preachers came to his house to hold prayers, his 
wife and her mother would continue their carding and spinning. 
But while on his return with Phoebus and several other men 
from attending a meeting on Potts Creek, and while crossing Peters 
Mountain, a conversation arose which lapsed into singing. Keenan 
was then and there converted, and he remained a Methodist to 
the day of his death in 1826. He became a steward and clas's- 
leader, for which duties he was highly qualified. His wife and 
mother-in-law also joined the church. 

The log cabins of the frontier were so small, and the school- 
houses so very few as well as small, that a special house of worship 
became urgent. Keenan executed the following bond: 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Edward Keenan, of the county 
of Greenbrier and state of Virginia, am held and truly bound unto 
William Scarborough, James Scarborough, Daniel McMullen, James Chris- 
ty, and Alexander House, or such trustees as shall be appointed by the 


preachers of the Methodist church, in the just sum of fifty pounds of 
good and lawful money of the state aforesaid, to the which payment 
well and truly to be made, I bind myself, executors, administrators, and 
assigns, jointly and severally, and each of them. In witness whereof, I 
have hereunto set my hand and seal this ninth day of February in the 
year of our Lord 1787. The condition of the above obligation is such 
that if the above bound Edward Keenan shall make or cause to be 
made a lawful right and title to a tract of land containing four acres, 
whereupon the preaching house stands, then this obligation to be void, 
or else to remain in full force and effect and in virtue of law. Whereunto 
I have set my hand and seal the day and date above written. 

Edward Keenan. (Seal) 
Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of teste: Jacob Cook, Abra- 
ham Friend. 

The actual deed calls for five acres, but the county book in which 
it was recorded is now missing. 

The church building was completed in June, 1786. Only logs 
of medium size were used and it could have taken but a very few 
days to fell the trees and put the timbers into place. Samuel Clark, 
a veteran of the Revolution, was one of the men who placed the 
wall-logs in their positions. The little building, whose floor space 
is not quite twenty-one feet by twenty-nine, was set up near the 
bottom of a circular depression in the limestone tableland. From 
this circumstance it can scarcely be seen from a distance of more 
than a hundred yards in any direction. The choice of ground was 
doubtless because it was not yet felt that the danger of Indian 
raids was entirely over. The red men could not have come within 
rifle-shot unseen. It had sometimes been necessary for the settlers 
around to shelter themselves in Byrnside's fort about two miles 
away. On one occasion the Keenans ran to the fort in the darkness. 
Their baby Margaret was wrapped in a white sheet, so that her 
mother could better see the way. 

There is a tradition, unconfirmed by Asbury's journal, that the 
bishop preached the sermon of dedication while standing in the 
doorw 7 ay, a large crowd being gathered outside. If the tradition 
is correct, and there seems no good reason to doubt it, the ceremony 
took place in July, 1788, when the bishop speaks of preaching 
"with some satisfaction to a large congregation at Rehoboth." The 
entries in his journal are usually very concise, and he may not have 


deemed it necessary to say that he was dedicating a humble frontier 
chapel. In one striking respect he had an advantage over the 
modern preacher. He did not need to importune his listeners to 
raise a debt of several thousand dollars. 

Here at Rehoboth Asbury held sessions of the Greenbrier Con- 
ference in the month of May, and in the years 1792, 1793, and 1796. 
He speaks kindly of "friend Scarborough," who lived on Turkey 
Creek- Just before reaching Rehoboth on his last visit he makes 
this observation: "If I could have regular food and sleep, I could 
stand the fatigue I have to go through much better, but this is 
impossible under some circumstances. To sleep four hours and 
ride forty miles without food or fire is hard ; but we had Water 
enough in the rivers and creeks. — Ah! If I were young again." 
The difficulties of journeying are "known only to God and our- 
selves." The "fat of the land" was little in evidence in those 
days. The bishop did not drive about in a comfortable buggy to be 
entertained in cozy parlors and then pampered at the dinner table 
with pie, cake, and fried chicken. Yet we are told that the same 
girl, who when an infant had been hurried to the fort wrapped 
in a sheet, once gave the bishop and his attendant a dinner of 
chicken and dumplings. Keenan himself was away from home 
and his wife had gone to take a dinner to some men at work. 
The bishop traveled with two horses. On one he carried his bed- 
ding and teapot. Like the thoroughbred Englishman, Asbury was 
fond of his cup of tea and always carried the requisites for it with 

There was a previous conference in 1785 at the house of Keenan- 
Asbury was not present. Because of a drouth there was no feed 
for the numerous horses of his guests, but without hesitation the 
good Methodist turned the horses into his field of rye, and during 
the session it was cropped close to the ground. Nevertheless there 
was a better crop of grain in this field than in those of his neighbors. 

Among the other early giants of Methodism whose voices were 
heard at Rehoboth were Jesse Lee, William McKendree, Freeborn 
Garretson, John Tunnell, and Francis Poythress. Lee rode in this 
section on a skittish horse and used a blind bridle. It was Lee 
who introduced Methodism into New England. His first sermon 


in Boston was preached under an elm, none of the churches of the 
city being hospitable enough to make such a proceeding unneces- 

In the report of a church committee of 1831, Rehoboth is spoken 
of as "in such a condition as to reflect no credit upon us as Metho- 
dism." The floor had settled in some places and pushed up in 
others. The sills were rotten, one being cut away to permit the 
door to open. The glass was nearly all gone. There was "the name 
of a stove, but not the benefit of one." The pulpit was falling from 
the wall. The paling around the burial ground was in tolerably 
good repair though somewhat rotten. It was stated that the popu- 
lation of the vicinity was far from dense and that little interest 
was shown in the matter. 

Dr. Lafferty, writing in 1877, thus speaks of Rehoboth: 

"It is of hewn logs, with a gallery around the interior, save over 
the pulpit. It is broad enough to seat nearly as many as the room 
below, and strong enough to bear the weight of twenty times the people 
that could be squeezed into it It may be that the builders were more 
concerned to keep out Indian bullets than to let in air. The pulpit 
still remains. The old book-board is gone; a rousing preacher — a Dutch- 
man — split it with his fist. A new church stands in the same inclosure. 
No service is held in the old edifice. The communion table is used in 
the new church. That piece of furniture shows the joiner's art in a rude 
way; it looks odd indeed, in the tasteful chancel, but carved mahogany 
could not replace this clumsy, battered poplar stand. The men of stature 
of the ancient times had knelt by it. The sacred elements consecrated 
by Asbury had been served from it." 

In 1886 the gallery posts, 41 inches in circumference, and in 
perfect preservation, were still in place, but they have since been 
removed. The pulpit, of poplar and walnut, was two and one- 
half feet above the floor and roomy. The sounding-board, a fea- 
ture of early churches, is also gone. 

The centennial of the old church was observed July 20, 1884. 
Morning and afternoon sermons were preached by Collins Denny 
and David Bush, P. E., to a gathering of 1500 people, and a his- 
torical sketch, written by the Rev. J. L. Kibler, was published. 
There was a centennial offering of $425, Senator Hereford lead- 
ing with $100. 


The roof of the historic church at length fell in and the floor 
decayed, but through the exertions of W. L. Lynch and others, a re- 
storation was effected several years ago. A shingled roof was put 
on, the floor was replaced, and the building made level by insert- 
ing sawed sills under each side. In its renovated form the building 
may perhaps witness a second centennial. There are indications of 
hasty work in the original construction. Not one of the logs is a 
foot in diameter. The larger ones are placed nearest the ground. 
There was no hewing of the logs except on the inner side of the 
wall. They are diamonded at the ends, for a distance of eighteen 
inches, and then cut into to receive the log above. Thus the logs 
project at the corners of the building. The door, which is near the 
center of the south side, is broad but only five and a half feet high. 
In the east end, above the pulpit, is a window two by two and one- 
half feet. High up in the north side is one more window, which is 
just three feet square. A man of six feet could scarcely have stood 
erect under the gallery, and the preacher could have viewed his au- 
ditors above quite as well as those below. There was no provision 
for warming the room. About 80 yards away is a small, white, 
four-windowed chapel, in which services are occasionally held. The 
interments in the churchyard are numerous, and few of the older 
graves are marked. Among them are those of Edward Keenan 
and his wife. The road from Union to Gap Mills passes within 
a few moments' walk, but neither building is in sight. 

Among the many revivals at Rehoboth perhaps the most me- 
morable was that of 1842, when there were more than 100 con- 
versions. It has been well said that "through this entire country 
and in distant parts may be found many who can trace back their 
spiritual pedigree to a revival at Rehoboth." Some of them would 
doubtless indorse these lines by an aged Methodist: 

I know the world's a-moving on, 

As Galileo said; 
For now I rent a cushioned pew 

To hear an essay read, 
But when through stained-glass windows 

The sun throws blue and gold, 
I cannot help a-thinkin' how 

The glory shone of old. 



RANCIS ASBURY, a native of England, was converted 
to the Christian faith through the influence of a de- 
voted mother. At the age of seventeen he began hold- 
?) ing meetings, and four years later he became an itiner- 
ant minister of the Methodist society. In the pulpit he was solemn 
and dignified. His voice was sonorous and commanding, and his 
eye was one that looked deep into the hearts of men. It is to his 
inflexible purpose, untiring zeal, and capacity for leadership that 
American Methodism is indebted for its itinerant system and its 
marvelous growth. In 1778 he was left sole leader of the society 
in America, and in 1784 he became its first bishop. 

His first visit west of the Alleghanies was in 1781, and Meth- 
odism in the Greenbrier dates from about this time. Jacob and 
Valentine Cook, sons of Valentine Cook of Indian Creek, were the 
first Methodist preachers belonging in Monroe. Jacob was a local 
preacher and traveled a great deal. Valentine, Jr., born in Penn- 
sylvania, had few advantages in early life and yet managed to ac- 
quire the rudiments of an English and German education at Cokes- 
bury College, the first Methodist school in America. "He was an 
instance of the triumph of intellect and goodness over singular phys- 
ical defects. But when he began to preach these peculiearties were 
forgotten as attention was arrested by the tones of his voice and his 
words." He moved to Kentucky, where he became principal of 
Bethel Academy, the second Methodist school. 

The first Methodist society in Monroe was formed in a school- 
house near Greenville. This was two years before the building of 
Rehoboth church in 1786. From the journal of Stith Mead we 
quote this extract: 

Monday, May 21, 1792. We rode over Peters Mountain by the Sweet 


Springs to Brother Edward Keenan at Rehoboth Chapel, where I was glad 
to meet with the bishop, Rev. Francis Asbury. Hope Hull, Philip Cox, 
Jeremiah Abel, elders; Salathiel Weeks, John Lindsey, Bennett Maxey, and 
John Metcalf, deacons. John Kobler, remaining on trial, was received into 
connection and ordained deacon. Jeremiah Abel located. James Ward 
and Stith Mead admitted on trial as probationers. Rev. Samuel Mitchell, 
local preacher, ordained deacon. The above named preachers were all 
that composed and had business with the present annual conference. God 
manifested Himself in His Spirit's power, the doors were opened, sinners 
came in, and there was a great shaking among the dry bones. Such a 
time, I presume, was never seen and experienced at this place before. Ten 
souls were converted and many sinners were cut to the heart. The lively 
exercises continued until nearly sundown." 

Alleghany Circuit of the Rockingham District covered this ter- 
ritory, and was formed in 1783. It was served in that year by 
Francis Poythress and Benjamin Roberts, Philip Bruce being their 
presiding elder. John Tunnell after thirteen years in ministerial 
work died at Sweet Springs in 1790. At this time the yearly allow- 
ance to a preacher was $64, in addition to such traveling expenses 
as ferriage, horseshoeing, and provisions for preacher and horse when 
riding a long distance. This allowance was increased to $84, and 
in 1816 to $100. 

Lorenzo Dow, whose eccentricities prevented his admission into 
full connection, labored in Maryland and Virginia as an independ- 
ent evangelist and preached in this region. One of his favorite and 
emphatic expressions in preaching was, "a double L spells all." Dow 
was here about 1800, and so was Peter Cartwright, who made use 
of muscular Christianity when ruffians attempted to break up his 

Solomon Harris and Edward Wayman were on Alleghany Cir- 
cuit in 1802- Next year Greenbrier District was formed, with 
James Ward as its presiding elder, and Monroe was added to it in 
1805. However, this county was again a part of Rockingham Dis- 
trict until the formation of Lewisburg District about 1849. During 
this period the presiding elders were Samuel Bryson (1838-1842), 
N. J. B. Morgan (1842-46), B. N. Brown (1846-49). Rehoboth 
was set apart from Greenbrier Circuit in 1804, at which time it 
had 290 white and 15 colored members. 


This county was at length divided into the four charges of Un- 
ion, Greenville, Peterstovvn, and Alderson. Union Circuit was 
formed in 1853. 

Notable campmeetings were held at and near Greenville in the 
closing years of the eighteenth and the early years of the nineteenth 
century; as also in the latter years of the last century at Marvin 
Grove, near Greenville, and at Salt Sulphur Springs- At Marvin 
Grove as many as 4000 people have been in attendance in a single 

On the last day of 1831 a committee's report was presented at 
a quarterly conference held at Peniel meeting house. It stated that 
of the six churches in Monroe Circuit, five were in Monroe county, 
and that all were out of repair, there being "great apathy among 
our friends respecting them." One of the buildings was of brick, all 
the others being of log. The brick church at Union was not plas- 
tered, much of the glass was gone from the windows, the gallery 
floor was not laid, and there was no stove. At Dropping Lick there 
was "a poor, old, small house, if indeed it be proper to call it house," 
but there was the probability of a new one within a year. Mount 
Peniel in Wolf Creek valley was unfinished and out of repair. Bethel 
on Indian Creek was ill constructed, dark, and unfinished. The 
report says, "the people in this neighborhood are very careless about 
furnishing themselves with a comfortable house in which to worship 
the Lord." The unfinished meeting house at Big Farms was on 
land for which no title had been given and none could be obtained. 
But except in one instance there was no church debt. The contrast 
between conditions then and now is worthy of more than a passing 

Services are now held weekly at Union and bi-monthly at the out- 
lying appointments of Marvin, Pickaway, Gap Mills, and Central. 
At Rehoboth there are services on special occasions only. The mem- 
bership of 1915 was 413, and the four Sunday schools had an en- 
rollment of 248. The church property is valued at $16,100 and 
the Sunday school collections were $486. There was paid for min- 
isterial support $985 and for benevolences and incidentals $1900. 

Greenville Circuit has the outlying appointments of Lillydale, 


Mount Alexander, Bethel, Rfverview, Trinity, and Johnson's Cross- 
roads. The present membership is 507, the church property is val- 
ued at $9900, and there was paid $684 for ministerial support and 
$646 for benevolences and incidentals. The six Sunday schools 
have 311 members enrolled and the money raised in 1915 was $363. 

Peterstown Circuit has these nine appointments: Peterstown, 
Coalter's Chapel, Red Sulphur Springs, Cashmere, Chestnut Hill, 
Thompson's Chapel, Green Valley, Pine Grove, and Rich Creek. 
The membership is 267 and the Sunday school enrollment is 165. 
The parsonage and three churches are valued at $5500. There was 
paid for ministerial support $542, for benevolences and incidentals 
$188, and the collections of the three Sunday schools were $40- 

Alderson class was organized in 1874 and its present house of 
worship was built in 1880. Alderson became a station in 1908. 
Connected with it are two small mission fields, Griffith's Creek and 
Flat Mountain. The membership is 338 and the Sunday school 
enrollment is 327. The parsonage and two charges are valued at 
$8000 and other church property at $2750. There was spent for 
ministerial support $1091 ; for benevolences and incidentals $1419. 
Sunday school collections were $483. 

There has thus been a growth to a membership of 1525, in ad- 
dition to the 14 Sunday schools with an enrollment of 1061 and 
collections of $1362. The 18 churches, four parsonages, and other 
church property are valued at $42,250. The cost of ministerial sup- 
port in 1914 was $3302, and the benevolences and incidentals were 

Among those who have been faithful in local and itinerant work, 
and have lived in Monroe, or have been natives of the county, the 
following names may be noted: Ballengee, Goodall, Hank, McNeer, 
Miller, Neel, Parker, Shanklin, Shires, Talbert, and Weikel. 

Not nearly so old as Rehoboth, and yet dating from the first 
third of the last century is the Pack church, yet standing. The 
principal factor in its erection was Loammi Pack, a zealous Meth- 

The trustees in 1842 of the old log meeting house at Johnson's 


Crossroads were William, Caleb, Barnabas, and Jacob Johnson, 
John Ross, and Charles Hines. 

As an instance of customs in "ye olden time," Mrs. Elizabeth 
Mann has related that in attending the old Centerville Methodist 
church, she would wear her old shoes while going through the woods 
and over the rough ground, but when she came to a certain hollow 
log near the church she would put on her new ones and wear them 
until the return home. Such care was enforced by considerations 
of economy. 

The old church building at Union, now used by a colored con- 
gregation, was built about 1857. There is another colored church 
at Ballard. 

When in 1844 the Methodist Episcopal Church South was or- 
ganized, the Baltimore Conference, whose territory included Mon- 
roe, voted to remain with the old church. In 1861 a majority of 
the conference voted to withdraw on account of a law passed by 
the General Conference of 1860. It remained independent until 
February 8, 1866, yet without formally abandoning its connection 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. The Baltimore Conference 
then invited Bishop Early of the Church South to preside over its 
session, and since that time it has constituted a part of that denom- 
ination. In 1869 the Virginia Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was organized, and since that year it has had a circuit 
in this county known as the Monroe Circuit. More particular in- 
formation respecting the same has not been furnished us. 



The Church of England — Sundry Denominations in Monroe — A List of 
Ministers — The Fraternities. 

T may come as a surprise to the person who is not well 
read in American history to learn that there was an 
established church in every one of the Thirteen Colo- 
nies excepting Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. In 
Virginia it was the Church of England, and the disabilities imposed 
on other denominations were not entirely removed until 1784. 

Colonial Virginia was divided into parishes, — one to three in 
each county, — and every parish was supposed to have one clergyman. 
The state, through the instrumentality of the vestry and the church- 
wardens, built the chapel in which he officiated and paid his salary. 
It also furnished him a glebe, which was the name given to the farm 
of 250 acres on which he lived, and it built him a rectory. Persons 
of other sects or of no sect at all were nevertheless compelled to pay 
taxes in support of the state church. According to the laws then 
in force, they were expected to attend its services a certain number 
of times each year. Until a late day marriages were not legal in 
the eye of the law unless solemnized by a clergyman of the state 
church. One effect of the Revolution was to disestablish the state 
church and put all denominations upon an equality- Another effect 
was to rid the established church of the things that had been its re- 
proach. Under Bishop Mead it entered upon a new and vigorous 
life and has since enjoyed a career of great usefulness. Since the 
period of the Revolution it has been known to us as the Episcopalian 

In a very large sense the sections of Virginia lying on the two 
sides of the Blue Ridge were settled by distinct populations. To 
the people on the west side the established church seemed an alien 


church, and it gained only a slight foothold among them. The Ul- 
stermen were Presbyterians, and as they were most numerous among 
the settlers of Monroe, they brought their religious preference with 
them and it has ever since been strongly represented. The sects 
chiefly in favor among the German immigrants to the Valley of 
Virginia were the Lutheran and Reformed churches. That neither 
of these appears to have effected an organization within the Mon- 
roe area is doubtless because the German settlers were not suffici- 
ently numerous and compact. The Presbyterian is a kindred church, 
and to a considerable degree they identified themselves with it. 

Next to the Presbyterians and the German churches, the Bap- 
tists were once the most numerous among the dissenting sects in 
Virginia. The strong foothold they acquired in Monroe has al- 
ready been explained. That the Methodist bodies, taken collec- 
tively, have distanced all other denominations in this county is be- 
cause they have been eminently a missionary church in their organ- 
ization and methods. Because of its very nature the Alleghany fron- 
tier was a missionary field, and the larger results came to those de- 
nominations whose methods were most adaptable to frontier con- 

Thus it becomes clear why the Presbyterians, Baptists, and Meth- 
odists are far in the lead among the religious organizations of Mon- 
roe. Their special history has been sketched in preceding chapters. 
It remains for us to mention the other churches represented. 

The Christians or Disciples, commonly known as Campbellites, 
would seem to have the first claim to attention, inasmuch as they 
appear to lead in the number of their congregations. Theirs is an 
American church, and peculiarly a church of the Great West. Alex- 
ander Campbell, its founder, was born in 1788, and spent his long 
life of activity almost within sight of the Ohio river. Since the 
Alleghanies are the eastern fringe of the real West, it is not at all 
strange that this county should have been responsive to the efforts 
of a church of such character. No full historical account of the 
Disciples in Monroe has been furnished to us. They appear to be 
represented in all the districts except Wolf Creek. The pioneer 


resident preacher was trie Reverend Powhatan B. Baber, who came 
to the south of the county in 1830 and lived here the remaining 70 
years of his life. The church at Sinks Grove was organized in 
1885. Characteristically enough, the prime movers were two young 
men who had returned to Monroe from a sojourn in the West, dur- 
ing which time they joined that denomination. 

We have pointed out that the Episcopal was in the nature of a 
foreign church to the early settlers of the west side of Virginia- 
Its appearance in this section has in many instances been of com- 
paratively recent date. In no small degree this has been due to the 
influence of summer guests, among whom this church is held in 
much favor. All Saints parish of this county dates from 1875. 
The church at Union was completed in 1878 and consecrated by 
Bishop Whittle. A rectory was purchased at the same time. At 
Salt Sulphur Springs is St. Michael's, a tasteful stone edifice. The 
church is Alderson was built in 1888. Bishop Meade and others 
officiated at Union from time to time, even long before the organi- 
zation of the parish. The longest pastorate has been that of the 
Reverend Richard H. Mason (1875-1889), but he had been com- 
ing here from White Sulphur Springs prior to 1868. 

Some of the early settlers of Monroe were not only Irish but 
Roman Catholics. Yet there was no church of their faith until the 
brick chapel at Sweet Springs was built in 1853. This was due 
to the circumstance that several of the more prominent families of 
that locality are Catholics, and that others were attracted by the 
demand for labor at the summer resort. 

The Church of the Brethren, known also as the Dunkard, is 
also represented in Monroe by a single congregation. The first 
baptisms took place in 1830. Some years later an organization of 
15 members arose with Samuel Hutchinson as the first elder. In 
1876-7 the Spencer Run church was built near Lindside through the 
efforts of Elijah P. and Andrew L. Fleshman, who put up a mill 
and sawed the lumber themselves. The membership had then in- 
creased to 60. The building is 40 by 50 feet and contains a church 


Our information respecting the fraternities occurring in Monroe 
is but fragmentary. Of the secret orders in America the Masonic 
is not only the oldest, but it has shown the greatest vitality. Next 
in long standing is that of the Odd Fellows. In quite recent years 
there has arisen a large number of secret fraternities, usually with 
insurance features. In the 70's came the Grange, followed by other 
agricultural organizations. Still older in origin, but usually lack- 
ing in permanency, are the various temperance societies, which are 
social as well as reformatory. Local associations of all these classes 
exist or have existed in this county. But the absence of large min- 
ing or manufacturing interests is accompanied by an absence of labor 

Monroe Lodge, A. F. and A. M., began work in 1845 and was 
chartered four years later as Union Lodge, No. 12. In 1879 it 
was rechartered by the Grand Lodge of West Virginia as Monroe 
Lodge, No. 77. Conspicuous among the earlier members were 
William W. Spencer, Jacob Zoll, Charles Baldwin, Andrew H. 
Johnston, Michael A. Steele, and Henry S. Shanklin. 

Alderson Lodge, No. 70, A. F. and A. M., was chartered in 
1875 with 12 original members, J. P. Mayo being the first Worthy 

Dove Chapter, No. 37, Royal Arch Masons, was instituted in 
1852 and suspended in 1874. 

Rocky Point Lodge, A. F. and A. M., was chartered 1873. 

Dove Lodge, A. F. and A. M., was organized at Gray Sulphur 
Springs, 1868, and chartered next year at Peterstown. 

In 1886 Divisions of the Sons of Temperance appeared at Pe- 
terstown and Union with 21 and 18 charter members, respectively. 

In 1891 there were organizations of the Farmers' Alliance at 
Alderson, Cashmere, Double Gates, Gap Mills, Indian Creek, Lind- 
side, Milton Hall, Peterstown, Pickaway, Red Sulphur, Rock Camp, 
and Sinks Grove. 

At the present time, lodges of various secret orders, particularly 
of those of recent date, occur in the towns and villages of Monroe. 



The Field School Period— Districts of 1850— The Free School Era- 

N COLONIAL VIRGINIA it was held that education 
should be a private interest. The constitution of 1776 
had nothing to say on the subject of schools and until 
1796 there was no state school law which in any way 
affected the western counties. This view of education was a heritage 
from England and it was a characteristic of the planter South. It 
was not shared by the Ulstermen who settled west of the Blue 
Ridge. As a consequence of their Calvinistic faith, they held that 
every person should be able to read and write. Schoolmasters and 
school houses came with them, and we even find that one of the vic- 
tims of the massacre at Baughman's fort in 1755 was a teacher. He 
may have been a German, but the German settlers of the Valley 
of Virginia set as much store on schooling as the Ulstermen them- 
selves- In the few petitions and other documents that have come 
down to us from the early days of Greenbrier, we often find an 
easy and accurate use of language, good spelling, and an observance 
of proper punctuation. 

But with no encouragement from the state, and with the priva- 
tions of the frontier to engage their main attention, the people of 
this region could not at first do much to educate their children. For 
a while, the school interest languished and illiteracy became more 

In 1809 the Literary Fund was called into existence by Act of 
Assembly. Certain designated moneys accruing to the state were 
turned into this fund, which was to be used for the schooling of 
poor children. A law of 1811 authorized a school or schools in 
any county as soon as funds were provided. A state board was au- 


thorized to raise each year for seven years, and by means of a lot- 
tery, the sum of $30,000. This board could appoint county agents 
to look after the Literary Fund. In 1822-3 the amount thus dis- 
bursed in Monroe was $429.25. This was paid out to teachers at 
the rate of four cents a day for each indigent pupil attending school. 
The intent of the law was of course to diffuse education, but the 
aid thus given worked against the self-respect of parents who felt 
too poor to pay tuition. 

For several years prior to 1832 there had been ample funds for 
the education of the poor of this county, yet within a year or two 
there was a debt of $150. In 1836, James A. Dunlap, school com- 
missioner, was directed by special law to pay over all moneys re- 
ceived since March 7, 1826, for the purpose of rebuilding the acad- 
emy. The other commissioners appointed by law in 1833 were 
Robert Campbell, James Alexander, William Hinchman, James 
M. Haynes, John Hutchinson, Joel Stodghill, and William Mc- 
Daniel. Campbell was president of the board. 

By a law of 1853 the entire capitation tax was applied to the 
primary and free schools. Yet until after the war of 1861 only 
a very few counties in Virginia had any system of free schools. The 
"old field school" was the medium through which the mass of the 
people of the state received a common educational training. 

From an account of one of these field schools that stood three- 
fourths of a mile west of Sweet Springs, the* following description 
is presented to the reader. Our informant is an elderly citizen who 
attended the school in 1851. 

The schoolroom was dimly lighted, much of the illumination 
sifting in through a row of blocks of greased paper set in one of 
the log walls- The sheets of paper were about eight by ten inches 
in size, sticks being used to hold them in place. Below this narrow, 
horizontal window was a sloping board held up by pegs. This was 
the writing board. The benches were puncheon slabs, the legs of 
which were pegs set into auger holes. The only back to the bench 
was a narrow rail-board. The girls swept the room and the boys 
got the wood. School hours were the same as now, but there was 


no recess except the noon hour. The discipline was good, thanks 
to a very free use of the hickory switch. At the entrance was a 
paddle with an "in" written on one side of it and an "out" on the 
other. The instruction was largely individual. The pupils had to 
work and there were few drones. The shirk was punished by being 
seated on the dunce block- The books in use were the New Tes- 
tament, Pike's Arithmetic, the English Reader, the Elementary 
Speller, Murray's Geography, and Murray's Grammar. Spelling 
was for headmarks. The sexes played apart. The games were "cat 
and ball," "bandy," "shoot the buck," and "seesaw." A time-hon- 
ored custom was to put the teacher out — if it could be done — in or- 
der to make him give a holiday. 

The first board of school commissioners was appointed in 1820, 
in accordance with a law of the preceding year. It consisted of An- 
drew Beirne, Robert Campbell, William Herbert, James M. Hay- 
nes, Richard Johnson, Jacob Peck, William Shanklin, John Hinch- 
man, and William Graham. In 1826 James A. Dunlap, as treas- 
urer of the board, held in his custody $2571.10 in school funds. 

George W- Hutchinson, the first man in Monroe to hold the 
title of Superintendent of Schools, gave bond in 1851 in the sum of 
$2000. He held office until the county ceased to be a part of Vir- 

In pursuance of a law of 1846, which was permissory and not 
mandatory, Monroe was divided into school districts numbered One 
to Ten. The trustees for these districts were, in the order of num- 
ber, James M. Byrnside, John H. Vawter, Robert L. Shanklin, 
Richard V. Shanklin, Charles R. Hines, Isaac Campbell, John Hols- 
apple, Abner Neel, James Clark, and George W. Hutchinson. The 
boundaries of the districts were described by the county court as 

First: From the mouth of Indian up to the mouth of Stinking Lick; 
thence by straight line to White Tree Hill, including Stinking Lick neigh- 
borhood, to Wilson Lively's; thence with the road to the top of the moun- 
tain near John Symms, and with the county line to the beginning. 

Second: From the mouth of Greenbrier to mouth Stony Creek; thence 
with the road to Indian Creek at John Baker's, and up Indian to the mouth 


of Hans; thence up Hans to John H. Vawter's old place; thence "with the 
ridge road to Wilson lovely's ; thence with the line of Number One to 
mouth Indian and down New River to the point of beginning. 

Three: Running from Wilson Lively's with the road by the Hans Creek 
meeting house to Indian Creek near Moses Mann's ; down Indian to mouth 
of Bradshaw's Creek, and up the same to the regimental line ; with said 
line to Knox's road, and with the latter up Hines's store to Isaac Carden's; 
thence to the mouth of Stony, and with the line of Two to the beginning. 

Four: Beginning on the top of Peters Mountain near John Symms; 
running with the mountain to the regimental line, and with said line to 
Number Three; with Three to Wilson Lively's, and with One to begin- 

Five: With regimental line on road leading across Knobs, and with 
regimental line to county line road; with said road to mouth Greenbrier, 
and with Two to mouth of Stony, thence with Stony to beginning. 

Six: Beginning at regimental line on the road where it crosses the 
Knobs from Union to Hines' store, and with the road to the top of the 
Knobs ; thence with the top of the Knobs to James Bickett's ; thence by 
George W. Nickell's to William Adair's and John Lynch's ; thence by 
William Eads' to Henry Hoke's; thence up Laurel to county line; with 
said line to regimental line, and with the same to the start. 

Seven: Beginning at John Lynch's and running with the main road to 
the main road to the Union road; thence with said road to Second Creek 
ford at Moss's; thence to William Count's; thence down Back Creek; thence 
to county line, with the same to Number Six, and with the latter to the 

Eight: From ford of Second Creek at Moss's corner to Seven; with the 
latter to county line near Red Springs; thence with county line to top of 
Price's Mountain, and with county line, including Potts Creek settlement, 
to top of Peters opposite to A. Boggess' ; thence with top of mountain to 
where road crosses from Beckner's; thence with said road to John Dun- 
bar's and thence to the start. 

Nine: From forks of road at Hall's place; down Thorny Hollow to 
head of Indian; with Indian to Salt Sulphur; with Red Sulphur road to 
regimental line, and with county line to top of Peters Mountain; thence 
with county line to corner of Eight at the road on said mountain, and 
with Eight to beginning. 

Ten: That portion of the One Hundred and Eighth regimental district 
not included in the other school districts. 

In 1851 District Eleven was taken from Five and Andrew 
Gwinn became its trustee. 

The present free school system came with the entry of Monroe 
into West Virginia- It was some years before it was in good work- 


ing order. During the reconstruction period the superintendent re- 
quired a test oath from the teacher. For several years the examina- 
tions were oral and the certificates were not graded. But in gen- 
eral the old schoolhouses were replaced with new ones. As a means 
of enabling the reader to compare the conditions now with those 
obtaining in 1876, a digest of the report of J. D. Beckett, county su- 
perintendent, will be of interest. 

Mr. Beckett visited 70 white and 6 colored schools and exam- 
ined 3449 pupils. The schools were thus distributed: Union Dis- 
trict, 11; Sweet Springs, 15; Second Creek, 9; Wolf Creek, 10; 
Springfield, 16; Red Sulphur, 16. The average number of pupils 
to a school varied from 29 in Sweet Springs to 45 in Wolf Creek. 
The boards of education were found earnest and willing, but very 
often the houses were found very indifferent as to light, seating ar- 
rangements, and general equipment In Red Sulphur the school- 
houses were generally log, and nearly all the chimneys smoked. Yet 
the superintendent could report that no. district had a better corps 
of teachers. He could also report that as a class the teachers were 
of much better quality than they were six years before, and as a 
rule were doing very good work. In a majority of the schools Mr. 
Beckett found "good order, neatness, prompt obedience, hard study, 
and good recitations. A few of the schools, however, were "in a 
very bad condition, with filthy floors, no order, and very little dis- 
cipline." The colored schools were found to compare very favor- 
ably with the white. 

Even yet, the schoolhouses of the county suffer in comparison 
with farm homes and the rural churches. But such a condition as 
this is widely prevalent in the United States. Nevertheless, the 
last report of the state superintendent gives Monroe a percentage of 
illiteracy of only 5.5, against 7.7 in Greenbrier, and 8-3 in the 
state at large. Many teachers from this county are serving else- 
where in schools of higher grade and better salary. Until about 
1910, a majority of the teachers were males. 

In 1912 there were granted in Monroe 5 certificates of the first 
grade, 51 of the second, and 63 of the third. There were 2736 
volumes in 71 school libraries. 

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Editor of "The Monroe Watchman' 


In the present year there are 3256 white and 219 colored pu- 
pils in Monroe. The 120 schoolhouses are supplied by 136 teach- 
ers, 6 of them presiding over the colored schools. The white high 
school pupils are 122, taught by 5 teachers. There are 36 school 
libraries with 1478 volumes. 

In 1885 the proposition to lengthen the school year to six months 
carried in four of the six districts of Monroe. 

When he retired from educational work in 1903, Granville 
Houchins enjoyed, with one exception so far as known, the distinc- 
tion of having taught a longer period than any other person in West 
Virginia. His term of service, which was a highly useful one, had 
continued 48 years. The one exception was A. B. Phipps, of Mer- 
cer county, who in 1904 had been teaching 50 years and was still 
in the harness despite his age of 74. 

Until about 1898 the debating society was a rather frequent ad- 
junct of the rural school. It is unfortunate that the fevered at- 
mosphere of the present decade has permitted it to drop into disuse. 

Union Academy was incorporated January 27, 1820. Citizens 
of Union had bought for this purpose lots 19 and 20 and put up a 
building. The trustees named in the Act of Assembly, and who 
had power to fill vacancies in their board, were Hugh Caperton, 
Alexander Dunlap, Andrew Beirne, George Beirne, Richard Shank- 
lin, Michael Alexander, Henry Alexander, Matthew Alexander, 
Jr., William Clark, Robert Coalter, William Vass, and Michael 
Erskine. By a law of 1840 a portion of the school quota of the 
county was set aside for the academy, now a flourishing school un- 
der the Rev. L. A. Alderson. The school commissioners were hold- 
ing an unexpended balance of $600. Among later teachers were 
Rev. S. R. Houston, William Vawter, Dr. Waddell, Rev. G. Gray, 
Delilah Byrnside, Dr. R. R. Houston, G. M. Edgar, Mrs. Ann 
Randolph, Joseph Alderson. The history of the academy covered 
about half a century. 

As another instance of the local interest in intermediate educa- 
tion, may be mentioned a petition of 1852 asking an appropriation 
of $400 to $500 for a schoolhouse on Hans Creek. The cost of 

Archives & Manuscripts Section 

'West Virginia Collection 
VVest Virgini; rsity Library 

x Morganiown, WV 26505 


building one was falling on a few citizens, since some were unable 
and others were indifferent. The help asked would enable chem- 
ical and philosophical apparatus to be provided. The petitioners 
thought there was no better school in Western Virginia than the one 
which was being taught there by the Rev. John Pinkerton, a grad- 
uate of Washington College. 

In 1872 the "West Virginia Female Seminary" was chartered, 
and was opened that year at Union- It was owned by a stock com- 
pany, which raised a fund of $3000. J. P. Marshall, A. M., was 
the first principal. A lack of sufficient support caused it to be 
sold in 1876 to Caleb E. Johnson. Mr. Johnson had been one of 
the stockholders and now became sole proprietor. He renamed 
the school the "Johnson Female College,' 'and conducted it eight 
years with much success. Mr. Johnson was not himself a teacher 
in the school. The instructors employed were ladies and gentle- 
men of refinement, culture, and superior education. The first prin- 
cipal was the Rev. J. M. Follansbee, A. Ml., M. D., ex-president 
of Soule University, Texas. Miss M, R. Cabell, of Greenbrier 
was head of the music department. This academy provided a higher 
educational training to many who would otherwise have been de- 
prived of it. Many of the students became teachers in their turn. 

In 1855-6, William Adair had a boarding school at Red Sulphur 
Springs- Nearly forty students were in attendance, some coming 
from as far as Bedford county. Several of these attained promi- 

Alleghany Collegiate Institute, an educational enterprise of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and situated at Alderson, was 
opened in 1888, and is still in successful operation. 



Newspapers — Monroe Authors — Literary Specimens. 

OURNALISM in Monroe dates back to 1850, when 

S. P. Windle started the "Union Democrat." It was 

discontinued after two years, the patronage being too 

little. A rival enterprise of this period was the "Whig 

Banner" by A. A. Banks. 

The "Farmer's Friend and Fireside Companion" made its bow 
in April, 1852. The first proprietor was Charles Ml. Johnston, who 
sold the paper next year to William Hinton. Mr. Hinton re- 
named it the "Mountain Orator," and in 1854 sold it to a joint stock 
company, of which A. A. Chapman and C. J. Beirne were members. 
They changed the name to "Union Democrat," and employed Stew- 
art I. Warren as editor. After a year Warren founded the "Lewis- 
burg Chronicle." He was succeeded at Union by George W. Clark, 
who was soon followed by Samuel W- Wendel. With the out- 
break of war in 1861 the paper was suspended. The office material 
came into the hands of John McCreery, whose son Thomas, a deaf 
mute, began in 1867 the "Monroe Register." Two years later, Rich- 
ard Burke bought a half interest in the "Register" and soon became 
sole owner. He made it a Republican paper. In 1887 he moved 
it to Hinton, where he continued it as the "Hinton Republican." 

The "Monroe Republican" was founded in 1867 by Alexander 
Humphreys, but was suspended three years later, Mr. Burk pur- 
chasing the office material. The editors were Cyrus Newlon and 
William A. Monroe. 

The "Border Watchman" issued its opening number, February 
2, 1872. In the same year, the "Greenbrier Independent" gives it 
this friendly mention: "It is neatly printed, its editorials show tal- 
ent, and its locals and selections are interesting and in good taste." 


The first proprietor was Elbert Fowler, who sold out to A. C. 
Houston. He in turn was succeeded in 1874 by Charles M. John- 
ston, who had been in Monroe before as owner and editor of the 
"Farmers' Friend and Fireside Companion." Mr. Johnston died 
in 1880, and was succeeded by his son, Albert Sidney Johnston, who 
is still editor and proprietor. The latter has almost literally grown 
up with the paper, having been connected with it since the age of 

Two newspapers can scarcely exist in the same town without 
training their artillery on each other, and the resulting fireworks 
are sometimes amusing to the spectator. The "Union Democrat" 
and the "Whig Banner" were printed from the same press in the 
west end of the Bell Tavern, a building that dates from about 1838, 
its predecessor on the same lot having been the brewery of Thomas 
Burns. Party spirit ran so high in those days that a Whig would 
almost be read out of his party for lodging at a Democratic tavern 
and eating Democratic pone and bacon. If the case were reversed 
the result would be the same. Yet the editors got along as rival 
editors always do. In this instance both men were much addicted 
to a stronger beverage than picnic lemonade. When intoxicated, 
either of these knights of the quill would write a redhot editorial 
for the other paper and then tear it to shreds in his own. A jour- 
nalistic feature of the 70's were the frequent tilts between the "Reg- 
ister" and the "Border Watchman." Mr. Burke of the former 
paper was a bright-minded, scholarly man, who came from Ireland 
and had been educated for the Roman Catholic priesthood. He 
fought a duel with Elbert Fowler of the "Watchman." 

For nearly thirty years the "Watchman" has had the field to it- 
self. After a few years the style was changed to "Monroe Watch- 
man," in which it still appears. Under its alert and energetic man- 
agement, the "Monroe Watchman" is an eight page newspaper, en- 
joys a very large circulation, and not only presents the local hap- 
penings of the county in a comprehensive manner, but its treatment 
of state and national news renders it much more serviceable as a 
household journal than the generality of local papers. The local 


newspaper fills a niche that can be supplied by no other, and when 
it delves below the surface in matters which are or should be of 
interest and value to its readers it is doing them an inestimable 

The "Alderson Enterprise" was started in 1879 by John M. 
Ferguson of Virginia. In 1882, J. A. D. Turner became proprie- 
tor and changed its name to "Alderson Statesman." Next winter 
C. L. Peck bought a half interest. In 1883 Ferguson bought out 
Turner, and it continued with Peck as publisher and Ferguson editor. 

About 1900 Hubert F. Houston published at Alderson a news- 
paper bearing the unique title of "The Man." Its sketches on the 
families of Monroe were a meritorious feature. James F. Houchins, 
another native of Monroe, issued from Greenville the semi-weekly 
"Greenville Times." The first number bore the date, August 3, 
1900, and was a bright, newsy sheet of six small pages. It was 
announced as "Devoted to America's Cause, Rights of Women, 
Purity of Homes, and Sanctity of Religion." 

In 1900 the "Union Union" was launched at the county seat as a 
Republican opponent to the "Watchman." C. M. Honaker soon be- 
came sole owner. It merged with the "Greenville Times," and was 
edited by J. F. Houchins, who changed its name after the November 
election to "Monroe Record," and continued publication until the 
temporary reappearance after a few months of the "Union Union." 

Madison Ballantyne, as editor of the "Milton Enterprise" of 
this state, is an instance of Monroe journalism laboring in other 

"Literary Monroe" is not so brief a tale as in many instances- 
Yet very few of the nearly 3000 counties of the Union can individ- 
ually shine forth as luminaries of the first magnitude. And as is 
very often the case in a rural county, those of its sons and daugh- 
ters who have won most repute in the literary line have done so in 
other homes than here. A mountain environment is conducive to 
poetic inspiration, and there is scarcely a county of the Mountain 
State that is without its local bards. Serious effort in the prose line 
is not often attempted by natives of West Virginia, although there 
is no lack of material on this direction. 


It would be strange indeed if the beautiful and interesting Ap- 
palachian country did not move the visiting pen as well as the local 

"Ben Bolt" is a very well known and popular song. Its author, 
Thomas Dunn England, often visited this section of the Virginias 
about 1850, and is said to have been a guest of Allen T. Caperton 
and other citizens. Local tradition insists that the grave of the 
"Sweet Alice" named in the song is in Monroe county. 

Ann Royall, who passed her wedded life at Sweet Springs and 
read everything within reach, afterward wrote eleven books, mostly 
on travel and observation in the United States. For over twenty 
years she conducted a newspaper at Washington, D. C. 

"The Gospel Self-Supporting," by the Rev. Alexander L. Hogs- 
head, is a small book of 258 pages, and was published at Abingdon, 
Va., in 1873. The purpose of the book, as stated out by the au- 
thor, is to point out a "serious defect in the prevailing modes of pro- 
viding for the support of the ministry and the support of the Gospel." 

George B. Foster, a native of this county, became a minister of 
the Baptist denomination and a member of the faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. The latest of his writings are the books en- 
titled "The Finality of the Christian Religion," and "The Function 
of Religion." 'Neither is in line with the orthodox standards in 

Major Andrew S. Rowan is with Prof. M. M. Ramsay the 
author of the instructive book, "The Island of Cuba," published by 
Henry Holt of the city of New York. But in conveying at immi- 
nent peril to himself a message from our government to the leader 
of the Cuban insurgents, near the breaking out of the war with 
Spain, Major Rowan inspired Elbert Hubbard to write his little 
booklet, "A Message to Garcia," which had a phenominal sale and 
riveted the attention of the whole country. 

A. C. Houston is the author of "Hugh Harrison, a Mfulatto," 
which is spoken of by the "Greenbrier Independent" as "an exquisite 
little love story, beautifully written, and into which the author has 
skillfully interwoven a discussion of the race problem in the South." 


Another work by the same writer is "An Incestuous Alliance; or 
the State and the Individual," published in 1890. 

"Of Such is the Kingdom of Heaven," was written by Clara 
P. Vawter and beautifully illustrated by her brother, John W. 

Janet Houston was in 1883 the authoress of "A Summer Idyl." 

"Nonie, a Novel," dated 1893, is the work of Lena L. Johnston. 

A contribution to the literature of the civil war period is "Cap- 
tain Beirne Chapman and Chapman's Battery," by Albert Sidney 

"Memorial Addresses on the Life and Character of Allen T. 
Caperton," is a brochure of 1877. 

"Brief Biographic Accounts of Many Members of the Houston 
Family" was written in 1883 by the Reverend S. R. Houston. 

In press as we write is an important contribution to the contro- 
versial history of the war period. It is by Judge A. N. Campbell 
and deals with the campaign in the Shenandoah Valley by General 
Jubal A. Early. The position taken by the author is ably fortified 
by a wealth of documentary evidence. 

The following couplets, extracted from the file of the "Monroe 
Watchman," are full of human interest and are well calculated to 
awake a responsive chord in any person who is on or past the merid- 
ian of life. 

But the patient stars, and the friendly sun, and the birds keep on in tune, 

As they did on a day, in the far-away, of an unforgotten June. 

The haunts I knew in life's fresh dew, and the friends and the sweetheart 

Are gone with the gray and the soft decay of time on the golden curls. 

For the Monroe Home Coming in 1909 poems for the occasion 
were written by Mrs. Ellen F. Craig and Mrs. Rose O. Sell. 

We end the present chapter with a poem on "The Girls of Old 
Monroe," by Roland E. Ballard, and "A Fairy Dell," by Alcyona 


The Girls of Old Monroe 

There's a garden 'mid the mountains 
Where the brightest flowers bloom, 

Where the balmy southern zephyr 

Fills the air with sweet perfume; 

But the fairest of the flowers 
Where the balmy breezes blow 

Are earth's rarest, fairest maidens — 
The girls of old Monroe. 

France may claim with pride her lilies, 

England boast her queenly rose, 
Travelers tell of tropic splendor 

Where the fragrant orchid blows; 
But the rugged Alleghanies 

Where the gentlest breezes blow 
Hold the brightest and the fairest — 

The girls of old Monroe. 

You may see the bright stars gleaming 

On a balmy summer night 
But a sudden misty shadow 

Seems to dim their brilliant light. 
When bright eyes are turned upon you, 

Lit by beauty's radiant glow, 
Given alone in matchless splendor 

To the girls of old Monroe. 

There are dreams of rarest beauty 

Hidden in the artist's mind, 
That for ways to give expression 

He may search but may not find. 
If he would fulfill his dreaming, 

Of that rare and radiant glow, 
He may find that matchless beauty 

'Mong the girls of old Monroe. 

A Fairy Dell 

Mountain-sheltered lies the dell, 
Zephyrs know it, love it well, 

There their softest wooing voices you may hear: 
Flashing with a silver gleam, 
Through it flows a narrow stream, 

With a murmur ever soothing, sweet and clear. 

Charming with their radiant glow, 
Cardinal flowers in splendor grow; 

Mossy carpets here were meant for fairies' feet; 
Scent of blossom, shade of tree, 
Song of wild bird, hum of bee, 

With their magic make this fairy dell complete. 




The Grazing Interest — Tillage Crops — Fruits — Iudustrial Matters. 

HE cool upland climate of Monroe is comfortable to 
domestic animals and does not favor an excessive num- 
ber of pestiferous insects. The extensive limestone belts 
are the natural home of bluegrass- The great centers 
of seaboard population are not far away. In consequence this 
county is peculiarly adapted to grazing. The raising of cattle 
for market has always been the leading farm interest of Monroe. 
Horses for export are raised in very much smaller numbers. Sheep, 
both for wool and mutton, are an important adjunct. Hogs are 
kept on every farm, but mainly for domestic use. From the Baldwin 
Ballard farm of 1200 acres about 100 export cattle are marketed 
each year. 

Until a recent day the wolf was a most vexatious enemy to the 
stockman, and the large bounties offered for his head show that 
the depredations of the bear and the panther have not been near 
so serious. Thanks to the relentless warfare against him, the wolf 
is now extinct in this county and so is the panther. The bear is 
so very infrequent as to be of little consequence. The predatory 
beasts and birds which remain are those which confine their atten- 
tion to poultry. 

The great improvement in the breeds of cattle has had two 
important results. The beef animals of the Revolutionary period 
were of only 400 to 800 pounds weight, whereas steers of even 
more than 2000 pounds are now seen. Such an animal is worth 
$150 on the spot. But the scrawny beeves of a century ago were 
worth only $8 to $12. A sheep was worth only $1.25 and a hog 
only about a dollar. It is true that the purchasing power of the 
dollar was greater then than now, but it was far from being enough 


greater to equalize the values. The bayonet-nosed razorback of the 
earlier day is not to be mentioned in the same breath with the broad- 
backed swine of the present century. While this book was in prep- 
aration W. A. Wallace raised a hog of 990 pounds weight. Such a 
porker would outbalance five or six of those of the year 1800 and 
be worth many more times as much. 

Turkeys, geese, ducks, guineas, common poultry, and a few 
peafowls represent the feathered population of the Monroe farmyards. 
In the aggregate they are an important resource, both for home 
use and for market. 

The tillage crops of the county make a very respectable show- 
ing. The limestone belts are occasionally too much obstructed by 
ledges to admit of plowing, but the clay loam is strong and retentive, 
even if it burns in time of drouth. Yet there are many large 
smooth fields of very easy contour. The freestone belts have lighter 
and sandier soils, and these are easier to work. The creek bot- 
toms have a good alluvial soil, but scarcely cover one per cent of 
the county's area. They are so well suited to corn that this crop 
has been grown on them almost continuously for 40 years at a time. 
In the more hilly districts cultivation is pushed into the steepest 
slopes, and a fair crop of corn will be seen on an incline of thirty 
degrees. Yet such instances of tilted farming are less likely to be 
seen among the natives of Monroe than among the recent immigrants 
from the ragged counties farther south. 

Corn, grain, and timothy hay are the leading tillage crops. 
Considerable of the corn is now made into ensilage. The yields 
per acre by the best farmers will compare very favorably with 
those secured in the great agricultural districts- 116 bushels to 
the acre has been grown by James Beckett, of the Sinks. F. L. 
Beckneir has grown 46 ears weighing 70 pounds. Single stalks 
have been found with six well developed ears. In 1915 the ensilage 
corn of C. L. Dickson on Second Creek was of most unusual lux- 
uriance. Stalks bearing four ears were not uncommon. Some stalks 
were more than fifteen feet high. 

Wheat is the leading small grain. In 1895 there were produced 


121,509 bushels of wheat as against 30,887 bushels of the other 
cereals. The production per capita being about 10 bushels, Monroe 
is independent of the wheat growing states and is on a better foot- 
ing than the average county of West Virginia. In 1897 the sep- 
arator of Groves and Shires threshed 16,129 bushels of wheat and 
2340 of oats. The yield per acre usually runs about 15 bushels, 
but sometimes passes 30 bushels. Oats do not thrive so well as 
wheat in the limestone soil and are a less important crop than in 
most farming communities. But J. D. Lemon grew a stalk six feet 
four inches high. A small amount of rye is grown and there is 
a larger production of buckwheat. Timothy is the leading hay 
crop. Stalks five feet tall, carrying heads 13 inches long, have been 

The Lewis place, which is the "bonanza farm" of Monroe, pro- 
duced in 1895 1649 bushels of wheat, 6504 of oats, 29 of rye, 50 
of buckwheat, and 125 of timothy seed. 

In 1902 the acreage in meadow, corn, and the cereals totaled 
26,847 acres, or about one-eleventh of the entire area. The corn 
crop was 294,871 bushels, being a yield of 36 bushels to the acre. 
10,199 acres of meadow returned 13,975 tons of hay, being one and 
three-eighths tons to the acre. The value of farm products was 
returned as $413,705, and the value of fruits as $58,762. The 
horses and mules numbered 4,202, the cattle, 13,840, the sheep, 
21,309, and the swine, 4,811. 

Among the miscellaneous products are the pumpkins, which 
numerously dot the cornfields in the autumn; the sorghum, grown 
in small patches for home use; and maple sugar and sirup, a con- 
siderable quantity of which is made every season. A sugar maple 
needs not less than four square rods of space, yet it is possible in 
good seasons to make 100 gallons of sirup from the trees which 
would cover one acre. In recent years the sirup sells at a dollar 
a gallon. 

As in any cool climate, potatoes do well- F. L. Beckner grew 
151 bushels from three bushels of seed. Six of the tubers weighed 


eight pounds. W. R. Wiseman raised 15 tomatoes, perfect in form 
and color, that averaged more than 17 ounces. There are also on 
record a potato of 25 H ounces and a turnip of seven pounds. 

Flax and hemp were once staple crops, but have not been grown 
since the war of 1861. 

Monroe is well suited to fruits, both large and small. In fav- 
orable years the apple crop is abundant, and even in the off years 
there is likely to be an ample amount for home use. Just over the 
county line, at Sweet Chalybeate, a pippin grew in 1910 to a girth 
of 15 inches and a weight of 24 ounces. On one of the Scott farms 
northwest of Sinks Grove is an apple tree that was set out on that 
spot in 1790. The tree is 40 feet in height, 10 in girth, and the 
diameter of its spread of branches is 50 feet. It is still vigorous 
and produces about 40 bushels of a white summer apple. Cor- 
nelius S. Scott enumerates 173 varieties of apples that have been 
grown in this locality, these including about all the well known 
varieties. His own extensive and finely kept orchard shows what 
may be done in this county by employing methods that are up to 
date. Mr. Scott also names 20 varieties of pears, 21 of plums, and 
35 of peaches that have been successfully grown in Monroe. 

Pears, peaches, plums, and quinces are grown to a less extent 
than apples. Grapes are quite well adapted to the county, as is 
apparent from the size and vigor of the wild vines. Arbors of 
the domesticated varieties are not infrequent. A few persons give 
special attention to growing small fruits for market, but there is 
a large supply of wild blackberries and huckleberries. In 1897 J. 
A. Dowdy picked 153 gallons of blackberries. 

Farming methods have undergone a great change during the 
last 75, and especially the last 50 years. Much better implements 
are in use and they are more economical of muscular effort. The 
maintenance of fertility is better understood and practiced. So long 
as there seemed to be a limitless supply of good virgin soil in the 
West, the people of the older communities treated their own lands 
with very scant consderation. But good soil at a low price is no 


longer to be had in any of the states. The advance in harvesting 
methods which began with the successful test of the McCormick 
reaper in 1831 advanced civilization in this country by half a cen- 
tury. If the grain crops were harvested as they were at the time of 
the American war, the labor required would be as much as could be 
furnished in two weeks by the entire population of military age. 

The importance of advanced farming methods is given practi- 
cal recognition in this county. Use is made of the Farmers' Insti- 
tute, and the leading farm journals are well patronized by progres- 
sive agriculturists. The first corn show in the county was in 1909, 
when 104 boys entered the contest and 67 presented the best ears 
they had grown. The first prize on yellow corn went to Frank 
Gwinn, of Wolf Creek, the first on white corn to Paul Scott of Sec- 
ond Creek, and the; first prize on bread to Iva D. Walker of Sweet 
Springs. Since then the corn show has become a fixture in Monroe. 
At the corn show of 1911 there were exhibited six white potatoes 
weighing 11 pounds; one sweet potato weighing W2 pounds; one 
beet weighing 20 pounds, and a cabbage of the same weight. In 
the contest of 1913 there is a record of 118 bushels of corn to the 

With respect to mining and manufactures, the industrial side of 
Monroe's history is a brief tale. The circumstance that no im- 
portant line of railroad penetrates this county except in the north- 
west corner and in the extreme east is enough in these days of steam 
transit to bar out any other industrial operations than those of saw 
and grist mills. Because of the lack of coal and probably of gas, 
Monroe has not experienced any industrial transformation, such as 
has taken place in the adjoining counties of Mercer and Fayette. 
There are iron ores, but these are not yet in demand. 

During the now extinct reign of small local industries there was 
a different story. Pottery was made at several points; at Lindside 
so late as 1880. Near Crimson Spring was once a rude furnace 
for the smelting of iron ore. In the time of Andrew Summers, Gap 
Mills was an industrial center of consequence. He operated a wool- 


en mill, an oil mill, a distillery, a wagon factory, a tanyard, and 
a trip hammer forge. Along the course of Second Creek there is 
or has been an average of one mill to the mile for the 18 miles be- 
low this hamlet. With the exception of Hollywood, where flan- 
nels, cassimere, and hosiery are woven, the surviving mills now con- 
fine themselves to grinding and sawing. But gunpowder was once 
manufactured on Indian as well as Second Creek, and from the days 
of the Revolution to those of the war of 1861 saltpeter was leached 
from the nitrous earth found in the limestone caverns. 



OLONIAL Virginia had a militia system, and it was 
continued under independence. The state was divided 
into five division districts and nineteen brigade dis- 
tricts, each of the former being under the supervision 
of a major general and each of the latter under a brigadier general. 
Each county furnished at least one regiment. 

To each division were attached one regiment of cavalry and one 
of artillery. The regiment, consisting of at least 400 men and 
commanded by a colonel, was divided into two battalions, one com- 
manded by the lieutenant colonel and one by the major. Each bat- 
talion had a stand of colors. In each company were one captain, 
two first lieutenants, two second lieutenants, five sergeants, and six 
corporals. The ensign, a commissioned officer having charge of the 
colors and ranking below a lieutenant, was dispensed with after the 
war of 1812. On the staff of the colonel were one quartermaster, 
one paymaster, one surgeon, one surgeon's mate, one adjutant with 
the rank of captain, one sergeant major, one quartermaster sergeant, 
two principal musicians, and drum and fife majors. To each com- 
pany was one drum and there was also a fife or a bugle- 

Officers were commissioned by the governor upon the recommen- 
dation of the county court. It was the men of the most social 
prominence who were appointed. A position in the militia was con- 
sidered very honorable and as a stepping stone to something higher 
up. Yet, as in this county, the men nominated would sometimes 

Company musters took place in April and October, battalion 
musters in October or November, and regimental musters in April 
or May. Non-attendance involved a fine, usually of 75 cents, and 
this was turned over to the sheriff for collection. Fines we're num- 


erous, whether or not they were generally collected. Excuses for 
cause were granted by a court-martial. 

Universal militia service ended with the war of 1861. For some 
years previous the records of this county contain little mention of 
officers. During these later years of the system, musters were less 
frequent, the men went through the evolutions without arms, and 
the practical value of the drill, as measured by the modern standard, 
would be very little. 

The first regimental organization of Monroe was the One Hun- 
dred and Eighth. It was called out in the so-called Whiskey War 
of 1794. Some years later we find mention of the One Hundred 
and Sixty-Sixth. In 1800 John Handley petitioned without suc- 
cess for the $26.50 advanced by him for the colors of the former 
regiment and not paid back by the sheriff. 

The captains and lieutenants of the Monroe militia wore the 
old Continental hats with white and red feathers, and had a red 
sash around the waist. At the April muster there appeared 1200 
men in all imaginable garbs and colors, and with canes and umbrel- 
las for arms. They marched to the Royal Oak field, south of Un- 
ion, fife and drums in front, and every man walking his own step. 
The field officers on their spirited horses took the whole road in 
front. The animals were excited by the music and progressed side- 
wise, their rearing and plunging lending a certain zest to the occas- 
ion. After reaching the field, outsiders were kept ten feet from the 
fence by a guard. Colored "aunties" were present with their pies, 
cakes, and molasses beer. The muster was one of the great events 
of the year and took the place in the popular interest that is now 
given to the circus- 

In the official records, regimental company and battalion precincts 
are often spoken of as civil divisions of a county. There does not seem 
to have been any fear of militarism in those days. 

The list of militia officers given below is gleaned from the rec- 
ords of Greenbrier and Monroe. As in the case of county books 
generally during the antebellum regime, they were not kept with 
sufficient method and exactness. With respect to the officers of the 





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militia, not all who served are mentioned as having qualified. In 
not a few instances, our only knowledge of their names is due to 
incidental mention. 

The year given is that in which we first find mention of the 
officer while holding the rank in question. In numerous instances 
it is the date of his qualification as such. 

A man holding a given rank, as that of captain, usually implies 
that he has come up from the lower grades and that some other man 
has been advanced to the rank he has vacated. 

Abbreviations: Lt — lieutenant ; En. — ensign; v — in place of; 
Batt. — battalion; Cav — cavalry; Art. — artillery; res. — resigned. 

