Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Montclair township. New Jersey; including the history of the families who have been identified with its growth and prosperity"

See other formats






! litJ.: 














Qui transtiilit, susliiut.' 








mew Porh : 






\ >g»^.t_j, >, k f. f. >. >. 

--_J_A_^_.',_A_;_j,_i_ L.ufggi ?/' 


ciiafti:r I. 

Discovery of tiik Nkw Worlu. — Oltline History oi- the Indwns. — The Algonqiins or Iroquois. — Tiiii 
Dei.awarks or Lenni LENAPft — The Turkey ami Wolf Branches of the Lenni Lenai'?-..— The Sub- 
divisions OF THE Trihks: Minsiks, Mohicans, Raritans, Hackensacks, Pomptons, Tapi'Aans, of East 
New Jersey. — Incidents of Indian Life. — Indian Loiai \amks, k ir 



Outline of New Jersey.— Origin of the Name.— Philip Carteret Appointed Governor.— Governor Andros 
OF New York Claims Jlrisuiction over New Jersey.— ResisIance by the People. — Re-affirmation 
FROM England of Carteret's Authority. — Government under the Twenty-four Proprietors. — Union 
OF East and West New Jersey.— Lord Cornbury's Rule. — The Colonial Govern.ment from its Com- 
mencement TO ITS Termination 



Geographical Formation of Esse.\ County. 



The Newark Colonists. — Their Previous History. —Robert Treat and Jasper Crane— Their Influence in 
the New Haven and Connecticut Colonies. — Incidents in Connection with their Duties as Magis- 
trates of the New Haven Colony. — Warrants for the Arrest of Whalley and Goffe, the Regi- 
cide Judges. — Negotiations for the Union of the Colonies of New Haven and Connecticut, and 
THE Important Part Taken by Robert Treat and Jasper Crane. — Dissatisfaction of the Branford 
People with the Union.— Opposition to the "Half-way Covenant" AfiD the " Christless Rule of 
Connecticut." — Causes of Division in the Milford, Branford, Guilford and Stamford Churches, 
VviiichLed to the E.xodus of the Dissenters and the Formation of the Newark Colony 10-12 


The "wise men of good report" Sent in Search of a New Canaan. — Difficulties Encountered. — 
Anxiety of Stuyvesant to Secure the Settle.ment of the New Haven Colonists for New Jersey. — 
The "Agreement" of the Branford Colonists.— Landing of the Milford Colonists. — Unexpected 
Difficulties with the Indians. — Formal Conveyance of the Lands by the Indians. — Additional 
Conveyance of Land Extending to the Top of Watchung Mountain 


iv Contents. 



Government of the " Ne\v-\vorke" Colonists. — Liberal Tre.\t.ment of the Indians and New Settlers who 
COULD NOT Subscribe to the "Fundamental Agreement." — Capacity of the Colonists for Self- 
Government ; Existing for Years with No Other Government than the " Fundamental 
Agreement." — Extracts from the Town Records Relating to Local Government. — Jasper Crane, 
Robert Treat and Matthew Camfield Chosen Magistrates. — Organization of the "First Church 
of Newark," — Rev. Abraham Pierson and His Successors. — Increase in Population. — Laving Out of 
the Highway as Far as the Mountain. — Application of De.^con Azariah Crane for Land for a 
Tanyard. — Establishment of Additional Plant.itions. — Cranetown, Watsessing, etc, — "Early Out- 
lands and Houses." — Old Roads iS-24 

Cranetown During the Revolutionary War 25-31 


Events Leading to, and Erection of, Bloomfiei.d Township in 1S12. — Name of Cranetown Changed to 
THAT of West Bloomfield. — Okigin.\l Boundaries. — Toney's Brook, the Source of Second River, 
AND ITS Manufactories. — The First Saw Mill,— Israel Crane's Mill on Toney's Brook, — West 
Bloomfield Manufacturing Company. — Henry Wilde & Sons, — Wilde Brothers, — First Manufacture 
OF Plaid Shawls in this Country. — John Wilde. — Burning of the Lower Mill. — Mill Property 
Leased to, and Subsequently Purchased by, Grant J. Wheeler and Others, for the Manufacture 
OF Paper and Oakum under the Firm Name ok Crane, Wheeler & Company. — Manufacture of 
Straw Board by Machinery, by Grant J, Wheeler & Co.mpany. — Indian Relics Found Beneath the 
Wheeler Mill. — Removal of Wheeler to Waverly, and Closing of the Mill. — Valuable Pearls 
Found on Notch Brook, the Source of Third River. — Construction of Newark and Pompton 
Turnpike. — Business Develop.ment and Growth of West Bloomfield. — Construction of Newark and 
Bloomfield Railroad. — The New Settlement. — The Name of Montclair Substituted for that of 
West Bloomfield 32-42 

Montclair in the War of the Rebellion : 43. 44 


Act Creating the Township of Montclair. — Boundaries. — Organization of Montclair Railway Company. — 
Bonding of the Township. — Advantages Accruing to the Property-holders from the Construction 
of the RoAD.^LniGATioN Growing Out of the Defaulted Bonds.— Final Decision by the United 
States Supreme Court. — Increase of the Indebtedness of the Township from $200,000 to $400,000. — 
Township Committee of 1883 and 1884 ; Election of Messrs. Russell, Carey and Farmer. — Efforts 
of this Committee to Purchase the Outstanding Bonds and to Fund the Indebtedness. — Placing of 
the New Loan with the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company of Newark, N. J. — Amount 
Saved by the Township Through the Efforts of this Committee. — Township Officers. — The New 
Charter Adopted. 1894.- Post Office and Postal Facilities 45-5^ 

Contents. v 



Religious Interests of Montclair. — Congregationalism and Presbyterianism. — Erection of the Second Meet- 
ing-house, 1753, of the Mountain Society (Orange). — Organiz.vpion of the Church at Watsessing, 
known as the "Third" Presbyterian Church in the Township of Newark; Later as the First 
Presbyterian Church of Bloomfield.— Laying of the Corner-stone, etc. — Subscribers 10 the New 
Edifice.— Legacy of Nathaniel Crane for a Presbyterian Church at Cranf.iown or West Bloom- 
field.— The " First " Presbyterian Church of Montclair.— Organization of the Church, 1837.— 
The First Place of Worship— The School Building. —List of Original Me.mbers. — List of Pastors. — 
Erection of Church Edifice.— Purchase of Organ.— Erection of Parsonage.— Statistics of Member- 
ship, etc.— Sketches of Rey. J. F. Halsey, Rev. J. A. Priest, Rev. Nelson Millard, D.U., Rev. J. 
RoMEYN Berry, D.D., Rev. Wm. F. Junkin, D.D, LL.D.— Sunday School —Tkinity Presbyterian 
Church— Sunday School.— Rev. Orville Reed.— Grace Presbyterian Church— Sunday School.— 
Methodist Episcopal Church— Sunday School.— St. Luke's Episcopal Church.— The Church of 
THE Immaculate Conception, R. C— First Congregational Church of Christ.— Rev. Amory Howe 
Bradford, U.D.— Sunday School.— Pilgrim Mission.— First Baptist Chupxh.— Rev. Wm. N. Hubbeli.— 
Sunday School.— The Unitarian Society.— Young Men's Christian Association.— The Women's 
Temperance Union.— The Colored Population and Their Churches.— Union Baptisi- Church, 
Colored. — St. Mark's Methodist Episcopal Church, Colored 57-107 


Educational Development.— The First School in Newark, 1676.— Act Adopted by the General Assembly, 
1693, FOR Establishing Schools.— First School Commitif.e, 1697.— First Appropriation by the State 
Legislature, iSi6 — Acts of iS2g, 1S3S, 1S46, 1852, 1S67, eic— Schools of Cranetown, West Bloom- 
field and Montclair.— The First School-house, 1740.— Second School-house, 1812.— Gideon Wheilkr, 
the First Teacher in the " New School-house."— Special School Law for the Township of Bloom- 
field. 1S46— Teachers, 1846 to 1S56.— Trustees, 1S31 to 1856.— The "New Departure," and the 
Result.— Increased Facilities.- Establishment of the High School, and its Gradual Development.— 
The New School Building, 1892-93.- Efforts of Dr. J. J. H. Love, the First President of the 
Board, and His Successors, Geokoe H. Francis, Thomas Porter, Charles K. Willmer and John R. 
Howard.— Sketch of Randall Spaulding.— Private Schools.— Washington School— East End- 
Warren Holt's School.— Ashland Hall.— Hillside Seminary for Young Ladies— Montclair 
Military Academy. — Free Public Library 10S-128 


Municipal aud Business Organiz.ations, Sociefies, Clubs, etc.— Vill.vge Improvement Society.— Montclair 
Fire Department —The Montclair Water Company.— James Owen, Township Engineer.— The 
Press.— MoNTCL.MR Times, Augustus C. Studer.— Montclair Herald, G. C. Eari.e and H. C. Walker.— 
United States Printing Company ; Joseph E. Hinds.— Bank of Montclair.— The Montclair Savings 
Bank.— Masonic Lodges; Bloomfield Lodge, No. 40, F. & A. M.; Montclair Lodge, No. 144. 
F. & A. M.— W.\TCHUNG Lodge, No. 134, I. O. O. F.— Gen. Sherman Lodge, No. 51, A. O. U. W.— 
Other Secret .\nd Benevolent Societies.— The Citizens' Committee of One Hundred.— Good Gov- 
ernment Club.— Children's Home. Mrs. Samuel M. Porter.— Mountainside Hospital Association.— 
The Montclair EouESTRiAN Club.— Montclair Club.— The Outlook Club.— Tariff Reform Club — 
Montclair Glee Club.— Montclair Dramatic Club.— Montclmk Lawn Tennis Club 12.J-170 





The Mkdicai. Profession of Montci.air. — John J, II. Lovr, M D.— John Wakren Pinkham, M.D.— 
Clarence Wii.lard Butler, M.D. — James Si'FNCER Brown, M.U. — Charles Henry Shelton, M.D — 
Richard C. Newton, M.D. — Richard P. Francis, M.D, — Levi Dudley Case, M.D. — Herbert W. 
Foster, M.D. — L. W. Halsey, M.D. — The Founders and Builders of Cranftown. — West Bloomfield 
and Moniclair.— The Families of Ckane, Baldwin, Doremus, Hakrison, Munn, Wheeler, Harris, 
Prati-, Chittend:".n, Parkhurst, Boyd, Nason, Hening, Drafer, Wildf, Wili.mkr, Adams 171-225 


The Families of Brautu;am, Sweet, Holmes, Porter, \'an Vi.eck, Johnson, Noyes, Benedict, Sullivan, 
Baldwin, (VV. D.), Carev, Russell, Rand, Wilson, Underhill, Miller, Hurc.ess, Bradley, Farmer, 
F,shbauc;h, Howard, Graham, Wheeler (F. Merriam) 22&-271 


Lkgal Profession — Paul Wilco.x, E. B. Goodell. Starr J. Murphy, G. W, Murray. — The Dental Profession — 
Dr. S. C. G. Watkins, Dr. Albert J. Wright. — Art and Artists — Harry Fenn, Lawrence C. Earle, 
J. S. Hartley, George Inness, Sr., George Inness, Jr. — Roswell Smith, Founder of the Century 
Magazine; A. H. Siegfried. — Two Heroes of the War — Abram P. Haring, Harry Littlejohn 272-295 


Architectural FE.\TrRES of Montclair Homes.— Frank E. Wallis, Architect. — Residence of William 
Fellowes. — Of Frederick J. Dresher.— The " Farley Houses."— Christopher A. Hinck.— Thomas S. 
Gladding 296-304 


Upper Montci.air. 


HiyJlUlUIllllUl.^ .1 IJ. T T T T T r T ? T T T T T TT r y n I n ^y 

/a i i i ; 6 H i i i 4 4 i u i u u i i i i i i i i i i i i .1 i i i i i u i i U\ 

^T%< )NTCLAlli, in its natural in-ospurity, in its elevated, moral and irligious life, and in tlie 
^TZ. *^'^'**' ''"*^' inteiiec-tuai culture of its people, stands pre-eminent among the .suhurixs of our 
great metropolis. These characteristics of a high civilization are not the result of accident, 
hut are due largely t<> the influence of a few energetic, enterprising and progressive individuals, who 
fi-oni the heginiiing have directed its affairs, and have contributed to its physical, social and moral 

The early Connecticut settlers of this locjility adopted as their motto that inscrihcd on the 
arms of their native State, viz.: "Qui transiidit, stistinet" and the thousands of settlers from various 
])arts of the country, who have beautified and developed this Paradise of .Xaturc, have shown bv 
their acts that they too have implicit faith in an overruling rrovidence to sustain them in their 
lie ic work. [The original Connecticut .settlers named their " Townc on the Pcsavick " '• Nnr Worke''' 
(Newark), indicating their new | 

To show the result of their efforts has been the aim of the compiler of this work. If 
he has failed to give credit to any individual who, during the early settlement of the new town- 
ship, or its later development, has contributed to its greatness and prosperity, it is because of his 
inability to obtain the requisite information. To enumerate all who lia\c aided him in this under- 
taking Would reipiire more space than is usually allottecl to a Preface or Introduction. 

His acknowledgments are due first of all to ]\Ir. .lulius II. Pratt, one of the pioneers in the 
new settlement who. from the inception of the enterprise, has done everything in his jiower to 
make the " IIistokv of .Mo.ntci.aik " a success, and has contributed much valuable data, attainable 
from no other source. 

To Dr. J. J. II. Love, who is recognized as the chief founder and promoter of the splendid 
system of public school education for which Montclair is famous, the writer is greatly indebted — 
not only for information concerning its educational affairs, but other matters of historic interest. 

Joseph Doremus, the recognized authority on all matters connected with the history of this 
locality and its early settlers, has rendered invaluable aid. 

The assistance of Colonel Frederick H. Harris in supplying data of early railroads, early 
settlers, etc., is gratefully acknowledged. 

viii Preface. 

Mmiiv ui the licautifiil laiiilscaia's and otliur illustratinns with wliicli this \V(!ik is I'liihrliisiie'd 
are re|)i-(KhK'tioiis of photographic views taken liv Mr. Randall Sjiaulding, Superintendent uf the 
l'ui>lie Schools, who has also supplied additional matter to that of Dr. Love on Educational Develo])- 
nient in ^fontclair. 

Mr. \V. 1. Lincoln Adams has also assisted the author in the illustration of this work. Iioth hy 
supplving oriii'inal photoiiiaphs of his own and in i;-ivin<i- the henefit of his knowledge in photo- 
graphic reproduction processes. 

The article "Cranetown in the Kevolution," h.v the liev. Oliver Crane, D.l)., forms an inter- 
esting conti'ihution to the work. 

Acknowledgments are also due to the Kev. Aniory H. Bradford, D.I)., for many vahiahle sugges- 
tions and other assistance rende7-ed ; to Mv. John I'. Howard, Mr. Paul Wilcox and Mr. A. H. Siegfried, 
for information of '• JMontclair," •■Outlook," and other Cluhs, Young Men's Christian Association, and 
social organizations; to Mrs. Jasper R. Rand, one of the founders and most active promoters of the 
Children's Home, for the facts concerning the hit>tory of that institution; to ]\Ir. -lohn 11. Wilson 
and Mr. A. C. Stndor for many favors; to Dr. Alhei-t J. Wriglit for information concerning the 
Fire Department; to Mr. James Owen for the article on Montelair Water Works; to Mr. Yost and 
other townshi]3 otficers for inf(.)rniati(.in on township affairs. 

The writer is also indebted to the editor of the Moiitda!r Times for valuable extracts taken 
from its tiles, and for other courtesies extendeil ; also to the pnjprietor and editor of the Montelair 
llcruhl for similar favors. 

Chapter I. 

DiscovKRY OK THE Xkw Wori.d. — OrTLixE History OF THE Indians. — The Algoxquins or Iroquois. — 
The Del.vwares or Lknm J.exai'e. — The Turkey and Wolf Branches of the Lenni 
Lexape. — The Sub-divisioxs <>f the Tribes: ^[ixsies. ilonicAxs. Rakitaxs, IIackexsacks, 
PoMiToxs, Tai'I'AAXs. ok East New Jersey. — Ixcidexts ok Inoiax Like. — Indian Local 
Nasies, etc. 

k.^-3 X l."«24. .lolm lie \ enizzaiio. a FlorLMitiiio iiiiviirator in the service of !■ raiicis I. of !• raiice, 
^- made a voyage to tlie North .\inerican, and. as is believed fmiii tlie account which 
•X^v he L'ave. entered tlie liarlmr uf Xew York. X(j colonies were ])lanted and no results 
^^■' fMlluwed. 

Though discoveries were made hv the French imrth from this point, and colonies 
,\^ planted liy the English farther to the south, it is not known that New York was again 
visited hy Europeans till Itio'.t. when tlie Dutch East India Comi)any sent Ilendrick 
Hudson, an Englishman hy hirth, on a voyage of discovery in a vessel called the "Half 
Afooii." He reached the of Maine, sailed thence to Cape Cod, thence southwesterly 
to tlie month of Cliesapcake P>ay ; then, coasting northward, he entered Delaware Bay 
on the 2>'tli of August. From thence he proceeded northward, and on the 3d of Sejitemher, 
1609, anchored in New York Bay. On the 12th he entered the river tliat hears his name, and proceeded 
slowly up to a point just ahove the present site of the City of Hudson; thence he sent a boat's crew to 
explore farther up. and they passed above .Albany. Septeinlier 23d he .set sail down the river and 
immediately returned to Europe. 

In I GOT. Samuel Champhiiii. a I'reiicii navigator, sailed up the St. Lawrence, explored its tribu- 
taries, and on the 4th of July in that year discovered the lake which bears his name. 

At the time of the discovery of New York by the whites, the .southern and eastern jiortions were 
inhabited by the ^rohican or Mohegan Indians; while that iiortion west from the Hudson liiver was 
occu])ied by tive confederate tribes, afterward named by the English the Five Nations, and by the 
French, the Iroquois, and by themselves called Hodenosaunee — people of the Long House. The long 
house formed by this confederacy extended east and west through the State, having at its eastern portal 
the JLihawks, and at its western the Senecas; while between them dwelt the ( )neidas, Onondagas, and 
Cayugas; and, after 1714, a sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, southeast from < )neicla Lake. Of tliese Indians, 
Parknian says that at the commencement of the seventeentli century. " in the region now forming the 
State of New York, a power was rising to a ferocious vitality, which, but for the presence of Europeans, 
would probably have subjected, absorbed, or exterminated every other Indian community east of the 
Mississijipi and north of the Ohio. 

"The Iroquois waa the Indian of Indians. A thorough savage, yet a finished and developed 
savage, he is, perhaps, an example of the highest elevation which man can reach without emerging from 
his primitive condition of the hunter. A geograjJiical position commanding on the one hand the portal 
of the great lakes, and on the other the sources of tlie streams flowing both to the Atlantic and the 
Mississippi, gave the ambitious and aggressive confederates advantages which they perfectly understood 
and by which they profited to the utmost. Patient and politic as they were ferocions, they were not 
only the conquerors of their own race, but the powerful allies and the dreaded foes of the Frencli and 

2 History of Moxtclair Township. 

English colonies, flattered and caressed by liotli. yet too sagacious to give themselves without reserve to 
either. Tiieir organization and their history evince their intrinsic superiority. Even their traditionary 
love, amid its wild puei-ilities, shows at times the stamp of an energy and force in striking contrast with 
the flimsy creations of the Algonquin fancy. That the Iroquois, left under their own institutions, would 
have ever developed a civilization of their own. I do not believe." 

These institutions were not only characteristic and curious, but almost uniijue. Without sharino- 
Morgan's almost fanatical admiration for them, or echoing the praises which Parkman lavishes on them, 
it may be truly said that their wonderful and cohesive confederation furnished a model worthy to be 
copied by many civilized nations, while, so long as they were uncontaminated by the vices of civilization, 
they possessed, with all their savagery. n)any noble traits of character, which would adorn any people in 
their pnlilic. social, or domestic relations. 

They made themselves the dreaded masters of all their neighbors east of the ]\Iississippi and 
carried their victorious arms far to the north, the south and the east. Their dominance is eloquently 
pictured in Street's " Frontenac " : 

" The fierce Adirondacs had fled from their wrath. 
The Hurons been swept from their merciless path, 
Around, the Ottawas, like leaves, had been strewn 
And the lake of the Eries struck silent and low ; 
The Lenapc, lords once of valley and hill 
Made women, bent low at their conqueror's will : 
By the far Mississippi the Illini shrank 
When the trail of the Tortoisk was seen on the bank ; 
On the hills of New England the Pequod turned pale 
W'hen the howl of the Woi.f swelled at night on the gale ; 
And the Cherokee shook in his green, smiling bowers 
When the foot of the Bear stamped his carpet of flowers." 

Hudson's journal indicates tliat the Indians on the east side of the Hudson Eiver held no intercourse 
with those on the west side, and that the former were a niucli more flerce and implacable people than the 
latter. Tliis probably arose from the fact that those east of the Hudson and along the upper banks were 
allies of the Iroquois. 

On the point where New York is now built Hudson fuiuid the Indians a very hostile people, but 
those living on the western side from the Kills upward, "came daily on board the vessel while she lav at 
anchor in the river, bringing with them to bai-ter furs, the largest and finest oysters, Indian corn, beans, 
pumpkins, squashes, grapes, and some apples, all of which they exchanged for trifles." 

Most writers on Indian antiquities have considered the tribes of the lower Hudson, and of East 
New Jersey, as branches of the general Delaware nation, or Lenni Lenape, which means original peoj^le. 
This was a title which they had adopted under the claim that they were descended from the most ancient 
of all Indian ancestors. This claim was admitted liy the Wyandots, Mianiis, and more than twenty 
other aboriginal nations, who accorded to the Lenapc the title oi grmulfathers. or a people whose ancestors 
ante-dated their own. The Rev. John Heckewelder, in his " History of the Manners and Customs of the 
Indian Nations," says of the Delaware nation : 

" They will not admit that the whites are superior beings. They say that the hair of their heads, 
their features, and the various colors of their eyes, evince that they are not. like themselves, Lenni 
Lenapc. an original peopJe—'A race of men that has existed unchanged from the beginning of time, but 
that they are a mixed race, and therefore a troublesome one. Whoever they may be, the Great Spirit, 
knowing the wickedness of their disposition, found it necessary to give them a (ireat Book, and tauo-ht 
them how to read it, that they might know and observe what He wished them to do, and what to abstain 
from. ^ But they— the Indians— have no need of any such book to let them know the will of their Maker ; 
they find it engraved on their own hearts; they have had a suflicient discernment given to them to dis- 
tinguish good from evil, and by following that they are sure not to err." 

History of Moxtclair Township. 3 

The Delawares, or Lenni Lenape, occupied a domain extending along the seashore from the Chesa- 
peake to the country Ijordering Long Island Sound. But from the coast it reached the Susquehanna 
Valley to the foot of the Alleghany ilountains, and on the north joined the soiithern frontier of their 
domineering neighboi-s — the hated and dreaded Iroquois. This domain included not only the counties 
of Bergen, Passaic. Hudson and Essex, hut all of the State of New Jersey. 

In the organization of the .savage communities of the continent, one feature, more or less conspic- 
uous, continually appears. Each nation or tribe — to adopt the names by which these communities are 
usually known — is subdivided into several clans. clans are not locally separate, hut are mingled 
througiiout the nation. AH the members of each clan are, or are assumed to he, intimately joined in 
consanguinity. Hence it is held an abomination for two jwrsons of the same clan to intermarry; and 
hence, again, it follows that every family must contain members of at least two clans. Each clan has its 
name, as the elan of the Hawk, of the Wolf, or of the Tortoise ; and each has for its emblem the figure 
of the beast, bird, reptile, i)laut, or other object, from which its name is derived. This emblem, called 
totem, is often tattooed on the clansman's body, or rudely painted over tlic entrance of liis lodge. The 
child belongs to the clan, not of the father, init of the Tuother. In other words, descent, not of the totem 
alone, but of all rank, titles and possessions, is thrnugli the female. Tiie son of a chief can never be a 
chief by hereditary title, though he may become so by force of personal infiuence or achievement. 
Neither can he iidierit from liis father so much as a tobacco-pipe. Ail possessions pass of riglit to the 
brothers of the chief, or to the sons of his sisters, since these are all sj)rung from a common mother. 

The principal tribes composing the Lenni Lenape or I^elaware nation were those of the IJnamis 
or Turtle, the I'lialachtgo or Turkey, and the ^linsi or Wolf. Tlie trii)es who occu|)ied and roamed 
over the counties of Berj^en, Passaic, Hudson and JL'sxcx, were those of the Turkey and Wolf branches 
of the Lenni Lenape nation, but the possessions and boundaries of each cannot lie clearly defined. 
There was probably a tril)e for every ten it twenty miles, each taking tlieir names from tiic streams near 
which they severally located. 

In 1648 they were governed by about twenty kings, which migiit seem U< warrant tiie belief that 
their numbers were great; but the insignificance of this regal sway is seen from the fact that in one case 
twelve hundred were under two kings, and some kings had only forty subjects, so that these rulers might 
with greater correctness be called chiefs. 

The Wolf, commonly called the Minsi (corruptly called Jlinsevj liad chosen to live back of the 
other two tribes, and formed a kind of bulwark for their protection, watching the nations of the Mung- 
we, and being at hand to afford aid in case of rupture with them. The Miiisi were considered the most 
warlike and active branch of the Lenape. 

Those most intimately connected with this region were the ^linLsies ami Mohicans — the former 
being the inhabitants of the range of country frf)m Minisiid< to Staten Island, and from the Hudson to 
the Raritan Valley. The latter inhabited the east side of the lower Hudson to its mouth. The Dutch 
called them resi)ectively Swannekins and the Manhicans. According to Brodhead the former were 
called Wal)ingi or Wappinges, the hitter name, as Ileckewelder claims, being derived from the Delaware 
word wapimj, signifying opossum. These were divided into numerous tribes, and the latter again into 
clans. In this section of New Jersey they were railed Karitans, Ilackensacks (or Ackinkes-hacky), 
Pomptons, and Tappaens. On Manhattan Lsland dwelt the fierce Manhattans, whom De Laet calls " a 
wicked nation," and " enemies of the Dutch.'' 

These names, together with their chiefs, appear in the treaty between the Dutch and the Indians 
soon after the war in lGi4 (^brought on tlirough the hai-sh and unjust treatment of the latter by Kieft), as 
follows : 

" This day, being the 3(tth of August, 164.5, appeared in Fort Amsterdam, before the Director and 
Council, in the presence of the whole Commonality, the Sachems of the savages as well in their own 
behalf, as being authorized by the neighboring savages, namely : Oeataney, Chief of Ackinkes-hacky 
(meaning low lands), Sessekenick and "William, Chiefs of Tappaen and liecJcgawawank, Pacham and 

4 History of Montclair Towxsmii'. 

Pennewink (wlio were hei'e yesterday and gave tlieir power of attorney to tlie fortiier, and also took ujjon 
themselves to answer for those oi 0/n/?ii'i/ and the vicinity oi Mtij(niweti/ine//u>i. oi JL-inr/KuricJi; oi 
Nyack and its neighborhood) and Aep.ien, who pei'sonally appeared, speaking in l)ehalf of Wajfjnnx, 
Wiqxuieskecks, Sintsnicks and Jvichtawons.''' 

"Whitehead, in his " East New Jersey under the Proprietary Governments,"' concludes that there 
were not more than two thousand Indians within the province while it was under the domination of the 
Dutch. Fifty years later it was stated that they — the Indians — are greatly decreased in niimbers. And 
the Indians themselves say that "two of them die to every one Christian that comes here." 

Before the European exjjlorers had penetrated the territories of the Lenapi', the power and prowess 
of the Iroquois had reduced the former nation to the condition of vassals, and when in 1742 they were 
commanded by the old Iroquois chief, Connosscitigo, at the treaty of council iu I'hiladelphia, instantly to 
leave the court house, and to prepare to vacate their hunting grounds on the Delaware and its tributaries, 
the outraged and insulted red men were completely crestfallen and crushed : but they had no alternative, and 
must obey. They at once left the presence of the Iroquois, returned to their homes, which were now to 
be their homes no longer, and soon afterward migrated to the country bordering the Susquehanna, and 
beyond that river. 

The Indians of this locality were quiet, peaceal)le and domestic in their habits, and there existed 
among them a code of honor — engraven on their hearts by the Great Sjnrit — which would put to shame 
their white neiglil)ors, who were kejit in restraint only by wholesome laws vigorously enforced, and all 
attempts by the Dutch to corrnjit and demoralize their savage (?) neighbors by the introduction of "fire 
water" met with a manly resistance on the part of the Indian Chiefs, as appeal's by the following : 

" Warrant empowering Oratam, Chief of IIackingkeshacky, axd Mattano, another Chief, to 
seize any brandy found in their country, and take it, with the persons selling it, to 
New Amsterdam. 

"Whereas, Oratam, Chief of Hackingkeshacky, and other savages, have complained several times, 
that many selfish people dare not only to sell brandy to the savages in this city, but also to carry whole 
ankers of it into their country, and peddle it out there, from which, if it is not prevented in time, many 
troubles will arise, therefore the Director-General and Council of New Netherland, not knowing for the 
present a better way to stop it, authorize the said chief, together with the Sachem Mattenonck, to seize 
the brandy brought into their country for sale, and those offering to sell it, and bring them here, that they 
may be punished as an example to others." 

Local Indian names, and other evidences, clearly indicate that the territory comprised within the 
present township of Montclair was at one time the habitation of one or more of the several clans of 
Indians. Early surveys show that Indian paths led through this region of country, and that the route of 
the various tribes in passing from the seashore to the interior led along this line. On one of the early 
maps is shown the Indian path which led to the Minisink. From the Shrewsbury north-west it crossed 
the Raritan west of Amboy, and thence northerly to Minisink Island in the Delaware. This was the 
great path from the sea to the Minisink, the Indian council seat. The most direct route from the Hudson 
to Minisink Island was through the great notch on the first mountain, four miles north of Montclair, 
which struck the main path near Little Falls. There were also inter.secting paths through the same terri- 
tory. The several routes led to the Minisink, about seven miles west of Watchschunk Mountain, through 
the notch at Eagle Rock and other openings through the mountain. 


Nearly, if not quite all the Indian names in this locality indicate their origin from the language 
of the Delaware Indians, most of them being mispelt as well as misinterpreted. Wachimg, referring to 
the First Mountain, is evidently a corrujition of Wachtschunk. meaning " on the hill." The name of 

History of Moxtclaik Township. 5 

" Watsessinj; " or " Wardsesson '' as early applit'd to Bloomiield, is doubtless from the word Waktschieclien, 
meaning crooked. Mr. I), (t. Brinton, author of " Aboriginal Amkrican Authoes and their Produc- 
tions," writes: "I would say that vou arc <|uite Hirht in supposins: Wachung — Wachtschunk — on the 
hill, or, at the mountain, or. the hilly spot. The name Watsessing I take to be a form of AVaktschieehen, 
it is crooked (i.<.'., a road, a stream, etc. i. In this case the traditional rendering you give seems to me 
well founded." 

Pachseyink — in the valley — is doubtless the original of •• Passaic," or " Pesayic," as spelled in 
the early records. Hachkihacanink — in the field ; fc>epunk — to or on the river ; Ilatink — in or near the 
earth; Meechekachink — at the big rock; Tekenink — in the woods; TapiAvi — on the river bank. 


The ordinary form of .salutation of the Delawares was : •' I thank the Great Spirit that he has pre- 
served our lives to this time of our happy meeting again. I am indeed very glad to see you." 

"They do not tight with each other; they say that lighting is only for dogs and beasts; they are, 
however, fond of play and pa.-siiig a joke, yrt are very ranful that they do not offend.'^ 

" They have great respect for the aged ; they have a strong innate sense of justice." 

A well-known writer says : " Tlie Delawares were eminent for valor and wisdom, and held a 
prominent place in Indian history, but on the rise of the Iroquois power, they lost their independence 
and fell under suspicion because many of them applied themseves to agriculture. 

"It may justly be a subject of wonder, how a nation without a written code of laws, or a system 
of jurisprudence without any form or constitution of government, and without even a single elective 
or hereditary magistrate, can sulhsist together in peace and hap])iness, and in the exercise of the highest 
virtues — how a people can be well and etticiently governed without any external autliority. The secret 
of it is found in the early education of their children. The first step that parents take toward the edu- 
cation of their children is to prepare them for future lia])piness by impressing upon their tender minds 
that they are indebted for their existence to a great, good and benevolent Spirit, who has not only given 
them life, but has ordained them for certain gieat purposes. That he has given them a fertile, extensive 
country, well stocked with game of every kiml for their subsistence, and that by of his inferior 
spirits he has also sent down to them from above coon, pumpkins, squashes, beans, and other vegetables, 
for tlieir nuurishment. That this great Sjiirit looks down upon the Indians to .«ee whether they are 
grateful to him. and make him a due return for the many benefits he has bestowed ; and, therefore, that 
it is their duty to show tlieir thankfulness by worshiping and doing that which is pleasing in his sight. 
Tliev are taught in everything to ])lease the (ireat Spirit. When the child does a commendable act the 
father will say : ' May the (ireat Spirit who looks upon him grant this child a long life ' " 

Trkaimk.nt of TiiK WiiMK.v. — .\n Indian loves to see his wife well clothed, which is a proof that 
he is fond of her. In bartcrini: the skins and pelfry with the trader, when the wife finds an article 
which she thinks will suit or please her husband she never fails to purchase it for him ; .she tells him that 
it is her choice, and he is never dissatistied. The more a man does for his wife the more he is esteemed 
in the community. 

Chapter II 

Outline of New Jersey. — Okigin of the J^ame. — Philip Carteret Appointed Governor — Gov- 
ernor Anuros of New York Claims Jurisdiction Over New Jeksev. — Resistance bt 
the People. — Re-affirmation from England ok Carteret's Authority. — Government 
Under the Twenty-fouk Proprietors. — Union of East and West New Jersey. — Lord 
Coknbury's Rule — The Colonial Government from its Commencement to its Termination. 

X tlie l-!tli of March, 1(>()4, (Hiai'les II., of Eiiglaiul, granted to liis lirotlicr James, Duke 
of York, Inter uliag, all that part of New Netlierland lying cast of Delaware Bay, and 
sent a force under Sir Rohert Carr ami Vo\. Rieliard Nicoll to dis]wssess the Dutch of 
their territory in the New World. General Stuyvesant, of New Amsterdam, was, by 
reason of his defenseless condition, compelled to surrender without resistance, and the 
conquest of the colony on the Delaware was accomplished l>y Sir Rohert Carr "with the 
expenditure of two barrels of powder and twenty shot." 

Tlie Duke's squadron was yet on the Atlantic, and the country yet in possession of 
the Dutch, when he, by deeds of lease and release, dated the 24:th of June, conveyed to 
John, Lord Berkeley, a brother of the Governor of Virginia, and Sir George Carteret, 
the tract of land lying between the Hudson and the Delaware Rivers, "which said tract 
of land is hereafter to be called by the name or names of JVeiv Cwsarea or New Jersey." [The name 
was given in compliment to Sir George Carteret, who had defended the island of Jersey against the long 
Parliament in the civil war, but the powers of government which had been expressly granted by the 
Duke were not in terms conveyed, though it would seem that both jiarties deemed them to have passed 
by the grant. | 

The proprietors formed a constitution, or, as it was termed, " concessions and agreements of the 
lords proprietors," which secured equal privileges and liberty of conscience to all ; and it continued in 
force till the division of the province in 1(u^'>. In August, 16ti5, Philip Carteret, a brother of Sir 
George, was appointed governor, and he made Elizabethtown the seat of government. The constitution 
established a representative government, and made liberal provision for the settlers. In a few years 
domestic disputes arose, and in K!"^ an insuri'ection occurred, compelling General Carteret to leave the 

In 1673 England and Holland were at war, and a squadron was sent by the Dutch to repossess 
New Netherlands, which was surrendered without resistance by Captain JManning, in the absence of 
Governor Lovelace. On the conclusion of peace between England and Holland, New Netherlands was 
restored to the former. The Governor of New York, ^Major Edmund Andros, claimed juristliction over 
New Jersey, insisting that the Dutch conquest extinguished the proprietary title ; but early in 1075 
(Tovernor Carteret returned and resumed the government of the eastern part of the province. He was 
kindly received by the people, who had become dissatistied with tlio arbitrary rule of (Governor Andros. 
A new set of concessions was published, and peaceable subordination was established in the colony. 
Governor Andros, however, continued his efforts to enforce his claims of jurisdiction, and issued a 
proclamation abrogating the Carteret government, and recpiiring "all persons to submit forthwith to the 
King's authority as embodied in himself." To this the people of Newark replied: "The town being 

History of Montci.air Towxship. 7 

met together, give their positive answer to tlie Governor of York's writ that they have taken the oath of 
allegiance to the King, and tidelity to the present government, and until we have siiiRcient order from 
his Majesty we will stand hy the same." Suliseqnently Carteret himself wrote to Andros : " It was hy his 
Majestv's eipinmands that this government was established, and without the same commands shall never 
be resigned hut with our lives and fortunes, the people resolving to live and die with the name of true 
subjects, and not traitors." Tlie difficulty was finally settled by a reaffirmation from England of 
Carteret's authority, and a complete renunciation by the Duke of York of governmental right in New 

Sir (ieorge Carteret died in IBT'J. By ids will he directed the sale of that jxvrt of the province 
for the payment of his debts, and it was accordingly sold to William Peun and eleven others, who were 
termed the twelve proprietoi"s. A fresh impetus was given to tlie settlement of the country, especially 
by the peo})le of Scotland. Each of the twelve ])roprietors took a partner, and they all came to be known 
as the twenty-four ]iroprietors. and to them the Duke of York, on the lith of March, 1082, made a fresh 

I'nder the new regime in Xew Jersey, Robert Barclay, one of the proprietors, was chosen 
Governor for life, with power to name his de]iuties. There were, in succession, Thomas Rudyard (1683), 
Gawen Lawrie, Lord Neil Campbell, and Alexander Hamilton. 

In West New Jersey Samuel Jennings was commissioned deputy governor by Byllinge in 1(580, 
and during the next year he convened an ii.*send»ly which adopted a constitution and form of government. 
His successors were Thomas Olive, John S. Keene, William Welsh, Daniel Co.xe and Andrew Hamilton. 

In 1701 the condition of affairs in both ])rovinces had arrived at that state when the benefits of 
good government were not attainable. Each had many proprietors, and their conflicting interests 
occasioned such discord that the people became (juite willing to listen to overtures for a surrender of the 
proprietary government. " The proprietors, weary of contending v.ith each other and with the people, 
drew up an instrument whereby they .surrendered their right of government to the crown, which was 
accepted by (^)ueen .Vnne. on the ITth of .\pril, 17n2. The Queen at once reunited the two provinces, 
and placed the government of New Jersey, as well as of New York, in the hands of her kinsman. Lord 

Cornl)ury"s rule was terminated by the revocation of his commission in 1708. He was succeeded 
by .lolm. Lord Lovelace, who soon died, anil the functions of government were discharged by Lieutenant- 
Governor lnglesl)y till 171", when (Governor Hunter commenced his admini.-tration. He was followed 
in 172U by William Ihirnet, who was removed to Boston in 1727. John Montgonierie then became 
Governor, and continued until his death in 1731. The government then devolved on John Anderson, 
President of the Council, who died in about two weeks, and was succeeded by John Hamilton (son of 
Andrew Hamilton, Governor under the proprietors), who .served nearly two years. In 1738 Lewis 
Morris, Esq., was appointed Governor of New Jersey, " separate from New York." His successors were 
John Reading, Jonathan Belcher, John Boone, .losiah Hardy, and. in 17*53, William Franklin, the last of 
the roval governors, and a son of Benjamin Franklin. 

Chapter III. 


(From Prof. Gerrge H. Cook's Geology of the State. i 

HAT portion of New Jer.sey wliicli is of tlie Triassic or lied Saiicistone Age, is included 
in a lielt of ccamtrv wliieli ]ia.s tlie Highland range of mountains on its north-west side, 
and a line alnio.-^t straight from Stntcn Island Sonnd, near Wnodbridge, to Trenton, on its 
south-east. It has the northern houndary and the Hudson Kiver <.)n the north-east, and 
the Delaware on the south-west. The area within these hounds is entirely free from 
rocks of an earlier age, and from anv extensive formations of a later period. The 
strong and decided red color of the prevailing rock of this formation has given name to 
the whole, and while most of the names of the kind have been discarded by the geologists, 
tins is so striking and suggestive that it i-eceives the approval of all. 

Prominent in the Triassic district are the two long and parallel ranges of trap-rock, 
known in county as the First and Second Mountains. The eastermost or outer 
ridge we shall call, for convenience of description, the First Mountain, while the inner parallel range may 
be termed Second Mountain. The former, rising at Pluckamin, in Somerset county, has an 
trend, for seven miles, to the gorge through which passes Middle Brook. The continuous ridge runs 
thence on an cast aiul north-east course to ]\Iillbnrn, in Essex county, a distance of sixteen iniles, where 
the gap between the two ends of the disconnected range is about one and a half miles. From Millbui-n to 
Paterson. a distance of fifteen miles, its course is a little east of north. The whole length of this mountain 
from its rise at Pluckamin to its terminus near Siccomae is forty-eight miles, and its general trend is 

The prominent and characteristic feature of this mountain is the great ditference between its inner 
and outer slopes. That toward the Second Mountain is gentle, while tliat toward the red sandstone 
country is steep, and in many places precipitous. Tiie former corresponds to the dip of the shale or sand- 
stone which forms the basis upon which the trap rests, and at nearly all points trap constitutes the rock 
of this declivity. The steep outer slope shows sandstone or shale at the base, and up to the precipitous 
bluffs of trap, covered, however, in places, by the debris from the rock above. The breadth of this range 
is quite uniform, from one to two miles. The height is also remarkably uniform, ranging from three 
hundred to six huundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea. 

Everywhere the trap forms the crest and upper portion of this slope, under which is the sandstone, 
generally covered by trap debris. The top of the sandstone is from one hundred to one inindred and fifty 
feet below the top of the mountain. The located line marks the base of this steep face, and is at the 
same distance from the top of the mountain. It is plain on all roads crossing the ridge, cy.^ on the old 
South Orange Turnpike, the mountain roa<l. Mount Pleasant Turnpike, near the Llewellyn 8. Plaskell 
place, also in the Park, in West Orange Township. 

The western boimdary line of the tra]i of the First Mountain follows the general direction of the 
valley included betweei; the First and Second Mountains. The drift here, also, renders the tracing of a 
geological line (piite difficult, lint from the known uniformity of the trap slope, and an examiiuition of 
the surface configuration of the county, and a few points of outcrop, the line can be quite accurately fixed 

History of Montci.air TowNsiiir. 9 

and described. Generally it follows tlie line of least elevation, or at the bottom of the valley, and this is in 
most cases at the foot of the first mountain slope. Bejrinning at the northern end of this range, the Old- 
ham Creek is coincident with a line almost to the pond north of Ilaledon, thence running east of this 
village, and at the same side of the creek, it meets the Pa.ssaic River west of the month of Oldhani Creek, 
and follows the river for a mile to the Morris and Essex Canal, which constitutes the west boundary of 
this range to the Little Falls and Notch Road. The traj) appears at several points along the river from the 
mouth of the creek to tlie bend in the former, wliere tlie line leaves it. East of this the First Mountain is 
made up of several rocky ridges, separated by narrow valleys. 

From the Notch Road sfiuthward the trap boundary follows the same general direction as the 
mountains: crosses the coutity line, the crest forming the boundary line between Caldwell and Montciair 
townships to the east of Verona Village to the watei-shed of the N'erona \ alley, near the up|)er side of 
Llewellyn Park, west of Eagle Hock : thence down the valley of the west branch of Rahwav River as far 
as the old South Orange Road. Approaching the stream, it at length crosses it, anil intersects the Morris 
and Essex branch of the 1)., L. i^' W. R.R., al)out three-quarters of a mile west of Millburn Village. 
Along the line just mentioned, drift knolls and beds rest ujion the lower jiortions of the trap slope; near 
the crest of the main and subordinate ridges the rock is frequently seen. Near Millburn the slope is less 
obscured by drift, although west and of tlie village it hides all rocks. 

The features of the Second Mountain are similar to tho.-ic of the First. The boundary line between 
them is of the .«ame general course as that of the mountain itself, and also parallel throughout with the 
First J[ountain. The prolongation of the range, at each extremity beyond the ends of the outer range, 
makes this mountain longer than the other by five miles. Throughout a portion of the range its structure 
is apparently cfimplicated by one or more subordinate riilges, (piite similar to the main or outer one. 
There can scarcely be a douljt tiiat the whole ma.s^^ is one unl)roken body of trap-rock. 


Chapter IV. 

Thk Newark Colonists. — Theib Previous History. — Robert Treat and Jasper Crane — Their In- 
fluence IN THE N"ew Haven and Connecticut Colonies. — Incidents i.n Connection with 



OF New Haven and Connecticut, and the important part taken by Robert Treat and 
Jasper Crane. — Dissatisfaction of the Branfobd People with the Union. — Opposition to 
THE "Half-Way Covenant" and the " Chkistless Rule of Connecticut." — Causes of 
Division in the Milford, Branford, Guilford and Stamford Churches, whicfi led to 'ihe 
Exodus of the Dissenters and the Formation of the Newark Colony. 

SlHAT is now tlie State of Connectiout original Ia* consisted of two colonies — Connecticut 
and New Haven. The settlement of tlie former began at the mouth of the Connecticut 
River in 1631, under a patent granted to Lord Say and Seal and L(jrd Brook — the 
^ location receiving the name of Saybrook. The free planters of Hartford, Windsor and 
Wethersfield (emigrants from the Mass. Colony) resolved to form themselves into a distinct 
^jj "^e^^ commonwealth, and on the 14th of January, 1639, they convened at Hartford and adopted 
a constitution. The preamble of tiiis instrument set forth that it was to preserve " the 
liberty and purity of tlie Gosj^ell," as they understood it, "and the regulation of civil 
affairs " 

This was the iii'st constitution adopted in the New World, and it recognized among 
its fundamental principles the great bidwark of American freedouL It has been said of 
it that it was "simple in its terms, comprehensive in its policy, methodical in its arrangement, and 
beautiful in its adaptation of parts to a whole." 

The i-ame year — 1C39 — Fairfield and Stratford were founded under the jurisdiction of Connecti- 
cut, and in 1641 the Colony of Connecticut purchased from Colonel Fen wick the jurisdiction right in 
the Colony of Saybrook. This then embi'aced the territory of the Coimecticut Colony. 

On the 4th of June, 16.39, the free planters of Quiniiepeac, or New Haven, met and formed a 
civil and religious organization. The constitution, if such it may be termed, of this colony, was original, 
and in some of its provisions unique. It was widely different Irom that of Connecticut, and was in many 
respects similar to the old Jewish theocracy. 

In December, 1639, the planters of this colony purchased of the Indians a tract of land called 
Totoket or Branford. Among the purchasers were Jasper Crane, Lawrence and George Ward and 
Daniel Dod. The same year the towns of Milford and Guilford were added to the colony. 

Conspicuous among the New Haven settlers, in civil affairs, were Robert Treat and Jasper Crane, 
who afterward became leaders in the new enterprise or " New Worke." 

Colonel Robert Treat, born in England, son of Richard, was with his father at Wethersfield in 
1640 ; was at Milford, where he was Town Clerk ; was an assistant in the New Haven Colony in 1659 ; was 
also a Magistrate. For his "expense with the Indians about purchasing" on Pesayack River in 1666, he 
had "given him two acres of land in the town plot, near the frog pond," and in the choice of lots had the 
first. In 1672 be returned to New England, and in 1675 " Major Treat was dismissed from the Church 
of Chi-ist, at Newark, to the church at Milford. In Phillip's War he was Commander-in-Chief; in 1676 

History oi MoNrci.AiR Towxsiiir. 11 

Deputy (to vernor; ami, in lt)83. Governor of Connecticut. lie served in tiiat jilace fifteen years, and 
retired from old age, and died 12tli of July, ITlii, aged 8S 

Jaspkr Ckaxk was one of the original settlei-s of the New Haven Colony, "the only remaining 
occupant of the east centre square ; was presumably from London, as he was much connected witii tlie 
London men in various ways. He first put liis estate at one hundred and eighty pounds, and land was 
assigned him according in amount with that appraisal ; hut before the meadows and the ouflands of the 
third division were allotted he was permitted to increase his appraisal to four hundred and eiglitv |>ounds, 
and receive thereafter corresponding allotments of land. He signed the first agreement 4tli June, 1649, 
at general meeting of all the planters, in ilr. Newman's barn : took Ihe oath of fidelity at the organization 
of the government, with Campfield, Pennington, (iovernor Eaton and others. In l(i44 lie was " freed 
from watching and trayning in his own person, because of his weakness, but to find one for his time."" 
At East Haven he was interested in a bog furnace in Kiol; he removed to ISninfoni in l(i.->2, and 
represented the town in the (reneral Court of the Jurisdiction in 1053. 

The restoration of the Stuarts in 1660 wa.s not favorably received in New England, and wiicn tlie 
time arrived for the next election in New Haven Jurisdiction it was difficult to find ]HMsons willing to 
accept office. 

Mr. William Leite was chosen Governor. Mi-. Matthew (iilbert. Deputy Governor, Jlr. Rohkrt 
Treat and Mr. .J.\si'ki! Cii.vxi:, Magistrates. 

After the restoration of Charles II., AVhalley aial (iolfe, the Regicide Judges, escaped to New 
P^ngland and were reported in the New Haven Colony. The pursuivants who were sent in pursuit of 
the fugitives ajiplied to Deputy Governor Leite. and demanded military aid, and a power to search and 
apprehend. "The Court was called together and Magistrate Cr.\.nk, of liranford. had arrived in company 
with Liete."" 

" The Magistrates held a consultation of two or three hours, after which, being further pressed by 
the pursuivants to do their duty and loyalty to his Majesty or not. it was answered they would lirst know 
whether his Majesty would own them." 

Magistrates Crane, Gilbert and Treat subsecpiently issued a warrant for the arrest of the fugitives, 
but as the most prominent men in the colony were in sympathy with, and aided in concealing them, the 
warrant was never executed, liev. .Mr. Davenport, their leader, covertly advised them so to do. He 
preached to his people from I.saiah xvi., '.'• ami 4: " Take counsel, execute judgment, make thy shadow 
as the night in the midst of the noonday; hide the oufnistx, betray not him that wandereth. Let mine 
outca.sts dwell with thee. .Moab, be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler."" 

In this controversy between the Colonies of Connecticut and New Haven, growing out of the new- 
charter granted to Connecticut by Charles II., in ir,tl2, .Iasper Ckank and KoiiKRT Treat bore a promi- 
nent part in liringing about a })eaceful .settlement. 

A comniTinication from the Connecticut Colony was reafi at a meeting of the freemen of the New 
Haven Colony held at New Haven, November 4, 10G2, setting forth the advantages of the patent, with 
the " earnest desire that there may be a ha|)py and comfortable union between yourselves and xis accord- 
ing to the terms of the charter." 

The reply to this communication was signed by William Leite, Matthew Gilbert, Benjamin Fenn, 
Jasper Crank, Robert Treat, William Jones, John Davenport, Nicholas Street, Abrah. I'ierson, and 
Roger Newton. 

On the 10th of August a '•committee was appointed to treat with our honored friends of New 
Haven, Milford, Branford and Guilford, about settling the union, and incorporate with the Colony of 

Among the queries jjropounded by the New Haven Colony, and finally accepted by Connecticut, 
was one providing "That the Wor.shipful Mr. Leite, Mr. Gilbert, Mr. Jones, Mr. Fenn, Mr. Treat and 
Mr. Crane be and remain in magisterial power within the county, and any three or more of them as 
they see cause to have power to keep a county court, they choosing out from amongst themselves a 

12 History of Montclair Township. 

moderator j>>''^ tempore, in the president's absence, whom we hereby nominate to be Worshipfiil Mr. 
Leite for the county, and they to stand in force mitil an orderly election of officers at general election in 
May next," etc. 

Notwitlistanding these peacefnl negotiations, the inliabitants of the Xew Haven Colony were 
greatly disturbed at the possible termination of affairs. Mr. Davenport and otlier ministers were strongly 
of the opinion that all government powers should be vested in the churches, and the churches were 
unanimously opposed to being united with Connecticut. In New Haven, only church members in fxdl 
communion could be freemen. The adopted tenet of the Connecticut Colony was that all bajitized per- 
sons, not convicted of scandalous actions, are so far church members that, upon acknowledging their 
baptismal covenant, and promising an outward conformity to it, though without any pretension to inward 
and spiritual religion, they may present their children for baptism. This was known as the " Half-Way 
Covenant," and continued in force in Connecticut for more than a hundred years. 

The proposed union aroused deep feeling through all the New Haven Colony settlements. Bran- 
ford people were especially disturbed. Rev. Mr. Pierson and others had left Southampton, L. I., because 
they found it was claimed by Connecticut. Now they were to be under Connecticut jurisdiction after all. 
This was the blighting of all their hopes. They did not believe thei-e could be any good and safe 
government for Christian people unless the voting and office-holding were all in the hands of Christians. 
Having "spent so much of their means and so much of their labor on houses, fences, mills, lands, and 
done so much for living comfortably, it was a serious matter to bi-eak up, go into another wilderness, and 
begin again." Their labor of twenty-three years meant a great deal. 

Excessively alarming and distasteful were these views to the supporters of the policy of the fathers. 
Without money, credit, or political affiliations of any importance, they yet clung to the hope of independ- 
ence, believed the danger from England to be averted, and spurned " the Christless rule of Connecticut." 
Mr. Davenport was very bitter at the action of Leite. He wrote to Gov. Winthrop in 1603: "As for 
what Mr. Leite wrote to j'ourself, it was his private doing, without the consent or knowledge of any of 
us in the colony ; it was not done by him according to his public trust as Governor, but contrary to it." 

A serious division of sentiment had arisen in the colony which threatened its very existence. 
New Haven and Branford supported the cause of " Godlj- Government"; but Mr. Leite was continued 
in his office, and the nominal head of the elder faction, Matthew Gilbert, was, as usual, chosen to the sub- 
ordinate office of Deputy Governor. Many now began openly to declare themselves citizens of Connecti- 
cut, and to isrnore the New Haven officers and laws. Taxes coidd not be collected, and the colony, 
unable to f)ay the regular salaries of its officials, was jiluiiging deeper and deeper into debt. Discouraged 
and almost disheartened at the inexorable logic of events, ^Iv. Davenpoi-t exclaimed, "The cause of 
Christ in New Haven is miserably lost." 

Chapter V. 

TiiK •' WISE mi;n OF GOOD repokt" sent IX Search of a Xew Canaan. — Difficulties Encountekkd. — 
AxxiFrrv of Stuyvesaxt to secure the Settlement of the New Haven Colonists for New 
Jersey. — The "Agreement" of the Branford Colonists. — Landing of the Milford Colon- 
ists. — Unexpected Difficulties with the Indians. — Formal Conveyance of the Lands by the 
Indians. — Additional Conveyance of Land extending to the top of Watciiuno Mountain. 

(HE events narrated in the preceding ciiaptcr whicii seemed so dark miuI foreljoding to the 
Now Haven f(j]onists proved to tlieni a l(les.-iing in disgnit^e. Tlie "land of promise" — 
the New Canaan — was awaiting them, wiiere tliey could not only "worship God under 
their own vine and tig tree." but where they could regulate their civil affairs in accordance 
with their own convictions of truth anil right. 

The possible overthrow of his plans liad itccii furc-'Uen liy Mr. Davenport, ;uk1 by 
the leaders of his party during the quarrel with the townsmen in 16o8-()U, and at tliat time 
they had secretly .sent out "wise men of good report" in searcli of a New Canaan. 

They turned naturally to the Delaware region with which they were already familiar, 
having {)revioiisly invested large amounts in that locality. -V Committee of Inspection was 
.sent thither in ItJGl, and on the .sth of November, Matthew Gilbert, Deputy Governor of 
the Colony of New Haven, wrote from ^[ilfor^l to Governor Stuyvesant at New Amsterdam, informing 
him that "a Coinjmnie of Considerable that came into N. E. that they might serve God w"" a pure 
conscience and enjoy such lil)erties and ]>riveledges, both Civill and Ecclesiasticall. as might best advantage 
unto, and strengthen them in the end and worke aforesaid, W^"" also, through the mercy of God, they 
have enjoyed for more than twentie yeares together, and the Lord havcing blessed them w"' posterities so 
that their numbers are increased and they being desirous to p'vide for their posterities so tliat their 
outward comfortable subsistence and their soulles welfare might in the use of sutable means througli the 
blessing of the Almighty, be obtained, — that this company having been encouraged so to do by the 
courtesy extended by the Governor to persons appointed to visit 'some adjacent parts' on a previous 
occasion, had appointc<l a committee of four of their most prominent men. at the head of wliich was 
Robert Treat, to confer with him relative to the terms upon whicli they might -begin to plant,' and 
thereafter secure additions to those who might wish to join them -for the enlargement of the Kingdom 
of Christ in the Congretrational wav." and secure all other means of comfort, and subordination thereunto." 
In behalf, therefore, of the Committee sundry propositions were submitted, for which, as they were from 
" true men and not spies," a careful consideration was solicited with a view to a return of a definite 
answer to each. 

Five conditions of willingness to settle under Dutch rule were submitted to Stuyvesant, and he 
refused assent to all of them, desiring especially to retain control of the election of officers, and the right 
of appeal to the Dutch tribunals. These negotiations remained for a time in abeyance. 

Stuyvesant. however, was exceedingly anxious to obtain such immigration, and in the winter of 
1662-3, Robert Treat. Philip Groves and John Gregory again communicated with him, and found him 
disposed to make some concessions; he finally wrote home for instructions. In June, 1G63, Mr. Treat 

14 History of Montclair Township. 

wrote to Stuvvesant to inquire if the instruetioiis liad conie, and complained nf hindrances at home to the 
consummation of tiie sclieme. 

Stuyvesanfs instructions, whicli tinally arrived, l^earing date March 23, 1663, urging him to secure 
the English for subjects by every means and every concession if necessary. Stuyvesant replied to Treat 
July 20, inviting him to come, and reserving only a formal confirmation of othcers, and the I'ight of appeal 
in important causes and in capital cases, unless the criminal party confessed. The ra2)id succession of 
events checked the transaction with the Dutch at this point. The high-handed discourtesy of the Con- 
necticut Legislature united for a time all the New Haven factions in opposition to Wintlirop's Charter, 
and led to important action on the part of the Colonists. In January, 166-i, the General Court for 
the Jurisdiction voted that "Tiie Committee shall treate with Captain Scott about getting a pattent for 

The summer of 1664: brought the unexpected surrender of the New Netherlands to the Duke of 
York, and on the 13th of December following. New Haven, Branford and Guilford voted to submit to 
Connecticut. One week after the surrender to Connecticut had been recorded, a letter was addressed by 
William Jones, magistrate of New Haven. to Colonel Nicolls. depicting the great "wrong and injury" of 
the Colony at Delaware Bay. "Tlie Indians of whom we purcliased the land there do owne our right and 
much desire the coming of the English."' It was hoped tliat "A furthei- search of our records may be 
further improved by your lionor as your wisdom .-hall think tit.'" 

Appeals to Colonel ^^icolls were futde : in the meantime Governor Philip Carteret arrived and 
ti.xed liis capital at Elizabethtown. In August, 1665, he sent letters to New England, offering to settlei's 
every civil and religious privilege. A committee, consisting of Robert Treat and one or two other prom- 
inent men of Milford, was dispatched to New Jersey to satisfy the eomnumity that the pictui-e presented 
of the great advantages to be derived was not overdrawn. Reference has been made to the fact that unsuc- 
cessful attempts had been made, at different times, to plant an offshoot of the New Haven Colony on the 
banks of the Delaware, and it seems that the Millford conmiittee iii"st turned their steps thither with a 
view of selecting a site near the pi-esent Burlington. But not being pleased with what they saw in West 
Jersey, they returned and visited Governor Carteret at Elizabeth, at whose suggestion they determined 
upon a location on the Passaic. It is said that a formal agreement, comprising fifteen articles, was 
entered into after a full discussion of the provisions of the " concessions," but tlie document is lost. 
There was probably a reference to it in the record of a Town Meeting at New Haven, December 4, 1665: 
" Mr. Jones tolde thee towne about Delaware. Tiie Articles were read, and it was said that a Committee 
for the ordering of that aifayre was appointed." 

As the concessions required all land to be taken up under a warrant from the Governor, and as Treat 
and liis companions were equally decided in requiring an extinguishment of the Indian title prior to settle- 
ment, these mutual requirements were considered satisfactorily met by Carteret"s furnishing Treat with a 
letter to the Sachem having control of the desired tract, requesting him to give the immigrants possession, 
and promising to pay therefor, there having been some prior negotiations for the land. " On the subject of 
real estate in the New Woi-ld," says Bancroft, "the Puritans differed from the lawyers widely; asserting 
that the heathen, as a part of the lineal descendants of Noah, had a rightful claim to their lands." 
Charged with this document, Treat and his friends returned to Connecticut to make arrangements for the 
removal, and early in the Spring of 1666 the first immigrants from Milford embai-ked for New Jer.sey. 
The record states that "At a meeting touching the intended design of many of the inhabitants of Bran- 
ford the following was subscribed: Deut. 1, 13; Ex. IS, 2; Deut. 17,15; Jere. 36, 21. ("Take you 
wise men and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you.' 
' Moreover, thou shalt provide out of all the people alile men, such as fe^r God, men of truth, hating 
covetousness ; and place such over them to be rulers of thousands, of hundreds, rulers of fifteen, and 
rulers of tens," etc.) 1. That none shall be admitted freemen, or free burgesses within our town, upon 
Passaic River in the province of New Jersey, but such planters as are members of some or other of tlie 
Congregational churches: nor shall any but such be chosen to magistracy; or to carry on civil judicature, 


or as deputies or assistants to have power to vote iu establishing laws, and making or repeah'iig them, or 
to any eliief miiitarv trust or ofBce; nor shall any but such church members have any vote in sucli 
elections; thougii all uthei-s admitted to be planters liave right in their ])roper iniieritance, and do so and 
shall enjoy all other civil liberties and privileges according to all laws, orders, grants, which are, or shall 
hereafter be, made for this town. 2. We shall with care and dilligence, provide for maintenance of the 
purity of religion as professed in fongregational churches." "Whereunto inscribed the inhabitants from 
Bran ford : 

Jasper Crane, Abra Pier.son, Sanrl Swaiue, Lawrance Ward, Thomas Blatchly, Samuel Plum, 
Josiah Ward, Samuel Rose, Thdinas Pierson. John Warde, John Catling, Richard Harrison, Ebenezer 
Cantield, John Ward Senior. Ed. Pall, John Harrison, Juhn Crane, Tlios. Huntington, Delivered Crane, 
Aaron I'latchly, John Johnson [his markj, Thomas L. Lyon [his mark]. 

Most of these signers moved with Mr. Pierson to Newark. They went by vessel down Long 
Island Sound. There is a tradition that Elizabeth Swaine, the daughter of Samuel, was the first to land 
on the shore of Newark, having been merrily handed up the bank by her gallant lover, Israel Ward, in 
his ambition to secure for her that mark of i)riority. She was then nineteen vears of age. 

The omis.sion on the part of Treat to deliver promptly the letter to the Indians with which he was 
furnished by Carteret, and to complete the arrangements for the occupancy of the desired tract, was the 
cause of unexpected embarrassment and delay. On attempting to land their goods at some jioint on the 
river, they were warned off by Indians on the ground, who claimed to be the owners, and informed them 
that they had not yet parted with their riglit tiiereto. The goods were therefore reladen aiul a report of 
the circumstances made to the Governor. 

In the interview that followed, these difficulties were j)roliably removeil. Samuel Edsall, a 
resident tui Bergen Neck, to whom the neighboring chiefs had become known, through several negotia- 
tions with them that he had conducted, both on his own account and as interpreter for others, was 
authorized by Carteret to effect the purchase. Accompanied by Treat and some others of the new- 
comers, he proceeded up the Hackeiisack to confer with those wlio claimed to be the proprietors of the land 
west of tlie Passaic. In Treat's account of the negotiations he sjiys : "One Perro laid claim to the said 
Pa.ssaic lanils. which is now called Newark, and the result of our treaty was, that we obtained of a body 
of said Indians to give us a meeting at Pa.s.saic, and .soon after they came, all the j)r(jpriet()rs, viz.: Perro, 
and his kindred, with the Sagamores that were able to travel; Oraton being very old, but approved of 
Perro's acting, and then we acted by the advice, order ami a])probation of the said Governor (who was 
troubled for our sakes) and also of our interpreters, the said (Governor approving of them (one John 
Capteen, a Dutchman, and Samuel Edsall, and was willing and approved that we should purchase a tract 
of land for a township." 

A bill of sale was made out, ai-rangements made for taking possession, and soon the little party, 
relieved from tiieir close quarters on board the vessels, were established on the site of the contemplated 

While these j)reliminary measures were being consummated, an opportunity .was afforded for the 
preparation and e.xecution of written stipulations with certain agents from Guilford and Branford — who 
had either been fellow-passengers with the Milford people, or had arrived subsequently — that the settlers 
from those places should Ite perndtted to join in forming one common township, provided deiinite 
intimations to that effect should be received prior to the ensuing 1st of November. The meeting at 
which this agreement was made was held, probably, on board of one of the vessels lying "near Elizabeth- 
town," on the 21st of May, and was verified Ijy the signature of Robert Treat for the Milford ])eople, 
and Sainnel Swain for those of (Tuilford and Branford, on the 24th of the same month ; it l)eing, they 
say, their •" desire to be of one heart, and consent, through God's blessing, with one hand they may 
endeavor the carrying on of spiritual concernments, as also civil and town affairs, according to God and a 
godlv jTOTernment." 

The document signed by the people of Branford — already referred to, was dispatched to Milford, 

16 History of Moxtclair Townsiiip. 

and ill tlie ensuing month, tlie inliabitants '• declared tlieir consent and readiness" to confonii to its 
recjuireineiits. Sn])se(jnently, at a meeting on the 24th of June, IfiGT, sliortly after the arrival of the 
Branford families, the ililford men also subscribed the document ; tlie following is the list of names in 
their order : 

Eobert Treat, Oliadiah Bruen, Matthew f'amtield, Samuel Kitchell, Jeremiah Pecke, Michael 
Tompkins, Stephen Freeman, Ilenrj Lyon, John Browne, John Rogers. Stephen Davis. Edward Bigs. 
Robei-t Kitchell, liis mark ; J. B. Brooks, his mark ; Robert V. Lymens, his mark ; Francis V. Linle, his 
mark; Daniel Tichenor, Jolin Baldwin, Sen., John Baldwin. Jr.. John Tomjikins, Geo. Day, Thom. 
"Johnson, John Curtis, Ephraim Burwell, his X; Robert R. Dennison, liis X; Nathaniel Wheeler, 
Zechariah Burwell, William Campe, Joseph AYalters, Robert English, Hauns Albers, Thomas Morris, 
Hugh Roberts, Eph'm Pennington, Martin Tichenor, John Browne. Jr.. Jona. Seargeant, Azariah Crane. 
Samuel Lyon, Joseph Riggs, Stejjhen Bond.— 

The arrangement entered into with the Indians through the agency of Samuel Edsall. v>hich 
preceded the settlement, was perfected by the execution of a moie formal instrument at a conference 
with them lield "at the head of the Cove of Bound Brook," July 11, Ififi?. which defines the boundaries 
as follows : 

That Wek the said Wapamuck, the Sakanuxker, and AVamesane, Peter, Captamin, Wecapj-okikam, 
Napeam, Perawae, Sessom, IMamustome, Cacanakrue, and Ilarish, doe, for ourselves and With Consent of 
the Indians, Bargain, sell and deliver, a Certain tract of Land, Upland and Meadow of all sorts; Wether 
Swamps, Rivers, Brooks, Springs, fishings. Trees of all sorts, Quaries and Mines, or Metals of what sort 
soever. With full liberty of hunting and fouling upon the same. Excepting Liberty of hunting for the 
above said i)roi)rietors that were ujtpon the upper commons, and of tishing in the above said Pesayak 
River; which tract of Land is bounded and Limited with the bay Eastward, and the great River Pesayak 
Northward, the great Creke or River in the meadoM* running to the head of the Cove, and from thence 
bareing a West Line for the South bounds, wh. said Great Creke is Commonly Called, and Known by the 
name of Weequachick on the West Line backwards in the Country to the foot of tlie great mountain 
called Watchung, being as is Judged, about seven or eight miles from Pesayak town; the said Mountaine, 
as Wee are Liformed, hath one branch of Elizabethtown River running near the above said foot of the 
mountaine ; the bounds northerly, viz.: Pesayak River reaches to the Third River above the towne, ye 
River is called Yauntakah ; and from thence upon a northwest line to the aforesaid mountaine ; all of 
which before mentioned Lands for the several kinds of them, and all the singular benefits and Privileges 
belonging to them, with ye sevi-al bounds affixed and ex])ressed herein, as also free liberty and range for 
Cattle, horses, hoggs, and that though they range beyond any of the bounds in this Deed expressed, to 
feed and pasture Without Molestion or of damage to the owners of cattle itc, above said. Wee, the 
above said Indians, AVapamuck &c doe sell, Alienate, make over, and Confirm all Right, Title and 
Interest of us, our heires and Successors, for ever Unto the said Lands, &c as above-mentioned to Mr. 
Obadiah Bruen, Mr. Samel Kitchell, Mr. Michael Tompkins, John Browne, and Robert Denison, towns- 
men and Agents for ye English Inhabitants of Pesayak, to them, their heires and associates for 
Ever ; to have hold and dispose of, Without Claim, Let or Molestation from ourselves or any other 
Whatsoever These Lands, ttc are thus sold and delivered for and in consideration of fifty double hands 
of powder ; one hundred bars of lead, twenty axes^ twenty Coates, ten Guns, twenty Pistols, ten Kettles, 
ten Swords, four blankets, four barrells of beere, ten pair of breeches, fifty knives, twenty howes, eight 
hundred fathem of wampem, two Ankers of Liequers, or something Equivalent, and three troopers' 
Coates ; these things are received, only a small number engaged to them by bill," etc. 

Eleven years later, on the 13th of Mai'cli, 167S, the western limits of the tract were extended to 
the top of the mountain by a deed from two other Indians, the consideration for the extension being 
"two guns, three coats and thirteen cans of rum." The boundary line of the town on the south, 
separating it from Elizabethtown, as agreed upon on the 20th of May, 1668, ran from " the top of a little 
round hill named Divident hill ; and frrun thence to run upon a northwest line into the country " until 

History of Montclair Township. 17 

it reacheil tlie Watcluiiiij Mdiiiitaiii. The commissioners appointed for tliis work from Newark were 
Jasper Crane, Robert Treat. Matthew Camfield. Samuel Swaine, and Tliomas Johnson : from Elizabeth- 
town. Jolm Ogdeii, Luke Watson. Robert Bond, and Jeifrev Jones. 

It wa.s ])roposed b_v the Milford settlers to call the new settlement after their own town in the 
New Haven Colony, and it was called Milford until the arrival of the Branford people. Tlien. upon a 
formal or^canization of the town government, the name wa.s dropped iind Newark substituted. The 
substitute appears to Lave been agreed upon in honor of Rev. Abraiiam I'ierson, the first Pastoral 
Shepherd of the place, who came origiiuillv from Newark-on-Trent, and who, although second on the of the Branford emigrants, -was second to none in the esteem and reverence of the entii-e commmiity. 
In the old "Town Book" which is still j)reserved. the name is written Xew-AVokkk. 

The territory thus acquired by moral right from the natives, and by a legal right finni tiie 
proprietors, embraced the present townships of Newark. Orange. Bloumtield. Bellcvibe, (lintnn. and 

In the division nf the land.s, each settler received a " hotne lot" in the town laid out on the river, 
for which lots were drawn, the division being in strict conformity with Hebrew jirecedents — always the 
Puritanic model. There were, also, fii*st, -second, antj third divisions of the '• upland," with an equitable 
distrii)ution of the "bogged meadow." 

Chapter VI, 

Government of the "New-Worke" Colonists. — Liberal Treatment of the Indians and New 
Settlers who could not Sdbscribe to the ''Fundamental Agreement." — Capacity or the 
Colonists for Self-Government; Existing for Twelve Years with no other Government 


Local Government. — Jasper Crane, Robert Treat and Matthew Camfield Chosen 
Magistrates. — Organization of the "First ('Hurch of Newark." — Rev. Abraham Pierson 
and his Successors. — Increase in Population. — Laying out of the Highway as far as the 
Mountain. — Application of Deacon Azaeiah Crane for Land for a Tanyard. — Establish- 
ment of Additional Plantations. — Cranetown. Watsessing, Etc. — "Early Outlands and 
Houses." — Old Roads. 

^^iHE little band of expatriated New Haven Colonists, after nearly thirty years of wander- 

ji iiigs, foiiiul at last their ideal "Canaan." Without coniiting the exodns from England to 

Lynn, Mass., there were then three removals within thirty years and each time in search 

of a " Government according to God." 1. From Lynn to Southampton, L. L 2. Thence 

"i^^ to Branford. 8. From Branford to New Jersey. It has been stated that Branford moved 

bodily to Newark; this, however, is an exaggeration. Mr. Pierson was a more bitter 

^^t parti,san than Mr. Davenport, and the history of his flock was indeed a " moving " one. 

" Our Towne on Passaick " was Utiy named by its founders " New-Worke." It 
was to be a Avork of love. Recognizing as they did the "Fatherhood of God" and the 
" Brotherhood of Man," they built accordingly. A government was established in the 
wilderness, the fundamental principles of which were drawn from the Mosaic Law. The 
history of this people for more than a quartei- of a century was a i-epetition of God's chosen people under 
the rule and guidance of the judges and prophets. On entering the " land of Canaan," however, they did 
not attempt to " drive out the heathen," but lived at peace with their Indian neighl)ors. In the testimony 
of the Council of Proprietors at a later period it is stated that : " We are well assui^d that since the lirst 
settlement of New Jer.sey, there is not one instance can be assigned of any breach of peace with the 
Indians thereof (though very few of the other provinces can say so as to their Indians); nor that any 
proprietor ever presumed to dispossess one of them, or disturb him in his possession ; but have alway 
amicably paid them for their claims, from time to tiuie, as they could agree with them." 

There was nothing false, nothing Pharisaical about these Puritan settlers. They were brave and 
honest enough to say exactly what they meant and what they de.sired, and while they encouraged honest 
settlers to come among them, they embodied in their Fundamental Agreements the following article : 
'"The planters agree to submit to such magistrates as shall be annually chosen by the Friends from among 
themselves, and to such laws as we had in the jilace whence we came." Another provision was as 
follows : 

"/few;, it is agreed upon that in case any shall come into us or rise up amongst us that shall will- 
ingly or willfully disturb us in our Peace and Settlements, and especially that would subvert us from the 
Religion and Worship of God, and cannot or will not keep their opinions to themselves, or be reclaimed 
after due time and means of convictinn and reclaiming hath been used; it is unanimously agreed upon 

History of Monti i. air Townsiiii'. 19 

and fuiiseiited unto, as a Fundamental Agreement and Order tiiat all [.such] persons so ill-disposed and 
affected, shall, after notice given tlieni from the town, ipiietly depart the place seasonably, the Town 
allowing them valuable consideration for their Lands and Houses as indifferent men shall price them, or 
else leave them to make the best of them to any ^Um the Township shall approve of." 

The capacity of this people for self government was early tested. "Will you know," inquires 
Bancroft, " with how little government a community of husbandmen maybe safe '. For twelve years the 
whole pi'ovince wa.s not in a settled CDudition. From June, Hi89. to August, 1692, East Jersey liad no 
government whatever." The maintenance of order during this period rested wholly witli the local 
authorities and with the peoitle thciiiselves. A town meeting was accordingly convened, March :i."i. 
1089-90, to pnnide for the exigency. Hamilton, the 1 )cputy (iovernor. having left for Europe 
the preceding August, it was •' \'ote<l. that there shall he a (•uiunnttee chosen to order all affairs, in as 
prudent a wav as they can. for the safety and jn-eservation of ourselves, wives, children and estates, 
according to the capacity we are in." The committee consisted of Mr. Wai-d, Mr. Joluison, Azariah 
Crane (son of Ja.sper Crane), William Camp. Edward Ball, and John lirown. •• with those in military 
ca|)acitv." It wa< well for the little commonwealth, in those times of disorder, that they were qualified, 
not oidy for '• the carrying on of sjiifitual concernments," hut al.*o for the regulation of '^cicil and toion 
affairs, according to God and u (jodhj government.^'' It was not simply that they were a commvnity of 
hunhandmen, as intimateil by the historian, that made them safe without the protection of ])rovincial 
laws; they had a higher law, a more inq)erative rule of action, irritt<ii upon i/ie hcirt. 

Among the inducements held out to emigrants at an early period to settle in New .lersey was 
that it was "worthy the name of," l)ecause in addition to its natural advantages it had "no 
lawvers, physicians or parsons." At this period, however, lawyers were in great demand, and it was 
said that " no men grow rich here so fast as gentlemen of the har." The "pai-sons" too exercised a 
potent influence on the local government. 

Jasi)er Crane and Robert Treat, whose descendants (the latter through the marriage of l)ea. 
Azariah Crane with R(J)ert Treat's daughter i were the tirst settlers of Cranetown (later West Bloomtield 
and now Montclair Township), were leadei-s in the civil and religious affairs of Newark during the tirst 
quarter of a century after its settlement. Their intluence in the connnnnity is shown by the variou 
positions of htnior to which they were elected. The following extracts relating to their public service 
are taken from the Town Records of Newark comjuled l>y Mi-. William .V. Whitehead and Mr. Samuel 
II. Conger for the New Jersey Historical Society : 

i'owx M?;Kri.\(;. Jan. lOtis. Mr. Crane and Mr. Treatt are Cho.sen Magistrates for the Year 
Insueing for our Town of Newark. 

Itfiii. Mr. Crane and Mr. Treatt arc Chosen deputies or I'.urgesses for the Ceneral Assembly, for 
the Year Insueing; and Lieut. Sanniel Swaine is Chosen a Third man in Case of either the other Failing. 

Town Meeting, the of January ItiC.H. Mr. .Ias|>er Crane anil Mr. Robert Treatt and Mr. 
Matthew Cantield are chosen Magistrates for our Town for the ensueing year. Item. The .said Mr. 
Crane and .Mr. Treatt are chosen Dei)uties for the General A.<send)ly if there he any. Item— Mr. Robert 
Treat is cho.sen Recorder in our Town for the Year ensueing, and the Salary is the same as it was last 

Town Meeting, 2nd Jkh'ij, lOTo. Mr. Ja.sper Crane is chosen Magistrate in our Town for the 
Year Insueing. Mr. Crane and Mr. Treatt are Chosen deputies for the General Assendily and Lieut. 
Swain is the Third Man. 

Town Meeting 29th Dec r lOTn. Mr. Jasper Crane Had (4iven Him a Little piece of Land 
Adjacent to His Home Lott upon the Acc't of His Second Division of Land. 

Town Meeting 1st Jan'y, lti7-2 Mr. Jasper Crane is Magistrate for the Year Insueing. Item. 
Crane and Mr. Bond are cliosen Deputies for the General Assenddy, for the Year ensueing. 

Town Meeting, Sep. 0, ItlTS— It was thought lit and agreed upon, that a Petition should be sent 
to the Generals at Orange, tliat if it might be. We might have the Neck. 


20 History of Montclair Township. 

Item. — Mr. Crane and Mr. Johnson are chosen to cariT this Petition, and treat -nitli tlie Generals 
ahont tlie Neck. 

Item. — Mr. John Ogden, Mr. Jasper Crane, Mr. Jacob ]\roi_vnes, Mr. Samnl Hopkins, Mr. John 
Ward, Mr. Abrahm Pierson, Senior, and Stephen Freeman are chosen to take the Pattent in their 
Names in the Town's Behalf and to give Secnritv for the Payment of the Pnreliase. 

Item — Captain Swain is chosen to be joined with Mr. Crane to sne for Easment in llespect of 
Payment for the Neck and what is else needful concerning that Matter. 

Town ]\Ieeting June 29, 1674. It is voted that there shall be a Petition sent to the Governor 
(and Council) for the obtaining a Confirmation of our bought and paid for Lands, according to the Gen- 
eral's promise. 

Item. Mr. Crane and Mr. Pierson .lun'r is chosen to carry this Petition, and present it to the 
Governor and Council at N. Orange, in order to the obtaining a Confirmation as above said. 

Jasper Crane continued to hold office down to 1074. He was a Deputy to the Provincial Assem- 
bly from 1669 to '73, Magistrate 1()69 to '74, President of the Town Court 1671. Town's Men KlSl, '87, 
'88, '93, '97. 

Mr. Treat, or " Major Treat," as he was known, served tlie town in various capacities about si.x 
years, I'eturning to Connecticut in H!72. Tiie records show that " Major Treat was dismissed from the 
church of Christ at Newark," and reconmiended to the church at Milford. He found a wider fiehl in 
Connecticut for the display of those remarkable traits of character that distinguished him through life. 
Besides taking a connnanding military position in early colonial Indian warfare he served the Colony for 
thirty-two years, as I)ep\itv Governor and Governor. During the exciting scenes in the Assembly Cham- 
ber at Hartford, when Sir Edmund Andres attempted to wrest from Connecticut her original charter, to 
prevent which the lights were suddenly extinguished and the charter seized by Captain Wadsworth and 
hid in the Charter Oak, Governor Treat was in the chair. He died July 12, 1710, in his 85th year. 
Trumbull, the Connecticut historian, says of him ; " Few men have sustained a fairer character or 
rendered the public more important services. He was an excellent military officer ; a man of singular 
courage and resolution, tempered with caution and prudence. His administration of government was 
with wisdom, firmness and integrity. He was esteemed courageous, wise and pious. He was exceedingly 
beloved and venerated by the people in general, and especially l)y his neighbors at Milford, where he 

Mary, tiie daughter of Governor Treat, became the wife of Deacon Azariah Crane (eldest son of 
Jasper Crane), who left his "silver bole," to be used by "the church in Newark forever." 

The "First Church of Newark," of wliich Azariah Crane afterward became "Deacon," was actu- 
ally established l)efore Newark was settled, it having been oi'ganized in Branford in 1644. In October, 
1666, the church, with its pastor, its deacons, its records, and the major portion of its congregation, was 
simply translated from Branford to Newark ; so tiiat its " church work " was really continued uninter- 
ruptedly. Dr. Stearns says of it : " The First Church in Newark appears to be the oldest fully organized 
church in the State of New Jersey. On Sep. 10 1668 steps were first taken to erect a place of worship. 
It was voted in the town meeting to 'build a meeting house as soon as may be.' " This was the central 
object of interest in every community of tlie Puritans. A joint letter sent in 1684 to the Proprietors in 
Scotland by David Barclay, Arthur Forbes, and Gawen Lawrie, says : " The people being mostly New 
England men, do mostly incline to their way ; and in every town there is a ?neeti7i(/-/, where they 
worship publicly every week. They have no public laws in tiie country for maintaining public teachers, 
but the towns that have them make way within themselves to maintain them." 

The whole town helped in the erection of the liuilding. It was 36 feet in length, 26 feet in 
breadth, and 13 feet l)etween the joists, "with a leuter to it all the length, which will make it 36 feet 
square." The site selected was on the highway leading to the mountain ; it was said to be nearly opposite 
what is now Mechanic Street, or in the corner of what is known as the old town burying-ground. It 
stood then with its gable ends pointing to the north and south, and the broadside " nigh pointing on a 

History ok MrixTCLMR Township. 21 

square with tlie street." in the precise spot wliicli 'Sir. Pierson. the elder. Deacon Ward and Mr. Treat 
Iiad as.iiirned for it. It was Newark's tirst clmrch edifice, and tirst place of general business — the theatre 
of all important transactions, religions, civil, military, during the first half-century of its existence. 
There tiie townsmen, '" after lecture," Iield their stated meetings, and there, on any alarm, the brave 
soldiers of the little conininiuty assemhled with their arms at the bear of the drum to (h'f'cnd tiicir iiomes 
and altars, tiieir little ones, and their wives. 

In the Newark Town Kecord.s, it i.s recorded Januarv 1. 10G6~T, " tliat Joiin Baldwin .lunior, 
Thomas Pierson Junior, Thomas Picrson Senior, John Catiiii. William Camp. Az.vitiAn Ckane and 
George Day are chosen townsmen for the year ensuing. Thc-c townsmen arc ap]iointod to meet every 
lecture day in the afternoon." 

liev. Aljraham Pierson, the "Moses"' who led his people out of the wilderness to this New 
Canaan, was an old man when he came to Newark, and after twelve years' faithful service, he was 
"gathered unto his peo|>le." He was succeeded by his son. who was his assistiuit during nine years of 
his pastorate. Others followed the younger Piei-son, and continued in the good old way. The sixth 
regular pastor of the First Church was IJev. Jose|)h Webb, a graduate of Vale, who was ordained by 
the Presbytery of Philadelidiia, Oct. 2l!d, 1710. The Presbyterian ordination and settlement of Mr. 
Wel)b is the tirst indicatiim which appears of the people turning aside from "the Congregational way." 
Though the leatnngs of the second Pieison were toward Presbyterianisni, the form of worship in his time 
and duriiiir the time of his succes.sors. until Mr. Wi'bb's ailvent, was Congregational. There is no record 
of the prcci>c time of the change. Tlir ditference between the two forms was compaiatively so slight, 
that from the tirst. in New England and in New Jersey, jiersons of lioth persuasions lived in peace, har- 
mony and good fellowship together, except when tirebrand zealots appeared in their midst and sowed 
discord. About the year 1<!82, when half the twenty-four Proprietors were Scotch, great numbers of that 
race arrived and settled in New Jersey, and the historian Grahame remarks that "American society was 
enriched with a valuable accession of virtue that had been refined by adversity and piety, and invigorated 
by persecution." 

As the population increa.sed, the settlement on the Passaic liiver began to spread it.self toward the 
mountain and in other directions. At what time tlie settlement of the mountain district began is not 
detiiMtely known, but in the year 1681 the town ordered the laying out of the highway as far as the 
mountain. It is Idgldy probalJe that some of the original .settlers had taken up quarters in that direction. 
In 171.") Deacon .Vzariah Crane (who "in the overtui-n of the government by the Dutch." in 167;{, was 
■■ betrtisted with the concerns of his honorable father-in-law. Mr. IJobert 'i'reat") is spoken of by himself 
as having been "settled" for many years at the mountain. So, at the .-ame time testified Edward Pall. 
.\t a town meeting held Jan. 1. U>[t7-S, it was "voted that Thomas llayse. Joseph Harrison, Jasper 
Crane and Matthew Cantield shall view whether Azariah Ci'ane may have land for a tan yard at the front 
of John Plum's home lot, out of the common, and in the men above iniMitioned agree that .\zariali 
Crane shall have the land, then he. the said .\zariali Crane, shall v\\'\o\ it so long as he doth follow the 
trade of tanning." .\s is shown by the Towne IJook that he and Edwai'd Ball had been settled near the 
mountain n;any ycar> it is to be supposed that the decision of the examiners in the matter of the tan 
yard was against him. 

Jasper Crane, Thoma^ Huntington, Samuel Kitchell, and Aaron Itiatchley, are owners of land "at 
the head of Second River." 

Sanniel Swaine in acres at the foot of the mountain with John Baldwin Sen'r on the north. 

" By warrant April 27, HJ'Ji, there was laid out by John Gardner a tract of land at the foot of the 
mountain, having Azariah Crane on the northeast and Jasper Crane on the southwest." 

Cranetown and Watse.ssing, which were snb.sequently included in the township of Bloomfield, were 
simply outlying plantations of the " Towne on the Eiver," taken up and occupied by a few of the 
original settlers of Newark. AVhile it is evident that there were other settlers in this locality, the name of 
Cranetown was doubtless given in lioiKjr of Jasjier (,'rane and Deacon Azariah, his son, both of whom 

22 History of Moxtci.air Township. 

were held in liigh esteem throiioliout the entire coniniunity. At jnst what period the name was given, 
and the exact boundaries inchuled in tlie original ]iurchase is not known. Ilev. Charles E. Knox, in his 
History of Montclair Township, undur tlie head of the Early Outlands and Houses, says : " Even 
before the second purchase from the Indians had fully established the right to the slope of the mountains 
the first land owners had made their way from the Passaic to the top of the mountain. Tn the proprietory 
records the iirst name on the list of surveys of these outlands is Jasper Craine, in KITS. IJesides his ' home 
lot ' in the settlement, his lots on the ' Great Neck,' and his lot near the head of Mill Bi'ook, he has land 
tiiat year ' at the /((.'(^c/ of y*" Second River," twenty acres, with ^Ir. Samuel Kitchell on tlie north, with 
Thomas Huntington on the east, and with common land south and west. Another adjoining land-owner is 
Aaron Blackley. Tliis group of fmir iand-owneis, tbree with surveys in l^u'i and one with a survey in 
1679, is located, according to the descriptions, 'at the head of Second River," ' lying in the branches of 
Second River," "by the tirst branch of the Second Rivei'," with a highway running east and west along 
the side of one of the tracts. This location was, no doubt, in the heart of the present Montclair, some- 
where l)etween the old Fordiiam Crane mansion [on the Valley Road] and south, end of the town, along 
the Second River. The east and west road »*'/// have l)een the present Church street or a road con- 
necting eastward with Y/atseson as Bloomlield was then called. 

"In addition to these owners of outlands in the centre of the present 2>0])ulation, there were also 
extending along the mountain from the northern part of Orange to the northern part of Montclair a good 
number of others whose names can be traced. There were 7iear the mountain, in 1075, John Ward 
(turner) and John Baldwin Sr. At the mountain, in 1(175. Robert Leyman, Sergt. Richard Harrison 
and Samuel Swaine ; in 1()S4! Azariah Crane and John Cardner, and in IfiSG Nathaniel Wheeler, John 
Johnson, Mr. Ward and the Widow Ogden. Bt'tween the mountain and Wigwam Brook, in 1CS5, Mathew 
Williams, Paul, George and Samuel Day, and Mary Day, 'now Mary Cliff.' Ujxm the mountain, Robert 
Leyman and John Baldwin. At the mountain, with land reaching to the foji of the mountain, in 1675 
John CatHn and John iiaidwin, Sr., Hannah Freeman and Richard Harrison. At the foot of the 
mountain, in 107!:t, Sannicl Harrison, Anthony Ollif (()live) Jolni Catlin and Tiiomas Johnson; in 1604, 
John Condner, Azariau Ckaxe, and John Baldwin Jr. Along the mountain, Edward Ball in 1694; 
[Dr. Wickes, in his History of the Oranges, places the residence of Azai'iali Crane, near the present 
Valley Road, a little south and west of Chnrcii street; and tliat of Edward 1 'all, at or near the corner 
of Valley Road and Church street] between Third River and the mountain at the Acqnackanonck line, 
at about the end of the century, John Cooper and Samuel Kitchell ; and between Toney's Brook and 
the mountain, in the new century, in 1724, Joseph Ogden, 'adjoining to the plantation of Vanneuklos, 
on which he now dwells." 

" These land-owners, who had penetrated beyond the land-owners at Watseson and Wigwam Brook, 
did not venture to build houses. We have hints of the woods and the swamps, of the wigwam and the 
ford, but no intimation as yet of a house. Although the Indians were friendly, tlie apprehension of 'a 
rising' on the part of the natives had been one cause to prevent immediate settlements in the out-lands. 
There had been Indian wars in Connecticut, and this colony was directly connected with those who were 
engaged in bloody battles against the native tribes there. 

"The saw-mill which Thomas Davis had lilierty to set up in 1695 is ^u])posed to have been located 
near tlie Peter Davis land, the site being not far from the ruins of the Crane or Wilde woollen mill ; the 
saw-mill implies houses soon after. Anthony Olive had a house in AVigwam Brook, in Orange, in 1712 ; 
Joseph Jones a house in 1721, on the mountain road, (probably in East Orange) ; Daniel Dodd a house in 
the present Bloomlield, in 1719; Capt. John Morris, a grist mill, * lately built," in 1720, on the Morris 
plantation; but no authentic date of a house appears here earlier than that of a dwelling of one Van- 
neuklos, near Toney"s Brook, in 1724. Stone houses which were then antitpii ties were one hundred years 
ago all along the Orange and Paterson and Bloomlield roads. There were two stone houses on the Vincent 
property. There were the Charles Crane, the Phineas Crane, the Samuel Jedediah Ward, and the Joseph 
Baldwin houses along the old Orange Road in the same vieinitv. There were the houses of the Cranes; — 

History of Moxtci.air Township. 23 

Benjamin, Stephen, Eliazer. N'atlianiel. Aaron (>o known afterwards) built some of them before tiie Revo- 
lution, aud some of tliem, it can hardly be questioned, in the early part of that eentin-y. The William 
Crane house, called afterwards the Anios Crane house, or the Fordham Crane house [• Washington's 
headquarters'] ujipears in 1743, and Levi Vincent, John Low. Johannes Kiper and Thomas Cadnnis are 
residents that year. Tlie Egbert houses, the Joseph Ealdwin house, the houses of the Van Giesoiis, 
of Jacob Kent, of the Seiglei"s and the Speers, along the Valley and the Falls roads northward, go back 
undoubtedly before the Revolution. The Parmeiius Dodd bouse, on the site of the Presbyterian Church, 
facing the road southwards ; the Nathaniel Dodd house, half wav down from the church to the depot, 
facinir the old road northward ; the JtJin Smith house and the Peter Davis house, farther east on the 
same road, were built probal)ly between the middle of the century and the Revolution. The most of 
these houses, two rooms long and one story high, wore Iniilr of field stone rudely dressed. Tlie freestone 
first began to be quarried in 17"-'l but was not used for house-liuilding. 

■• In the account of a hiirricjine whicii swept along the mountain, reporteil in a New ^drk news- 
paper in July. 1750, orchards, fences, cornfields and woodlands, for a mile and a half along the mountain 
and Doddtown region are mentioned, with twenty-five houses and barns as being injured or destroyed. 
This shows a great advance in improvemi^nt and building." 

oi.l) i;(».M)S. 

The first public statute passed by the General xVs.semMy >>{ tlie Province of East Jersey, made 
provision for the laying out and improvement of roads. This was in November, ItM-"). A resolution 
was adopted by tiie Town Meeting, at Newark, on December 12, 1G81, "That there shall be Surveyors 
chosen to lay out a Highway as far as the Mountain, if need be." 

Apparently no further action was taken at the time, and the planters at the iiioiiiitiiiii were 
obliged to follow the Inilian |)aths in passing to and from the river, for some years. 

On the Stli of (Jctolier. 17<>.'>, the Commissioners for Newark, Andrew Ilani|)toii. Theopeliis 
Pierson, and Jasper Crane, laid out the several highways, which are described ii,s follows: 

" First a Road from the Town to the foot of the Mountain, or Wheeler's as the Path now runs as 
streight a* the (iround will allow. 

" .Vn other road from said Road, South, by a line of mark'd trees to Joseph Riggs' House. 

"An other Road from the .•viid Riggs' to Town to run by a path as streight as may be. and by a 
Line uf mark'ti Trees, from first mentioned Road North, at Foot of said ^fountain. 

" An other Road running by a line of marked Trees unto .\nthony Olieve's (Olifl) House. 

" An other Ruail running from s'd Anthony's House t(j first mention'd Road, by a Line of mark'd 
Trees and path to the other Road running from s'd Anthony's Road to Caleii Rail's House, by path 
and mark'd Trees. 

" An other Road, running N.E. from s'd Road to Town, by a path aud Nuttmau's line. 

"An other High-way from the way at tlie foot of the Mountain, running up to the top of the 
Mountain, beginning on the North side of Amos Williams House ; thence in tlie line between Amos 
and John Johnson as near as may be to Rocks, North to the Notch." 

The " mark'd trees " referred to indicate the Indian paths or the paths of the planters through 
the forests. The .system of " marking" or "blazing" trees consisted in cutting with the hatchet, trees 
at intervals through the forests to mark the way >^o that a person might be able to retum by the same 
route. The planters might have followed the Indian paths, or marked out new ones for themselves. 
When the .surveyors first commenced laying out the road or roads to the mountain, instead of taking a 
direct line to the mountain, they evidently followed beaten tracks or " paths,'' hence it is difficult 
at tliis late day to trace definitely the line of any of the old roads. 

The P'rst road described, viz., that "from Town to the Foot of the Mountain," was doubtless the 
one indicated on the early maps as the " Crane road." It began at the head of Market Street, near the 

24: History of Moxtci.air Township. 

present Court-House in Newark, and passed the residence of Jasper Crane at Higli Street, and ran 
throusjli the present Warren Street to Roseville. The oldest maps of Essex County show a continnous 
road to tlie mountain connecting witli the " Crane road." Tiie continuation of tliis road is tlie SM'ine- 
field Road; it was said to have been used \>y tlie aborigines in theii- journeys from the Hudson to the 
Delaware Rivers. Originally a " jiath," it branched from the ])resent JNIain Street, Orange, at the 
Brick Church, and running tln'ough Toi'v Corner, cros.sed the mountain at Eagle Rock. From Tory 
Corner westward to tlie toji of the mountain, it was laid out as a common highway in 1 "n.j, and after- 
ward in 1733. 

The t<evcnl/i road seems to be the original Eagle Rock Road which was laid out anew iu 1733. It 
was described in 1705 as " An other High- way from the way at tlie Foot of the Mountain, running up to 
tlie top of the Mountain." 

The iifth road is referred to as '•running from s'd Anthony's House to tlie first mention'd Road 
by a Line of inark'd Trees and path to the other Road running from s'd Anthony's Road to Caleb Ball's 
House, by ])atli and inark'd Trees." It is shown by the records that in 17<'4, Edward Ball conveyed to 
his son Caleb a tract of land containing fifty acres, and lying north of the lot of Azariah Crane. Tliis 
doubtless refers to Mr. Crane's property in ('ranetown, and the road probably began at Anthony OlifE's 
house and ran thence in a norfliwardly dircctidii to Caleb Ball's house in Cranetown. 

What is now known in Montelair as Orange Road (but in Orange as Xorth Park Street) begins at 
the Swinetield Road, near the house fc)rmerly owned by Samuel Condit. and. i-unning northwardly, 
enters Montelair, near the town of Phineas Crane, now owned by Thomas Ilarrop, p;isses the house of 
Stephen W. Carey and Thomas Russell, and terminates at Bloomtield Avenue. 

What for many years was known as the ■' r)ld Road," started from the centre of Newark and 
passed through that part of Bloomtield subsequently known as the turnpike; leaving the turnpike near 
MofHt's Mills, it ran from that point now known as Glen Ridge Avenue to Bloomtield Avenue, near 
Philip Doremus' store in Montelair ; thence across Bloomiield Aveuue into what is now Church Street to 
the corner of Valley Road, thence along Valley Road to the Stephen Crane house, or " Washington's 
Headquarters," at the corner of what is now Clairmont Avenue, westerly along Clairinont Avenue, over 
the mountain to Horseneek, now Caldwell. 

The present Valley Road was formerly known as the Speertown Road. It was laid out May 13, 1708, 
and began or terminated at the Stephen Crane house ( Washington's Headquarters), running north to the 
road that leads from the house of Melville Seigler, over the mountain to Little Falls. That part of the 
Valley Road south of Stephen Crane's House, terminating at Church Street, was a part of the '' Old 
Road,'' described as " running from the centre of Newark, through Bloomtield to Cranetown.'' Both 
Church Street and Glen Ridge Avenue then formed a ])art of the "Old Road." 

There was another road laid out November 1, 17-i4, described as " Beginning at the highway that 
runs up to the Mountain, near the house of Amos Williams, bounded north upon his fence and a Chest- 
nut Tree, thence running eastward over the brook on the land of Lewis Crane, by a line of marked trees, 
thence northeast across the land of Lewis Crane and David Crane to a maple bush, marked on four sides, 
in the Ihie of Levi Vincent ; thence running eastward along the line, between David Crane and Levi 
Vincent to the highway that runs up to Nathaniel Crane's ; thence eastward on the South of the Brook on 
the land of David Crane to a burch bush ; thence turning over the brook and running by a line of 
marked trees, to the northeast corner of Johanes Cadmus, his land ; thence running down said Johanes, 
his laud to Tonees Brook ; thence running over the brook by a line of marked trees to the road that runs 
by Jonathan Davis." 

This road began at Eagle Rock Road at that point now known as Harrison Avenue, ran through 
Cedar Aveuue, continuing through Cedar Avenue to the Orange Road, near the house of Calvin Taylor, 
thence across the Orange Road, from that point known as Washington Street, continuing in an easterly 
direction to Bloomtield Avenue in Bloomtield ; thence across I:>loomtield Avenue, through what is now 
known as Green Street to the Old Road, now known as Franklin Street. The Baptist Church of Bloom- 
tield stands at the junction of these two streets. 

Chapter \'II 


By Rev, Oliver Crane, D.D.. LL.D. 

'O State of tlie I'liidii was more ctiiitimioii.sly, or inure aiiiiuviiigly, .<ul)jectecl to tlie inci- 
dental effects of tlie Revolutionary War than was the State of New Jersey ; and no 
portion of the State was nuire exjiosed to its alaniis, and their attendant inconveniences, 
than that ])ortion lying hetweeu the Hudson River and the mountain ranges west of the 
lower Passaic valley. In fact, the whole section from the New York line on the north, 
to the Delaware, and extendin<r l>ack twenty or thirty miles into New Jersey, might he 
equally included ; for. although the main army of patriots, when not in active service 
was located to the west and nortli of this belt, still tiie suffering from dej)rivations hy 
incursions of the enemy, mi'I from plunderings l)y a set of freebooters styled refugees 
(consisting of what were called cowhiii/n in the pay of the eiiemyV and sl'uuiers (who 
were even more dreafled because of their irresponsible rapacity, though nominally classed 
witii patriots), was often exceedingly trying. This state of things existed from tlie outbreak to 
the closL- of the war. From the time of the disastrous battles of Brooklyn (August 27, 177G), and of 
White Plains (Sept. 15-1 ti, 177'i), and (ieneral Washington's conse<pient retreat into New Jersey, on to 
the end of hostilities, that whole section was harassed by the attendants of war, and by not a few of its 
actual devastations. The bloody struggle at Trenton (Dec. 2<>, 177<>), followed by the c<jually severely 
contested one at Princeton (Jan. -i, 1777), and the determined conflict of Monmouth (June 28, 1778), 
and that of Springfield (June 23, 1780), attest the horrors of war endured on New Jersey soil, not to say 
anything of the frequent minor .skirmisiies along the .same line of territory intervening between the two 
contending armies. But even where actual bloodshed did not occur, the feeling of insecurity was scarcely than where the battle-roar was heard. This was especially true of the section lying between the 
Pa.ssaic (then called Second Riven and the Watchung (then Newark) Mountain, and of course including 
all the villages and towns between Patei-son or Totowa as then known) and the plains of Somerville, 
Railway and New Brunswick on the Raritan. 

I have frequently, when a boy, heard my grandmother tell of the vexatious alarms which were 
experienced by her parents and neighbors residing in what was then termed Wardsesson, or Watsessing, 
(Bloonitield), during the war times. She was at the time but a girl, still she well remembered how they 
were suddenly called, sometimes by day yet often by night, to hurry all their easily movable household 
goods into a farm wagon, and liasten away up over the mountains, leaving only a faithful old slave (for 
slavery existed in New Jersey in those days) to guard the house and premises, they returning only after 
all signs of danger were past. This, she stated, was no infrequent occurrence, especially after the British 
were in possession of New York. 

During the Revolutionary war, and for a long series of years previously, Montclair (a name of 
scarcely 25 yeai-s' standing) was called Cranestown, shortened subsequently to Cra?ietow?i, and the pass 

36 History of Montci.air Tdwxsinr. 

at Mount Prospect was called Crane's Gap, that being the main thoroughfare ovei- the mountain north of 
Springtield, and consequently a very important point to be ])rotected in such times, (leneral Washington 
saw this and kept it, as well as every other avenue uf ingress into the interior, well guarded by what were 
then styled Minute men, or militia ready for emergencies on call. Although General Washington's winter 
quarters (except when exigencies demanded, as at Yalley Forge, Pa., 1777-8, and New Windsor, Ct., 
1780-1) were divided between Newburgh on the Hudson, and Morristown, N. J. ; yet his summer 
quarters were less permanent, and were frequently changed to meet the varying necessities of tlie war. 

Tliat General Washington had his lieadqnarters for about three weeks at Ci-anestown, from near 
the middle of October on, is, as will lie shown, a well-authenticated fact; and that he occupied the orig- 
inal Crane mansion, still standing at tlie junction of Valley Koad and the ]iresent Clairmont Avenue, 
leading to, and through. Crane's Gap, is substantiated by very strong traditional testimony. But before 
citing proofs, let us succinctly state the historic connections, with such circumstances as can be gathered, 
which led to the occupancy. At no time during the war was the mind of Washington more harassed 
with perturbing anxieties than at the very time he was stopping, with his army, at Cranestown; but, as 
it proved, tlie darkness which brooded over the cause of freedom was the darkness just before the dawn; 
for exactly one year afterward (Oct. 19, 1781) the surrender of Lord Cornwallis occurred, and the Inde- 
pendence of the United States of America was achieved. 

The preceding year (1779) General Lafayette, who had fought bravely by Washington's side in 
many a hot engagement, had i-eturned to France for the purpose of enlisting the sympathies of the 
French government and people in the cause of freedom in America, and had so far succeeded as to secure 
a fleet of seven heavy ships of the line and tliii-ty-two transports, with an armament of 6,0O0 well-equipped 
troops and as many more to follow, and funds and pledges of more, for a vigoi'ous prosecution of the war. 
Lafayette reached Morristown on liis return May 12, 1780, and Count Rochanibeau, witli the French 
fleet, arrived in Newport, R. I., July 11th succeeding. On the latter's arrival, Wasliington repaired at 
once to NcAvpoit to welcome and confer with Count Eochandjeau, but did not remain long, his presence 
M-ith his main army in New Jersey being important ; but early in the following September the two — 
AVashington and Rochaml)eau — held a more formal conference at Hartford, Ct., for the concentration of 
plans for future operations. In the meantime Major General Arnold, who had for eighteen months 
previously been in secret correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton, Commander-in-Chief of the British 
forces in New York, witli a view of betraying the cause wliich he had liitherto been supposed to be 
honestly defending, had, in order to further his nefarious designs, at liis own ui-gent request, been 
appointed Commander of the important strongliold of tlie Hudson, AVest Point. AVashington, having 
completed his conference with tlie French Admiral at Hartford, M'as returning to Ins army, then stationed 
at Totowa (Paterson), N. J., and arrived at AVest Point on the yQvy day, and even at the hour, when the 
treachery of Arnold was most opportunely discovered by the recent arrest of Major John Andre, Arnold 
escaping, almost under the eye of AVashington, by precipitous flight to the British sloop of war, the 
"A^nlture," then lying just below West Point. This occurred on the 25th of September (17bUj. Great 
was the consternatinn among the ofiicers of the post and those accompanying General Washington on the 
discovery of the plot ; and it is no wonder that Washington exclaimed to Generals Lafayette and Knox, 
with eyes suffused, " Arnold is a traitor and has fled to the British; whom can we trust now?" But, 
with his usual self-possession, he immediately issued orders for the thwarting of any attempt to carry out 
Arnold's treacherous designs. He at once appointed General Heath to the command of the post, and 
directed changes to be made in the fort so as to render it more secure against attack. On the 2d of 
October (Tuesday) Major Andre was hung as a spy at Tap pan ; and in the course of a few ilays General 
AVashington proceeded to tlie army at Totowa, where it had lieen since its removal from winter quarters 
in Morristown the preceding sj^ring. 

In Gen. AVashington's Revolutionary Orders issued during the years 1778-1782, and edited by 
Henry ^Vhiting, Lt.-Col. U. S. A., New York, 181-1, 1810, occurs the following order, viz. : 

History ok Muntclair Tdwnsiiip. 


" Hkadqi-artkus, Totoway. Oetobei- 23rd, 17S0. 

"The Corps of Light Iiifantrv will remove from tlieir present Eiicainpiiient, and take post on the 
most convenient ground, to the Cranetown Gap and the Notch, for the more etfectnal secnrity of our 
Right. — Gen. St. Clair will take care of the approaches on the Left, Col. MavlandV Regiment will 
furnish the iiecestsary Patrols, and will take a new Position for that purpose. The Ofhcers of the .Vrniy 
are to he furnished with two rations |>er dav until t'urther Orders." 

This ii.xes the precise date of march from Totowa for the occupancy of what Gen. Lafayette calls 
"our Station at Cranc'stown." hut (ien. Washington •' Cranetown (iap." The order, it will be noticed, 
is sutHciently detinite for nuircliing. hut dues not reveal the design of the movement; and for the obvious 
reason that it was not (ien. Washington's intention to do so, lest, by any nuforeseen accident, tlie order 
be conveyed to the enemy, and so the secret aim — Gen. Lafayette's night attack on Staten Island — be 
known and thwarte<l. Hut it .•settles the point, that "thel'ost" occu])ied was "Cranetown (iap." or 
" Crane'stown Station," directly at the foot of Crane's (iap. 

The forced inactivitv of the annv for six Ions; months, made all the more unendurable bv the 

.Vi'nold. whose re- 
ed the ranks prior 
tile Commander- 
ed both othcers 

recent trea.son of 
port had pervad- 
to tiie i-eturn of 
in-Chief, render- 
and soldiers e.\- 
for a renewal of 
cially was t his 
Lafayette, whose 
could ha rdl y 
lie panted for an 
avenge the trea- 
seeme(l for the 
tiie honor of the 
he had so ardently 
therefore entreat- 
ington to be per- 
blow, which, if 
be f el t i>y t h e 
It was known 
llenrv Clinton 


ceedingly eager 
hostilities; espe- 
true of General 
impetuous spirit 
br(K)k delay, and 
opportunity to 
son which had 
moment to stain 
nohle cause which 
espoused. I/e 
rd General AYash- 
mitted to strike a 
successful, would 
bv scouts that Sir 

had at this time a 

large amount of military stores on Staten Island, guarded mainly by Ile.'sians. Lafayette proposed to secure 
these by a night attack: and such was his importunity that the Commander-in-Chief yielded; and in order to 
be in nearer ]>roximity to aid, if needed, the endeavor, he gave ordci-s for the main divisions of the army to 
move southward. This was done, and the station selected, in which to await the result of the movement 
under Lafayette, was at Cranestown. Tlie position was well chosen, commanding as it diil the i)ass across 
the mountain, and at the junction of the roads both from Newark and Orange to that point. Washington 
appropriated the largest in the town, and one best located, the old Crane mansion, then owned by 
my great-grandfather, William Crane, himself at the time in the ranks. Washington took possession of 
tlie two lower rooms on the west side of the main hall, while members of his stall occuj)ied the other side 
and all the second story rooms. Ju.-t back of the rear and smaller room, was an old-fashioned lean-to 
which had been, and was then, the kitchen. 1 myself well remember that old lean-to, with its large open 
tirc-place, but it has long .since disappeared. On the evening of his Excellency's arrival, my great-grand- 
mother, Mercy Crane, then in charge of the, as she was having her slaves prepare supper for her 
disthiguished guest, came to the General and apologetically explained to him her deep regret that she 

28 History of Montcf.air T()\vxsiiir. 

had no tea to serve to lier guests. "Xever mind, my goud lady," replied liis Excelleiicy unperturbed, 
'' please have a crust of bread toasted, and use it for tea. Tliat is good enough tea for me."' Her 
anxieties thus allayed, she hastened to furnish the best that her house afforded for the supper of her 
worthy guests. After supper another ditKciilty caused no slight solicitude in the mind of the patriotic 
hostess. Owing to the unusual demand for beds, none was left for Generals Washington and Lafayette 
in the lower back room, which had been chosen by them, but which had been hitherto used as a dining- 
room. This deiicienc}' was made known to his Excellency by the hostess with even deeper regret than 
the fact of her having no tea. "But there is plenty of straw in the barn, is there not V rejoined her 
courteous guest. " Abundance," was the quick response. Immediately Washington had several bundles 
ordered and spread in a corner of the room ; and there on it. wrapped in their army blankets, that night 
slept two of the noblest Generals whose names are on the scroll of fame. Doubtless better accommoda- 
tions were devised for their convenience while they remained in occupancy thereafter. 

During the three weeks of Washington's remaining in headquarters at Granestown, the troops 
were encamped directly to the smith <if the old mansion, their tents standing thick all ah>ng the meadows, 
then wholly unobsti'ucted, from Valley Ivoad to what is now ^[ountain Avenue, and guarding the inter- 
section of the old Newark Road (now Church Street) with the road leading to Orange and thence to 
Elizal)ethtown and beyond. ^\s \\'^ashingt()n had brought his army there for a purpose, preparations 
were immediately set on foot to further the designs of the entlmsiastie leader, Lafayette, in his plan of 
attack on Staten Island. Boats were ordered brought down the Passaic River to a point where the 
crossing of the Kill was to l>e effected ; wliile others were hastily constructed on wagons to be conveyed 
overland to the required place of embarkation. All things seemed at length in readiness for the attempt 
which promised success. Lafayette, with his command, repaired to the designated spot with all secrecy 
on the evening of October 26th, not doubting but that the boats ordered would be there to convey his 
command over the narrow stream. All night long he and his splendidly ecpiipped cordis waited impa- 
tiently to hail the sight of the wished-for boats, but they came not. From some unaccountable cause 
they were delayed, until the dawn warned the disappointed watchers that their so much coveted oppor- 
tunity was past, and that they had nothing now to do but to return to their Cjuarters. But happily just 
at this point we are supjilied with very im])ortant data respecting the fact of the occupancy of Cranes- 
town by Washington at this juncture. 

