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; The "History of Montgomery County" is presented to the public as a memorial of the first 
century of its corporate existence. Material facts have been diligently sought after and patient 
labor cheerfully bestowed upon the work. Events are chronicled in narrative rather than in 
controversial form, and truth, gleaned from a thousand sources, has been condensed in order to 
make it a valuable work of reference for the presenf and future generations. It has been 
prepared with care and liberality and a determination to make it as complete and accurate as 
possible. It is submitted to a generous and intelligent people, in the belief that it will meet 
their approval. 

The labor of the editor has been shared by William .J. Buck, who has devoted many 
years of his life to the collection of material for the history of the county. Although 
in enfeebled health, his contributions exceed in number those originally contemplated for the 
work. His chapter upon Bibliography, the first published in the county, is one of the most 
valuable contributions to the volume. For assistance furnished him in his jiresent labors, he 
expresses acknowledgments to John Jordan, Jr., and F. D. Stone, of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania ; to Samuel L. Smcd'ey, Howard M. Jenkins, and Prof. O. Seidensticker, of 
Philadelphia; M. Auge, of Norristo\ n; Dr. George W. Holstein, of Bridgeport; Mark H. 
Richards ana B. M. Schmucker, P.D., of Pottstown ; William Henry Cresson, of Conshohocken ; 
Hon. William A. Yeakle, of Whitemarsh ; S. K. Griraley, of Upper Salford; A. H. Cassel and 
James Y. Heckler, of Lower Salford, and Charles Mather, of Jenkintown. 

The acknowledgments of tlie editor are due to Prof. Oscar C. S. Carter, for his contribution 
on Geology and Mineralogy; to Charles Z. Weber, M.D., for the history of the Medi<:\l 
Profession ; to P. Y. Eiseubci-g, M.D , for the chapter upon Botany ; to J. P. Hale Jenkins, Esq., 
for the history of Charitable and Benevolent Associations ; to Rev. J. S. Hughes, for the history 
of Methodism in Montgomery County ; to Hon, Jones Detwiler, for the history of Whitpain ; 
to Henry S. Dotterer, for the history of Frederick ; to F. G. Hobson, Esq., for the history of 
Providence, Upper and Lower; to Mrs. Anna M. Holstein and Mrs. Sarah S. Rex, for 
information concerning the Patrons of Husbandry; to Hon. Isaac F. Yost and Philip Super, 
Esq., for valuable information and suggestions concerning the early German settlements and 
church hietory "f the northern townships, and to Professors R. F. HoiFecker and J. K. Gotwals, 
for assistance in the collection of historical data of common schools. The thanks of the editor 
are gratefull ' adered to Hiram Corson^ M.D., Hon. Hiram C. Hoover, William M. Clift, E.sq., 
L. H. Davi .; ;.. George Vt . Holstein, M.D., Rev. Charles Collins, D. M. Casselberry, Esq., 
J. K. Har! : George Lower, Esq. To Moses Auge, author of "Biographies of Men of 



Montgomer}- County," the eilitor and publishers return special acknowledgments for the free uf 
Tif the work tendered. To tlie editors and publishers of the local Press of the county our sens( 
(if obligation is herein expressed for their aid and encouragement in the work, and for the use ol 
their i-etained files, when in search of valuable material for township histories. To F. G. Hobson. 
William J. Buck and Henry S. Dotterer, committee on publieation of proceedings and antiquariac 
display of the County Centennial, acknowledgments are due and credit given for the arrangement 
and classification of the exhibits, the order of which is pre';erved in this work. 

And finally, to my daughter, I owe the deepest obligations for a careful and intelligem 
co-operation and cheerful assistance in the revision of both manuscript and proof, and for many 
suggestions and notations of important historical facts. 

T. W. B. 




(liy . 




"rals, Geologj' and Lime , 

The Abuiigines 33 

Early Voyagers and Traders — First Settlements on the Delaware 

aud Schuylkill RiTers 49 

I'he First Swedish Settlements 57 


William Penn— " The Holy E.\periment, a Free Colony for all Man- , Religious Denominations— Church History . 

kind" 82 

Penn'ti Arrival in_ America — His Colony Founded on the Delaware, 91 

9Iaterial Improvements 102 

The Schuylkill 118 

Stage Lines 129 

The&'rmans 133 

The Welsh 139 

The Colonial Era • 143 

Tlie Eevolution 158 

The War of 1812 and the Mexican War 180 

The Great Rebellion 195 

TheGi-and Army of the Republic 285 

' ji lioners, Slavery and the Underground Railway 297 

i.lii-ii.?8of the United Stat« Military and Naval Academies. . . 313 



Montgomery County Established — Municipal Government — The 

"Country Squire," 317 



Manners and Customs — Sports and Pastimes —Local Superstitions — 


Bibliography 348 

Early Poetry 360 


Educational • 392 

Flora of Montgomery County 423 

Zoology of Montgomer7 County 435 

Agriculture 439 

Township and Borough Organization — Post-OflBces — Roads . , , . 447 

Journalism 458 

CH.vpTEu xxxn. 