Alderson, Joseph— 2d Lt Cav.— 1799 

Alderson, John — Capt. v D. Graham — 1815 

Alexander, James — Lt Cav. — 1798 

Alexander, Michael — Capt. v Nimrod Tackett — 1803 

Alexander, Andrew — Capt. v M. Alexander — 1815 — res. 1818 

Alford, Robert— En. under Hull— 1823 

Allen, James— Lt— 1801 

Arbuckle, John— Capt. 1803— res. 1804 

Atkeson, William D. — En. v Michael Howard — 1818 

Bailey, Edward B— Capt— 1824 

Ballard, Willis— Lt. under John Campbell— 1822 

Ballard, Ryland — En. under John Campbell — 1822 

Beamer, Joseph — En. v John Dolan — 1817 

Beirne, Andrew— Col.— 1818 

Beirne, Patrick— JEn. — 1818 

Benson, Ervin — Cornet — 1799 

Black, Williamr— 2d Lt. Cav.— res. 1817 

Booten, Reuben — En. under Farley — 1788 

Brown, William— En.— 1834 

Broyles, Solomon — Lt. under Harden Shumate — 1817 

Bryan, Christopher — Lt. — 1786 

Bryson, Edmund — En. v Isaac Milburn — 1811 

Burdette, Archibald — En. under Nickell — v Robert Taylor — 1818 

Burk, Andrew — En. v Robert Dunbar — 1801 

Butcher, Joshua — Lt. v W. McDaniel — 1816 

Byrnside, James, Jr. — En. under Jones — 1799 

Byrnside, John — Maj. — 1801 

Byrnside, Isaac — Maj. 2d Batt. v John Campbell — 1828 

Caddell, James G.— En. v John Ellis— 1828 


Callaway, Charles— Maj.— 1846 (166th) 

Campbell, John— Maj. 1828 

Campbell, Archibald— Capt.— 1823 

Campbell, Matthew — En. — 1830 

Caperton, Hugh — Capt. v Andrew Wood — 1787 

Carden, Isaac — En. under Johnson Riffe — 1818 

Carnifax, William — Lt. under Campbell — 1815 

Christy, Robert — Capt. v John Handley — 1815 

Clark, Samuel — Maj. — res. 1814 

Clark, John— En. v Francis Nickell— 1814 

Clark, James— En. v R. Wyatt— 1818 

Clark, Alexander — Lt. v Wm. Carnifax — 1817 — res. 1819 

Coalter, Robert — 2d Lt. Cav. v James Woodville — 1817 

Cook, Joseph — En. under John Hutchinson — 1787 

Cook, Jacob — En. under John Hutchinson — 1787 

Cook, John— En. Rifle company, 2d Batt— 1822 

Crow, John — Capt. v Herbert — 1st Batt — 1814 

Dickson, Joseph — 2d Lt. v Archibald Handley — 1805 

Dolen, John — Lt. v J. Holsapple — 1817 

Dunbar, Robert— Lt— 1799 

Dunbar, John— En. (Lt.)— v John Nickell— 1815 

Dunlap, Alexander — En. under J. Byrnside — 1799 

Dunn, James — En. v E. Williams — 1823 

Dunn, John— Lt.— 1824 

Dunn, William— En.— 1824 

Dunn, William T— Capt.— 1824 

Elliott, James— Lt. v Swope— 1801— res. 1815 

Ellis, William — Lt. v Andrew Gwinn — under John Alderson — 1818 

Ellis, Thomas— En. v J. G. Keadle— 1830 

Ellis, John— En.— 1828 

Erskine, Henry — Lt. — res. 1815 

Erskine, Michael — Capt v James Meadows — 1824 

Erwin, William— Lt— 1793 

Estill, Isaac— Maj.— 1801 

Evans, William — En. under Herbert — 1812 

Ewing, William — Lt. under Robert Nickell — 1787 

Ewing, Oliver — En. v A. Alexander — under Christy — 1816 

Ewing, Joseph — Lt. v Christy — 1818. 

Ewing, Robert, Jr. — Cornet v Alex. Kitchen — 1818 

Farley, Matt— Capt— 1788— res. 1800 

Fleshman, Fielding — Capt. in 166th — 1846 

Foster, Robert — En. v A. Nickell, Jr. — under John Nickell — 1815 

Foster, John — En. under Jones — 1798 

Garten, Richard— En.— 1799 


Garten, Elijah— Lt. of Rifles v John Hinton— 1822 
Glass, Samuel— Capt— 1782 
Graham, James— Col.— 1799 
Graham, Lancelot — Lt. — res. 1815 
Graham, David— Lt. 1797 
Graham, Samuel— LU 180S 
Graham, William— Maj. 2d Batt.— res. 1811 

Graham, James — En. v Michael Howard — under Alderson — 1822 
Gray, James— Lt.— 1799 
Gwinn, James — En. under Graham — 1799 
Gwinn, Andrew— Lt— 1815— res. 1818 
Gwinn, Robert— En.— 1794 
Hall, Benjamin — En. v M. Alexander — 1801 
Hall, John— Lt. v John Arbuckle— 1802 
Handley, John— Maj.— 1799 
Handley, John, Jr. — Capt. — res. 1815 
Handley, Archibald — 1st Lt. v Robert Patton — 1805 
Handley, James— Capt. Cav. in 108th v C. M. Lewis— 1817— res. 1820 
Handley, James, Jr. — Lt. v M. Alexander — 1803 
Handley, George— En. — 1811 

Handley, Isaac — Capt. Flying Art. in 108th (19th brigade) v W. Vass 
Hansbarger, Peter — Capt. — 1824 — died about this time 
Harvey, James — En. — 1799 

Harvey, John— Capt. v Wyatt— 1801— res. 1803 
Harvey, Nicholas — En. under Caperton — 1787 
Harvey, William Lt. v Tolison Shumate— 1801— res. 1803 
Hawkins, John— 1st Lt. v W. Clark— 1820 
Hawkins, Thomas N. — 1st Lt. under Bailey — 1824 
Haynes, James M. — Lt Flying Art. v J. Ewing — 1818 
Haynes, Thomas N. — 1st Lt. — under Bailey — 1824 
Hays, Thomas N. — 1st Lt.— under Bailey— 1824 
Hays, Isaac — Cornet v R. Coalter — 1820 
Henderson, John — Capt. 1782-7 
Henderson, James — Lt. Col. — 1778 

Herbert, Capt.— 1814 

Hill, Joseph — Lt. v John Newman — 1828 

Hills, Joseph R.— Col. 166th— 1846 

Hinchman, William — En. v John Hinton — 1817 

Hines, Charles R.— Capt. 166th— 1846 

Hinton, Evan — 1st Lt. under Larew — 1811 

Hinton, John — Capt. of Rifles, 2d Batt. v J. Johnson — 1822 

Holsapple, John — Maj. — 1822 

Holsapple, Henry — Lt. under W. Humphreys — 1822 


Howard, Michael — En. v A. Gwinn — 1815 

Hull, John— Capt— v H. W. Moss— 1823 

Humphreys, William — Capt. v J. Holsapple — 1822 

Hunter, John — En. — 1816 

Hutchinson, John — Col. — 1801 

Hutchinson, Archibald — Lt. 2d rifle company under John Byrnside — 1893 

Hutchinson, Isaac — Lt. v James Handley — 1805 

Hutchinson, Alexander — En. — 1783 

Jarvis, John — En. under Crow — 1816 — res. 1818 

Johnson, Jacob— Capt. 1817— res. 1822 

Jones, James — Capt. — 1799 

Jones, John— Cornet under W. Clark — 1822 

Keadle, James G— Lt under Hill— 1830 

Keenan, Charles— En. under Clark— 1799 

Kelly, Nathaniel B— Capt. v John Byrnside— 1828 

Keys, Humphrey— En. v B. Hall— 1803 

Kilpatrick, James — Lt. 1811 

Kincaid, George — Capt. v Andrew Nickell — 1822 

King, Robert— Lt.— 1798 

Kitchen, Alexander — 1st Lt v J. Handley — 1817 

Kitchen, Henry— Lt. under Hull— 1823 

Kitchen, Henry C. — En. v A. Lewellin — 1830 

Knox, James — Capt. — 1782-4 

Kountz, George — En. v John Jarvis — under Crow — 1818 

Lafferty, William— Lt. under Farley^l788 

Larew, Peter— Capt. Light Inf., 2d Batt— 1805 

Leach, Joshua— Capt. Cav.— 1799— res. 1805 

Leach, John — Lt. under Jones — 1797 

Leach, Isom — Lt v Robert King — under Jones — 1798 

Lewellin, Anderson — Capt. — 1830 

Lewis, Charles M.— Capt. Cav. in 108th— 1811— res. 1817 

Linton, John B.— En.— 1811 

Lynch, George — En. under W. Humphreys — 1822 

Maddy, William — Lt. under John Hutchinson — 1787 

Magart, Adam — En. — 1814 

Mann, James — En. — 1815 

Mann, Jacob — Lt. v John Halstead — 1805 

Mathews, David— Lt. Col. of 166th— 1846 

McCarty, John — Capt. v Andrew Nickell — 1821 

McDaniel, William — Capt. v John Pack — 1816 

McDaniel, Henry — Capt. — 1811 

McDaniel — En. under Pack — 1812 

McDowell, James — Capt. v Thomas Reynolds — 1814 

McNeer, Richard— Lt. v Adam Miller— 1811 


Meador, John — Lt. v L. Graham — 1815 

Meadows, James — Capt. — 1824 

Milburn, Isaac — En. — res. 1811 

Miller, Jamesr— En. under Estill— 1799 

Miller, Andrew — En. v Jacob Mann — 1805 

Miller, Adam— Lt. res. 1811 

Miller, Thomas — En under Kincaid — 1822 

Morgan, Moses — En v E. B. Bailey — 1825 

Moss, George — En under Hull — 1822 

Moss, Henry W.— Capt.— 1823 

Newman, John— Lt.— 1828 

Nickell, Andrew — Capt. v John Nickell — 1818 

Nickel I, Francis — En — res. 1814 

Nickell, Robert— Capt.— 1787— res. 1801 

Nickell, John— Capt. v A. Nickell— 1815 

Nickell, John, Jr.— En. v A. Nickell— 1802 

Nickell, Andrew, Jr. — Lt. v J. Steele — under John Nickell — 1815 

Nickell, George — En. v J. Holsapple — 1814 

Pack, John— Capt. v John Harvey— 1803— res. 1816 

Pack, Samuel, Jr.— Lt. v John Pack— 1803 

Pack, Benjamin — Lt. v Larew — 1805 

Parker, Joseph — En under Humphreys 1 — 1823 

Patterson, Matthew — En under Wright — 1787 

Patton, Robert— 1st Lt. of Cav— 1799 

Patton, William— Lt.— 1803 

Peters, Conrad — Lt. Col. v A. Beirne — 1818 

Peters, John — Capt. v H. McDaniel — 1811 

Phillips, Zachariah— En— 1805 

Pole, Mordecai — Capt. v P. Hansbarger — 1824 

Prentice, Moses — Cornet under Leach — 1800 

Reaburn, Capt.— 1785 

Reaburn, John — En. — 1797 

Reaburn, Charles — En. — res. 1811 

Reynolds, Thomas — Capt. — res. 1814 

Rice, James — En. — 1816 

Robertson, Edwin — En. v Elliott — under Vass — 1816 

Scarborough, James — En — 1793 

Scott, Thomas — Lt. v Reuben — Wyatt — 1821 

Shanklin, Richard — 2d Lt. under Bailey — 1824 

Shanklin, Richard — Lt. Col. — 1818 

Shanklin, William— Capt— 1811 

Shannon, Henry — Capt. v Estill — 1801 

Shannon, John — Lt. v H. Shannon — 1801 


Shelton, John — Lt v H. Shannon — 1801 

Shelton, Thomas— Capt.— 1783 

Shumate, Daniel— Lt— 1784 

Shumate, Tolison — Lt. under McDaniel — 1799 — res. 1801 

Shumate, Harden — Lt. v D. Thompson — under Peters — 1815 

Smith, William — En. v A. Clark — under Herbert — 1820 

Sparr, Samuel— 2d Lt. v J. Hawkins— 1820 

Steele, John — Lt. — res. 1815 

Stodghill, William G.— Lt. v R. McNeer— 1815 

Swope, George — Capt. v R. Nickell — res. 1802 

Swope, George — Lt. — 1823 

Swope, Jonathan — Lt. v A. Nickell — 1818 

Symms, John — Lt. v J. Kilpatrick — 1811 

Tackett, Nimrod — Capt. — res. 1803 

Tackett, John W.— Lt. v N. B. Kelly— 1828 

Tackett, James — Lt. of Cav. — 1830 

Taylor, Robert— En.— 1818 

Thomas, John — En. under J. Ewing — 1818 

Thomas, Thomas — En. under J. Ewing — 1818 

Thomas, Richard — Lt. under Richard Campbell — 1820 

Thompson, James — Capt. — res. 1784, when about to leave 

Thompson, William — Lt. under Caperton — 1787 

Thompson, David — Lt. v C. Peters — res. 1815 

Tresler, John — En. v J. Peters — res. 1812 

Vass, William— Maj. v C. Peters— 1818 

Vass, Elliott— En. v J. Handley— 1815 

Walker, Harper— En.— 1817 

Whitcomb, George— En. v J. W. Tackett— 1828 

Williams, Samuel — Capt. v Knox — 1784 

Williams, Edward — Lt. v J. Meadows — 1823 

Woods, Anthony — Capt. v Thomas Shelton — 1783 

Woods, Andrew — Capt. — 1783 — gone, 1787 

Woods, John— En.— 1811 

Woods, Archibald — En. under Joseph Ewing — 1825 

Woodville, James— 2d Lt. of Cav. v W. Black— 1817 

Wright, Thomas— Capt.— 1787 

Wyatt, Thomas— Capt. of 108th— 1801 

Wyatt, Reuben — Lt. v Joshua Butcher — under W. McDaniel — 1818 

Wylie, Thomasl— Capt. v A. Alexander — 1818 

Wylie, Edward — En. under Crow — 1818 

Young, James — En. v John Reaburn — under R. Nickell — 1797 — res. 1S01 

Young, Robert — Lt. under Kincaid — 1822 



N TAKING the reader on a tour of Monroe we can re- 
late some odds and ends with more freedom than in 
other chapters. Since the trip is imaginary and not real, 
we will select a clear day in June and begin at Green 
Hill, immediately east of Union. Looking toward the sunset, we peer 
into a valley that seems narrower than it is. In the foreground are 
the scattered houses of the county seat interspersed with shade trees. 
In the opposite direction is Peters Mountain, lofty, regular, and for- 
est-covered. Only partially obscuring it is the much lower ridge of 
Little Mountain, interrupted here and there by watergaps and les- 
sening in height toward the south. We cannot look squarely into 
any of the passes, since they appear to lie at an oblique angle from 
us- In the southwest quarter are low but rugged eminences beyond 
Turkey Creek. 

Looking northwest we see the short, lofty, and broken range 
known in the early record-books as Swope's Knobs, but now simply 
as the Knobs. The slope lying toward us presents a rapid alterna- 
tion of swells and gorges. The former are generally open, but the 
older people can tell us when these heights were an almost solid ex- 
panse of woodland. Just behind one of the houses that nestle on the 
mountain side is the wooded, cone-shaped projection known as Cald- 
er's Peak. Volcanic cones, hoary with age, even in a geologic sense, 
occur in the Alleghanies, and this may be one of them. But the 
hill is of more interest in another way. 

The peak and the home below were once the property of Alex- 
ander Calder, a planter of the Palmetto State, who liked the scen- 
ery and the cool air of the Monroe hills so well as to live here a 
part of the time. On the summit of the peak he built in 1842 an 
observatory 100 feet high and 40 feet in diameter at the base. It 


is related of Calder that he wished to see into his home state of South 
Carolina. But only if Mount Everest with its 29,142 feet of alti- 
tude occupied the place of Calder's Peak would it be possible to see 
so far away. In the spring of 1861 the woodwork had become in- 
secure, and the occupant of the farm saw fit to burn it down the 
night after Fort Sumter was fired upon. 

A tale which links into the story of Calder's Peak has to do with 
William Willis, whose grave is in the Green Hill cemetery. Willis 
was a native of New Bedford, Massachusetts, a soldier of the Rev- 
olution, and after that event he experienced great vicissitudes of for- 
tune. It is said he lived a while in Spain, filling a diplomatic post, 
and there wedded the beautiful daughter of a Spanish don. During 
an absence from Madrid, a jealous rival poisoned the mind of the 
father-in-law, and caused the latter to leave Spain, taking his daugh- 
ter with him, and going in such secrecy that Willis never again met 
his bride. It is further said, however, that after many years he 
learned that she died in New Orleans, true to him to the last. The 
child of this union he never saw. In his old age Willis was be- 
friended by Calder, who took him to his home at the foot of the 
knob. Calder died in South Carolina in 1849, and as the nephew 
who inherited his property failed to make any provision for the old 
veteran, the latter became a public charge. He was placed in the 
private home of Simeon Jennings in Union and there tenderly cared 
for until his death in 1853, at the great age of ninety-nine years. Wil- 
lis was cultured and refined, and had a commanding presence. While 
in Calder's homei it is believed that he wrote the story of his blighted 
life, but changed his mind and gave the manuscript to the flames. 

In the fairly level fields just south of Union stood an immense 
tree known as the Royal Oak. It was here that the musters of the 
militia used to take place. An event of the war period was a re- 
view by General Loring of the Confederate troops under his com- 
mand. The oak was felled because of large dead limbs and a hol- 
low trunk. Accounts vary as to when this was done, the latest date 
we learn of being 1859. Some 15 years later the stump was re- 
moved. There have been exaggerated statements respecting the 


size of this monarch of the forest. One citizen claims it was 33 
feet in girth; another says 500 rails were split out of it. Judge 
Campbell, to whom the tree used to be a familiar object, says the 
stump, projecting some three feet above the ground, was about six 
feet across. A good poem on the Royal Oak was written a few 
years ago by Miss Anna B. Gwinn. 

The road by Calder's Peak brings us to Johnson's Crossroads, 
near the head of Wolf Creek- We find the Knobs to consist of two 
parallel ridges, the western face of the second being even more ir- 
regular than the view from Green Hill. There are patches of 
corn on hillsides so abrupt that the tillage has to be done with the 

Sometimes an Appalachian valley is most expansive at the head. 
This is the case with Wolf and Potts creeks. The Crossroads was 
a choice spot to the early landseekers, and was not long in coming 
into possession of the family to which it owes its name. But with 
the exception of one household the Johnsons are no longer here, and 
as the people of the immediate vicinity are mainly tenant farmers, 
one is impressed with the feeling that this attractive basin has known 
palmier days. 

Looking northward, quite a vista opens out between the Knobs 
and Patrick's Peak, a projection of Wolf Creek Mountain. On 
the right is a belt of tableland, settled at a very early day by the 
Swope, Skaggs, and other pioneer families. The view is finally cut 
off by Flat Mountain, which turns Wolf Creek to the west and 
compels it to meet the Greenbrier two miles south of Alderson in- 
stead of two miles east. The valley of the Wolf is pleasant to look 
upon and is rather numerously peopled. A sassafras about 50 feet 
high and nearly 12 feet in girth would indicate that the soil is of 
some account. 

John Skaggs was aiming his rifle at a deer when he perceived what 
seemed a flash of lightning between him and the animal. A puma 
had sprung upon the deer. Skaggs shot the beast of prey. At an- 
other time, he found a missing hog with a litter of pigs and a fine bed 
of leaves. To rear her family she had appropriated a crevice in a 


cliff. The hunter was just in time to kill a bear that was climbing 
up the cliff in search of fresh pork. His daughter Sarah went one 
evening to hunt the cows, and not finding them was on her way 
back. When she came to a branch she found a puma was on her 
trail. Having heard that this animal is very averse to wetting its 
feet, a trait which it shares with the feline race in general, she crossed 
and recrossed until she reached home and thus thwarted the efforts of 
the puma to get at her by making use of a tree that had fallen across. 
Hardy's Run, a tributary of Wolf, is named for a pioneer who 
outran some Indians who were pursuing him- Pottery used to be 
made one mile above the mouth of the stream. A little distance 
away is a house much more than a century old and still in a very 
usable condition. It was the home of the pioneer Swope, who was 
laid to rest in the burial ground at the end of a steep hogback that 
juts into the valley. The headstone bears this inscription: 

Joseph Swope departed this life 2d March 1819 in his 68th Year. He 
was one of the first Setlers of this County after having been 9 Years a 
Prisoner with the Shawnee Nation. 

Fishbock Hill at the mouth of Wolf keeps alive the name of an 
otherwise forgotten pioneer. Looking down on the narrow Green- 
brier bottom, we are shown where the Monroe line twice crosses the 
stream, leaving the tip of a peninsula to the east. The road brings 
us to a hollow, down which the road rapidly winds to the town of 
Alderson at the foot of a heavy river bluff. We turn into the Flat 
Mountain road, which is sandy, thinly peopled, and has little to de- 
tain our attention. Scarcely any county in the state seems to be 
without several Laurel Creeks or Laurel Runs. Monroe has sev- 
eral. We crossed one of them in the high basin between the two 
arms of Swope's Knobs. It there flows placidly, but soon it begins 
a long and tumultuous plunge on its way to join Indian Creek. We 
shall meet it again- The other Laurel attempts to join the Green- 
brier where Wolf would meet it if it kept its course. Yet it turns 
away from an almost insignificant saddle-ridge, curves westward and 
then southward, and finally ends its crooked career by joining the 


Our road brings us to Sinks Grove through the broad depres- 
sion between the Knobs and Middle Mountain. The former come 
to an end in Bickett's Knob, a height that dominates the landscape 
toward the east. If it had the form of Calder's Peak it would be 
a very imposing object. But a nearly level field occupies the broad 
summit, which falls abruptly away on every side to a shoulder of 
encircling tableland. In August of 1890 five noises were heard on 
this mountain at intervals of fifteen to twenty minutes, an upward 
force breaking a large limestone rock into small pieces. The cause 
of the explosion is unknown. 

Because of the important highways that radiate from Sinks Grove, 
it is almost a wonder that it was not one of the battlefields of the 
American war. Northward, eastward, and southward from the 
village is a broad limestone plateau, reaching north to the bluffs on 
Greenbrier and Second Creek, east to the foot of Little Mountain, 
and south to Turkey Creek. We are in the "Sinks" of the pioneer 
settlers, a continuation of the "Big Levels" around Lewisburg. The 
surface nearly preserves a general level, and although there are deep 
hollows, the contour is not so broken as in the Hill Region which 
covers the greater part of West Virginia- Many of the fields would 
be counted as of very respectable size, even in the agricultural states 
of the Middle West. 

The attention of the visitor is drawn to the sinkholes, large and 
small, which are scattered numerously about. In some instances the 
funnel-shaped depression has an ugly looking hole at the bottom. 
One of these is mentioned in a deed of 1802 as "the devil's hole." 
More often there is a round pool of muddy water, useful to the 
livestock. Sometimes a round spot of rich soil tells of a pool that 
has ceased to exist. The sinkhole is not always a complete obstacle 
to the plow. In many instances it sustains its share of waving grain 
or hills of corn. This limestone expanse is honeycombed with cav- 
erns. These receive the surface drainage through the many sink- 
holes, and discharge it by means of the strong springs found in 
the deep valleys. Where the almost vertical seams of the blue mas- 
sive limestone come to the surface, they show water-worn outlines 


and sometimes present a wormeaten appearance. Whether or not 
these ledges were once below the present surface, their shapes are 
due to the very long continued action of streams that are now ex- 
tinct- Places may be seen where cascades once tumbled over the 

In this favored district is an air of agricultural prosperity. Farm- 
houses of a superior type are common, and the silo is not an infre- 
quent adjunct of the farmyard. Good homes are a natural conse- 
quence of good soil. Here is the garden spot of Monroe, and the 
patches of woodland, especially the sugar groves, are convincing as 
to the strength of the clay loam. The sugar maples remind us that 
for many years white cane sugar was a rarity in this region. Dur- 
ing the civil war the sugar orchards came once more into their own. 
It was now that sorghum began to be cultivated so as to eke out 
the capacity of the trees for sweetening the wartime cookery. As 
to the stickiness of the soil in open winter weather, a short excursion 
on any of the roads will speak for itself. 

In this plateau is a tract of 770 acres known more than a cen- 
tury ago as the "plowed savannah." The last named word has all 
but passed out of use in favor of "prairie," which was unknown to 
the English language at that time- 
Four miles from Sinks Grove is Pickaway, a crossroads named 
for the Pickaway Plains of Ohio, where a treaty was made with the 
Shawnee Indians soon after the battle of Point Pleasant. As some 
of the Monroe Pioneers served in that campaign, they became fa- 
miliar with the name of Pickaway. We pass New Lebanon church 
and come to where the plateau gradually breaks down to make room 
for the immediate valley of Second Creek, a little river that for a 
few miles is wholly or approximately the boundary between Monroe 
and Greenbrier. One of the eighteen mills that stand or have stood 
on this creek was a powder mill built about 1788 by Frederick 
Gromer. A colored woman and boy were sent to the mill on an 
errand. They went in with a lighted candle, and in a few moments 
the building was among the things that were. The boy was killed 
and a few days later the woman died. Robert Patton, who sue- 


ceeded Gromer, lost his own life about 1808 in another explosion. 
Like the early steamboats on the Mississippi, the pioneer powder mill 
had the disagreeable habit of blowing up and killing or hurting 
somebody. But gunpowder was a vital necessity in those days, and 
it was costly. People kept it in gourds as well as in their powder- 
horns. As for the gristmill of that period it would grind but not 
bolt about 20 bushels of corn or wheat in a day- The mill with 
the up and down saw turned out 400 to 500 feet of lumber sawed 
to an uneven thickness. 

We leave the Sinks and move eastward nearly parallel with the 
northern line of the county. There is now a rapid alternation of 
mountain and valley. We are where the axis of the Alleghany sys- 
tem loses itself in a succession of ridges that abut on Second Creek. 
Population is sparse and we are almost in a wilderness. There is a 
sharp contrast between this locality and the Sinks. At length we 
come into the Cove, a long narrow valley cross-sectioned into farms. 
We are shown the spot where there was once a stone house built by 
John Lewis in the early years of white occupation. The house was 
of good size, but the wall was weak, since the inner and outer lay- 
ers of stone were not properly bound together. It stood, however, 
until about 1880. The yawning fireplace was broad enough to take 
an eleven foot log. The Lewises used to come here to hunt- After 
the place came into the possession of the Wylies, aunt Peggy Hig- 
genbotham, a woman not afraid of the dark and suspected by the 
superstitious of being a witch, used to visit here from her home on 
Laurel. While plying her knitting needles she would tell hair- 
raising stories to the young members of the household. 

In this portion of Monroe we are solemnly told of mysterious 
lead mines, known to the Indians and the early whites, and from 
which the latter secured great chunks of bullet material. The 
same legend exists in every county of the Alleghanies, all the way 
from the line of Pennsylvania to New River. It retains its vitality 
in spite of the fact that these mountains have been settled a century 
and a half, and have been searched by skilled as well as unskilled ob- 
servers. Veins of iron and coal have been explored, but the lead 


defies rediscovery after the manner of the mythical treasures of Cap- 
tain Kidd. The "mines" are not found because they never had any 
existence. In an early stage of pioneer society, when the frontier is 
full of romance and the dark, gloomy forest prolific of ghosts and 
mysterious shadows, the human mind seizes with avidity and with- 
out reflection upon things which are out of the ordinary. The In- 
dians had no knowledge of mining or smelting metals, and could 
have found almost no use for a soft material like lead. They had 
only just begun to use firearms when the whites were settling these 
mountain valleys. And more than this, the ores in which lead is 
found do not give up the metal over an open fire- High authority 
on the geology of West Virginia tells us that no one should waste 
time in hunting for lead within the boundaries of the commonwealth. 

Passing a now silent mill, we follow Cove and Back creeks, 
pass over a low ridge, and come into Sweet Springs valley at Lynn- 
side, the manor home of the Lewis family. 

A number of the homesteads of Monroe bear distinctive names. 
In the old Virginia east of the Blue Ridge the usage is a common 
one. But the American Highlander had. too little sentiment in his 
makeup to name his home. He was a restless person and did not 
generally look forward to spending the rest of his life on the spot 
where he first settled. Yet some of his later representatives have 
fallen in with this English custom. 

Looking between the fine oaks in front of the brick mansion of 
Lynnside, we see a little distance down the valley the hamlet of 
Sweet Springs. The collection of buildings is suggestive of more 
than a hamlet, yet less than a dozen are permanently occupied. 
Sweet Springs without its hotel interest would be like the play of 
Hamlet with Hamlet left out. A short mile farther down the 
valley is Sweet Chalybeate Springs, the line separating the Virginias 
passing midway between the resorts. 

Another short mile, but in the rear of the big hotel and at the 
foot of Peters Mountain, will bring us to the spot where lived the 
eccentric Colonel Royall and his indomitable wife. Royall was a 
wealthy planter who just after the Revolution turned his back on 


Tuckahoe Virginia and came to Sweet Springs valley. During the 
second quarter of the last century his widow was a journalist of the 
city of Washington and the best known woman in America. Her 
book on "Life, Manners, and Customs in America" was very help- 
ful in the compilation of this volume. 

Three years ago a son of Monroe, now in California, formulated 
a plan that the Daughters of the United Confederate Veterans pur- 
chase Old Sweet Springs and make it a center of learning. For such 
a purpose it has many things in its favor. 

We turn southward. The cleared portion of the valley is some- 
times more than a mile broad, and yet nearly every house stands 
very near the road we are following. In five miles we are on a 
section of the divide between Atlantic and Mississippi waters. Yet 
the space between the mountain ramparts looks as valley-like as 
ever. Our gradual up grade merely changes to a gradual down 
grade as we follow the waters of Second Creek and come in another 
five miles to the hamlet of Gap Mills. Here is a mill pond and 
at its mouth is a narrow break in the rocky stratum that forms the 
core of Gap Mountain. It is almost an ideal spot for a mill dam. 
The basin of Second Creek above the gorge was a very favored 
point of early settlement. It was well populated even at the close 
of the Revolution, but the earliest names are nearly or quite un- 
known to the present inhabitants. The comfortable homes around 
us are suggestive of those we saw in the Sinks. Near the pond 
stood until about 1888 the first brick house to be erected west of 
the Alleghany. It was the large two-roomed dwelling of Andrew 

As we go southward, the space between Peters and Little moun- 
tains becomes more restricted and more uneven. It is a belt rather 
than a valley, because it is partitioned into pocket-shaped basins, 
each with its watergap toward the west, as in the instance at Gap 
Mills. In these passes, or a little above, are the bold springs which 
start Indian and Rich creeks and their feeders. If we ascend to the 
pastures on the flank of the higher mountain, we can look over Little 


Mountain and catch interesting glimpses of the still lower country 

For forty miles we have on our left the massive and regular up- 
lift of Peters Mountain. It is sometimes claimed that it derives its 
name from Christian Peters, the founder of Peterstown. This is 
impossible. The mountain was already well known by its present 
name when Peters was only a boy of sixteen and living in Rocking- 
ham county. The name comes from Peter Wright, who in 1746 
settled immediately below the site of Covington and built a mill- 
He was a well known personage in his day, and also gave name for 
a while to Dunlap Creek, which we find spoken of as Peter's Creek 
in 1753. Wright's valley at Bluefield also gets its name from the 
same man. It is related of Wright that he was once snowbound in 
a cave on the side of the mountain, and that the spot became known 
as Peter's cave. It is, however, a natural consequence that as Chris- 
tian Peters was a leading citizen near the south end of the moun- 
tain, his name grew to be associated with it. Thus the opinion arose 
that the mountain was named for him. The range is a noble one 
and merits the following tribute written by James Pyne after he 
had made a trip around the world : 

It was under the shadow of Peters Mountain that I first saw the light 
of day. It was there that I heard the wolf's howl, the catamount's scream, 
the thunder's peal, and the tempest's rage. There I learned to wonder at 
the beauties of nature; the unfolding buds, the blooming, fragrant flowers, 
the hum of bees, the song of birds. It was there my restless soul was 
composed, my anguish set at rest on a gentle, loving mother's breast. It 
was in the cool shades by the gushing springs of living waters at the foot 
of Peters Mountain I heard the still, small voice of God, and learned to 
know his love. There I saw the "clear, cool night stars" and the glorious 
awakening of the morning, "the seed time and the harvest time," and the 
great white gown of autumn pulled down over the crest of the mountain 
to the dark-colored leaves. It was under the sheltering care of old Peters 
Mountain that my first sweetheart lived. How innocent, how divine is 
child love. Can a man ever forget the little girl who first talked to him 
about love? No, never. It was in Peters Mountain that I learned to 
know the love of father and mother, brother and sister, friends and home. 
It was there, too, that my thoughts flew upward to love of country and 

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the love of our Creator. There childhood's happy days joyously sped, ten- 
derly, sweetly, but all too quickly. 

We double back on our course until we reach Gap Mills, and 
then make a detour to the one precinct of Monroe that lies beyond 
Peters Mountain. Our road takes us to the summit by a circuitous 
course in order to overcome the grade. From the summit we may 
see Keeney's Mountain on the western line of Old Monroe. East- 
ward in the near distance is Potts Mountain, while beyond are 
glimpses of those ranges that make Craig a miniature Switzerland. 
Our descent is rapid. The floor of the valley of Potts Creek is 
narrow, and there is not the limestone formation that covers so much 
of Monroe county. So late as 1840 this upper portion of the valley 
is said to have been well-nigh a wilderness- And yet Colonel Will- 
iam Preston of Point Pleasant fame saw enough promise in the val- 
ley to locate several surveys before the Revolution. 

We come to the creek at Laurel Branch, a railroad station yet 
scarcely a hamlet. To Waiteville, the one other station in the pre- 
cinct, it is five miles. The head of the valley spreads out like a fan 
and covers a quite large and smooth area. Waiteville may count 
as a rudimentary village. On the mountain side, which does not 
seem to rise far above this elevated plain, we observe the loops by 
which the railroad lightens the ascent to the divide between Potts 
and Stony creeks. We return to Gap Mills by a shorter course, 
and find a better soil on the western slope of Peters Mountain than 
on the eastern. There are numerous huckleberry bushes. But rat- 
tlesnakes infest the huckleberry patches, as well as the mountain 
slopes in general. Now and then the county hears of a bite by a 
rattlesnake or a copperhead. Wolf Creek has furnished a "rattler" 
four feet six inches long and sixteen and one-half inches in girth. 
A resident of the valley we are now in slew 94 of the deadly rep- 
tiles in 1894. 

From the mill dam in the Second Creek gorge a little valley rap- 
idly widens out, but in a mile it sharply contracts. There is a sec- 
ond and last ridge through which the creek has to make its way. 
Why is this stream called Second Creek, when there is neither a 


First Creek nor a Third Creek? It was bearing this name in 1751. 
To the explorer leaving Jackson's River at the mouth of Dunlap, 
and following the red man's trail to the mouth of Indian, it was 
the second stream he would encounter. In returning, it would like- 
wise be the second stream. This circumstance may have suggested 
the name. 

Emerging from this second gap, we have before us the plateau of 
the Sinks and in the distance is Bickett's Knob. In the foreground 
is the nearest approach to a glade to be found in the county. It is 
the nucleus of the great estate known as the Lewis place. This be- 
gan in 1751 with a survey of 1000 acres made by Andrew Lewis. 
Financial embarrassment finally threw it into other hands, yet it re- 
mains one undivided whole, and the most conspicuous instance of 
landlordism in Monroe. It would be better for the community if 
it were broken into small farms and carried on by their owners- 

The glade we have mentioned is traversed by Second Creek. 
In the north are the ridges over which we passed on our way to 
the Cove. We can peer into the mouth of the valley drained by 
Big Devil Creek and its affluent, Little Devil Creek. Why these 
names came into being no one seems able to tell. They appear to 
be quite as old as that of Second Creek itself. There is a local 
song that runs somewhat as follows: 

I lost my dog last Saturday night, 

And where do you reckon I found him? 
Way down on Little Devil Creek, 

With all the devils round him. 

An uncanny tradition of the Lewis place tells of the grave of 
a man buried in a vertical position. The first burial near Lindside 
is said to have been that of an Estill girl, 13 years old, who was 
killed by the falling of a tree. Eads Mountain in the foreground 
recalls an incident. While Cornelius Vanstavern was walking 
across the ridge he met a wolf devouring a lamb, and killed the beast 
of prey with his heavy walking stick. On another occasion his dogs 
started a deer. He ran to the house for his rifle but could not 
find it. Presently he heard the report of the weapon followed by 
the voice of his mother telling him to fetch the deer she had shot. 


The road to Union and thence to Willow Bend on Turkey Creek 
presents about the same features as the stretch from Sinks Grove 
to Pickaway. But beyond, the surface is more uneven. Our road 
parallels Little Mountain and follows a succession of streams, some 
minor elevations rising on our right. We pass through the hamlet 
of Rock Camp and the village of Lindside, make several fordings, 
and come in sight of where Peters Mountain suddenly breaks down 
to give passage to New River. When we come to the little stream 
known as Scott's Branch we are on the Virginia line. The strip 
between it and the river was once a part of Monroe and should not 
have been taken away. In the creek hollow below our road is 
Gray Sulphur Spring, once a summer resort but now only a mem- 

Trigger Run, the tributary of Scott's Branch that we have been 
following, was the home of Christian Peters, a local magnate of the 
early years of this county. The stream was named from a pioneer 
who tried to shoot an Indian, but the trigger of his gun would not 
work. This may have been of the nature of "buck ague." Near 
the head of the little run are traces of one of the several racetracks 
that were formerly in use. 

From Peterstown it is five miles to the hamlet of Cashmere, 
formerly Brush Creek- Three miles beyond is the group of houses 
known as Ballard. We are now on the high plateau between New 
River and Hans Creek and can look far away in every direction. 
The sandy soil gives this upland an appearance quite different from 
the Sinks. It is a curious fact that as the New River is closely ap- 
proached the Appalachian region undergoes a change in its geology 
and consequently in its soils. One feels that he is coming into a 
different country. South of the river is greater mineral wealth, in- 
cluding some metals scarcely found to the north. This Quaking Asp 
tableland is thickly peopled and schoolhouses are not far apart. 

Mr. Adair of this neighborhood has a unique but very efficient 
cistern. It is on a ridge, at a higher elevation than the house, and 
is fed by a concreted drainage area of 28 by 66 feet. Gravity con- 
ducts the abundant supply to the house, and the rain does not have 
to seep through birds' nests in eave gutters. 


We are passing near the spot where occurred the only duel with 
a fatal ending that is known to local tradition- It took place about 
a century ago. While a resident of this county was visiting North 
Carolina, he was accused of being there to steal slaves. This led 
to a challenge and a duel and a North Carolina man was killed. 
Some time later his brother learned the whereabouts of the slayer and 
sent a challenge by a messenger. The Virginian said he did not 
wish to fight, but the message was peremptory and a meeting was 
arranged. It took place in a road on the line between Monroe and 
Summers, about seven miles from Peterstown and three from New 
River. The fight was to be with pistols and on horseback. During 
the interval between the challenge and the duel, the Virginian 
practiced with his own weapon until he could cut a rope dangling 
from a tree. The meeting was at sunrise. The North Carolina 
man arrived with a coffin carried in a wagon. The challenged man 
asked that the duel he called off. He said he would be sure to kill 
his adversary, and he did not wish to do so- The North Carolinian 
refused. He insisted on the fight and said the coffin was for the 
use of whichever man should be killed. The Virginian replied that 
his antagonist was the one who would need it. At the first fire the 
stranger fell dead, his own ball missing. Some thirty years later, the 
Virginian's principal, then advanced in years, consented to relate the 
incident to a young man, but exacted a promise that the latter should 
tell no one else during his lifetime. The man who was then young 
grew old and is no longer living. The name of the Monroe duelist 
is forgotten. 

A little beyond Ballard the road takes a very decided drop to 
Red Sulphur Springs, but brings us back to the upland, and our next 
descent is to Hans Creek. In Revolutionary days the stream was 
called Hand's Creek, from one John Hand, a squatter and hunter 
who lived on its lower course. However, it is probable that his 
name was Hance, rather than Hand. An Adam Hance was a con- 
stable on New River in 1773. At the mouth of the stream is Grave- 
yard Hill, which rises island-like from an extent of bottom land- It 
is now three miles to Greenville. The bottoms on Indian are not 


continuous, the high, slaty river-hills sometimes crowding very near 
to one another. In fact the lower valley of Indian Creek is the most 
broken part of the county. 

Both the Indian and the Laurel, which unite at Greenville, are 
freakish in their behavior. When little over a mile from the vil- 
lage, Laurel runs squarely against a hill. The law of gravitation 
not permitting it to flow over the hill, it enters a cavern and comes 
out on the other side. But after a very short distance it resumes its 
subterranean career and does not again show itself until very close 
to its mouth. In the bottom above Greenville, Indian sends a por- 
tion of its waters into a hole on its south brink. As has been proved 
by experiments, these waters follow a transverse channel under the 
creek bed, join those of Laurel a little above the mouth of the lat- 
ter, and thus get back where they properly belong. 

A mile from Greenville is Singing Cave, which has quite a little 
history. It is long and tortuous, is no longer traversed by a stream, 
and has two entrances. Saltpeter was made here from the time of 
the Revolution until nearly the close of the war of 1861- There 
may still be seen the rotting timbers of which the leaching vats were 
made; also mounds of leached earth and the perfectly distinct im- 
prints of horseshoes, horses having been used to haul out the salt- 
peter lye. The cavern is dry, and comes by its name from the sing- 
ing parties that have made its walls echo and re-echo. One instance 
of this kind was when a large band of Confederate troops entered 
the cave and sang their martial airs. 

Saltpeter suggests gunpowder. Valentine Cook had a new pow- 
der mill in 1797. Another early maker of the article was Jacob 
Mann, whose mill stood near where the Thomas mill now is. He 
opened up a trade with the North Carolina people, who supplied 
him with lead brought from the mines in Wythe. This Carolina 
trade was large enough to give name to a road that passed by Sing- 
ing Cave. Mann's boys would sprinkle powder along an old race, 
fire it at one end, and then see who could first hit the other end of 
the trail. The father used for his blacksmith shop a cavern 150 
yards below the mill at Hunter's Springs. 


Panther Hollow on Indian derives its name from this circum- 
stance: John Miller heard a piece of bark fall from a tree, and 
looking up saw a puma — known to the pioneers as panther or 
"painter" — about to spring upon him. He immediately fired and 
killed the animal. 

Adam Miller of the same clan was crossing Cumberland Moun- 
tain to visit a relative. He and his fellow traveler lodged for the 
night with a German family. One of the two grown daughters, ad- 
dressing her sister in her mother tongue, remarked that "the one 
with legs like a turkey gobbler is my fellow. You can have him. 
The other one with a nose like a turkey gobbler's snout is your 
fellow." Miller at once replied in the same language: "You have 
both done well. I congratulate you." Two bundles of feminine 
apparel made an abrupt dash through the door and were not again 
seen by the young men. 

From Greenville there is a choice of roads to our starting point. 
One takes the valley of the Laurel, while the other attempts to fol- 
low the crooked course of Indian Creek, crossing the stream about 
as often as possible. On this road is the oldest Baptist house of 
worship within the present limits of Monroe. A little beyond is the 
hamlet of Hunter's Mill- Not far above is the stone house built 
by the first sheriff of this county. It dates from a few years before 
or a few years after the beginning of the nineteenth century. The 
walls are so sound and true that they look capable of standing for 
centuries yet to come. To this spot migrated Wallace Estill in 
1773, coming a hundred miles from his earlier settlement on Bull- 
pasture River. He was then a man of seventy-five, yet there were left 
to him nearly twenty years in which to "grow up with the country," 
a consideration doubtless of less weight to himself than the fact of 
his numerous boys and girls, the youngest of whom were mere chil- 
dren. We are told of ghosts that have appeared on the farm, per- 
haps the "harnts" of those of Estill's slaves that lie buried near the 
bank of the creek. Or they may be the wraiths of some of the 
vanished red men. No portion of the county is richer in Indian 
legend than the valley of Indian Creek. 


Midway on the road from Salt Sulphur to Union are many acres 
solidly covered with a tall, dense growth of stickweed. Even ninety 
years ago the pest was in evidence. It is described by Mrs. Royall 
as "pipestem," on account of the stiff stalks being then used as 
stems for tobacco pipes. 

We are within sight of Green Hill, where we began our im- 
aginary tour. We close our chapter with the following words by 
a native of the county: 

To those of us who are away from our native heath, it seems that the 
sun shines a little brighter, the grass grows a little greener, and the birds 
sing a little sweeter in Old Monroe. No mountains look half so grand and 
majestic as those that rear their heads over the beautiful valleys and look 
down upon the homes of a happy and contented people, such as are found 
in God's own country. 



National Derivation of the Monroe Families — Lists of Surnames — The 
Recent Influx — A Forward Look. 

PPALACHIAN AMERICA is today the most American 
part of the United States, and yet the Americans are a 
a composite people. Their language and their institu- 
tions are derived from England, although more than 
half of the American stock is non-English. 

A great share of the province of Ulster in the north of Ireland 
was confiscated by the English government and colonized with a new 
population. This was mainly from the southwest of Scotland. The 
newcomers were joined by many families from the north of Eng- 
land and the Highlands of Scotland, and by a few Welch and Hu- 
guenots. Not a few of the native Irish accepted the Presbyterian 
creed of the immigrants and blended with them. The general fusion 
is commonly but not very correctly called the Scotch-Irish people. 
It was these people from Ulster who took the lead in settling the 
Appalachian country. They were joined by many of the English- 
Americans from the coast and by much of the German immigration, 
which, like that from Ulster, was very large between 1725 and 
1775- Among them were also a few Hollanders from New York. 
The French names occurring in America before the Revolution be- 
long either to the Norman-French families that had been in the 
British Isles for centuries, or to the Huguenot families, who as 
Protestants had been driven from their native land by religious per- 
secution. After the Revolution some of the French soldiers who 
had served in that war preferred to stay in America. About 7000 
of the Hessian mercenaries who had served in the British army also 


It is extremely difficult to apportion the Monroe surnames among 
the various nationalities represented. The Scottish Lowland is an 
English-speaking region, and some surnames are found on both sides 
of the boundary. Our list of Scotch names should doubtless be 
somewhat increased at the expense of the English. The names from 
Ireland, Wales, and Holland are more readily distinguished, because 
each country has its own language. As to the German names, some 
have taken on a thoroughly English form. Instances are Baker, 
Friend, Haynes, Hull, Mann, Peck, and Stephenson. In fact there 
are Manns in Mfonroe of English origin as well as German, and 
there are Millers of Scotch as well as German origin. 

Our list of Scotch names is as follows: Alexander, An- 
derson, Archey, Arnot, Ballantyne, Bickett, Black, Blanton, Bow- 
yer, Burns, Byrnside, Callaway, Campbell, Cantley, Carden, Carlisle, 
Chambers, Charlton, Christy, Clark, Connor, Crosier, Curry, Dicken- 
son, Dickson, Dunbar, Duncan, Dunlap, Dunn, Dunsmore, Erskine, 
Farmbrough, Flint, Forlander, Gilchrist, Given, Graham, Hamilton, 
Hand, Handley, Henderson, Higgenbotham, Hogshead, Honaker, 
Houston, Humphreys, Irons, Jamieson, Jarrell, Johnson, Johnston, 
Karnes, Keaton, Kitchen, Longanacre, Malcom, McCartney, MJc- 
Claugherty, M,cCoy, McCreery, McDonald, McDowell, McGhee, 
McGlamery, MeMann, McNeer, McNutt, McPherson, Milburn, 
Neal, Neel, Nelson, Nettles, Nickell, Parker, Patton, Pritt, Pyles, 
Rainey, Reaburn, Reed, Rowan, Scott, Soward, Steele, Stever, Stodg- 
hill, Tackett, Thompson, Tomlinson, Wilson, Wylie. 

As English names we list these: Abbott, Alderson, Alford, Ap- 
pling, Baber, Barnett, Beard, Benson, Biggs, Bland, Blank- 
enship, Boggess, Boon, Bostick, Bradley, Brooking, Brown, Budd, 
Caruthers, Coalter, Cook, Copeland, Cornwell, Correll, Cummings, 
Dransfield, Early, Echols, Edgar, Ellis, Ellison, Ewing, Foster, Gray, 
Green, Groves, Gullett, Hale, Halstead, Hancock, Harvey, Hawkins, 
Hereford, Hill, Hjnes, Hodge, Houchins, Hunter, Hutchinson, Jen- 
nings, Keadle, Keatley, Keyes, Lanius, Lawrence, Leach, Lee, Legg, 
Linton, Lively, Lobban, Maddeson, Maddox, Massy, Osborne, Pack, 


Prentice, Riner, Roach, Robinson, Rolston, Rushbrook, Sawyers, 
Scarborough, Shanklin, Shires, Smith, Smithson, Symms, Tapscott, 
Taylor, Tracy, Turpin, Waite, Walker, Warren, Willey, Willis, 
Wiseman, Woods, Woodson, Woodville, Wright, Young- 

As German names we count Baker, Bare, Beamer, Beckner, Bit- 
tenger, Broyles, Carnifax, Comer, Conrad, Counts, Crebs, Ensmin- 
ger, Fleshman, Hansbarger, Haynes, Hedrick, Holsapple, Hoylman, 
Hull, Keister, Keller, Kessinger, Maddy, Mann, Miller, Moss, 
Peck, Pence, Peters, Pitzer, Riffe, Ruddle, Skaggs, Spade, Stephen- 
son, Wanstaff, Wickline, Weikel, Winebrenner, Zoll. Other names 
which would seem to belong here are Best, Costler, Friend, Gatliff, 
Harper, Hinchman, Magnet, Ruth, Tincher. 

As Irish names we have Beirne, Boyd, Bryan, Cochran, Dillon, 
Doran, Dowdy, Eagan, Farley, Kean, Keenan, Kilpatrick, Lafferty, 
Lynch, Murphy, Parke, Pharr, Ryan, Shanton, Sullivan, Swinney. 

The French names, including those thoroughly naturalized in 
the British Isles, are Adair, Burdette, Caperton, DeHart, Dubois, Es- 
till, Fitzpatrick, Larew, Lewis, Mitchell, Morton, Pyne, Shumate, So- 
vain, Tiffany, Wallace. 

Welch names are Ballard, Evans, Gwinn, Hank, Jones, Rodgers, 
Thomas, Vawter, Williams. 

Holland appears to contribute only Summers and Vanstavern. 

From distant Poland comes the name Crotshin. 

Many names, both British and non-British, have undergone change 
in spelling. Some of these instances are as follows, the old forms 
being shown in brackets. 

Baker (Becker) Holsapple (Holzapfel — "Wood- 

Beamer (Boehmer)* apple") 

Bostick (Bostwick) Hull (Hohl) 

Broyles (Bruehl) Larew (La Rue) 

Cochran (Corcoran) Mitchell (Michel) 

♦In the German language oe and ue appear as dotted o and dotted u. 
Boehmer is therefore spelled with six letters instead of seven. 



Counts (Kuntz) 
Estill (d'Estelle) 
Fleshman (Fleischmann) 
Hansbarger (Hensperger) 
Haynes (Heyn) 

Miller (Mueller) 
Neel (Neill) 
Nickell (Nichol) 
Swope (Schwab) 
Wickline (Wicklein) 
Zoll (von Zoll) 
Some of the Monroe surnames often appear in the old papers 
in a different orthographic guise than at present. Such differences 
are of another nature than those just mentioned, which relate to 
their derivation. The more conspicuous of the old spellings are 
these : 


Nale (for Neel) 



Syers (for Sawyers) 




Sturgeon (for Stodghill) 


Burdit (also Burdet) 


Deboy (also Deboie) 



Grimes (for Graham) 





Kountz (also Kouns) 

The distintinction between Johnyon and Johnston was seldom 
observed, the second form being generally used- Willey, Wiley, and 
Wylie were also used interchangeably. But perhaps no name had 
more liberties taken with it than Swope. Such forms as Swobe, 
Soab, and even Soap and Soaps are more generally seen. 

Ever since the formation of Monroe there has been a steady and 
considerable movement into the county from the eastward. But 
very few of these immigrants have been of European birth. Since 
the present century began there has been quite an influx from Floyd 
and neighboring counties and from the nearby coal districts to the 
southwest. This new element has become quite conspicuous in sev- 
eral neighborhoods. 


On the other hand there has been from the first years of settle- 
ment a large and constant outflow. At the outset this movement 
helped to settle the newer counties of West Virginia, the valley of 
East Tennessee, and the Bluegrass region of Kentucky. It has kept 
step with the westward march of the American nation, so that people 
of Monroe birth or ancestry are scattered throughout the Missis- 
sippi basin, the Gulf States, and the Pacific Slope. In recent years 
the tide has turned eastward also, and families from this county are 
finding new homes in the Valley of Virginia and east of the Blue 

Under the economic conditions which thus far obtain in the 
United States, the strictly rural county never becomes thickly peo- 
pled- One of its functions is to serve as a nursery ground for the 
filling up of newer localities and the commercial and industrial cen- 

In 1800 the population of the present Monroe area was prob- 
ably about 3300. In 1910 the number was 13,055. Thus, in spite 
of the very heavy emigration from the county, and the absence, with 
one relatively small exception, of any commercial town, the pop- 
ulation has doubled every 55 years. The natural increase has been 
large, although a lessening in the rate is now observable. This cir- 
cumstance, together with the increasing loudness of the call of the 
city and the attractiveness of other agricultural fields, has caused 
the very slight decrease between 1900 and 1910. In no previous de- 
cade has any falling off occurred. 

The outflow from this county represents a population probably 
not less than five times greater than that of the county itself. The 
broader opportunities outside have enabled many of the sons and 
daughters of Monroe to win fame or fortune, or both. It would 
be inspiring as well as interesting to make a far-reaching search for 
these instances, and thus construct a Monroe "hall of fame." But 
only some of the more conspicuous of these examples could be men- 
tioned. Our space did not permit us to make much excursion beyond 
the county limits- 

We may expect Monroe to remain one of the most American of 


American counties. Tine lack of great mineral wealth tends to keep 
at a distance the demoralization observable in the coal and oil dis- 
tricts. The grazing interest will remain dominant, and yet the 
growing need of more intensive farming throughout our country will 
at length arrest the stationary tendency of the population of Mon- 
roe. Scientifically constructed highways, to obviate the mud block- 
ade of the winter season, will gradually appear. A further increase 
in the steam railroad mileage is less probable than the building of 
a trolley line through the longer dimension of the county. This would 
afford a very practical outlet and would give the now almost dor- 
mant resorts a new lease of life. The rural school in America suf- 
fers from a lack of sympathetic interest because it is lagging behind 
its opportunities. Its best friends will eventually succeed in bring- 
ing it into harmony with the times and to the great advantage of 
the rural neighborhoods. The Monroe of the present is a decided 
advance upon the Monroe of the pioneer. The Monroe of the fu- 
ture will record still further progress. 



HE history of Old Monroe goes back a century and a 
half. All this while there has been much coming in and 
there has been very much going out. Because of this 
great outward drift few family groups have become 
numerous. Not a few of the old families have become extinct on 
Monroe soil or nearly so. These facts are called up to account for 
the very large number of family names. 

We have sought to carry the lines of family descent far enough 
down to enable the growing generation to perceive easily its own 
relationship with those that to all intents and purposes have passed 
off the stage of action. Behind this limit the genealogic facts are 
scarcely subject to any further change. In front of this limit they 
are all the while undergoing further change, because births, marri- 
ages, and changes of residence are still taking place. These two 
classes of genealogic facts we may distinguish as historic and cur- 
rent. We know of the historic data by records and tradition. But 
records are liable to sudden and irreparable destruction, and tradi- 
tion fades in amount and trustworthiness with every passing year. 
On the other hand, the current facts are a matter of everyday knowl- 
edge on the part of the community, and so for a while they are able 
to take care of themselves. 

It would have been a satisfaction to carry the lines of family 
descent forward to the year of publication, provided full and ac- 
curate results we're obtainable. Such an effort would include full 
particulars as to dates of all kinds and facts relating to residence and 
occupation. In a book, booklet, or newspaper article confined to 
some one family such fullness is aimed at, and the narrative is usu- 
ally given in what is called the loose form. This is an excellent 
style, since it is the way in which a story it naturally told. But 


it eats up space. Had the family sketches in this book been written 
in such a manner, there would be no room for anything else at all. 

It was necessary to do one of two things; to leave a large ma- 
jority of the families without any special mention whatever, or to 
use a compact, tabular form of narrative and not go much outside 
of what we have called the historic class of data. We chose the 
latter alternative. Yet the question of space was not the only con- 
sideration. This volume is put out at the lowest living price, even 
if some persons who know nothing of the cost of getting up a book 
appear to think otherwise. Consequently the work had to be done with- 
in a definite time and the size of the book had to be kept within a 
certain limit. To collect and arrange family history on a thorough- 
going scale was beyond the power of any man in a single year. To 
give another year to the task and to double the pages in this his- 
tory would treble the cost of the book because the increase in price 
would curtail the number of purchasers. The course we pursued 
was the only one open to us. 

It may appear to some persons that we have shown favoritism 
by tracing some family lines farther than others- We wished to 
construe our own rule in a liberal manner and include some current 
data with the historic. In some instances we could not do this and 
purely for the reason that sufficient information was not at hand. 
In some cases the information was very deficient. 

While going through record-books, newspaper files, and other 
sources, all the genealogic facts that seemed to relate to Monroe 
families were transferred to our card system. Sometimes much was 
gleaned and sometimes very little, but no partiality was practiced. 
To supplement what could thus be gathered, letters of information 
were repeatedly and urgently asked for through the columns of the 
"Monroe Watchman." We did not make a general solicitation by 
means of personal letters, because we did not wish to appear too 
inquisitive or persistent. We preferred to leave the matter to the 
self-interest of the people, so that they might feel free to send such 
material as they preferred. The responses were numerous and gen- 
erally excellent, but there were not enough of them. Shortages will 


now and then appear in the sketches themselves, and in case of some 
old families there is no special mention. There are persons in or 
out of the county who could have done very much to supply these 
deficiences- Through procrastination or indifference much help has 
been withheld. Some readers of this book will be chagrined at their 
own remissness, or at the remissness of kindred better informed than 
themselves. The author is not a mind reader and could not put 
down what he did not find or what had not been furnished to him. 

It is exceedingly easy for error to creep into dates and proper 
names. Therefore we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the details 
found in this chapter. We have, however, done the very best we 
knew how with the material secured. Furthermore, it is to be re- 
membered that two sources of information are not likely to agree 
throughout, and that errors exist in the public records themselves. 

This history of Monroe does not by any means assume to contain 
an account of all the famliies that are or have been identified with 
the county. In a genealogical way it is a source-book designed to 
be of service to persons who desire to trace family lines more thor- 
oughly than has been possible to us. In the author's notes are many 
facts which do not admit of easy classification, and they have not 
been put into the book. For a nominal charge such material will 
be furnished to persons desiring it. 

The attention of the reader is also called to the general intro- 
duction to this volume- 

The tabular form of narrative that we use makes necessary cer- 
tain abbreviations and fixed forms of expression. To illustrate these, 
a fictitious family history is now given. The explanation will be 
found immediately below. 

DOE: John (b. 1750) (Celia— d. 1800) C: James (1775-1850) ( 

Smith) — Jane (s) — Adam ( PMary Poe) — Henry (Nancy Poe, 1810, Sarah 
Bee, 1820)— Thomas (dy)— William— Catharine? 

C. of James: Joseph (k. '62), Philip (k. '61), Dr. Richard (away) 
George (d. 1820) (app. $100)— bro. to John C: Moses (m. Ky)— Seth 
(unc) — Nimrod (Mary Beck Smith). 

Explanation: John Doe, a pioneer of Monroe, was born in 1750. 


The given name of his wife was Celia, and she died in 1800. Their 
children, so far as known, were James, Jane, Adam, Henry, Thomas, 
and William. It is probable that there was also a Catharine. James 
was born 1775, died 1850, and married a Smith, her given name be- 
ing unknown. Jane lived single. A certain Adam Doe married 
Mary Poe, but the question mark shows that it may have been an- 
other Adam Doe A question mark after Poe would mean that Adam 
may have married Mary Poe, although we have no assurance that 
he ever married at all. Henry was twice married; to Nancy Poe 
in 1810 and to Sarah Bee in 1820- Thomas died in early manhood. 
Names of persons dying in childhood are not included in our lists. 
Of William nothing is known. He may not have grown up. 

Joseph, son of James, was killed in the war of 1861 and in 
the year 1862. Philip was killed in the same war, the exact year 
being unknown. Richard is a physician and lives out of the county. 

George was a brother to John the pioneer. He died in 1820 and 
his personalty was appraised at $100. His sons were Moses, 
Seth, and Nimrod. Moses married in Kentucky, Seth is unaccount- 
ed for, and Nimrod married a widow, whose maiden name Was 
Mary Beck. 

In the sketches a county name is not followed by the name of 
the state when the county is in either of the Virginias. The name 
of a well known local stream is not generally followed by the word 
river or stream. Names of children are given in order of age when- 
ever our information permits- Nicknames or pet names are avoided 
except in case of uncertainty. Polly is not usually given for Mary, 
because in the early time there might be a Mary and a Polly in 
the same family. A date standing without special explanation means 
we find mention in said year. Thus, "John Smith — Indian, 1800," 
means that John Smith was living on Indian Creek in 1800. Abbre- 
viations not already pointed out are these: adj. — adjacent to; m — 
married; w — wife, c (following a date) means that the date is 
an approximation. 


Joseph (d. 1852) (Jemima ) : C— St. Clair— Wilson— John (Esther 


Farley, 1807) — Lucinda — Joseph — Sophia (George W. Hutchinson, 1830) — 
Esther (John Roberts, 1829). 


The progenitor of the Adairs followed William the Conqueror to Eng- 
land in 1066. A descendant moved from the southwest of Scotland to 
county Antrim, Ireland, and thence William, a Presbyterian minister, who 
had been educated at Glasgow College, came to Philadelphia. As an 
Irish patriot and obnoxious to the British government he had to flee his 
native country hidden in a barrel and he never ceased to be bitterly hos- 
tile to England. He was sent as a missionary to Monroe, Greenbrier, and 
Pocahontas. Both he and his wife Ellen often prayed that the death angel 
would call for them at the same time. Their petition was answered and 
they were buried at New Lebanon in 1848. 

James, a brother, arrived later and settled near William. His sons, 
William and James, Jr., located at Red Sulphur Springs, where they were 
prominent and prosperous citizens and conducted a large mercantile es- 
tablishment many years. William was for a long time owner and man- 
ager of Red Sulphur Springs resort, was a man of large influence and re- 
peatedly represented Monroe county in the Virginia Legislature. C. of 
James, Sr., (1761-1809) (Mary Wallace): William (1804-1887) (Sarah 
Harvey) — James (1807-1868) (Jane R. Smart — Robert — Mary — Jane 

C. of William. James H., Robert C, John R, Walter S., L. C. 

C. of James: Asa R., Robert W. (b. 1848) (Julia Bane), Hugh T, 
John A., Mary J., James A., Maniliu's C. Robert W. settled near Cash- 
mere in 1874. C: Willie, Nancy B., Asa., Hugh H. 

In 1812 one William (Catharine) was living on the Penturff patent at 
the head of Second. An older William died in Augusta in 1763 leaving a 
library of religious and medical books. He was one of the earliest set- 


John (1738-1821), the pioneer of this family in Monroe, wa's a son 
of John (1719-1781) who was a native of England and a son of John, a 
clergyman of the Church of England. The second John was about to 
take a matrimonial choice which his father disapproved. With the view 
of breaking the attachment, the parent gave the son a horse and some 
pocket money as a means of traveling around his native country. After 
he had used up his money, including that derived from the sale of the 
horse, he came to America as a redemptioner and was bought by a Mr. 
Curtis of New Jersey After his release from service, the young man 
married his master's daughter and became a Baptist preacher. A letter 
to his father brought a kind response and two volumes on theology, which 
books have been passed along from generation to generation. This sec- 


ond John came to Rockingham in 1755, but died in Botetourt, where he was 
a merchant. Other sons were Curtis, James, and Thomas. The last named 
also lived here a while but left no posterity in this region. 