Soon after General Lafayette had fairly started on his return to headquarters, he dispatched a 
courier with a letter to the C'onnnander-in-Chief, stating the unfortunate outcome of the attempt; and 
this letter we tind in "'The Memoirs of Lafayette,*' by his son, George Washington Lafayette, and pub. 
lished in English in New York, 1837. The letter is dated at Elizabethtown, October 27, 17Sn, and is found 
on pages 48 1-2 of the tirst volume. It reads as follows : "I have taken my position between Elizabeth- 
town and Connecticut Earuis. General Clinton has not the time of making any disposition against us. 
Tomorrow, at nine or ten, I will march to our position of Cntne stoam, and the day after tomorrow to 
Totowa, unless I receive contrary orders. Newark Mountain (Orange) was rather too far to march it 
this night, and too near for tomorrow ; because our men, being iu want of blankets, will like better to 
join their tents again. If your Excellency approves of this arrangement, I beg you will order our 
baggage to wait for us on our position of Crane stoimi : if you dislike the disposition, your orders may 
reach us on the road." This fixes exactly the date of the occupancy of Cranestown as temporary 
headquarters, and also supplies the specific object ; while distinctly stating that the troops were there in 

Meanwhile, probably during the absence of General Lafayette on the abortive expedition referred 
to above, an alarm, as had often occurred before, but now of sufficient importance to awaken solicitude, 
came late one afternoon, that the British were about to make an attempt on the American lines in their 
somewhat insecure position at Cranestown. At all events Washington considered it of sufficient weight 
to cause him to be in readiness to meet it, if true; but in the emergency he did not deem it advisable to 

History of Montclair Township. 29 

spare even a single man fron) the ranks to be sent to warn out the Minnte men living beyond the so-called 
"first and second mountains." lie called, therefore, for a volunteer out of the service. One of the sons 
of his hostess, who had been lame from his boyhood, and hence disabled from active military duty, and 
yet able to ride on horseback, and who knew every road and lane of the country to be visited, came 
forward and olTcred to umlcrtake the somewhat hazardous and wearisome iiiijht journey : for he was to 
go, if ]>us<ible, to every handet and home where Minute men resided Iietween the Second Mountain and 
the Passaic River, and tliis meant to Ilorseneck, Pine Brook, Swinelield. and all the intervening 
inhal)ited region. The <jtfer was acce])ted, and Zadoc Crane, then but little, if any, rising twenty 
years of age, mounted his own spirited hoi-se, and with a long, heavy cutlass as his only weapon^ 
started, under the General's special ordei-s, just after the sun had gone down I)ehiiiil the darkening 
mountains, on his journey. Nothing of note occurred until he reached the lonely space of woods 
then covering all the Second ilountain ; when, as he entered the shadows, he s<iw, or thought lie 
saw, some refiKjees in the road ready to intercept his pa.-isage. Drawing his long cutlass he, with 
stentorian voice, cried out : " Cotne on, men, we wil! take them if there are five thousand of them," and 
at once put spurs to his willing steed, and dashed through the dark aiul ktnely pass. Iiearing, as I have 
often, as he rehear.*ed the adventure, heard him say, '' a terrible crackling in tiie underbrush in the 
woods" as he speeded through. On he went, calling at every house, as far as in his power ; and just 
after daylight he drew up his sijiiad of Minute nien in line in front of the mansion doorstep, on which 
already (General Washington stood in waiting to inspect them. Xo fence at that time, nor for many 
yeai-s afterward, obstructed the lawn in front of the house, and hence the parade of the squad was easy. 
'• Well done, my man," was the salute of his Excellency. '' now come in and take a horn of whisky, for 
you must need it." As it proveil. the alarm was a false one. -No P>ritisli soldiers had made their 
appearance during the night, but the heroic act was remembereil. and often told as a ri'iiiiniscence of the 
war in after times none the less. 

Shortly afterward Oeneral Washington withdrew his troops from Cranestown to their strongly 
entrenched positions on the heights on the left bank of the I'as>aic at Totowa. Fortunately we have a 
very exact description of the location aii<I appearance of eiich corj)s along the line of eiitrcnclinients here. 
The Manpiis de Chasteliux, a Prench othcer under Count Kochambeau, was sent by the latter on a visit 
of observation at this very time through New Jersey and thence on into Virginia; and he has given us 
a very clear statement of the disi)osition of the American forces at Totowa, a.s he found them November 
23, 17St). It may be remarked, that General Lafayette (or the Manjuis, as he was then usually styled) 
had, on the 7th of August previous, taken command of the corps of light infantry, consisting of si.x 
battalions, composed each of six companies of men chosen from the different lines of the army. These 
battalions were divided into two brigades, one commanded by (ieneral Hand, the other by General Poor. 
As the command of the ^farijuis was the pick of the army, it had assigned to it in position the post of 
honor as the vanguard. Both officers and .soldiers were better clothed than the rest of the army, and made 
a handsomer api)earance on parade. "Each soldier," says the Manjuis de Chastellu.\, " wore a iielmet 
made of hard leather, with a crest of horse hair. The officers were armed with espontoons, or rather half 
pikes, and the subalterns with fusils (muskets): but both were provided with short and light sabres 
brought from Prance, and made a present fif to them by M. de la Fayette." "This corps was posted," 
says the Marquis de Chasteliux. " in an excellent position. It occupied two heights sejjarated by a small 
bottom, but with an easy coniinunication between them. The rivui- Totohaw, or Second River (Passaic), 
protects its right, and it is here that it makes a considerable elbow, and turning towards the south, falls 
into the bay of Newark. The i)rincipal front, and all the left tlank to a great di^tance, are covered by a 
rivulet (saddle Creek i. which comes from Paramu.s. and falls into the same river." Two miles beyond 
this position of the vanguard, keeping the river on the left, lay the main army, under the respective 
commands of Generals Wayne, Huntington, Glover, Kno.x (Commander of Artilleryj, and others. 
" The army." continues Marquis de Chasteliux, " wa.s encamped on two heights, and in one line, in an 

30 History of Muntci.air Tr)\vxsini'. 

extended liut very good positinii. liaving a wood in tlie rear, and in front tlie river, wliicdi is very difficult 
of passage everywhere except at Totoliaw bridge. But tlie situation would be quite in favor of an army 
defending the left bank, the heiglits on that side everywhere commanding those of the right. Two miles 
beyond the bridge is a meeting-house of an hexagonal form, which is given to their places of worship by 
the Dutch Presbyterians, who are very numerous in the Jerseys." Not far from where the army lay, the 
same accurate observer tells us, was " the great cataract called Totohaw (Passaic) Fall," which interested 
him much in passing. "At Icngtli, after passing thick woods on the right, I found myself in a small 
plain, where I saw a liandsome farm : a small camp which seemed to cover it, a large tent extending to 
the court, and several waggons round it, convinced me that this was his Excellency's (,)uarter: for it is 
thus that Mr. Washington is called in the army, and throughout America." 

Such, as far as we have been able, by throwing side-lights upon the screen to bring out more 
clearly the picture, were the circumstances attending General Washington's tem]iorarv occupancy of 
Cranestown with his army ; and such the position of the several lines at Totowa, on his return thither 
in conseqiience of the abortive scheme of General Lafayette to attack Staten Island. For five long years 
had New Jersey been the scene of varying warfare ; and for a i\i\\ year no important aggressive move- 
ment had been made by the army ; while signs of depression were becoming more and more evident in 
the minds of the patriots, and not a few even began to doubt the outcome of the already long continued 
struggle. The troops, at this time, M-ere, and had for months been, poorly clad and scantil}' fed. The 
term of service of not a few was expiring, and they were anxious to return to their (in some instances, 
devastated) homes ; Congress was well nigh jjowerless to aid by reason of the refusal of several of the 
States to recognize Congressional authority; the credit of the country was at discount, and money 
obtainable only on individual and responsible guarantees ; treason had already shown itself, and might 
become unearthed elsewhere at any time — all these anxieties were pressing upon the mind of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief at once ; and yet not a quiver of discouragement was apparent either in his countenance 
or his acts, but he proceeded to lay plans with the same imperturbability that had always characterized 
him. Just five days after the Marquis de Chastellux had left the entrenched army at Totowa (Nov. 28, 
1780), General Washington assigned to the different divisions of the army (then reduced to only a little 
over 10,000 troops), their winter (juarters, his own Ijeing established at New Windsor, Ct. The New 
Jersey line was to quarter at Pompton, N. J.; the Pennsylvania line at Morristowu ; the Maryland 
regiment of horse at Lancaster. Pa. ; and Sheldon's horse at Colchester, Ct. ; one New York regiment at 
Fort Schuyler, one at Saratoga, and the remainder of the line at Albany, Schenectady, and other exposed 
points. But a brighter dawn than any in the past was drawing nigh. As already stated, in less than a 
year from that very time (in October 17, 1781), came the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and the 
recognition of American Independence by the European nations. 

Doubtless Cranestown, in common with the adjacent towns, furnished its full quota of stalwart 
young men for the service during the war, Init of these only a very few names have survived to identify 
them in it. The blood-stained trenches for the burial of the nameless, promiscuous dead found slain on 
battle-fields, and unknown graves in neglected church-yards, might tell of the patriot heroes of the war 
from its precincts within them, but they will not be known to the living on earth in time. Major 
Nathaniel Crane, of Cranestown, who survived the war many years and resided till his death therein, 
and whom I myself have often, when a boy, met, was in the ranks. William Crane, my great grand- 
father, the owner at the time of the "Head Quarters," was in Capt. Abraham Lyon's Comjiany, Second 
Reg. Essex Co., and also served with the State troops, besides others whose names have been obliterated 
by time. 

It only remains to add that the old Crane mansion, which General Washington and his staff' 
occupied in the Autumn (jf 178o, still stands esseiitially the same that it was at that memorable period. 
The additions attached to the rear, and the stucco covering on the outside, were not there then. Some 
slight changes have been made in the interior but none materially modifying its original integrity as 
then seen. 

History oi Montclair TdwxsHir. 31 

Still stands lonely the mansion, a more than a century's relic, 

Which, when men's souls trembled in watching the issues of warfare. 

Opened its doors to the Chieftain, the father revered of his countrv. 

Giving himself and his staff a hearty and generous welcome. 

Still stands quaintly its gables to greet the return of the morning. 

Or to reflect from the hilltops fading the smile of the sunset. 

Still stands sentry the mansion, but where are the tents that before it 

Shone in the .sheen of the sunlight and dazzled the eves of beholders? 

Where are the blasts of the bugle and tap of the matinal drum-beats. 

Echoing notes from the mountain, and giving the signals for rising? 

Gone are the patriot heroes, who breasted the dangers of battle. 

Prompted by love of their countrj- and hope of entailing its freedom. 

Still -Stands olden the mansion, guarding the memories sacred 

Clustering hallowedly round it, and marking the spot for remembrance. 

Where was encamping his army, and Washington's St.mion .\t Cranestown. 

Additional data of tliis interesting period is given in •• Tiic Kevoiution and its Traditions," hv Kev. 
Cliarles E. Knox. He says: "Tliis part of tlie Newark colony toui-hed the Revolntionary contest at 
.several points. The fact that Nathaniel ('nine, a private.- — after the Kevoiution well known as Major 
Nathaniel ("rane, — wa.s in the battle of Long l>land on Septenilier 15. 1770, and one of the last to leave 
the Held under a sliower of hullets, indicates that citizens here early entered the military service. From 
1777 the eidi.stments were common throughout the county. Among those known to have heen from the 
Montclair region, were Capts. Abraham Sjteir, and Thomas Sieglei-, Second Lieut .loseph ("i-ane, Sergt 
Obadiah Crane, privates, Jonathan and Joseph iJaldwin, Aaron, Matthias, Nathaniel, Joseph, Eleakine, 
Denjaniin. Oliver. William and Phineas franc, Peter Davis, Nathaniel and Parmenus Dodd. Amos 
Tompkins, ,\braham and Francis Speer. John ami Levi ^'incent, John Smith and a \'an Gieson. 

"After the retreat of Washington from Acquackanonck, through the lower part of the town, to 
New Brunswick, universal consternation prevailed. The peo])le tied tt) the mountains atid over the 
mountains. The pastor of the .Mountain Churcii wa.s marked for capture. The scouting parties of the 
Pritish carried devastation everywhere. Hut not till the reaction of the next year 1777, did the people 
venture back to their desolate lands and plundered 

"Nathaniel Crane — and we may infer that others were with him— was at the battle of Motiinoulh, 
in 177s, where was also Gen. Ploomtield. 

" When Gen. Anthony Wayne — according to tradition — left his camp at Second Kiver, just south 
of the ruins of the copper works, his troojis took their march in the famous snow storm of Jan'v, 1779 
up the old road to Ilorseneck, posting a picket at Ploomtield, and abandoning their cannon embedded in 
the snow in Caldwell. 

"The bold hill on the east side of the notch, was, it is said a favorite lookout of Washington. 
From that height he once iletected a raiding j)arty of British sallying from Eli/abethtown to the mount- 
ains. He dis])atclied at once a troop of cavalry behind the hill to Springfield, who cut off the foragers, 
and reclaimed the tine lot of cattle they were driving off. The army here was in that de]ilorable 
condition which led, in 1781, to the mutiny of the Pennsylvania troops at Ponipton. 'J'he detachment 
extended along the road and the mountain southward from the Crane homestead. Confiscated house- 
hold furniture taken from the P):-itisli, is still in possession of a family here, purclia.sed with Continental 
ciiri-ency earned by working for the soldiers." A part of this was destroyed by tire in the spring of 1890. 
The mahogany stand or writing table which was used by General Washington while at the Crane mansion 
i.- in the possession of Mrs. Harry C. Crane, daughter of Kev. Oliver Crane. D.D. 

Chapter VIII 

Events leading to, and Ekkction of, Bloomfiei.d Township in 1S12. — Name of Cranetuwn chanued 
TO THAT OF West Bloomfield. — Original Boundaries. — Toney's Brook, the Source of 
Second River, and its ]\Ianufactories. — The First Saw Mill. — Israel Crane's Mill on 
Toney's Brook. — West Bloomfield Manffacturing Co. — Henry Wilde & Sons. — Wilde 
Brothers. — First Manffacture of Plaid Shawls in this Country. — John Wilde. — 
Burning of the Lower Mill. — Mill Property Leased to, and subsequently Purchased 
BY Grant J. Wheeler and Others, for the Manufacture of Paper and Oakum under the 
Firm Name of Crane, Wheeler & Co. — Manufacture of Straw Board by Machinery, 
BY Grant J. Wheeler ifc Co. — Indian Eelics Found Beneath the Wheeler Mill. — 
Removal of Wheeler to Waverly, and Closing of the INIill. — Valuable Pearls Found 
ON Notch Brook, the Source of Third River. — Construction of Newark and Pompton 
Turnpike. — Business Development and Growth of West Bloomfield. — Construction of 
Newark and Bloomfield R. R. — The New Settlement. — The Name of Montclair 
substituted for that of West Bloomfield. 

|F the ehikh-en of Ueaeon Azariali Crane only Natlianiel and Azariali. Jr.. are mentioned 
in connection with tlie settlement at Cranefown. They ac(iiiired hy ]Mircha?e, as well as 
hy inheritance, lar<>-e tracts of land within the present houndaries of Newark, Orange and 
Montclair. Dr. Wickes, in his '• History of the Oranges," states that : " Their lands were 
bounded south hy the Swineiield Eoad, east by the Cranetown Road, now Park street, 
west by Wigwam Brook, M'hich was the division line between the Crane lands and those 
of the Harrisons and ^A'illiams, and on the north by Antony's Brook at Montclair, the 
northern boundary of Second River. The family of Crane also held land on the south 
side of the Northtield Road to the summit of the Mountain. It afterwards came into the 
possession of Simeon Harrison (1) being conveyed to him by the executors of Caleb 
Crane. There is a tradition that when the Lords Projirietors claimed the payments of 
the quit-rents for lands taken by Azariali and Nathaniel Crane, they brought in a bill for their services as 
surveyors in the employ of the Proprietors as an offset. Their bill was not accepted, and the controversy 
was finally settled in the Supreme Court in favor of the surveyors." 


Know all men by these presents, that I, Enoch Williams, of the township of Newark, in the 
County of Essex, and State of New Jersey, for and in consideration of the sum of one hundred and 
eighty dollars paid, or secured to be paid by Phineas Crane of the Town, Comity and State aforesaid, 
unto the said Enoch Williams, for which payment I have given, granted, bargained and sold unto the said 
Phineas Crane, my Negro man named Tom; to liave and to Imld the said Negro man unto the said 
Phineas Crane, for himself, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns; and doth warrant, secure, 
and forever defend the sale of said Negro man named Tom unto the >aid Phineas Crane, his heirs and 
assigns forever. In wriNiiss whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty-ninth day of 
May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nine. ENOCH WILLIAMS. 

Sealed and delivered ) 
in the presence of f 

Elizabeth Crane. 
Poi-ly Williams. 

History of Montci.air Townsiiii'. 


After tlie erection of Blooiiitield a.s a ;<eparate townsliip ( 'rauetowii was embraced within its 
boundaries, and later became known as West Bloomtield. The latter remained as a part of tlie townsliip 
of Bloomfield until tlie separation and erection of the new township in IStin, under the name of ^fontclair. 

Bloomtield owes its name. a.s well as its existence as a township, to the organization of its first 
church society in 179(5. Rev. Stephen Dodd, of East Haven, ("onn.. in his MS. History of Bloomfield, 
prepared in lS4fi, .says: 

"It liad been the practice fur many years to use the word \Vardses.soii, supposing that it was 
derived from some person or family by the name of Ward. I'ut this was a palpable mistake. The real 
name was of Indian origin. Wufsf-ssitit/. Wofsesson, written in both forms in the ancient records of 
Newark: but tiic tirst is doubtless the correct s])elling. It was first used with reference to the School- 
house Ilili and the adjacent Plains, as formerly nanu-d. Thus the ancient deeds nf uur ancestor. Daniel 
Dodd, an<l his brotlier, Samuel Dodd. the grandfather of the late Aaron Dodd. mention WaUesshig Jlill, 
AVatsessing Plains. a.s also some other records. * * * The neighborluiod north of the Meeting-house was 
once called Crab Orchard, from the crab-apide trees which were standing there in the time of the first 
settlers. Tlie young men tried to introduce the name Hopewell. Imt did not succeed. 


•• Crane Town was a name early given to that tract under the mountain settled by the Crane 
families from Xewark. The two first were brothers, A zariah and Xathaniel. Azariah, the grandfather 
of Aaron, and my mother lived about where Elias B. Crane resided ; the brother of Azariah, and father 
of William and Xoah. lived where Major Crane died. 

•• I'lider these circumstances, our fathers thought it expedient to attempt to introduce some general 
name to apply to all the ground covered by the proposed Ecclesiastical (,'ongregation. For this purpose 
thev held several meetings for consultation, which resulted as follows : 

" In the Seiilhxel of Freedom, of Dec. 7, 179(>, I find the following notices: 

"'At a numerous meeting of the Congregation of Wardsesson. Oct. 13. 1796: Joseph Davis Esq. 
in the Chair : 

•' ■ It a]ipearing that agreeably to a resolution of a meeting held the 10th inst., advertisements have 
been set up in three of the most public places within the bounds of the Congregation, notifying the 
objects of the present meeting ; the members proceeded to choose a name by which the society should be 
distinguished, when it ap])eared that the name of Bi.oomfikld had a large majority of votes. 

'^"' Extract from the minutes. '"ISAAC W. CKANE, Secretary.' 

34: IIisr(iK\- (11' MiiNrci.AiR Township. 

"To the ])rece(liiiii I will luld, fi-oiii memory, in wliicli I may be incurrcct, tliat Isaac Watts Crane 
beiii^ acquainted M-ith Gen Bloomfieki, of Burlington, a man of wealth, and Laving no children thought 
it might be policy to take his name and engage his generosity towards this child of adoption. And, as it 
will appear in the scipu'l. the plan jjroduced some good fruit. This plan was carried out by giving (-Jen. 
Bloomtield suitable notice of what had been done respecting the aduption of his name, accompanied 
with a barrel of cider, the jiroduce of Bhxiuiliehl" 

The Scnt'ini-l of July 12, 1797, contained the following: 

"CoMMixicATKiN FKOM Ijloomfield. — On Thursdav, the (Itli inst., Maj Gen. Bloomtield and his 
lady made a visit to the Society of Bloomtield. They were escorted from Grange by Lieut Baldwin's 
(Jesse division of cavalry, and other gentlemen, to the liouse of Joseph Davis Esq., where they were 
received by a numerous concourse of people belonging to the Society A procession was then formed in 
the following order : 

" The farmers, hcaduil by Col. Cadmus, and Mr Timothy ^Vard ; the masons and laborers ; the 
trustees and managers ; the venerable clergy ; Gen. Bloomtield and suite ; the battalion oiiicers ; Lieut 
Baldwin's division of horsemen ; forty young ladies uniformly dressed in white, their heads neatly orna- 
mented with turhan><2in(S. corona hedera, crowned with ivy, besides two hundred young children belonging 
to the schools of Bloomtield ; and in the rear of tlie whole Capt. Crane's elegant company of infantry, 
giving the procession a dignified appearance. The procession being thus formed, proceeded to tlie new 
stone church and from tiience to a large bower, prej)ared for the occasion, where a ]iraycr was made by 
the Rev Mr AVhite, adapted to the occasion ; and anthems were sung by forty young ladies, uniformly 
dressed in white. Gen Bloomtield, from an eminence, addressed the assembly, recommending the 
virtues of patriotism and of ]iolitical and Christian union An answer was returned by Mr Watts Crane 
in behalf of the Society reechoing the same sentiments'" 

A white mai'ble tablet, with inscription, "Bloomtield, 17!'*!," was set in the brown free-stone 
tower, to mark the beginning of a new townshiji. The civil township was not erected until ISI'2, when 
it included the territory from the crest of the mountain to the Passaic River. 

The Town Patent oi; Cuautkr of Newark, given in 1713, defines the west, nortli and east line of 
what became afterward Bloomtield : 

'• Purchased from ye Indians, now known by ye ]S'ame of Newarke, liounded easterly by a great 
creek that runs from Ilackingsack Bay, through ye Salt ]\Ieadow called by the Indians Wequahick, and 
now known by the Name of Bound Creek, and continuing from the head of ye Said Creek to the head 
of a Cove to a ^farkt Tree ; from thence it Extended Westerly upon a Straight Line, by Computation 
Seven Miles be the Same more or Less, to the End or foot of the Great Mountain, and to the Ridge 
thereof, called by the Indians Wachung, Near where Runs a branch of the Railway River; from thence 
extending on a Northerly Course along the Ridge of the Said ]\[ountain to a heap of Stones Erected to 
Ascertain the Boundary between the .s'd Town of Newark and the Town of Achquickatnunck ; from 
thence Running a South-east course by AclKpiickatnunck Bound Line to where the brook or Ri valet 
Called by the Indians Yantokah. liut now known by the Name of the Third River, Emptieth itself into 
Pasayack River, and from thence Continuing Down along by the said Passaick River and Ilackingsack 
Bay to the mouth of the said Bound Creek." 

The southern line of Bloomtield was established in 1S(M!, when the township of Newark was 
divided by its own authority into three wards— the Newark Ward, the Orange Ward and the Bloomtield 
Ward. The Orange Ward became that same year the township of Orange, and the Bloomtield Ward 
became the township of Bloomtield in 1S12. The line between the Orange and the Bloomtield AVards 
was established, in 1SU(5, as follows: 

"Beginning at the Green Island in Passaik River and running thence to the Boiling Spring on land 
of Phineas Baldwin, dec'd and from thence to the Bridge at the Slough between the houses of Jonathan 
Baldwin and Elihu Pierson, and from thence to the bridge near Martin Richards', and from thence 
to Turkey Eagle Rock, on the top of the first Mountain ; which we agree shall be the line between the 
Ploomtield Ward and the wards of Newark and Orange." 




The '• iuliabitaiits of Second liiver ami the Body of Newark" acted separately "in all affairs 
relating to tlie Poor for fifty-three years.'" 'liie line of division was in part the line which aftei^ward 
divided Belleville from Blmnntield. The description jriven in 1743—14 is as follows: 

"BeKinninj' at Bassaick River at the Gullv near the house of Dr I'iiTot, thence northwest to 
Second River, thence up the same to the Saw Mill belonging to George Harrison, thence a direct line to 
the north-east corner of the Plantation of Stephen Morris, thence to the Notch in the mountain, leaving 
William Crane's house to the southward, thence on a direct line to Stephen Van Site's ]>ars and Abraham 
Franci-sco's to the Northward of said line ; and it was agreed that all on the Northward of said lines 
should Ije esteemed Inhabitants of Second River, and all on the southward of the Body of Newark."' 

The Notch referred to is jtrobably the little ojtening in the mountain just north of the present 

"Cranetown" by popular designation became after 1S12 Bloomfield, and so continued until 
ISfis. Its Snrffire Streams itml Snil are thus described bv Rev. ^fr. Knox in his Ilistorv of Bloomfield 

\ fKW CIS liiNK\ 

Townshij): " Between the natural boundary of the uKjuntain crest on the west and the natural Ixiundary 
of the Pas.saic River on the east lies an unusually diversified and beautiful expanse of country. Bai-allel 
waves or ridges of land run from north to south. The mountain slope descends into plain and valley, 
and rises again n])on a wave nearly the length of the township known now as the Ridgewood line. This 
territory fonns the beautiful region of what is now ilontclair." 

Two rivulets rise in the northern part of the present township which How southward and eastward to 
form in Bloomfield the little stream anciently known as Second River. The first of these known as 
"Tony"s Brook"" uiamed probably from Anthony Oliff, one of the early settlers at the mountain), though 
now an insignificant stream, was early utilized for manufacturing purposes, and furnislied sufficient power 
to run two or three mills, which gave this part of the township its first impetus. As early as 1695, accord- 
ing to the '• Towne Records of Newark," Thomas Davis had " liberty to .set up a saw mill." It has been 
supposed that this was the saw mill on a site near the pond above the old dilapidated vacant building 


History of Moktclair Township. 

formerly known as Wheeler's pa|)er mill. Israel Crane, who, in ISOl, in conuec-tion with Charles 
Kinsey, leased a mill seat at Paterson, and erected the second cotton mill there, was the first to make use 
of Toney's Brook for manufacturing purposes. About 1S1:>-15 a eoinpany was organized under the 
name of the West Bloomtield Manufacturing Company. The prime mover in the enterprise was Israel 
Crane. Associated with him wei-e Daniel P. Beach, E. P. Stiles, Michael Cockfair, Peter Doremus and 
others. Two large buildings uere erected near the present Wheeler mill, where the manufacture of 
cotton and woolen gooils was carried on for some years. The property subsequently passed into the 
hands of Israel Crane, and the factories were closed for some time. 

In 1827 these mills were leased to Henry AYilde and Sons, who came from Yorkshire, Eng. He 
had long been engaged in the manufacture of broadcloths and other woolen goods in the old country, 
as had also his father and grandfather. He began the manufacture of ]3laid shawls which, it is said, were 


the first ever made in this country. He made many changes and in)provements in the machinery, 
utilizing the water power for spinning and carding the wool ; the manufacture of the goods was all done 
on hand looms. Mr. Wilde employed about 100 hands, most of whom were brought from England. 
The manufactured goods were disposed of in the New York market, and Mr. Wilde was awarded a 
number of prizes by the American Institute Fair for the superior quality of his goods. Owing to the 
partial failure of the water power, which jn-oved insufficient for the mamifacture of heavy goods, they 
gave up the manufacture of these for <roods of lighter weight, and eniraaed in the manufacture of white 
flannels of a high grade, said to be the best in the market. The firm became eml)arrassed during the 
panic of 1837, and the elder Wilde withdrew from the business in 1839. 

John Wilde, of the New York firm of Wilde. Faulkner & Co., soon after occupied the premises 
and began the manufacture of calico prints, and dispo.?ed of their goods through Dennis Brigham ct Co., 

History of Montci.aik Townshit. 37 

wlio were subse<juently obliged tu take tlie business, owing to the failure of Wikle, Faulkner & Co. Dennis 
Brigliam subsequently withdrew from his own firm and continued to carry on the print works iiutil 1853. 

The l)nildings remained nnoccupied for some years, and in the interim the lower mill was burned. 
The remaining one was leased in ISat! by Grant J. Wheeler for the manufacture of paper and oakum, 
wiiich was then done by hand. As.sociated with iiim were Jason Crane and James, the son of Israel 
Crane, under the lirm name of Crane, Wheeler & Co. The Imsiness did not prove successful, and in 
1857 the firm was obliged to go into li(piidation. In 1358 Mr. AVheeler organized a new firm in connec- 
tion with James C. Beach, under tlie name of J. G. AVheeler & Co., for tiie purpose of carrying on 
the manufacture of straw board. goods were previously made by hand and dried in the sun. 
Tlie new Urm invented a ])rocess for making a continuous sheet of straw board, and, by means of steam 
rollers, drying it at the same time. They were the original inventors of this process, by which they were 
enabled to produce the goo<ls in (juantities in e.xcess of the home market, and they W(>rkc<l up a large 
export trade. Through the increase of ])roduction it was soon discovered tliat the goods could be profit- 
ably used for other purposes, and thus the demand was largely increased, and a better class of goods 
produced. I'nder the old proce.-vs the goods brought but ^40 a ton, while under the new — even with the 
increased supply — the price advanced to !SI4<i a ton. The wonderful success that followed induced 
comj)etition, and although the process of manufacture as well as the machinery was covered by letters 
patent, a failure to patent one simple macliine, and the discovery that a similar process had been used in 
France many years ])revious, led to prolonge<l and expensive litigation ; and the price of goods fell 
from §140 to §5(1 a ton. Both Mr. Wheeler and ilr. Beach were men of gieat inventive genius, and 
but for the unfortunate oversight would have accumulated immense wealth. They made the material 
and constructed by hand the first paper car-wheel ever made in this country. 

At the time they purchased the plant the waterfall of Toney's Brook was sulHcieiit t(» furnish 
from 5l> to 7.J horse power, but the streams and rivulets from which it was supplied were diverted in 
their course, and the water supply cut off, so that the firm was obliged to resort to steam jjower in 
addition. A successful business was carried on until 1S$7. In the meantime the State Legislature 
having piissed an act to i)revent the |iollution of the streams in Fast New Jersey, the successors of the 
old firm were indicted by the Board of Health and compelled to close the mill and n-niovc their plant 
some miles di.-tant to AVaverly, N. J. 

lieferring to this stream and also what was known as Thii-d River, (iordon (in 1830) says: "These 
streams are the source of wealth to the townshi]), ami have converted it almost wiioily into a niaini- 
facturing village." 

A few years ago, while excavating for the foundation of a steam-engine underneath Wheeler's mill, 
there was found, ten feet below the surface, a number of Indian relics, showing that the same locality 
had been used by the Imlians for the construction of arrow heads, cooking uten.-ils, and articles of stone 
for grinding corn, etc. Some forty years ago a nundjer of valuable pearls were found near the source of 
Third River — known as Notch Brook — one of which, it is .said, was sold to Tiffany & Co., and by that 
firm to Empress Eugenie for §2,00o. 



Previous to 1800 the whole region of countiy comprising what was afterward Bloomfield township, 
was wholly devoted to agricuitni-a! purpose^, and little or no business was transacted in this locality, the 
farmers relying principally on Newark for their supplies. The construction of the Newark and Pompton 
Turn|)ike. of which Israel Crane wa.s the projector, wrought in the course of a few years a great change, 
and West Bloomfield became the centre of traffic, and at one time drew a large amount of trade from 
Paterson and beyond, and bid fair to rival that town in iniportance. 

The Newark and Pompton Turnpike Comjiany was incor])orated February 24, 1806. The incor- 
porators were John N. dimming, John Uixld. Israel Crane, Noah Sayrc. Isaac Mead, Robert (iould, and 


Nathaniel Douglass; the c-oiiiiuissioiiers, Andrew Wilson, Nathaniel Camp and Richard Edsal. Israel 
Crane was President of the Company. A part of the capital stock— four thousand dollars a mile— was 
made payable in work. The road was to cross the Passaic River, near Little Falls, and to pass through 
" the more convenient gap in the mountain near Cranetown." Starting from JSTorth Broad Street (near 
Belleville Avenue, Newark), it ran northwesterly direct to Bloomfield and Cranetown, thence over the 
First Mountain to Caldwell and Parsippany, crossing at Piue Brook, with branch from the west side of 
the mountain to Syngack ; there were four toll gates, six miles apart— one near the Morris Canal, another 
at the top of the mountain, another at Pine Brook, the last at Syngack (near the upper Passaic). The 
road cut diagonally through several farn)s, and thus aroused a strong opposition on the part of some of 
the farmers, which was finally allayed. 

The road was not a paying investuient, and hecame largely indel)ted to Mr. Crane for repairs, etc., 
and finally passed into his jwssession. After his death it was sold by his heirs to the Essex Puhlic Road 
Board ; tl'ie Company still has, however, a nominal existence. Within a few years the road has been 
widened and graded, and now forms a beautiful drive through Bloomticld and Montclair, to the top of 
the mountain, thence to Caldwell, and is known as Bloomtield Avenue. 

When the road was originally constructed Mr. Crane cut "the little turnpike''— the street past the 
present depot (now known as Spring Street) — from the turnpike to his store, and his business became very 
large and widely extended. He had a large cpiarry in Newark, where he employed a number of hands 
who obtained their supplies from this store. He also had a large cider mill and distillery, which before 
the davs of temperance agitation were liberally patronized by the best class of people. A large peach 
j)mduction at one time was manufactured into brandy at the distillery, and the Jersey "peach brandy.'' 
l)ecame as famous as Jersey "applejack." The far-famed Harrison. Canfield and Baldwin apples, M-hich 
originated in this section, were slii])ped to every part of t]ie conntry, and the eider made from these 
apples was said to be the best in the market. The Baldwins and Harrisons also did a thriving liusincss in 
the manufacture of cider, and there was at one time upward of six thousand barrels a year of Newark 
cider ]U'oduced, a large portion i:f which came from this locality. 

The tannery of Smith iV Dorennis (Matthias Smith, father of Charles and Melanctliou Smith, and 
Peter, the father of Joseph and Philip Doremus), south of the Presbyterian Church, soon after 1807 
brought its hides fi-om New York, its bai'k from over the mountain, and sold its leather to the boot and 
shoe manufacturers of Bloomticld and Orange. Peter Doremus also did an extensive business in di-y 
goods and groceries, and being located at a convenient point on the turnpike, near the present store of 
liis son Philip, caught a great deal of the farmers' trade before it reached other localities. 

Gordon's Cyclopedia, published in 1832, gives the entire population of Bloomfield township. 
which then embraced an entire area of 14,000 acres, and included the present township of Belleville 
at -1,309. "In 1832 the township contained 500 taxables and 20*> householders whose ratable estate 
did not exceed $30; 82 single men. 17 merchants, fi gristmills. 2 cotton manufactories, 5 sawmills, 
4 rolling mills for copper, 3 paper mills, 1 paint factory, 2 calico printing and bleaching works, one very 
extensive 40 ton vats, 3 woollen factories, and several very extensive shoe factories; 387 horses and 
mules, 862 neat cattle, above three years old. The township paid state tax $754.50, county $287.37, 
poor tax $1,200, road tax $1,200. The annual value of manufactured products probably exceeded 

Reference is also made to the villages of Bloomfield and West Bloomtield (designated as one 
village). "The chief part of the town lies n|ion the old road, but part of it on the turnpike. It contains 
about 1,600 iidiabitants, above 250 dwellings, 2 hotels, an academy, lioarding school, 4 large connnon 
schools, 12 stores, 1 Presbyterian church, 2 Methodist churches, [one in Bloomfield and one in West 
Bloomtield] ; a very extensive trade is carried on here in tanning, currying and shoemaking, and the 
following manufactories are considered annexed to the town — two woollen factories. 1 nuihogany saw 
mill, 1 cotton mill. 1 rolling mill, 1 calico print works, 2 saw mills for ordinary work, 1 paper millj 
1 grist mill." 

History of MoxxriAiR Townsiiii'. 39 

A tlirivinc l)n?iness was done here in tlie manufacture of fur and other liats — all hand made — and 
it is said that John Jacob Astor, of whom the skins were purchased, made occasional trips here to look 
after his interests. One of the largest manufactories in tin's line was carried on \>y C^ipt. .loseph Munii 
and Xathaniel Baldwin, under tlie firm name of ifnnn «.V: Baldwin. 

The introduction of machinery and the estai)li.shment of large manufactoric.s in the East, wliicli 
supplied the trade throughout the country, wrought a material change in West Bloomfield ; it ceased to 
be a manufacturing centre, and became noted for its excellent boarding schools, and otlier educational 
advantages. A few years later |)arties from New York, who had sent their children here to be educated, 
were impressed with the healthfulness of the locality and the beauty of its surioundings, and began to 
make this a place of summer resort. It was not, iiowever, until the 0})cning of railroad communication 
with New York City, that business men were enabled to avail themselves of its many advantages as a 
place of permanent residence. 

The history of railroads in the counties of Essex and Hudson is contemporaneous with the history 
of the introduction of these great highways of travel into the United States and almost parallel with the 
success of railroading in England. As early as 1812 Colonel John Stevens, of Iloboken, published a 
pamphlet urging the government to make ex]>eriments in railways traversed by steam carriages, and, if 
feasible, propose«l the construction of^sucli a railway from Albany to Lake Erie: and long before George 
Stephenson, of England, who in 1829 "demonstrated that the locomotive was competent, not oidy to 
move itself, but also to drag a heavy load," Stevens had demonstrated its practicability by constructing 
a circular railroad track around the town hall in Floboken, where he ran his locomotive for some weeks 
to the delight of tiiousands who witnessed the experiment. 

The first railroad enterprise started in New Jersey was that of the Camden and .\inl)oy Railroad 
and Transportation Company, which was incorporated by the State Legislature on the 4th of Febi-nary, 
1830. [The road ran from Camden to .\nd)oy.] At the same time the Delaware iuid Karitan Canal 
Company was incorporated, and in ls:*l the two companies were consolidated. The Paterson and 
Hudson River Railroad was chartered in ls:U, and subseijucntly became a part of the Erie Railroad. 
The New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company was chartered by tiie State Legislature in 1S.S2. 
having pa,ssed the Assembly by a vote of 39 to 5, after a bitter fight on the part of its oppimcnt, the 
Camden an<l Amboy Railmad and Transportation Company. 


The people of Bloomfield and West Bloomfield had witnessed the effect of improved railroad 
communication with other suburban towns in New Jersey for many years which followed the substitution 
of the means of ra|>id transit ijver the old slow stage coach. 

It was not. however, until 1854 that any actual steps were taken to open railroad commimication 
between these points and New York. A few enterprising gentlemen of IJIoomtielil and West Bloom- 
field, after considering the feasibility of such an enterprise, obtained a charter from the Legislature for 
the organization of a company known as the Newark and Bloomfield Railroad Company. 

The West Bloomtield incorporators wei'e Zenas S. Crane, Grant J. Wheeler and William S. Morris; 
those from Bloomtield were Joseph A. Davis, Ira Dodd (who afterward became the Superintendent), 
David Oakes, Robert L. Cook, David Cougar and Warren S. Baldwin. 

The (company elected as its first Board of Directors William II. Harris, Grant J. Wheeler and 
Jared D. Harrison, of West Bloomfield; Joseph A. Davis, Ira Dodd, Wright F. Cougar and Jason 
Crane, of Bloomtield. The Board organized by the election of Jose]>h A, Davis as President of the 

The comparatively small population and limited means of the iidiabitants of Bloomfield Township, 
and the difference of (ipinion among them as to the best route and termination, made it very difficult to 
get the necessary subscriptions to the capital stock. Some favored the route to the ilorris neighborhood, 

4n History of Moxtclaik Township. 

wliilc others insisted that it should terininate at West Bloomtieki. After repeated and unsuccessful 
efforts to secure sufficient funds to build tlie road, the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company 
encouraged the belief that they would give financial aid to the enterprise so that the road might be built. 
Two of the representatives of that road, Dr. John S. Darcy and John P. Jackson — recognized as two of 
the leading railroad men in the State of New Jersey — were elected members of the Board of Directors 
of the Newark and Bloomfield Bailroad Company. 

The design of that Company (The New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company) was to 
reap the benefit of a condition in the contract which had been made with the Morris and Essex Railroad 
Company at the time of building the bridge over the Passaic and the connection with that railroad. 
This condition was that the New Jersey Railroad should have the right of way foi' the Newark and 
Bloomfield Railroad alongside of the ti-aek of the Morris and Essex Company as far as Roseville or East 
Orange, without expense, M'hicli ]irivi]ege the New Jersey Railroad estimated to be worth at least One 
Plundred Thousand Dollars. 

Having secured this position with the Newark and Bloomfield Railroad Company, they were not 
disposed to push the enterprise to completion, but ratlier to pursue a Fabian policy of delay. They 
suggested the advisability of interesting parties in Boonton and Paterson and other places, without avail. 
Finally, when the Bloomfield Directors became impatient at the delays, a sm-vey was made by the 
engineers of the NeAV Jersey Company, who placed the cost of building the road at from $175,000 to 
$225,000, and the only proposition which they considered feasible was that the subscription to the ca])ital 
stock should be increased to at least $75,000, M'hen the New Jersey Road would endorse the bonds of 
the new company to say $150,000, and thus secure the means for building the road. 

The Board of Directors of the Newark and Bloomtield Road held several meetings, but made 
little or no progress. Finally, however, at a meeting of this Board, the representatives of the New 
Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company proposed that the Bloomfield Directors should be 
appointed a committee with ]iower to secure the means for the construction of the road, and call a 
meeting of the full Board when that was secured. Tliey evidently thought it impossible for them to 
obtain outside assistance. Complications had arisen between the New Jersey Railroad Company and the 
Morris and Essex Railroad Company in reference to their bridge contract, and the latter company felt 
very much aggrieved at the conduct of the New Jersey Companj', and desired to relieve themselves, as 
far as possible, from the valuable privilege for right of way which they had given for the Newark and 
Bloomfield Railroad Company along their track. 

The suggestion was made by their representatives to this committee that tliey would like to enter 
into negotiations with them for building the road. Thereupon a corps of their civil engineers was 
placed on the route from Roseville to West Bloomfield, and estimated the cost at $105,000, or about 
one-half the cost estimated by the engineers of the New Jersey Company. A written contract was then 
entered into between the Morris and Essex Railroad Company and the Committee of the Newark and 
Bloomfield Railroad Company, which provided that the Morris and Essex Company would subscribe $55,000 
to the capital stock of the road, on condition that the Committee of the Newark and Bloomfield Road 
should increase their outside sul)scriptions from $-40,000 to $50,000, the total sum according to estimates 
made ($105,n00) to build the road. This agreement was made in writing and signed by the respective 
parties. A meeting of the full Board of Directors of the Newark and I'loomfield Railroad Company 
was then called and the committee reported the arrangements which they had made with the Morris and 
Essex Company. The New Jersey representatives were greatly surprised at the results, and suggested 
more favorable terms. But the agreement having been definitely settled, according to the authority 
previously given to that committee, there was no opportunity for any change. The representatives of 
the New Jersey Railroad Company in the Board, finding tliat their " occupation was gone," immediately 
resigned. These vacancies were filled by Messrs. Bassenger and Faitoute, representing the Morris and 
Essex Railroad Company. 

The work of grading and constructing the road was begun in 1855, and completed to its present 

History of Montclair Townshii'. 


terminus in 1850. Tiie §105,000 which was raised proved to be not only sufficient for grading and 
building the road, but left a balance sufficient to purchase a locomotive whicli was named the 
'• Bloomtield." Tlie trains commenced running to Bloomfield in the early part of the year 1856; the 
first trains were run to Montclair during tlie month of June of tliat year. The equipments consisted of 
one locomotive, two passenger cars, and one baggage car, which ran regularly between West Bloomfield 
and Newark, connecting witli tlie Mowis and Essex Railroad for New York. These equipments at tlie 
time were amply sufficient to accommodate travel. 

There was a deficit of fi.S.SO at the end of the first seven months. AViien first oj^ened the same 
person sold tlie tickets at West Bloomfield station and acted as brakeman on the railroad. 

Although at first there was a small deficit, yet the Company did a profitable business, and 87,000 
tickets were sold during the first year ; at the end of the second year a small dividend was declared by the 
Company to its stocklioiders. The Morris and Essex Eailroad Company, having a majority of the stock. 

^t ' 


THE OI.r> D., I.. * W. R. R. STATION. 

proceeded to elect a majority of the Board or^Directors, and so manipulated the expenses of the road 
that it practially absorbed all tiie income, and proposed in exchange Morris and Essex stock for the stock 
of The Newark and Bloomfield Kailroad C'cim|)any, which the individual stockholders accepted, so that 
the road finally fell into the hands of the Morris and E^^sex Kailniad Company. "When the lease was 
made by that Company to the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Company it included the i!lo(iinfield 
branch, which has since been operated by that Company. 

Continuous trains from Montclair to New York were not run for several years after the road was 
built, and not until the Montclair and Greenwood Lake Railroad Company was built. It is believed by 
persons who are familiar with railroad enterprises that no piece of road of the same cost in this country 
produces a larger net revenue than is received by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western from the 
orijiinal Bloomfield branch. 


With the opening uf railruad coiiinuuiicatioii, the intiiix of New York and other business men 
began. Among the earliest settlers were William H. Harris, Grant J. Wheeler, Frederick H. Harris, 
Dr. J. J. H. Love, Julius H. Pratt, Henry A. Chittenden, Stephen Parkhurst, Henry Nason, William B. 
Bradbury, Robert Hening, N. O. Pillsbury, Joseph B. Beadle, Samuel Wilde, Dr. H. H. Lloyd, and others. 

These men formed the nucleus of the new settlement. They bought their little farms at $150 to 
$300 an acre, hoping to enjoy the quiet repose of a delightful and healthy country village, little 
dreaming of the great developments that awaited them. Could they have foreseen the changes that a 
few years would bring — that their farm lands would be worth as much per miming foot as tiiey paid per 
acre, they would have mortgaged all their possessions if necessary, and doubled their purchases. They 



liiiililcd lictft'r tliaii tliej knew, and soon their ]>low.sliaros were beaten into (rail) road shares, their 
[•riinini; liooks into silver hooks; tlie beautiful conntry villas took the place of the old farm lioiises; the 
familiar well sweep disap]icarcd, ami the sonfi; of the " Old oaken l)ncket which luiiii;; in the well" was 
heard no more; the apostles of temperance laid an embargo on Jersey cider and Jersey "applejack"; 
the mills were closed, the " i;riiuler8 ceased because they were few," and the piercing shriek of the 
locomotive reminded the; farmer that the husking bees as well as the honey bees must take their 
dejiaiture, for the "city folks" had come to stay. 

The newcomers brought with them new ideas not at all in harmony with the old. For nearly 
half a century this locality had been known as West Bloomtield, and the old peo])le held the name in the 
greatest veneration because it was associated with (Tcneral Bloomtield, who gave the original township 
its name. The new settlers, liowever, found it very inconvenient. Their letters frequently miscarried, 
and either stopped at Bloomtield or went to West Bloomtield in New York State. Strangers visiting 
the village, thinking it a part of Bloomtield, would purchase their tickets and check their baggage 
thereto. A public meeting was held in ISfiO, and a change in the name decided upon. Several names 
were suggested, but among those which received most favor were Eagleton, Hillside, and Claremont. 
On referring to the map of the United States it was found there were several places of the name of 
Claremont; the difficulty was solved however by Mr. Julius II. Pratt, who suggested reversing the 
name and calling it Montclair. This suggestion was favorably received, but when the matter was put to 
vote it was found that Eagleton had 73, JVIontclair 57, and Hillside 7 votes. There was nothing legally 
binding in this vote and the majority of the property holdei'S were in favor of adopting the name of 
]\l<)ntclair. They first induced the railroad inanagcrs to change the name of their station. A petition 
signed by a large number of the proiierty hoklers was put in circulation by Mr. Robert IVI. Ilening, and 
through his personal influence with Mr. Casson, the Assistant Postmaster (ieneral, the change in name of 
tlie post-office was adopted in 1860, the name of West Bloomtield being dropped and that of Montclair 

The name of Montclair is uui(jue. At the time this name was selected it was nowhere to be found 
on the map of the United States, and it had even been obliterated from the nuxp of P^urope. During 
the Franco-Prussian war a correspondent of the lYew York Herald discovered on the banks of the llhine, 
in (lermany, the ruins of an old castle formerly known as Montclair, which was destroyed during the 
crusades by Theodore J'aldwin, the founder of the Baldwin family. That his descendants should have 
been one of the founders of this locality which has per|ietuated the name is a noteworthy fact. 

Chapter IX. 


IIP^ infant village of ISOn having received its baptismal name, and cast off its swaildling 
elothep, was looking forward to a bright and glorious future ; when suddenly the tocsin 
sounded tlie call '■^to amm!''' and men were Ijrought face to face with the stern realities 
of war. All thoughts of village improvements and the speedy accumulation of wealth 
were for a time forgotten; — tlie spirit of '7<j was again aroused ; — the tires of patriotism 
re-enkindicd ; and tlie descendants of the brave men of '70 rallied around tlie Hag to 
preserve inviolate the T'nion established by their forefathers. 

The tirst man in Mnntdair — if not the first man in the State of New Jersey — to 
respond to President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers to put down the rebelli(jn, was 
Jldward Moran. On the ll'tli of Ai)ril, ISfil, when the famous New York Seventh 
Keginient passed through Newark on their way to Washington, Moran boarded the train, 
and, being acquaifited with one of the orticcrs, offered his services, whicli were accepted. IJe was soon 
after jirovided with a uniform and served through the tirst campaign. He afterward enlisted in the 
U. S. .Navy, and served until the close of the war. 

Public meetings were held in Montclair, and the people became fully aroused to the dangers wliicli 
threatened the Union. There was no lack of volunteers, and this little village furnished its full (juota of 
troops. Some of its most promising young men entered the ranks of the Union army, bade farewell to 
their friends, and, with the benediction of their beloved pastor, took their departure — some of whom 
never returned. 

An invasion of the North was frequently' thieatened dui'ing the war, and local military organiza- 
tions sprung up in almost every town and village throughout the country, many of which rendered 
efficient service in cases of emergency. A company of "Mounted Wide Awakes " was organizc<l in 
Montclair, witii Julias II. Pratt as Captain, S. E. Hayes, First Lieutenant, and William J. Harris, 
Second Lieutenant. The comnumder of this company had seen service among the " Forty-Niners" in 
California, in the days when jnen used a Bowie knife as a tooth pick, and a six shooter as a plaything, 
and had the "emergency" arisen there is little doubt but tliat the "AVidc Awakes" would have given a 
good account of themselves. 

The citizens of Montclair did their full share in providing means to carry on the war, and they 
responded heartily to every appeal in behalf of the sick and wounded on the battlefield. 

ihi the evening of August 25, 1802, a few of the leading citizens met together to pay their 
respects to Captain Frederick II. Harris, who had organized a company of the 13th Regiment N. J. Vols., 
and was about to dei)art for the front. On behalf of his fellow citizens Mr. Julius H. Pratt presented 
Capt. Harris witli an elegant sword, and, after alluding to the demands of our country upon its young 
men, complimented the recipient on the alacrity with whicli he had responded, and on the indomitable 
energy and perseverance with which he liad enrfiiled his company. 

^Ir. Pratt " ))resente(l tiie sword — pointed, tluit it might pierce the heait of tlie rebellion — 
sharp, that it might cleave the traitor's brow — -polished, that it might reflect the light of liberty shining 

44: History of Montclair Township. 

in the constitution — the,/?/';?* of patriotism bnrning in liis own soul — the lightning of Heaven's retribution 
descending on poor misguided rebels. The sword once drawn, it should never return to its scabbard 
until victory had been won and a peace conquered. '" 

Capt. Harris responded in a few appropriate remarks. His friends crowded around him to say 
farewell — to bid adieu ; they sung the song of the " Star Spangled Banner," and then he and they 
received the parting benediction by Rev. A. Brundage. 

Among those who enlisted for three years in Company B, 7th Regiment N. J. Vols., were John 
H. Jacobus, Stephen P. "Williams, Albert Woodruff (died of disease), John Dickinson (killed), Henry B. 
Ball (killed). 

For three years in the 13th Regiment N. J. Vols., Robert Madison, "William J. Madison, John B. 
Munn, James Taylor, John Webster, James Kane, David McNamara. 

The following persons enlisted in the Twenty-si.xtli Regiment for nine months' service: First 
Lieut., "William R. Taylor; Corporals "William Egberton, James H. Williams, John M. Corby, and 
Edwin F. Dodd ; Privates : Peter Arnold, Alfred T. H. Church, John Collins, Henry A. Corby, "William 
H. Corby, James B. Crane, Edwin Dodd, Horace Dodd, Henry Glan, Cornelius Delhagen, Monroe 
Harrison, John H. Harrison, Richard Jacobus, Charles Johnson, Charles Leist, Eliot W. Little, John D. 
Penn, Peter King, Joseph "W. Penn, George "W. Post, AVilliam A. Riker, Mortimer "Whitehead, Thomas 
Somerville, John Speller, George Ungeman, John E. "V^an Gieson, John M. "Wheeler, Albert E. Munn, 
John J. Reese, Joseph "W. J^ason. 

Joseph W. Nason enlisted at the age of eighteen in the Twenty-sixth N. J. "V^olunteers, and after 
the expiration of his nine months' service, was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant and was assigned 
to the Thirty-ninth Regt., N. J. Vols. At the time of his enlistment he gave his l)ounty of $100 to be 
divided among ten men, who had the same amount as himself; he found it ditficult to make up the 
quota and ofEered this as an extra inducement. He was killed on April 2, while leading a " forlorn hope" 
during the last day's fight in front of Petersburg. He lived but a few hours after being shot, and was buried 
within the enemy's lines; was carefully wrapped in his two blankets, his name pinned on the inside one, 
also a bottle inside, enclosing his name ; and a head-board was placed at his grave, with his initials cut 
upon it. His parents endeavored to ascertain the names of those Avho so tenderly cared for their son in 
his last hours, but without success. 

Nicholas Beadle was killed at the battle of AVilliamsburg, James Taylor at the battle of Antietam ; 
John M. Wheeler at the battle of Fredericksburg, and John B. Munn at the battle of Chancellorsville ; 
Charles Little died from disease in front of Fredericksburg. 

Frederick IL Harris entered the service as Captain of Company E, 13th Regt. N. J. "Vols., Aug., 
1862, promoted to the rank of Major, to that of Lieut. Col., March 26tii, 1865, and returned home at the 
close of the war in 18G5. He had command of a brigade during his sers'iee, and was twice brevetted by 
the President of the United States ; once for " gallant and meritorious service in Georgia and the 
Carolinas," and once for gallant service in the battle of Bentonville, N. C. 

Dr. John J. H. Love was appointed volunteer surgeon by Governor Olden, of New Jersey, in April, 
1862. He was engaged in a thirty days' service after the battle of "Williamsburg, on May 5th, in the 
transportation and care of the wounded, was commissioned surgeon in the Thirteenth Regiment, N. J. 
"V^ols., on July 19th, and in August was mustered into tlie United States service. He was made surgeon- 
in-chief of a brigade in March, 1863, and in August was made surgeon-in-chief of a division. Twelfth 
Army Corps, in the Army of the Potomac. He served with distinction in this position, and returned 
home with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 

Chapter X. 

Act Creating the Township of Moxtclair. — Boitxdaries. — Organization of Montclair Railway 
Company. — Bonpixg of the Township. — Advantages Accruing to the PRorERTY-IIoi.nERS 
from the Constri'ction of the KoAi). — Litigation growing out of the Defaulted Bonds. — 
Final Decision by the U. S. Supreme Court. — Increase of the Indebtedness of the Township 
FROM $200,000 to 8-J0o,000.— Township Committee of 1SS3 and 1S84; Election of ]\[essrs. 
RussEL, Carky and Fakmku. — Efforts of this Committee to Purchase the Outstanding 
Bonds and to Fund the Indebtedness. — Placing of the New Loan wirii ink Mi iual 
Benefit Life Insurance Company of Newark, X. J. — Amount Saved hy the Township 
through the efforts of this Commiitee. — Township Officers. — The New Charter Adopted, 
1894. — Post Office and Postal Facilities. 

■j \ Act Creating the Township of Montclair. — An Act to set off tVoiii t]io Townsliii) 
of Bloomtield in the County of Essex, a new townsliip to be called the 


Boundaries ''That ail tliat jxiitioii of the tuwnsiiiji of Blooinfield, known as the 
second election district of said township, and lyinj^ west of a line luiiniiig through as 
follows: Beginning at a point in the centre of the stone arch bridge over tiie stream 
crossing the road west of and near to the residence of Ilenrv Stiicky, on the Orange line, 
thence from said starting point in a straight line about north tiiirty-one degrees five 
minutes east to a point in the Passaic Comity line, which jioint is five hundred feet west 
on said county line, from the centre of the road ninning in iVont of the residence of 
Cornelius Van Ilouten, shall be and hereby' is set oil from the township of Blooinfield, in the County of 
Essex, and made a separate township, to be known as the township of Montclair." 

Tiie Act provided "That Robert M. Ilening, Grant J. Wheeler, and Philip Doreiinis shall be and 
hereby are appointed commissioners on the part of said township of Montclair, to meet witii three other 
commissioners ou the part of said township of Bloomficld, previous to the fourth Tuesday in April, 
eighteen hundred and sixty-eight: that said meeting of said commissioners shall take place at the post 
office in Blooinfield, in said township of Blooinfield, at ten o'clock in the forencjon of the fourth Tuesday 
in April, eighteen hundred and si.\ty-eiglit ; that the said commissioners shall then and there proceed by 
writing, signed by a majority of those present, to allot and divide between the said townships all property 
and money on hand or due, in prt.portion to the ta.\able property and ratables as taxed by the assessor, at 
the last assessment, and to ascertain the just proportion of debts, if there should be, to be paid by the 
inhabitants of the township of Montclair; and the decision of those present shall be final and conclusive, 
and the said commissioners, or a majority of them, shall and may sell and execute a deed of the township 
almshouse farm, which deed shall be deemed and taken to convey a good and sufficient title thereto ; 
and said township of Montclair shall pay its proportion of the existing debt of the township of Blooinfield, 
at the time or times when payment, either principal or interest thereon, shall become due and payable, 
provided that it shall and may be lawful to adjourn the said meeting to such time or times, and place or 
places as a majority of those assembled as aforesaid may think proper." 

The townshij) is four and one-sixth miles in length on the western mountain crest, four and a half 
miles on the eastern ridge of Blooinfield, and has an average breadth of one and one-sixth miles. 


History of Montclair Township. 

The township of Verona lies west of tlie mountain summit, Acquaclvanonck lies on the north, 
Bloomfield on the east and Orange on the south. The village of Upper Montclair formerly known as 
Speertown, is divided from Montclair by Wachung Avenue but is embraced in the township of Montclair. 

All the present territory of Montclair was included within the colony or "town" of Newark for 
one hundred and forty-six years, until the erection of the township of Bloomfield in 1812. It included 
all the northern end of the colony, and comprised about two-tifths of its territory. For twenty-seven 
years Bloomtield extended from the ridge of the mountain to the Passaic, until Belleville was formed 
in 1839. 

The erection of Montclair as a separate township was occasioned by the refusal of the citizens of 
Bloomiield proper to consent to the bonding of their portion of the township of Bloomtield (of which 
the village of Montclair formed a part) for the purpose of constructing the Montclair Railway. 

The organization of the Montclair Railway Company was the result of the inadequate facilities 


afforded by the Morris & Essex R.R. Company to the people — more especially to the commuters — of 
Montclair. They were often delayed from ten to fifteen minutes at Newai-k, while en route to New 
York City, owing to the failure of the trains on the branch to connect with the main line. Owing to this 
change at Newark, the running time between Montclair and New York was one hour and twenty 

The building of a railwa}' at a cost of $1,000,000, the chief object of which was to connect a 
country village of 2,000 inhabitants with the city of New York was, at the time, as it would be now 
regarded as a pure chimera. The very absurdity of the scheme enabled its friends to obtain a charter 
with but little opposition from a Legislature which might and would have demanded thousands of dollars 
from the natural enemies of such a project, had they dreamed of the future forces that it would call into 

The project originated with Julius H. Pratt in 1866, and was the result of a sudden impulse, 
while waiting in the depot at Newark the usual slow connection of the train for New York. He 

History of Montclair Township. 47 

suggested to those who were with him — viz., Samuel Wilde, Joseiih B. Beadle, and Albeit Pearce, that 
they obtain a new railroad charter. It was hoped tiiat the mere possession of such a charter would 
compel the Morris and Et^sex Railway Company to afford hetttT accommodations to the people of Mont- 
clair who liad been vainly demanding through trains to Xew York. Mr. Henry C. Spalding, a man of 
large experience in railroad and legislative affairs, was present at the time, and his advice and counsel 
were solicited. He informed these gentlemen that it would cost §500 to get it througii the Legislature. 
Each of the above named gentlemen agreed to subscribe their pro rata of tlie amount, and were named as 
incorporators. Further demands, to the extent of §5,000, were made upon them and Messrs. AVilde, 
Beadle and Pearce, rather than incur further responsibility, dropped out, and Mr. Pratt paid back 
to them the money they had invested. Mr. Spalding continued his interest and was active in promoting 
the enterprise. The act of the Legislature granting the charter, authorized the bonding of the towns 
along the line of the road, by and with the consent of two-thirds ot the property holders in each township 
through which the road was to pass. ilr. Pratt reorganized the Montclair Railway romjianv, and soon 
after the charter was obtained learned tliat the New York and Oswego ilidland Raiiwav ('<>mi);iny were 
looking for a route through New Jersey, and at once opened negotiations with them. Under his agree- 
ment with them his company was to construct the road from Jersey City to the State line at (xrcenwood 
Lake. Tlic officers of the New York and Oswego Midland Company agreed to imild tlieir road from 
Middletown, Orange County, N. Y., to connect with the Montclair road at the Sate Line. They also 
agreed to indorse and guarantee all the bonds that might be issueil to construct the ^fontclair Railway. 
The Montclair Railway Company carrie<l out its contract and commenced operating the road in 
January, 1873. .Mr. Pratt became President of the Company at its organization and continued to hold 
that ofhce until the railway was completed and leased to the New York and Oswego ^ridland Companv, 
which Company fi'om that date — Januar3-, 7, 1^73 — assumed possession and control. 

The misfortunes of the Midland Company were shared by its New Jersey protege, ami both 
became insolvent during the financial blizzard of '73. 

The bonding of the township of Montclair was brought about by the action of the proj)erty 
owners, represented by Roliert M. Ilening, Iliram 1>. Littell, and Jared E. Harrison, who were appointed 
by the Court as Commissioners under the bonding act. 

In a statement made to the township authorities in 1SS3, by Mr. Julius U. Pratt, regarding the 
bonding of Montclair township, he says' 

" Tnder the original administration the interest of the Township Bonds had been promptly 
provided for by the Montclair Railway Company, l)ut the failure of tlie lessee of the railway deprived 
the township of the means with which to \in\ interest tliereaftcr, except by regular taxation of townsliip 
property, and it seems tliat no township committee had the courage to order such taxation. The iirst 
default occurred in ^Liy, 1873, and consccjuently the original issue — §200,000, and ten years' interest — 
makes the total debt at j)rcsent about §350,001 •. 

"Can the township afford to pay this claim, and is it equitable? To understand this question we 
must refer back to the condition of our township just prior to the building of the new railroad. An 
outraged feeling on account of the abuses to whicli we were subjected by the insolent tyranny of the 
M. & E. Railroad Company was universally prevalent, and when the question of lending the credit of the 
township in aid of a new line was presented, more tlian two-thirds in amount of the taxpayers signed their 
written consent, and acknowledged it before Commissioners with the same solemn formality that tliey 
would a mortgage deed. Allowing for non-resident owners, trustees and others legally incapable of signing, 
but in fact favorable to the movement, it may be fairly assumed that not one-fourth of the property- owners 
made any opposition to the issue of the bonds, while a large majority were enthusiastically in favor of it. 
This consent was given with the full knowledge that, from the time of signing, the claim became a lien on 
their property by their voluntary act and deed. The railroad company, in accepting the bonds, became 
morally bound to use the proceeds in the construction of the road within the townsliip, and manifested 
tlieir good faith by spending their own money greatly in advance ot any avails obtained from the bonds. 

48 History of Montclair Township. 

Tlie carrying out of this bargain cost tlie railroad conipanj' more than $1,000,000, and probably caused 
its subsequent bankruptcy. Tliis statement may seem to require explanation, and I give it briefly thus: 

'' The Company had acquired under its charter and supplements the option to bnild its road by 
way of Paterson instead of Montclair on substantially the route afterward adopted for the main line of 
the D. L. & W., a line which would have cost at least $1,000,000 less than the Montclair route. The 
Company had, in consequence of the want of financial support from Bloomfield and Montclair, bought 
considerable right of way at Rutherford Park, and had a deed of right of way given by the Paterson 
Society of Useful Manufactures through more than one-half the distance across the city of Paterson, and an 
arrangement with the city authorities for the use of an avenue through the remaining distance for a trifling 
cost, by which the freight traflic of all the great locomotive woi'ks within a few rods of the line would 
have been at once secured. Rutherford Park had given consent to the issue of $200,000 of bonds in aid 
of the road on that line. 

"The Montclair route involved the Kearney cut, costing $500,000, the expensive right of way 
through Newark, Bloomfield and Montclair, and continuous deep excavations across the ridges from the 
Passaic river westerly, making a difFei-ence in cost between the two i-outes of not less than $1,000,000. 
The acceptance of proffered hospitality is often expensive, and in this case was disastrous to the railroad 
company ; for the road could have been built on the Paterson j'oute at least one year sooner, and would 
have been in operation, and its securities marketed, before the financial crisis of '73, and would have 
been self-supporting from the start. 

" It is certain that the road would not have been built through Montclair except for the issue of 
the bonds. No one connected with the railroad company employed either influence or efibrt to secure 
the taxpayers' consent ; it was obtained by Commissioners appointed by the Court at the solicitation of 
many respectable freeholders of the township, and the entire movement was carried through by the 
influence of representative men of wealth and high standing in the community. 

"What benefits did the township secure in consequence of the construction of the railroad? This 
question may be concisely answered thus : The value of its real estate was immediately and permanently 
increased at least $2,500,000, and the annual saving to our citizens has been at least $100,000 every year 
since the road was built. I have a statement carefully prepared with the aid of our real estate dealers, 
showing the prices of fourteen pieces of property in Montclair (about 500 acres) sold just pvlor to the 
locating of the road, also the prices at which the same pieces of property were resold just after the road 
became a fixed fact. The former prices range from $150.00 to $1,000 per acre ; the latter from $1,000 to 
$3,500; the average profit on the transactions being over $1,100 per acre ; and the property was fairly 
distributed over the township. 

" Taking these prices as a criterion, the entire 4,500 acres in the township were enhanced in value 
ahout five millions of dollars. This startling conclusion will be better understood by noticing the fact 
that without the railroad two-thirds of the land in the township would have continued to this day purely 
agricultural in character, with only one railroad station near the south end, while now we have five 
stations, some one of which is in proximity to every acre of land in the township. 

" Let us be moderate in our estimate, allowing something for subsequent shrinkage, and discount 
fifty per cent., then we have $2,500,000 as the increase of value in consequence of the construction of the 
new railroad. 

" What has been the annual saving to our people? I show it approximately thus : 

300 commutations formerly $13 per month ; now $6.50— total $19,500 

15,000 tons of coal, $1 per ton 15,000 

Other freight, say 10,000 

Time of trips reduced twenty-five minutes each way for 500 passengers whose time is worth $3 per day. . 37,500 

Profit in local trade from increased population, estimated 20,000 

Total $103,000 

" Add the fact that every rod of land for right of way was bought and paid for, and generally at 

History of Montct.air Township. 49 

prospective i)rices, uiid another fact tliat not more tliaii two men in the township of Montciair had 
invested a dollar in tiie original construction of tlie railroad which has benefited this coninuinitj so 
largely, while non-resident investors to the extent of ^3,0()0,n0(l lost it all, and you have facts sufficient 
to decitie tlie (jiiestion of equity involved in tlie issue of the Montciair Bonds." 

Suljse<inent events show that J[r. Pratt's estimate of the accrued benefit to the )n-operty holders 
were altogether too low; and a comparison of the value of property in 1SS3 with that of ten years 
later, will convince any reasonable man that the construction of the Montciair liailway, with all its 
"concomitant evils"' has indeed proved a ''blessing in disguise." 

The bonds of $200,0(i0 issued by the new township extended over a period of twenty years, 
bearing interest at seven per cent., the principal maturing in sums of §10,000 at stated periods, the first 
of these falling due five years from the date of issue. Suit was commenced by the holders of the 
defaulted bonds, which was contested by the township, the defence being that tlie act authorizing the 
issue was uiiconstitutinrial — that the township of Montciair did not comply with the requirements of the 
State Constitution which reipiires that the |uiriiose of the act shall be (ii^tillctly stated in the title — this 
having been omitted in the act. Tlie defendants also claimed that tiic new assessor was not legally 
qualified to give the certificate by virtue of which the bonds were issued. 

The Courts in deciding the matter held that inasmuch as the township of Montciair had permitted 
the bonds to go out it was therefore legally responsible. The case was continued ("V a nund)er of years, 
the best legal talent being employed on both sides, ami appeal having been made to the Supreme Court, 
the latter reiulered decision in favor of the bondholders ilarch 5, 1883. 

The property holders of Montciair were appalled at the condition of affairs which now confronted 
them, the debt lieing virtually a lien on every nuui's property. The (piestion of electing town officers 
was already imder consideration. Three members of tiie Township Committee were practically forced 
upon the ticket. Messrs. Thomas Russell, Ciiairnum, Stephen W. Carey, Chairman of the Finance 
Committee, and George 1'. Farmer had rejieatedly declined to accept the nomination, but realizing tiie 
importance of the matter, their owti wishes were ignoretl, and they were duly elected. 

How to secure control of the bonds (890,000 of which had not yet matured, and would bear 
interest at the rate of seven per cent, per annum until nuiturity), and the funding of the indebtedness at 
a lower rate of interest, were the problems with which these men liad to deal. They immediately 
consulted with a few experienced citizens and obtained promises of co-operation. 

"When it is understood that the holders of these bonds had held them during many years of 
Itiigatioii and conseipient uncertainty as to their payment, and that they were now reinforced by a decision 
of the highest legal tribunal of the country, it was hardly to be expected that any considerable discount 
could be obtained. It is said that some parties had taken them in paymeut of debt, and during the 
period of uncertainty had ofTere<l to ])art with them at a considerable discount. 

Among the obstacles to be overcome was the refusal of iiulividual firms or cori)orations, within 
the State or out of it, to accept the bonds as collateral for any advances except as they were additionally 
secured by the persomd guarantee of entirely responsible men. This made it necessary for public-spirited 
citizens to upon their individual guaranty the entire amount needed to take up the bonds as fast as 
they could be secured. This they did, and placed at the disjwsal of the town not only their time, 
but their pi-ivate fortunes as well. Previous to any arrangement for funding the new botids, and at a 
time when very little encouragement had been received in reply to the applications they had made for a 
new loan, the actual amount jointly assumed by Messrs. Kussell and Carey was $195,796.95. 

Of course they hoped to effect a negotiation, but at this time little headway had l)een made. 

The bonds were purchased, with the exception, perhaps, of a dozen or twenty, from those who had 
held them for years, and it was difficult to locate them ; it was finally ascertained that but four bonds of 
the two hundred were owned within the township. In negotiations for a portion of the bonds, efficient 
aid was rendered by Mr. David F. Merritt. The committee made no effort to seek out these bondholders, 
but waited patiently, and resorted to means to resist payment of the full value, that, as private 

50 History of Montclair Township. 

individuals, they would li;irdly have felt justified in doing. This was i:o hardship to the majority of the 

bondholders, as many of them are said to have obtained the bonds at a large discount. 

The committee were as industrious in getting the new loan funded at a low rate of interest as 

they were in purcliasing the old bonds; and as a result of their efforts the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 

Company of JS'ewark took the entire new issue of $335,000, running through a period of thirty-five 

years, and divided in series of $5,000, $10,000, and $15,000, bearing interest at live per cent, per annum; 

the last one, of $15,000, maturing in 191S; thus the entire debt of $400,000 cost the town not exceeding 

$335,000. Only the actual outlay for snuiU legal expenses were incurred by the committee. The following 

estimate shows the result of their efforts : 

Amount saved on purchase of bonds $6o,000 00 

Difference between 5 per cent, on $335,000 and 6 per cent, on $400,000— S", 250 per annum for say twenty-two 

years, average time the new bonds are to run 159,500 GO 

Saving of interest in addition to the above on $90,000 of old bonds not yet matured, which were entitled to 

interest at 7 per cent, until maturity 4,500 00 

$229,000 00 

Several attempts were made l^y the citizens of Montclair to give substantial evidence of their 
appreciation of the work of this Township Committee, but the gentlemen composing it have modestly 
declined the offer, and the above record, which time cannot efface, is the only recognition of tlie eminent 
services rendered by them to restore the impaired credit of the township, and avert the impending 
financial disaster which threatened many of its citizens, and in this connection favorable reference should 
be made to Messrs. A. Eben Van Gieson and Warren S. Taylor, the otiier members of the Committee, 
who, with Mr. William L. Ludiam, the Town Clerk, rendered efficient aid. 

The gentlemen who carried this financial load for tiie town until negotiations and the new issue 
of bonds were completed were Thomas Enssell, Stephen W. Carey, Getirge P. Farmer, ^Y. L. Bull, 
Abraham Bussing, and H. A. Dike ; Mr. John li. Livermore also offered aid in the matter, if needed. 


Judges of Election. — James Crane, 1868 to 1875 inclusive; Nehemiah O. Pillsbury, 1873 to 1878 
inclusive; James G. Crane, 1879 to 1883 inclusive; 1884, James Crane and James Owen; 1885, the 
same; 1886, the same; 1887, James Crane and George li. Milligan ; 1888, Edward M. Benham and 
Edward Madison ; 1889, Edward Madison, William M. Taylor and W. E. Green ; 1890, Edward Madison, 
George T. Bunten and John Goman. 

From 1890 the system of election by the people was abolished and Judges of Election appointed 
by the County Committee, under the new ballot law of 1890. 

Inspeeloi's of Election. — 1877, Jarvis G. Crane, George W. T.aylor, James Crane, A. P. Kerr; 
1878, Jacob B. McChesney, Jarvis G. Crane, James Crane, Francis Marion ; 1879, Jacob B. McChes- 
ney, F. A. AVheeler, James Crane, Francis Marion ; 1880-1881, J. B. McChesney, F. A. Wheeler, 
Edgar T. Gould, Francis A. Marion ; 1882-3, J. B. McChesney, F. A. Wheeler, James C. Crane, 
Francis A. Marion ; 1884, Frank A. Wheeler, Frederick Eichter, James C. Crane, Fi-ancis A. Marion ; 
1885, F. A. Wheeler, J. B. McChesney, James C. Crane, Eichard Sheridan; 1886, F.A.Wheeler, 
James T. Crane (two Democrats omitted from records); 1887, Cyrus C. Corby, John Kenney, James 
C. Crane, Eichard Sheridan ; 1888, Cyrus C. Corby, John Kenney, James C. Crane, George Courter ; 
1889, Wm. L. Doremus, George Courter, James C. Crane, J. B. McChesney, Cyrus C. Corljy, John 
Kenney; 1890, Wm. L. Doremus, John N. Ilalsey, James C. Crane, John N. Finuerty, Cyrus C. Corby, 
Walter Courter. 

Clerics of Election. — 1877, Fi'ank A. Wheeler, Edward Madison; 1878, I. Seymour Crane, Chas. 
H.Corby; 1879, I. Seymour Crane, Edward Madison; 1880-2, John Goman, Edward Madison; 1SS3, 
John Goman, E. E. Van Gieson ; 1884-5, John Goman, John Poole, Jr.; 1886, John Goman, E. E. 
Van Gieson ; 1887, Henry L. Yost, I. Seymour Crane : 1888, Henry L. Yost, Abner Bartlett, Jr.; 1889, 
I. Newton Eudgers, Henry L. Yost, Aaron Shepard ; 1890, the same. 

History of Montclair Township. 51 

Under tlie new ballot law of 1S90 the election of this office by the people was abolished. 

Inspectors and Clerks of Election Under the New Laic. — The Law of 1890 abolished the offices 
of Judge and Clerk of Election, and substituted instead four Inspectors and Clerks, two Republicans and 
two Democrats. 

Inspectors, First District. — For 1890, William B. Jacobus, Edwin P.. George, Philip Young, 
Vaughn Dan-ess. For lSOl-2. the same. 

Clerks, First District.— For 1890, Frank W. Crane and Edwin P,. Littell. For 1S91-2, the name 
of Tlieodore Eadgley was substituted for that of Frank W. Crane. 

Inspectors, Second District. — For 1890, Wallis Louvirer, Thomas P. Mover, William Sigler and 
Elijah Pierce. Same for 1891-2. 

Clerks, Second District. — For 1890, C. Alexander Cook, Calvin Smith. For 1891-2, the name of 
Iliram Sigler was substituted for that of Alexander Cook. 

Inspectors, Third District. — For 1890, AVilliani Jacobus, J. D. Huntington, J. C. Williams and 
J. W. Potter. For 1891-2, the appointments were the same with the exception of John Goman in place 
of J. D. Huntington, deceased. 

Clerks, Third Distrirl. — For 1S90, William X. Jacobus, John Gomati. For 1891-2, the 
appointments are the same with the exception of John (". Kingsloy in place of John Goman. 

Assessor. — 180S-9, Zenas S. Crane; 1870-3, A. E. Van Gieson ; 1874-tJ, Wm. Jacobus; 1877, 
Ednnind Wiiiianis; 1S78, Wm. Jacobus; 1879, Andrus P>. Howe; 1880-90, Piobt. P.. Harris; 1891, 
Charles C. Morris (elected for thiee years). 

Collector.— \%QS-'IQ, Edwin ('. Fulk-r; l.s77, Edwin J. Ileustis; 1878-90, Edwin C. Fuller; 
1S91, Edwin C. Fuller (elected for three years). 

Toirn Clerk. — 1SG8-7-1, Charles P. Sand ford ; 1S75, Geo. ^\', Poole; 187tj, E. G. Ileustis; 1877, 
Edward Madison ; 1878-81, Geo. W. Pool ; 1882, Edward Madison ; 1883, Wm. L. Ludlam; 1S84 and 1885, 
J.din Poole, Jr. ; 18SG, Kanford E. Van Gieson ; 1887 to 1892, Henry L. Yost ; 1893, Henry L. Yost (elected 
for tiirce years). 

Chosen Freeholders. — 1808, Robt. il. Hening, Grant J. Wheeler; 1869, Amos Broadnax, Grant .1. 
Wheeler; 1870, Wm. Sigler, Grant J. Wiiceler; 1871-7, M. W. Smith, Grant J. Wheeler; 187S-S3, 
M. W. Smitii, Philip Doreinus; 1884, Mclancthon AV. Smith, J. Wesley Van Gieson; 1885-6, J.Wesley 
Van Gieson, Jasper R. Rand; 1887 and 1SS8, J. Wesley Van Gieson, MelancthonW. Smith ; 1889, J. Wesley 
Van Gieson (held for two years). 

[By the law of 1890 Chosen Freeholders were elected at the annual election in the Assembly 
District for two years.] 1890, James Peck, elected for two years; owing to insufficient legislation he 
held over to the spring of 1893, when Thomas McGowan was elected from the Xlth Assembly District. 

Surveyors of Iliijhwaijs. — 1868, Edgar T. Gould, Joseph II. Baldwin ; 1809, Joseph II. Baldwin, 
Wm. A. Torrey; 1870-73, Edgar T. Gould, Cluis. Smitii; 1874-77, Aaron Sigler, Chas. Smith; 1878, 
Xathaniel Dodd, Aaron Sigler; 1879-83, Nathl. R. Dodd, Jos. II. I5al(hviii ; 1884-88, WiUiam Ticluior, 
Aaron Sigler; 1889, William Tichnor, Aaron Garabrant ; 1890-93, William Tichnor, Mclvin Sigler. 

Tiwn Committee. — 1868, Cha.s. B. Baldwin, Amos Broadnax, Jos. H. Paldwiii, Jacol) B. Brau- 
tigam, Robt. J. Dodge ; 1869, Peter 11. A'an Riper, Amos Broadnax, Wm. 15. Holmes, Wm. S. Morris, 
John J. II. Love; 1870, John J. II. Love, Thos. C. Van Riper. Xathaii T. Porter, Daniel V. Harrison, 
Wm. Frame; 1871, Saml. Wilde, Jr., Thos. C. Van Riper, Xathan T. Poiter, Daniel V. Harrison, 
Edniuml Williams; 1872, John J. 11. Love, Alfred Taylor, Aaron Sigler, Daniel V. Harrison, Edmund 
Williams; 1873, John II. Parsons, Alfred Taylor, Philip Doremus, Clark W. Mills, Edmund Williams; 
1874, J. J. H. Love, Alfred Taylor, E. T. Gould, Wm. Tichnor, Thos. Levy; 1875, AV. I. Adams, Jacob 
C. Brautigam, Edgar T. Gould, Thos. A. Levy, A. E. Van Gieson; 1876, John II. Parsons, Jos. Van 
A'leck, A. A. Sigler, F. AV. Doremns, Edmund AVilliams ; 1877, Jos. A^an Vleck, A. A. Sigler, F. AV. 
Doremus, John II. Parsons, Thos. H. Bouden ; 1878, Jos. A^au A'leck, A. A. Sigler, Reynier Van Gieson, 
Thos. Russell, AVm. H. AVilson ; 1879, Jas. R. Thompson, Jas. B. Pierson, Thorndike Saunders, Thos. 


History of Montclair Township. 

II. Boudcn, Warren S. Taylor; 1880-81, Tlios. H. Bonden, Jasper E. Eand, Ja?. B. Piersoii, Warren S. 
Ta^'lor, Henry Speer; 1881-2, Jas. B. Pierson, Geo. P. Fanner, Jasper II. Rand, Warren S.Taylor, 
A. Eben Van Gieson ; 1883, S. W. Carey. Warren S. Tayloi-. Tlios. Enssell. A. Eben Tan Gieson, Geo. 
P. Farmer; 1SS4 and 1885, Thomas Enssell, Stephen W. Garey, Siiepard Eowland, A. Eben Van Gieson, 
Warren S. Taylor; 1886, Thomas Enssell, Stejihen W. Carey, James Owen, A. Eben Van Gieson, Warren S- 
Taylor; 1887 and 1888, Stephen W. Carey, Thomas Enssell, James Owen, A. Eben Van Gieson, Warren S. 
Taylor; 18S9, John H. Wilson, George Inness, Jr., A. Eben Van Gieson, Isaac Denby, Warren S. Taylor; 
1890, John H. Wilson, Isaac Denby, George Inness, Jr., Morgan W. Ayres, Warren S. Taylor; 1891, 
John II. Wilson, Wilson AV. Underhill, Amzi A. Sigler, James B. Pier, Morgan W. Ayres; 1892, John 
H. AVilson, Wilson W. Underhill, I. Seymonr Ci-ane, James B. Pier, Morgan W. Ayres; 1893, John H. 
Wilson, I. Seymour Crane, Hngh Gallagher, Moses N. Baker, Decatur M. Sawyer. 

Commissioners of Puhlic Hoads. — 1872-73, Hiram B. Littell, Nathan T. Porter, Samuel Holmes, 
Thos. C. Van Eipei-, Jacob C. Brautigam; 1874, N. O. Pillsbury, Saml. Holmes, Jos. Van Vleck, A. A. 
Sigler; 1875, N. O. Pillsbury, J. Van Vleck, A. A. Sigler, Saml. Wilde, Abram Speer; 1876, A. E. 
Van Gieson, N. O. Pillsbury, Samuel Wilde, Samuel Holmes, Elmer G. Doolittle ; 1877, A. E. Van 
Gieson, Saml. Wilde, E. G. Doolittle, Saml. Holmes, E. M. Harrison ; 1878. A. E. Van Gieson, Saml. 
Wilde, E. G. Doolittle, E. M. Harrison, Wm. Tichenor; 1879-80, Saml. Wilde, Elmer G. Doolittle, 
Saml. Holmes, E. M. Harrison, A. E. Van Gieson ; 1881, A. E. Van Gieson, Saml. Wilde, Geo. P. 
Farmer, Saml. Holmes, E. M. Harrison ; 1882, Theron A. Doremus. Saml. Wilde, W. Irving Adams, 
Saml. Holmes, A. P. Haring ; 1883-88, Theron A. Doremus, Saml. Wilde, Eobt. M. Boyd, Saml. 
Holmes, E.M.Harrison; 1889, Theron A. Doremus, Edwin M. Harrison, George P. Farmer, Charles 
W. English, A. V. Haring (the latter could not serve, not being a freeholder), Amzi A. Sigler, appointed 
in place of A. P. Haring; 1890, George P. Fowler, Amzi A. Siglei", Samuel Holmes, Edwin M. 
Harrison, Charles W. English ; 1891-2, Charles W. English, Edwin M. Harrison, William J. Soveral, 
William B. Holmes, Theron A. Doremus; 1893, Edward B. Crane, Edwin M. Harrison, AYilliam J. 
Soveral, William B. Iluhnes, Theron A. Doremus. 

Commissioners of Appeal. — 1868-69, Edward H. Merrltt, Hiram B. Littell, Wm. S. Morris; 
1870-71, Alfred T. Taylor, Nehemiah O. Pillsbury, Wm. S. Morris; 1872, Amzi A. Sigler, Nehemiah 
O. Pillsbury, Clark W. Mills ; 1873, A. A. Sigler, N. O. Pillsbury, John J. H. Love; 1874, Peter H. Van 
Eiper, Jose^jh Doremus, Samuel Wilde ; 1875-93, Peter H. Van Eiper, J. J. H. Love, Josepli Doremus. 

Township Treasurer. — This ofhce was created in 1892, and I. Seymour Crane was the first 
appointed Treasurer, and was reappointed in 1893. 

Police Force. — Previous to 1889, the only township ofiicer who exercised the functions of police 
was the regularly elected constable. Two regular policemen were appointed this year by the Township 


History of Moxtclair Township. 53 

Committee, viz.: "William Diinlap and James MeNarar. Others have since been adiled and tiicre are 
now seven, including the Ca])tain. "William G. Niederliauser. 

Overseer of\he P(>oa— 1868-69, Xathaniel R. Dodd ; 1870-73, W. Corby; 1S74-8S, Charles 
Smith; 1889, "Wniiam R. Greene; 1S9("»-91, Melancthon W.Smith; 1892, John Sanford ; 1893, John 
Sanford (elected for three years); deceased September 18,1893; vacancy was filled by the Township 
Committee appointing John Gonian. 

Jtisiires of the Peace. — 1868, Zenas S. Crane, "William S. Morris, Amos Broaduax, Stephen R. 
Parkhurst; 1869, Xehemiah O. Pillsbury, Charles W. i[orris ; 1870, no choice: 1871, A. E. Van Gieson ; 
1872, Zenas S. Crane; 1873. Joseph Lnx; 1874, J. Ogden Clark, A. E. Van Gieson; 1875, N. O. 
Pillsbury, Charles P. Morris; 1876, Zenas S. Crane, George Ennis; 1877, Alfred Taylor, A. E. Van 
Gieson, Z. S. Crane; 1878, A. E. Van Gieson; ISSn, X. O. Pillsbury, Charles P>. iforris. A. E. Van 
Gieson ; 1881, Franklin "W. Dorman; 1882, F. AV. Dorman, James C. Crane, II. E. Clark ; 1883, George 
R. Milligan, Abram Speer, Edward B. Crane ; 1884, Abrani Speer, PMward P.Crane; 1885, J. Ogden • 
Clark, Henry E. Clark, N. O. Pillsbury, Charles P. Morris; 1886, incumbents held over ; no election ; 
1888, George R. Milligan ; 1889, incumbents held over; no election ; 1890, Charles P. Morris, J. Ogden 
Clark, Henry E. Clark, Hugh Gallagher (the latter did not serve); 1891, Edward P. Crane, elected but 
did not serve ; Thomas P. Meyer, Louis Lang; 1S92, Aaron Garabrant, Thomas Harrop (the latter did 
not quality); 1893, George R. Milligan, "William Jones (the latter did not qualify). 

Constdhh'n. — 1868, Ira Crane, Geo. Speer. Edward II. Merritt, Abram Speer; 1869, "\V^ Corby, 
Jared Van Gieson, George Powman ; 1870, "W. Corby, John 11. ILiyden, James C. Crane; 1871, W. 
Corby, John II. Ilayden, Edwin J. Pacron, Henry S. Rodman; 1872, W. Corby, Geo. Simonson, Edwin 
J. Pacron, "Wm. Simonson; 1873, "W. Corby, Geo. Ungemah, Edwin J. Pacron, James Kane ; 1874, 
John M. Layland, Jos. Dunn, Geo. DeLong, Edwin J. Pacrun ; 1875, Edwin J. Pacron, Joseph Dunn 
Stephen "W. Tibl)S, Oliver Levy; 1876, Edwin J. Pacron, Thos. Wiggins, Francis Concannon, Geo. 
Simonson; 1877, J. H. Jacobus, Geo. Ennis, E. C. Fuller, E. J. Pacron, Thos. Wiggins; 1878, Thos. J. 
Courter, Geo. Ennis, Geo. T. Punten, E. J. Pacron, Ja.s. E. Murphy; 1879, Geo. T. Punten, Geo. Ennis, 
E. J. Pacron, Geo. Dipley, J. C. Doremus, Jr.; 188i», Geo. T. I'.unten, Jas. T. Norman, J. C. Doremus, 
Wm. R. Green, Thos. Courter; 1881, Geo. T. Punten, J. C. Doremus, Isaac A. Dodd; 1882, Isaac A. 
Dodd; 1883. Geo. T. Punten; 1884, John P. Doremus; 1885, Thonuis Wiggins, James Kane; 1886, 
George T. Punten, Wm. F. Allsworth, Jr.; ]8s7, John P. Doremus; 1888, James Kane, AViiliam 
Mulligan ; 1889, Wm. F. Allsworth, Jr., John Bowman, Isaac Dodd ; 1890, Isaac Dodd, George Green; 
1891, James Kane, Charles J. Dickson; 1892, Wm. F. Allsworth^ Jr., Peter Whiting. Henry Kane, 
Isaac A. Dodd, Cornelius Ilalstead; 1893, Isaac A. Dodd. 

Toionshij) Engineer. — This office was created about 1884, and James Owen was appointed by 
the Township Committee, and has been reappointed every year, with the exception of 189n, wIhmi the 
office was held by F. W. Crane. 


Tou'Hshij/ Ohrl; Henry L.Yost; A-xsefsor, Charles P. Morris; Colhctor of Ta.eefi, Edwin C. 
Fuller; Townshij) Counsel, AUred ^. Padgley ; Civil Engineer, James Owen; Township rhysicitu), 
James S. Prown ; Ovenseer of the Poor, John Sandford; Health Inspertor, Dr. Richard P. Francis; 
Commissioners of Appeals, Peter H. Van Riper, John J. II. Love, Joseph Doremus; Coiniiiis><ii)ners (f 
Puhlic lioiuh, William J. Soverel, Theron A. Doremus, Edward P. Crane, Edward i\r. Harrison, 
William P. Holmes; .Justices of the Peace, Charles P. Morris, Geo. R. Millitjan, Lewis Lange, Thomas I'. 
Meyer, Aaron Garrabrant; Constables, Isaac A. Dodd, James Kane, William Allsworth, Jr.. Henry 
Kain, Cornelius Ilalstead ; Police Justice, Thomas P. Meyer. 

Township Committee. 
Chairman, John II. Wilson; Members, Decatur M. Sawyer, Hugh Gallagher, Moses N. Paker, 
I. Seymour Crane ; Treasurer, I.Seymour Crane; Finance C'w»iwzVfe<?, Crane, Sawyer ; Law, Sawyer, 

54 History of Montclair Township. 

Baker ; It'oad-'i, Crane, Sawyer ; Poor, Gallagher, Baker ; Sidewalk's, Gallagher, Sawyer ; Water, 
P>aker, Crane; Fire Committee, Crane, Gallagher; Sewerg, Crane, Baker; Auditing, Sawyer. 

Board of Health. 

C(_)niposed of Townsliip Conunittee, Health Physician, Inspector and Assessor. CJi<nrmnn, 
John H. Wilson ; Secretary, Chas. B. Morris. Meets first Monday evening of each month, at Town- 
sliip Committee rooms. 


When the township of Montclair was set off from Bloomtield, in lS<i8, tlie form of government 
adopted was that provided by the general laws which had been in existence for many years, and while 
the popnlation was small and the wants of the people were few, no objection was raised to it. As the 
popnlation increased, however, and large amounts were being expended for pulilic improvements, the 
old laws were found to l)e entirely inadequate to meet the growing tlemands. Complications arose 
which necessitated fi'e(pient litigation to determine the rights of individuals, and citizens of one part of 
the township enjoyed privileges t>f which otlieis were denied. 

At a meeting of representative citizens held in April, 1893, the subject of a change of govern- 
ment was introduced by Mr. John H. Wilson, Chairman of tiie Township Committee, and fully 
discussed, which resulted in the appointment of a non-partisan committee, consisting of the following- 
named gentlemen : John H. Parsons, Stephen W. Carey, John J. H. Love, John R. Livermore, Charles 
IL Johnson, Charles K. Wilmer and Andrus B. Howe, to consider the question and tlie advisaliility of 
a change. This committee held several conferences during the summer and fall of 1893, and as the 
result of their deliberations found the existing form of government inadequate, antiquated and unsatis- 
factory, and recommended the adoption of the law of 1888, known as the " Short Law." 

The preliminary steps were taken to submit the matter to a vote of the people, and on February 
21, 1894, an election was held, and by a vote of more than two to one the new charter was adopted, and, 
with the life of the present Township Committee the old form of government ends. 

Among the advantages to be derived under the new charter are : First, in the matter of ap])ropria- 
tions, which will henceforth be made by the governing body or council; Second, in the administration of 
public schools, all the school interests are consolidated and the management placed in the hands of a 
central Board of Education, thus giving every citizen in the township equal privileg&s in the matter of 
common and also of high school education, of which, under the old law, many were deprived throngh 
the division into school districts. The management of the affairs of the townsliqi will he lodged in a 
council matle up of representatives from wards into which the town will be divided, it lodges in the 
council all the powers heretofore exercised by Conmiissioners elected or appointed by the Court for 
levying assessments, opening streets, improving and regulating thoroughfares, etc. It sinqilities matters 
in the form of government. It is substantially a City Charter without the usual executive head. 

One of the most important changes under the new law is that relating to excise. Under the 
old law the township had no voice in the granting of licenses to liquor dealers, that power being vested 
solely in the Court of Common Pleas, at Newark. A written application, signed by ten Freeholders, 
enabled the applicant to procure a license from the Court. Under the new law the power is vested in 
the Town Council to "regulate, license, or prohibit inns, taverns and restaurants," and the sale or transfer 
of spirituous liquors, and to fix and pre.scribe the terms and conditions upon which license shall be 
granted, and to provide for the annulling of licenses for violations of conditif)ns. 

History of Montclair Township. 55 


Previous to aiul for some time after the erection of Bloomtield as a separate towiiship tiie ix'sitlciits 
of Crauetown were dependent on the Newark post office for their mail. When in later years a post office 
was established at Bloomfii'M.and in addition tlieieto a regular daily mail service between there and New 
York City, it was hailed with delijrlit l)y the citizens throujfhout the township, as it brought them into 
more direct communication with each other and with the outside world. Gradually, however, as business 
increased in West Bloomtield, and it became an important manufacturing centre, the want of better postal 
facilities Avas felt, and in ls:',(i ajijilicatioii was made for the establishment of an office at the west end of 
the township. 

It was at this period, during the administration of President Jackson, that the cry was raised, "To 
the victor belongs the spoils"; 1)ut as the political sentiment of the jJCHiple of Bloomfield, and more 
esj)ecially the locality of West i'.loomtield. was overwhelmingly whig, an acee])tabl(.' democrat could not 
be found to fill the position. 

Nathaniel II. I'.alilwin. a well-known business man. although a whig in ))oliti<-s, received the first 
appointment as postmaster of West Bloomfield in ls;!(i. He was a bachelor, and boarded at the tavern 
kept by Munn iV i!alc|\vin. The mail was so small at that time, that it re(|uir('i| but little of his time, and 
the proprietors of the tavern were very willing to have the office ke])t in their |>lace, as it would naturally their patronage. Mr. Balilwin proved a very acceptable jiostmaster, and iield the position fi-om 
1830 to I "^ I i. during the democratic administrations of Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and a ])art of the 
whiff administration of President Harrison. 

Calvin S. Baldwin (no relation of the former! was a|)pointed in Is-IL under the administration of 
Tyler, who succeeded Ilarri.son, the latter having died in office. ^Ir. Baldwin transferred the office to his 
own building, on the north side of Bloomfield Avenue, west of what is now Fullertoii Avenue. 
There being no democrat to dis])ute his title, he held the office until 1S53, under the whig administration 
of John Tyler, the democratic admini.stration of James K. Polk, the whig administrations of Taylor and 
Fillmore, including a part of the democratic administration of Franklin Pierce. 

Amzi L. Ball, a democrat, succeeded Calvin S. Baldwin, but oidy held the position for a short 
time. He kept the office in Sandford's tailor's shop, which was then located on the south side of Old 
Koad — now Church Street. 

William Jacobus, a democrat, who had frequently assisted Ball in his work, was appointed in 1S5S, 
under the administration of James IWichanan. and two years later the name of the j)Ost otiice was clianged 
from West Bloomfield to Montclair. The office was still a small one, and under the |)ercentagc system, 
which then prevailed, was worth oidy about .^i;(t(l to ^?,*U) a year. 

John C. Doremus, a republican, was the tii-st one api>ointed under a rei>ulilican adniinisti'atioii, which 
began in l^iil with President Abraham Lincoln. He kept the office in his own store on tlie south side of 
Bloomfield Avenue, opposite the residence of Judge Zenas S. Crane. The business had increased to a 
considerable extent, :ind the office became for the first time a salaried one. He held the ])osition longer 
than any of his predecessors — a period of sixteen years — isfil to 1878 — and served under Presidents Lin- 
coln, Johnson, and the two terms of (ieiieral Grant. 

Charles P. Sandford, republican, was ai)pointed jjottnuistei' under the administiation of Pi'esident 
Rutherford B. Hayes iu 1876, and held the position until 1878. The office was located at that time on 
the south side of Church Street, on the site now occupied by Dr. Love's office. The business con- 
tinued to increase during his term, and the office was well managed. 

William Jacobus received his second appointment as postmaster under the adniinistratioji of Presi- 
dent Cleveland, in the spring of 1886. There had been a large increase in the population, but the 
income of the office was only about 87,000 a year, and while the salary appeared to offer sufficient 
inducement for him to accept the position, he found that, after paying rent, clerk hire and other 
expenses, he had nothing left. He was handling at this time a lai'ge amount of mail matter, requiring a 

56 History of Montclair Township. 

corresponding clerical force, and lie observed several New York business men were in the habit of 
buying tlieir stamps at the New York office, tlie latter receiving the benefit which should accrue to 
Montclair. lie called attention to this fact, and finally induced most of these parties to purchase their 
stamps at the Montclair office. As a result the income foon increased to $10,000, and the next year to 
$13,000, and the last year of his administration the amount had reached $15,450. This large increase 
brought the office up to one of second class with a corresponding increase in the salary, while the 
running expenses wei'e then borne by the government. It also entitled the township to a free delivery, 
and effoi'ts were made to accomplish the desired end. Tlie houses were all numbered, and the streets 
properly named, in accordance with the retjuiremcnts specified by the government authorities, and on 
January 1, 1800, the system of free delivery was established. 

George A. Van (Tieson. I'cpublican, was appointed postmaster in 1S90, under the administration 
of President IlaiTison. The office is now located in wliat is known as the Morris Ihiilding, on liiloomtield 
Avenue, near the junction of Glen Hidge Avenue. The office is fully equipped with everythin 
necessary for a complete postal service, and is conducted in a thorough business-like maimer, 
satisfactory to the people of Montclair. When he took the j^jsition the income of the office was $10,000, 
and it now amounts (1803) to $'.^4,000, an increase of une-third in three years. This is due to a large 
extent to the increase in population, especially that of summer residents. With the increase of business 
there has been no increase in the clerical force, and the whole expenses of the office are about $12,000 per 
annum. Four footmen and two mounted men attend to all the deliveries. 

Mr. Van Gieson is a descendant of one of the old Holland families, originally of Acquackanonk, 
who settled in the latter part of the present century in what was then known as Speertown, now Ujjper 
Montclair. He was born in Speertown, Aug. 30, 1S51. He was educated in the public school, and was 
afterward clerk in the store of John C Doiemus, and was also a clerk with him in the post office. He 
was a clerk in the grocery business for live years, and then went to New York with the firm of Hines, 
Ketcham & Co., with whom he remained eleven years until his appointment as postmaster in 1890. lie 
is courteous and obliging and well liked in the community. 











ChaptcM" XI. 

RKLKilors IXTKKF.STS (>!•" MoXTCLAi i;. 



•'TiiiiU)"' I'kksbytkkiax Ciukcii in the Towxsiiii' of Newark: i.atek as hie First Pkeshy- 
TEKiAX Church of Bi.oomfiei.d. — Laying of the Corxek-stoxe. »\:f. — SriiscKiiiKks to the New 
Edifice.— Legacy of Nathaxikl Craxe for a 1'resbyteriax Chfrch at Ckanetonvx or West 
Bloomfield. — The "First" Presbyteriax C'iurch of ^[oxtci.air. — ()r<;axizaik)x of the 
Church, 1837. — The First Place of Worshii- — the School Piildixg. — List of Orkuxal 
Memi'.ers. — List i>f Pastors. — Erecitox ofChir( h Edifice. — Pirciiase of ()r<}AN. — Erfxtiox 
OF Parsonage. — Statistics of ^[EMliERslm•, Arc. — Skeiches of Kev. .L F. IL\lsky', Kev. .T. A. 
Priest. Kev. Xelshx Millard. D.D., Kkv. .]. IIomeyx P>i;rky. D.I)., IJev. Wm. F. Jinkix, D.I)., 
LL.I).— SiNDAY School. — Trinity Pki sbyteriax Church. — Suxday School. — Rev. Orvillk 
Reek. — Grace Presbyteriax Church. — Sunday School. — Episcopal Church. — 
Sunday School. — St. Luke's Episcopal Church. — The Church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, R. C. — FiRsr CfiNGREGATioNAL CiiuRcii okChrlst. — Rev. Amory Howe Uradforh, D.D. 
— Sunday School. — Pii.ciRiM Mission. — FiRsr I^aphst Church. — Rev. AVm. X. IIubbell. — 
Suxday School. — The I'xitariax Socieiv. — Vouxc; Men's Ciirisiian Asscmmation. — The 
Women's Christian Temperance I'nion. — The Colored Population axd Their CJiiurches. — 
I'nion Baptist Cm rcii. Colhrep. — St. Mark's Methodist Episcopal Church, Colored. 

HE old Prt'sl)VteriaM Clmrcli lias for loiii; vcars been a iiotofl hindiiiark in ^rontclair. 
Staiuiiiifr at the intersection of six street.^, and looking, from its eoniniaiuling ])ositi()ii, 
down the principal avenue of the town, it arrests the attention of every visitor. The 
relijrious orc;anization. of which its solid stone walls are a fitting symbol, represents 
to-day, as it always done, the Pauline doctrines of grace and the Covenant Theology, 
\\ Inch are the glory and .strength of Presbytcrianism. 

The spiritual life of the Church was the earliest fountain of religious and moral 
inHueiices in the community; and the hcathful How of its current is increasingly marked 
and strong. Bancroft, tlie hi.Ntorian. writing half a century ago, records, that '' Scottisii 
Presbyterians of virtue, education and courage, blending a love of popular liberty with 
religious enthusiasm, hurried to F) Xew Jersey between the years inS2 an<l 1(!87 in 
as to give to the rising commonwealth a character wliich a ccntuiT and a half have not 
effaced. Meeting on her.«oil with Puritans and (Quakers, their ciniiliiiicd fairli. in>titutii)iis and preferences 
have given life and color to the common mind." Divergence of views naturally marked the progress of 
religious movements among such sturdy adherents of varying polities. 

Dr. Charles Hodge tells us : •• that on the soil of New Jersey at large Pre8l)yterianisin has not invaded 
and supplanted Congregationalism. It was the earlier and predominant type of ecclesiastical order, and 
naturally absorbed and assimilated the Congregationalism that came in. This assimilation was not, how- 
ever, without a struggle between the two systems, and, in a community like that of Newark, originally 
com])osed of Congregationalists only, the process of change was necessarily slow. When the second 
Fierson (son of Rev. Aliraliam Piersoii) manifested some leanings toward the Presbyterian order, the dis- 
pleasure of his people was e.xcited, and troubles arose which resulted in liis dismissal. Yet, on the 22d of 
October, 1710, Joseph Webb, in the line of his successors, was ordained and settled over the same flock 


by the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and the next year took a seat 
his church." 

the Svnod with a ruling elder from 

58 History df Montclair Township. 

The people of Newark at that time were siilistantially a unit in favor of Presbytery, and those of 
the Monntain were united in favor of the old Congregational basis; 

Rev. Jedediah Buckingham, a native of Saybrook, Conn., was engaged as a supply for the Newark 
ciiurc-h during a part of 1710-17. Tlie withdrawal of Mr. I>uckingliani from the Newark pnlpit was 
nearly coincident with the fact that "in 171S many of the inhabitants of the ^Mountain broke off and 
foi-med a new society." This was known for some years as the JMonntain Society, and nfterward as the 
Second Church in Newark — now the First Presbyterian Church in Orange. 

The I'ecords of this church show that Cranetown was largely represented in its membership. The 
first on the list of those who were " rated " in the parish in 1 759 to pay the minister's salary was 
Jedediah Crane. 

An "a Com])t of the money received on account of the pasanage house" shows the names of 
David Baldwin, Nathaniel Crane, Noah Crane and Azariah Crane. 

Among the list of subscribers for the erection of the second Meeting-house, in 1753, the " tribes 
of Crane" included Nathaniel Senr., Nathaniel Jr., Caleb, AVilliam, Job, Garniel, Noah, Stephen, Lewis, 
Jedediah, Elihu. Ezekiel : their total subscriptions amounted to £'50. 16. 6. The "tribes of Baldwin," 
twelve in numlier (same number of the Cranes), subscribed £'43. 1. 1. 

Anu^ng the "Members in Communion of the Mountain Society ]n'ior to 1750" were Stephen, 
William, Noah ami Caleb Crane, and Lewis Crane and his wife. 

In the record of baptisms from 1750 to 1702 are found the names of Nathaniel, son of Noah 
Crane, 1757, Charles, son of Lewis Crane, John, son of Eliakim Crane, Lois, daughter of Stephen Crane. 

Of those who "Entered into Covenant" from 1770 to 1783 are the names of Abigail, wife of Job 
Crane, Phoda, wife of Stephen Crane, Timothy, and Sarah his wife, Elizabeth Crane, Jonathan and 
Pachel ( 'rane, Matthias and wife Elizabeth, Hannah, wife of Joseph Crane, and Joseph Crane. 

In the record of baptisms from 1705 to 1784 are ]\Iary, daughter of Elder (Noah) Crane, Lois, 
daughter of Stephen Crane, Amos, son of William, Josiah, son of Eliakim, Jeremiah, son of Stephen, 
Nehemiah, son of Elder Crane (Noah), Zenas, son of Samuel and Mary Crane, 1774, Abigail, daughter of 
Matthias and Elizabeth Crane, Lydia, dan. of Jonas, Stephen Bradford, son of Stephen Crane, 
1Y79, Eleazer and Nathaniel, sons of Josef)h Crane, Nancy, Thomas. Jeptha and Hannah, children of 
Aaron Crane. 

There were representatives of the Baldwins, Williams, Munns, and other fanulies connected with 
this church, who were residents of Cranetown, but as the same names appear among the Orange 
families it is difhcult to locate them. 

The incii)ient measures for the organization of a separate congregation and church in Bloomfield 
were taken early in the year 1794 by the members of the above-named churches resident in what was 
afterward the township of Bloomfield. The Presbytery of New York then extended over all Southern 
New York and East New Jersey, and the matter was carried up before that body, at their meeting in 
May of that year, for advice and action. The Presbytery favored the movement, and appointed a 
committee to confer with a committee from the churches of Newark and Orange in reference to the 
matter. The meeting of these joint committees was held on the 10th of June following, at the house of 
Mr. Joseph Davis, of Watsessing. A petition w'as signed by ninety-eight heads of families requesting 
to be formally organized into a distinct congregation and to take the name of the Third Presbyterian 
Church in the township of Newark. It was not, however, until four years after this that the church was 
regularly organized after the Presbyterian form of government, in June, 1798, by the Pev. Jedediah 
Chapman, then pastor of the First Church in Orange. Eighty-two members constituted it — fifty -nine of 
whom were from his own church and twenty-three from the First Church in Newark. The ruling 
Elders and Deacons chosen at the time of its organization were Simeon Baldwin, E2)liraim Morris, Isaac 
Dodd, and Joseph Crane. 

The Sentinel of Freedom^ of December 7, 1790, contained the following notes : 

" At a meeting of the Trustees of the Wardsesson Congregation, Oct. 2(!, 1796 ; 

History of Moxtci.air Township. 59 

" Agreealilv to a resolution of tlie Congregation, the 'J'rustees, having met tliis dav, do assume to 
themselves the name and title of T/te Trustei's of fhe Presbyk'rian Socirty of BloumficJd. 
" Extract from the minutes. 

"Isaac Doud, President." 

The erection of a for this Congregation was hegun in the spring of 1707. The 
corner-stone was laid with >ras(inic ceremonies >fay Sth. 1T'.'7. hv Dr. MeWiiorter. a mendier of t!ie 
Masonic Fraternity. 

Tlie Sentinel of June 14. 17'.i7, contained the following: 

'■ CoMMt'>ric.VTiox FROM Hr.ooMriKi.D : — The head workmen, nicclianics and laliorcis, eni])l<)vc(] at 
Bloomtield ■^[eeting-]lOuse, take this inihlic way of expressing their acknowledgments to Dcac'on Morris 
and Mrs. Morris for their polite and agreeahle repast of cake and cider which they gratuitously afforded 
to them (who were 4o in nundieri at the laying of the i-urn' r-xt<ine of the said huildiiiir, and cannot 
refrain from e.\])ressing a hope that this new method of laying ronur xtones may he adopted on all 
similar occasions. The building goes on rapidly." 

The Trustees of this church, in 17'.I7. were Samuel \\'aril. l-^pliraim Morris, Oliver Crane and 
Joseph Davis. The N[anagers of the huilding were Simeon Haldwin. .Xatlianicl Crane and .Toscpli 

The fiillowiiig names were sul»crilicd tu "a |)romise to pay unto the trustees of the Preshvtcriaii 
Society of Bloomtield, f<jr the purpose of hiring a minister to preadi the- g(i>pcl foi- <ix months," with the 
date appended, "Cranetown, April K'. 17!t7": 

Oliver Crane, Stephen Furdham. William Crane, Simeon Crane. Widow Susanna Crane, Job 
Crane, Isaac Tompkins, Phineas Crane, Widow Dorcas ^Villianls, David Riker, Samuel MeChesney, 
Samuel Ward, John N'incent. Xoali Oane, Jr.. Noah Crane. Phebe Dod, James Gid)s, Jr., Joseph 
Crane. John I'aldwiu. Nathaniel D"d, Israel Crane. Caleb Martin, Aaron Crane, Keuben Dod, Lewis 
Baldwin, Nathaniel Crane. Isaac .Mitchell. I'enjamin Crane, Eliakim Crane, Elizabeth Pouge, Thomas 
Force, William Holmes, Daniel Ougheltree. Levi Vincent, Cornelius Vincent, John Smith, Henry 
Shoemaker, John Fry, Widow Jane Crane, Jadok Crane. Samul Tichenor, Peter Davis, Matthew Dod. 

In the original parchment subscription for building the church in 17!t(!, among the principal 
subscribers are Eleazer Crane for £'4n, JuseiJi Crane for £6n, Joseph Crane for ,£2o. Oliver Crane for 
£25, William Crane for 4'2:i. Stephen Fordham for £4."), Aaron Crane for £9(1, Caleb Martin for £12, 
Gideon Crane for £14. and Nathaniel and Israel Crane, each £ln(). ilany Cranetown names also appear 
on the additional suliNcriptioii in 17'.'^, " for the use of the meeting-house." Most of these were from 
the F'irst Church of Orange. Among the elders and deacons at the orgaTiizatior. of the cJinrch was 
Jo.seph Crane, who had been an elder from 171H to 17'.>S in the Orange CInirch. 

On Nov. S, 1S12, the following ruling elders were electe<l : .lo.sepli Crane, Jo.sei)h J)avis, Iclialjod 
Haldwin and Israel Crane, already deacons, together with David Taylor, Nathaniel Crane, Moses Dodd, 
and Josiah Ward. 

The church bell was presented by Major Nathaniel Crane, who was also one of the original mem- 
bers of the church. Gen. Bloomfield, from whom the Society was named, gave §140 toward the erection 
of the building, and Mrs. Bloomtield presented a jinljjit Bible and psalm-l)ook. The damask silk for the 
covering of the pulpit was obtained from "a certain ancient lady who had a gown of that description," 
and who was induced to part with it for the sum of S^t'. It •• wa.s found to contain enough cloth for 
two drt'sses for the pulpit." 

The pastors of this church previous to the organization of the church at West Bloomtield were 
Pvev. Abel Jackson, 1800-10; Rev. Cyrus Gildersleeve, 1812-18; Rev. Gideon X. Judd, 1820-34; Rev. 
Ebenezer Seymour, 1834—47. 

Religious services were held occasionally in Cranetown for moi-e than fifty years before the first 
distinct church organization wa.s established. No place for religious worship was erected in the westerly 

60 History of Montclair Towxsiiir. 

section of the town until tlie year ls;',T, previous to wliicli time it liiul l>ecu tlie custom of the people to 
meet at the piiblic school huildiiii;; for prayer and conference. Tlio inhabitants had generally attended 
service at the Presbyterian churches in Xewark. at the First Church in Orange, and afterward a number 
of them went to Bloomtield, and others to Caldwell, as cliurches were being erected at these several 
places ; the large majority of them, however, were identified with the Bloomtield Cliurch from the date 
of its organization, and religious services wei'e held in the school-house at Cranetown oti Sunday after- 
noons and evenings by members of the Bloomtield Chui-ch, the pastor of that chui'ch usually otticiating. 
The place of meeting was the room in the second story of the public school building on a site just in 
fi'ont of the present churcli. 

Major Nathaniel Crane, an elder in the Bloomtield Church, left a bequest at his death, in 1833, 
designed to assist in establishing a new organization. He directed that tlie residue of his estate, valued 
at about ten thousand dollars, should be invested for the support of a church in West Bloomtield, when- 
ever that portion of the ])arish shouhl form a separate congregation and erect a church edilice. 


A meeting was held at West Rloorafiekl on tlie 17th of A\;gust, 1737, to consider the propriety of 
a separate organization, and on the 31st of tlie month the new parish was created, taking the name of 
"The West Bloomtield I'resbyterian Society," and electing as its first Ti-ustees, Zenas S.Crane, Cyrus 
Pierson, Jared E. Harrison, lleubeii I). Baldwin, James ]5aldwin, James Crane and AVilliam Smith. 