Banks aud Banking 470 

Charitable and Benevolent Associations 488 

The Insane Hospital and Poor-House 498 

Past and Present Politics of Montgomery County 502 

The Bench and Bar • 528 

Manufacturing Industries 563 


The Medical Profession 






Abington Townebip 6V8 

Borough of Bridgeport 707 

Borough of Conshohocken 713 

Borough of East Greenville 710 

Borough of Green Lane 72i 

Borough of Hatboro' 721 

Borough of Jenkintown 733 

Borough of Lansdale 742 

Borough of Norristown 747 

Borough of North Wales 777 

Borough of Pottetown 784 

Borough of Royer'fi Ford ' 797 

Borough of West Conshohocken 799 

ClieltenhaDl Township 802 

Douglas Township 825 

Franconia Township 827 

Frederick Township 831 

Gwynedii Township 853 


Lower Salford Township . 


Marlborough Township . 


Montgomerj' Township 


Moreland Township . 


New Hanover Township . 


Non-iton Township 


Hatfield Township . 

Horsham Township gy^ 

Limerick Township 915 

Lower Merion Township 923 

Perkiomen Township nog 

Plymouth Township i(i28 

Pottsgrove Township 1041 

Providence Township 1044 

Lower Providence Township ]iv]9 

Upper Providence Township 105G 

Springfield Township 1071 

Towamencin Township iot4 

Upper Dablln Township 1092 

Upper Hanover Township 1105 

Upper Merion Township mg 

Upper Salford Township c . . . . lirtl 

Whitemarah Township 11:J7 

Whitpain Township 1162 


Worcester Township . 

Appendix — Centennial Celebration. 



Aaron, Samuel 404 

Albertson, J. M 477 

Ambler, David J 1102 

Antes, Col. Frederick, residence of 852 

Apple, JohnD..* 959 

Ashbridge, Joshua 940 

Ashbourne Presbyterian Church 803 

Auge, Moses 776 

Autographs Williain Penn and witnesses to charter 145 

Bank of Montgomery County 473 

Baldwin, Norman B , 965 

Barley Sheaf Barn 317 

Bate, William T 595 

Bean, Theodore W 554 

Beaver, D. R 6G7 

Bellows, H. M 670 

Berkhimer, Allen 867 

Betts, Sarah T 816 

Biddle, Thomas A., residence of 1162 

Binder, Samuel B 955 

Binder, W.J 464 

'X;; Bisson, James W 86G 

Blake, William 699 

Bomberger, J. H 411 

Boorse, John C 1091 

Bosler, Charles 634 

Bouquet, Henry 150 

Boyd, James 549 

Bradfield, Abner 704 

Branin, George 813 

British Stamp 151 

Brunner, S. U 4'22 

Brooke, William 1043 

Buckman, Thomas, Sr ; 702 

Buck, William J 351 

Bullock, George 601 

Bullock, George, residence of 800 

Burd-Wilson Mansion 405 

Cascadcn, Robert ." 677 

Casselberry, John W « 481 

Chadwick, Robert .: 615 

Chase, Thomas 418 

Clay, J. C 1128 

Conard, James P 1182 

Cleaver, Silas 1156 

Cleaver, John 1156 

Corson, Alan W 1034 


Corson, E. H... 1153 

Corson, Hiram 643 

Cotson, William 646 

Coulston, James M 1158 

County Court-House 326 

Cra^vford, John Y 937 

Custer, Anthony V 1071 

Custer, David 1191 

Custer, Jacob G 1055 

Davis, John J 739 

Davis, William 801 

Delaware Indian Fort 48 

Delaware Indian Family 4i> 

Delaware Indian 41 

De Vries, David Pielersen 56 

Diagram of Bone Cave, Port Kennedy 18 

Diagram of Transit of Venus 6 

Dismant, Benjamin F 673 

Dodd, Robert J - 641 

Ely, Gilbert W 911 

Engle, A. J 815 

Ervien, John A 034 

Evans, David 921 

Evans, Oliver 330 

Evans, Oliver, Steam-Carriage 331 

Evans, Thomas B ! 920 

Farmar, Edward, seal of 1139 

Fegely, Isaac 604 

Fenton, John M 814 

First National Bank, Norristown 478 

Flat Rock Dam 126 

Fort Casimir 68 

Fort Christiana 59 

Fort Mifflin 164 

Franklin, Benjamin 149 

Franklin's Press 458 

Freas, Jesse W 1155 

Freas, Joseph 1154 

Freedley, Samuel 640 

Friends' Meeting-House, Lower Merion 928 

Geatrell, Thomaa B 914 

Geller, Jacob S 743 

Geological Map 8 

Germantown, Map of Approaches to 165 

Germantown, Map of Battle of 166 

Godshall, A. C 622 

Goentner, William K 729 




Goshenhoppen Church, Old 

Graeme Coat of Arms 

Graeme, Elizabeth, Book-Plate of. 