The third John (Mary Carroll, 1759) was preaching for the Baptist 
congregation on Linville Creek in 1775. After two missionary trips to the 
Greenbrier he came permanently in 1777, and built his house where now 
stands the Alderson Hotel in the town of Alderson. His patent overlap- 
ping that of Samuel Lewis just below, he extended his boundary into the 
hills south of the river. His brother-in-law, William Morris, had also a 
patent of 1200 acres and it lay across the river. As pastor of Old Green- 
brier Church, and founder of the Baptist Church in the Greenbrier valley, 
the Rev. John Alderson is spoken of in Chapter XXIII. C: George (1762- 

1811c) ( Osborne of Jo'siah)— Joseph (b. 1771) (Mary Newman, 1789) 

—Margaret (1778-1869) (Thomas Smithson)— Jane (b. 1780) (William 
McClung)— John (1783-1853) (Jane Walker, 1805, Nancy Robinson Mays) 

George moved to Kanawha, where he was a justice. George's Creek 
was named for him. John, Jr., lived on the homestead, and Joseph a mile 

C. of George: John (Frances Alderson, 1815) — Levi (Clementina Al- 
derson) — James O. (Abigail McClung) — Polly ( McClung). J. O. 

was the father of Rev. James G. and Margaret. 

C. of Joseph: George (b. 1789) ( McCreery, Davis) — 

Sarah (Thomas Smithson) — Mary (b. 1793) ( Lewis) — Martha 

(s) — Margaret (William Feamster) — Newman (s) — Joseph K. (s) — Lewis 
A. (1812-1880) (Lucy B. Miles, Eliza Coleman). George was a Colonel 
in Fayette and the father of 23 children. The Rev. L. A., who took the 
master's degree at the University of Ohio in 1832 and was ordained the 
next year, was the first native Baptist preacher in Virginia who was a 
college graduate. He was principal of the Monroe Academy, 1834-6 and 
1840-43, meanwhile preaching in the vicinity. In 1858 he went to Kansas, 
where he was offered the presidency of several colleges. It has been said 
of him that "the world might soon become converted if there were more 
such noble-hearted, self-sacrificing Christian men." 

C. of John: Malinda (b. 1805) (James Callison, 1840)— Albert (b. 
1807) (Matilda Hines) — Louisa (Aaron Newman, 1829) — Evaline (Thomas 
D. Crews, 1834)— John (b. 1812) (Harriet E. Johnson, 1839)— Mary (An- 
drew Ellis, 1834) ; by 2d w— Jane (b. 1824) (Joseph A. Huffman, 1847) 
Amanda (Samuel Carraway, 1847) — Catharine (A. Jackson Smith, 1843) 
—Elizabeth (William Gray)— Lucy (1831-1899) (Joseph P. Hines) — 
George (b. 1833) (Mary J. Hines, Virginia M. Stevens Boyd). 

C. of George of John: Charles O. (dy) — Emma C. — Ida N. By 2d w. 
—I. Cary— Bernard C. (1870-1905)— George (1875-1907)— Virginia S. 
(Charles B. Rowe, 1907). Both George and George, Jr., have represented 


Monroe in the legislature. I. Cary was graduated from Hampden-Sidney 
College and in law from the University of Virginia. He practiced at 
Logan and was president of the Guyan Valley Bank. Bernard C. was a 
graduate of West Virginia and Chicago universities, and for two years 
instructor in Latin and Greek at the former. In 1900 he and Emma C. 
organized the Alderson Baptist Academy, in which the latter is still a 

C. of Albert of John: Joseph K. (m. in Tex.) — Mary A. ( 

Higgens) — Catharine (James Bobbitt) — Margaret ( Foster) — 

Frances ( Keaton) — John W. ( Garstang) — Henry C. 

(dy) — Amanda (dy) — Susan (Jackson Bledsoe). Most of the above went 
to Texas. J. W. returned, built the Alderson Hotel, and it is still car- 
ried on by the widow. 

C. of John of John: Elizabeth J. (DeWitt Smith) — Sophronia (Chris- 
topher Ballard) — William — David — Ellen — Harriet. John and the four 
younger of his family went to Missouri before 1860. 


This family was the first to settle where the county seat was estab- 
lished. Owing also to its intermarriages with other leading families of 
Monroe, the Alexander connection has been very prominent in local an- 
nals. James, Sr., who lived in Beverly Manor, is mentioned there as 
early as 1746 and was a captain in the Old French war. James, Jr., (1750- 
1814) visited this region before his settlement in 1773. He located on land 
which he understood was to be conveyed by a man from Pennsylvania, but 
that personage failed to appear. His first house was built on the hill 
just east of Union. The second year he started for the Valley, and from 
the summit of a knob the couple saw their cabin in flames. It was the 
year of the Dunmore war. The second house was built on what be- 
came the main street of Union, and th third, "Old Hundred," was low 
down on the western slope of Green Hill. It was afterward the home 
of Matthew Alexander, and was burned several years ago. The ceme- 
tery at the top of the knob is on land granted by the pioneer. He was a 
member of the Greenbrier court in 1784 and was sheriff in 1793. Two 
years before Union was founded he took out a tavern license. His wife 
was Isabella Erskine. C: Andrew (b. 1773) (Phoebe Bracken, 1805) — 
Jane (b. 1775) (Alexander Dunlap)— Catharine (b. 1776) (Richard Shank- 
ing—Matthew (1777-1825) (Elizabeth J. Marshall)— Michael (1779-1857) 
(Mary Benson, 1801)— Henry (1782-1866) (Elizabeth Cathron, Frances P. 
Burrell) — Elizabeth (John Byrnside) — Mary (Henley Chapman) 

Jane, Catharine, Henry, and Michael had each a James, and by will 
each of these grandsons had a legacy of $50. 

C. of Andrew: Mary A. (Hugh McClaugherry, 1828)— Rebecca B. 
(b. 1811) (Samuel Kean, 1837)— Isabella (Michael Cotton, 1835)— Cath- 


arine (Stephen Wright) — Jane (W. G. Henderson) — Malvina (William 
Byrnside, Saunders). 

C. of Matthew: James (d. 1854) (Ingabo ) — Matthew — John — 

Catharine (Joseph Porter, 1807)— Mary (Robert B. Wallace, 1808)— An- 
drew — daughter (Robert Ross) — daughter (George W. Curry). 

C. of Michael: John E. (Jane Miller) — Mary M. — James A. — Cath- 
arine A. (William H. Shanklin, 1831) — Jabin B. — Isabella E. (Benjamin 
F. Steele)— Delilah (George Beirne, 1827, Hugh Caperton). 

C. of Henry (by 1st w.) : Charles C. (s)— Isabella (Rev. John Pink- 
erton)— James H. (1810-1866) (s)— Elizabeth (Newton E. Keenan, 1834) 
— Frances C. (Lewis E. Caperton) — Harriet B. (William G. Caperton) 

C. of J. E. of Michael: James R. (Elizabeth Baldwin, 1855)— Mary 
J. (John Ross)— Michael C. (Sarah McFadden)— Jabin B. (s)— Delilah 
C. (John Miller)— John M. (Annie E. Zoll, 1872)— Margaret E. (Fred- 
erick D. Wheelwright, 1869)— Madison S. (Isabella Zoll). 

C. of Michael C. of J. E.— William M., Elizabeth, Libbie, Kyle. 

Rev. William M. Alexander, D. D. was born in Union in 1861. He 
was graduated from the Washington and Lee University in 1884 and from 
Union Theological Seminary in 1887. He was chosen moderator of the 
55th General Association of the Southern Presbyterian Church and is well 
qualified for such a position. 


John (Jane) came from Rockingham during or just after the Revolu- 
tion. C: Thomas (1771-1853) (Phoebe Cummins)— John (1773-1853) (Mar- 
garet ) — James — Margaret — Sarah (James Ellis) — Jane. 

C. of Joseph (d. 1830c) (Jane) : James, John, Nancy, Lois, Robert, 
Polly, Joseph. 

C. of John A. (Susan McMann) : Ednonia (Robert Ralston), Ada, Ar- 
thur C, Susan, James (Birdie Hoylman), Homer (Minnie Parker), Mamie 

(Otey Bland), Ella ( Wickline), Cora (William Hoylman, 

Boone), John (Ida Nicely). 

David (1802-1884), was a native of Amherst. C— R. C. and W. T. 


Charles S. (1809c-1901) (Francena Shirey, Isabel Neal Poole) came 
from Virginia in his youth. 


Henry (1761-1847) when 18 years old ran away from his home in New 
Jersey to join the army of the Revolution. With his wife, Elizabeth Trues- 


dale, he came here in 1793 and settled on Swope's Knobs, about 3 miles 
west of Union. C: Elizabeth (b. 1781) (Matthew Wood, 1799)— Martha 
(b. 1786) (Charles Neal, 1802)— Deborah (b. 1787) (Walter Neal, 1804) 
—William T. (b. 1789-1863) (Mary Garten, 1812, Lucinda Handley, 1817) 
—Henry (b. 1791) (Mary Phillips, 1815)— Sarah (b. 1795) (Joseph Baker, 
1834)— Almeda (b. 1799) Levi Canterbury, 1816. The couple were de- 
vout Methodists and as long as they were able would walk long distances 
to attend religious meetings. 

C. of William T.— Jesse (1812-1896) (Mary E. Hanley)— Jacob (Re- 
becca Thomas)— Anderson (1816-1892) (Mary J. Hill). By 2d w.— 
Mary (1819-1908) (John Maddy, Jr.)— Elizabeth (1820-1907) (John Mc- 
Neer)— Margaret (1824-1908) (Charles Maddy)— James W. (1826-1894) 
(Derinda Ross)— Elisha T. (1829-1910) (Ruth A. Miller, 1853)— Martha 
A. (John P. Maddy)— William H. (1833-1910) (Martha Coalter)— Re- 
becca (1837-1910) (Isaac F. Ballard). 

C. of Elisha T. (m. 1853): Estill M. (s)— Lycurgus B. (Mary E. 
Cummins) — J. William (Rose V. Lively) — Ella M. (Dewey E. Pence) — 
Charles (Mabel E. Johnson) — S. Pemberton (Stella M Varner). 

Another Arnot was John, who came from Sussex Co., N. J., and pur- 
chased land in Gap Valley in 1792. Some of his children married into 
neighboring families. 

Jesse Arnot built with very limited resources the first stone building 
at Salt Sulphur Springs. In 1834 he went to Glasgow, Mo., and estab- 
lished himself in the stage business, which he pursued with great success, 
carrying the mails over a wide area. In 1848 he removed to St. Louis 
and for nearly 50 years conducted the livery business on a large scale 
in that city. His name is connected with many of the enterprises which 
are associated with the growth of St. Louis, yet he never purshed himself 
to the front except in his private business. He was a Freemason and Odd 
Fellow, a member of the Merchants' Exchange, and a lifelong Methodist. 
He was very charitable, especially toward orphans and the aged and 
friendless. It was through his exertions that the Methodist Orphan's Home 
of St. Louis was established in 1883, and he was a heavy subscriber to the 
fund for its maintenance. On Mr. Arnot was conferred the honor of 
burying President Lincoln at Springfield, 111. 

Charles, son of Elisha T, went to Nebraska in 1887, where he has 
been very prominent as an educator. During eight years he was county 
superintendent of Dodge county. For the same length of time he was in 
charge of the schools of Schuyler, where he won very high commendation. 
Recently he has gone into the banking business. 


Powhatan (1824-1900) (Caroline Tuggle)— came from Bedford in 1830 


— Disciples minister of Red Sulphur Dist. C: George — Rev. Granville — 
Charles A. (Jennie Miller of W. F.). 

C. of Granville: Mattie (E. L. Dunn)— Emma V. (J. P. Williams) — 
Frances (Charles Caldwell)— Ella N. (Charles M. Via). 


About 1787 Jacob came with the Lewis family from the Valley of Vir- 
ginia and was the first professional baker employed at Sweet and Sweet 
Chalybeate Springs. Later he settled on the Faudree farm four miles 
west of Sweet Springs. He married Christina C. Goliday (1761c-1851) 
who never learned to speak English. Their son Jacob (Polly Hull, 1811) 
was born here in 1788 and died 1860. C: John (Nancy Calwell) — George 

W. (Mary Carter) — David (Rachel Tigert) — Henry ( Argabrite) 

Lewis (Catharine Worsham) — Anderson (Mary Griffith) — Chapman (Ann 
Griffith) — Mary (Peter Carter) — Elizabeth (Conrad Piles) — Catharine 
(Adam Piles) . 

C. of John: W. A. (Catharine Lugar)— C. O. (Caroline Kelly) — 

George (Mattie Lugar) — David O. ( Jones) — Joseph B. (Nicatia 

Baker, Amanda Wickline) — J H. (Mary E. Eggleston) — Julia A. (John 
H. Cook)— Mary E. (Daniel S. Wickline)— Amanda C. (F. L. Beckner) 
— Eliza J. (John E. Wickline, Jr.) . 

Another Baker was David (d. 1840) — C: Jacob, Catharine ( 

Ragland), Anne, Madison, Sarah. Still another was Frederick, naturalized 
1811, d. 1830 (Elizabeth)— C: John— Frederick (Nancy Rains)— Joseph- 
Sarah (Jacob Pyles, 1818)— Elizabeth ( Given). 


Andrew and his wife, Agnes Smart, and their four children came from 
Dundee, Scotland, to Norfolk in 1801, and thence to the Sinks of Monroe. 
Their friends, Andrew Miller, May Broady, and others, came by the same 
ship and others had preceded them. Ballantyne was a skilled weaver. And 
like a true Scotchman of his time he was a great reader and student, es- 
pecially of the Bible. For many years he taught in an old schoolhouse 
that stood close to his home near Hillsdale. He and Andrew and James 
Miller would regularly walk to one another's homes on Sunday, a circuit 
of 10 miles, for the purpose of religious worship. They were elders of 
the first session after the Lebanon brick church was completed. The three 
daughters were as fond of reading as their parent. In order that a bor- 
rowed book might be promptly returned, they would read at night what 
their father had read by day. Their books, heavy both in binding and 
subject matter, are still in possession of their descendants. They also de- 
lighted in feats of memory. One of these was committing the 119th psalm, 
the Shorter and Longer Catechisms, and much of the Presbyterian Con- 
fession of Faith. C: Jean (Michael Beamer, 1824)— Elspeth (b. 1796) 


(Philip Beamer, Jr.) — Catharine (Robert Boyd) — Robert (Mary Harper) 
— Marjorie (born at sea 1801) (John Crawford). 

C. of Robert: Isabel, Jeanetta, Elizabeth, Calvin, Andrew, James, Mad- 
ison, John. Andrew was a Methodist local preacher. Madison lost a leg 
at Cedar Creek and later became editor of the "Milton Star" at Milton, 
W. Va. His parents removed to the West. 


William (1732-1799) (Elizabeth Step, d. 1830) was one of the 10 child- 
ren of William, Sr., who came from Scotland to the vicinity of where after- 
ward arose the city of Washington. With several of his brothers he served 
in the American Army of the Revolution. Shortly after that event he left 
his home on the Rapidan and after a short stay in Albemarle he jour- 
neyed to Indian Creek with two horses, one cow, and a few household 
goods, arriving at Benjamin Harvey's on Christmas night, 1793. He ac- 
quired no realty. The years in which he was born and died were precisely 
the same as in the case of the Father of his Country. C: Johnson (Ky.) — 
Jeremiah (1777-1867) (Jaley Thompson) — Lucy (John Stodghill, John Good- 
all)— Millie (Jacob Mann, 1804)— William (1784-1880) (Mollie Snow) — 
Nancy (William Farrell)— Mollie (Mathias Kessinger, 1803)— Willis (1791- 
1880) (Isabel Thompson, 1813)— James (Jennie Keaton, 1804). 

C. of Jeremiah: Elizabeth (Andrew Campbell) — Margaret (Anderson 
Keaton, 1831, Robert D. Shanklin)— John (b. 1818) (Jane Dennis)— Bald- 
win (b. 1821) (Emily Mann, 1847) (Leah Mann, 1850)— Riley (1823-1915) 
(Amanda Cummings) — Lewis (d. 1906) (Malinda J. Spangler, 1854) — 
Mary (1830-1914) (John Hecht)— Frank (1833-1915) (Lizzie Chapman, 

C. of Baldwin: Allen T. by 2d w. — Simpson S. (s) — Marion C. (Kate 
Humphreys, 1878) — Henry (Jennie McNeer, 1885) — Jeremiah (Amanda 
Burdett, 1883, Mamie Hinkle, 1913) — Margaret (Charles Lingo) — Wallace 
(Cornelia Humphreys) — Isaac N. (Kate M. Walkup, 1893) — Emma A. 
(Henderson Reed) — Charles S. (Ida Borden, Nancy Buchanan). 

C. of Frank: India W., Don B., Cora, Eva L., Roland E. 

Willis and Jeremiah purchased in 1817 of the heirs of Daniel Jarrell, 
280 acres for $350. This property still remains in the Willis branch. * 

C. of Willis: Thompson (b. 1814) (Anna Miller, 1841)— Elizabeth 
(Henly Mann, 1833)— George (1819-1879) (Delilah Mann, 1838)— Wil- 
liam (1821-1914) (Elizabeth Riner, 1914)— Harrison (Huldah Mann, 1847) 
—Susan (1826-1914) (Samuel Miller)— Sylvester (Lucinda Riner, 1848) — 
Nancy (1830-1904) (Eli Mann, 1850)— Hugh (b. 1836) (Rachel Mann, 
1866). All these sons except Hugh, who had the homestead, opened new 
farms on Stinking Lick. 

C. of Thompson: Overton (d. '63), Willia, (d. '62), Isabella (b. 1844) 
(Lewis Campbell), John T. (b. 1845), Ellen (Dayton Humphreys), Mil- 


lard F. (Lydia Keatly), James K. (Mary Campbell), Agnes (Henry Wills), 
Sarah A. (James McClaugherty). 

C. of George: Polly (1839-1861) (Garland Hurt), Isabella (Henry 
Humphreys), James (Mary Wills), Clayton (Ellen Spangler), Jarrett 
(Mary Spangler), Gaston (Catharine Spangler, Molly Thompson) 

C. of William: Marinda (b. 1849) (Lewis Ellison), Amanda (Hen- 
derson Barton) Molly (John Spangler), Juretta (William Keatly), Mar- 
tha (John Keatly). 

C. of Harrison: Maston (b. 1848) ( Barton, Ruth Smith), 

Mary (Wilson Davis), Isabella (Benjamin Tinsley), Delilah (Lewis Mea- 
dows), Nelson (Elizabeth Hanks), Grant (Lidia Bonham), Sylvester ( 


C. of Sylvester: George (Margaret Thompson). 

C. of Hugh: Oliver (Kate Broyles), Molly (F. G. Lilly), Annie L. 
(Sylvester A. Miller). 

The Ballards are remarkable for longevity and they constitute a nu- 
merous connection. The five brothers of William, Jr., came to Monroe 
before he did, but we have little knowledge of them. Curtis (Esther) 
moved from Hans Creek to Ohio in 1810. His daughter Sarah married Isaac 
Hutchinson in 1801. 

Baldwin Ballard, 95 years of age as we go to press, is of striking per- 
sonality and has had an eventful career. A white swelling in his ankle 
made him a cripple at the age of 12. A few years later he removed a 
splintered bone by the free use of a razor and kept on hoeing corn to the 
close of the day. He learned to sew and to weave and followed the tail- 
oring trade more than 20 years, doing much of his work at the homes 
of his patrons. He thus traveled much territory on the east of the lower 
course of the Greenbrier. In partnership with his brother John he pur- 
chased in 1845 the farm on which he now lives. Previous to the war he 
carried on for a while a mercantile career in connection with his tailor- 
ing business. The latter came to an end with the appearance of ready- 
made clothing in the stores. Mr. Ballard was one of the three men at 
Greenville who voted against secession. His lameness rendered him ex- 
empt from military service but his opposition to the Confederate cause was 
uncompromising. His unconcealed sympathy with the North made his po- 
sition a trying one, yet he did not discriminate in the matter of hospitality. 
Many a time Confederate soldiers ate at his table while at the same time 
Union soldiers or runaways were concealed in the loft. On one occasion 
he was brought into Greenville under arrest and for a while it looked 
as though he would be hanged, but the intercession of neighbors who nev- 
ertheless were of Confederate feeling caused him to be let off with a lec- 
ture and a warning. At another time he was fired upon and his horse 
wounded. During the reconstruction period he was six years a justice of 
the peace and it has been his boast that not one of his decisions was ever 


reversed by a higher court. Mr. Ballard has been very successful as a 
business man and is one of the wealthiest stockgrowers of Monroe. He 
is quick at repartee, as is well known to those acquainted with him. His 
iron will and inflexible convictions have in political discussion made him 
able to give as well as take blow for blow. Yet he is a personage of 
kindly nature, and now that the tempestuous period of the 60's and 70's 
has receded almost half a century into the background, his relations with 
his neighbors are entirely cordial. With his second wife he lived happily 
for the remarkable span of 65 years. 

Others of the connection also espoused the Federal cause. Frank, son 
of Jerry, became a captain of West Virginia state troops, and his was 
the first Federal command to enter Monroe county. He was at Cloyd's 
Mountain and in other engagements. (During the reconstruction period he 
served as county superintendent, twice as delegate to the legislature, and 
once as prosecuting attorney. He secured the passage of a law permitting 
a landholder to pass through the land of another to reach a public road. 

Lewis Ballard sat in the West Virginia legislature in 1863, and was 
the first sheriff of Monroe after the war. His property had been confis- 
cated in 1863, but he made his escape from the military prison at Salis- 
bury, N. C. 


Samuel (1796-1874) came from Staunton about 1824 and settled on In- 
dian Draft. He was a son of Jacob (Eve) of Germany and could speak 
no English until seven years old. He was a captain of militia. His wife, 
Mary P. Smith (1808-1884) was of this county. C: Jacob W. (1827-1909) 
(Elizabeth P. Chambers, 1844, Amanda B. Baker)— Isaac E. (1831-1912) 
(Sarah F. Lynch, Margaret Surber) — Paulina (Joseph A. H. Ellison, 1853) 
—Virginia F. (William. F. Nelson, 1861)— John H. C. (b. 1844) (Mary 
S. Thompson, Mary P. Kershner) . 

C. of Jacob W. by 1st w.— Mary E. (b. 1848), Newton J., Margaret 
A., Samuel F., Elizabeth V., Georgia A., C. S. 

C. of J. H. C— Sarah E. S., Ellen ML, Carol C, Frances M'., Jennie 
A., E. G., Sarah C. 


William A. (Lydia A. Boyd, 1865), a native of Harrison, and a mem- 
ber of the 19th Virginia Cavalry, came here during the war and settled on 
the Knobs. C: Eliza (Gordon Taylor), Harvey (Jessie Kuhn), Annie 

(Floyd Flack), Laura ( Flack), Mary (James DeHart), Jessie 

( Bowyer), Porterfield (Mrs. Spencer), Archelaus, William. 


Philip (1763-1838 (Elizabeth , d. 1840) left Reading, Penn., to 


go to Tenn., but not finding a suitable location the family came about 
1799 to the Plank Cabin Draft near Hillsdale. The journey was made 
in a large four-horse wagon. On the land purchased were a hunter's 
cabin and an acre of clearing. Here the parents and two or three children 
lived two years until better quarters could be provided. C: Elizabeth 

(Conrad Cart, 1808)— Joseph (b. 1796) ( Bayley)— John (1798- 

1868) (Susan Cart, Harriet Stayley Fleshman) — Philip (Elspeth Ballan- 
tyne)— Michael (1801-1882) (Jean Ballantyne, 1824)— George (1805-1877) 
(Louise Byrd) — Henry (Oregon) — Benjamin (O.) — Sarah (James Crosier, 
1820)— Mary (s) — Harriet ( Milholland) . 

C. of John: Amanda (Nicholas Vanstavern) — Mary (Benjamin Vans- 
tavern) — Thomas — Calvin (Virginia Parker) — PCatharine S. (Thomas 
Brown, 1845). 

C. of Philip: Andrew, Jean, Eliza, Mary C. (1833-1915) (George R. 
Williams, 1857), Franklin, Louise. 

C. of Michael: Rev. Augustus B. (1826-1903) (Romanza Miller)— Eliza S. 
(s)— Robert M. (b. 1831) (Mary S. Young, 1853)— Benjamin (1832-1909) 
(Caroline Parker). 

C. of R. M. — Isabel, Erastus (Elizabeth Baker), Byrd (Minnie Speil- 
man), Serena C. (George Anderson), William M., Hugh (Virginia Haw- 
kins), Laura (William Hawkins), Walter (Bessie Lynch), Edna L., Elsie 
L., Asa, Roy (Sarah Moore). 

C. of Benjamin of Michael: Alphonso, Ida, Virginia (William Wim- 
mer), Simpson, Joseph, Leslie, Dona, Mary. 

C. of George: Clementina ( Handley), Mary (William T. 

Patton), Elizabeth (Charles Sydenstricker), Byrd (k. '64). 

According to the mortuary records of Monroe, John was born in Ger- 
many in 1798. Yet the deed-book records the purchase of the Larkin place 
in 1796 instead of three years later. 


John D. of David and Felicia was b. 1833, came from Augusta 1867, 
and acquired several good grazing farms, particularly at Johnson's Cross- 
roads. He was one of the oldest Masons in Monroe. (Mary M. Johnson, 
1867, Mahala E. Dunn, Ella Campbell) C: Charles O., Rufus J. D., 
Hugh D., Robert E., and (by 2d w.) Richard P. 


About 1785 three Becketts, said to be of a collateral branch of the fam- 
ily to which the celebrated Robert A. Beckett belonged, came from Eng- 
land, one settling in Connecticut, one in Maryland, and one in Virginia. 
Of the eight children of Daniel (Lydia Wade) of Blacksburg, William 
H. H. (Catharine D. Callaway, 1841, Margaret Tracy) came to Monroe 
before his first marriage. C: Amanda M. (A. C. Lynch) — Margaret 


(Rice Cart, Rev. P. S. Chandler)— Wilber F. (Jennie Devers)— James 
D. (A E. Peck, 1879)— George H. (Sarah M. Michie, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth A. Hodge)— Henry C. (Mary W. Crews)— A. W. (m. in Wood) 
— Elizabeth E. (George Kountz) — Erastus (Margaret Still) ; by 2d m. — 
Ballard P. (Elizabeth Harvey) — Samuel F. (Nannie Spangler) — Robert 
D. (Julia Robertson) — Catharine B. (William Martin) — Dora B. (Walter 
Dent) — Arthur T. — Willie H. (Charles Stromer). All but the first of the 
older family are yet living and none is under the age of 58. W. F. and 
J. D. were in the Confederate army, the former being present in 17 bat- 
tles. J. D. has spent much time in school work and has served three 
terms as county superintendent and two as circuit clerk; is now 
President of Monroe county court. Dr. H. C. studied at Holbrook and 
Vanderbilt universities and graduated in medicine at the University of 
Nashville. He has been a practitioner at Scottsburg, Va., since 1885, 
ranks high in his profession, and is author of several papers on medical 
topics. Samuel ( Eddy), brother to W. H. H., married in Mon- 
roe. C. of J. D.: Ray P. (Lorna Miller) Mamie (R. M. Steele) and 


Daniel (Elizabeth Evans) came from Botetourt to Sinks Grove about 
1820. His children by this marriage were John (dy) and Lewis (1824- 

C. of Lewis (Catharine Wickline of Daniel, 1849) : Napoleon L. (d) — 
Ferdinand L. (Amanda C. Baker, 1875) — Julian H. — Josephine M. E. 
(d)— Alfred A.— D. Powell, 1893— Spurgeon M.— Lewis F. 

From 1873 to 1907, F. L. was concerned in the management of Sweet 
Springs, beginning under Oliver Beirne. J. H., now of Florida, was asso- 
ciated with Beirne and Burnside in the management of a sugar plantation. 
A. A., now of Baton Rouge, managed a Burnside sugar plantation 27 years. 
D. P. like A. A., managed the Lewis Place a while, was then transferred 
to Burnside, La., and at length returned to become manager of Sweet 
Springs. He was murdered by one John F. Wiley. S. M. is at Easton, 
Md. L. F., manager of Lewis Place 24 years, is now in Texas. 

C. of F. L.— Currie L.— Nelson A.— Minnie B.— Mabel R.— Alfred C. 
(d)— Tilghman— Robert E— Fitzhugh L.— John L.— Fred H.— Bessie M. 
— Lake S. T. and F. L. are foremen of the Myron Stratton Home Farm 
in Colorado. Their father is one of the most successful farmers of Sweet 
Springs valley. 

The Beckners are of Lancaster county, Pa. Daniel was murdered by 
rangers in Nicholas. 


Andrew Beirne and his wife, Plunkett, had three sons who 

built themselves largely into the history of Monroe. He was himself of 


the Irish gentry and of classical education and comfortable circumstances. 
Andrew, Jr., decided after coming to manhood that he would leave the 
old home in county Roscommon and come to America. He saw a better 
future for himself in the land that had just gained its independence than 
by remaining in his native Ireland which was so grievously oppressed by 
the British government. At the age of 22 he arrived at Philadelphia with 
about $150 in money. This sum he handed to a man who agreed to take 
him in a while so that he might have opportunity to gain a practical 
knowledge of the new country. The tradesman soon failed and the money 
was a total loss. Nevertheless the young man decided on a mercantile 
career, and a worthy countryman named Flanagan became his security for 
a few hundred dollars worth of goods. This supply he soon sold out and 
the same Quaker merchant, having faith in the young Irishman, furnished 
a larger stock. After about two years of very successful exertion Beirne 
found his way to this county and opened a small store on the farm of 
Edward Keenan, whose daughter, Ellen G., he married. As soon as Mon- 
roe and the town of Union were established, Mr. Beirne moved his store 
into the village, and his brother George arriving in 1800, the firm of A- 
and G. Beirne was formed and it continued many years. In 1824 Mrs. 
Royall speaks of its success as "without a parallel, taking into view the 
nature of the country." 

Andrew Beirne soon became a great landholder. He acquired an estate 
of 2200 acres just north of the county seat, the half lying near the village 
being unsurpassed even in the famed bluegrass belt of Kentucky. There 
is running water in every field and the land is worth from $125 to $150 
an acre. Near the Beirne mill, which is yet standing, he built a house 
which he painted red, and from this circumstance it was known as the 
"Red House." It has since disappeared. Later he built midway to Union 
a large brick dwelling which he painted white, and thus it became known 
as the "White House." As captain of a rifle company he led his command 
to Norfolk in 1814, all the more willingly because of his resentment at the 
injustice of England toward Ireland. But the news of peace came before 
there was any need for his further service. At the disbanding at Norfolk 
he very generously offered the homebound expenses of any member of his 
company who might need such help, regardless of whether it were repaid 
or not. Afterward he became colonel of the Monroe militia. His politi- 
cal creed was Democratic and he was repeatedly honored with office. In 
1807 he was a member of the Virginia Assembly. He was afterward a 
state senator, a member of the constitutional convention of 1829, and in 
1836 a Presidential elector. He was also sent to Congress. 

Colonel Beirne was not only a great financier but was of pleasing man- 
ners and high education. He took great interest in the affairs of his 
state and county. He died in 1845, aged 74, while on a visit to Hunts- 
ville, Ala. His possessions were then worth about $1,000,000. Beirne was 


of kindly impulses and much usefulness. Yet it must be added that this 
fortune, amassed while America was still a poor country, was not built up 
without recourse to grinding business methods. Such practices as his tended 
to deepen the inequality of wealth and to reduce the mass of the people 
to a condition little better than vassalage. 

Of the ten children of Colonel and Mrs. Beirne the following attained 
maturity: Christopher (s) — Edward (s) — Mary D. (Biele Steenberger) — 
Susan (Charles H. Patton, 1833)— Nancy (William McFarland)— Oliver 

(1811-1888) (Margaret M. Caperton)— Ellen ( Turner)— George T. 

(Eliza Gray)— Andrew (d. 1872) (Mary A. Alexander, Ellen Gray). 
Steenberger was once the owner of the celebrated Mimm's Bottoms in 
Shenandoah county. He was a financier after the order of Jay Gould and 
others of New York fame. On one occasion he borrowed $600,000 from 
the United States Bank with Col. Beirne and others as security. He failed 
but his indorsers won in a suit for relief from their obligation. He cor- 
nered the beef market in St. Louis and the flour market in San Francisco, 
where he sold flour at $50 a barrel. And yet he died at St. Louis a poor 
man. Patton was a distinguished physician of Alabama, and McFarland 
an eminent lawyer of Richmond. Turner was of Connecticut. George T. 
became a brilliant attorney of Huntsville, Ala. Oliver and Andrew were 
the only married sons who remained in Monroe. 

The latter, known as "young colonel," lived on the Lewis place, where 
he was very successful as a grower of blooded livestock. He was not 
only a large slaveholder but an extensive employer of hired labor. But 
the war of 1861 was disastrous to him in a financial way. Andrew J. 
Beirne was over six feet tall, dressed like a planter, with brown slouch 
hat, highly polished boots, and large flaps to the pockets of his riding coat. 
He was known as the most superb horseback rider in the county. Mounted 
on "Honest John," he would lope in a single hour the eight miles between 
his house and Union, and to the schoolboys who envied his equestrianship 
it seemed as though horse and rider were one. His colored attendant, 
"Black Joe," riding "Peacock," could with difficulty keep up with him. His 
children were Mary G., Rosalie, Ellen, and Andrew. The one son died 
in a Federal prison in 1865. The first daughter married Thomas J. Mid- 
dleton, of South Carolina, the second married Col. Garrett Andrews, an 
eminent lawyer of Mississippi, and the third married Adolphus Blair of 
Richmond, whose son, Andrew B., is a prominent business man of that 

Oliver had a college education and was a graduate in medicine, al- 
though he never practiced. On one of his return trips from school he met 
John Burnside at Fincastle, and this casual acquaintance led to the em- 
ployment of the latter by the colonel. At length Oliver Beirne formed a 
partnership with Burnside for buying and selling sugar, Burnside taking 
the New Orleans end of the business and Oliver the New York end. After 


making a great deal of money they closed out in 1847, Burnside then be- 
coming a sugar planter. Oliver enlarged the "White House" and lived 
there until the war, when he moved to Sweet Springs, where he was the 
owner of the hotel. To this property he gave the great benefit of his ca- 
pacity for business organization. Oliver Beirne was at length not only 
the proprietor of the family homestead and of Sweet Springs, but also of 
the Lewis place, the Burnside estate, and large holdings in Texas, the 
whole being worth some $6,000,000, and making him at that time the 
wealthiest man in the Virginias. All this property except Sweet Springs 
still belongs to his heirs. Mr. Beirne was a person of warm attachments 
as well as strong prejudices. He was large-hearted toward his friends, 
but could tolerate no petty meanness. In his later years he was known as 
an erect, well-groomed gentleman of somewhat more than average size 
and he wore a long, white, patriarchal beard. His children were John, 
Jane E., Bettie, Andrew, Susan, Nancy, and Alice. Bettie married Will- 
iam P. Miles, of South Carolina, a scholarly gentleman and a great book 
lover. He served in Congress and was one of the organizers of the Con- 
federate government at Montgomery. He was one of the near counselors 
of Jefferson Davis. Susan married Major Henry Robinson, and Nancy 
married Samuel B. Parkman, who was killed at Antietam. In 1869 she 
married Emil von Ahlefeldt, a German, and spent thirteen years in Eu- 
rope. The only living grandchildren are those of Mrs. Miles, two of 
whom spend their summers at the White House. 

George Beirne (1780-1832) married Polly Johnson in 1805. His child- 
ren were Andrew P., Jackson, Christopher, George, Susan, and Mary R. 
Andrew P. (1808-1842) married a Miss Smith, of the Shenandoah Valley. 
Jackson, a surgeon in the Confederate army, settled in St. Louis. George, 
who died at an early age, married Delilah Alexander in 1827. Christo- 
pher, a bachelor, and the owner for a while of a fine estate immediately 
south of Union, moved to St. Louis. Susan and Mary R. married re- 
spectively Manilius and Augustus A. Chapman. Andrew P. had a son 
and a daughter, the latter marrying a Kinney, of Staunton. The former, 
who married Elizabeth Caperton, was born in 1842, was educated at the 
United States Military Academy, and served in the Confederate navy. In 
the year of his marriage — 1867 — he came to Monroe as a farmer and 
attorney, but at length moved to Ronceverte. The children of George were 
Michael A. J., Oliver F., and Christopher J. 

Oliver (1785-1845), a brother to Colonel Beirne, lived unmarried. 

None of the Beirnes in the male line are now residents of Monroe. 


Erwin (d. 1818) (Mary Black, d. 1852) owned Salt Sulphur. C: Eliza- 
beth (?John Hawkins, 1808)— Mary (Michael Alexander, 1801)— Nelly 
(William Clark, 1808)— Jane (Isaac Caruthers, 1816)— Margaret (Will- 


iam Erskine, 1810) — Mathias (d. before 1818). 
C. of Mathias: Ervin 
William (minor, 1796) son of Levin. 
The Bensons came from the Cowpasture. 


Francis (Isabella) was living in the Sinks, 1800, adj. James Wylie, 
William Young, Joseph Alford. He came from Va. Mary (b. 1766) mar- 
ried John Lynch. 


Michael (Elizabeth Erskine), who lived on the flat-topped mountain which 
bears the family name, was probably a son of an older Michael, who died 
in this county in 1814. Thomas (Mary) and John (Margaret), who also 
lived in this neighborhood between 1800 and 1810, seem to have been other 
sons. Michael, Jr., was found in a dying condition in his field early in 
May, 1858. C: James H. (b. 1798)— William— Catharine (Joseph Perry) — 
Henry — John L. — Jean — Benjamin L. (b. 1814). These births took place 
between 1798 and 1814. James H. (Polly Tapscott) lived on the home- 
stead but had no family. 

C. of William (Nancy Boyd): Catharine (1836-1857) (s)— Elizabeth 
(Joshua Leach, Matthew Walkup) — Michael (1831-1888) (s)— James D. 

Thus by failure in the male line the surname has become extinct. Mi- 
chael, son of William, died an hour before his mother and both are buried 
in one grave. 


A — C. (Lydia Broyles, Delilah Ballard) was born in Giles in 1830. 


Rev. M. H. (1826-1913) (Martha R. Moffett, 1858) was born at George- 
town, D. C, and was a descendant of Adam, an immigrant from Alsace 
to Pa. His grandfather, a captain in the Revolution, was captured at 
Fort Washington and suffered great hardships. M. H. came to Greenville 
in 1855, after being a missionary in Giles two years. He was graduated 
from Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J., 1849, was licensed as a Presbyterian 
minister, 1852, and became pastor emeritus 1902. He preached also at 
other points than Greenville, and was a teacher and county superintend- 
ent. "Few men in Monroe were more widely known and perhaps no one 
was more highly esteemed." 


Samuel (d. 1845c) was probably of a Scotch-Irish family that first set- 
tled on the Cowpasture. He was neighbor to James Handley. 


























i ^ 




Robert (d. 1795c) seems to have been the father of Robert (Anna) of 
Peters Mountain valley, whose own son Robert was born here 1784. C. : Robert 
(1784-1857)— Esther E. (James T. McKinney, 1813)— James (India Daw- 
son of Isaac, 1813) — Joshua (Polly Shires, 1807) Joshua, probably a 
brother, had Robert (Elizabeth Hand, 1808). 


Richard bought land of James Ellison on Stinking Lick in 1800. 


William came from the Cowpasture at a very early day. He settled 
on the Gaston Caperton place, was constable, 1773, and was a prominent 
member of the Rehoboth congregation. The family went to Kentucky. John 
was a son and Isabel (Abner Wiseman, 1800) a daughter or granddaughter. 


Thomas (d. 1831) (Mary) C: Abraham (Elizabeth)— Seth— Mary A. 
—Bury— Phoebe (James Pinnell, 1806)— Judith ( Life). 


Mark (1824-1896) was a native of Appledore, Kent county, England, 
and came to America with his parents in 1828. His wife was Annie Chap- 
lin, also a native of England, who came in 1844 at the age of 17. Mr. 
Boon came from Warm Springs to Monroe in 1860 to engage in the mercan- 
tile business at Greenville ; but the war demoralizing commercial opera- 
tions, he engaged in hospital and field service. In the spring that the 
war closed he set up as a tailor at Greenville and was also a partner 
with his brother Daniel in a store. They dissolved partnership in 1878, 
and after merchandising four years at Hunter's Springs he purchased the 
Swinny farm near Lindside. In connection with his farm he conducted a 
store which he opened in that village in 1880. C: Sarah A. (David Watts 
of Wilson, 1874)— Lydia V. (Thomas Shider)— John W. (Margaret J. 
Thompson, 1879) — Cary L., (Annie E. Swope) — Wilber F. (Nora Brown, 
1893). Five other children did not reach maturity and neither of the daugh- 
ters is now living. The sons all engaged in the mercantile business, but 
W. F. forsook it to follow railroad and carpenter work. J. W. has been 
a merchant at Greenville since 1880. Of his children, Arthur, Charles, 
and Kate are associated with him in his store. The others are Ethel J. 
(Robert E. Riner) and Frederick M. (Bertha Gilman). The last named 
is an insurance agent at Huntington, W. Va. 

Daniel, brother to Mark, (Martha E. Hughart of Ervin), served four 
years in the Confederate army and was later a farmer and merchant of 
Greenville and vicinity. He died in 1915. C: George E. (Zora E. Hill) 


— James A. (Nannie Pence). The former is a traveling salesman, the 
latter a physician in N. Y. 


John (1755-1835) (Elizabeth) was a nephew to the celebrated Daniel 
Boone. C: Nancy (Willis Burdette, 1807). 


Moses (d. 1799) (appraised at $281.41) and John (levy-free, 1815) 
seem to have been brothers. It was probably a younger John who lived 
near Crimson Spring and had Ruth (Bayles Glover), Eleanor (Robert 
Fury, 1817), Margaret (s), William (Anne Shaver), John, Thomas, Jon- 
athan (s), Reuben (Polly Parker). 

Thomas (Elizabeth Bland) was first cousin and neighbor to the fore- 
going. C: Robert (Nancy Foster), Calvin (1811-1904) (Charlotte Hall, 
1S41), James L. (Mary A. Carlisle, 1847), Thomas (Elizabeth Griffith of 
Hannah, 1845), Caperton (Jennie Sams), Charlotte (s), Sarah (s), Esther 
(Charles Foster, 1838), Mary (Thomas Shaver). 

Others: Alexander (Sarah Pyne) (1794-1869); Madison (Elizabeth 


Adam (d. 1800) (Christina) lived at the head of Second. C: Jacob 
(Mary), Reuben (Mary A. Bird, 1803), Isaac, Adam, David, Barbara 

( King), Susan ( Arnot), Margaret (James Anderson, 

1802), William, Sarah (William Crosier, 1808). 

Christina (d. 1828) C: Jacob, Mary (David Baker), Elizabeth (An- 
derson Lewellin 1824), Catharine, Abraham, Susanna, Jacob, Isaac, John. 

Christina was guardian of Sarah, 1803. 


Patrick (1759-1835) an orphan, was in 1772 bound to John Crawford, 
a blacksmith. Four years later he came before the Augusta court to com- 
plain of ill treatment by his master. By 1783 he was living on the place 
now occupied by his grandson, Edward Boyd, and had a shop where he 
pursued the trade of blacksmith and bell-maker. He acquired much prop- 
erty and left his children well provided for. It is thought that his father's 
name was Robert and that his mother was a Porterfield. He seems to 
have had a sister Esther, born 1750. Her father Robert died before 1765. 
His marriage to Ann McDowell is said to have taken place at Donally's 
fort. C: Robert (Catharine Ballantyne) (d. 1879)— P. Porterfield (d. 
1881) (Eliza H. Gray, 1839)— Esther (George Drummond, 1812, James 
Foster)— Jane (1788-1858) (James Hawkins, 1808)— Margaret (1797) 
(Martin Hill, 1819, James Leach)— Nelly— Nancy (1795-1888) — (William 
Bickett, 1825). 


C. of Robert: Andrew B. (Catharine Gray, 1847) — Agnes A. (Andrew 
Wylie, 1845) — Ann (James Jarrett) — James — Margaret (s) — Rachel (s) 
— Cassandra (s) — William (Elizabeth Lemons) — Matthew (s) — Robert 
(Jennie Stevens) (d. '62) (Rachel Nickell, 1830c). 

C. of A. B. of Robert: Robert A. (Elizabeth Lynch). 

C. of William of Robert: Lomax (Howard Kennedy). 

C. of P. Porterfield: William L. (1831-1853) (Mary A. Miller) — 
George A. (1835-1909) (Caroline Leach, Mary A. Still) ; by 2d w.— Har- 
vey H. (Minerva ) Patrick A. (1842-1905) (Amanda J. Leach) 

— Lydia A. (William Barnett) — John H. (Emma White) — James A. (Sa- 
rah Persinger) — Robert P. (Anna Rittenhouse) — Grier M. — Archelaus R. 
— Thomas J. (Emma Hawkins). 

C. of William L.— Mary A. (C. B. Selvy)— Robert P. (Sarah Con- 
nor) — William L. (Mary Connor) — Virginia M. (William Still) — Dora 
B. (A. L. Withrow)— Newton A. ( Tigret)— Rachel S.— Otho C. 

Another Boyd was James (1769-1846) (Florence). C: Thomas, John, 
Jane (James McDaniel, 1819), Nathan. 


George of Giles Co. married Catharine Shires of Monroe. Of his 10 
sons and 4 daughters, the following located near Lindside: Sylvester (d. 
'62) (Elizabeth Crosier, 1855), Alexander (Adaline Holland), Cornelius 
(Jane Mitchell), Tyrannus (Susan Wickline, Mrs. Sarah Shaver), George 
W. (Magdalen Fleshman), W. Green (Linnie Fleshman), Pembroke (Han- 
nah Bradley, Emma Bowers). G. W. is a minister of the Church of the 
Brethren. Dr. C. P. is the only surviving child of Sylvester. 

James (Isabel N. Dunbar) had William, Thomas M., Calvin, John. 


Charles (Ann) came from Albemarle to Humphrey's Run. C: Rhoda 
(Henry Miller, 1799), Mary (James Curry, 1803), Susanna (John Law- 
rence, 1803), Nancy (William Lawrence, 1803). 


A county without the names of Brown, Mjller, Smith, and Jones would 
be sadly incomplete, and Monroe has never lacked for any of these. Yet 
we are able to set in order only a few items of our data. A list of the 
persons present at the Samuel Brown sale in 1794, the schedule totaling 
$426.24, will be of some interest, since the names are chiefly of Second 
Creek district. Matthew Alexander, John Akin, William Arbuckle, Thomas 
Best, William Brown, Samuel Brown, John Cantly, James Corbit, John 
Cornwall, Elijah Cornwall, James Dempsey, Hugh Douling, Jonathan 
Dunbar, William Dunbar, Thomas Flowers, Nimrod Foster, Nathaniel 
Foster, Isaac Foster, John Foster, John Gray, Senr., John Gray, Peter Grass 


(Glass?), James Glenn, Jesse Green, Joseph Ham, Senr., Joseph Ham, 
Junr., David Jarrat, Robert King, William Leach, John Leg, Nicholas Leak, 
Jacob Longingacre, Moses Massy, Henry McCart, Nancy McKensy, Will- 
iam McKinster, Daniel McMullin, Samuel Miller, James Murdock, David 
Nelson, John Perry, Daniel Perry, James Smith, Matthew Wealch, Andrew 

William (Jane) (d. 1806) lived in the Sinks. C: John, Alexander, 
Mary, Jane, William, Sarah, Margaret, Rosa. Alexander of this family 
(Polly Foster, 1805) (d. 1822) had Polly, John, Samuel. An older family 
was composed of Samuel (Mary), John, Margaret, Sarah, Martha, Doro- 
thy, William, Mary (James Nelson). Several of the above groups ap- 
pear to have married into other families of the Sinks. John of Potts 
Creek moved to Kentucky about 1808. 

J. W. A., a son of Reuben, (Nannie Thompson, Allie Garvin, Mrs. 
Mary E. Smith) came from Franklin to Orchard. C: William H. (Elsie 
Mead), C. Reuben (Amelia Ferguson), Nora (Wilber F. Boon), (Minta 

(Eli Weaver), Sudie (Harry Zink), Willie ( Alexander). Henry 

C. (Ann Pack) is a brother to T. W. A. 

Edwin M. came from Lynchbur, Va., m. Caroline, Va. ; Marshall 
(Fredericksburg, Va.). C: Emma (Chas. Maddy), Frank (Mary Mont- 
gomery), Ferdinand, Carrie (J. W. McNeer), H. M. (Mary Rudd), 
Lizzie (J. W. Bell). 


Peter the pioneer is thought to have come from Rockbridge. He pur- 
chased the W. S. Broyles place of the widow Henderson. C: Zachariah 
(Susan E. Riner) — Ephraim (Elizabeth Harvey, 1805) — Aaron (d. 1837) 

(Lydia Spradling, 1830)— Jacob (Ann Riner, 1833) ( Pack) — 

Absalom (Lucy Riner, 1814) — boy (drowned) — Elizabeth (Robert Rains, 
1807)— Margaret ( Campbell). 

Ann, a daughter of Zachariah, was born here in 1800. Lovel (Sarah) 
was born 1803, died 1865. 

Solomon settled on Lick Run in 1808. He divided a large body of land 
among his sons. C: Nancy, Andrew J. (1822-1910) (Sarah McGhee, 1834), 
Thompson, Green, Margaret, Elizabeth (Jesse Copeland, 1840), William, 

C. of Andrew J. — John (d. '61), Thompson (d. '61), James, Allen; 4 

C. of Andrew J. (another?): William L. (Lessie V. Davis), G. C. 
(Julia Chambers), John A. (Etta McDaniel). 

C. of Augustus: Edward L. (Cora Raines), Charles W. (Viola Raines), 
John D. (Sarah Booth). 

C. of Simeon (Cynthia Smith of Wm) : W. S. (Elizabeth Broyles of 
Thompson) Lewis H. (Mrs. Riner Broyles). 



Christopher (Catharine), a prominent settler of the Sinks Grove vicin- 
ity, went to Kentucky about 1793. 


Undrel (1780-1845) (Mary Keenan, 1807) came from N. Y. and lived 
in Union. Of his large family Christopher died in Mexico as a soldier in 
1848. Sarah m. Jacob Osborne, Charles m. (1) Mary E. McCartney (2) 
Marietta McCartney, Harriet m. John Mann. 


William (d. 1836) was a son of James of Culpeper county. He set- 
tled on Flat Top about 1800, as a neighbor to Andrew Miller, with whom 
he was on close terms of friendship. After his second marriage he moved 
to Wolf Creek. He was resourceful and ingenious. He m. (1) Sarah 

Cornwell of Edward, (2) Scott. C: Ishami (Nancy Shumate, 

1805)— Elizabeth (Tolison Shumate)— Margaret (William Walker, 1808) 

—Miles ( Legg)— Willis (Nancy Boon of John, 1807)— Rachel 

( Aymick) — William (Clay Co.) — Archibald (Rhoda Shumate) 

— John ( Swope) — Alexander (Mary L. Hill) — Ruth (John Rob- 

ersen, 1816c) — Eliza; by 2d w. — Harvey (dy) — Lewis ( Hedrick) 

— Clarkson ( Burns). 

The wife of Isham, while working as a girl in the sugar orchard, car- 
ried a bucket of sap in each hand and another on her head. The first of 
her 12 children were twins, and when the third was a baby she would 
ride to her father's home, 35 miles away, carrying the baby in front and 
the twins behind her. The return would be made the next day. She lived 
to the age of 98, at which time there were 89 descendants of her children. 

C. of Isham: Sarah, Mary, Abner (Tex.), Granville, Nancy J., Julia 
A., James H., Andrew J., Elizabeth S., Joseph H., Lewis A. 

C. of Alexander: Lucy J. (Samuel Gwinn), Elizabeth A. (James E. 
Miller), Sarah (James Y. Miller). Emmeline (Harry Shanklin), Eliza, 
James, William, Lee, Powell. William was a Confederate scout who did 
not think he could get lost in West Virginia. His captain said he fired 
the first shot in the war in West Virginia and the last in Virginia. 

A number of the above connection entered the ministry. 

Another early Burdette was Giles (d. before 1829) (Sarah Dunbar) . 
C: John (1795-1882) (Lydia Curry, 1816) . C. of John: Sarah A. (1817- 
1895) (James M. Nickell, 1833)— Mary (1824-1894) (James Crawford, 
1840)— Elizabeth J. (Andrew F. Young, 1855)— Rebecca M. (E. F. Pat- 
ton)— Lydia S. (A. F. Wickline, 1864)— Robert C. (1819-1893) (Eliza- 
beth B. Curry)— James H. (1821-1890) (Rachel M. Christian, 1847) — 
John C. (Mary C. Lynch, 1851)— Calvin H. (Barbara A. Curry, 1849) — 
Franklin C. (b. 1832) (Elizabeth A. Ford, 1858, Arlie Smithwick, 1870) 


C. of Archibald (Margaret) (d. 1834) : Archibald, James, Polly, Mar- 
garet, Elizabeth ( Holmes), Samuel (has James and Archibald). 


Thomas (d. 1849) (Martha Miller, b. 1769, d. 1844) was a resident 
of Union, where he had a brewery. There was a contemporary Thomas. 


John Burnside came from the north of Ireland in his boyhood and found 
employment in a store at Fincastle. It was here that Oliver Beirne met 
him casually, and being very favorably impressed, the young man entered 
the Beirne store as a clerk. After a few years he bcame a partner. 
Finding this business field too narrow for the powers of which he felt 
himself capable, he and Andrew Beirne, Jr., established at New Orleans 
the large dry goods house of Beirne and Burnside. Andrew Beirne was 
succeeded as partner by his brother Oliver. Burnside had an ambition 
to become the greatest sugar planter in the world, and a few years before 
the war he paid one million dollars cash for the Preston plantation in 
Louisiana. To this he added nine other estates, so that if he did not quite 
realize his ambition, he became the largest sugar planter in the United 
States, his holdings being valued at $6,000,000 and producing 7500 hogs- 
heads yearly of sugar and about 14,000 barrels of molasses. He was un- 
married and at his death at White Sulphur in 1881, he left his estate to 
Oliver Beirne. Though a man of remarkable business qualifications, John 
Burnside seemed to be without human sympathy or public spirit. It was 
said of him that he professed to be a British subject and used this claim 
to avoid confiscation of his goods during the regime of General Butler. 
Yet he took out naturalization papers in 1830. He was morose and re- 
served, and it was one of his peculiarities that he would tell his age and 
place of birth to no one. 


Esther, the mother of James, married for her second husband Archi- 
bald Clendennin, who died on the Cowpasture in 1749, and whose son 
Archibald by a former wife was murdered in 1763 at the massacre at 
the Great Levels. The name of Esther's first husband was probably Rob- 
ert. She had also a daughter by him whose name was Rachel. The two 
children lived with their stepfather, who provided for them in his will, 
leaving James 300 acres on the Bullpasture. In the colonial time the fam- 
ily name was spelled Burnsides. Another of the same name was John, 
who was living at the Stone Meeting House in Augusta in 1765. He had 
an only daughter, and a nephew John died on the upper Greenbrier in 

James moved here from the Bullpasture soon after 1760, his second child 
John being by his own statement born near Union April 15, 1763. There 


is a family tradition that he dreamed his cabin was on fire and waking 
to find the dream correct he returned to his former home. At all events 
his settlement was marked for destruction in the Pontiac war of 1763. 
About 1770 he returned and built a blockhouse a little south of Union. 
But for a while he was living on the farther side of New River in what 
was then Montgomery County. He was an alert land prospector, active in 
business, and his name often occurs in the record-books of Augusta and 
Greenbrier. His latter years appear to have been clouded by reverses. He 
died at Union in 1812. His wife's name was Isabella. C: Esther (Will- 
iam Shanks, 1782)— John (1763-1816) (Elizabeth Alexander, 1797)— James 
(Anne)— Rachel— Sarah— Martha ( PJoseph Carlisle, 1809)— Mary. The 
above are mentioned in the will of James, Sr., and in the order of age. 
But we are told of another, William (Malvina Alexander). He moved 
to Texas, James, Jr., to Boone. 

John lived on the large plantation immediately south of Union which 
was deeded him by his father. He became a deputy surveyor in 1785 and 
was the first county surveyor of Monroe. For his time he was a very 
wealthy citizen, his estate including seven slaves and personalty to the 
amount of $5037.19. C: Isaac (b. 1798) (Mary Vanstavern), Jane, (b. 
1799) (Andrew Alexander)— Eliza (b. 1802) (Thomas Edgar, 1821)— Juli- 
ana (b. 1804) (Absalom S. Bolinger)— John (s)— James M. (1814-1873) 
(Eliza Peters, 1833). The latter was a business man of Peterstown and mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of 1872. C: Elizabeth J. (b. 1834) (Wil- 
liam T. Akers, 1852, Henry S. Shanklin, 1868)— Cynthia (Matthew H. 
Walkup, 1856)— Margaret J. (s)— Cynthia A. (Lewis F. Clark, 1855) — 
Henry C. (b. 1843) (Jennie Wiseman, 1866). 


Zachariah (d. 1816) (Ellender) had a blockhouse on Trigger Run 
near Peterstown. C: Andrew, Margaret, Nancy, Patty, Polly ( PJames 
Ellison, 1796c), Sarah, Joshua (Rebecca Campbell, 1808, PNancy Roads, 
1813), James, Priscilla (Delaney Swinney, 1806), Elizabeth (Ephraim Sim- 
mons, 1802), Charles (Ellen Garten, 1812). Richard may have been in 
this locality in 1775. He was a resident of Fincastle, which then included 
the southern extremity of Monroe. 


Robert (1760-1847) was born at Armagh, county Antrim, Ireland, his 
parents, Archibald and his wife Jean Meathers, being of Scottish blood. 
In 1781 he came to Philadelphia, and thence by way of Fincastle to Pick- 
away, where he at length owned 1500 acres of the best land in that local- 
ity and from 30 to 40 slaves. Owing to an unpleasant experience in his 
early life he never afterward incurred a debt. He was a heavy owner 
of livestock and a great lender of money. He was a hard trader yet 


charitable. He was a justice and otherwise prominent in the social and 
political life of the county. In religion he was a Presbyterian and in poli- 
tics a Democrat. Since there was no local bank in his time he kept large 
sums of money in his home. In November, 1846, he had $13,000 in his 
possession, a heavy payment having been made a few days before a visit 
by five robbers. One of them broke into his sleeping room, tore the money 
drawer from the table and tossed it through the window to his compan- 
ions. The aged man grappled with the robber, and two others came 
through the window to his relief. But his son Andrew Campbell, a very 
large, powerful man, heard the noise, rushed into the room, pitched two 
of the would-be thieves out of the entrance they had used, and pursued the 
third. The negro men came to the rescue and the robbers fled, nothing 
more being heard of them. They secured no booty, the moneys being in 
another room. During the affray the old gentleman was severely cut on 
the head with a club and the son received several slight bruises. The 
wife of Robert was Lydia Jeffries, a native of Wales, whom he was mar- 
ried to in 1791. C: Archibald (Susan Jones)— Robert (1801-1880) (Sarah 
McDowell, 1830) — Matthew (Virginia Brown) — Andrew (Ann Hawkins) 
— Isaac (Mary A. Jenness, 1831) — Lewis (Mary Brown) — Caperton (Re- 
becca Jennings) — Sarah (John Skaggs, 1817) — Jean (John Holsapple) — 
Mary (William Patron). 

C. of Archibald: Robert, Dr. William, John, Allen, Wentworth, Mar- 
garet, Mary. All these left the county. 

C. of Robert: James (d. 1899)— Mary J. (Clark Johnson)— Ann (Cal- 
vin Young)— John (d. 1903) (Alcesta Black)— Dr. Robert (d. 1862) — 
Margaret S. (Kenneth Williams) — Isabella (Thomas Williams)— Alcesta 
—Sarah C. (Henry Dunn)— Burnett— Thompson (d. 1906)— Zerilda E. 
(Joseph Brown) — Dr. Clark R. — Everett L. 

C. of John of Robert: Edwin ( Frap) — Gertrude — Burnett — 

Catharine (James B. Mason). 

C. of Matthew: Elizabeth, Jane, Amanda ( Smith) f Nannie, 

Henry, William. 

C. of Andrew: Mary J. (N. H. Roberts) — Frances A. (William Boyd) 
— Archibald — Andrew N. (Eliza J. Leach) — James P. (Fannie Crews) — 
Lewis E. — Isaac N. (Mrs. Elizabeth Parker) — Nathaniel B. (Bettie Davis). 

C. of Andrew N. — Nannie E., Nettie G., Andrew A., Kenna C, Wal- 
ter R., Crete H. 

C. of James P. — Gertrude, Nannie M., Hattie, James, Carey. 

C. of Isaac N. — Georgia. 

C. of Nathaniel B. — Frank, Annie ( Shanklin). 

C. of Isaac: Dr. Christopher C, John E., William H. H., Virginia 
J. (Robert Humphreys, 1841). 

C. of Lewis: Charles R., Henry B., Isaac, Andrew L., John, Mary A. 

C. of Caperton: Elizabeth (James Parker), Ella D., John H., Lewis C. 

Judge of Tenth Judicial Circuit, 1888-1896 


0* C 

U) c 


Andrew N. Campbell served throughout the war of 1861 and was grad- 
uated from the law school of Washington College during the presidency 
of General Robert E. Lee, with whom he was personally acquainted. By 
reason of the test oath restriction he was not admitted to the bar until 
1870. As an attorney he acquired a statewide reputation. He has repre- 
sented his county in the state legislature and has been a member of the 
Board of Regents of the West Virginia University. In 1888-1896 he was 
judge of the Tenth Judicial Circuit, and was unanimously renominated by 
his party. In 1912 he retired from the active practice of his profession. 
Judge Campbell enjoys the esteem and respect of those who know him by 
reason of his kindly social qualities and his abundant store of anecdote 
and reminiscence. 

Of the 29 grandsons of Robert Campbell all but one were in the Con- 
federate army. The sole exception was a resident of Illinois and a South- 
ern sympathizer. Two great grandsons, David Skaggs and Cephalus Black 
were also in the same service. 

Samuel (Margaret) died, 1814. C: Sarah (George Steele, 1800)— Sam- 
uel (Elizabeth M. Steele, 1805)— Mary A. (Matthew Ellison, 1806)— Jane 

(Michael Smith, 1808)— William— Rebecca— Isaac (1786-1860) (M ) 


The above John was the father of Jesse (1813-1909) and Anderson; 

Isaac, of Clement, Calvin, Emily ( Vass), Elizabeth (Robert 

Humphreys, 1841). 

Samuel (Elizabeth M. Steele) lived on Indian a mile and a half above 
Red Sulphur. C: Robert D. (b. 1818) (Mary K. Johnson, 1850) Isaac— 

( Vass) — Thomas — William — Eliza (Wilson Shumate, 1841) — 

Agnes ( Wheeler) — Polly ( Dunbar) — Amanda (Morgan 

Barger, 1847) — Adaline (Christopher Handley). Thomas and Isaac were 
proprietors of Red Sulphur Springs. They died before the war, William 
in 1879. 