The district school building, of stone, stood about twenty-five feet in front of the present church 
edilice ; it had, on the second floor, a room which had long been used for religious meetings. This building 
was purchased and enlarged ; the upper story was removed and over tiiis was erected the new building, the 
old school room forming tlie lecture room, with pastor's study at one side of the vestibule, and the main 
auditory was placed above. With columns before the open vestibule it is said to have been quite an 
imposing edifice ; though often mistaken by travelers for a pulilic house ; the addition was a frame build- 
ing, painted white. It was dedicated on the 9th of August, 1838, the sermon being preached by the Eev. 
Mr. Hoover, of Newark. The church was organized at the same time by the Rev. Dr. Hillyer, of Orange, 
and the Rev. Mr. Seymour, of Bloomfield — a committee of the Presbytery of Newark. There were 
seventy-one original memliers of the church ; sixty -six from the Church in Bloomfield, two from 
the Caldv/ell Church, two from the Church at Succasunny Plains, and one from the First Church at 
Orange. These were : 

Zenas, Betsey and Joseph H. Baldwin, and Lydia A. his wife ; Jane Ball, Hannah Benjamin, Ann 
Campbell, Ira Campbell, Sophia Collins, Taliitha, widow of Aaron Crane, Elias B. Crane, and Nancy 
his wife ; George A. and Zenas S. Crane, and Maria Crane, wife of the latter ; Matilda, wife of T. A. 
Crane; Harriet Crane, wife of Robert Earl, Amos Crane, Susan, widow of Oliver Crane, Stephen F. 
Crane, Oliver Crane (Rev.), Joshua Crane, Elizabeth, widow of Jeremiah Crane, Ira Crane, and his wife 
Margaret; Sarah Day, Nathaniel R. Dodd, John C. Doremus, and Mary K., his wife ; Rhoda, wife of 
Peter Doremus, Caroline, wife of Joseph Doremus, Sarah Earl, John II. Iloger, Sally, wife of Moses 
Harrison, Catharine W., wife of Jared E. Harrison ; Warren Holt, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Jackson, 
Phebe Kelly, widow ; Robert Laing, Lydia, widow of Elias Littell, Electa, wife of William Mann, Isaac 
S. Miller, William S. Morris, Harriet P., wife of W. S. Morris, John Munn, and Eunice, his wife ; Rhoda 
Munn, widow of J. Collins; Rachel, wife of Eli Munn, Nancy, widow of Dr. Cyriis Pierson, Sarah, wife 
of Richard Romer, Matthias Smith, and Jemima, his wife, William Smith, Harriet G. Smith ; Mary Ann 
Smith, 2d wife of R. Earl, Matthias Smith, Ji-., John Smith, Jane Smith, widow, Ephraim P. Stiles, 
and Ann, his wife, Moses Stiles, and Elizabeth, his wife, Ann Maria Stiles, Phebe C. Stiles, Ann, wife 
of James Tucker, Caleb S. Ward, and Eunice, his wife, Isaac B. Wheeler, and Harriet, his wife; 
Abraham Zuk. 

The Church made choice of Matthias Smith and Elias Crane as its ruling elders ; they having held 

History of Moxtci.aik T<nv\sim'. 61 

tliat office in tlie Cliurcli at I'loomticld. .Tolm ^[111111, Isaac J5. AVliecler and Moses Stiles were chosen 
the same year. Mr. Crane continue(l in uttice for twelve years ; J[r. Wiieeler for nine years ; Mr. Stiles 
ten years; William Crane and William S. Morris were electeil in ls44: Stephen F. Crane, 184'.i; John C. 
Dorenins, Ira Caini)bell and Phili]) Doremns in ISoS. 

The book containing the list of elders from 1858 to l^To lias ]>vu\\ li»t (ir mislaid. Tlie followinii 
is the list since that date : 

Ilinini 1>. Littell. 187n. Dr. Vincent Harrison. John M. Donlileday. Theodore J!, ('arter (mi date); 
Thomas ltu.s.sell, 1S7<>. William .1. JIutchin.-on, 1S7'.>, Frederick II. Harris, 18S.3, Theroii II. Sanford, 
John S. Fo.ster, Malc(Jm II. Smith, ISS7, John Jefferson, 1888, Paul P>al>cock, Wilson W. Smith, 1890, 
Murdock Howell, isiH. FMward F.ailey, ISttS. 

The first pastor of the new church was Ilev. Samuel W. F'isher. D.D., who cdntinued from 1831* 
to 1843, and was afterward pastor at Alhany, X. Y., Cincinnati, Ohio, I'resident of Hamilton College, 
New York, and pastor at Utica, N. V. He was succeeded by Rev. Nathaniel E. Johnson, 1843-44, 
Rev. Aaron C. Adams, 184.1-51. Rev. J..I. F. Ilalsey, D.I)., l852-5<!. Rev. Sila< I'.illin<rs, a stated supply 
of the pulpit. I85t5-5S. Rev. Josiali A. Priest, D.D.. 1858-fil. Rev. Nelson Millard. D.D., lS(i2-ti7, Rev. 
J. Romeyn Berry. D.D., lS7(»-87. Rev. William F. Junkin. D.D.. I. LI)., 188s, the present pastor. 

The completeness of Presbyterian nriranizatidU was nut realized in the Church until 18!t3. In 
Mari'h (tf that year a Hoard of Deacons was elected and installed. Tlicii' valuable .services have added 
iiiiicli to the efficiency of the Chui'ch's work. The memi.'ers uf the IJoard are Lewis L. S. Clcariiian. 
Chairman. Herbert S. Ki'llnirir. ^Villiam K. Hunt, Fi-ancis T. .\. ,liiid<in, Fcvi W. Case, AI.D.. I. Scynioiii- 
Crane, Jnhn .Murphy and James Watkin>. 

During the first twenty-two years of its existence down tu l^»;o the clnuch received 354 nu inlicrs ; 
151 on profession of their faith, and 2"3 by certificate from otiier churches. It dismissed during that 
period, to unite with other churches, 11 1, and lost 47 by death. At the close of ISfin it had l'.H'> com- 
municants, and the parisli at that time comprised about 85 families. 

Fnder the pastorate of Rev. Dr. Halsey the present church edifice was erected, and dedicated in 
185G, the sermon being preached by the Rev. Dr. Rowland, of Newark. 

One of the Newark papers, referring to the important work in connection with the affairs of 
this churcli uniler date of Oct. 24, 185(>, .says-: 

•' The Presbyterian Church and congregation of West Bloomfield, N. J., have succeeded in the 
erection of a substantial house of worship, some 85 by 55 feet in dimensions, and out of a material 
furnished Ijy the rich freestone quarries in the immediate vicinity of the church. 

"This house has been erected at a cost of about s|(>,(iO(i, and upon the basis of a subscription, 
obtained almost entirely within the bounds of the worshijiping congregatii.m. Some individual subscrip- 
tions have reached the sum of §1,0U0 ; and the people generally have manifested a degree of liberality 
and zeal in getting U]) this temple of prayer, worthy of the high |) of Him to whom it is now 

"It deserves also to be noticed in this connection, that the ladies of the congregation have shown 
great zeal and untiring perservance in this undertaking, and have succeeded in raising more than a 
thousand dollars from the of their needles, and otherwise, and have appropriated the .same to the 
purchase of all the requisite furniture necessary to gratify the taste and minister to the comfort of those 
who shall hereafter resort to this hou.-^eof prayer. 

"Nor must we pass over in silence the very generous — nay, magnanimous — offering made by our 
highly respected friend. Miss Mary Crane (daughter of Israel Crane), of a very rich and mellow-toned 
bell, from the foutidrv of ^lessrs. JoTies it Hitchcock, Troy, N. Y. 

'• Our beautiful and well proportioned edifice is now completed, looking as though its massive 
walls of solid masonry would outlive a thousand generations. A house of sufficient dimensions to 
accommodate the people living within its immediate vicinity, and room in I'eserve for those who shall 
hereafter, as it is hoped, be induced to locate themselves in this elevated and healthy region." 


History of Mi Township. 

Further additions and inipiMvenients were made to the church editice in 186(1 during the 
pastorate of Rev. Nelson Millaivl. ( )ne of the local papers stated that : " The Presbyterian Church at 
Montclair was reopened yesterday with services of a dedicatory character. * * * 

" During tlie intermission very great changes have been accomplished. The ca])acity of the house 
has been increased by the addition of tifty jiews, and about two huudi-cd sittings. Tlie congregation had 

overrun the ciiurch, and before long it will probably 
reijuii'e extension. It will now seat aljout seven hun- 
dred people. A beautiful light, open iron balcony 
presents itself in front of a new narrow gallery, and 
the effect is very pleasing. '■■■ * * The old pulpit 
has been replaced by a new one, severely plain, in 
exact keeping with the simplicity of the service of 
the church and modern notions of pulpit architecture. 
It now consists of a mere platform, with a small mov- 
al)le desk." 

In 1870 the organ was placed in the church 
at a cost of about §6,(H)0. Tlie public school bnilding 
located on ground adjoining the church lot was pur- 
chased in ISCit, and converted into a lecture room, and 
in 1SS;3 that building was removed and the present 


chapel erected. 
The first 

jiarsonage, on Eloomfield Avenue, 
opposite Park Street, was built about the time of the original church building, and first occupied by the 
Rev. Sanuicl Fisher, D.D., and his family ; his son, Rev. Samuel Fisher, pastor of the church, boarded 
with his ])arents. The sti-ij) of land on M'liich the parsonage was bnilt extended from Bloomtield Avenue 
to Church Street, and was a legacy from Xathauiel H. Baldwin. The present handsome and commodious 
parsonage, located in Church Street, was built during the pastorate of Rev. J. R. Berry, D.D. 

In 1870 a large Colony went ont from the First Presley tei'ian Church, and uniting with others 
formed the First Congregational Church of Montclair, and the separation took place amid such farewell 
greetings and beiiedictions as are expressed by an aiiectionate but overgrown family when its younger 
members go out to an independent life. 

Most of these had united with the Presbyterian Chnreh, though of Congregational convictions and 
preferences. Avith the understanding that they should, when it should become expedient, withdraw in 
order to organize a Congregational Church. The departing Colony received therefore the cordial Gmlapeed 
of the old MoTUER CnrRcn. 

During the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Berry, the Trhi'dij Vreisbyterhm Church (of which a sketch 
appears elsewhere in this work) Avas established. Its charter members were set off from the First 
Church by the Presbytery of Xewark, to compose the new organization. 

Francis L. Patton, D.D., LL.D., President of Princeton University, supplied the pulpit of Trinity 
Church for a year; after wiiich the present devoted and highly esteemed pastor, the Rev. (Jrville Reed, 
was settled over the Church. 

Since the Re\'. Dr. Junkin became pastor of the First Church, two church edifices have been 
built in Montclair, at a cost to the Mother Church of ten or twelve thousand dollai-s. 

The first of these is known as Grace Presbyterian Church. It stands on a beautiful and extensive 
plot of ground, — the generous gift to the Trustees of the First Church, for the purposes of this bnilding, 
of Mr. Alfred J. Crane, — at the corner of Forest and Chestnut Streets. Within two years after the 
establishment of a Sunday school, by the First Chnreh, in this section of the town, so hopeful was the 
progress of the work, the bnilding was erected and a chnreh organized ; a history of which will be 
found on another page of this work. The Rev. F. X. Rutan was called and installed as its first jjastor, 

History of Moxtci.air Townsiiii'. (13 

and tlie church lias ^rown steadily durino^ his pastorate. He and his peojile are held in high rcirard hy 
tlie pastor and nieinhers of the Motiier ( hurch. Tlie colony which she sent out has become a prospei'ous and 
growing church, and the building and plot of ground, which were transfeiTed to their Board of Trustees 
by the Trustees of the First ("hurch in 1S9;^,, has become the centre of most promising Christian activities. 

The Cedar Street C/n'jie/ is the name of the second forward movement made by tlie First 
Presbyterian Church durinof the few vears. The lot on which it stands, one i)f tlie most eligible 
and Iteautiful in the south section of ilontdair. was given to the First Church, as a site foi- the chapel, by 
i[essrs. Edwin and J. Caldwell Williams. It was a most generous donation, and greatly encouraged and 
helped the devoted woikers, who have labored so zealously to establish and carry on the Sunday school, 
which with jireaching services conducted there on Sunday night, gives hopeful ]iromisc of Frcsli\ tcrian 
advance in the south end of the town. 

The policy of the First Church is that of organizing new en.terprises, new centres of fri'sh 
aggressive moveincnt. rather than of retaining over-crowded mcmbcrsliii) in the ^Iotukk Cnim ii. 

The old landmark, so dear to the hearts of many, and so pleasantly familiar to the eyes of all the 
people of ilontclair. will, however, soon be a thing of tlie past, a fragrant memory, rich with sacred 
a.ssociations. Arrangements are now lieing made which will result in the removal of the old and the 
erection of a new, larger an<l handsomer editice. The same commanding site and extensive grounds will 
be used, and the new structure will, it is believed, be a worthy tribute of the present to the noble and 
generous past of this honored church. The alile and judicious Hoard of Trustees, under whose efficient 
management this forward movement is ra])idly taking shape, led by its earnest and ilcvoted President, is 
composed of the following gentlemen: I'.enjamin Carter. President; William Wallace. Secretary; 
Artliur llorton. Treasurer; I. Seymour Crane. Andrew P. Morrison and .lohn Maxwell. 

The aggregate expenditure for grounds and buildings has been aiiout ^S.'i.Ooo. Since its orsraniza- 
tion the church has received 1,3.">7 per.-ions into its membership — 741 by certificate and 6It) on profession 
of faith. There are now 450 communicants. 

The record f>f e\|>enditures for the tii-st thirty-two years is incomplete and no accurate state- 
ment is po.-isible. During the last 2:J yeaiv :i;::{2S,7n{i has been expended. Of this amount §22U,«81 was 
raised for congregational pui-])ose.s ami sKiS.Ol'.t for l>enevolent objects. 

Of the eight pastors who have presided over tin.- church and c()ngregation. data referring to the 
Work of tive only has been fouml. 

Uk\ . -bii: Fosir.R JIalskv. J).1J. 

Dr. II al.-ey was a graduate of Union College and was a classmate of Hon. Wm. 11. Seward; he 
studied tlieology at Princeton Seminary. Ilis first ))a.storate was over a church in ^lonmonth County. 
From thence he removed to Allegheny, but his voice failing him, he obtained a [)rofessor's chair at a 
college in Missouri, but soon resigned to open a female seminary at Paritan Hall, Perth Amboy. He 
accepted the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church at West PlooniKeld in 18.52, continuing until 1856. 
It was during his pastorate in 18.5ti that the new cliurch edifice was erected. He left this church to go to 
Norristown. Pa., where he died at the advanced ase of eiirlitv-two. 

While he was thoroughly orthodox as to his religious tenets and his church, his heart was bi 
enough and his charity Ijroad enough to end)race every member of the human family within their 
influence. Sinii)le-hearted and gentle as a child in mere worhlly matters, in the of the Master he 
was not only valiant, but an aggressive soldier, who would not abate one jot of his faith, his loyalty and 
his allegiance. 

The following reference to the installation of Rev. J. A. Puikst was published in one of the local 
papers at the time : 

"The Rev. J. A. Priest was installed as pastor of the Presbyterian Church in West Bloomfield, 
N. J., on Tuesday of last week by the Presbytery of Newark. Rev. I. X. S]ii'ague, of Caldwell, pre- 
sided ; Rev. J. Pingry of Roseville, read the Scriptures and offered the introductory prayer. Rev. Asa 


64 History of Montci.air Township. 

D. Smith, D.D., of the Fourteenth Street Presbyterian Church, New York City, pi-eaelied tlie sermon; 
Rev. I. N. Sprague offered the installation prayer; Kev. J. Few Smith, D.D. of Newark, delivered the 
charge to the pastor; Rev. C. M. N". Nickols, of Newark, the charge to the people. The discourse of Dr. 
Smitii was based on Psalms Ix.xxvii. 7; 'All my springs are in thee.'" 

Referring to his resignation three years later, the same paper says: " Rev. J. A. Priest, of West 
Bloomtield, N. J., has resigned the charge of the Presbyterian Church at that jilace, and intends sojonrning 
in Europe for a couple of years for health and study. We trust he may be abundantly prospered and 
return to labor for many years in that sacred calling in which he has already been so worthily successful." 

Rev. Nelson Millard, D.D. 

The ])astorate of Rev. Jlr. ]\Iillard extended from 1S62 to 1867. and during this period the church 
increased in numbers and influence. A friend of Dr. Millard, under date of March 24, 18(;7, writes: 

"Mr. Millard did not venture into the region of the pathetic, but in plain, familiar language, often 
interrupted by emotion, he led us back over the scenes of the past live years of honest, faithful ministry. 
This was his earliest settlement, and he will probably never fail to reviev,- the scenes of his ministry here 
with peculiar jileasure. Never were a peo]ile more perfectly united in a pastor. It is the sundering of 
ties, such as are seldom formed — of associations full of endearment. He counseled his people to avoid 
divisions — to be willing to bear and forl>eai', and to seek the general good of the church even to the sacri- 
fice of private judgment. The cliurch now numbers about three hundred members, half of which have 
joined under Mr. Millard's ministry. ( )f these additions twenty-two were by profession and seventy by 
eertitieate. There have been seventy baptisms (of which forty-eight were children) and twenty 

Dr. j\[illard left this church to go to the Olivet Street Presbyterian Church in Chicago, and was 
afterward for ten years pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Syracuse, N. Y., and was said to be 
" one of the ablest clergymen of that denomination in the Empire State."' 

Rev. J. RoMEYN Berky, D.D. 

Dr. Berry was liorn in Ilackensaek, N. J., in 1826, and died at Asbury Park, N. J., June 12, 1891. 
He was a graduate of Rutgers College and the Theological Seminary of New^ Brunswick. While quite 
young he became the pastor of the Reformed (/hurch at Lafayette, now a part of Jersey City. From 
there he went to Fishkill. N. Y.. serving as the pastor of the Reformed Church there. In 1 870 he accepted 
the unanimous call of the First Presbyterian Church at jMontclair. One of the Newark papers I'eferring 
to the call said : " Dr. lieri-y's experience of nineteen years in the ministry, his well-known abilities and 
his invariable success in the several fields where he has labored, are a sufficient guarantee of sTiccess in his 
new field. These characteristics, together with his genial manners, are sure to prepare a hearty welcome 
for him among his Presbyterian brethren with whom he now casts his lot." 

An impromptu gathering took place at the close of his first years pastorate, and he was jiresented 
with a purse of $300 in gold. The surprise M-as complete and the response touching. He said that the 
year past had been a happy one with him, and that in his ministry he had never experienced so much 
kindness, nor spent a year so full of pleasant memories. 

Just previous to the coming, of Dr. Berry, some eighty members had withdrawn to organize the 
First Congregational Church of Montclair, but notwithstanding this loss the chu]-ch prospered and there 
\vas a steady growth from year to year. During his pastorate of seventeen years, — far exceeding that of 
any of his ]iredecessors, — 532 persons were admitted to the chui'ch. 276 of whom united upon profession 
of their faith in Christ, and there was a constant growth of spirituality among its members, an increase 
in the benevolent contributions, and an improved material and financial condition of the church. Nearly 
$50,000 of the debt was liquidated, and the handsome chapel on Church Street was built during his 
ministration. An average of c>ver $14,000 per annum was raised for C(Uigregatiunal and benevolent 


History of Moxtclair Township. 


purposes, ami (luring the last two years of his pastorate, i>'2 united with tlie church on confession of faith 
and 36 by certificate. 

Just previous to his departure from Montclair, a large number of his fellow-citizens signed the 
following request : 

'■ Dear Sir — The undeisjgned citizens of Montclair. recognizing tiic value of your niinstry in 

our community, and feel- 
indebted to you in ways it 
ing that sentiments 
the churches, and among 
gratified to have a public 
their love for you as a 
you as a minister, ask you 
when they may meet yon 
ing, in some formal way, 
and esteem. AVe feel that 
leave the place where yon 
so efficiently without carry- 
ances of appreciation as we 
time and ])lace as shall be 
Dr. lierry, in his reply, 
fectionate suggestion, but 
his intended departure 
tunity for such a reception, 
sum of ^.5,000 was rai.sed 
ed to him in token of their 
appreci:ition of his labors, 
noble qualities, foremost in 
mankind; as a j)reacher lie 
ing from the Great Truths 
the sole purpose to build 
and to save his fellow-men. 



^ e 


/" _^ 


Kl.\. J. 

iMI.'. N 1:1. KKV, li.l). 

ing that the whole town is 
cannot repay: and believ- 
are shared by many in ail 
all classes, who wimld be 
opportunity of expressing 
man, and their love for 
to name .some near day 
for tlie purpose of present- 
their tribute of affection 
we cannot allow you to 
have laliored so long and 
ing with you such assur- 
desire to e.\ press at sucli 
most pleasing to you." 
thanked them for the af- 
stated that the nearness of 
would preclude the op]>or- 

liefore his departure the 
hy his j)eople and present- 
love to him and of their 

Dr. IJeirv was a man of 
all that tended to benefit 
was fen'ent and uiiwaver- 
wliich he expounded with 
ujt the Kingdom of God 
I II politics he was a staunch 

Republican. Personally Dr. IJerry was a kindly disjjo.sed gentleman, of commanding and dignified 
presence, and the attachment between him and his ])eople was deep and la.sting. 

Rev. William Finney -fi .nkin, D.l).. LI..I). 

It was certainly a " new departure," and an indication of the progressive spirit of its membership 
for the First Presbyterian Church of Montclair to call as pastor a man who from his youth had been 
identified with tiie people of the South, and was as much a Southern man in priiicijile as though t<< the 
manor born. They made no mistake in their choice, however, as results have proven. Dr. Junkin's 
work had been in a different field under different environments, l)ut he readily adai)ted himself to his 
new field of labor, and found the people in hearty sympathy with him and ready to aid him in his work. 
The sketch of his life will l)e read with interest by those who have learned to love him as a man and 
admire him as a preacher. 

Rev. William F. Junkin was born in Philadelphia, Pa., May 1st, 1831. lie came of a sturdy 
lineage. His father was Rev. George Junkin, D.D., LL.D., the famous leader of the Presbyterian 
t'hnrch of his day. whose father in turn was Col. Joseph Junkin. an officer in the Pennsylvania line 
during the Revolution. An old record says of Col. Junkin : "ilis Company on the Tth of July, 1776, 
was on parade when a courier rode up with the news, that the Declaration of Independence had been 

66 History of Moxtci.air Towxsiiir. 

adopted and and bringing a copy of the instrument. It was nnaninionslv and by acclamation ratified on 
the spot. The Company volunteered at once, and soon were ordered to Amboy, New Jersey, where they 
were em])loyed in guarding the Court. lie was severely wounded at the Battle of Brandywine. Having 
fainted fi'om loss of blood, the enemy passed him liy, taking him for dead. Night came on. A shower 
of rain revived him. He arose, and di-eading to fall into the enemy's hands he made his way across 
woods and fields and rejoined his connnand. A horse was procured for him and with a rope for a 
bridle, a Icnapsack stutfed with hay for a saddle and wrapped in his bloody garments, he ari-ived at his 
home, ninety miles in three days." 

Joseph Junkin's gi'andmother was present at the immortal seige of Derry. " She saw from the 
walls of glorious old Derry the smoke of the most important gun ever fired, the lee-gun of the 2Iountjoy, 
which righted the ship, broke the boom, relieved the starving garrison, forced the allies to raise the siege 
and retreat upon the Boyne, where the arms of William and of liberty triumphed and completed the 
blessed Revolution of 108S." Just a centnrv later her great-grandson, George Junkin, was born at the 
family seat in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. From a JSIemorial Yoluuie of distinguished Pennsyl- 
vanians we quote : " He was a man of God, devout, humble, prayerful. A strong intellect, great 
])owers of generalization and analysis, a keen and discriminating logic, a power of language always clear 
and vigorous, often rising to the height of poetry, a glowing heart full of deep affection, a disposition 
firm as a rock when contending for the right, but gentle as a woman's in all social elements, made George 
Junkiu the great and good man that he was." While a student of theology, under the distinguished Dr. 
John ^I. Mason, in New York, he assisted in organizing the first Sunday school formed in that city. 

He was a jiroininent leader in the progress and conflicts of the Presbyterian Churcli. A staunch 
Ohl ScJiouI man in the trying times of 1835-37, he maintained then and always, with pen and voice 
and undaunted courage, the views of truth as he believed them. He was the author of many ))Ooks and 
addresses and essays of tiie times. As the founder and father, and President, for many years, of Lafayette 
College, at Easton. Penn.sylvania, his name will be held in that influential institution in everlasting 
remembrance. He was President of Miami University, in Ohio, and for many years also President of 
Washington College, now Washington and Lee University, in Virginia. His influence in these seats of 
learning was felt and acknowledged throughout many States of the ITnion. He left his delightful home 
in Lexington, Virginia, in 1861, because he "would not live under any other flag than the Stars and 
Strij)es." Dr. George Junkin had five sons and three daughters. Among these, William Finney was 
the youngest son. The eldest was Margaret J. Preston, of Virginia, whose writings, prose and jjoetry, 
have given her a name as one of the most gifted women of the country. She is often called affection- 
ately the So((ther7i Poetess. Another daughter, Elinor, was the beloved first wife of Gen. T. J. (Stone- 
wall) Jackson. And Mrs. J. M. Fishburne. of Philadelphia, is an honored and useful officer of the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Board of the Presbyterian Cliurch. John Junkin, M.D., the Rev. E. D. 
Junkin, D.D., an able Presbyterian clergyman, late of Texas, and George Junkin, Esq., for years a 
distinguished and honored member of the Philadelphia Bar, are lirothers of the subject of this sketch. 

William E. Junkin was graduated at Washington College, in 1851, and in theology at the Seminary 
of the Presbyterian Church in Princeton, in 1854. His first pastorate was in the Falling Spring Church, 
one of the oldest and largest in the Valley of A'irginia. Here he remained for thirteen years. Four of 
these years were years of Civil War. He volunteered in the Confedei'ate Army, in 1861. serving under 
Generals Henry A. Wise and Robert E. Lee. in Western Virginia, and subsequently in the Army of 
Northern Virginia, as a private soldier, an officer, and volunteer chaplain. Pie was for a time Lieut.- 
Colonel of the Reserves. The permanent results of his ministry in his charge of the old Falling Spring 
Church were a large increase in the membership and efficiency of the Church, the erection of a beautiful 
manse, and the building of a lai-ge and handsome church which adorns one of the most picturesque sites 
in the Virginia Valley. In 1868 he was called to the pastorate of the First Church of Danville, 
Kentucky, in connection with the Southern Branch of the Presbyterian Church. While iu Kentucky 
his Alma Mate)', Washington and Lee LTniversity, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinitij. 

History of Montci.air Towxsiiii'. 67 

As a preaclier and ehiirclimaii, Dr. Jiiiikin's iiiflneiice and elo(juence gave liiin liigh position tiiroiigliuut 
the State. His inherited devotion to educational interests led him into large fields of effort. His 
labors at Danville started the movement and did much to lay firmly the foundations of the Ventral 
Unicersitij of Kentucky, wliich by its rapid growth and rich endowments has asserted a vast power for 
good in the sonthwestern section of onr country. In the position of Chancellor of the University for a 
short period, and as Moderator for the Synod, expression was given of the regard in which he was held, 
by tiiose who controlled large intluence in Ciinrch and State. From Kentuci<y he removed, in 1876, to 
Cliarleston, Soutli Carolina., to take the pastoral charge of the Glebe Street Presbyterian Churcii, in that 
city, to whicii he had been called by the unanimous vote of its people. He had been preceded in this charge 
by the renowned pulpit orator, Dr. Benjamin M. Palmer, now, and for many years, of New Orleans, and by 
Dr. J. L. Girardeau, wliose fervid zeal, eloquence and scholarship have placed him liigh in the public 
esteem, both in his own State and throughout the South. 

During Dr. Junkin's pastorate in Charleston, the (ileiie Street Cliiircii drew into couiuH-tion with 
itself the Central Presltyterian Church of that city. The united body assumed the name of the "West- 
minster Presbyterian Cluireli, wliose imposing church edifice adorn.- the historic old King Street in the 
City by the Sea. Dr. .iunkin's intluence extended throughout the city and State, reaching f:ir beyond 
denomimitional lines. lie was pi'ominently and acti\cly identified \ritli educational and other movements 
of public concern, and when he left his loved Southern home in Charleston — compelled to do so by tiic 
sluttered health of membei's of hi.- family — the Church. High S<-liool, School Boai'd. the civic 
authorities and the city press were loud and earnest in tiieir declarations of regret, anil their 
expressions of admiration and regard. .\fter a rest of a few months in his old Virginia home, 
he was. in Iss'i, greatly to his own surprise, asked to become pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Montclair. His force of char.icter, faithful and able pulpit ministrations, his elo- 
quence and zeal, have won liiin many frieiul.s and assigned him a jilace of prominence and large 
intluence in the community. The aggre.-sive character of his church work has advanced the Presbyterian 
interest, adding a new and tlouri.-hiug Church and a most promising Cha])el work to that denomiiiMtion. 
The degi-ee of LL.D. was conferred on Dr. Junkin during his early ministry in Montelair. in 1 >."i.i Dr. 
Junkin was married to Anna Aylett Anderson, eldest daughter of Judge Francis Thomas Anderson, 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia, where the record of liis opinions ranks 
him with his illustrious fellow statesman, John .Mar-hall. She, like her husl>and, comes of honored 
Revolutionary lineage and churchly Pre.-byterian ancestry. She reaches back through distinguished 
family lines during the Colonial period of \'irginia's hi.story to illustrious antecedents of English blood. 
She is the gran<ldaughter of Andrew Alexander, of N'irginia, oldest brother of Dr. xVrchibald Alex- 
ander, of Princeton Theological Seminary. Ilcr maternal grandfather. William Aylett. was Commissary- 
general in the Revolutiomiry war. Her |)ati'rnal iriandfathcr. William .\nderson, was an active colonel 
in the war of \'S\'l, and also a distimrui.-hed -oldier durins^ the llevolution. In i)oth tiiese wars he was a 

Of Dr. Junkin's seven children five are living, two sons and three daughters. His oldest son, 
Francis T. A. Junkin, is a lawyer in New York City, and the youngest, William Alexander Junkin, a 
student at the Univereitv of Virginia. All the daughtei*s are married. 


It has been .stated that the Sunday school in the State of New Jersey was established as early 
as 181-t in connection with the First Presbyterian Church at Newark, in the house of Kev. Dr. liichards, 
who was then pastor of that church, liut the oldest inhabitants of this section state that in 1813 Michael 
Osborn, an a])prentice of W. Crane, then associated with Israel Crane in the cotton-s})inning mills on 
Tony's Brook, started a Sunday school in Bloonitield in which he was assisted by Gorline Doremus. 

The movement extended to West Bloomfield as early as 1816, and for many years before the First 


Presbyterian Cliurch was organized in West Bloouifield Suiiday-seliool services were lield in the pulilic 
scliool building, and teachers from the First Presbyterian Church of Bloomiield came regularly on Sunday 
afternoons to assist in the work. This was the nucleus of the church and Sunday school, whicli was 
regidarly organized in 1837-8. The first supei'intendent of the new school was J\lr. Warren llnlt, who 
at that time was a teacher in the district school. He was succeeded by Ellas B. Crane, John Munn and 
J. B. Wheeler. The ohl scliool room wliicli formed the lecture room of the new churcli was used for the 
Sunday school. After the changes were made in the old building and a more suitable room was provided 
for the Sunday school, Mv. Williaiu S. Morris Ijecanie superintendent. Mr. Philip Doremus, who was 
one of the original scholars of tlie school, returned to his native place in 1848, after an absence of several 
years, and entered the school as a teacher, and in 1853 became superintendent. He had long been con- 
nected with a prominent church and Sunday-school in Brooklyn, and was thoroughly imbued with the 
advanced ideas of that period, the most important of which was Sunday-school missionary work. He 
introduced this and many other improvements, which proved of great and lasting benefit to this school. 
During his administration Mr. Wm. B. Bradbury, the famous author of Sunday-school hymn books, and 
the manufacturer of the piano which bears his name, was a frequent visitor to this school, and assisted 
in drilling the children in singing the tunes from his own books, which had been adopted by the school. 

An event of interest at this time connected with the failing health of Mr. Bradbury, and expressing 
the warm attachment to him by the school, is worthy of mention. 

On a beautiful Sabbath in June, at nine o'clock in the morning, the school assembled at the church, 
and, after forming in line, headed by the superintendent, marched in procession to the Mountain House, 
where Mr. Bradbury was then boarding. He was seated in an invalid chair at one end of the large parlor. 
The scliool formed in a circle about him and sang several choice selections from his own collection of Sun- 
day-school hymns. The children then passed him in single file as they left the room, each one presenting 
him with a bouquet with their best wishes. It was a touching scene, which left its impress on the hearts 
of the children, while this "sweet singer of Isi'ael '" shed tears of joy and gladness, and carried with him 
these delightful memories as he passed through the dark valley, and the refrain of the children's songs 
was doubtless heard on the " other side " as he entered the eternal abode. 

Mr. Doremus was connected with the school for nearly forty years — fifteen of which was as super- 
intendent. During his faithful labors as teacher and superintendent, hundreds were added to the church 
from the ranks of the Sabbath school, many of whom have since become teachers in this and other schools. 
He was succeeded by Dr. H. H. Lloyd, who conducted the school with marked intelligence, interest and 
success, up to the time of his decease. Mr. Samuel Wilde, who had efficiently served the school as 
President of the Sunday-school JVlissionary Society, was chosen to succeed Dr. Lloyd, and, in his new 
relations, evinced the same zeal and devotion that characterized his previous work. His individual 
resources and extensive ac(|uaintance with iironilnent Christian workers in different parts of the country, 
enabled him to contribute much to tlie public exeicises of the school at its anniversary meetings and 
Christmas entertainments. 

He was succeeded by Thomas B. Graham, who for a munber of years did excellent service for the 
school by the introduction of new methods which were prosecuted with prudence and energy. 

Dr. George Hawes was the next superintendent and conducted the affairs of the school very satis- 
factorily to the church, particularly in the study of the shorter catechism, and a higher class of Sunday- 
school nuisic. His death occurred while still holding this position, and his loss was severely felt both by 
the church and school. 

Elder Thomas Russell was the unanimous choice of the school as his successor, and for many years 
discharged the duties with fidelity and devotion, and with marked success. The school largely increased 
in numbers during his administration, and a deeper interest in the study of the Word of God was devel- 
oped, and the school was held in close relationship with the church. He continued in office until the 
autumn of 1890. 

Charles H. Baker was elected suijerintendent in (October, 189U, and held the jjosition until May, 

History of Montci.air Township. 


1893. He was tlioroiiglily qiuilitied for tlic office, haviuii; tilled a similar position in the First Presbyterian 
Church ill Brooklyn. He was also assistant superintendent of the chapel connected witli this church. 

!Mr. liaker resijrned his position as superintendent of this school in May, 1893, and Mr. Thoniiis 
Russell accepted the po.sition temporarily. 

The present officers of the school (1894) are: Thomas Russell, Superintendent; J. A. Sanford, 
Assistant Su])erintendent ; Charles H. Baker. Secretary ; Miss Grace Howell, Treasurer ; Jolm Mnrphy 
and William I'eake, A.«sistant Librarians. 

The school numbers at the present time :24o, of which 1-lU are in the main school and 35 in the 
primary department. 


The preliminary efforts that led to the organization of this cluircJi were l)Cirnn in tiie summer of 
lS8ti. The tir>t meeting was he]<l on August 17th, at the residence of L). V. Harrison. There were 

]>resent at this meeting: I). Vincent Harrison, Abra- 
liam Bussing, William I.. Ludlam. I'Mward S. Smith, 
Kobert Lj. Hutchinson. Dr. .lolm .1 11. Love, E. Au- 
gustus Smith, Charles li. ^lorris and I'iiilip Doremus. 
A committee consisting of ^lessrs. Harrison and Dore- 
nnis was appointed to prepare a petition to the Presby- 
tery of Newark, for the organization and secure the 
ncci'ssarv sijinatnres. 

\t a meeting held at the iiouse of Mr. Harrison, 
Saturday evening, Oct. id, 1SS<;, reported the follow- 
ing i)ctition, signed by fifty-eight church members: 

'• To TiiK Presbyteky of Newakk. — We, whose 
names are subscribed, residents of Montclair, respect- 
fully beg leave to make the following presentation to 
your body. After long and careful deliberation, it 
ha.s become our conviction that the time has come for the organization of another Presbyterian Church in 
Montclair. In forming this opinion and seeking to give it effect through your authority we believe we 
are prayerfully seeking the interest of Christ's Kingdom in our community. We believe the best interests 
of our denomination require that the action now contemplated and sought from you should be no longer 
delayed. We therefore petition that your honorable body will take such steps a,s are requisite for the 
organization of a new Presbyterian Church in ilontclair at your earliest practical convenience. 

•• .MoMcr.AiK, New Jersey, Aug. is, ISSfi." 

The ])etition was granted by a unanimous vote of the Presbytery, and at a meeting held in the 
old Presbyterian church, on Thursday evening, Oct. 14th, it was duly organized by the Presbytery of 
Xewark, with fifty-eight members, fifty-seven on certificates (mostly from the Presbyterian Church in 
Montclain, and one on profession of faith, under the name of "Trinity Presbyterian Church of Mont- 

The following certificates were placed in the hands of the commissioners: 

John J. II. Love, Francis J. Love, Edith Love, Philip Uoremus, Hester A. Doremus, Carrie S. 
Doremus, Adah N. Doremus, Annette C. Goodell, S. C. G. Watkins, Mary Y. Watkins, Caroline 
Doremus, Martha M. Doremus, JIary K. Doremus, Julia ^. French, Albert French, Caroline French, 
H. C. Dabney, D. Ileber Baldwin, Effie K. Baldwin, Eveline P. Munn, Abbey M. Munn, Josephine 
French, William L. Ludlam, x\nna R. Ludlam, Frances W. Priest, Martha B. Priest, S. Maud W. 
Priest, Daniel Y. Harrison. Frances P. Harrison, Benjamin Y. Harrison. Peter A. Tronson, M. Ilattie 

I M'.Y I K.KIAN I }l 

70 History of Montclair Township. 

Tronson, Samuel T. Stewart, Marv C. Stewart, Julia T>. Douolass, Charlotte Isabel Bavles, Edward S. 
Smith, Arabella G. Smith, Charles B. Morris, Fannie L. Bacon, Carrie A. "Williams. Eliza il. Morris, 
Mary C. Meade, Harriet ]\I. Meade, Samuel C. Mnnn, Abraham Bussing, Emma F. Bussing, Alice C. 

From the First Congregational Church, Montclair : Eobert G. Hutchinson. Alniira Hutchinson, 
Robert G. Hutchinson. 

From the Congregational Church in Wells River, Vt. : Clara B. Morris, wife of C. B. Morris above. 

From the Caldwell Presbyterian Churcli. Caldwell. X. J.: Mrs. Sarah ^Montanye. Miss Alice 

From the Reformed Church. Little Falls. N. J.: Mrs. Ella Obrien Munn. wife of Joseph W. 

From the Brooklyn Tabernacle Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.: Mrs. Elizabeth C. Mead. 

From the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N". Y.: Miss Sarah "W. Walker. 

Miss Marie ilargucrite Tronson united with the churcli on profession of faith. 

An election for Elders at this time resulted in the election of D. Y. Harrison for a term of three 
years, and Philip Doremus for two years, both of wliom were duly installed. 

By permission of Presbytery the church provided for its pulpit and Prof. Francis L. Patton, D.J)., 
of Princeton, X. J., was engaged by the Society to preach for them until a pastor could be .secured. 

The first regular service was held in Montclair Hall, October 17th, the Sabbath following the day 
of organization. 

The iirst baptism took place Sabbath morning, December 12, 1886, being that of Annie 
Yarrington "Watkins. born January 2S, 1SS3, daughter of Dr. S. S. G. "Watkins, and granddaughter of 
Pliili]) Doremus. 

The Society very soon jiurehased property containing about one and a quarter acres on the corner 
of Yalley Road and Church Street, at a cost of s7,."j(>0, on which a frame building -iO by 08 feet was 
erected, fronting on Churcli Street, with a seating capacity of 350 persons. The cost of building, 
inchiding furniture, ii.xtures, etc., was S.5,781. The entire cost was $13,281. Of this amount §8,30(> 
was rai.sed by subscription, leaving a balance of §4.075. wiiicli was secured by mortgage on the ])roperty. 

The chapel was opened for pulilic worship Jfay 29, 1887. Dr. Patton supplied the pulpit at 
intervals imtil the summer of 1888, wlien a call was extended to Rev. Orville Reed, and he was duly 
installed as pastor on the evening of October 11, 1888. 

The first auxiliary society organized was that of the " Ladies Church Home Society," in 1887, 
its object being " the social development and material interest of the clinrch." 

The total amount I aised the first year for regular expenses and benevolent purposes was §3,263. 
The second year the total amount raised was §12,395.58, which included tlie subscriptions to the church 
building fund. The amount rai.sed the third year was §-1,517. In 1890, §5,350. In 1891 the total 
sum was §9,115.-42, of whicli §1,732.28 was contributed to Home and Foreign Missions. An organ was 
also purchased for the church at a cost of about §3,000. In 1892 the amount raised was §7,347.55, 
of which §2,284.08 was for benevolent purposes. In 1893 the total sum was $7,678.64, of which 
$1,890.71 was for benevolent purposes. 

In 1887 the additions to the membership were 6, making total of 64. In 1888, there were 2 
on profession of faith and 19 on certificate. In 1>89, there were 2 on profe.ssion of faith and 16 on 
certificate; 2 dismissed; liaptism of infants, 2. In 1890, there were 6 on profession of faith and 15 
on certificate ; 6 dismissed. In 1891, there were 10 united on profession of faith and 4 on certificate. 
In 1892, there were 10 received on profession of faith and 12 on certificate; 3 dismissed. In 1893, there 
were added by letter 12, and 4 on confession ; 3 dismissed and 2 deceased. The total membership at the 
close of 1893 was 158. 

The present officers of the church are: Elders, Philip Doremus, Benjamin Strong, Daniel ^^ 
Harrison, Edwin Ferris. E. A. Smith; Clerk. Benjamin Strong: Treasurer, Edwin Ferris. 

History of Montclair Township. 71 

Trustees. — Dr. John .1. II. I.ovp, President. D. H. Baldwin, Secretary, "William L. Ludlani. 
Treasurer, Edwin B. (Toodell, "William Y. Buirle, Dr. S. ('. G. AVatkins, Adrian O. Sclioonmaker. 

Auxilianj Socledt'f. — Ladies" Clnircli Home Society, "Woman's Foreign ilissionarv Society, Woman's 
Home Missionary Society, Young People's Society of f 'liristian Endeavor, Cliildren's Mission Band, Boys' 

SlXDAY St[[(llir,. 

The Sunday school was organized inmiediately after the first Sabbath morning service with a 
membership of fifty, and Mi-. William h. Ludlam was cho.sen Superintendent, wjio. with the exception 
of one year, has continued up to the present time. 

Tiie school has steadily increased in numbers and interest under his able management. The 
report for 1892 shows a total of 10 teachei-s, 18!) scholars, and an average attendance of 72. Number 
added to the church from the school, 17. Number of volumes in the library. 2.50. 

Present OjjJrers. — William L. Ludlam, Su])erintendent, William Whitney Ames, Secietarv and 
Treasurer, W. Leslie Ludlam, Jr., Assistant, W. E. Strong. Librarian. 

Bf\. Okvii.i.k Reeu. 

Trinity Presbyterian Church was fortunate in its selection of K(\. ( >rville IJeed as its tirst i>astor, 
a man whose training and experience eminently titled him for the work of building up a new interest in 
a field of labor where the denomination he represents has held sway for more than a hundreil years. Mr. 
Reed comes of Puritan-HoUand-Diitch ancestry. He is tlie youngest of four brothers, all of whom are 
ministers of the gospel. His patenial ancestor was probably John Reed, of Norwalk, Conn.. \\ liu caiiu' from 
England in Itliin. He had served in the army of the Commonwealth, and at the restoration of Charles 
II. he left England with many others. He entered the army at the age of sixteen, and had risen to office 
in which he gained di.<tinction for .some heroic service. In IT'ln four of his grandchildren, James, Ezra, 
Elijah and Eiiakim settled in Armenia, N. Y., and became tiie |>rojectors of this branch of the family. 

On his mother's side Rev. Mr. Reed is des'-ended from the Aliens of Coniu'Cticut, and Abnmi 
Jac(il( I^ansing, the founder of Lansingburg. Mr. Reed was prepared for college by a private tutor, and 
entered the Sophomore of "^'ale in 187-1 and was graduated in 1^77. lie afterward taught for a 
year in the High School at Troy, and then entered I'nion Theological Seminary, wiiere he sjjent two 
years, and was then sent abroad as tutor in Robert College, Constantinople. This gave hiiTi the 
o])portunity to travel aiui aecjuaiut himself with the cu.--toms of the East. He remained abroad three 
vears returning in the autuum of 1SS3, and was graduated in Auburn Seminarv in ISSI. 11 is first 
pastoral work was at Springfield,, where he had charge of two mission chapels connected « ith the 
Congregational Church of that ]>lace. Later, he became as.sociate pa-stor of Hope Congregational Cinircli. 
He continued his laboi-s there until the summer of 18S8, when he acce])ted a call from the Trinity 
Presbyterian Church, and was soon after installed as its pastor. He was cordially received by the pastors 
of other denominations and given a hearty welcome by the community. He is faithful and earnest as a 
preacher, aiul the church has had a steady and healthy growth under his pastorate. He has been in 
hearty .sym])athy with and labored earnestly for the several reform and benevolent movements tliat have 
been organized from time to time in the community. 

ilr. Reed married in 1884 Caroline ^fargaret. daughter of Dr T. L. Byiugtoii. of Coustantinoi)le, 
missionary to the Bulgarians. She is a native of Adrianople and was a teachei- in tiie American College 
for young ladies at Scutari, opposite Coustantinople. 


The movement which led to the establishment of this church was begun in 1889, by the First 
Presbyterian Church, and was tlie outcome of a desire on the part of the Presbyterian churches to 
extend their work into the section of Montclair nortli of Walnut Street. They recognized the fact that 

72 History of jMoxtci.aik Township. 

all the c'liiii'clies were centred Mnniiid Bludiuiield Avenue, and tliat tlie newer fiection was without a 

During 1SS9 a collection was taken np in the First Preshyterian Church every Sabbath evening; 
this collection formed a nucleus of a fund with which to start the new enter|)rise, and early in 1890 the 
work was pushed forward. A joint committee of the two churches, consisting of Dr. Junkin and Mr. 
Wilson W. Smith, of the First Church, Eev. Orville Reed and Mr. Philip Doremus, of Trinitj 
Clairch, took steps to organize the work. Through the kindness of the officers of the Greenwood Lake 
Railroad, the waiting room of the Montclair depot was secured as a temporary place of meeting until 
such time as a suitable building could be secured. 

The first meeting was held at the depot on Sabbath afternoon, June 22d, 1890, and the services 
were conducted by Rev. AVilliam F. Junkin, D.D., of the F'irst Presbyterian, and Eev. Orville Reed, of 
the Trinity Presbyterian Church. 

On the following Sabbath, June 29th, Mr. Henry A. Strohmeyer was elected Superintendent, and 
Mr. Raymond S. Pearce, Secretary. There wei'e present forty-one scholars and eighteen teachers. The 
school continued to meet in the depot until Dec, 1S9(>. 

A choice building lot on the corner of Chestnut and F'orest Streets was presented to the Society 
by INfr. Alfred J. Crane, and on this a chapel was erected, which was formally dedicated on Sunday, 
Jan. 19, 1891. Dr. Junkin preached the dedicatory sermon, and Rev. Orville Reed made the dedication 

Architecturally the chapel is a thorough success, effective in its outlines, and symmetrical in its 
prop(_irtions ; the interior pi-esents an artistic appearance, and is well an-anged with a view to comfort and 
convenience. The pulpit is of carved oak, and is an elegant jiiece of work ; it is a memorial of Mr. 
Ilirani Littell, who was for many years an honored ruling elder in the F'irst Presljyterian Church. 

The church has been financially self-sustaining sir.ce the autunin of 1891, and in October of that 
year, Rev. F. N. Rutan was engaged to preach. On Peb. 15, 1892, it became a separate and distinct 
organization, under the name of Grace Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Rutan was called to be its regular 
pastor, March 1, 1892. The total membership at this time was ()7, and the following were the first 
officers elected : Elders. — H. Y. Torrey, C. A. Cook, P. P. Zeiger, (4. S. Jellerson. Becwons. — H. A. 
Strohmeyer, T. J. Selever, William Clubb. Trustees. — P. P. Zieger, N. D. "Wyman, A. J. Crane, 
G. M. Johnstone. Trusteex. — F. P. Zieger, N. D. Wyman, A. J. Crane, G. M. Johnstone, I. Campbell. 

The present officers are: Elderx. — II. T. Torrey, C. A. Cook, II. A. Strohmeyer, G. S. Jellison. 
Deacons.— T. J. Selever, William < Mnbb, X. 11. Cook. Trustees.— y^. D. AVyman, Alfred J. Crane, G. M. 
Johnstone. R. Smith. James II. Renshaw. 

The total number enrolled in the Sabbath school is 2.5(), of which there are officers, 4, teachers, 
21, and scholars, 225. 


Although the birth of Methodism in Rloomfield and West IJloomtield can only be traced back 
some eighty odd years, there is little doubt but that the '' circuit rider," — whose circuit often extended 
over a territory from fifty to one hundred miles, — held at different times meetings in this locality, and 
that the seed thus scattered by the wayside, in due course of time, bore fruit which formed the nucleus of 
the first Methodist church within the limits of the present township. 

]Most of the facts in connection with the history of this organization are embodied in an historical 
sketch delivered by Rev. J. I. Poswell, in 1879, before a large assemblage, "in the last service held in the 
(lid building." He says : 

MoNTCLAiE Methodism. 

•' About 1SU4 this region formed a small part of Haver.straw circuit, and was under the charge of 
Rev. Barney Matthias. The circuit was of great extent, and the preacher rode from place to place, 
preaching in school-houses, in private houses, and frequently in barns. The ]io[)ulatiun was small and 

HlST()RV OF MONTCI.AIR TowxsHir. 73 

■scatterefK and the preacher enjoyed lianl work and small pay. It was the day when sacrifices were 
made, tlie precious fruits of whicli we are now reaping. At the (piarterly meeting held at the ham of 
Martiny II()geneaiiip"s. near tlie ])ond in darkstown. Rockland f'onnty. X. Y., on Saturday, the 1st of 
November, 180.>, tliere is an account of moneys received from tlie ditferent classes. The amount received 
was $35.24, and tlie faithful preacher received as his salary for a quarter of the year, §27.68, with which 
he mounted his horse and rode on his way rejoicing. 

"In 1811 the circuit was divided and this region became a part of Bergen circuit, and was 
miller the charge of two preachers, whose names alone survive. This circuit was wide in extent, and the 
two jtreachers were not in the least danger of dying for lack of something to do. It included such 
places as Orange, then called Orange Furnace (or factory), Ilaverstraw and Nyack, in Ilockland 
County, X. Y., and Fort Lee, Paterson aiul Newark, X. J. The mention which we have of Bloom- 
field is in the year 181". In August of the preceding year — ISlfi — Bergen circuit held a quarterly 
conference. X^ewark jiaid in at this conference for the su]>port of the two preachers, *7.()'i ; Paterson, ^1 ; 
Ilaverstraw, §0.S7i ; and Bloomfield now makes its first a])pearance with S4.16 in its hand. The entire 
amount rai.sed was ?iit2.51, of which nearly one-third was raised by ])ublic collection. Bergen circuit 
formed a part of the East Jersey District, wliich district included such places as Trenton, Stroudsburg, 
Pater.son and Staten Island. It was attached to the l'hiladeli)liia conference, wliich in those days 
included Xew Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and a large part of Pennsylvania." 

In the year 1813. a young man named Michael Osborn was a|)prenticed to W. Crane, a joint 
proprietor with Israel Crane and others in the cotton spinning mills located near the present site of the 
vacant Wheeler mill just off from Bloomfield Avenue, where the I).. L. iV: W. R.K. crosses if. lie became 
acquainted with another young man named fiorlinc Dorenius : and. both anxious to do good, they 
resolved to organize a Sunday .school. .Several of the parents objected as they thought that the (l;iy sch(»ol 
was sufficient. The .school was, however, opened with eight scholars, and met in the school-house which 
stood where the Presbyterian Church of Bloomfield now stands. (This antedates the Sundny school of 
the First Presbyterian Church of Newark, which claims to be the oldest Sunday .-chool in Xew Jersey.] 
The school grew rapidly. The school attached to the church which was then located in Wall Street. 
Xew York City, of which young Osborn was a mend)er, nuule a donation of books and tracts. In a 
short time Osborn left the place to receive an education and finally entered the ministry. Doremus 
left the school and soon after this he withdrew from the Presbyterian Church and connected himself 
with the A[ethodist Society. " The Society, which was feeble, met in a .small .stone church wliich was 
erected about 1S18, and stood on the Paterson Road near P)ay Lane. It was torn down in 1853 and a 
portion of its materials used in building the jiresent Bloomfield Ciiurch. Meetings were held not only 
here but in the upper part of Garrabrant"s wagon manufactory, and in the old house at the corner of 
Old Road and Bay Lane. On one occasion a young man stood u]> to preach a sermon. He was timid, 
for it was his trial sermon, and by it he wits to be judged whether lie was a suitable person to enter the 
ministry. He preferred to stand in front of the the pulpit and not in it. He was of delicate form and 
his voice was weak ; l)Ut he gave the message of Oud to the iieojJe and he was licensed to prtacli. A 
great mission was before him, for in 1844 he was elected a Bishop of the Church, and for thirty-three 
years Bishop Edmund S. Janes did grand and faithful work and, dying, left ])eliind him the reputation 
of being the most effective Bishop wliich the Methodist Episcopal Church in America has ever had." 

The Episcopal Cliurch at Montclair was an outgrowth from that at liloomfield, as the 
Bloomfield Church was from that of Belleville. The three churches were on one wide circuit, and 
churches at Belleville. Bloomfield. Montclair and Orange were organi-ced in order. Tlie early J^loomtield 
Church worshiped for some years in the of Mrs. Naomi Cockfair, north of the Morris neighlior- 
hood, previous to the erection of the stone church above Bay Lane. Meetings were held in the western 
part of the town about 1817, at Joel Crane's house across the turnpike from where Leist's hotel now stands. 
"Wood meetings" were also held south of the Joel Crane house at about the same time. In 1827 
James Wilde and family came from Saddleworth, Lancashire, England, and established a woolen factory 

74 lIlSIOKV (II- MoNrCI.MK 'I'ltWN'SllII'. 

in tlic Isi'iu'l rraiio mill. Diirini;; llic cMrly vciirs Ivov. Isaiic WimuT, wlm sii|)|)lioil flic circuit, organized 
a cliiircli in ( )rani;'o, in which Henry Wilde, o( West iiloouilicld, was a tiaistee. The Wildes wore 
oriLjinall V ( "Inircli ef Ellijiand |)e(>|ile, Init I he sectmd M rs. ^\' ildc had liecdnie a Wesleyan in JMitiland. The 
earlier portion of the AVilde liunily esi)eciall\ .Inlm, w ho w as a son of .lames iiy his tirst wife — gave 
assistance in the or<;'ani/,atioii of St. i.nkc's I'lpiscojial ( 'Imrch. luit the lattei- jiortion sn|)i)ortcd the AFctliodist 
org'anization. The streuiith, iherel'ore, in the tcnvii was traiisfei-red lo the vicinitv of the factories. The 
Washington School-house was erected in the immediate vicinity by James AVilde. tlu' elder. Tlie first 
.sermon in it was ]>reached \>\ the ilev. John Kennedy. l"ew of tiie eliildren could attend the school as 
they nearly all worked in the mills, so a Sunday schoiJ was organized with Mr. KadclillV' as Superin- 
tendent. Two sessions were held and the i-oom was fidl of scholars. There was also preaching service 
ever\ Sunday afternoon. Keading and writing wci'c taught, as well as the I'ihleand catechism, and parents 
and children alike attendiMJ. When the day school was cstid)lished seculai' instruction was omitted in 
the Sundav school. Here the sehoiJ met until the erection of the present church Imildiiig in iSI'a! (now 
occupit'd by the ciJored M. V.. (hni'i'li. on liloomlicld .\\('mu'\ when the school was transferred to the 
gallery (»f the chur'ch. 

" ( )ii j-'cbiaLary "JUlh, iS'_'S. at ;i meeting of the male meiidiers, the following persons were duly 
elected Trnstees (the tirst Tiaistees of the congi-egation'i : John Moore, (lorline Horemns, Josiah \\ . 
Crane, M ichael Cockefair and James \\' ihle. (ioiJine noremus was probably the most useful mendier 
the ehunJi has ever had. for forty-three years he was closely idenlilie(l with its interests, and his name 
constantly ap]iears on t he I'ccords of t he rlmi'ch. I*"or a jioi'tion of that long ]>eriod he was 'I'i'casurer, 
class leader, and Sunday-school teacher, and his house was always open to a Methodist iireacher. He 
died March iMst. IST.'i, at the age of SI years, and on his tond)stone are engraved these words: 'His 
record is on high.' 

"In IS.'lii r.liionilield becanu> the head of the circuit, which included Orange. Woodbridge, and 
several other places. The lirst ipiarti'rly conference was held at l"\iirlield. June I'J. .\nioug those 
pi'(>scnt was the rresiding Mlder. Ke\. ( 'harles i'ilman. who afterward became Mi.ssionary Secretary of the 
Methodist Church. There was jircsiMit alsoasa class-leatler. lulwin I.. Janes, twin brother of liishop Jaiu's. 
and who at this conferiMice received licensi" to preach; and Henry Wilde, a son of James ^\'ilde, who 
acted as secretary for the ipiartei'ly conference fi'om IS.'JO to 1833. (Still living 1S',I4K 

■■ In 1S;>,") the (piarterly conference was formed into a two weeks' circuit with one |nvaclier. and a 
year later Kcv. Mr. Swain was apiiointed to the Orange Society, and from that time Hloonitield was no 
longer a circuit, but I'ose to the dignity ol' a station. 

"In the year lS;il lots were procured for a church and parsonage. The deed shows that the 
money was paid for these lots, but it is said that the ground was given by James Wilile. although the 
amount was not entered in the <lecd. In that same year a contract was made with Michael Cockefair to 
erect a parsonage ata cost of $1,000. It was not mitil live vn-ars later that the building was ei\'cted. It 
was finished in the antunvn of ISI^C)." 

The pastor at this time was Kev. Waters Ibirrovvs. who was also one of the trustees; he died 
March -I, IS('>1>, aged seventy-nine yi>;irs. 

The church had for many years a financial struggle. The nu'inbers were few in mnnber, and 
many of them able to give but little money. 

In those years the salary of the nuuisters was small. In 1S,");> it was unanimously voted that the 
preat'her should receive a salary of ><;!.")(> a year. In 18()4. when the price of everything was at the 
highest point, the estimate for the preacher was ^tiOO. I'rom that time it advanced to STOO. then 
$1,000. and then to $1.-00. and has since been still further increa.sed. 

The church during its history has raised cousiilerable money for benevolent purposes. The yeai' 
IStiti wai5 known as the Centenary year. Large collections were raised in all Methodist churches to what 
was called the (^entenary fund — to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of tlie tirst sermon 
l>re.'U'hed by a Mefliodist preacher in .\nierica. This ehnrch raised foi- that fund $8('i"i. 

History ok Montci.air Townsiiii'. 


Tlieru liavi- hceii u niimlKT v( revival.- in tlio cluircli. Itiit flic greatest of these was niider the 
])ast«rate of Itev. .lolni Scarlet, in tlie winter of IS.JT-S, wlien a f^reat reviviil spread over tiie wliole 
i-oiintry. Crowded nieetiniis were held nif^ht after ni<rlit for many weeks: flie wliolo town was stirri'd, 
and W persons were added to the clnirch, wliieli then had hut SC. iiienil)ers. 

In 1S5] the >[cthri<lists of Hloonitield hegan to solicit snhseriptions lor the |pnrposc of Imilding ^ 
eiiurch edifice; the Imildintr however was not completed nntil 1853, and the ciinrcii did not iiave a 
separate preacher until the spring of lSi>S. The new organization as a separate l)od\- left tlie old in a 
weakened condition, and for a short time the latter was known as the West Hloomtield .^[ission. The 
great revival referred to however, in 1S.j7-8, added materially to its nunilpcrs. and it tlii'n I.ecatm- known 
as the 

Wkst I'.i.oomkiki,I) N[KTnoi)isT Ei'iscoi'Ai. CniKcn ; aktkk 1S<50, MoNTn.Aiu M. K. ('niiicii. 

I'or several years the snhject of changing the location of the chiinli to ;i more central 
neighhorhood was considered, Imt nothing iletinite wii> acconiplishcd nntil JsT'.". wlicn a lol was 


purchased on the west side of l''ullerton Avenue, north of Hloomtield Avenue, on which was erected a 
handsotne wooden structure. An ani])le par.-onage adjoining the church lot was conij)leted and occupied 
in Novendier, 18H1. The total valuation of the present church property is ahout $30,000. Tlie old 
church edifice was vacated after the last meeting, helil on Sunday evening, Decemher 7, ls7!t, ami since 
18H3 has Iteen occupied hy the colored Methoilists. 

The new church edifice was formally dedicated Decemher 14. 187'.', with appropriate ceremonies. 

Chaplain McCahe led the congregation in jjrayer. and I)r. Hunt read a portion of the '"form pre- 
scribed for the dedication of a church." hy the liook of discipline. The morning scimmoii was j)reached by 
Rev. .J. V. Ilnrst, D.D. 

The statement was made by Chaplain McCabe that the of the chureli, and the land on which 
it stood, was about $10,000. There was at that time a balance due of about $5,0oo. The amount 
subscribed at the morning service was over ^3,000. 

Tt! History of Montci.air Township. 

Chaplain McCabe preached the evening sermon, at which time subscription lists were again 
opened, and tlie total sum raised at this and two previous sessions amounted to 85,234. 

Rev. Dr. Berry of the Presljyterian, and Rev. A. H. Bradford, D.D., of the Congregational Church, 
took part in the ceremonies and spoke encouraging words for the movement. 

The following is a list of those who have served since 1805 : Rev. Jeremiah Cowiiis, 1865 to '67; 
Rev. Jesse Lyman Ilnrlbnrt, 1SG7 to 'C9 ; Rev. Thomson H. Landon, 1869 to '72; Rev. James L. Ayers, 
1872 to '74: Rev. G. W. Smith, 1874 to '77 ; Rev. Jonathan K. Ihirr, ^farch, 1877, to Nov., 1878; left on 
account of sickness; Rev. James I. Boswell, March, 1879, to March, ISSO; Rev. John J. Reed, 1880 to 
1881; Rev. John Crawford, April, 1881, to :\[arcli, 1884; Rev. Morris D. Church, April, 1884. to March, 
1887; Rev. Charles S. Woodruff. April, ls.s7, to :Mareh, 1890; Rev. J. A. Owen, 1890, still continues 

Si'NDAY School. 

From the beginning of the Sunday-school movement in 1813, there have been found faithful 
workers in this church, who from year to year have kept up the interest in tlie school whether pi-each- 
ing services were held or not. The list of those who have been especially prominent in this work 
is incomplete. Gorline Doremus maintained his interest in the school up to the day of his death. 
There was a period of depression in 1855, and a material falling off in numbers. The attendance of 
teachers at that time was from 6 to 12, and of scholars from 4(( to 70. The Superintendent was away 
from home for six months ; the former librarian had left, and. owing to the difficulty experienced in 
warming the building, the school was closed during the winter. In 1858, however. Rev. John Scarlett, 
writes: "The school was never in a more flourishing condition." 

Among those of later years who have been consi)icuous for their zeal and earnestness in the 
Sunday-school work are James Robley, Joseph II. Richards and Stephen A. Tower. James Robley was 
Superintendent from 1859 to 1866, when Joseph H. Richards succeeded him, and who, for thirteen 
years, by his faithful, earnest efforts, lifted the scliool to a high grade. Mr. Rieliards removed to 
Elizabeth in 1879, and was succeeded by Chas. I. Reeves (who had been brought into the church during 
Mr. Richards' service), and who served the school for fourteen yeai's ; who in turn was succeeded, in 1893, 
by Mr. Frank H. Syvelt, the present incumbent. 

The jiresent member.ship of the school is 6 officei-s, 24 teachers, and 134 scholars in the main school ; 
3 teachers and 100 scholars in the Bible classes, and 12 teachers and 77 scholars in the pi-imaiy department ; 
making a total of 353. 


The first church edifice in which the Episcopal Church service was held in this locality was a small 
frame building 25 by 40 feet, in the rear of a deep lot fronting the turnpike, or what is now Bloomfield 
Avenue. This was erected by John Wilde, son of James Wilde, the founder of the Methodist Church in 
the same locality. While the father was a strong believer in the Wesleyan doctrine, John and one or two 
of Ms brothers were firm adherents of the Church of England. The locality selected for the first church 
edifice was in the midst of what was then a manufacturing district. This was in 1846, and there was a 
large and growing 2>opulation in that neighborhood. Later, the " new comers," who were mostly settled 
in the western pnvt of the village, met in this building, and services were held with more or less regularity 
until May, 1858, when it was decided to organize. On Easter Monday, 1860, St. Luke's Parish was form- 
ally constituted by the election of a vestry, and in May following Rev. Henry Marsh was chosen Rector 
and the Rev. George R. Davis Assistant l\[inister. The first wardens were Owen Dorenms and C. St. 
John Seymour, and the vestrymen were Dr. R. F. Brower, Richard Naylor, William II. Ashley, H. N. 
Chittenden and George N. Wright. Mr. St. John Seymour was untiring in his efforts for the church, 
and to him, more than to any other man, the parish owes its existence to-day. Rev. Henry served 

History of Moxtci.air Townshii'. 77 

from >r;iy 11 to N'ovember 5. isc.d. Rev. Geo. R. Davis continiUMl in cluiriie of the parish until tiie 
autumn of 1S62. Services were theu iield by the Eev. J. D. ^fnore and others until October 30, 1864, 
wlieii the Rev. James Chrvstal was chosen Rector. The attendance at this time was small, most of the 
families living at a great distance from the church. The sittings were free, and the expenses were 
mostly borne by members of tlie vestry. It was thought the church would succeed better in some other 
locality, and a site on Fullerton Avenue was thought to be the nii)st desirable, but while the matter was 
under consideration, Mr. Kobert M. ilening, a member of the vestry, offered to give a plot of land on 
what was afterward known as St. Luke's Place. His offer was accepted, and, in addition, he contribiited 
a large amount toward the erection of a church edifice. Others joined in this undertaking, and in 1805 
the corner stone of the new church was laid. It was proposed to build it of stone as the money was 
contributed, and no contract was made for the labor. This proved to be a serious mistake, for before the 
building was half completed the cost had exceeded the original estimates for the entire building. The 
work continued under great embarrassment for a time, and it tinally became necessary to mortgage tlie 
property in order to complete the building. Further advances were made by individual members of 
the vestry, and it was finally finished in .Vjiril, ls7<i. Rev. ^Ir. Chrystal resigned as rector in 1807, and 
was succeeded by Rev. James L. Maxwell, who remained with the church until 1884. During this 
period the church became much einbarra.ssed. the income being insufficient to meet the large interest 
account after paying current e.\pen.«es. The large mortgage, and contingent liability, threatened to 
bankrupt the church. A settlement was tinally effected that scaled down the mortgage and wijied out 
the contingent liability. Tnder this settlement the debt was being gradually rcduc'ed. when Rev. 
Frederick B.Carter became rector of the \\A\ in l^sf. A few years thereafter the entire debt was 
paid off, and as the mend»ership of the churcii increased, the building on St. Luke's Place was found 
to l>e totally inadeijuate to meet the growing demands. At t\i\> juncture, ^Ir. AViiliam Fellowes. a 
parishioner, offered to give the lot on the corner of Fullerton Avenue and I'nion Street. |irovidcd the 
parish would build there, and complete the edifice free of debt. This being agreed to. and Mr. Fellowes 
having further contributed most liberally, the corner stoTie of the present edifice was laid by l>ishop 
Starkey with impressive ceremonies on June 13, ISSf), and on .Vdvmt Sunday. Xovendier 3U, IS'.to, the 
first service was held therein. 

The architect was Mr. R. 11. Robcrt.<on. of New York, and the design is modernized (iothic in 
style, and cruciform in plan; 123 feet in length by 84 in extreme breadth. The building contains a nave 
82 by 44 feet, two transepts, each 40 feet wide by 2n dee]), and a chancel 3S feet deep and 32 wide, 
including an apsidal vaulted sanctuary 14 feet deep, separated from the choir by an arch. The nave and 
transepts are nearly .">(» feet high from floor to ridge. The churcli seats 750 persons, and there is an 
unobstructed view of the chancel, owing to the entire absence of columns — a notable feature. The 
chancel has stalls for fifty choristers. On its northern side is the oi-gan chamber, containing a fine 
three-manual instrument by IIarri.son. having more than 2,000 pipes, and on the southern side is a 
spacious vestry, which is used also as a place of assembly for the choir just before beginning the 
processional, and which communicates with the nearest transept by a wide Gothic double door. Both 
the organ chand>er and the vestry are .separated from the chancel by passageways opening into the nave, 
which are utilized as exits for communicant.-. The robingroom for the choir occupies the full deptli of 
the Iniilding beneath the chancel. 

The nave is lighted at the west by a cluster of five Gothic windows of equal height, surmounted 
by a rose window, and the transepts by similar clusters rising in height toward the centre. The choir 
has two ui>per windows on the soutli, and the apse five, all with glass by Booth, the two nearest tlie choir 
being designs without figures, and the others figures emblematic of Faith, Hope and Charity ; Faith 
and Hope on each side being represented a.s women, while Love, in the centre, is represented by a figure 
of our Lord as the Good Shepherd. The altar and reredos are of commanding design, these and all the 
other chancel furniture, together with the pews, being of antique oak. The pews have been specially 
admired for their design and for their comfortableness. 



Tlie acoustic propertie=^ of tlie cluircli are remarkably good. There are five entrances. On tJie 
north is a churcli porch, wiiich can be entirely shut oil' from the body of tlie Iniilding and from other 
entrances, making it sjjecially convenient for weddings, etc. Another door leads directly into the tower 
and thence both to the porch and to the nave. Tlie carriage entrance is on the south, and on the south- 
east and east there are doors for cleigy and choir respectively. The building is of reddish brown 
sandstone from the Belleville quarries, and the tower, when completed, will rise, with its spire, to the 
height of about 160 feet. The total cost of the property thus far had been about $90,000. 

Being entirely free from debt, the church was consecrated on December 20, 1892. The rector 
iiad appointed Rev. Alexander Mann, of Orange, as master of ceremonies, who marshalled the clergy 
and choir into procession. The clergy folio «-ed P>isho]) Starkey, who had his pastoral staff borne before 
him l)y his chaplain, the Rev. John Keller, as he walked up the middle aisle repeating, with the clergy. 
Psalm xxiv. The instrument of donation was then presented by Mr. L). X. Force, the senior warden of 

the pai'ish. The sen- 
was read by the Rev. 
the rector of the ])ar- 
meneement of Morn- 
made a brief and hap- 
ulation to the congre- 
referred to the beauti- 
parishioners in partic- 
devotion of the vesti'y 
also paid a well deserv- 
for his faithfulness as 
loyalty as a jiriest of 

was said by the Rev. 
Dr. Goukh of Phila- 
Dr. Boggs and Rev. 
sermon was delivered 
bert Tulhot, D. D.. 
and Idaho. It was a 
of the half-forgotten 
be known by its good 
shipping church ; and 
to the congregation 
use of the consecrated 
The bishop of the 
Holy Communion, as- 

bot and Archdeacon Jenvey. The otfei'ings were received for the Parish House and Sunday-school 
building fund. The nnisic was rendered l)y the vested choir of between thirty and forty men and boys 
of St. Luke's, under the direction of Mr. Joseph II. Moore, the organist and choirmaster of the church. 
The work of the choristei's was well done and fully sustained the more than local reputation of Mr. Moore 
as a reverent, scholarly and efficient church musician. 

Among the visiting clergy were the Rev. ^lessrs. Richard Hay ward, Ilai-old Arrowsmith, Frank 
A. Sanborn, M. M. Fothergill, John S. Miller. !•". M. McAllister, of Elizabeth, and I)r Haskins. of 

In 1S92 the old church property was sold to Montclair School District No. s, and with the 
proceeds, and the promise of subscriptions in addition, a parish building was commenced in 1893 
connected by covered cloister with the church. It is expected to be ready on or about Easter. 189-1. 


fence of consecration 
Frederick B. Carter, 
ish. Before tlie com- 
ing Prayer, the bishop 
\)y adtlress of congrat- 
gation, in which he 
ful gifts of one of the 
ular, as well as to the 
of the church, and he 
ed tribute to the rector 
a pastor, and for his 
the diocese to its 
Morning Prayer 
Archdeacon Walker, 
delphia. Dr. Bishop, 
C. S. Abbott. The 
hy the i;t. Rev. Ethel- 
Bishop of Wyoming 
forcil)le presentation 
truth that a church to 
works must be a wor- 
an earnest exhortation 
|iresent to make good 

diocese celebrated the 
sisted by Bishop Tal- 


The building is intended for the Sunday school, chapel and parish house work. It has a seating capacity 
of about 400. and is admirably arranged for these purposes. The architect is ilr. Win. llalsey Wood. 
The estimated cost of the entire property, with church spire and rectory, will \<v about si. 5(1.000, and 
when completed it will he free from debt. For convenience of locatiori, connnanding site, and aduiiiable 
ari'angenients, this property has few ecjuals in the State of New Jei'sey. 

As the jiarish grow the work of the rector increased, so that for a long time he had most vaiuahlo 
help from Mr. Arthur E. Bostwick in the Sunday sclmol, and as lay reader in church services. Mr. 
Bayard Whitehurnc succeeded Mr. Bostwick in the Sunday school in 1892. 

After beginning the parish Imuse it was evident that the work would be greatly augmented, and 
an opportunity otfering. in the fall of 1>>',I3, for .securing a deacon in orders, whose whole time would be 
given, it was decided to engage, as rector's as.sistant, the Rev. Claudius ]\[. Rdome. 

lie entered on iiis duties at once, and later, on Sunday. February 1 1. 1^'.'4. was solemnly ordained 
a priest l)y Bishop Starkey, at morning services. 

The members of the vestry at this time. .March. 1S04. are as follows: Senior Warden. Dexter N. 
Force; Junior Warden. Frcdrrick W . (iwinn ; \'estrymen, Edwin A. Bradley, .lc;cl .lenkins. .lolm T. 
Weeks. Edward (i. Burgess, F. Meriam Wbt-eler. (George I. Wichman. George Batten. 

Till-; CliriM 11 OF TllF lMM.\(ri.ATF CONCEPTION, 

(Roman (yatliolic) is an outgrowth from Itelleville. TJie Kcv. .lolm llogan. pastor of St. Peter's 
Church, Belleville, visited West Bloomtield, as one of his stations, and about 185<> tin- tditice was erected. 
It was located on Washington Street. It continued under the care of the Belleville ])astor till lS*i4. The 
Rev. Titus .loslyn, the first resident i>astor. cauic to the congregation on February litli of that year. 
He was born a Protestant, in Schenectady, N. Y.. and was educated in I'nion College, uiuhr tlic cure of 
his father. Professor .loslyn. of that college. His parents removed to New ^'ork in 1S4I). wiiere lie was 
baptized by Bishoj) Hughes, June 10, 1^4."). lie entered St. Joseph's Seminary, under the Jesuits, in 
1847, wa.s ordained in St. Patrick's Cathedral, in New York, March 13, 1852, ami labored under 
the direction of Archbishop Hughes till he came to the parish — West Bloomfield. He remained pastor for 
over ten vears — till Sei)tend)er ."), Is74. I'nder his direction the church was enlarged, in ls.">6 the tower 
built, and one-half of the present property ])urcha.sed. The jiarish included the Roman Catholic popula- 
tion of Caldwell. Bloomtield and Watse.ssing. 

The Rev. A. M. Steets succeeded Mr. Josyln as pastor from Sejjtendier .">. 1S74, to >Marcli 18, 
1879. During his ])astorate the new rectory, at the corner of Elm and Fulton Streets, was built 
in 1876. 

Rev. Jo.'seph F. Mendl was a[>pointed rector of the parish in .\pril, 1879, by ArchhislKjp Corrigan, 
who was then Bishop of the diocese of Newark. There were at that time about 900 communicants. In 
August, 1898, after a thorough of the parish, it was found tliar there were 1,5211 — an increase of 
nearly sixty-seven jier cent. 

The religious and secular education of the children i)ecame a matter of |)aramount impoi-tance with 
Father .Mendl, and in Septemt)er. l>»M,a parochial school was established, with liln pupils, taught by five 
Sistei-s of Charity, from Madison. N. J. This has now an average daily attendance of 250 pupils. The 
propertv of Bernard Wallace was purchased for the church the same year. 

In 1S7S the Church of the Sacred Heart was organized in Bloomtield, it being an outgrowth 
of the Montclair Church. Caldwell and Tei-oiia, wjiich were formerly included in this parish, were 
subsequently separated, and in 1SS5 I!ev. J. J. Shannessy was appointed the first resident pastor of the 
new church. 

.\t the time of its organization the church on Washington Street was considered to be cen- 
trally located for the population of Montclair and Bloointield, but after tlie organization of the 


History of Moxtci.air Township. 

Bloomlield Churcli it was tlioiiirlit advisable to select a location nearer to the mountain, as the 
new township was crowinji; rapidly in that direction; and in December, 1891, a large building site 
was purchased of Tlieodore Carter on the corner of North Fullerton Avenue and Mnnn Street, for 
the sum of $20,000. Additional land was purchased of J. N. Kudgers, in 1892, adjoining the other, 
for SIO.OOO. 

Plans for au iiiij)osing church edifice were designed by William Schickel, architect, of New York, 
and ground was broken in May, 1892. The corner stone was laid October 21, 1893, the ceremonies being 
conducted liy the Right Eev. W. i\r. Wigger, D.D. The sermon on that occasion was preached by Rev. 
J. J. Synnott, D.D., a mendier of the parish, and the first American .student who received the degree of 
D.D. at the Catholic University in Innsbruck, Tyrol, in ISST; he is at present Professor of Theology at 
Seton Hall College, South Orange, N. J. 

The basement of the new church was finished and covered with a temporary roof, and dedicated 

on Decoration Day, 1893, 
AViggei-. The first ser- 
worsliip was held on the 
The basement has a seat- 
people. It is Iniilt of 
and cost $26,000. 
ure of the completed 
esque, clear-story, of 
the tower to be located at 
lertou Avenue and ^luuii 
frontage on North Fuller- 
and 178 feet in depth, 
building, complete, is 

Two insurance societies 
the pari,sh, — one, a branch 
lent Legion, " Fat be ]■ 
another. Branch 426, of 
America, in November, 

Joseph FhancisMenj)!., 
tlie Imniacniate Concep- 
bruck, Tyrol, Austria, 
educated in the Gymna- 
four years in the study of 
dained a priest July 2.5, 
sent on a mission as assist- 
ing oiit of the Austria- 
Italy allied against Aus- 

as chaplain in the Austrian Army with the commission of Ca])tain, being at the time the youngest 
priest in the diocese. At the close of the war he returned to the mission, and in 1869 went to the 
American College,* Louvain, Belgium, as prefect, remaining two years, until October, L871, when he 
came to this country and was appointed cui-ate of St. Peter's Church, Newark, in October, 1872; he 
was then sent to St. Paul's Church, Jersey City, as pastor, continuing until 1878. On Christmas, 1878, 
he came to Montclair, and assumed his present charge. Under his pastorate the cinn-ch rapidly increased 
in membership, necessitating, in 1881, the building of a gallery, with an additional seating capacity of 
300. There was then a debt on the church of $16,000, which has since been liquidated, and large 

thh; church of ihf. immaculatk conception. 

by Right Rev. W. M. 
vice in the new place of 
first Sunday in J une, 1893. 
ing capacity for 1,000 
Belleville brown stone. 
The style of architect- 
church is to be Roman- 
Belleville brown stone, 
the corner of North Ful- 
Street. It will have a 
ton Avenue of 75 feet. 
The estimated cost of the 

have been established in 
of the Catholic Benevo- 
Steets's Council," in 1 888; 
the Catholic Knights of 

rector of the Church of 
tion, was born in Inns- 
March 17, 1813. He was 
sium in Brixen, and spent 
theology. He was or- 
1865, and immediately 
ant curate. At the break- 
Prussian war (Prussia and 
tria), in 1866, he served 

* Archbishop Riordan, of San Francisco, Archbishop Janssens, of New Orleans, Bishop Spalding, of Peoria, Ul., Bishop Vander Vy ver, of Richmond, 
Va., Bishop Maas, of Covington, Ky., Bishop Brondel, of Helena, Montana, and about 500 priests of this country were graduates of this college. 



additional suius l•ai:^ed for the erection of tlic new flmrch edifice. Tiie amount was raised liv liiin 
largely among the poorer classes, the total amount exceeding S+(»,000. He established tlie jiiuocliial 
school and gave up his own elegant residence on Elm Street for that jiurpose. He is Ueloveil liy liis 
people, respected and honored in tlie community, and devnteij to tlie iiitoicsts of liis cliurcli. 

Till-: FiijsT ('()X<;i;i;(;ati<>nai. ciiriicii of ciiihst. 

Tiiis ( linrcli and Society, aithougli of recent origin. ii;iving l)een cstaUlit-lied long after the 
founding of tlie i)resent town of Montdair. has grown to he not o]ilv the hirgest in the township, but, 
with one exception, the largest church in the State — having a nieniheishii) of over 7<mi. Its history covers 
a period of nearly a ipiarter of a century, all under one pastorate. That its denuniinational views are in 
harmony with the sentiments of the community is evinced liy its steady growth, the character of its 
memltership, and the far-rcaeliing results of the work accomplished liy it. Though one of the youngest 
churches in this connnunity it is one of the oMe.-t in the State. Tiie motto inscribed on tlie title ])age 

triinxfulit s"><tinet — 
the past and present 

movements which led 
this chnrcli are briefly 
ical Sketch. isTH— 
the " Manual of the 
(huvch of Christ, 
IMMi,'" as follows : 
of the Church having, 
the hearts of many in 
to worship (iod, and 
miinc together in ac- 
princijdes laid down 
ment. and with the 
l!iigland Fathers, a 
ence to this end was 
December, A.D. 
of Joseph ]]. ]5eadle, 
i ng persons were pres- 
'i'liomas H. Boudcn, 
1). Crosby, Sannu'l 
Holmes, David B. 
.lohnson, Edward S. 
Snyder, Samuel W. 
Wilde. Jr. At this 
interchange of views, 
resolved : That, be- 

of this work — Q"i 
is demonstrated by 
history of this denoui- 

The preliminary 
to the organization of 
stated in an " Ilistor- 
1SS3," i)ul)lished in 
First Congregational 
Mo n t c 1 a i r, N. J.. 

'•The(ireat Hca.l 
as we trust, ]Mit into 
this region, the desire 
to act, and to com- 
cordance with the 
in the New Testa- 
practice of our New 
meeting with refer- 
held on the Istii ot 
at which the bJlow 
ent: Joseph J>eadle. 
Samuel Boyd. Samuel 
Holmes, AVilliam I!. 
Hunt, Charles 11. 
Pinuey, Theodore L. 
Tubbs and Samuel 
meeting after a full 
it was iinanitnously 

lieving that the interests of the of Christ in this place demand the organization of a new Church 
and Society, we do pledge to each other our mutual and hearty su])p(jrt in such an A com- 
mittee on organization was then appointed, consisting of Samuel Holmes, Charles H. Johnson, Samuel 
Wilde, Jr.. Joseph B. Beadle aiul Edward S. l^inney. 

This committee made a report January 17. 1S70, reconmiending a call for a meeting for organization, 
which was adopted. The following ]iersons were then adiied to the Committee: Julius H. Pratt, James 
B. Pearson, and Kev. Daniel S. Rodman. 


82 History of Montclatr Township. 

At a meeting lield on the 20th of January, ISTO, the Society was organized, and the following 
persons were elected Trnstees: Samuel Holmes, Joseph B. Beadle, Chsirles IT. Joliiison, Edward Sweet, 
Samuel Wilde, Jr., and Julius II. Pratt. 

At this meeting Mr. Julius II. Pratt, hv request, read a paper entitled " ]\Iontclair Prior to the 
Organization of the Coiigreeational Church." in which lie clearly established the " prior claims" of this 
'•new Church and Society." .\fter briefly reviewing the history of the other religious denominations of 
Montclair, and his own work in connection with them, he says: "As Congregationalists we are not 
intruders, and we make no apology for being here, for we come only to claim a long neglected inherit- 
ance which is ours by indisputal)le right." 

Referring to the little band of Connecticut colonists — 30 in mimher — under the leadership of liev. 
Abraham Pierson, who separated from the Church of Branford because of their unwillingness to accept 
the doctrine of the "• half-way covenant," and remoyed to Kew Jersey, landing on the west shore of the 
Passaic, at a place which they named " Xeworke " — new work — meaning the "new enterprise," Mr. 
Pratt says : " I haye alluded to the extinct race of Congregationalists who once dominated the 
greater part of the State of New Jersey, and our time may he profitably employed in a rapid glance 
at the liistory of the ]Siew England jjilgriins ^yllO first settle<l in this i-egion wlien it was a primitive 

After a brief review of the events connected with their settlement ]\[r. Pratt says : '' One of the 
earliest public acts performed by this Puritanic Colony was the formal signing oi' the document entitled 
'Fundamental Agreement,' liy tU heads of families, which document is still preserved among the public 

The agreement sets forth the desire of the Colonists "to he of one heart and consent through God's 
blessing, that with one hand they may endeavor tlie carrying on of i^piritital concernments, as also of 
spiritual affairs according to God and a Godly government.'' 

This original Declaration of Independence as to man and dependence on God declares (see "Atkin- 
son's History of Newark") : 

Deut., i : 13. T " 1st. That none shall be admitted freemen or free burgesses within our town upon 

nl°.''J',)^;" 1? !■ Passaic, in the Province of New Jersey, but such planters as are members of some or 
Jerem., xxx : 21, J other of the Congregational churclies. 

" Nor shall any but such be cho.sen to any magistracy or to carry on any pai-t of said civil judica- 
ture, or as deputies or assistants to haye jiower to vote in establishing laws, and making or repealing 
them, or to any chief military trust of office. 

" Nor shall any but such chnrcli members have any vote in any such election." 

The four Scriptural references in the foregoing are as follows: 

" Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and 1 wiil make them rulers 
over you" (Deut., i : 13). 

" ^Moreover thou shalt provide out of all 1he people, able men, such as fear God, men of truth, 
hatincj covetousness ; and place such over them to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers 
of fifties, and rulers of tens '' (Exodus, xviii : 21). 

'■ Thou shalt in any wise set him King over thee, whom the Lord thy God shall choose: one from 
among thy lirethren shalt thou set King over thee : thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not 
thy brother"' (Deut., xvii : 15). 

" And their nobles shall be of themselves and their Governor shall ]iroceed from the nudst of them" 
(Jer., xxx : 21). 

"Among the signatures to this Congregational charter are the names of Crane, Pierson, Ward, 
Harrison, Davis, Bauldwin, Morris, and others whose descendants became a century later, and have ever 
since continued, the standard hearers and pillars of the Presbyterian Church of New Jersey. No human 
purpose was ever more clearly defined than that of these early settlers to adhere rigidly to the Congrega- 
tional faith and order. 

History ok Montclaik TowNsiiir. 


"It is a curious question, not fully exi^laiiu-d hv any historical records. How did it happen tliat in 
less than 1.30 years all the early vows of devotion to Congregational ideas had become broken, and all 
these churches professing that faith had been swe]>t into the vortex of Presbytcrianisni. an organization 
which struck its first roots into the New Jersey .-oil fifty years after the a<lvent of the (Connecticut 
Colony '■ " 

ilr. Pratt then reviews the history of Presbyterianisin. and shows how l>y degrees Congregationalism 
became united with ami gradually merged into Presbyterianism. Continuing, he says: 

"This fatal union which soon embraced all, ur nearly all, the churches founded by the Congrega- 
tionalist settlers in New Jersey proved to be the union of the lion and the lamb, with the lamb inside, 
which by the succession proces.-;cs of deglutition, digestion, absorption and assimilation added immensely 
to the stature and strength of a constitution favored by the accession of a new and rich blood. 

"The process of digestion was going on from about 172i' to ITot!, when by the 'Adopting Acts,' 
so called, the present system of Presbyterianism was established on the Western Continent, and the early 
Congregational Churches of New Jersey thus vanished away. 

" What is the les.^on taught us by such a distinctive disjiensatiun ; 

"That the old testament religion is not adaj)ted to modern life — that the new gospel of universal 
charity must crush all barriers of sect, and exterminate all theological dogmas of human invention. 

"The old Puritans had great virtues aTid great faults. The good in them was transmitted to their 
posterity, and to-day shines forth in glorious lustre from our Presbyterian churches. Their illiberal and 
narrow j)rejudices, which were the fruit of a hard and persecuted life, were swept away by the free 
breezes of our new World. Now, on the same soil where the old Congreg.itioual policy perished, a 
resuscitated life aswserts itself, and with tlie spirit of * malice toward none and charity for all,' Congrega- 
tionalism only .seeks the opportunity of joining hands with Christian brethren, of whatever sects, in the 
great work of regenerating the world.'' 

On the evening of February li'th, 1S70, a committee consisting of Kev. Daniel S. liodman, James 
13. Pearson. Alexander M. Clerihew, David B. Hunt, and Samuel D. Cro.sby, was appointed to prejiare 
by-laws and business rules for the society, and on the ■i'.'th of ^farch following the basis of Union and 
By-Laws were adopted. 

At a meeting held at the residence of Kdward Sweet. A|)ril ."., 1870, it was voted tliat measures be 
taken toward the organization of a Cimrcli, ;md that the Committee on " By-Laws for the Society "' be a 
Committee on Organization, and to prepare and submit for consideration Articles of Faith and a 


HisToKv (ir MdNTci.AiR TdwxsniP. 

21(11/ 29, JS7(K II > 

Samuel Holmes. By 

Mary G. Holmes. 
Jane A. Hemingway. 

Mary M. McLaughlin. 

Lewis S. Benedict. 
Harriet J. Benedict. 
Sarah Benedict. 
Minnie H. Benedict. 
John W. Taylor. 
Amelia Benedict Taylor. 
Samuel Boyd. 
Sylvia C. Boyd. 
Edward S. Pinney. 

Elsie P. Pinney. 
Charles E. Baker. 
E. Louise Baker. 
Thomas H. Bouden. 

Lucy A. Bouden. 
Samuel Wilde. Jr.. 

Mary E. Wilde, 
William H. Wilson. 

Cynthia Wilson, 
Charlotte L. Wilson, 
George S. Merriam, 

William B. Holmes. 

Mary H. Holmes. 
Nehemiah O. Pillsbury, 

Mary K. Pillsbury. 
Adra E. Bradbury, 

Amanda F. Bradbury, 

Israel Crane. 
Anna B. Crane. 
Anna B. Lloyd, 

Frances J. Piatt, 

Evelyn S. Piatt, 
Charles H. Johnson. 

Nettie H. Johnson. 
Joseph B. Beadle, 

Laura A. Beadle. 
Edward Sweet, 

Carrie W. Sweet. 
Anna C. Bull, 
Fannie H. Harrison, 

Henrj- Nason, 

Anna G. Nason. 
Abbie Y. Smith, 
Theodore L. Snj-der. 

Julia L. Snyder, 
Samuel D. Crosby, 

Fannie D. Crosby. 
Marj- N. Crosby. 
Jesse H. Lockwood. 

Sarah R. Lockwood, 
Susie G. Shafer. 

Samuel W. Tubbs. 
Ruth Emma Tubbs, 

Alexander M. Clerihew. 

Emily F. Clerihew, 


David B. Hunt. 

• from The Broadwav Tal>ernacle Church. 
New York City. 

First Congregational Church. Fair 

Haven. Conn. 
Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 

New Jersey. 

Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. X. V. 

Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 
N. J. 

First Congregational Church. Jer 
sey City. N. J. 

Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 

First Reformed Church. Hoboken. 

Congregational Church. Yale C<»1- 

lege. New Haven. Conn. 
The Broadway Tabernacle Church. 

New York City. 

V'\ letter from Presbj'terian Church. Montclair, 
N. J. 

Presbyterian Church. 


First Presbyterian Church. Bloom- 
field. N. J. 
Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 

N. J. 

Plymouth Church, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 

Elm Place Congregational Church. 

Brooklyn. N. Y. 

First Congregational Church. Jer- 
sey City. N. J. 

Presbyterian Church, 


Madison Square Presbyterian 
Church. New York Citv". 

Lee Avenue Reformed Church. 

Brooklyn, N. Y, 
Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 


Chrstnut Street Presbyterian 
Church, Louisville, Ky, 

Presbyterian Church, Montclair, 
N. J, 

Congregational (luircli, Williams' 
Bridge. N. Y, 

First Congregational Church. Jer- 
sey City. N. J. 

Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Sands Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

First Congregational Church, Jer- 
sey City, N. J. 

:\Iary A. Hunt. 
Mary C. Hunt. 
David B. Hunt. Jr.. 
Helen E. Terry. 

James B. Pearson. 

Ellen J. Pearson. 

Charles J. Pearson. 
Angeline Horton, 

Jlargaret A. Hamilton, 
John W. Pinkham, 

Cornelia F. Pnkhani. 
Josiah T. Wilcox. 
Helen M. Wilcox. 
George W. Leonard. 
Mary J. Leonard. 
Julius H. Pratt, 
Adeline F. Pratt, 
Gertrude C. Pratt. 
Mary C. Crane, 
Abbie F. Crane. 
Henrietta G. Chittenden, 
Daniel S, Rodman. 

Lucy W. Rodman. 
Nathan T. Porter. 
Mary C. Porter, 

Congregational Church. North- 

ville. L. L. N. Y. 
Madison Avenue Presbyterian 

Church. New York City. 
Classon Avenue Presbyterian 

Church Brooklyn. N. V. 

Presbyterian Church. Montclair. 

N. J. 
Lee Avenue Reformed Church. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Presbyterian Church, Montclair. 


Nettie M, Bradbury. 

Amory H. Bradford. 

Julia S. Bradford. 

Francis B. Littlejohn, 

Han-y Littlejohn, 
Agnes L. Littlejohn. 
John Habberton, 
Alice L. Habberton. 

Dorman T. Warren, 

Harriet C. Warren, 
Henry L. Crane, 
Louisa DeLyons. 

Lucy ?I. Brown, 

Marv Jane Adams. 

Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, N. Y, 
Second Congregational Church. 
Stonington, Conn. 

From Baptist Church. Waterbury, Conn. 
By letter from Second Congregational Church, 
New London, Conn. 

November 6, 1870. 

By letter from Presbyterian Church. Bloomfield. 

N. J. 
Congregational Church. Charlotte. 

Presbyterian Church. Clinton. 

N. Y. 
The Broadway Tabernacle Church. 

New York City. 

Plymouth Church. Brooklyn. N. Y 

January i, 1871. 

James Baker. 

Henry White. 
Henrietta H. White. 
Theodore Taylor. 

Marj" B. Taj lor. 

Charles A. Hopkins. 

Sarah L. Hopkins, 
Hattie M. Hopkins, 
Frederick G. Hastings, 

By letter from Presbyterian (.'hurch, Montclair, 
N. J. 

Second Baptist Church, Savannah, 

St. Luke's Church. East Green- 
wich. R. L 

Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, 
New York City. 

March 5, 1871. 
By profession of faith. 

May 7, 1871. 

By profession of faith. 
By profession of faith. 

Py letter from New England church. New York 

July 2, 1871. 

Pv letter from Tabernacle Church, Jersey City, 
X. J. 

Congregational Church, Nurth- 
ampton. Mass. 

HrsTOKV OK MoxTcr.AiR Township. 85 

The following officers were chosen in accordance with the Con.-titntion and By-Laws of the Church: 
Di'acmM — Samuel Holmes. Josepli B. Beadle, James B. Pearson and David B. Hunt. John "\Y. Taylor 
was chosen Clerk, and F.ewis S. lienedict. Samuel T>. Crosby, and Samuel "Wilde. Jr.. members of the 
Standing Committee. 

.\ hall was secured on Bloomtield .\ venue, near Fullerton .\veiuie. in the third storv of a building- 
since destroyed by fire. This was fitted up as a place of worshij). and on the morning of June 5, 1870, 
the first meeting of the church was held, at which .service Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D., of New Haven, 
Conn., preached the sermon and adnunistered the rite of Baptism to three children, viz.: Grace Pinnev. 
Lucy IJodgers liomlen. and Edwin ^[ortimer Harrison. (M\ the afternoon of the same day this church 
by invitation united with the Presbyterian Church in a union Communion service. Rev. Dr. Bacon and 
Rev. T)r. Berry jjresided at the table, and the deacons of each church officiated in the service. 

On the Sth of June, ISTi', at three and a half o'clock p. m., a council was convened by invitation in 
the Presbyterian Church to examine the .«teps taken in the fonnation of this church, and to consider the 
propriety of its formal recognition. The following representing their several churches assembled in 
council : 

Oraiiijr Valley Lhiiri'li — Rev. (ieorge B. Bacon, Pastor; Deacon A. Carter. Delegate. Seamil 
Valley Clutnlu Orange — Rev. T. .\tkinson. Pastor; Mr. .\. P>aldwin, Delegate. Bellerilte Ai'enue 
Churrh, Newark — Rev. C. B. Hulburt, Pastor; Mr. William D. Russell, Delegate. Grove Street Church, 
East Orange — ^[r. R. D. Weeks. Delegate. 7'V/'.nY ('(iiKjreijutinnul Churrh, Newark — Rev. William B. 
Brown. Pa.stor ; Mr. J. !'. Jube, Delegate; Phj,n„uih Church, Brooklyn. N. Y.— Mr. T. H. Bird. 
Delegate. Churrh <if the /'iiritmiM, Brooklyn. N. Y. — Mr. T. H. Taylor, Delegate. Broadway 
Taher)iiir/e Church, New York City — Rev. Joseph P. Thompson, D.D.. Trustor; Deaccm AV. H. 
Thompson, Delegate, /"'ir/it Coiiymjatiunal C// »//•-■/,. Jersey City — Rev. (i. P>. Willcox. Pai;tor ; Deacon 
H. D. Holt, Delegate. Also P^ev". G. AV. Woo<l. D.D. and iiev. j). li. Coe. D.D. 

nie Church presented a .statement of the steps it hud already taken, its .Vrticlcs of Faith, its 
Covenant, and the By-Laws of its Ecdesijustical Society, which were unanimously approved. On the 
evening of the same day. by appropriate services in tlie Presbyterian Church, this Church received 
formal recognition, and was welcomed to the Fellowship of the Clnirches. The exercises of the evening 
consisted of I'rayr,- — by Rev. William B. Brown ; Sennon — Rev. Joseph P. Thompson, D.D. ; lit-adiiKj 
of the Articles of the Church — Rev. G. B. Willco.x (the Church assenting by rising) ; Prayer of Recog- 
nitioii — Rev. Henry AI. Storr-s, D.D. ; Felburxhiji of the Conijreijational Chun-hex — Rev, George B. 
Bacon; Jiespoiixe in behalf of the Church — Deacon Samuel Holmes; Fellowship) of the Churclox in 
Montelair — Rev. J. Romeyn Berry, D.D., Benedictine. 

The regular weeklv Praver and Conference Meeting commenced on Thursdav evening. 

I line 

Iti, ISTti. 

On June 28th following, the Church and Society extended a unanimous c-a\\ to the Rev. Amory 11. 
Bradford, of .Vndover Theological Seminary, to become their Pastor, which was accepted by hitn ; and 
on the 28th of Septendjer, 1870, he was, with ap])ropriate services, ordained to the work of the Gospel 
Ministry, and installed as pa.stor of the Church by a council called for this purj)ose, consisting of 
Mr. William D. Porter, delegate from Orange Valley Congregational Church; Mr. Y. L. B, Maliew, 
delegate from Second A'alley Church of Orange; Afr, Richard A. Thorpe, delegate from Trinity Con- 
gregational Church of East Orange; Rev. Allan McLean. Grove Street Church. East Orange; Rev. 
William B, Brown, First Congregational Church, Newark ; Rev, C. B. Hulbert, and Mr, C. C. Collins, 
I'elleville Avenue Church, Newark; Rev. G. B. Willcox and Deacon Winslow Ames, First Congrega- 
tional Church, Jersey City; Rev. (ieorge Pierce and Mr. E. K. Rose, First Congregational Church, Paterson ; 
Rev. S. B. Rossiter, First Congregational Church, Elizabeth ; Rev. S. Bourne, First Congregational Church, 
Harlem, New York ; Mr. W, Westerfield, Broadway Tabernacle Church, New York City ; Deacon 
J. C, Barnes, Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Rev. John H. Brodt, and Mr. AVilliani Herres, 
New England Church, Williamsburgh, N. Y, ; Rev, Edward Hawes and Mr. J. M. Edmunds, Central 



History of Montclair Township. 

Church, Philadelpliia. Pa. ; Rev. A. F. P.eanl, PlyiiK.ntli Churcli. Syracuse. X. Y. ; Kev. B. F. Bradford, 
First Congregational Churcli of Charlotte, j\Iich.; liev. X. J. Burton, D.D., and Rev. M. E. Striebj, D.D. 

Rev. Edward Havves was chosen Moderator, and Rev. S. B. Rossiter, Scribe. The order of exercises 
at the Ordination Service consisted of — Dcrntionitl Seroices — by Rev. J. Ronieyn Berry, D.D. ; Seniton 
— Rev. X. J. Burton, D.D., Hartford, Conn. ; Ordaining Prayer — Rev. Ray Palmer, D.D., X'ewark, 
N. J. ; Charge to the Pastor — Rev. B. F. Bradford, Cliarlotte, Mich. ; Right Hand of Felhivjshiji — Rev. 
G. B. Willcox, Jersey City, X. J.; Charge to the Peoph — Rev. A. F. Beard, Syracuse, X. Y. ; Benedic- 
tion — by the Pastor. 

The original place of worship .selected by the'Society was a hall in the third story of a Iniilding on 
Bloonitield Avenue, near Fullerton Street, and before the close of the first vear these acconimodations 

were found to be entirely 
ra})id growth of tlie 
])lace of worship was felt 
mediate necessit}- ; and 
movement was started to 
for the purchase of a site 
church edifice. Seventy- 
$50,000, beingan average 
liberally according to 
even pledged thewidi>w's 
great undertaking. A 
inircliased on the corner 
ton Street, and the corner 
laid on the 30tii of May, 
Amory H. Bradford, and 
by Rev. George B. Bacon, 
ing exercises were held in 
and the .sermon preached 
lor, D.D., of Xew York 
priate ceremonies. The 
and the erection of 
$75,000. A mortgage of 
erty and advances made 
for the balance. The 
by subsequent .subscrip- 
was carried along by the 
1881, when, bv a general 

inadequate owing to the 
Church, and a permanent 
to be an absolute and im- 
early in the year 1870 a 
raise the requisite funds 
and the erection of a 
foin- persons subscribed 
of over$07each. Allgave 
their means, and some 
mite to carry forward this 
large building site was 
of Plymouth and Fuller- 
stone of the church was 
lS72.1)y the Pastor, Rev. 
an address was delivered 
of Orange ^' alley. Even- 
tlie Presbyterian Church, 
City. On the 15th of 
was dedicated with appro- 
original cost of the land 
the Church was about 
$25,000 where the prop- 
by the trustees provided 
debt, somewhat reduced 
tions from time to time, 
trustees until J anuary, 
consent of the congrega- 

JUNE STII, 1 890. 

tion, it was resolved to raise by subscription a sufficient sum to pay off the debt and procure an organ. 
This movement was made on Sunday, the 15th of February, 1881, under the direction of Mr. Roswell 
Smith, of Xew York City. The total amount required — $35,000 — was subscribed on that day, payable 
within a period of three years. The number of persons .subscribing, was 111, many of whom were chil- 
dren paying small amounts. The largest sura subscribed was $3,200, the smallest sum being $1.50. 

The organ, so long desired by the congregation, was purchased in April, 1882, which, together with 
the cost of erection, involved an outlay of $6,000. other changes and improvements made in the Church at 
the time increasing the amount to $10,000. 

The growth of the Churcli has been phenomenal, far exceeding that of most suburban churches. 
Beginning, as has been shown, with a membership of 84- in 1870, the total number admitted up to January 
1, 1S'.»3, was 1,002. Of this number at least 50 per cent, was by profession of faith. During the entire 
period of nearly twenty -three years only one member has been expelled. The loss by death and dismissal 
— 230 — leaving the total member-shi^j on the 1st of January. 1893 — 772. 

History ok Montci.air Township. sT 

Soou after the celebration of its Twentietli Anniversary, steps were taken fur tlie enlargenient of 
the church edifice and erection of a chapel whicii shuuld be snitable for the purposes of the Sunday 
school. It was decided that the audience room should l)e enlai'ired by the addition of transepts, which 
would make its seating capacity twelve hundred. I'nder the direction of J. C. C'ady A: Co., ai-chitects. 
of New York City, work was begun. At the same time Mrs. Samuel Wilde, one of the original mem- 
bers of the church, generously consented to undertake the erection of a Memorial ('hai)el, which should 
be devoted to the purposes of the Sunday school. Before that Mrs. Edward Sweet had undertaken the 
building of one of the transepts, in which she has since placed a beautiful window in memory of her hus- 
band. A memorial window of beautiful design was also placed in the north transept by Mrs. Roswell 
Smith, in memory of her two grandchildren, sons of Mr. George Inness, Jr., and Jlrs. Julia G. Inness, 
members of the churcli. In about one year the improvements were completed, and the church pro])erty 
as it now stands represents an expenditure of about iS17o,(i(iO. The Memorial Chapel will comfortably 
seat one thousand ])eople, and i.s admirably ada])ted for its purposes. 

In IS'J2 the Pilgrim Mission Chai)el wa.s erected on Uloomtield Avcnui.-. It is a beautiful liuildiiig, 
perfectly equipped for its work, seating about four hundred people, and valued, including the land, at 
about $10,01 »0. The land was the gift of Mr. James Hwich. of iiloomtield. The Superintendent of the 
Mission is Mr. Louis lleckman, who was formerly a mechanic in the village, l)ut who on his conversi(jn 
began an active Christian life, which has been singularly ble.ssed. In 1S93 the old Mission building was 
moved from Washington Street to the northwestern part of tlie town, an<l made a ba.--is for work in a 
district needing Christian influences. So that the work of the church is carried on in the central church 
building and the two chapels. 

Egbert J. Pinney, a child of tlie church, was organist for about seventeen ycai*s, but resigned his 
position in l"^0:i The work of the church is carried on in several ditTerent directions. It sup]iorts a 
missionary in Chihuahua. Mexico, the Kev. James I). Eaton, and ha.« also Ijcen largely iii>triimtntal in 
the erection of the church of which he is ]iastor. It is deejjly interested and constantly liearing a large 
proportion of the tinancial burden of the Peo])le"s Palace work in Jersey City, which is its base of opera- 
tions in City Missions. Poth in the home church and in the Pilgrim Chapel are various organizations — 
Christian f^ndeavor Societies., etc.. by which the work is carried on. 

An interesting fact is that the Pastor preached for the church the very first Sunday after its organ- 
ization ; that no other candidate was heard, and he has been with it from that time until the present. 

There ap])eared in the Chrixtian Uniim under date of Decemlier 12, 1S91, an article entitled 
" Progressive Methods of Church Work," by Mr. John R. Howard, de.-icribing the methods, and giving an 
excellent summary of the work accomplished by this church during the twenty-one years of its existence 
up to that period. After a brief description of the then recent improvements, he says : 

•' This, however, is indicative only of the material ])ros|ierity of the Eirst Congregational Churcli of 
Montclair, X. J.; and that, in so lovely a town, so near the metropolis, and growing so rapidly as it is, 
would not be especially noteworthy but for the fact that the church has always been particularly active, 
aggressive for good both at home and abroad. 

"Of this kind of activity — which shows itself also along the lines of good citizenship and all 
things valuable in the life of the town, in which the members of the Congregational (luirrliareeverywliere 
forward and valued elements — presu|)poses a gathered .*ocietv of vigorous-minded, intelligent, cultivated, 
devoted meti and women. The original memliership (many yet living and active in the church i comprised 
an unusually large proportion of such, and Dr. Bradford has been greatly favoix-d by that fact. Yet aLso, 
of course, much has dejiended on the man at the head of it all — the way in which it would hold or lose 
his people, and the kind of new comers that he would naturally gather about him. He has been tempted 
many times to go to larger places and ampler salaries — Albany, Boston, ^iew York — and other oj^en fields 
have again and again solicited him ; but he has had the wisdoiri and the grace to stay where he was, and 
bring up his own family in his own way. He has grown, and his people with him, in their twenty-one 
years together. Ilis preaching is eminently practical, simple, emphasizing rather this life's duties than the 

S8 History of Moxtci.air TowNsnir. 

other life's possiliilities ; making much of what all Christians believe, and paving little or no attention to 
the infinite (and valueless) points of difference. While ethical on the one hand and inspiring on the other, 
it has been largely educational. AVitliin a few jears past Dr. Bradford has preached, in course, through 
the Life of Jesus ; First Corinthians ; the Epistles of John ; Hebrews ; and he is now on the Acts. 
Sunday evcTiing services (largely attended I ly people outside his own regular congregation) have given 
courses on Books of the Bible ; biograjiliical lectures on Great Heroes of Christianity ; notable classes of 
Literature (fiction, poetry, history, etc.) ; Marked Movements in religion, philosophy, social interests, labor 
and capital — in short, a constant application of Christian thought to daily life. 

"The (piestion of making Sunday evening services attractive haslieen solved by hard work on subjects 
al)out which people are anxious to hear, and the audiences are nearly always as large as the morning 
congregation — sometimes larger. This winter, once a month, the ])eople will hear some outsider of 
note and worth. Sunday evening of last week it was Mrs. Booth-Clibborne, and the thousand dollai's 
raised then and there on her appeal for her work in France shows the i-esponsive temper of the gathering. 
Mrs. Ballington-Booth, Dr. Charles A. Briggs, and Professor M. R. Vincent are others who are already 
engaged to come during the winter. Either by exchange or otherwise Dr. Bradford's people hear the 
best speakers in all departments of Christian life and labor. Not long since, a periodical course of 
sermons on Christian Evidences embraced such preachers as Professor Tucker, of Audover, Charles S. 
Robinson. Lyman Abbott. Charles F. Deems, Richard S. Storrs, Dr. Behrends, Ecob, of Albany, and 
others. Thus Dr. Bradford keeps both his chui-ch and him.self av\-ake to the best thought of the day ; 
yet care is taken that the thought shall not end in mere entertainment or intellectual self-satisfaction, but 
issue in works, for God and man. A little volume of Dr. Bradford's discourses, including several on the 
work of the Holy Spirit, and others on fundamental 2>i"iiiciples of Christian thiidving and doing, was 
issued a year or so ago, entitled ' Spirit and Life,' which took high rank not only, but finds and helps 
many readers M'ith its simple and eloquent directness. During this winter he is giving lectures on 
Congregationalism at Audover. 

'' There is nothing unique about this ]Montclair church. It offers no startling innovations or ingenious 
mechanisms and methods; except that. l)eing neither a city nor a country church, but suburban, ir must 
hud a conunon ground of interest and activity for a very promiscuous gathering of people, both metro- 
politan and rural. And, as a genviine Christian church, doing excellent Christian work, it is on the 
right road, because it follows the simple ways of the Master. It teaches the way of this life as He did ; 
in study of the Scriptures for moral and spiritual guidance it ' brings forth things both new and old ' ; 
and, with a cheerful vigor, 'goes about doing good.' 

"Its theology. Fatherhood ; its polity, Brotherhood : revealed and exemplified in Jesus Christ. 

" The society was formed in January. 1870, and was in May organized as a church, with eighty -four 
members, and formally established in the Congregational fellowship by council on the 8tli of June. The 
2Sth of the same month Mr. Bradford, then a new graduate from Andover, aged twenty-three, was called, 
and on the 28th of September installed as the first pastor of the church — and for over twenty-one 
years he has been their only one. In 1872 their stone building was erected, then far too larije for then- 
needs; but now the increased niend:)ership (about seven hundred) and the steadily growing congregations 
have compelled the new enlargement. The need for it is proven l)y the fact that in the ser^nces the 
church is as well fiUod as before the extension. 

" It is a church of families — a true suburban church. It emlu-aces many professional men, but New 
York toilers of all kinds are among its attendants, and numerous resident workers, tradesmen, mechanics 
and townsfolk of Montclair itself, and people from the country near by. It is a capital sample segment of 
the 'social loaf.' 

" It is a church where the young people receive much attention, and well repay it. Most who unite 
with the church on confe.ssion of faith do so by way of the pastor's class, which supplements at that 
critical time the foregoing work of the Sunday school and Bible classes. The little catechism and leaflet 
of suggestions prepared by Dr. Bradford for this class has been jjublisbed by tlie Congregational 

History of >rnxTri.AiR Towxship. 89 

Publishing Society in Boston, for \rider usefulness. The young people are interested in missions, in their 
Society of Christian Enrleavor, and in the work of the church generally. 

" It is a missionary ciiureh. It has put forth one colony (not as a mission, hut an outgrowth") in Fpper 
Montelair. It has in one of the neediest portions of Montclair a mission chapel, winch provides a Sunday 
school, regular preaching services Sunday evenings, and meetings during the week for Christian 
reformatory and social work. Dr. Bradford's helper, now in charge of it, 'Mi: I.ouis Heckman, trhullv 
proclaims himself a rescued one, and is devoting his whole time, tireless energy, and special aptitude to 
the mission. This includes, hy the way, weekly services at the Mountain-side Hospital and at the 
Penitentiary in Caldwell — from which latter place discharged convicts come in considerable numbers, and 
stop at the ' Wasiiington Street Mis.>ion ' to tind their friend Heckman and get through liim. from 
Montelair people, some material aid in clothes, money, and sometimes work, as a beginning toward a new 
and better life. Another similar mission is under way for another part of the town. The T-adies' Missionarv 
vSocieties (three of them) are in constant activity for the home and foreign tield.<, and the annual monev 
contributions for missionary ])urposes are about $10,000. Two of the church mend)ers — the IJev. J. I). 
ICaton and his wife, the latter a daughter of the church — are missionaries in ifexico. and three of the 
young men of the church are at present ])reparing for the ministry. Dr. 15radford, about a year ago. 
delivered an address on 'The Duties of the Snburl)s to the Cities," and this has been circulated in thou- 
sands by Dr. Scudder's Jersey City Tabernacle Church, while the Montelair Clinrch. more than anv other, 
has been behind the noble effort of the Tabernacle to reach the neglected portions of its great citv. The 
enthusiasm for such labors of love ])ermeate> Bradford's own jjeojile, and several of the vouuir ladies of the 
church have engaged in the New York Rivington Street and other City Mission work. In fact, thr ideal 
aimed at seems to l)e that of a large central church for the main source of intluciice and inspiration, with 
siicli other focal points of practical altruistic Christian labor as may develo|) uniler the demand of need." 