Grieme Park 

Grmme Park, Vane at 

Gneme, Dr. Thomas 

Gresh, W. K 

Hallowell, Beiyamin T 

Hallowell, Israel 

Hallowell, Joho J 

Hallowell, Jonas W 

Hallowell, Joseph W 

Hallowell, William J 

Ilamel, George 

Hamer, James 

Hamilton, Andrew 

Hamilton, W. C 

Hamilton, W. C. & Sons, Paper-Mills.. 

Hancock, General Winfleld S 

Harley, Jonas M 

Harper, Smith 

Hartranft, General John F 

Harry, Benjamin 

Heobner, Christopher 

Heebner, Isaac D 

Heist, David 

Heller, G. K 

Henzey, W. P., residi-nce of. 

Hillegass, John G 

Ilobart, .lohn H....: 

Hobson, Frank M 

Hoffman, John 

Hood, John M 

Hooven, James 

Hoover, Hiram C 

Hudson, Henrj' 

Hughes, Benjamin B 

Humphry's, Seth 

llnnsicker, Abrajiam 

Hunsicker, Charles 

Hunsicker, Henry A 

Hunsicker, Henry G 

Hunsicker, Philip M 

Hunter, Joseph W 

Independence Bell 

Indian Signatures 

Iredell, Kobert 

Jarrett, Samuel F 

Jarrett, William L 

Jenkins, Charles Todd 

Johnson, B, K 

Jones, John 

Jones, John B 

Jones, .fohn L 

Jones, Jonathan 

Jones, Colonel Owen 

Jones, Colonel Owen, residence of. 

Keely, Ephraim P 

Keith, Sir WiUiam, Seal of. 

Keith, Sir William 


, 1135 
























T- , PAGE 

Kendall, Daniel „„_ 

Kennedy, John jjgg 

Kennedy, William E j^jg 

Kenderdine, Benjamin jj„. 

Kenworthy, James ^,. gg- 

Kepner, D. K 

Kinzie, Daniel 

Kirk, Jacob 

Kirk, Joseph ^^ 

'^"<""''' A 462 

Knipe, Jacob g.^ 


.. 620 
.. 812 
. 820 
.. 926 
. 655 
. 548 
. 1066 
. 1019 
. 922 
. 478 
. 1O07 



Knipe, Jacob 0, 
Knight, William, Sr 

Krause, David 

Kratz, Henry W j^.^^ 

Krieble, Charles 

Kulp, Samuel N 

Larzelere, J. B 

Larzelere, N. H 

Leedom, E. C 

Lefferts, Simon V..., 
Lenhart, John F.... 
Livezey, Thomas.... 

Lloyd, John 

Lodge, Thomas G... 

Loller Academy 

Longaker, Daniel.... 

Longaker, R. B 

Loux, Hiram R 

Lowe, T. S. C 

Lukens, Abel 

Lnkens, Joshua P.... 

Lukens, Lewis A 

Map of New Sweden, 

Map of West Jereey and Penn^lvania, 1698 120 

Markley, A. D 

March, T. J 

May, Benjamin 

May, Selden T 

McDermott, William.. 
McFarland, Blbridgo.. 

McLane, A. W 

Meschter, G. K 

Meschianza Procession 

Meschianza Ticket 

Miles, William 

Miles, Samuel 

Miller, Charles T 

Miutzer, William 

Missimer, George .. _ 

Mitchell, Joseph, Jr 

Moir, James 

Monument Marking Site of Treaty Tree 

Moore, George W 

More, Nicholas, Seal of. 