C. of Robert D. — Elizabeth M. (J. Oscar Neel) — Margaret E. (John 
D. Beard— Charles W. (Jennie E. Ratliff of Wayne Co.)— George C. 
(Susan Wylie, Eliza VanBuren) — Ann R. (Clark O. Neel) — Lewis M. — 
Robert E. (Annie McClaugherty) — Eldridge H. (Elizabeth Spessard) — 
Walter (Mary Bowner) — Roxie (James Miller). L. M. and E. H. are 
physicians. W. M., an attorney, lives in Cal. and G. C. in Arizona. 
Charles W., an attorney of Huntington, is a circuit judge. C: Nannie 
M., Ruth R., Rolla D., Jennie E., Charles W. 

C. of R. E. — Catharine K., Robert M., Walter M., Mary E., Agnes 
M., William L. 

C. of E. H.— Eldridge H., Elizabeth. 

C. of Isaac: James A. (Margaret Rutherford) — William (k. '61) — 
Thomas — Henry — Lewis — Robert — Erastus (O.) — Mary ( Bajlard). 

C. of William of Samuel: Walter I., Edgar H., William, Emma. 


Still another Campbell was William (d. 1827). C: James (Sarah 
Young, 1806) — William — Thomas — Sarah (Alexander Hutchinson, 1807) — 

Polly ( Caldwell)— Mattie E. (William Chanley, 1811)— Rebecca 

(Joshua Callaway, 1808). 


John, Jr., (Sarah) was in 1800 living on the north side of Swope's 
Knobs. In 1802 he purchased the place of John, Sr., on Indian. 


The Capertons are derived from a French ancestor who went from 
the south of France to the British Isles. The progenitor of the Monroe 
connection was John who crossed the Atlantic about 1725 and at length 
found his way from Philadelphia to the Valley of Virginia. His wife was 
Mary Thompson, whom he met on the ship that conveyed him to America. 
In 1759 we find mention on Christian Creek of John Caperton, a yeoman, 
whose wife was Mary. The following year John "Capbritton" is spoken 
of as in the vicinity of Peaked Mountain. His final location was on the 
east side of New River, below the mouth of Rich Creek and very near the 
line of Summers county. His children were Hugh, William, Adam, and 
Elizabeth. Hugh and Adam were in the Dunmore war and the Revolu- 
tion. The former, whose wife was Rhoda, lived on the homestead. His 
children were Hugh, John, Thompson H., Elizabeth, Polly, Augustus W. 
J., Green, Washington and Overton. Some of their descendants are to 
be found in Mercer county. William, who married Lucy Woods in 1790, 
went to Kentucky. Elizabeth married James Gibson and went with him to 
Tennessee. Gibson county of that state is named for John H., one of 
their sons. Adam was a deputy sheriff of Greenbrier in 1780. His wife, 
who was of German parentage, was Elizabeth, a daughter of Jacob and 
Elizabeth (Fudge) Miller. He went to Kentucky, where he was killed 
in 1782 in the battle with the Indians known as Estill's defeat. His widow 
married a minister named Smith. The children of Adam were Mary, 
Elizabeth, John, George, and Hugh. Mary, who married George Swope, 
went to Louisiana. Elizabeth and John went with their consorts to Ten- 
nessee, and George to Alabama. Soon after the death of his father Hugh 
returned to his uncle's home on New River, but after the organization of 
this county he established himself at Union. As a merchant, even in the 
face of the formidable competition of the Beirnes, he was very successful, 
and became wealthy in land, slaves, and other forms of property. In 
physique he was large, and he is spoken of by Mrs Royall as handsome. 
He built "Elmwood," near Union, and bequeathed it to his son Allen T. 
It was here that he is said to have entertained Henry Clay about 1845. 
Mr. Caperton died in 1847 at the age of 66 years. His first wife was 
Jane Erskine, to whom he was married in 1806. The second, married in 


1834, was Delilah Alexander, widow of George Beirne. His child- 
ren, and their consorts in marriage, were as follows: Elizabeth, mar- 
ried (1) William Steenbergen, (2) Anders R Rude; Lewis E., married 
Frances C. Alexander; Allen T., married Harriette Echols; Margaret M., 
married Oliver Beirne; William G., married Harriette B. Alexander in 
1843, John A. married Mary E. Coke Guthrie; Hugh, married Eliza J. 
Mosher; Mary J., married John Echols; Sarah A., married James F. 
Preston; George H., married Mary E. Henderson. 

The children of Lewis E. are Hugh, Elizabeth, Bettie, Henry, and 
Lewis. Hugh married Catharine A. King, Bettie, Andrew P. Beirne, and 
Lewis, Mary W. Carr. The children of Allen T. are Eliza J., Mary, 
wife of Tomlin Braxton, Harriette E., wife of William A. Gordon, Me- 
linda, wife of James Patron, and later of E. F. Bingham, Allen, who mar- 
ried Elizabeth V. Rowan, Ella, and Lelia, wife of Robert Stiles. William 
G. had John, Alice B., wife of Frank Hereford, Jane E., James A., Will- 
iam G., who married Rosa A. Stiles Christian, and Isabel, wife of John 
B. Hereford, brother to Frank. John A.'s children are John H., Mary 
E., Sarah J., and Hugh S., the first of whom wedded Virginia Standiford. 
Hugh had James M., Jane, Hugh, Imogen, and Mary. Of these, James 
married Emma S. Ratcliffe and Hugh married Mattie Booth Kyle. The 
children of George H. are Eliza H., Walter, Allen T, George H. (mar- 
ried Anna P. Chambliss), Jane E. (wife of William M. Warrick), Sarah 
P. (wife of Isaac P. Wailes), Florence, and William G. (married Mary 
A. Austin). 

At an earlier day the Capertons were very wealthy and possessed 
great social and political prestige. Among their best known rural seats 
are Elmwood, Walnut Grove, and Idlewilde. 

Allen Taylor Caperton was born at Elmwood Nov. 21, 1810, and died 
at Washington, D. C, July 26, 1877. When a boy of fourteen he rode 
horseback to Huntsville, Ala., to attend school. In 1832 he was grad- 
uated from Yale College, standing seventh in a class of fifty-three. He 
studied law at Staunton and took up the practice of that profession in 
his native county. In 1841 and again in 1859-1861 he represented Monroe 
in the Virginia Assembly. In 1844-8 he was state senator, and in 1850 
he was a member of the constitutional convention, representing Monroe, 
Giles, Mercer, and Tazewell. In the controversy which divided that body 
he stood with the western counties in advocating the white basis of repre- 
sensation. In the secession convention of 1861 he was present as a delegate. 
When the crisis came he voted for secession. At the close of hostilities he 
counseled his constituents that it was the part of wisdom and patriotism 
to accept the logic of events. In 1876 he was elected to the Federal Senate, 
thus enjoying the unique distinction of sitting in both the Federal and 


Confederate senates as the choice of two different state governments. His 
term of service at Washington was brief, a sudden illness cutting short 
his career. In person Mr. Caperton was of rather more than medium size 
and he wore a long beard without a mustache. He was well groomed 
and was regarded as handsome. He delighted in horseback riding and in 
natural scenery, and was fond of agricultural pursuits. Socially he was 
aristocratic and exclusive, yet was courteous and affable. He was a close 
student of political science, a good talker, a ready debater, and a promi- 
nent lawyer. Like his father before him he was a Whig, adhering to that 
creed until political lines were modified by the war. After that event 
he adhered to the Democratic party. 


Joseph (d. 1818) (Mary) had Isaac, John, Rachel. 


Robert (Polly) came from Bullpasture river and was of the group- 
family to which John G. of Kentucky belonged. He died in 1823, an old 

man. C: John, Jane ( Graham), Joseph, Elizabeth ( 

Ham), Samuel, Nancy ( Glenn), Mary ( Mims?), Mar- 
garet ( Alford), James. 

In 1782 Joseph and David had military claims on Indian. The latter 
was appraised, 1786, by John Hutchinson, Hugh Caperton, Roger Kil- 
patrick, Valentine Cook. 

William (1815-1895) was a native of New York City and came here 
in 1835. 


William (d. 1836) (Elizabeth Miller) was a prominent citizen in his 


Isaac (1772-1854) (Jane Benson, 1816) was a native of Rockbridge, and 
partner with his brother-in-law William Erskine in Salt Sulphur Springs. 


Colonel William F. (1798-1858) (Perlexana) was a resident of Peters- 


Henly married Mary Alexander. Their children were: Augustus A. 
(1803-1876) (Mary B. Beirne, 1830)— Manilius (Susan Beirne)— Mrs. 
French— Mrs. Albert G. Pendleton— Mrs. P. Cecil. C. of A. A.— Henley 
C— William C— George B.— Christopher J. (Ark.)— Ann (Col. John J. 


Wade)— Frances F. (Michael A. Steele, Mo.)— Susan (s)— Ella J. ( 


Augustus A. Chapman was a gentleman of fine presence, cultivated 
manners, and ripe scholarship. He was an able lawyer, a finished orator, 
and almost invincible in courts or in political debates. His memory is 
held in great respect, largely because of the fact that in criminal cases 
he was always the defender and never the prosecutor. He served his 
county in the Virginia Assembly and his state in the 28th Congress (1843- 
45). At the outbreak of the American war he was a brigadier general of 
militia. As such he took the field with his command in 1861 and per- 
formed good service during the campaign of that season in the Kanawha 
valley. He died of apoplexy on his way to Charleston to nominate for 
the governorship his friend, H. B. Mathews. His oldest son died in 1858 
just after his graduation. The second died in boyhood. The third, best 
known as Beirne, was a young man of great promise, a natural orator, and 
looking forward to the profession of law. At the opening of hostilities 
he quit his studies to become first lieutenant of Lowry's Battery. After 
some months he resigned in order to organize the artillery company ever 
since known as Chapman's Battery. This command did gallant service un- 
til almost annihilated and its beloved captain mortally wounded at Win- 
chester, Sept. 19, 1864. 


The Charltons crossed the ocean to Philadelphia about 1750. One of 
them was Thomas, who died in that city in 1791, leaving to his cousin 
Thomas 30 pounds and all his wearing apparel. His benevolence is illus- 
trated by his legacy of 60 pounds to the poor among the communicants of 
his church. The second Thomas (1741-1819) (Alice Perry, 1763) came 
here about 1792 and settled on a large tract between Hillsdale and New 
Lebanon. It is said he was the first pioneer to arrive in a wagon. It 
was a four-horse conveyance with a canoe-shaped bed, and it held himself 
and wife, their eight children, and their household goods He is also 
credited with bringing the eglantine to Monroe. The two roomed log 
house he built stood by the spring near the home of S. R. H. Irons. The 
only one of his children with descendants in the county was his youngest 
son, Joseph (b. 1784, m. Janet Ewing, 1807) — C: Frances — Oliver — Thomas 
— Jennie — Lettie — Joseph P. E. — James E. iLike three of the sisters of 
their father, the three daughters of Thomas, Sr., never married, but lived 
most of their lives in a home of their own. The door of John's house was 
made like a slat curtain or a stave hammock, and in the day time was 
rolled up and fastened by pins above the door. 


This family came from Pennsylvania about 1783, but we cannot trace 


the line of descent with assurance. James (d. 1840) had Isabel ( 

Bealy), James (Kate Dubois, 1806), Robert, Elizabeth (1785-1856) (An- 
drew Allen). Elizabeth (James Carpenter, 1846) was a daughter of 

C. of James M. (Cynthia P. Clark, 1839): Damaria K. (William S. 
Hobbs)— Margaret E.— Newton J. (d. '65)— Harvey C— Richison C. (Eliz- 
abeth P. White)— Thomas H. R. (Rosa Hunt)— Lewis F. (Linnie A. 
Lemon) — M. W. (Osella R. McKenzie) — Samuel M. (Emma C. Bur- 
dette). Harvey C, a professional musician, was 10 years at the head of 
Christy's Music and Business College of Tennessee and 16 years editor- 
in-chief of the music department of the Standard Publishing Co. of Cin- 


Benjamin, born in King and Queen, 1730, settled in Augusta. He was 
a son of Jonathan and his wife Elizabeth Wilson, the father being the 
fourth in descent from John, who came from England to the James River 
about 1635. The wife of Benjamin was Elizabeth Lee. Their son Samuel 
(1764-1857) settled near Union in 1783. He was a veteran of the Rev- 
olution, later an officer in the militia, and carried a somewhat prominent 
part in the public affairs of the county. He married Margaret Handley. 
C: James H. (1792-1864) (Cinderella Davis)— William (Nelly Benson, 
1808)— Alexander (Elizabeth Dickey, 1819)— John (Mary E. Johnson, 1814) 
— Cynthia (John Peters, 1813). 

C. of James H. — Samuel (Anna Lewis) — Lewis F. (Cynthia A. Byrn- 
side) — George W. (Mary C. Johnston, Mary M. Wickline). 

C. of William: Jackson ( Walter) — Cynthia A. (Samuel A. 

Wallace)— Paulina (John A. Wallace)— Mary J. (s)— Ellen (William O. 
Johnson) — Grace (Dr. Walter Douglas). 

C. of Samuel of J. H. — James H., George W., Walter D., Samuel W., 
Rella F., Verdie, Alice. 

C. of Lewis F. — James H. ( Spangler), Lydia B. (Dr. Kelley), 

Julia, Rosel, Annie R., Luther H., Minnie, Nora (L. E. Tierney), Bertha. 

C. of George W. — James, Cinderella, Charles L. By 2d w. — Elizabeth 
A., Robert L., George H., Rose E., Walter D., John D., Alexander H., 
Anne S., James F., Daisy J., Edward M. 

C. of John: Thomas J. (1818-1885) (Mary Johnson)— Samuel M. (Mar- 
tha Ballard)— Cynthia P. (1821-1900) (James M. Christy, 1839)— Mary 
R. (David Pence)— Caroline A. (1829-1900) (Granville Smith)— Marga- 
ret (Thomas Eddy). 

C. of T. J.— Maria C. (E. L. Shanklin), Ella C. (Augustus M. Shank- 
lin), Susan (Augustus M. Shanklin), Preston (Julia Ballard). 

C. of S. M. — Araminta C. (D. C. Elmore), Shelton (Johnetta Mor- 


gan) — Edgar (Susan Brawford), Etta (C. E. Lynch), Annie S. (John P. 
Parker) . 

But Clark is by no means a rare name and there have been others in 
Monroe. Alexander (Sarah), mentioned as an old man, seems to have 
lived on Indian. He helped to appraise the Estill estate in 1792 and died 
in 1794. Samuel Clark was a testator to his will. In 1809 the widow 
owned five slaves and personalty valued at $1389.03. C: James, Re- 
becca ( Cantly), William, Ralph, Martha (John Campbell, 1804), 

Alexander, John, Samuel. James died 1801, leaving Sarah ( Laf- 

ferty), Alexander, John. Ralph (Isabella) died 1828, leaving Owen, 

Elizabeth ( Neel), Julia, John, Joseph, William H., Clara (John 

Patton), Margaret (John Johnson), Thomas, Abner. 


Robert (Mary A. Erskine) was a wheelwright at Union. C: Madison 
(Nancy Ross), John (Celia Tuggle), Robert (West), Agnes, Mary (George 
Walker), Isabella K. (Larkin Tuggle), Caroline (Andrew J. Keadle), 
Martha (William Arnott), Eliza (murdered by negress). 


Dennis (Nancy) was living on the top of Jarrett's Mountain in 1800. 


Augustus, of German parentage, was born on the Rapidan river and 
was an artilleryman in Washington's army. One night while the Ameri- 
cans were in camp on Assanpink creek, at Trenton, N. J., Comer was placed 
on guard duty with orders to hail any strange person three times and 
then to fire unless answered. An officer who thought he would have some 
fun with Comer and stampede him got down to the brink of the creek 
and threw up firebrands. The sentinel was alarmed but obeyed his orders 
and fired, wounding the officer. Comer was placed under arrest, but ex- 
onerated by Washington, who complimented him for his faithfulness. After 
the war he married Catharine Rush and located at St. Lawrence ford on 
the Greenbrier, where his son Frederick was born in 1787. Some 10 years 
lafcer he started for Tennessee, but while lodging with Isaac Miller on 
Indian, this same boy was accidentally hurt and the journey was termi- 
nated. He became very corpulent in his later years and spent much of his 
time in an armchair that was made for him. D. 1822. C: Elizabeth (Dan- 
iel Miller, 1801)— Frederick (1787-1848) (Polly Mitchell, 1814)— Jacob 
(Anna Meadows ( — Michael (Lucy Willis) — John (Mary J. Mitchell, 1824) 
— Catharine (Joseph Ball, 1812) — Barbara (s) — Augustus (Sarah Fore) 
— Sarah (John Peters). 

Frederick with no resources except his wife, their two pairs of willing 
hands, and the 60 acres given them by the father-in-law, at once built a 


cabin, added at length 281 acres to his possessions, reared 12 children who 
grew to maturity, and died without owing a penny. He was methodical 
as well as industrious, and whenever he was done with his tools he put 
them under cover. He was one of the most hospitable of men, and liked 
to have his neighbors serenade him before daybreak on Christmas morn- 
ing, after which the visitors shared his breakfast. All his children were 
taught to work. The daughters could hoe corn and pile and burn brush 
as well as spin and weave. C: Mitchell (1815-1892) (Ann Cummings, 
1837)— Sarah— Catharine ( PJacob W. Harvey, 1838)— Elizabeth (Isaac 
M. Harvey, 1838) — Ann— William (dy) — Delilah — Martha (Adam Mil- 
ler, 1845) — Jane — Amanda — Mary J. — Amanda — Samuel (b. 1835) (Mary 
Hutchinson, 1857) — Rachel — Rebecca. The example of Frederick Comer is 
offered in contrast to those persons of the present time who think they must 
begin where their parents leave off, and also think they cannot afford to 
have families even then. 

The experience of his son Samuel is also of interest. He was left an 
orphan at 13 along with four sisters. They and their mother had a hard 
time to get on. It took two good calves to pay the tax of $9 on the large 
farm. Early in his married life the war came, in which he served four 
years and was in several heavy battles. When he returned from the mili- 
tary prison at Elmira he found his mother, wife, and two little girls all 
well. He went to work at once to put the farm in order, and at length 
added merchandising and sawmilling to his agricultural interests. His 
children are three sons and four daughters. 


John, Sr. (b. 1764) (Mary Carraway) built on an extensive farm near 
Blue Sulphur Springs a large brick house of six rooms. This was about 
1789. The walls are two feet thick, and the interior, including doors, 
floors, and paneling, is in solid black walnut. The house is yet standing, 
the walls both inside and out being in perfect condition, and it is occupied 
by Henry George, a great-grandson of the builder. To John and Mary 
were born 11 children, one of whom was William (b. 1792c) (Mary Rader 
of Anthony). While still a young man he was sent by his father by way 
of Cincinnati to sell some slaves, and as nothing was ever seen of him 
after he had received his money, there is strong suspicion of foul play. 
The oldest of his five children was Perry, Sr. (1810-1877) (Evaline Jar- 
rett, Sarah Ellis of Joseph). Henry and Margaret, the children of the 
first wife, are not now living. After the second marriage, Perry settled on 
Wolf Creek. C: James A. (Emma Ellis)— Fletcher (s)— Evaline (C. Lon 
Johnson) — Elizabeth (s) — Amanda (Dr. O. S. Baker) — Martha (Allen 
Bowles, John H. Burgess) — Perry E. (Mae Woodson) — Luella (Dr. C. E. 
Copeland) . 




George (Katharine Miller) had mill on Indian. App. 1784 by Edward 
Keenan, William West, James Alexander. Settlement by Isaac Estill and 
John Hutchinson recorded, 1793, at $1540 including 5 slaves. Names men- 
tioned in settlement: 

John Aldstatt 
Henry Armentrout 
Edward Barrett 
Robert Bland 
Adam Bowyer 
Enoch Bush 
Felix Gilbert 
Toseph Haynes 
Thomas Hughes 
James Handley 
Gasper Haynes 
Jacob Hermans 
John Herlener 
Moses Hickenbottom 
John Jeffries 
Peter Kinders 
Edward Keenan 
Peter Kisling 

Zepheniah Lee 
Thomas Lewis 
Felty Bloss 
Isaac Barnes 
Adam Byers 
Nickles Conrad 
Edward Cornwell 
Mathias Cash 
William Carnifax 
William Mady 
William McFarlin 
Elizabeth Morrison 
James McNutt 
Andrew Moore 
John McMulen 
Moliston Pettijohn 
James Pettijohn 
Augustine Price 

Peter Runkle 
Lawrence Rains 
Levin Reinhart 
Adam Sellers 
Michael Shuler 
Catharine Conrad 
Henry Cook 
James Dempsey 
Thomas Edgar 
John Futch (Fudge) 
Thomas Gulley 
Martin Grider 
Sebastine Shaver 
John Tygert 
William West 
Jacob Warren 
S. Williams 
Layton Yancey 

Ralph Yath (Yates or Gates) 


We find mention of Valentine Cook as Felty Koch, which is indicative 
of German birth or ancestry, but we are told that he and Jacob were 
sons of John Hamilton Cook, of London, cousin to the celebrated Cap- 
tain Cook. They came about 1770 to the J. R. Johnson place just be- 
low Greenville and built Cook's fort. His wife was Rachel Bofman 
(Baughman?) and he died in 1797. The widow went with her sons, 
Henry and David, to Kentucky. Valentine, Jr., and Jacob were both 
ministers, and the latter died on the family homestead in 1844. His sis- 
ter, Christiana, married Philip Hammond, the scout. Valentine, Sr., had 
several adventures with the Indians, and was several times taken by 
them. Rev. Valentine Cook, Jr., who settled in Kentucky, is mentioned 
in Chapter XXXII. C. of Jacob (Rachel): Riley* B.— Ward— Jacob 
A. — Lewis G. — Caroline — Sarah — John H. — Lorenzo D. (Ann Vawter, 1831). 
The family has long been extinct here in the male line. 

One William Cook, several of whose children married into the Dubois 
family, of Wolf Creek, died about 1825. An Isaac had a license to build 
a gristmill on Laurel in 1813. 


William G. (1800-1888) was a son of John and his wife Lucy Gray 
Cook, of Prince Edward. He graduated from) Hampden-Sidney Col- 
lege and in 1833 from the Baltimore School of Medicine. After practicing 
his profession in Clarkesville and in Chesterfield county, he came to 
Union in 1840, but some 11 years later he moved to Sweet 
Springs. In 1836 he married Mary E., daughter of Jesse Wherry, 
of Manchester. She died in 1863, aged 55. Of the 10 children of Dr. 
and Mrs. Cook, 8 lived to adult age, their names being as follows: 
Anna H. (s)— John H. (b. 1838) (Julia, A. Baker, 1864)— Mary E. 
(Robert E. Jordan, of Fluvanna Co.) — Alfred W. (Martha E. Carter, 
1866)— Harriet G. (Andrew A. Kean, 1868)— William F. (Alfaretta Wick- 
line, Blanche Carter) — James R. (Clarissa B. Settle, 1872) — Margaretta 
C. (John P. Wickline, 1874). 

C. of John H.— Walter J. (Ella Dransfield, 1894)— Randolph G. (Anna 
F. Dransfield, 1892)— William E. (Sue M. Kingsberry, 1906)— John F. 
— Florence G. (Lee Walker, 1893). John H. has been a veteran teacher 
and served a term as county superintendent W. J. is deputy sheriff, W. 
F. a physician, and J. F. a graduate of Roanoke College and Crozier 
Theological Seminary, is a minister of the Baptist church. 


John, son of an English immigrant, came from Albemarle in his youth. 
A son was William M. (1835-1901) (Margaret Hines). C: William 
H. (1862-1915) (Hallie V. Kershner— Charles E. (Luella Connor). C. 
E. graduated from Shenandoah Normal College, 1889, and from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore, 1893. He established 
himself at Charleston, 1899, where he has a large, successful practice, 
but delights in long visits to his native county. W. H., law graduate of 
the University of Virginia, was prosecuting attorney of Monroe at the 
time of his death. 


Edward (or Edmund) was a large landholder on Second Creek 
after the Revolution. His wife, Frances, is said to have been a niece to 
General Wolfe, of Quebec fame. John (Margaret), who sold land to 
John Gray in 1803, seems to have been a son. 


William L. (b. 1839) (Sarah C. Johnson, 1867, Eliza S. Burdette), 
came from Greenbrier in 1869. He was a magistrate and member of 
Monroe County Court. C: John F., Anna L., Caroline H., Willia L., 
Henry F., Charles M., James L., Marietta, Maud (J. P. Foster), Ethel 
(F. C. Jones). 



Lewis (Catharine) sold land in 1799 to John Lemons and in 1805 to 
Patrick Donally. 


George (1777-1865) seems to have been a son of John (Keziah), 
who was living here when the county was formed. He came from Penn- 
sylvania and married Margaret Keenan. C: Sylvester (s) — Kate (s) 
— John M. m. in Tenn.) — Michael (Margaret Reed) — Philander (Sarah 
Thomas) — Eleanor (John Johnson) — Mary (George Mitchell)— George (s) 
• — Andrew (s). Sylvester went to Arkansas and John to Tennessee. 

C. of Michael: Newton B. (s) — John W. (Florence Sharp) — James 
(Etta Harless) — Jennie (Caperton C. Campbell) — Mary E. (John Trout) 
— Margaret (Edward Trout) — Nannie (John Campbell). 

C. of Philander: George (Ilene Beckett) — William (Leone Wickline, 
Sarah Elmore) — John (s) — Melissa (s) — Ellen (John Kessinger) — Kate 
(Jessie Arnot) — Robert L. ( McNeer) . 

There are other connections with the spellings Counts, Kounts, and 
Koontz. Henry (Susan) moved from Indian to Kanawha about 1806. 
Several of his family married here. William Counts, of Devil's Creek, mar- 
ried Delilah Dransfield. He had a brother Charles (Rebecca Tigert, 
1833), and a sister, Mary D. (Josiah Dransfield, 1845). 


Conrad (b. 1760) (Lucy Brunen, 1784) was a native of Hesse Cas- 
sel, and came to America as a soldier under Burgoyne. He settled at 
Winchester, where he had been a prisoner of war. His wife, whom he 
married at Frederick, Md., was a descendant of Sir Walter Raleigh, and 
also a relative of the mother of George Washington. William B. (b. 
1808) (Mary Ragan, 1832), fourth son of Conrad, was drawn to Mon- 
roe through a love of adventure and settled here after his marriage. 
C: Virginia L. (James Claiborne) — Lewis A. (Mahala Shanklin) — Wil- 
liam C. (b. 1837) (Mattie Tooke)— Harriet— Otho H.— Fannie— R. J. (1847- 
1912) — Ella G. — Floy (Ernest Rochefort). Claiborne, whose daughters 
are Mrs. George DeVere and Bettie, was a descendant of the famous 
William Claiborne, of Kent Island, Md. L. A., W> C, and O. H. saw 
much service in the Confederate army. L. A., captured at Gettysburg, 
made an unsuccessful attempt to escape from the military prison at Fort 
Delaware. He was one of the guard that escorted the remains of General 
Stonewall Jackson to Richmond. W. C. was one of the men that boarded 
and captured the ship "Harriet Lane" This was one of the most memor- 
able exploits in the annals of war. W. C, O. H., and the Rocheforts 
settled in Texas. R. J., a resident of Union, had for two consecutive 


nights a most vivid dream of buried treasure on Calder's Peak. Ella G. 
has been 33 years a teacher. 


Andrew married Elizabeth Maxwell in Pennsylvania and settled a mile 
south of Gap Mills somewhat later than 1784. C: William (1784- 
1855) (Sarah Bowyer, 1808)— James (d. 1860) (Sarah Beamer)— John 
(Tenn.) — Thomas (Tenn.) — Margaret (Robert Christy, 1804) — Hannah 
( Milhollen). 

C. of William: William H.— Adam B. (1810-1888) (Elizabeth Nickell, 

1839) — John M. ( Champ) — George — Thoma,s — Andrew (Alleghany) 

— Susan (Thomas Hepler) — Elizabeth H. (John Motteshead, 1841) — Mar- 
garet A. (John Sumpter, 1844) — Nancy (John Dodd). 

C. of James: John R.— Andrew M. (1821-1904) (Martha Hively) — 
Philip B. (1823-1883)— William A.— Elizabeth (1824-1890) ( Brad- 
ley)— Margaret S.— James M. (1835-1907). 

John M. was born Mar. 1, 1811, and lived until Mar. 27, 1912. He was 
a blacksmith and not only made his own pocket knives but even his farm- 
ing tools and his sawmill. For 80 years he was a member of Carmel 
church and was a regular attendant from his home at Waiteville. When 
the railroad came to Potts Creek, he asked only that his spring be let 
alone and the wish was respected. The rough men who appeared during 
the railroad construction never molested him and used no profanity in 
his presence. When remonstrated with for living alone in his old age, 
he drew his well thumbed Bible from his shoebench and exclaimed : 
"Here's my protector, here's my shield, and here's my weapon. With this 
as my protector, I fear no evil, I fear no robber, I fear no murderer." 


Wolf Crotshin, a refugee from Poland, became a merchant of Peters- 
town and died in this county in 1907, at the age of about 90. His first 
wife was Amanda J. Hobbs, of Giles Co. C: Thomas L., county sur- 
veyor — Alma (Frank Hale). 


M. Homer Cummings was born near Pickaway, August 23, 1890, and 
was graduated from Trevecca College, Nashville, Tennessee, in 1909. 
After spending a year in the University of Chattanooga, he entered the 
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1911. Since then he has 
written more than sixty hymns, the more popular being these: "My Lord 
and King," "There is a Gladness," "What Will You Do with Jesus?" 
"Come Where the Blessings Fall," The Gospel According to You," "Jesus 
Is the One You Need." Others appear in "Echoes from Beulah," pub- 
lished by the author at Ripley, W. Va. Mr. Cummings has also writ- 


ten "You Are My Sweetheart," a secular song that has been well received 
by the music public. His parents are H. M. Cummings and wife, Pick- 


Robert (Ann Curry), of the Isle of Man, came to Augusta in 1755, 
where each of the couple lived to the age of 84 years. Of their 9 chil- 
dren, William, James, Alexander, Samuel, Isaiah, Robert, Molly, Marga- 
ret, and Ann, three came to this county. These were Molly ( Erwin), 

Margaret (Isaac Nickell), and James (Mary Francis). The latter moved 
to Highland in 1812. His children were: Ann (Samuel Ralston), Robert 
(Susan Nickell), Polly (Edward Erwin), James (Elizabeth Nickell, Ruth 
A. Newton), Josiah (Sarah Nickell), William (Rachel A. Malcom), Ben- 
jamin A. (Rebecca G. Bell), George W. (Isabella Alexander* Martha 
George). Of the Currys of a later period we have no coherent account. 
There seem to have been others of the name in Monroe. 


Thomas, Isaac, Abraham, were French soldiers who served under La- 
Fayette. Thomas (Christina) was a sergeant, who in his army life knew 
what it is to sleep warm under a blanket of snow and on another oc- 
casion to wake up with his long hair frozen to the earth. He was a 
weaver by occupation. C: Sarah (David Magnett), Christina (Brice 
Miller), Kate (John Strickler), Ann (Michael Spade), Mary (Asher Bur- 
dette), Elizabeth (Sink Burdette), Samuel (1807-1882) (Sophia Spade), 
Isaac (Nancy ). 

C. of Samuel: Isaac (1830-1911) (M. Susan Skaggs)— William C. (1832- 
1912) (Elizabeth M. Skaggs) — M. Catharine (George H. Thompson) — 
George J. (b. 1835) (Mary E. Cooper, Sarah F. Skaggs, 1860, Sarah C. 
Corey, 1888)— John (1837-1912) — (Rebecca J. Nelson, 1862)— Cornelius 
(1838-1912)— Michael A. (b. 1840) (Sarah A. Smith, 1866, Araminta 
C. C. Brown, 1909)— James R. (b. 1843) (Mary L. Broyles, 1873, Mary 
E. Dixon, 1881)— Mary S. (Henry Vass, 1867). 

W. C. and J. R. were military prisoners at Point Lookout, and there 
suffered severely for want of food, the former never quite recovering 
from the effects and the latter having to stop to recuperate on his way 
home. The families of Isaac and W. C. are West. Geo. J., New Mexico. 

C. of Michael: Ella A. (Edgar Ellis), Mary M., Lydia J (Patrick Mur- 
ray), Sophia (Renick Bowyer), Bettie E. (Luther Taylor), Ora D. ( 


C. of J. R. : Herman K. (Mary Spade), John L. (Daisy Taylor), Cor- 
nelius L. (Corda Weikel) ; by 2d w. — Lucy A. (Crosby C. Kershner, Na- 
omi R., Elizabeth. 



Levi (d. 1834c) C: Samuel, Charles, Jacob (Delinda Soward, 1807), 

Reuben, Mary (James Stodghill, 1811), Margaret ( Thompson). 

John (d. 1840): C.:— Jesse— S others. 
Thomas (d. 1815c)— app. $125.35. 


Richard (d. 1814) (Isabella Humphreys) was the first of this line on 
Second Creek. His brothers, Joseph and Robert, settled about White Sul- 
phur Springs. C. of Richard: Elizabeth (1771-1838)— Esther (b. 1773) 
—Susanna (1775-1848) (James Young)— Joseph (1780-k. by accident, 1805) 
—Polly (b. 1782) (John McDowell, 1800)— Margaret (1784-1862) (James 
McDowell, 1805)— Nancy (1789-1849) (James Knox, 1805)— Richard (1792- 
1866) (Susanna Ewing, 1814, Elizabeth Curry, 1828)— John (b. 1795). 

Either Esther or Elizabeth, probably the former, married Joseph Black 
and went to Kentucky. The other married a Sullivan. John ran away 
to the war with Tripoli in 1805. Knox became a rich man at South Bend, 

C. of Richard, Jr.: (by first w.)— Joseph (1813-1877) (Molly Eakle) 
—Polly (1817-1889) (David Erwin)— Hamilton (1820-1849) (Jane Wy- 
lie, 1844)— Margaret! (1823-1850) (William] White): by second w. — 
Hendron (1835-1853) (s)— Newton (1831-1905) (Mary H. Hamilton, Bar- 
bara A. Farnsworth) — Virginia (1841-1899) (Robert Saunders). 

Of Joseph's two children, Lelia married a Hope, of Virginia, and later 
a Johnson, of North Carolina. Elmer died in youth. Of Hamilton's three, 
Milton H. and Margaret lived single and Elizabeth married R. A. Hall. Of 
Newton's, only Elliot H. was by the first wife. He died single in 1889 at 
the age of 32. The rest of the family are as follows: 

Edwin F. (dy)— Clarence F. (b. 1864) (Eliza R. Renick, 1889)— Rich- 
ard H. (b. 1867) (Algernon D. Smith, 1894)— Lula (b. 1869) (William 
H. McCue, 1890). 

C. of C. F,— James N., Edgar F., Christian A. (dy), Richard R. C. 
of R. H.— Stanley S. 

Newton Dickson, who lived on the ancestral homestead, was a man of 
education and broad intelligence. It was the rule of his life never to 
give nedless pain to any living creature, yet he had the courage of his 
very clearly defined convictions and was an exemplar of honor and truth. 
He kept the law of kindness and was given to hospitality. Often he 
was besought to stand for public office, but as often refused, preferring 
the free and quiet career of the private citizen. A loyal member of the 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, his life was rich in good influences 
to its farthest borders. 

"Spring Valley Farm," the family homestead, is the fine creek bottom farm 


originally owned by James Knox. The ample mid-century farmhouse 
was a hostelry in the turnpike era. During the early years of the county, 
the family name was most usually spelled Dixon. One John Dixon, said 
to have been of the Greenbrier branch, owned for some years a patent on 
Wolf Creek. George (Veronica) Dixon lived on Greenbrier River, but 
moved to Kanawha county before 1808. 


Henry is a grandson of Asa, who came from Franklin county late 
in life. The wife of Asa was a cousin to Henry Clay and when that 
statesman was a guest at Red Sulphur he invited the couple to spend a 
week with him. Gen. J. A. Early was also a cousin and used to hunt with 
his hounds on the Dillon place in Franklin. Henry Dillon was born 
in a humble home near Red Sulphur, and becoming an orphan early in 
life, he was, as the oldest in a large family, his mother's principal sup- 
port. Owing to this circumstance his early education was limited, but he 
has prospered and is known as one of Monroe's best citizens. As a 
minister of the Baptist Church he has charge of the congregations at Cash- 
mere, Forest Hill, Pine Grove, and Indian Mills. His first wife was a 
Witt; his second is Margaret Hogshead Given. C: C. D., J. Clyde, 
Dr. W. L., Mrs. Garten, Mrs. C. C. Saunders, Mrs. Ida Keatly, H. E. 
Mrs. Keatly lives at "Glencoe," the Dillon home near Ballard. 


Jacob (Catharine) came to Johnson's Crossroads in 1786. C: Cath- 
arine (1771-1853) (Robert Johnson). Jacob was guardian of Euly and 
James Young. 


Edward Dowdy, son of a large tobacco grower living near Bedford, 
Va., located near Salt Sulphur Springs about 1825. He married Elizabeth 
Clark, granddaughter of Ralph Clark, a very early settler on Indian 
Creek. John H., son of Edward, is the present owner of the old stone 
house on Indian built by Isaac Estill. His wife is a great granddaughter 
of Joshua Mitchell. Her parents are J. R. and Nancy (Smith) Mitchell. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dowdy have four sons, George, Glen, Lee, and Hedley. 


Josiah (Mary D Counts, 1845) was a weaver, who came from Lan- 
caster, Pa., and settled in Sweet Springs valley. His sister, Delilah, married 
William Counts. 


Robert (Hannah Maxwell) came from Pennsylvania to Gap valley 
about 1790. C: John M. (Isabella Steele, Margaret Gilchrist) — Thomas 


(1795-1854) (Mary Campbell)— Robert (Elizabeth Steele)— William 
(Nancy Jarvis) — Hannah (James Donally) — Elizabeth (Samuel Fenton) — 
Margaret (George Bugg) — Amanda (Timothy Huffman, Stephen Wise- 

C. of John M. : Isabel N. (James Bradley); by 2d w. — Alexander 

( Groves) — George ( Bell) — Wallace — Abner ( Fitzwater) 

— Harvey — Hannah (Henry Lane) — Jane ( Kelly). 

C. of Thomas: John, Samuel, Irvin, Mary, Matilda; these removed to 

C. of Robert: William M. (Mary Crosier) — John (Elizabeth Carman) 
— Sylvester (Nancy A. Huffman, Cynthia McCormick) — James (s) — Mad- 
ison ( Jones). 

C. of William: Robert (Ann Cartmill)— Hannah— William T. (Re- 
becca Brown) — Asenath (M. H. Talbot) — Adeline (Jacob Miller) — N. 
Augustus (Sarah Shelton, Ann Duncan) — Mary Jacob Miller) — Margaret 
A. (Archibald Bean) — John A. (Hannah Steele, Elizabeth Ramsay). 

Another Dunbar was Matthew, who lived near Sinks Grove and 
died there in 1797. Jonathan (Iscah) lived on the south side of Swope's 
Knobs. His sister, Sarah, married Giles Burdette. William was a 


John (d. 1825c) (Elizabeth) came to Wolf before the Revolution. 
C: Conrad (1776-1853) (Jean)— Mary (John Cox). 
Mary M. (William Cook, 1808). 


John H. (Josephine McNeer) came from Raleigh to near Lindside. 
He is an active trader and business man. 


Alexander (1764-1841) was a son of Robert (Martha Graham, 1763), 
who was killed in the battle of Guilford, 1781. His grandfather, Cap- 
tain Alexander Dunlap, was the son of a soldier in the siege of London- 
derry. He came from Ireland with his sister, Elizabeth, and settled on 
the Calfpasture River as a very well-to-do pioneer. He died there in 
1744. The grandson came here from Rockbridge and was in his day a 
very conspicuous citizen. 

Alexander (Jane Alexander, 1795)— C: Robert A. (1796-1823) (Re- 
becca Pack, 1823)— Isabella (1798-1862) (James M. Haynes, 1821)— James 
A. (1799-1840) (Frances McElheny, 1831)— Addison (1801-1870) (Eliza- 
beth Johnson, 1831, Clara Petree, 1834)— Benjamin G. (1806-1884) (Re- 
becca Larew, 1845)— Adaline (1808-1828) (John Vawter)— Alexander 


(1812-1853) (Mary A. Shanklin, 1838)— Mary P. (1816-1882) (Rev. Mitch- 
ell G. Dunlap, 1843). 

C. of Robert: John R— Mary J. (Jacob Zoll)— Isabella E. (Joseph 

C. of Addison: Richard (by 1st w.) — James (Mary Shanklin) — Charles 
H. (1839-1904) (Martha S. Bates, 1862)— Addison (Julia Blair, 1874) (Tex.) 
— Jane — Harriet (J. Z. Ellison). 

C. of Benjamin G. : Dr. John L. (Mary J. Spessard, 1878) — James 
A. (Mary E. Johnson, 1882, Virginia W. S. Early, 1890). 

C. of Alexander: William (Kas.) — Robert — Henry (Pulaski Co.). 

C. of Charles H.: Dr. Charles— Prof. William— Robert S. (Elizabeth 
) — Edward (Harriet Pence) — Elsie. 

In the public life of Monroe and in professional and business careers 
the members of this connection have been conspicuous. 


The Dunns are a numerous connection in the south of the county, but 
we lack a systematic account of their relationships. 

Thomas (Mary) — d. 1837 — C: Madison (Cynthia Shumate) — John H. 
( Pack) — James (s) — Joseph A. (Elizabeth Dillion, 1847) — Alexan- 
der (1825-1911)— Wesley L. (Louisa Smith)— Harrison B. (Martha B 
Dunn, Emma Callaway) — Polly (David Frazer) — Elizabeth (Nehemiah 
Phillips, 1826) — Nancy ( Karnes) — Louisa J. (John A. Spangler). 

John (Isabella Thompson, 1802)— d. 1822— C: William, Hamilton, 
Harrison, Elizabeth, Susan, Anna, Polly, Nancy. 

Reuben (Polly Pennington) — C: Patterson — John — Ballard — Julia — Wil- 
liam (Eliza A. Spangler, 1854). C. of William: Charles L.— Walter- 
James — Elizabeth — P. Kate — Charles. 

John ( Peters) C: James C. (1800-1882c) (Nancy Robinson). 

C. of J. C: L. B. (Isabel J. Mann)— G. L.— Henry C — ( Camp- 
bell, Margaret Ballard) — James P. (k. '61) — Louisa (s) — (Allen 

Spangler) — (Joseph Spangler) (Daniel Spangler). 


Dunsmore, also spelled Dunmore and Dinsmore, is a Scotch name and 
means "hill by a heath." John, the ancestor of the American branch, ran 
away to Ireland in 1667 in consequence of some treatment he considered 
humiliating. He attained the age of 99. James (Elizabeth) came to the 
vicinity of Sinks Grove between 1770 and 1776, his son Joseph being born 
in the last named year. C: James (Sarah Murdock, 1811, Margaret Reed, 
1813)— William (Molly Wanstaff)— Joseph (1776-1856). 

C. of James, Jr. — Elizabeth — John (Frances Murdock, 1847) — Mar- 
garet (Lewis Erskine, 1843) — 'Hannah — George W. (Amanda M. Crews') 
— Andrew L. (J. Martha Evans) — Mary A. 


C. of John: Columbus M. (Virginia C. Marshall, 1877)— Mary M. 
H. (James L. Lemons). 

C. of G. W— James G. (b. 1848) (Sarah E. Nickell, 1884, Mrs. Mary 
J. McClung)— Mary M. (James W. Ellis). 

C. of A. L. — Emma (James M. Rodgers) — Leona (Yancey H. Lemons). 

The Dunsmores have shown a strong attachment to agriculture. All 
the sons and daughters of James, Jr., became farmers or the wives of 
farmers. Columbus M. lives on the homestead, which is one of the best 
farms in the garden spot of Monroe. 

Before and just after the war James G. Dunsmore studied at the Rocky 
Point Academy, and in 1867 became assistant to Prof. A. A. Nickell. The 
next year he became a teacher, but did not discontinue his studies. He 
decided to make teaching his life work in the fullest sense of the term. 
He took a very sympathetic interest in the educational needs of farmer 
boys, having been one himself. It occurred to him that a commercial edu- 
cation would equip young men in less time and at less expense than any 
other kind of scholastic training. But such schools were then rare except 
in the large cities. To prepare himself the better for this field of usefulness 
he took a course at the Eastman Business College at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 
1871 which gave him the degree of master of accounts. February 22, 
1872, he opened at Sinks Grove the Dunsmore Business College, which he 
successfully conducted eight years in connection with the public school. In 
1880 he removed to Staunton and for two years conducted his work in co- 
operation with the Hoover School for Boys. Two years later he severed 
his connection with this and founded a purely commercial school which 
was soon afterward incorporated. It has been the medium of a business 
education for hundreds of young men and women. 


John (d. 1816) (Elizabeth) C: Polly (Henry Stuart), Eleanor (John 
Ellis), (Elizabeth (Owen Ellis). 


Samuel of Augusta bought of Gilson (Molly) Legg in 1808. 


John Echols was a son of Joseph (1789-1824) and Eliza F. (Lambeth) 
Echols, of Halifax county, and was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, March 
20, 1823. In 1843 he finished a course at the Virginia Military Institute 
and the following year was married to Mary J., a sister to Allen T. 
Caperton, whose wife was his sister. In 1845 he came to Union, which re- 
mained his home twenty years. By 1860 he had won distinction as law- 
yer, orator, and statesman. He was a giant in stature, standing six feet 
four inches tall and weighing two hundred and sixty pounds. This com- 


manding figure, re-enforced by an impressive bearing, gave him great 
power as a public speaker and made his hearers feel that he was thor- 
oughly in earnest. A more public spirited man was not to be found in 
this section of the Virginias. He was a firm believer in the higher edu- 
cation and backed up his belief by his deeds. While in Monroe he was 
deeply interested in good schools for both sexes. He was very active in 
the establishment of a female seminary, and did much to secure the best 
teachers possible and thus make the institution a success. He was the 
prime mover in a high school for boys at Union and freely gave of his 
time, money, and ability. Some students he took into his own house and 
gave them their board and tuition. To others he advanced money which 
they were to return whenever they might be able. This high school was 
very successful until the outbreak of war gave it a fatal blow. In 1851-3 
he was a Delegate to the Virginia Assembly, and in 1861 he was a mem- 
ber of the convention that passed the ordinance of secession. 

Before the war began he organized the Monroe Guards, of which or- 
ganization he was the first captain. He entered the Confederate army as 
Lieutenant Colonel of the 27th Virginia Infantry of the famous Stonewall 
Brigade. After the first battle of Kernstown, in which he commanded 
his regiment and was wounded, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier 
general and served under General Loring in the Kanawha valley. In 
the fall of 1862 he succeeded Loring and was put in command of the De- 
partment of Southwest Virginia. In 1863 he was placed on the court of 
inquiry as to the fall of Vicksburg. Later in the same year he took the 
field again and was in command at the battle of Droop Mountain. At 
New Market he led the right wing of the army under Breckenridge, and 
joining General Lee he took part in the fighting before Richmond. In 
the fall of 1864 he was again transferred to Southwest Virginia, and next 
spring with the rank of major general he succeeded Early in command of 
the Army of the Valley and Southwest Virginia. Eight days after the 
surrender of Lee he disbanded his army at Christiansburg, escorted the 
Confederate president to Goldsboro, N. C, and was paroled with the army 
under Johnston. 

In the fall of 1865 General Echols made his home at Staunton and 
lived there until his death, May 24, 1896. A plan in which he was greatly 
interested was the building of a railroad to the Ohio river. He induced 
C. P. Huntington, the railway magnate, to ride horseback with him over 
the proposed route so as to convince him of its practicability. He did more 
than any other man to cause Huntington to build the Chesapeake and Ohio. 
That millionaire called him "my strong man Echols," and secured his ser- 
vices in extending the line from Jackson's River to Cincinnati and Louis- 
ville. Echols was an excellent financier as well as organizer and accu- 
mulated a large fortune. He was mainly instrumental in organizing the 
National Valley Bank of Staunton, and was its president. 


General Echols was generous, benevolent, and highly successful. The 
people of Monroe, with whom he had spent the earlier part of his active 
career, held him in warm respect and confidence, and he was an elder in 
the Presbyterian Church. Toward the close of his life he was recognized 
as one of the greatest men in Virginia. 

His children who grew to maturity were Edward, Harriet, who became 
the wife of M. Erskine Miller, and Percy, who died when about 21 years 
of age. Edward attained great prominence in business and political life, 
and served a term as lieutenant governor of Virginia. He had a cordial 
feeling for the county where he had spent his boyhood, and was by far the 
heaviest subscriber to to the fund for the Confederate monument at Union. 


Thomas Edgar owned for many years a large tract of river land which 
included the site of Ronceverte. He moved there from Rockbridge before 
1780, was county surveyor, and his wife was of the Mathews family of 
Greenbrier. His sons were Thomas and Archer. A daughter married a 
Withrow. Thomas married Eliza Byrnside in 1821. His children were 
Thomas, George M., Ann E., and Kate. The elder daughter was a mis- 
sionary to China. 

George M. Edgar (1837-1913) was graduated from the Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute in 1856, standing sixth in a class of thirty-three, ten of whom 
were killed in battle. He began at once to teach and a year later was 
an assistant professor in his alma mater. When the war of '61 broke out 
he was professor of natural sciences in the Florida State Seminary. He 
then became drillmaster of the First Florida Regiment. After the seces- 
sion of Virginia, he helped to raise a company in Monroe, and as first 
lieutenant of the same he campaigned under General Wise in the Kanawha 
valley. He rose in rank until he became lieutenant colonel of the Twenty- 
Sixth Virginia Infantry, known as Edgar's Battalion. As its commander 
he served three years and distinguished himself on many a battlefield, not- 
ably on Tuckwiller's Hill, where he defeated a large Federal force, at 
Dry Creek, New Market, Totopotomoy, Cold Harbor, and Winchester. For 
his victory at Tuckwiller's he was presented a sword by the ladies of 
Lewisburg. At Cold Harbor and Winchester his command suffered very 
severely. At Lewisburg he was shot through the side and left on the 
field. In Early's Valley campaign he was captured and confined in Fort 
Delaware. After his exchange he rejoined his old command and at the 
close of the war was serving under General Echols. In the fall of 1865 
he engaged in close study of the natural sciences at the University of 
Virginia. At the end of the session he became professor of mathematics 
in Oakland College, Mississippi. From 1884 to 1887 he succeeded General 
D. H. Hill as president of Arkansas University, and then became presi- 
dent of the very institution where he was when the war broke out. Later 


he was a professor in the University of Alabama and in other institutions. 
In 1886 the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him. He ranked high 
as educator as well as soldier. His lecture on Stonewall Jackson won 
high commendation. Colonel Edgar married in 1867 Rebecca Fry, of Lew- 
isburg, and was the father of six children. 


The pioneer seems to have been Owen (Christina) who came from 
Augusta about the close of the Revolution and died on Wolf in 1812. C: 
Jacob (1778-1856) (Margaret )— John (d. 1823) — PElizabeth (Jo- 
seph McClung, 1800)— PNancy (Amos Halstead, 1799) — PEnos (d. 1852) 
(Virginia Wilson) . Enos had an exciting adventure among the Indians 
in his childhood. He grew up to be a great hunter, and trapper. 

C. of Enos: John, Nancy (s), Cynthia (David Keller), Elizabeth (Chris- 
topher Flint), daughter (Madison Keller), Sabina (Thomas Reynolds). 
John, who lived to be 87, was likewise a great hunter. In a single trip 
he killed 60 deer missing but two shots. Nancy is said to have attained 
the age of 105. 


James (d. 1791) (Ann) came from New York a little before the Revo- 
lution and settled on New River. C: James — Joseph — Asa (Elizabeth Pen- 
nington) — John (d. 1845) (Frances Paul) — Ann ( Haynes) — Ruth 

( Jameson?) — Mary (Isaac Paul). The family had several ex- 
periences with the Indians. At least one son fought at Point Pleasant. 
Another was waylaid and killed while taking cattle to market. John took 
a place on Hans that included a small clearing. Once while coming from 
Cook's fort to look after his corn he saw in a spring basin the tracks of 
seven Indians and he postponed his hoeing. The Rev. James Ellison, whose 
father was captured and carried 15 miles by the red men, was born in 
Farley's fort in 1778. He was ordained a Baptist minister in 1808. His 
wife was Mary Callaway. Four of their sons were also Baptist minis- 
ters, and one of these, Matthew, who was 65 years a preacher, was of 
boundless energy. 

C. of John: Joseph (1788-1853) (Jane Garvin) — John (Frances Cum- 
mings) — James (Susan Mitchell) — Ruth (James McClintock, 1808) — Elea- 
nor (Michael Swope) — Elizabeth (Jesse Stodghill) — Nancy (James Fos- 
ter)— Hannah (George Wickline, 1829)— Jaley (William Shanklin, 1829) 
—Jesse (1814-1878) (Alpha Broyles) . 

C. of Joseph: Samuel (Susan A. Mann, 1845) — Eli (West) — Joseph 
A. H. (b. 1832) (Paulina Bare, 1853)— Wesley (West)— Phoebe (m. in 
Iowa) — Nancy (David Swope) — Mahala (m. in Iowa). 

C. of John: Isaac (Emily Lively) — Woodson (Sarah Maddy) — John J. 


(Catharine Riner, Eliza Brown) — Delpha ( Turner, 

Phillips) — daughter (away) Nancy (James Foster). 

C. of Jesse: Susan (b. 1837) (Austin Mann of Adam) — James Z. (b. 
1840) (Harriet Dunlap, 1879). 

C. of J. Z.— Clarence P. (Stella Knight)— Addison D. (Emma Kyle) 
— Charles A. (Frances Waters) — Elizabeth C. (Dr. Henry Messmore) . 


Philip (d. 1807) (Catharine) lived on Swope's Knobs. His personalty 

was $71.98. C: Susanna ( Miller), Catharine ( Piatt), 

Elizabeth ( Hunter), Mary M. ( Vance), Andrew, Joshua, 

Henry, Anthony (Kate Dubois). 


Henry (Jean Thompson) came from Cecil county, Maryland. A son 
was Michael, a near neighbor to James Alexander, and he purchased a 
part of his land. He married Margaret, widow of Captain James Paulee, 
after her return from a captivity among the Indians. Her maiden name 
was Handley. He died in 1812. C. — Henry (Agatha) — William (Mar- 
garet Benson, 1810) — Alexander — Michael — Jane (Hugh Caperton, 1806) . 

Henry lived at Lewisburg, where he died in 1847. Alexander went to 
Alabama and Michael to Texas. William lived at Salt Sulphur, where 
in partnership with Isaac Caruthers he carried on that summer resort for 
many years. 

The marriage records of the county disclose at least one other early 
family of Erskines, but we have not been supplied with any particulars 
of its members. One was Elizabeth (b. 1776) (Michael Bickett) . 


Wallace (1698-1792) was a native of New Jersey, an uncle to his 
father John having been the first white child born in that state. About 
1745 he came with his wife, Marcia Boude, and five children to the Bull- 
pasture valley at Fort George. Here he lived until 1773. He was of 
fine intelligence and considerable means, and was high sheriff of Augusta. 
A sixth child was born at Fort George, and by another wife, Mary A. 
Campbell, he had nine more, the youngest being but five years old at the 
time of the migration to Indian Creek. Boude and John, sons of his first 
wife, settled on Hans. The former went to Kentucky. The latter was 
murdered by James Stewart in 1780, but we know nothing of the circum- 
stances. His widow married Zachariah F. Estill, whose relationship to 
Wallace is not certainly known. Another Estill, William, was tax col- 
lector in 1782. The children of Wallace by the second marriage were 
Sarah (James Henderson) — James (Rachel Wright) — Samuel (Jane Teas) 
— Wallace (Jennie Wright) — William (Mattie Wright) — Abigail (James 


Wood)— Isaac (b. 1766) (Elizabeth C. Frogg, 1788)— Ruth (Travis Boot- 
on, William Kavanaugh). Sarah, James, and Samuel went to Kentucky, 
Wallace, William, and Abigail to Tennessee. Isaac, a man of prominence, 
was twice sheriff of Monroe and was in the Assembly. He sold to Moses 
Pence in 1818 and went to Tennessee, but at length returned to Lewisburg. 
His wife was a granddaughter to Thomas Lewis and stepdaughter to Col- 
onel John Stuart. Of his twelve children, two remained in Greenbrier. 
These were Agatha (Henry Erskine) and Floyd (Susan B. Kincaid, 1847) . 
Estill county, Kentucky, is named for a son, and Estillville, Va., for a 
grandson of Wallace, Sr. 


James (Catharine Foster) came from Rockbridge to Peters Mountain 
valley. C: Mattie, Thomas (Ellen Rains), James (Rebecca Swinney), 
Edward, William, James A. (Malinda J. Thompson, Rowena Epperly) . 
All went away but Rev. J. A. 


James (F. )— captain, 1762)— C: Oliver (d. 1823)— Samuel (d. 

1815c) (app. $1392.17)— Williarri (d. 1816)— James— Jean ( 

Patterson) (d. 1830) — Joseph. 

C. of Joseph: Robert, William, Joseph, Oliver (d. 1847), John, James, 
Sidney (? McNutt), Frances. 

C. of Samuel of James: Oliver, Sidney. 


C. of Matthew of New River: Mary (b. 1763) (Samuel Pack) — Eliz- 
abeth (Lemuel Jarrell, 1804) — Esther (John Abbott, 1807)— Sarah (James 
Gore, 1807). 

C. of Francis (Nancy): Adam (Catharine Boyd, 1807). 


James (d. 1816) . William, a brother. John and James mentioned in 
will of first James. 


James (Mary) were living in 1804 on Indian on the John Carlisle place. 


The cousins, Peter, Michael, and Elijah, of German birth or parentage, 
came from Madison about 1804. But Elijah moved to Greenbrier, where 
there are many of his descendants. It is related that Peter, Sr., eloped to 
Madison with the daughter of a wealthy and aristocratic Englishman 
named Hoadly. The children of Peter, Jr., who died in 1814, were John 
(Nancy Dunn, 1812), Benjamin, and Elizabeth. John died in 1845 on the 


Christian Peters homestead, to which he succeeded as owner in 1807. C. 
— Fielden (1813-1861) (s)— James (1815-1876) (Sarah A. Young, 1864) — 
Emily, b. 1818 (John Tuggle)— Allen (1820-1909) (Jureta Riner)— Polly 
(1823-1902) (Floyd Spangler)— William (1825-1856) (s)— John (1828- 
1896) (s) — Lucinda, b. 1831 (Russell Barley) . Fielden was a captain 
and died in the Confederate service. The only child of James is Robert 
F. (Sarah C. Peck, 1907) who lives on the old Peters homestead. 

Michael (Mary) died 1826 — c: Thomas — John — Elijah (Margaret Hut- 
chinson, 1811)— Mary (John Floyd, 1813)— Sarah (Jesse Cooper, 1807) — 
Jemima (Ephraim Cook) — Abraham (1794-1859) (Rebecca Peters). Polly 
and Jemima went to Ohio in 1843. 

C. of Abraham: Elijah P. (1819-1907) (Romanza Harry)— Andrew L. 
1821-1913) (Eliza McDaniel, Mary Nelson). 

C. of Thomas: Michael (Elizabeth Smith), Jacob H. (Rebecca Thomp- 
son), Jonathan, Clarinda, Ruth. 


Of three brothers, James, Nathaniel, and Christopher (Mary J. Dean), 
the two former went to Ohio about 1817. C. of Christopher: Samuel, John 
(d. 1898c) (Polly Hedrick), Benjamin (Polly Armstrong), Jeremiah (Mrs 
Lucinda Altair), Christopher (Elizabeth Ellis of Enos), Thomas, Nathan- 
iel, Stephen, Ezekiel, Joseph, Sarah, Elizabeth, Ruth. Jeremiah was a 
most industrious man. He would work all day on his land and work his 
sawmill at night with the help of a pine torch. He lived on Wolf and 


Lewis (Susanna) lived near Sweet Springs in 1823. 


In the early days of settlement, Addison Foster came from Culpeper 
and settled on Wolf. We are not explicitly told of any son but John, yet 
in the opening decade of the last century we find in this county Nimrod, 
John, George, Isaac, Grigsby, Enoch, and Bedford, the last two of whom 
are mentioned as living on Wolf. There is nothing to show that the 
others were not. 

John (Polly Skaggs) had these sons: Milton (d. '61), Ellison, Addison, 
Andrew, and Oliver H. (Ann Bobbitt, Mary Barton), only the last named 
remaining here till his death in 1910. C. of Oliver H. by first w. — George 
B. — Floyd F. — Emma: by second, — Winnie (W. S. Skaggs) — J. Elbert 

( Burdett) — James P. (Maud Correll) — Carrie (Lake Burdette) 

— Olive ( Hoover) . Of the above, George B. became highly ed- 
ucated, studying three years in Germany. Since then he has been a col- 
lege professor in New York and Canada, and finally in the University of 


Chicago. His books, which have aroused considerable comment, are allu- 
ded to in Chapter XXIX. Floyd F. is a farmer and cattle dealer of Kan- 
sas. Emma, who wedded John Coalter, lives in New Mexico. Industry, 
frugality, an independent spirit, and social good will are characteristic 
of the Fosters. They are attached to the Baptist faith. John and his 
family were accustomed to walk all the way to Old Greenbrier church, 
crossing the river in a canoe. 


Charles (Agnes) was a neighbor to William Lawrence on Indian 
when Union was established. Very soon afterward he became a tavern 
keeper in the county seat. 


Martha (d. 1799) had Charles, Hannah ( Neely), Leah ( 

Torrey), Mary ( Pyne), Happy ( Willey), Abigail ( 

Tremble) . Her legacies amounted to $306. 


George and his wife, Jean McClaggan, came from Scotland in 1800 and 
after living over 10 years in Rockingham moved to Gap Mills, and lived in 
a house that stood on the creek near Mrs. D. C. Pharr's gate. C: Isa- 
bella (1800-1876)— David (unc)— M'artha (James S. Crosier, 1840) — 
Thomas B. (1810-1888) (Elizabeth Neel)— Alexander (1812-1876) (Vir- 
ginia Powell, (1867) — George (Isabel J. Neel) — Margaret (John Dunbar, 
1849) . 

C. of T. B.— Marion (1853-1912). 

C. of Alexander: George A. (Annie Hedrick) — Thomas L. (b. 1869) 
(Essie V. Nickell) — Maude V. (John Littlepage) . 

George went to Ohio. The brothers, G. A. and T. L., became physi- 
cians, the former settling at Asbury, in Greenbrier, the latter at Pickaway, 
where he is still a practitioner. He has five children. Marion was a 
noted example of the self-educated man. Not being able to attend any- 
thing better than the public schools of his youth, he studied the higher 
branches at his home. He was a self-taught lawyer, served one term as 
prosecuting attorney, and for more than 25 years was one of the county's 
very best teachers. His beautiful devotion to his mother "will be told 
as a memorial" of him. After her death he went to live with his cousin, 
T. L. 