Of who have .served as deacons since the organization of the church are Samuel Holmes, Joseph 
B. Beadle, James P.. Pearson. David B. Hunt. Samuel D. Crosby, .Mexander M. Clerihew, Franklin W. 
Dorman, Cornelius .\. Marwiii. Frederick D. Somers. .loseph \'an Vleek. William P>. Holmes. Charles 
H. Johnson. 

Those who have served as trustees are Samuel Holmes. Josejjh P.. Beadle. Sanuiel Wilde. Charles H. 
Johnson. Edward Sweet, Julius 11. Pratt. Xathan T. Porter, Dorman T. Warren, Henry A. Dike, Joseph 
Van Vleck, J. Ilewey Ames, George H. Mills, Robert M. Boyd. Jasper R. Rand, Ogden Brower. 

Tmk SiNKAv School. 

The Sunday school was the natural outgrowth of the Church, and was organized, under the most favor- 
able auspices, on the second Sunday of June, l.sTd, with 72 scholars and IS teachers, ifr. Charles H. John- 
son was chosen its first Su])erintendent. and continued to discharge the duties of that ofhce with commend- 
able zeal, earnestness and devotion for eighteen years, resigning in December, 18S8. He was ably supjiorted 
by a corps of otficers and teachers, fidly equipped by pre\nous experience for the work. Mrs Edward 
Sweet, a lady of great executive ability, was made Assistant Superintendent. She proved a valuable aid to 
him in his work, and won the hearts of all by her kindness and atfahility. >Vfter four years of earnest 
and patient labor, she was compelled to resign the position in conse(juence of failing health. She was 
followed by Mrs. Samuel Wilde, who for nearly twenty years has been uni'emitting in her efforts to 
increase the efficiency of the school, and has shown by hei- acts of love and kindness to the children, and her 
sympathy ami encouragement to the teachers, her fidelity and devotion to the Master's cause. Mr. J. H. 
Bouden, who was elected the first Secretary and Treasurer, continued to discharge the duties of that position 
in amost admiral)le and efticient manner for many years. Without a murmur orcomplaint he has met the 
increa.sed responsibilities devolving upon him, and in his intercourse with his fellow laborers in the school 
has displayed that evenness of temper, that tact and wisdom, so essential to harmony and good feeling 
among officei-s and teachers. Few suburban schools have been favored by a more efficient, capable and 
well-trained coips of teachers. Fully appreciating the importance of the work, and their personal 

90 History of Moxtci.atr Towxsiiir. 

responsibility, tliey have labored with a singleness of purpose to lead those committed to their charge to 
"a knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesns," and the result of tlieir labors is shown in the large additions 
to the church by profession of faith. 

One important feature in the management of tliis school has been its ability to hold the scholars as 
they have advanced to years of maturity, and the al)ie manner in which its adnlt Bible-class has been con- 
diicte<l. It has had for its leaders learned men of ripe experience and enlarged ideas — men fully conse- 
crated to the work. Among these have been Eev. D. S. Eodman, C. E. Morgan — now a prominent 
lawyer in Boston, Rev. J. Q. Butterfield — now President of Olivet College, Mr. Roswell Smith, and Mr. J. 
R. Howard. 

The Primary Department — the most difficult of any in the school to manage successfully — has been 
at different times under the leadership of Mrs. Samuel Boyd, Mrs. Edwin ^I. Harrison, Miss Annie Bull, 
Mrs. M. E. Reading, Mrs. C. H. Jolinson, Mrs. J. R. Lamsen, and ^Mrs. Bissell, the present teacher. 

The strong love and affection existing between scholars and teachers is shown in the fact that the 
young men who have gone out from here to enter college have almost invariably, on their return home 
during vacation, taken their places in the Sunday school. The fact that over $10,000 has been 
contributed by this school to various benevolent objects during the past twenty-three years is an 
evidence of the systematic and earnest work which has been done by the officers and teachers. The 
children have l>een trained to habits of self-denial and systematic giving of tliat which was their own, and 
have been constantly familiarized with special objects of charity and benevolence, and the work connected 
with such prominent institutions as the Chihlren's Aid Society, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Children, and others of this character. The gifts of the children have been invariably de\oted to 
charitable purposes, and in no case to assist in defraying the expenses of tlie school. 

The musical training of this school is wortliy of special notice. This part of the service was for 
fourteen years conducted l)y Dr. C. A. Marvin, a higldy accomplished teacher and musical composer. 
Some of his most beautiful compositions were designed especially for the use of this school It has l)een 
observed by visitors who were disposed to be critical that the singing was above the average, and evinced 
excellent training and culture. The music of the school is now in chai'ge of Mi-. John B. Pratt. 

In his address given at the 20th aniuversary of the school Mr. Johnson alludes in a most touching 
manner to some of the faithful ones who were with them at the beginning, but who had since joined the 
heavenly throng above. Among these was Mrs. Julius II. Pratt, "whose memory still rests upon our 
school like a benediction." He refers to Mr. J. II. Beadle and Mr. Samuel Wilde, who were teachers at 
the beginning, faithful and steadfast, with the highest and best motives prompting all their efforts, and 
whose royal gifts of over $5,000 each, made possible this splendid building we now occupy, have joined 
the innumeral)le throng above. 

Mr. Johnson alludes to the faithfxd co-operation of Dr. Bradford, the pastor, in the work of the school, 
in the following terms : " One thing that has cheered and encouraged the hearts of officers and teachers 
through all these years has been the hearty co-operation of the pastor; he has indeed been the pastor not 
only of the church, but the school. The sessions have been few indeed, except by reason of illness or 
absence that he has not been present, to advise, counsel and encourage the teachers hi their work." 

Referring to Mrs. Wilde, who was about to resign her connection with the school, he says : "The 
brightness and joy of the present hour is dimmed by the thought that Mrs. Samuel Wilde, who commenced 
as a teacher in the school at its very first session, and who has held an official position for sixteen years, 
fourteen of which she was assistant superintendent, now feels it necessary to relinquish the position she 
has so ably tilled all these years." 

In December, 1888, Mr. Charles H. Johnson, who had so faithfully discharged the duties of Super- 
intendent since the organization of the school, tendered his resignation, much to the regret of his fellow 
laborers in the work. The school under his supervision had increased from 72 pupils and 18 teachers to 
350 pupils and 45 teachers. More than 200 had been added to tlie church from tlie school during his 
administration, and a few had joined the church triumphant. 

History of Monici.aik Townsiiip. 91 

He was succeeded l)_v Mr. D. U. Eslibaiigh. who tilled the position with honor and credit fur three 
years. Referring to his election Jfr. Johuson says: '"The wisdom of that selection has heen manifest 
from the beginning of his ottice. and I can hoar witness to the fidelity and sonnd jndgnient with which he 
has tilled a position to which he brought little previous exiierienci'. and 1 believe I voice the opinion of 
teachers and scliolars in e.xpressing profound and sincere regret that he feels it incumbent upon him to 
relinquish the office at this time." 

Mr. Eshbaugh proved himself a model superuitendent, jjossessing by nature and experience all the <iualitications for the ottice. .\ man of deep religious convictions, well versed in the Scriptures, 
sympathetic, kind and affable in disposition ; possessing also tact and good judgment, together with a 
natural love for children. Thus e(juij)ped, he entered upon his labors with earnestness, zeal and enthu- 
siasm, receiving the hearty co operation of otticers and teachers, to whom he endeared himself by his uni- 
form kindness and his i)ei-sonal interest in their temporal and spiritual welfare; by the children, to whom 
he always extended a kindly greeting, he was e(iually beloved. The three years of his administration 
were marked by an increase in nundjers and interest, and in ISOO forty united with the church by profes- 
sion of faith, most of wiiom came from the ranks of the Sabbath .school. The school was never in a 
more pro.sperous condition than when he resigned his position in IS'.d. against the earnest wishes of his 
associates — his failing health compelling him to relimjuish the duties of the ottice. 

Mr. E.shbaugh was succeeded by Mr. Edward F. >[eyei-s, who occupied the ])osition one year. The 
present otticers of the school are: Superintendent, Mr. ('. S. Olcott; Assistant Superintendent, Professor 
.John F. Woodhull ; Secretary. Mrs. Samuel Wilde ; Treasurer, Mr. W. L. .Johnson; Librarians, Mr. 
Walter Lloyd and ifr. W. Skidmore. The present uund)er of teachers is 32, the number of scholars, 210. 
Number in Young Men's I'iblo Class, 2.i. Prinuiry I)('iiarfinont : Mrs. A. ('. Komcr. Superintendent ; 
numl>er of otticers. 3; teacher*. 14; .scholars. 12<i. 

The congregation continued to worship in the hall ivferred to until ls7."). On May 3n, 1^7.">, the 
corner-stone of the new church edifice was laid by the Pastor. Rev. Amory >«'. Bradford, and an 
address <lelivered by Rev. (ieorge R. Paeon, of Orange Valley. Fivening exercises were held in the 
Presbyterian (.'hurch, at which time the sermon was preached by Rev. William ]\L Taylor, D.I)., of New 
York. The buihling was completed in 1^73, and on the l.')th of October of that year was dedicated witli 
approjiriate ceremonies. 

Rkv. Amoky IIowk Buadfoko. D.l). 

It was eminently Htting that the First Congregatitmal Church of Christ in re-establishing the form 
of religious woi-ship introduced in this locality by the Pilgrim F'athers more than two hundred years ago, 
should choose as their pastor a direct descendant of tiovernor William Bradford, chief among the 
"Blessed Company ''of the " Ma^-flower," and one of the chief founders of Congregationalism in this 
country — himself a descendant of a line of English ancestors who suffered martyrdom because of their 
adherence to the true faith as delivered to the saints. 

One of the tii-st martyrs who perished at the stake in "Bloody Queen Mary's" time was .Jolni 
Bradford, prebend of St. Paul's, and a celebrated preacher. lie was born at Manchester, in Lancashire, 
about 1510; was committed to prison August ItJ, 15.53, where he remained until his death, a period of 
two years. The numerous letters and other compositions written by him during his imprisonment are 
remarkable for their able and uncompromising opposition to the dogmatical requisitions of papacy, and 
for abounding in depth and fervency of jilain personal piety and expansive religious feeling. 

The early, energetic and persevering opposition of Governor Bradford, of Plymouth, to these 
dogmas would seem to indicate that he was a worthy descendant of the martyr's immediate family, and 
tliat he was so is rendered more probable from the fact that the town of Bradford (meaning Broad-ford), 
in Yorkshire, Manchester, the biithj)lace of the martyr, and Austertield, where Governor Bradford was 
bom, thirty three years after the martyr's death, are all in the north of England and near each other. 

William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Colony, was born at Austertield, in Yorkshire, England, 
in 1588. He went to Holland early in life and joined the Pilgrims, and came to Plymouth in the " May- 

92 . History of Montci.air Township. 

flosver " 1620, accompanied by his wife, whose maiden name was Dorothy May. This lady never reached 
I'Jymoutli, hut was accidently drowned on the 7th of December, 1620, during the absence of her husband 
on an examining tour into Massachusetts Bay. and while the " Mayflower" remained in Cape Cod Harbor. 
Slie was the first English woman (who died in Plymoutli, and the first) whose death is recorded in New 

Mr. Bradford was chosen Governor in 1621 and was re-elected to that office every year till 16.57, 
except five years — 1633, '34, '36, '3S. '44. lie was one of the most efficient persons in directing and 
sustaining tiie new settlement ; he " was the very prop and glory of Plymouth Colony during the whole 
series of changes that passed over it." He married, August 14, 1623, widow Alice Soutlnvorth, whose 
maiden name is supposed to have been (Carpenter. He died, May 9, 1657, lamented by all the colonies 
of New England as a common father to them all. He had by his second wife three children, William, 
Mercy and Joseph. 

E.EV. Amort Howe Bradfokd, D.D., son of Benjamin F. and ]\[ary A. (Howe) Bradford, was 
born in Granby, Oswego County, N. Y., April 14, 1846. He is eighth in line of descent from Governor 
William Bradford, probably through Thomas, third son of Governor Bradford by his .second wife, Alice 
Southworth. This Thomas, by his father's will, secured lands in Norwich. Conn., and removed thence 
after his father's death. He married Anna, daughter of Rev. James Fitch (first minister to Saybrook 
and Norwich) by the latter's second wife Priscilla. daughter of John ^lason. the hero of the Pequot war. 

Alexander, the great -great grandfather of the Kev. A. H. Bradford, owned a farm on tlie eastern 
border of Connecticut, on the shore of the Pawcatuck River that forms the boundary between Connecticut 
and Rhode Island, about two miles below tlie village of Westerly. On that farm the father, the grand- 
father and the great grandfalliers of Dr. Bradford were born, and the old homestead is still in a good 
state of preservation. Dr. Bradford's mother was Mary A. Howe, daughter of Amory Howe, of ]\Iarl- 
borough, Mass., a descendant of Abraham Howe, one of the founders and proprietors of Marlborough in 
1660. Dr. Bradford was prepared for college at Penn Yan Academy, was graduated at llainilton 
College in 1867 ; studied at Auburn and graduated at Andover Theological Seminary in lS7n. Immedi- 
ately following his ordination in 1870, he accepted a call from the First Congregational Church of 
Christ at Montclair, and began his labors in June of that year. In September following he married Miss 
Julia S. Stevens, daughter of W. R. Stevens, Esq., of Little Falls, N. Y. The eighty-four members of 
this church who welcomed Mr. Bradford as their pastor, were earnest, liberal-minded, working Christians, 
made up of different denominations. Mr. Bradford made no inquiry as to the creeds or doctrinal views 
of the individual members. He determined to "know nothing among them save Jesus and Him 
crucified." He laid broad the foundation, threw wide open tlie doors of the church and extended a 
hearty welcome to Christians of every denomination. He assisted in the organization of the various 
societies for church work, in all of which he took a personal interest, lie met the pastors of other 
churches in a kind and friendly spirit, and invited them to exchange pulpits. He has grown apace with 
his own church, which, as the record shows, 1kis had large annual accessions, both by letter and by 
profession of faith. He has taken an active interest in every public improvemcTit. and in the founding 
of benevolent and religious societies, one of the most useful and beneficial of wliicli is the Children's 
Home, designed not only as a permanent home for children of ]\Iontclair who have been liereft of their 
natural protectors, but as a temporary home and resort during the hot summer months for the children of 
our large cities. 

The almost unparalleled growth of the churcli as a suburban church evinces the character of Dr. 
Bradford's work, his popularity as a preacher, and his faithfulness as a pastor. Few ministers have ever 
been more beloved by a people, or have exercised a greater influence in a community. He has 
frequentlv supplieii the pulpits of the New York and Brooklyn churches during the summer months, and 
exchanged with the most eminent divines of these cities. During ]\[r. Beecher's life he often supplied 
his place in Plymouth Church during the summer vacation ; and in a letter commending Mr. Bradford 
to his European friends, Mr. Beecher wrote that his people were very willing tliat he sliould extend his 
own vacation. Althouoh humorous in form, this showed ^Ir.Bradford'sexcellent preaching as a fact. 

History of Moxtclair To\vxsiiii>. 


Dr. Bradford has made several tri]>s al)ruad, both for study and for recreation. He studied si.x 
months at Oxford, and was the first American ever invited to preach a baccalaureate sermon at that 

In July, 1891, he was sent as a delegate to represent the Congregationalists of New Jersey in the 
great International Council of Congregationalists held in London at that time. No American preacher 
ever received greater honors than was accorded him during his stay. He took a leading part in ail the 
discussions of the Council, and at all times was listene<l to with rapt attention. He was invited to preach 
at many of the largest and most prominent churches in England. The religious as well as the secular 
press of England voiced the sentiments of the peoi>le on both sides of the Atlantic in their expressions 
concerning I )r. Bradford as a man and as a preacher. If, as has been said, a foreign verdict is like a verdict 
of posterity in its impartiality, some extracts from these foreign journals will be in point, ll^e Leicexter 
Z>a27y Poj<^ referring to his sermon preached before the Clarendon Park Congregational Church, said: 
"The mere fact that this distinguished visitor was one of the few who had been chosen to represent the 
Congregationalism of the Rejiultlic at the International Conference in London, alone s|)eaks volumes to 


the eminent rank he had gained among the Independents of America. Had there, however, been the 
slightest doubt as to his title to the enviable reputation he has gained among the religious preachers and 
teachers of the Xew World, it must have been swept away by his discourses yesterday. * * * * Hardly 
had he passed beyond the opening sentences of his morning sermon than it became clear that he was 
master in his own field of service — a j)ul)lie teacher of the first rank. In one or two respects Dr, Bradford 
fills a place in the sphere of pulpit oratory which is distinctively his own. Not only has hu strongly 
marked views on some of the pressing problems of his time, and all the courage of his advanced con- 
victions, but he has at least three of the essentials of success. He has grasp of thought which enables 
him to graple with the most difficult subject with no ordinary skill. He has a power of expression wliich 
crystallizes his ideas into the most incisive and xngorous phrase. And lie has a delivery which, while not 
of the highest order, is still most effective, sustaining the lively interest of the hearer by, among other 
things, an occasional sudden transition from a tone that rings through the church to one that is almost 
inaudible in its mingled softness and depth. .Vfter all his paramount title to fame is necessarily not so 

9-t History ok Montci.atr Township. 

much liis manner as liis matter — not so much the words that arouse and 'burn' as the 'thouiilits tliat 
breathe.' Our American visitor Ti\ndly recognizes that lie lias a mission to fulfil which is higher and 
broader than the boundaries of any single creed — a Christianity to teach and jireacli which overleaps 
even the nobler selfishness of patriotism, and has as its essence that spirit wbicii compelled the famous 
preacher to be content with nothing less than the 'whole world" as his 'parish." 

Another paper referring to " a very remarkable and stirring sermon preached \>\ Dr. Bradford at Mans- 
field Chapel " says : " lie is rich in illustration, cultured in diction, vigorous in thought, and delivered 
with impassioned yet dignified eloquence. These sermons stamp the preacher as one of the very strongest 
of our living preachers.'' 

Rev. Joseph Parker, D.D., the " London Beecher,'' in his criticism of the men who took ])art in 
the Council, says of Dr. Bradford : " lie is broad in mind, generous in impulse, eloquent in expression — 
a harmou}' of the progressive aspects of evangelical truth." 

The Jfi/iic/ieste)' (hianlian says: " Dr. Bradford is a tower of strength to Xew England Congre- 
gationalism. A keen student of Congregational history and polity, his eminence in this department is 
attested by the fact that he is appointed lecturer for three years at Andover on Congregationnlism." (He 
beffan the in 1S!)2 with '• Eneli.di Cono-reffationalism."") 

Another writer says: " He is just a trifle theatrical in his style of oratory, but he has to perfection 
that vigorous gift of driving a point straight home that Mr. Spurgeon"s niamier illustrates so forcibly. 
He has a storehouse of anecdote, and has a story to fit every moral that he wants to emphasize. His 
cultered, refined face will not soon be forgotten by those who had the privilege of listening to him. 
He is a clear thinker — progressive, reverent, constructive, full of tact, sincerity and spiritual simiilicity." 

Dr. Bradford's uuselfish devotion to his own church and to the Master's cause, and his refusal to 
entertain the numerous "calls" extended to him ')y leading churches throughout the country, is thus 
referred to by a writer in one of the English journals : " His reputation in the United States is not con- 
fined to his own body. He is a powerful and impressive preacher, and it is through his own desire, 
strengthened by the affection of an attached congregation, that he remains in a place so little known as 
Montclair, and not in one of the large centres of population. Several tempting calls have been made to 
him to settle in one or another of the large cities of the Union. He frequently, in Mr. Beecher's time, 
occupied the pulpit in the famous Plymouth Church, Brooklyn. About twenty years ago, not long after 
he began his ministerial career, he, for the sake of his health, exchanged work for six months with a 
brother pastor stationed on the Pacific Coast. Here Dr. Bradford was so much liked that every effort 
was made to induce him to stay, and when he answered that tiiis was impossible, as the East had greater 
claims ujion him than the West, he was entreated to accept a testimonial. He agreed to this provided he 
could choose the gift. When told he could have anything he liked, his request was that the church in 
which he had l)een laboring temporarily should be cleared from all trace of debt. It was a goodly sum 
that had to be raised, but it was fully subscribed. The act was characteristic of Dr. Bradford." 

The utterances of Dr. Bradford, in his discussion of the great questions which are agitating the 
world, were extensively quoted and freely commented u|)on by the English press. T/ie Lvndon 
Indepetulnt of July 10, 1891, said : " Kev. Dr. Bradford, whose course through our principal [nilpits par- 
takes somewhat of the nature of a triumphal progress, Avas last Saturday in Leicester, conducting the 
anniversary services of Clarendon- Park Chapel. He preached in the morning from tiie text 'The 
Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.' and delivered a wonderful oration on the nature and prospect 
of the Divine Kingdom. He said no phr-ase ever more exactly defined the ideal to which the Master 
opened tlie way than the words ' The nalization of righteousness in the life of humanity." How can 
wealth and poverty both be filled with the spirit of Christ so that they shall minister one to another? 
How can the islands and continents be filled with the good news of the Father (Tod and the Saviour Son 
of God? Silently the Kingdom of Heaven is extending. Its limits are bounded neither by race lines 
nor continental frontiers. It is a kingdom of spirit in which the individual realizes his privilege in the 
eifacement of himself and in grateful devotion to the service of God in tiiat humanity for which Christ 

History of >[ontci,.\ir TnwNsiiir. 95 

died ; a Kingdom before wliicli the walls separating nations are falling, the selfishness of patriotism is 
disappearing, and poverty, vice and sectarian rivalrv yielding to the magnetism of love.*' 

Referring to the sermon preached by Dr. Bradford, at New "Weigh House, London, the Chrhtian 
Worltl said, " Dr. Bradford believes in organism rather than mechanism. He refuses to acknowledge 
that the men of two centuries ago were more under divine guidance than the men of to day. He holds 
that where the supremacy fif the spirit is recognized, men will not be asked if they acce]it systems of 
doctrine written liy the dead, but whether they have open minds, living hearts, humble wills, ready to be 
taught and led by God to-day. He predicts the federation of churches, the cessation of denominational 
rivalries, ami the realization of a universal brotherhood in its fullest expression as what we are moving 
towards. These are brave words." 

During his stay in England, Dr. Bradford visited the village of Austei-tield — the birtliplace and resi- 
dence of his American ancestor. Governor AViiJiam Bradford- wliich is only two or three miles from 
Scrooby, where John Bradford became a convert from listening to the preaching of Clyfton, a leading 
pa.stor of the Scrooby congregation. He found the church at Austertield '"not in a good state of repair, 
though its Norman doorway is worthy of a visit." There is an ancient font, probably the one in which 
Hradford was l)aptized March 11', 15S'.>. 

Dr. Bradfor<l made many friends during his stay in P]ngiand. but his reputation as a preacher had 
preceded him. While for many years he confined his labors to his own church in Montclair, his intluence 
was sradnallv widening and enlarging, and he has been for many years recognized as one of the ablest 
und mo^t j)rogie:-r-ive of our American preachers. He received in 1884 his degree of D.D. from Hamil- 
ton College, his u/ma rnahr. He has been a frequent contributor to our best paj)ei-s and periodicals. In 
1S8S a volume of his .•sermons came from the press of Fords. H(jwanl A: Hulbert, under the title "Spirit 
and Life." which has pa.ssed through several editions; also "Old Wine in New Bottles." All his writing 
is marked by profound spiritual insight, moral earnestness and intellectual strengtii. At the beginning of 
iN'.i?) he became connected with the Chrlxtlun /^'/(/o/*. having charge of the department "The Religious 
World." He does not leave the i>ulpit or his magnificent church at Montclair in assuming these new 

The Iiiilrjh ml, lit. i^>i London, in referring to his connection with the I'liristian C"?;?'o?;, says, " The 
appointment of Dr. Hradford to be collaborateur with Dr. Lyman Abbott is sure to gratify our readers, 
and may draw the attention of some to tlie Christian Union who do not know liow admirable an organ 
and leader of religious thou<rlit that paper is. Dr. Bradford was known to our metropolitan churches be- 
fore his visit to the International Council made him free of British Congregationalism. On previous 
visits he had preached in London arid had won the best of all tributes to his worth — an interest in his 
l^ersonality, founded on liis (jualities as a i)reac]ier. When he came as a delegate to the Council, invita- 
tions to country churches awaited him ; lie delivered the address to the students at the sessional anniver- 
sary of Lancashire College, and he has become one of the best known American ministers to this country. 
It is bare truth to say that affection is as marked as admiration in our feeling towards him. Dr. Brad- 
ford's position in America is very infiuential. As a pastor of a suburban church he tells on the life of 
New York, and his generous popular .^ympatliies have drawn to him the confidence of those among the 
American churches which are working for the religious future of the nation. lie was the correspondent 
of the New York fnilejieniletit during the sessions of the Council; he has been a frequent contributor to 
the Boston Conyregatioiudixt and the New York Christian Union. It is not for us to say which of 
these three excellent papers is best, but believing that friendly sympathy in journalism as in other things 
is better than rivalry, we are glad of his assumption of the editorial chair, ^'e are equally glad that he 
is not resigning his pastorate at Montclaii'. New Jersey. We grudge the withdrawal of such men fnjm 
the pulpit and the active direction of a church. The strain of a double office is heavy ; but there is no 
influence which so purifies ])ublic men. and fits them for the higher public usefulness, as the consciousness 
of being sustained by the affection and pi-ayer of a congregation, and the wisdom which comes from inti- 
mate association with earnest Christians of many different types of character." 

9fi History of MoxTn.AiR Tnwxsiiir. 

The most recent publication of Dr. Bradford is '• Tlie Pilgrims in Old England," being a study of 
English Congregationalism. 

As a citizen T)r. Bradford has taken the lead in most of the reform and educational movements 
which have been started in ^Nlontclair. He assisted in organizing the " Citizens' Committee of One 
Hundred " for the execution of existing laws and the suppression of public evils. lie was one of the 
oro'anizers of the Reform Club, the object of which was to make a home or place of resort for reformed 
men, and keep them out of the way of temptation. This was the nucleus of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. He started the " Outlook Cluli." a literary organization for the discussion of to]iics of cur- 
rent interest, lie was the father of the Children's Home, one of the most promising and useful benevo- 
lent organizations in the State. 

Dr. Bradford suggested the American Institute of Christian Philosophy, was its first Secretary, 
and on the death of the late President was elected to succeed him, and also became editor of its 
organ, Christian Thought; he is also editor of the American edition of the Review of the Churches, 
and is still a member of the Executive Committee. He started the Congregational Club of Xew 
York and has been one of its Vice-Presidents since its organization. He was one of the coi-jiorate 
members of the American Board of Foreign Missions. In 1892 Dr. Bradford was chosen to preach the 
annual sermon of the American Missionary Association, which is one of the gi-eat Congregational 
Missionary Societies. 

In Sejiteinber, 1S94, Dr. Bradford again went to London in response to an invitation from the 
officers of Westminster Cha])el. This church is situated near Ihickingham <4ate, on James Street, midway 
between the Houses of Parliament and Buckingham Palace. Tiie church building is the largest Congre- 
gational Building in the world. Tlse church had been without a settled pastor for a long time, and many 
of the congregation having heard Dr. P>radford on a previous occasion were anxious to hear him again. 
Dr. Bradford met with a hearty reception and su]i|>lied the ]»ul|)it for some weeks, and before leaviiig 
received a unanimous call from the Church. 

On his return home, when it became known tliat he had received a call from Westminster Chapel, 
London, his own cona;re<j;ation, as well as the citizens of Montclair of all denominations, were united in 
their efforts to induce him to remain in his present position. 

At the regular meeting of the Congregational Club of New York City, held on Monday evening, 
October 16, 1893, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" liesolved. That it is the sense of this Congregational Club of New York and vicinity, that the im- 
portant work and influence of the Church, which Liev. Dr. Bradford has served so successfully through so 
many years, and the varied interests of truth with wdiich he is so helpfully and influentially connected, 
require his continued presence in this comitry, and nuike it his duty to decline the tlattering call to the 
pastorate of Westminster Chapel, in London, England." 

After a careful consideration of the matter Dr. Bradford declined the call, and decided to remain 
with the first and only church with which he had ever been connected, and whose interests are interwoven 
with every fibre of his nature. 

Rev. John L. Scudder, referring to his action, says : "We learn with pleasure that Rev. Amory 
H. Bradford, D.D.. of ^lontclair, has declined the call to Westminster Chapel, London, the largest Con- 
gregational Church in that great metropolis. The call was a great compliment to his ability as preacher 
and a scholar, and demonstrates that he has not only an international reputation, but is the most popular 
American preacher abroad. We congratulate the Church in Montclair upon the determination of Mr. 
Bradford to remain in this country, and continue his uni(|ue ministry in the State of New Jersey. We 
Itelieve his usefulness would not be enhanced l)y a departure for Europe. Though settled in Mont- 
clair, his parish extends far beyond the limits of his owti State. Through his books, contributions to 
magazines, public addresses, and editorship of the Outlonl\ Ins field extends from Sandy Llook to the 
Golden Gate. He has shown his wisdom in remaining in tie L'nited States, where he is universally 

tAfvu^y M /^^^V^^ 

IIiSTOKv OF MnNTci.AiR TmvNsiiip. It: 

beloved. America cannot spare him, for lie i.< our best representative of the 'Forward Movement' in 
this country. The great problems of the race are to be worked out upon this continent where there are 
no time-honored restrictions, and where changes in practice and in law follow on tlie heels of public 
opinicm. This nation is to set the fashions for the world, and we want the best men right here on 
American soil, where their influence will tell the most. London is a great place, but America is greater; 
and here we trust the good doctor will live and die." 


This ^lis.sion was organized in li^S",), under peculiar circumstances. Neighborhood prayer meetings 
were being held in various localities by a band of Christian workei-s. One of these was held un i^loom- 
field Avenue, in close proximity to a liijuor saloon frequented by I.ouis Ileckman, a plain, uneducated 
workingman. lie was induced to attend these meetings, was converted, and soon after began the work 
of organizing a Mission. IJr. l>radford became interested in his work, and tiirough his aid he was ena- 
bled to secure a building on Wasiiington Street, J)r. iiradford becoming personally responsil>le for the 
rent. The ^Methodists and otlier denominations assi.sted in furnishing the room suitable for lioldinc 
meetings. Mr. Ileckman made slow progress at first, but after one or f'.vf) conversions, others came out 
of curiosity. The meetings at first were helil oidy on Thursday evenings, but as the attendance and 
interest increased, .services were lield on Sunday evenings, and it soon l)ecame nece.s.sary to Imild on an 
addition. Tliis was done through individual subscriptions raised by Mr. Fleckmaii. Witli the incicascd 
facilities he oi)ened, in 1>•V^1, a Sunday .school, lieginning with li:! children and 4 teachers. (Jtlier C'hiistian 
workers became interested in the movement, and Mr. -lames G. Beach, of Bloomfield, presented the Mi.ssion 
with a lot of ground on Bloomtield Avenue, and Mr. Ileckman's clforts to raise money to erect a Chapel met 
witli a generous response from liberal and enterprising citizens, .Mr. W. W. Egbert donating $1,000 and 
Mr. Stephen Carey $5(X>; others gave various sums, ranging from §200 down to .$5, the sum total 
amounting to S'^,*""'- 

A building was erected 32 .x *'A feet, with a seating capacity of ."»00. All the furniture, coiisisting 
of 400 chairs and a tine Brussels carpet, were donated by Mrs. George Innis. A fine organ was presented 
by the Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor connecti d with the Congregational (iiurcli, and a 
§400 ]>iano was given by the King's Daughters, a nol>le baml of young ladies worthv of the name tliev 

The Sunday school connected with this Mission is now in a flourishing condition with nearly 200 
scholars, 5 oflicers, and 14 teachers. Mr. Ileckman is still tilling the position of Sui)eriiitendent. 

Auxiliary .societies have been organized, which have done etfeetive work. Among these are the 
Christian Endeavor Society, the Yoke Fellows Band and the King's Sons. Of the latter society all are 
j'oung converts of this Mission. 

Mr. Ileckman, who founded this Mission with tiie assistance of l>r. liradford, is a native of 
Montclair, of humble parentage, and his educational advantages were very limited. Since he began 
his evangelistic labors, however, he has been a close student, and though still a layman, has done most of 
the pastoral work connected with the Mission, lie has received great a.ssistauce in his work from Dr. 
Bradford, who gave him the use of his library, and became his steadfast friend and supporter in his 
nnssion work. 


With the rapid increa,se of population there has doubtless been for many years past a sufficient 
number of Baptists to have organized a church, had the attempt been made. It was not, however, until 
the autumn of 1885 that .systematic efforts were begun in this direction. At that time a few enterpris- 


History of Montclair Township. 

ing Baptists met together, and after a free discussion of the matter, decided to have a thorough canvas 
made of the townsliip for the purpose of ascertaining tlie number of resident Baptists. Accordingly 
Rev. Henry Bromley, an aged Baptist of large experience in mission work, a resident of Brooklyn^ 
N. Y., was employed for this purpose. As the result of his efforts he found 58 members of Baptist 
churches and a nnnd)cr of others who were in sympathy with the movement and gave assurance of their 

On Nov. 6, 1885, during the progress of these ert'orts, a neighborhood prayer meeting was held 
at which there were present thirteen. A second meeting was held Friday evening, Novembei' ]?>, at 
which there were present 10 young people and 30 adults, Rev. Henry Brondey of Brooklyn, N. Y., and 
Rev. E. D. Simonds, then pastor of the Bloomfield Baptist Church. It was decided to begin operations 
at once, and to organize a Sunday school, to be followed by preaching service, and to hold a prayer 


meeting every Friday evening. Rev. E. D. Simonds agreed to supply the preaching service for a period 
of three months. The Sunday school was duly organized, Irving Cairns being elected Superintendent 
and Wm. H. Ketchum, Secretary, and Sunday school and preaching services were held regularly at 
Montclair Hall until Jan. 6, 1886, when steps were taken to eft'ect a permanent organization by the 
election of Rev. E. U. Simonds as Chairman, and Irving Cairns as Clerk. 

A committee, consisting of Geo. P. Farmer, E. P. Benedict and Irving Cairns, who had previously 
been appointed to obtain a list of such persons as were willing to unite in the organization of a church, 
reported that they had secured a list of thirty-eight names by letters from other churches, and live by 
experience — a total of forty-three, — and recommended the adoption of the following resolution: 

" Believing it to be the will of God, as taught in His word, and indicated in His providence, and 

History of Moxtci.air Township. 99 

trusting in His divine guidance, blessing and i>resence, we, and all whose letters and names have heen 
placed in the hands of the clerk of this meeting, do hereby form ourselves into a regular Baptist Church 
by the adoption of the New Hampshire Confession of Faith and Church Covenant." -— 

Edwin P. Benedict, First Baptist Church, Hackensack, N. J. C. Wesley Jacobus, First Baptist Church, Newark, N. J. 

Mrs. Louise M. Benedict, First Baptist Church, Hacken- Louis A. Koehler, First Baptist Church, Newark, N. J. 

sack, X.J. Mrs. Cornelia Koehler, First Baptist Church, Newark, N. J. 

Alonzo Crawford, First Baptist Church, Hackensack, N.J. William H. Ketchum, North Orange Baptist Church. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Crawford, First Baptist Church, Hacken- Mrs. Louisa P. Kinnan, Schooley's Mountain Baptist Church. 

sack, N. J. Miss Julia A. Phelps, Baptist Church of the Epiphany, 
Irving Cairns, North Baptist Church. Jersey City, N, Y. City. 

Mrs. Ella V. Cairns, North Baptist Church, Jersey City. Mrs. Mary F. Muir, Park Baptist Church, Port Richmond, 
William Cairns, North Baptist Church, Jersey City. S. I. 

Mrs. Marj- A. Cairns, North Baptist Church. Jersey City. William A. May, First Baptist Church, Newark, N. J. 

Thos. V. Carpenter, First Baptist Church, Newark, X. J. W. H. A. Maynard, Herkimer Street Baptist Church, Brook- 
Mrs. M. E. Carpenter, First Baptist Church, Newark, N.J. lyn, N. Y. 

Franklin N. Class, Central Baptist Church, X. Y. City. Chas. S. Salmon, Baptist Church, Schooley's Mountain, N. J. 

Mrs. Mar>- E. Class, Central Baptist Church, X. Y. City. W. H. Smith, Strong Place Baptist Church, Brooklyn, X. Y. 

Mrs. E. Crossman, First Baptist Church, Xewark. X. J. Mrs. Adelia G.Taylor, First Baptist Church, Bloomfield, X.J. 

Otis Corbit, Baptist Church of the Epiphany. X. Y. City. Amy T. Weaver, First Baptist Church, Bloomfield, X. J. 

Mrs. Amelia P. Corbit. Baptist Church of the Epiphany, Theodore C. Van Arsdale, First Baptist Church, Bloom- 

X. Y. City. ' field. X. J. 

G. M. DeWitt, Baptist Church of Port Jervis. X. Y. Mrs. Louisa C. Van Arsdale, First Baptist Church. Bloom- 
Miss Helen M. Dodge. First Baptist Church of X. Y. field, N. J. 

Mrs. Minnie Dudgeon. Park Baptist Church. Port Rich- Miss May Van Arsdale, First Baptist Church, Bloomfield. 

mond, S. 1. X. J. 

Geo. P. Farmer, First Baptist Church of BlcM)mfield, X. J. Miss Jane E. Dodge, by experience. 

Mrs. H. E. Farmer, First Baptist Church of Bl(M)mfield, X. J. Mrs. Mary M. Taylor, by experience. 

Miss Annie E. Farmer. First Baptist Church of Bloom- Mrs. Dora T. Munn, by experience. 

field, X'. J. Miss Sarah A. Hooe, by experience. 

Mrs. Mary A. Hoyt, Strong Place Baptist Church, Brook- Mrs. Margaret Tyson, by experience. 

lyn, X. Y. 

Tlie report of the Committee was adopted, and the name of tJie organization decided upon was the 
" Montclair Baptist Church." The name was changed, August 20, 1890, to " Tiie First Baptist Church. 
Montclair, \. J." 

Geo. P. Farmer was elected Deacon for three years, Thomas V. Carpenter two years, and E. P. 
Benedict one year. William A. May wa.s elected Church Clerk, and E. P. Benedict, Treasurer. 

A Board of Trustees was organized January "22, LSSt;, consisting of Alonzo Crawford and E. P. 
Benedict, who were elected for three years ; Franklin N. Class and Irving Cairns for two years, and 
William H. Ketchum for one year. The first covenant meeting of the Church was held March 12, 1886, 
and the first coninninion .service Sunday, March 1-1, ISSrt. 

The first letter to tlie North New Jersey l>ai)tist Association wiis written under date of June tl, 
1886, to the Association in session at Schooley's Mountain, at which time the Church was recognized and 
admitted a member of the Association. 

The first regular installed pastor of the Church was Rev. Geo. F. Warren, formerly of the Fair- 
mount Church, Newark, N. .1. His pastorate began on January 18, 1887, and continued for two years, 
lie was succeeded by the Rev. William N. Ilubbell, who began his labors June 1, l.s9n, and was ordained 
at a council assembled at Montclair, June IG, ISIK). on the call of the Montclair Baptist Church, con- 
sisting of 89 members, representing 35 churches. The ordination services took place on the evening of 
June 16, at the Trinity Presbyterian Church of Mimtclair. 

Mr. Uubbell has labored faithfully and .systematically to build up the Church, and his labors have 
been eminently successful. A total of 2.57 were added to the Church up to Jaimary 1, 1894. Of this 
nuinlier 75 were received by and 167 by letter, and 15 on experience. The total number of 
deaths up to this period were 14. Only 3 names have been dropped from the Church roll. Erasure, 8. 
Dismissed by letter 38. Present membership, 194. 

100 History of Montclair Township. 

A number of auxiliary societies liave been organized wliieli liave aceomplislied niucli good in 
their way. A Woman's Foreign Mission Society, a Woman's Home Mission Circle, a Ladies' Guild, of 
which Mrs. F. M. Sonic is President ; Young People's Society, Wm. H. Farmer, President. A Mission 
Band organized in 1SS7, is now known as the Willing Workers. 

On June 10, 1890, a series of weekly services in the Swedish tongue was begun under the 
direction of the Eev. A. F. Bargendahl, of Brooklyn, N. Y. Great good has been accomplished by 
these efforts, and a class of people have been brought together and instructed in their own tongue that it 
would have been difficult to reach in any other manner. In April, 1S92, this was recognized as the 
Baptist Swedish Mission of Montclair, and on Tuesday evening of each week services are held in the 
Swedish tongue by Rev. Olaf Heddeen, of Brooklyn. 

On April 6, 1887, plans for church work were adopted, and committees appointed for that 
purpose. A systematic plan for collections for benevolent purposes was also adopted as follows : 

For the Missionai-y Union, for the Home Mission Society, for Children's Home and Mountain- 
side Hosj^ital of Montclair, for the ^Ministers" and AVidows' Fund, for the Educational Society, for the 
New Jersey Baptist State Convention, at stated periods each year. 

In May, 1S88, a legacy of $200 was received from the estate of Mrs. Amy T. Weaver, which formed 
the nucleus of a buikling fund. Additional amounts were received from time to time through the 
members, and in October, 188'.i, a lot (SO X 145 feet) was purchased on Fullerton Avenue, near Bloom- 
tield Avenue. By the latter part of July, 1890, the total sum of S^ 13,020.43 had been subscribed by 135 
persons, and soon after plans were adopted for the erection of a chapel, which shoiild include rooms for 
a ladies' parlor, library, etc. Mr. Irving Cairns, the first and only President of the Board of Trustees, 
E. P. Benedict, Frank H. Tooker and Geo. P. Foamier, were constituted a Building Committee, and 
Joseph Ireland, an architect, of New York City, was employed to draft the plans. The building was 
completed and ready for occupancy, and the iirst services were held March 1, 1891. The total cost of 
the present building and grounds is about $25,000 ; the estimated cost of completing it, according to 
plans, is $60,000. 

PeV. WlLLIiVil N. HuBBELr.. 

The pastorate of Rev. William N. Ilubbell has been successful from the beginning, and under his 
ministry the Baptist Church has increased in numbers and intluence, and has done its share of the work 
in the community. As an organizer, Mr. Hubbell has displayed great ability, anil has shown himself 
thoroughly (pialitied for this, his first undertaking in church work. 

Mr. Hubbell hails from the great AVest, although he is of Puritan stock, both on the paternal and 
maternal sides. He was born in Keokuk, Iowa, June 8, 1862, and is the son of a successful banker. 
On the paternal side he is descended from Richard Ilubbell, who settled at Pecjuannock. Conn., about 
1047. His direct line is through Saumel, son of Richard, and Nathan. Gersham and xVbijah. The latter 
lived at Ballston. N. Y., and was a soldier in the War of the Revolution. He had a son. Hiram, who 
was the father of Charles Hubbell. The latter married Anna M. Sage, of Rochester, N. Y.. a descendant 
of David Sage, of Middletown, Conn., 1652, through John (1), John (2), Giles aiul Oren. Deacon Oren 
Sage, the maternal grandfather of Rev. AVilliam N. Hubbell, moved from Ballston Springs to Rochester, 
where he acquired wealth in the numufacture of boots and shoes. He was a man of great benevolence, 
and it was partly through his efforts that the University of Rochester was established, he being a large 
contributor to that institution, of brains and money. 

AVilliam N. Ilubbell is the son of Charles and Anna (Sage) Ilubbell. When he was nine years of 
age, he went with his parents to San Diego. Cal.. where he received his preparatory education. He was 
graduated at the University of Rochester in 1885. He afterward studied law for a time in Minneapolis, 
Minn., and then took up the study of theology, graduating at Crozer Theological Seminary, Chester, Pa., 
in 1889. He took a post-graduate course at the same institution, completing his studies in 1890. He 
was called to the First Baptist Church of Aloutclair in June of the same year, and was regularly 
ordained on June ItUh fullnwing. 


History of Montci.air Townsiiii'. 


Mr. llubbellV call was made prior to June. He was settleil as pastor on June 1, 1S90. 

lie married, December 31, 1SI»1, iliss Katharine D. Price, danjjiiter of Capt. Joseph D. Price, 
wlio served with distinction in tJie Civil War under Slieridan. 

ilr. Ilul)bell is a close student and a iiard wi>rl<er. and his people are in fidl svinpathv w itii him 
and his methods. lie is .<ound in iiis theological views, and earnest and impressive as a speaker. He 
is gifted with an excellent voice, and pusse.-ises a good knowledge of music, which enaliles him to conduct 
the singing when occasion requires. While iiolding sti'ictly to his own denomiiiatinnal views he is very 
ready to act with other denominations in the advancement of religious or benevolent wurk. 

Thk Srxn.vv f^cnooi,. 

The organization of the Sunday scl 1 t'drnied the nucleus of the church organizatiun, and at the 

veniber (>, 1885, it was 
ize a Snnday school 
vices following. At 
t'airns was elected Su- 
Win. H. Kctchum, 
been a steady 
est, and the growth of 
pare favorably with 
illations con.^idering 
has been established, 
and teachers at the 
in the ^lain School, 
iiient, 4n. Ojficerx. — 
ing ( 'aims; Secretai'y. 
Treasurer. Helen ^I. 
eiit of Primary De- 
1\ iniiiall. 

M-]ii)()l from the be- 
untiring efforts of 
Superintendent. He 
ces.sful experience in 
ing to Montclair, and 
fur the work. He 
iif the Sunday school 
X o r t li Baptist 
when he was but nine- 
Mr. Cairns is a na- 
l)orn August riO, 1S,")2. 
came from England 

first meeting held Xo- 
determined to organ 
with preaching ser- 
this meeting, Irving 
p e r i n t e n d e n t and 
Secretary. There has 
in members and inter 
the school will com- 
those of other denom- 
the length of time it 
The total of ofticers 
present time i.s lT:i; 
11 n; Primary Depart- 
Superintendent. Irv- 
Wm. H. Farmer; 
Dodge ; Superintend- 
partmcnt, ^[l•s H. K. 

The success of this 
ginning is due to the 
Mr. Irving Cairns, the 
had a long and suc- 
this work before coin- 
was fully equipped 
was Superintendent 
connected with the 
Church, Jersey City, 
teen years of age. 
tive of Jersey City. 

His grandfather 

aliout 1830, and a.ssist- ed iii the construction 

of the iirst raib-oad built in this country. His mother, a Mary A. Howering, was also a native of 
England. Mr. Cairns was educated in the public schools of Jersey City. After this he was employed 
for a time in a hardware house. About IsTii, he and liis brother bouglit out and succeeded to the 
business of II. T. Gratacap, viz., the manufacture of firemen's ecjuipments. in X. Y. City. They built 
up a large and successful business. After the death of his brother, Mr. Irving Cairns conducted the 
business by himself. He and his fanuly placed a beautiful memorial window in the North 
Church, Jersey City, in memory of his brother. Mr. Cairns moved to Upper Montclair in 1885, where 
he resided for a few years, and in 1892 moved to Montclair. He was one of the leaders in the movement 
to organize a Baptist Church, and was a large contributor to the new church edifice. lie was elected 

'^^^^^^^ /'^c/'O- 

102 History of Moxtci.air Township. 

President of the Board of Trustees, and as sueli had the principal management of the Tinsiness interests 
of the church. He had the general supervision of the interior arrangements of the new building. He 
is a man of warm sympathies and greatly beloved by his associates in the Church and his fellow laborers 
in the Sunday-school. Mr. Cairns married, in IsT'.t, Miss Ella V. Cook, daughter of Elisha Cook, of 
Jersey City. 


This Society was organized in October, 1868, and had a total membership of V^, as follows: ]\Ir. 
and Mrs. Geo. II. Francis and family, ."> : Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M. Morgan and family, 5; Mr. and 
Mrs. C. N. Bovee and family, (1 ; Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Weidemeyer and family, 5 ; Mr. and Mrs. A. D. 
Dickinson and family, 4 ; ]\Irs. Joseph Xason and family, 3 ; Mr. Carl Nason, 1 ; ]\Ir. and Mrs. F. A. 
Angell and family, 4; ]\Ir. and ]\Irs. Itroaduax, 'J; Mr. and Mrs. Charles Parsons and family, 4; Mr. and 
]\Irs. Charles R. Parsons, 2 ; Mr. and Mrs. Geoi-ge Parsons, 2 ; Mr. and ^frs. C. Iv. ^^'illmer and family, .j ; 
Mrs. George Hawes, 1. 

For some two years the pulpit was supplied by clergymen of other Unitarian Societies. Services 
were held in Watchung Hall, immediately east of the ilansion House, either morning or evening services, 
Dr. John A. Bellow.s, Russell Bellows, Dr. John Chadwick, Mr. G. W. Curtis and other Unitarians 
from time to time leading the service. 

The Rev. J. B. Harrison, now of Franklin Falls, N. H., became the pastor in 1870. and continued 
until 1873, when "Watchung Hall was given up. From that time forward Dr. John A. Bellows con- 
ducted the religious services of the Society for two years, the services l)eing held in the house of Mrs. 
Joseph Nason, 121 Gates Avenue. In 1876 Dr. John A. Bellows moved to the State of Maine, and 
there were no furtlier meetings of the Society. 


Early in May, 1891, an entirely local and Sf)ontaneous movement for the organization of a Young 
Men's Christian Association in Montclair took form in the written re(juest of about seventy-live young 
men, that the ministers of the several churches should call an initial meeting with that end in view. 
Pursuant to such a call, signed by Rev. A. H. Bradford, D.D., First Congregational Church ; Rev. W. F. 
Junkin, D.D., LL.D., First Presbyterian Church; Rev. AY. N. Hul)l)ell, First Baptist Church; Rev. 
Orville Reed, Trinity Presbyterian Church, and Rev. Joseph A. Owen, First Methodist Episcopal 
Church, a meeting was held in the chapel of the First Presbyterian Church, Monday evening, May 25, 
1891, to consider the matter and, if expedient, begin the work of organizing an association. 

Charles II. Johnson, Sr., was elected Chairman, and E. B. Sanford, Secretary, lion. Elkanah 
Drake, of Newark, Chairman of the Y. M. C. A. State Executive Committee, and David F. JSIore, State 
Secretary, spoke in ex[ilanation and appreciation of associatioual work, and in incitement towai-d a hical 
organization, if the way should appear open. The subject was very freely discussed by Dr. Junkin, Mr. 
Reed, Rev. F. B. Carter, of St. Luke's P. E. Church, Dr. Bradford"^, Paul Babcock, C." H. Johnson, Sr., 
and others. Mr. Babcock in direct opposition, Dr. Junkin and Mr. Carter advising caution, and Dr. 
Bradford and others strongly encouraging the movement. The result was the appointment of Edward 
Madison, C. S. Olcott, R. S. I'earce, A. D. French, A. S. Wallace and W. H. Farmer as a committee to 
name a committee of ten who should thoroughly consider the need and probable field for an association, 
and report a plan of organization, if organization should seem to be desirable and expedient. These 
named as a Committee of Ten : A. H. Siegfried, Chairman, E H. Holmes. Philip Doremus, ^V. G. Snow, 
E. B. Sanford, D. F. .Merritt, C. I. Reeves, Shepard Rowland, W. H. Ketcham and George Wellwood 
Murray. This committee gave most careful thought and investigation to the need for and possibilities of 
the proposed a.ssociation, and made an exhaustive report to a second public meeting, June 23, when the 
work of forming a local organization was fully entered upon, and a eon.stitution and by-laws were adopted. 
About one hundred members gave their names to the association at this meeting. 

The first Board of Directors, after some few changes in its formative state, included A. H. 

History of Montclair Townshii'. 10.3 

Siegfried, President; A. W. Law, Vice-President; A. D. Frencli, Secretary; Siiepard liowland. 
Treasurer; C. H. Johnson, Sr., J. A. Sandford, Wni. Wallace, Geo. AV. Melick. E. P. Benedict, George 
Wellwood ilurray, Edward Madison, A. S. Wallace. V. S. Olcott. V. AV. Engli^;ll and J. G. ilacVicar. 
A Women's Auxiliary C'oninrltteu of twenty-tive was formed, with Mrs. .1. IJ. Hegeman, Chairman. 

During the sunmier and early autumn of 1891, the membership grew steadily and encouragingly, 
and plans and methods were formulated. The Association took a three years' lease on the large and time- 
honored residence, doubly honored as having for several years housed the useful but now declining 
Keform Club, at .510 Bloomtield Avenue, — the A.ssociation fitly succeeding to the valuable work of the 
Club. The building was well equi]>ped by the Association with a reading room, game rooms, social 
room, gymnasium, reception and oftice room, etc.. and was formally but quietly opened for its new 
usefulness, November 14. On tlie Sunday evening following, a mass meeting, in the interev<t of the new 
Association, was held in the First Congregational Church — the lai'gest religious meeting ever lield in the 
town — at which strong and ins])iring addresses were made by Rev. V. N. Kutan, Rev. W. X. Ilul)bell, 
Rev. Orville Reed, Dr. .Junkin and l)r. I'radford, and a re[)i>rt was read by the President. 

Tlienceforward tlie As-sociation has gonetpiietly but aggressively about its work of seeking, teach- 
iuir, entertaining and evangelizing young men through the efforts, largely, of Christian and moral 
young men. In April. ls".t2. Tliomas K. Cree. .Jr.. a graduate of the Siiringtield. Afass., Secretarial 
Training School, was appointed General Secretary, and took the leadershij) in direct practical work. The 
regular paid membership has varied between ^{^>< and 41.5. and the Association has won its place as a 
gladly recognized local institution, and as one of the most usefid and powerful agents for the general good 
of the community. The spirit and metliods of the As.sociation are well .set fortb in the following, from 
The Clirlstiin Union (now Tl„ Outh,„h) of Ajiril 29, l.s<t3: 

"Eew branches of the V. i[. C. A. with which we are aiipiainted are better organized (n- doing a 
more successful work than that of Montclair. This A.ssociation does not make the mistake which is so 
often made of being practically another Cliurcii in a community already fully stocked with such institu- 
tions. It is rather a complete and capitally etpiipped club for young men and boys, conducted on Christian 
princi])les. furnishing attractive entertainment, ])iiysical education, educational classes, literary facilities. 
and all with so little ostentation of jjiety, but .so much of the genuine article as to be thoroughly po|)ular 
with great numliers who arc seldom found in such jilaces. The religious service, or Young Men's Meet- 
ing, has a very much wider range than such meetings u..-ually have. It is held on Sunday afternoons, at 
an hour when it interferes with no Church service, and, instead of being an evangelistic meeting, is de. 
voted to practical talks by Christian men who are experts in various lines of work, and who are gladly 
heard because they are recognized as those who have a right to speak on the subjects they have in hand. 
The evangelistic idea is often overdone or unwisely used. The call to personal consecration reiterated so 
freipieiitly fails to have any influence, when a ditTerent metlKid woidd lead the young men step by step 
toward that to which they are some times too swiftly hurried. AVe have not referred to this Association 
because is has very much that is peculiar in its methods, but rather because it has a clearer conception of 
the work which the Y. M. C. A. can best ilo than most associations with which we are familiar." 

The '• surface indications " of what can be done by such an association in a comparatively small 
town are seen in this statistical resume from the ainiuai report of the General Secretary for the year end- 
ing October 1. 189.]: 

'•82 Religious Meetings, aggregate attendance, 3,2S1 ; 98 Educational Classes, aggregate attendance, 
756; 4 Practial Talks, aggregate attendance, 155; 25 Social Entertainments, aggregate attendance, 3,G68 ; 
94 Gymnastic Lesson.s, aggregate attendance, 1,209; 43 Committee Meetings, aggregate attendance, 295 ; 
125 Daily Visits to Rooms, aggregate attendance, 45,625. 

•■ That is, for a longer or .shorter time, under carefully ])lanned and well-directed moral and re- 
ligious influence and control, the boys and men — yoimg men chiefly — of our community, were taught and 
entertained, and had free use of Reading Rooms, Game Rooms, and a good Library, in 54,989 dis- 
tinct instances within one vear."" 

1(>4 History of Montclair Township. 

The executive orsjaiiizatioii at tlie time of tliis writiiiu- is A. 11. Siegfried. President ; A. W. Taw, 
Vice-President; J. A. Sandford, Secretary; Wni. Wallace, Treasurei- ; Charles IT Johnson, Sr., Edward 
Madison, A D. French, George Wellwood Mnrray, A. S. Wallace, Isaac Denhy, Sliepard Eowland, J. 
G. MacVicar, Franklin Ferris, A. S. Hadgley, with Thomas K. Cree. Jr., General Secretary. 


Tills Society was organized in the autumn of 1SS3, its ohject heing the '"suppression of intemper- 
ance hy prayer and earnest personal etfort." The first meeting was held on the afternoon of Dec. 6, 
1S.S3, in the Chapel of the Congregational Church, about one hundred ladies, representing the Presby- 
terian, Methodist, Congregational and Episcopal Cliurches being juesent. This meeting was in response 
to an invitation from a connnittee of ladies from the ditferent churches. ]Mrs. McLauglin, of Poston, 
was present and assisted in the organization. One condition of memljership was the signing of the total 
abstinence pledge of the National organization, thereby making this an auxiliary to the W. C. T. U. of 
New Jersey. 

The work of the Society is divided into seven departments, viz.. Literature, Juvenile Work, 
Prison Work, Flower Mission, Parlor Meetings, Helping Hand, and Social Purity. 

The work of the iirst department consists in the distribution of temperance literature. 

The work of the second consists in visiting tiie prisoners of Caldwell Penitentiary once a month 
on the Sal)bath day, and holding religious services; great gijod lias been accomplished in this department. 

A day is set apart in June of each year, known as Flower Mission Day, at which time bouquets of 
flowers are brought accompanied with apprujiriate verses of scripture. These flowers are sent to the 
Salvation Army in New York, to be distributed among the slums. 

Parlor meetings are held at the difl'erent homes for the purpose of encouraging and promoting the 
cause of temperance. 

Tiie Juvenile Work consists in teaching the children tlie evil efl'ects of alcohol upon the human 
body. Two schools, known as the Loyal Temperance Legions, are in successful operation. 

The work of the Helping Hand is mainly among the colored women. 

The Social Purity department is for ilie purpose of discussing the best methods of teaching 
children to lead clean, piire and holy lives. 

A cold water drinking fountain for " man and beast," placed by this Society on the principal 
thoroughfare has had a beneflcial eft'ect, and has often led the man to follow the example of the beast, 
and quench his thirst with nature's beverage rather than by the stimulant prepared by man. 

As a method of educating the public on the temjjerance question, some of the ablest speakers in the 
country have been secured at different times and have accom]ilished much good in this direction. 

The meetings of the Society are held on the second and fourth Monday of each mouth, at 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon, in tlie parlors of the Y. M. C. A. 

Each member pays sixty cents a year, one-half of which is devoted to State and County work, and 
the balance for the special local work of the Society. 

The following persons have served as officei-s of the Society since its organization : Presidents, 
Mrs. Adia E. Taylor, Mrs. Myra J. Denby, Mrs. II. M. Sandford, Mrs. M. E. Batchelder, Mrs. Arabella 
DeLong ; Vlce-Prestdents of the first organization, Mrs. L. T. Wolfe, Mrs. A. F. Pratt, Mrs. E. F. 
Mei-ritt, Mrs. Sarah J. Bird ; those who have served since : Mrs. E. L Reeves, Mrs. A. S. Wallace, Mrs. 
Samuel Wilde, Mrs. E. P. Benedict, Mrs. Samuel Crump, Mrs. Sarah McClees, Miss Rebecca Crane, 
Mrs. R. G. Hutchinson, Mrs. E. Ferris, Mrs. Huntington, Mrs. L. Butler, Mrs. J. AVyman, Mrs. 
J. M. Burr, Mrs. Ames, Mrs. Rounsaville, Mrs. John Anderson, Mrs. Delano, Mrs. E. Ferris ; 
Secretaries, Mrs. M. J. Denby, Mrs. H. II. White, Mrs. E. A. Pulver, Mrs. E. M. White, Miss Irene D. 
Grover, Mrs. M. L. Pemroyer, Mrs. S. L. Reeves; Treasxirers, Miss Lizzie Morris, Mrs. H. M. Sandford, 
Mrs. E. M. Gilbert, Mrs. H. R. Edmonston. Present officers: President, Mrs. Arabella DeLong; 
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. H. D. Crane; Pecording Secretdry, Mrs. S. L. Reeves; Treasurer, Mrs. 
H. R. Edmonston. 

History of Montclair Township. 



The influx of the coloicil people in Montclair liegau aliout ISTO (tlie total colored popnlation of the 
township at that time heing 3ti i, and wan the result of an effort to solve the servant question. A prominent 
citizea of Montclair hrought from Loudon County, Ya., two or three servants on trial. They proved 
satisfactory, and others, leaming that hetter wages could be obtained at the North, soon fullowed, and 
the Colored jnipulation of ^^^)I)tclair now nund)er about l,<i(i(i, most of wliom were born in servitude; and, 
as wa.s the custom, took the names of their masters. All became free under the proclamation of President 
Lincoln. As a class thcv are <piiet, industrious and well behaved. They retain many of their old time 
customs, but readily adapt themselves to the new condition of affairs. The larger proportion of them are 
house servants, yet some have already acquired considerable ])roi)erty. They ai-e a cbnrch-going 
]>eiiple, and are active in advancing the cause of religion, and have made rai)i(l ])rogress in their 
Church societies. 


The preliminary movements that led to the organization of this Church began in July, 168*!, in a 
series of meetings held from house to house, the first one being held at the residence of Lucy Weaver. 

These meetings were continued throusrh the year with 
increasing numbers and interest. The organization 
was completed and the name of the Union Ba])tist 
Church adopted in the early ])art of 1887, regular 
meetings having already been held with occasional 
preaching services at Watciiung Hall. The Church 
records show that : 

"At the call of the Union Baptist Church, of 
.\[i>ntelair, X. .1.. a Council convened at its house of 
woivhip. Wednesday, .T.iiuiary \'2. 1887, to consider 
the propriety of recognizing it as a regular Baptist 
Church, and also the propriety of ordaining to the 
work of the ministry. Rev. .1. .\. Harris, pastor elect. 
TIev. L. O. Greenville was chosen Moderator, and 
liev. Henry B. Waring, Clerk. The Council was 
composed of the following delegates : 

" First Church, Caldwell, Rev. Jabez Marshall and 
Daniel B. Lewis; Fii-st Church, Roselle, Rev. L. O. Grenille and Reuben Smith; Fifth Church, Newark, 
Rev. Henry B. Waring and Fldward lledden ; Ro.seville Church, Newark, Rev. Albert Stillman; South 
Church, Newark, Rev. S. E. Verson, P.D.; Fii-st Church, P.h.omticld. Rev. Y.. I). Sinnns." 

Services were held at Watchung Hall until lS'.»o, and afterward at Movvis Hall. A lot was pur- 
chased in 1889 on Bloomtield Avenue, wiiicli was sold later at an advance, and another lot purchased on 
Portland Place, 50 by 1^6 feet, and a frame building erected thereon, 45 by 110 feet, with a seating 
capacity of about 500. It is neatly furnished, provided with every convenience, and fitted up with one 
of the finest organs in this locality. The total cost of the whole property was about §20,000. It con- 
tains an audience room, a Sunday-school room, a lecture room, and three small reading rooms. 

Rev. J. A. Harris remained until May 1, 188;t, and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Adkins, from 
North Carolina, who remained about two months. A call was then extended to Rev. Wm. Perry, who 
began his pastorate July 26, 1889. The total membership was then about -16, and under bis pastorate it 
has since increased to 35i'>. He has baptized nearly 200; the rest were received by letter. When 
ilr. Perry's pastorate began in 188'.*, the total amount of real property owned ])y members of his churcli 
and congregation did not exceed $4,0m(i; tliey now own, according to his statement, about $110,000. 

106 History of Montclair Township. 

Thouf!;li the members are mostly persons in moderate circumstances they give liberally of their means, and 
the amount raised in one year to pay for the services of an evangelist, and for other benevolent purposes, 
was $.S(tO. 

Eev. William Perky, the pastor of this Church, was born in Chatham County, N. C, October 
22, ISfiO, three years before the Act of Emancipation. Ilis parents were the propei-ty of a Mr. I'erry, 
and, as was the custom, took the name of their master. Soon after the close of the war William was 
sent to private school, his parents being ambitions to give him an education. In 1879 he attended Wa}-- 
land Seminary, in Washington, D. C, and during this ]X'riod became assistant pastor of the Mount Ver- 
non Baptist Cliurch (colored). He remained about two years, and then conducted mission meetings for 
another year at Garfield City. He labored some time as an evangelist with great success, and subse- 
quently had charge of the Bright Hope Baptist Church, at Princeton, N. J., where, after remaining two 
years, he came to Montclair. His work among his people here has been marked with great success. He 
has shown great ability as an organizer, and is earnest and effective as a preacher. He has the faculty of 
inspiring confidence among his people, and they trust him implicitly, and recognize him as their leader. 
He is an indefatigable worker, both in and out of the Church, and is seconded in all his efforts by his 
faithful followers. He has shown himself a good financier, and an able business manager, having con- 
ducted all the operations in connection with the purchase of the church property, and the erection and fur- 
nishing of the church. He has a comfortable home of his own, acquired by his industry, economy and 
good management. 

The Sunday school connected with this Church was organized in May, 1887, with ten scholars and 
one teacher. The first and second Superintendents were Miss Elliott and Miss Emma Smith. AVilliain 
Grigsby in 1890. The school numbers at the present time 125 scholars, with 16 teachers. The lihrary 
contains 2,500 volumes. 


This Church owes its existence to the efforts of a few individuals — whites — who conceived the idea 
of organizing a Colored LTnion Church, that should be sui)ported by representatives of the several 
denf>minations. The work began about 1881, by the organization of a Church and Sunday school, the 
chief promoters of which were, E. A. Snedeker, Rev. J. H. Cooley, D. F. ilerritt, and J. W. Snedeker, 
representing the M. E. Cliureh of Montclair, and Mr. George P. Farmer, of the First Baptist Church of 
Montclair. The officers of the M. E. Church gave the use of their old building on Bloonifield Avenue, 
free of rent, in order to start the enterprise. The church was opened in 1881 with a membership of 25 
— all colored. This number has gradually increased to about 100. The other denominations interested 
in tlie matter recognized the fact that the prevailing system of Methodism enabled that Society to provide 
pulpit supplies without cost to the new church, and therefore consented to that denominational distinction, 
under the name of St. Mark's M. E. Church. The colored people were enthusiastic in the work and 
secured the use of the building, rent free, for five years, from tlie First M. E. Church in consideration of 
their putting it in complete repair. They raised quite a sum among themselves, but were lai-gely assisted 
by the whites. About $1,400 was expended for this purpose, and besides this the colored people 
raised among themselves, $700 for an organ, and about $300 for carpets. The First M. E. Church gave 
them the refusal of the property at a valuation of $2,500, agreeing also to donate $500, leaving the 
amount of $2,000 to be raised by the colored people. A part of this amount has been raised by the 
colored jjeople, with the prospect of their soon owning the proi)ei-ty. 

For the first two years. Rev. J. H. Cooley, of the First M. E. Church, was their pastor. Supplies 
after this were furnished by the Presiding Elder, until about 1888, when Rev. Amos Garther assumed 
the pastorate of the church, which he still continues. 

For the first few years, until 1892, this church was a part of the Newark Conference, and that 
year, by action of tiie Colored Conference of New Jersey, it was placed in the Delaware Conference 
(colored). This church is now in a prosperous condition, and is doing excellent work among the colored 

History of Moxtclair Township. 


The Sunday school was started conteinporaiieous witli the ehurcli, by Mr. M. E. tSuiith, who had 
the general supervision of both church and school. He continued as Superintendent of the school from 
1881 to 1>*90, and was succeeded by J. W. Snedeker, the present iiiciinilicnt. There are now 12 
teachers — all white — and 150 scholars. 

Both in the church and Sunday school the colored people have displayed great liberality, and 
a cointnendable zeal in the work, and have evinced their grateful appreciation of the support and 
sympathy of their white neighbors. 

MI.W ul- TAKK hlKl.i.l, 1 RUM 1111. 

•1:M K ul l.l.AKK.MOM A\1-MI.. 

Chapter XII. 


The first School in Newakk, 1676. — Act adopted by uhe General Assembly, 1693. for establishing 
Schools. — First School Committee, 1697. — First Appropriation by the State Legislatdre, 
1816. — Acts of 1S29, 1838, 1846, 1S52, 1867, etc. — Schools of Cranetown, West Bloomfield 
AND Montclair. — The First School-house, 1740. — Second School-house, 1812. — Gideon 
Wheeler, the first Teacher in the " new ScHooL-HorsE." — Special School Law for the 
Township of Bloomfield, 1846. — Teachers. 1846 to 1856. — Trcstees, 1831 to 1856. — The 
" new departure," and the result. — Increased Facilities.— Establishment of the High 
School, and its gradual development. — The new School Building. 1892-3. — Efforts of 
Dr. J. J. H. Love, the first President of the Board, and his Successors, George H. 
Francis, Thomas Porter, Charles K. Willmer and John E. Howard. — Sketch of Randall 
Spaulding. — Private Schools. — Washington School — east end. — Warren Holt's School. — 
Ashland Hall. — Hillside Seminary for Young Ladies. — Montclair Military Academy. — 
Free Public Library. 

i|HE early settlers of Newark, thoHgli many of them could neither read or write, were men 
of enterprise, virtue, and more than ordinary intelligence, and they appreciated the 
importance of having their children properly educated. After purchasing their land, 
building their habitations, establishing their local government, erecting their church, and 
constructing their mill, they next gave their attention to the education of their children. 

On November 1, 1676, at a town meeting composed of the freeholders of Newark, 
numbering at that time seventy -five persons, tiie following action was taken : 

"ITEM — The Town's Men have Liberty to see if they can find a competent 
number of Sehollars and accommodations for a School Master in this town." 

The "Town's Men" — seven in number — took prompt action to secure a schooh 
master, as appears from the f(jllowing record, Feb. 7, 1677 : 
" ITEM— The Town hath consented that the Town's Men sliould perfect the Bargain with the 
School Master for this year, upon condition that he will come for this year, and do his faithful, lionest 
and true Endeavor, to teach the Children, or servants of those who have subscribed, the reading and 
writing of English, and also of Arithnietick if they desire it; as much as they are capable to learn as is he 
capable to teach them, within the Compass of this year, no wise hindering, but that he may make what 
bargain he please, with those as have not subscribed. It is voted that the Town's ilen have Liberty to 
complete the Bargain with the School Master, they knowing the Town's Mind." 

The first "school master" was John Catlin or Cathling, one of the early settlers from Branford, 
who also held the office of town attorney and other positions. 

The General Assembly of the Province, in October, 1693, enacted the following : 

" An Act for Establishing School Masters Wuhin this Province. 

" Whereas the cultivating of learning and good Manners tends greatly to the good and benefit of 
Mankind, which iiave hitherto been much neglected witliin this Province. BE IT THEBEFOBE 
ENACTED by the Governor, Council and Deputies in General Assembly now met and Assembled, and 
by the Authority of tlie same, that the Inhabitants of any Town within this Province, shall and may by 
Warrant from a Justice of the Peace of that County where they think fit and convenient, meet together 

History of Montclair Township. 100 

and make choice of tliree more men of llie said Town, to make a rate for the salary and maintaining of a 
School Master within the said Town, for so long a time as they think fit ; and the consent and agreement of 
the ilajor part of the Inhahitants of the said Town, shall hind and oblige the remaining part of the In- 
habitants of said Town to satisfy and pay their shares and proportion of the said Rate; and in ease of 
refusal or non payment, distress to be made upon tlie Goods and Chattels of said Person or Persons so 
rcfnsing or not paying, by the constable of said Town, by Virtue of a "Wari'ant from a Justice of the 
Peace of that County; and the Distress so taken to be sold at a public Vendue, and the overplus, if any 
be after the payment of the said rate and charges to be returned to the Owner." 

This Act was ameniled in February, 1695, as follows: 

"WHEREAS there was an Act made AX^'O DOMINE 1693 for the establishing of Schools 
in each respective Town in this Province, and by experience it is found inconvenient, by reason of the 
Distance of the Xeighborlmod, the said Act directing no suitable way whereby all the inhabitants may 
have the benefit thereof : BE IT THEREFORE ENACTED by the Governor, Council and Repre- 
sentatives, in General Assembly now met and Assembled, and by Authority of the same, that three Men 
be chosen Yearly and every Year in each respective Town in this Province to appoint and agree with a 
School Master, and the three Men so chosen shall have power to nominate and appoint the most 
convenient place or places where the School shall be kept from time to time, that as near as may be the 
whole Inhabitants may have the benefit thereof." 

On the 1st of January, 1697, the town meeting chose a school committee consisting of Tiicopelus 
Pierson, Jasper Crane and Tiionias Richards, who were authorized "'to agree with a School Master to 
keep Scliool in this Town for the Year according to Act of Assembly." 

The first State legislation in behalf of public schools was on Feb. 9, 1S16, by which "the Legis- 
lature authorized and directed the Treasurer of the State to invest in the jniblic six per cent, stock of the 
United States in the name of and for the use of this State, the sum of s1.").(iimi." Otlicr stocks were 
added to this in 1817, making an aggregate of §S7,<)76.34. 

The first distribution of public funds was by enactment of Feb. 24, 1629, wiiicli provided that the 
Trustees of the School Fund should appropriate annually from the proceeds thereof $-20,000 for public 
schools. This was the first attempt at disbursement. Hitherto it had been all accumulation. The 
money that had been gathering for thirteen years had reached a level from where it would be safe to 
distribute, and the Trustees of the fund "are to divide this §20,000 among the fourteen counties in the 
ratio of State tax paid by the counties." The Chosen Freeholders of the several counties were directed 
to re-disbnrse to their several townships in the ratio of the county tax paid by the townships. Townships 
were required to elect annually school committees of three each, whose duty it was to divide the township 
into convenient school districts, license teachers for the township, call district meetings of the taxable 
inhabitants only, and to divide the public money quarterly among the s-everal districts according to the 
number of cliildren between the ages of four and sixteen years. The district meetings were to determine 
how many months in the year a school should be kept, and the Trustees were to provide a house or room 
for the school. 

By the Act of February 10, ls;3I, the Act of 1S29 and supplement of 1830 were repealed and a 
new act substituted. By this Act the sum of §30,000 was annually appropriated from the pioceeds of 
the school fund, to be drawn on or before the first Monday in April. Authority to levy an annual school 
tax was continued to the townships, and they were enqiowered to assign ail the State money to educate 
the " indigent poor " if they chose. 

The patrons, sup])orters or proprietors of common schools in the townships were directed to organize 
tlieir several schools, if not already organized, by the appointment of any number of trustees. The 
trustees were to report to the Township School Committee tlieir organization ; whereupon the Committee 
was directed to recognize all such schools as being entitled to their j)roportion of the public money. 

The Township School Committees, upon the receipt of the animal rei)orts of the several Boards of 
Trustees, assigned the public money to each school in the ratio of the number of children taught, as 

llu History of Montclair Township. 

reported to tliein during; tlie precedino- year. If tlie to\nislii]i liad voted all the public money to tlie use 
of the pool', then the ratio of distrilmtion was to be as to the iiuiuber of "poor" children taught in each 

In March, 1838, tliere was a new enactment authorizing this $30,000 to be disbursed from the 
school fund annually, on the usual basis. Township School Committees were again empowered to divide 
townships into convenient scliool districts ; alter and change them as circumstances may require, and if 
advisable form them from parts of two or mors adjoining townships or counties. 

By the law of 1S4G the annual sum of $3U,000 was continued to be api)ropriated, but townships 
were required to raise a sum at least equal to the proportion of the State appropriation, but not to exceed 
double that sum. 

In 1836 the General Government found itself in possession of more money than it wanted, or 
would be likely to want. By Act of Congress, passed June 23, of that year, it distributed to the several 
States, as a loan without interest, more than $30,000,000 of this "surplus revenue,"' as it was called. 
Tlie sum appropriated to the State of New Jersey was $764,670.44. 

A supplement to the Act of 1846, passed March 14, 1857, jirovided for an annual disbursement 
of $40,000 of the proceeds of the scliool fund, and $40,000 from the general treasury, making a sum 
almost equal to the entire school fund of a third of a century befoi'e. 

By an Act of 1852, the "Trustees of the School Fund" were authorized to dispose of all that 
remained of the lands belonging to the State at Paterson, l>y private or public sale, and invest the 
proceeds thereof in the school fund. 

By an Act of 1867, the formation and re-formation of school districts was taken from the people 
and placed in the hands of the County Superintendent. 

Ill 1871, an Act was passed, assigning the proceeds from the sales and rentals of "land under 
water'" to the school fund. From this source a large amount is realized annually. 

In the same year the Two-mill Tax was enacted. This is an assessment of two mills on every 
dollar of the assessed value of all taxable property in the State. From this source there was i-ealized in 
1875 the sum of $1,237,578.57. 

It supersedes the township taxes heretofore required, provided the sum realized by this tax proves 
to be sutticient to maintain free schools in a given township nine months in the year. "Sectarian 
Schools" are specially denied any part of the two mill tax. 

Schools of CkanM',towx, "West Bloomfield axd IMontclair. 

The first school-house in Cranetown, as near as can be ascertained, was built about 1740. It stood 
at the junction of the Old Koad (now Church Street) and the road leading to Orange, south of what was 
recently the High School Building. It was a one-story building, built of stone, twenty-six feet long and 
eighteen feet broad. It faced the east, and the curve in the road was then such that it looked down the 
street. There was a large lire-place in the southwest corner of the room, and flat desks or tables placed 
around the sides of the room, far enough from the walls to admit of benches being placed between the 
desks and the walls. All the seats were slabs, bark side down. At the south end was an oblong 
platform, two steps in height, which was called " the rostrum." In the centre of this platform was a 
trap door, opening into the dungeon, where evil doers M'ere sometimes "dropped." The earliest 
teachers mentioned who occupied the rostrum were Isaac Watts Crane and Hugh Thompson. 

Rev. Jedediah Chapman, for many years pastor of the First Church in Orange, came regularly 
every two weeks, on Saturday', to catechise the children. lie was a man of venerable appearance, wore 
a cocked hat, and always rode on horseback. The children with the master wei-e ranged along the 
i-oadside, in single file, and waited with uncovered heads until the minister dismounted and entered the 
building, when they all followed. 

Dr. Grub succeeded IMr. Thompson, and ilr. Tracy, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, followed. lie was 
a severe discijilinarian and held strictly to the proverb " Spare the rod and spoil the child." He made 

History of Montci.air Township. 1 1 1 

free use of the " weeping willow," and the weeping children failed to move him to compassion. Mr. 
Smith, Mr. Ilinman and Mr. Norton, each in succession taught in this school-house. 

The .'^c?c'"/i'/ scliool-liouse was Imilt in 1S12, on land i)urchased of Parmenus Dodd, tluough Israel 
Crane, at the junction of Old Koad and the turnpike, about tifty feet east of the present Presbyterian 
Church. It was of stone, two stories high, twenty-two by forty feet in size, the second story of which 
was used for religious services. 

Gideon Wheeler was the tirst teacher in the second school-house. lie came from Stepney, 
Fairfield County, Conn., to New Jersey, about 1809-10. He taught first in Jersey City, afterward at a 
small village near Parsippany, New Jersey, and came to Cranetown in lsl2. lie brought witli him the 

" Kkcommk.ndation : 

" IIrxn.\(iT().v, Faikfiem) Covnty, July 17, 1809. 

" This may certify that the bearer, Gideon AVheeler, has made school teaching his business 
between fifteen and twenty years, and has generally given satisfaction to his employers, and his 
knowledge of the ortiiography of the English language, English Grammar, Arithmetic, Mathematics and 
Astronomy, we conceive, will recommend him to all who wish to have their children ac(iuire useful 
knowledge under his tuition. His moral character is such as merits the imitation of his pupils if they 
wish to become useful members in society. 

'•DKonATK Sii.i.icMAN. Ju.. Prcst." 

Mr. AVheeler taught in this school for many years. He was a man of great intellectual force 
and sound judgment, and considered an excellent teacher for the time. He held the position until 
declining health compelled his retirement, and his remaining days were s|)t'i]t on his tiirm. He attracted 
pupils from Speertown, Verona, the Coit Neighborhood, Tory ('(iriu'r, and from "between the 
Mountains." His whole term of service was about eleven years — from 1811 to ls-22. He was succeeded 
by Philander Seymour, a young man from Genoa, .\. Y., who had taught for a time "between the 
mountains," south of Pleasant Valley. He was a man of good education, a popular and successful teacher. 
He continued teaching from 1822 to 1830, when he removed to Ploomtield. Isaac I>. "Wheeler, a son 
of Gideon "Wheeler, taught here for a time; also William Iledden and David J. Allen. "Warren S. 
Holt taught school in the same building, and subsequently opened a day and boarding school for young 
men and young ladies at what is now known as the Mountain House. Amos B. Ilowland succeeded him 
ilarch 7, 183t:!, and was the last teacher in the secimd-school house and the fir.-t one in the thii'd. 

The second school-house, together witli the lot on which it stood, was sold in 1838, to the Society of 
West I'loomfield Presltyterian Church, for S-^""', imd the third school house was erected the same year, on 
land purchased from Ira Campbell, west of, and near the Presbyterian Church This building was sold 
to the same Church Society, in 18G0, for §800. Mr. Ilowland continued teaching until 1839, and on 
April <)th, of that year, was succeeded by Miss Ilariiet IJooth, Oct. 3, 1840. Samuel Jones also taught 
here for a time and was succeeded Nov. 1, 1849, by Edwin C. Fidler, the present tax collector of the 
township of Montclair. He was assisted by Miss Jane Van Duyne. Miss Phcebe C. Miinn was 
appointed April 25, 1850, and continued during the summer months. She was the last teacher under 
the old regime of a pay school, the tuition being at that time §2.00 a quarter or $8.00 a year. The 
Trustees that year abolished the Saturday forenoon school hours, the half holiday having been the 
immemorable usage. The change met with a strong opposition, tlie older people claiming that " what 
was good enough for them was good enough for their children." 

Application was made by the township of Bloomtield, in 1849, for a special school law. Kesist- 
ance was made, but the free school law was enacted in 1840, amended in 1850, and the tuition of all 
children was henceforth paid by taxation. 

Section 1 of the amended Act authorizes the towuship to "raise by tax at the annual town 

U2 History of Montclair Township. 

meeting a sum not to exceed §2,500 in any one year, wliicli money shall not be applied to the building of 
a school-lionse or school-houfes." 

Section 2 provides that "the amount authorized shall not in anyone year exceed one-half the 
amount of taxes assessed the preceding year in said district for all purposes/' 

Section 3 provides that " the town superintendent together with the township committee shall 
be and are hereby authorized to unite, divide and alter their school districts, and change the boundaries 
thereof whenever and as often as they may deem it necessary or expedient for the jniblic beneiit." Tliis 
Act was ajjproved March Cth, 1850. 

At the time of the enactment of tiie law there were seven school districts in the old township. 
Three of the four in the eastern part of the town were united, and the Bloomfield plan of a Central 
Grammar and High School and primary schools at a distance from the centre began its growth. The 
three districts in the western portion of the town remained separate. 

The first teacher at the West Bloomfield School under the new law was A. D. Babcock, who 
received a salary of S^lSOO a year. Edwin C. Fuller returned April, 1852, and was assisted by Miss 
Phoebe C. Mann ; his salary was $31:0, and hers s200. Miss Phoebe Campbell, appointed Oct. 2, 1852, 
received $100 salary, and Miss Samantha Wheeler was appointed Sept. 22, 1856, at $125 per annum. 

The following named Trustees managed the school affairs of "West Bloomfield from 18.31 to 
1850, at which time the first radical change was made : For the year 1831, Elias Littell, Zenas S. Crane, 
John Munn, Stephen F. Crane, Caleb Baldwin ; 1832, Zenas S. Crane, Matthias Smith, Stephen F. 
Crane, John Munn, Timothy A. Crane; 1833, Zenas S. Crane, Stephen F. Crane, Nathaniel Crane, Jr., 
John Munn, Caleb "Ward; 1835, Peter Doremus, William Smith, John Munn, Stephen F. Crane; 1830, 
Stephen F. Crane, Richard Homer, Peter Doremus, William Smith, John Munn ; 1838, Elias B. Crane, 
Zenas S. Crane, Wm. Smith; 1839, John Munn, Jos. H. Baldwin, Elias B. Crane; 1844, William 
Smith, AYilliam S. Morris, Martin S. Moore; 1846, William S. Morris, Calvin S. Baldwin, John D. 
Taylor, John Munn, Amzi Sandford: 1847, William S. Morris, C. S. Baldwin, John D. Taylor, David 
Eogers, JSTathaniel H. Dodd; 1848, John Post, C. S. Baldwin, A. A. Sanford, Edmund Doremus, John 
C. Doremus; 1849, C. S. Baldwin, M. W. Smith, John C. Collins, Wm. S. Morris, A. A. Sanford ; 1850, 
A. A. Sanford, John Munn, Chas. Smith, C. S. Baldwin, Anthony D. Ball. 

The completion of the Newark and Bloomfield R. R. to West Bloomfield in 1856 was the begin- 
ning of a new settlement. It brought to this town active young men with families of children to educate 
— men who had been accustomed to good schools in the New England States, and who were desirous of 
having school facilities here equal to those to which they had been accustomed, so that tliey might avoid 
the necessity of sending their children elsewhere to be educated. The cpiestion of improved school 
accommodations began to be agitated, and this was brought to a final i.ssue at a meeting held April 2, 
i860, Mr. Julius H. Pratt acting as Chairman, and Dr. J. J. H. Love as Secretary. An entire new Board 
of Trustees was elected, consisting of Peter H. Yan Riper, Edgar T. Gould, William Jacobus, Joseph 
11. Baldwin and John C. DeWitt. 

The cpiestion of location for a school building next became the all-absorbing topic, and it is a note- 
worthy fact that the site finally selected was near the same spot where the first school-house was erected 
more than a century pi-evious. The Trustees called a public meeting on May 10, 1860, recommending 
the purchase of a lot on the corner of Church Street and Valley Road, both streets being a part of the GId 
Road, which extended through Bloomfield to Newark, lieing one of the first laid out in the old "Town 
of Newark." A large number of the old inhabitants attended the meeting and vigorously opposed the 
recommendation of the Trustees, resorting to all kinds of (piibbles and parliamentary tactics to prevent 
action. Several meetings followed this, and finally, at a meeting held June 15, 1860, the measure was 
carried by a vote of 64 to 34, and the Trustees were authorized to purchase the above-mentioned lot, 
then owned by Grant J. Wheelci-, and to erect tbei-eon a school building with accommodations suited to 
the increased population. On July loth of that year the Board of Trustees adopted plans and specifica- 
tions, and on July 30th the contiact was awarded to "\Vm. Sigler, carpenter, and Edgar T. Gould, mason. 

History cif Montclair Township. 


at a cost of $4,300. the heating apparatus, furniture, etc., making a total cost of 8*>,< '21.34. The building 
was fiftv feet in length bv thirty-five in breadth, and now forms the north wing of the present grammar 
school. The .'^onth wing was erected in 186!) and the east wing in 1873; the total cost of the completed 
building, which is now the Grammar School, was $3.5,0()0. 

Mr. John H. Morrow, appointed December 28, 1860, at a salary of $4.^0. was the first teacher 
in the original wing of this new edifice. He was assisted, in 1861, by Miss A. M. Mnnn, and in 1863 by 
Miss Helen Muun. 

Special plans were originated in 1^06 for the establishment of a High School adequate to the de- 
mands of the best education preparatory to the college or the university. The purpose was to secure the 


services of a principal who should be a graduate from one of the best colleges, and whose character and 
attainments should secure the)^ best results in education. The High School was to afford facilities "to 
educate here at home the youth who had been previously sent away to school," and to enable " parents to 
retain under home influence their children during tlie period of the formation of character." John W. 
Taylor, a graduate of Harvard University, became the principal September 1, 1866, and inspired a rapid 
development of our school system during the four years of his sui)ervision. His tact, ability and enthusiasm 
in school work, his geniality and his fondness for young life, his instinct for individualizing, and his 
natural leadership, gave inspiration alike to teachers, students, parents and trstees. Miss Lucy M. Brown 

114 History of Montclair Township. 

was appointed a?sif5tant Novemlter 28, 1867. Mr. Ta_vlor left tlurins; the second year of his administra- 
tion, and Mr. Jared riiisl)roi]ck filled the position from Angnst 2t>, lS(iS, to December IT, at which time 
Mr. Tajlor returned, continiiinfr until ISTU, when Mr. John P. Gross, a graduate of Bowdoin College, 
hecaine the princij)al. Mr. Gross continued to develop a wide pnhlic interest in the School. The 
increase of pupils rendered a further enlargement necessary in 1873. The first graduating class, composed 
of thirteen members, was guided through the advanced course by Mr. Gross, and the first diplomas of the 
Trustees, given in 187-±, were made significant of a thorough education. Mr. Gross was assisted in the 
High School department by Miss Lucy M. Brown and Mr. Edward Thatcher, a graduate of Yale College, 
and a son of Prof. Thos. A. Thatcher. Miss Abbey M. Munn, at that time a teacher of long experience 
and distinguished success, was at the head of the Primary Department. Miss Lucy Brown, who for seven 
years had been an efficient teacher, and was highly esteemed in the community, was called away by death 
in 1874. Mr. Gross continued for about a year longer, and was succeeded, in the autumn of 1874, by 
Mr. Randall Spaulding, a graduate of Yale College. 

Efiicient as the School was at the time, Mr. Spaulding saw that there was room for further improve- 
ment in order to meet the growing demands of the community. Otie of the most important changes 
made by him was that of requiring the pupils then in school to remain a year longer than tlie previous 
time allotted for graduation. 

Other improvements have been made from year to year, demonstrating the wisdom, knowledge 
and ability of the principal. During his administration of nearly twenty years, he has been assisted by a 
corps of excellent teachers, some of whom were old residents in the community. Among the lady 
teachers have been Miss Annie Brown, a very successful teacher, who served for six years; Miss F. A. 
Caldwell, Miss Anna S. Peck, and Miss Mary J. Turner; and of the gentlemen, P. W. Conant, Charles 
L. Noyes, Edwin B. Goodell, Samuel D. Eaton, Noah C. Rogers, J. Howard Pratt and Arthur E. 
Bostwick. Miss Eldora Eldredge is worthy of special mention. She has had charge of the grammar 
department, preparatory to the High School, for nearly eighteen years, and still continues in that position. 

The need of increased specialization in the work of the High School led to the employment, in 18Sfi, 
of Mr. Robert Cornish to take charge of tlie science department, a man eminently fitted for the work. He 
continued in this position for six years, and brought the department to a high state of efficiency. The 
classical department was assigned to Miss Eliza H. Gilliert, who for several years had performed a part 
of the duties pertaining to it. Her work is characterized by great accuracy and thoroughness. Li 
September, 1892, Mr. J. Steward Gibson succeeded Mr. Cornish in the science department. Miss Turner, 
who for many years had served most acceptably as preceptress of the High School, was succeeded in 1887 
by Miss I^Iargaret A. Emerson, a conscientious and painstaking teacher, who i-emained three years. Her 
place was tilled by Miss Elsie M. Dwyer, a graduate of Wellesley College, an able and successful teacher 
of ripe experience. 

Other departments have been added — that of modern language and mathematics, in charge of 
Miss Harriet E. Crouch; Latin and modern history. Miss Mary A. Carter; commercial branches and 
botany, Mr. William C. Gorman ; English and history in charge of the preceptress. Miss Dwyer, assisted 
by Miss Lucy Evelyn Wight. The unusually long and efficient service of Miss Abbie M. Munn, now in the 
highest grade of the primary department, and Misb Eldora Eldredge, in the highest grade of the grammar 
deiiartnient, renders them worthy of special notice, Miss Eldredge having served eighteen consecutive 
years, and Miss Munn a much longer period. The names of both these worthy teachers are enshrined in 
the hearts of hundreds of pupils, many of whom have achieved honor and success in life, and cherish the 
remeralirance of them as among the most delightful associations connected with their alma mater. 

Since 1874 scarcely a year has passed without material change in the course of study, and new 
systems and methods have given place to the old ones. Even the early graduates of this school would be 
surprised at the great changes that have l)een wrought. The system of manual training was introduced 
in 1S82, and the trustees were authorized to expend the sum of |1,000 to test its practicability. A room 
was fitted up and fully supplied with the necessary tools and appliances. The manual work the first year 

History or Moxtclair TowNsiiir. 115 

in the grammar department consisted in drawing and constrnctii)n of geometric forms, and in advanced 
clay modeling; to the second year was assigned a course in joinery; to the third year, wood carving. 
Girls during this period were instructed in needlework. Tliis department has succeeded beyond the 
expectations of its promoters, and has been extended from time to time both upward and downward in 
the grades of tlie school. The expense of maintaining this department tlie first year was §72(1 ; the 
second, $600; the third, $583; the fourth. 80S1 ; fifth, sHito ; and the sixtli. $687. 

The total number of graduates from the High School is 206. Of these, seventy-eight have 
entered upon a college course leading to a degree. Nine graduates liave taken special courses in 
colleges; seventeen have entered some professional school of law, medicine or teaching. Those who 
have entered upon a college course are classified as follows : Yale, 19 ; Wellesley, 11 ; Smith, 9 ; 
Amherst, 7; Princeton, 7; Harvard, 6; ^V■e6leyan, 4; University of New York, 3; Oberlin, 2; 
Li'higli. •2; University of Minnesota, 1; "Williams, 1; Cornell, I; Evelyn, 1; Columbia, !; Bryn 
Mawr, 1 ; iJarnard, 1 ; ^lassachu setts School of Technology, 1. 

The school census shows the number of children residing within the district between five and 
eighteen years of age in 1856 as 185. In 1870 there were 450. The next decade, 898. The total number 
in 1893 was 1,703. The increase from 1856 to 1893 is 1.518 ; the largest increase in any one year was that 
of 1871, viz.. 150. The smallest increase was iii 1872, viz., 6, and the year from 1884 to 1885 showed 
a decrease of 22. 

The total number of scholars enrolled at the present time is 1.30(1, reijuiriiig the employment of 
44 teachers, including instructors in special departments. Additions have been made to the old and new 
buildings during the past fifteen years, in order to meet the increased demands for school facilities. In 
1878-9 the west half of the centre primary school was built at a cost of $l2,oi10. In 1884, the east half 
centre primary, at a cost of $7,118. In 1888 a new school-house was built on Cedar Street, which cost, 
including the land, $6,895. In 1889-90 a large new brick building was erected on Chestnut Street, which 
cost, including the land, $18,8n3. 

In 1892 a large ]ilot of land was ]>nrchased on the west side of Valley Road, about three Iniiulred 
yards west of the present grammar school. On this was erected one of the finest and most coujpletely 
equipped school buildings in the State. The building is 237 feet long and about 81 feet extreme width, 
covering an area of 15.738 square feet, including porches, etc. The design is of classic style and 
the exteriors are finished in buff brick and cream white terra cotta. The portion below water level 
is of dark red brick. All interior carrying partitions and all heating and vent flues are of brick. 
The floors are laid on Georgia pine joists and on iron beams. All interior walls are furred and afire 
stop is at the bottom of each. The building is two stories high and the main flights of stairs are of iron, 
supported by brick walls, broken by landings and covered with rubber treads. The first floor is arranged 
with a direct corridor from entrance to entrance, thirteen feet wide, and contains all the wardrobes, 
being separated for the sexes. They are built on a new plan adajjted and used by the architects, 
Messrs. Loringc% Phipps, of Boston, designers of this and many public schools and other public buildings. 

Placed at intervals in the first floor corridor are three foot warmers, so arranged that the children 
can dry their feet and clothes in wet weather. On the south side of this corridor are seven class rooms 
of different sizes, each having seating capacity of from 54 to 60 pupils or more, according to size, and 
each room is arranged for the light to come over the left shoulder and back of the pupil. Each class room 
on this floor, as well as on the second floor, has teachers' closets and book closets, and blackboards of 
natural slate are on all the wall surfaces not used for other purposes. On the north side of the corridor 
on the first floor are two recitation rooms, principal's office with fire place, toilets, closets, waiting room and 
depository. The reference room and connecting library are fitted with delivery desk and book racks for 
many thousands of volumes. In each corridor two drinking places are furnished for the children's use, 
made of soapstone set on brackets with nickel self-closing locks. 

On the second floor are four class rooms, two recitation rooms, two toilet rooms, and an assembly 
hall with a seating capacity of 500, with two small ante-rooms and a stage 27 feet wide and 13 feet deep. 


History of Montclair Township, 

On tlie south side is the cliemical hiboratory and also conveniences for pliotograpliic experiments. 
Two flights of stairs lead from the second to the tliird stories, in which is a furnished room for students 
in drawing, and a large room partly unfinished, 84 feet long by 30 feet wide for gymnasium. Tlie finish 
of the entire building is of brown ash. All corridors, rooms and staircases are wainscoted in ash to a 
height of about four feet. 

The entire cost, including the land, was $125,000. 

From the beginning of the new movement in lSt!0, — with tiie exception of his absence during 
the war — Dr. J. J. II. Love has been continuously a member of tlie Board of Trustees. To iiis 
persistent and indefatigable efforts in the cause of higher education is largely due the present school 
system, with facilities, equaled liy few, and. it is Ijelieved, unsurpassed by those of any town of this 
size in the United States. Dr. Love led and the people followed. Having unbounded confidence in his 
ability, good judgment and impartial dealings, they gave him their hearty support, and freely voted the 

(II Jk& 




appropriations asked for. lie served for many 3'ears as President of the Board, and then took the 
position of Clerk, which he has held without intermission up to tlie present time (1894). His inlerest in 
the work has uever flagged, and he has given his personal attention to the most minute details. In the 
erection of the new High School building, he supervised every portion of the work from the foundation 
to the roof, and, being daily on the spot, nothing escaped his observation. 

Mr. George H. Francis succeeded Dr. Love as President, and held tlie position for some years. 

Mr. Thomas Porter, who succeeded Mr. Francis as President of tlie Board of Trustees, was an 
enthusiast in the matter of "iiiglier education," and an earnest and zealous worker in the cause. He 
often visited the school and spoke words of encouragement to teachers and scholars. He lived to 
see the " new system" firmly established and in successful operation. 

Mr. Charles K. Willmer, the successor of Mr. Porter, served sixteen years as a member of the Board, 
for five of which he was its President. A man of fine executive ability and large business experience, he. 

History of Montclair Township. 


directed the affairs of tlie school witii consuininate ability and tact, and gave great satisfaction to his 
associates and to the whole coninuinity. 

Dr. C. H. Marvin rendered faithfnl and efficient service, as a member of the Board of Trustees, 
for nine years, and during 1S90 and IS'.tl was President of the Board. 

Mr. John R. Howard, the present incumbent, was elected in 1892. Ilis acceptance of the position 
was gratifying to every one interested in the cause of education. He has a national reputation 
as a writer and publisher, and since his residence in i[ontclair, has been active in promoting its 
moral and intellectual growth, having been prominently identitied with the several organizations having 
this object in view. The erection of the new school building, and the various iui])rovements in connection 
therewith, liave all been accomplished during his administration. 

The citizens of Montclair — even those who have no children to reap the benefit — have given their 
hearty co-operation and have cheerfully borne the burden of increased taxation — knowing that others were 
benefited thereby— and that every dollar sjient Iti the cause of education would in time eidiance the 
value of their property through the increase of population. Persons living at a distance from Montclair have 
acquired a residence here for tiie purpose of giving their children the benefit of its superior educational 
advantages usually obtainable only at expensive private institutions. 

Randall Spauldino. 

The present efficiency and high standing of the schools of Montclair is due to the untiring efforts 

ing a perioi of nearly a 
methods by which this has 
fully set forth in the his- 
township, and require no 
his life. While he inherit- 
that conduced to his suc- 
he encountered and over- 
special means by which 
Both his paternal and nia- 
among the early Puritans 

The origin of the name 
from .ynill, meaning slioul- 
Tlie name originated in 
battles were fought hand 
sword on the coat of arms 
The motto Ijorne on tlie 

Edwai'd Siiaulding, the 
land to the Massachusetts 
Braintree, where he was 
Tie had a son, Andreiv, 
Deacon I mac, born in 
moved toTownsend,Mass. 
tied is still in the hands of 
signed a petition for pro- 
December 31, 1740. He 
in Townsend, August 14, 

of Mr. Spaulding, covei'- 
quarter of a century. The 
been accomplished are 
tory of the schools of this 
repetition in this sketch of 
ed numy of the qualities 
cess, the difficulties which 
came in early life were the 
this was accomplislied. 
ternal ancestors were 
of New England, 
of Spaulding is said to be 
der, and diny, to strike. 
the ^riddle Ages, when 
to hand. The two-handed 
justifies this statement, 
arms is ^^Ilinc niilii salus." 
ancestor, came from Eng- 
Colony and settled in 
made a freeman in 1*j40. 
who was the father of 
Chelmsford, 1710, who 
The farm on which he set- 
the Spaulding family. He 
tection against the Indians, 
had a son, Benjamin, born 


1743, who was "successful in xrhoul teach'iwj^' which occupation was followed by three of his daughters, 
lie was known as " Lieut. Benjamin," and served (probably) in the War of the Revolution. He had a son 
known as " Capt. Isaac,'^ born in TowiLsend, December 24, 177'.*. Tlie latter was the father of Daniel. 

US History of Montci.air Township. 

Daniel Spanlding, son of Capt. Isaac, was born in Townsend. He carried on a farm, and was the 
master of three or four trades, principally that of a cooper. He was a man of considerable in- 
genuit}' and skill, and was fairly successful. He married Lucy W. Clement, daughter of John Clement, 
of Townsend. 

Randall Spaulding, son of Daniel and Lucy ^Y. (Clement) Spanlding. was born in Townsend, 
Middlesex Co., Mass., Feb. 3, lS-i5. He evidently inherited his fondness for books and his capacity for 
teaching from liis great grandfather. He attended tlie district school nntil he was sixteen and then 
went to the Lawrence Academy, at Groton. where he had an uncle, who was a practicing physician. In 
order to raise funds to complete his preparatory course he was obliged to resort to mechanical employ- 
ment, and '■'■ strike from, the shoulder P The last winter he attended the academy he taught the district 
school in West Groton, and assisted occasionally at teaching in tlie academy. In all his efforts to acquire 
an education he was self-supporting, and paid all his own expenses. He entered Yale College in 1SG6, 
and was graduated in 1S70. He earned some money at college by '' coaching " students, but on com- 
pleting Iiis collegiate course he found himself $1000 in debt. He soon after obtained a position as 
teacher at Rockvilie, Conn., wliere he remained for three years, and not only paid off his old indelrtedness 
but accumulated a sufficient sum to enable him to make a trip to Europe, partly for pleasure, but 
mainly for tiie purpose of continuing his studies. He spent seven months at Gottingen, and was a few 
weeks at Heidelberg and parts of Italy, his course of study being principally history and the German 
language. On his return in 1874 he accepted an offer to take charge of the school in Montclair. He 
introduced many new features and raised the grade to meet the demands of the community for a higher 
system of education. He gradually worked tlie pupils up to his own standaixl, and induced tliem to 
remain another year in order to attain the requisite proficiency. He received the lieart}' co-operation of 
the parents, as well as the trustees, and others interested in the school. He secured the very best teachers 
that could be found for the various departments, and year by year he continued to advance to a higher 
standard, the trustees and taxpayers always keeping pace and meeting his own ideas with liberal 
appropriations, which culminated in 1893 with the finest and best equipped public school building in the 
State. All this lias been accomplished in a quiet way without friction, and with a steady forward move- 
ment. No man was ever more beloved by parents, ]nipils and teachers. He rules by love, yet there is 
no lack of discipline, and the usual methods of punishment are almost unknown in the several depart- 
ments of the school. Of the children it may be said, 

" He taught them the goodness of knowledge, 
They taught him the goodness of God." 

Many of his pupils who have grown to manhood and achieved success in the various walks of life, 
look back with pride to their aJma mater, and remember with gratitude and affection their faithful 

Mr. Spaulding is one of the foremost educators in the State, and has done much to advance the 
cause of education in other parts of the country. He has been President of the Xew Jersey State 
Council of Education, of the Schoolmasters' Association of New York and vicinity, of the Schoolmasters' 
Clul) of New York and vicinity, and was formerly President of the State Teachers' Association of New 

Mr. Spaulding has added largely to his stock of general iiifoimation in his travels during his 
summer vacations. In the summer of 1883 he visited Arizona in company with Dr. II. H. Rusby, 
partly on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, and made a large collection of plants indigenous to that 
locality. Besides obtaining a large variety of those well known to naturalists, he collected some thirty 
new species, to which no reference has hitherto been made by naturalists. The information thus 
acquired has been utilized to good advantage in his professional labors. A similar trip was made in 1880 
among the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. 

As a pastime Mr. Spaulding has done some excellent work as an amateur photographer, and has 

History of Montclair Township. 


made a large collection of views of the many places of interest he has visited. In 1888 he visited 
Great Britain and made a collection of photos for the nse of lantern slides in stereoptieon exhibitions. He 
is the author of "First Lessons in Amateur Photography,'' published in 1885, a work highly appreciated 
by amateurs in this art. Accounts of his travels abroad have been given at different times through the 
local papers, and read witli a great deal of interest. 

In addition to the other societies and organizations referred to, Mr. Spaulding is a member of the 
First Congregational Church of Montclair, and of the Congregational Club of New York. He has been 
twice married; first, in IST-l-, to Miss Florence A. Chapman, who died in 1SS9, leaving two children, viz., 
Kaymond C. and Edith R. ; secondly, to A[iss Sarah L. Norris, of Hyde Park, Mass. 

The Washingtox Sciiih)i. Hodsk, 

Erected in 1825, for the education of mill children on Sunday, at the west end of the jiresent 
townshij*, continued to be used for sciiool pur[)Ofes after the close cif the mills and tiie departure of 
the mill operatives. The settlement remained, and the population of this neighliorhood increased. 
The schools at the west end of the town were located at too great a distance to enable those at the east 

end to avail themselves of its advantages, and tliis 

eventually became a separate school district. Isaac B. 
I •^^'Hk Wheeler, son of Gideon Wheeler, taught in this school 

» iriW^ ,_■ I fy,. a time. A new frame building, capable of accom- 

'•Jt modating the large increase of children in this locality, 
."jI was erected, and ample facilities provided. 


iHK U V-MlNi 


For more than a ipiarter of a century before the 
.i:,'itation of '' higlier education " for free schools began, 
Bloomfield and West IJloomfield were noted for their 
private institutions of learning, and some of the most 
|prominent men in the country — divines, physicians, 
lawyers and statesmen, were prepared for college at. 
one or the other of these well-known schools. 

From 1810 to ls;}S the Bloomtield Academy was 
considered one of the best preparatory schools in the 
State of New Jersey. In the origin and maintenance of that academic and theological institution, Israel 
Crane and other prominent men of West Bloomtield were greatly interested. With such preceptors 
as Anizi Lewis, Jr., John Ford, Rev. Humphrey M. Ferine, Rev. Amzi Armstrong, D.D., and his 
son. Rev. William J. Armstrong, Albert Pearson, and Dr. Edwin Hall, strong college-bred men, of 
profound erudition and theological force, this Academy overshadowed the more common education in 
that part of the town. At the beginning it was financially supported by a Society for the Promotion of 
Literature, composed of the strong men of the town, and after Dr. Armstrong assumed the financial 
support by the social and moral aid of the people throughout the Presbyterian parish, Samuel Hanson 
Cox, and other young men from the Academy, conducted religious services in the second story of the 
West Bloomtield School-house. 

MoixT Prospkct Ixstitutk. — This building, now known as the Mountain House, situated on Bloom- 
field Avenue, near the dividing line between Montclair and Verona, was opened as a boarding-school for 
boys, about 1838, by Mr. Warren S. Holt. He had previously taught in the public school, where he 
acquired the reputation of a good teacher, especially in mathematics. His aim was to establish a sti'ictly 
private school, with a limited number of puj)ils who, while en joying the best educational advantages, would 
at the same time receive a thorough moral and religious training. He had also a separate department for 


History of Montci.air Township. 

yoiini;; ladies. His system of education met witli the liearty a])proval of his patrons, but did not prove a 
financial success, and in 1844 lie gave ii|i his school, and became assistant to James H. Ruiidall, at the 
Bloomtield Academy. lie remained with this institution for about two years, when he reopened Mount 
Prospect Institute, which he conducted successfully for some years. A circular issued by him about this 
time states that — 

" The School is located in West Bloomtield, N. J., fifteen miles distant from New York Cit}', and 
six from Newark, upon a commandiufj eminence of 800 feet above the level of the ocean, from which a 
clear view is obtained of New York, Brooklyn, the Bay, and the surrounding countiy. This location, 
for rctiicment, health, salubrity of atmosphere, and I)eauty of mountain scenery, is not surpassed by any 
in the country. It is easy of access, having direct communication with New Yoi-k four times a day. 
The object of this institution is to prepare Young Gentlemen for entering college, or a business life, by a 
thorough and systematic course of instruction. Tiie Principal does not desire a large school, but a select 
nundier of jiujiils, well disciplined, and willing to be guided in the paths of virtue and usefulness. In 
order to secure and retain desirable members of this School no vicious or unprincipled boy is received, 
and no one retained in the School whose influence is immoral or in anv way injurious to his associates. 


The pupils enjoy the comforts of a home in the family of the Principal, being invited to the parlor, 
where they associate with other members of the family and those who frccjuently visit the institution. 

"The government of the School is conducted on strictly religious principles, and the pupils are 
controlled by appeals to their moral feelings, rather than by fear of punishment. The Bible is the 
standard of morals, and each pujul is reijuired to study it daily ; also to attend church with the Principal 
on the Sabbath." 

The school was divided into sessions of five months each, commencing on the first of May and 
November. The charges for board and tuition in tlie English branches and Mathematics were from 
if'iO to §4.5 per quarter; in the Latin and (Ti-eek languages, $.5(> — extra for the French, German or 
Spanish language, §5; Drawing and Painting, each §5; Music, with the use of the Piano, §10. 

The circular states that : " Ijeing desirous of securing a proper degree of conespondence in dress, 
and prevent some of the evils arising from different styles of clothing in the same family, a uniform 
dress has been adopted for the School." This was as follows: "The coat and pantaloons of very dark 
blue cloth ; the coat single-breasted, to button to the throat, with ten gilt buttons, two upon the collar, 
placed three inches back — the collar to turn ovei-, with the corners round. 

History of Montci.air Townsiiii'. 121 

" For siiinmer, the dress suit is darlc hlne coat ami white pantaloons. That for common nse siiould lie 
gray, made of the material known as ' vontli's inixt.' For very warm weather, brown linen or drilling." 

Ashland — Kev. David A. Frame, who for twu years, 1S44-.1. had tuen the Princi]»al of 
Uloomtield Ai-adeni}-, moved his school from that place to his residence in West Bloomtield (now known 
as"('helsea Hall." a hotel or hoard ingdiouse, <>n Ijloomfield Avenue). Under the name of "Ashland 
Hall." a '• Family Boarding School for Boys." this institution flourished for some fifteen years, attracting 
wide attention for its many excellent ipialities, and drawing i>atrons from all sections of the country. 
The pupils were limited to thirty — and no day scholars taken. Its discipline and studies were designed 
to prepare lads to enter intelligently and unembarrassed upon the duties of any class in college, and to 
discharge wisely and reputably the prospective duties of a goorl citizen. William L. Ward, 
-Nf. I)., now an eminent physician in Newark, was the associate teacher till 1^47. when he was followed 
by Henry B. Munn, Esq., of Silas (ITsd), now of Wa.-hington, 1). ('., who continued as principal 
assistant till l^'yJ. Others were associated with and follf)wed him. Hon. Charles M. Davis, afterward 
County Superintendent of Schools; tlie late Kev. 11. IJ. Timlow, D.D., atid Prof. John Lowry, now of 
I>eiiapee College, Tenn., were among the number. 

The average number of pupils was al»out the lindt — thirty. They came from the neighboring 
towns and States, as well as from a distance. Cidja, Texas, New Orleans and Georgia had their repre- 
sentatives. About twenty per cent, became college graduates, and about fifty per cent, entered some one 
of the learned professions. 

Hon. A. M. Bliss and Hon. Edward Morton became members of Congress. Hon. Sam. L. Bigelow, 
Attorney General of Now Jersey. Gen. Schuyler Crosby, of New York, and Judge Arnoux, with his 
two l)rothcrs, were also among the pupils. 

The domestic atlairs of the school were presided over by Mrs. Frame, wife of the principal, a 
lady of the most gentle manners, religious life, and of large experience in circles of the most cultivated 
and refined society. 

The presiding genius of the school was its principal, the Rev. David A. Frame. He irave it the 
characteristics that attracted general attention. 

Kkv. David .\. Fkamk was born in Bloomfield, in Iso,",. His )iarents, of good I'resbyter iaii stock, 
came from the North of Ireland, shortly after their marriage, about the time of the disastrous Irish 
rebellion of 179S, along with many others. They had two sons, William and David. The former 
became a clerk for Israel Crane, in his store in West Bloomtielil. He develojjcd remarkable business 
ability, and for many years was the senior partner in the leading mercantile house of Bloomfield, and sub- 
sequently became SherilT, filling the office from 1S40 to 1849. David became a clerk in the store of Israel 
Holms, of Belleville, along with the late William II. Brant, of that ])lace. After leaving the store he re- 
turned to Bloomfield, and learned the trade of a carpenter. Bec(iming a member of the Presbyterian 
Church he decided to obtain a collegiate education and enter the ministry. In 1829 he entered Princeton 
College, which he left in 18:^<2, with the reputation of a brilliant and elo(pient sjieaker, to commence his theo- 
logical studies in Aul)urn Seminary, N. Y . Subserpiently he preached in Binghamton, in that State, in 
Connecticut, and in Morris County, N. .1. His close application in the preparation of his sermons, 
coupled with an intense earnestness in tlieir delivery, at length brought on a partial stroke of paralysis. 
From its efTects he never entirely recovered, but regained sufficient of his old health and strength to enter 
upon other duties, and to preach occasionally. 

In 1841 he took charge of the Bloomfield Academy, succeeding as principal the late William K. 
McDonald, of Newark, N. J. His administration was very successful, but in 1845, finding himself not 
in accord with the controlling interests of the Academy-, he moved his school to West Bloomfield, locating 
in a building of his own, i>urchased some years previously, and which had been fitted up for the purpose. 
This he named ''Ashland Hall,"' and there continued his school with eminent success, until ill-health 
caused him to give up the responsibilities of its further care and management. He was much beloved 
and highly esteemed by his pupils. His government *' was decided and uniform, with no excessive 


History of Moxtci.air Township. 

iiululgeiiee on the one hand or indurating severity on tlie otlier." Wliile ineniliers of his school, he took 
tlie keenest interest in their studies, and when tliey left he followed them in after-life, with almost 
parental solicitude. 