Morgan, Andrew 

Morris, Oliver G 

Morison, William T 

Moorhead, J. Barlow 

Mowday, David Y 









Mud Island 162 

Muhlenberg, Henry M 1063 

Muhlenberg, Peter, Tomb of 1064 

Myers, Jacob 633 

Nace, Francis 1017 

Newberry, Milton 659 

New Hanover Lutheran Church 793 

Newport, David 694 

Noble, Samuel W 484 

Norrietowu High School 753 

Norristown Churches 750 

Norriton Presbyterian Church lOiJS 

North Wales Academy 421 

Oath of Allegiance I(i8 

O'Brien, Michael 598 

Outline Map of Montgomery County 1 

Paoli Monument 163 

PaxsoD, Charles X. ,. 1099 

Penrose, Abel 906 

Penrose, Jarrett 905 

Penn Coat of Arms 88 

Peon, John 150 

Penn's Treaty Tree 143 

Penn, William 82 

Pennsylvanische Geschicht Schreiber 136 

Perkiomen Bridge 1045 

Potts, Joseph D 605 

Potts, William C 1100 

Providence Friends' Meeting li 61 

Handle. William H 676 

Ratrliffe, Thomas 591 

Rea«i, L. W 657 

Reading, Edward 659 

Reed, Michael H lOU 

Reese, John L 1013 

Reese, William 1014 

Reid, John K 656 

Rennyson, William 468 

Rex, Sarah S 44G 

Rhoads, Jacob B 865 

Rice, Andrew J 703 

Richardson, William 746 

RittenhoTise, Christopher 578 

Rittenhouse, David Frontispiece 

Rittenhouse Observatory 4 

Rittenhouse, Samuel 1009 

Rittenhouse, William 1010 

Robeson, Samuel L 944 

Roberts. Enos 1184 

Roberts, Jesse 1012 

Roberts, Richard K 967 

Rogers, George W 550 

Rorer, Charles S 903 

Rosenberger, Isaac R 873 

Royer, J. Warren 654 

Royer, Lewis 522 

Rowland, Thomaa 635 

St. Peters Church, Barren Hill 1150 

Sanitary Fair Buildings 296 

Sargent, G. P 666 

Saylor, Andrew J 1195 

Scheetz, J. H 662 

Schlatter, Michael 1166 

SchoU, Seth L 745 

Schrack, David 668 

Schrack, John (;53 

Selser, John 968 

Shannon, George 479 

Shaw, James 554 

Shaw, Robert ggcj 

Shtarer, A. K 7^0 

Shearer, A, W 108O 

Shepard, Jesse 1040 

Shoemaker, Charles 651 

Shoemaker, C. K 1179 

Shoemaker, Enoch i083 

Shoemaker, Joseph A 741 

Shoemaker, Mathiaa 1177 

Shunk Monument 1065 

Sibley, William 94;j 

Singerly, William M 1175 

Singerly, William M., sheep farm of 858 

Singerly, William M., home farm « 1176 

Slingluff, John 475 

Slingluff, W. H 474 

Smith, Isaac W 592 

Smith, John 701 

Smith, John C o23 

Smith, Jonas 79t> 

Smith, Oliver P jo6() 

Soldiei-s' Monument 768 

Soldiers of 1812 187 

St. James' Episcopal Church, Perkiomen 1051 

Stabler, William 774 

State Hospital for the Insane 498 

State House, Philadelphia, 1744 154 

Steele, J. Button 606 

Stiles, George M 669 

Stineon, Mar>" H 674 

Stuj'vesant, Peter 67 

Super, Philip 1115 

Super, Henry W 414 

Sutton, W. Henry 5I8 

Swedes' Church "11 

Swedes' Ford 711 

Swedish Block-House 57 

Thomas, Allen 868 

Thomson, Charles 172 

Thomson, Charles, residence of 172 

Thropp, Joseph E 627 

Todd, John 660 

Trappe Church 1059 

Trappe Church (interior) 1059 

Tremper, Jacob 830 

Trucksess, David 1197 

Tyson, Jacob P 696 

Van Buskirk, Wilham A 650 

Upland Meeting-Place 101 

Van Pelt, John 732 

Walt, Henry S 922 



Wiiltou, John 984 

M'asliiiigtun's Headquarters, Worcester 164 

Washington's Headquarters, Valley Forge 170 

Washington Headquartere, "James Morris'" 1164 

Watt, William 683 

Weaver, C. P 575 

Weaver, Joseph K 671 

Weinberger, J. Shelly 415 

Weiser, Clement Z 1112 

Wentz Kcformed Church 1186 

Wentz, Abrara 1180 

Wertsner, Beiijamin P 485 

Wheeler, Charles 936 

White, Bishop William 1052 

Whitefield, G 373 

Williams, Anthony 824 

Williams, Charles 1160 

Williams, Henry J 1077 

Williams, John J 810 

Williams, Thomas 811 


Wills, Morgan R 460 

Wilson, S. M 819 

Wilson, Thomas 972 

Wood, James 594 

W^oodward, Evan M 985 

Wright, Charles B 822 

Yeakle, Chailes 1081 

Yeakle, Christopher, residence of. 1073 

Yeakel, Daniel 1078 

Teakle, Jacob 1079 

Yeakel, David W 1157 

Yeakle, Joseph 1080 

Yeakle, Samuel 775 

Yeakle, Thomas C 818 

Yeakle, William 1082 

Yeakle, William A 521 

Yost, D. M 277 

Yost, Isaac F 998 

Yost, Jacobs 52 






MoNTGOMERF CouNTY, originally a part of Phil- 
adelphia County, was created by act of the General 
Assembly approved the 10th day of September, 1784.' 

^ As Act for erecting part of the County of PhUaeUIphia into a separate 

Sect. I. Wheeeas a great number of tbe iDhabitanta of the county 
of Philadelphia by their petition have humbly represented to the Aei> 
Bemblyof this State the great inconvenience they labor under by reason 
of their distance from the seat of judicature in the said county: For 
remedy whereof, 

Sect. II, Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted by the Representativis 
of the Freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania^ in Gmt^ral Axifemiihi 
met, and btj the autJtorili/ of the same. That all and singular the lands 
lying within that part of Philadelphia County bounded as liereinafter 
described, beginning on the line of Byberry township and the township 
of the manor of Moreland where it intersects the line of Bucks County; 
thence westward along the northern lines of Byberry, Low^r Dublin, 
and Oxford townships to the line dividing the townships of Cheltenham 
and Bristol ; and thence along the said line dividing Germantown town- 
flhip from the township of Springfield; aud thence along said line to 
the line dividing the township of Springtield aforesaid frum the town- 
ship of Roxbury to the river Schuylkill ; thence down the said river to 
the line dividing the townships of Blockley and Lower Merion ; and 
thence along said line to the line of the county of Chester; thence by 
the line of Chester County to the line of Berks County ; thence hy the 
line of Berks County to the line of Northampton County ; thence by 
part of the line of Northampton County and the line of Bucks County ; 
thence along the said line of Bucks County to the place of beginning ; 
be, and hereby are, erected into a county, named, and hereafter to be 
called, "Montgomery County." 