Eliza, another member of the connection, m. Preston McCormick, 1847. 

Adam, son of David G. and Katharine (Bowyer) Given, was born at 
Gap Mills in 1838 and died in Virginia in 1908. At the outset of the 


war he organized the second company raised in Alleghany and became 
its captain. It was incorporated in the 60th Virginia Infantry. He was 
married first to Elizabeth Kyle Mann and second to Margaret Hogshead. 
The issue by the latter marriage is Katharine T. (James C. Turner) of 
Winchester, Ky. 


James (1741-1813) (Florence Graham, 1762) was probably a native 
of Donegal, Ireland. Of two brothers, David (Jane Armstrong) settled 
in Bath and Robert (Mary Craig) at Fort Chiswell. His wife was a 
daughter of John, an uncle who lived on the Calfpasture. He was him- 
self a pushing, energetic man of much executive ability, and his posses- 
sions extended 10 miles along the Greenbrier in addition to holdings lower 
down the Kanawha and in Kentucky. He came to the Greenbrier in 
April, 1774, and his house is still in good condition. He left a legacy of 
5 pounds to each grandchild named James or Florence. There were 4 
of the latter. C: William (1765-1836) (Katharine Johnson) — John (k. 
1778)— Elizabeth (1770-1838) (Joel Stodghill)— David (1772-1819c) (Polly 
Stodghill, 1800)— Jane (b. 1774) (David Jarrett)— James (d. 1815) (Leah 
J. Jarrett, 1800)— Samuel (1780-1819) (Sarah Jarrett)— Lancelot (1783- 
1839) (Elizabeth Stodghill, 1814)— Rebecca (William Taylor, 1808) — 
Florence (1789-1879) (Joseph Graham, 1803). 

C. of William: Florence (1805-1869) (John Nowlan, 1835)— Lancelot 
(Sabina Ellis)— John (1809-1893) (Mary J. Crews)— Jane (s)— James 
(Rebecca A. Vass) — Elizabeth (Archibald Ballengee) — Ann (s) — David 
(b. 1814) (Sarah Alderson) — Rebecca (John R. Ballengee). 

C. of David: Sarah, David, William H., Polly F. 

C. of James: Elizabeth (John Hefner), Cynthia,, Hiram, Irza, Jehu, 
Florence, Cyrus, Nancy. 

C. of Samuel: James M., David, Nancy, Elizabeth, Susanna. 


John (Jennett) came from Pennsylvania and settled a little to the 
northwest of Pickaway. C: John (Mary Reaburn) — Jean (William Gul- 

lett) — Mlargaret (Robert Nickell) — Elizabeth ( King) — Martha 

( Leach) — Mary ( Hoxie) — James (Mary Nickell). James 

a soldier of 1812, went to Rush Co., Ind. 

John, Jr., (d. 1821) was many terms in the Virginia Assembly, going 
to and returning from Richmond horseback. C: Alexander (1793-1870) 
(Lydia Wylie) — James — Margaret (John Wylie, 1813) — Jane — Henry — 
Archibald (d. 1830) (Sarah Brown, 1812)— Elizabeth— Mary— John— Re- 

C. of Alexander: William (Elizabeth Alderson)— John W. (1822-1911) 
(Adella Hawkins) — Andrew ( Patton) — Mary (George Lynch) 


(1819-1899)— Eliza H. (Porterfield Boyd, 1839)— Catharine (Andrew B. 
Boyd, 1847) — Annie (A. M. Hawkins) . 

C. of John W.— James A. (m. in Mo.)— Lydia J. (John T. Nickels- 
William A. (Marjorie E. Lynch)— Robert A. ( Elliott)— Joseph. 

C. of William A.— Czerny B. (Nola Early)— Robert B. (Lucy Leach) 
— W. Aubrey — Gladys (dy) . 

In each generation except the present only one male member has re- 
mained, so that the connection has never long been well represented. James 
A. went to Missouri and Robert A. to North Carolina. Robert R. is an 
educator and Presbyterian minister. 


Jesse (Clara Bigbee) came from the mouth of the Rappahannock in 
1788 and shortly after settled at the mouth of Hans. Only one of his sons 
remained here although all married in the county. C. — George — Daniel 

— Whitson — Benjamin (1787- ) (Margaret Larew) — Thomas ( Garten 

of Griffith — Elijah — Nancy (Tolison Shumate) — Peny (William Campbell) 
— Elizabeth (Jacob Larew) — Clara (Dickson Garten). 

C. of Benjamin: (Elizabeth, b. 1815)— Allen (b. 1817) (Margaret A. 
Campbell) — Peter (dy) — Julia A. (Squire Mann) — William (Elizabeth 
Canterbury) — Whitson (Elizabeth Miller) — John (k. '61) — Mary J. (Henry 
Sutphin) — Jesse (Elizabeth Masters) — Emily (John A. Wilson) — Clara R. 
(Samuel Chapman) — Benjamin W. (Marha Deeds) — Preston (b. 1840) 
(Elizabeth Walker). 

C. of Allen: Sarah E. (William Riner) — Amanda J. (Lewis Thomas) 

— Mildred A. (Steward Mann) — Clemens ( Arnot, Riner) 

—Lewis M. (s)— Margaret E. (Charles E. Skaggs)— Robert (b. 1858) 
(Maud Campbell, Mary L. Pack) — James A. (s) — John H. (Eliza Skaggs). 


Lewis P. Groves is the second son of A. H. Groves and his wife, Sarah 
Bobbitt. After teaching six years he equipped himself for the Baptist min- 
istry at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary and was licensed in 
1897. His first pastorate, at Orleans, Ind., was before his graduation, and 
his active service began there in 1901. Three years later he accepted a 
call at Beckley. He is now pastor of the Baptist church at Alderson. Mir. 
Groves is popular, energetic, and able, and has served his several fields 
with great usefulness and success. He is a first cousin ot Dr. George B. 
Foster, of Chicago, and bears a close resemblance in physique and in per- 
sonal qualities. His wife was Lena A. Shires and six children have been 
born to the couple. 


William (d. 1805) (Jean), a blacksmith, was here in 1780 and owned 


three slaves. C: William) (Frances Nickell, 1808), George, Margaret, 
Polly ( Leach), Jennie (Reuben Leach), Elizabeth (Reuben Whar- 
ton, 1800). 

John is mentioned in 1780. 


Gwinn, also spelled in America Gwin and Gwynn, is a Welch name 
with a very honorable place in the history of that little country. The 
form in the Welch language is Gwyn (Goo-in), from which is perhaps 
derived the Christian name Gawen, which has been borne by various men 
in Rockingham, Bath, and perhaps other counties. The word means "white" 
or "candid," and the Gwinn coat of arms bears the legend, "vim vi pellere 
licet" — "It is permissible to oppose force with force." One David Gwinn 
was the ruler of one of the subdivisions of Wales, and Sir Rowland Gwynn 
was the author of the compact to stand by William of Orange when he 
was invited to become king of England in 1688. 

One Robert Gwin settled on the Calfpasture river about 1745, coming 
from North Carolina, although he was probably of foreign birth. His sons 
were David, James, Robert, Simon, Samuel, and Joseph. David and Joseph 
died in Highland where they were substantial citizens. Robert (Jane) 
and Simon moved finally to Kentucky. James and Samuel came about 1770 
to the Greenbrier at the mouth of Kelly's Creek. A house built by Sam- 
uel is still in good preservation. Many of his descendants are in the West. 
Among them, was the late Senator William Gwin of California. 

C. of Samuel: Samuel (Elizabeth Taylor, 1803) — Moses (Mary Ser- 
gent) — Andrew (Mary Newsome) — John (Sarah George of Thomas) — 
Ephraim (Rachel Keller) — Ruth (James Jarret) — Elizabeth (Robert New- 
some) — Ivvy (Thomas Busby) — Jane (David Withrow) — Alexander 
(Mary Given) — Salathiel (Margaret Black of Samuel) — Robert (Nancy 
Ellison) — Thompson (Rachel Harra, 1841) — Margaret (Nathan Viney) — 
James (Jane Pyne) — Elizabeth (W. C. Riner, 1845). C. of Andrew of 
Samuel: Thomas, Samuel, William, Andrew, Junius, Robert B. (Rebecca 
Maddy), Marion. R. B. (b. 1837) is the father of Eliza J. (George W. 
Vawter) and Bessie. 

C. of James: Robert, James, Joseph (Polly Taylor, 1805), Samuel. 

C. of Joseph of James: Sylvester (Elizabeth Williams) — James (Vir- 
ginia Johnson) — Joseph (Elizabeth Taylor) — Augustus (Elizabeth Calla- 
way) — Nancy (James Meadows) — Martha (James Graham) — Miriam 
(Jeremiah W. P. Stevens) — Sarah (Samuel Gwinn) — Billescent (Simeon 
K. Hoffman, 1845)— Mary (George Keller, 1843)— Paulina (Levi Jar- 
rett, 1847). 

The thrift of Samuel, Sr., may be seen in the circumstance that in the 
course of his long life, although living in a poor frontier community, he 


became able to divide $12,000 in specie among his sons, Andrew and Sam- 
uel, Jr., taking each a half-bushel of coin and carrying it by packsaddle 
to their homes beyond Keeney's Knob. James, Jr., is said to have been the 
first white child born in Monroe after the Clendennin massacre. Two sons 
of Robert were colonels in the United States army. In general the Gwinns 
have been good, industrious, and intelligent citizens. 


Luther C, son of Isaiah and Sarah B. Hale of Giles, was a resident 
of Brush Creek from 1866 till his death in 1899 at the age of 59. He 
was a justice of the peace and a man of great usefulness. His wife was 
Laura J. Peck. C: Clarence C, Anne L. (C. A. Hines), Carrie A. (C. 
J. Hansbarger), Mary B., Asa A. 


John (Elizabeth) lived on Stinking Lick in 1802. 


Samuel came from Rockbridge in 1833 and after merchandising a while 
at Union he carried on a store at Nickell's Mills in partnership with J. 
Madison Nickell. In 1846 he sold his interest to Mr. Nickell and moved 
to a farm seven miles north of Union. In 1856 he built the Hamilton mill 
on Second Creek. In a building near by he and Benjamin Vanstavern kept 
a store several years. In 1843 he was elected to the legislature as a Dem- 
ocrat and served three consecutive terms. His first wife, Sarah Wilson, 
came here with him. She died in 1850, and in 1859 he married Mrs. Sarah 
Wharton. C: Robert W. (k. 1st Manassas) — Mary H. (Newton Dickson, 
1855)— William A. (d. 1862)— Samuel P. (d. 1912) (Mattie Staley) — 
Augustus H. (b. 1842) (Mary McChesney) . All the sons were in the 
Confederate army, but on account of defective eyesight, S. P. was dis- 
charged from the service and detailed as miller in his father's mill. Later 
he became one of Monroe's best farmers and was six years on the county 
court. He died near Staunton in 1912. W. A. died of erysipelas, which 
proved fatal also to his father who was attending him. A. H. studied for 
the ministry after the war and followed that calling faithfully for 40 
years, during 38 of which he was pastor at Midway. 

C. of S. P.— Dr. Hubert L.— Clarence S.— Lillian— May— William A. 

C. of A. H. — Sarah (John McCormick) — Alexander M. — Rev. 
Harry W. 


William J., a member of an old Louisa family, was born in 1833 and 
came to Alderson in 1873 as a railroad and express agent. 


Christopher (Margaret) came to Gap Valley soon after the Revolu- 


tion. He sold out to the Pattons and Neels. C: Margaret (John Shires, 
1806), Mary (Thomas Shires, 1804), Elizabeth (Robert Bland, 1808), Cath- 
arine (?), Sarah (?), George (?). 


This family was once very prominent but is now extinct in Monroe. 

John (Mary) (d. 1811) (estate $2765.38). C: William (1769-1840) — 
John (Pensie) — Margaret (Samuel Clark) — Sarah (Humphrey Keyes, 1803) 
—Nancy (Thomas Akins, 1804)— James (1767-1844)— Alexander— Eliza- 
beth — Walker — Archibald — Samuel — Isaac. 

C. of William (Margaret Henderson) : Zenas (Emeline R. Karnes, 1841) 
— Lucinda — Rebecca — Polly (John Gill) — Ruth (Jacob Barger) — John — 
Samuel (Isabel Barger)— Lucinda (1796-1866) (William T. Arnott)— Lo- 
gan — Lindy ( Weikel) — Louise (s) — (Jean Arnott) — Hen- 
derson — Constantine — Jabez ( Charlotte) . 

Archibald (d. 1796) (Jean) was neighbor to James Alexander. His 

personalty was $593.10. C: Sarah ( Shands), Griselda, Ann, Jean, 

Mercy, James (Mary, b. 1767, d. 1884). The last named, a nephew to 
another James, had half the homestead. 


William came to Monroe between 1790 and 1800. Jehu (1801-1890) 
(Susan Berger), a son of William, lived near Willow Bend. C: J. D. 
(Methodist minister), Susan A., Malvina D., David, Leonidas, Rev. W. 
F., Mrs. C. A. Joyce. Jehu was a Methodist minister and sweet singer. 


This is an old name in the Valley of Virginia, where there is mention 
of Stephen as early as 1752. John lived on Nelson's Creek of the upper 
James in 1775, and Jacob was a resident of Alleghany in 1824. John H. 
came to Monroe about 1857 and bought 1130 acres of land on Rich Creek. 
He was twice married — first wife Barbara Hodge; C: Robert (d.), Renick 
(in Okla.) and J. Echols (Julia Clara), living on Rich Creek; 2d wife, Susan 
Neel; C. Wm. H. (Lily Lively, d. ; Anna Peery), on Rich Creek, Thos. 
(d.), Fannie (d.), Rose, Chas. J. (Carrie Hale), Bluemont, Va. Amos Harns- 
barger lived for years near Union; his son Hugh is now in Staunton, Va. 


John and Hamilton are mentioned in 1805. James (Hannah) died 
about 1820, leaving Polly and Elizabeth, minors. Children of a Harper 
who married a Crosier were Mary (Robert Ballantyne), Elizabeth (Arch- 
ibald Burdette). The Harpers lived in the vicinity of Plank Cabin. 


Four children of John (Margaret) of Orange settled in the southwest 


of Monroe about the close of the Revolution. These were Benjamin, (1751- 
1826) (Susan Ballard of William)— Nicholas (Sarah )— John (Eliz- 
abeth )— Elizabeth (1768-1824) (John Stodghill). A James (Mary 

Snidow) and a Joseph are also spoken of. 

C. of Benjamin: William, John, Thomas, Millie (John Mann, 1801), 
Mollie (James Houchins), Nancy (Adam Mann), Elizabeth (Robert Creed, 
1804) . 

C. of John: Dicea (Bartley Pack, 1811), Elizabeth (Ephraim Broyles, 
1805). Nancy (Thomas Paul, 1815), Polly (Edmund Dunn, 1805). 

Other very early marriages among the Harveys were these: Elizabeth 
(Mark P. Duncan, 1803), Jacob (Hannah Swope, 1802), Joshua (Sarah 
Swope, 1808), Frances (James Swope, 1807), Barbara (Andrew Nickell, 

Nicholas, or according to another account, James, built several log 
cabins at Red Sulphur Springs and was thus the first person to open the 
resort to the public. A daughter married William Adair. A grandson 
of Joseph was governor of Kansas. 


William, born in Philadelphia in 1743, was a son of James and his 
wife, Hannah Harper, who came to that place from England with the 
Quaker immigration that began about 1683. The son, who had received 
a good schooling and learned the hatter's trade, went to the Shenandoah 
Valley, where he married Frances Erwin of the Long Glade. For a while 
the couple lived on the Bullpasture, but at length came to the Sinks of 
Monroe, where Hawkins continued to teach school and make hats. C: 
Mary, Hannah (b. 1776) (Joshua Leach, 1798), James (1778-1862) (Jen- 
nie Boyd, 1808)— Elizabeth (Henry Hull, 1821)— John (b. 1783) (Eliza- 
beth Benson, 1808), Martha, William (b. 1788), Jane (Joshua Phipps), 
Benjamin, Francis. Either Mary or Martha married a Clark. John went 
West. William was in the war of 1812 but nothing is known of him 
since. The Phippses went to Tennessee, whence a son was sent to Con- 

C. of James: Archibald M. (1809-1876) (Anna W. Gray, 1833, Isa- 
bella Miller, 1856),— Frances E. (David Hanger)— Ann M. (b. 1813) (An- 
drew Campbell, 1830)— Joseph C. (Julia Patton)— William H— Adelia 
J. (John W. Gray, 1845)— James S. (1824-1891) (Nancy N. Nickell, Su- 
sanna J. Parker, 1854)— Patrick H. (1826-1902) (Sarah C. Wills, 184r 
— Robert A. P. H. went to Missouri, and R. A. to Texas. 

C. of A. M. — Addison (Delilah Lemons), Isaac N. ( Dirkie), 

Eliza A. ( Wiggins), Mary J. (Addison Leach), Lydia C. (W. 

W. Jones), Thomas J. (Rebecca J. Erwin); by 2d w. — Hiram H. (Ruth 
M. Potts, 1893), Andrew J .(Jennie Thacker), Virginia A. (Hugh A. 


Beamer), Emma M. (Thomas J. Boyd), James A. (Mattie C. Brannon). 
Nearly all these went to Nebraska, Illinois, and Texas. 

C. of James S. (by 2d w.) : Joseph M. (Grace A. Dodds, Sarah A. 
Kincaid)— William A. (Laura J. Beamer, 1881)— James N. (Sarah V. 
Irons, 1882) — Robert P. (Sarah B. Simpson) — Carrie A. (mission teacher) 
— Erastus B. (Frances L. Daniel, 1895). It is only this last branch of the 
Hawkins connection that is represented in Monroe in the male line. 


This connection is noted for longevity and powerful physique and for 
the proverbial German fondness for limestone soil and bluegrass. Joseph 
(1751-1847) (Mary J.) came to a patent on Wolf Creek about 1772. Their 
one son Henry (1774-1849) (Barbara Huffman of Joseph, 1805). C: Eva- 
line — Nancy — Joseph — Henry — Barbara (William Hines, 1814) — George W. 
—John. All but George W. (1813-1892) (Patsy Hines, 1833) left their 
native county. He was a veteran horse dealer. 

C. of G. W.— Lewis C. (drowned 1853)— Thomas L. (1837-1892) 
(Mrs. Virginia Wood, 1865)— Isabel C. (J. M. Willis, 1856)— Joseph N. 
(1840-1913) (Emma McLaughlin, 1868)— Mary J. (dy)— Martha E. (J. 
Cary Woodson, 1868— Wallace P. (b. 1846) (Lenora W. Gooding, 1876) 
— George L. (Virginia Beckner, 1874) — James A. (Mary Cole, 1873) — Cor- 
nelius E. (Nannie Dunn, 1880) . Of the above, only Isabel C. and Wal- 
lace P. have remained in this county, the latter living on the family home- 
stead. The other branches of the connection are dispersed through other 
counties and other States. 

C. of J. N.: (Arthur Hank), J. W., H. G. 

C. of W. P.— Lola— Roy. 

C. of T. L.— C. O.— F. N.— Mrs. Walter Skaggs. 

Seemingly related to the foregoing Joseph was William (1763-1819) 
(Catharine Shanklin, 1793, Magdalen Kelly, 1812). He was a son of 
Isaac, a German, and his brothers Benjamin and Joseph lived on Jack- 
son's River. The latter married Barbara Riffe in 1782. Another, Charles, 
married Mary Dixon of Greenbrier, in 1781. About 1793 William came 
as a merchant to Sweet Springs, but in 1795 removed to Gap Mills, where 
he carried on a mercantile business with William Shanklin. He was a 
very prominent citizen in his time. C: James M. (1794-1858) (Isabella 
Dunlap, 1821)— Agnes D. (b. 1797) (Michael Erskine)— Andrew S. (s) 
— William P. — Thomas N. W. P. and T. N. both graduated in medicine 
and died'in the South. J. M. removed to Summers in 1840. 

C. of J. M.— William (Amanda E. Harvey, 1850)— Alexander D. 
(Jane Shanklin) — Robert P. (Elizabeth Swope of George, 1858) — James 
(Susan Shanklin, 1861) — Catharine (s) — Jane A. (Norman C. Gwinn, Wil- 
liam Carraway) . 

William was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1872 and 


a state senator in 1892. A. D. was a delegate to the Virginia Assembly 
in 1856-7. James graduated from Washington College and Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, was a chaplain in the Confederate army, and after 
the war was a Presbyterian minister. 


Frederick ( Tuckwiller) lived in Rich Hollow, Greenbrier. A 

son was Moses, father of S. Taylor, James J., and John. 


The brothers John, James, and Samuel, supposed to be sons of William, 
came to Augusta about 1740. Colonel John, a justice of Greenbrier, mar- 
ried Ann Given, sister to the wife of General Andrew Lewis. He died 
in 1787, leaving four minor children, Samuel, John, James, and William. 
Two wealthy and prominent pioneers of Monroe were the captains, John 
and James, who took the state census in 1782. The former, who appears 
to have lived in the valley of Rich, died in 1787, and his estate was ap- 
praised by residents of that section. James married Sarah Estill, a daugh- 
ter of Wallace Estill, but died about 1793, leaving only one child, and 
the widow remarried. The wife of John was Elizabeth Harvey. Other 
Hendersons, male and female, are mentioned in the records. William, 
brother to the above James, had Nancy, James, Alexander. 


Frank Hereford was born in Fauquier county, July 4, 1825. In earlj 
youth he removed to the West, not pausing until he reached California. 
In the new country his honesty and faithfulness gave him success. Com- 
ing to Monroe shortly after the war of 1861 he engaged in the practice 
of law, and in this field he exhibited a conscientious duty toward his 
clients. At the same time he took a strong position in the political affairs 
of West Virginia. He served four years in the House of Representatives, 
and four years in the United States Senate, completing the term left va- 
cant by the death of Allen T. Caperton. Mr. Hereford was popular and 
public spirited, and firm and true to his convictions of right. For many 
years he was a most loyal member of the Methodist church, but his lib- 
erality in his support of Christian work was by no means confined to his 
own denomination. The severe labor and exposure which he went through 
in his earlier years showed their effects in middle age, and toward the 
end his health was considerably impaired. He died February 21, 1891. 
Mr. Hereford was married to Alice B. Caperton, who survived him pre- 
cisely ten years. Their children are Francis G., Alexander ( 

Morton), Harriet (J. J. F. Shaw) and Katharine ( Stoddert). 



Thomas had Moses (d. 1805), Catharine ( Surgeon), Margaret 

( Higgenbotham) . 

C. of Moses (app. $473.56) (Polly Bowyer) : Andrew, Mary, Mar- 

Henry (d. 1816) calls himself very old. C: James and others. 
Mary (Leonard Fisher, 1804), daughter of Joseph. 


C. of Martin (Margaret Boyd): Spencer (Margaret Patton), William 
(Barbara Nickell), Nancy (James Curry), Malvina (William Nickell). 
Spencer and William built the first houses in Sinks Grove. 


William (d. 1815) (Elizabeth) is said to have built the first shingled 
house in Wolf Creek. His home was on Kelly Creek near Creamery. The 
only children we learn of were William, John, and Elizabeth. The first, 
as we are told, had only 24 children by his second wife. Of all this host 
the only names we have are John (1828-1896), Hannah, Eliza (Andrew 
A. Miller, 1845), Minerva (Thomas Johnson, 1844). The children of 
John of William, Sr., (w. Virginia Nickell, 1853) are Wellington, Annie 
E., A. Luther, Allen T., John. John of William, Sr. had William, Polly. 
The same or another contemporary John had Cynthia, Joseph, James, John, 
Andrew, Nancy (d. before 1842), Malinda. Other early Hinchmans were 
Margaret, born 1758, and Thomas, levy-free, in 1816. William, Sr., had a 
daughter who married a Dickson and had a daughter Elizabeth. 


Charles (Margaret) settled on Wolf where he died in 1804. His 
children were William (Jean Alford, 1806, Margaret Haynes) — Charles 
(s)— Henry— Felicity, or Fidelity, (Loyd Ellis, 1819)— Iba (s)— Mary (Jo- 
seph Swope, Jr., 1800) — Nancy (James Alford, 1806). Henry was a sad- 
dler at Union and lived to an old age. Many are the stories told of his 
waggishness. Of the children of William, two were by the first wife. 

C. of William: Charles R. (Cynthia Connor) — Matilda (Albert Alder- 
son) — Catharine) (David Longnecker) — Martha (Beniah, B. Hutchinson, 
1846) — Eliza (Ephraim Honaker, 1845) — Margaret (William Copeland) 
— Virginia (s) — Emeline (drowned crossing a footlog) — Madison (Eliza- 
beth Jameson) — Joseph P. (Lucy Alderson) . Of the children of Charles 
R. two were by a second wife, Sarah R. Beard. C. of C. R. — Mary I. 
(George Alderson) — James W. — Lorenzo N. — Mattie C. (Henry Butt) — 
John W. (111.)— Jesse L. ( Winn)— Charles B. 

Of the above, Charles R. kept store several years at Johnson's Cross- 
roads but died at Pence Springs. James W., a physician and surgeon, 


was a graduate of Emory and Henry College and had practice in the Con- 
federate army. Butt was his professional partner. Jesse L. is a fruit 
grower of Albemarle and Charles B., a pharmacist, was president of the 
county court of Summers at the time of the contention over the boundary 

Joseph P., of Dropping Lick, had 10 boys: Jesse E., Charles A., and 
Robert L., thrifty farmers of Monroe; George R., John P., and Thomas H., 
farmers in Missouri; William E. and Cary C, attorneys at Sutton; James 
E., an agent, and Samuel O., deceased. This is a good record. 

Another Hines was Joseph (Margaret) whose daughter Catharine mar- 
ried Jacob Haynes, 1804. , 


John S. (1827-1906), a very worthy son of Rockbridge County, came 
in 1871 and purchased the Andrew Campbell farm near Pickaway. He 
married Sarah Ramsay in 1851. C: Luella T. (James G. Leach, 1875), 
Lelia S. (C. L. Morris, 1888), Thomas S. (Hattie Hammitt, 1889), Ashby 
A. (druggist), William H., Anna R. (B. C. Young, 1895). John S. 
would appear to be a descendant of Samuel (Elizabeth) who settled on 
the Calfpasture river about 1745, and died there some 30 years later, leav- 
ing these children: Eleanor, John, James, Sarah ( McDonald), 

Agnes ( Martin, Margaret ( McElvain), Catharine ( 

Kelly), Elizabeth ( McCutchen). 


John (1744-1781) (Ann Kilpatrick, 1764) was the oldest son of James 
(Elizabeth Davis) of Moffett's Branch, and he in turn was a son of John 
(Nancy Wallace), who came from Ireland with his wife and settled on 
Elk Run in Augusta about 1740. The grandson lost his life in Indian war- 
fare. C: James (1767-1854) (Johanna Wilson, 1803)— Charles (1769- 
1843) (Jane McGlamery, 1801)— John (1773-1819) (Mary Smith, 1799c) 
—Margaret (Alexander Malcom) — William (Ann Kilpatrick, 1798). Wil- 
liam married and lived in Anderson county, Tenn. Margaret lived in 

C. of James (Johanna) : Ann (John McNair, 1825) — John W. (Jane 
R. Huggins) — Polly (James Hogshead, 1829) — James H. (m. in Mich.) . 
The McNairs went to Iroquois Co., 111., and James H. to Schoolcraft, 
Mich. The four children were born in Augusta between 1804 and 1809. 

C of Charles (Jane): Humphrey (s)— Isabella (1803-1886) (John B. 
Hogshead, 1828)— John (1806-1857) (Polly Hogshead, 1829)— Sarah A. 
(James H. Hogshead, 1839). This family came to Monroe in 1822. 

C. of John (Mary): Eliza E. (1800-1878) (Tristram Patton, 1827) — 
John B. (b. 1802) (Isabella Hogshead)— James H. (b. 1804) (Sarah A. 
Hogshead) — Benjamin G. (s) — Ann M. (John Remley) — Charles P. (m. 


in Tenn.), Calvin P. (m. in O.) — William H. (m. in Va.) — Alexander 
L. (m. in Rockbridge) . This family were born in Monroe, the parents 
being married here. C. P. went to Miss., Calvin P., a Presbyterian min- 
ister, to Ohio, W. H. to N. C, and A. L. to Washington Co. 

C. of James (1808-1886) (Polly Hogshead) : Hugh H. (b. 1830) (Nancy 
Robeson, 1852) — Joanna J. (Calvin C. Remley) — Elizabeth M. (James 
Jackson, 1851) — John W. (Rebecca A. Poage) — Charles F. (Virginia C. 
Vanstavern, 1860, Mary E. Buster) — Mary E. (Charles Hedrick) — Isa- 
bella B. (Francis M. Hoylman, 1866)— Sarah A. (b. 1845) (John W. 
McDowell, 1867). 

C. of John B. (1802-1847) (Isabella): Newton H. (b. 1829) (Adaline 
S. Erskine, 1853)— Benjamin F. (Rebecca A. Price, 1853)— Hiram M. 
(Mary G. Miller, 1854)— Washington M. (b. 1833-1865). 

C. of Benj. F. (1831-1913) and Rebecca Anna Price (1831-1909): Mary 
Isabel (H. W. Sanford) (Phila.), H. A. (Etta Porterfield), Margaret 
J. (A. Given — Henry Dillon), Sarah M. (S. W. Anderson), Paulina W. 
(S. C. Peters), John C. (d. '84), Jas. L. (Edith King) (Boston), Rhoda 
E. (Thos. L. Payne). 


Philip (Elizabeth Carnifax) came from Pennsylvania at least as early 
as 1793 and settled on the line of the pike between Union and Gap Mills, 
on land now owned by the heirs of Oliver Beirne. C: Philip — Henry — 
John (Jean Campbell) — Polly (Henry Shock, 1806) — Susanna (James Fos- 
ter, 1821). Henry lived near the Burdette Spring and died a few years 
after the war. John lived at Hollywood, where he operated a grist and 
saw mill. He served on the county court. The holster pistols which he 
wore in the war of 1812 are now in the possession of a grandson. 

C. of Henry: John W. — Samuel — Jerry — Mary A. (Charles Reed, 1846) 
— (Gershom Keys). 

C. of John: Lewis ( Higgenbotham) — Caperton (Ann Reed) — 

Mary A. (Andrew E. Reed, 1845) — Virginia (Parke Goodall) . 

Of the above grandsons all but Caperton moved away, Lewis moving 
to Missouri about 1852. The sons of Caperton are living in Kansas. 

C. of Caperton: Isaac — John — Virginia S. (Joseph Tomlinson) — Mary 
(John Tomlinson) . 


Frederick (d. 1825) C: John, Isaac, Magdalene (George Cantly, 1808), 
Mary (James Davis, 1803), Jacob, Margaret (Alexander Campbell, 1823), 
Rachel, Sarah (Thomas Reynolds, 1825), Anna, Letty, Elizabeth (William 
Saunders, 1822), Frederick S. 


Edward Houchins, an Englishman of pure Saxon origin, came to Vir- 





























ginia a little earlier than 1750. Of his two sons, Bennett and James, the 
latter (b. 1776) came to Monroe in 1795 and upon his marriage, 179S, 
with Mollie Harvey he built a house on Buzzard's Run near Greenville 
and within a mile of his father-in-law. In 1810 he moved to the west side 
of New River at Crump's Bottom, and thus it was outside this county that 
his children grew to maturity and married. But in his later years, when 
a widower, he returned to the vicinity of his old home and lived with 
his married children. C: John (1799-1855) (Celia S. Mann, 1824), Ben- 
jamin, William, Elizabeth, Polly, Charles (Katharine Hobbs, 1831), James, 
Thomas H. (Elizabeth Ellison, 1838), Nancy. John was a carpenter and 
millwright and built most of the earlier houses in Greenville. He was 
a person of great ingenuity and practical insight and when the waters of 
Red Sulphur Springs temporarily lost the peculiarity which gives them 
their distinctive name, in consequence of some digging and blasting near 
by, he was able to divine the trouble and effect a remedy. 

C: Caroline (b. 1825) (Richard D. Shanklin, James Cooper) — Mary 
A. (John Ryan, 1845)— Allen D. (b. 1827) (Delilah Keaton)— Rufus (1829- 
1903) (Margaret E. Bibb, 1858)— William (Louisa Gumm)— Amanda (Dr. 
George Thompson)— Granville (b. 1835) (Mollie Ballard, 1870c)— Syrena 
(Henry P. Cummings) — Clayton M. (b. 1839) (Martha J. Harvey) — 
Elizabeth (Rev. Woodson R. Cummings) — Thompson (Lizzie McCreery) 
(d. 1914). All but one of 12 children grew to adult age and had fam- 
ilies. In 1880, Mrs. Celia Houchins at the age of 75 could say she had 
11 children living, 85 grandchildren, and 17 great-grandchildren. 

C. of Rufus: Laura B. (R. M. Ryan), William M., Mary S. (Manser 
Harvey), Nellie (Leiton Miller), Emma (Luther M. Garvin), Edward 
M. (Jennie Mann), Ida (William E. Houchins), Charles T. (Mary Lilly), 

Ryan (Ella Mann), Clinton T. ( Allen), Omer R., Lucy (Estelle 

Copeland) . 

C. of William: Ettie (John W. Mann), John G, Lizzie (Cyrus Mil- 
ler), Luther, Elbert, Caroline ( French). 

C. of Granville: Gilmer, Maud (D. B. Daugherty). 

C. of Clayton M— James F. (b. 1866) (Carrie S. Beach), Mary C. 
(George W. Peck), Celia F. (Henry F. Mann), William E. (Ida Houch- 
ins), Virgil C, Lewis T. (Mintie Canterberry) , Henry B. (Minnie Biggs). 

C. of Thompson: Ellen, John, Robert, Otis, Mary, Ethel, Harriet, Carl. 

In 1899, on the anniversary of the birth of John Houchins, a family 
reunion was held by the descendants, then numbering, living and dead, 
225. Of these but 33 had died, all from natural causes except John 
Shanklin, who was run over by a wagon. So far as could be ascertained, 
not one of the connection had ever been arrested, no one had become a 
vagrant or filled a drunkard's grave, nor had a case of bastardy ever 
occurred. Among them were a number in professional life and in com- 
mercial or corporate employment. John, the ancestor, was very athletic, 


and could leap after a run a distance of 42 feet, the world's record being 
a little over 44 feet. Several of his grandsons are also of great muscular 
power, one of them holding at arm's length a weight of 51 pounds. A 
considerable number are or have been school teachers. 

"The Houchins Cornet Band" was organized 1896-7, by nine young 
men, sons of the brothers, Reuben and Clayton Ml. Later on a grandson 
joined. James F. was leader. Some concerts were given in the spring 
of 1898 that went more than half way toward paying for the instruments. 
A snare drum and a fife were added to the equipment. After several of 
the members had fallen victims to matrimony the organization passed out 
of existence. 

James F. is a newspaper man, a writer of pungency and force, a close 
student of politics, and a firm advocate of woman's suffrage. He edited 
the only journal that has appeared in the Indian Creek valley. His in- 
terest in the preparation of this volume has been most exemplary. 


Samuel R. Houston, a son of the Rev. Samuel Houston, was born in 
Rockbridge Miarch 12, 1806. He studied in his father's classical school 
until he was 16, was graduated from Dickenson College in 1825, contin- 
ued his studies at Princeton College and Union Theological Seminary, and 
became a minister of the Presbyterian Church in 1834. He sailed that 
year to Scio, where he labored as a missionary and had to face much op- 
position from the Greek Catholic Church. A chieftain of Laconia invited 
him to his province, where he established a mission school. Ill health in 
his family sent him to Athens and thence to Cairo, where his wife died. 
He returned to Greece, and his only living child falling dangerously ill, 
he returned to America in 1841. Next year he became pastor at Union 
and held the place until 1886 when he resigned. Mr. Houston's later years 
were spent on a farm near Pickaway. His first wife was Mary E. Row- 
land, Rev. R. R., Botetourt Co., Va. His second was Margaret P. Pax- 
ton, by whom he was the parent of nine children: Wm. P., Lexington, Va. ; 
A. C. (d.), a prosecuting attorney of Monroe; S. A. (d.), who represented 
the county in the W. Va. legislature; Dr. J. B. (d.), H. T., Mary (d.), 
Helen, Bessie, and Janet, a missionary to the West Indies. 


The Hoylman family of Monroe begins with James, who married Mary 
M. Vanstavern, born 1820. 


From the Valley of Virginia has issued a host of the progeny of Peter 
Hull and his kinsmen. John (1788-1861) (Sophia Derieux) came from 
Augusta to a place near Centennial purchased in 1801 of John (Eve) Loude- 


back. He came with his father Henry (Emily Derieux White), other child- 
ren of whom were Elizabeth, (1800-1857) (Lewis A. Holmes), Polly (Jacob 
Baker, 1811), ? Henry (Abigail Massy, 1802). A son of John was Henry 
D. (b. 1819) (Mary A. Taylor). 

C. of H. D.: Annaliza, George W., Frances J., John W., Ellen B., 
James H., William L., Robert P., Charles N., Andrew J., Walter L. 

Anderson? (Elizabeth Hawkins, b. 1781) lived near Red Sulphur. C: 

Anderson ( Nettle), Frances ( Wills), Malvina ( 

Meadows) . 


Samuel came with his parents to Monroe in 1799, located on Buzzard 
Run in the valley of Indian, and lived to be 85. His mother was a Vance 
and all three were of Irish birth. His own wife Sarah — or Mary — Jarvis 
(1778-1854) came from North Carolina. Samuel, Sr., was one of three 
brothers of whom Robert remained on Anthony Creek. 

C. of Samuel Jr. — St. Clair (Barbara Miller) — John (m. in Ind.) — 
Nancy W. (James Mann, Jr.) — Jennie (Thomas Blanton) — Jacob C. (Sarah 
J. Woodson, 1839) (k. by accident)— Robert D. (Ellen J. Campbell, 1841) 
— Elizabeth (Jack Mann) — Samuel C. (Margaret I. Cook) — Olive I. (John 
Smith) — Alexander J. (Elizabeth A. Jones). 

C. of St. Clair: Allen ( Pyne)— Samuel (s)— Henry ( Bal- 
lard) — Ward ( Broyles of Andrew) — Dayton C. (Ellen Ballard of 

Thompson) — Margaret (William Suttle) — Amanda (Adam Mann) — Isabel 
(Jesse Thompson) — Mary A. (John A. McDaniel) — Amanda (Addison 
Mann) — Isabel (Jesse W. Thompson). 

C. of Robert D.— Mary J. (L. G. Cheuvront)— Emily (S. L. Slaven) — 
Sarah (John W. Pyne) — Ollie (James Brown) — Ellen (John W. McNeer) 
—Kate (M. C. Ballard)— Cornelia (Wallace Ballard). 

C. of Samuel C. — Thomas B. (Margaret H. Rice, Nora E. Ballard) — 
Elizabeth C. (dy)— Annie L. (Walter Fuller)— Alvah H. (Sidney Wheeler) 
— Chapman (Rosa Terry) — Jennie B. (William Welder) — others (dy). 

C. of Alexander J.— Columbia J. (Peter T. Henshaw)— Robert E. L. 
(Rosa Mann) — Madeline ( Douglas) — Milton (m. in San Francisco). 

The connection in the north of the county is more a Greenbrier than a 
Monroe family. 

Robert (Elizabeth) died 1809. C: James— John— Robert— Rebecca 

( Wilson) — Elizabeth ( Vineyard) — Jane ( Underwood) Nancy 

( Fenton) — Margaret (James Reynolds, 1805). John died 1809. C: 

John — James — William — Richard — Robert — Isabel — Elizabeth — Margaret. 

James (Isabella Charlton, 1800)— d. 1832c— C: Polly (Edward Foster, 
1819)— Margaret (William Wilson, 1806)— Thomas— James— Washington 
— Joseph — Jane (Henry Roberts) . 


Robert (1788-1849) (Jean Wylie)— son of Samuel (Griselda)— C: An- 
drew C— Robert W. (1811-1857) (Angelina Beard)— Alexander— Samuel 
— John — James — Caroline J. — Malinda — Sarah F. 

Andrew of Gap Mills is a grandson of Robert. James (Sophronia 
Vanstavern), cousin to Andrew, lived on Second Creek. C: Benjamin F., 
William, Mary E., Agnes, Emma. 

Samuel F. (Ann Bachman), son of Rev. James N. and Elizabeth Humph- 
reys, was from 1884 till his death in 1904 a leading merchant of this 
county, doing a very large business at Red Sulphur Springs and being for 
several years proprietor of the hotel at that place. 


James (d. 1850) (Mary E.) C: Mary ( Carter), Philip E. 

William, Elizabeth ( Francis), Julia ( Skaggs), Sarah 

( Skaggs), Catharine ( Nelson), Joseph. 

Mary was a landholder in 1799. 


This name, once so numerous and influential in Monroe, has now all 
but vanished. William (d. 1778) came to Augusta in 1746 and lived on 
Catawba Creek. John, Sr., was a miller near Tinkling Spring, also in 
1746. From one or both of these the Hutchinsons of this county appear 
to be derived. John, the first clerk of Monroe, was born 1755 and died 
1843. He was a deputy sheriff in 1781. The name of his wife is un- 
known. His children, so far as we possess their names, were Jane (1780- 

1856) (John Pack, 1801)— Isaac (1781-1850) (Margaret , b. 1785, 

d. 1870)— John (1797-1872) (s)— Anderson (Miss.). George W. (1816- 
1S94) (Sarah Crow, Georgia Watt) was a son of Isaac. C: by 1st w. — 

Ann (Sam'l A. Sterrett), Henry ( Abernathy), Minnie, d., Amanda 

(Jas. E. Mann). Among other early Hutchinsons were John (d. 1796) 
(app. $392.75), Samuel, who died on Hans in 1807; Archibald, who moved 
from the same valley to Kanawha in 1806; William, who sold to Archi- 
bald in 1793; and Alexander (d. 1834) (Sarah Campbell, 1807), some of 
whose children were Thomas J., James A. (Mary J. Woodson, 1844)," 
Benaiah B. (Martha Hines, 1845), Isaac N. 


Andrew (b. 1786c), a native of Scotland, settled near Hillsdale about 
1808. His children by his first wife (Elizabeth J. Parker of Joseph, 1804) 

were John (1813-1901), Elizabeth ( Nickell, Adam B. Crosier) — 

Sarah (David Robinson), and a daughter who married a Young. By a 

second wife (Mrs. Crosier Harper) there was Andrew (1822-1904) 

(Elizabeth Young, 1846c). John lived on Wolf Creek. 

C. of John (Susanna Young of James, 1839): William Y. (Mary E. 

O 15 
X O 


Knapp, 1872) — Benjamin F. (Sarah A. Johnson) — Sarah E. (A. Y. Leach) 
— Estaline (Jeremiah J. H. Tracy)— John C. (Mary L. Suitor, 1883) 
— Robert H. (Elma Barlow) — Letcher (m. twice in III.)- B. F., J. C, 
and Letcher became physicians. All the sons had families: W. Y. 4 sons 
and 1 daughter; B. F. 3 sons and 3 daughters; J. C. also 3 of each, R. H. 
2 daughters, and L. 3 sons and 6 daughters. 

C. of Andrew: Samuel R. H. (Amanda E. Hinton, 1881) — James 
Y. (s)— Susan E. (B. F. Humphreys, 1879)— Sarah V. (J. N. Hawkins, 
1882)— Andrew G. (Belle V. Allen of Ala.)— William E. (Margaret John- 
son, 1896). A. G. is a minister and lives in Georgia. 


James, a hatter, was born in Greenbrier in 1797 and was in the war 
of 1812. He married Mary Duncan, 1820, Rebecca Hess, 1832. The child- 
dren of these marriages were 4 and 7, respectively. 


Daniel (Mary) (d. 1804) lived on Indian and owned four slaves. C: 
Gibson and others. 


Simeon (d. 1854) (Rachel T. Jordan, of Pendleton county) settled in 
Union 1838 and built the Elmwood mansion. C: Eliza, Rhoda J., Benja- 
min F., Emily, William H. (Isabel Shanklin), Mary, Kate, Petrie (k. 


The brothers, Barnabas (Jane), Charles, and Robert (1767-1820) (Cath- 
arine Doran) were natives of Scotland and lived a while in Augusta be- 
fore coming to Monroe, where Barnabas owned several tracts of land. 
He and Charles went at length to Kentucky. Robert lived at Johnson's 
Crossroads. C: Magdalen (1786-1866) (Samuel Gwinn, 1804)— William 
(1788-1871) (Annie Taylor, 1810)— Catharine (1790-1851) (William Gra- 
ham, 1809)— Jane (1792-1864) (William— John?— Mann, 1813)— Jacob 
(1794-1877) (Jennie Morris)— Barnabas (1796-1880) (Sarah Thomas) — 

Robert (1798-1890) ( Gwinn)— Polly (1801-1880) (Thomas Alford) 

—Elizabeth (1803-1884) (William Anderson)— James W. (b. 1805) (Sarah 
Allen, 1830)— Samuel (1807-1884) (Martha Walker)— Sarah (1810-1869) 
(s) — Caleb (b. 1813) (Louisa J. Beard, 1839). Robert went to Indiana 
about 1854. Samuel went to Illinois in 1854 and Caleb in 1857. William 
built the first brick house in Wolf Creek. 

C. of William: Jane (b. 1811) (Samuel Parker)— Robert (Emily Gwinn) 
— John (Sarah? Hinchman) — Jacob (dy) — James (Susan Argabrite) — Mary 
(Thomas L. Alford, 1844) — Catharine (Alexander Anderson) — William 


T. (b. 1825) (Elizabeth Argabrite)— Sarah (Andrew Coffman)— Caleb 
E. (b. 1832) (Mary M. Argabrite, Mary J. Maddy) . Robert, John, and 
Sarah went to Ind. and 111. 

C. of James of Wm: Mary (John G. Stevens), Mattie (J. Calvin 
Young) . 

C. of William T. of Wm: John F., Fletcher M., Leslie A. (Delia 
Ellis), May B. (J. W. McClung). 

C. of Caleb E. of Wm: McKendree D. (EEe L. Harrah), Luther P. 
By 2d w. — Jane E. (Lewis E. Johnson), Salome E., Josephine, James C. 
(Blanche Shrewsbury) . 

C. of Barnabas: Thomas (Minerva Hinchman, 1844), Rebecca (John 
P. Ross, 1840), Catharine (Armistead Ross, 1843), Louisa (John C. Bal- 
lard), Emily (George Young), William B. (1829-1883) (Agnes R. Hinch- 
man, 1853), Mary (John D. Beard), James M. (Ella Vawter), Belle (s) . 

C. of Thomas of B. — Wellington, Cornelia, Amanda, Cary, John W., 
Emerson, Mary. 

C. of William B. — Manilius W., Marshall A., L. Edgar, James A., 
Robert L., Frank P., C. Alice, Mary E., Ida S. 

C. of James M. of B. — Ashby, Eugenia, Elliott, Julia, Stella, Emily. 

C. of Jacob: William, Clark, Kellar (Ira Jarrett, 1840), Eveline, Min- 
erva (David Riffe, 1847), Eliza, Belle. 

C. of James W. — James M. (Cynthia A. Lucas, 1870), Caleb L. 
(Mary E. Connor, 1877). 5 others did not reach maturity. C. of J. 
M. — Charles L., Minnie A. C. of C. L. — Sarah G, Mamie A., Lula M., 
James H., Constance E. 

C. of Caleb: Pembroke, Rebecca, Edmonia, Wallace, John A., Louisa. 

The descendants of Robert Johnson are a well-to-do and prominent 
connection and have included a number of staunch Methodists. 
* * * * * * * * * * * 

Thomas (1754-1821) was one of the nine children of George, a sea 
captain of Philadelphia. Four of these were in the Revolution and one 

was killed. Thomas married Mary in Augusta and settled on 

Turkey. C: Richard (Polly Dickey)— Mary (1786-1826) (George Beirne) 
— John (Rhoda Rolston, Margaret Neel) — James (m. in O.) — Thomas 
(Margaret Black)— Nancy (1780-1854) (George Johnston, 1800)— Rachel 
(John Johnston, 1800)— Elizabeth (1790-1857) (John Clark, 1814)— Mar- 
garet (John Wyatt) . The Johnstons were brothers from Rockingham and 
went to Ross Co., O., because of their dislike for slavery. George had 
1500 acres of Scioto bottom, and although the first man of his commu- 
nity to refuse liquor in harvest time he never lacked for help. James 
Johnson also went West. Johnsonville, Ind., is named for him, and he 
gave an endowment to Wabash College at Crawfordsville. Only Richard 
and John remained here. 


C. of Richard: Elizabeth (Addison Dunlap, 1831)— Thomas (Caroline 
Stodghill)— John (Nellie Kountz)— Mary (1817c-1857c) (James Stodghill) 
— Isabella (John E. Morgan) — Agnes (Henry Walker) — George (k. by 
ball) — Margaret (Frank Ralston) — Charles (s) — Andrew J. (Susan Rapp). 

C. of A. J.: George (Lizzie Vaughan), Mollie (Jas. A. Dunlap), Ju- 
lia ( Shirkey), Ella (A. J. Peck), Sam'l, Minnie (John P. Patton), 

Willie (Chas. N. Hull), Chas. B., Margaret (W. E. Irons), Hessie (R. 
C. Miller), Nora (G. B. Givens), Walter W. (Califo) . 

C. of John: John, Samuel, Thomas (Matilda Swope) ; by 2d w. — Rich- 
ard L. (Eliza Dobson), William O. (Sarah E. Clark, Mary E. Riffe), 
Mary R. (Robert D. Campbell), Ann (William H. Barger), Malinda E. 
(John Barger) . 

C. of R. L.: John W. (Susan Ralston), James R., Dr. Samuel W., 
Harvey A. C. of Wm. O., by 1st wife. Mollie (J. M. Johnson, M. F. 
Pence), Rella, (d.); by 2d wife: John R. (Georgia Young), Thomas L. 
(Anna L. Campbell), Ada N. (Charles N. Bobbitt), Frances F. (J. E. 
Poff), Daisy D. (Walter N. Hank), Glenna P. (Henly B. Givens). John 
R. has served his county as sheriff. 


Charles M. was the youngest child and only son of John M., a native 
of Connecticut, who in early life settled in the lower Shenandoah Valley 
and there married Mary Smith, a granddaughter of Sir Sidney Smith, of 
England, whose son, settling in Richmond county, was the founder of a 
line of Virginia Smiths. John M. Johnston was a Presbyterian minister 
of Scotch lineage. Charles M. came to Union in the 50's and edited a 
newspaper. Several years after the war, in which he served in Brooke's 
Battery of the Confederate army, he returned, and until his death in 1880 
was owner and editor of the "Monroe Watchman." His wife was Vir- 
ginia L. McCormick, whose grandfather, Stephen McCormick, was the 
first man to devise a plow with a moveable metal point. Albert Sidney 
Johnston, son of Charles M., succeeded his father at once and has ever 
since been owner and editor of the "Watchman." He has twice represented 
his county in the lower house of the state legislature. He married Izzie 
McNeer and the children of the couple are Albert S., James M., Marion 
S., Charles M., Caroline V., Duncan M., Elizabeth, Dorothy, and Izzie. 
The other children of Charles M. are Robert E. (Elizabeth Billups) of 
Miss., and Agnes, wife of Rev. G. P. Sommerville, of N. Y. 

Andrew H. (1820-1887) (Mary J. McDaniel) b. Giles Co., Va., son 
of Andrew (Jane Henderson) settled at Union 1853, merchant, cashier of 
Bank of Va. branch, after civil war organized Bk. of Union and was its 
first cashier. C: Jennie (Thos. H. Dennis), Walter McD. (Anna L. 
Hayes) . 



James (1760-1849) (Mary , b. 1781, d. 1852) lived near Hills- 
dale. His wife was a native of Fauquier. C: William (b. 1782), Sam- 
uel (b. 1784) (Jean ), John, Eli, Mary (b. 1891) (Edward Fife, 

1815), Uriah, Elizabeth (1795-1832) (Susanna (b. 1797) (Archibald Camp- 
bell), James, Francis (b. 1802) (Mrs. Nancy Ellis), Nancy. 

C. of Francis: Mary, Jane, Amanda. 

The second wife of another John was Elizabeth Lake (m. 1804). C: 
Edward (Agnes Eads of Wm.), Valentine (111.), Polly (John McMann), 
Jane (Archibald McDowell, 1840), Elizabeth (William Cart). John and his 
sons, Edward and Valentine, went West about 1850. 

Dan'l Jones, bro. of James, came from Fauquier, m. Mary Rector. C. : 
Jesse (Margaret Miller, Martha Maddy, nee Arnott), last marriage 1888. 

C. of Jesse (d. 1897): Jos. Wash. ( Hawkins), J. M. (Fannie 

V. Pence, d. 1916), Mary Ann (Jacob Hall, G. P. Willis), W. W. 
(Lydia Catherine Hawkins), Matilda (G. W. Hill), A. J. (Lou Morris), 
L. A. (Mary Lucy Anderson). Jesse Jones was long a Justice of the 
Peace, postmaster at Wolf Creek for many years, and member of County 


John (1791-1873) (Elizabeth Gilliland) came to Rich 1823. John, Jr., 
(1823-1900) (Maria Karnes) was the youngest of his six children. 


James G., a son of an English immigrant and Welch mother, came 
here early in his married life. He was a good farmer and was an over- 
seer of the Beirne estate. His wife was Lucy Eads, a daughter of Peter 
and an aunt to Capt. James Eads, the famous civil engineer. C: George 
W. (dy) — Abraham L. (Virginia Whaite, 1848, Amelia Tuggle) — Andrew 
J. (1829-1906) (Mary J. Turpin, Caroline Coalter, 1866)— Christopher B. 

(Frances Shanklin) — James ( Kessinger) — Henry B. (Virginia Mc- 

Creery) — Martha A. (William Smith) — Sarah (Rice Vass) — Eliza (John 
Carey) — Susan (Hugh Bare) — Malinda (David Foster) — Jeannette (b. 
1839) (James Surber) — Margaret (Lindsie Carter) — Isabella (Jacob Sto- 
ver) . 

Abraham L., born at Union 1826, and still living as we go to press, 
has been a lifelong farmer and attributes his long life and good health to 
outdoor exercise. He is a very well informed man, reads without glasses, 
and is not slow to defend his religious and political faiths, which are 
the Disciples Church and the Democratic party, respectively. C: William 
F., James E. By 2d w. — Mary (Joel Ballard), Amanda (S. Washing- 
ton Motteshead), Virginia (J. Nelson Shumate), Larkin D. (Cora B. 
Hornbarger, Mrs. Virginia E. Musser), Charles A. (Minnie Peck), Wil- 


liam F. (Virginia Bare), James E. (Minnie E. Barton — a 2d w. is a 
cousin of precisely the same name) . 


Samuel (Rebecca Alexander). C: Catharine (Andrew J. Keyser), 
Elizabeth D. (John W. Vawter, 1866), Andrew (Harriet Cook), David 
(Mary B. Shanklin), Alfred, Lewis (d. '63), Mary (J. R. Shanklin), 


Not later than 1780 Edward Keenan came from Tinkling Springs with 
his wife and oldest child, his wife's mother, the widow Griselda Donally, 
and his father, Patrick, probably then a widower, and Charles. As early 
as 1781 we find him a constable and the administrator on the estate of 
James O'Bryan. For at least twenty years longer his name occurs often 
in the record books of Greenbrier, showing him to be a 
man of force, practical judgment, and executive ability. iHis very prom- 
inent share in the establishment of the first Miethodist church building west 
of the Alleghanies is elsewhere related. The same sketch also affords an 
insight into his kindly nature and wide influence. He was born in 1742 
and died in 1826. Himself, his wife, and his father were buried at Re- 

C. of Edward (Nancy Donally, b. 1755, d. 1810): Phoebus (d. in in- 
fancy) — Margaret (George Counts, 1799) — Charles (Anna Alford) — Elea- 
nor (Andrew Beirne) — John ( McComas) — Mary (Undrel Budd, 

1807)— Nancy (John Kelly, 1816)— Michael (Anne Kelly— or Hamilton?) 
— Patrick H. ( McComas) — Samuel (s). 

John went to Kentucky and Patrick H. to Kanawha county. A son of 
the latter was Newton E. (Elizabeth Alexander) whose children by her 

were Elizabeth ( Sprague) — John E. — Virginia L. (Dr. William 

Baldwin) . Another was Andrew, whose daughter Margaret became the 
wife of the well known millionaire, Charles Broadway Rouss. 

C. of Charles of Edward: Elizabeth (George Whitcomb) — John (s) 
—Michael D. (Julia Evans) (1811-188+)— Nancy (s)— Martin— Andrew 
B. (s) — Jennie R. (James Burdette, 1839) — Leona (s). 

C. of Michael of above Charles: Patrick H. (s) — Charles A. (s) — Eliza- 
beth A. (Clark Folden) — Mary (Luther Beckner) . 

Charles, brother to Edward, appears to have died before 1813. A son 
was Andrew B. (1807-1891). Samuel B. (1797-1881) may have been an- 
other. In his minority he was a ward of Michael. 


James (d. 1809) . 

Henry (bro. to James) C: James, Robert. 


Francis (d. 1825) C. Ann, Kate, James, Hannah, Thomas, William, 
Elizabeth, Polly. One daughter married a Roach. 

James. C: John, Joseph, Wilson, Henry, Henrietta ( Right), 

Nancy ( Saunders), Emily ( Halstead), Adaline B., Mary A. 


James (b. 1745) (Ankey Ballard of William, 1767) came from Orange 
to Indian Creek in 1790. C: Johnson (d. 1851) (Elizabeth Mann, 1809) 
—William (Polly Mann, 1806)— Lucy (James Mann, 1808)— Elizabeth 
(James Alderson, 1808) ; 7 others. 

C. of Rev. Johnson, minister of the Primitive Baptist Church and Mod- 
erator of the Indian Creek Association, 1837-1851: Anderson (d. 1837) 
(Margaret Ballard) — Thompson (Polly Houchins) — George Chloe Hal- 
stead) — Susan (Moses Miller, 1833) — Mary (Jonathan Harvey, 1835) — 
Ankey (Asa. M. Ellison, 1839, Andrew Hutchinson)— Jane (1821-1888) 
(William Mann, 1840)— Ann (George W. St. Clair, 1841)— James (s) 
— Cynthia (John Mann) — Coleman (1834-1901) — Milom (Mary Halstead, 


Philip (1823-1915) came from Rockbridge to Potts Creek and settled 
close to the state line. He was a son of John, Sr., and his wife, Sarah 
Martin, and was a grandson of Philip, an immigrant from Germany. His 
wife was Ellen Gordon, of Rockbridge, and the children of the couple are 
Charles W. (Sue Wylie), Lucy J. (Albert W. Williams), Annie B. 
(James H. Parton), and Lola. 


Conrad (d. 1836). C: John, Philip (Ind. 1840c), Abraham, Henry (d. 
1827c), David, Catharine (Archibald Long, 1813), Sarah (John Maggart), 
Susanna (Frederick Hanger), Rachel (Ephraim Gwinn of Samuel, Sr.), 
Elizabeth (John Farrell). 


Of this old family we have been given no comprehensive account. 
Mathias died about 1795, leaving personalty of $840.69 and these heirs: 

Andrew (Soveny ) (Montgomery Co.) — Mathias (Nutty Ballard, 

1803) — Mary (Jacob Mann) — Jacob (Sarah ) — Susanna (Thomas 

Fulton) — Michael (Mary ) — Elizabeth (Ezekiel Parsons) — Anne 

(James Maddy) . , 

Humphrey (b. 1763) purchased land in the Sinks, 1799. He came 
from Botetourt, but was born at Keyes Ferry, Jefferson Co. 



Roger's personalty was appraised, 1798, at $183.67. 

James and Thomas, heirs of Robert, bought the John Estill land on 
Hans, 1805. 


Alexander (Margaret) lived in Gap Valley. C: Joseph, Alexander. 
Widow died suddenly 1822. 

Joseph W. W. (d. 1829?), Henry C. were sons of Agnes. 


John was living at the head of Indian, 1784. 

Thomas (Mary) (d. 1795) (app. $349.79) lived near Peters Mtn. C: 
Mary, James, Susanna, Andrew (had half of homestead). Widow of 
Thomas was living in 1838 at the reputed age of 101. 


Peter of Gap Valley was a son of Peter, who died in Augusta 1749c. 


William and Steel were sons of Ralph, of Millboro Springs, and settled 
at mouth of Indian. C. of William (d. 1818): William, John, Steel, 
James, Alexander, Robert, Nancy, Clara, Mattie, Polly, Elizabeth, Jant, 
Ralph, Rebecca (Alexander Massy, 1818). Nine were minors, 1818. 


A Huguenot named La Rue fled from France to Holland, married 
there, but died on his voyage to America. On landing in Rhode Island, the 
captain demanded passage money a second time and attempted to sell the 
children, as was then a custom. The widow used a handspike and rescued 
her two boys but lost her daughter. Abraham, a grandson of one of these 
boys, died in Augusta in 1801. His chlidren were Jacob, Mary, Anna 

( Drake), Reuben, Peter (Ann Shields, 1795), Abraham, Sarah 

( Feltz), Elizabeth ( Bodine) . 

Peter (1774-1840) traded land in the Valley of Virginia for the place 
on Hans now occupied by his grandson of the same name. He came in 
1798, the roads being so poor that at times his wagon had to take the 
bed of Indian Creek. This vehicle was so strong and well built that it 
was in use until about 1875. The wagon bed was long, strong, and heavy. 
Four horses, and sometimes six, were required to pull the load it could 

C. of Peter: Margaret, Jacob, Polly F., Nancy, Sarah, Wilson, Eliza- 


beth, Rebecca, Ann (1813-1852), John M. (b. 1816) (Sarah S. Peters, 1845) 
Martha J. Jacob went to Missouri about 1825. The present Larews of 
Monroe are derived from the youngest son. They are Lewis (Roberta 
Larew), Peter (s) served on Monroe County Court and Maggie (W. W. 
McClaugherty). C. of Lewis: Sadie, Maud, Genevieve, Anna (L. S. 
Tully), Edgar (Willa Christie), Robert, Cyrus, d. 

John W. (Agatha D. Shanklin) came from Rockbridge, 1828. 


William (Elizabeth) (d. 1834). C: Mercy ( Patterson), John, 

William, Nancy ( Hutchinson), Elizabeth ( Clark), James. 