He died at his residence Sept. 24, 1879. When his death was announced in the papers it was 
truly said: " Mr. Frame will be remembered by all who ever heard him in the pulpit as a preacher of 
singular and thrilling eloqiieuce. He was a writer of high excellence, chaste and simple in diction, and 
a vivid thinker. His impassioned delivery gave his sermons the utmost effect and left an impression not 
easily lost. In later years increasing deafness shut him off to a great extent from the social intercourse 
which he loved and which his genial nature, literary culture, connnauding memory and conversational 
powers tilled him conspicuously to adorn." 

Hillside Semixaey fou Yorxo Ladies. — What is now known as the " Hillside" or " Montclair 
House," corner of Orange and Hillside Avenues, was opened for a girls" school al)out 18.55, by Kev. 
Ebenezer Cheever, formerly pastor of the Second Presbyterian Cliureh of Newark. l)Ut then residing 
in Paterson. There was at that time no house anywhere on the mountain side west of the Hillside 
House, except the residence of '• Squire John ^lunn," since transformetl into the tasteful mansion of Seelye 
Benedict. Hillside Avenue and ^Mountain Avenue, as far as Hillside, liad tii'st been thrown open, but 

was still unworked and nntraveled, and the former 
(juite iuqjassable. Henry Nason, whose untiring en- 
ergy contributed so largely to the upbuilding of Mont- 
clair in its early days, began, not long after, the erec- 
tion of the stone building at the head of Hillside 
.V venue, taking the stone from the cliffside, in the 
rear of the premises, and bringing all other needed 
Miaterial over the sod on Montclair Avenue. This 
afterward became the property of Nahum Sullivan. 
The mountain side was still in a somewhat wihl state, 
as is indicated by the aeeomjianying illustration. The 
ii|iossum, weasel or owl were occasionally caught mak- 
ing a raid in the chicken yard of Hillside Seminary, 
and coveys of quail were nut infre(piont around the 


barn or alonu; the fences. 

The Pev. ^Ir. Cheever carried on successfully a girls' school there for aliout four years. From 
1859 to 1872, it was kept as a hoarding and day school by Rev. and Mrs. A. P. Wolfe, both of whom 
had been previously connected fur some years with the '" Spingler Institute for Young Ladies," on 
Union Square, New York City. The Hillside Seminary, under their supervision, became one of the 
most popular and flourishing institutions of the kind in tlie State. Among the last graduates were a 
daughter of the Pev. Oliver Crane, D.D., a daughter of Jo.seph Doremus, a daughter of George G. Draper, 
and a daughter of Mr. E. C. Fuller, the present Collector of the township. A large number from the families 
of the early residents of Montclair were graduates, all, for a time, pupils of Hillside Seminary. Among 
the patrons were found the old time names of Nason, Hening. Graham. Graves, Sullivan, Benedict, 
Frame, Harris, Baldwin, Crane, Morris, Seymour, Hubbard. Musgrave, Wiedemeyer, Wilcox, Dwight, 
Holmes, Pratt, Pinney, Clark, Wolde, Elliott, as well as many of the township of Bloomfield, almost all 
of whom have now passed away. In its boarding department, Ilillcide Seminary bad a fair and encourag- 
ing patronage, not only from the surrounding towns and States, but fi-om the cities of New York and 
Brooklyn, even including San Francisco, St. Louis, Baltimore, Washington and Tallahassee. It did 
good work, which its living pupils continue to appreciate, and which will never be lost. 

Although it is more than twenty years since Mr. Wolfe and bis estimable wife closed the doors of 
the Seminary, they have continued ti.i reside in ^luntclair, tiiiding it one of the most delightful spots in 
New Jersey for suburban residence. 

History of Montci.air Township. 


The old house has haeii converted into a suiiiiiu'r liotd. where liini<h-eils of peo]ile Hoek (hirinij 
the summer .sea-sun to enjoy the cool mountain breezes togetlier witli rlie deliLditful and picturestjue 

Kkv. Aakox TloBERTS AVoi.FK, Principal of Hillside Sennnarv for Young Ladies, was horn at 
Mendhani. X. J., Sept. <i, 1S21. His grandfather. Aaron Roberts, served with the New Jersey troops in 
tlie War of the Revolution, and took part in the battle of Monmouth. The latter was a great-great-grandson 
of Hugh Roberts, a native of Wales, who was one of tiie original settlei-s of Newark in l(i»!ti, liavini>; 
previonsly settled in the New Haven Colony. His name is found among the Branford settlers who 
signed the " Fundamental Agreement." 

Rev. A. R. Wolfe, in his early youth, was a schoolmate of Rev. Tlieddore L. Cnyler. at I'nde 
Ezra Fairchild's famous " Hill-Top School," in ^[endhani. He pui"sued hi.s preparatory studies at 
Lanisl)orough. Ma.^s., and was graduated at Williams College in the cla.-js of 1S44. 

The next eleven years. 
Union Theological Semi- 
in teaching anil preaching 

When he left Florida. 
he put all his effects — li- 
that sort — on board a sail- 
and with a simple grip- 
way of Nashville and Clii- 
York he learned that, nii 
ing, the vessel had been 
mate killed at the foot of 
laden with turpentine, 
edge. He looked upon 
dence of God, sha])ing hi> 
for it nuide him a teacher 
a pa.stor of a church, 
sociated with Rev. Dr. 
Spingler Institute for 
S <] n are, in New Ycrk 
married to Lanra F. Jack- 
tution, daughter of Luther 
York. Hi is.j'.ihe remov- 
and established the Hill 
Ladies, which he conduct- 
ness and sncceess fur thir- 

Alr. Wolfe is the author 
which were published in 


including his course in the 
n:n-y, IS-J-S-.")!, were spent 
in Florida. 

in the summer of IS.55, 
brary. notes, and things of 
ing vessel at St. Marks, 
sack returned North by 
cago. On reaching New 
the day appointed for sail- 
struck by lightning, the 
the mast, and the vessel, 
!i limed to the water's 
this as a special l'n)vi- 
life and fixing his home, 
of the young rather than 
In ls.5.^ he became as- 
(iorhani D. Abbott, in the 
Young Ladies, on Union 
City. In 1S58 he was 
son, a teacher in this iiisti- 
.lackson, Esq., of New 
ed to West Bloomfield. 
side Seminary for ^'oiiiig 
ed with eniinent useful- 
teen years, 
of a number of hvnins. 

•('hiiich Melodies," " Songs for the Sanctuary," and other well-known hymn 

Mr. Wolfe is still living (ISflJ) near the scene of his early labors, on Hillside Avenue, Montclair. 
Of his four children — three sons and a daughter — one is preaching in Iowa; another is Professor of 
Latin in Park College, ^[issoui-i. 

Monk i.Aii: Militaev Acadkmv. 

In the spring of 1867 certain prominent citizens of Montclair — Mr. Thomas Russell, Mr. E. G. 
Burgess, Mr. E. A. Bradley and others — determined to secure a competent instructor for their sons, so 
that it wouid not be neces.sary to send them to the public school. 

After careful consideration they engaged the services of J. G. Alac Vicar, giving him a guarantee 
of ten papiLs and granting him the privilege of increasing the number if jjossihlc. 


History of Montclair Township. 

At this time Mr. Mac Vicar was in liis Senior year in Rocliestei- Uiiiveisity. lie had dnriiio; his 
college con r.^e taught three years in tlie ]>iil)lic sclioois in Micliigan; the last two years being Superin- 
tendent of the Union City sclioois, where he had seventeen teachers under his direction. 

Coming to Montclair directly after his graduation in June, he purchased a small huilding which 
he placed on rented land on Clinton Street. The school opened with sixteen pupils, hut before the end 
of the year the number had increased to twenty-four. It then became evident that the school would 
outgrow its present accommodation. 

The gentlemen who first engaged Mr. Mac Vicar offered to assist in the purcliase of land and the 

i J " 


erection of a suitable school building. The site on Waiden Place, west of Bloomtield Avenue and 7iorth 
of Mountain Avenue, was selected and three and one half acres of land ])urcliased. Tiie building erected 
here is intended to accommodate 100 boys, and is very eoniplete in all its a])pointments. Special atten- 
tion was paid to the question of ventilation, light and heat, and six years of service have proved the 
perfection of the plans adopted. 

A large ])hysical laboratory is a special feature of the building, and gi'cat stress is laid on practical 
instruction in the sciences. Two years later additional land was purchased and a large gymnasium 
sixty feet square was erected and equipped in a most complete manner. The building is provided with 
reading and music rooms, lockers, and hot and cold baths in the basement. 

History ok Moxtci.aik TowNsiiir, 


FniiTi tliis time the same carofnl attention was given to tlie pliysit-al developincnt of the pujiiLs 
tli:it had ciiar.icterized the mental training. The Ilarvanl system of piiysical examination and measure- 
ments was adopted, and a careful record kept of the physical defects and the development of each pupil. 
Mr. E. B. De Groot, the physical instructor, devotes his entire time to directing this work among the 
hoys. Classes are organized and each cadet is required to spend one half liour each day in the gymnasium. 
The work is as thoroughly systematized as any other department in the school. 

At about the time the gymnasium was built the school was organized on a military basis. This 
change was determined upon after a careful inspection of the Ijcst private schools in the vicinity of New- 
York, and the results obtained amply justify this change in policy. Erect carriage, promptitude and 
obedience have been the natural results. The principal is a strong believer in what might be termed 


individual instruction. He believes that the peculiarities and natural tendencies of each pupil should be 
studied by his teachers and his future treatment thus determined. For this reason the classes are all 
small, seldom exceeding ten. The devcloi)mcnt of a strong moral character is considered of the same 
imiiortance as a sound physical and mental training. 

For the last three years a boarding department has been conducted in connection with the school, 
and plans are now being matured for enlargement in this direction. Three acres of land have just been 
purchased west of the school grounds, and a large building, with accommodation for the priiicipars 
family and thirty cadets will soon be erected. 

The school has had steady increase in the number of pupils since its organization, and 
its future seems assured. It has been the o(rcasion of brinirinir to ^fontclair some of its most honored 

126 History of Montclair Township. 


In 1809 the population of Montclair, still called AVest Bloonifield, numbered abont 2,500. A good 
High School, as already named, had been established on a iirni footing, and was prosperous under the 
management of Mr. John W. Taylor, principal. 

But there was no library attached to the school, and there were no boolcs for I'eference or enter- 
tainment to be obtained either by students or tlieir parents. In some measure to supply this need, Mr. 
and Mrs. Israel Crane, just settled in their cottage home on FuUerton Avenue, resolved to interest as 
many friends and residents as conld be approached in the formation of a snbscription library. In this 
enterprise they were ably assisted by Mr. and Mrs. John W. Taylor. Tlirough the efforts thus made 
thirty families Ijecame subscribers, which innnlier, at that period, represented a goodly portion of the 
people. Initiatory stei)S for the organization of a library association were taken in the early part of 1869 ; 
the tirst meeting of the projectors was held at the house of Israel Crane, on the evening of February 23d 
of that year. There were ]iresent, J. W. Taylor, (ieo. S. Dwight, F. II. Harris, Samuel Wilde, W. A. 
Torrey, and Mr. and Mrs. Israel Crane. At this meeting a committee, consisting of Geo. S. Dwight, 
Israel C'rane and J. W. Taylor were ap|winted to draft a Constitution and l>y-Liws. This committee 
reported at a meeting held March f), 1809, when a permanent organization was effected, and the following 
officers elected : 

I'resident, Geo. S. Dwight; Vice-President, F. H. Harris ; Secretary, .T. W. Taylor; Treasurer, 
Israel Crane. 

Directors: Samuel AVilde, ^V. A. Torrey, T. B. Graham, Mrs. Israel Ciane, Mrs. J. W. Taylor. 

An annual subscriptinn of ^;'>.0i) entitled subscribers to membership, and to the use of all books 
and periodicals. 

Tiie nucleus of a liljrary was formed by the purchase of about a hundred books, which were 
jjlaced in the care of Mr. Betzler, in his drug store on Bloomtield Avenue. The books were read witli 
avidity, and the number of subscribers and of books increased so I'apidly that it was thought advisable to 
remove the lii)rary to larger (puirters. Accordingly on April 11, 1871, the books were transferi'cd to the 
i'illsbury Building, on the southeast corner of Fullerton and Bloomtield Avenues. During the winter of 
1870-1, a charter was obtained from the Legislature under the name and style of "The ilontclair Library 
Association." This charter provided tor the issuance of stock to the amount of iifty thousand dollars, at 
ten dollars a share. 

Through the personal efforts Mr. Israel Crane alone, five thousand of this amount was subscribed, 
of which $2,700 was paid in. The following persons were elected Directors under this charter, viz. : 

Julius H. Pratt, Mrs. Edward Sweet, Mrs. Israel Crane, F. II. Harris, J. R. M. Ileniiig, Rev. J. 
B. Harrison, Samuel Wilde and W. II. Van Slyke. 

The ffrst officers were : President, Dr. J. J. H. Love ; Vice-President, Samuel AVilde ; Secretary 
and Treasurer, Israel Crane. 

Library Connnittee appointed i)y Directois: Mrs. Israel Crane, Rev. I). S. Rodman, Rev. J. R. 
Berry, D.D. 

The duties of the Library Connnittee were most arduous. The annual subscriptions were only 
sufficient to cover the running expenses, and it devolved upon this committee to provide funds for the 
purchase of books. All additions to the library were made either by donations of books, or by means of 
jniblic entertainments, which last M'ere devised and snjwrintended by Mrs. Israel Crane. Lectures, 
concerts, tahleaux, and the tii'st amateur theatricals ever given in jNIontclair, were gi\en under her 
patronage aiul suggestion during successive winters, always with the cordial assistance of public sjiirited 
meini)i'rs of the library association and of the residents at large. These entertainments contributed 
much to tiie social enjoyment and growth of Montclair. P>y these means many hundi'eds of dollars were 
raised and in a few years the innnber of volumes was increased to two thousand. The last im]iortant 
entertaimnent given for the library was a large Lawn Fete and Supper held, by Ids generous consent, on 

History of Moxtci.air Township. 127 

tlie beautiful lawns of Mr. Tiiomas Riissfll. in September, 1870. $350 was raised on that occasion. 
In Jtilv, 1871, a lot was leased from Mr. N. (). Piilsburv. free of cliarge, on the site of the present Baptist 
t'hureli, and a liuildinj; erected at a cost of s1,7<mi. Tiie library was well patronized and proved a great 
boon to the peojile. desjiite the curious fact that, upon the addition of Charles r)arwin'8 " Origin of 
Species" to the catalogue, a small faction arose in opposition, declaring that the library was disseminating 
dangerous theories, and would harm the young ]icople of the town. On the night of Feb. 2Sth, issn, 
a larifc amount of property in tlie vicinity, and the library building, was burned to the ground. The 
books, however, were saved. There was an insurance of $l,()Oi» on tlic Imildiiig ;iiid contents. 

A room was rented in the Morris i'uilding on Blooniticid Avenue, over the jiresent post office, 
and the books kept there until Ai)ril Ttli. I><s4. when they wei-e transferred to the custody of the trustees 
of tbt- Public School, with the proviso that, on certain days ami iioni-s of each week, the pniilic i-iionld 
have tlie free use of the library. 

In ISOl the Legislature of this Stale passed •' .\n Art to authorize the establishment of frei' piililic 
libraries in the towns, toNm.iliip.s, or any other municipality.'' 

Section '2 re<iuires "That the jtrovisioiis of this act shall remain inoperative in any town, township 
or any other munici|iality in this State, until a.ssented to by a majority of the legal \(>ters thereof, voting 
on this act at any election at which the question of its adoption shall be submitted to vote by direction 
of the legiskitive body of such town or township, etc., either at the time fixed by law for election of the 
nninicii)al affairs, or at a special election to be held ft)r that ]>urpose,"" etc. 

Section 3 requires, "That if at such an election aforesaid a majority of all tiic ballots cast sliall lie 
• for a free pulilic library," it shall become the duty of the legislative body of said town, township, etc., 
annually thereafter to appropriate and raise by tax in the same manner a-> other taxes are assessed, levied 
and collecte<l in said town, township, etc., a sum equal to one-third of a mill on every dollar of as.sessable 
|iriipcrty returned by the assessor of said town, townshij). etc., for the piir]iosc of t;ix:iti(JM tJici-con. which 
sum, when so !>p]irf)priated, shall be u.seil for no other than that of a free |Miblic library." 

Section 4 reipiire.-. •' That the board of trustees of the free public library shall be inimediatelv 
formed in any town, town.ship, etc, where a majority of the votes cast shall be 'fi>r a free |>ublic librarv," 
(■(insisting of five members, one of whom shall be the chairman of the legislative body of such town, etc., 
and one the [)resident of the board of education, and three to \<v ajipoinled by the chairman of the town, 
township, etc., by and with the consent of the legislative body thereof, to .serve for the term of one, two 
and three years res|)ectively." 

Soon after the pas,sage of this a<-t, the citizens of .Mnutclair took action for tlie establishment of a 
Free Public Libr,irv. in acc(jrdance witJi the j)rovisions of the above named act. T/ie Montclair Times, 
referring to this matter, says: 

" After the Ladies' Wednesday Afternoon Club had petitioned the Town Committee to have a vote taken on the 
subject, the people last year taxed themselves about Si,i;()0, and this year voted for a permanent yearly appropriation at 
the same rate and for the organization provided by law to administer the affairs. 

"The Town Committee appointed, as memljers of the Board of Trustees, Dr. J. J. II. Love, I>r. Richard C. 
Newton and Mr. John R. Howard. The chairman of the Town Committee is by law a member e-x-o/ficio ; and so would 
be the president of the Board of Education, if the town at large had such a body, but it has only local Boards of the several 
school districts. The trustees appointed to find suitable quarters finally decided on the second story of Dr. Love's 
detached two-story brick office building on Church street, next door to the Montclair Club, as the safest and most 
convenient location for the purpose in the town. Dr. Love, who was president of the Board, thereupon thought it his 
duty to resign — much to everybody's regret ; and Mr. William E. Marcus was appointed in his place, and elected 
president of the Board, Dr. Newton being the clerk — that is to say, secretary and treasurer. 

" The making of a library in the present day, when the vocation of librarian has become a profession and the art 
of administering a library has been organized into a science, is a very different thing from the happy-go-lucky way of 
former years. The thorough classification of books, the admirable advice of card catalogues, the many labor- and 
time-saving inventions, the accurate records, etc., all need special trained intelligence for the best result. And as the 
Public Library in this fast -growing town is sure to be a large and important one, the trustees felt that the best beginning 
would in the end be the cheapest. 

•' Having secured quarters, which have been put in good order, the Board provided furniture and fixtures of 


History of Montci.air TowNsiiir. 

thoroughly solid and workmanlike character — shelving, tables, chairs, card-catalogue case, counter, desk, etc. — and 
engaged the services of Miss Mary F. Weeks as librarian. Miss Weeks has had years of training and considerable 
practical experience in the work of a professional librarian, and brought to the work an interest that no stranger in the 
town would have. 

" The old Montclair Library Association, a private corporation, had about 1,500 books, which for some years had 
been in use as a public library in the Central Public School-house. These books they have placed in charge of the new 
Public Library and will probably present them out and out. The books were all covered with paper wrappers ; but as 
that is one of the old customs discarded in the new way. Miss Weeks has for some time been working at the books with 
the assistance of Miss Agnes Judson, uncovering them, repairing, arranging, entering in the ' accession book,' cataloguing, 
pasting on the numbers and shelf-labels and classifying them on the shelves. The reception of many books at once 
entails much of this preparatory labor, which results in convenience and time-saving when the library comes into use. 
And old books demand more time and care than new ones. 

" When these are disposed of, the Trustees intend to go to the people, asking for donations of other books — new 
or old, but good. No one is to be asked to give a book that no one will want to read ; but many families have many 
books — duplicates, books out-grown or not needed any more, etc., which will be valuable in a library, and doubtless all 
who care for the Library at all will be glad to help it in this easy way. Others wiil take the opportunity of presenting 
new copies of favorite books or sets, and every book given will bear the name of its donor." 

On June 2!*, 1893, tlie directors of the ^[ontclair Lil)rary AssDciation hold a meetiinj; an<l adopted 
the following Preamble and Re.solutioii : 

U'/io'eas, The people of Montclair have voted for a Free Public Library, thereby doing away with the 
necessity for our Association, which has for over twenty years occupied this field of usefulness, and 

U^/icrcas, We are in full sympathy with the new movement, as it gives assurance of a Librarv on a sure 
foundation as to annual maintenance, and being desirous to the full extent of our power to aid the same, therefore be it 

Rcsohied ; That the Secretary be instructed to solicit the consent of the Stockholders to the transfer of the Books 
of this Association to the Trustees of the Free Public Library as a donation or otherwise, as the Directors may determine. 
And also to make such a disposition of the money in the Treasurer's hands as in their judgment shall most benefit the 
said Free Public Library. 

Ill re.spon.'^e to a eircular sent out in accordance with above liesolution, the greater number of Stock- 
liolders con.sented to leave the disposition of the Assets to the Directors, who met on January 19, 1891, 
and voted to donate the Books to the Free Public Library. They also authorized and directed the Treas- 
urer to pay over to the Free Public Library one thousand dollars as a gift, on condition that the same be 
used in the )iurchase of Standard Works on Science, Literature and Art. 

CuHSTNUT Street Prim.\ky School House was erected in winter of 189(1 and 1891. It is a large, 
roomy, two and one-half story brick building, 35 by f>5, containing corridors, cloak rooms, and four class 
rooms and teachers' rooms. It cost, including land, $18,802.1:8. Four teachers are occupied in giving 
instruction in primary studies to an average daily attendance of 138, the enrollment being 171. 

Ckdae Stkeet Pri.mary School House, built in 1889-9(». Tins is a one and one-half story 
wooden building, with hall, two class rooms and two recitation i-ooms. It cost, including land, $7,lu3.32. 
The enrollment of pupils is 71, and the average daily attendance, 55, All primary; employ two teachers. 

Both of these schools belong to School District Xo. 8, and are under the same management as the 
Centre Primary, Grammar and High Schools. 

Chapter XIII. 


\'n.r..v(iE Improvemext Society. — Moxtclair Fire Department. — The Montci.aik Water Com- 
pany. — James Owen, Township Engineer. — The Press. — MoNrrLAiu Times, ArcusTis C. 


Company; Joseph E. Hinds. — Bank ok Monitlair. — The AFontclair Savings Bank. — ■ 
Masonic Lodges: Bi.oomfiei.d LoixiE, No. 4(i, F. i\: A. Jf. ; ^foNTCi.AiK Lodge, No. 144, F. 
& A. M.— Watching Lodge, No. 134. I. O. O. F.— Geji. Siiermax Lodge, No. .51, A. O. [I. 
AV. — {^thee Secret and Benevolent Societie.s. — The Citizen.s' Commitiee of One Hun- 
dred. — Good Government Cuii. — Children's Home, Mrs. Samlel M. Porter. — Mointatn- 
siDE Hospital Association.— The ^[ontclair EgrESTRiAN Cuis. — ^[ontclair Club. — The 
Outlook Cluh. — Tariff Peform Cluh.— Moxtclair (ilee Cluh. — Montclair Dramatic 
Club. — Montclair Lawn Tennis Club. 

l-w^..^??H^ \ illa(;k imimiovk.mknt society. 

Ty'j^^y^AilY. beautiful slisulc trees wliicli adorn tlie streets of Montclair, and which have provi'd 
such an attraction to strangers, are the result of a few enterprising individuals who 
organized what was known as tlie Village Iin])rovenient Society. 

The first meeting of this society was held in Feliruary, iSlS, the object being, as 
stated, "to promote the planting of trees along the highway.s." 

At an adjourned meeting held on ilareh 27tli of that year, the following otHcers 
were elected: President. Thomas II. Porter; A'ice-Presidents, C. H. Johnson and Pliilip 
Doremus; Corresponding Secretary, Kandall Spaulding; Clerk, J. E. Hinds; Treasurer, 
Hiram B. Littcll. 

The following General Committee was ap]x>inted to promote the planting of trees 
along the several streets on which its members were residents: South Mountain Avenue, 
.Mr. Dike and Mrs. C. Benedict; North Mountain Avenue, ilr. \'an VIeck and Mrs. Power; Watchung 
Avenue, ^Irs. Ames and Mrs. A. Littlejohn; Bellevuc Avenue. Mrs. Bird and Mr. Clark; Grove Street, 
Samuel Holmes; North Valley Road, Mr. Wil>on and Miss Mead; Chestnut Street, Mr. Burgess and 
Mrs. Bradley; Claremont Avenue, Mr. E. il. Harrison and Miss A. Ilawes; Park Street, C. H. Johnson 
and Afiss ITattie Brown; North Fullerton Avenue. Anizi Sigler and Mrs. Hall; Forest Street, E. Madison 
and Mrs. Campbell; Old U<iad, P. Doremus and Rebecca (^i-ane; Willow Street, C. Van Riper and Mrs. 
D. Hall; Highland Avenue, W. A. Torrey and Parkhnrst ; Bloomtield Avenue, P. li. Van Riper 
and Mrs. D. V. Harrison; Clinton Avenue, Frederick Brautigam and Airs. Robert Honing; Eagle Rock 
Way, Mrs. L. B. Bull and ilrs. Samuel Crump; Elm Street, Dr. ilarvin and Mrs. W. J. Harris; 
Lexington Avenue. Mr. Hayes and Mrs. Cooper; Lincoln Street, Mr. Tower; Fullerton Avenue, Robert 
lioyd and .Mrs. Wilde: Cedar Avenue, I^dward Williams and Miss Weston; Orange Road, south of Eagle 
Rock ^Vay, Miss Blair and Miss Wileo.x ; James Street, J. G. Crane and Mrs. Roberts; Central Avenue, 
William Jacobus and William Sigler; Orange Road, Thomas Russell and Mrs. Carey; Harrison Avenue, 
Miss Bull and Thomas Porter; Gates i\. venue, ilr. Francis and Mrs. Jo.seph Nason ; Union Street, N. T. 
Porter and :Mrs. Pratt; Hillsdale Avenue, Dr. Pinkhani and Mrs. Wolfe; Churcli Street, Dr. J. J. II. 
Love and Mrs. Josepli Doremus; St. Luke's Place, L. S. Benedict and Mis. Pinkliam ; Myrtle Avenue, 
Mr, Frost and Mrs. 1". II. Harrison; Plymouth Street, Mr. Pratt and Mrs. Dr. Clark. 

130 History of Montclair Township. 

The trees recoiiimeiided for plantiiio; in Montclair, as being best adapted to tlie soil and flinuite of 
this section, were the ehu, the Norway maple, the sweet gnini, and the tulip trees. 

The Executive Committee consisted of llenrv A. Dike, Thomas Russell, T. I). Brown, Mrs. L. 
Bull and Mis. J. R. Beriy. 

This Executive Conniiittee was authorized '"to employ all laborers, make all contracts, expend all 
moneys, direct and superintend all the improvements of the association at their discretion." 

The Constitution provided that " Every person over fourteen years of age who shall plant and 
protect a tree, under the direction or approval of the Executive Committee, or pay the sum of one 
dollar annually, shall be a member of this Association. And every child under fourteen years of age, who 
shall pay the sum of twenty-five cents, or do an equivalent amount of work annually, under the 
direction or approval of the Executive Committee, sliall be a member of this Association." 

The payment of ten dollars constituted a life membership. 

Suggestions made by Mr. Julius Tl. Pratt, who had had large experience in tree planting, were 
adopted by the Association — among these, the kind of trees to 1)6 planted, and certain fixed rules for 
planting, and for their protection. 


For more than twelve years after the erection of ^Montclair as a separate township, no pi'ovi>ion 
was made for the protection of its inhabitants against fire. During this period there were occasional 
fires attended with serious loss of property. Projects were di.scussed looking to the organization of a fire 
company, but no definite action was taken. 

A fire occurred in the latter part of February, 18S0, involving a loss of over ^13,000, $7,000 of 
which was covered by insurance. It began in the Pillsbury building on Fullerton Avenue and was 
discovered soon after midnight. The Kindergarten School, with all its belongings, and the furniture, 
together with many of the books belonging to the Library Association, were destroyed. In October of 
the same year an efiV)rt was made to secure a fire department petitioned for by seventeen citizens, but 
nothing came of it. 

The final effort which was made two years later was successful. The details of this, togethei' with 
a complete history of the Montclair Fire Department, wei'e published in the MaiitcJair Iltrahl in 
1 892-93, from which the following extracts are taken : 

"People who resided in Montclair in 1882 remember the big blaze which destroyed the hand- 
some residence of Thorndyke Saunders, causing a damage of s2H,000. Many readers will also remember 
the work they did at the fire trying to save the jilaee from total destruction. But it was in vain. With 
no water or tire apparatus their efforts were futile. It was after this that Montclairites realized the 
necessity of soine sort of fire department, and the exorbitant insurance rates impressed this need upon 
them until it was decided to do something toward moi-e adeipiate protection from the red-tongued fire 

"Through the efforts of Mr. A. B. Howe, Dr. Albert J. Wright and C. M. Schott, Jr., a meeting 
was held on November 28, 1882, at which Montclair Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1. was organized and 
the foUowing officers elected: C. M. Schott, Jr., (an ex-member of the Summerville, N. J., Fire Dejiart- 
ment) Foreman; George T. Westbrook, Assistant Foreman; Dr. Albert J. Wright (exempt member of 
Owego, N. Y. Fire Department) Secretary; Dr. J: H. Casey, Treasurer. The company was made up of 
many of the leading members of the township, the following persons being enrolled as members: W. L. 
Ludlam, W. Lou Doremus, Dr. S. C. O. Watkins, George Inness, Jr., George F. AVestbrook, F. A. 
Brautigam, W. Y. Bogle, J. C. Stevens, J. IL Wheeler, Dr. A. J. Wright, Edward Madison, J. 11. Casey, 
M.D., J. R. Livermore, Hugh Mullen, I. Seymour Crane, James Owen, A. C. Studer, C. M. Schott, 
Jr., Peter A. Tronson, Wm, L. Doremus, Jesse II. Lockwood, R. M. Ilening, E. ]M. Harrison, Jr., 
James McDonough, Ro])ert V>. Harris, W. A. Riker, Vaughn Darress. 

History of Moxrcr.AiR Township. 131 

" Subscriptions were made hy tlie residents of the township wlio desired the ]irotection offered by 
ihe company and a trnck was purvhased. It arrived on April «>. iss;i, and was stored in tlie old engine 
liouse of tlie D. L. »S:. W. Railroad for over a year and remained in service nntil IS92. Ou April 24, 
1SS3, articles of incoqwration were tiled. 

'•This company, which was the nndens of the fire department, was nnrccdiinized by the township or 
township authorities until March 11. lss4. when an appropriation of >(5U0 was voted for at the spring 
election, to be devoted to the building of a truck house. This building was enlarged in 1892 by the 
Township Committee and the rooms refitted and refurnished at the expense of the company, a pool table 
having been presented by George Inness, Jr. The same year a new trnck was built for the company at 
an exi)ense of sl,()00 by order of the Township Committee, and fully e(|uipped with all tlie modern 
a])pliances. This committee also provided hoi-ses and tlie company purchased a hanging double harness. 

" About this time (1SS4| the famous Chemical Detail was formed and the apparatus increased by 
the i)iirchase of a I'abcock Chemical Engine liy the comi>any. In July of the same year the Township 
Committee ordered the building of a bell tower, and the of a bell. The tower is sixty-three 
feet in height, and the bell, weigliing 3,410 pounds, bears the following inscription : • Montclair, X. J., 
Fire Department. Township Committee. Thomas Unssfll, Pivsidont ; Stei)heii W. Carey, Warren S. 
laylor, A. Eiien Van Gieson, Shei)ard IJowland." 

"These additions were coni]>leted in August, and in Septemlier twelve tire districts wei'c established 
and the custom of ringing the fire bell at !» o'clock i-. m. was inaugurated. Through the efforts of the 
more progressive spirits among the members of tlie company, the District Fire Alarm and Messenger 
Cuinpany was formed and commenced operations in February. ISS.i. The company placed in position 
and operated twelve public alarm lioxes and also fire alarm bells in each subscribing fireman's residence. 
U'ant of support caused the failure of this company in .\ngust of the same year. During ]\Iarc]i of 
tiiat year the department's e<]uipnients remaineil the same excejit f(jr the arlditioii of a Tliimscy pump. 
The present ofKcers are: President, Franklin P. Zeiger; Vice-PreshK'nt, Walter K. Hunt; Secretary, 
Raymond S. Pearce; Treasurer, Harold W. Armstrong; Foreman, II. W. Armstrong; Assistant Fore- 
man. John C. Doremus." (Is98-4, membership. 32). 

FiuE Kelikf Association. — Many yeai-s ago the State Legislature passed an act providing that a 
two per cent, tax should be levied upon all foreign tire insurance companies doing business in this State, 
this fund being set apart for the benefit of firemen disabled in active service. It is for the ])urj)ose of 
collecting Montclair's share of this money, rendering it available for use here, and distributing it among 
those for whom it is intended, that the Relief Association has its existence. 

When the Hook and Ladder Company constituted the entire Fire Department of the township, 
they oi'ganized and incorporated the Fire Relief Association, Seiitember 17, 1883. When hose companies 
croppL'd into existence, it became necessary to reorganize, which was done September 4, 1885. 

The first officers were: President, FMwin I>. Goodell; Vice-President, C. M. Schott, Jr.; 
Secretary, E. M. Hening. Since this reorganization the goveniiiient of the Relief Association has been 
vested in representatives from all the tire companies, now including the Exempt Association. Every 
meuilier of the Montclair Fire Department is a member of the Association, and. iiulike members of 
benefit companies in general, are oliliged to pay no dues whatever, although every one enjoys an erjual 
benefit, and, again unlike the mutual enrichment companies, never fails to collect his benefits. 

The sick benefits are distributed by a Board of Visitoi-s composed of representatives of the different 
companies, and the wolf has been many a time driven from the door of some unfortunate fireman in 
distres.s, and unable, by reason of some injury, to work, by tlie intervention of this fireman's friend and 
guardian association. 

At the annual meeting of the Association held on December IIJ. ls'.t.3, officers for the ensuing year 
were elected as follows: President, A. J. A'arno ; Vice-President, Hugh Mullen; Secretary, W. Lou 
Doremus ; Treasurer, John E. Livermore. W. I. Soverel was elected as a visitor for three years. The 
l')oard of Visitors is now composed of John X. Haley, Peter A. Tronson and W. I. Soverel. The 

132 History of Montci.air Township. 

previous year's financial report showed a very favorable condition of aifairs. Balance on hand Dec., 
1S91, $-2,476.(50; receipts, 2 jier cent. State tax during year, $1,017.<J5 ; interest, $102.00; total receipts, 
$3,590.34 ; expenditures for relief of injured firemen, $60 ; general expenses, $89.20, leaving a balance 
on hand of $3,446.64. Of tliese funds $2,000 are placed at interest on bond and mortgage on Montclair 
real estate. The remainder is deposited in savings banks. 

The annual meeting is held on the third Monday in December, at tlie house of Montclair Hook 
and Ladder Co. No. 1, 647-649 Bloomfield Avenue. 

Organization of the Montclair Fiee Department. — On March 2, 1(SS5, the Montclair Fire 
Department was organized by the ToM'nship Committee, rules and regulations were adopted, and Charles 
M. Schott, Jr., was appointed Chief Engineer, with G. A. Westbrook as Assistant Engineer. In 
November numbered liadges were issued to the members of the department. Chief Schott's first annual 
report was issued in March, 18S6, and showed: alarms during year, 23; damage, $18,700; insurance, 

Water Supply. — On March 9, 1886, the question of township water su]iply was defeated at the 
special election by a majorit}- of 29 out of a vote of 873, and on the morning of that day the bell tower was 
burned. Chief Sehott was reappointed with Assistant Westbrook. In April the bell was taken to the 
D. L. & W. Depot, and tried there, but with no improvement in the sound, so in July it was placed back 
in the tower, but one story higher. 

In February, 1887, the water supply was again voted upon, and adopted by a majority of 459 out 
of a vote of 695. In March following the Township Committee appinnted Messrs. Owen, Van Gieson 
and Sehott as a sub-committee to revise the rules and regulations of the department. 

In June, 1887, the first election for Chief Engineer was held, and Geo. F. Westbrook was chosen, 
without opposition. He appointed Peter A. Tronson, First Assistant, and Elijah Pearce, Second Assistant. 
In March, 1888, the first Fire Committee was appointed, consisting of James Owen, Chairman ; 
W. S. Taylor and Chief Westbrook {e.r-officio). 

At the annual election in June, Geo. F. Westbook was re-elected Chief Engineer. He appointed 
Hugh Mullen, First Assistant Engineer, and AV. T. Myers, Second Assistant. 

On November 17th, the annual parade of the Montclair Fire Department was held, and was 
followed bv the first public trial of the water pressure and drill of all the companies. 

In March, 1889, the Towiisiiip Committee appointed as a Fire Committee: Geo. Innes.s, Jr., 
Chairman ; W. S. Taylor and Chief Westbrook (ex-ojjicio), and they elected A. J. Wright as Secretary. 
This committee succeeded in placing the fire bell in charge of the police, and in A])ril they took charge 
of the fire alarm and the 9 o'clock bell which had, up to that time, lieen rung by fiiemen detailed for 
that purpose. 

In June following, Ciiief Westbrook's report gave: alarms, 15; time on duty, 15^ hours; loss, 
$4,571; total membership, 117. At the annual election G. A. Westbrook was reelected. He appointed 
G. T. Bunten, First Assistant ; E. Concannon, Second Assistaiijt, and W. B. Jacobus, Third Assistant. 

In March, 1890, the following Fire Committee was appointed: Geo. Inness, Jr., Chairman; 
AV. S. Taylor and Chief AVestbrook {ex-officio), and II. L. Yost, Secretary. Chief Westbrook's annual 
report, in June, 1890, gave the following figures: alarms, 7: membership, 117. At the annual election I. 
Sevmour Crane was chosen as Chief iMigineer, and he appointed 1'. Keller. Jr., First Assistant; AY. B. 
Jacobus, Second Assistant, and J. Jennings, Third Assistant. 

In March, 1891, the following were appointed as a Fire Committee: J. B. Pier, Chairman; 
A. A. Sigler and Chief Crane {ex-affirw), and II. L. Yost, Secretary. At the annual election in June 
following Philip Keller, Jr., was elected Chief. He appointed A. Brooks, Senior Engineer, with John 
Perrin, Alelville Sigler and W. T. Meyers, as Assistant Engineers. 

In March, 1892, the Fire Committee appointed was : J. B. Pier, Chairman ; I. Seymour Crane 
(ex-Chief), and Chief KeUer {ex officio), with H. L. Yost, Secretary. 

At the annual election in June, Philip Keller, Jr., was re-elected Chief Engineer. He appointed 

History of Montclair Township. 133 

Abraham Brooks, as Senior Engineer, and Win. T. Myers, John I'errin atul Melville Sigler, as Assistant 

In IS'.>8, the following Fire Committee were appointed: 1. Seymour Crane (ex-Chief), Hugh 
Gallagher, and Chief Keller (ex-nfticio). with H. L. Yost, as Secretary. 

At the annual election in June, PhiHp Keller, Jr., was again re-elected Chief Engineer, and he 
appointed Wm.T. Meyers. Senior Engineer, and Jos. Jennings, Theo. Sigler and John 11. l>anks. District 

Hose Comi-axy No. 1 was organized from the detail of Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 ('' the 
Chemical Detail "). ^farch 2-4, 1887 (names in italics, soon resigned), and the new company was incorporated 
on Deeemher i% of the same year. The original mcml)ers were (ieorge T. Bunten, Ivobert B. Harris, Elston 
M. Harnson, Philip Keller. Jr., William Oliver, George 11. Hayden, Jesse II. Lockwood, Frank B. 
li'ittrr, Josqjh Leist, W. ,1. Lcd<iy. Hugh ^lullen, James McDoiiough, William A. Kiker, A. G. 
Spencer, Peter A. Tron.son, Wallace W. Wicks. Tiie present memhei-sliij) is twenty-tive. At the time 
of its organization the company elected the following otlicers : 

President, R. B. llarri.-; Vicc-Pre-sidcnt, J. McDuiiough ; Secretary, F. B. Ritter ; Trea.^urer, J. 
II. Luckwood; Foreman, Hugh Mullen; As.sistant Foreman, P. Keller, Jr. Soon afterward a Silshy 
carriage was purchased for |.85<).O0, and stored in the truck house. The new company made their head- 
(juarters there until ISs'.t, when their ]>resent home was completed aiul turned over to them by the Town- 
ship Committee, the furnishing, and all the eipiipments having been procured by the company. At the 
time of their taking possession a handsome silk flag was presented to the company by a number of ladies. 

A hose wagon wa-s sub.sequently secured, and all the motlern appliances ))rovided. The com- 
])any's home is now one of the best appointed in the town. The hanging harne.-;s, and other appliances for 
•'getting out quick," give tiie place a wide-awake ap|)earance, and the mendiei-s are fully competent to do 
the work assigned them. 

In 1893 a comjiletely eipiippcd liose wagon was ordered by the Tnwn.ship Committee for the 

OtKcers: President, Jas. McDonough; Vice-President, Thos. P. Myers; Secretary, A. F. 
Smitli ; Treasurer. Elston M. Harrison; Foreman. E. E. Leach; As.<i.>tant Foreman, Fred'k E. Williams. 

ExcKLsioK IIosK Cumpa.ny No. •!. — This company was organized March 24, 1887 (incorporated 
January 3, 188.S), for the protection of the south end of the township. It was originally composed of 
twenty members, and the service ic has always rendered has commended it to the Montclair public and 
Won recognition and for it from all sides. 

The first officers elected were: President, William II. DeWitt ; Vice-President, William F. 
IlavilaiKl; Seeretary. F. II. Smith ; Treasurer, C. A Scholtz ; Foreman. Abner Bartlett, Jr.; A.ssi.stant 
Foreman. D. W. Ward. The first apparatus secured was a Rumsey four wheel h(jse cart purchased 
soon after organization at a cost of $4:.50, which was paid by subscription of the company and the 
residents of the South End. The townshi]) ap|)ropriated s:i(Mi with which to build a house for the 
company, and in this house, built at the corner of Orange Road and Cedar Avenue, the company still 
has its head(juarters, although a number of alterations have materially changed the aspect of the building 
since that time. 

For five years the company continued operations with the hand carriage, and then on June 1, 181)2, 
it was disposed of, and a cart and horse purchased from the Newark Fire Department. This 
apparatus is now in use, and the company is well equipped for active service. It was the to own a 
horse, and is the only company which has a man on duty at the hose at all hours of the day and 
night. In 1888 the company was presented with a 150 pound fire bell by Carlos A. Scholtz. 

The company has on its roll (1893-4), twenty memi^ers. Its present officers are: President, 
AVilliam H.Gallagher; Vice-President. William H. Williams; Secretary, Thos. B. Kaveny ; Treasurer, 
William T. Meyers; Foreman, W. W. ^leyers; Assistant Foreman, John \'an Ilandlyn. In 1893 a new 
hose wagon was ordered by the Township Committee for the service of the company. 

13-i History of Montclaik Township. 

Washington Hose Company No. 3 was organized August 9, 1887, now located at the corner of 
Bloomtield Avenue and Grove Street. Officers : Foreman, John Pen-in ; Assistant Foreman, ]\Iicliael 
Clarence; President, Edward M. Coneannon ; Vice Presi(]ent, Jolm ]\I. Jennings ; Treasurer, Joseph 
Jennings. Twenty-tliree meml)ers, including officers. 

In Octoher the company received its t^ilshv two-wheeled jumper. This company was ineorjjorated 
January G, ISSS. The house was erected and occupied May, 1888. 

In 1803 a new house was hegun, a hose wagon ordered by the Township Committee, aud Mr. Geo. 
Inness, Jr., presented them with a horse. Present officers (1893—1): President, John Glennon ; Vice- 
President, John M. Smith; Secretary, James A. Durning; Treasurer, John N. Plaley; Foreman, Jos. 
Cavanaugh ; Assistant Foreman, Henry Muller. Membership, 25. 

Cliffside Hose Company No. i was organized Feb. 7, 1SS8, and incorpoi-ated Feb. 5, 1889. 
This is located at Upper Montclair on Bellevue Avenue and railroad crossing, with J. 5 members. The 
first officers were: C. H. Huestis, Foreman; AVm. B. Jacobus, Assistant Foreman; President, Irving 
Cairnes ; Vice-President, Frank Lord; Secretary, Frank P. Anderson; Treasurer, August J. Varno. 

The company's first apparatus was the old Eumsey pump and hose reel formerly used liy the 
Truck Co. A combination api)aratus, consisting of hose wagon with ladders and chemicals, built by 
Gleason & Bailey, were furnished by the town, and in 1SS9 the present house was built. Officers : 
President, Andrew J. Armstrong; Vice-President, Frank Lord; Secretary, John Mancini ; Treasurer, 
L. L. Howe; Foreman, Louis A. Mancini: Assistant Foreman, Walter II. A. Maynard. Present 
membership, 25. 

Association of Exempt Firemen of the Township of MoNiCLAiR, X . J. — Organized Nov. 2-i, 189 ! . 
Incorporated Dee. 12, 1891. President, John 11. Liverinore; Vice-President, Wm. L. Doremus; 
Treasurer, Jesse H. Lockwood ; Secretary, F. A. Brautigam; Trustees, P. A. Tronson, C. M. Scliott, Jr.; 
G. F. Westbrook, Wm. Y. Bogle, Geo. Inness, Jr. 

The membership is confined exclusively to the exemjit members of the Montclair Fire Department. 

FiKE Alakm. — An electric fire alarm system was completed in the autumn of 1892, and fifteen 
boxes placed in convenient localities tlu-oughout the township. A map of the township, with the location 
of hydrants and fire alarm boxes indicated, was compiled by Dr. A. J. Wright, the well known dentist. 
These, togetlier with full instructions, were printed on heavy white cardboard by the publishers of the 
Montclair Herald at their own expense for free distribution. 

In 1893 the system was extended by the addition of 17 boxes, making a total of 32. 


This historical sketch covered the time to the fall of 1893, but as many changes in the way of 
improvement have occurred since that time, it necessitates a brief addition. 

The previous account shows that the houses occupied by the companies, the bell and hose tower 
the electric fire alarm system, all fire apparatus now in use, and the team used by the truck, are the 
property of the Montclair Fire De]iartment, while the house furnishings, the horses used by Hose 
Companies 1, 2 and 3, and the ecpiipments of the members, are company or individual property. 

LTiu.ler the present government, each company is detailed to answer calls from certain boxes, on 
first, second or third alarms (the Exempts respond to the third); and, in addition, a code of .special calls, 
covering each company, police aiul ambulance, are in 

In the spring of 189±, at a special election held for that purpose, it wa~ decided by the voters of 
Montclair to change the form of government from a township to a town, and in June. 1891, all of the 
new officials, both elective and appointive, will be in charge. 

This will be a most important change to the Montclair Fire Department, in that the Fire Committee 
will be succeeded by a Board of Fire Commissioners, composed of five members, who are appointed by 
the To^vn Council, who will have full charge of all matters affecting the department. 

History of Montci.air Township. 135 

So, gradually tlie familiar features of tlie old style volunteer fireman's organization are disap- 
pearing, and it becomes more modern everv dav; so tliat this town will soon practically enjoy the services 
of a model, modern fire department, .second to none in the State and the ecpial of the paid city depart- 
ments for efficacy, at a very slight cost. 


The Montclair Water Company was incorporated on the 13tli day of January, 18S7, niider 
the laws of the State of Xew Jersey, for the purpose of supplying water to the Township of ^fmitclair, 
an<l to other cities, towns and villages of that State. 

The consent of the corporate authorities of the Township of ilontelair to the organization of the 
said Company, as required l)y law. was given on the 13th day of January. ISS". 

The incor])orators were AVhiting (4. Snow. Kdwin A. I'railley, Jasper K. Hand, and Joseph \'an 
\' lock, of Montclair. N. . I. : John R. liartlett and Henry C. Andrews, of New York, and Albert V. 
Fisher, of Brooklyn. N. Y. 

The capital of this Company is §1, (.100,000, divided into ln,OoO shares, of the par value of SlOO 
each, all of which has been paid into the treasury of the Company in cash. 

The directt>rs and officers of the Company are AVhiting (i. Snow. President; .John II. liartlett. 
Treasurer; Albert P. Fisher, Secretary; Kdwin A. Hradley and Jasper li. Hand. 

These gentlemen were the first directors and officers of the Comjiany, and are still serving the 
Company in those capacities. 

A contract with the Township of Montclair, to .-u])|)ly it with water, within nine months from the 
date of its execution, was made on tlie Tjth day of !March, 1SS7. To comply with this contract, after the 
necessary surveys and estimates had been made, a contract, to build the works, was made !iy the 
Company with Messrs. Tarr it McXamee, contractors, on the 29th <lay of March, 1^87. 

After an examination and selection of the location of the well at Watchung, a test well was put 
down, on the site selected, and an analvsis and biological examination of the water was made by Prof. 
Leeds, of the Stevens Institute of Technology. Iloboken, N. J., and was ]n-onounced to be perfectly pure, 
wholesome and palatable, and of most unusual excellence and ])urity. This report was submitted to the 
Township Committee of Montclair and was approved by them on the 7tli day of June, 18S7. 

The plant was so far completed that water was introduced into the town aliout December 1, 1887. 

The works have been pronounced, by experts familiar with work of that kind, to be first class in 
every ])articular. both as to quality of material used in the construction and quality of workmanship. 

Mr. Geo. W. Howell, of Morristown, N. J., represented the Company as Engineer during tlie 
construction of the works, and Mr. James (J wen, of Montclair, N. J., represented the township in the 
same capacity. 

After the completion of the wcirks Mr. Owen was engaged by the Compan\', as its Engineer and 
Superintendent, and has been retained in that position ever since. 

The supply of water was first obtained from two wells located north ofWatchung Avenue and east 
of Valley lioad ; one well being 80 feet in diameter and 50 feet dec p, with brick walls from the surface 
to the top of the rock. At the bottom of the 30 feet well are 4 holes, 4 inches in diameter, extending 40 
to 50 feet deeper. 

There is also one 8 inch well, 30 feet di.stant from the larger one, 175 feet deep, the water of which 
flows into the larger one. 

The pumps, two in number, were located in the well about 20 feet below the level of the ground, 
and deep enough to empty the 30 feet well. These pumps are of the Compound Worthington type, each 
with a capacity of 500,000 gallons per day. They worked against a head of 167 lbs., which is the pressure 
when the tank on the mountain is full. 

The two boilers, of 75 horse power each, on the return flue plan, are located in a brick boiler- 


History of Montclair Township. 

house about 25 feet from tlie well; the steam is carried in a 3-inch pipe to the pumps, with a duplicate 
pipe of 2 inch, in case of emergenc}'. 

Tlie tank on the mountain is built of boiler iron, 40 feet in diameter, and 30 feet high, having 
a capacity of 300,000 gallons. Its elevation is G80 feet above tide water, and 400 feet above the pumps. 

During the jenr 1800, owing to tlie increased consumption of water, live 5-inch wells were boi-ed to 
an average depth of 105 feet. These wells were connected with the large well by means of a syphon arrange- 
ment, so tliat the water flowed automatically into the large well without any extra pumping. The com- 
bined delivery of these wells, at their full capacity, amounted to 320,(Hio gallons of water per day. 

In the early jiart of the year 1893, it was deemed necessary to still fui'ther increase the supply of 
water, and, therefore, a connection was made at Brookdale with the main of tlie East Jei-sey Water Com- 
pany, the company who had built the plant for the supply of the City of Newark with water taken from 
the Pequannoek River, at Pompton, N. J. 

A contract was made Novendjer 5, 1S92, with the West Orange "Water Co., to furnish them 
with water for the purpose of supplying the Township of West Orange, and about May, 1893, connection 
was made with their mains, and since that time tliat Company has been supplied continuously from the 
Montclair plant. 

This extra draft, coupled with the increasing demand of the town of Montclair itself, rendered 
the pumping plant of the Company almost inadequate for the summer consumption of 1893. There- 
fore, in the fall of 1893, two new pumps were purchased from the Snow Steam Pump Works, of 
Buffalo, N. Y., with a capacity of 2,50(),0(>0 gallons per day. 

Two new boilers were also purchased of 180 horse powei", and, with a new stack, have been jilaced 
in position. 

The old pum])s have been taken out of the well and placed in a pit specially prepared for them_ 
which gives the plant a total capacity of 3,500, OtH) gallons ])er day. 

The boiler and puiii}) have also been enlarged. 

The following statements will .show the increase of the Company's business during the last six 
years : 

Miles of Watkr Pipe Laid. 
During and to the year ending Dec. 31, 188S. .24^'^% miles 

During the year ending December 31, 18S9.. 1/5% " 

31, 1S90.. lyVn " 

31, 1S91.. 4yVij " 

31. 1892.. 2{^j; •• 

31, 1S93.. 3/J'j " 

Total to January i, 1894. .38/5'^ " 

NuMKER OF Fire Hydrants. 

During and to the year ending Dec. 31, 1888 223 

During the year ending December 31, 1S89 15 

" " "31, 1S90 12 

31. 1891 19 

31, 1S92 iS 

31. 1S93 16 

Total to January i, 1S94 303 

Number of Consumers Added. 

During and to the year ending Dec. 31, 18SS 361 

During the year ending December 31, 1889 193 

31, 1890 169 

31. 1S91 250 

" " 31, 1892 iSi 

31, 1893 187 

Number of Taps Made. 

During and to the year ending Dec. 31, 1S8S 377 

During the year ending December 31, 18S9 180 

" " " 31, 1890 160 

" " " 31, 1891 151 

" " " 31, 1S92 200 

" " 31, 1S93 102 

Total to January i. 1S94 11 70 

Averac.e Daily Consumption of Water. 

During and to the year ending Dec. 31, 18SS. .133,763 galls. 

During the year ending December 31, 1889 . .155,494 " 

31, i8go. .189,480 

31, i89i..223,25o " 

31, 1892.. 318, 537 " 

31, 1S93.. 527.564 " 

Meters Put In. 

During and to the year ending Dec. 31, 1SS8 5 

During the year ending December 31, 1S89 28 

" " " 31, 1890 

31, 1S91 

'■ " " 31, 1S92 

Total to January i, 1894. 


... 24 

... 18 

... 31 

31. 1S93 40 

Total to January i, 1894 146 

History of Montclair Towxsuir. 137 

.Tamks Owex. Township Ex(;in'kkr. — As a civil ciiirinoi-r, aiul as tlic originator ami jnonioter of 
the most important improvements in public highways in Essex County rhiring tlie past twenty-five years, 
Mr. Owen is without a rival. His connection with the pnl)lic affairs of ^Montclair hcgan .soon after its 
erection as a separate township. 

Mr. ( )wen is a native of England, born in London in lS-15. The family from which he is descended 
is of verv remote ancestry, the first of these names being the funiider of the noble trilie of North AA^alcs 
and Powv.s. Mr. Owen was educated at private .school and at King's C'tillege, London, and served his 
time Mt civil engineering with (i. K. IJadford, now a partner of the eminent engineer and landscajje 
gardener, Vaux. who was formerly associated with Ohnstead in laying out Central Park. Xow York, 
and Prospect Park, Brooklyn. 

Mr. Owen came to this coimtry in 1 s(i('>. aiul was first connected with the Indiana Southern Railroad 
as civil engineer. In ISC.T he was a.ssnciated with Olm^tead and Vaux in the laying out of Prospect 
Park, Brooklyn. In l.stIS he was a])pointed Engineer of the E.ssex County, N. J., Public Poad Board, 
and has held the position continuously for more than a quarter of a century, and during this period has 
expended over li>2,000,00( i on the ]mblic highways and other improvements connected therewith. He 
established the .system of radiating avenues from Newark, which is considered the best of any in the 
United States, and which has since been adopted in many of our large cities and towns throughout the 
country. He introduced the Telford .system of roads, the most durable of aTiy ever adopted, and there 
has since been con.structed over 25<i miles of this class of roads in the county. Li 1^^T•2 he was appointed 
County Engineer of County, and had charge of the construction of all thel>ridges. He abolished 
the old system of wooden bridges, aiul substituted of ma.-;onry and iron, of which (here are now about 
l,.5nO in the country. 

Mr. Owen bee line a resident of Montclair in IsTl'. ami the same year was appointed Township 
Engineer, and has held it at different periods down to the jirescnt time. He served three years on the 
Township Coiiiniittce. from ISS.'j to 1S88. It wa> during this period that the construction of the public 
water works began, and he has since had charge of that work. He has taken a s]K'cial interest in the 
cause of education: was elected a member of the School Board in is's, and has been re-elected at each 
succeeding term since. He was chairiiian of the committee that introduced technical education, this 
iieing the first public .school in the I'liited States to adoj>t that .system. He was Chairman of the Buihl- 
ing Committee on the construction of the new school-house. He served a,s Health Commissioner of the 
township for four yeai-s. lie has read several i)ai)ers on engineering, and has iieen a frequent contributor 
to engineering journals. He lias lectured on the construction of roads in different parts of the c<)untry 
before large and appreciative audiences. He attended the World's Fair Congress of Engineers. 

He is a member of the following societies and organizations: American Society of Civil En- 
gineei*s: New Jer.sey State Sanitary Association; New Jei"sey State Road Association ; and of different 
local organizations in Montclair. 


The very first attempt at journalism in ^foiitclair was made in \^C>C>. by two youths named F. A. 
Wheeler and F. A. Brautigam, in the publication of a small amateur monthly, which they appropriately 
named T/ie Pioneer. The publication was well received, and served its announced purpose of " a devotion 
to the general observation on pa.ssing events" very well for a few months, when its publishers engaged in 
other and more profitable occupations, and T/ie Pioneer pa-ssed out of existence. 

For several years after that the townspeople depended uj)on the Sentinel of Freedom, the weekly 
edition of the Daily Ailoertiser, of Newark, for their local and general news, and no one ventured the 
pulilication of an exclu.sively local newspaper. It was not until J une, 1 ^I'A. that the proverbial long-felt want 
was filled by the appearance of TIw Montclair Herald, the jjublishers of which were Messrs. J. Ogden Clark 
and Frank D. Sturgis, both of them members of the legal profession. Like the original journal, it appeared 

138 History of Montclatr Township. 

monthly, and was filled with interesting accounts of the rapid developments which the town was under 
goini;- at that time. Houses were going up in all sections; the Montelair and Greenwood Lake Railway 
liad just been opened ; work upon the tunnel through the mountain was heing carried on day and night, 
for the extension of tlie road to Verona and Caldwell ; steam rollers were at work upon the macadamizing 
of Bloomtield x\venne by the County Board, gas lights had just been introduced — in short. Montelair was 
booming. The Herald prospered oirrespondingly. It was well printed upon tinted paper, and attained 
a good circulation. But its publishei's found the editorial laboivs devolving u]ion them so great as to 
hinder them in their legal pursuits, and the paper literally outgrew itself and died. 

For two years following, the local wants were most acce])tably recorded in the Saturday Gazette^ a 
weekly paper, published by Sylvanus Lyon, of Bloomfield. Equal space was devoted in its columns to 
the two sister towns of Montelair and Itloomfield. and the tone of the paper was dignitied and clean. For 
more than two years the Gazette served its constituency admirably, exerting a wide intiuence, and foster- 
ing a neighborly spirit between the two towns, which but a few years before were one municipality. 

In the fall of 1875 W. C. Coutant, publisher of the Arlington Journal^ sustaining serious loss by 
fire, removed what was left of his plant to Montelair, and began the pnl)lication of the 2Iontclair Journal. 
Although the panic had set in, the town was still growing under the impetus it had received in the lieighth 
of its prosperity in "boom times." A weekly newspaper, properly and economically conducted, could 
exist, though not hold out immediate prospects of great wealth to its editors. The pa]ier established by 
Mr. Coutant, however, started out on the mistaken mission of antagonizing the local government by 
being "agin it," and attacking juiblic-spirited men, attributing to them selfish motives. It likewise 
rejoiced in factional fights, and as a natural result the Journal soon reached its last number under Mr. 
Contant's management. 

Mr. John Malcolm CJampliell was the next to enter the journalistic field of Montelair. lie took 
up the Journal where his predecessor left off, aiul adopted a somewhat similar ])oliey. The number in 
which the paper gave up the ghost, it was boldly announced that " the Journal has now been placed 
upon a paying basis." But there was evidently a Haw in the basis, for on a cloudy morning in November 
the publisher and proprietor disappeared, and the plLint was seized by the landlord. 

Subscribers to Montelair papers had little faith in the staying qualities of the succeeding publication, 
The Montelair Twree-s, which was begun in P'ebruary, 1S77. The present publisher, A. C. Studer, from the 
neighboring city of Newark, and Charles A. Burr, of Syracuse, N. Y., entered in the work sinndtaneonsly, 
but the latter withdrew in a few weeks and sold out his interests in the Times to Mr. Studer. The paper 
had an uphill struggle for some time, without prospect of political support, for it was neutral in politics 
for five years, when having passed the " make or break " period the editor followed his personal 
proclivities and made the Times a RepnV)liean ]>aper. A dejjartment by Rev. Dr. Bradford, under the 
title of "Chips From My Workshop," was an interesting feature that did much to ]wpularize the paper. 
In later years also some of the best writei-s of the town have contributed to its columns, and the paper 
has taken an advanced position in all matters affecting the welfare and interests of the community. The 
Times has grown in circulation commensurate to the growth of Montelair, and is in the full enjoyment of 
public confidence. It is still being published by its original publisher, wln)se record for seventeen 
successive years of nninternipted newspaper work has few equals in the State. 

The Montelair liegister was the next journalistic candidate for public favor in IMontclair. It was 
started in 1888 by A. E. C. Minderman, as an independent paper, but subsequently it became the organ 
of the Democratic party, especially during the Presidential campaign of that year. Its publisher worked 
faithfully and heroically against great odds for two and a half years before the Register met the fate that 
had been met by so many of its predecessors. 

Just as the Register was about to expire, William F. Jones started the Montelair Herald, also as a 
weekly paper, but it had scarcely lived six months before its publisher sold out to C. Alexander Cook. 
He bought the jjlant of the defunct Register, and for a few weeks managed the Herald for a stock 
company of Democrats and Independents. Mr. Cook was succeeded as editor and manager by Dr. 

History of Montclair Towxsnir. 139 

Rieliard C. Newton, and he ill turn InMr. ^lartin Synnott. In 1S92 tlie paper was bonglit bv Di". C. 
W. Uutler, a prolific cuntriljiitor to its columns, who couducted it for more than a year, with varied 
success. The Herald was then published by G. C. Earle, and edited by H. B. "Walker, they having leased 
the plant from Dr. Kutler, who still owns it. 

Among the other papers that have come and goue in recent years is the Aft?'uisf, published 
monthly by the Altruist Society in the interests of the benevolent work carried on in town under its 

A very bright little amateur weekly was the Montclaii' l'ri'<><, published from 1SS9 to 'ill, by two 
boys. James and Arthur Owen, sons of Engineer Owen. It gained quite a circulation, and contained 
many interesting items. The boys set the type themselves and jirinted the paper upon a small press in 
their father's bani, doing all tlie work after school hours. A feature that interested the older people was 
the department known as "Topics by His Nil)s," the contributions for which were from the prolific pen 
of Engineer Owen. Tlie Press grew almost into the sphere of regular journalism, and had gained much 
l)opularity when it was discontinued because of the death of the older of the brothers, imich to the 
regret of its many patrons. 

The Montclair Journal was published by William F. Jones and Otis McMillan, as a weekly, from 
IS90 to 1891, and then daily for about a year. It had no connection with the pajjcr of that name that 
preceded it. Tliere seeme<l to V)e no especial rci|uirement for such a pa|)er then and the paper died. Its 
publication was resumed, however, in March, Isid, and is being published every Thursday by Messrs. 
Ori- ^IcMillan and Arthur Darlington. 

.VrccsTCS Charles Studek. 

The success of a newspa])er is wholly dei>endent on the man who sui)plics the brains, and whether, 
consciously or unconsciously, his individuality is stamped on every piige. If his utterances are truthful 
and honest, whatever his [lereonal views, he will liave the confidence of the public. 

From the date of the first issue of the Montclair Tiinrs. by its present editor and |)roprietor. its 
course has been sti-aightforward and truthful, and not a word has sullied its pages that any pure-minded 
man or woman could take exception to. 

Augustus C. 8tuder, editor and proprietor of the Mmitclalr Times for the |)ast seventeen yeai-s, 
comes of a race of patriots, and honest, fearless men, loyal to those j)rinciples which have governed their 
country for five hundred years. All save himself were natives of Switzerland, and though he was a 
native of this country, the first words he ever Httere<l were in his fathers native tongue. His grand- 
father was a clergyman of the Calvinistic Church, and for forty years officiated in that capacity at Thun, 
Switzerland. One of his ancestors was engaged in the civil war known as the Sonderbund — severing the 
lionds — the same .state of atfaii-s existing as in our recent civil war — viz.. the severing in twain of the 
republic — his ancestor remaining true and loyal to the government. 

Mr. Studer's mother was Elizabeth Oertel. a native of the Grand Duchy of Baden. Her mother 
took an active part in the movement to establish the independence of Baden, in 1849, by encouraging 
resistance to the government and on several occasions conveyed important secret dispatches to Frederich 
llecker, the patriotic leader. 

Mr. Studer's parents came to this country in 1>^50 and settled in Newark, N. J., wliere he was 
bom. May 1<I, 1854, the year of the great cholera epidemic; it was this that led them to return to 
their native country when he was but four months old ; his early environment was therefore amid the 
scenes of his father's childhood. He attended school at Thun and Geneva, and, wliile pursuing the 
usual course of study, acijuircd a thorough knowledge of German and French. His j)arcnts returned to 
tills country in 1864, during tiie War of the liebeliioii, his father being actuated by a desire to assist his 
adopted country in her efforts to preserve the Union. This he did by enlisting as a private in Company 
A. Fifteenth Regiment. N. J. Vols., in which he served until the close of the war. An uncle of young 
Studer — his father's brother — served throughout the war in an Iowa regiment, and rose from the ranks to 


History of MoNTcr.AiR Townshit. 

tliiit of Major of liis regiinciit, and in IsTo was a])i>oiiite<l by President Grant consid to Singapore, and 
was reappointed each successive administration, including that of President Cleveland in 18S4. 

Young Studor, soon after his return to this country, entered the public schools of Kewark, and 
altliough he could not speak a word of English, his previous ti'aining enabled him to take an advanced 
position which he maintained until his graduation. His journalistic traiuiug began in the composing 
room of the A^c'war/i' Jourtu/l, ami lie was subsequently assigned to reportorial dnties, and initiated into 
the mysteries of the editor's "sanctum sanctorum." In 1S70 he started a jol)l)ing ottiee in Newark, and 
while thus engaged, he leai'ued of the several abortive attempts of ambitious aspirants for jonrnalistic 
honors to establisii a weekly jiajter in Montclair. After carefully surveying the field he was convinced that 
there was an opening in Montclair for a live newspaper. Soon after he began his canvass, however, he 
discovered that he had a ri\;d in tlie field, who was not only backed up by the Greenwood Lake Rail- 
way, but intended to start a paper in the in- 
terests of the company. Mr. Studer withdrew for 
a time and awaited " de- velopments." These 
came sooner than he ex- pected, for after publish- 
ing two or three num- beis, the publisher was 
glad to sell out at a loss, ^tm and in May, 18T7, Mr. 
Stnder assumed the ^^^m management of tlie 
j\[ontclu'u' Times. The ^^H ]«i])er at this time was 
printed hi Jersey City, ,SB!f ^*i»'"*^ t^ and "filled in," under 
the "patent process." /. lie soon after bought 
the plant of the Mont \ /^T^ c/a/'r Jou/'/ml, a defunct 
pa|)er which had been .M#* ' al)andoned l)y the pro- 
prietor, with "all the ^- appurtenances thereof," 
to the landlord. Thus ^^^^^ ^ equipped, Mr. Studer 
started iii as editor, pub- .ti^^tm^^^^ ^' lisher, reporter, compos- 
itor, bookkeeper and ^^^^^m "" everything but "devil." 
Through good manage- ^^^^^S^^^^: ment, rigid economy, 
and the assistance of a ^^^^^^|P^ ^'l^' few friends, he soon es- 
tablished it on a paying 'H^l^^li ^l^k. basis. He ran it as an 
independent journal for iBjp^ ^ip^- about five years, and 
then raised the republi- ^ ^'' can banner, which he 
nailed to the mast, de- termined to follow his 
own convictions. About a year after he started, 
his whole plant was de- stroyedbytire, and ashe 

was only half insured ' '■ ' the loss was severelv felt. 

He never lost courage, liowevcr, liut began 

again with the same earnestness and determination to succeed. Dr. Bradford kindly came to his assistance 
and started a column entitled " Chips From jNiy Workshop." This gave a new impetus to the paper, not 
alone because of the i)ublic interest in these contributions, but because of the high esteem in which their 
author was held in tliis community. The plant was largely increased, the additional facilities enabled him 
to do all his own press work, and he now has one of the best eipiipjied country ottices in the State. 

From publishing a partisan pa})er it was natural for him to drift into politics, and in 1^88 he 
received the appointment of Engrossing Clerk to the lower house of the State Legislature, and two 
years afterward he ran for Assembly on the republican ticket, and was elected by a plurality of ^-t^'d. He 
took a firm stand against the famous coal combine, which came up that year, and the " usual " powers 
of persuasion failed to win him over. He was re-elected the following year, and was one of the helpless 
minority which fought so hard against the corrupt ring that controlled tlie Legislature that year. He 
was a member of the Committee on Municipal Corporations to whom was referred the famous race track 

History of Montclaik Township. 141 

hill that wa.-^ rushed through the Legislature against the protests of the large delegation of ministers and 
lavmen who met in the Assenihly representing every part of the State. He made the minority report of 
this committee, condemning in the strongest terms possible this infamous bill. His whole course during 
the two terms was fearless and upright, and every attempt at jol)l)ery was met by a strong and determined 
opposition on his part. As an evidence of the esteem in which he was held by his party, it may be 
noted that he was the caucus nominee for Speaker at the beginning of his second term, with no chance, 
however, for election, as his opponents were largely in the majority. He ntade an honorable record for 
himself in one of the most corrupt Legislatures that ever //(/Vrepresented the State of JS'ew Jersey. 

He is naturally of a modest and retiring disposition, and while earnestly advocating through the 
columns of his journal all the great reform movements inaugurateil in Montclair, he could not be 
induced to accept any local otHce, preferring active service. As a man, however, he is held in tlie highest 
esteem in the community, and while true to his principles as a republican, he shares equally the esteem of 
his opponents. 

He has done much to promote jiulilic entertainments of a high order, and has for some years repre- 
sented the various "bureaus" engaged in this work. As local manager of the New Tork Philhar- 
monic Club he has brought to Montclair a number of musical celebrities. 

Mr. Studer was one of the founders of the Montclair Building and Loan Association, in which he 
has always taken an active part. He is member of St. Alban's Lodge, No. C8, F. & A.M., of Newark, 
and of several local organizations. 

He is domestic in his habits, and prefers the rpiietude of his own home to public honors or the 
gaieties of social life. His wife was a Miss ELlizabetii M. Zicgler, of Newark, and his family consists of 
one son and two daughters, to wliose mental and physical training he devotes much attention. 

Ilixns »fe Kkicham Factokv No. 3. 

Since the closing of the Wheeler Mills on Toney's Brook, in 1887, manufacturing industries in this 
locality liave ceased to exist with the exception of ifcssrs. Crump iSc Everdell, who had been long 
established in New York, started their works near the depot of the New York and Circenwood Lake 
Pailway Company in 1S7.5. They jjurchased grounds and erected suitable two story buildings, covering 
some 240 x 100 feet, and employed a number of liands, doing a large Inisiness in label and color printing, 
and also in the manufacture of waterproof wall paj'Cr. 

On the morning of July 4, 1877, the buildings were entirely destroyed by tire, the origin of which 
was never fully determined, but supposed to have been caused by spontaneous combustion. 

As soon as possible a new factory was erected on a much larger and more extensive scale, the size of 
the buildings being 150 x 240 feet (afterward increased to 15(J x .j2.'i feet, the present size), which were 
fitted up with greatly increased facilities. Mr. Everdell withdrew from the tirm at about this time, and 
ifr. Samuel Crump carried on the business alone very successfully until 1881, when the Cruinj) Label 
Company was formed, which name was changed to Samuel Crumj) Label Company in 1888. 

This company continued to do an increasing business, employing some 200 hands, until it was pur- 
chased in June, 1890, by the Hinds, Ketcham Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., this being a reorganization 
of the firm of Hinds, Ketcham 6c Co., which firm was formed some ten years previous by four employees 
of the Crump Label Company, who had built up an enormous busines.s, located at I'rooklyn, until they 
were ah\e at tliis time to the entire business conducted by their former employers. Lender tliis 
new management the business was somewhat increased until Februarv 1, 1891, when it was purchased Ijy 
The United States Printing Company, a concern that had been formed with a capital stock of $3,.5O0,00O, 
and included the largest label and color printing manufacturers in the country. The magnitude of this 
new company can be better realized when we know they at once stripped tliis Montclair factory of all its 
machinery pertaining to the printing trade, disti-ibuting it in some of theii' other factories, and immediately 


History of Montclair Township. 

inirchased an enormous amount of new and improvL'il machinery for the sole pui'pose of coating paper 
and card of every description for use in their other factoi'ies, which are at pi'esent k)cated at Brooklyn, 
N. Y.. Cincinnati, O., and Indianapolis, Ind., where the total product of the Montclair branch is turned into 
printed labels, show cards, banners, boxes, circus posters, playing cards, and every other form of novelty 
that can be made from either paper or card, and which are used in every known country on the globe. 
This Montclair factory, which is known as Minds & Ketcham Factory No. 3, is one of the largest, if not 
the largest, and certainly the best equipped works of its kind in the country. The entire building is 
occupied in the niamifacture of its goods, and while the character of the work does not necessitate the 
employment of as many hands as were formerly kept busy (as there are only some 75 employed now), yet the 
amount of product is many times greater than it ever was before, as the cajiacity of the works is at least 
30,000 pounds of finished paper and card per day, oi- al)out 9,000,000 jiounds per year. Over 1,000,000 
pounds of imported clay and over 250,000 pounds of jiowdered glue are used in its jtroduction, which is 
as large a quantity of either of these articles as is used in any one factory in the country. 

The paper enters the factoi-y in its crude state from the mills in the East, and is coated in any 


weight and color, calendered, cut into any size sheets, and shipped in strong machine-made cases to the 
other factories all ready to be put upon the presses for ])i'inting. This factory received some time ago an 
order from one of its Cincinnati factories for a few months' supply of paper, which would take some (!5 
freight cars to transport to its destination, and ove;- ten cars of lumber for casing of same. The fi'eight 
paid by the factory to the Erie Railroad, over which all its supplies and ]n-oduct is carried, can be im- 
agined when it is noted that they paid freight on at least 20,00(»,000 pounds of supplies and completed 
production in one year. 

The factory is well protected against tire as it has a tire l)rigade of its own. with suitable apparatus, 
which can be attached to hydrants of its own, and is also supiilied with an automatic sprinkler system 
which would easily flood the building and contents in time of need. 

The factory being situated in such a remote portion of the town, is no hindrance to its growth as a 
residence centre, as probably not over one-fiftieth part of the inhal)itants would know of its existence, if it 
were not for its sonorous whistle, which not only calls its employees to and from their duty, but also 
blows all fire alarms for tlie town, as it is connected automatically with the township system. 

History of Montclair Township. ' 143 

Wliile the home office of the Company is in Cincinnati, O.. all the factories are operated as 
separate concerns, so that all business of every description for this factory is completed at its own office. 

The entire business of the factory, while conducted by home talent, is under the direct supervision 
of i[r. Joseph E. Hinds, of Brimklyii. tiie Vice President and (Tcneral Eastern ^fanager of the Company, 
to whose business sagacity the grand success of this branch of the Company is due. 

Joseph Enwix Hinds. Vice-President and General Eji-stern ^[anager of the present coiujmny, 
wIkj ha.s been connected with the l)usiness for nearly a ipiartcr of a century, is a native of Hrooklyn, L. I.^ 
horn September is, 1848, of English parentage. He has made his own way in the world since he was 
eleven years of age. He entered a printing office in New York City when he was fifteen years of age, 
and live years later found em])loynient with Crump it Co., who were then carrying (jii the business of 
colored label printing on Fnlton Street. In 1S71 he was made superintendent of their New York 
fa;'torv, and when they moved to .Montchiir, in 1^7."), he took charge of tiseir new factory and coiuinucd 
in that capacity until December. IsT'.t. wlicn he organized tin- lirni of Hinds, Ketcham & Co.; ten years 
later they bought out the old firm. 

Mr. Hinds was one of the princi|iai promoters of The United States Printing Company and has 
been its Vice-President from its organization. 

During his residence in Montclair Mi-. Hinds liecame interested in ihe various reform ami 
improvement movements of that period ; he wa.-< one of the original nieinbers of the Village Improve- 
ment Society, of which i[r. Thonujs I'orter was President, and was clerk of the Society during its 
continuance, and .spent much time and labor in promoting its objects. The hundreds of beautiful shade 
trees which have made this one of the most attractive townships in the State are due to the efforts of this 
Society, of wliich Mr. Hind> was one of the most active members. He also assisted in organizing the 
Montclair Literary an<l Social Circle, which during its existence afforded delightful entertainment, and 
did iiiueii to improve the intellectual and social condition of the young men of the town. He was its 
first \'ice-President and afterward became President of the Society. He is also a mend)er of Montclair 
Lodge F. iV' A. M.. and a firm .-npiiorter of the objects of the fraternity. He was the oi-iginal piomotcr 
and Past Pegent of Montclair Council. Koyal Arcanum, and the fir.-^t meeting of the Council was 
held at his house. This has since become one of the most iidhiential Coinicils in the State. 

Mr. Hinds did not remain long enough in Montclair to witness the fruition of all his plans and 
his hopes, itnt others have reaped the benefit of his laboiv, und iiis zeal and enterprise for the good of the 
connnnnity are not forgotten, and the .~eed sown by him has horne ample fruit, ifr. Hinds, tiiough 
located in Brooklyn, still has the sujiervision of the manufacturing interests of his Company in Montclair. 

Mr. Hinds is a man of strong individuality, con.<cientious and upright in all his business 
transactions — a firm believer in the brotherhood of man, and his aim in life has been to improve the 
condition of his fellow-men and to lend a liel])ing hand to the needy and suffering. He married, in 1870, 
^liss Mary A. Beetham, the issue of which is eiglit children, seven of whom are living. 


With the rapid growth of Montclair it has been a cause of wonder to many of its citizens liow 
tliey managed for so many years to get along without local banking facilities. It is even more sur|)rising 
when it is considered that within six months after the Bank of Montclair opened its door.s, nearly five 
hundred depositors had availed themselves of the privilege thus offered. 

For more than half a century the ])eo|)le of this locality transacted all their banking business with 
Newark, Orange and New York City, entailing loss of time, inconvenience, and often considerable 
expense. It has been a subject of discussion for many years past, and occasional efforts have been made 
to establish a bank in the township without succes.s. In the autumn of l>iSs Mr. Paul Wilcox and 
Thomas Wilcox Stephens, believing the time was ripe for such an enterprise, (ietermined to make an 
effort in this direction. Mr. Stephens called upon, and obtained letters of introduction from, Mr. 


History of Montclair Township. 

Benjamin Graham and Mr. E. G. Bnrgess to Jasper R. Rand and Stephen W. Carey, who gave their 
hearty co-operation, and arrangements were made for an early meeting. Tlie following gentlemen met 
by appointment at the oftiee of Mr. Eand, in New York City : Jasper E. Hand, Stei)hen W. Carey, 
Paul Wilcox and T. W. Stephens, the present cashier of the P.ank of Montclair. 

The matter was freely discussed, and it was decided to effect an organization at an early date. 
Meetings were held from time to time, and other citizens became interested in the movement 
and pledged their support. Several meetings were held at the house of ilr. P.enjamin Graham, who 
became deeply intere-tcd in the enterprise at the outset and was one of the active spirits in securing its 

It was finally agreed to start with a ca]iital of $50,000, one-half the amount to be paid in at once, 
and the balance when called for by the stockholders. This was done September, 1891. A meeting was 
held at the house of Mr. Paul Wilcox, on the Valley Road. There Avere present, Thomas Russell, 
Stephen W. Carey, Benjamin Graham, A. B. Howe, Philip Doremus, Charles H. Johnson, Sr., Jasper R. 
Rand, Peter TI. Tan Piper, Paul Wilcox, Abraham P.ussing aiul T. W. Stephens. After the subserii>tion 
lists were opened there was no dithculty in obtaining the requisite capital. The citizens of Montclair gen- 

erallv gave it their heartv 
liberally to the stock. Out- 
ly have taken the whole 
ered expedient to have as 

tion of Directors was held 
Goodell, at Montclair, 
following named gentle- 
StephenW. Carey. Tin mias 
Charles II. Johnson, P>en- 
I). Van Vleck, Edwin A. 
gess, Paul AVilcox, Jasper 
more, George II. Mills, 
ick J. Drescher, Daniel O. 
Goodell, W. W. Egbert, 
ham Bussing. Edwin A. 
the list, declined to serve 

Showing the Bank of Montclair. 

support, and subscribed 
side parties would willing- 
amount, but it was consid- 
much as possible taken in 
A meeting for the elec- 
at the office of E. B. 
April 2, 1SS9, aiuI the 
men were duly elected : 
Russell, Philip Doremus, 
jamiu Graham, William 
Bradley, Edward G. Bur- 
E. Rand, John R. Liver- 
Andrus B. Howe, Freder- 
Eshl)augh, Edwin B. 
Peter II.A'an Ri|ier, A bra- 
Bradley, the seventh on 
on account of the pressure 
Mr. Benjamin Strong was 

of private business, and 

elected in his stead. Jasper E. Eand was elected President, Wm. D. Van Vleck, Vice-President, and 

T. W. Stephens, Cashier. 

The bank was formally opened Saturday, June 1, 1889, in what was known as the Van Eiper 
building, on Bloomtield Avenue. Forty-two accounts were opened, and the total amount deposited was 
!?r,(i,0(in. In JanuaiT, 1890, at the first annual meeting, seven months after the organization of the bank, 
the books showed 435 depositors, with a total of $U;0,00(). In January, 1892, there were 1,025 
depositors, witli a total of $365,000. 

The books showed a good surplus each year, but for satisfactory reasons no dividend was declared. 

In 1892 a lot was purchased, 60x200 feet, on Bloomfield x\ venue, nearly opposite the Presbyterian 
Cliurch, and plans designed by J. C. Cady ct Co., architects, for a bank building. Work was soon after 
begun aTui the building completed in the spring of 1893. It is 30x,"')(i feet, three stories high, with base- 
ment and cellar. The walls are of i>rick, with white terra cotta brick front. Eoonis aliove the bank are 
arranged for offices, one of which is occupied by the ^Montclair Savings Bank. The new building was 
opened for business May 13, 1893. The lower part, occupied by the Bank of Montclair, is beautifully 
fitted up in cherry, with brass trimmings. A sepaiate department is arranged for lady depositors, who 
number nearly one-third of the entire list. 

History ok Montci.air Township. l-l.i 

This has uruved tliiis far one of the most successful liaukinj^ institutions ever started in tliis 
country, sustained largely l)y private individuals, there being hut one manufactory in the town-^hip. and 
the business Ijeinjj confined mainly to general supplies for the residents. 

The directors for 1S94 are: Stephen W. Carey, Thomas Tiussell, I'liilip JJoremns, Charles II. 
Johnson, Benjamin Graham, William U. Van Vleck, Edward G. Burgess, Paul Wilcox, Jasper R. Rand, 
John K. Livermore. Andrns B. Howe, Frederick J. Drescher, Daniel O. Esld'augh, Edwin B. Goodcll, 
Peter II. Van Kii)er, Abraham Bussing, r.enjamin Strong, Amzi A. Sigler, J. K. Williams. 


The matter of organizing a Savings I'ank in Moiitdair liad lieen diseus.sed by Imsiness nu'n fur 
some two or three years before any active steps were taken. According to the minutes of the Bank : 

•' After informal consultation on the subject of establishing a Savings IJank in ^lontclair, N..1., 
the foUowinsr circular letter was addres.sed to a nundjcr of gentlemen of ^lontdair and vicinity: 

"Mo.\T(i..\ri{, N. J., September ,30, 1802. 

" Having carefully considered the advLsfibility of establishing a Savings Bank in ^Umtclair. we have 
reached the conclusion that the time has come to do so. The success of the two financial institutions now 
here, which has been much greater in both cases than was anticipated, has been tlic ]irin('i|ia] argument in 
favor of such a step. 

" Believing that your assistance upon the I'oard of Managers of such a Itank will be of great ad- 
vantage to it, voii are re<|nested to be pre.-ent, if you will consent to serve, at the rooms of the Montclair 
Building and Loan As<ociation, on Friday evening. ( )ctober 7, at S o'clock, to arrange ])reliniinaries. and 
sign the necessary certificate as a first step toward organization. 

"If you are willing to serve and cannot then be present, and will send word to that effect to Mr. 

(joodell, your name will be inserted in the ciTtiticatc. and a comniis.-ioner will call upon you to take your 


•■ Very truly yours, 

"Jasper R. Rand, Philip Doremus, Andrns It. Howe. Edward .Madixm. Hugh Gallagher, C. xVle.x- 
ander Cook, William II. Ketchuni, Joim R. Livermore, Charles I. lieeves, William Y. Bogle, 
.luhn S. Carlson, W. Lou Doremu.*, Edwin II. (Joodell. 

"In conformity with the re<piest contained in the above letter, the gentlemen addressed met on 
the evening of October 7, IS'Ji. at the rooms of the Montclair Building and Loan Association, and held 
an informal meeting. 

"At this meeting Mr. Edwin B. Goodell was requested and authorized to proceed to take all the 
neces.sary and legal steps rerpiired to procure the Certificate of Incorporation for The Montclair Savings 
Bank, and the Certiticate of iVuthority to open the said Bank for busines.s, and such other matters as 
might be required." 

According to the advertisement duly inserted in the Montclair Herald, November 3, 1892, the 
following named gentlemen composed the cfirporators of the Baid< : 

Jasper R. Hand, John K. Livermore, William H. Ketchum, William Y. Bogle, I. Seymour ('rane, 
Piiilip Doremus, Edward Madison, Andrus B. Howe, John S. Carlson, W. Louis Doremus, C. Alexander 
Cook, Hugh Gallatrher, Edwin B. Goodell, Charles I. Beeves, Charles II. Johnson, Jr., John J. II. Love, 
David F. Merritt, Charles W. Anderson, Thomas Kn.ssel!, Amzi A. Sigler, Stephen AV. Carey, 
Thomas W. Stephens, Daniel O. Eshbaugh, J. Edgar Williams, Samuel C. (i. Watkins, Cyrus B. Crane. 

The first meeting for organization was held January 9, 1893, at the room <jf the Montclair Build- 
ing and Loan Association, on Bloomfield .\ venue. It was then announced th<"t the necessary Certificate 
of Incorporation had been tiled with the State Banking Department at Trenton, and that the Certificate 

146 History of Montclair Towxsiiir. 

of Autliorization liail been du]y issued, and that the twenty six gentlemen wlin liad applied for a Savings 
T>auk in Montclair were now duly antliorized to oi'ganize the bank. 

At this meeting By-Laws were adopted, and the following officers were elected : 

President, riiilip Doremus ; Vice-President, Thomas AV. Ste])hens ; Secretary and Treasurer, II. 
D. Crane; Counsel, Edwin B. Goodell. 

An Executive Committee consisting of the following named gentlemen in addition to the ex-officio 
mendiers were elected : 

William Y. BoLde, David F. Merritt, Andrns B. Howe, John P. Livermore, Edwin B. Goodell. 

The bank was dnly opened for depositors March 15, 1893. At the close of the tirst year's business 
there were 985 accounts opened, and the amount due depositor.? was $125,229.41. 


]5loomfield Lodge, No. 40, F. & A. M., was organized in West Bloonifield as early as 1824, 
and the fact that the furniture of Chatham Lodge — then suspended — was obtained for the new Lodge, 
indicates that the former had previously existed in this locality. Tiie first communication was held 
July 24, 1824, in the hotel of Joseph Munn, on the corner of Church Street and Valley Poad. A 
dispensation was obtained from the M.'. W.". Grand Master, and the Lodge acted under this authority 
until the regular meeting of the Grand Lodge. The first officers elected were : Simeon Baldwin, AV. M. ; 
Daniel D. Beach, S. W. ; Joshua Smith, J. W. ; Ephraim P. Stiles, Secretary ; Zenas S. Crane, Treasurer ; 
Matthias Taylor, S. D. ; John Pobinson, J. I).; William I'rame, M. of C. ; and Linus Baldwin, Tyler. 

The names of the twenty-seven charter mend)ers show that they were mostly residents of this 
locality : Matthias Smith, D. D. Beach, John Robinson, Joshua Smith, Joiiathan Stephens, Linus 
Baldwin, Benjamin Peynolds, Matthias Taylor, Cln-istopher Gari'abrant, AVilliani Frame, .Tolm Munn, 
Thomas Speer, Jr., Simeon Baldwin, Zenas S. Crane, L. F. Lewis Mitchell, Josej)!! ]\hinn, Nathaniel H. 
Baldwin, John Aikins, Aaron Ballard, Robert Aikins, Peter Doremus, Thomas Ryland, William Young, 
John Moore, Hugh I5oggs, Henry Staidey. Ephraim P. Stiles. 

The Lodge was duly chartered by the Grand Lodge and the first regular connnunication was held 
September 15, 1824, when the officers named in the dispensation were installed by M.". AV.". Grand Master, 
Jeptha B. Munn. Among its members were many names familiar to the old lesidents of West Bloom- 
field. The Lodge contiuTied to flourish and increase in membership until the Anti-Masonic agitation 
(fostered and encouraged by politicians) of 1828-32, when hundreds of lodges all over the country 
surrendered their charters. The charter of Bloonifield Lodge was surrendered about this time, and 
ceased to exist for twenty eight years. On February 19, 185<^ it was resuscitated at Bloonifield, the 
old warrant being re-issued to them under the name of Bloon]field Lodge No. 40. The new officers were 
installed by Past Grand Master Jeptha B. Alunn, the same individual who, twenty-eight years previous — 
being then Grand Master of Masons of the State of New Jersey — had installed the original officers. 
This Lodge is still in a flourishing condition in I'loomfield. 

MoxTCLAiu Lodge No. 144, F. ct A. M., vras organized in 1875 and held its first connnunication 
under dispensation in Odd Fellows' Hall, October 25 of that year. The charter members were 11. W. 
Force, John P. Turner, A. P. Devoursney, Geo. R. Milligan, Edward E. Wright, Edgar T. Gould, S. D. 
Chittenden, Peter A. Tronson, Peter Speer, M. W. Smith, Charles Smith, F. H. Harris, Sanuiel 
Arbuthnot and Edmund Williams. 

At the annual connnunication of the Grand Lodge in the following Januai'v a charter was granted 
to Montclair Lodge and the Lodge was duly instituted P^ebruary 10, 1870, by R.*. W.-. Bro. J. C. Fitz- 
gerald, Grand S. W. The officers of the Lodge while under dispensation and during 187fi were H. W. 
Force, W. M. ; John P. Turner, S. W. ; A. P. Devoursney, J. W. ; E. E. Wright, Treasurer ; G. R. 
Milligan, Secretary; E. T. Gould, S. D. ; S. D. Chittenden, J. D. ; P. A. Tronson, M. of C. ; Peter 
Speer, Tyler. 

History of Montci.air Township. 147 

Officers, ISTT.— II. W. Force. W. M.: .1. 1". Turner. S. AV. ; A. P. Dovoursiiev. J. W. ; E. E. 
Wright,' Treasurer; W. L. Doremus, Secretary ; E. T. Goiil.l. S. 1).; T. F. Jacolm.s J. D. ; P. A. 
I'roiisiin ami R. D. Sargent, ^f. of C ; Peter Speer. Tyler. 

(hficers, 1878.— H. "\V. Force, W. M. ; P. A.' Tronson, S. W. ; G. \l. ^\\\\\gm. J. W. ; E. E. 
Wriglit, Treasurer; W. L. Doremn.«, Secretary ; E. T. Goukl, S. I). ; T. F. Jaeohus. J. I). ; J. L. Crone 
and J. McTagjjarr, il. of C. ; Peter Spcer, Tvler. 

Officers, 1S79.-II. W. Force, W. M. ; E. \). Hall, S. W. ; A. IJ. Howe. .1. W. ; E. E. Wriglit, 
Treasurer; J. P. Turner, Secretary; E. T. Goukl, S. I).; T. F. Jacobus, J. J).; J. McTaggart and 
(ico. A. Van Gieson, M. of V. ; Peter Speer, Tyler. 

Offico'K, 1S80— A. P.. Howe, W. M. ;"g. K. MiUigan. S. W.; Joseph E. Hinds. J. W. ; E. E. 
Wright, Treasurer; J. P. Turner, Secretary; E. T.Gould. S. I).; George W. Scherf. J. D. ; Peter 
Speer, Tyler. 

Officers, 18S1.— A. 1!. Howe, W. M. ; ti. K. .Milligan, S W. ; T. F. Jac.)l)us. J. W. ; E. E. 
\Vright, Treasurer; J. P. Turner, Secretary; \l. T. (iould, S. D. ; George Delong, J. D. ; J. McTaggart 
aiul Vaughn Darrcss, M. of G. ; C. H. Corhy. Tyler. 

Officers, 1882.— A. P. Howe, W. M. ; G. Pv. Milligan, S. W. ; E. T. (iould, J. \\ .; Cieorge 
Delong, Treasurer; J. P. Turner, Secretary; James H. Casey, S. ]). ; Vaughn Darres.s, J. D.; J. 
McTaggart and John Poole, Jr.. M. of C. ; John G. Treadwell. Chaplain ; C. H. Corhy, Tyler. 

Officers, 1883.— G. K.i[illigan, W. M.; C. W. Sandford, S. W.; W. L. Doremus, J. W.; George 
Delong, Treasurer; J. P. Turner, Secretary; James H. Ca.sey, S. D. ; Jolui Poole, J. D. ; T. Y. Jacobus 
and W. K. Courter, M. of C.; John G. Treadwell. Chaplain: C. H. Corby, Tyler. 

Officers, 1SS4.— C. W. Sandfor.I. W. if.; W. L. Doremus, S. W. : Vnuglm Darrcss. J. W. ; G. R. 
Milligan, Treasurer; J. P. Turner. Secretary; Poole. Jr., S. I).; Janie> II. Walsh, J. I).; C. W. 
English and A. G. Spencer. M. of C. ; John G. Treadwell. Cliajilain ; Peter Speer, Tyler. 

Officers. ISS.').— C. W. Sandford, W. M. ; C. W. English, S. W. ; A. G. Spencer, J. W. ; G. R. 
Milligan, Trea.surer; A. Fl Aeby, Secretary; I. N. Pudgers, S. D. ; E. E. Leach, J. D. ; G. B. Edwards 
and i'. D. Riker, M. of C. ; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain; T. F. Jacobus, Tyler. 

Officers, 1S80.— C. W. English. W. M; A. G. Spencer, S. W.; I. N. Rudgers, J. W.; G. R. 
Milligan, Treasurer; A. IJ. IL.we, Secretary; C. W. Sandford, S. D.; Elijah Pearce, J. D.; A. C. 
ililsinger and P. D. Riker, M. of C; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain ; T. F. Jacobus, Tyler. 

(fficers, 1887.— C. W. English, W. M.; I. X. Rudgers, S. W.; A. C. Hilsinger, J. W.; G. R. 
Milligan", Treasurer; A. B. Howe, Secretary; Elijah Pearce, S. D.; E. E. I.each, J. D.; W. II. 
liarcholomew and A. G. Spencer, M. of C; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain ; P. D. Riker, Tyler. 

Officers, 1888.- A. B. Howe, AV. JI.; G. R. ]V[illigan, S. W.; A. C. Hilsinger, J. W.; Wm. M. 
Ta\lor, Treasurer; F. W. Crane, Secretary; F. N. Class, S. D.; Theodore Siglcr, J. D.; T. F. Jacobus 
and A. (i. Spencer. M. of C; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain ; P. D. Riker, Tyler. 

Officers, 1889.— A. B. Howe, W. M.; G. R. Milligan. S. W.; W. L. Doremus, J. W.; Wm. M. 
Taylor, Treasurer; F. W. Crane, Secretary ; A. S. Badgley, S. D.; Theodore Sigler, J. D.; V. B. Sqnier 
and A. G. Spencer, M. of C; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain ; P. D. Riker, Tyler. 

Officers, 189U.— William M. Taylor, W. M.; Vaughn, S. W.; A. S. Badgley, J. W.; Wm. L. 
Doremus, Treasurer; F. W. Crane, Secretary; A. B. Howe, S. D.; Theodore Sigler, J. D.; Geoi-ge 
Delong and Elijah Pearce, M. of C; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain ; P. D. Riker, Tyler. 

Officers, 1891.— Alfred S. Badgley, W. AF.; II. F. Holloway, S. W.; Sanmel White. Jr.; J. W. 
Wm. L. Doremus. Treasurer; Clark Coo|)cr. Secretary ; A. 15. Howe, S. I).; P. F. Dur.^t, J. D.; G. R. 
Milligan and Elijah Pearce. il. of C; Joseph T. Farrington, Chaplain; P. D. Riker, Tyler. 

Officers, 1892.— Alfred S. Badgley. W. M.; 11. F. Holloway, S. W.; Ralph Marden, J. W.; Wm. 
L. Doremus. Treasurer ; Hugo Reid, Secretary ; C. W. McKcnvn. S. D.; F. W. Crane, J. D.; Elijah 
Pearce and I. X. Rudger.s, M. of C.; Joseph T. I'arrington, Chaplain ; P. D. Riker, Tyler. 

Officers, 1893.— Henry F. Holloway, W. M.: Ralph ilarden, S. W.: Hugo Reid, J. W.; Wm. L. 

J48 History of Montclair Township. 

Doremiis, Treasurer; C. W. McKowii, Secretary; A. B. Howe, S. D.; Elijali Pearce, J. I).; C. W. 
English and G. E. Millitjan, M. of C; John G. Treadwell, Cliaplain ; P. D. Eiker, Tyler. 

(Jlficers, 1894-.— iialpii ilarden, AV. M.; II. F. Ilolloway, S. W.; Eobert F. Green. J. W.; AViii. 
L. Doremus, Treasurer; 0. W. McKowii, Secretary; A. 1!. Howe, S. D.; A. 0. Eowland, J. D,; T. E. 
Taltavall and G. A. \'an Gieson, M. of ('.; John G. Treadwell, Chaplain ; P. U. Eiker, Tyler. 

Since its institution ]\[ontclair Lodge has received forty-five nieiubers by atfiliation and foi-ty by the 
conferring of degrees. It has lost nineteen by suspension for non-payment of dues, twelve by diniit, and 
nine by deatli. Tlie present menibershiji (.January 1, ISIH) is fifty-nine. 

I. O. O. F. 

Watchung Lod(;e, No. \?A, I.U.U.F., was instituted at Montclair, May i, ISOi). Its first otficers 
were : Melancthou W. Smith, N. G. ; John C. Woodruff, V. G. ; Edgar T. Gould, Eecording Secretary ; 
Warren S. Taylor, Permanent Secretary ; Edward E. AVright, Treasurer. 

The following persons have filled the position of N. G. since its yrganization : John H. Havden, 
^\. S. Taylor, M. Speer, H. M. Eomer, G. E. Milligan, E. T. Gould, ^^\ B. Jacobus, S. A. Gould, S. 
J. Gould,' Theo. T. King. A. E. Munn, E. B. Crane, E. B. Harris, C. F. Dunham, J no. H. Jacobus, E. 
D. Hall, M. AV. Sniitli," Geo. T. Bunten, John ]\Iurphy, E. B Harris, ^\. H. (iould, Frank Koegler, 
Warren S. Taylor, Ed. Grossman, Geo. AV. Poxall. David D. Murphy, M. W. Smith. E. M. Harrison," AV. 
H. Stagg, W. H. Delhagen, Peter Haring, Clark Cooper, J. F. Creamer, E. E. Ih-ooks, Frank McKenna, 
Thomas J. Courter. 

Total uundjer of mendjers since its organization, 174; deatlis, 7; present mendiership, 71. 


This Liidge was instituted February IS, 1891, by Past Grand Master AVorkman J. AY. Diefendorf, 
assisted by E. H. Colyer, P. M. AV"., Dr. Geo. AV. Potter, Medical Exanuner and Financier; J. H. Day, 
of Newark Lodge, No. 31, P. M. W.; C. Schlaeffer, of Elizabeth Lodge, No. 29 ; James E. Garrabrant, Mas- 
ter AVorkman, of AVest End, No. 48, and other visiting brethren. Twenty-six applicants had been ex- 
amined, and twenty had been approved and returned, which met the requirements of the Constitution to 
procure a charter. After the obligations liad been given, and the exemplification of the secret work, 
the following named officers were elected and installed for the ensuing term .- Past Master AVorkman, 
A. C. Studer; Master AVorkman, I. Newton Eudgers; Foreman, Stephen L. Purdy; Overseer, Amidee 
Tunison; Recorder, Clark Cooper; Financier, J. D. Keyler; Eeceiver, Charles AV. English ; Guide, 
Isaac A. Dodd ; G. W., Henry Wrensch, Sr. ; 0. AV., George Spencer. 

Timstees, one year, A. C. Ilortsch ; two years, T. AV. Crane; three years, Carl F. Fentzlaff. 

This is said to lie the oldest and largest beneficiary order in existence. 


Mendleton Lodge, No. 1620.— Meets first AVednesday in each month in Watchung Hall. 

Caiiiolic Knights of A&iEErcA, Beanch 42t!. — Organized 1886 ; meets second and fourth Monday 
of each month at Parocliial School. 

Ikish National Lkague. — Organized 1SS4 ; meets at time and place designated by President. 

Catholic Benevolent Legion, Father Steets' Council, No. S3. — Orgatiized 1S84; meets and third Monday of each month in AA^atchung Hall. 

Okdek of Chosen Friends, Morse Council, No. 4.5. — Meets first and thii-d Thursday, in Ilayden 
Building, 548 Bloomfield Avenue. 

Ancient Order of Hibernians. 

History of Montci.air Township. I4;i 

Knights of Hoxor, Moxtci.aik Lodgk, No. 263S. — Organized December 23, 1881. 

MoNTCLAiR Council, No. 4-21. Koyal Arcanum. — Organized IST'.I ; meets second and fonrtli 
Tuesday in each month, in Arcanum Ilall. Dorcmus Building. 

Ckystal LoiHiE, No. 2ii, (tood Tkmfl.vks. — Organized lS8t'>; meets every Monday evening in 
Pillsbury Building. 

^foNTCLAiK Building and Loan Association. — Meets iii-st Monday evening in each month, at 
4.j(> Bloomtield Avenue. 

Phil. Kearney Council, No. 35, National Pkovident Union. — Meets every second Monday in 
each month, in Odd Fellows' Hall. 


This organization was forced into existence hy contcmi)t for excise laws and violations of peace 
and good order on the part of local liijuor .sellers and their victims. It originated from a suggestion 
made in the inter-denominational New Year's prayer meeting of 1883. It took preliminary form in a 
meeting of citizens at the residence (if the late Samuel Wilde. January I'.i. 1883. Its Executive Com- 
mittee, composed of I). F. Merritt. Samuel Crumj), A. I'>. Howe, H. 15. Liftell and John J. Carolan. tirst 
met January 27, 1883, at the residence of D. F. Merritt. wlun Mr. Merritt was elected chairman ; Mr. 
Carolan, secretary; Mr. Howe, treasurer: and ^Ir. Crump and Mr. Littell, auditors. 

Tiie agreement which formed the foundatii)n of the general organization hears date of January I'J, 
1883, and shows the signatures of one hundred and twenty-one men, each of wiiom subscribed twenty-five 
dollars "to he used for the creation of a healthy public sentiment in relation to the use and sale of lii|uor, 
and to enforce existing laws in Montclair." This agreement, bearing the autographs of the one lunidied 
and twenty-one original members of the general conmiittee, is safely preserved among the documents of 
the organization. 

Montclair has always been an exceptionally tcmjierate, (juiet and order-loving town. Many places 
would have tolerated or ignored the conditions which led to the Citizens' Committee. Indeed, the 
organization ha-s always been defensive, and, as commnnities go, its formation was in large part anticipatory 
and much of its work has been preventive. Yet the report made by tiie Executive Connnittee in ISSO, 
discussing the need for the general Itody at the time of its formation, recites that '' a period had been 
reached when the question had to be determined whether, as in the large cities of the country, the li(pior 
interest should be allowed to dominate, or whether its capacity for evil to the community should be 
diminished to the lowest p(jssible point." Saloons, licensed and unlicensed, were increasing in number 
annually, their work of physical death, moral degradation and civic demoralization was assuming 
cinnulatively dangerous pro])ortions ami was menacing the highest interests of the entire community. 

To meet these conditions, and, as far as possible, neutralize the dangers embodied in them, the 
Citizens' Committee began active work in the courts to prevent the granting of new licenses to liquor 
sellers and to secure enforcement of the li(pi(jr laws, and it iiecame at once potential in educating and 
stimulating public opinion. The n(jtable total al)stinence meetings conducted in the winter of 18S3, 
by Messrs. Maybee and English, were morally and financially aided by the Committee, and these resulted 
in a genuine and earnest revival of interest in temperance and abstinence, as well as in the securing of 
many hundreds of names to the total abstinence pledge. 

The Citizens' Committee has never been a so called temperance society. It has been and is non- 
partisan, and it includes women and men of all shades of opinion as to the general question of the use 
and abuse of liquor and of its relations to the individual and to the connnunity. These people tind a 
common working platform in the following practical and inclusive declaration of their objectives : 

First. — To protect the connnunity, as far as possible, from the evils growing out of the excessive 
nse and the unre.stricted sale of intoxicating liquors, by insisting upon a strict observance of the law 
under of which the business in intoxicants is carried on. 

150 History of Montclair Township. 


Second. — To secure the piiiiisliuu'iit of licjuor dealers wlio violate the law, especially those wl 
make their j)laces resorts for gaiiililiiiii- and other vicious practices, who sell licpKir to children, and who 
persist in carrying on this I)usiuess, directly or indirectly, on Sundays. 

Third. — To use every moral and legal effort not only to prevent the ojiening of new saloons, hut 
to diminish the nuniher of those already in existence. 

Along these lines the Citizens' Committee has done an excellent and effective work for eleven 
years, although, because of hindrances little understood by the public, the things accomplished are not at 
all what even the workers themselves would like, yet, at this writing, while the jiopulation of the town 
has grown almost three-fold since 1SS2, the number of liquor sellers has increased but about 20 per cent., 
the community has been kept and remains exceptionally free from liquor selling evils, such as prevail 
where no restraint hampers and regulates the trafKc. 

Early in 1SS9, the Executive Committee was enlarged from five to twelve members, and subse- 
quently the number was increased to fifteen. D. F. Merritt served as Chairman from the date of 
organizatiiin until October, 1SS7; Samuel Crump thenceforward until May, 1891; then A. II. Siegfried 
until October, 1S93. The Secretaries have been John J. Carolan, E. P. Benedict, Thomas Hughes, 
C. S. Olcott and Joseph Ilellen. A. B. Howe has served as Treasurer throughout the life of the 
organization. The current organization is as follows: Charles D. Thompson, Chairman ; AVm. Winslow 
Ames, Secretary; A. B. Howe, Treasurer; John K. Howard, Tlmmas Kussell, Isaac Deidjy, C. II. 
Johnson, Jr., E. P. Benedict, A. 11. Siegfried, D. F. Merritt, A. A. Sigler, John II. Parsons, C. I. 
Reeves, R. M. Boyd, Jr., Joseph Hellen. 


The adoption of the "Short Law" by a large majority of the citizens of Montclair — alluded to 
in a previous chapter — was the means of arousing public sentiment in favor of a non-partisan govern- 
ment, which should contain the best elements of each political party, unbiased and uninfluenced l)y party 

The restriction of the sale of intoxicating liquors, and the prevention of a trolley road from 
passing through the principal streets of the town, were questions that agitated the public mind and led 
to the organization of a non-partisan Club having these ends in view. 

A meeting for this purpose was held at Henderson Hall on Saturday evening, March 17, lS9-i. 

It was called to order by Rev. A. H. Bradford, D.D., of the First Congregational Church, 
a staunch republican. After briefly but earnestly stating the object of the meeting — the formation 
of a non-partisan organization to work for sound morality and clean business administration of the 
affairs of the town — he nominated as Chairman Rev. F. T. Gates, who has lived in the town a year or so, 
a Baptist, and a man who, as the business agent of Mr. J. D. Rockafeller, had been in charge of the 
erection of the great buildings for the new LTniversity of Ciiicago. 

Mr. Gates, in his few words on taking the chair, announced himself as a life-long re|niblican, and 
then gave some admirable reasons for a non-partisan government of any town or citj', and the divorce of 
its business matters from Federal party politics. Mr. Robert M. Boyd, Jr., was elected Secretary, a man 
independent in national politics, who has always voted the republican ticket in town matters. 

For a basis of action, Mr. John R. Howard, independent, otfered the following short Constitution, 
which he described as enough of a skeleton to be invested with flesh and blood and vital organs; a 
charter specific enough and broad enough for all good purj)oses : 

I. — The name of this Association shall be the "Good Government Club of Montclair, New 

II. — Its object is stated in its name, and its function shall 1)0 to do whatever its members think 
lielpful in gaining that object, especially in the direction of a non-partisan business administration of the 
affairs of the town. 

History of Montci.air Towxsiiir. 151 

HI. — Its officers shall be a President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who, besides doing the ordinary 
duties of such officers, shall, with an Executive Committee of eight other members of the Chib, manage 
the affairs of the Association under tlie general direction of the Club. 

lY. — The officers and Executive Committee shall be elected annually, at tiie regular annual 
meeting to be held on the first Saturday evening of March in each year. 

V. — The annual dues shall be one dollar, payable the first year on joining the Club, and thereafter 
on or before the evening of the annual meeting. 

VI. — Any person is eligil>le to membership who sympathizes with the object of the Club. Ail 
:il)plications shall be made to the Secretary of the Club and passed upon by the Executive Committee; 
all members are entitled to vote who have paid tiicir dues; no member is bound in his individual action 
by any general action of the Club, l)nt all will be expected to acquiesce in such action and work for the 
aims of the Club. 

With the exception of changing the date of annual meeting from the third to the first Saturday 
evening of March, in each year, the Cuiistitntioii was adopted as a provisioiuil charter. 

A committee of three, Messrs. J. K. J-iverraore, democrat, Charles D. Thompson, republican, 
and J. A. Tiicliards, prohibitionist, were appointed to numinati' a committee of five on permanent 
organization and policy. The tKiminees were Kcv. Dr. Ijradfurd, republican, ('. S. (Jleott, republican, 
Paul Wilcox, democrat, J. II. Howard, independent, and A. D. French, republican. Dr. Bradford 
declined the work, not, he said, because he was not in fullest sympathy with it, Imt because it would bo 
a physical impossibility for him to attend to its liuties. The meeting then by unanimous vote appointed 
Mr. Charles D. Thompson in Dr. Biadford's place, overbearing Mr. Thompson's earnest protest; and the 
Committee was duly completed. 

This Committee was instructed to confer in advance with the leaders of the several political parties 
concerning the probable nominees in the respective wards; to ascertain the views of candidates as to their 
position on the subject of granting lirpior licenses and restricting the li(pior traffic by ordinance and 
otherwise; and to report nominations in |)lace of candidates by them deemed objectionable. The 
Committee were also directed to report at the adjourned meeting, which should be called for Satui-day 
evening, March 24, or earlier, if in tiieir discretion it should be deemed necessary. Further, the Com- 
mittee were given power to add to their number, and directed to report a plan of pernuinent organization. 

At the adjourned meeting held JIarch 24, a plan of ])ermanent organization was ailopted and 
the following officials elected to serve for the first year : 

President, F.T.Gates; Secretary, Starr J. Murpliy ; Treasurer. Edward F. Myers. Executive 
Committee: First Ward. <t. S. Jellerson and Howard .\yres; Second Ward, Ciias. S. Olcott and Paul 
Wilcox; Third Ward, John K. Howard and Richard P. Francis; Fourth Ward, W. 1. Lincoln Adams and 
Peter Larsen. 


The Children's Home, established hi 1881, was the first, and until very recently continued to be the 
onlv. institution of a charitable nature in Montclair. 

The so-called ••fresh air" movement, which had begun its remarkable course about two years ])re- 
viously, under the leadership of the Rev. Willard Parsons, had brought to many people a fuller compre- 
hension of the woes and needs of the little children of the poor than they had hitherto had ; and the 
desiraljleness of a temporary refuge in the country for delicate and convalescent children liad been dis- 
cussed among them. It remained, however, for the Rev. Dr. A. H. Bradford to evolve from idle wishes and 
unfruitful sympathy a practical working force and direct it in the proper channel, and he can truthfully 
be called the founder of the Home. 

On the first day of July. 18^1. he convened at his house certain women connected with the several 
churches of Montclair, who were nut actively engaged in other philanthropic work, presented the case to 
them, and asked their concurrence in his iihuis. 


History of Montclair Township. 

The names of these women wlio shared with him the first laborious efforts of the imdertakinL', and 
who, like himself, are ])erpetnal honorary members of the Board of Managers, are as follows, viz. : 

Mrs. Lewis Benedict, Mrs. Edward G. Bnrgess, Mrs. Sarah J. Churchill, Mrs. Henry A. Dike, Miss 
M. Elizabeth Habbertou, Mrs. John R. Livermore, Mrs. O. P. Meacham, Mrs. Jasper E. Rand, Mrs. 
Samuel W. Tubbs, Miss RachelYan Yleek, Mrs. Augustus White. 

Acting on the principle that '' if 'twere well 'twere done, "twere well 'twere done (jnicklv," the 
house owned by Mrs. Dr. Clark, at the corner of Plynnnith Street and the Valley Eoad, was immediately 
hired, and in nine days, having been, meanwhile, comfortably furnished, provisioned, and provided with 
a competent matron, and with a financial backing sutficient to insure its continuance, it was thrown open 
for its first quota of guests assigned it by the Rev. Mr. Parsons. The nnmljer received during the ensuing 
summer reached a total of one hundred and twenty, the greater number remaining two weeks. 