Sect. III. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the 
inhabitants of said county of Montgomery shall, at all times hereafter, 
have and enjoy all and singular the jurisdictions, powers, rights, liberties, 
and privileges whatsoever which the inhabitants of any other county 
in this State do, may, or ought to enjoy by any charter of privileges, or 
the lawB of this State, or by any other ways and means whatsoever. 

Sect. IV. A»d be it further etuicted by the authority aforesaid, That the 
inhabitants of each township or district within the said county quali- 
fied by law to elect shall meet at some convenient place within their 
respective townships or districts, at the same time the inhabitants of the 
several township? of the other counties within this State shall meet for 
like purposes, and choose inspectors ; aud at the time appointed by law 
the freemen of said county of Montgomery shall meet at the house of 
Hannah Thomson, innkeeper, in the township of Norriton,and there 
elect representatives; and the freemen of the county of Philadelphia 
shall meet at the State-House, in the city of Philadelphia, and there 
elect representatives to serve them in Assembly [one counselor], two fit 
persons for sheriffs, two fit persons for coroners, and three commis- 
eionere, as by the Constitution and laws of this State are directed in 
respect to other counties, which representatives so chosen shall be 
Euembens of the General Assembly of the Commoawealtb of Pennsyl- 

It is bounded on the southeast by the line of the city 
of Philadelphia, on the northeast by Bucks, on the 
north and northwest by Lehigh and Berks, and on 
the west and southwest by Chester and Delaware 
Counties. It is thirty miles in length from the south- 
east to the northwest line, and about fifteen miles in 
breadth from the northeast to the southwest line. 

vania, and shall sit and act as such, as fully and as freely as any of the 
other representatives of this State do, may, can, or ought to do ; [and the 
said counselor, when so chosen, shall sit and act as fully aud as freely 
as any of the other members of tbe Supreme Executive Council of this 
State do, may, can, or ought to do. 

[Secf. V. And be it ftirlh^'r enacted hy the authoriiy aforesaid. That the 
county of Montgomery shall, until otherwise altered by the Legislature 
of the State, be represented in the General Assembly by four members, 
and the county of Philadelphia shall be represented in the General As- 
sembly by five members.] 

Sect. VII. And be U further enacted by the aulhority aforemid. That the 
justices of theSupreineCourt of this State shall have like powers, juris- 
dictions, and authorities within the said county of Montgomery as by 
law they are vested with and entitled unto in the other counties within 
this State; and are hereby authorized and empowered, from time to 
time, to deliver the goal of the said county of capital or other offenders, in 
like manner as they are authorized to do in other counties of this State. 

Sect. X. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, Tbatitsball 
and may be lawful to and for Henry Pawling, Jun., Jonathan Roberts, 
George Smith, Robert Shannon, and Henry Cunuard, of Whitpaine town- 
ship, all of the aforesaid county, yeomen, or any three of them, to pur- 
chase aud take assurance to them, aud Their heirs, in the name of the 
commonwealth, of a piece of land situated in some convenient place in 
the neighborhood of Stoney-run, contiguous to the river Schuylkill, in 
Norriton township, in trust and for the use of the inhabitants of the 
said county, and thereon to erect and build a court-house and prison 
sufficient to accommodate the public service of said county. 

Sect. XI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That such 
part of the money as shall arise from the sale of tlieoldjirison and work- 
house, and lot of ground thereto belonging, in the city of Philadelphia, 
as directed by an act of General Assembly of this commonwealth to be 
sold for the use of the city and county aforesaid, he apportioned for the 
defraying the charges of purchasing the land, building and erecting the 
court-house and prison aforesaid, in the ratio or proportion of taxes as 
paid between the said county of Montgomery and the county of Phila- 
delphia and this city ; but in case the same should not be sufficient, it 
shall and may be lawful to and for the commissioners and assessors of 
the said county, or a majority of them, to assess and levy, aud they are 
hereby required to assess and levy, in the same manner as is directed by 
the act for raising county rates and levies, so much money as the said 
trustees, or any three of them, shall judge necessary for purchasing the 
said land and finishing the said court-house and prison. 

Sect. XII. Provided, always. That the sum of money so to be raised 
does not exceed three thousand pounds current money of this State. 