William, a stonemason, came from Prince Edward at the close of 
the Revolution with his wife, Susanna Hughes. He was accompanied by 
Leach Mann, a relative, and by the Gullett, Egner, and Fuller families. 
His settlement was on the Washington Nickell place in the Sinks, some 
of his close neighbors being James Gregory and John and William Brown. 
He owned slaves and left personalty valued at $274.67. After his death 
in 1805 the widow and most of her children went to Kentucky, Joshua, 
Mary, and Elizabeth remaining in the Sinks. Esom was living on Rich, 
William, Jr., on Kelly's, and Reuben, already married, had been deeded 
a part of the homestead. About 1815 some of the family came back as 
far as Charleston with a stone to mark the father's grave, but learning 
there that the spot could not be identified they returned to Kentucky and 
have been lost sight of. C: Reuben (Jean) — John — James — Mary (James 
Jones, 1781)— Matthew— Joshua (1773-1858) (Hannah Hawkins, 1798) — 
Edward — Esom (Jean) — William (Jean) — Elizabeth (Harden Shumate, 

Two sisters came with William, Sr., to Monroe. Susan married Isaac 
Foster and Nancy married Alexander Clark. 

C. of Joshua: Nathaniel (b. 1799) (Arianna Kerr)— James (1801-1869) 
(Ann Davis Prentiss, Margaret Boyd Hill) — Alexander (1803-1860) (Isa- 
bel Neel, 1830, Nancy Martin, 1845)— William (Mary Young)— Edmund 
(1809-1863) (Ann P. Drummond)— Robert W.— Amanda M. (1815-1897) 
— Andrew (b. 1819) (Mary Drummond) . Nathaniel's descendants are 
about Dayton, O. 

C. of James: George A. (d. 1892): by 2d w.— James H. (Florence 
Johnson) . 

C. of James H.— William G. (Rose Tubby)— Samuel B. (Mary Bob- 
bin)— Margaret D. (A. Price Wylie)— Arthur J.— Cora B.— Ashby G. 
(Mary Wallace) — Clarence G. — Everet P. (Mamie Nicholas). 

C. of Alexander: (all by 1st w.) Indiana (Allen Campbell)— Abner 


(Frances Hull)— Edmund K. (d. 1905) (Mary J. Lemons)— Eliza J. (An- 
drew N. Campbell)— Ballard P. (Mrs. Elizabeth Parke). 

C. of Abner of Alex.— Clara (Kent Keadle)— Eliza (Robert Arritt) — 
Alice (Walter Winall)— Nannie C. ( Wright)— Roy. 

C. of Edmund K.— Ballard P. (Nannie Selvy)— Emirena (Nixon Hed- 
r ; c k) — Yancy (Edward Morton) — Susan (Samuel Duncan) — Lucy (Charles 
Thurmond)— Oliver (Bertha Bostick)— Adger (Lilly Chambers) . 

C. of Edmund: Amanda J. (Patrick A. Boyd)— Joshua B. (Maggie 
Hanna, Mary Beard) — James W. — William H. (Ellen Hanna) — Robert 
H. (Nannie Hinkle, Sabina Nickell, Mrs. Belle Campbell McNutt)— Chap- 

C. of Joshua B. — Lucy (Robert R. Gray) — Bessie (Ashby Lee); by 
2d w. — Margaret (Stewart Brinkley) — Ella. 

C. of William H.— Mamie— Ann (Harry Miller)— Albert (k. by fall) 

— Ernest N. ( Wilson) — Samuel — Drummond (Maude Hawley) — 

Irene — Belle (E. M. Reynolds) — Goldie — Mary. 

C. of William of Joshua: Susan (John McCoy) — Hannah — Cornelius 
(Amanda Swope) — Andrew Y. (Sarah Irons). 

C. of Andrew Y. — Minnington (s) — Osie (Joseph Burdette) — Ida (James 
Perry) — Omer (Elizabeth Coalter) — Eda (Thomas Conner) — Clyde (Ger- 
trude Sheers) . 

C. of Cornelius: Elizabeth S. — Elmer (Nannie Aikin) — Irene (Cary 
Black)— Ada (Dr. Deveber)— Arthur (Mabel Tracy). 

C. of Andrew of Joshua: Angeline (William Still) — Eliza S. (Lloyd 
Upton) (Mary Young) (Mary Dunsmore) (Sarah Young, sister to 

Mary) . Sarah C. ( Vass) — John (Martha Jamieson) — William 

(Lena Weaver) — Mary J. (Robert Harris). 

C. of Robert W. of Joshua: Joshua (k. '62) (Elizabeth Bickett)— Addi- 
son (Mary J. Hawkins) — Amanda (David Smith) — Elizabeth S. (John Mc- 
Clung) — Joseph N. (Lucy Renick) — Martha A. (William Bobbitt) — Vir- 
ginia (Pendleton Bobbitt) — Caroline (George A. Boyd). 

C. of Addison of R. W— Joseph P. (Viola A. Parker)— Bernard J. 
(Florence Parker) — Virginia F. (Oren L. Thrasher) — Harold H. (Pres. 
minister) — Frank (Carrie Stevens) — Mary E. (D. F. Louffer) — Tilden d. 

C. of Joshua of R. W. — James A. (Ada Nickell, Lelia Black). 


Permit (Jean) lived at the head of Second. He had a son of the 
same name. J. W. m. Sarah Rebecca Nickell. C: Ernest N. (Josephine 
Hale), Mattie (O. L. Baker), Sarah Ann (J. J. Townley), Laura Ger- 
trude (J. J. Townley), Wm. Gordon (Ghaski Jeffries), J. Ashby (Bessie 
A. Leach), L. L. (Eva Baker). 


Thomas (Elizabeth) (d. 1838) was a son of Thomas, whose sale in 
1812 brought $848.12. The younger Thomas was a slaveholder. 



In the early settlement of this county and in the development of Old 
Sweet Springs the family of John Lewis stands conspicuous. Colonel John 
Lewis fled from Ireland to America as a refugee from English injustice, 
and in the summer of 1792 he settled two miles east of Staunton near the 
hills, Betsy Bell and Mary Gray, which were named for hills in county 
Tyrone very similar to them. He was the first permanent settler in that 
locality and the senior founder of the county of Augusta. His sons, 
Thomas, Andrew, William, and Charles, were tall, powerful men, influ- 
ential, masterful, and thrifty. All became wealthy and extensive land- 
holders. Thomas, who lived near Port Republic in Rockingham, was 
the first surveyor of Augusta. Andrew, whose home was at Salem, is best 
known in American history as fighting the Indians in several wars and 
winning the battle of Point Pleasant. Charles, the youngest, lived on 
Cowpasture river. He too was a fighter of the red men, and was killed 
at Point Pleasant. He was loved by those who knew him, and had he 
lived longer would undoubtedly have attained high rank and distinction 
in the Revolution. Andrew himself was considered by Washington as the 
best fitted to command the American armies in the struggle with England. 

The career of William (1724-1813) was less striking than in the case 
of his brothers, yet he too was a man of talent and ability. In person he 
was tall, handsome, and robust. About 1783 he removed to the Sweet 
Springs valley and remained here the rest of his life. He had already 
known the spot for at least thirty years. His first home was a large two- 
story log house very near the mill at the Sweet Chalybeate Springs. It 
stood until after the middle of the last century. Subsequently he built a 
stone house immediately to the rear of the site occupied by the present 
mansion of Lynnside. Notwithstanding his controversies with the people 
around him, it seems clear that he sought to establish a model residential 
town, which should likewise be a center of culture and education, as well 
as trade, and during several years it was the seat of a district court. 

The wife of William was Anne Montgomery. Their children were 
John (Mary Preston, 1795) — Charles — Alexander (d. before 1813) — Thomas 
— Margaret— Agatha (Oliver Towles, 1793) — Elizabeth. 

John, whose wife was a daughter of Colonel William Preston, was five 
feet ten inches tall and considered the most muscular man in Virginia. 
He was manly, cheerful, and brave, and also kind, gentle, and frank. He 
fought at Point Pleasant, and entering the Revolution as a lieutenant he 
served with such distinction in Washington's army that at the battle of 
Monmouth he won the rank of major. During the ten years following 
that war he was much on the frontier. He succeeded his father at Sweet 
Springs and died here in 1823. He was an elder in the Presbyterian 
church. Andrew Jackson, who had known him, is reported as saying that 


"if he had a man like John Lewis to second him he would go to South 
Carolina, hang Calhoun, and end nullification within a month." The wife 
of John Lewis was vivacious and accomplished and of great personal 
charm. The children of the couple were William L. (Ann Stuart, Letitia 
P. Floyd, 1837) — Margaret L. (John Cochran) — Anne M. (John H. Pey- 
ton, 1821) — Sarah (John Lewis) — Polydora (John Gosse) — John B. (Mary 
B. )— Thomas P. 

William L., whose second wife was the oldest daughter of Gov. John 
Floyd, spent several years in South Carolina, but returned in 1848 as the 
proprietor of Lynnside. He was of commanding stature and posed for 
the statue of Andrew Lewis at Richmond. He was generous, kind, cul- 
tured, interesting, agreeable, and hospitable. During the pose he wore 
a hunting shirt as emblematic of the old frontier, and this circumstance has 
led to some criticism of the statue, since General Lewis, and probably all 
his brothers also, are known to have been particular in the manner of 
dress. John H. Peyton was one of the legal luminaries of Virginia. John 
B. Lewis became a cadet at West Point in 1826. 

The children of William L. by his first wife were Dr. James S. (Mary 
Owens) — Mrs. William Colcoch — Mrs. Goddart Bailey; by the second: 
Mary S. (James L. Woodville)— Letiita— William L. (1844-1908) (Flor- 
ence C. Dooley, 1868) — John F. (Emma Hawthorne) — Charles P. (s) 
(1850-1914). The youngest son was a skilled surveyor and draughtsman 
and of inventive talent. 

C. of William L., Jr.: Sarah (Gary B. Woodville)— Lavalette (Prof. 
Jarvis Keeley)— Mary H. (d. 1915)— Coralie C. 


William (Euphemia) settled on Potts. In 1803 he swapped 274 acres, 
valued at $2833.33, for 1666 acres on Stone Lick Fork of Miami River, O., 
held by Simon (Hannah) Gillespie on a military warrant. C. of William: 
John B., James N. 


C. of Cottrell (d. 1838): Cottrell (b. 1773) (Sarah Maddy)— Benja- 
min (d. 1840) (Ruth Bostick, 1803)— Joseph (Frances )— Mark- 
Judith — Martha ( Burris) . 

C. of Cottrell, Jr.— Jane (Loammi Pack, 1811), William (O.), Judith 
(Peter McGhee), John (Polly Parker), Thomas (Polly Riner, 1828), Mad- 
ison (drowned), Mary (John Smith, 1840), Sarah (Anderson Smith, 1833), 
Wilson (1815-1865) (Rebecca Swinney, Jane Coalter, 1839, Eliza Gwinn, 

Wilson, who lived on the homestead near Cashmere, was a sheriff, a 
member of the Virginia Assembly, and died suddenly at Farmville about 
the very close of the war. A son was William W. (Mary Lively) . C: 


Ellen E. (Austin McGhee), Leonidas M. (Lillie P. Hoke), Wilson W. 
(Ettie Lewis), Joseph D. (Laura M Lively), Virginia (John J. Hoyl- 
man), Josephine (Jefferson D. Thomas), Selia (Jehu Hoke), Robert B. 
(Ettie Watrous), Laura M (Robert Bennett). 

C. of Benjamin: Loyd A„ Mary J., Joseph, William M. (Mary A. 
Lively), Frances, Nancy A., Sarah, Benjamin M. 

C. of Joseph (1773-1858): Henry (1803-1869) (Eliza J. Stone, 1840) 
—Levi (Adaline Stodghill, 1847). 

T. C, son of Henry, m. Ellen Pence. C: Bessie. 

The pioneer came from Albemarle subsequent to the Revolution. 


John G., a native of Nelson and a Confederate soldier, came to Alder- 
son in 1876 and engaged in the mercantile business. He served a term 
in the State senate He married Sarah A. Alderson in 1863. C: F. G., 
Clara (John Riley), Lena (John Ensign), John (Blanche Hill), Carring- 


David (1808-1891) (Katharine Sines, 1834) was a native of Monroe. 
Jacob (Sybella) was living on Second, 1790. 


Irish history affirms that this name is derived from Linz, a city of 
Austria on the river Danube; that a descendant of a family from that 
region was a prominent follower of William the Conqueror; and that 
the first to settle in Ireland was one Andrew, to whom Henry II gave 
large possessions. The armorial bearings of the family, said to date back 
to the city of Linz, show a trefoil on a field azure for the arms, the lynx 
for the crest, and the words "semper fidelis" (ever faithful) for the motto. 

John (1750-1821), as immigrant from Ulster, settled in the vicinity of 
Hillsdale during or soon after the Revolution. His wife's name is thought 
to be Jean. C: John (b. 1770) (Mary Best, 1795)— Hugh (Penn.)— Mat- 
thew (Md.) — Robert (West?) — George (West?) — Elizabeth (Moses Pren- 
tice, 1803)— Rachel 1781-1870) (Thomas Willey, 1801)— Jane (unc)— Wil- 
liam (b. 1786) (Rachel Dolan, 1808)— Catharine (Alexander C. Robin- 
son, 1812)— Rebecca (John Robinson, 1806), Samuel (b. 1790). John Jr., 
a tailor, was the only son to remain here. William and Samuel went to 
Greenbrier. William, Catharine, and Rebecca were triplets. 

C. of John, Jr.— James B. (1796-1870) (Margery Wylie)— William 
(1798-1869) (Catharine Wylie,. 1823, Mary C. Kelly)— George (1800-1876) 
(Margaret A. Gray, 1836)— Hugh— Jane (b. 1805) (William Young, 1833) 
—Margaret (Samuel Black, 1830)— Isabel (b. 1809) (s). 

C. of J. B. — Andrew (Jane A. Wylie) — James R. (Jane Crawford) — 
Mary A. (John C. Burdette, 1851). 


C. of Andrew of J. B. — James W. (Ellen Reed) — Margaret ( 

White) . 

C. of J. W. of J. B.— Samuel, Lucy, Edward, Bessie, Charles (Etta 
Vanstavern), Lydia (Arthur Leach) . 

C. of J. R. of J. B— Marjorie E. (William A. Gray), Lula (William 
E. Mines), Herbert 0. (Ollie Rodgers), E. Russell (Ada Bruffy) . 

C. of William: Martha A. (b. 1823) (Feamster Nickell)— John R. 
(Tex.) — James A. (s) — Margaret C. (b. 1834) (William H. Dunsmore) 
—Hugh L. (Tex.)— George T. (1840-1912) (Georgianna Archey)— Au- 
gustus C. (b. 1843-1912) (Amanda Beckett, Isabel Crosier) — William H. 
(Susan V. Kelly). 

C. of G. T. — Bessie (Walter Beamer), Catharine (Anderson Young), 
Annie, Texas (Alta Young), Pearl, Lois,, George. 

C. of A. C— William B., Henry O. By 2d w.— Edna L. 

C. of W. H.— Charles E. (Etta Clark), James W., George W., New- 
ton K. (Grace Meador), Samuel A., Nancy C. (Newton N. Pritt), Mary 
E. (Samuel H. C. Burdette) . 

C. of George: Hugh A. (b. 1837) (Catharine Reed) — John A. (Lizzie 
Gibson) — William L. (Martha J. Parker) — Isabel C. (Fenton Reynolds) 
— Margaret A. (s) — Robert C. — Mary J. (Brown Archey) — Andrew R. 
(s) — Virginia Eliza A. (b. 1860). This family is mainly in Texas. W. 
L. is a minister of the M. E. C. S. 

C. E. Lynch, ex-sheriff, bank president, and deputy county clerk, is 
the present chief of the clan Lynch. C: Nellie C, Susan G. (Dr. John 
C. Anderson), James W., banker, is the first resident of Monroe to own 
an auto. 

George, a cabinet maker, came from Rockbridge to Union about 1835. 

Wife, Matilda Jamieson. C: Emory ( Meek), Sarah (Isaac Bare), 

Jane A. (Cochran Wylie), Alice (Lindsay Carter), James L. (Ellen Har- 
ris), Asbury (d. '61). 

John L., brother to above George, married (1) Anne Wylie, (2) 

Neal. C: (by 1st): John C. (Delilah Shirey, Cora Patton), Thomas, Rella 
(Tanihill Shires), Catharine. 


Thomas (d. 1802) (Susanna). C: Agatha (Henry Bowyer), John, Mar- 
garet, Thomas, Patrick H. Thomas was heir to Richard Mathews. The 
name appears identical with Madison. 


John (Frances) was living on Back Cr. in 1801, adj. Bradley Dalton, 
Bradley Meredith, Isaac Scarborough, William Campbell. 



The genealogy of this family appears to lie in some confusion. Robert 
Morris of Philadelphia, known in American history as the financier of the 
Revolution, was impoverished by his patriotism, and by way of amends 
was granted large bodies of land in the Kanawha valley. His surveys 
were partly in this county, but mainly in Raleigh, Mercer, McDowell, Wy- 
ming, and Summers. We are told that his sister Ann married a Revo- 
lutionary soldier named John Maddy, who was accidentally drowned in 
Shenandoah river soon after the war. The widow came here with her 
child and married a Parsons, She rode back to the Shenandoah to settle 
up the affairs of her late husband, and on her return lodged with a 
mountaineer who assured himself that she had considerable money on her 
person. In the morning he told her of a short cut through the mountains 
and offered to show her the way. Believing him honest she accepted the 
offer and was conducted into a wild cove where there was a very high 
precipice and no habitation within sight. The villian now told the woman 
that he must have her money and would then pitch her over the cliff. She 
asked him for the sake of modesty to turn his back while she extracted the 
money from her garments. He complied and was himself thrown over 
the cliff and killed. "Granny" Parsons lived with her son by Maddy, at- 
taining the age, so we are told, of 104 years. No doubt the tradition 
is principally correct, but there is room for doubt whether she was a sis- 
ter of the great nabob. The Morris name is rather common and there 
could easily have been several Roberts during the Revolution. Identity of 
name is often taken for granted as being equivalent to identity of person. 
Furthermore, the statement that all the Maddys of Monroe are descend- 
ants of her son John cannot be correct, if the latter were the only son. There 
was a William (Elizabeth), a neighbor to John, in 1799, who was living 
in Tennessee in 1808. Another neighbor was James (Ann), who died 
here in 1824. Still another was Jacob (Margaret Sullivan, 1778). One 
more is Matthew, who came from the Shenandoah about 1797 and dis- 
covered and purchased the White Amelia Spring on Big Stony. The above 
settled in the same locality near Greenville and appear to be members 
of one family, said to be of German origin. 

John (1764-1840) married Ann B. Miller, 1785. C: Nancy (b. 1786) 
—Elizabeth (Richard McNeer)— James (b. 1791) (Elizabeth Lowry, 1812) 
—Eleanor (John Hinton, 1813)— Sarah— William (1800-1844)— .Jacob- 
John (1804-1887)— Ann B.— Charles M. (1809-1854). Mary J. (1814- 
1906) (Caleb E. Johnson) was a daughter of James, who went to Ohio. 

C. of James (Ann): Thomas, Susanna ( Luster?), Polly (Wil- 
liam Garten, 1815), Jane, Jude, Hiney, Andrew, Wilson, James. 

C. of Matthew: Nancy, John, William, Lucinda, Alexander, Absalom 
(1806-1866) (Elizabeth Flint, 1841), Elias, Joseph, Rebecca, Gabriel 


(drowned), Eber. The children of Alexander (m. 1837) were Wilson, 
William, Henderson, Rebecca. 

C. of Alexander: Wilson (1838c-1915), William, Henderson, Rebecca. 

C. of Absalom: Joseph (k. '64), Eber (k. '64), Nancy, Christopher 
(Caroline Thompson), Emma (L. J. Davis), Matthew, Lucinda, John H. 
(Mary Lively, Elma Hedrick), Henry, Caroline (G. F. Kesler), William 
T. (Emma Leftwich) . 


Henry (Sarah) sold on Wolf, 1808 to Elizabeth, Catharine, Ulie, heirs 
of Christian Dubois. 


Joseph (Mary) came from the Bullpasture and bought the "plowed 
savannah" in 1801. Joseph (Dorothy) Sr., sold to Alexander a Robert 
Thompson patent in Sinks, 1810. Samuel was another of the connection. 


The brothers Jacob and Adam were natives of Germany and came to 
Indian Creek near Greenville soon after 1770. They helped to build 
Cook's fort and had some narrow escapes during the days of conflict with 
the red men. Jacob married Mary Kessinger, and Adam married (1) 
Polly Maddy and (2) Polly Flinn. 

C. of Jacob: John (b. 1770) (Millie Harvey, 1801)— Adam (b. 1771) 
(Elizabeth Young, 1808, Nancy Harvey, 1812)— Jacob (Millie Ballard, 

1804)— James (1785-1855) (Lucy Keaton, 1808, Parthena )— Isaac 

(Lucy Stephenson, 1825) — Moses (2d w. Sarah Swinney) — Michael (b. 
1793) (Cynthia Walker)— Susan (John C. Maddy, 1828). The children 
of John and Michael went West. 

C. of John: Alexander (Polly Miller, Isabella Stephenson) — William 
(b. 1805) (Sarah Halstead)— Polly (Adam Mann)— Bluford (b. 1809) 
(Elizabeth Mann). 

C. of Adam of Jacob: Susan (Samuel G. Ellison, 1845) — Jacob (Sarah 
Dunbar) — Archibald (Elizabeth Stephenson, 1838) — Jack — Lucy (John Mil- 
ler, 1844) — Millie (John Cummings) — Marinda (Michael Hale) — Sarah 
(Lorenzo Harvey) — Cynthia (George Miller) — Austin (Susan Ellison) — 
Letha (Henry Smith). 

C. of Jacob, Jr.— Celia (b. 1805) (John Houchins)— Annie (b. 1811) 
(William Wiseman)— Elizabeth (s)— Rhoda (s)— Susan (b. 1819) (James 
Ballard) — Morris (Jane Stephenson) — George A. (b. 1823) (Emily A. 
Halstead, 1845, Lizzie Criner)— Eliza (Ervin Miller). 

C. of James: Cynthia (b. 1809) (Jackson Maddy)— Hendley (b. 1810) 
(Elizabeth Ballard) — William (Jane Keaton, 1840) — Mary (Jackson Mann) 
—Squire (b. 1816) (Polly Mann)— Floyd (Elizabeth Wiseman, 1843) — 


Emily (Thomas H. Alderson, 1840)— Eli (1822-1895) (Nancy Ballard) — 
Michael (1824-1864c) (Catharine Rifle, 1845)— Andrew (1826-1899) 
(Rhoda Halstead)— Woodson (b. 1833) (Nancy Mitchell, Mary Raines). 

C. of Isaac: Ward (invalid)— John (1833-1904) (Cynthia Keaton) — 
Mary A. (1836-1887) (James Mohler)— Leah (1837-1915) (Baldwin Bal- 
lard)— Rachel (1841-1879) (Hugh Ballard)— Henry G. (Sarah Harvey) 
—Benjamin F. (Belle Tolbert) . 

C. of Moses: Elias (Harriette Ballard) — Malinda (Henry Harvey) — 
Martha (Wilson Gibson, 1845)— Mary J. (Adam Gibson) — Delilah (John 

C. of Adam: Elizabeth (John Halstead, 1799)— William; by 2d w.— 
Sarah (William Cummings, 1811) — Henry (Malinda Swinney, 1829) — 

James (d. 1835) (Nancy W. Humphreys) — Jane ( Harvey) — Joseph 

_Chloe ( Gibson)— Adam (Polly Mann, Elizabeth Barton, 1845) 


C. of James of Adam: Elizabeth, Polly, Clara, Mahala, Clementina, 
Julia A., Lewis, Albert, Granville. 

C. of Henry of Adam: Christopher, Mary A. 

C. of Adam, Jr. — John, Samson, Ricie, Renie; by 2d w. — Overton. 
Amanda, Eliza J. 

In Second Creek there has been represented a distinct line of Manns, 
probably of British origin and seemingly derived from the brothers who 
settled on Jackson's River long before the Revolution. William T. (Mar- 
garet Alexander) was a son of Thomas and lived near Fort Spring. C: 
Alexander (2d w. Mrs. Snider), Thomas (Elizabeth Fruling), Matthew 
(Elizabeth Curry, 1845), James (Elizabeth Nixon), Elizabeth (Calvin 
Warren), John (Harriet Budd). The wife of Thomas, Sr., appears to 
have an Armstrong, that family being neighbors to the Manns on Jack- 
son's River. 

William (Margaret Clark) came from Va. about 1840. C: John A. 
(Rebecca Zoll, 1871), Samuel C, Elizabeth. 

Jacob (Sarah) owned land in the Sinks, 1801, adj. Andrew Burns 
(Beirne?), Michael Erskine, Thomas Wylie, John Gray, William Griffith, 
William Leach, Matthew Alexander. 


This name is of interest in Monroe from the circumstance that four 
sisters of this name — Margaret, Isabella, Elizabeth, and Hannah — married 
respectively Thomas Steele, Owen Neel, Andrew Crosier, and Robert Dun- 
bar, and came to Gap valley about 1790 to live as neighbors. The four 
sisters and also their husbands, except Andrew Crosier, are buried in the 
graveyard on Harvey Neel's farm. Crosier was on a visit in Greene 

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A Minister of the Baptist Church 


county, Tenn., at the time of his death. Tradition avers that the sisters 
were red-haired, but this trait does not generally appear among the very 
numerous progeny of the later generations. Their father sold his land 
near Lancaster, Penn., for Continental paper money, and this was nearly 
equivalent to giving it away. The heirs lost in a suit with the city of 
Lancaster, as we are informed. They were married in Pennsylvania, but 
whether the Maxwell family came to Gap valley is both affirmed and de- 
nied. At all events we find no titles in the M'axwell name. There was, 
however, an Audley (Ann) Maxwell owning land on Wolf in 1807. A 
relationship with the Maxwells of Hardy county is claimed. One of the 
latter connection is Hu, one of the authors of a school history of this state. 


James H. married Isabella E. Shanklin. C: Alexander (m. Ga.), Wil- 
liam (d. '62), Agnes, Robert S., John D. (Harriet D. Zoll), Jennie L. 
(Alexander Sydnor) . 


Hugh (Mary A. Alexander, 1828) came from Giles. C: James (111.), 
Sarah (George Walker), Mary, Matthew (Mary Jennings), Rebecca 
(James Shorter), Albert (d. '61). 

William (1817-1898) (Elizabeth Kyle): C, Jas. C. (Mary V. Peck, 
Zula Calloway), W. W. (Maggie Larew), Sue, d. and Annie (R. E. 
J. Campbell), J. K. (Mittie Williamson), John (d. in West), Jas. C. 
was county clerk 18 years. 


C. of John (Susan J. Leach): Mary (Walter Stroman), Jennie (Dr. 
George W. Reaburn), Laura (Edwin Alford), Andrew E. (Harriet Bob- 
bitt), Thomas W., Harriet. 


William (1821-1894) (Damarias Francis) came from Ireland, 1830. 
John (d. 1888) (Matilda Harris, 1840). 


Gabriel, a native of Campbell and graduate of Randolph-Macon and 
Jefferson Medical Colleges, came to Monroe after having been a Division 
Surgeon under Gen. Breckenridge of the Confederate army. For 18 years 
he was a resident of Union and had a very large medical practice in this 
and adjacent counties. He was a member of the Board of Health for W. 
Va. and of several medical societies. He also represented this county in 
the legislature, and was greatly respected by the people of his adopted 
Monroe. His death took place in the line of duty, while he was driving 
in his buggy to visit a patient. He was aware that he had organic dis- 


ease of the heart and that it was liable to snap the vital cord at any 
moment. His age was 67. His wife was Clara B. McAllister, of Cov- 
ington, and his children are May (S. W. Anderson) and Clara (T. E. 
Buck) . 

John (Susanna) was on Brush, 1801, and seems to have been the 
father of John (Sarah Riner) (d. 1852) who lived near Rich Creek mill. 
C: Harriet (John Thompson), Eliza (Andrew L. Fleshman), Lydia (Alex- 
ander Hutchinson), Matilda (Isaac Smith), William (Susanna Beckner 
Garman), Ann (s), Mary M. 


Archibald (Catharine) came to Second Creek before 1780 and oper- 
ated a saw and grist mill on the site of the present Beamer mill. He 
died in 1813, leaving personalty appraised at $1192.75. Wife, Catharine 
Davis. C: John— William— James (1781-1851) (Margaret Dickson, 1805) 
— Walter (d. 1850) (Patsy Pritt) — Ann (Patrick Boyd) — Jane (James 
Crawford) — Margaret (George Gullett, 1812) — Frances (Thomas Stuart, 
1803) — Hannah (Mason Mathews) — Rachel — Malvina — Catharine. The 
three daughters last named married a Thomas Reynolds, a Rodgers, and 
a Young. It is thought there was still another daughter, who married a 
Leach. Hannah and Frances had each an Archibald when their father 

C. of James: Isabel (b. 1806c) (Thomas Nickell, 1821)— Catharine (b. 
1807) (Robert Nickell, 1824)— Polly (b. 1809) (James Humphreys, 1828) 
—Jane— Sarah (b. 1814) (Robert Campbell, 1830)— Archibald (1816-1897) 
(Jane Jones, 1839)— Richard D. (1818-1864) (Mary A. Hoke, 1846) — 
Eliza (Washington Humphreys, 1837) — Susannah (b. 1825) (James Sul- 
livan, 1842)— James W. (1827-1862) (Irene Vance, 1852). 

C. of Archibald: James W. (d. 1915) (Susan Robinson, 1863)— J. 

William (b. 1852) (Sarah A. Hogshead, 1862)— Richard D. ( Er- 

win, Wilson) — Robert W. (Virginia S. Vanstavern, 1884, 

Carnifax) — Newton B. (Mary C. Vanstavern, 1875). 

C. of James W. — William L., Edward, Bernard, Eliza (Hunter Mil- 

C. of J. William: John W. (Vernie Boone), George W. (Kate White), 
Amos W. (Erne Fink, Lillian G. Morgan), N. Hays (Viola Bostic), Charles 
G. (Hattie Miller). 

C. of R. D. (by 1st): Clarice, James: 

C. of R. W.: Arthur, Clyde (Bertha Hall), Ela. (Elmer Humphreys), 

C. of N. B.: Ira (drowned), Relda (Rev. Fitzgerald), Ada, 

C. of Richard: Robert L. ( Ganode), Richard ( Champ), 

Margaret (Isaac N. Reed). 


C. of James W. of James: William W. (Harriet Bostick), J. Ivison 
(Margaret Young), daughter ( Fury). 

C. of Walter: James (drowned), William (s), Archibald (Mary Burns, 
1843), Washington (Martha Massie), Richard, daughter, (Lewis Burns), 
daughter ( Rodgers), Thomas. 

J. William was a captain of militia during the first year of the war 
of 1861. He entered the regular volunteer service as drum major in Ed- 
gar's Battalion and was wounded at Cedar Creek. He has served six 
terms as president board of education and two as justice of the peace. 

A few other McDowells do not appear to be of the above connection. 
Henson died 1805, leaving a daughter Mary who married Shared Ad- 
kins, 1803. John (1787-1859) was born in Ireland. 


Our information as to this family is fragmentary in the extreme. Cot- 
rell died 1844. Caperton and Harvey were brothers. The earliest mar- 
riage in our notes is that of Polly (James Vass, 1822). There is mention 
of Lively in 1810. Catharine (Harry Thompson), Polly (Andrew J. 
Broyles), Elizabeth (John C. Ballard) were the mothers of 15, 13, and 13 
children, respectively. C. of James (Cynthia Peck) : John L. (Alpha S. 
Broyles, Elizabeth Canterbury), Lorenzo D. (Margaret Brown). Peter 
married Judith Lively. 


Mathais (d. 1817) (Lydia) had Bathsheba, Sarah (John Ray) . John 
(Isabel) came after 1786. C: Elizabeth (1786-1854), Jane (1782-1857) 
(Charles Hogshead, 1801). 


It is not known when James McMann came here. His widow, who 
was Susanna Lake, married Henry Wintleblack in 1803 and moved to 
Indiana. She had a son John by McMann and, as is supposed, a Spaulding 
who went to Noble Co., Indiana. 

C. of John (Polly Jones) : William ( Scott, Sarah F. Winebren- 

ner) — Edward (Lucinda Teays) — James (s) — Elizabeth (Madison Bos- 
tick) — Susan (John A. Anderson) — Nancy (s) . 

C. of William by 1st w. — Mary J. (Richard Vaughan) — Margaret (G. 
E. Reed) — Josephine (John Ridgway) — John. By 2d w. — Emma L. (James 
W. Pritt)— William (Bertha Vandergrif, Ella Ridgway)— Lelia (J. W f 
Reed)— Effie (J. C. Vanstavern)— Elsie D. (O. A. Carlisle)— Robert (Min- 
nie Dougherty) — Lizzie (Vincent Dougherty) . 

C. of Edward (dentist) : Estill (d) — Skippie — Adolphus ( Mc- 


William was sheriff of Monroe, 1870-72, and in his official capacity 


hanged the negro Buck Johnson who had murdered an Anderson of Green- 
brier. He was accidentally killed at Fort Spring by a fragment of rock 
thrown out by a blast. 


The most usual spelling of this name is McNair. James (Elizabeth 
Busby) came either from Rockingham or the south side of the Potomac 
near Washington. This was not later than about 1785, since his son 
Richard was born here. His settlement was in the vicinity of Greenville. 
C: Richard (1786-1853) (Elizabeth Maddy, 1810)— Valentine— Kiser— Kate 

(C. Harper Walker) — Lucy ( Smith) — Margaret (Bartlett Powell) 

— Andrew (b. 1800) ( Roach). None but Richard remained here, the 

others going generally to Indiana. Richard lived on Hans and Indian. 

C. of Richard: Anderson A. (1811-1885) (Evelyn Ellis, 1833, Cynthia 
Hinchman, 1844, Mary A. Miller, 1846, Mrs. Mary Dotson) — Mary (Rev. 
George Ryan)— James (b. 1805) (Virginia Ellis)— John (1808-1897) (Eliza- 
beth Arnot)— William B. (b. 1820) (Mragaret Miller, 1843)— Augustus B. 
(b. 1822) (Sarah Arnot)— Richard T. (1825-1891) (Amanda J. Pence, 
Mrs. Hannah Beard, 1882)— Sarah B. (William E. Miller, 1849)— Caper- 
ton (b. 1829) (Rebecca Stodghill)— Jacob E. (s). 

C. of A. A. — Richard E. (k. '64) — John (Methodist minister) — Sarah 
(John Shrader) ; by 3d w. — James W. (Carrie Brown) — Anderson A. (Lida 
Sipps) — Eliza J. (O. F. Burgess) ; by 4th w. — Marvin. 

C. of James: Richard, Charles (k. '64), Jehu, James, Sarah, Mary, 
Elizabeth, Evelyn. 

C. of R. T.— Henry P. (1850-1889) (Ellen E. Hunter, 1871)— Ellen V. 
(John P. Shanklin) — Lewis C. (s) — Virginia C. (Dr. Charles W. Spang- 
ler, 1885)— Harriet M. (Theodore Delany, 1895)— Dr. Hedley V. (1863- 
1903) (Nannie M. Gaver)— Robert E. L. (1866-1900)— Florence M. 
(Dr. G. A. Flournoy, 1891, Z. M. Jennings)— Richard L. (b. 1871) (Erne 
Barnett) . H. V. and R. L. became physicians. R. E. L., a lawyer, 
served in Cuba in the Spanish war. There were two daughters by the 
second marriage, both now dead. 

C. of Caperton: Josephine (John Duncan), Harriet (S. Y. Symms), 
William S. (Ellen Alderson Ballard). 

C. of John: John W. (Mattie Ellis, Ella Humphreys), Wm. R. (Laura 
Anderson), A. M. (Emma Smith), L. E. (O.) (Lillie Morgan), T. A. 
(Okla.) (Ada Broyles), James, d., Mary B., d. 


Robert (1802-1875) (Rebecca Hutchinson) died at Union. An older 
McNutt lived near Centennial. 


James R., a son of Adam (Susan Ross) came from Craig in 1878. He 


has served many years as a surveyor in both counties, and at this writing 
is the only survivor in Monroe of Pickett's memorable charge at Gettys- 
burg. He was wounded in that battle and also in another. He married 
Eliza A. Price in 1869. 

In 1802 James was living on Indian adj. Estill and Nathan Milburn. 


Nathan (d. 1836) was the father of Rebecca. Isaac (d. 1851) (Nancy) 
lived at the mouth of Wolf. C: Henry, Matthew, Isaac, Sabina. 


Jacob came from Germany to Philadelphia in 1715, when a boy of 13, 
and settled in Rockingham where his sons Christian and Henry remained. 
His wife was also a Miller, but one spoke High German and the other 
Low German. Other C: Jacob (b. 1726) (Elizabeth Fudge, 1748c, Marga- 
ret Sullivan) — George (Ky.) — John (Barbara Mauzy) — Barbara (Jacob 
Mann) — Katharine (George Conrad) — Jacob, Jr., settled near Lindside in 

1775. C: Jacob ( Estill) — Charles (s) — Mary (Augustine Price) — 

Elizabeth (Hugh Caperton)— Katharine ( Walker)— Anna B. (1767- 

1852) (Rev. John Maddy)— John (Mary Handley, 1803)— George ( 

Swope) (1770-1855). Jacob, Katharine, and John went respectively to 
Ky, Tex., and Ind. The 13 children of George went chiefly or wholly 
to Iowa. By 2d w. — Peter (Sarah Simmons, 1803) — Margaret (b. 1788) (Jo- 
seph Swope, 1806)— Sarah (b. 1790) (Joab Simmons, 1808)— Joseph (d. 

1856) ( Walker)— George— Rhoda (b. 1796) (Thomas Maddy, 1819). 

The children of Peter and Sarah went to Ind. Joseph Miller had five 

C. of John (Barbara): Elizabeth (1767-1835c) (William Carnifax) — 
John (b. 1768)— Michael (b. 1770)— Jacob— Henry (1774-1862)— Daniel 
—Adam (1778-1844) ( PLetha)— George— Moses (b. 1785) ( PRuth Canter- 
bury, 1812) . John went to Boone, Jacob Daniel, and George went West. 

C. of Henry of John: Barbara (Sinclair Humphreys, 1832), Anne 
(Thompson Ballard, 1841), Rhoda (Samuel Lewis), Elizabeth (Jacob Hal- 
stead), Polly (Alexander Mann), Charles (Mary Peters), Moses (Susan 
Keaton), Henry (b. 1820) (Delilah J. Biggs of Thomas, 1840). 

C. of Moses of Henry: E. P. (b. 1849), L. A., Amanda (Marshall 
Mann), Caroline (J. H. Copeland), Rhoda (Henry Young). 

The descendants of Jacob, Sr., are an industrious, law-abiding people 
and have intermarried with the best families around them. They are 
numerous in Monroe and still more so in other communities. All the ma- 


ture members of the 17 children of Jacob, Jr., were Methodists, and the 
father joined that church under the pastorate of Robert Chambers. 

Andrew (Isabella Yeman, b. 1778, d. 1853) came from Scotland with 
the Ballantynes and settled on Flat Mountain. He was a soldier in 1812. 
C: Margaret (Gipson Jarrell)— Thomas (1799-1863) (Margaret A. Neel) 
—John (Salena Neel)— James Y. (d. 1862c) (Sarah Burdette) . 

C. of Thomas: William T. (1832c-1907) (Pauline Scott)— Mary A. 
(b. 1835) (Robert A. Patton)— James O. (1842-1909) (Sidney J. Nickell) 
— Josephine (Alexander Lemons) — Margaret A. (b. 1848) (Robert A. 
Ross) . 

C. of J. O.: Ora L. (Harvey T. Neel, 1889), George E. (Lelia Ro- 
wan), Frank E., Homer N., James E. (Mamie Neel). 

James, a brother to Andrew and a weaver by trade, came from Scot- 
land after a very long voyage. He left 3000 acres to his children. B. 
1784, d. 1870: m. Ann Mills, 1814. C: Margaret (b. 1814) (Jesse Jones, 
1838)— Robert (b. at sea, 1817) (Susan J. Nickell, 1845)— Alice (s)— An- 
drew (m. Tex.)— James E. (1826-1876) (Elizabeth A. Burdette)— Ruth 
A. (Elisha P. Arnott, 1853)— Mary J. (1833-1900) (Hiram M. Hogsett) . 

J. E. was a prosperous merchant and farmer of fine mathematical skill 
and mechanical ingenuity. C: Dr. R. W. (m. Minn.), Margaret J. (L. 
C. Lemons), A. Lewis (Henrietta A. Young), Dr. J. H. A. (Allie Tim- 

berlake), Mary E. (W. P. Hinton), Dr. W. L. ( Welch), Eliza 

A. (J. W. Longanacre) . 

C. of J. Y.: Mary, Yeman, Andrew A. (Alice Longanacre), Wil- 
liam G. 


The Millers of Monroe are of several distinct families. Our notes 
specify numerous marriages and sundry other facts, but we are able to 
classify only a minor part of these. Among still others Millers are the 

Adam (Lethe) : C. — Samuel, John, William, Adam, Mary J., Elizabeth 
(d. 1844). 

Brice lived at the head of Wolf in 1800. He seems to be the man of 
that name who set out with the Paulees in their attempted trip to Ken- 
tucky in 1779. C: Brice (Christina DeHart), Nancy (George McGuire, 
1801), (Elizabeth). 

Thomas (Sarah) had a son John (1793-1855) born here. 

Valentine (Jane) (d. 1852) had a son Isaac. 

Valentine (S ) had a son Peter (Jean) born in Augusta, 1789. 

Michael (d. 1834) (Dolly): C— Polly (John Bailey, 1819), 

(Daniel Leake) — (Abraham Toler), Jane, David, Elizabeth, Hannah, Ra- 
chel, Margaret ( Shanklin), Andrew. 


The Millers who married into the family of Richard McNeer were 
grandchildren of Patrick, who lived on the Cowpasture before moving 
to the Greenbrier. 

J. Burnett Miller, son of Andrew A., was a genius in both vocal and 
instrumental music. His voice was baritone and few persons could cover 
so much of the scale. With a sister he sang in some of the leading cities 
of West Virginia. The instruments he played were the organ, piano, vio- 
lin, and guitar. But he had also a strong literary inclination. Even the 
compositions of his early boyhood were excellent in thought and diction. 
At a later age he wrote several stories. He spent three years at Shelton 
College and was an untiring student. But his ambition outran his physical 
strength, and this gifted youth of pure and high character was called 
away in 1903 at the early age of nineteen. 


Joshua (1757-1843) was a native of the city of Paris, and becoming an 
orphan while yet a child he grew up with very meager advantages. In 
1781 he was serving under Lafayette in Virginia as a French soldier. 
When his command was about to return to France after the capture of 
Cornwallis he ran away to the Blue Ridge. While famished for want 
of food he was accused of being a deserter by a woman at whose house 
he called for a meal. She insisted that his military buttons were proof 
enough in her eyes, and on her promise that she would not betray him 
he clipped off the buttons and gave them to her. Between 1790 and 1794 
he found his way to Monroe and finally settled in 1803 on a tract of 950 
acres on Brier Run. Nearly all this land is yet in the family. There 
now stand on it two schoolhcuses and ten dwelling houses, in addition to 
nine dwellings now on the retired list. Mitchell was poor, but honest 
and upright. One of his cares after coming to Brier Run was to put a 
substantial hedge fence around a burial plot. This living wall still re- 
mains in good condition. His eight day clock is in the posssesion of a 

great-grandson. He married (1) Nancy , (2) Elizabeth Stig- 

gard. C: Thomas (d. 1847) (Margaret Mathews) — Nancy (Abraham 
Cox, 1807) ; by 2d w.— James (Sarah Miller, 1819)— Polly (Frederick Co- 
mer, 1834)— Elizabeth ( Miller)— Kate ("Forked" John Miller, 1819) 

— Jane (John Comer, 1824) — Margaret ( Cox) — Lucy (John Phipps, 

1824)— Susanna (James Ellison, 1822)— Joseph (Sarah Comer, 1829) 

Patterson, Nancy Harvey) . 

C. of Thomas: Lewis — George M. (Mary C. Vass, 1847) — Jonathan — 

Baldwin — James — Henry — Albert — T. Riley ( Smith). Lewis bought 

out the other heirs and remained on the homestead, George and Jonathan 
going to California and James and Henry to Braxton. Baldwin was killed 
in the war of 1861. While George was in Missouri he owned land now 
a part of the city of St. Joseph. 



William B., a highly successful farmer and business man, lived at 
Johnson's Crossroads and at Union from 1893 to 1911, and then removed 
to Graham of which he is the founder. He still has interests in Monroe. 


It is said that James (Phoebe) Moss was the first settler at Sweet 
Springs and sold his claim to the Lewises for a pair of buckskin breeches; 
and that he moved from Lynnside to the George Sayers farm. This has 
long been known as the "Moss place." C: Nancy (Andrew Higgenbotham, 
1800) — Jane (James Higgenbotham, 1803) — George — Henry. George is 
probably identical with the George (1788-1870) who married Lydia Benson 
in 1808. She was living in the family of Charles Lewis. But unless record 
dates can be depended upon — and very often they cannot — there was an- 
other George (1784-1860), a son of Jacob and Polly and born in Penn- 
sylvania. Of the later Mosses we have no connected account. 


C. of John (Julia A. Weikel) : Michael (Ella MtNeer), William, 
John, Connie, Sarah, Ellen, May, Mack. 


Walter (d. 1801) (Winifred) was a cooper and lived at the head of 
Turkey. (App. $621.58). C: Charles (Martha Arnot, 1802), Rachel (Thomas 
Wray, 1802), Walter (Deborah Arnot), Agnes (John Wiseman, 1812). 


The Scottish orthography of this name is Neill. Owen (d. 1828) 
(Isabella Maxwell, 1778) came from Pennsylvania with his father Owen 
(John?), then a widower, whose other children were John, Joseph, Wil- 
liam, Adam, and two daughters. One of the sons was killed at Point 
Pleasant. The first settlement was on Potts Creek in 1780, whence about 
10 years later there was a removal to Gap valley. 

C. of Owen, Jr.: John (1780-1856) (Mary Kelly, 1820)— Josephus 
(1782-1832) (Rebecca Campbell)— Elsie (b. 1784) (John Patton, 1802) — 
William H. (1787-1862) (Mary A. Jarvis, great niece of President John 
Adams)— Margaret (b. 1791) (John Johnston)— Thomas (1793-1825) 
(Mary Ross)— Isabella (1796-1844)) (Alexander Leach)— Owen (1798- 
1876) (Mary Patton)— Abner (1800-1874) (Catharine Osborne of George 
and Polly)— Julia (1805-1879) (Madison Smith). 

C. of John: John K. (Cassandra Stevens)— Mary F. (William Neel) 
— Elizabeth (Ephraim Neel) — Malinda (Chapman Vanstavern, James 
Neel)— Virginia (William Blankenship) — Margaret (Peter Osborne) — Isa- 
bella ( Pugh)— Oscar (Cornelia Hughart)— Martha (John McCor- 


mick)— Indiana (b. 1844) ( Kesler) . The families of John K. 

(b. 1821) and Oscar are in Colorado and California respectively. 

C. of Josephus: John O. (b. 1810) (Mary Kelly)— Isabel J. (1813-1849) 
(George Gilchrist)— Selina (1817-1896) (John Miller)— Joseph E. (West) 
—Susan M. (s)— Caroline (b. 1824) (Joseph M. Nickell, 1845)— Abner 

H. (b. 1826) (Martha Stevens)— Thomas M. ( Champ)— Malvina 

( Dempsey) — Margaret J. ( Pugh) . J. E. and T. M. went 


C. of Abner H. — Clark (Rose Campbell), Estaline (John Rowan). 

C. of Clark of A. H.— Ella P., Robert W., William H., Grace C. 

C. of Thomas: Harvey J. (b. 1826)— Henry O. (b. 1828) (Mrs. Rob- 
erta Eubank Owen)— William F. (b. 1830) (Margaret E. Stodghill) — 
Susan (John H. Hansbarger) . 

C. of H. O. — John, Thomas, Lucian (Rebecca McGuire), Caroline 
(Frank Grove) . 

C. of W. F.— Harvey T. (Ora Miller), Sudie (Richard Appling), 
Harriet (Thomas Appling) . 

C. of Owen: Austen A. (d. '61x) (Mary E. Bucktrout) — graduate of 
William and Mary College. 

C. of Abner: Ann (Stephen Ruddle)— Lewis C. (b. 1830) (Sophia 
Miller)— Allen G. (b. 1833) (Susan Patton)— Cyrus F. (b. 1837) (Nancy 
M. Ross)— Harvey A. (b. 1840) (Josephine Ross)— Mary E. C. (Samuel 
Simms) . 

L. C, a physician, removed to Mo., and married there. 

C. of A. G.— Harlan (Nellie Pollock)— Cora (Robert Johnson)— Zella 
—Ethel (John B. Harper)— Wade H. 

C. of C. F. of Abner: Ada— Dr. Hugh W. 

C. of Harvey A.— Guy (Pearl Neel)— Lake (Julia Biddle, Tenn.) — 
— Baxter L. — Hallie — Nellie. 

C. of William H— Margaret A. (b. 1809) (Thomas Miller, Moses Car- 
roll)— Fielden F. (b. 1810) (Sabina Stuart Williams)— Owen ( 

Hayford) — William (s) — Isabella M. ( Poole, Charles Archey) — 

Nancy ( Flanagan) — Mary A. (s) . 

C. of F. F. — Mary J. (Lewis A. Pence) — Margaret A. (Robert B. 
Wallace) — Abner A. P. (Alice Anderson, Ida Payne) . 

C. of A. A. P.— Edith, Charles, Wilber, Beulah (Samuel Johnson), 
Alice; by 2d w. — Abner A. F., Samuel R., Fielden F., Eunice, Sabina B., 
Laura. A. A. P., S. R., F. F. are Methodist ministers. 

C. of Cyrus F. — Ada — Dr. Hugh W. — Fay (Harry Baylor) — Bessie. 

The present members of the Neel connection largely remain around the 
original settlement in Gap valley and possess several of its best farms 
and farmhouses. 



James (d. 1825) (Mary Brown) lived near New Lebanon and seems 
to have been a son of William (d. 1794) (app. $148.23), who was also 
in same locality. 

C. of James: William (Sidney Ewing), Elizabeth (s), Nancy (s), 
Jean (1784-1860) (Tristram Patton), Margaret (George Nickell), ?James 
(Polly Fink, 1804). William had no children and divided his estate of 
$35,000, a very large one for that time, among seven nephews. 

Abraham^ a disabled veteran of the Revolution, lived on Scott's Branch. 
He had a considerable family. , 


In the colonial period this name was spelled Nichol and Nicholas. 
Four brothers came here as early, it is claimed, as about 1751 and fought 
at Point Pleasant. They were Thomas (d. 1807) (Jane King) — Robert 
(Margaret Gray) — Isaac (d. 1839) (Margaret Curry) — Andrew. Thomas 
married here. Robert had no family. 

C. of Thomas: Margaret — Barbara ( Erwin) — Thomas — Robert 

— Jean (James Wheeler, 1806) — Elizabeth — John (Polly Nickell) — George 

(b. 1776) (Margaret Nelson) — Mary ( Erwin) — Andrew (b. 1780) 

(Barbara Nickell) — James. Thomas and Robert went to Ky, John to O. 

C. of George of Thos. : Jennie (b. 1800) ( Kippers) — Mary 

(James Gray) — Elizabeth (Mo.) — Nancy (James Hinchman) — Robert (b. 
1805) (Eliza Nickell) — Margaret (John Hinchman, 1824) — James (Jane 
Gullett)— George W. (1809-1899) (Anna M. Nickell)— Amanda (b. 1811) 

( Keys)— John A. (1813-1898) (Mary J. Patton)— Rachel (b. 1815) 

(R. Porterfield Boyd)— William N. (Malvina Hill, 1839)— Sidney (James 
Drummond)— Delilah (b. 1822) (George W. Campbell, 1840). In 1889 
the average age of 8 of this large family was 76 years. 10 of them mar- 
ried and had families. G. W. and J. A. remained in Monroe, the latter 
on the homestead. 

C. of Andrew of Thomas: Thomas, Hiram, Caperton, Andrew, Hen- 
derson (Martha Patton), daughter ( Erwin). 

C. of G. W. of Geo.: Margaret A. (b. 1835) (Joseph Cook, 1850) — 
Charles P. (Caroline Lemons, 1859)— Andrew A. (Flora Bear, 1862) — 
George T. (Ingabo Patton, 1862)— Sidney J. (b. 1847) (James O. Miller, 
1867)— Priscilla C. (Harvey Young, 1870)— Greer M. (Norma Crawford). 

C. of J. A. of Geo.: Rev. William N. (Susan Wickline)— Ingabo C. 
(J. T. Black)— John T. (Lydia J. Gray)— Virginia M. (Wm. T. Pat- 
ton)— Cary P. (Elizabeth Campbell). 

C. of Isaac: Polly (John Nickell)— Anne (James Corbett)— Elizabeth 
(Robert Craig, 1803)— Barbara (James Nickell)— Nancy (Joseph Cottle, 


1799) — Rebecca (John Cottle) — Susanna (Thomas Erwin, 1807) — Sarah 
(Richard McCallister, 1814)— John (d. by 1835) (Anne Curry). All but 
Polly, Barbara, and John left the county. 

C. of John of Isaac: Isaac — Sarah (James McLaughlin) — Rebecca (Wil- 
liam Lemons) — Lydia (Henry Campbell) — John N. (Elizabeth Irons) — 
Nancy (Joseph Young, 1835) — Margaret A. — Elizabeth — Mary. 

C. of Andrew of Thomas: Thomas, Caperton, Henderson, Andrew, Wil- 
liam, Edward, Ellen, Eliza, Washington, Christopher, Malinda, Hiram. 

C. of James of Thomas: Ruth, Thomas, Elizabeth, Sarah, James M., 
Pallie, Ann, Alexander. 

C. of Jas. M. (Sally Ann Burdette). Marrietta (C. W. Hutcheson), 
Angelina (J. H. D. Johnson), Jas. M. (Mo.) (Lizzie Ford), Barbara 
(Dr. Wm. Campbell), J. Hunter (Sally Chapman), Sarah Rebecca (J. 
W. Lee), Harvey (Ark.) L. A. (Cora Clark), C. C. (Rosebud Mann, 
Annie Hinchman). The family home at Nickells Mills is one of the old- 
est in the county. L. A. was circuit clerk 12 years and very popular. 

Andrew (Elizabeth Erwin) is said to have been a half-brother to An- 
drew, one of the four pioneers. C: "Gap" John (Nancy Nickell) — "Stil- 
ler" Andrew (Mary A. Patton)— Frank (West)— "Long Bob" (d. 1850) 
(Delia Feamster) — Barbara — Frances — Jennie — Mary — Susan — Elizabeth. 

C. of "Gap" John: "Ham" John — Sarah — Elizabeth — Margaret — Ann. 

C. of "Stiller" Andrew: Robert P. ("Sewell Bob") (Kate McDowell) 
—Anna M. (1812-1887)— Eliza (Robert Nickell)— Jane (s)— Priscilla (H. 
B. Gaston) — Lena (Alexander C. Nickell) — Martha M. (James Ross). 

C. of "Long Bob": Feamster (Martha Lynch) — Elizabeth M. (1820- 
1903) (George W. Reaburn, 1838)— Sarah A. (Edward J. Nickell, 1846) 
— Rebecca — Mary — Emily (Robert A. Patton) — Susan J. (Robert Miller, 
1845)— Caroline (Dr. G. H. K. Nickell). 

C. of John of Thos: Ruth (Benjamin Herring) — Thomas — Isaac (Mar- 
garet Patton) — Elizabeth (James Curry, 1827) — Sarah (Josiah Curry) — 
Polly A. (Edward Farnsworth) — John M. (Sarah A. Burdette) — Alexan- 
der C. (Lena Nickell). 


George (1782-1846) (Mary Lohr, 1808) was a son of Josiah (Margaret 
Alderson) and he in turn was seemingly of the Osborne family that set- 
tled on the South Branch in Hardy before 1748. Several families from 
that region are known to have come at an early day to the Greenbrier. 
C: Catharine (Abner Neel) — Cyrus (m. Greenbrier) — Jenny (m. Green- 
brier) — Peter L. (Margaret Neel) (West) — John — Jacob (Sarah A. Budd, 
1847)— William— Susan A. (b. 1826) (John Carpenter). 

C. of P. L.— Mary, Jefferson D. 

C. of Jacob: George C. (Mattie Poage), John (Lettie P. Frederick, 
1891), Mary K. (M. S. Alexander, 1891), Rose (W. D. Sell). 



In England this name is historic. One of the Packs was in the Long 
Parliament. Another was one of Wellington's generals. Samuel wan- 
dered into this region from Tidewater Virginia, and in 1763 was trapping 
with Swope and Pitman on New River. A son was Samuel, Jr. (1760- 
1833) (Mary Farley), who settled on that stream. The Packs were large 
slaveholders and owned much New River bottom from the mouth of the 
Greenbrier up to and around the mouth of Bluestone. C. of Samuel, Jr. 
—John (d. 1830c) (Elizabeth Lively, 1812)— Matthew— Samuel (Sarah 
Wyatt, 1802)— Bartley (d. 1834) (Dicea Harvey)— Loammi (1791-1858) 
(Jane Lively, 1811) — William — Anderson (Rebecca Peters) — Elizabeth 
(Jacob Dickenson) — Polly (Joseph Lively, 1812) — Jennie (Jonah Morris). 
Anderson and Loammi owned a large body of land on Brush in the vicin- 
ity of Cashmere. The latter was a zealous Methodist, and built and 
did very much to maintain the Pack church. The wife of President Hayes 
was a daughter of Jennie Pack Morris. While Hayes was in this region 
as a general in the Fedral army he recognized Captain John A. Pack as 
a relative and gave him the freedom of his camp at Raleigh C. H. After 
the death of Anderson, his sons moved to Kansas and Oklahoma. Since 
then the name is locally extinct in the line of Loammi. 

C. of Anderson: Conrad B., Samuel B., John A., Allen C, Loammi C, 
Charles H., Virginia (Dr. Charles G. Manser), Clara (E. B. Meador), 
Kate (Capt. Robert Saunders) . 

C. of Loammi: Cynthia (1812-1882) (James McGue, 1839)— Lucinda 
(Archibald Swinney, 1833)— Sarah (1818-1885) (Lorenzo D. Martin, 1849) 
—Bartley (Hester E. Carper, 1844)— Polly (Vincent Callaway, 1863) — 
Eliza J. (Andrew J. Carper, 1849)— Samuel C. (1829-1903)— Lorenzo 
D. (Mary J. Douthat, 1858)— John L. (1833-1895) (Elizabeth J. Ellison, 

C. of L. D. — Annie M. (Henry Brown), Jennie L. (C. A. Brown), 
Henry W., James J., Charles B., Mary L. (Robert Green), Lucy P., 
Thomas R. 

C. of J. L.: Walter J. (Lida Ralston, 1901), Charles H. (Nora Miller), 
Luther J. (Eva Broyles) . These sons began life as teachers, secured 
academic or collegiate education, and became ministers of the Baptist 


Thomas F. (Elizabeth McDermott) came to Monroe from County Ros- 
common, Ireland, in 1851. Their marriage took place the following year. 
The parents and also the children, except one, are buried in the Catholic 
cemetery at Sweet Springs. C: Francis J., Mollie A., Thomas A., Eliza- 
beth, John R., Maggie. Francis J. was married in 1903 to Myrtle Hovv- 
lett, of Wisconsin. Their children are Ruth, Martha, and Mary. Mr. 


Parke is Law Examiner in the Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C. 


Joseph was a Scotch-Irish immigrant who married a Rector. C : Joseph 
(Elizabeth), David, Andrew, Eliza J. (Andrew Irons), William. (1815- 
1902) (Lydia Sullivan, Sarah J. Upton, 1846c). 

C. of William: daughter (A. J. Daugherty), Joseph N. (1847-1906), 
Lydia W. (James T. Allen), Andrew L. (Sarah Allen), George W. (Car- 
oline A. Brown), J. Harvey (Mary Wetzel), Samuel A. (Leola Kincaid), 
William H., Mary I. (Thomas M. Broyles), S. A. (d.) and W. H., min- 
isters, the former a Methodist, the latter a Baptist. 

C. of Joseph (Elizabeth Young) : Susanna J. (James S. Hawkins), 
Alex'r Karnes (Miary Ann Wylie), Caroline (Benj. Beaman), Virginia 
(John Calvin Beamer), Preston (Nettie Hedrick), Wm. H. (Estaline 
Shirley, Nettie McClung), Robert Y. (Martha Campbell). 

C. of Alex'r K. : J. Elliot (Mary Hammond), Laura (s), John P., 
(Annie Clark), Alice (Rev. J. W. Holt), Florence (B. J. Leach), Lelia 
(John Withrow), Annie Wylie (Coleman Heywood), Arthur K. (Lucy 

Preston lived and died at Asbury, Greenbrier Co. 

C. of Wm. H.: by 1st w., Newton A., Presby. minister, (Leonard 
Dickinson) (Monterey, Va.), Viola (J. Plumer Leach, (Pa.); by 2d w., 
Lonnie ( Jarrett) (111.) d., Thos. B., d. 1904. 

C. of Robert Y.. Ashby, Wade Oren, Robert, Carl and Glenna. 


Tristram (1758-1843) (Jean Nelson, 1808) was a native of county Ty- 
rone, crossed the Atlantic about 1777, and is said to have served on Wash- 
ington's body guard in the Revolution. After the war he taught school in 
Philadelphia, moving to Second Creek not later than 1795. Seeing a prom- 
ising future in this new country, he sent for his younger brother Robert. 
They became large landholders and operated mills. Tristram's grist and 
saw mill stood a mile below the concrete bridge. Robert's powder mill 
was two miles below. Its owner and a slave man were killed by an ex- 
plosion in the powder mill in 1808. Tristram, a member of the New 
Lebanon church, was quiet, unobtrusive, well educated, and was much 
in request among his neighbors as a writer of legal documents. All his 
numerous children attained their majority and 12 passed the age of 70. 
Columbus M., who at this writing is the only survivor, bears the remark- 
able distinction of being the son of a Revolutionary veteran. That war 
seems very remote to us of today. 

C. of Tristram: William M. (1809-1878) (Elizabeth K. Reaburn) — 
Mary B. (Owen Neel)— James N. (s)— Elizabeth S. (William Ellis) — 


Robert M. (1814-1891) (Margaret Level, 1840)— John J. (Margaret Rob- 
inson, Mrs. Hannah Early)— Louisa A. (Matthew Humphreys)— Nancy M. 
(George V. Perry, 1845)— Thomas B. (b. 1822) (Eliza Alderson, 1845) — 
Washington L. (Elizabeth Rodgers)— Edwin F. (Rebecca M. Burdette, 
1853)— Margaret J. (Spencer R. Hill, 1848)— Columbus M., twin to M. 
J. (b. 1828) (Mary A. Dunsmore, 1852)— Sidney E. (b. 1830) (Lewis 
E. Swope, 1854). 