The prompt response of the townspeople to personal appeals for help, and the spontaneous sym- 
pathy of many, soon made it evident that the scheme was not unwelcome; not a day passed but some 
friendly hand left at the Home its gift of food or clothing or fiowers : 

Each gave in his own way; the little boy bringing his wagon tilled with books and toys ; the 
butcher sending meat; the grocer, household supplies; housekeepers, bread from tlieir own kitchens ; the 

printer giving his work; 
many, their time; some, 
comfort and a cheering 

During this early time, 
pressing duties demanded 
Habherton was well-nigh 
dertaking. A teacher by 
profession, she possessed 
locks the hearts of chil- 
ready sympathy did mucli 
forlorn little guests, and 
meaning of the sacred 

Much credit is likewise 
Miss JaneThompson. She 
under discouraging cir- 
even rule, together with 
her character, could not 

OLli ia"ILl>l> 

nil l<KE.N S HOME. 

the doctor, his services; 
money; others, words of 

and afterward until more 
her entire attention. Miss 
the mainspring of the un- 
liirth and an educator hy 
the golden key which un- 
dreii, and her tact and 
to cheer the lives of the 
make them realize the 
name of Home. 
due to the first matron, 
was a model housekeeper 
cumstances, and her firm, 
the sturdy upriglitness of 
but influence in the best 

maimer those under her sway; while the Managers felt that they could safely rely upon the wisdom of 
her judi;ment. When the coming of autumn made this particular form of charity no longer necessary, 
the concensus of opinion among those most directly interested was in favor of continuing the Home 
as a permanent alwde, wdiere children would have the benefit of continuous care and instruction. 

Con.sequently, the Children's Home xissociation was organized in October, ISSl, by constituting 
all persons who had contributed five dollars to the support of the Home memliers of the Association. At 
the same time, a constitution was adopted, a Board of Managers chosen, and it was decided to petition 
the Legislature of New Jersey for articles of incorpoiation as a permanent institution to whose benefits 
•'children of both sexes under twelve years of age, in needy circumstances or deprived of one or lioth of 
their natural protectors, by death or otherwise, nnght, at the discretion of the Managers, be adnntted." 
The first Board of Managers comprised the following names: Mrs. O. P. Meacham, President; Mrs. 
John R. Livermore, Vice-President; MissM. E. Habberton, Secretary; Mrs. Jasper R. Rand, Treasurer; 
Mrs. Henry A. Dike, Mrs. Lewis Benedict, Mrs. Mary E. Morrison, Mrs. Shepherd Rowland, IMrs. 
Samuel W. Tubbs, Mrs. Edward G. Burgess, Miss Rachel Van Vleck, Miss Harriet J. Cooper, Mrs. 
George AV. Lord, Mrs. Samuel Porter, Mrs. George H. Mills, Mrs. James II. Ogilvie, Mrs. E. E. S. 
Haiighwaut, Mrs. D. F. Merritt. 

History of Montclair Township. 


Advisory Boaril. — Mr. William J. Tlntchinson, Mr. Charles I. Reeves, Mr. Samuel Crump, Mr. 
"Wallace TV. Eijltert, ^Fr. Dormaii T. "Warren. ^Fr. "William T. -Jones, Mr. George 11. ^[ills ; Matron, 
Miss Jane Tliunipsoii. 

The certificate of incorporation beai-s date October 3, 18S2. Dnring the same fiscal j-ear the Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Meacham, severed her connection with the Home and removed from Montclair. The annual 
report of that date characterizes her as "one of the most earnest and ettieient workers, the memory of 
whose faitliful service and co-operation in all details of the Home work will long he gratefully cherished." 

In ifay of 1>^>>.'1 Mrs. Henry A. Dike was elected to the Presidency — a position which she held 
four years and until failing healtii and domestic calamity forced lier to al>a!idon the work she loved and 
for the performance of which she was peculiarly fitted. 

To one intimately acquainted with Mrs. Dike no words coidd do justice to her lovely character; 
and to one who did not know her, no words could convey an adequate idea of the sweet strength, 
intellectiud poise and rare " common '" blended in her personality. To the service of the Home 
she brought ripe culture, a trained judgment and (juick insight into jieople and affairs; wliiie her social 
influence secured it wide supiimt and her gracious atTaI)ility di.sarmcd hostile criticism. 

"^ U-W'^^ 


During her administration the financial standing of the Home was sufliciently assiired to warrant 
the ])urc]iase of a house and three acres of lainl on (iatcs Avenue. 

The was enlarged under the gratuitous .supervision of Mr. 11. llud-du Ilnlly, ami, as far as 
could be, ada])ted to the requirements of its new occupants, who. in 1S80, took possession of it. In tiio 
.same year a reorgani/.aticm of the ass(«Matinn was effected whereby its scope was enlarged and all the 
privileges of Orphan .\sylums secured to it. including the adoption and indenturing of children having 
no other guardian. 

In common witii every institution depending upon voluntary contributions for support the Home 
has not escaped periods of depression and discouragement, but at the present time it is prospering in its 
work and is liberally sustained. The extreme generosity of ^Irs. Oeorge Inness, Jr., a former manager, 
has made it possible to erect a new and commodious building skillfully contrived for the special 
requirements of its family of thirty-five children, particularly for the isolation of the sick. 

The substantial structure now in process of erection is half timljered, the lower story being of 
dressed brownstone, and to be an architectural ornament to the town. 

154 History of Montclair Township. 

As was to be expected in the passage of time, the personnel of tlie I'oard of ^fanagers has 
undergone many changes. Some of tlie l)est known and most influential women of Montclair have 
served upon it for varying periods ; but only two of the original members — Mrs. Shepherd Eowland and 
]\riss Harriet J. Cooper — liave i-emained continuously to the present time. Its first great loss by death 
was that of Mrs. Samuel Porter — a woman zealous in all good works, but finding here a special field for 
her love and energy: a crayon portrait of her bright face adorns the parlor of the Home, recalling sunny 
memories and commemorating a great misfortune. Mrs. Dike was the next to be called ; and although 
her active participation in its affairs had terminated some time before, her helpful interest continued to 
the last. Mrs. Porter's bequest of $1,000 was the first large gift to the Home and was followed by a 
bequest of $3,000 from Mrs. Dike.* In the year just passed, still another most lovable woman and 
faithful worker, Mrs. Charles II. Benedict, has obeyed the sunnnons to "Come up higher." Hers was a 
nature that "made sunshine in a shady place," and no one associated with her will ever forget her 
unfailing kindliness. 

" The good the)- planned to do 

Shall stand as if 't were done. 
God finishes the work 

By noble hands begun." 

At the present time the Home is under the able management of the following nanied individuals: 

President, Mrs. Stephen W. Carey; Vice-President, Mrs. Decatni- ^I. Sawyer; Secretary, Mrs. 
Wilson W. Smith ; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Benjamin W. Graham ; Treasurer, ^Irs. F. J. Drescher ; 
Mrs. She])herd Eowland, Mrs. AVilliam IT. Power, Mrs. M. F. Heading, Mrs. Thomas Gladding, Mrs. 
Amory H. Bradford, Miss Harriet J. Cooper, Mrs. Harry Littlejolin, Mrs. J. Soutter Porter, Mrs. Edwin 
P. Benedict, Mrs. James S. Brown, Mrs. G. D. Finlay, Mrs. William L. Gnillaudeu, Mrs. Wallace W. 
Egbert, Mrs. John Wilts, Mrs. John AVeeks, Mrs. William Miller, Mrs. Franklin W. Dorman. 

Advisory Board. — Mr. C. D. Anderson, Mr. Paul Babcock, Mr. C. D. Thompson, Mr. Charles 
Burgess, Mr. George P. Farmer. 

The spirit in which the Home was conceived and the high ideal which has ever been kept in view 
are indicated by the following extracts taken, almost at random, from the published annual re])orts : 

"Without disparaging other forms of Christian endeavor nothing can have more forcible claims 
upon our attention than the neglected youth of our own vicinity. ' What shall we do with the children V 
is an anxious question equally to the philanthroiiist and civil economist ; it knocks at the doors of our 
responsibility with an urgency that will nut be denied and must be met by every one who regards the 
common weal which these boys and girls, soon to Ije men and women, can tio much to promote or impede. 

"To the childi-en gathered here the institution is indeed tiieir Home; and it is the earnest endeavor 
of its managers to make it represent all that a modd home should be. Not oidy liave the children been 
well-cared for, physically, as their healthy and neat appearance at church, on the street, and in the public 
schools plainly testifies, but they have acquired habits of punctuality, industry, self-dependence and 
mutual forbearance, which are invaluable in any station ; while the lessons inculcated in the princij^les of 
Christianity and respect for sacred things cannot fail to be a gtiide and defence to them in times of doubt 
and temptation. 

"Whenever practicable, a small sum is charged for board, but inaliility to pay is not allowed to 
militate against the admission of any child whose needs are pressing. Neither is any one i-ejccted because 
of unworthy parentage, for, say what we may, many things have been decided for us at birth, and it is 
not to every one that the qualities which insure success are given. Incompetency and thriftlessness in 
the parents are disorders to be carefully eradicated from the cliildren by conijielliiig patient continuance 
in well-doing until diligence and tliDroughness become second nature. Strong as are hereditary tendencies 
they often yield to the stronger agencies of education and environment. 

* In 1H87 a g^'^t of $1,000 was received from the Misses Charlotte L. and Josephine WiUon, of Orange, in memory ot their parents, who lived 
many years in Montclair. 

History of Montci.air Township. 


"The eliildreii iimlcr our care are gatliered fnmi homes desolated by death or intemperance, and 
while thev are chietly orphans, it must not he forgotten that there is a worse orphanage than that of 
death, and that children may he orphaned in the saddest sense, though both their parents are living.'' 

The Cidldren's Home is the emhoiiiment of the principle of modifying wrong tendencies and 
preventing future evil. It seeks earnestly to do its share toward the solution of current social problems ; 
it labors not only to promote a higher intelligence but to instill useful honselmld and hygienic knowledge ; 
to form habits of personal purity, industry and obedience to authority. 

Mrs. Samdkl M. Porter. — At a special meeting of the Jjoard of Managers of the Children's 
Home, held in memory of ^frs. Sannicl ^J. Porter, on Wednesday. May 21, 1S84, the President made the 
following remarks: 

'* We are met here to-day to speak a few words of love for our diai- friend and co-laborer, Mrs. 
Porter, and to put o!i record our sense of our 

trreatloss, our sorrow for ^^^^^^B ourselves, and our deep 

sympathy for those who ^^^L were nearest and dearest 

to her. And when that ^^^^^ "V is done, all that we can 

do for our dear friend is ^^^^L \y done, and we must take 

up our daily life, and ^^^^B \ tlie work of tliis Home, 

and goon without her. ^^^^^m ,>^^^^% ^ \ " We eaimot trust our- 

say how much ^^^^^^B ^^^^BB^^ \ ''<^ missed. The 

labor which she ^^^^^^H ^^^^BB^ \\ 

Time and ^^^^^^H ^^^ ^^i^Vl »\ 

given when most of ^^^^^^^B wa ^JR'^ V '^^'*'ii'<l ''=>^'^ ^^''*^ t''^^*^ 

we were excused from f^^^^^^^^B ^~^ V^I^VK I t^^'^k. And to tiiis 

labor was added the ^^^^^^H ^^^^^llNTr^^ ll """''^ skillful ]>lanning 

and forethought and a ■ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^aMi»<|i^ ll most loving iiilluence 

overall. To know what ^^^^f jl^^^lK^t*' /// '' P'^^^'^'' ^^"^ ^^^'^ i" ^''i^ 

Home we have only to •^F^^^^^^R!^ m /■ I't^'Hit'ndjer the faces of 

the children when Mrs. ^9^^111^^ 11 §' l'<J'"ter came. 

■• f?hall we ever for-a-t /^B^^' i / her presence here Sun- 

day afternoons, or cease " ^^^T^ / to hear her cheery, ener- 

getic, eucourajjing tones / as she led or directed 

the cliildren ^ / '■ Brightness, ch eer, 

i(.ve and untiring help- fulness were her strong- 

est c h a ra ct eri st ics. -Sweetness and light' 

niarke<l every step of her wav'. 

■' l!ut our great loss, great as it is, sinks almost 

out of siirht in comiwri- son with the loss which 

'^ , ' MRS. SAMIFI. M. PORTKR. Ill, i • i 

those ot her own house- Ji o 1 d liave sustained. 

Yet we must believe that (iod has purposes of love toward them, and tluit in some way, which we cannot 
see, He will make even this, which seems to us an irreparable loss, a source of blessing. 

"We said that we could do no more for Mrs. Porter. But her influence over us will always remain. 
We >liall keep her in our hearts, and we shall remember forever the love, the unselfishness, the wonderful 
lirightness and cheer, tlie readiness with which she divined and ministered to every one's need, and the 
loving outpouring of her life. 

"Such a memory can but lead us t(j strive, each in her own way, to catch the spirit of that life 
and graft it upon her own." 

The following preamlde and resolutions were then oU'ered and adopted : 

" Whereas, It has seemed right to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe to remove from us by death our sister 
associate, Mrs. Mary Treadwell Porter, and while we submit to the decree of Him who doth not willingly afflict, it is with 
hearts chastened by grief over the loss of a dear friend and beloved associate; and 


History of Montci.air Township. 

" ]]'/iereas. We lament her death, not only as a valued member of society and a cherished friend and neighbor, 
but especially as a co-laborer in the management of the Children's Home, in which she engaged earnestly, assiduously 
and hopefully, and in every department of which we shall continually miss her guiding and helping hand; be it therefore 

" Resolved, That we extend our heartfelt sympathy to the family so sadly bereaved, and prayerfully commend 
them to the loving care of that Friend who is ' a refuge in every trouble, and a very present help in time of need.' 

" Resolved, That these resolutions be entered upon our records, and a copy of the same transmitted to the family 
of the deceased." 

Tlie Annual Keport of the Association for 1884 contains tiie following in relation to Mrs. Porter's 
connection with the institution : 

"Possessed of dauntless energy of character, unusual executive talent and public sj)irit, Mrs. Samuel 
Porter was engaged in many and various enterprises, and her loss will he keenly felt in divers directions 

and by many people. 

dividual friendshijis 

is our personal grief 

severed, it is in our 

of an association, in 

laliorers, that we are 

place. As a manager 

from the beginning, 

identical with her 

fatigue where its jiros- 

aud her sanguine tem- 

spirit lightened and 

the entire Board. 

shine she was always 

every child in the 

child knew lier and 

was their sympathy 

Sunday afternoon 

her smile flashed its 

instantly understood 

As a member of the 

tee, and Chairman of 

niittee, her labors 

but what higher 

her, or anyone, than 

to evei'v trust. 

midst of life and its 

has fallen from her hands, and ' with no 

slow gradations of decay,' she has passed on through the Beautiful Gate into eternal life ; and the rich 

voice that has so long led the children's hynms of praise has gone to swell a nobler chorus in the wider 

air of Heaven * * * " *." 

The lieautifnl traits of character that adorned tlie life of Mrs. Porter were due not oidy to 
careful training and early environment, but she inherited from her ancestors — who were among the 
most notable men in New England — that strong religious sentiment and earnest desire to d(.) good that 
controlled all her actions and led her continually to seek the hap})iness of others regardless of herself. 

Mrs. Porter was born in New York City, March 23, 1847. Her maiden name was Mary T. 
Treadwell ; she was the daughter of John G. Treadwell. 

Mrs. Porter was educated at the Albany Female Academy, and was gi'aduated June 19, 1S66. 
She was married, March 28, 1871, to Samuel M. Porter, youngest brother of Nathan and Thomas Porter 

Warm as were our in- 
for her, and deep as 
over ties so abruptly 
ca]iacity as members 
wliicli we were joint 
to consider her in this 
of the Home, almost 
she made its interests 
own. She knew no 
]ierity was concerned, 
jierainent and joyous 
cheered the labors of 

" In storm and sun- 
at herp(:>st. She knew 
Ibime, and every 
loved her. So close 
with her that, in their 
singing, her glance or 
intelligence and was 
and obeyed l>y them. 
Executive Commit- 
the "Wardrobe Corn- 
have been incessant; 
praise can we accord 
that she was faithful 

" Suddenly, in the 
activities, the work 

History ok Montci.air Township. 157 

(see liistory of Porter Family i atid a nieiuhcr of tlie tiriii of Porter Pros, tfe Co., inercliaut.s, of New York 
City. Mrs. Porter resided in Xew York for some years after her husband's death. March 10, 1876. Desir- 
ing to be near the home of her Iiusband's brothers she removed to Montehiir in tlie spring of 1S79, and built 
the residence Xo. 20 Harrison Avenue, now occujiicd by lier fatiier and her ciiihh'en. She left two 
cliildren — Bertha Treadwell and Charles Willson. 


The necessity for a ])ul)lic hospital in this locality was brouglit about by an incident wliicli occnricd 
in the summer of l^'M), the jiartieulars of which are given in tlie Secretary's rejiort of tlie Asst)ciatioii : 

" A lady driving thrnugh tlie streets of Montclair one day, during the summer of lS!1(t, saw a little 
child fall from a tliii-d story window to the flagged pavement below. Her syni])athies being aroused, she 
stopped to iiKjnire int(j the condition of the little one. The child was seriously injured and needed pi'onipt 
attention. Her heart ached to see him, bleeding and unconscious, placi-d in a grocery wagon and carried 
away, and on her way home the question uppermost in her mino was : Why, when there is so much of 
c(»mfort and plenty in our town, is there not a place provided to which those suffering from accident or 
sickness, and who are unable to secure proper treatment in their homes, can be carried ( The thought 
began immediately to take shape. Her heart warmed more and more on the subject, until she was com- 
]iclled to enlist the interest of her friends, which resulted in a meeting called to consider the establish- 
ment of a HoS|iital in Montclair, held at the residence of Mrs. ])enby, on Mountain Avenue, June 10, ISDO." 

There were sixteen ])ersons present, twelve ladies am] four gentlemen. Di-. Francis was appointed 
Cliairman, and, after considerable discussion, the Rev. Dr. Bradford offered the following 

Uciohitlon : " That in our (i|)inion the time has come when some movement should be made looking 
toward the establishment of a hospital in our midst." 

The resolution was adopted and a committee appointed, to report a j)]an of organization, etc., whieli 
was done, and action taken in accordance therewith. At a subsecpient meeting a Board of Governors was 
appointed, consisting of twelve ladies from Montclair, eight from Bloomtield, four from Glen Bidge, and 
three from Caldwell. H was decided at this meeting that the Association should l>u known as the 
Mountain-side Hospital Association. 

The Association was regularly incorporated under and in ])ursuance of a certain act of the Legis- 
lature of the State of New Jersey, entitled •■ .\n .\it to provide for the incorporation of Associations 
for the erection and maintenance of Hos])itals. Intirmaiies. ()r])hanages. Asylums, arid other Charitable 
Institutions," approved March idnth, A. D. eighteen hundred and seventy-s-even, and the several .-upple- 
ments thereto. The following named Governors were appointed to manage its affairs for the first year: 

Nannie C. Fellowes. Justine Friend Porter. Jane F. Dodd, Margaret Jane Power, Marie Hey- 
burn Marshall, Mary E. Giliici't Wliite, Mary Cliai)iii Marcus, Harriet H. Duthcld. Sarah P. AVyman, 
Irene E. Huestis, Ida R. Condit, Anna C. Duncan, Grace H. Upson, Martha C. Gallaglier, Virginia 
Bioven Harrison, Sarah J. Bird. Kate P.. Dalrymple, Harriet A. Bailey, P^liza Bowden, Caroline D. 
Crane, Susan C. Stout, Salome G. Howell, Malinda N. \'au \'leck, C. Victoria Reynal, Kebecca M. 
Dodd, Adeline T. Strong and Anna S. Berry. 

A cottage situated on Bay Street (the dividing line between Bloomtield and Montclair), was rented, 
a small addition made to it, and the hospital wiis formally opened on June 2(1, 1S'.)1. The medical staff 
consists of Dr. John J. H. Love. Dr. James S. Brown, Dr. Chas. H. I'ailey, Dr. Richard P. Francis, Dr. 
Riclianl C. Xewton, Dr. Edwin M. AVard, Dr. Wm. II. White, Dr. II, "l!. Whitchornc; Dr. John W. 
Pinkham, Consulting Physician ; Dr. Henry Power, Pathologist. 

During the first four months (to October is, lS'.tl)of its existence thii-ty-eight patients were treated. 
From October 18, 1891, to October 1, 1892, 125 new patients were admitted, and from October 1, 1892, 
to October 1, 1893, 156 new patients were admitted to its wards. R. G. Reed, a graduate of Bellevuc Hos])ital Training School, was ai)p<jinted Matron in Sep- 
tcudicr, 1M)1, and still serves in that cajjacity. 

158 History of Montclair Township. 

In Marcli, 1891, the liuanl of Governors ]iureliased a small tract of land near tlie cottage, which 
they used for a year and a half, and during the winter of 1892 and 1893 erected thereon a building +6 by 
45 feet, four stories high, containing 18 rooms and a woman's ward for 10 beds, a men's ward for 10 beds, 
a maternity \vard containing three beds, and an isolation ward with two beds, all connected by covered 
corridors eight feet wide. Bathrooms, nurses' rooms and pantries are provided in addition to the above 
specified rooms. The total capacity is: Men's ward, 10 beds; women's ward, 10 beds; children's ward, 6 
beds ; matei-nity ward, 3 beds ; private wards, 5 l)eds ; isolation ward, 2 beds ; total, 3C> beds. 

The total cost for land, building, furniture and permanent improvements to date has been $19,7-17.19. 

In connection with the hospital a training school for nurses has been established, in which nurses 
are taught how to act in the various emergencies occurring in hospital and private nur.-ing. as well as in 
the accidents of ordinary life. There is a systematic course of training in cookery for the sick, the serv- 
ing of food and delicacies in a ])r()pL'r manner, and the feeding of helpless patients or those who resist 
food. The course of training includes a fixed course of instruction during two years from manuals and 
text-books, lectures and demonstrations. Eight nurses are now taking this course. 

The Board of Lady Governors are all actively interested in the work, giving, through their various 
comniittecs, much time and attention to the necessary duties. The funds for this work are all donated by 
I'esidents of the several towns included in the territory from which the hospital draws its inmates. 

The following is the list of the Governors, Officers and Advisory Board : 

Officers. — President, Mrs. Benjamin Strong; Vice-President, Mrs. Anizi Dodd ; Becording Secre- 
tary, Mrs. AVm. M. White ; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Elizabeth P. Freeman ; Treasui-er, Mrs. W. 
H. Power ; Matron, Miss K. G. Keed. 

Board of Governors. — Term expires 1894: Mrs. Amzi Dodd, Miss Kate Dalrymple, Miss M. C. 
Gallagher, Mrs. Wm. H. Power, Mrs. Benjamin Strong, Mrs. Wm. H. Wliite, Mrs. A. F. Brown, Mrs. 
llobt. S. Rudd, Mrs. James Gallagher, Mrs. John Van Winkle. Term expires 1895: Mrs. Anthony 
Bowden, Mrs. D. D. Duncan, Mrs. AVm. Fellowes, Mrs. Chas. F. Harriscm, Mrs. Lewis G. Lockward, Mrs. 
H. R. Norris, Mrs. Josejih Van Vleck, Mrs. AVm. F. Upson, Mrs. Chas. 11. Iluestis, Miss Eulalie A^an 
Leunep. Term expires 1890: Mrs. Chas. II. Bailey, Mrs. Chas. T. Dodd, Mrs. Geo. S. Porter, IVLrs. G. 
Lee Stout, Mrs. Josiah Decker, Mrs. Silas Stuart, Miss Margaret S. Jarvie, Miss Elizabeth P. Freeman, 
Mrs. II. C. Newton, Mrs. AV. S. S. Hamilton. 

Advisory Board.— Mr. AVm. II. Power, Mr. Paul Wilcox, Mr. R. S. Rudd, Air. Chas. D. 
Thompson, Mr. Amzi Dodd, Air. G. Lee Stout, Mr. Y. Merriara Wheeler. 

In 1S91 a suitable lot was purchased on Highland Avenue and Sherwood Street, but it was 
deemed advisable to defer the matter of Iniildiug for another year. In the meantime the building 
known as the Sheridan cottage, situated on a lot adjoining the hospital property, was rented for a year, 
and a small addition built to increase the accommodations. The formal opening took place on June 26th 
of that year. Thirty-seven cases were admitted the first year. These were treated by the Sui-gical and 
Medical Staff, which consisted of Dr. J. J. H. Love as President, and Drs. Newton, Bailey, Brown, 
White, Francis, Ward and Whitehorne. Dr. Pinkham was appointed Consulting Physician, and Dr. 
Henry Power, Pathologist. 

The total amount of cash subscriptions and donations the first year amounted to nearly $5,000. 
In addition to this, numerous articles of clothing, etc., were donated by generous citizens, mostly ladies. 

Tlie President's report for the second year showed the actual running expenses to have been 
$4,362 for 125 patients, four to six nurses, three servants, and occasional extra help. A number of 
entertainments were given during the year, and the amount of the Building Fund was increased to the 
sum of $5,700. The new building for the hospital was begun early in the autumn of 1892, and 
completed in May of the following year. The Blooiiijield Citizen, of May 27, 1893, contains the 
following description : 

The new Mountain-side Hospital building just completed, and which will be formally opened to-day, is located on 
the southwest corner of Highland Avenue and Sherwood Street, and faces Highland Avenue looking eastward. The 

History of Montclair Township. 159 

main building is of Colonial type, and was designed by architect John F. Capon, and erected under his super\nsion. The 
hospital buildings comprise the main building, a men's ward, a women's ward, and a maternity ward. They are built to 
surround three sides of a hollow square, and are all connected by a spacious corridor. 

The new institution has been erected on the most approved plan for giving room, air and light, and the work has 
been done in a very substantial manner. The carpenter work was done by Israel Jacobus of Glen Ridge, the mason work 
by William Doyle of Montclair, the painting by John Jenkins of Bloomfield, and the plumbing by E. D. Ackerman of 

The main building is a four story building. It has a frontage of forty-six feet on Highland Avenue, and a depth of 
forty-five feet. A large piazza eight feet six inches wide extends the full length of the front of the building. The roof of 
the piazza is supported by heavy Colonial columns, and the roof is surmounted with an ornamental railing. The building 
is painted a soft Colonial yellow, with light cream trimming and green shades and shutters. 

The interior is finished throughout with natural white pine and walls of hard finish. The flooring is of comb 
grained yellow pine and varnished. The building is heated by steam, lighted by gas, and the windows so arranged that 
every room in the building receives sunshine at some portion of the day. The steam piping and the radiators arc all 
beautifully bronzed with a gold tinge. 

In the plumbing work all the most approved devices have been used with a view to having the sanitary 
arrangement of the building as perfect as possible. The basement contains the laundry, coal room, heating apparatus, 
and the cold room. The latter contains an immense refrigerator, capable of holding a large quantity of ice and in which 
the meats and vegetables are kept. The floor of the basement is concrete except the laundry, which has a board floor. 
This room contains a large range and three earthen tubs. The heating apparatus is a Blake and Williams boiler of size 
No. 4. A dumb waiter starts from the basement and runs to the top floor of the building. On entering the first floor of 
the building through the large double doors from the piazza, the visitor is ushered into a well lighted corridor eight feet 
wide, full length of the building. The first room on the left of the hall is the reception room thirteen by eighteen feet in 
dimensions. Directly opposite on the other side of the hall is the dining room. Adjoining the reception room is the 
dispensary twenty feet in size. Speaking tubes and call bells connect this room with every part of the institution. 
Following the dispensary is the operating room, eighteen by twenty feet. This room is supplied with two wash basins, 
hot and cold water and other necessary appliances. Next to the dining room with a butler's pantry intervening is the 
kitchen eighteen by twenty-six in size. It is equipped with a large double oven range ; an eighty gallon copper boiler, a 
serving table and a large dresser takes up one side of the room. A ventilating contrivance carries off all the odors arising 
from cooking. Connected with the kitchen is a refrigerator closet, with pot closet and store room. A stairway four feet 
six inches wide ascends from the right side of the corridor near the centre of the Iiuilding to the second floor. At the 
head of the stairway on the second floor, the first room to the right is the children's ward, thirteen by eighteen. This 
room is heated and ventilated by the direct indirect system, taking the cold air from the outside of the building under the 
radiator. Turning to the left is the entrance to the main corridor of the same dimensions as down stairs, with the 
exception that the front is cut off for the missses' room. Light is admitted to the corridor from the hall at head of stairs, 
and the rear end. On the left of the corridor are four rooms for private patients, each ten feet six inches by eighteen 
feet, and on the right next to the lavatories is another room for private patients. The stairs to the third floor go up 
directly over those from the first floor and the corridor on this floor is the full length of the building with windows front 
and rear. The third floor contains four large bedrooms, two store rooms and two lines rooms. The fourth floor is used 
for general storage purposes. Particular attention has been given to the ventilation of the closet 

The corridor connecting the wards with the main building is six feet wide ; it is well lighted and heated. There 
is a fine concrete cellar under each ward. The wards are each supplied with a bath-room and hot and cold water, and a 
nurse room is attached to each. There is accommodation for ten patients in both the men's and women's wards ; three in 
the maternity ward. 

The door for the reception of patients is at the rear of the corridor on the first floor. The ambulance can be 
driven into the square and backed up to this door. The old hospital building will be used as a fever room. It is isolated 
from the other buildings. Three large cesspools take the drainage from the whole institution. 

THE M<)N'i( I..\li; K<JIKSTin.\.\ CLIl}. 

This unique and very 8ucces.sful Club was organized in 1 s 70, altliough it was really 
started several yeai-s earlier in an informal manner by tlie young people of Mont- 
clair, devoted to hoi-se-back riding and other social pastimes. 

The first regular meeting was held at the residence of Mr. C. K. Willmer in 
the spring of 1^76, at which time George II. Francis and Frederick Merriam 
Wheeler were elected President and Secretary, respectively. Among the other 
gentlemen who constituted its organizers were Carleton W. Nason, Edward W. Sadler, Charles J. 
Pearson, Charles Francis, C. N. Bovee, Jr., W. Lanman Bull, James K. Thompson, Charles K. Willmer, 
jS'. Sullivan, Arthur Foley and Dr. Frank Ely. 


History of Montclatr Township. 

Among the lady members, and perhaps one of the most enthusiastic equestriennes, was Miss 
Florence AVillmer (now Mrs. Frederick Merriam AVheeler) and to whose efforts was due the early success 
and permanent establishment of the Club. 

The other lady members were as follows : Miss IJovee, Miss Nannie Thompson (now ilrs. 
( )uterbridge). Miss Alice Thompson, Miss Amy Willmer, Miss Lord (now Mrs. Lloyd), Miss Mamie 
Clark, Mrs. J. W. Pinkham, Miss Grace Pillsbury, Miss Jennie II. Beach, Mrs. E. W. Sadler, Miss 
Draper, Miss DeLuze, Miss Hellen Sullivan (now Mrs. Delevan I!aldwin), Miss Marion Torry, Miss 
Chittenden (now Mrs. Wm. E. Pinkham), Miss Power (now Mrs. Arthur Schroeder) and Miss Conradt. 

The Club was afterward strengthened by the addition of the following: Alfred E. Beach, P. E. 
Van Riper, Frank Rogers, Thomas Russell, Dr. J. W. Pinkham, Charles A. lleckscher, Joseph A. Blair, 
John H. Wilson, Samuel AVilde, A. Ferguson 
Brown, "W. Delavan lialdwiu, J. C. Mott, J. ]\I. 
Wing and others. 

During the spring, summer and fall the Club 
had its regular riding parties at stated intervals, 
usually holding the meet at the residence of some 
one of the members, and during the winter months 
they had exceedingly attractive social evenings 
everv fortnight. There were readinirs. recitations. 

vocal and instrument- 
al music and dramatic 
p e r f o r m a n c es — in 
short, this Club seem- 
ed to till the place, in 
those days, now occu- 
pied by distinct socie- 
ties, devoted to litera- 
ture, music or dramat- 

At some of the 
equestrian meets it 
Avas a common thing 
to see twenty or thirty 
ladies and gentlemen 
in the saddle, and as 

this sport is exceedingly exhilarating the parties were usually very enthusiastic. The regular rides wei-e 
on Saturday afternoons, but parties were often made up for moonlight nights, or for early morning rides. 
At the meets there was always present, at the invitation of the host at whose house the meet was 
held, a party of friends to see the riders stai-t. 

During the second year, the Club inaugurated "hare and hounds" hunting. These paper chases 
gave considerable zest to the sport, and helped to keep up an active interest in the Club. A description 
of one of these paper chases taken from the Jli/ntr/air Times of N"ovember 17, 1S77, will give an 
excellent idea of the event : 

" The Equestrian Club had their second hunt of hare and hounds Saturday afternoon, and from all we 
can learn the sport was decidedly exciting and enjoyable. The meet was held at the residence of N. Sullivan, Esq. Two 


History ok Montclair Township. 161 

prominent members of the Club, a lady and gentleman, represented the hares, and displayed equestrianship of 
exceptional merit by riding through some very difficult places. They gave their pursuers over an hour's chase across 
country, but were finally overtaken beyond the mountain near Verona Lake. Dr. Pinkham was Master of the Hounds, 
and managed his party so well that no accident occurred to mar the pleasure of the day. Miss Rogers was first in at the 
' death,' and was awarded a sprig of evergreen to represent the ' brush.' These paper chases have been so successful 
that the members of the Club will have several more before the season closes. The next social meeting will be held 
Tuesday evening at the residence of J. R. Thompson, Esq." 

The followiniT year tlie Cliil) iiii])orte(l a jiack of heagle liuiiiuls iind inaiiirnrateil "drag" luuitiiisj. 
Tlie beagles, wliicli were piirdiaseil in England, were perhaps the first lot uf hounds of the kind brought 
to this countrv in any large number; being a much smaller dog tiian the regular fcx-liouiid or lianicr, 
tlicy are slower ruimiiig and better adapted where there are lady riders in the field. 

The Club having become so enthusiastic over cro.'^s country riiling, it was decided to ])crmanentiv 
ailnpt Jiunting, and the name of the Club was changed to the Montclair Hunt, and .Mr. iviward W. Sadler 
was made the first Master of TIouiuls. 

The meet on Christmas day ( ISTS) at ^[r. Sadler's e.\ten.sive place on Grove Street will idiig l)e 
remembered in the history of this Club, a.s the host had invited the farmers from the country abcmt, and 
a large number of friends, to see the hunting party start. 

Tiie next year the Club decided to ])rocure a draft of regular fo.\ hounds fi-om the kennels of the 
• Queens County Hunt of Long Island, and, in addition, engaged tlie services of the famous athlete and 
sportsman. Harry Ilowanl, who continue<l in their em|)loy until his death stmie years later. Howard was 
a ty])ical specimen of a sturdy English hunt>nuin, and his merry voice, as he encouraged his hounds on- 
ward, was often heard to the delight of the riders during the different In the year 1879, M'"' 
Frederick Meiriam AVheeler succeeded Mr. Sadler as Master of the Hounds, the kennels being located on 
the old Baldwin farm, now the .site of " lioswell Manor," the i)resent residence of Mr. and Mrs. (ieo. Inness, 
Jr. About this time a number of inend)ers from Orange and other parts of the surrounding country 
joined the Hunt, among whom were ("harles .\. Heckscher. Henry N. Miinu, Edward P. Tlieliaiid, 
Frank E. Martin, Douglas Hobinson, Jr., the Messi-s. Iludnut and Charles H. Lee. 

In 18S(» the kennels were moved to the vicinity of Tory Corner, about half way between Montclair 
and Orange, and Mr. Henry N. Munn succeeded Mr. Wheeler as Master of the Hounds. The kennels 
were newly stocked with a draft of very tine fo.x-hounds purchased from the sons of Sir Hugh Allen, of 
Montreal, and the use of live fcjxes in.stead of the " drag" was inaugurated. From this time until witliin 
a few years ago the Club continued the practice of fox hunting, having changed its name from the 
Montclair Hunt to the County Hunt. 

In iss:', Mr. Charles A. Heckscher became Ma.ster of the Hounds, but was succeeded the following 
year l)y Mr. Edwaid 1'. Thebaud, who continued to carry on the hunting in a successful manner 
until the Club was altsorbed by the present Essex County Country Club. During Mr. Thebaud's time of 
office (1SS4 to ls;s7) tlie kennels were located in the \'erona N'aliey, where there was plenty of pasture 
for the hunt horses, and a comfortable club house for the use of the mendjers. 

It was a great sight at the opening Meets every autumn to see the pretty little club house 
decorated with tlowers and the Club colors, and jtresided over by a party of ladies to entertain the 
company, which latter never numbered less than f)iH) to 600 invited guests from the Oranges, Montclair, 
I'loointield, Short Hills. Morristown, Newark and New York. 

General Geo. B. McClellan was also a member of the Club about this time, and was frequently seen 
at these affairs, and his wife was usually on the reception committee, with Mrs. J. C. Wilmerding, Mrs. 
F. Merriam Wheeler and other well known ladies from Montclair and Orange. A band of music w'as 
always in attendance, and there was generally a high jumping contest of the hunting horses, after which 
an exhibition of the hounds on a "drag"' hunt was given over the surrounding meadows. 

Once every few years the Club gave amateur races, at which there was always considerable fun, if 
not expert sport. 

It was in 1887 that the Country Club absorbed the Hunt, but the Montclair riding fraternity, 

162 History of Montclair Township. 

desiriug to still keep up the sport of Imrsebaek i-idiuj;, re-organized the Erpiestrian Club, and (hiring the 
last few years have been holding their Meets regularly at the residences of tlie different nieiiibers — 
generally on Saturday afternoons during the spring and fall seasons. 

The illustration on i)age 1(50 gives an excellent view of one of the Meets, which in this case was 
held at " Roswell Manor." In the party of lady and gentleman riders shown can be recognized the faces of 
some of the more recent members of the Club, whose names will be found among the list following, viz. : 

Mr. E. A. Bradley, Mr. H. S. McClure, Mr. Ogden Brower, Mrs. A. Ferguson Brown, Mr. Seelye 
Benedict, Mr. Walter Benedict, Mrs. A. E. Bostwick, Miss Bussing, Mr. D. P. Cruikshank, Miss Darwin, 
Miss Hawes, Miss Campbell, Miss Birdseye, Miss Hening, Miss Conradt, Mr. and IMrs. Geo. Inness, Jr., 
Mr. F. A. Junkin, IVIr. and Mrs. W. E. Marcus, the Messrs. Meyer, Mr. T. W. Porter, Miss Kodman, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Stewart, Mr. T. W. Stephens, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Kirlin, Mrs. Burt, Mr. AVillis 
Sawyer, Mr. and Mrs. A. Shroeder, Mr. Tearle, Miss Russell, Miss Eleanor Junkin, Mr. and ^Irs. F. 
]\[erriaiu Wheeler, and Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Mott. 


That the Montclair Club has been a jjotent factor in the ra[)id increase in tlie population of the 
township since 1887, any one who has observed its workings and noticed its influence on the community 
will freely admit. Starting with a membership of one hundred and twenty at its first public meeting, it 
reached about four hundred within five years; and has afforded the means of pleasure and entertainment 
to more than four times that number annually. 

The initiatory movement began in the early ])art of 1887. Mr. C. L. Topliff and Mr. II. C. Carter 
conceived the idea of starting a social club on a more general scale than had previously Iteen attempted 
in Montclair, one which should merit tlie supjiort of a large class of professional and business men who 
felt the iieetl <.if recreation and enjoyment after the worry, care and anxiety incident to life in the great 
neiii'hborins' city. These gentlemen, knowing that several ]n-evious attempts had failed, deserve sjiecial 
credit for proceeding in a very thorough, careful and business-like manner, to lay a foundation which 
should insure irltimate success. They visited the leading clubs in New York, Brooklyn and Jersey City, 
and communicated with others at a distance — thoroughly informing themselves oil all matters connected 
with club management; they studied carefully the organization-forms of many different clubs; and, 
finally, taking Lincoln Club of Brooklyn as a general model, prepared a tentative set of By-Laws and 
had them printed for distribution. They then submitted the matter to Messrs. Jasper R. Rand aiul 
William D. Baldwin, who, in turn, interested others ; and on June 25, 1887, an invitation was sent out 
inviting co-operation, signed by W. D. Baldwin, Jasper R. Rand, E. A. Bradley, E. G. Burgess, H. C. 
Carter, C. L. Topliff, Frederick Engle, E. B. Goodell, S. Benedict, J. II. Wilson and R. G. Park. 

The first meeting was held at the house of Mr. Baldwin, and subsequent meetings at the house of 
Mr. Bradley, and on July 27th, a large number of invitations were issued to attend a general meeting for 
organizing a club — the paper being signed by the above named gentlemen and others to the number of 
twenty five in all. 

The jiublic meeting was held in Montclair Hall, on August 1, 1887. Mr. W. I). I]aldwin opened 
the meeting; Mr. J(;hn R. Howard was elected (■hairman, and ^Ir. II. C. Carter, Secretary. The 
enrollment showed one hundred and twenty names f)f those wishing to become members. The By-Laws 
were discussed and with moditications adopted. The first Board of Directors were nominated and 
elected — consisting of W. D. Baldwin, Seelye Benedict, E. A. Bradley, E. G. Burgess, H. C. Carter, 
W. Y. Carolin, E. B. Goodell, John R. Howard, Dr. John J. H. Love and Cyrus L. Topliff; and the 
Directors were instructed to have the Club incorporated, and to make arrangements for temporary 
quarters, pending the purchase of ground and the erection of a permanent home. The first officers were 
Jasper R. Rand, President ; W. D. Baldwin, Yice-President ; II. C. Carter, Secretary, and C. L. Topliff, 
Treasurer ; Mr. Richard G. Park was elected a Director in place of Mr. Carolin, who resigned. 

History of MoNTcr.AiR Townshtp. 163 

After iniicli searcliiiif; and investigation of eligible site.s it wa.s lieterniined to inii-cliase the property 
of Dr. John J. H. Love, on Church Street, as being both near to the business centre of the town and 
yet sufficiently retired. This was done at a cost of Sl(\nn(i, and the old dwelling-honse on the premises 
wa.-i altered for temporary ijuarters until such time as a club house should be put up, it being then expected 
that s25,(Mj(i would erect, furnish and e(piip the building. The Hoard of Directors was instructed to invite 
plans and estimates from five diiferent architects. To these a sixth wji^ added, later, when the scheme 
projiosed included a mu.<ic hall in addition to the club house proper. The tirm of Lamb A: Kich, of 
.New York, were tiiially selected as the architects, and the praise universally given their completed work 
|iroves tlie wisdom of the selection. The tine bowling alleys in the basement, the convenient arrange- 
ment of the offices, retiring rooms, canl room-;, liilliard and jiool rooms, and reading room, on the tirst 
tlo^ir, the ladies' parlor> and dressing i-ooms and the l)eautifuliy j)ro])(irtiiined music hall on the second 
thiol'; the special dining ronni. steward's apartments, kitchen, etc.. on tlii' tliii'd floor, ainl the artistic 
harmmiy and architectural beauty of the whole house, within and wiihdut, ccmiiine to nuike it an 
exceptionally ailmirable editice. 

Mr. ('. L. Topliff, of the Board of Directors, was very active in tlif matter, ami some of the best of 
the interior arrangements were of his suggestion. The Hoard pa-^si-d a special vote of thanks to ^Fr. 
Topliti for his "long continued and intelligent efforts in the interest of the Club, and especially in the 
matter of the new club house, with music liall attached." The original plans contemplated the erection 
of a building to cost !5.i(l,0(i(i, l)iit the addition of the mu^ic hall to the main building involved an 
additional outlay of §10,000. A loan on tii-st mortgage was .secured from the 2s'ew York Mutual 
Life Insurance Co. of $25,<iOO at 5 per cent., and bonds were issued under a second mortgage to the 
amount of S.^.^.OOO at •! per cent. Probabh' the two gentlemen most successful in '* i)lacing" bonds and 
inducing club membei's aiul others to join in securing the financial basis for the enterprise, were the 
President, Mr. Rand, and Jlr. Seelye Benedict, of the Board of Directors. This once assured, matters 
moved vigorously. 

The Building Committee consisted of Messrs. .lolin \l. Howard. Frederick Engle, Dr. John J. IL 
Love, and Seelye Benedict. The club liouse was begun in August, 1888, and completed ready for 
occupancy in the autumn of 1889. A brilliant opening took place on November 7 of tliat year, and the 
'• .Vnniversary Beception " has been an "institution" ever since. 

In a cii-cular issue<l by the Board of Directors, accompanying a set of reduced engravings of the 
floor plans and some perspective sketches, for the information of tlie members when the taking of the 
bonds were in process, is this statement : 

" The building of this house, securing by its accommodations a large income, secures also possibilities of artistic, 
social, dramatic, musical, and various interesting and useful entertainments, which will make life in Montclair a different 
thing for every gentleman and lady in it. Especial arrangements are included, both in the house and its use, for the 
accommodation and pleasure of the ladies and families of members. This Club is intended to be instrumental in pro- 
moting, and not in disturbing, home happiness ; to offer attractions to the feminine as well as to the masculine elemiSnt in 
our society, and it is hoped that the earnest interest of Woman may be aroused and her potent influence exerted 
in its favor." 

It was un(|uestionably a wise move to solicit the feminine interest of the town, for that was the 
final turning of the .scale which made the financial .scheme a success, assuring the building of the 
To the credit of the management of the Club it must be said that the promises of the circular have been 
fnlfilled in letter and in spirit. Monday is " Ladies' Day,'' when the house is thrown ojien to them 
from noon to midnight, and in the evening special entertainment is provided and music for dancing in 
the hall. This is of regular recurrence; while the special occasions of all agreeable kinds that call both 
men and women together in the hall are constant, and have truly "made life in Montclair a different 
tiling." The Presidents have been ilessrs. J. Ti. Rand, Edward G. Burgess. J. R. Howard and Di-. J. J. 
II. Love; the Vice-Presidents, Messrs. W. D. Baldwin, J. R. Howard, J. II. Wilson, Dr. J. J. IL Love 
and J. It. Livermore. After the expiration of Mr. Carter's term as Secretary and Mr. TopIifE's as Treas- 

KU History of Montclair Township. 

urer. the offices were combined, and have since been tilled successively iij Messrs. Edwin B. Goodell 
and Wni. L. Ludlain. 

One feature of the Club management is peculiar : " No intoxicating beverages shall be sold or 
allowed in the club house." This house rule has often been condemned by club men as sure to be the 
ruin of the Club ; but, as a matter of fact, in the minds of the best observers it has been and is the most 
intliieutial factor in the Club's undeniable success. "Sweethearts and wives" are not afraid to see the 
men they love go there, and mothers feel s^afe in having their ycmng men l)ecome junior members in a 
clul) where they can tind rational enjoyment and recreation, without danger. And more than this : the 
men think what the women feel; there is many a member of the Montclair Club who di-inks wine at 
his own table, and yet is firm in the determination to keep the club house free from the ])erils of club 

This and other features of the wise and business-like management of its affairs from the tirst have 
kept the Montclair Club in a continuous career of agreeable usefulness and tiiiancial prosperity. It is 
without doubt the most important representative institution of the town, and every inhabitant of Montclair 
will hope for it a long and prosperous life. 


The object of this association is to hear the discussion of themes of current and vital interest by 
prominent thinkers in various fields, and especially to enlarge the views of its members by the wholesome 
process of hearing " the other side.'' 

The Outlook Club was foreshadowed in a series of fortnightly gatherings for the discussion and 
reading of pure literature during several winters, from December. 1883, to the spring of 1887, held in 
the lecture room of the First Congregational Church, llev. Amory II. Bradford, pastor. The writers 
and readers were drawn fi'om the town at large, and the general interest made the unpretentidus 
evenings signally successful . 

When, in 1SS7, the Montclair (^Social) Club was organized, the ettbrts of many active workers 
centred in that, and the literary evenings were discontinued; but two years later, when the Club had 
passed its infancy, and built a tine club house, it was thought good to revive on a somewhat broader 
plan the holding of meetings for general culture. Accordingly, the new Outlook Club was organized. 
A meeting was called in the Congregational Church lecture room, by a printed note of in\itation, 
signed by Rev. Dr. Bradford, Kev. Dr. Junkin, Rev. Mr. Carter, Mr. Paul Wilcox, Mr. John R. Howard 
and othei's ; and on a raw, sleety, stormy evening, early in December, 1889, about seventy five ladies and 
gentlemen came together, adopted their brief constitution, and appointed a committee to nominate 
officers and Executive Committee, and to prepare for a December public meeting. 

The first officers elected were : I'resident, John R. Howard ; Vice-Presidents, Rev. F. B. (^'arter 
aud John R. Liverniore; Awt'^a/y, Wm. H. Peck ; 7V<'«sw/'<?/', F. Merriain Wheeler. Executive Com- 
mittee : The foregoing officers, and Rev. A. 11. Bradfoi-d, D.D., Rev. AY. ]•'. .Junkin, D.D., Paul Wilcox, 
Wm. TI. Peck. Mr. Paul Wilcox was President for the years lS93-9i. 

The experiment was a marked success from the very first. The mcmbershij) was fixed at 200, 
but the limit has since been raised to 300, and there is always a large waiting list for vacancies at the end 
of the year. Each member pays annual dues of si and receives two tickets for each of the eight 
meetings. This gives an income of $1,200 a year and insures good attendance at the meetings. The 
hall of the Montclair Club, where the meetings are held, will seat 500, and is always well filled and 
sometimes crowded when the Outlook has it. The only expenditures, aside from the rent of the hall, 
programme and ticket printing and postage, are the compensation and expenses of the speakers. 
There are eight meetings a year — on the fourth Friday of each month, excepting June, July, August and 
September, so that the average allowable monthly expense per meeting is §150. This giving out of so 
large a nundier of tickets to eight literary entertainments of high grade, at an average cost to the 

History ok Montci.air Township. ir>5 

membership of t\rentv-five cents per ticket, is certainly unusual and evinces tlie great i)opularity of this 
method uf educational entertainment. The first public meeting after the organization of the Club was 
held in Montclair Hall, with an audience of about two hundred. The subject discussed was, "The 
Sensuous and the Spiritural in ^rnderri Literature." The speakers were Kev. "NVni. Hayes Ward, of the 
huJepeniJfiid, Miss Agnes McC. Ilallock and liev. Wni. F. Junkiii, I). I). 

The range of subjects since discussed has been verj" wide, including philosophy, science, literature, 
art, industrv, and even politics and reliirion, althonirh subiects beloniiinir to the two classes last named 
have had to be handled witii delicacy. With observance of all tlie courtesies of debate, varied and o]>- 
posing views have been effectively presented with entire freediiiii ; an<i tlie educational value of tliis is 
highly appreciated, not only by the menil)ers but by the commuMity. The spciikeis are always cxidicitiy 
informed beforehand that their remarks are e.\[)ected to be expository rather than disputatious, and the 
opening speaker furnishes a brief abstract of his positions in advance for the information of those up. 
iiuldiiig "the other side." Thirty five minutes are nominally allotted to the tinst speaker, and, if there 
liL' but one opponent, thirty-rive minutes to him also. If more than one, twenty minutes each, while the 
rirst speaker is allowed ten minutes for rebuttal. These limits, however, are rarely enforced, and considera- 
ble latitude is given to the ^peakeis. The character of the work done by this Club is shown in the selec- 
tion of subjects and speakers — the latter including many of luitional reputation. 

In 1S90, Jitnuarij, "The Pres.s— Its Powers and Responsibilities." Rev. Clias. II. Eaton, D.D.. 
Joseph Howard, Jr.. and Alexander D. Noyes. 

Fvhruary, "'Looking Backward' — Xationalism." liev. W. 1). 1'. llliss. ,lolm 1*. Livennore, 
Clarence W. Butler, M.D., Prof. Daniel de Leon and Charles H. Johnson, Jr. 

March, "Prohibition — or What r' E. C. Wheeler, Riilieit (iniliani, 1). F. Merritt and Starr J. 

" The Negro Problem " was divided into two parts, 'i'lif first meeting devoted to that subject 
was held ill April. George W. Cable, tiie novelist, and Rev. .1. C. Price, D.D., the famous colored orator, 
taking part. " The Other Side," was heard in Xoi-mnh' ,\ Thomas Nelson Page, the writer, and Rev. 
Wm. Juiikin, D.D., pa.stor of the Presbyterian Church of .Muntclair, formeri\i of Charleston, S. C, 
being the speakers. 

J/'/y, l>^!to. " Shelley— Poet and Man." Ki-v. .1. 11. Kcob. Ilaniilron W. i[abie. Jieadinyn, 
Miss Josephine Rand. 

October, " The Economic Theory of Protection." Prof. \'an Buren Denslow aii<l llciuy George. 

December. •• Tlie Higher Education of Woman." Nfrs. Alice Freeman Palmer, ilrs. Ella Dietz 
Clymer, Rev. A. J. McA'icar, D.D., and President Jame.-» W. Taylor, of Vas.-,ar College. 

In 1SS)1: January, "The Silver Question.'" Hon. A. J. Warner, of Ohio, and Prof. J. Laurence 
Laughlin. of Cornell I^nivei'sity. 

Fehruary. "The American News])aper." ('has. R. Williams, J'aul Wilcox and A. II. Siegfried. 

March, " 'Looking Forward' (Christian Socialism)." Tlionuis G. Shearman and Hon. Albion W. 

Ajrril. "The Theological Outlo(^k." Rev. David Waters, D.D., of Newark, N. J. ; Rev. Francis 
G. Peaiiody, D.D., of Harvard University; Rev. Charles F. Deems, D.D., of New York; and Rev. 
Charles H.Hall, D.D.,- of Brooklyn. 

May, "The Impulse Behind Literature." Hamilton \V. Mabie, of 21ie Outlook, ^imi RoI>ert 
Xevin, of London, England; October, "The Golden Age — Can it be Realized if" Rev. William 
Lloyd and Starr Hoyt Nichols; November, "The Pulpit and Politics," Rev. B. B. Tyler, D.D., and 
Rev. Charles H. Hall. D.D.; December, "Ideal Anarchy," Daniel Greenleaf Tiionipson. Edwin B. 
Goodell and John R. Livermore; January, 1892, "Economic cs. Political Union among English-Speak- 
ing Peoples (The Question of Canada)," Hon. Erastus Wiman and William II. McElroy, of the New 
Yorlc Trthiine ; February, "Should Immigration be Restricted f Prof. Iljalniar Hjorth Boyesen and 
J Ion. A. B. Nettleton, Assistant Secretary of the United States Treasury ; March, "The New Education," 

ICifi History of Montclair Township. 

Piuf. Geo. II. ruliner, Prof. A. C. Perkins, President Geo. A. Gates and Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler; 
Ajjri/, " Woman's Place in the Labor Field," Moncure D. Conway and Miss Kate Field ; Mai/, •' Did 
Lord Bacon Write the So-called Shakspeare Plays?" Starr Iloyt Nichols and Eoger Foster; October, 
" Itelative Value of Arctic and Tropical Exploration," Gen. W. A. Greely and Cyrus C. Adams, of the 
JVew York Sun ; JVovemler, " The Ti-eatment of Criminals," Professor Charles L. Collin, W. M. F. 
Eound and P. T. Quinn ; Decemher, "Did Lord Bacon Write the So-called Shakespeare Plays?"' Part 
IT., Starr Iloyt Nichols and Hamilton W. Mabie. 

The subjects discussed in 1S93 wei-e : ./(r;i(/«/'y, " Evolution." Prof. W. B. Scott, followed by a 
conference of questions and answers; February, "Spirit Apparition and a Future Life," Rev. Minot J. 
Savage, D.D., Prof. James H. Ilyslop of Columbia College; March, "A Discourse on the Drama," 
Joseph Jefferson ; ^^vr//, " Sunday, and the World's Fair," Rev. Arthur Brooks, Rev. William Lloyd ; 
May, " Realism and Idealism," F. Ilopkinson Smith ; October, " The Silver Coinage Question," Hon. R. 
P. Bland, of Missouri, Hon. M. I). Harter, of Ohio; Xovember, "Labor and Law," Rossiter W. Ray- 
mond, Ph.D., J. W. Sullivan, of the Federated Union of Labor; December, "Business Government for 
Cities," St. Clair McKelway, Esq., of the Brooklyn Eagle, Dr. Lewis G. Janes, President of the Ethical 
Association of Brooklyn. 

The instant success and continuous strength of this admirable institution is a credit to its managers, 
not only, but to the town, which, with so many other attractions of social, musical, dramatic and general 
entertainment, has for over four years steadily supported the Outlook Club. It is valued by all who 
have enjoyed its sessions, and has educated an audience trained to quick appreciation and intelligent 
taking of a speaker's points, which never fails to impress the experienced talkers who discuss their 
selected topics. 


The nucleus of this small but energetic association must be looked for in a group of men who in 
1882-8.3, chiefl}' under the inspiration of Col. George A. Miller, met for occasional readings and discus- 
sions of questions relating to taxation. In 1884, when the Blaine-Cleveland presidential campaign shook 
the party loyalty of so many Republicans, these men and others — forty-tive altogether — formed the 
" Independent Republican Organization," having as President, J. R. Howard ; Secretary, i. CWcw'M; 
Executive Committee, G. A. Miller, E. B. Goodell, S. A. Swenarton, Theo. St. John, E. B. Merritt, 
F. B. Littlejohn and C. H. Taylor. The organization did earnest work in that campaign, their influence 
then being in favor of the Democratic national candidate, while for local and congressional matters 
remaining Republican. The effect of their work as "protesting Republicans" was seen in the I'eduction 
of the customary Republican majority in Montclair, on the national ticket, from 198 to 94, in the 
election in which Mr. Cleveland was first chosen President. 

In the campaign of 1888, the same men, with some accession of numbers (seventy-five in all), 
formed the " Taritt' Reform Campaign Club,'' having the same Executive Committee, enlarged by the 
addition of Alexander D. Noyes, Dr. C. W. Butler and John R. Livermore, and, as officers: President 
J. R. Howard ; Vice-President, E. B. Goodell ; Secretary, Starr J. Murphy ; Treasurer, Chas. F. Droste. 
In that campaign the Club was very active, with circulars, addresses, and a large public meeting. 
Although Mr. Cleveland was defeated, his "Tariff Message of 1887" to Congress had become a rallying 
ground for tariff reformers generally, and while the Campaign Club of Montclair had finished tlie work 
for which it had been organized, its members were still interested in the cause which had brought them 
together, and wished for a permanent oiganizatioii. Soon after the election, therefore, a meeting was 
called at the headquarters of the Club, and a committee appointed, consisting of Starr J. Murphy and 
Edwin B. Goodell, to confer with the Reform Club of New York City and neighboring campaign clubs 
with reference to this, and to consider the feasibility of some form of alliance with the New York 
Reform Club. 

At an adjourned meeting, held Nov. 20, 1888, after winding up the aff'airs of the old Club, a 

History of Montci.air Township. 167 

R'.siiliitioii was adopted tu ulTect a permanent organization to be i<no\vn as tlie '• ^Moiitclair Tariff Ivcforni 
Clul)/' for the purpose of discussino; the principles of natural taxation and also of other suhjects of 
current political interest, notably that of reform in electoral methods and the civil service. 

The officers of the new form of the old f'lnb were: Presidext, Edwin B. Goodell ; Vice- 
/V<?*iV7(.'//^, William A. Iluughton ; Treasurer, 5 om^\\ V. Noyes ; Recording Secretary, ^t&rv 5. Murphy; 
Corresponding Secretary, (icor^v A. Miller. These were members, ex-ojjicio, of the Execntive Committee, 
which included also John R. Liverniore. John R. Howard. Theo. 8t. John, William L. Guillaudcu. to 
whom were added in May, ISSO, C. W. IJutler, C. A. Sclu.ltz. F. A. Angell, A. D. Noyes. and L. A. Wiglit. 

A vigorous educational campaign was begun and every available means used to reach the 
voters of the District and impart information on nuitters relating to the tariff. Arrangements were 
Miaiic with the Muntrfair ILrald, and this became an important medium of communication witli tiic 
public. Literature obtained from the New York Reform Club was also freely distributed. Public 
meetings were held and the subjects discusseil by ])rominent speakers. The result of these and other 
similar influences was shown at the ne.xt ensuing election, in November, ISDO, when Thomas Dunn 
English, representing the cause of tariff reform, was elected to Congress from the Si.xth Congressional 
nistrict, the first time in many years that this district had been represented by other than a 

On Eebruary 0. l^^'.'l. billowing the election, a public dinner was lield in Montclair at which there 
were present prominent s|)eakers fnjiii abroad, among whom were, Congres.sman John I )e Witt Warner, 
Charles B. Spahr, Hon. Tlionu\s Dunn English and other.s. In ri?s])onsc to an invitation from the Club 
a letter was received from (trover Cleveland, in which, after expressing the customary regrets that he 
could not attend the dinner, he ^aid : 

It gives me great pleasure to note the growth of Democratic sentiments and strength in my native county, and 
to know that the cause of tariff reform has commended itself to the voters of the Si.xth Congressional District. These 
circumstances furnish exceptional persuasion to an invitation to meet those who by organized effort are pushing on the 
good work in the county where I was born. 

Nothing can excuse the Democratic party if. at this time, it permits the neglect or subordination of the (juestion 
of tariff reform. In the first place, the principle ins'olved is plainly and unalterably right. This of itself should he 
sufficient rea.son for constant activity in its behalf. 

Secondly, we have aroused a spirit of inquiry among our countrymen, which it is our duty to satisfy, and finally, 
there may be added to these considerations, the promise of success held out to the party which honestly perseveres in the 
[jropagandism of sound and true political principles. 

In 1892 the Club took an active part in the movement for securing a Cleveland delegation from 
New .lersey, at Chicago, and did good work in the campaign which followed, especially in the 
circulation of brief tracts, the jjamphlct jMiblication " Tariff Reform," and other literature, and in a 
public meeting. The Club, including a number of excellent and effective speakers, all it.-- ]niblie 
meetings, dinners, etc., have been uiKpiestionable succc-^ses. The ofHcers at that time were: President, 
John K. Howard; Vice-President, Edwin B. Goodell; Pecurdimj Secretary, Wni. AYhitney Ames; 
Corresjwnding Sec}'etary, Alex. D. Noyes; Treasurer, Theodore St. John; Executive Committee, the 
officers, and Wm. A. Houghton, L. Allyii Wight, Joseph C. Noyes, Geo. A. Miller and Starr J. Murphy. 
A copy of its address to voters having been sent to .Mr. Cleveland, the Club received the following 
letter from him : 

Gray Gaules, Buzzard's Bay, Mass., August i, 1S92. 

I ha\e received with great satisfaction your letter of July 25th, giving some account of the Tariff Reform Club 
formed at Montclair, New Jersey. Although you distinctly stated that you did not look for a reply to your letter I cannot 
refrain from complimenting the Club and the author of the " Open Letter to Voters," which you inclose. The statement 
therein contained of the theories and methods of the Republican party and the purposes and objects of the Democratic 
party, it seems to me, cannot be improved upon. If this is a specimen of the kind of work which will be undertaken by 
your Club the best results cannot fail to be apparent from its efforts. 

Mr. Cleveland's election, and the widespread victory of tariff reform at the polls, in November of 

168 History of Montclaik TowNsiiir. 

tliat year, gave the occasion for aiiotlier })ul>li(' diiiiier in Montclair CIuIj ilall, wiiicli, foi' the time, closed 
the Chib's activity. Haviiii;- no hical aims, and being l)ound to no political ])arty, the organization 
follows its own course, — sometimes being <jniescent for months, sometimes having a series of readings and 
discussions of matters it is interested in, and taking action whenever it sees an opportunity to advance its 
principles. Its most recent work was, in 189-i, to address the New Jersey Democratic representatives in 
Congress upon the pending tariff legislation. 

The object of the Club as stated in its Con.stitution is '' to promote honest, efficient and economi- 
cal government, having for its immediate purpose effective agitation in favor of tariff reform as the chief 
necessity of the time, and also the advancement of a non-partisan civil service, the business administration 
of public affairs, and the improvement of electoral methods, as essential to a genuine ' government of the 
people, for the people, and by the people.' It purposes seeking these ends by discussion, by disseminat- 
ing information, and by all other means which tend directly or indirectly to forward them." 


Few of our large cities can boast of a more successful or better managed musical organization than 
the Montclair Glee Club, and it would be difficult to find in any suburban town of its size so large a num- 
ber o( well trained voices. The projectors of this enterprise had no other end in view than that of 
mutual improvement and entertainment. It began in 1SS5 with a double ipuirtette composed of mutual 
friends who met at one another's houses. Othei's became interested and the nund)er was finally increased 
to 3C>, and it was then decided to form a permanent organization. Prof. E. J. Fitzhugh, the well-known 
musical conductor and instructor, was engaged as leader. In order to meet the increased exjienditure, the 
Club determined to try the experiment of giving a public concert. All the members volunteered their 
assistance, and were assigned their several parts as follows : 

Sopranos: Mrs. L. L. Ballantine, Miss A. M. Dike, Mrs. L. T. Johnson, Mrs. E. F. Bedell, Mrs. 
J. B. Hawes, Miss Stella A. Liveruiore, Miss Ennna C. Conradt, Mrs. C. A, Hutcliings. Miss Fanny G. 
Lugar, Miss Laura B. Mills, Mrs. Flora C. Niveu, Mrs. Chas. E. Van Vleck. 

Contraltos: Mrs. Geo. TST. Ashley, Mrs. H. W. Hobbs, Mrs. C. H. Tissington, Miss Kate Con- 
radt, Miss Clara Reading, Mrs. H. K. Hawes, Miss Ella Sliafer. 

Tenure: James Atkins, C.H.Taylor, Arthur B. Davis, Chas. E. Van A" leek, W. N. Guyer, 
F. J. Hogan. 

Bassos: E. F. Bedell, Dr. John B. Hawes, AVilliam Y.Boyle, John Porter, Geo. A. Ilarkness, 
H. E. Taylor, Dr. Arthur F. Hawes, C. H. Tissington. 

The first concert was held at the Presbyterian Chapel, June 1, 18S(). It was conducted by Prof. 
Fitzhugh, and was in every respect a decided .success. Selections were nuide from well-known composei-s, 
and were rendered witli skill, delicacy, and good taste and judgment. The audience was a critical one, 
and showed their appreciation by frecjuent demonstrations of applause. 

Thus encouraged, the Club persevered in their efforts during eacli year to raise it to a higher 
plane. Well known artists were secured from abroad, and the citizens of Montclair were treated to a 
number of first class entertainments, and evinced their willingness to support them by subscribing to a 
sufficient number of tickets at a price whicli guaranteed the Club against loss. Two concerts have been 
lield each season, all of which have been successfiil, and the members have shown a marked improvement 
in form and execution. Prof. Fitzhugh remained with the Club for two seasons, and was succeeded by 
Mr. A. D. Woodruff. He proved to be a cajjable and energetic conductor, and managed the affairs with 
skill, tact and good judgment. The Club has been in successful operation for about eight years, and has 
proved itself worthy of the high esteem in which it is held by the peo])le of Montclair. In order to meet 
the increa-sed expenditures from year to year associate members have been added who are pledged to 
secure the Club against financial loss. The present membership is 56. 

The first officers of the Club were : Presideut, Dr. John Hawes; Vice-President, E. J. Bedell, 

History of Montclair Township. 169 

Sccretarv, C. 11. Taylor: Trea.<nrer, Wiu. S. Boyle; Lilirariaii, ('. II. Tissinirtoii. Executive Committee: 
Mi^i.s Kate Conradt. :Mi.-^s Alice M. Dike. Dr' A. F. Ilawcs. John I'oiter, Mi: C. H. Taylor. 

Present Officers: Presiclent. Thomas Riis.sell. First Vice-President, John Porter; Second Yice- 
Pre-^^ident, Chas. IT. Baker; Treasurer, John R. Anderson ; Secretary. T. E. Lyon. 

Tliose who have served as Presidents of the Ciui) are: Dr. J. B. llawes, two years; W. V. 
{'aroliii. John Porter and Thos. Russell: the latter, elected in 1889, is still in office. 


^fontclair is composed larirely of a class of Imsiness men who have been accustomed to theatrical 
and other amusements, and while there are many other attractions not hitherto enjoyed hy them, the 
lack of this class of entertainment was to many a great deprivation. Mr. and Mrs. Gnillaudeu who 
had at ditferent times elsewhere conducted amateur theatricals with success, invited a few friends to an 
entertainment at their own home, and it was then suggested that a public entertainment be given for the 
benefit of the Children's Home. Others were invited to take part, some of whom had had experience in 
amateur theatricals. After several rehearsals, an entertainment was given for the above object, on the 
evening of April :i(i, ls.s9, at Montclair Hall. The plays .selected for the occasion were '"My Lord in 
Livery" and " Pve Written to Browne." The plays were well cast and each one did their part well. A 
large and appreciative audience greeted them with frequent Unstinted praise was lavished on 
the participants in this affair, who, thus encouraged, deternuned to effect a })ermanent organization; the 
result was ''The ilontclair Dramatic Club." Its fii*st officers were : W. L. fTuillaudeu, President; Starr 
J. Murphy, Vice-President: R. M. I ioyd, Secretary : Alexander D. Noyes, Treasurer. The constituent 
members were : 

Miss Minnie Benedict, Mr. A. K i;o>twick, .Mrs. A. K. liostwick. Miss L. R. Bouden, Mr. R. M. 
iioyd, Jr., Miss Mary Clark, Kate Conradt, Miss M. II. Cunningham, Miss 11. B. Cunningham, 
Mr. C. D. Du Bois. Mrs. C. 1). Dii Hois. Mrs. I). 1). Duncan. Lillian l-'enn, Bessie K. 
Francis. Mr. A. T. Greene. .Mr. W. 1,. (iuillaudeu, Mrs. W. L. (inillan.lcu, Mrs. R. JL Ilening, Mrs. 
IVaiik Hill. Mr. D, lirainerd Hunt. Jr.. Mr. George Inne.s.s, Jr.. Mr. W. K. Marcu.s, Mr. Starr J. 
Murphy. .Mr>. Starr J. Murphy, Mr. A. I). Noyes, Miss Josephine F. Rand. Mr. \. F. Reichclt. ^Ir. .\. 
T. Taylor, Mrs. C. E. Van \lcck. Miss Charlotte Weeks. 

The Club has had a very successful experience, and has I)een free from the petty jealousies that 
frequently distuib and often disrupt organizations of this character. The annual entertainments given 
by the Club have been very successful, and delighted audiences have received them with marked favor. 
The selections have covered a wide range and include farces, farce comedy, high comedy, and melodrama 
of the lighter sort, and some of the ])artici])ants have developed decided histrionic talent — notably ^liss 
.losephine Rand (now decea.sed), daughter of Jasper Rand, Esip, one of the most jjromising of all 
who took part in these entertainments. She was greatly admired for her artistic representations of the 
characters she assumed and for her many personal (jualities. Othei-s have distinguished themselves as 
amateurs of more than ordinary ability. Among these may be mentioned the names of Mrs. Henry 
Powii-. nre ^lary Clark. Mi.-s May Marvin, daughter of Dr. Marvin. Miss Stella Hogue, Mrs. D. D. 
Duncan. Mrs. Du Bois. Mrs. A. F. Bostwick, Miss Henedict. D. 1!. Hunt. Jr.. A. D. Noyes, Starr J. 
Murphy. Clarence Churchill, Mr. F. T. A. Junkin. Mr. A. F. Ilcotwick, George Iniiess, Jr., Mr. A. S. 
Greene and others. 

Besides the projectors of the under whose able management these entertainments have 
been conducted, the names of Mr. Alexander I). Xoyes. ilr. Starr J. Murphy and Mr. I). P>. Hunt. Jr., are 
worthy of special mention. 

The Club has now over a thousand dollars' worth of ti i* scenery, costumes, etc., and a com- 
plete outfit of everything required for this class of entertainment. The present officers are : Clarence 
Churchill, President; R. M. Boyd, Jr., Vice-President; Charles Bull, Secretary and Treasurer. 


History of Montclair Township. 


This Club started as a local organization in the spring of 18S5, with a membership of al)oiit one 
hmidred, composed of Montclair people interested in the game. A large plot of ground on Fullerton 
Avenue, belonging to Mr. Alfred E. Beach, was laid out into coui-ts. Tournaments were held from time 
to time, and invitations extended to players of national reputation to participate- As an inducement 
valuable jsrizes were otfered by the Club, and the contests brought together large mimbers of people from 
the surrounding country and from other States, thus indirectly contrii)uting to the prosjierity and growth 
of the township. Several of the mcmliers became experts at the game, and challenges were given to and 
received from other clubs. Among the popular and well-known players who have participated in these 
games are; Howard A. Taylor, II. W. Slocum, E. L. Hall, Clarence Hobart, and others. The interest in 
the Club increased each year and received the hearty support of the community. The tennis grounds being 
recpiired for building purposes by the Episcopal Church in 1893, the Club was oliliged to susj)end operations, 
having no other available grounds. The first President of the organization was Thomas Russell, with Robert 
M. Boyd, Jr., as Treasurer, and James D. Freeman as Secretary. Mr. Russell was succeeded by John 
R. Livermore, followed by F. W. Gwinn, Seelye Benedict, and Robert M. Boyd, Jr.. the present head of 
the organization. 


(Beside Llewellyn Road.) 

Chapter XI\\ 

Thk Medical Profession of Mo.mclaik. — J<>ii.\ .1. II. l.dvi;, M.U. — John Wakkkn Pi.nkham. ^[.D. — 


^r.D. — KifiiARD C. Xewton, M.D.— Kiciiard p. Francis, M.I).— Levi Dudley Case, M.D. — 
Herbert \V. P'o.ster, M.D. — L. W. IIalsev, M.D. — The FoLNn?:Rs and P)Uilders of Crane 


Harrison, N[rNN, "Wmkei-er. Prati. ("hutknden, Pakkhurst, Boyd, Kason, Hening, 
Drai'er, Wilde, Wh.i.mkr, Adams. 



•^ lias been stateil in a previous eliapter. that aiiioiifj the iiuhiceinents lield out to emigrants 
at an earlv ])eriiiii to settle in New .K-rsey, were tliat it was " wnrtliy tiie name of Paradise," 
because in addition to its natural advantages it had " no lawyers, jiln/xiviinix or ])arsons." 

"Wlien the Conneetieut colonists settled Newark they lnought with tlieni their 
"parson." but the records do not show that there was any " piiysician " ani<ing theuL It 
is said that the Rev. Abraham Pierson, then pa-stor, exercised the functions of parson and 
physician, but Dr. Stephen Wicks in his " Ilisti«ry of Medicine in New Jersey" says: 
'• After very diligent search into the history, prior to and after his residence in New 
Jersey, we have not found a slired of testimony to sustain the claim for liim to a medical 

There were few persons at that period knowledge of medicine exceeded 
that of everv intelligent housewife of the ])resent day, and the progress that had been made in the art of 
medicine up to that time was very small. Peimyroyal, boncset, pepi)ermint, and a few other herb.«, were 
the standard medicines kept in stock by the careful liou.sewife. 

Dr. J. Henry Clark, in "The Medical Men of New Jersey in\ District, from lf!6fi to 1S66" 
savs that William Turner was "the oldest Newark physician, of whom we find any detinite record." 
Reference is made to him in the "Town Record" of 9th of Marcii, 1741. that •• the burying greund was 
sold to Dr. William Turner for the year ensuing." 

Dr. James Arents. a lloilandi-i- by birth, naturalized in 171G-17, practiced medicine in Newark 
from that time until 17.")i'. 

The iniialiitnnt> residing in tlie vicinity of Cranetown and Bloomtiehl for more than a hundred 
years wi-ie dei)eudent on .Newark piiy>icians. The first one mentioned in this locality was Dr. Josepii 
Dodd. of Bloomfield. who lived directly opposite the present Glen Ridge .station, on Bloomfield Avenue. 
His practice extended throughout the entire territory, including what is now Bloomtield and Moiitclair. 
Dr. Eleazer Ward, father of the pre.sent Dr. Edwin M. Ward, of Bloomtield, lived on the Common of 
that town, and attended some families in the western portion. 

Dr. Joseph A. Davis, a pupil of Dr. Joseph Dodd, succeeded him, and was the principal medical 
man for all West Bloomtield, until the arrival of Dr. J. J. H. Love, in 1855. There was at that period, 
also, a Dr. Isaac Dodd, of Bloomtield, a large, fineJooking, elderly gentleman, who did considerable 
medical work in this section, about 185:2. A Dr. .Janes from New York City .settled here, but for some 
reason his stay was very short. About 1852, Dr. Elias L'llommedieu, an elderly man from Sussex 
County, N. J., settled here, but died in the course of a year or two after. 

172 History of Montclair T(i\vnship. 

At the time of Dr. Love's arrival in 1855, there was no phvsician in this iiniuediate locality. 
Suhsequently an old gentleman by the name of Kittridge, settled here, and had a small practice during 
the absence of Dr. Love in the United States service from 1862 to 18tj5. Dr. Joseph A. Davis, of 
Bloomtield, however, attended to most of Dr. Love's patients. The first Homieopathic pliysician who 
located here was a Dr. Erower, who died in this vicinity. 

Dr. J. A. Pinkham was the first regular practitioner of tlie old school after Dr. Love. Dr. 
Clarence Butler, of the new school, came in 1872. Dr. Wm. ]>. Berry, now of Pasadena, Cab, lived and 
practiced here, until his health failed, some years before Dr. Brown. Dr. J. S. Brown came next, 
followed by Dr. Iviehard P. Francis, Dr. Anna L. Smith, Dr. Richard ( '. Newton, Dr. Levi W. Case, 
and Dr. Luther Ilalsey. Dr. Charles II. Shelton and Dr. Foster are recent additions connected with the 
new school of practice. 

JOHN JAMES IlEPtVEY LOVE, M.U.— According to tradition, John Love, the ancestor of this 
branch of the Love family, emigrated from the north of Ireland about 1728, and settled at Fagg's Manor, 
Chester County. Pa. A John Love is mentioned in Savage's " Genealogical Dictionary," as having settled 
in Boston as early as 1035. Dr. Love's line of descent is from the first John mentioned through Thomas, 
•hones and liohert. Thomas, the great-grandfather of Dr. Love, served in the " Pennsvlvania Line" 
during the War of the Revolution. He was commissioned May 12, 1775, Second Lieutenant of Fourth 
Battalion, organized in Chester County, Pa. Ilis commission is signed by " John Morton, Sjieaker of the 
House," and is filled out, Thomas L<:)ve, '■'■gentleman,"' a term in those days of class distinction that 
referred to the highest class in the social scale. He served as Aid-de-camp to Gen. Samuel Cochrane. 
Samuel, supposed to be a brother of Thomas, held positions of trust in Chester County, Pa., and during 
the colonial period served in Capt. Abraham Smith's Company of Col. Irvine's Regiment. Rev. Robert 
Love, the father of Dr. Love, was settled as a Presbyterian minister at Harmony, Warreii County, N. J. 
He married Anna Thompson Fair, daughter of John Fair, of Warren County, N. J., who was a nephew 
of Gen. William Maxwell, a distinguished officer of the Revolution. 

Dr. J. J. 11. Love, son of Rev. Robert and Anna Thompson (Fair) Love, was born in Harmony 
Township, Wai-ren County, N. J., April 3, 1833. He was prepared for college at a private school in Penn- 
sylvania, was gi-aduated at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa , completing his course of study in the Medical 
Dejiartment of the University of New York. He removed in 1S55 to his present locality, which was 
then an agrictdtural i-cgion and formed a part of Bloomfield. For many years he was the only physician 
in the neighborhood, and his practice extended north to the Great Notch, south to Orange, and in a 
westerly direction took in all the Verona Valley. His practice grew with the rapidly increasing 
poiMilation, and he acquired a strong hold on the peo})le, interesting himself in every enter])rise and 
improvement in building up a new town which he foresaw was destined to become an important sidimb 
of the great iuetropolis. The breaking out of the war checked these movements, and Dr. Love, like 
many others, felt called upon to sacrifice his personal interests, and sever the ties which bound him to 
this people, by offering his professional services to the Government, which was then in great need of 
skilled surgeons and physicians. 

He was commissioned Surgeon of the 13th Regiment, JNf. J. Vols., and was mustered into the V . S. 
service August 25, 1862. On March 23, 1863, he was assigned duty as Surgeon-in-Chief of the Third 
Brigade, First Division, Twelth Corps, Army of the Potomac, which duties he perfiirmed in addition to 
his regimental duties until August 1, 1863, when, under special orders from Corps Heiidquarters he 
assumed the position and duties of Surgeon-in-Cbief of First Division, Twelfth Army Corps. He 
continued in this position until January 28, 1861, when he resigned his commission and was honorably 
discharged from tiie U. S. service. During the entire period he M-as engaged in field service. 

As a volunteer Surgeon he was sent out by Gov. Olden and assisted in the transportation and care 
of the wounded after the battle of Williamsburg, Va., ]\lay 5, 1862. He was present and on duty at the 
battles of Antietam, Septend)er 17, 1862; Cliancellorsville, May 1, 2 and 3, 18(i3 ; and Gettysburg, 
July 1, 2 and 3 of the same year. The Twelfth Army Corps — of which he was then Snrgeon-in-Chicf, 
First Division — was subsequently sent West to re-inforce Sherman's Army ; and was consolidated with 

History of Montclair Township. 1Y3 

the Elcveiitli, furming tlie Twentieth Army Corj)s. Dr. Love was constantly witli the army in the field, 
and a.s.*isted in earinij for the wonnded after the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, near 
Chattanooga, Tenn., in Decemlier, lSti;5. Previous to his departure fur and his service in the West, wliile 
Surgeon-in-C'hief of First Division, Twelfth Army Corps, he was a member of General A. S. Williams' 
.staff. lie served at different times under Generals Hooker and Slocuni. His rapid promotion from 
the position of regimental surgeon to that of Surgeon-in-Chief of a Division, was not the result of 
friendly or politieal intluenee, l)Ut of personal achievement and his skill as a surgeon. 

On his retirement from the army he returned to Montclair and resumed the practice of his 
profession. He was heartily welcomed by his large circle of friends and acquaititancc, and his practical 
knowledge of surgery, acquired by long experience in the army, proved of great advantage to liini in the 
renewal of his practice, as shown by his constantly increasing clientele and the increased contidence of the 
community in his skill as a ])liysician. 

As a citizen he ha-s been foremo.-t in all public impiovcmcnts -iiice the establislinient of the present 
township, and in the cause of education he has been pre-eminent. I'rom is.j" to 18<'p2 he was Superin- 
tendent of Public Schools of Bloomfield township ; anil he was one of the first after the erection of the 
new township of Montclair to advocate the change from tlie old system of district schools, adapted only 
to the wants of a country village, to the enlarged facilities and more modern im|>rovements enjoyed by 
the people of our large cities and towns. To these im])rovements more than to all others is due the 
remarkable growth ami prosperity of the townshiji, and it is due largely to the indefatigable efforts of 
Dr. Love that Montclair enjoys the proml distinction of having not only one of tlie largest and best 
equipped ^chool buildings in the State of New Jersey, but a wellconductiMl graded system, that affords 
eijual facilities for rich and poor alike, unsurpassed by any suburban town within a radius of forty miles 
of the great metropolis. 

Tiie strong personality of Dr. I.ove, the wisdom and tact displayed by him on all occasions, were 
im|)ortant factors in bringing about these results and in overcoming the opjjosition which was manifested 
during the early period of tliese movements. |)r. Love has been connected with the School Board since 
1S65, the first six years as its President, and from that period down to the present time as its Secretary. 
Considering the demands on his time, due to his professional duties, he has done more to promote the 
cause of education than any other man, and, if measureil by the standard of dollars and cents, his con- 
tributions to the would exceed those of any other citizen to any arid all of the improvements that 
have been nuide in the townshij). 

He has held many positions of trust and honor, and lias assisted in fcnuiding several of the societies 
and associations with which he has been connected. He was President of the Essex District Medical 
Society in 1873 ; President of the Orange Mountain Medical Society in 1886. He gave encouragement to 
the enterprise, and a.ssisted the ladies of Montclair and the adjoining township in founding the ^lountain- 
side Hospital Association, of which he has been President since its organization, lie was a member of 
the Board of Managers of tiie I'oscdale Cemetery Co., at Orange, N. J., and assisted in its reorganization. 
He has been President of .Montclair Gas and Water Co. since 1886; was for three yeai-s a member of the 
-Montclair Townsliip Committee ; member of the Board of Trustees of the Presbyterian Church. His 
interest in military affairs began in ISfil, when he was made Colonel of the First Bcgiment, Co. 
Militia, Continuing until he went to the front in 1 St!:*, as Surgeon of the Thirteenth Regiment, N.J. 
Volunteers, with subsequent promotions given in his military record. Since the close of the war he has 
been active in promoting the cause of the veterans of the war. He assisted in organizing the Society of 
Veterans of Twelfth .Vrmy Corps, and has been its Secretary since 1881. He was one of the organizers 
of the Society of Veterans of Thirteenth Regiment, N. J. Volunteers, was elected its Treasurer in 1SS6, 
and President in 1889. He is also a memlier of the New Vork Commandery, Military Order of the 
Loval Legion of the United States. 

Dr. Love married, in 1860, Miss PVances J. Crane, daughter of Judge Zenas Crane, of Montclair, 
son of Aaron, who was the son of Job, who is supposed to be a grandson or great-grandson of Azariah, 

174 History of Montclair Township. 

son of Jasper Crane, one of the founders of Newark, N. J. The issue of this mamage is Edith, who 
married diaries E. Stockder, of Meriden, Conn., Marion (unmarried), and Leslie, now a Sophomore at 
Princeton, Class of '95. 

In person Dr. Love is large, well proportioned, of commanding presence, resolute, determined, full of 
nerve and energy ; cautious until convinced, after careful investigation, of his position, when no amount 
of pressure can swerve him from the course he has marked out for himself. Generous alike to friend 
and foe, fearless in the discharge of every known duty, regardless of public opinion or personal considera- 
tions, a man of spotless integrity and uprightness of character. 

JOHN WAEREN PINKHAM, :\[.D.— Kicuard Pixkham, t!ie American ancestor of this family, 
came from England before 1640, with the New Hampshire Colony, and settled in Dover, N. H. He was 
ordered by a vote of the town in 1G48, to "beat the driimme'' on Lord's day to call the peojile to meet- 
ing. The spot where he dwelt is said to be the same on which stood the Pinkham garrison, which 
Richard afterward made his habitation. 

Elijah, the grandfather of Dr. Pinkham, removed to Gardiner, lie., in ISOO. 

The mother of Dr. Pinkham was Fanny Sampson, daughter of Cyrus, a direct descendant of Henry 
Sampson, of Plytnouth, who came over in t\\Q Mayjfower in 1620. 

Dr. John W. Pinkham, the subject of this sketch, was born in Gardiner, Me., was prepared for 
college at the "Friends" Boarding School, in Providence, P. L, and was graduated at Haverford 
College, Delaware County, Pa., in 1S60, and was for some time afterward engaged in teaching school. 
He was instructor at Haverford College for a year, and was graduated in medicine at Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, New York, in 1866. He also attended a course of lectures at Berkshire (Mass.) 
Medical College, and at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. He began practice in New York 
City in 186<), and one year later removed to Montclair. Dr. Love at that time was the only practising 
physician in this locality. Dr. Pinkham soon achieved a reputation as a skillful physician, and was not 
long in obtaining a lucrative practice. 

Dr. Piidcham continued in active practice for nearly a quarter of a century, and during that 
period made many warm friends, who had great confidence in his skill as a physician. A severe illness in 
1890 necessitated a change of climate and a temporary abandonment of his practice, much to tlie regret 
of his large circle of friends and acquaintances. 

Dr. Pinkham has given much attention to the subject of sanitary science, and has made occasional 
contributions to the various medical journals throughout tiie country. His contribution to " AVood's 
Household Practice of Medicine" on the subject of Hygiene, Sewerage and Water Supply, forms one of 
the most interesting chapters of that work. It was translated into the Spanish language and copied into 
the Spanish medical journals. He has read pajjers on this subject before tlie New Jersey Sanitary Asso- 
ciation, and on various medical subjects before the Essex Medical Society and the Orange Mountain 
Medical Society. 

Dr. Pinkham has been too much absorbed in the practice of his profession to take part in the 
public aifairs of the town ; he served, however, as township physician for some years. He was the first 
physician ever appointed to the position, and held it until he retired from active practice in 1890. He 
was one of the founders of the Mountain-side Hospital, and has been for some time consulting physician. 
He assisted in organizing the New Jersey Academy of Medicine, and is a member of the Essex District 
Medical Society, and the Orange Mountain Medical Society. He served one term as President of the 
County Society. He is a i-epubh'cun in politics, and served one year as President of the Montclair 
Republican Club. 

Dr. Pinkham married Cornelia, daughter of Stephen A. Frost, Esq., of New York City, whose 
immediate ancestors were settled at Matinecock, L. I. 

Stephen A. I'rost, above-mentioned, the father of Mrs. Pinkham, removed to Montclair in 1867, 
where he died in 1892. 




yo-ivyi^ YV''cL-vt.£.K, ir^ , 7\.kl^ . 

History of Montclair Township. 175 

ifrs. Pinkham's motlier was ifatilda Bowne, daughter of Robert L. Dowiie, son of George 
Howne, of Flushing, L. I., wlio was the sou of Kobert Howne. 

George L. i>owne, referred to above, great-grandfather of -Mrs. I'inkliaju, married Abii;ail Smitli, 
daughter of Hon. Samuel Smith, of Burlingtoi , \. J., a descendant in the sixth generation of William 
Smith, of Braliam. Yorkshire. England, born A.I). l.^T". one of the founders of the Society of Friends. 
This was a family of great prominence wliich heltl lands directly from the Crown. 

lion. Samuel Smith, tlie great-great-grandfather of ilrs. I'inkham. wa.s Treasurer and Secretary 
of the Council of 2sew Jersey, under the British Crown, in the period immediately preceding the 
Revolution. lie wa.s the author of a valuable history of the Province of New Jersey. 


Clare.vck Wii.i.aki) lU n ku, .M.D. — Dr. I'.titler was lioru in liellevue, Ohio, May 1, 1848, 
only son of Rev. Jeremiah Butler, a Congregational minister, who was a graduate of Obcrlin College, 
Ohio, and one of the most thorough theologians of his day. His first pastorate was at Bellevue. Ohio, 
from whence he m(,iveil to AVestern New Yoi-k, and wa.-^ settled for seventeen years at Fairjmrt. ^lonroe 
County, X. Y. He was the son of Sti'phen, born in Durham, Conn., March 2t>, ITT'i, niarried Hannah 
Ward; grarid>on of •//>/// /(i/(, l)orn in Durham, Conn.. lT4ti, married Ann Coe, and was descended 
— proltably — from Dea. Richard Butler, who came from Braintree, Esse.x County, England, and .settled 
in Cambridge, Mass, in 1632, and removed thence with Rev. Thomas Hooker's party to Hartford, Conn., 
where he had si.xteen acres in the fii-st division. 

The ancestors of the Butler fann'ly came from Normandy to England with tlie Concpieror. 
Their original name was Fitz Walter, from Walter, one of their ancestors. Theobold F'itz Walter came 
to Ireland with Henry II., in 1172, ami had the office of Chief Butler of Ireland conferred on him, the 
duty attached to which was to attend on the Kings of England, and present them with the tii-st cup of 
wine. From the office of Butlership of Ireland they took the name of Butler. 

The nuiiden name of Dr. Butler's mother was Louisa Olive Willard, whose ance.stor. Major 
Sltnon Wi/liirJ, born in Ilorsmondoii, England, 1611.5, came to New England in Kiol. He was a noted 
man in the colony ; was Commander-in-Chief of the military force in King Philip's AVar. He had a 
son, liev. 6'a7nin'/ ll'/Z/arc?, born Jan. o I, lt;40, pastor of Old South Church, Boston. He had by his 
first wife eight and by his second wife fourteen children — twenty-two in all. One of these, a son. Major 
John WiUdnl, born lt'.73, had a son, Rev. Siimiel Willan), born at Kingston, Jamaica, 1705, was 
educated at Boston, Mass., and became the first settled minister in what is now the State of Maine ; he 
married Ahiijuil />(/vV//(^, a descendant in the same line of President Dwight, of Yale College; they 
had i>sue, four children, one of whom, Rtv. Joseph Willard, I ).D., was President of Harvard College. 
The eldest son. Rev. ./o//« Wilhinl, D.D., also married a Dwight, and was the father of Rev. Josejyh 
\\ illitrfl, who marrie<l Olive Haven, daughter of John Haven. His leading characteristics were: 
"conscentiousness. mirthfuliiess, strong common sense and order."' His son, John Haven Willard, born 
at Lancaster, N. 11.. Feb. 4, 1795, married Beede Mary Cooper, daughter of IIou. Jesse Cooper, of 
Canaan, Vt. Tlieir third child was Louhn (Hire Willard, born Aug. 15, 1821. 

Dr. C. W. Butler, the suljject of this sketch, was prepared for college by his father, and entered 
Oberlin, but w;is compelled to leave during the Freshman course on account of ill health. He decided 
to enter the medical profession, and was induced by his mother to adopt the " new school " of practice. 
He began his studies with Dr. C. J. Chaffie, of Fairport, X. Y., and took his courses of lectures at the 
Cleveland and the New York IIom(eo[)athic Medical College, graduating in 1872. He settled the same 
year in Montclair and was the first in this locality to introduce the new school of practice. He had 
neither friends nor influence, and found the people of this locality wedded to the "old school'' and 
strongly opposed to any new experiments. The outlook was anything but promising, and would have 
deterred many young men from attempting any innovation contrary to long established customs, but 

ITfi History of Montclatr Township. 

Dr. Butler liad come to stay, and determined to " fight it out on this line,'' even if it should take the best 
years of his life to accomplish the desired results. He liad been a close student and was fully convinced 
that the new school of practice — and no other — was the correct one, and to this he lias firmly adhered 
from the first. Inscribed on his escutcheon was the motto of the Willard family, " Gaudet putentia 
dures'''' — patience in overcoming difficulties — ; he waited, and peisevered ; his progess was slow at first, 
but "nothing succeeds like success," and lie was successful in his treatment in many cases where old 
methods had failed. His clientele increased from year to year, and includes many of the oldest and 
wealthiest families in the township. lie confines himself strictly to the practice of medicine, leaving 
that of surgery to others. His i>rofe5sional opponents are among bis warmest personal friends. During his 
long and successful practice, Dr. Butler has acquired more than a local reputation. lie is not only called 
into consultation with his professional brethren in different parts of New Jersey, but in New York and 
Brooklyn, and is recognized as one of the most skillful and best informed practitioners of homa?opathy in 
this State. He is a member of the American Institute of Honioeopathy, the International Hahnemannian 
Association, of which he was President in 1S91 ; of the New Jersey' State Medical Society, of which he was 
President in 1888 ; was Vice-President of the International Homoeopathic Congress, which held one of 
its five yearly meetings at Atlantic City, N. J., in 1890. 

Although one of the busiest men in the township, Dr. Butler has found time to devote to jmlilic 
affairs. As a staunch democrat he has fought with the minority for twenty years, and has witnessed the 
steady growth of his party both in strength and in numbers, frequent accessions having been made from 
the ranks of his opponents. For sixteen years he has been Chairman of the Democratic Committee and the 
recognized leader of the party in Montclair, and through bis able management the part\' has reduced the 
majority of its opponents and occasionally scored a victory. The party was witliout an "organ"' in 
Montclair until 1892. In 1890, a stock company was organized which started the 2[on(daii' Ilerahl, 
run in the interest of the democracv. It was not a political or financial success, and, in 1S92. Dr. Butler 
purchased the stock, and made it a thorough democratic paper. "Within a year it donl)]ed its circulation, 
and is now recognized as one of the best party journals in the State. 

Dr. Butler inherits the prominent traits of both his paternal and maternal ancestors. He is 
aggressive without being offensive. Obstacles to success in an}' undertaking must be removed — by 
direct assault if necessary, if not by slow approaches, but nothing can swerve him from a course he has 
once marked out for himself. 

In October, 1877, Dr. Butler married Mary E., oldest daughter of II. II. and Eunice Wilcox, of 
Adrian, ilichigan. 

Thongli not a "society man," Dr. Butler is prominent in all social affairs. He was one of the 
original members of the Montclair Clul), and served three vears as a member of the Board of Control. 
He is a membei' of the Watcbung Lodge, F. & A. M., and though heartily endoi'sing the jn'inciples of 
Freemasonry, is al)le to devote but little time to that special object. 

JAMES SPENCER BROWN", M.D.— Dr. Brown may be classed among the ""Waterbnry 
Colony" of Montclair, having been born in AVaterbury, Conn., March 2:^ 18(')o, and is a direct 
descendant of one of the early settlers and most prominent residents of that town. His American 
ancestor, Francis I>rown, was one of the company who came to New Haven in advance of the colony 
and spent the winter of 16:17-8 in a lint on the corner of what is now Church and George Streets. He 
signed the Colony Constitution in lOoU. He married Mary Edwards, in England, and, among other 
children, had a son Samuel, who married Mercy Tuttle in 1679; Francis, one of their children, born in 
1679, married Hannah Ailing; of this marriage there was a son Sfejdie?!, born August 10, 1713, who 
married Mabel Bradley; they had a son Stephen, born January 15, 1750, who settled in "Windsor, Conn., 
where he married Eiinicc Loomis. Of the issue of this marriage there was a son James, born in 
Windsor, December 2, 1776. James became a resident of Waterbnry, Conn., in 1802, and found employ- 
ment with Lieut. Ard Williams, a manufacturer of fire-arms. In early life he connected himself with 

History of Moxtclair Township. 


a military company, and tiually became colonel of tlie regiment, lie was an original partner in tlio 
tliinl rolliiiir mill erected in Waterlmry in l>^.'?ii, afterward known as the Hrowii-Elton Company, and 
continned a mendjer of that iirm nntil his death. lie was a mend)er of the First Congregational 
Church, and was made deacon in 1818, and during the remainder of his life was known as " Deacon 
Brown.'' He was also a prominent member of the ^[a.sonic Fraternity. It is said of him. that he ''was 
remarkable for his truth and industry, and sobriety" ; a most exemplary man, faithful in all the relations 
of life. He married Lavinia "Welton, of AVindsor. Among other children, they had a son Augustus, 
born August 20, 1811. who married Sophia, daughter of .lacob De (iroff, of Poughkeepsie, a descendant 
of one of the old Ilolhuid families of New York State. 

James Spencer Brown, the subject of this sketch, was the son of Augustus and Sophia (De Groff) 
Brown. lie was early left a fatherless orphan, and at about eight years of age he removed with his 
mother and sister to B>rooklyn, X. Y. He re- 

ceived a thorough educa- tiiin at the Polytechnic 

Institute, and after two years' experience in a 

business house he deter- mined to study medi- 

cine, having a natural taste in that direction. 

He entered the College _»^^i^: "»». "^ Physicians and Sur- 

g(><>ns, grad uating in JM^^^Ifi^^^ lSs4,and soon after went 

tiiEurope.ciiutinuinghis W ^^^^^ medical studies at the 

University of Ileidel- ^ ^^^^ berg and Guy's Hospital 

of London. Being fully ij^ ^^^^ C(juip])etl for the duties 

of his profession he re- " ^^y turned tt) his native land 

in 1885. His mother at -^ i/' this time had been five 

years a resident of All mt- ■*>^^ *-^ clair, and through the 

advice of his profession- *" al bretiiren he was in- 

duced to locate there. .^B ^ ^L .Mthough the youngest 

in his profis.-ion his skill ^ ^^^^^^ as a surgeon and physi- 

cian soon becameknown, ^^"^1^^^^^^^^^ '^"'^' '"^ ^'^'^ enjoyed a 

continued increasi ng / ^^^^^^B^ •'"'' hierative practice. 

He has performed many ' important operations in 

surgerv, and was the first one of the local sur- 

geons to jierform an ah- dominal section, and was 

also the first to operate for ajipendicitis. He 

performed successfully the operation of sym- 

physeotdiny, the first of the kind in this State, 

and the twentv-ninth in the United States. He 

is highly esteemed by his professional brethren ; 

is Secretary of the Orange Alountain Medical Societv, a member of the Essex Aledical Society, and has 
been for six years township physician. 

He married, December 9, 1SS7, Helen B.. daughter of Thomas Pussell, Esq., one of the most 
prominent and best known citizens of Alontclair, and a representative of one of the old Scottish families. 
It is of great antiquity, its ancestors having accompanied Edward III. to the siege of Berwick and to the 
battle of Ilallydon Hill in 13.33. The Russell, or, as it was formerly written, Tlozel, from whom this 
family descends, then settled in Scotland, and was denominated Ilusscll, of that ilk. The motto, 
" Proinjilns,'' inscribed on the arms, has always been a prominent characteristic of this family. 

ClIAKLES HENRY SHELTO.X. M.D.— Daniel Shelton, the founder of the Shelton fan)ily in 
this country, came from Yorkshire, England, in KiSfi, and settled in Stratford, Conn, lie resided in 
Stratford until about 1T<'T, when he settled at Long Hill, in Huntington, where he died in 1728. 

178 History of Montclair Township. 

Charles S. Shelton, the father of Charles Ileury, was a native of Huntington, and a lineal 
descendant of Daniel, the ancestor. He became a missionary physician, stationed at Madura, East iTidies. 
He married Miss Henrietta Hyde, a descendant of the famous Annie Hyde of England, through William 
Hyde, the American ancestor, one of the original proprietors of Norwich, Conn. 

Dr. Charles Henry Shelton was born at Jaffna-Patam (Jaifna-Patam was a small island on the 
north-west coast of the large island, Ceylon), on the Island of Ceylon, May 14, I85i, his father 
having been a temporary resident at that place. His father returned to this country in May, 1856, 
and settled in Davenport, Iowa; from thence he moved to Springfield, 111., in 1859, and at the breaking 
out of the war became surgeon of the First Engineer Corps of the West. Charles H., the son, began his 
studies at the pulilic school of Springfield, and in 1S69 came East with his parents (they having settled in 
Jersey City, N. J.), and was prepared for college at Hasbrouck Institute, Jersey City. He entered 
Yale and was graduated in the class of 1877. He studied medicine with his father (who had liccome a 
convert to the school of liomceopathy in 1867), and was graduated at the New York Ilonueopathic Medical 
College in 1880. His father having died in 1879 he began practice in Jersey City while still a student, and 
continued liis father's practice for four years. He removed to Montclair in the autunui of 1883, and soon 
secured a good clientele. He located (was for a few months on Clinton Avenue) on Fullerton Avenue and 
later removed to Grove Street. His practice has steadily increased and he has made many converts to the 
new school of practice. For the first few years he was active in the Congregational Church and Sabbath- 
school, but of late years the duties connected with his profession have absorbed his whole time. He is a 
member, and was formerly Vice-President of the New Jersey State Homoeopathic Society ; he is also a 
member of the New York Homoeopathic Alumni Association, the New York Club for Medico-Scientific 
Investigation, and other medical societies. He was one of the organizing members of the Montclair Club. 
He married, in 1882, Miss Henriette Adele Huggins, a granddaughter of Henry Wood, Esq., at one 
time a prominent merchant of Jersey City. Issue, four chikli'cn : Henry Wood, Nettie May, Willis 
Huggins, and Charles Keith (deceased). 

KICHARD COLE NEWTON, M.D.— Dr. Newton was born in lloxbury, Mas?., July 23, 1851. 
He removed with his parents to South Orange, N. J. in 1857. He was ])repared for college by Kev. 
Frederick A. Adams, and was graduated from Harvard in 1874, and from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York City, in 1877, and spent eighteen montlis as an interne in the Charity Hospital, New 
York. He entered the U. S. Army in 1880 as Assistant Surgeon ; was post sui'geon at Fort Stanton, New 
Mexico, for two years; at Fort Cummings, New Mexico, one year; at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, one 
year, and four years at Fort Elliott, Texas. While at the latter place Le was promoted to the rank of 
Captain. He came East in the fall of 1887, and was stationed at David's Island, New York harbor. The 
following year he came to Montclair. where he has since continued. He resigned his commission in the 
Army in May, 1889. He is a member of the County Medical Society; State Medical Society; Orange 
Mountain Medical Society ; the Society for the Pelief of Medical Men of New Jersej' ; the Society of the 
Military Surgeons of New Jersey, and various other societies and clubs. 

RICHARD P. FRANCIS, M.D.— Dr. Francis was born in New York City, March 8, 1861 ; 
removed with his parents to Montclair in 1868; was graduated at the High School in 1877; continued 
his studies at a private school in New York for two years; was graduated at Harvai'd in 1883, and took 
his medical course at Harvard Medical School. He spent eighteen months in IJoston City Hospital 
and returned to his home in Montclair in 1888. He was for two years associated with Dr. Pinkham, and, 
on the retirement of the latter, became his successor in practice. He was one of the founders of the 
Montclair Hospital, and has been Secretary of the Medical Staff since its organization. He was one of 
the original members of the Montclair Protective Association. He is a member of Montclair Club, and 
is Health Inspector of the township. 

History of Montclair Township. 179 

LEVI W. CASE. M.D.— Born in Frencbtown, Uunteidon Co.. X. J.. January 2S, 1850. lie 
received his preparatory course at Ilightstown, N. J., and was graduated at Lafayette College in the class 
of '74. He taught school at the High Street. Newark. Academy one year, and was two years a teacher 
in the celebrated Charher In,~;titute of New York. He prosecuted his medical studies during a portion of 
the time; entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, graduating in 1880, and in the spring of that 
year began practice in Chester. Morris Co., N. J., where he remained for nine years, until 1889, when he 
removed to Montclair. He is a member of the County ^[cdical Society; .Morris County iledical Society, 
and the Microscopical Society. He is examining physician fur the Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
also for the Knights of Honor. 

IlEKBERT WEST FOSTER.— Born in Putnam. Conn. Prepared for college at the Putnam 
lUah School, but did not enter. AVas ''radiiated at the New York llomu'oputliic Medical Colleiie, in tjie 
spring of 1^91 ; served on the house .-taff at Ward's Island Hospital, l)ci>artment of Public Cliurities and 
Corrections, from May, 1891, to May, 1892; was tiieu Resident Physician of the Hahnemann Hospital, 
New York, from May, ls92. to ^fay, 1893. when he began practice in Montclair, with the endorsement 
of some of the most eminent physicians of the " new school." 

The following is a brief outline of liis ancestry : Tinu)thy Foster, of Walpole. Mass., bought land 
and settled in Dudley in l~is. The following is on the gravestone of his youngest son, Josepli. who 
lived at Windham. Conn.: " He enlistetl in the Army of the Revolution at Vi years of age and was one 
of Vi brothers who together with tiieir father, served in the war in the aggregate over 60 years." 
Timothy Foster's eldest son, Ebenezer, had a son, Peleg. who was the doctor's great-grandfather. 

On his mother's side, Moses Wild .settled in western Ma.ssachu.setts in lOI'.S. He married, and, 
after several generations, Miriam Wild married Earl Westgate, of Portsmouth. K. 1 , who was the doctor's 

Among other other family names are West, Davis, Harris, Shepardson, Coltuii and I'uller. 

L. \V. HALSEY. M.D.,— Born in liinghamton, N. Y., entered Oberlin College in 1879; was 
graduated at the College of Physicians in lss;i, serving a portion of the time in the hospital; began 
])ractice in bis native town in 1>8;1 succeetling his maternal grandfather, who for fifty years was a resident 
l)hysieian in that place. In 1892 he sold his practice and came to Montclair. 

His paternal grandfather was a prominent lawyer of Binghamton. was twenty years Surrogate of 
Suffolk County, N. Y.. and was for two years State Senator, fifteen years Presiding Judge, and one term 
Surveyor-General of the State. 


The family of Crane is fjuite ancient and li(jnorable. Ualiiii Drake accompanied Sir Francis Drake 
to America in 1577, and Robert Crane was of the first company that came to Massachusetts Bay in 1630, 
Sir Robert Crane was of Essex (bounty, England, in 1630 ; and Sir Richard, in 16-13, was of Wood Rising, 
Norfolk, England. 

First Genekatio.v. 

Jasper (1) and Alice, his wife, came from London in l<i37 or '38, to the New Flaven 
Colony. He was one of the original settlers of the New Haven Colony and signed the finst and "Funda- 
mental Agreement." June -1, 1639, at a general meeting of all the free planters at New Haven, at the barn 
of Mr. Newman. Tradition says that he had the stewardship and oversight of the property of the 
Rev. John Davenport. Jasper Crane, Sr., was one of those at New Haven who attempted the settlement 
of the lands on the Delaware and was repulsed by the Dutch natives, Swedes and Fins. 

He was a surveyor and trader, and with Mr. Myles laid out much of the town plot at New Haven, 
ami located grants, settled division lines and disputed titles. He was a selectman, and one of the civil 

180 History of Montclair Township. 

managers of tlie new settlement (Xew Haven). In March, 1641, he liad a grant of 100 acres in the east 
meadow. In l(iJr8 he was in the list of estates at New Haven at £480. In 1644 he was freed from 
"watching and trayning" because of his weakness. In 1644-5 he had a second grant of 16 acres of up- 
land in East Haven, where he built his house in whicii Jasper, Jr., was born. Soon after this, not being 
satisfied with his location as a merchant, he sold his place in 1652 and purchased in Totoket (afterward 
called Branford), and removed thence M'ith his family, where he, with ]Mr. "William Swayne and some 
20 others from Southampton, L. I., with Rev. Abraham Pierson as their leader, founded Ihe new town 
of Branford. Jasper Crane, Es(j., and Mr. William Swayne were the first deputies to the "General 
Court of Electors'" from Branford, ]\Iay, 1653, and four jeai's after, in ilay, 1658, he was chosen magis- 
trate of the New Ilaven Colony, which he held until 1<>63. On the union of the two Colonies he was 
chosen an assistant (Senator) to the General Court at Hartford. He was Justice of the County Court at 
New Haven in 166-1-5, one of the magistrates convened at Hartford l>y the Governor in 1665, and one of 
the assistants and magistrates of Connecticut in 1665-6-7, and magistrate in the New Ilaven Colony 
in 1658. 

Jasper Crane did not remove with the first company that went to settle (Milford first called) 
Newark, N. J,, though he was one of the 23 persons who signed the first contract in 1665. On January 20, 
1667, a new church covenant was formed for those who left Branford, and Mr. Crane headed the list of 
signers and church members under the new organization, with others, who signed the agreement in 1665, 
and after disposing by deed of his property at Branford in 1667-8 he joined his associates at Newark. 

He, with Bobert Treat (afterward Governor of Conn.), were the first nuigistrates in Newark. In 
1668-9 they represented Newark in the General Court the same year, and were again chosen deputies 
in 1669-70. 

In 1675 he was deputy and magistrate at Newark. He was one of the purchasers of the Kings- 
land farm, a large tract of land located at what is now Bellville. He was ranked with the strong-minded 
men of Connecticut and New Jersey, lived to an advanced age, and died in 1 68 1 . His sons, John and Deli ver- 
ance, had seats in the first meeting house in Newark. Children: John Crane; Hannah, who married 
Thomas Himtington, one of the signers of the "Branford Agreement"; Deliverance, or Delivered, born 
July 12, 1642, died without issue; Azariah, born 1647, died November 5, 1730, aged S3 years; he mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Robert Treat, Governor of Connecticut. 

When Mr. Treat left New Jersey for Connecticut he "betrusted his property at Newark to his 
son, Deacon Azariah Crane, who lived in the stone house at Newark, and was a man of integrity and 

"Deacon" Azariah had issue: Nathaniel, Azariah, Jr., John, Robert, Mary Baldwin and Jane Bull. 

Jasper, Jr., born at East Haven, April 2, 1657, removed with his father to Newark. He pur- 
chased the estate of Robert Lyman in Newark in 1682, after Mr. Lyman retui-ned to New England. 
Jasper died March 18, 1712, aged 61 years. 

Second Genekation. 

"Deacon" Azariah Crane, third child of Jasper (1) and Alice Crane, was born, 1647, probably 
at Branford, then a part of the New Haven Colony. He died, Nov. 5, 1730, aged 83. He was one of 
the sioners of the " Fundamental Agreement," a deacon in the First Church of Newark, and held many 
offices of trust in the " Towne." He left his "silver bole" to be used by "the church in Newark 
forever." He married Mary, daughter of Robert Ti-eat, one of the original settlers of Newark, and 
afterward Governor of the Connecticut Colony. "In the overturn of the govermnent by the Dutch," 
in 1673, he " was betrusted with the concerns of his honorable father-in-law, ilr. Robert Treat." In 1715, 
he is spoken of by himself as having been "settled" for many years at the mountain. He had two 
sons, Nathaniel and Azariah, both born or lived in Cranetown "by the spring." (This, according to the 
statement of Joseph Doremus, was what is now known as the Frost property on the northeast corner of 
Myrtle Avenue and Orange Road.) He had also -lohn, Robert, Mary Baldwin and Jane Bull. 

History of Montclair Township. 181 

Third Generation. 

Nathaniel BDd Azariah Crane, Jr.. sons of "Deacon" Azariali and Mary (Treat) Crane, founders 
of tlie Crane family of Cranetown. 


Naihaniel (1), eldest son of " Deacon " Azariali and Mary i^Treat) Crane, was born in the town 

of Newark, and was one of the founders of Cranetown. He married and had issue, William, Noah and 

Nathaniel (2). 

FoiKTU Gexer.\ti().v. — Link ok Natii.\.niel. 

Wh-liam (1) Crane, eldest son of Nathaniel (1) (Deacon Azariah, Jasper) was born in Cranetown. 
During the war of the Revolution, he was Lieutenant in Spencer's Regiment, Continental Army; 
Captain, ditto, March. 1777. He married and hud issue: Matthia.s. James, Isaac, Jonathan. Jonas. 
William r2), Zadoc, Oliver. 

Noah Ckaxe, second son of Nathaniel (1). (Deacon Azariah, Jasper) was born in Cranetown, 

Mav 1, 171'.t. He married Mary and had issue: Samuel, born Oct. -iO, 1740 ; E.sthcr, born 

Feb. 12, 174'.>; Joseph, born Feb. 1, ITol, died November, ls:!2. married Hannah, daughter of Daniel 
Lamson ; Elizabeth, born Ainil l.t. 1753; Caleb, born Jan. 17. 17i'>_', died Sept. 17, 17()S; "Major" 
Nathaniel n'l. born Oct. 29, 17.J7; Mehitalilc. born June 17, 1 7ti4, married Gen. "William (iould of 
Caldwell, an otiicer of the Revolution; Mary, born 1700, died Sept. '.», 17<;s; Nehemiah, born July I, 
1771, died Sept. 27, 1777. 

FifTn Generation. — Line of Natiiami i.. 

Matthias Crank, eldest son of WiUlmi, (i) i Nathaniel, Deacon Azariah, .lasper), was l)orn in 
Cranetown. lie married Elizabeth, daughter of Job Crane, and had issue: Israel. 

Oliver Crane, youngest son of WUllam (Nathaniel, Deacon Azariah, Jasper), was born in Crane- 
town. He married Susannah I'aldwin, a descendant in the tiftli generation of John Haldwin, Sr., one 
of the oriirinal settlers of Newark. Tliev had issue: Stipheii Fvidlunn, Lvdia Sarah, .\nios, Zouhar, 
Nathaniel M., Isaac "W., and Rachel, who married Amos I.aldwin. 