Sect. XIII. Provided, aleo,and be it further enacted by the autiionty afore- 
«iid, That no action or suit now commenced or depending in Uie county 
of Philadelphia against any person living within the bounds of the said 
cmnty of Montgomery shall be stayed or discontinued, but that the 



The lands are agreeably diversified by well-marked 
ranges of bills, and with beautiful and fertile valleys. 
In the southeastern portion of the county these ele- 
vations are known as the "Gulf Hills," "Barren 
Hills," and " Chelten Hills." In the centre of the 
county the " Providence" and " Skippack Hills" are 
most notable, and in the northern part the "Stone 
Hills" are prominent, rugged, and somewhat inoun- 
tainous in their character and appearance. All of 
these ranges of hills are habitable, and all but the 
Stone Hills are in a high state of cultivation. The 
latter are heavily timbered, and when cleared of trees 
and rocks respond liberally to the husbandmen who 
possess and till them. 

The valley lands of the county have been a source 
of perpetual wealth to agriculturists, who prize them 
not only for their surface products, but also for the 
useful minerals that abound in them. The Schuyl- 
kill, Plymouth, and Perkiomen Valleys are the most 
noted in the county, and present the most beautiful 
and picturesque scenery. But there is much to ad- 
mire in following the Wissahickon, Indian, Swamp, 
and Manatawny Creeks to their sources, draining as 
they do large areas of rolling country, improved by 
elegant and commodious residences and farm-houses, 
with barns and improvements unsurpassed by any 
agricultural people on the face of the globe. 

Montgomery County has an approximate area of 
four hundred and seventy-three square miles, or 
about three hundred and three thousand and eighty 
acres. It is divided into thirty townships and sixty 
election districts. There are twelve boroughs in the 
county, all of which will be referred to in subsequent 
chapters of this work. The Schuylkill River forms 
the southwestern boundary line between Montgomery 
and Chester Counties until it reaches the Merion 

Fame action or actions already commenced or depending may be prose- 
cnted and judgment tliereupon rendered, as if tliis act Imd not been 
made; and tliat it sliall and maybe lawful for the justices of the county 
of Pliiladeljiliia to issue any judicial process, to be directed to the sheriff 
or coroner of Philadelphia County, for carrying on and obtaining the 
effect of the aforesaid suits, which slierifF and coroner shall and are 
hereby obliged to yield obedience in executing the said writs, and make 
due return thereof before the justices of the said court for the said 
county of Pluladel|ihia, as if the parties were living and residing within 
the same. 

Sect. XXI. And whkreas it is represented, by petition to the General 
Assembly, that by the lines hereinbefore mentioned a long, narrow neck 
or point of land, beingpart of the manor of Moreland, and lying between 
the townships of Byberry and Lower Dublin, in the cunnty of Philadel- 
phia, would be included in the county of Montgomery, to the great in- 
convenience and injury of the inhabitants of the said neck of land, who 
have prayed that they may remain within the county of Philadelphia. 

Sect. XXII. Be it therefore enacted by the authoritij u/oremitl^ That the 
boundary line of the said county of Montgomery shall be as follows: 
that is to say, beginning in the line of Bucks Couuty where the same is 
intei'sected by the line which divides the townships of Byberry and the 
manor of Moreland; thence southwesterly along the last-mentioned 
line to the first corner or turning thereof; and thence on the sanio south- 
westerly course to the lino of Lower Dublin ; and thence westwardly 
along the uortherii line of Lower Dublin, and so on, as the lines of the 
said couuty of Montgomery are hereinbefore described, to the place of 
beginning; anything hereinbefore contained to the contrary in anywise 

Passed Sept. 10, 1784. 