While James N., as a constable, was collecting taxes, he knew what it 
was to have boiling water thrown at him. On one occasion a widow barred 
her door, but it was an easy matter to mount the low roof of the cabin 
and go down the capacious wooden chimney, using the crane as a step. 
The tax money was then forthcoming. 

C. of W. M.: Caroline J. (1834-1893) (Nathan Perry, 1852)— Malinda 
(John M. Alderson). 

C. of R. M. : Nancy J., Mary S . (Allen Neel), James M., D. L., Wil- 
liam N., Owen N., Elizabeth M., John P., Sarah R. 

C. of J. J. by 1st w.: Joanna ( Rodgers). 

C. of T. B.: John W., Granville Ml, Preston B., Alderson M., Wal- 
ter W. 

C. of W. L. : Virginia, Effie, William, Douglas, Edwin. 

C. of E. F. : Samuel R. (Nannie Ford, Sophoronia Figgatt). 

C. of C. M.: Mary A., Marelda, Austin N., Margaret E., Nelson F., 
Annie L., Franklin W. 

Robert (d. 1808) (Eleanor Gray, 1797), bro. to Tristram. C: Wil- 
liam M. (1798-1879) (Mary V. Campbell, 1825)— Robert (m. in Ky.) . 
The widow of Robert, Sr., went to Kentucky with her children. W. M. 
returned, but migrated to Ritchie in 1843. At the outbreak of the war 
all the sons except the one who was too small came back to Monroe and 
entered the Confederate service. 

C. of W. M.: William M. (Catharine Radcliff, 1856), Louisa, Martha 
(Isaiah Wills), John C. (1832-1913) (Rebecca Stuart, 1868), Andrew J., 
Sarah J., Albert D. (Cordelia F. Morton, 1872), Mary V., Benjamin F., 
Ann, Lydia (b. 1847) (Pressley W. Morris). 

William, the eldest brother to Tristram and Robert, inherited the family 
estate in Ireland according to the British rule of primogeniture, but in 
default of heirs of his own the property would have gone to those of 
Tristram. They took no action in the matter and the estate reverted to 
the British crown. 

Another Robert, said to be a cousin, came to Second Creek from county 

Donegal, Ireland, about 1805 and died 1823. His wife was Jean . 

C: Margaret (John Cottle)— Tristram (1793-1885) (Eliza E. Hogshead, 
1827)— Robert— Jean (William Cornwell, 1804)— John (Elsie Neel, 1802) 
— William — Mark (s) — Mary A. (Andrew Nickell, 1802). 

The Cottles had no family. Tristram was left 200 pounds sterling by 


James Ramsay, of Waterford, Ireland. Robert, Jr., died before his father. 
William settled in Alabama. 

C. of Tristram: Robert A. (Emily Nickell, Mrs. Mary Ann Boyd) — 
Mary J. R. (Andrew W. Gray)— Dr. John B. (k. '61)— William T. 
(Mollie J. Beamer, Virginia M. Nickell). 

C. of W. T.: Eliza E. (W. G. Campbell), Ada J. (R. B. Nickell), 
John N. (Bessie F. Parker), Clyde T. (Glenna R. Pharr), Bessie (C. 
N. Gray (Ind.). 

C. of John: Ingabo (Abraham Thomas) — Mary J. (John A. Nickell) — 
Margaret (Isaac Nickell) — William (Litha Hall) — John M. (Ga.) — Wash- 
ington (Ga.) — Martha (Henderson Nickell) — Isabel M. ( Lokey) 

— Julia (Joseph Hawkins). 

C. of Robert A.: by 1st w., McElwee (West), Ellen (Simeon Mil- 
ler) ; by 2d w., John (Mo.), T. J. (d.), Tristram A., (Myrtle Humphreys), 
Robert O. (Mo.), B. S. (Mo.), Jas. A. (Wash.), Margaret Belle 
Clifton (Mo.). 

Robert M. Patton (1808-1885) went with his father William to Hunts- 
ville, Ala., in 1812. He was a merchant and planter and was many times 
in the legislature previous to the war. He was a member of the Char- 
leston convention of 1860, and was not at first in favor of secession. Three 
sons were in the Confederate army. He was governor of Alabama, 1865- 
69. Governor Patton was a Christian gentleman and of charitable na- 
ture. He was interested in railroads and other industrial enterprises. 
As the first governor during the reconstruction his position was a difficult 

The eldest daughter of William T, now of Oklahoma, is an artist and 
is skilled in ceramics. 


We have been given no sketch of this family, which, nevertheless, goes 
back to the early days of Monroe, and for all we know to the contrary, 
may claim as its ancestor Jacob, a native of Germany, who came to Au- 
gusta in 1744. His wife was Elizabeth Borden. 

C. of Elisha G. (Margaret C. Peters, 1841): William H. (d. '61), 

John P. ( Peck), Jacob H. (s), Benjamin L., Allen T. (Josephine 

Spangler), Hugh A. ( McCormick). 


Jacob and Valentine, two German immigrants, came to Rockingham 
about 1747. A son of one of these was Jacob (d. 1819c), who after liv- 
ing a while on the Cowpasture and on Dunlap, purchased the Estill place 
in 1818. His wife, Elizabeth Tresler, a German girl (1778-1865), came 
to America when seven years old. C: David (Mary R. Clark) — Henry 
(1800-1867) (Nancy Stodghill, 1829)— Catharine (Jesse Dickenson, 1820) 


—Juliana (John Shultz) — Moses (Delilah Smith) — Elizabeth ( 

Goodall) — Agnes (Lewis Smith) — Peter G. W. (s) . Henry built about 
1831 a brick house that is still in the family. He saw the wish become 
fact that he might live to see the end of the great American war. 

C. of Henry: Amanda J. (1830-1879) (Richard T. McNeer, 1848), 
Lewis A. (Mary J. Neel), John H. (Virginia Campbell), William W. 
(Sarah J. Shanklin), Andrew P. (Sarah A. Lewis), Harriet E. (A. J. 
Farris). C. of L. A.: Horatia G., Dewey E. (Ella M. Arnot), Mary 
V., Sabina N, Nannie J. (Dr. J. A. Boon). C. of W. W. : Jas. R. 

( Thomas), Kate (A. W. Johnson) (Wash.), Harriet (Edw. 

Dunlap), Alice (H. N. Ballard). 

C. of David: William H. (Mrs. Margaret Smith), Margaret (John 
W. Canterbury), George W. (Susan A. Clark), Frances, Elizabeth K. 
(Preston Lowe), Hugh (Virginia A. Harvey), John W., Ellen (J. E. 
Murdock), Augustus A. (Hugh A. McNeer). 


Christian Peters (1760-1837) was a native of Rockingham and settled 
on the R. H. Fleshman place near Peterstown about 1789. He was a sub- 
stantial and prominent citizen and the founder of Peterstown, to which place 
he removed after the village took its rise. C: Conrad (d. 1850) (Clara 
Snidow— John (1788-1868) (Cynthia Clark, 1813)— Rhoda (b. 1798) (Chas. 
Spangler) — Sarah (George Spangler, 1822) — Rebecca (Samuel A. Pack) 
—Jane (1796-1868) ( Spangler). 

Conrad — C. of Nancy H. (James Karnes) — Catharine R. (Rufus 
Pack) — Delia C. (Preston H. Spangler) — Mary B. (M. Alderson) — Ange- 
line E. (Rand Withrow) — Rhoda J. (Alexander Walker) — Sarah S. (John 

Larew, 1845) — Cynthia (Daniel Shumate, 1846)— Christian S. ( 

Karnes) — Conrad L. — John H. (dy) . 

C. of John: Eliza (James M. Byrnside, 1833) — Margaret C. (Elisha 
G. Peck, 1841)— John A. (Rebecca Peck). 

C. of John A.: Samuel C, (Bina Hogsett), J. Henry (Alice Pack), 

Rebecca ( Tate Blacker) (Mo.), Ann (B. M. Shumate), 

Martha (E. L. Shumate, Eliza C. (C. W. Walker). 

John was a skilled wagonmaker at Peterstown. John, a brother to 
Christian, married in Madison Co. and came with him, locating on New 
River above the Narrows. 

Dr. Dion C. (Kate E. Ruddell, 1882) came to Gap Mills as a prac- 
tioner in 1879. His father, Rev. Dion C, was at one time pastor of the 
Carmel Presbyterian church. 


James (1806c-1868) came from Fincastle to Lillydale about 1820. He 





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was of German descent and by trade a tailor. His wife was Damaris 
Paget of Lynchburg. C: Frances (Jaben Shanklin) — Cornelia (Hugh Al- 
len) — Virginia (Robert Lemons) — Emma (Charles Allen) — Susan (George 
Murdock) — Ettie (John Humphreys) — Josie (P. J. Foster) — Gary (Mar- 
tha Ellis, Martha J. Flint, Sarah Fleshman) — William A. (Nancy Flint) 
— Rufus F. (Ann Murdock) — Jehu (Virginia Tolbert) — Granville P. 
(Martha Murdock) — Louie (Elizabeth Shields). 

The "Pitzer boys" grew up as good farmers, good marksmen and hun- 
ters, industrious, and true to their word. Their father died at an early 
age, but they at once assumed the responsibility of men and held the fam- 
ily together. The connection is now represented meagerly in the male 
line, but numerously in the female. 


Moses (Elizabeth Lynch, 1803) came to Union from Ky. C: Ann (James 

Leach) — James (Rhoda Jennings) — John (dy) — Jane ( MeCorkle) 

— Elizabeth ( Handley) — Margaret E.— Andrew — James L. 

C. of James: Ellen, Elizabeth, Laura. 


William came from Ireland near the close of the eighteenth century 
and settled in Second Creek, probably in the Burdette Springs neighbor- 
hood. His wife is thought to have been a daughter of Edward Cornwell, 

C: Thomas (Elizabeth Smith) — James ( Jones) — Mary (s) — Patsy 

(Walter McDowell). 

C. of James: J. Madison — Samuel (d) — John — Alexander — Thomas — 
Harvey — Ellen — Margaret — William (Margaret A. Bostick) . All these 
excepting William settled in Kanawha. William lived near Hillsdale 
and was an exemplary citizen. 

C. of William (1833-1901): Newton N. (Nancy C. Lynch)— James 
W. (Emma McMann) . C. of N. N.: Ruby O. (Ellis Givens), William 
H., Carl G., Harold L., Nannie G. C. of J. W. : Zettie G., Mary C, 
Elva L., James E., Margaret, Clyde. 


Among the Confederate soldiers who never came home was George I. 
Pyles, who was captured at Winchester, Sept. 19, 1864, and died at Point 
Lookout, Jan. 18, 1865. Shortly after the war a fire destroyed all the 
headboards in the prison burial ground, thus making it impossible to iden- 
tify grave 820. A few years later the state of Maryland had the 
remains of the prisoners of war reinterred in one common grave a mile 
distant. This mound and the monument thereon were transferred to the 
care of the United States. 

Jacob (Sarah Baker, 1818) lived between Salt Sulphur and Lillydale. 


His wife was a sister to Joseph, John, and Frederick Baker. His brother 
Conrad lived and died in Sweet Springs valley, where it is thought their 
father, whose father is supposed to have borne the name Jacob, made set- 

C. of Jacob, Jr.: George I. (Elizabeth Arnot) — John — Allen— Polly 
(George McCoy) — Elizabeth (Lewis Spangler) — Ellen (Henry W. Arnot). 
John and Allen died soon after their return from the army. 

C. of George I. : Henry M. (Margaret Wikle) — Sarah E. — Addison 
A. (Ellen Belts, 1877)— John W. (Fannie Diddle of M. P.)— Mary A. 
(A. M. Hutchinson) — Margaret J. (Richard McNeer) — George W. (Mary 
Wikle)— Martha E. (J. P. Fisher)— Emma (R. W. Hill, 1888). A. A., 
G. W., and Emma, and the widow went to Kansas. There are now 5+ 
grandchildren, and they are to be found in Monroe, Summers, Greenbrier, 
and Logan, and in Brown county, Kans. 

There are descendants of Conrad in Sweet Springs valley and in Hinton. 


This surname came into England with the Norman-French conquerors 
and for many centuries has held an honored place in the annals of the 
British gentry. Robert (1755-1847) was the son of a British army officer 
who was killed in battle, and was reared by an uncle, a wealthy ship- 
master of Dublin. He accompanied the uncle in a voyage to New York 
in 1768, and then ran away, hiding himself in a wagon belonging to 
two brothers of the name of McGuire, and who seem to have lived in 
Pennsylvania. Thus the boy forfeited an inheritance that would have 
made him rich. The McGuires were kind-hearted, and he spent the time 
with them until he was of age, alternating a year at a time, between the 
brothers. He then received horse, saddle, and bridle. He accompanied 
them to the Greenbrier about 1780, and made himself a home near Cen- 
tennial. He was a strict Methodist and impatient of misbehavior in time 
of worship. His first wife was a Stevenson, the second being Nancy Mc- 
Guire of the family of his benefactors. C: Sarah (1791-1897) (Archibald 
Bostick) ; by 2d w. — James M. (Elizabeth Mahan) — William — John — Eliz- 
abeth (John Keyes) — Robert (s). William went to Wisconsin before 1860. 
John was killed by a raft on Coal River, and Robert, a teacher, never 
recovered from an injury to his head caused while using a flail. The 
children of James M., who went to Ohio, were John W., Mary A., Louis 
G., James P., Nancy J., William T., and Ruthie F. James M. and his 
sons J. M. and W. T. served under General Custer in the Second West 
Virginia Cavalry, U. S. A., and were present at the surrender of Lee. 
L. G. was in the Confederate service. The brothers were in the battle 
of Lewisburg and afterward had a friendly talk under a flag of truce. 
L. G. was killed in the battle of Lynchburg. 


A Pyne not known to be related to the foregoing was James, who died 
in 1799, leaving personalty worth $486.17. Still another was Absalom. 

Madison M. (1817-1902) weighed over 200 pounds and was considered 
the most muscular man in Monroe. In 1844 he acquired 176 acres at the 
head of Dropping Lick and added to it from time to time until he was 
the owner of 1000 acres, the estate being known as "Pyne's Eyrie." He 
married in 1836 Mahala Smith. He had a brother William who went to 
Minnesota, and three sisters, Julia, Martha, and Isabel, who married, re- 
spectively, Joseph Ramsay, Richard Ramsay and Robert McCleary. 

C. of M. M.: James A. (b. 1837) (Virginia H. Shanklin, 1861, Mar- 
tha C. Ramsay, 1884) — Eleanor F. (Josephus Shepherd) — Mary A. (Eph- 
raim S. Honaker) — Lewis S. (Mary Neighbors) — Louisa (Christopher 
Neighbors)— John W. (b. 1855) (Sarah M. Humphreys)— Jacob W. (Ro- 
setta Smith). Of the sons only J. A. and J. W. remain in Monroe. 

C. of J. A.: Walter H. (b. 1862) (Magdalen C. Wallace)— Catharine 
A. (R. Fletcher Miller)— James M. (b. 1869) (Eleanor E. Reaburn, 1908) 
—William H. (Elizabeth Stafford)— Skipwith R. (Martin B. Miller) — 
Quilly M. (Irene C. Crosier); by 2d w.— Rev. Otis H. (Mary M. Wal- 
lace) — Everett W. (Anne C. Echols) — Homer R. The sons are chiefly 
West, particularly in Cal. J. W. lives on a part of the homestead and 
has four children. 

James M. Pyne, attorney in California, served in the Philippines as a 
member of the 36th Regiment, U. S. Vol. Inf. He traveled around the 
world by way of Japan, Australia, South Africa and Europe and was 
sergeant in the Jefferson Guards at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904. 


Michael (Mary) came from Cowpasture to Indian. D. 1784. Cath- 
arine Sullivan, a sister, and probably wife of Timothy Sullivan, was to 
have farm after decease of widow. 


The Reaburns are said to be derived from five brothers. John (d. 
1824) (Elizabeth Kilpatrick, 1778) came from Augusta to Plank Cabin 
Draft before 1787. C: John (1779-1859) (s)— Ann (s)— Charles (1784- 
1861) (Mary Hamilton, 1805)— Margaret (1787-1852) (Jeremiah Tracy) 
—Henry (b. 1789) (Jane Blair)— Isaac (1795-1833) (Susan Thomas). 
Ann died in 1822 just before her marriage to Humphrey Keys was to 
have taken place. Henry went to Ohio in 1854, but died in Arkansas. 
Isaac was six feet four inches tall and the scholar of the family. He went 
to Kanawha. 

C. of Charles: Elizabeth K. (b. 1806) (William Patton)— Sabina C. 
(b. 1808) (Thomas Nickell)— Anna H. (Robert Morehead, 1816)— George 


W. (1814-1883) (Elizabeth M. Nickell, 1838)— Elvira H. (b. 1818) — 
(George Swope) . 

C. of Henry: John C. — Alexander R. — Charles A. — Isaac A. — Hugh 
B.— Milton T— Henry L. 

C. of Isaac: Elizabeth, Lucretia, Leander, Dr. John J. (1832-1907). 

C. of George W. of Charles: William H. (b. 1839) (Isabella Hogs- 
head)— Robert A. (1841-1897) (Mary J. Shumate)— Mary S. (1844-1913) 
(William H. Hogshead, 1867)— John H. (b. 1847) (Mary E. Crist) — 
Elizabeth C. (b. 1852) (Nickell Hardy)— Emily E. (b. 1854) (J. A. 
Cook, 1875)— Charles F. (s)— Laura A. (1859-1902) (Henry Burrows, 
1887, Frank Beaumont, 1890, M. Coryell)— Dr. George W. (1861-1904) 
(Jennie Y. McCoy)— Lora B. (b. 1864) (William H. Altaffer, 1890). 

The surname has now disappeared from Monroe. 


Andrew E. (Mary A. Holsapple, 1845)— C: John (Molly McCleary) — 

Isaac ( McDowell) — Henderson ( Ballard) — Ellen (J. W. 

Lynch) — Isabel (George Dransfield) — Mary F. (Stuart Vandergrift) — 
Lydia (John Hinton) . 

The descendants of A. E. Reed are good and thrifty citizens. 

William (Elizabeth) (d. 1851) was living on Hans as early as 1802 
and adj. John Stodghill, John Miller, Benjamin Harvey, Curtis Ballard. 

C: John, James, William, Robert, Catharine ( Foster), Sarah ( 

Sprowl) . 


This family, of German origin, was one of the earliest to settle on 
the lower Greenbrier. The pioneer seems to have been Jacob, Sr., who 
was made levy-free in 1781. The following appear to be children of his: 
Barbara (Joseph Haynes, 1782) — Jacob — David (Catharine), who was 
father of Rachel (1794-1856). Jacob, Jr., was in 1781 road surveyor from 
John Dixon's to the turn of the waters of Anthony. We have no definite 
information whether he is identical with the Jacob who had an oil mill 
on Rock Camp, where he died about 1844. The sons of the latter were 
John (Rebecca Clark), Joel (Susan Summers). 

C. of John: Elizabeth (Caleb Jones) — Elizabeth (Alexander Donaldson, 
1843) — Catharine (Michael Mann, 1845) — Jane (Joseph Hutchinson) — 
William (Harriet Boggess) — Lewis A. (Sarah A. Clark) — John (k. '611 
—Samuel C. (Matilda Chambers, Ellen Z. Taylor) . 

Stewart, a son of Joel and a worthy citizen of the above locality, has 
lived with his wife 58 years. All their 11 children are living. All but 
two are in this county and within easy call. 


About 1818 the following came from Virginia to Rich with their wid- 


owed mother: Simeon (Mary Thompson, 1819, Jane Brown, 1847) — Susan 
(Zachariah Broyles) — Annie (Jacob Broyles) — Lucy (Absalom Broyles) — 
Sarah (John McDaniel) — Polly (Thomas Lively) — Phoebe (Peter Raines) 
— Elizabeth (John Thompson). 

C. of Simeon: John T. (d. 1915) (Mary Pyne, Ann Keatley) — Lewis 
(Margaret Broyles)— James A. (Sarah McGhee)— William C. (b. 1820) 
(Mary E. Gwinn, 1845, Sarah Green) — Eunice (Henry Brown) — Jurida 
(Allen Fleshman) — Catharine (Jackson Ellison) — Emeline (Thompson 
Broyles, Lewis H. Broyles) — Elizabeth (William T. Ballard) — Lucinda 
(Sylvester Ballard, Lev, is Lilly) — Eliza (James Williams; by 2d w. — 
Henry B. (Sarah Duncan) — Preston H. (Nannie Shires) — Mary S. (Ander- 
son Dunbar). 


Jeremiah (Elizabeth) was settled on the Greenbrier at the mouth of 
Blue Lick before 1800. 


William (d. 1797) (app. $492.50) lived on Indian. 


John (d. 1798) (app. $283.33, by Samuel and Andrew Kincaid and 
Samuel Humphreys) . 


Andrew (app. 1782) . 

James (d. 1849) (Mary). C: James, Matthew F. 

James (Sarah) — Indian, 1803. 


In the days of Pitt or Burke four or five brothers of this name were 
advocates of home rule for Ireland, and one of them was tried for treason 
against the English government. Being successfully defended by one of 
the above eminent statesmen, he was acquitted. One settled in Maryland, 
one in North Carolina, one in Tennssee, one in Kentucky. Counties in 
North Carolina and Kentucky are named for them. The Rowan who 
settled in Craig was the parent of Sebastian (Frances Given), William 
A., and Stuart. 

John M. Rowan, a son of Sebastian, was born in Craig, May 17, 1829, 
and about 1844 came to Gap Mills as a clerk for Andrew Summers. Five 
years later he joined in the rush to the gold fields of California. In 
partnership with several other persons he purchased a ship at Richmond, 
provisioned it for two years, and sailed around Cape Horn to El Dorado. 
He was fairly successful in getting a share of the golden wealth of the 


new state and returned to Gap Mills, where he married about 1855 Vir- 
ginia, a daughter of Andrew Summers. A little later he bought a farm 
four miles east of Union and lived on it until 1871, when he moved to 
the county seat. He was elected to the Virginia Assembly in 1860 and 
1862. 'When not attending the sessions of the legislature he acted as 
colonel of the 108th regiment of the state militia. In 1876 and in 1886 
he was elected to the lower house of the legislature of West Virginia, and 
during his second term he presided over that body as Speaker. In 1892-6 
he was State Treasurer. It is related of him that he attended to his du- 
ties with faithfulness and exactitude. In 1904 Colonel Rowan was a mem- 
ber of the Democratic National Convention. During his career he met 
many public men and had many reminiscences to relate. He had an ex- 
traordinary fund of information and a keen, discriminating judgment. 

His children by his first wife were Andrew L., Virginia (Allen Caper- 
ton) and John L. By his second wife, Sue M. Tiffany, there are Wil- 
liam M., of Garden City, Kansas; Percy G, of California, and Robbie 
S., of California. 

John L., born 1862, was educated at the Augusta Military Academy and 
Washington and Lee University, graduating from the latter in 1883. He 
was admitted to the practice of law at Nevada, Missouri, and after serv- 
ing a while as commonwealth's attorney of Washington county, Va., re- 
turned to Union in 1890, where he has continued in his profession. He 
was chosen prosecuting attorney in 1894. 

Andrew S. Rowan was born in 1858 and entered the Naval Academy 
at Annapolis about 1874. After three years he resigned and through Sen- 
ator Hereford he secured an appointment to the United States Military 
Academy at West Point. Graduating in 1881 he was commissioned Second 
Lieutenant in the Fifteenth U. S. Infantry. During several years he was 
in service on the Western frontier. He was then detailed to survey duty 
in Ceneral America, where he acquired a fluent knowledge of Spanish. It 
was this familiarity with that language, his sagacity, and his skill in map 
drawing that led to his selection by the Bureau of Military Information 
to carry a message from our government to General Garcia, leader of the 
Cuban insurgents. The errand was perilous as well as important. The 
war with Spain was breaking out. He first went to Kingston, Jamaica, 
crossed that island to its north shore, slipped across 120 miles of the Carib- 
bean sea in a sailing boat, landed on the Cuban coast between Santiago 
and Guantanamo, and found Garcia at Manzanillo. He passed sometimes 
as a Cuban, sometimes as a Spaniard. His return was from the north 
coast of Cuba to New Providence in the Bahamas, and thence by schooner 
to Key West. The exploit aroused great enthusiasm and admiration. It 
is thus spoken of in Leslie's Weekly of July 7, 1898: "Lt. Col. Andrew 
S. Rowan, the first man of the United States army to receive and success- 


fully execute a war assignment since the outbreak of the present hostili- 
ties, is a modest unassuming officer who knows how to perform his duty. 
His mission demanded pluck, courage, good judgment, and sand, and of 
all these qualifications he showed himself possessed. At the bidding of 
the war department he landed alone on the Cuban shore and made his 
way for miles through a hostile country until he penetrated to the near- 
est camp of insurgents, where he arranged with General Garcia for the 
present co-operation of the Cuban forces with our army of invasion. Hav- 
ing succeeded in this undertaking, Rowan had to perform the equally per- 
ilous task of returning to the American lines with his Cuban maps and 
dispatches, a feat he accomplished in an open sailboat that reached Nassau 
at the very time Sampson's fleet was steaming eastward to meet the Span- 
ish fleet destined for Santiago." The "New York Post" added this com- 
ment: "He is every inch a soldier and was quite aware that if he had 
been captured he would have been hanged like Nathan Hale." Rowan 
was promoted to a captaincy and served in the Philippines. He resigned 
from the army in 1909 because of his health, his rank at the time being 
that of Lieutenant Colonel of Volunteer Infantry. He now resides at San 
Francisco. Rowan's daring feat inspired Elbert Hubbard to write his 
famous "Message to Garcia," which appeared in the "Philistine" of March, 
1899. The edition was exhausted in three days. The demand was im- 
mense in both hemispheres and put $25,000 into Hubbard's pocket. The 
point brought out in the "Message" is that in a great majority of instances 
the employee will shirk or else perform in a dilatory and slipshod man- 
ner the task assigned to him. 

C. of Wm. A. (Susan Carpenter) : John W. (Estaline Neel), Jas. 
W. (Ollie Campbell), Sue (J. A. Lugar), M. S. (Alice Wilson), N. 
F. (Edna Whitelaw), E. J. and A. C. C. of John W. : B. C, Frank, 
R. C. Amanda and Mattie. C. of Jas. W. : O. C, Bettie, Lelia, Luna 
and Daisy. C. of M. S.: Luther, Bessie, Mattie, Beulah, Alta, Lucile, 


Stephen (d. 1895) (Ann Neel) lived near Gap Mills. C: John (Lilly 
Peck), Lewis B. ( Rowan), Kate E. (Dion C. Pharr). 


James A. Rushbrook was a native of England and a pharmacist by 
occupation. He married Eliza C. Burleigh in India in 1843 and in 1869 
came to Monroe, where the youngest of his children was born. Some years 
after his arrival he was joined by the older members of his family. After 
coming here Mr. Rushbrook was a teacher. He died 1885. C: Emily 
(Thomas Higgens), James (Jane Pegram), Caroline E. (Charles Miller), 
William, Joseph (Alaminta Hancock), Arthur, Henry (Kate Chambers), 


Albert E. (Scioto M. A. Chambers), Annie W. (John Moses), Alice M. 
M. (George W. McDonald). 


Joseph (d. 1825) lived on the south fork of Dunlap and had a son 

John (1841-1881) (Mary A. Houchins, 1846), a native of county Tip- 
perary, Ireland, came here in 1830 and settled near Red Sulphur. C: 
William F. (b. 1847) (Lizzie F. Mann, 1874)— John R. (b. 1851) (Mar- 
tha E. Mann, 1876)— Rufus M. (b. 1852) (Laura B. Houchins, 1877). 
Dr. D. M., the second of the 10 children of W. F., graduated at Rich- 
mond, 1906, and is a practitioner at Talcott. J. R. and R. M. have 6 
and 7 children respectively. Nearly all those of J. R. teach or have 


Joseph (Elizabeth) lived on the Gibson Farrell place on Indian in 


Robert was levy-free in 1783. William, David, Isaac (Mary), and 
John (Eleanor Harper, 1805) appear to have been sons. William had a 
mill in 1794. 


James (Mbllie Kincaid) was born at sea about 1750. His parents set- 
tled in Rockbridge, whence James moved to Sinks Grove and died in that 
vicinity in 1828 on the S. T. Hedrick place. His second wife was Mar- 
garet . C: William (b. 1775) (s)— James (1777)— Polly (b. 1779) 

—Jane (b. 1779) (Samuel Malen-Malcolm?-1804)— John (1782-1857) — 
Mary (b. 1784) (Miles Foster, 1804)— Agnes (1787-1855)— Sarah J. (b. 
1787) (Abraham Longanacre, 1806)— David (b. 1789)— Elizabeth (b. 1792) 
Matthew (1794-1884) (Sarah Shriner)— Williams (b. 1797). In the will 
of James, Polly, Agnes, and William are called Jane, Nancy, and Burdette. 
David went to Kentucky. William, John, Elizabeth, and Nancy were sin- 
gle. The wife of Matthew was an adopted neice of Adam Thomas. 

C. of Matthew: Thomas (dy)— Elizabeth A. (b. 1823) (Allen Ellis, 
1844) — Harrison (b. 1825) (Sarah L. Perry) — Susan (Jackson Burdette) 
— Paulina (William F. Miller) — George W. (Rebecca Watson) — Mary 
(Edgar Eads)— James H. (b. 1837) (Anne A. Rutledge)— Isaac J. (b. 
1840) (s). 

C. of Harrison: Cornelius S. (Elizabeth A. Carraway) — William H. 
(Martha E. Carraway) — Isaac P. (Alice Honaker). 


C. of George W.: Semma R. (Lewis A. Burdette) — Harvey A. — Mat- 
thew G. — Robert C. — Newton P. — Thomas W. M. G. died in Oklahoma. 
The other sons live near Sinks Grove. 

C. of Cornelius S.: Grace C— Pearl P.— Bertha B.— Charles C— Ash- 
by A. — Harry H. — Jay P. 


The Shanklins are said to have come from the village of that name 
in the Isle of Wight, England. Three brothers crossed the sea about 1750, 
William settling a while in Rockingham, one remaining in Pennsylvania, 
and one going into the southwest of Virginia. The third was probably the 
Robert of whom there is mention in Rockingham during the Revolutionary 
period. He was a lieutenant of militia there in 1779. The father was 
probably the Captain Robert, who died in the same county in 1769. Wil- 
liam married a sister to the Rev. William Davidson. Thomas (Eleanor), 
probably a brother to Robert, Sr., was settled on the North Fork of the 
Shenandoah in 1760. His brother John was clerk and reader for the 
church services held at Capt. Thomas Harrison's in 1761. Another John 
came from Ireland in 1769 and 15 years later settled three miles west of 

C. of Wm: Catharine (1771-1812) (William Haynes, 1793c)— Richard 
(d. 1841) (Catharine Alexander, 1799)— Elizabeth (s)— William (b. 1775) 
(Rachel Shirkey, 1804)— Robert (b. 1777) (Polly Shirkey, 1802)— Andrew 
(s) — (Agnes ( Kitchen) — John. 

Colonel Richard came to Monroe about 1796 and soon after his mar- 
riage built the double log house which forms a part of the Central Hotel. 
He was the second if not the first merchant in Union and was a citizen 
of sound judgment and extensive information. In the war of 1812 he led 
his regiment to the coast, but news of peace came shortly after the arrival 
at Norfolk. His latter years were spent on his farm immediately east 
of Union, his home then being the house afterward occupied by J. W. Lan- 
ius. His brother William came in 1810 from Botetourt, bought a farm 
at Greenville of William and John Henderson, taught over 20 years. He 
was a Presbyterian elder. Robert, another brother, came with four chil- 
dren in 1808 and settled a mile below Greenville. He was also an elder. 

C. of Richard: Richard T. (1800-1881) (Sarah Brooks, 1838)— James 
A. (1801-1881) (Sarah A. Lownes)— Amanda F. (John Crow, 1822)— Isa- 
bella E. (b. 1805) (James H. McCartney)— William H. (b. 1807) (Eliz- 
abeth Francis)— Agatha D. (1810-1889) (John W. Lanius)— Matthew A. 

(m. Ind.)— Elizabeth C. (Edward Riffe, 1832)— Andrew M. ( 

Douglas) . 

C. of R. T: Andrew M. (k. '63). 

C. of J. A.: Charles A. (1834-1911) (s)— Edwin L. (Maria Clark) 


— Ellen N. (Daniel Devine) — Augustus M. (Elvira Clark)— John A. 
— Frances D. (s) . 

C. of E. L.— James T., Stella L., Edwin H., Charles A., John D. 

C. of A. M. — Anne E., Charles B., Augustus C, Richard B., Florence 
P., James C, Eunice B. 

C. of Ellen: Annie (E. L. Holmes), Mary (C. O. Echols), C. R. 
and J. T. (d.). 

C. of W. H. of Richard: Isabel, Henry S., William F., Henry S. 

C. of A. M. of Richard: Andrew M. (Mahala Bare). 

In 1865 when the test oath deprived him of his office, James A. had 
been postmaster at Union 44 years, and in point of service was then the 
oldest postmaster in the United States. He was also merchant and tavern- 
keeper. Mrs. Lanius was 49 years a rheumatic cripple. 

C. of William (bro. to Richard) : Andrew (Jane Vawter, 1826) — George 
(m. Ind.) — William H. (Catharine Alexander of Michael) (d. 1848) — 

John D. (Evelyn Sullivan) — Lewis A. ( ■ — McClaugherty, Mc- 

Claugherty, — Shipman) — Robert L. (Ellen Lybrook) — Mary J. (Col. J. R 

Hill)— J. M. H. ( Miller)— Patrick H. ( Burdette, Morrison, 

Burdette) — Elizabeth (George Kirkpatrick). Andrew and George 

went to Indiana, and the former was in the legislature from Anderson 
Co. R. L. went to Illinois in 1869. 

C. of W. H. of Wm.: Mary B. (A. D. Smith), Delilah (S. A. Bare), 
Virginia (James A. Pyne), A. Davidson (k. '61), Michael A. (Flora 
Raines), William H. ( Long), Jabez (Frances Pitzer). 

C. of Robert: Agnes D. (b. 1803) (Andrew Young)— Elizabeth P. 
(William Pack)— Richard V. (1805-1881) (Mary Pack, 1830)— James S. 
(s)— Sarah (John Thomas, 1841)— John S. (1810-1888) (Sarah Young) — 
Andrew D. (1812-1885) (Rebecca Thomas, 1841)— Nicholas (la.)— Wil- 
liam F. (1816-1889) (Mary McClaugherty)— Mary A. (1819-1882) (Alex- 
ander Dunlap, Jr.). J. S. went to Indiana, W. F. to Texas. 

C. of R. V.: Agnes D., Elizabeth P., Richard V., James S., Sarah, 
John P. (Ellen V. McNeer), Andrew D., Nicholas, William F., Mary D. 

C. oi J. P.-. Richard V., James R., Ellen M. 


Raymond (d. 1799). John and William Champ were grandsons. Becham 
Shanton, Naly Legg, and John and Mary Reed are mentioned in will. 

Richard (d. 1808) had Thomas, John, Polly, Blair. Martin (d. 1837) 

(Mary) had Eve ( Kips), Elizabeth ( Hoover), John, Polly, 


Daniel (d. 1826) (Milly) came from Fauquier to New River near the 


mouth of Rich about 1780. C: Silas (PSarah Cornwell of Elijah, 1802) — 
Daniel (Elizabeth Ellison, 1802)— John (PSarah Milburn, 1807)— Nancy 
— Margaret (John Caperton, 1813) — Rhoda — Malinda — Rachel — Elizabeth 

(Jacob Peters, 1800)— Tollison ( Lilly, Nancy Green, 1813)— Polly 

(John McDaniel, 1812)— Harden (Elizabeth Leach, 1806?). John went 
to Ohio, 1825, and Daniel, Jr., went to Missouri. 


Thomas took a survey on Wolf in 1774, but by 1800 we find there sev- 
eral others, among whom were John (Catharine), Richard, Joseph (Mar- 
garet), and Isaac (d. 1803) (Nancy). We have no light as to the rela- 
tionships among these. 

C. of John: John (b. 1795) (Sarah Campbell)— David (111.)— James 

M. ( Callaway)— Oliver ( Ellis)— Molly (John Foster, 1817) 

— Sarah (Joshua Ellis) — Jennie (Peter Miller, 1813) — Lucretia ( 

Wood)— Kate (s) . 

C. of John, Jr.: Andrew A. (b. 1818) (Martha A. Maddy, 1843) — 
Robert C. (b. 1820) (Sarah Hinton, 1844)— John M. (Sarah A. Young, 
1851)— James A. (Rebecca Lively, 1844)— Eliza J. (Peter Hinton, 1845) 
—Mary C. (James Minner, 1853) — Louisa E. (b. 1838) (George Duns- 
more) . 

C. of Andrew A.: James P. (m. in O.), Frank E. (m. in Mercer), Vir- 
ginia (A. A. Carden). 

C. of Robert C. : William S. (Eliza S. Reed), Sarah A. (S. B. Rader), 
Charles E. (Margaret E. Green), Eliza J. (James H. Green). 


It would be most extraordinary if this name did not occur in our an- 
nals. Like the Browns, Millers, and Joneses, the Smiths have been present 
since the early pioneer days. Our data include many marriages and other 
facts, yet disclose very little as to kinships. It is altogether probable that 
several Smith families, more or less unrelated, have been represented in 
Monroe. One James was driven out by the Indians but was so thoughtful 
as to return with 12 children to assist him in holding his ground. He 
may be the James (Cassandra) who was on the head of Wolf in 1805, 
and the Mary who wedded James Hogshead in 1779 may have been one 
of the dozen. One John (Catharine) died here in 1809, whose children 
were Christopher, Charles, Margaret, Samuel, James, George, William, 
Joseph. Christian (Elizabeth) (d. 1816) was advanced in years since he 
was made levy-free in 1811. C: William, George, John, Mary, Joseph, 
Elizabeth, Barbara. 

Three brothers, two of whom were Jacob and Henry, came from Rock- 
ingham in their youth and settled on Indian and Back creeks. Gran- 
ville, a son of one of these, married Caroline A. Clark in 1844, and lived 


near Salt Sulphur. C: Rimonia W. (—^2— Ballard) — Rebecca P. ( 

Webb)— Rufus K. (Frances E. Bilby, 1889)— Villinia R. ( Meador) 

—Wilson R. (Kas.)— Rosetta R. (Jacob W. Pyne)— Elizabeth A. ( 

French) — John J. ( ) — Alwiddie G. ( Kessinger) — Marga- 
ret ( Eddy). 

Dr. Rufus K. Smith was born Dec. 6, 1851, and until the close of the 
war was deprived of all school advantages. But at length he taught sev- 
eral winter terms, attending the Greenville and East River high schools 
in the summer season. In 1877 he was graduated from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore. Locating at Craig, Mo., he was 
very soon enjoying an extensive and profitable practice. During this period 
he several times attended post graduate courses in New York and he vis- 
ited the hospitals of Europe. He was at one time president of the Missouri 
State Medical Society. In 1889 he removed to Seattle and was soon ap- 
pointed chief surgeon of the Great Northern Railway. Nine years later 
he retired from the profession and with his family made a long visit to 
Europe. Since then he has spent his winters in Southern Europe and 
Southern California. Favorable investments; in timber lands and city 
property in the young and growing Northwest made Dr. Smith a very 
wealthy man. He was interested in banking institutions, flouring mills, 
and the Alaska Steamship Co. But during his absence of nearly forty 
years he never ceased to cherish a warm feeling for his native county. 
He died Feb. 16, 1916, leaving one daughter, Mrs. Margaret B. Davis. 

Dr. John J. Smith graduated in medicine in 1891 and then located 
like his brother in the state of Washington. He soon became very active 
and influential in the politics of that state, serving one term in the lower 
house of the legislature and two in the upper. For one year he was Pres- 
ident of the Washington Senate. In 1904 it was in his power to become 
nominated as governor, and nomination would have been equivalent to 
election. But he withdrew in order that the western part of the state 
might have a United States senator. He died in 1910, aged only 41 years, 
leaving two children, Bernice C. and Rufus H. 


Thomas (d. 1832) (Sarah) was brother-in-law to John Alderson and 
came to the same neighborhood in 1779. Thomas (1773-1854) (Margaret 


Abraham (d. 1805) (Lydia). C: Nancy, Lydia, Henry, Polly ( 

Wade), Kate ( Spickard), Elizabeth ( Smith), Susannah 

( Cooper). 

Isaac (d. 1803) (app. $218.47) calls himself an old man. C: Isaac, 


Thomas, Ruth, Mileston, Griffin, Rebecca, Nelly. Thomas, probably the 
same as the preceding, went from Dropping Lick to Sullivan Co., Tenn., 
in 1793. Solomon was living in 1809 on the divide between Hans and 


John was a native of Nuremburg, Germany, and came to America as a 
Hessian soldier. His wife, Mary Schaefer (1773-1857), was born in Swit- 
zerland, but he married her in Loudoun. C: Juda (Zephaniah Lowe), 
Catharine (William Lowe), Sophia (1807-1892) (Samuel DeHart), George 
(d. 1835) (s), Michael (Ann DeHart). The Lowes went to Illinois. 


Charles (Rhoda Peters, 1816), George (Sarah Peters, 1822), and John 
(1780-1845) were brothers who came in early life from Fincastle to Pe- 

terstown. Charles died 1878. John's wife was Jane , b. 1796, d. 

1868. We are also told of Floyd and Christopher who came from Penn- 
sylvania by way of Floyd Co. 

C. of Charles: Christian L. (b. 1817), John A., Gordon G., Elizabeth 
J., Conrad M., Eliza A., Martha K., William H., Joseph H., Clara A. 
(b. 1842). 

C. of George: C. P., James E., Patrick, John (Virginia Thompson); 
2 other sons, 5 daughters. 

The Spanglers trace their lineage to Wurzburg, a city of Bavaria. 
The first of note was George Spengerll, cup-bearer to the chancellor in 
the reign of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Both chancellor and cup- 
bearer fell victims to the plague and were buried at Antioch during one 
of the crusades. Caspar, Henry, Ballzer, and George settled in York 
county, Pa., the first named arriving 1729. Their descendants are very 
numerous, and a number have attained eminence in both civil and mili- 
tary careers. They are generally attached to one or another of the 
Protestant churches, often in the capacity of pastor. 

John, Charles, and George, sons of Philip C, a descendant of Caspar, 
became orphans in their boyhood. The first was apprenticed to a black- 
smith and his boys generally followed the same trade. The others were 
apprenticed to Jacob Peck, a tanner, ther being at the time seven tanneries 
in and about Peterstown, where the brothers arrived about 1800 from 
Fincastle. John (1780-1845) married Jane Thompson, b. 1798, d. 1868. 
Charles (d. 1878) married Rhoda Peters, 1816. George married Sarah 
Peters, 1822. The posterity of these brothers is very numerous in the 
south of this county. 


Randolph (1808-1888) (Caroline E. Zoll) came from Randolph Co. 


and lived about 10 years in Union. Of his large family there were born 
in Union Dr. J. W., Sarah J., Daniel E. 


Thomas (d. 1846) came from Pennsylvania about 1790 and settled in 
Gap valley. His wife was Margaret Maxwell. C: Robert H. (Letitia 
Champ of John, 1801)— Jane M. (1785-1842) (Isaac Campbell, 1810) — 
Elizabeth (178Sc-1853) (Samuel Campbell, 1805)— John (Jane Francis, 
1815)— George (1780-1853) (Sarah Campbell, 1800)— Samuel (Edith 
Wiseman). John went to Ohio in 1850. George was a physician. It is 
thought there were three other children. These may have been Isabella, 
Margaret, and Mary H. 

C. of Robert H.: John M. (b. 1803) (Letitia Motteshead, 1830)— Eliz- 
abeth P. (Robert Dunbar) — Sarah A. — Susanna M. — Isabel N. (James 
Bradley) — Jane M. (Washington Jarvis) — Julia H. (1819) (John A. Dun- 
bar, 1844). 

C. of John M.: Thomas B. (d. '61). 

C. of George: Agnes (Butler Wiseman) — Margaret (Joseph Bland) — 
Rebecca (Moses Bland) — Sarah (Jonathan Bland, 1847) — Elizabeth — Sam- 
uel (Lettie Wiseman, Sarah Bush) — Campbell (Elizabeth Wiseman) . 

C. of Samuel: Clementina (Abner Jarvis) — Janet (Rev. William Huff- 
man) — Garrison (West) — Waldron ( Knapp) — Nelson (Helen Hut- 
chinson) . 

Thomas B., son of John M., d. of fever during the war. 

A distinct family was that of James (1775-1857), a native of North 
Carolina, who settled in Second Creek. His wife was Elizabeth Armstrong 
Mann (1774-1857), who was born in Bath. C: Matilda (John V. Perry, 
1841)— Eliza (s)— John (111.)— Benjamin F. (Isabella Alexander). John 
was a physician, B. F. a sheriff and merchant and captain of militia. 

C. of B. F. (1800-1872): Michael A. (Frances Chapman)— William 
(Annie B. McFarland) . C. of Wm. : L. C. (Pa.), and Mary. 

C. of Michael A.: EfHe, Gussie, Wentworth, Daisy, Paul, Beirne, Cora, 
Herbert, Frank. 


It is alleged that George Stephenson was a German, notwithstanding 
the very English appearance of his name, and that he came to America 
about 1770. Tradition also has it that his wife was Hannah Hoadley, a 
daughter of an aristocratic Englishman, and that as the parental consent 
was not forthcoming, she eloped with him to come to America. But the 
same name and circumstance are related of Peter Fleshman, and with 
more probability. Another statement says Stephenson met his wife-to-be 
on board the ship that brought him to this country. It is further claimed 
that he slew an Indian eight feet tall. But many a reader will be like 


the proverbial man from Missouri; he would like to be shown the meas- 
urements. Stephenson settled on Indian Creek, where Indians of all sizes 
were wont to roam, and he built into his house a clock which stood there 
until about ten years ago. He was a teamster. The only children we 
are told of are Samuel (s) and George (Mary Canterbury). The latter 
was born in the east of Virginia in 1781 and died 1858. He was blessed 
with 11 daughters, as the following list will show: Nancy (Bennett Hou- 
chins) — Lucinda (Isaac Mann, 1829) — Samuel (Polly Ramsay) — Ruth (Da- 
vid Cook) — Jane (John M. Mann, 1843) — Isabel (Alexander Mann, 1834) 
— Lepha (Sylvester Upton) — Adaline (Landon Smith) — Martha (George 
Kendall)— Mary (Thomas R. Wiseman, 1845)— Elizabeth (Archibald 
Mann, 1838) — Hannah (James Smith, 1838). Samuel moved to Augusta, 
causing the name to become extinct in Monroe. 

Another Stephenson was James (Anne), who died in 1802, leaving four 
sons, Samuel, William, Thomas, and Joseph, and four daughters. It was 
perhaps this Samuel who married Jane Swope in 1802. 


Henry, one of the earliest inhabitants of Union, died there in 1813. 


This name is now extinct in Monroe. John (Elizabeth Harvey) pat- 
ented 400 acres at the head of Hans near Lindside. C: Joel (Elizabeth 
Graham, 1792)— Nancy (John Arbuckle, 1799)— Polly (David Graham, 
1800)— Elizabeth (1776-1846) (John Henderson, 1792)— Rhoda (2d w. 
Hugh Caperton) — Sarah (John Barrett, 1809) — William? (Rebecca Dins- 
more, 1799) — Millie ( Bratton) — James ( Dickenson). 

During the later years of Indian alarm Joel was a scont on the Green- 
brier as far west as Keeny's Knobs. A companion was Samuel Graham, 
and thus he became acquainted with the woman he married. He was a 
great hunter and is said to have shot 150 deer in a single season. He 
lived on his father's homestead, adjoining Coalter, Swope, Peck, Thrasher 
and others. C: William G. (b. 1793) (Harriet Walker)— Rhoda S. (1795- 

1878) (William Mann, 1812)— John (s)— Florence (1801-1878) ( 

Dunn)— James (1803-1836) ( Johnston)— Samuel (s)— Nancy S. 

(1808-1880) (Henry Pence, 1829)— Elizabeth— Joel (b. 1812) ( 


C. of William G. : Clarinda (Thomas Johnson) — Nancy (John Mann) 
— Adaline (Levi Lively, 1847) — Rebecca (Caperton McNeer) — Christopher 
( Swope) . 


Timothy (d. 1801) lived on Hans or Indian. His wife seems to have 
been a sister to Michael Rainey. C: Catharine (1756c-1822) (Joseph 
Swope) — Margaret (Jacob Miller). 



About 1816 Andrew Summers, Sr. ( the grandson of an immigrant from 
Holland, came from the vicinity of Harrisonburg and settled at Gap Mills. 
Here he built a brick house said to have been the first one west of the 
Alleghanies. It was a large two-story structure that stood until about 
1888, when the walls being unsound it was demolished. He was accom- 
panied by Andrew, Jr. (Olivia W. Hawkins) and between 1832 and 1836 
they built a woolen mill, an oil mill, a distillery, a wagon factory, a 
tanyard, and triphammer forge. Andrew, Jr., was born 1806. His wife's 
mother was Elizabeth Carlile, of Bath. His son, Andrew J., went to Mis- 
souri 1870. His daughter Virginia married John M. Rowan. 


James (Susanna) died 1836 leaving these children: Vinson, Mary, Ann, 
Rachel, Delilah (John Neely, 1808), Elizabeth (James Dunn, 1812), Su- 
sanna (Henry Gore, 1808), Delany (Priscilla Callaway, 1806), William, 
Charles, Martin. 

Delany was wealthy, owning 21 slaves and a heavy acreage extending 
southward from Lindside. C: James (Elizabeth A. Peck, 1845) — Archi- 
bald ( Pack)— Ella— David (Elizabeth Cummins of Charles, 1841) 

— Malinda (Henry Mann, 1829)— Celia? (Moses Mann, 1836). 


Joseph (b. 1707) is elsewhere spoken of. C: Joseph (1751-1819) (Cath- 
arine Sullivan, 1774) — Michael (b. 1753). There must have been at least 
three other sons, George, John, and Adam, mention of whom is found be- 
tween 1782 and 1793. 

C. of Joseph: George (b. 1776) (Nancy ) — Margaret (Joseph 

Swope, 1805)— Ruth ( Baker)— Joseph (Molly Hines, 1800)— Jona- 
than (1783-1872) (Frances Legg, 1803, Susanna Siders Roach, 1850) — 
Catharine (Henry Rifle, 1805)— Eleanor (John Burdette, 1805)— Adam 
(m. in Ky.) — Mary (b. 1793) (Thomas Casebolt). Only Jonathan re- 
mained here. George went to Kentucky, Joseph and Adam to Indiana. 

The widow of Joseph, Jr. (1756c-1822), gave four beads to each of 
the grandchildren named for her. 

C. of Jonathan: George W. — Lewis C. (Ind.) — Elizabeth (Isaac Arga- 

brite, 1829)— Matilda ( Johnston)— Catharine (Griffith Ellis) — 

Mary J. (Henry Miller, Chesteen C. McGann) ; by 2d w. — Joseph J. (b. 
1854) (Lucy J. Burdette, 1873, Nettie Diddle, 1883). 

C. of Michael: Mary (b. 1775) ( Thompson) — Margaret (Joseph 

Skaggs, 1808)— Elizabeth ( PGeorge Miller)— Joseph (b. 1781) (Marga- 
ret Miller, 1806) — James (Frances Harvey, 1807) — Hannah (Jacob Har- 
vey, 1802) — Arthur — Sarah — Jane (Samuel Stephenson, 1802) — Rachel — 


Anna (Samuel Wiseman, 1816c) — Susanna — Nancy ( Wilson) — 

John (b. 1797) (Nancy Riffe)— Michael— Leah (b. 1802) ( Paul). 

C. of John of Michael: Rachel (b. 1819) (Christopher Stodghill, 1840), 
Rebecca P., Anna L., Virginia C, Michael D., David R., Adaline (Rob- 
ert Cummins), John, Martha J. (s), Anna V., Mary M. ( Shu- 
mate), William L. (b. 1842) (Rebecca W. Alderson, 1866). 


Samuel came from county Cork, Ireland, 1790 and settled on Rich 

Creek. C: John, b. 1784 (Elizabeth Peters, 1814)— Agnes ( Young) 

—William (1795-1826)— Susanna (b. 1797) ( Thomas)— Mary, b. 

1798 ( Hinchman)— Elizabeth, b. 1801 (William Hinchman, 1817) . 

C. of John: Catharine (J. M. Lucas) — George W. (went to Mo. 1846c) 
— Margaret (Kenly Shumate, 1844) — Louis C. (Isabel Nelson, 1865) — 
William (Louise Kent) — Andrew B. (Elizabeth Tiffany) — Joseph A. (Kate 
Shanks, 1868)— Samuel Y. (Mary E. Neel, Harriet McNeer). William 
went to Kansas. Samuel Y., of Rich Creek, is the only surviving brother. 

C, Clarence. Father and son have both served in the Legislature. 


Nimrod (Anna) lived on Turkey opposite John Campbell's mill. C: 
James N., Rachel, Nancy, Rebecca, John W., Ignatius, Rhoda (Thomas 

Wylie, 1812), Elizabeth ( Fleet), Ruth (Joshua Mahan), Sarah 

(David Hank, 1815). 


John (d. 1807) (Susanna) (app. $8047.48). C: Robert, Albion, James 
W. L., Louisa, Reuben, Newton, Caroline, Chichester. 


Notliff lived on Greenbrier River. C: Anna (William Johnson), Nancy 
(Isaac Milburn), William (Florence Graham), Elizabeth (Samuel Gwinn, 
Jr.), Mary (Joseph Gwinn of James). 

Another pioneer Taylor married a Vass. Both are buried at Johnson's 

Adam owned a large farm near Sinks Grove now occupied by J. Harvey 
Scott. He was for many years a justice of the peace, and because of his 
general intelligence and his good penmanship wrote many deeds and other 
legal documents for people of both Monroe and Greenbrier. Mr. Thomas 
was a prominent and useful citizen of his community and represented his 
county in the Virginia Assembly in 1816-17. He came from Virginia be- 
fore 1797 and died in 1843. 


Thomas (1752-1836) (Rebecca Maston, 1790) was an early resident of 
Indian Creek. C: John (1791-1852)— Thomas (b. 1792)— Richard (b. 

1795)_Rebecca (b. 1797) ( Hinchman)— Sarah (b. 1799) ( 

Johnson). Sarah (John Maddy, 1846) was a daughter of Richard. 


Thomas (d. 1795) (app. $249.92)— present at sale: Zachariah Calla- 
way, Anthony Clark, Richard Full, Christopher Hand, William Hank, John 
Peters, William Rice, John Thompson, William Thompson. 

Joseph (1782). 

Isabella (1791-1855) (Willis Ballard)— born here— daughter of Wil- 
liam (Elizabeth). 

Robert (Nancj )— Rich, 1787. 

Robert (Agnes) of Christion Co. Ky., sold on Reaburn's Mtn, 1808, 
to John (Sophia) . 

Jesse (Margaret Harry) came from Augusta about 1829. C: Samuel 
(Summers Co.), John (Harriet McDaniel). 

Harry (b. 1815c) (Catharine McGhee) also came from Augusta. C: 
John B., Jesse W-, William A., Sylvester P. (Cora Broyles), Leroy H., 
James A., Hugh D., Julia A., Margaret J., Mary E., Eliza M., Isabel 
R., Amanda C. 

Mary (Simeon Riner) and her two sisters had each 12 children. 


Hugh (Mxs. Anna Ashcord, 1785) lived on Indian. Hugh, Jr., of Rock- 
bridge, bought on Swope's Knobs, 1803. Hugh (Margaret) was neighbor 
to Isaac Wiseman, 1806. Hugh (Susan McDaniel) was killed at first 
Manassas. C: Hugh, Charles, Mary A., James, John. 


Francis (Isabella) owned a part of the "plowed savannah" in 1801. 


David (Sarah Dodd) came from Amherst in 1830 and lived on a 
farm near Pickaway, where he died in 1857, aged about 60. C: James 
(s)— David (1819-1897) (Catharine Dunsmore, 1843)— Joseph (d. '65) — 
Mary (George W. Foster, 1844) — Lucy (John Humphreys) — Paulina (dy) 
— Emily (William Dunsmore) — Sarah (s) — Columbus (Alice Dykes) — An- 
drew (Louisa Plunkett) — Elizabeth (s) . 

C. of David: Marietta — James A. (Mary McCleary) — William H. H. 
(s) — John A. (Mary E. Holsapple) — Joseph H. (Virginia Holsapple) — 
Sarah A. (s) — Martha J. (s) — Josephine (Henry W. Wickline) — Susan 
C. (John H. Holsapple)— Cora B. (Henry M. Peck). 

C. of James A.: May L. — John K. — Margaret M. — Clifford — Mary M. 
(Rosser N. Miller) — Madge C. (Robert Loudermilk) — James O. — David 


ML John K. is the inventor of a widely used lightning arrestor for tele- 

C. of John A.: Isaac H. (Catharine Drake) — Rose E. (Harvey L. 
Alford) — Virginia — Minnie — Ethel (Asa Linton) — Harry. 

C. of Joseph: Clarance S. (Virgie Hogsett) — Czerny G. (Lilly Miller) 
—James R. (Cora Bobbitt) — Beulah (William L. Jarvis)— Annie C. 


Jeremiah (1791-1871) (Susanna Reaburn) was a native of Fauquier 
and came to Peterstown in 1820, where he carried on a mercantile busi- 
ness 18 years. He moved to Rich, then to Hans, and finally to Wolf Creek. 
Mr. Tracy was a graduate of William and Mary College, an excellent 
Greek scholar, and taught a while in Union Academy. He accumulated 
considerable property, but became impoverished through his investments in 
Confederate bonds. C: Elizabeth (Samuel Ludington, of Greenbrier) — 
Jeremiah J. H. (1827-1902) (Estaline Irons). 

C. of J. J. H.— Bessie E.— Hubert P.— Addie C. (J. S. Hall) — 
Lillian E.— Clarence E.— Cecil V.— Mabel S. (Arthur Leach). The 
brothers took up business careers, the eldest being cashier of the Bank 
of Union. 


Solomon (d. 1778c) lived in Gap Valley. The appraisement was by 
James West, William Craig, Isaac Burns. Moses, James (d. 1791), Sol- 
omon, Jr., Martin, and Aaron were probably his sons. Martin and Aaron 
sold out 1789. 


Nicholas, grandson of Cornelius, an immigrant from Holland, was born 
in Delaware, 1756, and died in Sweet Springs valley, 1831. He was a 
millwright and in 1816 he built a mill on Dunlap Cr. His wife was 
Kate Howard, whom he married in 1783. C: Elizabeth (Thomas Patton, 
1808)— William (Matilda Walton, 1822)— Cornelius (1793-1863) (Agnes 
Haynes, 1820) — Benjamin (s) — Mary (Isaac Byrnside, 1822) — Katharine 
N. (Joseph Carson, 1822). 

Cornelius, also a wright, came to Gap Mills about 1830, and built or 
repaired several mills on Second Cr. and elsewhere. He finally settled 
near Hollywood. He was born in Amherst. C: Mary M- (b. 1820) 
(James Hoylman) — Nicholas (b. 1822) (Amanda Beamer) Benjamin 
(1823-1897) (Mary Beamer, 1845, Mary E. Daugherty, 1888)— Sophronia 
(James Humphreys, 1845) — Elizabeth (Joseph P. Beamer) — William C. 
(d. '61) (Malinda G. Neel, 1855) — Addison (Mary Charlton) — Andrew 
P. (b. 1836) (Jane Charlton, 1863)— Hudson (Marian R. Robertson) — 
Virginia C. (1841-1885) (Charles F. Hogshead, 1860). 


Nicholas went to Mo. C: William (Bertie Thompson), Cornelius (Mar- 
garet Hogshead), John H., Mary C. (N. B. McDowell), Virginia S. (R. 
W. McDowell), Margaret, Catharine. \ 

C. of Benjamin: Martha (Joseph Morgan, 1872)— Delilah (18S0-1912) 
(C. P. Erwin)— Mary (Price Coffman, 1871)— Hamilton (dy)— John B. 
(Mo.)— Cornelius (Mo..— Joseph C. (b. 1862) (Laura C. Hanna, 1885, 
Effie R. McM'ann, 1898)— Eliza A. (W. L. Amonet)— Carrie E. (A. C. 
Burdette). By 2d w. — Gertrude, Bertha, Virginia, Cora B. 

C. of Joseph C: L. Pearl (J. Edgar Atkins), Robert B. (U. S. A.) 

C. of William C: J. F. (Sarah Dunbar), William C, Mary A. (Wil- 
liam Wylie) . 

C. of Addison.: Elizabeth (Isaac N. Foster), Thomas C. (Sarah E. 
Hogshead, Jane M. Hogshead, T. Mattie Wickline). 

C. of Andrew P.: Emma J. (Charles M. Wimmer), George W., (Ella 
A. Givens, 1889), Isabel C. 

C. of Hudson: Minnie S. (dy). Virdie J. (dy), Luther H. (Ada F. 
Howard), Mamie E. 

Joseph C, of Pickaway, is a very successful maker of and dealer in 
all kinds of vehicles and vehicle belongings. He has a 100-pound tilt 
hammer that was operated by waterpower about 1850 by John Beamer. 
Thomas C, a teacher of vocal music, is the chief owner of the Hollywood 
woolen mill. Benjamin not only carried on the ancestral trade of milling 
on Second Cr. at various points, but was also a merchant in partnership 
with Samuel Hamilton. On one occasion he mortally wounded a negro 
that was breaking into his store. 

Erastus, a grandson of Nicholas and Kate, came from Blacksburg. A 
son was shot by a policeman of Hinton in 1895 under circumstances point- 
ing to a misuse of authority. 


Jas. G. (Elizabeth Gooding), b. Orange Co., Va., lived at Johnson's 
Cross Roads since civil war; C. : Wm. (Fannie Ralsten), Ida, Etta, 
Lizzie (Geo. Johnson), Lena (R. L. Martin). 


This name, we are told, is of Welch origin and it probably comes to 
us in a modified form. In Botetourt just after the Revolution we come 
upon Isaac and Ann Votaine and John Votaw. The pioneer in Monroe 
was William (1735-1815), whose wife was Anne Ballard. The only son 
of whom we have any record was William (1765-1822) who married Mar- 
garet Henderson in 1795. He was a rather conspicuous citizen of his day 
and was assessor under Greenbrier as well as Monroe. Until 1810 he 
lived on the Wood homestead on Rich Creek. He then moved to Slaty 
Run, where George W. now lives. 