Samiel Crane, eldest .sun of Xoah (Nathaniel. Deacon Azariali, Ja.sper) and Mary Crane, was 
born at Cranetown, October 'J, 174<!. 

Dr. Wickes, in his " History of the Oranges," makes several ([notations from Jemima Cundict's 
diary of Revolutionary events. One of these contains the following in reference to Samuel Crane. 

"September y" 12, 1777. on Friday there Was an alarm, our Militia was Called. The Regulars 
Came over into elesabeth town ^^■here they had a Brush Witii a Small Rarty of our People; then 
marched (Quietly up to Newark & took all the Cattle they Could, there was live of the militia [of] 
Newark, they killed Samuel Crane k took Zadock and Allen heady and Samuel freeman Prisoners, 
one out of five run and escapt." * * * 

Samuel Crane married and had issue : Caleb, Zenas. Cyrus, and Nathaniel (3). 

Natiiaxiet,, known as "Major" Nathaniel Crane, fifth child of Noah (Nathaniel, Deacon 
Azariah, Jasj)en and Mary Crane, was born at Cranetown. February 1.5, 1702. He married Hannah, 
daughter of William Crane (son of Nathaniel), and died without i.ssue. He served with the New Jersey 
.Militia in the War of the Revolution, in Capt. ^fai-sh's Trooj) of Light Horse. He was a man highly 
respected in the community, and was for many years a leader of the choir in the First Presbyterian 
Church of Orange, and was tendered the thanks of that parish for his valuable services on several occasions 
at their annual meeting. He gave to the Presbyterian Church of Bloomfield their bell, and in his last 
will he gave the most of his estate — about slu,(iUO — to the use of the Bloomfield Church, with the 
])roviso, that when a Presbyterian Church should be organized in West Bloomfield, the income of the 
property was to go to the new chuicli. 


History of Montclair Township. 

Sixth Generation. — Line of Nathaniel. 

Israel Crane, only son of Matthias (1) (William, Nathaniel (1), Deacon Azariah, Jaspei-) was horn 
in Cranetown, Mareh l.i, 177-1. He inlierited from his ancestors those sterling qualities which made 
him a "man among men." IJe was known as "King" Crane, ami well deserved the name for he was a 
born ruler and leader of men ; he was the \"anderl)ilt of his time, and had he lived at a later ]>eriod 
would have been a "railroad king." In early life he entered Princeton College, intending to study for 
the ministry, but was compelled to give uj) his studies in consei|uence of failing health. He then entered 
upon an active business career in which he met with almost unprecedented success in every undertaking. 
He was a ju-ince among country merchants, and did the most extensive business of any man or iii-m for miles 

around. He opened and 
brown-stone quarry 
largest in this part of the 
times from three to four 
jected the Newark and 
which opened a large ex- 
enhancing the value of 
fording the farmers bet- 
ing their produce to mar- 
in this enterprise were 
He was president of the 
ly acquired their inter- 
owner of the property, 
to utilize the iimiieuse 
saic Falls, near I'aterson, 
second cotton mill. He 
power on Tony's Brook, 
ton mills on the stream, 
to the Wildes. In the 
sive business interests he 
gacity, and great execu- 
time he gave encourage- 
every new enterprise thar 
He did more to develop 
than any man before or 
and upright in all his 
1 a r K e-liearted 1 i beral i t v . 
the DJooinfield Presbyte- 
Pev. Stephen Dodd. in 
to " Israel Crane, w h o 


developed an immense 
in Newark, one of the 
country, employing a t 
hundred men. He pro- 
Pom pt on Turnpike 
tent of country, thereby 
farm property, and af- 
ter facilities for transport- 
ket. Associated with him 
N e w Y o r k capitalists, 
company and subsequent- 
ests, and became sole 
He was one of the first 
water piower of the Pas- 
aud erected there the 
controlled the water 
and erected the tirst cot- 
which he afterward sold 
management of his exten- 
displaycd wonderful sa- 
tive ability. At the same 
ment to and promoted 
gave promise of success, 
this region of country 
since. He was honorable 
dealings, and a man of 
In an historical sketch of 
rian Church. pre|)ared by 
1854, reference is made 
was earlv chosen a ruline 

Elder, and still retains the office, and who bore a prominent part in the erection of the house, and to whose 
prudent and enlightened counsels, and acknowledged ability and enterprise, the church and parish will 
ever feel their indebtedness, and who, in a green old age, is permitted to rejoice in 3'our prosjierity." 

Mr. Crane at that time was one of the two only remaining members out of fifty-nine from 
the First Church in Orange, and twenty-three from the First Chui-cli in Newark, who, in the month of 
June, 1798, withdrew from the above named churches and organized the church at Bloom field. When, 
in 1837, it was proposed to start a church in the '"Upper Village," or AVest Bloomtield, he entered 
heartily into the work, and gave lilierally toward tlie new enterprise, his own children becoming faithful 
and consistent members of the First Presbyterian Church of West Bloomfield. 

History of Montclair Township. 


Mr. Crane inarried Fannv, daiifiliter of Dr. Matthias Piei-son, of Orange, the first resilient 
physician at the Newark Mountains, a sireHt-ocrand.son of Tiionia.s I'icrson, one of tlie Associates from 
BranfonJ, of the Xew Haven Colony, who settled in Newark in KltiO. It is said he was a near kinsman, 
and probably a brother of Rev. Abraham Pierson, who came with the colony as its minister. 

Tiie issue of Israel and Fanny (I'ierson) Crane was Mary Stockton, died youuff ; Alattliias, Eliza — 
wife of Captain Ephraini l!eacli. the civil engineer, who hiid out the Morris Canal al)0ut 1S2S — Abigail, 
wife of Dr. Isaac Dodd; Mary and James. 

Stkphkx FoKiniAM Ckaxk, elde.<t son of Oliver (William, Nathaniel ( H, Deacon Azariah, Jasper), 
and .Susannah (IJaldwiiU Crane, Wiis l)Orn in fJranetown 17fl:i. He married Matilda Howell Smith, 
daughter of Peter Smith, who wa.s Washington's private secretary in tlii' winter of 1779-80, and was pro- 
posed by Washington for membership in the American Union I-o(ige, F. iV: A. ^I., where he was "duly 
initiated, pa.ssed and raised to the sul)lime degree of Master Mason," (ieneral (l^ro.) Wasiiinijton assisting 
in the ceremony. His name appears on the list of members of American Union Lodge at an '• Entered 
Apprentices' Lodge," held at Morristown, X. .F.. December •2~, 177!*. for the celebration of the Festival 

\y.l. (RAM-. 

nf St. John the Among those present on that occasion were l»ros. Washington, .\rnold 
(Benedict), Samuel Holden Parsons. Van Rensselaer, an<l other distinguished officers of the Continental 

After the war Peter Smith was a magistrate, and later County Clerk of Sussex County. 

Stephen Fordham Crane had i.ssue: Emeline II., Susan P., Oliver, Sarah U., Stephen Smith and 

Sevexth Gk.veration — Li.vK OK Nathaniel (1). 

Rev. Or.ivEK, D.D., LL.D., clergyman. Oriental scholar, and poet, son of Stephen Fordham 
(Oliver, William, Nathaniel, Deacon Azariah, Jasper) and Matilda Howell (Smith) Crane, was born in 
West P.loomfield, now Montclair. N. J., July 12, 1^22. 

His early education began in his native town with Gideon Wheeler as his instructor, in the 
school-house afterward used by the First Presbyterian Church. By dint of energy and perseverance he 
prepared for college and entered Vale University as Sophomore, and graduated thence with honors in 


History of Montclair Township. 

the class of 1845, and from Union Tlieological Seminary in 1848. He was ordained in April of the 
same year, and soon after appointed a niissionarv of tlie American Board of Commissioners of Foreign 
Missions to Turkey. He aerpiired the Turkisli language and did etheient service during tiie next live 
years at Broosa, Aleppo, Aintab and Trebizond. He returned to America the following year and 
became pastor of the Presl)yterian Chnrch in Huron, N. Y., and, in 1857, of that in Waverly, N. Y. 
Being reappointed missionary in the spring of 1860, he went back to Turkey and was assigned to 
Adrianople, l)nt, in 1863, circumstances necessitated his return to his native land. The next year he was 
elected Professor of Biblical and Oriental Literature in Eutgers Female College, New York City, but 

declined, to accept 
bon dal e, Pa., 
stalled as pastor. 
1870 he resigned, 
y ear settled i n 
where he devoted 
literary work, 
things aiding Gen. 
ton (his college 
]") r e p a r a t i on of 
the Revolutioi;," 
a standard work. 
186ri-66. he liad 
his ])rcsbyterv to 
for the use of its 
1SG9 lie had been 
of the large Synod 
New Jersey. In 
chosen Secretary 
in which capacity 
ha usti ve biograph- 
every mend)e;', a 
pioneer in this line 
1888 he published 
line-by-line ver- 
^•Eneid, the result 
labor, which was 
ed. In 1889 he 
ume of poems un- 
'• Minto and other 

1 1 i 1 KEV. OLIVER S. CRANE, D.D 

he was elected a 

of the American Oriental Society, of which he is now one of the senior members. He is a member of 
several historical societies, and for four years past has been, by appointment of the Governor, a member 
of the Board of Examiners of the Scientihc College of New Jersey. The degree of A.M., was conferred 
upon him by his Alma Jlaier ; M.D., by the Eclectic Medical College of New York City, in 1866; 
D.D., by the University of Wooster, O., in 1880, and LL.D., by the Westminster College, Fulton, Mo., 
in 1S8S, the last being mainly in recognition of the scholarship evinced in his version of Virgil's ^Eneid. 
His life has been an active one, including, as it does, extensive traveling in Turkey, Europe, Egypt and 
Palestine, assidous investigating and versatile writing. He now resides in Boston in comparative retire- 
ment, still occupying his time in literary pursuits. 

a call from the 
Church of Car- 
wliere he was in- 
In the spring of 
and the following 
Morristown, N,J., 
himself largely to 
among other 
Henry B. Carring- 
classtnate) in the 
"The Battles of 
which has become 
Previously, in 
bee;. ; ppointed by 
prepare a manual 
churches, and in 
elected moderator 
of New York and 
18 80 he was 
of his college class, 
he prepared an e.x- 
ical record of 
btiok which was a 
(if publication. In 
a hexanactrical 
sion of A'irgil's 
of much critical 
favorably receiv- 
issued a small voi- 
der the title of 
Poems." In 1856 
corporate mendier 

History of Montclair Township. 185 

Dr. Oliver Crane married. September .5, IS-iS, Marion 1). Tnrnbuil, and had by her five children : 
Louina M., died young; Elizabetli if. uvife of Kev. John 8. Gardiu-n; Caroline TI. (wife of Edward C. 
Lvon. Es^.); Oliver T. (married Gertrude N. Boyd); and Louina Mary ^^wife of Harry C. Crane). Mrs. 
Crane July 23, 1S90. Dr. Crane married, September 1, ISiU, Sibylla A. Bailey, of Boston, Mass., where 
thev both now reside. Dr. Crane did much in starting improvements in Montclair, laying out and 
making, mainly at his own expense, Clermont Avenue from Valley lioad to Forest Street, and also Forest 
Street from Clermont Avemie to Walnut Street, and so opened up for settlement that part of the town, 
lie was one of tlie corporate members of the First Pre.sbyterian Clniich in the town, and took an active 
part in all its interests. 

Vol. v.. No. 1 of the "Magazine of Poetry" contains a sketcii and a few selections of the poems 

of Mr. Crane. Tiie genius of the poet and the beauty of e.xpression is shown in the two stanzes of one 

entitled : 


•' Where has thou gleaned to-day I " — Ruth xi., 19. 

O gleaner, who homeward as if in retreat 

Art wearily plodding thy way, 
Thou hast patiently wrought in the dust and the heat 
But why bringest thou with thee no bundle of wheat ? 

Oh, whete hast thou gleaned to-day ? 

" I have gleaned in the field where the Master assigned, 

And have stayed where He bade me stay ; 
Where the owner and reapers alike were kind, 
And permitted mc many a sheaf to find, 

I have gleaned as a reaf)er to-day." 

^r.vnniAS (2) Ckaxe, son of Israel (Matthias. William, Xathaniel ( 1 ), Deacon .Vzariah, .lasjier) 
and Fannv (Pierson) Crane was born at Cranetown. Mjiv 2. l>^n-J. He married Susan, daughter of Jcp- 
tlia r>id<hvin (born 177>^), son of J'eiijamin ( IJenjamin, .loseph, -lolin Baldwin, Sr., one of the original 
settlers, who .signed the "Fundamental Agreement"). Matthias Crane was a farmer, and resided at the 
homestead on ]jloomtiel<l Avenue. lie had issue, Edward Bishop. Israel, Catharine Baldwin, Mary 
Clarissa, Abba F., Francis, and lli'tirv I.ind.-h-y. unmarried, and resides at the homestead on Bloonitidd 
Avenue, Montclair. 

Catharine Baldwin was mairied to Robert M. lM>y<l of ^lontclair. ^laiy C. married Samuel Friedly^ 
and resides in Richmond, Va. Abba F. marrieil Mr. Dodd, and resides at Bloomtield. 

Edward Bishoi' Cka.nk, eldest chihl of Matthias (2) (Israel, Matthias (1), William, Nathaniel (1), 
"Deacon" Azariah, Jasi)er) and Susan (Baldwin) Crane, was born in West Bloomtield, now Montclair. 
lie married Ellen F., daughter of Sanniel Baldwin, of Bloomfiehl. They had issue: Frank W., Nellie 
1"., mariied Dr. Soper (now of Upper Montclair), Samuel B., and Edna G. 

Frank W. Crane, son of Edward B. Crane, is a civil engineer by profession, and has held 
many positions of trust in this line, and has been connected with pnnniiiciit railroad interests. lie mar- 
ried Mary Tolfree, of Orange, and has one child, Harold T. 

Israel (2) Crane, second sou of Matthias (2) (Israel, Matthias (1), William, Nathaniel (1), Deacon 
Azariah, Jasper) and Susan (Baldwin) Crane, wa,s born at West Bloomtield, X. J., August 23, 1835, in 
the homestead on the south-west corner of Bloomtield Avenue and Willow Street. He was prepared for 
college at Ashland Hall, then under the direction and ownership of Rev. David A. Frame, and was 
graduated from Princeton College in ls."(4. lie studied law for a time in the office of Judge Amzi Dodd, 
in Newark, N. J. 

As early as 1868 he foresaw the po.ssibilities of Montclair, and begun making improvements of 
various kinds. He was always in full .sym])athy with every progressive movement which might lienetit 
the town. His own property he divided into building lots, laid out streets, planted trees, etc. The open- 
ing of Union and East Plymouth Streets, from FuUerton Avenue east, was largely due to his enterprise. 

186 History of Montclair Township. 

He was Olio of tlie first to Imild houses for renting, and has erected a munher of liandsoine cottages 
costing in the aggregate $100,000, including his own liomestead. No. 16 East Plymouth Street. 

He lias shown commendable zeal and energy in the cause of education, having been one of the chief 
promoters of the first, and until recently the only, public library in Montclair. He was one of the 
original inemliers of the First Congregational Church and also of the Montclair Club. He married 
Anna L. liarne.s, niece of A. S. Barnes, deceased, the well known book pul)lisher, and also a niece of 
Julius II. Pratt's wife, deceased. He has one child, Percy Waldron. who is a member of the Class of 
'95, of Yale University. 

Henry L. Crane, youngest son of Matthias and Susan (Baldwin) Crane, was born at the homestead 
of liis father, in Montclair. Has been for the past .seven years engaged in the coal business. He married 
Ella F., daughter of Truman B. Brown, of Brooklyn ; issue, one son, I^eroy L. 

TiiiiJD Generation. 

AzAEiAii Crane, Jr., and his Descendants. 

AzAKiAH (2) Crane, son of Deacon Azariah Crane, was born in the town of Newark, and was 
one of the founders of that part of Newark which afterward became " Cranetowii." Azariah (2) 
married Eebecca, and had issue: Azariah (3), Job, (ilamaliel, Ezekiel, Josiah, Moses, Stephen. In 1733, 
he grants three acres at the "mountain jilantation " to his well-blood son-in-law, Ziicltarlnli Baldwin. In 
1753 Azariah, Jr., conveys to his son, Azariah (3), a tract of land south of what is now Union Street, 
extending to the top of the mountain, and bounded by the property of Nathaniel Crane. 

Fourth Genekation. — Line ok Azariah (2). 

Jon Crane, son of Azariah, Jr. (Deacon Azariah, Jasper), married and had issue: Aaron. 

Stephen Crane, youngest son of Azariah, Jr., who was the son of Deacon Azariah, son of Jasper 

Crane, was born in Cranetown, and married Rhoda . He was in communion with the Mountain 

Society previous to 1756. Among those who entered into covenant with the Montclair Society during 
the pastorate of liev. Jedediah Chapman, was "■ Bhoda, wife of Stephen Crane." In the description of the 
boundaries of Newark it says, "thence along the line of Caldwell township to a point in the First 
Mountain called Stephen Crane's notch." 

At a convention of the committees of the several counties held at New Brunswick in response to 
the appeal of the " Freeholders and Inhabitants of the County of Essex, Province of New Jersey, to take 
action in regard to the late acts of Parliament, etc." 72 gentlemen took part in the deliberations. 
"Stephen Crane of Essex was in the chair." At this meeting Stephen Crane was appointed one of the 
delegates to the General Continental Congress held in the city of Philadelphia, September, 177i. 

In the absence of any proof to the contrary it is presumed that Stephen, son of Azariah (2) is the 
one referred to. 

In the records of those who served in the the War of the Revolution is found the name of Stephen 
Crane, who served with the First Regiment, "New Jersey Line,"' Continental Army. He also served 
with the New Jei'sey Militia in Cajjlain Squire's Company, Second Regiment, Essex Co. 

The children of Stephen Crane and his wife Rlioda were : Martha, baptized 1757 ; Lois, baptized 
1760; Jeremiah, born April 2. 1770; Sarah, born 1776; Stephen Bradford, born 1T7<I. The church 
records show another child of Stephen, "name nnknown." 

Fifth Generation. — Line ok Azariah (2). 

Aaron Crane, born in Cranetown, son of Job (Azariah, Jr., Deacon Azariah, Jasper), married 
and had issue : Thomas Jeptlia, Timothy, Elias B., Zenas Sipiire. 

History of Momxlair TowNsiiir. 187 

Sixth Genera nox. — Line of Azaeiah (2). 

Zexas Squire Crane, son of Aaron (Job, Azariah, Jr., Deacon Azariali, Jasper), was born in Crane- 
town, Oct()ber20, 1793, (in tlie boiiiestead situated on tlie Valley T'oad. near the junction of Cliurcli Street, 
sul>se(juently pureliased by Crant J. Wheeler, and now occupied by the hitter's son. 

"Stjuire" Crane, as he was known, began life as a clerk in the store of .lub Dudd, in l!liMiiiiticl<l. 
"When but eijrliteen yeai-s of age he was elected a con.>table for IJloomfield township. A year later, <>n 
the breakinjr out of the war of lsl2, he responded to his country's call, and, though a mere vouth, 
shouldered Ills flint-lock musket, and enlisted in a .New Jci-sey regiment, doing .service at Sandy Hook, 
and in the southern jtart of the State, defending the coast against the invading forces. On his return he 
entered the militia .service, and on May 15, 1S21, was made lieutenant, and .-ubseiiuently captain, of the 
First Company, Second Battalion, of the Fifth Itegiment, acting as such for more than eleven years. In 
lS-2t5 he was appointed a Justice of the Peace by the Legislature, which office he held with great credit 
for tifty-four cou-secutive years. JL's rulings during all this time were never reversed by those of a 
higher court, and the decisions rendered by him were at all times .sound and logical, lie received an ap- 
pointment as Comnii.ssioner of Decils a year later, and in 1. S3 7 he was ajipointed a Lay Judge of Essex 
County, in which capacity he serveil until 1853, when he was also appointed a Master of Chancery. 
When the building of the present court house was proposed, Judge Crane was one of the members of the 
Building Committee. 

There wa-<, perhaps, not another man in\ County who was so well informed as to the genei'al 
transactions in real estate, since Judge Crane wa.s a surveyor and surveyed the lands and prepared the 
deeds for nearly every transaction made in this vicinity for fifty yeai-s. He was also one of the corporate 
members <jf the Presbyterian Church, and served as a Trut-tee for more than twenty years. Among the 
archives of the public schools is a book wherein Mr. Crane has recorded the organization of the ])i'csent 
.school on May 17. is.'M, to which he sub.scribes himself as President of the Board of Trustees, of which 
he was a member for many years. F'ew men in this vicinity ever led such a life of public usefulness. He 
was for a lontr i)eriod the President of the Uoscndale Cement Co. of JersevCitv; and at one time he 
owned all the lands bounded by a line running from the cornerof Valley Road to a point at the to]> of the 
mountain, near the lands of Mr. Pillsbury, and from thence to the Old Koad, then known as the I'omptoii 
Turnpike, the lands being iiounded on the east and west by \'alley lioad and the CaMwell Townsiiip line. 

At the Presidential election in 1880, Judge Crane and " Uncle" Nathaniel R. Dodd marched to 
the polls early in the morning, the former bearing aloft an American flag. Quite a nmnber of voters had 
preceded them, but all waited until the two old veterans had deposited their ballots. The Judge was a 
loyal adherent to his country, a staunch supporter of the old Whig party, and subse(iuently an uncom- 
promising Bepublican. 

He was married to Mi.-s Maria Searing, September 24, 1.S21, in the old Bloomtield Hotel, the ser- 
vice being performed by the Rev. Dr. Judd, who was at that time the pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of that place. Six children were the issue of this marriage, viz. : Sarah A., wife of Thomas Jessup, 
who lived and died at Newburgh, N. Y., Aiigelena, wife of Hon. Stephen K. Williams, now 
living at Newark, Wayne County, N. Y., Mary Klizabeth, wife of Mr. John Andrus, now living at 
Ilackensack, Bergen County, X. J. Theodore T., now living at Yonkers, X. Y., and Frances J., wife of 
Dr. J. J. H. Love, of ^lontclair. 

Jekkmi.vh, son of Ste|dien (Azariah (2), Deacon Azariah, Jasper) and Rhoda Crane, born Aj)ril 2, 
1 110. The homestead of Jeremiah stood on the foundation of what is now the cottage of the Thomas Porter 
property, near the corner of Harrison Avenue and Union Street. His farm extended from what is now 
Harrison Avenue to the top of the mountain. He was a man of considerable ncjte in his day. He 
married Elizabeth Corby, boi-ii .lune 22, 1774, and had eleven children, viz.: Purthana, Hannah, 
William, Julia, Rhoda, Israel, Linas. Ira, ^[ary, Eliza Ann, Martha. 

Ika, .son of Jeremiah ^Stephen, Azariah i_2j. Deacon Azariah, Jasperj and Elizabeth (Corby) Crane, 

188 History of Moxtclair Township. 

was born in the homestead of his fatlier and succeeded to the estate. He was a man of consideraltle 
prominence, and was an officer in the Presbyterian Ciinrch at Bloomfield ; he served on the Town 
Committee, and held other offices of trust and res])onsibihty. 

He jnirchased the property on South Fullerton Avenue, and l)uilt the house (since altered and 
remodeled) uow owned by Di-. Butler. 

lie carried on the shoe business during most of his life. lie married Margaret Norwood, and had 
issue : Jarvis G., Angeline, Israel. 

Jaevis, son of Ira and Margaret (Norwood) Crane, was Ijorii in the old homestead on Harrison 
Avenue and Union Street, Feb. 7, 1831. 

lie was a carpenter and builder, and erected some of the best houses, in his day, in Montclair, 
amonsr which Dr. Love's and Samuel Wilde's, on Fullerton Avenue, Julius Pratt's on Elm Street, 
William Terry's, George S. Dwight's, J. C. Hart's, Jose])li Van Vleck's, Kobert M. Boyd's and many 
others, lie afterward engaged in the hardware business, which he carried on successfully for many years. 
He bought the lot adjoining that of his father on Fullerton Avenue, and built the house now occupied 
by his son, Dr. Frank S. Crane. He moved to Boonton, N. J., about ISoi, and resided there some five 
years. He then married Henrietta Smith, and had three children, viz. : Ira Seymour, Frank S. and 
Ahee B. 

Ika Seymodr, eldest son of Jarvis and Henrietta (Smith) Crane, was born in Boonton, N. J., 
Dec. 29, 1855. Four years after his birth he was taken by his parents to West Bloomfield (now Mont- 
clair) the old home of his fatlier. He enjoyed the best educational advantages then to be had in the 
township, and graduated from the High School in 1873. He learned the carpenter trade with his father 
and worked at it for eight years. In ISSl his father bought out the hardware business of William S. 
Morris, and took his son, Ira Seymour, into partnership with him under the firm name of J. G. Crane & 
Son. It continued under that name until ISSS, when the father retired, and Ira Seymour has since 
carried on the business alone. He is one of the niost public spirited and progressive men of the present 
generation, as well as one of the most popular. He helped to organize the Fire Department, and was 
elected Assistant Foreman of the company, and in ISOO was made Chief of the Fire Department. 
Under his able management the department has increased in efficiency and strength, and is one of the best 
conducted tire departments connected with any subui-ban town in the State. In 189 1 he became a member 
of the Town Committee, and was made the first township Treasurer, after the creation of tluit olfice, and 
has given great satisfaction to the taxpayers by the able manner in which he has dischaiged the duties of 
his office. He is connected with numerous other business enterprises, in all of which he has shown the 
same business capacity and enterprise. He is a director in the Montclair Building and Loan Association 
— one of the strongest of its kind in the State. He is a stockholder in the Montclair Bank, and a 
director in The Montclair Savings Bank. 

In i-eligious matters he has evinced the same energy, earnestness and devotion that have character- 
ized all his business affairs. He is a deacon in the First Presbyterian Church, and a member of the 
Board of Trustees. 

Mr. Crane married, in 1882, Caroline A., daughter of Joseph Doremus and Caroline (Mead) 
Doremus. (For line of descent see Doremus Family.) His wife deceased Oct. 11, 1892, leaving two 
children, Ira Seymour, Jr., and Henrietta Mead. 

"Sir. Crane bought a plot on Church Street, opppsite the Presbj-terian Cliurch, com])risiiig a part 
of the Matthias Smith estate. 

Dr. Frank Smith Crane, second child of Jarvis G. and Henrietta (Smith) Crane, was born at the 
homestead, adjoining his present residence, July 1, 1861. He was educated at the public school of Mont- 
clair, receiving all the advantages of the "higher education," and was graduated at the New York College 
of Dentistry in 1885. He began practice at once in his native town, and although others long established 
preceded him, his clientele graduall}' increased and he has now all he can attend to. The friends of his 
early youth showed their confidence in him as a man, and in his professional skill liy extending hhn their 


History of Moxtclair Township. 189 

patronage. He enjoys an excellent reputation among his professional brethren as a skillful practitioner. 
He is a member of the New Jersey State Dental Society, of the Central Dental Society of Northern 
New Jersey, and of the Alumni A.<.*ociation of the New York College of Dentistry. He is also a 
member of ilontclair Lodge F. & A. M., Orange Lodge of Elks, and of the Montclair Athletic Club. 
He married. December. ISSC. Sarah ]>. Crolious. daughter of Cieorge C. and Catharine (Lownds) Crolious, 
of Broijklyn. His children are: Frank Leroy. born October, 18S9 ; Harriet Stevens, born October, l8!)(», 
and Dudley "Winthrop, Iwrn January, 1S!»1. 


Baldwin is an old name, and quite common as early as the conquest of England, and is found on 
the roll of the Battle Abbey. Baldwins. Earls of Flanders, were contem|)orary witli Alfred tlie Great. 
Baldwin id married Elstriith, daughter of Alfred ; Baldwin the .5th, married the daughter of Kobert of 
France, whose daughter Matilda married AVilliam the Conqueor. In 1198 Robert Fitz Baldwin had 
large estates in Bucks County, England. Richard BaMwin, of Bucks County, England, was the ancestor 
of most of the American families of this name. The name is often spelled in tiie early records, Baldwyn. 

John Baldwin (1) came probably from Bucks County, England, and was one of the original 
settlers of ^lilford. Conn. He joined the church March HJ, 1(!4S. He married Marie Brewen, daughter 
of John Brewen, of Pequot (New London), and in his will, li>S\, names cliildren : John, Josiah, 
Nathaniel, Joseph, George, Obadiah, Richard, Abigail, Sarah, Hannah and Eliza Beck. 

Jonx (2) Baldwin, Sr., son of John (1), was born in Milford, Conn., March IG, 1648. He 
married, Oct. .'W, 160-3, Hannah, daughter of Obadiah Brewen (or Bruen), a niece of his stepmother. 
He married, secondly, before 1686, Ruth Botsford, of Milford, and in his will, 1702, names children: 
Sarah, Hannah, Eliza and John by his first wife, and Samuel, Daniel, Joseph, Timothy, Elanthan, 
Nathaniel and Jonathan. 

He was one of the original settlers of Newark, and together with his nephew, John, Jr., signed 
the '■ Fundamental Agreement." He was a man of some prominence in the community and held 
various public offices. He was a "Sealer of Leather" in 1676; '■ Fence Viewer" in 1695 ; one of the 
"Town's ilen," 1697-98; Surveyor of Highways, 1684— 86, etc. In the first drawing for "Home Lotts," 
John, Sr., drew lot 54. "At Town Meeting I2th Decera'r 1670 it was Agreed that the Land that is 
Left unlaid out shall be Laid out to them to whom it falls By Lott; and the first Lott fell to John 
Baldwin Sen'r to have His whole Second Division of I'pland and One Acre for his staying on the place 
the first Summer." 

John Baldwin (.3), son of John '2) and ILmnah (Bruoiij Baldwin, was born in Newark about 
107u. His children were: Josiah, David, John (4j and Obadiah. 

John (4) Baldwin, son of John (3), was born in Newark, N. J. His will, 17.58, names four 
daughters: Doreas or Dorcas, Joanna, and Marv Elizabeth. According to the genealogical tree of Mr. 
Samuel H. Cougar, he had also Joseph. He owned a large farm on the Orange Road, and probably 
erected the house where his children and grandchildren were born. 

Joseph, son of John (4j, was born in the homestead of his father, on Orange Road ; he purchased 
several tracts of land on and near the moimtain. A quit-claim deed from Henry Jacobus to Joseph 
Baldwin, dated 1783, described the property as " lying over the mountain, lately belonging to Vincent 
Pierce, being on the west side of said mountain ; the whole of the said tract undivided, contains three 
thousand and six hundred acres, and commonly known as the Ashfield tract, the said right having been 
sold by the commissioners for the county of Essex to William Baldwin in 1779." A deed by Mary 
Ashfield, dated 1784, conveys one hundred acres to Joseph Baldsvin, Jr., on Newark Mountain, known as 
the Ashfield Tract. A deed, dated Dec. 27, 1792, from Joseph Crane, of Cranetown, conveys to Joseph 
Baldwin, fifty-four acres, being a part of the farm which the said Joseph Crane bought of Cornelia 


History of Montclair Township. 

Tlie date of Joseph Baldwin's birth is not shown. During the war of the Revolution lie served 
in Capt. Squere's Company, Second Regiment, Essex. He married Esther, a daughter of Noah 
Crane, and a sister of Deacon Joseph (Jrane, sometimes called " Captain," whose homestead is shown 
among the old landmarks. The issue of this marriage was: Mary, who "entered into covenant with 
the Mountain Society," March 26, 177-i The issue of this marriage was Mary, " who entered into 
covenant with the Mountain Society ;" she married Linus Dodd ; John J., Joanua (married David Riker); 
Elizaljeth, Esther (married John Wanlell) ; Joseph, Naomi (married Noah Baldwin) ; Caleb, Zenas, Hannah. 
The propert}' of Joseph was divided among his children, some of whom acquired additional acres, 
holding farms adjoining, along the line of Orange Road, extending north to Tony's Brook, near the 
present D.L.&AV.'r.R." 
the Orange Road subsc- 
as the "Baldwin Neigh- 
Jons J. Baldwin, son 
(Crane) Baldwin was 
1771, at the houiestead 
Road. The house now 
Sears, 259 Orange Road, 
foundation of the house 
He was a noted charac- 
of the most prominent 
town of Newark. He 
Jersey troops in the war 
officer, as he was always 
years of his life, Cajjt. 
ed his district in the leg- 
promising whig in poli- 
ence in the community, 
and, while not gifted as 
ble in argument, and 
on the chief topics of 
and all liis immediate 
thrifty and successful 
well-to-do in the coin- 
August 13, 1779, Lydia, 
Dodd, of Bloomfield, 
married her sister Sarah, 
born iSOt), Joseph H., 
born 1811 — married 
Abby E., born 1815. 
second child of John J. 

win, was born January 12, 1808, in the house which stood on the corner of Orange Road and Elm 
Street, on the property now owned by W. Irving Adams. He attended the district school theu kept by 
Gideon Wheeler, and acquired a good knowledge of the rudimentary branches. He inherited considerable 
property from his father, and kept his farm under thorough cultivation. He had a large apple orchard 
well stocked with the finest fruit, and had a comfortable income from the sale of his cider. He occasion- 
ally took part in public aftairs and was for some time Surveyor of Highways. He was one of the early 
members of the Bloomfield Church, and assisted in organizing the First Presbyterian Churcii of West 
Bloomfield, of which he was long a trustee. He was an exemplary Christian, and always prompt in his 
attendance at Divine service both on the Sabbath and week days. Considering his means he was generous 


That portion lying along 
quently became known 

of Joseph and Esther 
born in Cranetawn in 
of his father on Orange 
owned by William H. 
stands on the original 
where Joseph was born. 
ter in his day, and one 
men in this part of the 
served with the New 
of 1812, pi'obably as an 
called, iluring tlie later 
Baldwin. He represent- 
islature, was an uncom- 
tics, a man of great influ- 
of strong common sense, 
a speaker, he was forci- 
kept himself informed 
the day. Like his father, 
ancestors, he was a 
farmer, and considered 
munity. He married, 
daughter of David 
and after her decease 
He had issue Reuben D., 
born 1808, Sarah D., 
Antiiony D. Ball; and 
Joseph H. Baldwin, 
and Lydia (Dodd) Bald- 

History of Montclair Township. 


ill liis support of public and private charities. Honest and straijilitforwaixi in ail his dwii i)usiiicss affairs, 
lie iiad implicit eoiitidciiee in others, and was loth to believe evil of any one. For this reason people 
seldom took advantage of liini, and in all his business transactions his word was as good as his bond. He 
was of a kind and genial disposition and beloved and respected by his neighbors, lie married Lydia A. 
Munn, a descendant of the Munns, who settled in Newark about IT;"'*-'. He had issue : Lydia D., Mary F. 
and riiebe L. ; the latter married William J. Harris (brother of Col. Fred. II. Harris, of Montclair), aiul 
now resides in West Virginia. The two first mentioned reside at the homestead, on Orange lioad, corner 
of Elm Street. 

Link of Dksckxt i kom CoRNEurs Dokkmus, 1690. 

CoKNELHs 1)()k?;mis, the ancesto 
settled at or near Acrpiack- 
Jersey. The name of his 
children were Johannes, 
land, about IfiST; Thomas, 
about ir.OO; T'ornelins, 
drick,borii lf>l»5,and .loris, 
Thomas Dokkjus, son 
(piackanonck. New Jersey, 
^Vc^cl, N. J., married, 
.\liraliamse Ackerman, 
He had six children : Cor- 
( inline, of Jacksonville, 
1 Tl'ii ; Abraham, of Cedar 
112-2 ; Peter, of Cedar 
Johannes, born about 1~'2>>; 

son of Thomas and Anneke 
Doremus, born April 4, 
town, N. J. He married, 
and had teti children, viz.: 
baptized March 3, 17?>9 
Margaret Van Winkle); 
great-great-grandfather of 
mus, of New Yoi-k; Peter, 
tized June S, 17-1-1:; Ma- 
1746 (married Bartholo- 

)f the Doremus family, came from Holland about ](!'.)(), and 

anonck (now Passaic), New 
wife is not known. His 
born at ^liddlcbuig, llol- 
l)orn at Ac(juackanonck, 
born about Killi' ; Ilcn- 
born about 10'.t7. 
of Cornelius, born at Ac- 
about lO'.lO, resided at 
Oct. 4, 171:i, Anneke 
born at ILu-kensack, N.J. 
nelius, born April 4, 17l"i; 
N. J., baptized Nov. 14, 
Grove, N. J., born about 
Grove, born about 172."); 
Aimeke, baptized May 5, 
C o R X K I. r u s DoEKM us, 
A brahamse (Ackerman) 
1715, lived at Doremus 
about 1738, Antje Young, 
Ilendricus, of Wesel , N. J ., 
(married Sept. 25, ]7<i<l, 
Thomas, born April, 1741, 
Professor Ogden Dore- 
of Slotterdam, N. J., baj)- 
ritje, baptized May 17, 
mew Dodd, of Beaver- 


town); Johannes, of Doreniustown, born about 1740, died 1S21, hotel keejjcr ; Jannetji, baptized 1754; 
Susanna, born 175ti ; Aletta, born about 175>j. 

Petek Doremus, born probably at Doremustown, lived at Beavertown, N. J., baptized June S, 
1744, married, 1776, Polly (Mary) Dey. He had issue: Jacob, Richard, Cornelius, Peter and two 
daughters, one of whom married Henry Berry, the other married Speer. 

Peter Doremus, son of Peter and Polly (Dey) Doremus, was born near Beavertown, N. .1., Feb. 
17, 1787. He moved to Cranetown about 1807, where he had the second largest store in Bloomfield 
township, there being but two stores in Cranetown at that time. His place of business was at the 
present location of his son, Philip Doremus. He did a tliriving business for man}' years. In politics he 
was an old line Whig. He was a man of uprightness and honesty and highly respected in the community. 


History of INIontclair Township. 

He married, Oct. 3, ISIO, Rhoda, daughter of Deacon Joseph Crane (son of Xoah, who was the son of 
Nathaniel, son of Azariah (2) of the original settlers of Cranetowii). Tliey had issue : Joseph, horn 
Sept. 12, 1814; Thomas Lamsoii, born Jnlv 31, 1S16 ; Owen, Edmund, Hannah Maria (born Oct. 25, 
1823, and married William Corwin), Philip, Marcus, born Nov. 15, 1827; Emma Harrison, born June 
22, 1831 (married Louis E. Meeker, moved to Portland, Oregon). 

Joseph Doremus, oldest son of Peter and Phoda (Crane) Doremus, was born in Cranetown, Sept. 
12, 1814, in the old Doremus homestead, which stood on the spot now occupied by his brother Philip, as 
a residence, on Bloomtield Avenue, at the junction of Glen Pidge Avenue. His education began at the 
earlv age of three years, when he was sent to a private school kept by Pebecca Horton, in her own house. 
He afterward attended the school kept by Gideon Wheeler, David D. Allen and others, in the school- 
house which stood on the site of the First Presbyterian Church. After leaving school he entered his 
father's store and remained 
was earnestly solicited by 
had no fondness for that 
cepted a position as book- 
son of Israel Crane, and 
years engaged in a morocco 
as clerk and manager. At 
ciated with his brother in 
ing for church purposes, 
reputation of producing 
country. In 1859, Mr. 
first Pegister of Essex 
tion until 1864. From 
sole charge of the official 
has since been engaged in 
on his own accoiint, and 
knowledge of the old land 
than any other person, 
field township for thirteen 
and has been Commis- 
Montclair for nineteen 
veteran of nearly forty 
of the oldest surviving 
field Lodge, which in 
Bloomtield. Although 
mental faculties are clear 


with him until 1S46. He 
his father to continue, but 
line of business. He ac- 
keeper for James Crane, 
was afterward for several 
establishment in Newark 
the same time he was asso- 
the business of glass stain- 
etc. ; his lirother had the 
the best goods in the 
Doremus was elected the 
County, and lield the posi- 
1804 to 1889, he had the 
searching department. He 
the same line of business 
has probably a better 
titles of Essex County 
He was Clerk of Bloom- 
years, from 1846 to 1859, 
sioiier of Appeals for 
years. He is a Masonic 
vears" standing, and is one 
members of the Bloom- 
former times met in West 
well advanced in years his 
and he is still strong and 

vigorous for a man of his age. He is one of the very few cotmecting links of the Revolutionary period, 
having known and conversed with several of the old veterans. He is a walking encyclopedia of the 
events connected with the beginning of the present century, and all the old landmarks are as familiar to 
him as "household words." He married, in 1836, Caroline, daughter of Jacob K. Mead, of Bloomfield, 
and had issue: three daughters, Martha M., Mary Kline and Caroline, deceased, who was the wife of 
I. Seymonr Crane. 

Thomas Lamson, second son of Peter Doremus, about the year 1838, moved to Louisiana, where he 
engaged in business. He was a man of strict integrity and uprightness. In 1852 he came North and 
married at New" Haven, Conn., and one year after his return died, Nov., 1853, of yellow fever at 
Centerville, La. 

OwEX DoKEMUs, third child of Peter and Phoda (Crane) Doremus, was born in Cranetown, May 
15, 1819. His love of art was developed at an early age, and he sought every means in his power to 

History of Moxtclair Townsiiu', 


gratify it. He studied portrait painting with Caleb AVard, of Bloonifield, and followed tliat for a time, 
l)iit afterward became aj^sociated with a Air. Chaj^man in New Koclielle, X. Y., in the ghiss staiiiiiiir 
l)usiiie.<s. lie e.vcelled in this line and prudnced sonie of the finest work in the country, which compareil 
favorably with that of tlie best Italian and French artists. His work adorns many of the leading 
Protestant and Catholic Churches thn^ughout the country, and was much sought after by leatiing 
architects. He dissolved his connection witli Mr. Chapman and carried on business for a time in Orange, 
and later in Montclair. His residence was on the corner of Bloomlield Avenue and Bay Street, and he 
had a place fitted up in the rear of his house as a studio and workshop. He was thoroughly devoted to 
his art and had achieved a national reputation as an artist in this line. 

Edmund Doijp;mls, fourth child of Peter and Ilhoda (Crane) Doremus, was born in Cranetowii, 
Sej)!. 20, 1821. Died April 5, 1887. He attended the school kept by Warren Holt at what is now 

known as the Mountain 
and attentive as a scholar, 
tude for mechanics. He 
Wright in which he greatly 
Wliiteport, New York, to 
of machinery for the 
Lime and Cement Com- 
business manager, lie 
tlie company and managed 
Wliiteport to the entire 
ciates for tliirty -five years, 
son Fred. He was active 
Ulster County, and de- 
energy to the cause of 
nently identified with the 
Kingston, of which he was 
niairied,in lS4;i, Caroline, 
Harrison, of West Orange, 
Sargent Uicliard Harrison, 
of Xcwark. He had seven 
settled in Kingston, X.V., 
W. Louis Doremus, came 
has since been associated 
cliild of Peter and Khoda 
born in the old homestead 


House. He was studious 
and ilisj)layed great ai)ti- 
loarned the trade of mill- 
excelled, lie went to 
superintend the erection 
Newark and Iloscndale 
pany, and became their 
was later a stockholder in 
its important woiks at 
satisfaction of his asso- 
He was succeeded by his 
in the public affairs of 
voted much time and 
education. He was promi- 
Episcopal Church in 
an active member. He 
<laughter of Isaac Ji. 
N. J., a descendant of 
one of the original settlers 
children, most of whom 
and tliat locality. His son, 
to Montclair in 1877, and 
with Philip Doremus, his 
Piui.ii' DoKKMis, sixth 
(Crane) Doremus, was 
which stood near his pres- 

ent residence on Bloomfield Avenue, Oct. 29, 182.5. He was ambitious to acfpiire a good education 
and was sent to the boarding school of Warren S. Holt. He decided to adopt his father's occupation, 
but realized the necessity of a more thorough knf>wledge of the details of the business than could be 
acfpiired in a country town, and in IS-il he went to New York City and engaged first with a retail 
and afterward with a wholesale and retail grocery firm, spending altogether about seven years with both 
firms, lie returned to his native town in lS-t8 and assumed charge of his father's business. Ho 
continued it as a general country store for a number of years in the same location. 

In 1853 he built a two-story frame building on the original site. As the population increased and 
railroad facilities Ijrought the residents within easy access of the city, he found it necessary to change his 
stock of goods to suit the wants of the new community, and he gradually "weeded out" his stock of 
general merchandise and limited his trade to groceries and crockery, of the finest class of goods, especially 
adapted to the wants of the wealthy classes who for many years past have been his largest patrons. In 

194 History of Montclair Township. 

1890 he erected the building he now occupies, whieli is one of the finest and most .ittractive huldings for 
])usiness purposes in this part of the coiintr}'. As a merchant he has met Avith deserved success, and lias 
kept pace with the growth of the township. 

He is a man of advanced and liberal ideas, and was for many years associated with Dr. Love and 
others in the School Board, and always took an advanced position for the cause of "higher education." 
He was for six years a member of the County Board of Freeholders, and a part of the time was Chair- 
man of the committee that had charge of the county penitentiary. He also served for several years as a 
member of the Town Committee. He was one of the founders and is still a director of the Montclair 
BaTdv. He was also one of the founders of the Montclair Savings Bank and was elected its first 
President, still holding that position. 

Probably no man in Montclair has been more prominently identified with the cause of religion 
than Philip Doremus. Self-sacrificing, earnest, conscientious, he has taken a leading position in every 
movement tending to the advancement of religion and the improvement of the moral and social condition 
of the community, llis religious experience began early in life as a member of the Seventh Presbyterian 
Church, corner of Broome and Sheriff Streets, Nev/ York. When he finally decided to settle in West 
Bloomfield, the home of his youth, he brought with him his letter to the First Presbyterian Church, in 
which he subsequently servetl as an elder for about thirty years, and was for fifteen years Superintendent of 
the Sabbath school. Mr. Doremus has always been an earnest advocate of church extension. He assisted 
in the early movements to found a church at Upper Montclair, and, in ISSfi, believing that circumstances 
favored the organization of a new church, he with others withdi'ew from the First Presbyterian Church 
and organized the Trinity Presbyterian Church, which has since more than doubled its membership. 
Mr. Doremus was elected one of the two first elders of the new organization, and still holds that position. 

Dui-ing a European tour which he made in 1883 his letters to the Montclair Times showed him 
to be a writer of no mean ability and a keen observer of men and things. His descrijjtion of the places 
he visited were read with great interest by the patrons of that ]>aper. Mr. Doremus combines all the 
(jualities of the Christian gentleman, rptiet and unostentatious in his manner, strong in his convictions of 
right, yet tender, affectionate and kind to all. While in no way lacking the courage of his convictions, 
he would sacrifice his own interests rather than wound the feelings of another. 

^{y. Doremus was married, Nov. 2(1, 18.51, to Hester Ann Yarringtim, daughter of B. C. Yarring- 
ton. in old St. Bartholomew's Church, by Rev. B. M. Yarrington, cousin of Mrs. Doremus, who has since 
officiated at the marriage of each of their daughters. The children are: Mary Yarrington, married to 
Dr. S. C. G. Watkins; Caroline S., married to W. Low Doremus; Annette C, married to E. B. Goodell, 
a practicing lawyer in Montclair; Adah N., married to Joseph B. Renwich, of Montclair. 


RicHAED Harrison, Sr., and Richard, Jr., came from AVest Kirby, in Cheshire, Eng., in 1644, 
and were among the early settlers of the New Haven Colony. They removed to Branford, then a part of 
the New Haven Colony, where Richard, Sr., died in October, l(i53; his daughter Mary married Thomas 
Pierson, one of the original settlers of Newark, and Elizabeth nuirried John i\Iorris. 

Second Generation. 

Sargent Richard Harrison was one of the original Branford settlers of Newark, and his name 
is attached to the " Fundamental Agreement." In the drawing of their " Lotts," with theii " Nundjer ai;d 
Places,"' Sargent Harrison drew No. 34. At a "Town ]\Ieeting held October 31,1674, Sai'geant 
Harrison," with others, was '"chosen a Committee to consider of such things as may tend for tlie Good 
of the Town ; also they have Liberty to debate of such things with any they shall see Occasion so to do, 
without calling a Town Meeting.'' 

At a "Town Meeting, Dec. 11, l*i74, Serg't Harrison," with others was "chosen to go down to 

History of Montclair Township. 195 

Elizabeth Town to treat with the Governor upon the particulars written, and if they can agree without, 
not to deliver that writing ; hut in Case he will not hear them then they are to pro^ent tliis Writing to him, 
and leave it with him." 

A.s a military officer Sargent Richard Harrison lield in tiie new colony the rank of Jutnif/n. lie 
also served as one of the " Town's ilen." His children were yamnel, lienjamin, born 1Ck>5, John, Josej)h, 
born Ui.jS, Daniel, and Mary — all. probably, born in Branford. 

Third Generation'. 

Daniel Hakijison, son of Sargent Richard, was born in Urauford in lOtil. Came with his 
father to Newark. The only mention made of him in connection with the town 'was in 1705, as " Fence 
\'iewer." He died December 10, 173S. .\s his father acquired property in the outlying districts he was 
pr(il)ably one of the early settlers of that part of Newark now known as Orange. In liis will he names 
children : Daniel, Mosen, Abigail Farrand, Lydia lialdwin, and his grandson Jonathan, sou of Jonathan. 

Fourth Generation. 

Moses IIarkisox, son of Daniel, wjus l)orn. probably, in Orange, in ITnO; he died February 18, 
17t>3. In his will he names Jonns, Anna. Damaris. Abigail and Sarah, lie names Jonas, his son, and 
Jabez, as executoi-s. 

Firm Generation. 

Jonas Harrison, son of Moses, was born, probably, in Orange. His will names children, 
Aaron. Daniel, .\f'>se.s, Jabez, and four daughters. 

Si.xTH Generation. 

Moses Harrison, son of Jonas, was born in Orange about 1758. lie was po.ssessed of a vivid 
imagination, a retentive memory, and an inexhaustible supply of anecdotes and stories of his eventful 
lite, with which he entertained his hearers on every occasion. He was a fre<iuei)t visitor at Paulus Hook — 
now Jerse}' City — and as soon as his presence was noised abroiid large crowds would gather to listen to 
his narration of revolutionary and other tales, which were told with such minuteness and earnestness, and 
with a depth of pathos and humor, that his hearers were taken in imagination to the very spot. He had 
served with tlie New Jersey troops in the war of the Revolution, and his vivid description of these scenes 
were listened to by his hearers with the deejjest interest. He drew a pension from thegovermneiit ii]) to the 
time of his death. In l'S02he removed to what was then known as Speertown, now Upper Montclair, and 
purchased about sixty acres of land, being a part of the Egbert farm, extending from Midland Avenue to 
the top of the mountain. He lived to a ri])e old age and raised a large family of children, of whom all 
except one have long since passed away. His wife was Sarah Vincent, a descendant of an old French 
Huguenot family, which emigrated to America after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Her 
parents settled in the "Wyoming Valley, prior to the War of the Revolution, and, at the time of the 
Indian massacre, she, then a little girl, was captured by the Indians, and afterward exchanged. The 
issue of the marriage of Moses Harrison with Sarah Vincent was Jared E., Jane, Phebe, Rebecca, Maria, 
Eliza. Emma. John. Bethuel and Flavel. Of these Jared E. is the only surviving one. 

Jaked E. Hakrison. son of Moses and Sarah (Vincent) Harrison, was born in Orange, March 20, 
1803, and was brought by his parents to the Speertown neighborhood while an infant. When he grew to 
manhood he improved the farm and added many acres to it, and liad one of the finest apple orchards in 
the township, and was known as one of the most thrifty and prosperous farmers. He was a man of 
consideral)le influence in the community and has held many positions of honor and trust. Before Mont- 
clair became a separate township he served on the Bloomfield Township Committee and also as Road 
Master. He was one of the original directors of the Newark and Bloomfield Railroad Company, and 
was instrumental in opening the first railroad communication between West Bloomfield and New York 
City, which changed the whole of this part of the country from an agricultural to a prosperous suburban 


History of Montclair TowNsiiir. 

townsliip. He was a nieinber of the First Presbyterian Clmrch of Bloomtield, and helped to organize 
the new church in West Bloomfield, contributing liberally to the erection of the church edifice. He 
served on the Board of Trustees and was a faitliful attendant until prevented by declining health, the 
result of advancing years. He is still living (lS9i). He married Catharine, daughter of Peter Egbert, 
a descendant of one of the old Holland families who were among the original settlers of Speertown. 
Five children were the issue of this marriage, two of whom died in infancy. Of those living, are 
Edwin M., Daniel Yincent and Nathan. 

Edwin M. Harrison, eldest child of Jared E. and Catharine (Egbert) Harrison, was born at the 
homestead on Valley Road. He attended the old public school, and completed his education at the 
school of Warren Holt. He went to New York City in 1840 and began as clerk with Benjamin Taylor in 
the grocery business, where lie remained live years. In 

1848 he started in the 
his own account, and later 
brother Daniel Yincent, 
brother Nathan, with 

He resided in Williams- 
E. D. — for a number of 
to the home of his child- 
acres of the Egbert prop- 
father. In 1870 he pur- 
of Claremont and Mount- 
erected a substantial and 
been active in promoting 
in the township, and served 
missioner. He married 
daughter of Silas N. Ham- 
of Andrew Hamilton, Gov- 
Jersey from 1692 to 1097, 
1699 till the surrender to 
Hamilton, a son of Andrew, 
West Jersey united, 1736 
as separate from N e w 

The issue of the marriage 
Mary Frances Hamilton is 
Kate Erwin, Edwin Mor- 

Daniel Yincent Hae- 

Jared E. and Catharine (Egbert) Harrison, was born at the homestead on Yalley Pioad, March 30, 1828. 
He attended public school, and afterward the Warren Holt Academy. 

He was associated for some years with his brother Edwin M., in the commission business, and in 
1848 started in business on his own account. He resided in Jersey City for some years, and in 1860 
returned to Montclair. He invested largely in real estate on a part of which he realized a handsome 
profit. He built a handsome residence on Bloomfield Avenue, near Mountain Avenue, where he has 
since resided. 

He married Frances P., daughter of John Munn (see history of Munn family). Their children 
are : Edwin M., Jr., Josephine, Elizabeth D. (deceased), Jared E., Kittie (deceased), Augustus Smith and 
Benjamin Yincent. 

Nathan Harrison, youngest son of Jared E. and Catharine (Egbert) Harrison, was born at the 
homestead on Yalley Road (within the present township of Montclair) May 21, 1834. He attended 
AYarren Holt's school and the old private school on Montclair Avenue, known as Ashland Hall. He 


commission business on 
became associated with his 
and subsequently with his 
whom he is still connected, 
bnrg — now Brooklyn, 
years. In 1866 he returned 
hood, and purchased fifty 
erty adjoining that of his 
chafed a plot on the corner 
ain Avenues, where he 
attractive villa. He has 
the several improvements 
for a time as Road Corn- 
Mary Frances Hamilton, 
ilton, a direct descendant 
ernor of East and West 
and of West Jersey from 
the Crown in 1702. John 
was Governor of East and 
to 1738, and of the State 
York, 1746 to 1747. 
of Edwin M. Harrison with 
Florence M., Carrie Y., 
timer and Harold. 
EisoN, second child of 

History of Montclair Township. 107 

began liis business life as a clerk in a New York commission honse, and later became associated with liis 
lirotlier Edwin ^l. in the c-i .mm ission business, which still continues. Ilemairied, first, Cornelia L'llonime- 
dien. daugiiter of Elias L'llommedieu, of Orange County, X. Y., a descendant of an old Huguenot 
family. He married, second, Katharine M. , daughter of Jacob F. Mayer. Issue: Frederic M., Sarah 
\'incent, Marion Virginia, Paul and Edna. 


The Munns were originally among the early settlers of Connecticut. Joseph, Benjamin and 
Samuel, three brothers, came from Connecticut about 1750, and settled in Newark. 

Capt. Joseph ^[unn, of West Elooomficld, was a son of Isaac, born 1740 — son of Joseph, born 
1721. He came to West Bloonitield and purcliased from Simeon Crane, July 7, IStil, the property on 
tlie corner of Cliurch Street and Valley Road, where he built the first tavern. Tiie second building, 
which is still standing on the same jiroperty. was built after the turnpike — now Rloomtield Avenue — 
was cut through. This was one of the mo<t noted taverns of the day, and Capt. Jo.sej)h Munn, the 
proprietor, was one of the most popular and well-known hotel men in this part of the countrj-. Members 
of the Ma.<onic fraternity for miles around made this liotel their lieadipiarters, and Bloonitield Lodge was 
organized there, and held its regular communications for man}' years, until tlie political excitement 
growing out of the Morgan affair compelled tiiis with many other lodges to surrender their charters. 
Captain ilunn was a genial host, and a man of great intluencc ami prominent in all the military 
organizations. His brotiier Jeptha was (irand Master of Masons of the State of New Jersey. 

Capt. Munn carried on a large hat manufacturing business in connection with Nathaniel Baldwin, 
the first ]>ostniastcr of West Bloomficld. 

Henry B. Munn, for some time a teacher at Asldand Hall, was horn in the old Stephen Van 
Courtland house (since burned) tliat stood just south of the mouth of Second Kiver, Essex County, 
Newark, N. J.; was prepared for college under Rev. David A. Frame, late of Ashland Hall, Montclair; 
graduated at College of N. J., at Princeton, 1S17; associate teacher at Ashland Hall, IS47-18.'J2; 
student in law office of late Col. A. C. M. Pennington, 1S.')2-1S54; in spring of 1S54, to AVisconsiii with 
L. G. Farwell, ex-Governor of Wisconsin, and settled first at Madisf.n, Wis., and then to Portage City; 
was admitted to the bar in lS5.i, and in i)artncrshii) with I). P. Williams opened a land oHice in 
coimection with law office for practice before the local and United States land oflice ; was elected Mayor 
of the city in 1858, and to the State Legislature in IS.'jO. Subsequently elected and served till after the 
close of the late war as Sujierintendent of City Schools. In 1859 he attended Government land sales at 
Osage, Fort Dodge and Siou.x City. Subsequently became interested in unimproved lands in Western 
Iowa and Missouri. 

From lsr.6 to 1S72 associated with AV. C. Dodge as Attorney and Solicitor of Patents. After 
dissolution of partnership he spent a year in the West, and in 1873 formed i)artnership with ex-Governor 
L. G. Farwell, for transaction of real estate and banking business at Grant City, Mo., and also with 
Chas. F. Stansbury, as Attorney and Solicitor of Patents at Washington. 

With the exception of a few special cases his law practice has been what is termed by the 
profession, chamber practice. He was admitted to bar of Sui)reme Court of D. C, 1872 ; United States 
Supreme Court of D. C, 1888; member of National Bar Association, 1803. 

Since the death of his partners he has been practically out of business, lias resided in Washing- 
ton since 18<>r>, with the exception of three years in Grant City, Mo. 

In 1881 he married Cornelia L. Farwell, daughter of ex-Governor L. G. Farwell. Issue: Henry 
Farwell, Helen Cornelia, Marguerite Campbell and Henry Tinslow. 


History of Montclair Township. 


Of Concord, Mass.; Stkati-ord, Conn., and Wi-:st Bi.uomfield, N.J. 
Line of Gideon Wiikeler. 

Thomas Wheeler, of Concord. Mass., came to Fairfield in 1044. with Eev. John Jones and his 
company. He was one of the proprietors of Fairfield township, and was a prominent citizen. His 
eldest son was named Thomas. 

Sergt. John Wheeler, son of Thomas ( I) and Ann Wheeler, came with his father's family from Con- 
cord to Fairfield, apparently in 1614, being then quite young. He owned a large part of Grover's Hill, 
at Black Rock, where he resided, and in 1681 paid tax on 1,004 acres of land, he being the third from the 
highest in tlie town of Fairfield. .^ He was the ancestor of Hon. 

had a son John (2). Mm Lieut. John (2), son of Sergt. 

Jolin, Sr., and Elizabeth ( ) .|h Wheeler was born in 1664; he 

married Abigal Burr, March 22, .^***''**'*V jB 1692, by wliom he had seven 

children. He married, secondly, f ^ 'Wm ^y^^^ Porter, of Windsor, by 

whom he had six cliildren, the /^ jfc ,, - ^^ fourth of whom was Jahez. 

Captain Jabez Wheeler, son |^ ^»^ ^- « of Lieut. John (2) and Lydia 

(Porter) Wheeler, was born Feb- * 's^ * .-i^B ruary 25, 1721. He was Captain 

of a company in Col. Whitney's 1.^.*^^ ^^^^H Connecticut Kegiraent in the 

Warof the Revolution. He had. VI*^„i,^ A ^I^H among other children, 6^;Ww«. 

Gideon Wheeler, son of -^^M P^1.^bB^^_ ^^ W H Jabcz Wheeler, was born in 
Stratford, Conn., 1764, and was .^^B^^^jHpH^^^^I educated in Weston, Conn. He 
taught school in Connecticut for .^^K^^^T^^^^^^^^tS^ about thirty years, and then re- 
moved to Jersey City, where he ^KK^^^M ^ ' ^^^B taught for a time, and later in 
Persippany. He began teaching ^m^B^^K " V^- ^M ^'^ Cranetown about 1811, and 
achieved quite a reputation as a ^H^^^^^V ' ''-iP^H^H t<^^cher. He was a noted matlie- 
matician, and in 1819 prepared ^^^^^^V ^^ ^Hh '"in almanac, which was published, 
the original manuscript of which ^^^Bl^^f / W 4|^^^| '•'' now in the possession of his 
granddaughter in Bloomfield. ^^PB^V ^.,.. -J^^ l ^^ ^^^^ appointed magistrate 
byGovernorWilliamsoninlSlS, Bm^^||^||g||H||||{^^ 1820, 1822 and 1828. He was 
also a surveyor and conveyancer. „,...,., „.„^^,,„ The latter years of iiis life were 

" *^ (.jRAN 1 J. \\ liE-t-LLK. 

spent on his farm on the Orange Road, near its intersection with 

FuUerton Avenue. He had, among other children, Isaac B. and Grant Johnson Wheeler. Isaac B. 
Wheeler taught school for a number of years in Bloomfield and West Bloomfield. 

Geant J. Wheeler, son of Gideon Wheeler, was born at Weston, near New Haven, Conn., 
January 1, 1807, and came with bis father to West Bloomfield in 1811, and attended the .school of which 
his father was teacher. Lie learned the tailor's trade, and subsequently carried on an extensive business 
at Pecktown, near East Orange. He was subsequently connected with the Rosendale Cement Company. 
In 1843 he removed to Haverstraw, N. Y., where he built and managed a lime kiln. Later he started in 
the lime business in Newark with Reuben D. Baldwin. 

In 1850 he exchanged his residence on Spring Street, Newark, lor the farm known as the Elias B. 
Crane property on Orange Road, AYest Bloomfield, on which he made many improvements. About 1855 
he opened, through his property, a section of Mountain Avenue, and a few years later Hillside Avenue, 
and a part of Orange Road extension, thus preparing for, and inviting, the improvements subsequently 

In 1853 he was chosen to represent this district in the Legislature. He was a strong advocate of 
the then proposed Newark and Bloomfield Railroad, and secured large subscriptions to the stock. While 

History of Montclair Township. 199 

in tlie Legislature he introduced an amendment to the charter of the road and secured its passage, and by 
his activity and firmness largely aided in conferring, at tliat early date, tlie bcneKt of railway com- 

On coming to West Bioomfield Mr. Wheeler engaged in the manufacture of straw air-dried boards, 
leasing fur a time the mill furmerly occupied by the Wildes, and at the expiration of the lease, in coiiipaii}' 
with James C. Beach, purchased the property. At this mill he nuulc the tirst steam-dried strawboards 
ever made in the United States. [See account under tlie head of " Industries on Tony's Brook."] 

In ISOC. Mr. Wheeler was elected a Chosen Freeholder from Bioomfield (tlien including ^font- 
clair), and after the erection of Montclair Township, in IStiS, was re-elected to represent it in the Board 
for ten consecutive years. lie also served on the Town Committee for some years. 

He was a warm friend of the public school, was elected Trustee in 1851, and re-elected at the 
expiration of his term. He owned the property on Ciiurch Street where the school-house now stands, 
and offered to give it for a public i>ark provided the township of Montclair would buy tlie remainder 
from other parties. They did not accept his proposition, and it was afterward bought by the townsliip 
for school purposes. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church and a generous contributor to its 
support, and was for eleven years a Trustee of the Society. He died in 1S83. 

He married, Octol)er 8, 1S29, Mary W. Mingis, of Bioomfield, daughter of John Mingis. He 
had four children, viz.: Sergeant John M., killed at Fredcricksiiurg, Va., while serving witii the 2Cth 
New Jersey Volunteers ; Charlotte D.. who died in 1857; Francis .V., born June 19, 18i4, died in 18S9 
at Dayton, X. J.; Julius Ilawley. 

JiLii'.s, youngest son of Grant J. and Mary W. (Mingis) Wheeler, was born 
at Xewark, X. J., June 19, ls-17. He was but three years of age when his jiarents moved to West 
nioomfield ; he received his education under the old district school s3-stem. After leaving school he 
engaged in the coal business with William Sharp, at liloomfield, and was afterward for a time in the 
j)liinibing business. He entered his lather's employ in 1S75, and four years later he and his brother 
imught out their father's interest and continued the business under the name of Francis A. Wheeler 
A: Co. After the removal of the manufactory to AVaverh', X'^. J., a stock company was organized under the 
name of The Wheeler ilanufacturing Company, of which Julius H. became Bresident and still holds 
that position. 

Mr. Wheeler was one of the charter members of the Montclair Fire Company, and served seven 
years as a fireman. He married, in 1890, Alice II. Harrison, of Ohio, a descendant of the Harrison 
family, of Orange. 


Coi.oxEi, Fkederick IIai.skv Hakkis, eldest son of William II. and Phebe II. (Baldwin) Harris, 
was born in Xewark, X'. J., March 7, 1830. His immediate ancestor was Moses Harris, of Morrisaiiia, 
X. Y., a descendant — probably — of liobert Harris, who came from Clloucestershire, England, before 
1642, and settled in Roxbury, Mass. Descendants of this family moved first to Springfield, Mass., thence 
to Westchester County, X', Y. Rev. AVilliam Harris, of White Plains, X. Y., referiiiig to Robert, the 
grandson of the ancestor, says : " I do not remember to have heard my father say anytliing of the Harris 
family, except that his grandfather, Robert Harris, was a very active, well built man, not large in stature, 
but in his old age, hale and enterprising." 

The name of Harris is of Welsh origin, and means "The son of Harry," Harry being a nickname 
for Henry. The latter, as a christian name, is given by Webster as of '•• Old High German origin, meaning 
the liead or chief of a house." 

William H., the father of Colonel F. II. Harris, married Phebe II. Baldwin, daughter of Robert, 
the son of Zadock Baldwin, wlio served in the Xew Jersey Militia in the War of the Revolution. Her 
mother was Marv Gould, daughter of General William Gould, a soldier of the Revolution. General 

200 History of Montclair Township. 

Gould's wife was the sister of Major Natliaiiiel Crane, son of Noali, son of Natlumiel, son of Azariali 2d, 
son of Azariah 1st, who purchased, previous to 1680, the hirge tract of land subseijuently known as Crane- 
town or West Bioomlield. William IT. Harris was born in New York City, and removed with his father, 
Moses, to Newark, about 1804, when he was a few weeks old. He was an architect and builder, and carried 
on business for some years. About 181:2 he purchased a quarry at Little Falls, N. J. He furnished 
the stone for the construction of Trinity Church, New York, and from this and his Newark quarries he 
supplied the stone for St. George's Church, and public buildings in New York, also for Boston and other 
places. He sold out his quari-y in 1853, and bought one hundred acres in West Bloomfield (now Mont- 
clair) formerly known as Cranetown, it being a part of the original purchase of Azariah Crane and was 
the property left by the will of Major Nathaniel Crane to be sold and the proceeds invested in trust for 
tiie support of the ministers of the First Presbyterian Church in West Bioomlield. William H. Harris 
bought this property on account of his wife's early attachment to it, her grandniothei', the sister of Major 
Crane, having been born at the homstead, which formed a part of it. The boundaries began about 200 
yards east of the Orange Road and extended to the top of the mountain. Mr. Harris laid out the 
property and cut the streets and avenues, which were run through it. He occupied the jiositions of 
Chosen Freeholder, U. S. Government Assessor, Director of the Newark and Bioomlield Bailroad, in 
which he took an active part, especially the negotiation between the Morris and Essex Railroad Company 
and the Newark and Bloomfield Railroad Company, which resulted in the building of the latter n)ad, and 
Trustee of the church for several years. He died in June, 1887, leaving issue: Frederick Halsey, 
William J., Mary C, Fanny C. and Robert B. 

Col. Frederick H. Harris, the subject of this sketch, received a thorough preparatory education 
at private and boai'ding schools, intended to enter Pi-inceton College and pursue his studies as a 
physician, but owing to his father's ill health was compelled to abandon his studies and assist him in the 
extensive quarj'y business in which he was then engaged. After his father had sold the Little Falls 
quarry he continued in the employ of the company who had purchased it, having charge of their 
extensive works in New Jersey. He moved to IMontclair in 1853, and continued in that business until 
1858. He had a strong desire for professional life and began that year the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1862. Shortly after this he commenced raising a com])any for the wai', which 
formed a part of the Thirteenth Regiment, N. J. Vols., Company E, of which he was made Captain. 

Just before he left for the war he was presented with a sword by the citizens of Montclair, the 
speech being made by Julius H. Pratt, Esq. It has inscribed on it the following legend: '• Presented to 
Captain Fred. H. Harris by his friends, Montclair, N. J., August 21, 1862" ; was worn by him during 
the whole three years of service, and it now adorns the wall of his residence and is highly prized as a 
memento of his service. 

This is one of the most noted regiments of the war, and with the exception of the battle of 
Antietam, when he was on the sick list, Col. Harris was with his regiment in every engagement in which 
it participated. It was attached to the First Division, Twelfth Army Corps. He took part in the battle 
of Chancellorsville, May 1, 2 and 3, 1863, Gettysburg, July 1, 2 and 3, 1863, and in the autun]n following 
his regiment, as a part of the Twelfth Army Corps, was sent west to join the Army of the Cumberland, 
and participated in the several engagements of Sherman's campaign, including his famous "march to the 
sea" (from Atlanta to Savannah) and his campaign through the Carolinas, with the Twentieth Corps, 
which was made up by a consolidation of the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps. He was commissioned Major^ 
August 16, 1864, and on the 12th of October following was placed in command of the regiment as senior 
officer, owing to the illness of the Lieutenant-Colonel, the Colonel having been placed in command of the 

At the battle of Betitonville, fought March 9, 1865, "his regiment held the key to the situation," 
and he distinguished himself b}' his coolness, and the splendid manner in which he handled his men, 
under the most trying circumstances. John Y. Foster, in his "History of New Jersey Troops in the 
War," gives a minute description of the part taken by the Thirteenth in this battle. Referring to the 

History of Montclair Township. 201 

fact that the Fourteenth Corps was being forced back by tlie rebels and retreating in great confusion, lie 
says: " At this juncture 'Major Harris was directed by the brigade coiinnander to deploy and place the 
regiment on the other or right side of tiie ravine, using his judgment as to the best position, as 
rapidly as possible, and once in position to construct such defences as could be quickly made." The order 
was promptly obeyed, the line being furmed on tiie edge of the I'avine as nearly on a prolongation of the 
brigade line as the nature of the ground wuuld admit ; and the men at once commenced to construct a 
defence of rails and other such materials as were at hand. Soon after this the enemy ajipearcd in three 
lines of battle, emerging from a belt of woods into a cleared Held a short distance to the left of the Tiiir- 
teenth, on the opposite side of the ravine. The position of the Thirteenth up to this time was not 
observed by the advancing rebels. Major Karris waited until they were within 150 yards of his position 
before he gave the order to lire. At the same time the artillery from the rear opened on them with tlieir 
batteries, and the enemy was driven back in confusion, and made no attemj^t to renew the attack at that 
point. As shown by subsecpient events this was the decisive point in the battle, and was due to the cool- 
ness and gallantry of Major Harris. Foster in his account says : " Tiie action in this, the last battle of 
the war, was. throughout, of the most gallant character. Had the regiment failed to hold its position, 
either througii incapacity on the part of its uthccrs, or want of steadiness among the men ; had the line 
giving way under pressure of the stragglers from the front and falleu in with the eljbing tide, the Itattle 
must inevitably have been lost and the final victory over .Tohnstoirs army delayed. i)erhaps, for weeks." 
The regiment was highly comj)limeiited by corps, division and brigade commainJcrs. Col. IJawley, com- 
manding the brigade, said : '• You are entitled to the thanks of this whole army, for you have saved it." 
In rei)ly to Lieut.-Col. Harris, who asked for orders, he said : "I have no orders to give, foi' I know you 
will iiold your position without." General AViiliams, commanding the division, remari<ed at the time in 
reference to the action of Lieut.-Col. Harris : " He ought to be brevetted a Brigadier-General for that." 

Major Harris had been promoted Lieutenant-Colonel previous to the battle, but his commission 
had not reached him. On the 2Gth of March following he was regularly mustered in as Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Continued in that capacity until mustered out of service. He was twice brevetted, once for 
galhint and meritorious service in Georgia and the Carolinas, and again for his gallantry at the battle of 

At tlie close of tlie war, in 1805, Colonel Harris returned to Newark and began the practice of 
law, and in the spring of ISiHi he was called to the Secretarysliip of the American Insurance Company, of 
Newark, whicii jjosition he held for seventeen years, until 1883, and was that year elected President as 
the successor of Mr. Stephen G. Gould (a son of General Gould), deceased. 

The annual income of the company wlicn he became connected with it in 1866 was about $120,000, 
its total assets about §17il.n00, and its net surplus about Sl4i>,000, and the stock was selling at par. In 
1S1J3 the income was about ^TnO.OOi), the total assets aliout S2.340,0n(t, the net surplus about §1,170,000, 
and the stock was selling in the market at 20(i i)er cent. It is one of the oldest, and much the largest, 
tire insurance coni|)anies in the State of New Jersey. 

For many years after the war, when the struggle was going on between the old and new regime, 
Col. Harris was among the boldest and most determined of the old residents in promoting the vaiious 
public improvements rendered necessary by the increasing poi)ulation. composed largely of men of 
wealth and letinement from our large cities. He stood side by side with Mr. Pratt, Dr. Love and others 
in their efforts to improve the public school system (of which he was at one time a trustee), which has 
since become one of the marked features of Montclair. He was for many years the recognized leatler of 
the republican party of this township; and while he invariably declined to accept political honors, he was 
one of the most earnest workers for the success of his party. 

He has long been identified with the Presbyterian Church, and, as President of the Board of 
Irustees and Clerk of Session, he rendered im])ortant service in the management of its temporal and 
spiritual affaii's. 

He assisted in organizing the Veteran Association of the Thirteenth Eegiment of Veterans in 

202 History of Montclair Township. 

1886 and became its first President, in which position he continued until 1881), during wliich time the 
Gettysburg monument was built and in the success of which he took an active part and a deep interest. 
He is a member and was for some years commander of Phil Kearney Post No. 1, G. A. R. He is also 
a member of the Society of the Sons of the American llevolution, and of Montclair Lodge No. 1-14, 
F. and A. M., of which he was a charter member ; he is also a director of the Montclair Library Asso- 
ciation, and one of the managers of Rosedale Cemetery. And it was at his suggestion and liy his efforts 
tlie cemetery was enlarged in the direction of and for the accommodation of the people of Montclair; 
is a member of tiie Society of the Army of the Potomac, Society of tiie Army of the Cumberland, of the 
Board of Trade, City of INewark, and of the New England Society of Orange. By his energy and force 
of character he has been prominent and influential in the various enterprises with which he has been 
connected, and has often been promoted to leading positions. 

The homestead of Colonel Harris, near the corner of the Orange Road and Myrtle Avenue, 
occupies a portion of the original 100 acres piirchased by his father in 1853. He enlarged one of the 
old buildings on the place and made numerous improvements which give it an attractive and picturesijue 
appearance. Among the numerous relics which adorn the interior is an old-fashioned upright clock of 
antiquated appearance, formerly the property of Major Nathaniel Crane, the woodwork of wliich was 
made from one of the apple trees which grew on the place. 

Col. Harris married, in 1865, Elizabeth J. Torrey, daughter of Charles Torrey, of Bethany 
Wayne County, Pennsylvania, and a granddaugliter of Major Jason Torrey, one of the pioneers of that 
county, who came originally from Connecticut. Five children are the issue of this marriage, viz. : Ellen, 
who married Charles M. Dutcher, of Brooklyn ; Elizabeth, Jane Howell, and Frederick Halsey (deceased 
in 1879) and Anna Marion. 


Line of Descent of Julius Howard Pkatt, of Montclaik, fkom Lieut. William Pbatt, 

OF Saybeook, Conn., 1645. 

The name of Pratt derives its origin from a locality, and is from the Latin Pratum, a meadoiii. 
The name appears in the roll of the Battle Abbey, A.D., 1066, as one who accompanied William the 
Conqueror and participated in the battle of Hastings. William de Pratellis accompanied Richard Canir 
de Lion to the Holy Land, and on a certain occasion saved the King from capture by the Turks by 
personating the King and permitting himself to be taken instead, for which service he was knighted and 
highly honored. 

Lieut. William Pratt, the American ancestor nf this branch of the Pratt family, came from 
Hertfordshire, Eng., and as his lineage is easily traced back into the 11th century, it is highly jirobable 
that he is descended from AVilliam de Pratellis. lie enugrated to New England and settled in 
Cambridge, Mass., previous to 1632, and moved thence to Hartford, Conn., in 1636. He was one of the 
band who went from Hartford on the expedition against the Pe(]Uods in 1637, which resulted in the 
extermination of this tribe. In 1615 he settled in Saybrook, Conn., in that jiart now known as Essex. 
He represented the town of Saybrook in the General Assembly twenty-three times from 1666 to 1678, 
and by order of the General Court, October, 1661, he was "established Lieutenant to ye Band at 
Sea-Brook." He was a warm friend of the Indian Chief Uncas, and one of the executors of his will, and 
received from the latter large grants of land. 

Julius Howard Pratt's line of descent from Lieut. William Pratt, is through " Ensign " -Try^/i Pratt, 
eldest son of the latter, born February 20, 1641; Jolui Pratt, Jr., born September 5, 1671; Asariah 
Pratt, horn 1710 ; " Deacon" PJi'meas Pratt, born June 27, 1747, who had a son Julius, the father of 
Julius H. Deacon Phineas Pratt, the grandfather of Julius IL, was a soldier in the War of the 
Revolution, and assisted Bushnell in the construction of the famous torpedo boat known as the American 
" Turtle," which became such a teri-or to the British fleet in New York Harbor. Phineas Pratt 

<sMa^<^^j t/^fe^ 


History of Montclair Township. 203 

volunteered the hazardous attempt to 1)lci\v iij) one of the British men-of-war lying in the East River. 
He selected a cloudy nif^lit and ran within a few feet of the ship, when, owing to the sudden appearance 
of the moon tlirougii a rift in the clouds, he was discovered and hailed by the watch on deck. lie 
inimediately descended, and came up about half a mile distant ; he was chased and tired at by the British, 
but effected his escape. lie was highly commended by the Commander-in-Chief and released from 
further active service. Julius Pratt, the father of Julius II., was the pioneer in the ivory irianufiicturing 
business of this country, which he established in Merideii, Conn., in iSl'J, and laid the foundatinn fur the 
immense wcaltli and prosperity of that town. He iiiarrinl l.yiiia I )e Wolfe, of Westbrook, Conn., a 
descendant of one of the early settlers of Lyme. Tliey had i^sue, Harriet Melimla. born Ajiril 24, ISIS ; 
.lulliix Iloiranl and William McLane. 

Jii.irs Howard Pratt, second child and eldest son of Julius and Lydia (De Wolfe) Pratt, was born 
in Meriden. Conn., August I, 1821. He was graduated from Yale College (which was founded in the 
native town of his ancestor. Lieut. William Pratt), in ls42, and soon after engaged in the ivory goods 
manufacture, established i>y his father in is is. He was connected with the selling department in New 
^ ork City for eighteen years, during which period the sales for the firm averaged nearlv half a million 
dollars' worth of ivory combs per annum, while their market extended all over North and South America. 
The product of table cutlery (mostly ivory handled) and of piano keys amounted to a still larger sum. 
The delicacy and perfection of the process einjdoyed was illustrated in the World's Fair at London, in 
is.^l, by the exhibition of a single sheet of purest ivory tifty-si.x feet long and fourteen inches wide, which 
had been sawed by automatic machinery from the section of an elephant's tusk about five inches in diameter. 

In 1S.")7, Mr. Pratt removed with his family to West Bloomfield, which at his suggestion was 
changed to the present name of M<jntclair. In a paj)er entitled " Montclair Prior to the Orgainzatiou of 
the Congregational Church," which he read before the Congregational Church of Montclair (of which 
he was one of the foutidei-s, and President of the Board of Trustees for seventeen years), in June, 1870, 
says: "Thirty-three yeai-s ago with my family I moved from a Connecticut home to this promised 
land. We brought with us our Lares and Penate.s, not forgetting our flowering shrubs and grafts from 
the lucious fruit trees which had endeared to us the place of our earlier yeare, that we might perpetuate 
for our children the sweet })erfume. the delicious flavors and the dear associations of the old New 
England home. The territory now occupied by .Montclair wa.s wholly agricultural land, poorly cultivated 
and largely covered with decaying apple trees. A few farm houses .scattered here ami tin re enlivened 
the landscape with their white walls and green blinds, and gave shelter to, perhaps, one thousand 
inhabitants throughout the entire area of the present township of Montclair. In that year (lS.")7j the 
steam locomotive for the first time labored up the steep grade by which our elevated site must be reached, 
bringing in its train sometimes two or three, seldom more than twenty passengers. The old stages which 
plied between here and Mewark continued their ndssion for a few years later, because the railroad itself 
was not a formidable competitor in its rate of speed, and perhaps because the stages having to all 
appearance survived since the time of Noah's Ark continued to possess a charmed life." 

From the j)criod of his advent to Montclair (l'<.37j, for more than a (piarter of a century Mr. Pratt 
wa.s a leader in nearly every public enterprise connected with Montclair, and to his efforts probably more 
tlian to any other individual is due the present growth and prosperity of the township. He was always 
in advance of the times, and in his progrcssiveness sometimes appeared aggressive, but he foresaw what 
others were slow to grasp, and he could ill-brook the restraint of those who sought to handicaj) him in 
efforts for improvements. He never shrank from the controversies which the prejudices of the slow 
native population occasioned. The laying out of new roads, the revolution of the public school system, 
and the founding of a progressive church were movements in which he took a prominent part. His 
mr)st important achievement, however, was the Ijuilding of the New York and Greenwood Lake Railway, 
in order to provide competition with the Morris and Railroad Company. This enterprise he 
carried through at a cost of about $4,000,000 in the face of bitter opposition, but with the result of saving 
to the town of Orange, Bloomfield and Montclair iiiore than $200,000 per annum in the cost of their 


traffic anil transpoi'taticiii. II is (.'xperieiice was like tiiat of many otlier pioneers whose private interests 
are made siihordinate to their pulilic spirit. Having sacritieed the earnings of a successful business 
career in this etfort for the public good, and having accomplished his work as a local reformer, he has 
since led a quiet life, finding satisfaction in witnessing the happiness of thousands of new comers around 
the foot hills of Orange Mountain, who unconsciously enjoy the fruit of his former labors. In 188S, Mr. 
Pratt once more dis]>layed his jirogressive character by proposing a new water supply for the citv of 
Newark and vicinity by a gravity system connecting with the Petpianuock River, distant about twenty- 
five miles. The plan was adopted, and his property and water rights along the river which controlled 
the supply were bought by the East Jersey Water Company, which secured the contract from the Newark 
authorities. By this transaction and other successful enterprises, Mr. Pi'att, in a measure, retrieved his 
fortunes and is financially comfoi-table in his declining years. 

The only enterprise of a public nature which he has promoted in later years has been the organizing 
of the Arlington Cemetery in the township of Kearny, which is recognized as one of the most beautiful 
and best managed rural cemeteries in New Jersey, and of which he has been continuously the chief officer. 

The picturesque and attivictive features of this cemetery illustrate lu.iw the somljre abode of the 
dead can lie transformed into a garden of l)eantv, and the old traditional ministry of sadness can become 
a cheerful occujiation. 

His occasidiial enntributions tn the jiress have been received with marked favor by the pTiblic. Ilis 
style is graceful yet vigorous and forcil)le, and often poetical. His journey to and life in California in 
18-i9, with its thrilling adventures and hairbreadth escapes, was graphically described by him in a sketch 
published in the Century Magazine for April, 1891. 

In 18-43, Mr. Pratt married Miss Adeline F. Barnes, daughter of Eli Barnes, of New Haven, Conn., 
and sister of Alfred 8. Barnes, of Brooklyn. She died in March, ISSO, greatly lamented by the conununity 
whose social and moral life she had in a great measure inilueneed and directed. 

The Montclair Times of April 3, 1880, in referring to the death of this noble woman, said: 

"No woman ever lived in tliis village who has exerted a wider or more beneficent influence. In 
our social and religious life she has been one of the most conspicuous figures. And yet no person was 
ever more averse to publicity. She was prominent not so much because of her exceptional gifts as her 
exceptional goodness. The reputation for sociability and good feeling which has distinguished Montclair 
was almost created by this beautiful and indefatigable woman. Verj' seldom does a person in no position 
of prominence, with no special advantage not possessed by others, win so large a place in so many 
hearts. And j'et the causes are not hard to find. 

"She was alisolutely unselfish; she lived to do good and make others happy ; she was the friend 
of the poor and the friendless ; she sought no recognition for what she did. Gifted with great physical 
strength, she was able to do what others equally willing could not attempt. Without neglecting her own 
home, she had a mysterious way of bearing the griefs and sharing the anxieties of almost all the homes in 
the village, while it was small enough for one person to know all. Her sympathy was magnetic because 
it was so genuine. Wherever there was sickness or suffering she was sure to be found. ' She went about 
doing good.' If she had wealth it was not used for herself but for others. If she had not money to 
give, she gave strength and love just the same. 

" She was one of the original members of the Congregational Church, and she worked for its 
welfare with tireless zeal. Yet she was no sectarian. She was simply a Christian. She was almost 
passionately evangelistic. Her religion was her life. She wanted every one to enjoy her faith. For 
years she was President of the Ladies' Aid Society, and her influence was felt in all the departments of 
the church's activity. Before the organization of the Congregational Church she worked with the same 
spirit in the Presbyterian Church. She was greatly interested in missions, and the only one of her 
children living who could not be with her during her last hours, was her daughter, Mrs. Eaton, who is a 
missionary in Mexico. When the AVoman's Christian Teniperance Union was organized, she threw into 
it her intense and eager enthusiasm. It was the last public work in which she had a part. Nothing 

History of Montci.air TowNsiiir. 


which concerned human welfare and liappiness was foreign to lier. She may be said to have given her 
life to tliis community. In lier liome, in society, in the Sunday School, in the Cluirch, in all beneficent 
work, she was constantly interested. During her sickness her Howcrs were divided and sent to others who 
were sick; and her constant prayer was for those whom she desired to see more heartily consecrated. 
' Her thread of life was strung with beads of love and thought.' 

"* * * Her life was beautiful and beneficent; her death painless and peaceful; her memory is a 
benediction and an inspiration. She belonged to tlie whole conimnnity, and tlie whole conunnnity is sad 
at its loss.'' 

Eight children were the issue of this marriage, two dying in infancy and six others now living, viz.: 

Harriet Amki.ia, the wife of Henry F. Turrey, Montclair. Died Scjiteniber 15, IS03. 

Gertkudk Clifford, who married Kev. James D. Eat(tM, both now in tlie service of the American 
linard of Foreign ^lissions in rhihuahua. Arexicn. 

AViLLiAM A., Superintendent ui ilines in Mexico. 

Adela, the wife of Charles H. Johnson. Jr . in Montclair. 


'/ - 


JrLius Howard, Proprietor and Manager of an F^ducatiunal Institution in ^Milwaukee, Wis., and 
.Inim Barnes, now residing iu Montclair. 

He bought a fanii in 1850 and built his first residence on Elm Street, which he caused to be 
widened from a narrow farm road to its present width, and along which he planted the elms which 
suiTijested the name of the street, and wiiich for twentv-five vears have been an ornamental feature of the 
town. At that time his house was the only one occu])ying the area between F'ullerton Avenue and the 
Bloomtield line in one direction, and TV.oomtield Avenue and Orange Road in the other direction. A 
view of the house is shown in the accompanying illu.stration. 

During his public career in Montclair Mr. Pratt has made enemies, but at the same time he has 
made many warm friends. A man of great decision of character, and one who has the courage of his 
convictions, no amount of argument or opposition could swerve him from a line he had marked out for 
iiimself. His pertinacity and strong determination of character are hereditary traits and have marked 


History of Montclair Township. 

his course through life. He has given liherally of his means in aid of puhlic iuid private charities, and 
always e.xtended a helping hand and a word of eiieouragenient to those who were fighting life's l)attle's 
amid adverse circumstances. 


Line of Descent of Hknkv A. Chittenden from Wii.f.iam the Ancestor. 

William Chittenden, the American ancestor of this family, came from the parish of Canbrook, 
in Kent, near London, England, in 1639, and settled at Guilford, Conn., which was then a part of the 
New Haven Colony. He was one of the six persons selected to purchase lands in Guilford, and was the 
chief military man in the plantation, hearing the title of '"Lieutenant." He had been a soldier in the 
English Arm}' in the Netherlands, where lie held the title of "Major." He was a chief magistrate 

in the colony and a deputy 
his death. He was a man 
and common sense, and 
protect the interests of the 
who had left their native 
free exercise of their relig- 
homestead in Guilford 
in the hands of his de- 
" Mapleside." 
is said to be derived from 
from the words chy 
or dun [hill], meaning the 

Henry A. Chittenden is 
the ten children of 
Josiah, born in Woodbur}', 
Simeon (1), I)orn in Giiil- 
soldier of the Revolution, 
Guilford troops in the 
was the father of Abel, 
of Simeon (2), was born 
was a man of prominence 
force and energy of char- 
religious convictions, 
win, daughter of Timothy 
He resided on the lot 


to the General Court until 
of great executive ability 
did much to advance and 
little band of colonists 
lands in order to enjoy the 
ious principles. The old 
which he occupied is still 
scendants and is known as 

The name of Cliittenden 
the British and Welsh, 
[house], tane [lower], din 
" lower house nnder the 

The line of descent of 
through Thomas, one of 
William; thence through 
Conn., in 1677, "Deacon" 
ford, 1714; Simeon (2), a 
who enlisted with the 
"Lexington Alarm." He 

Abel Chittenden, son 
in Guilford in 1779. He 
in the communitv, of great 
acter, and possessed strong 
Married Ann Hart Bald- 
Baldwin and Olive Norton, 
occupied by William the 

ancestor. His children were : Henry Baldwin, Olive Norton, Sarah Dudley, Anna Hart, Simeon Baldwin 
— of whom hereafter — and Henry Abel. 

Simeon Baldwin, fifth child of Altel and Anna Hart (Baldwin) Chittenden was born at the home- 
stead in Guilford, Conn., in March, 1814. He was for many years the head of the well-known New 
York dry goods lirm of S. B. Chittenden tt Co., was a welbknown philanthropist, one of the most prom- 
inent as well as one of the most pojnilar men in Brooklyn. He i-epresented his Congressional District in 
Congress from 1S74 to 1881, and was one of the most influential members during that term. He was 
also Vice-President of the New York Chamber of Commerce for a number of years. He died in 1889. 
The library building which he gave to Yale College is a beautif id and enduring monument to his memory. 

Henry Abel Chittenden, youngest child of Abel and Anna Hart (Baldwin) Chittenden, Avas 
born at the homestead of his ancestors in Guilford, Conn., in April, 1816. He was educated at Guilford 

History of Montci.air Township. 207 

and began his business career at a very early age in Xew Haven, Conn., and afterward went to Hartford, 
wliere for many years he was a prosperous and leading merchant. He was one of the early advocates of 
temperance, and took a prominent part in what was known as the " Wasliingtonian " movement. He 
subsequently removed to New York Cit}', and was for many years associated with his brother Simeon B. 
in the wholesale dry goods business, and later carried on business on his own account. He was for many 
years a resident of Brooklyn, and was one of the founders of Plymouth Church. He introduced liev. 
Henry Ward Beecher at the Broadway Tabernacle to the first eastern congregation where he distinguished 
himself, and was instrumental in the calling of Mr. Beecher to Plymouth Church. Mr. Chittenden was 
one of the jiioneers in the great abolition movement, and a pioniinent actor in tlie "underground rail- 
road" system which conveyed numbers of fugitive slaves to ])laces of safetj', he assisting by generous 
contributions of money and by personal efforts. He individually maintained a church at Washington in 
the cause of '"free speech"' for a ])criod of six years about this time. Plain, outsj)oken and fearless, 
he carried on the crusade wliich finally resulted in the nomination of Abraham Lincoln as the standard 
bearer of the Kepublican ])arty. He is a man of strong religious convictions, a thorough Bible student 
and possesses a wonderfully retentive memory, being able to <piote offhand from almost any j)ortion of 
the Scriptures. As a public speaker he is earnest and and impressive and on his favorite subject. " The 
Second Advent," he is eloquent. He is very orthodox in his religious views and is firm and unyiehling 
in his convictions of truth as expounded by the Bible. In 184.5 he wrote a j)amphlet entitled, "A Kcply 
to the Charge of Heresy," wherein he maintained that there is no future life for mortals out of Christ. 
This pamphbt has had an enormous circulation, and is still published in Boston. 

Mr. (y'liittenden is the oldest surviving settler of that interesting coterie of New York !)usiness men 
who began the settlement of West liloomtield — later ^[ontclair — as a place of suburban residence nearly 
forty years ago. He came about 1856 and purchased a large tract of land on the corner of what is now 
known as Grove Street and (ilen Ridge Avenue. lie built the ''old hnmostead," improved his spacious 
grounds, and there amid |>leasant surrounding of trees, llowers anil shrubbery has since continued to 
reside. He married, in 1S44, Miss Henrietta Gano, of Ohio, a descendant of Francis Gerneaux, one of 
the French Huguenot refugees who came to America in 10S6 and settled in New Tlochelle, N. Y. Her 
great-grandfather, Ilev. John Gano, was the son of Daniel, and grandson of Stephen, and great-grandson 
of Francis, the ancestor who Americanized and clianged liis own name for simplicity to that of Gano. 
He was born in 1727, was a noted Baj)tist })reacher, who organized the first Baptist Church in New York 
City, and was ordained as its pastor in 1702. He early espoused the cause of the colonists in their struggle 
to shake off tlie British yoke, and became chaplain in Washington's army, and remained with his beloved 
commander, whose friend and spiritual adviser he was, until the close of the war. He was known as the 
" Fighting Parson " — was a man of great personal courage, and always found at the front encouraging 
the soldiers with hia genial presence and cheerful words. He removed to Kentucky and died at Fiank- 
fort in 1804. His son, Major-General John Stites Gano was a distinguished officer in the war of 1812, and the 
l)rincipal founder and proprietor of Covington, Ky. He died in 1822. His son. Major Daniel Gano, the 
father of Mrs. Chittenden, was the first white child born in the region known as the city of Cincinnati, 
in 1794. He was a gentleman of the old school, noted for his kindness of heart, great learning and courtly 
manners. He was a liberal patron of the fine arts, something of a poet, and counted among his most intimate 
friends Henry Clay, General Winfield Scott, Governor Clinton, General Harrison and the Marquis de 
Lafayette. His beautiful home "Acacia" was the mecca and rendezvous for all the distinguished people 
of that time. He did much to l)ui]d up his native city, and was beloved by all who knew him. His 
daughter, Mrs. Henry A. Chittenden, still living, inherits many of his amiable qualities, and is greatly 
beloved by her large circle of friends and acquaintances. The issue of the marriage of Henry A. Chit- 
tenden with Henrietta Gano is eight children — two deceased, Henrietta, aged three years, and Belle, aged 
thirteen. Those now living are Henry A., Jr., the editor ; Anna C. Duncan, wife of the eminent lawyer, 
1). D. Duncan, formerly of St. Louis, but now of New York City, Daniel Gano, Charles Baldwin, Eliza- 
beth L., wife of Dr. W. E. Pinkliam, of New York, and William Lawrence. 


History of Montclaik Township. 

Daniel Gaiio's latest namesake and descendant is Gano Westervelt Chittenden, born Nt)veinl)er 9, 
1890, the son of Henry A. Cliittenden, Jr., for many yeai-s in the editorial service of Mr. James Gordon 
Bennett on the Nciu York Herald and the Telegram, his niotlier being Alice Westervelt, of Paterson, 
N. J., a well-known magazine and news^mper writer. 

William Lawrence Chittenden, known as the "Poet Ranchman," youngest child of Henry A. 
and Henrietta (Gano) Chittenden, was born in Montckiir, N. J., March, 1802. He is named from 
William tlie ancestor and from his maternal grandmother, who belonged to tlie distinguished Lawrence 
family. William L., or "Larry,"' as he is familiarly known, enjoyed nil the advantages of the higher 
education for which Montclair is famous. As a lad he was jiopular with his schoolmates, full of fun, and 
fond of practical jokes; he was " irrepressible," it is said, and became the " scapegoat " of tlie village, 
preferring to bear the sins of others rather than " peach" on liis com jianions. Fond of athletic sports^ 
bathing, tishing, etc., he gave more attention to these than to his books. Later in life he saw his mistake 

and made up for lost time in 
early athletic training served 
years, for lie became famous 
and distinguished himself by 
tlie summer of 1891, at 
rescuing two New York 
in the surf at the great risk 
to his business career and his 
veston Neivs says of him : 
went into the wholesale dry- 
and uncle, and few poets have 
of what there is iii a tine 
has been properly made up. 
torial and literary work for 
1887 he went into the cattle 
S. B. Chittenden and settled 
where as a bachelor he now 
tlie ranch, listening to the 
music of the night winds, 
stincts, and his spirit rose in 
life into his lines, and our 
of his success. His ' Ranch 
assumed tangible form and 

(^Ay-VyJJKJ^ ^ Kf^J\AJiSflji>~\^^ 

hard study and reading. His 
him a good ])urpose in later 
as arider, swimmerand diver, 
his boldness and daring in 
Spring Lake Beach, N. J., by 
young ladies from drowning 
of his own life. Referring 
genius as a poet, the Gal- 
"When very young Larry 
goods Ijusiness with his father 
a better aji^treciation than he 
piece of dry-goods — after it 
He also has done much repor- 
the New York papers. In 
business with his uncle Mr. 
in Jones County, Texas, 
resides. The solitary life on 
songs of the birds and the 
developed Larry's poetic in- 
song. He has wrought his 
readers may well be proud 
Verses,' as Larry terms them, 

assumed tangible form and |^ — r*/).. iD Gi^' irV""^^ were published in a volume 

issued by G. P. Putnam's v\! JJliU^^vV^ ^X)^o^JiAA^^ UivxUflA-dc^ gy^g^ of js^ew York. The 
first edition was soon ex- ^^ hausted, and the second edi- 

tion, more elaborate than the first and beautifully illustrated, has lately been issued. The critics of this 
country and P^urope were unstinted in their ])raise of the work, and Larry tinds himself on the high road 
to fame in this his first attempt to reach the public. In Western parlance, 'honors are easy' with him 
and he bears them modestly." The Boston Home Journal says of the volume : " It is full of true poetic 
genius and is a very welcome contribution to our best American poetical literature." The London 
Saturday Review says: " Ranch Verses are tuneful, manly in sentiment, and musical in How. The^' 
have a right cheerful tone and are full of spirit and vivacity. The joy of existence and the sense of 
perfect sympathy for free and tameless nature animates Mr. Chittenden's lyrics." "Sure to become a 
favorite," says the Glasgow (Scotland) Herald. IhMic Opinion says : " Will win from readers old and 
young unstinted praise and warm eulogy. The bold intellect of the author, tempered by culture and 
refinement, has produced a volume that must bring him fame.'' " Ranch Verses," says the Review of 
Reviews, " are worthy of a place beside those of Riley, Ilarte, Field and Miller." Not an adverse 

^ y 

History of Montclair Township. 209 

criticism of the work has yet appeared, and a vohime could be compiled of the many pleasant things said 
by his reviewers. In the words of the St. Louis Republic: "We repeat that ' variety is tlie soul i>f it all 
and the spice of life pervades it.' " The Montclair TiV/u'-s, belicviiisj that in this case a "prophet hatli 
honor ill his own country " and anions his own kindred, enqihasizcs the sentiments expressed by others, 
and says, " All honor to our Poet lianclunan." 


Four families of this name, bearinj; arms, are mentioned by IJurke as early as the fifteenth 
century; two were of London, one was of Cuunty Noi'folk, one of County Surrey. One of this name 
was Lord Mayor of London in IGii.i. Another, Rev. Joiiii Parkluirst, was Ciiaplain to Queen Elizabeth 
— so stated in Alice Strickland's " Queens of England." The London family bore Arms. — Argent a cross 
ermines between four bucks trippatit ppr. Cnst. — Out of a pallisado coronet or, a buck's head erased 
ai-geiit attired of the first. 

Geoeuk PAUKnrKST, the American ancestor, was of Watertown, Mass., as early as 1()43. lie 
married Susanna, widow of John Sitnpson, and removed to Boston about 1655. He had a son George (2) 
Ijy his tir^t wife, liorn in England in KilS. 

(tkhkgk (2) PAKKuriiST, son of George first b}' his first wife, was born in I'ils in England and 
cMme over with his father. He remained in Watertown. He married, and liad, among other children, .lolm. 

John (1) Pakkhlkst, son of (ieorge (2) married and had a child, John (2). 

John i'l) Pakkhlkst, son of John (I), was born in Watertown. He married and had children, 
Isaac and Jonas, who removed to Milford about 1735. 

Jonas Pakkhikst, son of John (2) wiis born in Watertown, married Abigail Morse, and removed 
to Milford, Mass. They had a son, Ephraini. 

Ephkaim I'AKKncK.sT, son of Jonas and Aliigail (Morse) Parkhurst, was born in Milford, Mass., 
Dec. 27, 1743. lie married Jemima Mayward, and had a son Nathan. 

Nathan Pakkhlkst, son of Ephraini and Jemima (Mayward) Parkhurst, was born in Milford, 
June 20, 1770. He dwelt mostly on the "Island," so called, and for many years owned a mill seat just 
Ik'Iow Charles Itiver Bridge : he was a clothier anil miller by trade and did an extensive business. He 
married Ruth, daughter of Deacon Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Nelson) Rawson, born October 25, 1770. 

Deacon Nathaniel Rawson, born July l>, 1745, was the son of Thomas, who was the son of 
Wilson, who was the son of Grindal Rawson, "The faithful and learned ])astor of the Church of ('hrist 
in Mendon, who died February (>, 1715. This Grindal Rawson was the author of a work entitled 
•(."onfcssions of Faith,' written in the Indian and Etiglish tongues. He was the friend and classmate of 
Cotton Mather. By an order passed by the General Court of Massachusetts, July 31, 1C92, he, with 
others, was desired to accompany the General and I^orces in the expedition against Canada, to carry on 
the worshiping of God in that ex)iedition.'' Grindal was the son of William, who was the son of 
Edward Rawson, the progenitor of all bearing the name of Rawson in the United States. He was born 
in (iillingliani, Dorsetshire. England, April 15,1015. He was married. in England to Rachel Periie, 
daughter of Tiiomas Periie, and grand-daughter of John Hooker, whose wife was a (irindal, sister of 
Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Edward Rawson came 
to Newljury, in the Colony t)f Massachusetts Bay, as early as 1G37. He was a grantee of that town, 
chosen Publick Notary and Register, 1638, and was annually re-elected until chosen Secretary of the Colony. 

The issue of the marriage of Nathan Parkhurst with Ruth Rawson was Evelina, born 1797; 
Ziba, born 1799; Stephen Rawson, of whom hereafter; Parmenus Parsus, born 1802, and Waldo, 
born LSU7. 

Stephen Rawson Pakkhlkst, third child and second son of Nathan and Ruth (Rawson) Park- 
burst, was born at ^filford, Ma.=s., March 19, 1802. He enjoyed the usual advantages of a common school 
education, with a brief term at the academy. It was his father's wish that he study civil engineering, 
but for this he had neither taste nor inclination. His fondness for mechanics was shown in early life, 

21(1 History of Montclair Township. 

Ijiit it was not until the necessity arose that he developed the wonderful inventive genius that afterward 
placed him in the front rank of American inventors. He was but nineteen years of age when his father 
died, and, being thrown on his own resonrces, he began the battle of life with nothing save his own 
indonutable will, pluck, energy and perseverance. He lirst took to himself a wife and then obtained 
a situation in the carding department of a woolen mill, where he not only mastered the details, but saw 
the necessity fur and the advantages to be gained by improved machinery. His lirst invention, although 
a very important one, he neglected to patent, and thereby failed to reap the benefits of it. His services, 
however, became valuable to his employer, and by the time he reached his majority he had accumulated 
a capital of $2,000, with which he started in bl^siness for himself, lie was successful from the beginning, 
and was constantly engaged in making improvements in cotton and woolen machinery. 

His elder brother succeeded to the father's business in Milford. Stephen next assumed it, who, 
after carrying it on for a short time, and making still further improvements, met with a great disaster in 
the destruction of the building by tire. After many hard struggles he decided to remove to New York 
City, where he soon after constructed machinery for the manufacture of his several inventions, and 
organized a company for the purpose of operating the business known as the Atlas Manufacturing Com- 
jmny. This was subsequently transferred to Newark, where the business is still continued in that name. 

As an inventor Mr. Tarkhurst did more to revolutionize the manufacture of wool atul cotton than 
any man since the days of Amos "VVhittemore and Eli Whitney. His first invention was known as the 
Burring Machine, for which he obtained Letters Patent May 1, 1845. The object of this invention was 
to remove the burrs, and other foreign substances, from wool before carding, thereby preventing damage 
to the card clothing, and etlecting great saving in labor and material, and to free cotton from seeds and 
other substances injurious to the staple, thereby materially enhancing its value. 

When used in comljination with a carding machine, as it generally is, the burr cylinder is placed 
next the feed rollers, draws the unburrcd wool fi-om l)etween them on to i)lain surface, between narrow, 
toothed, or serrated steel rings, placed upon a light, hollow, rigid, metallic cylinder, called a burr 
cylinder ; the plain surface being somewhat less in diameter than the serrated rings, allows the 
nuiterial to be drawn below the periphery of the steel rings on to the plain surface, and leaves the 
burrs 0!i top to be knocked off by a revolving guard over the burr cylinder into a trash leceptacle in 
front. The wool being thus freed from burrs, is stripped from the burr cylinder in the rear by a rapidly 
revolving card-clothed cylinder of the carding nuichine, and passes on through the machine in the ordinary 
process of carding. Previous to this invention various attempts had been nuule, especially on buriing 
wool, to devise some means whereby the burrs could be removed without injury to the libre and the wool 
rendered more serviceable for high grade manufacturing purposes, but with only partial success. At the 
time of the introduction of these machines into use, the old methods of picking the burrs from the wool 
by hand, or cutting theui out with common sheep shears, was generally resorted to. But this process 
was slow, tedious, expensive, and unreliable, and wool, which was very burry— especially foreign wools 
of this description — was only used to a very limited extent in this country, in consequence of the great 
difficulty and expense incurred in removing the burrs. 

Besides inventing numerous other machines of a similar character, Mr. Parkhurst made many 
improvements in his burring machine. He was subjected to a long and expensive litigation in de- 
fending his patents, and Judge Nelson i>f the U. S. Circuit Court, in giving his decision in 1865, 
remarked that " this invention was very meritorious." 

He invented his Double Burring Machine in 18(52. His steel ring cylinders and feed rollers 
as applied to carding machines are still regarded as the best in the market, and his machinery for 
cleaning wool is considered far superior to any machine for this purpose in this country or in Europe. 

His Steel Cylinder Cotton Gin, patented long before the war, was of inestimable value to the 
planters of the South. One planter wrote : "The cotton that I ginned on them last year sold for one 
and a half cents more than my saw-gin cotton." This was especially adaj^ted to the long and short 
staple cotton, withont injury to the fibre. It received the First Medal and Diploma at the Fair of the 
American Institute in 1869. 

History of Montclair Township. 211 

.Mr. Parkliurst had a large sale for his Cotton Gin at tlie South before the war. lie lost heavily, 
however, at the breaking out of the war, and after that confined his attention principally to the 
manufacture of other niacliinery. He removed to Montclair, or what was then West Bloomfield, 
about 1S.5T. He [jurchased the Mountain House property, where he resided for a number of years 
until his death in April, Is^T. 

He was a man of nnimpcacbable integrity, uprightness of chai-acter, generous to a fault, and 
greatly beloved by his associates and employees — to any and all of whom he was ever ready to lend 
a hei|iing hand. 

Mr. Parkhurst married Thankful Legge, daughter of David I^gge, of Mendon,, who served as 
Sergeant in the War of the Revolution, and was with Washington at Valley Forge. He was a descendant 
of John Legge, of Salem, 1031, who came in the fleet with Winthropand lived at Marblehead. Members 
of this family weie noted for their personal jirowess and courage ; several of them took part in the Colonial 
as well as the French and Indian Wars ; their descendants were largely represented in the War of the 
Rebellion. David Legge was the son of William, who was probably the son of John Legge, of Mendun, 
who married JLinnah Nelson, daughter of Cxersham and Abigail ( Winthrop) Xelson born at Rowlev, 1714. 

The issue of Mr. Parkhurst's marriage with Thankful Legge was Sylvester, born 1S22, died 1824; 
Elizabeth, who married Warren Holt; Emily Ruth and Henry C. The latter was a bright, promising 
young man who inherited much i.f his father's inventive genius. Referring to his untimely death, the 
MUford Journal says : " Among the lost by the late explosion of the steamer Princess on the 
^[ississippi River, was Henry C. Parkhurst, only son of Stephen R. Parkhurst. of New York, formerly of 
this town. Ry this sad casualty a father and mother and two sisters, with a large circle of relatives, have 
been bereaved of a most dutiful and affectionate son, brother and frietxi. In his business relations, whicli 
were very extensive, he had the confidence and esteem of all with whom he was in any way coimected. 
He leaves beliiml liitn the record of a short life well spent, and the cheering consolation to his friends 
that liis record was on high. He wiis a prominent man, and was acting as traveling agent of the 
establishment when he lost his life. His education was received at the Mountain House School, kept by 
Mr. Warren Holt, then one of the most popular educational institutions in the State. It was this fact 
that led his parents subsequently to settle in this locality and to purchase the building. 

Mr. Warren Holt (long known as one of the most successful teachers in Bloomfield), who 
married the second cliild of Stephen R. Parkhurst, erected on the crest of the mountain, near Bloomfield 
Avenue, one of the beautiful villas in that locality. The site on which this house rests afifords the 
most extended view of any f.ther in the township. Looking toward the east there is an uninterrupted 
view of the whole country from the mouth of the Hudson River to the terminus of the Pali.sades. Look- 
ing west there is a beautiful view of the township of Verona in the valley, with the Second Mountain and 
the township of Caldwell in the distance ; looking north, the beautiful Passaic Valley, with its 
numerous towns and villages, easily discerned on a clear dav. 


Line ok Desce.vt of Robert M. Bovd. 

It is stated in "Burke's Landed Gentry," that "This family is of very considerable antiquity, 
having a common ancestor with the Boyds, Earls of Kilmarnock, the last of whom bearing the title 
suffered on Tower Hill in 174.^ for his devotion to the ill-fated race of Stewart. The first recorded 
ancestor, Simon, brother of Walter, High Steward of Scotland, witnessed the foundation charter of the 
monastery of Paisley in H<;0, and is therein designed 'frater Walter! filii dapferi.' " He was father of 
Robert, called Boyt or Boijd, from his complexion, the Celtic wi^rd Boidh signifying fair, and from liim 
derived the various families of the name. The lands of Kilmarnock were granted by Robert the Bruce 
to his gallent adherent. Sir Roijkrt B(ni), who had been among the first as-sociates of the prince in his 
arduous attempt to restore the liberties of Scotland. Sir Robert was father of three sons: Sir Thomas, 

212 History of Montclair Township. 

liis lieir ; Alan, who commaiuled tlie Scottisli archers at the siege of Perth, in 1339, where he was slain. 
The eldest son. Sir Thomas Boyd, was taken prisoner, together with King David II. at the battle of 
Durham in 13-16. 

James Boyd, one of the four brothers who migrated to America, was of Kilmarnock stock, 
originating iu Ayreshire, Scotland ; transferred to County Down, in the North of Ireland. This James, 
the third brother, sailed from Belfast, Ireland, August 9, ITofi, witii his wife and children. His eldest 
son, Samuel, visited America four years earlier than his fathei", and returned to Ireland, whence he came 
back as a permanent settler in 1756, and thereafter resided in Little Britain Parish, Conn., until his 
death, May 27, 1801, in his sixty-seventh year. He served in the French and Canadian War, and 
furnished a substitute in the Revolution. His son James, who settled in Winsted, Conn., forged the 
chain that was stretched across the Hudson from Fort Washington to the Jersey shore during the 
Revolution, to prevent the British ships from passing up the river. He had a son, Samuel. 

Sajiuel (i) BoTD, born June 24, 1802, was engaged as a trader and manufacturer in Winsted 
till 1S33. He was prominent in military and other affairs in his native town and was Captain of a 
militia company. He went to New Orleans in 1S36 in company with four friends, all of whom died 
during the great yellow fever epidemic of the following year. He was the first taken and after his 
recovery nursed his friends. He was a member of the Howard Benevolent Association and did a noble 
work in nursing the sick during the prevalence of that terrible scourge. He matle many friends and was 
sucees.sful in all his lousiness operations. He invested largely in real estate and owned a beautiful 
residence in Lafayette, then a suburb above, now a portion of the city of New Orleans. He was popular 
with the masses and served as a member of the Board of Aldermen. He returned to New York City in 
1850, and engaged in the commission hardware business. He was appointed Aj^praiser in the New York 
Custom House in 1S60, and held that position until his death in 1885. He was for some years a resident 
of Brooklyn ; was one of the founders and a j)rominent member of Plymouth Church during the early 
part of Beecher's pastorate and was instrumental in calling him to the church. He removed to West 
Bloomfield about 185G, and later built a house on Fullerton Avenue, on the site now occujjied by the 
Wilde Memorial Chapel, where he resided until his death. The house was removed to Grove Street and 
is at present occupied by Dr. Shelton. He was one of the founders of the First Congregational Church 
in Montclair, and was instrumental in calling Dr. A. A. Bradford as its pastor. He was a man of 
genial nature, sympathetic, and of large-hearted liberality. He was a friend of the poor and unfortunate, 
and delighted in doing good and helping others. He married, September 20, 1825, Sylvia Coe (still 
living, 1893), daughter of Jonathan and Charlotte (Spencer) Coe, a descendant of Robert Coe, who came 
from England in 163-4 and settled in Connecticut. 