townships; from thence it passes through the country 
in a southeasterly course until it reaches the Phila- 
delphia line. The county is watered by many streams 
flowing into the Schuylkill River, — Wissahickon, 
Plymouth, Sandy Run, Mill, Rock Hill, Oulf, Valley, 
Indian, Stony, Skippack, Perkiomen, and Manatawny 
Creeks. The Pennypack and Neshaminy Creeks 
rise in Montgomery County, and pass through Bucks 
County to the Delaware River. The water-flow and 
fall of these streams and their tributaries, which 
form a network of irrigation, fed by thousands of 
perennial springs, rising in every part of the county, 
were early utilized by the settlers, who erected dams, 
and built on the shores grist-, saw-, fulling-, oil-, 
paper-, powder-, and rolling-mills, forges, factories, 
and tanneries. In 1795 there were reported ninety- 
six grist-mills, sixty-one saw-mills, four forges, six 
fulling-mills, and ten paper-mills. Many of these 
grist-mills existed prior to and during the Revolu- 
tionary war, doing active service for the contending 
armies while in occupancy of this section of the 
country. In the early era of public improvements 
Montgomery County was well marked by public 
roads leading from the city of Philadelphia to the 
interior settlements of the colony and State. The 
Lancaster road and similar highways leading to 
Reading and Bethlehem, with many parallel cart- 
ways, opened up the county settlements at a very 
early period. These great thoroughfares were soon 
intersected by public roads running from the Dela- 
ware to the Schuylkill Rivers, increasing in number 
and importance until the region now comprising the 
county was accessible from all points by well-graded 
roads leading in the direction of Philadelphia, then 
the capital of the couuty and of the State as late as 
1799, and the capital city of the nation as late as 1800. 
The general conformation of the face of tlje coun- 
try in Montgomery County repeats in miniature that 
which has rendered the natural scenery of New York, 
Pennsylvania, JIaryland, and West Virginia so nota- 
ble. The ranges of hills run uniformly northeast and 
southwest, as do the more distant line of the Cats- 
kills, Blue Ridge, and AUeghanies. As the Hudson 
River forces itself through the Narrows, the Dela- 
ware at the Water Gap, the Susquehanna between 
Harrisburg and Port Deposit, the Potomac at Har- 
per's Ferry, so the Schuylkill River in finding its way 
to the Delaware, in the same direction, cuts its way 
through rock-hills at Conshohocken and again at 
Fairmouut, Philadelphia. The primitive condition 
of the area of country now known as Montgomery 
County was land heavily timbered with oak, hickory, 
and chestnut. The consumption of wood for fuel 
prior to the introduction of anthracite and bitumi- 
nous coal, was very great in Eastern Pennsylvania. 
Large quantities were used in making charcoal for 
furnaces ; all lime was made by use of wood for fuel ; 
every household had its " wood-pile," while the sup- 
ply of Philadelphia City constituted a trade of vital 


interest to those owning and residing upon lands 
within twenty and thirty miles of the great city. 
Time was, and possibly is within the remembrance of 
those still living among us, when it was the work of 
each succeeding year to clear one or more acres of 
woodland, and the wood sold counted as a part of the 
yearly profit of the farm. This wealth of primitive 
forest was the foundation of many substantial fortunes 
in years past, where, by means of judicious purchases 
made, the sale of the "wood-leaf" paid for the farm, 
and opened up an increasing acreage for the growtli 
of grass and cereals. Tradition says this stump or 
" new land" was a test point in the character of the 
owner. If he was a provident, industrious man, his 
"new land" would seasonably blossom with buck- 
wheat ; if thriftless, selling his wood to pay taxes and 
incidental expenses of his attendance upon militia 
trainings and horse-races, his new land would be left 
uncultivated and overgrown with briers and brush. 
Fifty years ago farms denuded of woodland were ex- 
ceptional, and their marketable value greatly depre- 
ciated. The old characteristic farmer of Montgom- 
ery County took a commendable pride in maintaining 
from ten to twenty acres of primitive forest. It was 
useful in many ways, for fuel, building, and fencing, 
and, whether deemed ornamental or not, had a rare 
charm for him. It was these parks of woodlands that 
preserved to hunters until within the last quarter of 
a century choice haunts for squirrel and bird; but 
the close of the first century of the county witnesses 
the final obliteration of all hunting-grounds lying 
between the Delaware and the Schuylkill. 

The surface soil varies greatly in different parts of 
the county. In passing inland from tide-water levels, 
alluvial flats, and submarine formations, rock-faced 
bluffs are found at Chestnut Hill, four hundred feet 
above tide-water mark. The northwestern slope of 
these hills descends to the basin of the Plymouth 
Valley, through which runs a belt of limestone some 
two miles in width, with rich beds of hematite iron 
ore, white and blue marble, limestone, soapstone, and 
large masses of gray rock, easily quarried, and largely 
used in heavy masonry. This limestone belt crosses 
the Schuylkill River between Conshohocken and 
Swedes' Ford, and extends in a westerly direction to 
Howeltown, in the Schuylkill Valley. The soil of 
this locality is very productive, and is considered by 
many the most valuable in the county for agricul- 
tural purposes. Contiguous to the Plymouth Valley 
are the Sandy Hills, a light, luminous soil, easily 
worked and productive, but often seriously affected 
by drought. The rolling lands northwest of the val- 
ley, drained by Indian, Skippack, Perkiomen, and 
Manatawny Creeks and their tributaries, are princi- 
pally of the red shales and sandstones of the " middle 
secondary" formation, with many intervening areas 
of clay soil. The primitive condition of this soil was 
unproductive as compared with that of the Schuyl- 
kill and Plymouth Valleys ; but under the skillful 

husbandry of the modern farmer, and a liberal use 
of lime, manure, and fertilizers, this vast region of 
country yields abundant harvests, and supports a 
prosperous population equal in numbers to the square 
mile with the more favored limestone or valley lands. 
The scenery abounding along the Schuylkill, Wissa- 
hickon, Perkiomen, and their tributaries is among the 
most picturesque in the Middle States, while the land- 
scape, from the successive ranges of hills, is extended, 
and conveys to the observing eye a vision of pastoral 
peace and plenty. The topography of the county, as 
shown by accompanying maps, — that of Holme's orig- 
inal survey and the recent one prepared for this work, 
— shows the progress of two centuries in the matter 
of public roads and highways, and the subdivisions 
of the county into townships and boroughs. In 1681 
it consisted of manors and large tracts, or proprietary 
grants, held by comparatively few persons, who lived 
a frontier life, in almost daily contact with native 
tribes of Indians. Since then its square miles and 
broad acres, under the equalizing operation of our 
laws of descent, have passed through at least six 
generations, and thousands of purchasers have ac- ' 
quired titles to soil that have always been a prize in 
the inventory of worldly possessions of those who 
lived and died on the hills and in the valleys of 