C. of William, Jr.: Elizabeth (b. 1798) (Robert Young, 1821)— John 
H. (1800-1877) (Adaline Dunlap, 1828, Clara S. Peck, 1833)— Anna (b. 
1802) (Lorenzo D. Cook, 1831)— Jean (b 1805) (Andrew Shanklin, 1826) 
—Mary (b. 1808) (Moses D. Kerr, 1840)— Elliott (1812-1874) (Julia 
Pack, 1839)— James (1814-1888) (Eliza J. Peck, 1845, Elizabeth Lybreck 

The only son to remain in Monroe was John H., a civil engineer, county 
surveyor, and delegate to the Virginia Assembly. In the Confederate ser- 
vice he was a captain on the staff of General Echols. 

C. of John H.: John W. (b. 1834) (captain Co. D, 27th Va.) (Eliza- 
beth D. Kean, 1866)— Elizabeth M., Margaret A. (s)— Lewis A. (1838- 
1900) (Mary Adair, 1862, Emily M. Dameron, 1867)— James E. (1840- 
1862)— Charles E. (b. 1841)— Allen H. (s)— Matilda E. (William Far- 
rier, 1873— Sarah J. (Frank P. Sweeny, 1867)— Joseph S. (dy)— Clara 
V. (Lewis Peck)— Henry A. (Nettie Baber, 1885)— George W. (b. 1855) 
(Eliza J. Gwinn, 1855). 

Of the above J. W., J. E., C. E. and L. A. were in the Confederate 
army. All were captains. J. E. was killed at Seven Pines and J. W. 
was wounded at the Wilderness. J. W. became a professor, L. A., a 
physician, and H. A. a business man of Indianapolis. Only G. W. has 
remained in the county. His children are Josephine (Otey A. Hines) and 
Robert G. 

C. of John W.: John A. (s)— Nelson C. (Sarah E. Paxton)— Clara 
M. (William Alfred)— William A. (Mabel C. Shorter)— Charles K.— 
Andrew E. (s) — James S. (Mary S. Pyle) — Henry A. 

C. of Lewis A. (by 1st w.) : Mary S. (s) — John W. (illustrator for 
J. W. Riley and others) — Clara P. (s) — Charles E. (graduate of Emory 
and Henry, 1866 — president of Miller Training School, Va. 


Among the best loved and most useful citizens Monroe has known 
were the brothers, James Y. and Anderson M. Waite, natives of Fau- 
quier, who studied medicine at Baltimore. In 1846 James Y. came to 
"Walnutta" near Pickaway, but soon moved to Rocky Point. It was at 
this time that his brother came to assist him in his large practice. These 
two men lived strenuous lives, ministering perhaps to two-thirds of the 
population of the county, for in their time doctors were few and far 
between, and there were no automobiles, trained nurses, or antiseptics, and 
the nearest hospital was at Richmond. They are remembered with love and 
gratitude by a host of old and middleaged people. The elder brother 
spent his declining years with a daughter at Glenville, and the younger 
moved to Texas about 1787. 

C. of James Y. (Elizabeth Correll, 1835): Samuel C. (s) (k. Leetown, 


'64)— James W. (s) (k. '62)— Elizabeth A. (George W. Silcott, 1868) 
(b. 1810, d. 1891). 

C. of Anderson M., b. 1817 (Susan M. McClung, 1845): William M. 
(Margaret Bare) — John M. (Lucy Rock, Lizzie Shepperd) — Eliza S. (John 
W. Patton) — Joseph D. (Martha Branch, Arrna Mulky) — James B. (Eunice 


Andrew of Botetourt in 1806 bought the Matthew (Elizabeth) Creed 
place at mouth of Hans. Robert (d. 1852) lived on Turkey. 


Peter, an immigrant from Scotland, settled in Rockbridge in 1738 and 
had several sons in the Revolution. A descendant was James (b. 1775c) 
(Elizabeth Huffman), an uncle to "Big Foot" Wallace, a famous Texas 
pioneer and Major William Wallace, killed in that state at the Fannin 
massacre during the Texan war for independence. Samuel, a son of 
James, came from Rockbridge in 1850, and in 1854 permanently located 
three miles south of Union. He was a well known citizen, staunch and 
resolute, and a tanner and farmer. 

C. of James: Tolliver, William, Samuel (Elizabeth Smith), Eliza, Mag- 
dalene, Mary, Sarah. 

C. of Samuel: John J. (Mo.)— Preston G. (Wise Co.)— Clinton (Mo.) 
— David H. (Monroe) — Samuel C. (Monroe) — Sarah E. (Jesse Cooper) 
— Mary J. (William Burdett) — Ann A. (George Smith) — Paulina (R. 
E. Smith) — Magdalene (Walter H. Pyne). 


Lewis (Mary Fisher) died in Pendleton, 1801. Widow married, 1803, 
Christopher Shaver of Greenbrier. C. of Lewis: Jacob (b. 1793) (Potts 
Cr.) — Mollie (William. Dunsmore) — Catharine (James Rose — Ross?). 


Uriah (1777-1855) (Elizabeth Stevens, 1800) came from Rockingham 
and lived near Rehoboth. He was probably a grandson of an older Uriah, 
who as a victim of a shipwreck, was landed at Plymouth, Mass., by a 
Dutch ship. But there seems to have been an earlier Warren family on 
Rich Creek, perhaps derived from Jacob (Ann), a yeoman who died in 
Augusta about 1769. 

Stuart I. (1833-1890), a son of Thornton (Delilah Jarrett) of Rich 
Creek, was born in Greenbrier and became a forceful and pungent jour- 
nalist. He came to Union about 1854, purchased the Farmer's Friend and 
renamed it the Union Democrat. After five years he returned to Green- 
brier, but the war soon came on and after his term of service therein he 
abandoned journalism, much to the regret of his friends. He returned 


to Monroe and became a farmer. He had a terse and quaint literary style 
and was quick to see the ridiculous. His wife was Mary C. Johnson, 
whom he married in 1858, and his children were Eleanor T. (Jacob A. 
Riffe), Dr. Otey Y. (m. in Mont.), and George "W., (Rose Harlow), 
a lawyer, journalist, and banker. 

Jacob (1750-1821) came to Sweet Springs valley about 1792. He may 
have been a descendant of a Wicklein who came from Saxony to Philadel- 
phia about 1696. Jacob's wife was Catharine Sparr (1754-1820). C: 
George (1775-1864) (Mary Miller)— Jacob (1777-1863) (Susanna Magart 
of Adam, 1805)— Rachel (1780-1861) (Thomas Lowe, 1800)— Margaret (b. 
1783c) (Thomas Buckland, 1806)— Susanna (1789-1854) (John Tyger, 
1809)— John (1791-1851) (Elizabeth Patten of Penn.)— Elizabeth (1793- 
1871)— Daniel (1795-1869) (Elizabeth)— Elijah (1799-1879) (Elizabeth 
Lewis, 1821). 


George was born in Augusta about 1776 and came to Monroe about 
1797, or perhaps not until 1803, at which date he purchased two pieces of 
land. He was accompanied by his brothers Philip (Anna) and John 
(Catharine), both of whom bought land but moved farther west and have 
no posterity in this county. George's house stood close to the present resi- 
dence of Michael Murphy, a mile west of Salt Sulphur. It was also a 
place of worship, for he was a zealous pioneer Methodist and esteemed 
his duty to the church of his choice to be of prime importance. He was a 
person of plain, unassuming manners and sterling honesty. His children 
were by his first wife, Magdalena Michael, who came with him from 
Augusta. About 1825 he married Elizabeth Ramsay. He lived to old 
age. His ancestry was Holland-German. C: Jacob (b. 1798) (Sarah 
Raines) — William (1800-1892) (Jane Crawford, Nancy Arnott) — Henry 

( Rose, Wiseman) — Alexander (Eliza M. Wiseman of Owen. 

1844) — Eli — George ( Smith, Milburn) — Jackson (Smith) — Mary 

( Williams) — Elizabeth ( Hutchinson) — Nancy (Henry Wise- 
man) — Margaret (Robert Wiseman, 1838). The posterity in 
Monroe are from Jacob, William, Alexander, Jackson, and George, Jr. 
The others went West, usually to Ohio. 

C. of Jacob: George (Agnes Clark) — James — Elizabeth (John Taylor) 
— Caroline (Joseph Sherwood) — Mary (Patrick Cavanaugh) — Letitia 
(Elisha Raines) — Julia A. (John Murphy). 

C. of George of Jacob: Charles ( Magnet, Annie Ballard) — Robert 

(Lizzie Brown) — Agnes ( Crosier) — Margaret (William Broyles) . 

C. of James of Jacob: Michael ( Williams) — William A. ( 

Williams) — Jacob ( Allen) — Cass (Newton Allen). 


C. of William: Hutchinson (Nancy Wiseman) — George ( Don- 
aldson, Mahala Brown) — Mary (George Miller) — Lewis (Margaret Ar- 
not Butts) — Samuel G. (Jane Baker) — Virginia (Alexander Ellison) — 
Charles F. (Rebecca Baker) — Margaret (Henry M. Pyles) — Hamilton 
by 2d w.— Addison M. (s)— Emma R. (s), William F. (b. 1864) (Cora 
Ballard) . W. F. has been a county superintendent. 

C. of Alexander: Owen (Malinda Harvey) — Sylvester (Amanda Ar- 
not) — Michael (Josie Hutchinson) — G. Washington (Agnes Harvey) — 

Robert (Caroline Baker) — Fletcher M. (Mollie Parker) — Morris ( 

Wickline) — Jane (Jesse Baker) — Mary (G. W. Pyles) . 

C. of Jackson: William ( ■ Ballard) — Caperton (Nancy Ballard) 

— John ( Payne). 

C. of George, Jr.: Henry (Eunice Ballard) — Lewis. 

The resemblance of Henry Weikel to Abraham Lincoln caused his friends 
to lay a wager that he could chop, split, and lay up 300 rails in one day. 


Abijah was a native of England who fought in the Revolution and 
the war of 1812 and married Susan Grant, related to General Grant. C: 

Eber (b. in Vt. 1797, d. 1870) ( M'addy, 1821, Juda Symms, 1844) 

— Henry — Margaret (Frances Nickell, 1802). 


William Williams of Welch descent settled at a very early day near 
Alderson. His son Richard purchased a large tract near Lewisburg and 
lived there until his death. Elijah, a son of Richard, moved to Ohio, but 
came back and located in Monroe in 1851. George R. (1835-1912) mar- 
ried Mary C. Beamer and lived on his father's place near Monitor. C: 
Emma (S. R. Rodgers), Elliott (Elizabeth Westbrook), A. Newton (Car- 
oline Bean), Edwin L. (Minnie Irons), Homer L. (Roberta Crawford), Er- 
nest M. (Josephine Madden), Rebecca C. (Rev. R. C. Davidson), Virginia 
E. (Rev. T. B. Stewart), Minnie E., Mary E., J. Franklin (Mary E. 

J. F. and E. L. are physicians. Mary E. graduated with high honors 
in the Lewisburg Female Seminary and after teaching very successfully 
in select schools in Monroe and in Virginia and South Carolina, attended 
in 1896 the Moody Institute at Chicago. While there she was selected to 
take charge of an important girls' school of the M. P. Church and located 
at Yokohama, Japan. She sailed for this post of duty the following year 
and was its principal until 1911. She threw her whole soul into the work, 
and had the satisfaction of seeing in a short while that more modern 
buildings were put up and a kindergarten department added. She came 
home on furlough to attend her parents in their last days, but on the last 
day in 1915 returned to Nagoya, Japan, to engage in training Bible women. 


There was another early family of this name on Glenn's Run of Rich, 
the head of which was Felix (1766-1856), a native of Orange. He had 
a mill on Rich. He had a daughter Polly and seemingly other children. 
One daughter married a Hutchinson. Still another Williams was Moses, 
whose children were Samuel (d. 1781c), David, Alexander, John, Mar- 
garet, Ann. 

Geo. Williams lived in Potts Valley since civil war. C. : Henry, J. 

K. (Va.), A. W. ( Keister), F. M. (1st w., , 2d w., 

Miss Hall). 


The name Willis appears very early among the people on Indian Creek, 
but we have no connected knowledge of the older members. Henry, whose 
wife was Elizabeth, died in 1812 leaving personalty of $157.11. He had 
a daughter Tabitha. 

James M. (1834c-1899) lived on Wolf Creek, where he was in high 
repute as an impartial justice of the peace. During his three terms none 
of his decisions was ever appealed. He married Caroline, daughter of 

George W. Haynes. His children are L. C. ( Burdette), George 

P. (Mrs. Jones Hall), Edgar (dy), Ella (W. C. Campbell), Sarah 

(David Patton), Delia ( Tyree), Rena ( Black), Nannie, 

and Rose. 


John (d. 1781c) (Elizabeth) — appraisment by John Hutchinson, Thomas 
Shelton, Adam Caperton, James Allen. 

Andrew (Mary Pettigrew) came to Monroe from Craig Co., 1821. 

C: John ( Green), Nat (Mary Neel), Elkanah (Elizabeth 

Wiseman). C. of Elkanah. Mary and Jennie. Elkanah Wilson was 
assessor several terms. 


Philip (Mary McTheglan), a blacksmith, lived near Pickaway, his shop 
standing near the present pond in the field of Mrs. Irons. He was a 
native of Germany and removed to Ohio about 1847. C: Michael (Mary 
A. Foster of James) — James ( Stone) — Calvin (s). 

C. of Michael: Sarah F. (William McMann)— William (Delia Stin- 
son) — Lewis (Mary Cooper) — Samuel — Thomas (Edwina Coleman) — Rob- 
ert ( Cooper) — Eliza (Josiah Unrue) — Mary J. ( Carver) 

— Margaret (Thompson James). 

C. of James: Laura ( Reed) — Mary ( Douglas). 

C. of William: May (William Bailey) — Rosa ( Vaughan) — 

Sarah — Ruth. 



Isaac (Elizabeth) came from Bucks Co., Perm., soon after the Revolu- 
tion, and settled not far from Rehoboth. C: Joseph (b. 1759) (Elizabeth) 
— John (1760-1842) (Sarah Green) — Sarah — Isaac — Jacob — Rachel — Sam- 
uel — Abner (Isabel Blanton, 1800) — Elizabeth — Margaret (Bartholemew 
Ramsay, 1799) — William (Mary Ramsay, 1801). John, Isaac, and Sam- 
uel went to Ohio. One daughter married a Blanton and they went with 
Abner to Kentucky. The latter lived while here on Dropping Lick. John, 
a Methodist minister ordained by Bishop Asbury, removed to Perry Co., 
O., in 1818. 

C. of John: Elizabeth — Mary — Margaret (Aaron Morgan) — Ann — 
James G.— John R. (1796-1879) (Mary Bostick, 1825)— Isaac (Sarah Hull) 
— Sarah (Thomas (Bratton, 1815) — 4- others. Mrs. Jennie Byrnside is a 
daughter of J. R. 

We are told that the Wiseman connection still represented in the county 
are a related branch, but we are without definite information. 


The will of William (Shusanna) is dated 1775 and was recorded 1782. 
Executors, Dr. Thomas Walker and William Woods of Albemarle and 
Michael Woods of Fincastle, the county in which the home on Rich was 
situated. The lands in Albemarle to be sold to pay debts; the older chil- 
dren — Michael, William, Adam, Archibald, Mary — to have no share in 
stock and household furniture, but to have slaves and outlying debts; the 
younger ones were John, Andrew, Elizabeth, Hannah, Sarah, Peter; Peter 
the youngest, to have homestead and one year's schooling; wife to have 
slave Fanny; Mary to have slave Hannah; still not to be sold, but all 
the children to have an equal right to "her;" George Swope a witness 
to will. 


In the year 1832 the Baptist State Board at Richmond appointed Edwin 
W. Woodson to go to Monroe county as a missionary; there to spread the 
gospel and establish the Baptist faith. The young man unflinching in his 
duty took his widowed mother with her family and settled near the pres- 
ent site of Forest Hill, now Summers county. His younger brother, Zach- 
ariah, later settled on Greenbrier river where the town of Talcott now 
stands. Edwin traveled over a large territory now comprising the coun- 
ties of Monroe, Summers, Raleigh, Mercer and Giles, faithfully fulfilling 
the arduous duties of a pioneer minister. He organized a number of 
Baptist churches the nuclei of a great many of the present organizations. 
He married Adaline B. Landcraft, of Nelson county, both being of Eng- 
lish ancestry. He was cut down in the prime of his usefulness in 1851. 
From these two brothers sprang the present Woodson families of Monroe 
and adjoining counties. 



James Lewis Woodville was the grandson of John Woodville, an Eng- 
lish clergyman, and his wife, Sarah Stevenson, whose brother Andrew \„as 
ambassador to England during the administration of President Jackson. 
His father was James Littlepage Woodville, a lawyer of ability who prac- 
ticed in the courts of Monroe and Greenbrier. He married Mary Sophia, 
sister to William L. Lewis, Sr., of Sweet Springs. James L., whose only 
brother died in infancy, was born January 8, 1820, studied at Kenyon Col- 
lege, Ohio, and the University of Virginia, winning a handsome gold 
medal for proficiency in Greek. He then studied medicine in Richmond 
and Philadelphia, being connected several years with Blakeley Hospital. 
He then practiced as a physician at Fincastle and later at Sweet Springs 
until shortly before his death, Aug. 14, 1904. He was a resident physician 
at the latter place forty years and was a surgeon in the Confederate army. 
In 1852 he married Mary A., daughter of Cary and Emma (Gilmer) 
Breckenridge. His home, "Glencove," is now the home of his son, Cary B. 


Stephen was a native of England. C: Kate ( Gillespie, 

Brown), — William (Ellen Hamilton), Taylor (Caroline Cochran), Juliet 
(J. Stephenson), Joseph, Nettie (T. George). 

George (Agnes) was living on Greenbrier River in 1813. 


This name, more usually in the form Wiley, appeared in Augusta be- 
fore 1749. Members of the connection settled in the Sinks of Monroe, and 
on Anthony's and Potts creeks, at Newcastle, and at the Narrows. John 
(d. 1810) (Lydia) was settled in the Sinks as early at least as 1781. 

C: Martha (Henry ), Fisk, John, Margaret, Jane, Robert, James, 

Sarah (cripple). 

Thomas (Jane Cochran, 1807) was, as we understand, the parent of 
Cochran (1815-1899) and Andrew (1818-1900) (Agnes A. Boyd, 1845, 
Louisa Gwinn) . The last named settled in Cove valley in 1836, at which 
time it was almost a wilderness. 

Robert (d. 1799) (Sarah) left $64 for the use of a daughter of Wil- 
liam Little of county Armaugh, Ireland, and other legacies totaling $491.- 
36. C: John, Thomas, Robert, William. One son married Happy Gat- 
liff. Henry (Mary) Willey, of Brush Cr. would seem to be another mem- 
ber, as he was a brother to Robert, William, Abigail. The styles Wylie, 
Wiley, and Willey were for a while much confused. 


The forefather of the Youngs of this county crossed the Atlantic to 
Pennsylvania about 1750. The following brothers and sisters came to 


the Andrew Irons place in the Sinks about 1788: James (d. 1822) (Susan 
Dickson)— Robert (d. 1815) (Sarah Glenn, 1792)— William (Susanna Clark, 
1788c)— Margaret (1796-1862) (James Glenn, 1818). Of Andrew, Sarah, 
and Lydia no record is known. James Young and James Glenn were 
Presbyterian elders. The father of the family may have been William 
(Jean), who died in 1802. His will mentions James, Sarah, Elizabeth, 
Jean ( Cook), and Nancy ( Kincaid) . 

C. of James: Nancy N. (1790-1865) (Thomas M. Gibson, 1845) — 
James (1792-1854) (Virginia Irons) — Robert (Jane Curry) — Margaret 
(1796-1862) (James Young-Sullivan?, 1810?) — Joseph (Nancy Rodgers) 
—Elizabeth (Joseph Parker, 1824)— Lydia (Jesse Parker)— Polly D. (Wil- 
liam Leach) — Susanna (Robert Leach) — Sarah ( ?James Campbell, 1806). 
Robert went to Harrison county, Joseph to Mo. 

C. of James: Sarah A. (Dr. J. M. Skaggs). 

C. of Robert: James (1793-1854) (Margaret Young, 1810)— Robert (1795- 
1870) (Elizabeth Vawter, 1821)— George G— William— Andrew. 

C. of William: Margaret (1796-1862) (James Young of Robert, 1810) 
—Robert (s)— Susanna (1800-1881)— William (b. 1802) (Jean Lynch, 

C. of James of Robert: Sarah G. (1819-1899)— Susanna (b. 1821) (John 
Irons) — Nancy (Thomas Gibson, 1846) — Elizabeth (Andrew Irons) — 
George G. (1829-1909) (Emily Johnson, 1874 — William— James G. (1833- 
1904) (Margaret Young, 1856). 

Nancy and Elizabeth were wedded the same day, one by a Methodist 
minister and the other by a Presbyterian. 

C. of James G. : Robert (Mary Miller) — Etta (Lewis A. Miller) — 
Anderson (Catharine Lynch) — William A. (Cora Baker) — Adgar (s) — 

Anna (Beirne Dransfield) — Emma ( Lowry) — Margaret A. (Hugh 

Smiley, 1854). 

C. of Robert of Robert: Amanda, Addison Price, 1843) — Mary J. 
(1823-1895) (Andrew Y. Windell, 1843)— William V.— Sarah A. (1828- 
1904) (Joseph Fleshman, 1866)— Adeline D.— James G. (1832-1892) (Man- 
dana S. Thrasher, 1867)— Elizabeth E. (James P. Peck, 1880)— George 
P. (1837-1908) (Nancy Peck, 1872). 

C. of James G. of Robert, Jr.: William; R., Eva S. (James P. Peck, 

1880), James E., William R. (Estella Price), Eva S. ( Mace), 

Maggie G. ( Huling). 

C. of George P. of Robert, Jr.: Georgia (John R. Johnson), Charles 
E., Mary F. 

C. of William, Jr.: John C. (1835-1912) (Ann E. Campbell, Mattie 
A. Johnson)— Mary S. (b. 1836) (Robert M. Beamer, 1853)— William 
P. (1838-1913) (Lee B. Gibson)— Isabel (John Campbell). 

C. of John C: Beirne C. (Roberta Hodge) — Annie (J. Everett Nick- 


ell); by 2d w.— Alta J. (Texas Lynch)— J. Glenn (Floy Reynolds)— Ray 
(Edith Nickell)— J. Elmer— Dwight— Clyde— Frank. The last four are 
merchants of Fairbury, Neb. J. G. is a physician in Wisconsin. 

C. of B. C: Elaine. 

C. of Annie (Nickell): Kenneth (Mary Duncan), Gladys, Ralph 
and Calvin. 

C. of William P.: Landon C, Earl S., Alma, and Mrs. S. M. Baylor. 

The county records mention many other Youngs, seemingly not of the 
above connection. 


William von Zoll of Saxony came to Pennsylvania about 1774, and at 
Germantown in that state he married Margaret Righter. Soon after 1800 
his sons, William, Jacob, and Joseph, settled in Virginia. 

C. of William (1783-1857) (Jane E. Smith, 1808): Caroline (1810- 
1855) (Randolph Stalnaker, Sr., 1830)— Jacob (1812-1894) (Mary J. Dun- 
lap, 1840)— Elizabeth (dy)— William (Sarah M. Alderson, 1848)— Re- 
becca (Henry Stowers, 1841)— Joseph (b. 1820) (Isabella E. Dunlap, 1847) 
—Jane (Robert Stowers, Sr., 1841)— Henry A. (s)— James (1827-1908) 
(Elizabeth Montgomery, 1859) — Julia (Thomas Thixton) — Martha (John 
Hall, 1866)— Harriette (b. 1833) (Henry Rigg, 1852). 

Joseph and William went to Mo. Jacob was a very prominent citizen 
of Union during the war period. C: Harriette D. (1841-1877) (Capt. 
J. D. McCartney) — Rebecca J. (John Mann) — Annie E. (John M. Alex- 
ander) — Isabel (M. S.' Alexander) — Caroline (C. S. McKenzie) — Lucy 
B. (C. L. Clark)— Charles L. (Sarah McQuen)— Grace D. (William 



American Wars — Military Organizations of 1861 — Soldiers of 1861. 

OME one has said with a good deal of truth that no 
one would read history if war were left out of it. The 
recent writers and teachers of history lay increased em- 
phasis on the economic phases of the subject. This is 
wise and practical, although it has been giving aid to the idea that 
great wars had become impossible. The more civilized of the world's 
nations were running too much to fat instead of muscle when rudely 
awakened in the summer of 1914. Militarism is a fearful evil, and 
yet a sturdy patriotism does not work in the same harness with a 
smug and unreasoning pacificism. 

The early settlers of this region were nurtured in the hard 
school of Indian warfare. Every man and every boy might with 
only a moment's warning have to become a fighter. Women and 
girls, while forting in the stockades, moulded bullets for their pro- 
tectors to shoot at the stealthy redskin. The settlers of Monroe 
fought at Point Pleasant and in the border skirmishes of the Rev- 
olution. Among the immigrants after that war were men who 
had campaigned under Washington, Green, and Lafayette. 

When our first president called out 15,000 men to put down 
the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794, the One Hundred and Eighth 
Regiment of the Virginia militia was one of the organizations that 
made response. There was no fighting, for resistance was seen 
to be folly. 

In the war of 1812 soldiers from Monroe marched to the de- 
fense of Norfolk and suffered from illness due to the change of 


The war with Mexico called out only a small number of vol- 
unteers. Among these were several from Monroe. 

The great war of 1861 called out almost the entire military 
population, both North and South. The Americans of that day 
had not grown soft. They had not yet fully emerged from the at- 
mosphere of the pioneer period. Legends of the Indian wars were 
household words to them. They were a husky stock, rather war- 
like in temperament, and they made as good soldiers as the world 
has known. 

The men of this county who took a hand in that war were 
almost wholly in the Confederate service. At the close of this 
chapter we give as complete a list as it has been possible to secure. 
Some of the commands were not wholly composed of Monroe men. 

The Monroe Guards were organized in the winter of 1859-60. 
John Echols was their first commander. May 13, 1861, they 
marched from Union, 104 strong, and became a part of the Twenty- 
Seventh Virginia Infantry, which served in Stonewall Jackson's 
famous "foot cavalry." It was this regiment that helped to break 
the Federal center at the second battle of Manassas. 

Lowry's Battery left Greenville — then Centerville — in June, 
1861. The day was notable, a large crowd being present. The 
company was attached to the Thirteenth Battalion of Light Artil- 
lery. When it disbanded at Christiansburg, a few days after the 
surrender of Lee, the men were eulogized by General Echols for 
their bravery and faithfulness, and told to be good and obedient 
citizens after their return home. The first officers were William 
M. Lowry, captain; Beirne Chapman, first lieutenant; W. V. Young, 
second lieutenant; Charles H. Dunlap, third lieutenant; John H. 
Pence, orderly sergeant; A. J. Keadle, first sergeant; J. P. Shank- 
lin, second sergeant; J. C. Woodson, third sergeant. 

W. M. Lowry came from Bedford a few years before the war 
to engage in the practice of medicine at Centerville. He was gen- 
tle and magnetic, handsome and commanding. To his men he was 
considerate, and by them he was beloved. Whenever he could, he 


sent his disabled men home, or to a private family, instead of to a 
hospital. This had much to do with the few fatalities among 

Another of the first companies to go to the front was that of 
the Monroe Sharpshooters, who were attached to the Sixtieth Vir- 
ginia Infantry, of the brigade that was first commanded by General 
McCausland and afterward by Colonel Thomas Smith, and con- 
stituted a part of the division under Breckenridge. When the sharp- 
shooters left Union, they were presented by the ladies of that town 
with a silk flag. Beirne Chapman made the presentation address 
in a speech of inspiring eloquence. 

Vawter's company was organized for the artillery service, but 
was converted into two companies of the Thirtieth Virginia Bat- 
talion of Wharton's brigade. 

Burdette's Company belonged to Edgar's Battalion, the Twenty- 
Sixth Infantry, which was included in Echols' Brigade of Breck- 
enridge's Division. In Wharton's Brigade of the same division 
served Fleshman's Company, included in Clark's Battalion, the 
Thirtieth Virginia Sharpshooters. 

Thurmond's Rangers were an independent partisan command 
and took orders directly from the head of the military department. 

A large majority of the men in Bryan's Battery were from this 

The Rocky Point Grays marched from Sinks Grove, June 27, 
1861, and proceeded to Charleston. They were mustered into the 
Twenty-Second Virginia Infantry under Colonel Tompkins of 
Wise's brigade. In July and August of that year the men were 
in the engagements at Scary, Cross Lanes, and Carnifax. They win- 
tered at White Sulphur Springs and were afterward put into Echols' 
brigade. They were present in 1862 at the battles of Pearisburg, 
Lewisburg, Fayetteville, and Elk River Bridge. In 1863 they fought 
at Dry Creek and Droop Mountain, and in 1864 at New Market, 
Cold Harbor, and Lynchburg. In the fall of that year they had 
a share in Early's Valley campaign. The disbanding was at Chris- 
tiansburg, April 15, 1865. 


Still another command was Company B of Edgar's Battalion. 

Beirne Chapman resigned from Lowry's Battery to organize an- 
other, of which he was captain. It was sworn into service at Lewis- 
burg at the close of April, 1862. The company was about 150 
strong, about one-half of the men being from Monroe, and it was 
equipped with five guns. Its first engagements were Pearisburg and 
East River. A detachment with the 24-pound gun took part in the 
battle of Lewisburg, May 23. In the fall of 1862 the battery saw 
service on the lower Kanawha, after which it went into winter quar- 
ters at the Narrows. At Dry Creek the battery distinguished itself 
and suffered severely. At Droop Mountain it lost one of its guns. 
In May, 1864, it fought at New Market. Shortly afterward it was 
transferred to Lee's army in front of Richmond, and remained with 
it until sent to Lynchburg as a part of the force under General 
Early. After the battle in front of Lynchburg, the battery ex- 
changed its old guns for 12-pounder Napoleons captured from Hun- 
ter's army. In Early's Valley campaign it suffered its heaviest 
losses. At Winchester it lost two guns and only 28 men answered 
roll call next morning, although stragglers came in afterward. At 
the disastrous battle of Cedar Creek all but one of the remaining 
guns were captured. Nevertheless, the command pulled itself to- 
gether, was supplied with new guns, and served under Echols un- 
til the disbandment in April, 1865. 

At Winchester Captain Chapman was mortally wounded. He 
was a born soldier, a good officer and disciplinarian, and was much 
lamented by his men. His age was only 24. 

The Confederate commands in which the Monroe men were 
represented saw much hard service, particularly with the Army of 
Northern Virginia under General Lee, and in the campaigns in the 
Shenandoah Valley in 1862 and 1864, under Jackson, Breckenridge, 
and Early. Many of the men were in numerous engagements, in- 
cluding some of the heaviest of that great war. One of our infor- 
mants tells us that the brigade under Echols was reduced in five 
months from 2150 men to 275. 




Roster of Company of Captain John Lewis (son of General Andrew Lewis.) 

Lieutenant — John Henderson. 
Ensign — Robert Elliot. 

Sergeants — Samuel Glass, William Bryan, Peter Huff, William Wilson, 
Samuel Estill. 


John Arthur 

Thomas Allsbury (drummer) 

Samuel Barton 

William Boniface 

John Bowman 

Jacob Bowman 

Henry Bowyer 

Robert Bowles 

Robert Boyd 

Samuel Burcks 

Thomas Burns 

James Burtchfield 

James Byrnside 

Thomas Canada 

Adam Caperton 

Hugh Caperton 

James Carlton 

Martin Carney 

Jeremiah Carpenter 

Solomon Carpenter 

John Carpenter 

Thomas Carpenter (w'd) 

William Clifton 

David Cook 

Adam Cornwell 

James Crawley 

Matthew Creed (Creel?) 

Samuel Croley 

Robert Davis 

John Deniston 

John Donally (fifer) 

James Dulin 

Edward Eagin 

Peter Ellinburg 

James Ellison 

Nathan Farmer 
Isaac Fisher 
Philip Hammond 
John Handley 
Peter Hendricks 
Walter Holwill 
Henry Howard 
Samuel Huff 
Leonard Huff 
Thomas Huff (w'd) 
William Isam 
Matthew Jewitt 
William Jones 
Alexander Kelley 
Mathias Kessinger 
Andrew Kessinger 
Joseph Love 
William Mann 
James McNutt 
Isaac Nickell 
Dennis Neel 
Richard Packwood 
Molastine Peregrine 
Matthew Polug 
John Reyburn 
William Robinson 
John Savage 
Gabriel Smithers 
James Stuart 
John Swope 
Isaac Taylor 
Christopher Welch 
Solomon White 
Edward Wilson 




Lieutenant — Name gone. 

Sergeants — James Donally, Charles O'Hara, Skidmore Harriman. 


John Burke 
Joseph Campbell 
James Clarke 
William Clendennin 
George Clendennin 
Spencer Cooper 
John CrTin 
Joseph Currence 
Joseph Day 
John Doherty 
William Dyer 
William Ewing 
Thomas Ferguson (w'd) 
Andrew Gardiner 
Thomas Gillespie 
John Harris 
William Hogan 

Charles Hennison (w'd) 
Henry Lawrence 
Jacob Lockhart 
Quavy Lockhart 
John McCandless 
Archibald McDowell 
John McNeal 
Robert O'Hara 
William O'Hara 
John Paulee 
James Paulee 
Edward Smith 
Samuel Sullivan 
Daniel Taylor 
Samuel Williams 
Daniel Workman 



Lieutenant — William McCoy. 

Ensign — Matthew Bracken (killed). 

Sergeants — Thomas Williams (killed), William Craig, Samuel Clark. 

Drummer — William Jones. 


Charles Howard 

William Hutchinson 

Jamee Kincaid 

George Kincaid 

William McCaslin (McCausland) 

James Morrow, Sr. 

James Morrow, Jr. 

John Patton 

William Stewart 

Edward Thomas 

John Vaughn 

John Williams 

Richard Williams 

Edward Barrett 
Francis Boggs 
James Burrens 
Patrick Constantine 
Thomas Cooper 
John Cunningham 
William Custer 
David Cutlip 
Thomas Ellis 
Patrick Evans 
James Gilkeson 
James Guffey 
John Harmon 
Lewis Holmes 



Matthew Blain — died at Norfolk, 1815 — under Captain Nickell — wife, 
Mary — Children: Benjamin and I . 

William Brooks — died in service in Fourth Virginia Militia — wife, Mary. 

John Carr — enlisted in 1813 — died 1818 — son of John — unmarried. 

Robert Chambers — orderly sergeant in Eighth Virginia under Captain 
Robert Higgens — taken prisoner at Charleston, 1780, and held 14 months 
— applied for pension, 1818. 

Thomas Alderson — in Revolution. 

Henry Daugherty — drafted in place of John Hinchman — under Lieut. 
William McDaniel — died near Norfolk, 1814. 

John Hank — four years in Eighth Virginia under Capt. David Stephen- 
son — captured at Charleston, 1780 — held prisoner at Jamaica 11 months 
and remained three years — applied for pension in 1818. 

Henry Hull — in Fifth Regiment as substitute for Jacob Baker — died, 

Andrew Hutchinson — died near Norfolk about 1814. 

James Jones — born in Fauquier — died 1849 — wife Mary born, 1781. 

Jesse Kidd — died in service in 1812 war — wife, Mary Miller, a widow. 

John Spade — in Revolution (British service). 

Philip Woolwine — in Revolution — wife, Elizabeth. 

William Burdette, James Gray, and John Holsapple were in the War 
of 1812. Andrew Beirne was a captain in the same service. 

PENSIONERS OF THE UNITED STATES (Resident in Monroe, 1833) 

Ingabo B. Alexander — survivor, 1812 — Union. 

Jane Carlisle — widow, 1812 — Union. 

Jonathan Carter — survivor, 1812 — Wolf Creek. 

Mildred Craig — widow, 1812 — Peterstown. 

Lucy B. Edwards — widow, 1812 — Sinks Grove. 

Jane Halfpenny — widow, 1812 — Alderson. 

Anna Honaker — widow, 1812 — Union. 

Jane Huffman — widow, 1812 — Alderson. 

Field A. Jarvis — deponent of father — Laurel Branch. 

David Magnet — survivor, 1812 — Union. 

Sarah Miller — widow, 1812 — Union. 

Alexander Nichols — wounded in left arm — Union. 

William Phillips — survivor, 1812 — Peterstown. 

Emeline Worsham — widow, 1812 — Sweet Springs. - 

(The monthly rate in each instance was eight dollars.) 


Among the natives of Monroe in this service were Archibald Bostick 
and Christopher Budd. 



A. T. Ballard — Co. B., Seventh West Virginia Cavalry, organized in 
1861 — honorably discharged at Charleston, W. Va., 1865. 

William A. Ballard — private in Co. B, One Hundred Thirty-Ninth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry — under Captain Archibald Walker. 

W. T. Mann— in Federal Army, 1862-5. 

Lewis Ballard was a captain of West Virginia state troops. 

In addition to the foregoing were Federal soldiers among the men 
who had moved from the county before the war. Of this number were 
three of the Pyne family. A similar remark is of course true of the Con- 
federate service and in much larger measure. 


After fifty years have gone by it is a matter of difficulty to present 
a record of the Confederate soldiers from Monroe. Not always could full 
information be readily found. The commands represented in the follow- 
ing list were not wholly made up in all instances of men from this county, 
including the part which is now in Summers. But whenever it could be 
done the names not properly belonging to Monroe have been left out. 
The names of deserters have also been omitted. 

The name of each soldier is followed — so far as our information per- 
mits — by the command to which he belonged, his rank, his casualty (if 
any), and his present residence, if living. Where no rank is mentioned 
the soldier was a private. 

"1 Lt" means First Lieutenant; and so with other similar expressions. 
"Prison" means a Federal military prison, and the name of the prison is 
sometimes mentioned. When possible, the place and year are given where 
a soldier is named as killed, wounded, or captured. 

Explanation of abbreviations: 
B — Bryan's Battery Cp — captain 

BB — Burdette's Company Lt — lieutenant 

C — Chapman's Battery Sg — sergeant 

E — Edgar's Battalion O Sg — orderly sergeant 

F — Fleshman's Company Cor — corporal 

FF — Company F, 26th Cavalry d — died of disease during war 

G — Monroe Guards D — died since war 

L — Lowry's Battery k — killed 

M — Monroe Sharpshooters w — wounded 

R — Rocky Point GreyS mw — mortally wounded 

T — Thurmond's Rangers c — taken prisoner 

V — Vawter's Company unc — unaccounted for 

Abbott, John — M 

Adair, John — V— 1 Lt— w Fayetteville, '62 — D 


Adair, William— V— 4 Lt— c Winchester, '64 — D 

Adair, C— T— D 

Adkins, William — T 

Alderson, C. H.— E— D 

Alderson, E. D. — L — Summers Co. 

Alderson, J. W.— C 

Alderson, J. — T 

Alexander, J. — L — Pulaski Co. 

Alexander, Henry — B — D 

Alexander, John — C — D 

Alexander, John M. — G 

Alexander, M. — B — Penn. 

Alexander, M. I. — B — Pulaski, Va. 

Alford, Marion — E — D 

Alford, M. V.— E— D 

Allen, Burman— V— d '62 

Allen, George — M— k '62 

Allen, G. W.— B— D 

Allen, Hugh— B— D 

Allen, John— V 

Allen, J. T.— T 

Allen, Isaac— V—w Cedar Creek, '64 

Allen, Marion — Mi — d '62 

Allen, Marion — M — D 

Allen, N. R.— B— Monroe Co. 

Allen, William— V—d '62 

Allen, William H.— T— D 

Altair, Davis — B — Monroe Co. 

Altair, Mason — E — Ind. 

Alvis, James — E 

Andrews, Charles — C 

Andrews, H. M. — C 

Andrews, William C 

Archer, William— C—D 

Archey, Charles — G 

Argabrite, J. L. — C 

Armstrong, David M.—C— Roanoke, Va. 

Armstrong, Hugh — M — d 

Armstrong, Matthew — M- — d '62 

A mot, Jesse R. — C — D 

Arthur, C. — T 

Arthur, S.— 2 Cp— T 

Ayers, Christopher J. — R — unc 


Ayers, James M. — R — D 
Ayers, Lewis A. — R — unc 
Ayers, Newton M. — R — unc 

Ayers, L — unc 

Ayers, Joseph T., 37th Va. Cavalry. 

Baber, W. H. S.— V— Sg 

Baker, John M. — E — Monroe Co. 

Ball, James — V 

Ball, John— V 

Ballard, Hugh — L — Greenville 

Ballard, John— E— D 

Ballard, Madison — V 

Ballengee, J. M — L— D 

Ballengee, E. — T — D 

Ballentine, Andrew — C — D 

Ballentine, C. R.— C— D 

Ballentine, John — C — D 

Ballentine, M. M.— C— 2 Sg— D 

Banks, Clem — C 

Bare, Benson — E 

Barnett, J. W.— C 

Barton, Andrew — C — D 

Beamer, Byrd — C — k Winchester, '64 

B*eamer, John C. — C — D 

Beamer, Mat — C — Monroe Co. 

Beamer, William — C — c at close of war 

Beamer, William B. — G 

Bean, William M.— R— D 

Beckett, James D. — R — Pickaway 

Beckett, James — FF 

Beckett, William F. — R — Mercer Co. 

Beckner, John — G 

Beirne, Christopher — M — Cp — D 

Belcher, Charles — M 

Bell, A. N.— B 

Bennett, John — BB — 

Bennett, R.— T 

Bickett, Michael— B — D 

Bickett, James — G — c May 12, '64 — d Fort Delaware 

Biggs, Chapman — V — Lindside 

Biggs, Miles— C—D 

Biggs, William— V—d '62 


Biggs, Wilson — V 

Black, Cephaulus— C— O Sg— D 

Bland, Alexander — B — D 

Bland, Jack— M 

Bland, Jackson — V 

Bland, Robert— M—D 

Bland, Thomas — M — k 

Blankenship, Robert — F — k accidentally 

Blankenship, William T — M— D 

Blankenship, V — k Smithfield 

Bobbitt, L. H.— T— D 

Bobbitt, Newton — M — d Richmond, '62 

Boden, John — M 

Boden, William— M 

Boley, James — M — D 

Bonham, Pembrook — V — Neponset, W. Va. 

Boon, Mark — L — D 

Booth, William— M—D 

Bostick, David — M — k Richmond 

Bostick, Henry I. — M — Monroe Co. 

Bostick, James — M — d prison 

Bostick, James — C — D 

Bostick, P. B — BB— D 

Bostick, William ("Turkey Bill")— M—D 

Boude, S. K.— E— D 

Bowden, Cape — R — D 

Bowden, James — M — Greenbrier Co. 

Bowden, Samuel A. — R — unc 

Bowles, Charles — ? — D 

Bowles, J. H.— E 

Bowley, Newton — L — unc 

Bowyer, John — M' — k accidentally 

Bowyer, Madison — M — Monroe Co. 

Bowyer, Shack — M — k 

Bowyer, William — Mi — k accidentally 

Boyd, Harvey H.— G 

Boyd, G. A.— B— D 

Boyd, James — T 

Boyd, J. W.— E 

Boyd, Mat— R— D 

Boyd, Matthew— C 

Boyd, P. A.— B— D 

Boyd, R. A.— FF— Monroe Co. 

Boyd, Robert — R — mw Dry Creek '63 


Boyd, W. M.— BB— D 

Boyd, William — R — Monroe Co. 

Bradley, Alexander — M 

Bradley, George — C — Monroe Co. 

Bradley, James — M — D 

Bradley, Sylvester— C—D 

Bradley, Tyranus — T — Monroe Co. 

Bragg, Harvey — T 

Bragg, Ira — T 

Brand, Robert — C— k Winchester '64 

Branham, George W. — B — 4 Sg — D 

Branham, John H. — B — D 

Brewer, Edward — V — w Lewisburg '62 

Brewer, E. L.— B— West 

Bridgett, Jacob — C 

Britts, George — M 

Britts, William— M—D 

Brown, C. C— R 

Brown, Ferdinand H. — G — D 

Brown, Henry — M 

Brown, John W. A. — M — D 

Brown, J. A.— T 

Brown, William— BB 

Brown, Benjamin — G — D 

Broyles, Christopher — V — w New Market — Lindside, W. Va. 

Broyles, G. W— L— k Cedar Creek '64 

Broyles, Henry — M — mw 

Broyles, Katy — L — Monroe Co. 

Broyles, Solomon — FF 

Broyles, Thompson — FF 

Bruffey, M. F. — E — Virginia 

Bryan, Thomas A.— B— Cp— D 

Buce, John— FF 

Buckland, F.— T 

Buckland, John — V 

Buckland, L.— R 

Buckle, C. L.— E 

Buckner, John — G 

Bugg, George — B — D 

Burdette, James — C — Greenbrier Co. 

Burdette, James L. — R — d '61 

Burdette, J. P.— E— D 

Burdette, John K. — B — Monroe Co. 


Burdette, William A.— B— 3 Cp— D 

Burdette, George W. — R — Fayette Co. 

Burke, William— C 

Burns, James — E — D 

Burns, Mat— C— D 

Burns, Thomas U. — T — D 

Burwell, A. J._ R— D 

Bush, Harvey — B 

Bush rod, I. G — L 

Bushrod, M. — L — Tenn. 

Butts, A. H. — B — surgeon — D 

Byrnside, Henry C. — M — Greenville, W. Va. 

Cady, Michael— B—D 

Cales, L. G— T 

Calfee, G. A.— B 

Callaway, Preston — F — D 

Camp, Robert — G — k Cedar Creek 

Campbell, Andrew — FF 

Campbell, A. Nelson — B — w Lewisburg '62 — Union, W. Va. 

Campbell, Archibald M. — G — k First Manassas 

Campbell, Daniel — B — Monroe Co. 

Campbell, H C— B— D— 5 Cp 

Campbell, I. N. — L — Monroe Co. 

Campbell, James — 17th Va. Cav. — D 

Campbell, James — R — D 

Campbell, John E.— B— D 

Campbell, John H.— R— Mo. 

Campbell, John P.— B—D 

Campbell, John— C— 4 Lt— D 

Campbell, John — R — Cp — Bloomington, 111. 

Campbell, Levi — M — d Fort Delaware 

Campbell, Robert— C — 3 Lt — d 

Campbell, William — R — doctor — D 

Campbell, W. P.— B— doctor— d 1862 

Campbell, W. H. H.— B— D 

Canterbury, Granville — T— D 

Canterbury, Z.— B— D 

Caperton, Hugh — G — O Sg— D 

Caperton, Lewis — V 

Carden, I. G— L— Hinton, W. Va. 

Garden, A. A.— L— Hinton, W. Va. 

Carden, J. M.—L— Hinton, W. Va. 


Carper, William — G 

Carraway, Joseph — A 

Carroll, James — B — D 

Cart, John A. C— R— D 

Carter, William A.— B— D 

Carter, William A., Jr.— B 

Cecil, John C— L — unc 

Chambers, Garrett— V—D 

Chapman, Beirne — C — Cp — mw Winchester '64 

Chapman, Samuel — G — w 

Charlton, G. W.— FF— D 

Charlton, G. W.— C— D 

Charlton, J. J.— FF— D 

Chatting, George — T — D 

Chewning, Stephen — B — D 

Childress, Clark L.— FF 

Childress, George G— FF— k 

Christie, Allen — C 

Clark, James F— B— D 

Clark, Preston — B 

Clark, Samuel A.— G— D 

Clark, Henry— V—d '63 

Clingman, Addison — E 

Coben, — L 

Coiner, John — C 

Collins, Edward— B—D 

Commack, J. — T 

Commack, R. — T 

Comer, John — V 

Comer, A. B.— E 

Comer, Wilson — V 

Comer, Madison S. — B — D 

Connell, M. S.,— B. 

Connor, John — G — k First Manassas 

Cook, A. W.— M 

Cook, John H. — M — Monroe Co. 

Cook, Lewis — G — D 

Cook, L. G.— T 

Copeland, Jesse — FF 

Copeland, Solomon — FF 

Copeland, W. H.— ?— ?— c '64 

Counts, Charles — M 

Counts, George — M — D 


Counts, John ("Christmas") — M — D 

Cox, J. D.— T 

Coyner, John — T 

Craft, James — T 

Craft, W. H.— L— West 

Crawford, J. A.— L— D 

Crawley, William — L — Lynchburg 

Crebs, Lewis — G — D 

Crebs, Otho— B— 7 Sg— D 

Cregler, Zachariah F — R— D 

Crews, Archibald — V — D 

Crews, J. B.— L 

Crews, John J. — V — 3 Lt— Mo. 

Criner, Ballard— G — D 

Criner, Louis B. — G — k Frazier Farm '62 

Cronan, Timothy — B — D 

Crookshank, M. F.— E 

Crosier, G. W.-^E ■ 

Crosier, James L. — B — k Cloyd Mountain 

Crosier, James M. — B — D 

Crosier, Thomas — M — Virginia 

Crosier, T. B.— B 

Crosier, W. G.— B 

Crostick, Thomas — M — k Cold Harbor 

Crotty, C. P.— E 

Crowder, L. V. — B — Monroe Co. 

Cullighan, Thomas — B 

Cummings, Robert — C — D 

Cummings, V — k Fayetteville '62 

Curry, Alpheus — BB 
Curry, Anderson — BB 
Curry, Samuel — L 

Darnell, John— BB 

Davidson, Bell— C— 3 Sg 

Davidson, Ferdinand — C 

Daugherty, John — C 

Daugherty, William — C — k Winchester '64 

Davis, C. M— B— D 

Davis, Irwin — T 

Davis, J. M.— E 

Davis, J. A.— E 

Davis, Allen — E— D 

Davis, Samuel — T — Lynchburg, Va. 


Deffert, Michael — G 

DeHart, Charles — M 

DeHart, George J. — G — w'd, First Manassas — Mcintosh, N. M. 

DeHart, John — B — raw — Cloyd's Farm 

DeHart, James R. — B — c Winchester '64 — Monroe Co. 

DeHart, M. A.— B— Monroe Co. 

DeHart, William C— B— c Winchester '64 — D 

Dempsey, W. H. — E — D 

Dennis, Lewis — V 

Derieux, Lewis — M — c at Fort Delaware — D 

Devine, Daniel — B — D 

Dickason, Charles — C — D 

Dickson, Robert — C 

Diddle, John M.— T— D 

Diddle, M. P.— G— D 

Dillion, Asa — F — musician 

Dillion, Quincy — F — musician 

Dillion, Thomas — V 

Dillion, V 

Dillon, John— M— D 

Dillon, J. R.— E 

Dodd, Floyd— M—D 

Dodd, Williams— M 

Dolan, Andrew — B — k New River Bridge 

Dolan, Mark— B— D 

Donally, W. A. — E — teamster — D 

Dooley, W. H.— L— West 

Dooley, James A. — B — D 

Doswell, R. M.— B 

Dressier, Harrison — C 

Dudley, B — unc 

Dunbar, C. W.— B 

Dunbar, M. A. — B — Greenbrier Co. 

Dunbar, R. S.— B— D 

Dunbar, T. M.— B 

Duncan, Cephas — V — Sg 

Duncan, Joseph — T 

Duncan, John — C 

Duncan, J. H.— T 

Duncan, J. L.— T 

Duncan, N. A.— T— 3 Lt 

Dungan, Robert — C 

Dunlap, Addison — T — D 

Dunlap, Charles H— T— 2 Sg— D 


Dunlap, Henry — B — Pulaski Co. 

Dunlap, R. A.— B— Red Sulphur, W. Va. 

Dunlap, W. A.— B— D 

Dunn, Harvey — V — D 

Dunn, R. P.— B 

Dunn, James — E 

Dunn, L. Ballard— F—D 

Dunn, Lewis — R — D 

Dunn, J. Patrick — E — Princeton, W. Va. 

Dunn, Rufus K.— R— West 

Dunn, W. L.— R— O Sg— D 

Dunn, William A. — R — d Point Lookout 

Dunsmore, Harvey — B — G — D 

Dunsmore, J. A. — B — D 

Dunsmore, William H. — B — D 

Eads, G. W.— E— D 

Eads, Henry — BB 

Eads, Joshua — T — D 

Eagan, John — G — D 

Early, A. J.— C— D 

Early, George W.— 7 Cor— D 

Echols, John — major general — D 

Eggleston, James — M 

Eggleston, R. C— M 

Ellis, Alexander— C—D 

Ellis, Allen— M—D 

Ellis, E. L.— E— D 

Ellis, Henry— C—D 

Ellis, Newton — L — West 

Ellis, S. J.— E— D 

Ellis, W. B.— C 

Ellis, W. P.— L— West 

Ellison, Alexander — V 

Ellison, Charles— C—D 

Ellison, C. L.— L— D 

Ellison, Joseph — V 

Ellison, J. Z. — L — Monroe Co. 

Erskine, Madison — B — D 

Erwin, James R. — BB 

Erwin, John F. — BB 

Evans, William— T 


Fanning, Martin — M — D 

Farley, Williarn — T 

Fenton, John — E — D 

Fenton, W. E.— E— D 

Ferguson, Eli — F 

Filbern, Martin — M — D 

Fink, J. A.— R— D 

Fink, William— R 

Fisher, A. L.— L— D 

Fisher, James P. — B — D 

Fisher, John I.— B— D 

Fitzwater, James — T 

Fitzwater, Peter — T 

Flanagan, George — BB 

Fleshman, Fielding— F—Cp—d '61 

Fleshman, B. F— E 

Fleshman, J. M. — E 

Fleshman, W. A.— E 

Fleshman, William— BB 

Flint, E.— T 

Fluke, George A.— L— D 

Fluke, W. C— L— k Fisher's Hill '64 

Folden, George — E — D 

Foot, Samuel — L — Pulaski Co. 

Ford, James — C — D 

Ford, J. A.— L— D 

Ford, William— L—D 

Forren, John — R — Greenbrier Co. 

Forren, William — E 

Foster, B. A.— T 

Foster, D. W.— B— D 

Foster, J.— T 

Foster, Jacob — C 

Foster, John — F — Bedford, Va. 

Foster, Michael — G — w — D 

Foster, William — M — c Waynesboro '65 — Red Sulphur, W. Va. 

Foster, George W.— G — D 

Fowler, Allen — L — Lt — Salt Lake City, Utah 

Fowler, Elbert— L—D 

Fowlkes, Giles A.— B— 1 Lt— D 

Fox, B. F.— T 

Fox, C. R.— T 

Fox, I. L.— R— D 

Fox, Warren— T— 4 Sg 


Francis, J. S. — E 

Francis, John A. — B — D 

Francis, William A.— B— O Sg— D 

Frazier, George — L — D 

Frazier, Isaac — F — West 

Frazier, Thomas — F — Neponset, W. Va. 

Freeman, Frederick — G 

Fretwell, C. H.— L— unc 

Frisk, Abraham. — G — Baltimore, Md. 

Frisk, Thomas— G — D 

Fry, Edwin — L — Giles Co. 

Fry, John— G 

Fry, Matthew— BB 

Fullen, John — E — Monroe Co. 

Fullen, William H.— B— D 

Fuller, George — M 

Fuller, L.— M 

Ganoe, Isaac — V 

Garrett, J. H.— T— O Sg 

Garten, Henderson — T 

Garten, Richard — L — D 

Garten, William — L — w Cedar Creek '64 

George, Harvey — E 

George, James A. — E 

Gibson, E.— L— D 

Gleeson, William D.— M— D 

Glover, A. J.— M— D 

Glover, Jack— M— D 

Glover, John H.— R 

Glover, John A- — B 

Glover, Samuel — M — D 

Glover, William P.— B— D 

Goodall, Alexander — FF 

Goodall, James— FF—Cp—D 

Graves, John W. — B — Ronceverte, W. Va. 

Grawgogel, Frederick — V 

Green, Allen E.— G— D 

Griffen, Michael — R 

Grose, Michael — V 

Guthridge, William — G — D 

Gwinn, Augustus — T — D 

Gwinn, A. R.— T 

Gwinn, Clark — T — D 


Gwinn, H. C— L— D 
Gwinn, J. H. — L — Monroe Co. 
Gwinn, O. W.— R— D 
Gwinn, William A.— R— D 

Hale, M.— T 

Hall, George W.— G— Lt— k Chancellorsville '63 

Hall, John— M 

Hall, Lewis C— G— D 

Hall, Robert A. — G — c Spottsylvania '64 — D 

Hall, Robert — B — Monroe Co. 

Hall, S. F.— G 

Halstead, H. H.— L 

Halstead, Lorenzo — V 

Hamilton, Robert — G — k First Manassas '61 

Hanahan, Larry — R — D 

Hancock, John — M 

Hancock, William — V — w Kernstown '64 — Keyser, W. Va. 

Handley, James — G — D 

Handley, James H. — B — D 

Harless, Matthew— FF 

Harness, Erastus — BB 

Harris, Andrew — M — c 

Harris, James — M 

Harris, William H.— R 

Harvey, Allen — V — D 

Harvey, George — M 

Harvey, John — M 

Harvey, James — V — Lt — D 

Harvey, Jones — V 

Harvey, Rufus — V 

Harvey, William— T 

Hasten, J. N. L. — Huntington, W. Va. 

Hawkins, C. Patrick — E — D 

Haynes, Joseph — T — D 

Haynes, Pen — T — Monroe Co. 

Haynes, Robert— BB 

Haynes, Thomas— T—D 

Haynes T. L.— E— D 

Hedrick, J.— T 

Hedrick, Matthew — L — Summers Co. 

Hedrick, W. C. — L — Summers Co. 

Henderson, P. H.— L— D 

Hendricks, Peter — V — d '64 


Hennessy, Harry — R — D 

Heptonstall, George — M — D 

Hess, James H. — R — D 

Higgenbotham, John — M — k Richmond 

Higgenbotham, Moses — M — mw 

Higgenbotham, William — M — k Piedmont '64 

Hill, G. W.— T 

Hill, John J.— R— k Dry Creek '63 

Hill, W. H.— L— D 

Hinchman, John — L — D 

Hines, Charles W. — T 

Hines, G. W.— E— 1 Lt— D 

Hines, James — T 

Hines, J. P. — E — teamster — D 

Hinton, Evi— T— D 

Hinton, J. B. — L — West 

Hinton, John — L — Monroe Co. 

Hinton, "Rockingham" John — L — D 

Hinton, Joseph — T 

Hinton, Peter — R — D 

Hinton, William— G — D 

Hinton, William— T—D 

Hinton, David — L 

Hite, Andrew — T 

Hite, P. H.— T 

Hobbs, Ferdinand — V 

Hobbs, William^M 

Hogshead, C. A.— E— D 

Hogshead, C. F.— E— D 

Holcomb, William— T 

Holden, John — L — West 

Holden, Riley — L — West 

Holyant, William — T — Monroe Co. 

Honaker, E. S.— B 

Honaker, Jas. — BB 

Honaker, M. A. — L — Putnam Co. 

Hook, Peachy F.— R 

Hopkins, F. B.— T 

Houchins, Allen — V 

Houchins, C. N. — L — Monroe Co. 

Houchins, Granville — L — Huntington, W. Va. 

Houchins, J.— T 

Houchins, James — L — West 

Houchins, Thompson — L — Alderson, W. Va. 


Houchins, William — L — Athens, W. Va. 

Houston, A. C. — L — D 

Houston, S. A. — L — D 

Houston, W. P. — L — Lt — Lexington, Va. 

Howard, Moses M. — R — Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Howell, Judson— B— 2 Cor— B 

Hudson, J. C.— T 

Hudson, Resse — BB 

Huffman, Alfred— M—D 

Huffman, A. J. — L — k 

Huffman, Edward — T 

Huffman, Giles T.— V— 3 Sg 

Huffman, C. S.— B 

Huffman, J. N.— T— 3 Sg 

Huffman, R.— T 

Huffman, Samuel — L — Summers Co. 

Huffman, T. L.— B 

Huffman, Washington — T 

Hughart, Jordan — ? — 3 Cor — k 

Hugins, R. — T 

Humphreys, Allen — V 

Humphreys, Christopher — E 

Humphreys, C. A. — B — D 

Humphreys, Henry — V 

Humphreys, John M. — B 

Humphreys, Robert — BB 

Humphreys, Samuel — V 

Humphreys, Ward — V 

Hutchinson, A. M.—L— Forest Hill, W. Va. 

Hutchinson, B. B. — L — D 

Hutchinson, E. — L — D 

Hutchinson, Jacob — BB 

Hutchinson, J. A. — L — D 

Ingles, George A. — R — d Fort Delaware '64 

Ingles, John — B — D 

Irons, B. F.— B— 1 Cor— D 

Irons, W. Y. — B — Ronceverte, W. Va. 

James, William H. H.— B 
Jennings, William — B — 3 Lt — D 
Jennings, William H. — S 
Jennings, Petrie — B — k Kernstown '64 
Johnson, A. J.— E— 4 Cor— D 


Johnson, B. L. — E — D 
Johnson, C. B.— E— D 
Johnson, Collins J. — R 
Johnson, G. B. — T 
Johnson, W. O.— E— D 
Johnson, William R— R— D 
Jones, Boyce — T 
Jones, E. F.— T 
Jones, James — BB 
Jones, James W. — R — Monroe Co- 
Jones, J. M. — E — 2 Cor — Monroe Co. 
Jones, John — M — D 
Jones, Levi — E — D 
Jones, P. P.— M?— D 
Jones, William A. — G 
Jones, W. W.— E— D 
Joyce, John — R 

Kavanaugh, Patrick J. — G — D 

Keadle, A. J.— L— Sg— D 

Keadle, James — V — D 

Keadle, Junior — FF 

Keatley, Joseph — FF 

Keatley, Wilson — FF — Lt 

Keaton, C. — L 

Keeny, Charles — C — 6 Sg 

Keffer, George — M — mw 

Keffer, Andrew — ? — d 

Keller, G.— T 

Keller, H.— T 

Keller, Wm.— T 

Kelly, Dennis — B — k Cloyd's Farm '64 

Kelly, James — L — Greenville, Ind. 

Kenna, James — BB 

Kershner, Goodall — M — D 

Kershner, Jas. H. — B — D 

Kershner, Nicholas — G — West — 

Kershner, M. M.— B— 111. 

Kessler, A. C— T 

Kessler, D. B. — L — Green Sulphur, W. Va. 

Kessler, G. W. — L — Pocahontas Co. 

Kessler, Joseph — L — West 

Kessler, M. J.— FF 

Kevey, Joseph — BB 


Keyser, Charles — L — Charleston, W. Va. 

Kibler, L — unc 

Kimpetion, V 

Kincaid, James — BB 

Kincrit, J. F.— T 

King, William — T 

King, William A. — B — unc 

Kirby, Edmund — C 

Kirby, John— C 

Kirby, John — E 

Kirby, Lewis — E 

Kirby, Minor— FF 

Kiser, Beale — C 

Knightstep, William C. — B — Jaskson Co. 

Kounce, G. T. — T