Tliey had issue, James 31., deceased ; 3Ljria)ine (married Henry B. Keen); Sarah Jane, married 
Thomas Howe Bird (see sketch) ; Robert Mimro, of whom hereafter ; Alice Isabel, born in New Orleans, 
La., married Rev. Nelson Millard — issue, Ernest Boyd and Ethel Florence. 

Robert Muneo Boyd, fourth child of Samuel and Sylvia (Coe) Boyd, was born in Winsted, 
Conn. His education was received at the public school and academy in his native town. He came to 
New Yoi'k about 1852 and engaged as clerk in the wholesale dry-goods business, and in 1868 he became 
a partner in a large importing house, of which he has since become the senior partner, the business 
having been successfully conducted for more than a quarter of a century. His success is due in a great 
measure to the confidential relations established between himself and his employees. They are treated 
like men, and made to feel that the interests of employer and employee are mutual. His aim in life has 
been to apply the golden rule in all his relations with his fellow men. Modest and unassuming, yet a 
man of great energy, force and determination of character. 

A portion of his early life was spent in New Orleans and later in Brooklyn. He removed to 
Montclair in 1856, and has not only witnessed but has aided materially in its growth from a little village 
of a few hundred inhabitants to a suburban township of over 10,000. He has invested extensively in 
real estate both in IMontclair and Upper Montclair, which he has greatly improved. He has been 




History of Montclair Township. 213 

especially interested in the liiyiiiir out and itnpros-ement of streets, and was for some years a member of 
the townshiji Koad Commissioners. He lias also served several years as trustee of the First Congregational 
Church. In l^^^>'^ he built his present house, 51 Fullerton Avenue, where he has since resided. He 
married Kate 15., daughter of ^Fatthias Crane, grand-daughter of Israel (!ranc, and sixth in descent from 
Nathaniel Crane, one of the origiiuil settlers of Cranetown. Issue : Robert M., Jr., Susie Belle, and 
Bertha Louise. 

KoiJKHT M. Bovn. Jr., son of Robert M. and Katharine (Crane') Boyd, was born in Montclair, 
May ."», ISii^. lie began his education in the i)rimary department of the Montclair public school, passing 
through the various grades, graduated with honor, and took the valedictory. Entered Yale in 1880; 
took a Latin prize in the Freshman Class and the mathematical prize in the Soi)homore. He was 
appointed to speak at the Commencement and took the Cobden (^lub medal for excellence in political 
economy. lie entered Colundjia Law School in 1SS4, graduating in ISSG with the degree of LL.B., 
and took the degree of M.A. from Columbia School of Political Science. lie began practice in the 
office of Davies, Cole and Rapallo, New York, the same year. He spent one year with the Title 
CJuarantee and Trust Company, ami later opened an otHce on his own account at ?.2 Liberty Street. On 
January 1, 1889, he formed the present co-partnership of Murphy, Lloyd & Boyd, and has already acquired 
a corporation litigative and real estate practice. He is an indefatigable worker, and his college athletic 
training enables him to attend to his increasing responsibilities. Courteous, and even generous to his 
opj)onents, yet he leaves no stone unturned to win his case i>y honorable means. During his college life 
he took an active part in athletic games, and in these he has been a leader in Montclair. AVlietber at 
play or wurk, he obeys the Scriptural injunction, " Whatsoever thy band findetli to do, do with thy 
might." He has been Secretary, Treasurer, and President of the Tennis Club; Secretary, Vice-President, 
and President of the Dramatic Club, and Governor of the Athletic Club. He is ecpially earnest in 
religious ati'airs and is assistant deacon in the First Coui'rcs'ational C'liurch. 


Mr. Nason was among the first of the "new comers" to Montclair. He was a native of 
Augusta, Me., born June 11, 1818. He came to New York City at an early age and began business 
as clerk with one of the largest firms in the city, without compensation. At the age of twenty-one 
he started in business for himself at Farmington, Me. He purchased grain from the farmers direct, 
ship]>ed by teams to Hallowell, and thence to New York by water. He was the lirst to engage in the 
grain luisiness in that locality. Later he returned to New York City and engaged in the wholesale 
flour and grain business, on the corner of Water and Broad Streets, becoming, with his brother-in-law, 
Captain Collins, one of the leading firms in this line. He was for some time a resident of Brooklyn, 
aiul was one of the founders of Pilgrim Church (Dr. Storrs). 

He resided for two years in New York City, and in 1859 removed to IVIontdair, where he purchased 
a large tract of land on the mountain slope. He built the large stone mansion which faces Hillside 
Avenue, using the trap rock from the cliff directly in the rear. He was the pioneer on the mountain 
slope, and erected altogether fourteen houses. He opened at his expense Hillside Avenue and IVIountain 
Avenue from the Turnpike to the Ilaskill property, afterward continued to Llewellyn Park. He also 
opened Gates .Avenue, giving it his wife's maiden name. He was enthusiastic, j)ubli('-s]iirited, a man of 
intense energy and an earnest worker in the cause of temperance. His personal influence brought to 
Montclair many of its best citizens. He was a trustee in the Presbyterian Church, and liecame one of 
the founders of the Congregational Church. He subsequently removed to Virginia and liought a 
plantation six miles from Orange Court House, which soon became a settlement, with a post oflice, and 
later, when a railroad was cut through, he encouraged the enterprise, and in recognition of his aid, 
the company, after his death, named the place Nason. He at once established a colored Salibath 
School, which became very large, and in which every member of his family, old enough, was a teacher. 


History of Montclair Township. 

The cliildren were taught to sing the Bradljury liyinns, and as soon as tliey were ahle to I'ead he pre- 
sented them witli Bibles. Si.xty Bibles were thus given away, and a flourishing church was finally 
established on the plantation. 

On a business trip to IVIontclair, September 6, 1876, he died veiy suddenly immediately after his 
ari'ival. lie was buried in Rosedale Cemetery, Orange. 

Mr. Nason was twice married, first to Sarah Wingate, of Maine, liy whom he had three children — 
two sons and a daughter. Jle married, secondly, Anna Gates, a native of Massachusetts, but educated and 
married in New York City, by whom he had eight children. Henry, the eldest, married Emelie Wood- 
rufi:, and resided for many years in Montclair, now of liedlands, Cal. Joseph Wingate, the second son, 
died in service of the Union Army during the Civil War (for record see Montclair in the Rebellion). 
The third child, Sarah, married Geo. Innes, Jr., who died suddenly in Virginia ; two, Theodore and 
Cliarles, died in infancy. The others were Horatio, Arthur, Frederick, Isabel, Malcolm and Anna; the 
latter married Hamilton Gathrie, and resides in Colorado; Isabel resides with her motlier at San Diego, 
Cal. ; the other sons referred to ai-e engaged in business in Calift)rnia. 


TioB?:RT McClay Hening was one of the pioneers of the new settlement, and was present 
and took a jirominent part in the discussion which gave the new township its present name. He was a 
native of Steuben ville, O., ^^^^^^^ born in 1812, his father, James 

Gordon Ilenins. a native of 

thence, in the early part of the 
received a collegiate education 
established an extensive mer- 
Mo., which he carried on for 
18J5 he removed to St. Louis, 
established house of James E. 
being changed to Hening & 
New Orleans and New York, 
nent mei'chants in St. Louis 
dent of the Chamljer of Com- 
esteem by the members of that 
in 1856 necessitated his re- 
year. The members of the St. 
adopted a series of resolution.s 
him as a merchant, and of their 
presented him with an elegant 

Vii'ginia, having removed 
pi'esent ceiitui-y. R. M. Hening 
in Virginia. He subsequently 
can tile business in Alexandi-ia, 
some five or six years. About 
Mo., where he joined the old- 
Woodruff, the firm afterwards 
\Voodrufl:, with branches at 
lie was one of the most promi- 
and was for some time Presi- 
merce, and was held in high 
body. The death of his partner 
moval to New York the same 
Louis ('haml)er of Commerce 
expressive of their esteem of 
personal regard as a man ; and 
silver service, consisting of sal- 
ver, coffee urn, etc., on which -vC, JnJKP^^ ^^^^r was inscribed the following : 

" Presented to R. M. Hening, '^^^^^^^^^^^^ ''^*'^ President of the Chamber 

of Commerce by the Merchants ^^^^^^^'^ and Marine of said city, as a 

testimonial of their regard and '^' ^'' "^■^^^''•- esteem." 

Mr. Hening earrie<l on the business successfully under different firm names until after the close 
of the war, wlicn lie retired from the firm, and devoted himself to other financial enterprises, principally 
in New flersey. In lsO(.» he purchased a large tract of land on Mountain Avenue, in Montclair, where 
he built a handsome residence. He was especially' interested in public affairs ; was a member of the 
Board of ('hosen Freeholders of the county ; was twice a candidate for the Legislature, and in lioth 
cases was honored by receiving votes from the opposite Jiai'ty. He was essentially a gentleman, kind, 
courteous and polite; and a man of great liberality. lie took a prominent part in the erection of the 
new township, and was very active in pu.shing forward the new railroad enterprise. Soon after coming 
to the town he united with the First Presbyterian Chui-ch, but subsequently withdrew and united with 

History of Montclaik Townsiiii'. -215 

St. l,iikf"s Ki)iB('oi)iil Cliurcli, wliieh was tlieii in rather a weak cuiulitioii. lie liDiii^lit a tine [)iec'u of 
])ri>]»erty wiiich lie presented to the Cliiircli, and also made a liberal donation for the erection of the 
ehurcli editice. He died in .lumiarv, 1S75. 

SodiL after tiie death of Mr. Ilening a special nieetini; of the \'estry of St. Luke's Church wa.^; 
held and the following preamble and resolution was ado])ted : 

Whereas, The Vestry of St. Luke's Church having heard of the death of our late esteemed associate, Mr. Robert 
M. Ileiiing ; therefore, be it 

litso/Tfii. That in the death of Mr. Hening the Church and community have occasion to mourn the loss of one 
whose jjenial presence, uprightness and integrity of character, wise counsels, unaffected kindness of heart, and thoughtful 
and unselfish solicitude for the comfort and welfare of others endeared him to all who enjoyed the privilege of his 

For several years a most earnest and efficient member of this Vestry, feeling a deep interest in the welfare and 
prosperity of the Church, not alone evidenced by words but by munificent liberality, freely giving of his means in the 
erection of our beautiful church building, and in sustaining the ministrations of the tiospel, the Vestry cannot let this 
occasion p.-iss without bearing record to their uninterrujJted confidence and affectionate regard during the long and 
pleasant official and personal intercourse they have enjoyed with tlieir departed and lamented friend. Tliey will ever 
cherish his memory in affectionate remembrance, and as a testimony of respect will attend his funeral in a body. 

A'fsi>/<'ti/. That these proceedings be placed upon the minutes of the Vestry and the Secretary be requested to 
forward a copy to the afflicted family, with the assurance of our sincere and earnest sympathy in the great bereavement 
thev have sustained. 

ALFRED TAYLOR, Secretary Vestry. 

M<i.NTLi..\iR, January 20, 1875. 

Mr. Ileniiiir was twice married; Hi-st to Elizabeth I'liininier Hyde, second to Sarali Mills 
Carrington. He had issue by his first wife, .lulia E., who married .Mbi'rt Pearce. Elizabeth A. (who 
married Thomas IJ. (Trahami, Robert McClay, and .lames Woodridf. He had three children by his 
second wife. 

Hubert .\[c('lay Ilening, third child of Robert McClay and Elizdietli I'lummcr (Hyde) Hcning, 
was born in St. Louis, .Nfo., June 7, l>i47. He came East with his parents in lS.")ti, and was educated at 
the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He was engajred for a time in his father's office, and subseciuently 
represented the gold (le|mrtmcnt of Edward Sweet vV Co. in the E.xchango, remaining until gold reached 
par, and was afterward in the office of that firm. Later he started in business for himself, dealing 
specially in government bonds and miscellaneous .securities, and had charge of the de]>artment of 
goverment bonds foi- tin' house of lvlw:nd Sweet & ('o. Snb9e((uently he bought a seat in the Con- 
solidated Stock E.xchaiige. dealing in . -locks, petroleum, etc., continuing until 1 SI) 1. He has since been 
engaged in the real estate business in .Montclair. 


Mi:. I)i;ai'i;k wa> iiorii at Urooktield, N. II., October 7, 1S13. Juims^ the .Viiierican ancestor of 
the I)ra[»ers, was the son of Thomas Draper, of the Priory of Ilepstonstall, \'icarage of Halifa.x, 
Yorkshire County-, England, born at ilepstonstall 1018, died at Ro.\bm-y, Mass., duly, UilU. Ik: 
married Miriam, daughter of Gideon Stanstield and Grace Eastwood, of Wadsworth, Yorksliire. He 
emigratt'd to Xew England previous to 1076, being at Chai'lestown that year. He subsiqiieiitlv 
settled at Ro.xbury, Mass., where three of his children were born, and moved thence to Dedhani, 
where he resided for some years, and fiiudly returned to Ro.xbury. 

The descent of (ieorge G. Draper from James, the ancestor, is through Juines (2), James {'r>), 
Ju.'iltita, and Axa, who was his father. The latter married Ruth Whittemore, daughter of Thomas, and 
a direct descendant of Thomas Whittemore, one of the earliest settlers of Charlestown, Mass., about 
1638-1). The farm of Thomas, the ancestor, was bounded east by Chelsea and south by ^lystic River. 
This remained in possession of the Whittemore family until 1845, and the homestead remained intact 
until 1866, when it was destroyed by tire. This family traces its origin from John, Lord of Wliytemere. 
Earlier than the year 1300 is the iirst recorded name, that of John, Lord of Wliytemere, having his 
domicile at Wliytemere, on the north side of the parish of Bobbington, in the manor of Claverly, in 
Shropshire. At the present time the same locality bears the name of Whittemore. The Anglo- 


History of Montclair Township. 

etymology of the word Wliyteinere, is lohite meadoto, or lake, and the first John, Lord of ANHiytemere, 
derived the name of the family from the place where they originally resided. 

George G. Draper, son of Asa and Ruth (Whittemore) Draper, was edncated in his native town, 
and removed to New York City abont 1S36, where he obtained a position as clerk in the once prominent 
firm of L. & V. Kirby. His large acqnaintance with Vermont and New Hampshire business men, 


together with his peculiar abilities as a salesman, gained for him a recognized position in the trade, and 
soon enaljled him to begin business on his own account. About the year lS-i<> be formed the bouse of 
Welling, Hoot & Draper, and subsequently was a member of the firms of Draper, Aldricb t*c Friiik, 
Draper, Aldricb & Co., Draper, Knox ife Ingersoll, and Draper. Knox it Co., importers and commission 
merchants. In these several connections he was uniformly successful until, in the financial cyclone of 



History of Montclair Township. 217 

1857, the last-naiuod firm sncfumVjed. Durini; tlie reiiiaiiiiiiir years of his lite he was comparatively 
inactive in bnsiness, althongli busily and conscientiously occupied in an honorable closiiiij up of his old 
affairs. He was one of the most popular and energetic of Xew York merchants, and in point of ability 
and reputation ranked with such men as Simeon ]}. Draper, his esteemed cousin, and other prominent 
men of that period. While taking no prominent part in politics, he was among the first to join the ranks 
of the republican party, and was loyal in his support of the government during the war. He encouraged 
enlistments of young men and in some cases even supported their families during their absence. He 
setit cpiaiitities of food, provisions, fruit, wine and dotliing to army hospitals for the benefit of sick aiui 
disabled soldiers. Although his means were limited during the latter j-ears of his life, he never failed to 
respond to the calls of charity and benevolence. Any case of suffering or want that appealed to iiini 
found a (piick and ready response. Deserving young men found in him a faithful fiiend and wise 

Mr. Draper spent many years in Brooklyn, where he was well known in social circles and highly 
esteemed. He was a regular attendant at I'lymouth Church. After closing up his business affairs in 
New York, he sold iiis Brooklyn j)roperty and purchased what was known as the Willow liruok Fai-ni in 
Montclair, consisting of about t!(i acres situated oti AVashington Avenue, near the Orange IJoad, and 
running to the Illoomfield line. The property was formerly owned bv Jason Crane; the iniu>e, built in 
17'>4, is still in an excellent state of jtreservation, and is one of the most i)ictures(pie of the old landnuiiks 
of Montclair. (See view.) 

Mr. Diaper was one cf the i)arties who were instrumental in naming the present township. Iteing 
a native of (.'laremont, X. il., he suggested that name, but as it was found that there were several other 
places of this name, it was reversed and called Jlaittclair. 

Thniigh not a member of any church, be exemplified in his daily walk the teaching of the Bible, 
and endeavored to live up to the '• (ioiden liuie." He married, Dccendter ;">, lS4t!, Miss Annie C. 
Ballard, of New York. Issue : Georgia Annie, Charles Ballard, Rebecca Ballard, Iluth Clara, and 
Frank llal'anl. 


Samiki. W!is born in Dnrdiesti-r, Mass., October •'!, l.s;!l, and <!ic<I in Montclair, N. .1., 
March S, iSitd. He was a descendant of John \Vilde, who came from England in Kiss, and settled in 
South Braintrce, John Wilde married in IC'JO, Sarah Hayden, granddaughter of Richard Thayer, 
who was made a freeman in lt>4n, and became a resident of Brainlree, Ma.-;s., in 1041. She was a descendant 
of William 1 layden, who came over in the " Mary and John," in 1680, and settled in D(jrcli ester, Mass. The 
(•liijiirfn of .loiin and Sjirah Hayden Wilde, were John, Samuel, William and Sarah. The Samuel referred 
to had, among other children, a son Joseph (grandfather of Samuel Wilde, the suljject of this 
sketch), who was a I.icntenant in the Continental Army, in the War of the Revolution, his commission be- 
ing signed by John Hancock (see /ac ««Vi/Z<; of commission on opposite page, together witii the arms of 
the Wilde fiimily and collateral branches) whf) was an officer in the War of the Revolution. His ^on 
Samuel (who was father of the subject of this sketch; was born in Dorchester, Mass., in lS(tU, and reiiiovetl 
to New York City in 1820, where he engaged for a time in the hardware and hjoking-glass trade. Eater 
he engaged in the coffee and spice business, under the firm name of Witliington & Wilde, his j)artner 
being tiie pioneer in this country of the process of roa-sling coffee by machinery for the grocers' trade. 
He resi<leil for some years in New York, and subsequently removed to Williamsburgh, now Brooklyn, 
Eastern district. He became quite ])roniinent in the abolition movement in the days when men were 
persecuted lor daring to express their opinions or utter a word against the institution of slavery. He was 
a warm friend of the colored race, and often assisted in their escape from bondage, by the " underground 
railroad." and at one time harbored at his own .store a fugitive slave. He built a church for tlie colored 
peo])le on South Third Street, Williamsburg, which wa« attended by the white as well as the colored 

218 History of Montclair Township. 

people, lie boiiia; elected a deacon of the church. lie married Sai'ah, daugliter of Eoliert Jones of 
Chester, Enf;land, hy whom he had four sons and seven daughters. 

Samuel Wilue, the second son, the subject of this sketch, removed witli his parents in early childhood 
to New Yorlc, and later to Willianishuri^h, where he received the best educational advantages, and studied 
for a time with his uncle, Hev. .bilin Wilde. In I S4S, he entered his father's counting-room, and some 
years later became a partnei' in tiie honst' iiiKh'r thf tirm name of Samuel Wilde & Sons, consisting of 
himself and his brother Josej)li. After the death of the father it Ijecame Samuel Wilde's Sons. Ant)ther 
change took place after the death of his brother . I oseph, in 1878, Samuel Wilde succeeding him as the 
head of the lirm, continuing in this capacity for twelve years, and during this period, under his able 
management the business largely increased and became one of the leading houses in this line in the 
country, and attained a reputation for the purity of its goods and honesty in its dealings, second to no 
other house. The business was continued at the same location where it was first established in 1 814. 
Mr. AYilde conducted his business on Christian principles and applied the "golden rule" to all his busi- 
ness transactions ; and it is said that he never sold a bill of goods that he would not willingly take back, 
and return the money if a customer was dissatisiied. " Honesty " was not a matter of " policy " with 
him, but a well-grounded principle. lie was not only lenient, but liberal towards his unfortunate debtors, 
preferring to suffer loss rather thnn cause suffering to another. i\Ir. W^ildc was a director in the Cliatliam 
15ank, the j\Ieriden Cutlery Company, aiul other institutions. 

Like his father, he early espoused the cause of the weak and tlown-trodden, and became an ardent 
al)i)litionist at a time when it required courage of the highest <irder to be identified with the abolitiim 
party. He was an earnest worker with his father in the colored church and Sunday School of Williams- 
burgh, lie married, in 1853, Mary E., daughter of Joshua Lunt, of West Falmouth, Maine, a descendant 
of Henry Lunt, who came from England on the ship " Mary and .lolm," in iri.'ll, and settled first in 
Ipswich, and afterwards in JS'ewbury, Mass. 

Mr. Wilde removed with his fanaily to Montclair in 1860, and purchased a bouse jiartly finished on 
Eagle Rock AV^ay, now Llewellyn Koad. He completed and finisiied the house, and greatly imjiroved 
and beautified the grounds. Three years later he sold the property and purchased a plot on Union 
Street, on which he erected a fine house and laid out the grounds in a tasteful manner. This he subse- 
quently sold and the property is now owned by Mr. liussell. He had great faith in the future of Mont- 
clair as a suburban town and continued to invest in i-eal estate. About ISO-t he bought a plot on what 
was then High Street — now Fullerfon Avenue. On that he commenced the erection in 1870 of one of 
file finest residences in the town, Imilt of brown stone, in the most substantial manner, requiring three 
years to complete. He planned all the interior arrangements, the especial feature of which was his 
librai'V — extending from the second floor to the peak tif the Gothic roof, 27 feet in height, closely resem- 
bling the interior of a beautiful (iotliic chnreh. The decorations and furnishings were all made to 
harnutnize with the general design. IMounted on a loft in the same style of church architecture he 
erected an organ, and arranged everything in a manner suitable for the entertainment of his mimerous 
friends. His extensive library covers the entire space of two sides <.if the room, and is well stocked with 
the best works of standard authoi-s. 

Mr. Wilde was a strong advocate of the present school system, -which lias done so much for tlie 
advancement of Montclair. He was one of the Trustees, and established a system of prizes known as the 
" Wilde Prizes " to encoui'age greater proficiency in the scholars in the various branches of study. 

He was a member of the Town Committee in 1871, and advocated the adoption of numerous public 
iiii|ir(>vements. He represented the Assembly District in the State Legislature in 1872-73, and made for 
himself an honorable record. 

W'hen he first removed to Montclair ill'. Wilde united with the First Presbyterian Church, but 
witlidrew with others in 1870 and became one of the founders of the Plrst Congregational Church of 
Christ. He was one of its first Trustees, and continued in office for about eighteen years, and its first 
Treasurer — was a member of the Building Committee, and during the whole period of his life in Mont- 

History of Montclair TowNsmr. 219 

clair. up to the day of liis death, was one of the most faithful workei-s in tlie cliiirch and Sabbath School, 
having taught a class until his failing health conijjelled him to relinc^uish those duties, and almost tlie 
act of his life was to j)rovide a most delightful and attractive stereopticon entertainment for the children 
of the Sabbath School. 

The "Words of Kemembrance" uttered by his Pastor, Rev. Dr. IJiadford. vuice<l the sentiments of 
all who knew him. He s.iys : 

" It is a great thing to liave lived as many years as our friend in the midst of suffering and pain, and 
to have kept his faith ; to have been associated in tlie affairs of business so long, and t(j have preserved a 
spotless re])Utation ; to have engaged in j)olitics and never to have had a suspicion of dishonor attaciied to 
his name ; to have lived all these years and be able to say at the last ; ' I liave fought a good fight, I have 
kejit the faith, I have finished my course.' And so it is that we are gathered here in celebration of 
victorv. We minj'le oiir tears with those who weeii, but we feel that the causes of sorrow are fewer tiian 
the reasons for rejoicing. 

'' It is fitting that we shouM recount to one another some of those traits of character and of life 
which have inadc the name of our friend a dear aiul honored name among us. 

" ( )f his beautiful fidelity in his home we may not s]>eak, and yet there is no need, so evident was it 
and so constant. We might speak of his honorable reputation in business circles where never a shadow 
of suspicion crossed the minds of any ei^ncerning his integrity and manliness. We might speak of his 
brief career in politics, where he was always known as a man absolutely incorruj)tible, one whose very 
look was a rejiroof to any who should dare approach him with the suggestion of a bribe. * * * 
In a thousand (juiet ways he was always helping those who were oppressed. 

" He was ])ublic spirited. For the last twenty-five years no good work has Ijeen started in this 
community which has not had his active and hearty symjiathy. In the library of this house meetings 
have i)een held for many of the most prominent movements fur the improvement of the town, and no 
man among us was more earnest than he in advocacy of wise plans for advancing the pulilic interest. 

" He was the constant friend of our educational institutions, not only here but in the country at large. 
Only a few months ago the President of one of our Western colleges came East in an emergency, and 
met a (piick response from the generosity of Mr. Wilde. Many other institutions both North and South 
have t>ecn liberally aided by him. For many years Mr. and Mrs. Wilde have given the prizes in our 
public sci Is. and it is pecidiarly fitting that the school sessions should have been adjoiirned this after- 
noon in memory of their frien<l. 

" From the organization of the church until his strength had failed, so that it was impossible for him 
to cfjutinue the work, he and his wife jirovided the flowers for the Sunday services, and for the anniver- 
siirv occasions of both church and ,*^unday ,'^chool. Often I have found him and his wife at work with 
the flowers on SuTulay morning, when a large part of the congregation were enjoying their rest." 

Dr. Bradford alluded to the building which he planne<l. and to other work he did. familiar to those 
who knew him in ids daily walk. Mr. Wilde was long an invalid, but his choice and well-stocked library 
afforded him ample opportunity to gratify his jittrary taste. He was a collector of old and rare books 
anil j)riiits ; and a bound volume of Shakespeare, mailc up of a collection of rare old prints, some of 
them over a hundred years old, was a work on which he spent much time and showed excellent judgment. 
Astronomy was a favorite study of his, and he erected an observatory in the rear of his house, where he 
placed a telescope of great power, said to have been the largest at the time of any in the State, anri by 
means of which he made many iin])ortant observations, lie also made experiments in photography 
which afforded him an interesting ])astime, and his work compared favorably with the best amateurs. 

Mr. Wilde was a man of fine j)ersonal appearance; in his manner he was modest and unassuming; 
and while a member of the Legislature he recpiested those who addressed him not to use the prefi.v 
of '• Honorable," as was the custom ; he disliked anything that had even the appearance of vain glory or 

He was naturally retiring ami shnink from obseivation. He gave liberally to objects of charity and 

220 History of Montci.atk Township. 

benevolence, but only the recipients were aware of the extent of his gifts, as he invariably followed the 
rule : " Let not tliy right hand know what the left hand doeth." 


Although an Englishman by birth, Mv. Wilhner has been a resident of this country for half a 
century, and has become as thoroughly identitied with its institutions as though to the manor born. His 
ancestors for several generations were hard working people, who "earned their bread by the sweat 
of their brow," and have made their influence felt for good wherever their lot has been cast. 

]\[r. Wilhner was born in Liverpool, Eng., October 0, 1820. His father was a prosperous news 
agent in Liverj^ool, who had built up a large and extensive business, and was thoroughly taniiliar with all 
the periodical literature of the day. Charles K., the son, was sent to school at the Aleehanics' Listitute 
in Liverpool, where he acquired a sutticient knowledge of the rudimentary branches to iit him for an active 
business life. At the age of fourteen he entered liis father's employ, and after serving an apprenticeship 
of four years, having reached the age of eighteen, he came to this country and established business for 
himself (although representing his father) as an importer and dealer in foreign periodicals. He com- 
menced business in 18ii, and carried it on by himself for the first year; he then associated with him Mr. 
L. M. Rogers, his brother-in-lasv, and together the}' built up an extensive trade in foreign periodicals. 
!Mr. Rogers, the partner of Mr. AVillmer, returned to England in 1S5S to assume the charge of the foreign 
ofKce, and the entire management of the business in this country was left to Mr. Wilhner. In I8CS the 
firm became an integral part of The American News Company, under the name of " The Willmer & 
Rogers News Compan}-," which in Feliruary, 1879, was changed to the " International News Company," 
still holding the same relations to The American News Company, the former having chai-ge of all 
imported periodicals; also of German periodicals published in this country. In 1S79, when the name 
was changed, Mr. Wilhner was elected to the Secretaryship of The American News Companj', and has 
since continued in that position. This is the largest News Company in the world, and one of the largest 
business corporations in this country, controlling, as it does, the sale of newspapers and periodicals in 
almost every town and village throughout the United States. 

Mr. Willmer resided for a number of years in Brooklyn. In April, 1SG3, he removed to Montclair 
and purchased from Sidney B. Day about thirteen acres of ground on the Orange Road, lying between 
the farms of Zenas Baldwin and Gideon Wheeler, and extending thence toward the mountain about 1,100 
feet to Harrison Avenue, known as the Stiles homestead property. A part of the homestead, which is 
still standing, is said to be upward of one hundred years old. It was enlarged, and additions made to it 
in 1862 by Sidney B. Day, who purchased it from the Stiles estate. The present dining room and 
library form a part of the original homestead. A narrow road formerly ran along the line of Mr. Will- 
mer's property' in a westerly direction to the mountain, which was nuide use of to cart wood from the 
mountain. This was closed in 1865, when Mr. Henry Nason, in connection with Mr. Willniei', ojiencd 
what is now known as Gates Avenue. 

In making Montclair his residence, Mr. Willmer ajipreciated the inijiortance t>f improved educational 
facilities, and gave freely of his time and money to further this end. He was in hearty accord with Dr. 
Love and others in their efforts to change the old district schoiil system to the present system which is 
far in advance of most suburban towns. He was made a Trustee in 1873, and for a period of eighteen years 
he labored faithfully and earnestly to promote the educational interests of Montclair. For nine years — 
1883-1S91 — he was President of the Board, and in that position exercised a potent influence in advanc- 
ing the cause. His views were always in harmony with the majority of his colleagues, and when he 
retired, in 1891, he was the oldest member of the Board, except Dr. Love. He earned the gratitude 
of his fellow citizens by his faithful aiul yiersistent efforts in carrying forward the system of higher 

lUx^L^ X. -'^dL 


History of Montclair TowNsiiir. 


Beiiiij a Democrat in politics he lias always worked with the minority, hut at the same time has 
worked hupefiilly and has lived to sec his i>arty tirndy estahlishcd with brighter prospects for the future. 
During the war he gave substantial evidence of his |)atri<>tisni hy his generous contributions in aid of 
enlistments, and of the many benevolent undertakings in aid of tlie Tnion soldiers. As a pul)lic-s))irited 
man lie is held in high esteem by iiis fellow citizens. 

Mr. Willmcr married, in 18.52, llarriette Wheeler, dauijiiter of Dr. John Wlieeler, of New York 
City, an oculist of repute, born in Birmingham, England. Eight children are the issue of this marriage, 
only three of whom are now living, viz.: K<hi^,ird ^'., deceased ; Florence, who married Frederick M. 
"Wheeler, now living in Montclair; Alfred Z., deceased ; /^^?7y>, deceased ; Amij, married Charles K. 
Rogers, the son of iier father's former partner; Ethel, deceased ; Clxirles, deceased, and Jennie. 

THE .\ D.V.MS l-AMli.Y. 

1,IXK OK DkscK.ST Klv-iiM lIl-NriV .\|>.\MS, o| I'.l; A I M K IK, M\s^.. llIoH. 

The earliest record of the English branch of the Adams family is that of .lohn Ap Adam, who was 
summoned to parliament as Baron of the liealm, l-J'.M". to |:'>U7. It is .said tiiat .\p Adam (i i '• i-;ime out 
of the ifai-ches (d' Wales." ("Marches" re t'eiv to borders, particularly the contines of Enghiii<l on the 
borders of Scotland or Wales ; the Lords of the Marches were noblemen, who in tlie 
early days iidiabited and secured the ^^Hrches of Wales and Scotland, iiiliiig as if 
they were i)etty kings with their jirivate laws.] In tiie upper pait of a (idtliic 
window on the south-east siiie (d" Tideidiam Cliinrii, near Chopstow, England, the 
name of .lohn .\ p .\dam, l.''lii, and '• .l/'//(.v, argent on a cross gules, five mullets or," 
of Lord Ap Adam are still to lu' founil (lsi):j^, beautifully executed in staine(l glass of 
great thickness, anil in perfect preservation. In.scrihed on the arms is the motto, ■■<iih 
crnee mli/x. 

Lord John .\p .\dani inarrii'(l Elizabetli, daughter and heii'ess of .lohn. Lord 
(Journey, of Beviston and Tideiilrim, ( 'ounty of Gloucester. In the eighth genera- 
tion Sir John Ap .\dam changed the name to "Adams." 

Henry .\dams, of IJraintree, Mass., 10th in line of descent from Lonl .lohn .\|i 
Adam, emigrated to New England in 103i), in the ship " Eortune," and in I'elii-uary, 
lii41, was granti'd 4o acres of land by Boston, of which Braintree was a part. He 
bi'oiight with him eight sons, and was the great-grandfather of John Adams, second 
President of the I'nited States, who erected a granite column to his memory in the churchyard at 
iiraintree, with the following inscription : 

" In memory of Henry .\dams, who took his flight from the dragon of pei'secution in De\ unshii'e, 
Englanil, and alighted with eight sons near Mount Wallaston. One of the sons returned to England, and, 
after taking time to explore the country, four removed to Medford and the neighbouring town.s, two to 
("helmsford. One only, Josei)h, who lies here at his left hand, remained here. He was an original 
pro])rietor in the townshii) of Braintree, 1(5.39." 

The descendants of Henry Adams, of Braintree, have filled the highest positions in the various 
departments of the Government, and many of the most noted clergymen, authors, and other ])rofessional 
men, trace their line of descent fnnn this l)ranch of the Adams family. Samuel -\danis, the pati'iot ; 
Hannah .\ilams, the first authoress of this country ; Adams, the inventor of the steam press ; Adams, the 
founder of Adams E.xpress Co., are all descendants of Henry of Braintree. 

Wasiiixgtox Ihviko Adams, who lias been for twenty-five years a resident of Montclair, and 
has been ideiititieil with the various ]niblic and private enterpiises connected Avith the histoiy of the 
township is, from the best evidence that can be (J>tained, a dc-ccndant of Ileniy Adams of I'raintree. 
John Adams, second President of the I iiittd States, iii pa.' sing to and frcm Washingtcjn and his home 

222 History of Montclair TowNSiiir. 

ill Braiiitree, Mas,<., stopped frerpiently at the house of Jesse Adams, at White Plains, N. Y., and 
always addressed him as cousin. 

Jesse Adams married Mary Sycard, daughter of Jonathan Sycard (now Secor), and Sarah Flandreau, 
descendants of tlie French Protestant Huguenot families of Sycard and Fhuidreau, wlio fled from 
Rochelle, France, in 16S1, and settled in Xew RocheHe, Westchester Co., New York. 

Mr. Adams has in liis possession the large iron-hound chest in which xVnibroise Sycard and his wife, 
Jennie Serrot, packed their little all, on the night of their end)arkment from Rochelle, France. 

Washington Irving Adams was born in New York City, March 25, 1832. His father was Barnahas 
Scureman Adams, who married Elizaheth Carhart, June 12, IS;!1, horn Fehruary 7, 1 803, daughter of 
Ilachdhih C'arhart, horn at Rye, N. Y., Jan. 3(), 1755, and nuirried April 2d. 1785, Margaret Anderson, 
daughter of Isaac Anderson, of Rye. 

Hackaliah Carhart was the son of Thomas (2), horn about 171 S, and Elizabeth (Purdy) Carhart, 


granddaughter of Hackaliah IJi-own, of Rye, who was the son of Thomas Brown, of Rye, Sussex Co.^ 

The family of Brown, of Rye, Westchester Co., N. Y., was descended from the Browns of Beach- 
worth, in the Connty of Kent, England, founded by Sir Anthony Brown, who was created Knight of the 
Bath, at the coronation of Richard II. 

His son, Sir Stephen Brown, was Lord Mayor of London in 11. 'Jit. 

Sir Thomas Brown, living in the time of Henry V., was the father of Sir Thomas Brown, 
treasurer of the household of Henry A^I., from 1444 to 1400. 

Thomas Bi'own, Es(|., of Rye, Sussex Co., England, emigrated to Concord, Mass., in 1C32. 

His sons were Thomas, and Hackaliah, of Westchester Co., N. Y. 

The name of Rye, AVestehester Co., New York, was given in honor of the Brown family, of Rye, 
Sussex Co., Euirland. 

History of Montci.air Township. 223 

Tlie tii-st Aiiicricaii ancestor of the Carliart family was Tliomas Oarhart, horn in Cornwall. Eng- 
land, about l().")(l. lie arrived in Xew York, August 25, 1CS3, holding the appointment of Private 
Secretary to Col. Tlioma« Dongaii, English Colonial Governor oi the Colonies at that date. 

Thomas Carhart married, in ItilU, Mary Lord, daughter of Kobert Lord, of Cambridge, and 
Rebecca Phillips, of Boston, Mass., and granddaughter of ^[ajor Wm. Phillips, Major Coniniandant of 
the military forces of the Province of Maine in KiOS. 

The name of Carhart is apparently of Saxon and Danish origin, from : 

Car, Anglo-Saxon, a rock, or cue/; a town or city. 

7/eiirte, .\nglo-Saxon, and f/erle. Old Saxon, from which is derived the word, heart. 
If' lift, Anglo-Saxon, and //< rf. Danish, from which is derived the woi'd /u/rf, a stag. 
Arms of 142n. S/,i,/i/. ar. two bars sa. in chief, a demi (xritlin, issuant of the 

Cirit, a demi man, naked, ar. a wreath about his head, sa. in i-ight hand an (paken 
branch, vt. Acorns, or. 

Crest of 16th C'ent. Cre«t, a stag, ermined, attired, /'j/mo/ufsfon's Ih nthlnj. 

These arms were achieved and gi'ante<l in the reign of Ricliar<l 11., or soon after. 

The issue of IJarnalms Scnreman anil Elizabeth (Cai-liart) Adams, was Wasliingioii living, 
Elizabeth Armenia, Mai-garet Emily, Mary Louise and Elma Mai-ia. Washiugtipu Ii\ing, the 
eldest, Wius educated at the public schools of New York. lie entered the service of the Sco\ilI 
Manufacturing Company in LS5S, and rapidly rose, through successive grades of responsibilities, 
until he was a])i)ointed in 1878 agent of the company, with entire charge of the business in 
New York. In the same year he was elected director of the company. In 1875 he became president 
of S. Peck ik: Co., maniifactnrers of photogra])hic apparatus in New Haven, Conn., who had previously 
come under the control of the Scovill .Manufacturing Company. In issy, when the Scovi II iV' Adams 
Company succeeded to tlii- photographic department of the Scovill Manufacturing Company, Mr. Adams 
was made president an<l treasurer of the new corpoi-ation. Under his able management the business of 
the company has grown, until the Scovill and .\danis Company has become the ktrg'.-st and most intlii- 
ential manufacturing tirni of photographic apparatus in the world. HiirlMi; the 1S7G centennial in 
Philadelpliia, Mr. Adams was identified with Dr. Edward L. Wilson, of that city, antl others, as first vice- 
president of the Centennial Photographic Company. He was for many years chairman of the executive 
committee of tiie .National Photoj'raijhic Association of America. When onlv tweiitv-one years of age 

he was elected scl 1 trustee in the Ninth Ward. New York City, but since then has persistently refused 

to accept any |)roffered public office under the ^Iunicii>al or State government, lie was foi- many years 
a vestryman of St. Luke's Episcopal ('linrch. Since young manhood he has been jironiinentiy identitied 
with the ^lasonic fraternity, having served twenty-one years as secretary of Lafayette Lodge, No. (14. of 
New York City, and two years a.s master. On Eebruary it, iS'.t;!, he wa.s presented by the lodge with an 
elegant past master's jewel, set with diamonds, in recognition of his long and faithful service. In 
Capitidar Masonry he was advanced and cxaltcil in Corinthian Chapter to i;..\.M. In the Chivalric Oi-iier, 
he was created and dubbed a knight templar in Morton Conunandery, No. 4, all of New York City, lie 
is also a member of the Society of Colonial AVars, by virtue of descent from three ancestors entitling him 
to meml)ership. 

Mr. Adams removed with his family to Montelair in ls<is, and purchased property on Llewellyn 
Road, then known as Park Avenue, which was within the origiinil boundaries of Llewellyn Park. The 
homestead connected with the property was of the then prevailing style of architecture of unpretentious 
country homes. He utilizeil as far as pi>ssible the buildings, together with their surroundings, adding to and 
eidarging the homestead with interior and exterior modern imj)royenients. The land.scajie features were 
also improved by the a<ldition of shade and ornamental trees, until the ])lace presented a decided and most 
picturesque appearance, forming one of the most attractive and delightfid homes in tlie township. The 
accompanying illustrations give a better idea of the pieturesquencss of the j^lace than could any written 


History of Montclair Township. 

description. Mr. Ad.ams sul)serjiieiitly purcliased coiisidera1)]e unimproved real estate, and with charac- 
teristic enterprise has erected several attractive dwellings. 

Mr. Adams married Marion Lydia, daughter of Hon. George Briggs, of New York City; issue, Briggs 
Booth, horn Septend)er 5, 1801, died December 24, ISTo ; Charlotte Elizabeth, born November 24, 18G2, 
died February 24, 1S64; W. I. Lincoln and Mary Wilson. 

Washington Ieving Lincoln Adams, third child of Washington Irving and IMarion Lydia (Briggs) 
Adams, was born in New York C'ity, February 22, 1865. lie was educated at the IMontclair High School, 
graduating in 188:3. In the same year he became associated with his father in business in New York. 
Naturally of a literary turn of mind, he early assumed editorial charge of The Photographic Times, an 
illustrated weekly magazine, and the leading organ of photograjdiy in this country. He is a writer of 
ability, and is the author of a number of books on photographic subjects. lie is also editor of " The 


American Annual of Photography," an illustrated record of photographic progress, which has attained a 
yearly circulation exceeding twenty thousand co|)ies. lie has artisticalh' photographed all the pictures(jue 
and historical portions of Montclair and its suri'oiindings, and in 1889 made a most attractive collection of 
his photographs, and pul.ilished them in ])hotogravure, entitled ''Montclair: a Series of Photogravures 
from Nature." It was of these photograj)hs that Mr. George Inness, Sr., said: "They are very charming, 
and should prove extremely useful in the development of the landscape art of our country." Some of these 
photogi'aphs are re[)roduced in this work, and Mr. Adams has assisted the author also in other important 
ways, including the contribution of some valualde historical material which he had collectetl. Mr. Adams is 
a charter inend)er of The Outlook and Montclair Clubs, and an active membei- of The Congregational 
Clul) of New York am] Vicinity, and of The Quill Club. He is a mendier, also, of the American Institute 

^^^c<^^Wii!<^e^ cy^^^/^i^^^T-^j^ 

History of Montclair Township. 


and of tlie Society of Amateur Photographers of New York, and an lionorarv nieniher of at least half a 
dozen other photograpiiie and scientific associations. He is also a nieniher of the Executive Coniniittee 
of the Good Government Cluh, recently oi-ganized. ifr. Adams recently huilt the handsome Colonial 
residence on Orange Road, where he now resides. lie married, November 21, 1S89, Miss Daisy Grace 
Wilson, daughter of the late James ^\'ilson, Esij., of (leorgetown, Ohio, a descendant of James Wilson, of 
Pennsylvania, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, whose ancestry dates back to the 
time of Edward T. The children of W. I. Lincoln and Daisy (Wilson) Adams are Wilson Irving, born 
August it, lM»n, Marian Klizaheth. born November 12, isOl, aiid Priggs Kilburii, born May •">, 1S93. 

Mary Wilso.v Adams, youngest child of Washingtuii Irving and Marion Lydia (Briggs) Adams, 
was born in ^[ontclair, N. J., July S, Istl'.t, married t)etiiber 81, 1892, William Palmer Prigden, of 
Norwich, Conn. Their child, George Irving, was born November 8, 1893. 


Chapter XV. 

The Families of Brautiram, Sweet, Holmes, Poetee, Van Vleck, Johnson, Noyes, Benedict, 
Sullivan, Baldwin (W. D.), Caeey, Russell, Rand, Wilson, Undeehill, Millee, Buegess, 
Beadley, Fabmee, Eshbaugh, Howaed, Graham, Wheelee (F. Meeeiam). 

MONG tlie last of tlie old New York settlers who began the develo])iiieiit of the present 
township, some thirty years ago, is J. CASTOR BRAUTIGAM. Mr. Brautigani has 
outlived most of his contemporaries, 
and old "Fatlier Time" has dealt 
kindly with him, he having passed 
the allotted time of "• three score and 
ten " years. He has witnessed the 
little village of a few hundred inhab- 
itants grow to a flourishing township 
of over ten thousand. 

The great-grandfather of Mr. Brau- 
tigani came from Germany, in 1755, and settled in 
Philadelphia. His ancestors were prominent in the 
Reformation, and one of them, a Catholic Bishop, after 
a careful study of a Lutheran catechism, renounced his 
faith, with all that it implied, and became an ardent 
" reformer." 

J. C. Brautigani was born in Noithunil)erland, 
Pa., April 29, 1821. When he was but six years of 
age, his father died, and he was placed in charge of 
his grandparents in Philadelphia. He attended the 
best private school, and mastered all the ordinary 
branches of education by the time he had reached the 
age of twelve. He then entered the em]iloy of Edward 
C. Diddle, one of the largest publishers in the country. 
A strong friendship was formed between employer and 
employed, which continued uninterrupted for a period 
of si.xty years, until 1S93, when his old emjiloyer died 
at an advanced age. Mr. Brautigani remained in his employ for eleven years, and in ls44 he went to Chicago, 
and there established what was then the second book concern in Northern Illinois. The population of 
Chicago was then smaller than Moiitclair is at the present time. In 1847 he sold out to his partner, and 
removed to New York City, where he became a member of the firm of White, Sheffield & Company, one 
of the largest paj^er houses in the country. He continued this connection until 1869, when he bought 
out his partners and organized the iirm of Brautigain & Watson. About 1876 he sold out to his partner 
and retired from business. 

Mr. Brautigam's first visit to this part of the country was by stage from Newark. He was favor- 
ably impressed with its healthfulness and beauty, and in 1864 he purchased twenty acres at the south end 


(bcL'jj^a^'L.cL ^uj~e^s^G. 

History of Montclair Township. 227 

of tlie town. lie opened what is now Cedar Avenue, and gave it the name on aecoimt of tlie large 
number of eedart^ in that locality, lie also opened High Street, .south i>f Cedar Avenue, some l,oO(> feet 
through his property. He was a member of the first Township Committee after the erection of Mont- 
clair as a separate township, and was Chairman in 1S75-6. He was also a member of the first Board of 
Road Commissioners, continuing fur two years. Although a Republican ho is non-partisan in politics 
and received alternately the nomination of the republicans and democrats and was the first town officer 
elected on the democratic ticket. 

Mr. lirautigam, in 1872, bought a large plot on Mountain Avenue, where he erected an elegant 
residence which be .sold some six years ago to Dexter N. Force, of the firm of H. 15. Claflin & Company. 
He built a number of houses in the town at different periods. 

Mr. nrautigam is the oldest living mendicr of St. Luke's Episcopal Church. lie became a 
member when services were held in tlie little frame building on Pine Street, near the I). L. & W. R. R. 
depot. He was for many years one or its most active supporters; lie served as Warden and Treasurer 
for a number of years. 

Mr. Rraiitigam married, in 1845. Miss Mary J. Nicholls, a native of England. Eight children 
were born to them, four of whom are still living. His only daughter, Josephine, was married to Samuel 
J. Holmes. His son, Frederick A., is a resident of Montclair; .lames C., anotlier son, resides in (• range, 
and John I)., a third, resides in I'hiiadciphia. 


The name of Sweet is variously spelled, Sweet, Swete, Swett and Swaile. According to I!url<c, 
the Swete, or Swett, family, bearing arms, gules two chevrons between as many mullets in chief and 
a rose in base argent seeded or. Crest: Oti the top of a tower, issuing jipr. an eagle, with wings 
endorsed or, in the beak an oak branch vert; was formerly of Tray ne, in Edward VI.'s time, and 
subsequently of Oxton, in the County of Devonshire, wliicli furnished many colonists to New England. 

Of this number, Jamefi Siveet, called son of Isaac, was brought by his mother, JIary Sweet, a widow, 
from England, and settled in Salem, Mass., about l('(3i. 

Edward Sweet, the subject of this sketch, was born at Ipswicli, Mass., October 23, 1815. He was 
a son of Captain Aaron Sweet, of the same town, who was a descendant (probably) of James, the 
emigrant. He was graduated at Yale College in 1844, and took a theological course at New Haven 
Theological Seminary. After spending a year or more in travel, he, in 1849, accepted a call from the 
Ilaydenville (Mass.) Congregational Clinrch. He entered with zeal and earnestness upon this, his first 
field of labor, which gave great jiromise of success. His people were pleased with his preaching, and 
became warmly attached to him personally. Much to his sorrow, and to the regret of his congregation, 
he was compelled, in consequence of his failing health, to relinquish his charge. 

At tlie suggestion of his brother, who was a member of the Boston banking house of Brewster, 
Sweet & Co., he removed to New York, where he soon after established iiiniself in the same line of 
business, which he carried on successfully for some }-ears in his own name, and at a later period formed a 
co-partnership with his brother-in-law, Mr. W. L. Bull, UTulcr the firm name of Edward Sweet & Co. 
This firm dealt largely in government securities, and was noted for its loyal support of the Government 
during the critical period of the war, when dangers at home and abroad seriously imperilled its credit. 
Mr. Sweet was a staunch Republican befi^re the war, and never entertainefl a doubt of the tiiuil issue of 
events, or of the ability of the Government to meet its obligations. lie was a man of unimpeachable 
integrity and uprightness of character, and was much respected in the business community. In the Stock 
Exchange, of which he was long a member, he was held in high esteem, and his word was considered as 
good as his bond. 

During his residence in New York he was an active member of the Madison Square Presbyterian 
Church, then under the pastorate of Rev. Dr. Adams. 

Mr. Sweet married, in 1863, Miss Caroline W. Bull, daughter of Frederick Bull, of New York, 

228 History of Montclair Township. 

and a grand-daugliter of Jirah Bull, of Milford, Conn. Tlie ancestor of this branch of the Bull fiiniily 
was Henry Bull, of Roxburv, Mass., wlio came in the "James" from London, in ICyo'), and removed 
thence to Boston. He was one of the Boston majority of heretics (Society of Friends) who went to 
Rhode Island with Mrs. Hutchinson, and was one of the purchasers iu '[C>?,S. being the eighteenth name 
of tlie signei-s of the compact or covenant for civil government in that year. He became Governor of tlie 
Colony and hekl many positions of trust. He had a son Jirnh, who kept a garrison hotel at Narragansett 
during Philip's war. This Jirah had also, among other children, a son Jlralt. and the name appears to 
iiave been continued through successive generations. 

Governor Henry Bull, the ancestor, is said to have been a brother of Thomas, who was in command 
at Saybrook, when Governor Andros attempted to gain the place for his master, the Duke of York. 
When the clerk of Andros insisted upon reading the patent. Captain Bull commanded him in a loud voice 
to forbear, and then read the protest. Governor Andros, pleased with his bold and soldier-like appear- 
ance, said, " AVhat's your name?" He replied, "My name is Bull, sir." "Bull," said the Governor, 
" It's a pity that your horns are not tipped with silver." This family was conspicuous during the colonial 
period, and during the period of the Revolution, and wei'e prominently represented in civil and militai-y 
capacities in Rhode Island and Connecticut. 

The mother of Mrs. Sweet (nee Bull), whose maiden name was Lamnan, was a daughter of Abby 
(Trumbull) daughter of David, the son of Governor Jonathan Trumbull, the famous war governor of the 
Revolution, known as ^^ Brother Jonaihtn'' He was the son of Joseph, of Suffiehl, Conn., son of John, 
of Roxbury, Mass., who was the son of John Trumbull, the emigrant settler of Roxbury in 1036. 

Two 3'ears after his marriage with Miss Bull, Mr. Edward Sweet renu)ved to Montclair and 
purchased a large plot of ground, where the present homestead property is now located. The main 
street leading to his property — Gates Avenue — was subsecjuently laid out by j\rr. JSIasou, who named it 
after his wife. Mr. Sweet erected on this plot a large and commodious house, and the laying out of the 
grounds and other improvements which he made from time to time afforded him rest and recreation from 
the cares of business. Here he entertained his numerous friends, who always found a hearty welcome and 
were loth to leave his hospitable board. He was one of the founders of the Congregational Church of Christ, 
and gave liberally, not only to the erection of the original church edifice, b^it to the several improvements 
which have since been made. Few men who have lived in Montclair since its erection as a township have 
ever been held in higher esteem. His failing health during the latter years of his life prevented him from 
taking any active part in its affairs. He was known as a whole-souled, generous man, of a genial nature 
and kindly disposition, who delighted in doing good and contributing to the happiness of his fellow-men. 
He was of a retiring nature ami avoided all appearance of ostentation, but those who enjoyed the "inner 
circle"' of his acquaintance found in him a wai-m and steadfast friend. He was the soul of honor and 
uprightness. He was a gentleman — nut formal and precise, but dignified and genuine. His own fireside 
was the pleasantest spot on eaith, and its influence attended him in all the affairs of life. 


Samuel Holmes, or "Deacon Holmes," as he is well known, traces his descent through three well- 
known families of Connecticut, many of the descendants of whom have achieved distinction in the various 
walks of life in which their tastes or inclinations led them. 

The family of Holme or Holmes has l>een established in the County of York, Eng.. since the period 
of the jSTorman concpiest. The first mentioned of this name is John Holme, of Paull-Holme, whoso 
grandson Olenor Holme was comptroller to the Empress Maud, and recei\ed the honor of Knighthood 
from that Princess. 

Francis Holme, the American ancestor, emigrated from England as early as KiiS, and settled in 
Stamford, Conn. His son John, born in England, came with him and settled at Greenwich, Conn., and 
was one of twenty-four proprietors who afterwards settled at Bedford, Westchester County, N. Y. 

f #■■ 



r n iD M A s. F r T ic «, «fq., 

° T J Captna-Gcneral, and Governor in Cbi«f, io and over His MBcfty's Engiifb Colony of 

■Eitg/oMJ, ia AmerfLi 

fymne^kkX^ in Nea'E^lanJ, in Amen 

•• r yirtmi •/ itt Pi 

////^g/( /mu< r//yu^ . ■ Greeting. 

Aliirily U it (nn, h ni b} iht Rfjtl Chakti 

fig Ctmpinf »/ l*» /»i <t<>>7i "At ikt Crut UtI ./ England. / dl | *7 /*«/•« 
41^ ,?•■•;« 'V Qnfiitiut Im yur UyaUfy Ctiirci, ttd gtid CitdtB, itfiilplt. 

^■///^f/ff / '/l/trTi' \t- It U ^■?f//./,n'r/ tl Ih' /^ \ 

j^ny, <i < ^trntUtf F-l, tmfid miliim M, Cthmj, I, ^^lijid ferVihi hi* 
Otmmm im Nonh-AoKrici, ni ftrlitmlarl} •/ ihi Pijfgitn I^H^rajnyl Airf, 

mitt Im CHl/ Am" Ji^f "M ttmdmini Im lit Kimt'l ^^^^^d It frhid ibiA 

t/ Itr /mid Cmrnimmndir im thiif ; tfmU<i Rigimuml . yfKtf ^^- ^' \i^ 
Tn mri rimr/wi iirifmllj mmd diU[tmlly it diftbmrtt Ibi Dmiy tf m .VttJjJ""- 
ttd nerrijfmg fmid Ctmfnyt w ilrvj, hmlb im/nitr O^.ttrt mmd Seldirrit'im IhiStrviet m/trtftu 
H t'ld Otdtr mmd BifnfUmi i bmby ttmrnmrnditl ittmi It tity yu,' mi tUr . ■i^tz/fj- ff/y, 

mmd ynrfilf It tifirri mmd /.H<» fmik Ordtri mmd Im/rmBitmi, tl yttfrnll /rtk Timt It Timi rlitivl frtm Ml, Ir 
lit dtmimnd im Chiif «/ ikt fmid Ciltmy, /ir lit Tim itkf, tr tibtr ylur fifritr Ogiieri, mittrdlmg It'ltl Rulll 
ud Difiiflini tf H'mr, fmr/mmml It lit Tnjl rtfftd imyt*. 

kitf liim 

OJ V E N |nltr mjr Hud ud tht public Scil of the I 
'/"^'Z Wr D«T of ./. ' • "in the i 

' MijcSx JOog C E R g E the Third, Jmrntj/i 

Hjs Honor't Conumndj 


"7 a, ffy/ZitAm 


Tc|t of the Rtigj 



C^Ul|i-Cen«ra) and Co 



You beii^jby the 

Jtpoffng fpecial Trurt and 
duct, I DO by Virtue*! 
and impo^cryou to take 
as their (Icjy^y^^ cs 
exercifing your inferior 
ing to the Rule* and Di 
ot this State, keeping thi 
them to obey you as theii 
Orders and OiretSions at 
from other Jtour luperior 

GiyEN wider my Hm 
thePjfi^Doy of 

By Hit Excellency's Command^ 

•T R ir M B l> L' E, B.Qp,,,, 

der in Chief in and-Qvet tihe State of 

CoNJifBricof m America. 



Aflcmbty of this State accepted 



and good Cdt^^t 
tabling, appoint 
:ire and Charge, 
'.ficc and Truft, 
A itns, accord- 

>i»fidcnce in your Pidelh'y, Courr. 
- Laws ofthis State, mc thereunto 
le faid (prf^/'^^Y into your 
illy and dih'gcntly to difcharge that 

'cers and Soldiers in the Ufe of the ,, „,.^„,„- 

tline of War, ordained and eftablifhcy by the Laws 

ingood Order and Government, iid commanding 
^^/^"■^'^ and you arc tcjoljferve all futli 

Time to Time you fliall receive, otther from mc, or 
icer, purfuant to the Truft hereby jrepofcd in you. 

and the Public Seal of this State, Jr c^^^^/. 


A. D. i78d 




History of Montclaik Township. 229 

Stephen, son of Jolin, liad a son Benjumin, who served in Capt. Clark's company, lltli Regiment, (^un- 
Decticut Militia. Israel, son of Benjamin, married Sarah Judd, and moved to Waterlmi y. Conn. The 
issue of this marriage was Samuel Judd (father of Dea. Samuel Holmes), of wlioni liereiit'ter ; Ileuhen, 
of whom hereafter ; IsraeJ, of whom hereafter ; Ruth, of whom hereafter ; and Mihx. 

Samuel Judi>, the eldest son of Israel and Sarah (Juddj Holmes (father of JDea. Samuel Hoh)ies), 
was born in Waterhury, Conn., October 28, 1791. He moved to Sonthington, Conn., in 1825, 
where he remained until 1S34, when he returned to in's native town and became identitied with its 
mamifacturing interests. He was a prominent stockholder in the Waterbury Brass Company and 
for sixteen years was the faithful overseer of one branch of its business. He was very methodical, 
careful and painstaking in all his as well as other affairs. In the affairs of the church 
with which he wa.s long connected he evinced many of the traits of his Puritan ancestors. A 
deep thinker, yet reserved in the expression of his views ; cautious in all his dealings, yet upright and 
straightforward — a man of the strictest integrity, measuring him.self by the orthodox standard, and 
cx|>ecting the same treatment from others in return. He married May 2, 1822, Lucina, daughter of 
Hezekiidi Todd, of Chcsiiire, Conn.; he died Nfay 1, ISr.T. He had issue, /syae^, of wliom hereafter; 
Sarah, born July fi, ls2'.i, married Rev. Jesse W. Hough (she died in Santa 13ari)ara, Cal., .\])ril ,">. 1877); 
Williaiii B. Aw\ //<0(/i«//. who died young; ami WilHnni //. again, of whom hereafter. 

/,V »//><>/(, second son of Israel and Sarah (Judd) Holmes, was born Feiiruaiy 11, 17".'^. gni(hiati'il 
with Honor at the West Point Military Academy, was valedictorian of his, and afterwards di.stin- 
Kuishcd himself as an Indian tiirhtcr in the West. During the Black Hawk War, and wiiilc! still holding 
his commission as Ca|)tain in the V . S. service he was elected Colonel of a regiment of Illinois volunteei-s, 
and became their leader in that war. lie dieil of cholera in 1838 at Jeffer.son Barracks, near St. Louis, 
Mo. A part of the inscription on the monument which mark.s his last resting place is as follows: 
* * * * "and there awaits the la.«t review"; * * * * " erected by his compani<ins in arms." 

I»rael (2\ third son of Israel (I), and Sarah (Judd) Holmes, was born December IK, ISOO. He 
was one of the chief founders of the great brass manufacturing industry of this country; he made trips 
to England in 182'.t, and again in 1831-34, to procure skilled workman for the various branches of the 

L'lith Wood, fourth chihl of Israel and Sarah (Judd) Holmes, was born Ai)ril 20, 17'.>0. She 
married I're.«erve W. Carter, and was the mother of President Franklin Carter, of Williams College, 

^fil<■x, fourth son and youngest child of Israel and Sarah (Judd) Holmes, was born March 20, 18(i2, 
at Waterhury, Cnii. He resided in the South ami in the Stale of Wisconsin most of his life. He died 
in Waterhury. Conn., August 23, 1808. 

Sarah Judd, the wife of Israel Holmes (1), was a direct descendant of Thomas Judd, who came from 
England in l<i33 and .settled in Cambriilge,; removed to Hartford, Conn., 1C30, and to Farmington, 
Conn., about lfi44. In the churchyard at Waterhury, Conn., is a headstone containing the following 
inscrii)tion : "Here [lies] the body of THOMAS JL'DD, ESQ., the first Justice, Deacon, and Cai)tain 
in Waterhury, who died January ye 4, A.l). 1747, aged 79," 

Thinnas. above referretl to. was a son of the first Thomas, the emigrant pnjprietor. He had a .son 
John, who also had a son John. The latter had a son Samuel, known as Cajjfain Samxcl. He was the 
great grandfather of Deacon Samuel Holmes. He held a commission as First Lieutenant in the Colony 
under the reign of King George III. (.*ee /«'• s'nnUi- of commission on opposite page), and on March 15, 
17fi2, was connni-ssioned by Gov. Thomas Fitch, of Connecticut, to rai.>e a " Company of Foote." The 
commission states : " I do hereby authorize and empower you by beat of dinin or otherwise to assist your 
Cajitain in raising by iidistuient a com])any of able bodied, effective volunteers within the colony of about 
ninety-five men, including officers for the ensuing camjjaign, etc." 

He served in different capacities during the War of the Revolution, and on the 24th of January, 
1783, was commissioned Captain by Governor Trumbull (see/W^- sint'de of commi.ssion on opposite page). 
After the close of the war he opened a tavern at Waterhury, which he kept for fifty years; it became a 

230 History of Montclair Township. 

noted resurt for passengers on the stage route l)etween New Haven and All)any. He was a noted 
character in his day. He married Bede, daughter of Isaac Hopkins, and on her way liomc after the 
marriage ceremony she rode behind him on a "pillion " (a cushion attached to the rear of the saddle). 

This Bede IIojil'uis was a descendant of Jolm Hopkins, who came from England with liis wife Jane 
to Cambridge, Mass., in \C>?A; moved to Hartford in 103."). His son Stephen, born llJo-l:, married 
Doi'cas Bronson ; they had a son John, who was one of the youngest of the original proprietors of 
Waterljury. He became " Leftenant " in 171(5, and several times represented his town at the General 
Court. He held many offices of trust and honor. When the new meeting house came to be seated in 
1729, he was one of the revered dignitaries who were voted into the first pew at the west end of the 
pulpit. He had a son, Ehenzer, who was the father of Isaac Hopkins referred to above. Some of the 
most distinguished divines and educators in the country descended from tliis branch of the Hopkins 
family, among whom was Mark Hopkins, for many years President of Williams College. 

Israel, child of Sanniel J. and Liicina (Todd) Holmes, was born at "Waterbury, Coim., 
August 10, 1823. He is connected with several of the manufacturing companies of Waterbury ; also 
witli a banking institution. He resided in Liverpool, Eng., from 1859 to 1871. 

Dkacon Samuel Holmes, second son of Samuel J. and Lucina (Todd) Holmes, was born at Water- 
bury, Conn.. November 30, 182J:. He attended public school until he was eleven years of age, when he 
began working in a button factory with his father, and from that time until he reached the age of tifteen 
he woi'ked in the factory during the summer and attended school in the winter at the W^aterbury 
Academy and at a bnarding school. At the age of sixteen he entered the general store of J. M. L. & 
W. H. Scovill. as clerk until 181:5, he having then attained his majority. The company that year opened 
a salesroom for their goods in New York City, and he became their assistant manager. In 1850 a joint 
stock comjiany was formed under the name of The Scovill ^Manufacturing Company, in which he was a 
stockholder and director, and soon after assumed the management of the New York business. The 
business increased in volume from year to year aided by his skillful direction, and the stock increased in 
value yielding large dividends. He was prosperous and hapjiy and fortune smiled upon him during those 
years, in which he was also stockholder in various other companies, which yielded satisfactory returns. 
In 1S73 he severed his connection with The Scovill Manufacturing Company and entered into a new 
copartnership in the manufacturing line and dealing in metals, which promised well, but owing to 
circumstances beyond his control, proved a most disastrous venture, and came near causing his financial 
ruin. His creditors as well as his numerous friends, who had unbounded confidence in his integrity 
stood by him nobly in his trouble, and he was thus enabled to tide over his difRenlties, but he was 
com]ielled for many years to carry a heavy linancial burden. In 1876 he was appointed to the treasurer- 
ship of the Bridgeport I'rass Com])any and also to the management of the New York business. It was not 
in a very flourishing condition at the time, and a change for the better was soon apparent. The business 
.showed a large auinud increase, and largely thmugh the judicious and economical management of Deacon 
Holmes the stoekholilers received constantly increasing dividends. At the beginning of his adminis- 
tration Deacon Holmes purchased quite a block of stock on credit, the dividends on which, together with 
the subse(jnent sale of his stock, enabled him to licjuidate a considerable portion of his old indebtedness. 
His connection with the company ceased in 1890, the majority of stock having been previously purchased 
by a syndicate, which assumed the direction of the company. 

In 1867, before his misfortunes. Deacon Holmes ])urchased several tracts of land, in all about 100 
acres, in Montclair, lying near Watchung Avenue, and on the mountain slope. Through the assi-stance of 
his numerotis friends he was enabled to carry this throughout the period of his business misfortunes, 
which resulted to the benefit of his creditors, and on his retirement from business in 1890 he began to 
develop and place it on the market, it having in the interim appreciated in value. He laid out streets 
and avenues, and divided the property into building plots, several of which have been sold at a large 
advance over the original cost. He continued Highland Avenue through his mountain tract; Edgewood 
Avenue and Holmes Place, both laid out and named by him, intersecting the former and connecting with 

History of Montci.air Townsiiii'. 231 

Mountain Avenue. Tlie lioniestead property, corner of Wateliung Avenue and Grove Street, comprises 
about I 7 acres, ad joininnj and near to wliicii he has some 42 acres, whicii is being laid out and developed 
for market. Tlie improvement of his property, from which he has derived a corresponding beneiit, has 
also largely enhanced the value of the surrounding property, and 0]>ened up a new and exceedinglv 
attractive part of the townshij) of Montclair. 

For nearly half a century Deacon Holmes has been actively engaged in ruligidus, licMU'voiiiit and 
educational atfairs, to which he hixs nut only devoted the best years of his life. i)ut has given liberallv of 
his means, when not end)arra.-;sed by bu.<iness ditHeulties. He is the oldest inend)er in otHce, bv several 
years, of the Executive Committee of the Aniei-ican iIis.sionary Association, baving began bis connection 
with that body in 1S(!4. lie has been a corporate member of the American Hoard of Foreign Missions 
since 1^7", and was for many years Treasurer of the American College Society, and since its union with 
the Educational Society in 1872, under the name of " The American College and Education Society," he 
has continueil his interest in and niendtersbij) of the new organization anil as its first Vice-President. 

lie was a inend)er and one of the Secretaries of the tirst ><ational Congregational Council held at 
Boston in IStio, and of subsequent Councils held at Oberlin in 1871, and at Worcester, Mass.. in 1889; 
and also a member of the International Congregational Council held in London in is'.U, where lie 
represented the American Missionary As-^ociation as its delegate. 

He endowed the Professorship of Hebrew in 'i'ale College in lS(i8 ; and. for the beneiit and 
encouragement of the young men of Waterbury and vicinity, to a.ssist them in awpiiring a collegiate 
education he established five scholarships in the academic and scientific departments of Vale, all of 
which, together with the Hebrew Profe.ssoi-ship, were named in his honor. 

Soon after his removal to New Vork City in ISit;, Deacon Holmes identiticd himself with the 
Broadway Tabernacle Church, and was for many years and until his removal to Montclair a Deacon and 
Trustee (jf the Society and Superintendent of the Sunday School, lie was also largely engaged in 
Sunday School mission work. He was one of the founders of the Congregational ( huich of Montclair in 
187(1, wa-s one of its tirst Deacons, and is tlie only one who has belil the office consecutively since its 
organization. Innue<liately after the formation of the Society he suggested the name of Mr. Bradford, 
who was soon after called by the church and became its first pastor. 

With a single exception Deacon Holmes has had a successful business career, and whatever mistakes 
he has made have been <lue to his natural kindness of heart ami over-contideiice in bis fellow men. In 
his endeavor to follow closely the golden rule he expected too niucli fi'oni others. He came out of his 
difhculties, however, with a reputation untarnished Neither his ability, his jndgnieiif, nor his nnswei'V- 
ing integrity were ever (piestioiied. 

His love for his fellow incn is iiidioiiniled. :ni<l he makes no distinction of race or color. H is life has 
exemplified his firm belief in the Fatherhood of (iod and the lirotberh I of .Man. 

" He hath an eye for pit)', and hand 
Open as the day for melting ' eliarity.' " 

So to do good, and to better the condition of his fellow men has been the aim of his life, and he has 
been identified with almost every benevolent undertaking in the church and out of it since he came to 

He married, June 3, 1850, MaiT 11. Goodale — born Ncnembei' 12, 182'J — daughter of Deacon David 
and Millicent Warren (ioodale, of Marlboro', Mass., a descendant of John Goodale, who settled in Salem 
about Ifiye and removed thence to Marlboro', Mass. Issue, E//en Wurren, born November IS, 1857, 
married June 17, 1881, Rev. Frank A. Beckwith, who died in San F'ranci.sco, December 12, 1885; 
Samuel Judtl, born October 18, 185!), manned S. Josephine Brautigam March 18, 1880; Arthur, born 
July 5, 1861, died August 5, 1861 ; M((/-)/ Goodale, born December 1, 1862 ; David Goodale, born 
October 18, 1865, married to E. Annie Bate, April 7, 1886; George Jhuj, born June 15, 1867, graduated 
at Yale College, 1S9U. 

232 History of Montclair Township. 

William Buskiek Holmes, youngest sou of Samuel and Lucina (Todd) lloluies, was born at 
Southington, Conn, (liis father having removed tlience from Waterbury), July 31, 1831. His father 
returned to Waterbury, where William continued to reside from early childhood. He was educated at 
private scliool and the Waterbury Academy. After leaving school he was employed by the Benedict & 
Ihirnham Co., of Waterbury, from 1843 to 1850. lie then came to Kew York, and was in the employ 
of the Scovill Manufacturing Co. for fifteen years. In January, 1865, lie started in the business of 
photographic supplies, in wliich he is still engaged, lie moved to Montclair in 1856, and became the 
pioneer of the " Waterlniry Colony." Jle induced his bi-other and many others to purchase property and 
settle there, and thereby assisted materially in the early development of the township, lie was ai one 
time a large ownei' in real estate, aiul sold to Mr. Carey the plot of ground on Orange lioad occupied by 
the latter. He was a libei-al entei'tainer, and among his distinguished visitoi's was Horace Greeley. He 
named some of the pi'ominent streets in the township, among which was Plymouth Street, on the corner 
of which the Congregational Church edifice now stands. He was (jne of the founders of the Society, and 
has served several years as a Deacon of the Church. He was instrumental in locating the chui-ch edifice 
071 its present site. 

Mr. Holmes marriect Mary II. Bull, daughter of Frederick P>ull, who was for a long time an elder of 
Dr. Adams' church, of Milford, Conn. Her grandmother was a direct descendant of Governor Trumbull, 
of Connecticut, known as " Brother Jonathan." Mr. Holmes has four children, viz. : William T., 
Edward H., Caroline S., and Henry L. 


The Porters were among the early comers of what was known as the " Waterbury Colony," I'epre- 
senting the same element — although with far advanced ideas — of the Connecticut colonists who, two 
hundred yeais previous, planted the standard of civil and I'eligious liberty in Eastern New Jersey, and 
l)ecame the parent stock of what is now coniprised in Essex County, New Jersey, and it is a noteworthy 
fact that the homestead lot of the Porters is a ]wrt of the original grant to Deacon Azariah Crane, who 
married the daughter of Governor Robert Treat, of Connecticut, both of whom were leaders in the 
establishment of Newark, or New Worke, as the new enterprise was then called. 

The name of Porter is among the early surnames mentioned in English history, and no less than 
tliirty-six of this name are mentioned by Burke as having been granted arms by their ruling sovereigns. 
Among the earliest mentioned is that of Endymion Porter, Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles I., 
a celebrated courtier of the ]ieriod, who descended from Robert Porter, brother of Sir William Porter, 
Knight, living temp Henry V. The motto borne on the shield of the famous knights rejjreseuting this 
family — Vicjilant'ia et Virdife — has been a characteristic of the descendants through subsequent 

Danikl PoiiTEK, the founder of the Connecticut l)ranch of this famih', was early in the colony, 
previous to 1644. He was licensed to " practice physic and chirurgery" in 1654 by the General Court. 
In 1661-2 it was ordered that his yearly salary sh(juld l)e paid out of the jntlJic treasury, while his fee- 
table was established by law. He was reqitired to attend upon the sick in Hartford, AVindsor, AVethers- 
field and Middletown. He was more particidarly a l)onesetter, as is shown by the following record : 

'• For the encouragement of Daniel Porter in attending the service of the country in setting bones, 
etc., the court do hereby augment his sallery from six pounds a year to twelve pounds p'' annum, and 
to advise him to instruct some meet person to his art." 

Daniel (1) had a son Daniel (2) born February 2, 1652, who followed his father's calling as a 
" bonesetter." The latter had a son Daniel (3) born March 5, 1699, v.dio married Hannah, daughter of 
John Hopkins, a descendant — probably — of William Hopkins, of Roxbury, Mass., who married Hannah 
Goffe, a daughter of Gotfe the regicide. The latter was a descendant of Stephen Hopkins, who came 
over in the Mayfiower in 1621. Daniel (3) had a son Timothy (1) born Jtme 19, 1735, who was also a 



History of Montclair TowNsiiir. 


plivsiciaii. lie had a sou Daniel (4) l)i>rii Septfml)er 23. 1708. wlio was the fatlicr of Timothy (2) bom 
Januai-y .3ti, 17!)2. Tiiis Tiiiiotiiy married Polly Ami Todd, daughter of a Mr. Todd, a descendant of 
Christoplier, one of tlie earliest settlers of tlie Xew Haveu Colony, and owner of the land now i<nown as 
tlie '•campus" of Yale College. 

Nathan T. Poktkk. son of Timothy, was horn at AVaterbury. Conn., December In, is-_>s. and 
received Ids education at the schools in that place ami at tiie academy at Easton. Conn. Close attention 
to his studies, aided by his (juick intellect and retentive memory, enabled him rapidly to master whatever 
lie undertook. 

It was the practical subjects that especially attracted him, and about his home he took the lead in 
every enterprise. 

His later career was the logical develo|)ment of these tendencies. The small manufacturing town 


of those days afforded too small a field for his ambition, and in 1854 he went to New York, entering the 
employ of A. W. Welton, a dry -goods conunission merchant in Liberty Street. After he and his brother 
Thomas had been in the employ of this house about a year, they were admitted to the firm, which then 
became A. W. Welton iV- Porters, a high compliment to thote who had been so .sliort a time in the 
business. A further evidence of Mr. "Welton's confidence was that he allowed his name and personal 
responsibility to remain after he had ceased to participate in the profits of the business. The firm name 
was later ciianged to Porter Pro.-., and finally to Porter Bros, and Comjiany. From the beginning until 
he retired from active business Nathan was the leading mend)er of the Hrm and brouglit the Iiouse 
successfully through such trying periods as the panic of '73. It was also mainly due to his fine business 
ability that the small business whose management he undertook in lS.i.5 grew to its later magnitude. 
He combined in an unusual degree the ability to direct the more important matters and at the same time 

23i History of Montclair Township. 

keep tliorouglilv accjuaintecl with all the details of the business. Proinineiit among his business charac- 
teristics were, energy, care and ]ironiptness. It has been well said of him that he could transact mure 
business in an hour than most men could in a day. In ISSl, poor health compelled him to retire from 
liis more active duties in the business. During his long and honorable business career he was identified 
with many enterprises to which he gave close personal attention. His connection with the National 
Shoe and Leatlier Bank, of New York City, first as Director and afterward as Vice-President, brought 
him into prominence as a financier. lie was very influential in its affairs and was held in the highest 
esteem In* his associates on account of his courtesy and stritng personality, as well as his ability and good 
judgment. For many years he was President of the Cheshire Manufacturing Company and Cheshire 
Brass Company, of West Cheshire, Conn.; Director in the Patent Button Company, of Waterbury, 
Conn, (all of which were successful under his managenieni), and served in several other companies in an 
official capacity. On October 16, 1863, Mr. Porter married, at New London, Conn., Miss Mary C. 
Comstock, a sister of Mrs. Thomas Porter. 

Mr. Porter resided in New York and 15ruoklyn during the earlier years of his business life. In 
June, 186S, he removed to Montclair, having purchased, in conjunction with his brotlier, a large tract of 
land situated on Union Street, Gates Avenue, Harrison Avenue and Clinton Avenue, which had formerly 
been a part of tlie old Crane farm. Mr. Porter and his family lived in the Union Street house until the 
erection of the house on the corner of Gates and Clinton Avenues in ISIU. In the ijuietof this suburlian 
village he found a much needed rest and recreation, where he could for the time Iteing lay aside the cares 
of business and enjoy the advantages of country life. lie tooiv pleasure in superintending the work on 
his place, and prided himself on his garden, to which he devoted many of his leisui-e hours while at home, 
a diversion which helped materially to relieve the strain resulting from a too close application to business, 
lie showed the keenest interest in public affairs of the township. He was for three years a Commissioner 
of lioads, and for two years a member of the Township Committee. "While holding these offices he 
devoted much time to thein, and conscientiously performed their duties. The demands on his time, 
however, were too great, and after his last year on the Township (,'ommittee he declined to be a candidate 
for re-election. 

His father was a Baptist, and in his youth Nathan became a member of that church, but he was 
too liberal in his religious views to be bound by any merely denominational distinctions, and became one 
of t!ie original members of the First Congregational Church, in which he always took the greatest interest. 
As Trustee and Treasurer of this Church he rendered valuable assistance. By his personal efforts and 
liberal contributions he aided materially in paying off the Church debt, as well as in the enlargement of 
the building and other impi'ovements. He gave liberally to other l)eneyolent objects, but always without 
ostentation. He continued to take an active interest irj all these matters till his failing health necessitated 
an entire change. Since his retirement from active business he has spent his time jiartly in Montclair and 
partly at his old home in Waterbury, among tlie scenes of his youth. 

Mr. Porter has never been fond of society in its formal sense, though lie was always kn<nyn as a 
most companionable and sociable man. He was popular among his large circle of friends and acquaintances, 
and his presence was always welcome. His keen sense of humor made him an appreciative listener, 
and his vein of wit made liim an entertaining talker. On all occasions he was a thorough gentleman. 
One of Mr. Porter's most ])rominent traits was his fondness for liis home, and there was nothing he 
enjoyed more than being with his family. Witli his children he was like one of themselves, entering into 
all that interested them. He was an ideal husband and father. 

The issue of his marriage to Miss Comstock wa^ three children, James Sontter, born at Jersey 
City, New Jersey, October 22, 1865; Nathan T., Jr., b(jrn at Brooklyn, December 5, 1867, and Uiland, 
l)orn at Montclair, December 10, 1871. 

James Sontter Porter was educated at ]\lontclair jniblic school, and entei'ed the employ of Porter 
Bros. & Co.; married Miss Grace Jewett Shively, daughter of Andrew J. Shively, at Brooklyn, N. Y., 
on April 28, 1892. 

C2^%^^^-^-^<;?^^^ cy^t^^Cc^ 

History of Moxtclair Township. 


Xatlmii T. I'ortor. Jr., i)rci)are<l for college at the ^fontclair High School and entered Yale in ISSfi, 
graduating in is'.to. After graduation he entered the employ of Porter Bros. i.t Co., and became a mem- 
ber of the firm January, 1892. He married at Troy, N. Y., P'ebruary 24, 1892, Miss Caroline Chester 
Knickei-backer. daughter of Thos. A. Knickerbacker. a descendant of the olil Dutch family whose head, 
Johann \'an IJerger Knickerbacker, settled at Albany in lt'>r)2. 

inland Porter received his education at the public schools in Montclair, and is now in tiie employ 
of Porter Bros, ik Co. 

Thomas Poktkk, third S(jn (jf Deacon Timothy and Polly Ann (^Todd) Porter, was born in Water- 
bury, Conn., Feb. 7, 1831. lie wa.s educated in the common schools and academy of Waterbury, and 
the Staples Academy in Easton. A\'iiile attending school in tiie winter he worked on his father's farm 
and brickyard in the summer. 

In the autumn of 1S.">4, he went to Xcw York City in the employ of .\rad W. Welton. who in a 


little store in Liberty Street was selling the goods of the Cheshire Manufacturing Company. He had 
scarcely mastered tlie details of the business when, through the defection of other and older employees, a 
large share of the resjjonsibUity devolved upon him, anil he called to his assistance X. T. Porter, who 
was still living in Waterbuiy. Under the management of the two young men, the business received a 
large and rapiil ilevelo|)ment, being conducted under the name of A. W. Welton iSz Porters. After a 
few years Mr. Welton retired and another Ijrother, Sammel M. Porter, entered the partnership. The 
firm of Porter Brothers was then assumed, which later, on the admission of some employees as partners, 
was extended to Porter Brothers and Comi)any. The affairs of the firm were so .successfully and 
etticiently managed, that it soon acipiired a high i-eputation, and has cimtinued in uninterrupted prosperity 
to the present time. The firm removed to Chambers Street, thence to -143 and 44.5 Broadway and 
linallv to 7S and 7'.) Worth Street. 

2oG History of Montclair TowNsmr. 

Tlionias Porter was for many years a direetor in the I^ational Shoe and Leather Bank. He was 
known and reeosjnized as one of the leading niercliants of New York, and dnring tlie period of the War 
was a staniK'h supporter of tlie Government. Wliile many New York mercliants doubted and shaped 
their course accordingly, his faith in the ability of the Government to maintain itself in its entirety never 
for a moment wavered. lie belonged to that class of New York merchants who were lionest from principle 
and not from policy, and who believed in applying the golden I'ulc to every day transactions of life. 

Owing to the death of one of the three brothers and the failure in health of anotlier, the cares of 
the extensive business of Porter Brothers & Company, rested mainly upon Mr. Thomas Porter as the 
leading and most experienced member of the firm, and lie was practically the responsible head for 
the last ten vears of his life. At the time of his death he was President of the Cheshire Manufacturing: 
Company, the Cheshire Brass Company, of Barnard, Son & Company, the Patent Button Company and 
the Vulcanite Manufacturing Company. 

As a bnsiness man Mr. Porter was prudent, courageons and energetic, and possessed a high sense of 
mercantile honor. Unswerving integrity, and a determination to fnltill at any cost every honorable 
obligation, were the ruling principles of his business career. 

Mr. Porter resided for a number of years in Brooklyn, where he was prominent in social circles 
and an active meml)er of the Washington Avenue Baptist Church. The climate of Brooklyn seemed ill 
adapted to the health of his family and he was ]iersuaded by Mr. Samuel Holmes to try the climate of 
Montclair. In 186S he purchased, in connection with his brother Nathan, thirty acres, situated on what 
is now Union Street and Harrison Avenue, which was originally j)art of the Jei'emiali Crane farm. He 
moved his family out and occupied for two or three summers the small house M'liich rests on the found- 
ation of the original homestead of Jeremiah Crane. The health of his family improved to sucli an extent 
that he finally decided to settle permanently in Montclair. He fixed up the homestead jiroperty which he 
continued to occupy until 1880, when he built the beautiful home on the crest of the hill which he 
occupied up to the time of his death. The following from the Montclair Times of Nov. 16, 1890, 
refers to his usefulness as a citizen of Montclair, also to his sudden death : 

" Not since the sudden death of Henry A. Dyke has the community been so shocked as at the announcement yester- 
day of the death of Thomas Porter. He had been at business the day before, and during the evening conversed with his 
family and with friends who had called concerning business and social matters. He never seemed in better health than 
when he retired Thursday night. On Friday morning about five o'clock he was taken suddenly ill and in a few minutes 
passed away. 

" Mr. Porter has been a prominent figure in social and business circles both in Montclair and New York. For a 
long time he has been head of the great firm of Porter Bros. & Co. In our local affairs he has occupied many positions of 
eminence and usefulness. For a number of terms he was President of the Board of Trustees of our public schools and 
always used his influence for the maintenance of the high standards which have distinguished the schools. His addresses 
at the commencements many remember as impressive and appropriate. When the Village Improvement Society was 
organized, and while it lasted, he was its President. He alwaj-s took a lively interest in public affairs. Socially he was 
a most delightful and genial man. His beautiful home has been opened on many occasions, and all who knew him well 
were glad to be numbered among his friends. He was a member of the Baptist Church in Orange, and was greatly 
interested in whatever concerned the progress of religion in the communit)^ and the world. Montclair owes much to him, 
and while in the last few years he has not been personally as conspicuous in the life of the communit)- as before, it has 
been only because other duties compelled him to give his attention elsewhere. 

" An honored citizen, an earnest Christian, a business man whose reputation was unstained, he was one who 
apparently could ill be spared by the community, his family or his church. The sympathies of a host of friends are with 
those who have been so suddenly called to part with one who was as dear to them as life itself." 

Mr. Porter was a member of the Washington Memorial Association, being one of a comjmny of 
gentlemen who pui-chased the site of Washington's Headquarters at Morristown, and erected the menn)rial 
at that place. 

He was President of the Village Improvement Society of Montclair, and was for twelve years 
Chairman of its Board of Education. In this latter capacity, by his successful efforts in stimulating a 
])ublic interest in education, by his able addresses on anniversary occasions, and by his prudent manage- 




History of Montclair Township. 237 

ment of tlie affairs of the office, lie did mncli to establish a school which has fitted scores of young men 
for col lege. 

When ahout fourteen years of age he united with the Waterbnry Baptist Church and was an active 
member and Sunday School Superintendent until his removal to New York. In New York he was a 
prominent member of the Madison Avenue Baptist ("hurcli. and on his removal to Montclair united first 
with tiie Bloomfield Baptist Clmrcli and continued his membership tliere until Dr. Edward Judson, son 
of Adoniram .Judson, the famous missionary, accepted a call to the Orange Bai)tist (.'hurch, when he took 
his letter to that church, fie became a warm friend of Dr. Judson and a great admirer of his preaching. 
The intimacy that existed between them enabled Dr. Judson to form a just opinion of the personal 
characteristics of Mr. Porter, which he gave expression to after the latter's death as follows: 

" I have just returned from the funeral of Mr. Thomas Porter, of Montclair, a warm personal 
friend of mine, and an honored memljer of the Orange Church. * * * * He was sixty years old, having 
just entereil tlie autumn of life^that period when, having outlived the fever and friction of youth, we 
come into snuKith adaptation of our environments, and we inherit the wealth of varied and numerous 
relationships. Mr. Porter was a man of peculiar social grace. Ilis commanding and almost regal carriage, 
his features strong and nigged, yet mobile and transparent, revealing every movement of the noble sj)irit 
Iiehind them, his unvarying courtesy, liis fjuict unselfishness, his considerate treatment, especially to those 
who occupied humbler social positions, marked him as a gentleman of the old school. Ilis benignant 
presence will be j)eculiariy missed in the sficial circles whicli he frequented. But besides this he was a 
man of strong jirinci|)le. His moral intuitions were acute. His whole nature revolted against whatever 
was crooked or unclean. lie was fearless in avowing his convictions. And yet he was neither morose nor 
ascetic. He was always kindly in liis construction of the conduct and motives of others. The opinions 
he held as a Christian and as a Baptist were definite and pronounced. TVitliout pnMligality he was large- 
hearteil and benevolent. I found in him a firm helper in my Orange field, a?id his friendliness has 
followed me through all my exjjerience in lower New York." 

The characteristics of Mr. Porter were clearly hereditary. It will be observed that his ancestors 
in a flirect line for four successive generations were physicians, and in early life he was strongly inclined 
to fiillow that profession, but was dissuaded from doing so by liis parents. He seemed to possess 
remarkable gifts in this direction, and would no doubt have made his mark had he been ]>ermitted to 
follow his own inclinations. He frequently assisted the atfiicted when i)liy>icians or surgeons wen- not 

Mr. Porter married, in 180.3. Miss Annie Comst<K-k. daughter of M. M. Conistock. a direct descendant 
of William, the ancestor who owned laud in Wetherstield in lO-ll, and settled in 2S'e%v London in 1C411. 

The line of descent is through John (1), John (2), Peter (1 ), Peter (2), Peter (3). The first 
Peter, who was the great grandfather of Mrs. Porter, was Cajitain of a Company of I^ttimers liegiinent 
in the War of the Revolution, and wa.s stationed at Fort Trumbull when New London was burned. 

The issue of the marriage of Thoma.s Porter and Annie Comstock was Thomas W., Howard and 
Roland. Only the eldest, Tliomas W., is now living, and is at present the head of the firm of Porter 
Bros. «i: Co. He married, June 12, 1894, Miss Lillian Man,- Ward, youngest daughter of the late General 
Rodney C. Ward, of Brooklyn. 


Two families of the name of Van Vleck are mentioned in the colonial records of New York. 
In the Xew NetheHanth Register, page 100, it is stated that ''Van Vleck (Tielman) may justly be 
regarded as the founder of Bergen (N. J.j. He came originally from Bremen, studied under a notary 
in Amsterdam, came to this country about 1658, and was admitted to practice the same year. He 
was made the first Schout and President of the Court at Bergen, September .5, 10*51. After the 
capture of the country by tiie Eugiish he returned to New York and resided there in 1C71." 

238 History of Montclair Township. 

Isaac Van Yleuk, proltalily a brother of Tielman, settled at or near All)any. He married, 1st, 
Cornelia Beekinan ; 2d, March 5, HISU, Catalyntje de Lanoy. lie was a dealer in beaver skins in 1674 
and TO, as stated in Stoothoof Papers. He made an athdavit June 11, 1690, relating to the troubles 
under the administration of Governor Lester. He had several ciiildren. 

Joseph Vax Vi.kck, the suliject of this sketch, is a descendant of Isaac Van Vleck. Ilis mother 
before her marriage was Ami, daughter of Joseph Ilasbrouck, a Captain in the War of the Revolution, a 
descendant of AI>raham Ilasbrouck or Has Brouck, who removed from Calais into the Palatinate in 
Germany about the middle of the seventeenth century, belonging to the body of French Protestants 
whom religious persecution forced from their native land. From Germany the family went to England 
in 167.5, and emigrated the same year to New Netherlands (New York), and was of the patentees of 
New Paltz (Ulster County, N. Y.) in 1676. Two of his sons, Jan and Abraham, with ten others, all 
Huguenots, obtained a patent of 40,000 acres on the west shore of the Hudson River, September 29, 1677, 
and settled there. Many of his descendants were conspicuous in the early history of New York State, 
and especially in the War of the Revolution. Joseph, of New Paltz (pi-obably the great-great-grandfather 
of the present Joseph), was the grandson of Abraham (2). He was a prominent man and filled several 
public offices. He married Elsie Schoonmaker, daughter of Captain Joakim Schoonmaker, a native of 
Hamburg, Germany, wliro was one of the first settlers of America, having come over in the employ of 
the Dutch West India Company while the country was under Dutch government and control. 

Joseph Van Vleck, son of Peter and Ann (Hasbrouck) Van Vleck, was born in Marbletown, 
Ulster County, N. Y., November 19, 1S30. He attended the Kingston Academy until he was fourteen 
years of age, and began his business career as clerk in a country store. He came to New 1 ork City in 
1849, and was engaged in a wholesale boot and shoe house. In 1860 he entered the house of Phelps, 
Dodge & Co. — the largest house in their line of business in the United States — and in 1879 was 
admitted as a partner. He resided for a number of years in Brooklyn. He spent the summers of 
1868-69-70 in Montclair, and was so favorably impressed with it as a summer resort that he determined 
to make it his permanent residence. In July, 186S, he purchased the property fronting on Upper Mount, 
ain Avenue, containing about four acres, and subsequently bought about eight acres additional. He 
was mainly instrumental in opening the street from Mountain Avenue to Valley Road, which his neigh, 
bors named Van Vleck Street. At the time of his purchase there were oidy three other houses on the 
avenue. He made many improvements and built five additional houses, thus adding materially to the 
taxable property in the township. His interest in the public affairs of Montclair led to his election in 
1874 as Commissioner of Public Roads. Little comparatively had been done at that time in the way of 
improvements, and the streets and avenues were not much in advance of ordinary country roads. He 
saw the necessity of a radical change, and two years later, when he was elected a member of the 
Township Committee, he earnestly advocated the McAdam system of roads. He wrote a paper on this 
subject, which was published in the county papers, and afterward in pamphlet form. Tiie taxpayers 
were slow at first in adopting any changes that would matei'ially increase their taxes, but later they were 
convinced that every dollar expended in street improvements added to the value of their proj)crty, and 
Mr. Van Vleck's suggestions were finally adopted. As a member of the Township Committee he 
favored liberal appropriations for public improvements, and the impetus given to the movement at that 
time — from 1876 to 1879 — during his administration led to greater efforts in this direction by subsequent 
administrations, which were ratified by the taxpayers. He improved the .system of pul>Iic accounts and 
brought order out of confusion. 

In all his efforts ]\[r. Van Vleck has been infiuenced by the one desire to make Montclair a model 
suburban town, and to this end he has contributed liberally of his own means, and has cheerfully borne 
his share of the increased ex]ienditures. 

He was for a time connected with the M. E. Church, but in 1874 united with tlie First Congrega- 
tional Church, in which he has since been one of its most active and earnest members. He was the 
Treasurer of the Society for about ten years, and for a number of years has served, and still serves, as 

History of Montclair Township. 


Deacon of tlie (Jliiircli and Trustee of the S^>ciet_v. He lias been identified witii and is a lilieral 
contributor to the various benevolent organizations originatiui^ with this church and society. 

Mr. Van Vleck married, in 1S52, Miss Amanda Xiles, daughter of William Xiles, a descendant of 
John, born 1*503, who came to America in the •■• Speedwell" in 1G34, settled in Braintree, Mass., in 1639, 
and was one of the grantees of Dorchester lands, from which place he removed to Braintree. The name 
was originally spelled Niel, but at the close of the seventeenth century the present orthography was 
adopted. The issue of the marriage of Mr. Van Vleck with Miss Xiles was ten children, six of whom 
are deceased ; three are married. 


One of the foundei-s of the First Congregational Church of Christ, and for seventeen years the 
Superintendent of the Sunday-scliool connected with this cliurch, was born in Ithaca, Tompkins County, 

X. v.. May lit, 1S3:5. He is a descendant of 

Sir William Johnsin. wlui settled in the Mo- 
hawk \ alley, in 173"), and was cunspicnons for 
his great influence with the warriors of the Six 
Xations, he having been ajjpointed Colonel of all 
the tribes by Governor .^^^~ - Clinton. For his services 
while in command of the ^^^ ^< ^ I'Npedition, w liicli re- 
sulted in the defeat of M^ - « the French under Dies- 
kau, at the head of Lake ^^ (ieorge, he received the 
title of Baronet, and a ISlil '^^ "*" gift of £5,0(Mi fmiu Par- 
liament. Hedied.luly ^T/ "•'' -'+,1774. 

Colonel Arthur S. ^^ ^^l^ .lolmson, the father of 
Charles H.. the subject Kr of this sketch, served 
with distinction in the '40(HShf^^ War of IS 12, and after- 
ward Itecame one of the ' ' i, nmst prominent lawyers 
in Central Xew '^'ork. .• lie was Disti-jct .\ttnr- 
neyof Tnm|)kinsConnfy wKj^^^^^K' ^^ ''' ''"^ ''^^'^ ^* 21, and was 
Surrogate and .Judge for ^^^^K^^S^^ many j'ears. He was 
highly e.steemed for his ^^^^bL^P^^^ greatlegalability as well 
as f(jr his many personal ^^^^^ qualities. He niaiiicd 
Charlotte Uoxana Shat- "^ tuck. 

Charles Henry Jolin- son.fifth child of Nathan 
and Charlotte lioxana (Shattuck) Johnson, was 
educated at the higli school of Toin])kins 
County, X. V. Having - decided to adopt a mer- 
cantile career he re- moved to Xew York 
Citv, in 1854, where he found emplovment in a 


large wholesale grocery house. He remained 

with this house about three years, and during that period the knowledge he accpiired from study and 
observation laid the foundation of his subsequent successful business career. In 1857 he organized 
the firm of Binnev cV .Johnson, cnmmi.-sion merchants. The firm f(jr many years was one of the most 
prominent in this line, and its business operations have extended to nearly every quarter of the 
glol)e. For many years it had extensive connections with South America, Germany, England, China 
and the West Indies, ilr. Binney. of the firm, died in 187*'.. and the business was carried on by ilr. 
Johnson until his retirement in 1^1*3. lie is a nuiu of nntiinching integrity and ujiriglitness of 
character, and is a fitting example of the Christian Tuerchant, whose religious principles arc exemplified 
in his every-day life — a '• living e[)istle, known and read of all men."" To the peojde of ilontclair he is 

240 History of Montclair Township. 

known as the Christian iientleman, whose whole aim in life lias been to make the world better. His 
work as a Siuiday-school Superintendent was begun at the Tabernacle Church in Jersey City, in 1863, 
at which place he removed soon after his marriage with a lady of that place. He succeeded A. S. Hatch^ 
the banker, as Superintendent of the school connected with that church. lie was then a young !nan of 
30, full of vigor and enthusiasm, and earnest in his devotion to the Master's cause. Under bis admin- 
istration the school grew in numbers and influence and became the second largest in the State of New 
Jersey, nnnd)ering 62.5, including teachers and scholars, at the close of his six years' labors. lie was 
equally active in the affairs of the church in which he served l)oth as deacon and trastee, and was also 
President of the Young Men's Christian Association. He removed to Montclair in 1869, where, finding 
no Church of liis faith and denomination, he identified himself with the Presbyterian Church, but on 
learning that there were a number of residents in Montclair who held to the doctrines which he had been 
tanght from his childhood up, he united with them in founding the new church, and soon began the work 
of organizing a Sabbath-school. The history of this school is a history of his work, which began under 
the brightest auspices in June, 1870, with 72 scholars and 18 teachers, and through the storms of winter 
and the heat of summer he, for seventeen consecutive years, was invariably at his post unless prevented by 
sickness. Both teachers and scholars, whatever their position in life, always received a kindly welcome, 
and he took a personal interest in each one, watching over them with tender and parental care as the 
shepherd watches over his sheep, never for a moment losing sight of even one stray lamb. He was their 
advisor, counselor and lienefactor. How many, through his inlluence and efforts, have been gathered into 
the fold of Christ, and their names enrolled in the Lamb's Book of Life, only the councils of eternity will 
reveal. The little ones of tender years grew up under his fostering care, and became co-workers with 
him. It re<|uired great wisdom and tact to harmonize all the varied elements, to prevent discord, and 
]n-eserve peace at all times. These characteristics he possessed in a marked degree, which were not only 
hereditary, but combined with Christian graces and a kindly genial nature, enabled him to contiol and 
direct the affairs of the school, which grew and jirospered under his management. He inspired the 
teachers with his own enthusiasm and love of the work. 

In the church he has been equally conspicuous as a worker, counselor, friend and brother to rich 
and poor alike. As a deacon he has fulfilled all the required conditions — " grave, holding the mystery 
of the faith in a pure conscience, being found blameless," and " purchased to himself a good degree, and 
great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus." As a trustee he has managed the business affairs 
with fidelity and economy, as one who naust give an account of his stewardship. His love, fidelity and 
devotion to his pastor has been exhibited to a marked degree, and through every difliculty and trial he 
has "stayed his hands " and encouraged him in his work. He has given liberally and even l)ountifnlly in 
aid of every benevolent and religious undertaking connected with his own church as well as assisting 
others " not of the household of faith" in their work and labor of love. 

Mr. Johnson has lieen for a number of years a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Consolidated 
Exchange, Mercantile Exchange, and of the New York Boiird tif Trade and Transportation. He was one 
of the founders and is still a director of the Bank of Montclair. He has been for twenty-three years a 
trustee of the church, a member of the American Home Missioiuiry Society, American Congregational 
Union, and of the Congregational Club. New York. 

Mr. Johnson married, in 1858, Miss Henrietta Holdane, daughter of G. AY. Iloldane, Esq., ot 
Jersey City. 

Charles Haldane Johnson, son of Charles H. and Henrietta (Iloldane) Johnson, was born in 
Jersey City, N. J., May 12, 1859. He was prepared for college at public school and at Hasbrouck 
Institute; entered Columbia College in 1876-7. and was graduated at Cornell University in 1880, and 
at Columbia Law School in 1882; admitted to the Bar of New York the same year. Believing that the 
West offered a more promising field for ultimate success than any place nearer home, he went to 
Colorado, where he became associated with District-Attorney McLivesay, whose jurisdiction covered six 
counties. Mr. Johnson engaged in the trial of many important cases and achieved marked success as a 

History of Montclair Township. 241 

prosecuting attorney. After a year's experience lie returned East and licgan j^ractice in New York City. 
His experience in the West i)roved of valuable assistance to hi in, altluiugli he sul)sei[wently entered ujion 
an entirely different line of practice. His success in the metropolis has been principally in the nianage- 
ineiit of cases outside of court. lie is well read in the law, thorou<;h and careful in his legal investigations, 
and discusses legal cpiestions with clearne.-s uf illustration and strength of argument. He has had ciiarge 
of large interests, necessitating occasional trips to tlie West and to Europe, which have been attended 
with satisfactory results to his clients. He has been a resident of Montclair for many years, and since his 
return has taken a great interest in tlie political affairs of his County anil State. He is an aljle and 
forcible speaker, and in every campaign since lie resumed liis residence in New Jersey his services have 
been in demand. He canvassed his State in 1SS4 under the direction of the State Republican Committee. 
Upon the retirement of Dr. Love, who for many years has been Pi'esident of the Ivepublican Club of 
Montclair, Mr. Johnson was elected to succeed him, and the Club has continued to prosper under his 
administration. He is a good organizer and an indefatigable worker. He managed witli much aliilit}' 
the campaign of lS'.t2, and with marked success that of 1^93. He is a member of the Montclair Club and 
other organizations, and was for«a time Assistant Superintendent of the First Congregational Sunday 
School. He has been for several years one of the trustees of the Montclair Public School, a director of 
the Montclair Savings Bank, and one of the Executive Committee of the Citizens' Committee of One 
Hundred, orgatiized for the enforcement of law and order. 

!Mr. Johnson iidierits many of the jiersonal traits of botJi parents. He is a man of great force and 
moral earnestness; genial, exceedingly affable, yet firm in his convictions of right ; conscientious, upright, 
and a man of strict probity and honor, personally j)opuIar with all his friends and associates. ]Ie married 
Adela, daughter of Julius II. I'ratt, Es((. His children are Holdane Kennet, Alien, and Elizabeth. 

( ll.\Kl.i:s 11. NOYKS. 

Cn.vKLKs 11. NovEs was one of the early settlers of Montclair when it became a place (jf suburban 
residence. He descended from an old Puritan family which emigrated from Kngland to Newlmry, 
Mass., in the 17th century, and is still largely represented in Newlinry]iort and vicinity. Mr. Noyes 
came to New York City early in life, and was tor numy years at the head of the well-known dry-goods 
and coiTimission house of Noyes. Smith iSc Co., and was widely known in business circles of New York, 
New England and the AVest. In 1803 he purchased property in Montclair and was identified with 
the early deveIo[)mciit of the township. He removed to Brooklyn in ISOtl, and six years later returned 
to Montclair, where he again purchased pro])erty and decided to make it his permanent home. He died 
here in I8S1. He married Jane 11. Dana, daughter of Alexander li. Dana, well known as a lawyer 
and writer on philosophical subjects, who spent most of his life in Brooklyn and died in Montclair 
in 1887. The family of C. 11. Noyes comprised Charles S., a practicing lawyer in New York City ; 
Alexander D., William B., a practicing ])hysician in New York; Jennie D. and Henry R. 

CuARLEs S. NoVEs, first son of Charles H. Noyes, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., graduated from 
the high school of Montclair, from Andierst College in 1S80, and from the Columbia Law School in 
1SS2. In 1892 he was married to Ella E. Shafer, daughter of I. Calvin Shafer, of Montclair. They had 
one child, Alexander G., now deceased. 

Ale.xander I). NoY?:s, second son of Charles H. Noyes, was born in Montclair in 18()2, prepared 
for college at the high school of Montclair, was graduated at Andierst College in 188.3, taking third rank 
in his class. He chose journalism as a profession and became identified with the ^ew Ywk Tribune in 
1883; subsecpiently financial editor and e<litorial writer on the JVeio York Commercial Advertiser and 
New York Eveiii)t<j J'oxf, which latter position he still occupies, writing also for numerous other 
periodicals. He is identified with social circles in Montclair, is a member of the Montclair Club, 
Dramatic Club, and Tariff Iieforni Club. He is a leader in the latter, and did effective service in behalf 
of tariff' reform as a public speaker during the last Presidential campaign. 

242 History of Montclair Township. 

William P). Notes, third son of Charles IT. Noyes, was born in Montclair, graduated from the 
high school of Montclair, from Amherst College in 18S8, and from the New York College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in 1890 ; studied subsequently at Senej Hospital, Brooklyn, and at Berlin and Vienna. 


The name Benedict is derived from tlie Latin, hene(licf)is — blessed, well spoken of. The first to 
illustrate the name was St. Benedict, an Italian, most illustrious in early history, who, about 520 A. D., 
established the order of the Benedictines, so famous all over Europe. 

The Abbe de Benedictis, the distinguished secretary of Cardinal Mazarin, made himself famous by 
the ceremonies instigated by himself in honor of the (iueen of France. 

In England, in the year 640, the name was made famous by a noted Saxon, who introduced vast 
improvements in architecture. He was afterward canonized. 

In Denmark, the prodigies of bravery performed by Benedict, brother of Canute the Fourth, 
covered the name with honor. 

Tradition says that the Benedict family is of Silesian origin, bearing the titles of Count of the 
Banat and Baron of the Holy Roman Empire, the last German Count Von Benedict having passed first 
to France and then to England in the time of Edward the Sixtli. 

The American genealogy of the Benedict family begins with the pioneers of Cliristian civilization 
in the settlement of the new continent. 

Among those who went into voluntary exile, rather than endure the oppression of the Stuarts in 
the State and Lands of the Church, was the first American progenitor, Thomas Benedict, of Nottingham- 
shire. He landed in Massachusetts, then a settlement seventeen years old. He was one of the few 
American forefatliers who sought to introduce civilization and Christianity into this then savage country. 
He settled finally on Long Island, and there was charged with the powers of government. In the 
language of the old records, "he was empowered to act in point of government and was invested with 
magistratical power on the Island.'' He was the arbitrator of differences, civilized and savage, the 
pacifier of the offended Indian chief. It is said that when Uncas, the celebrated Sachem of the 
Mohegans, complained to the United Colonies in New England, because the Mohansick Sachem of Long 
Island had killed some of his (Uncas') men, the matter was referred for adjustment to the famous 
"Captain Mason and Thomas Benedict." He was a member of the first legislative body to convene in 
America and afterward was a member of the Colonial Legislature. He was foremost in the organization 
and sending out of colonists to plant new settlements, intrusted with these functions by the voice of the 
people, whose entire confidence he commanded. All sorts of offices in Church and State clustered around 
him, forced upon him by popular choice. 

He is identified with the founding of the first Piesljyterian Church in America, at Hempstead, 
Long Island, where the tablet is still in preservation that records the event. 

His sons were prominent in the early Indian wars, while his descendants have fought in the 
battles of every war, from the direful King Philip's War to the multitudinous battles of the greatest civil 
war in history. His son John held many public offices of state. 

John, the second, served as representative, and was a jHiblic-spirited citizen. 

Caleb, the son of John, the second, moved from Long Island and settled in Connecticut at New 

Caleb, son of Caleb, held many important offices of Church and State. His two brothers, Lieut. 
Ezra and Capt. Benjamin Benedict, rendered important service during the War of the licvolution, and 
the latter, it is said, was on duty at Tappan during the trial and execution of Major John Andre, the 
British spy, during the latter part of September and 1st of October, 17S0. 

Ezra, son of Caleb (2), lived in New Canaan, was a Colonel of militia and j^rominent as a military 
man. He married Hannah, daughter of Moses and Betsey (Seymour) Conistock, a direct descendant 

History of Montclair Township. 


of Cliristoplier Comstock, wlio came from Englaru] al>out 1C52. and settled at Fairtield about 1054. lie 
brou^lit witli liiiii his family coat-of-arui!- engraved upon a silver tankard, which descended to ifajor 
Samuel Comstock, before the latter's death. He gave the pitcher for preservation to the church in 
AViltou to be used as a part of the articles for commuinon service, supposing it would be retained by the 
church just as he left it. The tankard was sent to Xe\v. York, however, and wrought into a more comely 
fasliion of the day and the design of the grantor thereby defeated. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the first Comstock who settled in England — a German baron — fled 
from (iermany in the sixteenth century because of his participation in the Von Beneilict treason. 

TIIL l.L.'.Ll>i».l lluilliJ.ii.Ai- 

Lewis St. John Bk.nkdict, son of Ezra, was born in Xew Canaan, Conn., Oct. 24, 1811, and was in 
direct line of descent from Thomas Benedict — the father of all. He graduated from Yale College in 1834, 
and married Harriet, daugiiter of Czar Jones, .son of Ebenezer, Efjenezer, Ehenezer, Jacoh, Isaac and Wil- 
liam, who was the first Deputy Governor of Connecticut and a son-in-law of Governor Eaton, who was the 
first Governor of Connecticut, and wlio held the position for twenty consecutive years. E. Czar Jones, 
referred to al)Ove was a mendjer of the Connecticut Legislature in 1837-38. 

Lewis St. John Benedict, after liis graduation, began the study of medicine, which he relinquished 
for flattering business op]iurtunities. lie became a member of the well-known firm of Benedict, Hall & 
Company, prominent during the "War of the Rebellion as large manufacturers of boots and shoes, being 


History of Montclair Township. 

awai'ded enormous contracts l\y the United States Government for the supply of tlie Federal forces, in 
army and navy. 

In 1S50 Mr. Benedict moved to Bi-ooklyn, residing on Colnuiliia lleiglits for thirteen years. He 
was one of the i)ioneer members of Plymouth Church during the early pastorate of Rev. Henry "Ward 
Beecher, and for a number of years acted as one of the Ti'ustees of that historic church. In 1863 he 
retired from business and moved to Montclair where he purchased twelve acres of land on a part of 
whicli is now located the Benedict residence, coi'ner Mountain and Bloomtield Avenues. He was one of 
the original members of the First Congregational Church. He was regarded as a public spirited citizen, 
was identitied with the progress of the towu, a man of genial temperament and personal popularity ; he 
commanded universal respect. He died Oct. 23, 1884. 

His immediate family are : Harriet Benedict Beecher, wife of Col. Henry Barton Beecher, son of the 

llev. Henry Ward 
lia, wife of John Ward 
cipal of Montclair 
vember 28, 1880; An- 
member of the insur- 
& Benedict, 145 
Court and Montague 
Edward Lewis Bene- 
eral Manager of Bank 
fornia ; Seelye Bene- 
after) Sarah Benedict, 
diet, Emily Keeier 
Kirkham, wife of 
saic, N. J.; Walter St. 
ber of the insurance 
Benedict, 14.5 I'road- 
and Montague Streets, 
Seelye Benedict, 
and Harriet (Jones) 
Brooklyn, and gradu- 
inary. East Hampton, 
1SC7, and at Yale Col- 
1871. During the 
he was engaged in the 
ness in San Francisco, 
sale lumber business at 
after which he asso- 
others as General 

of New York of the North-Western Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee. Conceiving greater 
possibilities in the general business of lire insurance he founded the old and well-known insurance firm 
of Beecher and Benedict, later Benedict & Benedict, of New York and Brooklyn. He is a leader of 
social circles of Montclair, where he now resides, and is one of its most energetic and enterprising citizens. 
He was active in organizing the Montclair Club, and, with one exception, raised a larger amount 
toward the building fund than any other individual. Liberal, free-hearted, generous to a fault, he has 
done much to jtromote other pulJic enterprises, and advance the interests of the township. 

stLIAt LI.MiDlL r. 

Beecher; Mary Ame- 
Taylor, formerly Prin- 
High School, died No- 
drew Czar Benedict, 
ance firm of Benedict 
Broadway and corner 
Streets, Brooklyn; 
diet. Cashier and Gen- 
of Pleasanton, Cali- 
dict (of whom here- 
Martha Hartt Bene- 
Benedict; Caroline 
George A. Milne, Pas- 
John Benedict, mem- 
firm of Benedict & 
way and corner Court 

son of Lewis St. John 
Benedict, was born in 
ated at Williston Sem- 
Mass., in the class of 
lege in the class of 
years 1872 and 1873 
manufacturing busi- 
Cal., and in the whole- 
Albany and Oswego, 
ciated himself w i t h 
Agents for the State 

y^^a^fui^nv ^Lottv 


History of Montclair Township. 245 


As a resident of die iloiiiitaiii Side, then sparsely settled, ^[|■. Sullivan was well known to tlie 
people of Montclair twenty years ago. He formed one of the little colony of New York merchants 
who began the settlement of the mountain region, and opened up that part of the township which has 
since become one of tlie most attractive portions of Essex County His father, Arthur Bull Sullivan. 
was born in Waterford, Ireland, in 171)1. He was descended from one of the oldest families in Ireland, of 
whom Burke says : 

"This family ded