The first era of public improvement demanded 
macadamized highways from tide-water to the in- 
terior. These highways still exist, monuments of 
early engineering, traversing the hills and mountains 
of the State. The increased tonnage of merchandise 
on these roads, and the costly character of teams and 
means of transportation, — the old Conestoga wagon, — 
soon induced the bridging of all important streams, 
many of which crossed these highways, as surveyed 
northwest of Philadelphia, within the lines now con- 
stituting Montgomery County. The spirit of public 
improvement seized on the Schuylkill River, and by 
a system of dams, locks, and canals connected it with 
the Susquehanna, by means of which lumber, coal, 
and all manner of merchandise found its way through 
the county to Philadelphia. Many travelers sought 
the " fast packet line," pulled through at a trot, with 
frequent changes of horses, it being thought a far 
more luxurious way of reaching the interior than by 
stage. This system of navigation still exists on the 
Schuylkill, but is now confined to ooal, lumber, lime, 
and stone. It is no longer a rival for mail, fast freight, 
or passenger traffic. The use of steam opened up a 
new era of public improvement. The construction of 
railroads speedily followed. These modern highways 
of travel and traffic found easy grades and eligible 
locations on the shores of streams and over depres- 
sions upon the face of the country, sought out by 
skillful engineers. The topographical face of Mont- 
gomery County is traversed by three of the best-con- 
structed and most liberally equipped railroads in the 
country, with a number of lateral roads connecting 


these parallel trunk lines. The Philadelphia and 
Reading Company drain the Schuylkill Valley, with 
branch roads in Plymouth, Stony Creek, Perkiomen, 
Pickering, and Oley Valleys. The North Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, now under the management of the 
Philadelphia and Reading, crosses the " divide" 
between the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers, and 
extends to Bethlehem, having connections with the 
Bound Brook, New Hope, and Doylestown Railroads, 
and with the Lehigh Valley system of railroads. The 
trunk line of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
passes through Lower Merion township. The Phila- 
delphia and Schuylkill Valley Railroad Company, 
now leased to the Pennsylvania Company, is con- 
structing a new line of road from their main track at 
Fifty-first Street, Philadelphia, thence up the Schuyl- 
kill Valley, leaving the county at the line opposite 
Phrenixville. When this road is completed, Mont- 
gomery County will be most advantageously traversed 
with these modern highways. 

There are accompaniments to these public improve- 
ments of novel and increasing interest to the popu- 
lous districts of country through which they pass, — 
the telegraph and, later, the telephone. No system of 
railroading is now deemed complete without these 
necessary adjuncts to the safety of public travel, the 
prompt movement of freights, and the methodical 
dispatch of business accumulating at centres of pro- 
duction, trade, and transatlantic shipment. These 
means of direct and rapid communication with all 
parts of the country, focalizing as they pass through 
the county and converging at the contiguous seaport 
city of Philadelphia, gives to the locality important 
topographical advantages. Lines of rapid transit, 
capable of transporting large bodies of men and cor- 
responding tonnage of freight, are now essential 
agencies in travel and in conducting the exchange of 
commodities of the continent in time of peace as well 
as in time of war. They are anchored in the capital- 
ized enterprise of the country, and are indispensabli 
to the success of the industrial pursuits in agriculture, 
manufacture, and commerce. Their adaptation to 
the necessities and exigencies of war was well illus- 
trated in the late Rebellion. The facility with which 
troops and supplies were transported to the line of 
the Susquehanna in the summer of 1863 was of great 
importance in connection with movements relied upon 
to check the invasion of Gen. Lee, and in making the 
great battle of Gettysburg the turning-point of the 
war. In the event of foreign war, hostile agencies 
would first be directed to the capture or destruction 
of our seaport towns and cities. In that event Phila- 
delphia and all the commercial advantages centring 
there would be a tempting prize to a maritime enemy. 
In such a contingency, one that may occur, all can 
readily see the importance that would be attached to 
the present topographical face of the county, check- 
ered as it is with a network of trunk and lateral lines 
of railroads. What our common roads were to Gen. 

Washington and Lord Howe in 1777-78 in the stra- 
tegical movement of troops from the Brandywine to 
the Delaware for the defense and capture of the City 
of Penn, our railroads in an enlarged sense would be 
in possible warlike movements, involving issues of 
greater importance than those referred to in the early 
history of the country. 

The surface elevations and topographical structure 
of Montgomery County has been heretofore made 
contributory to the growth and development of the 
region by utilizing its flowing waters for purposes of 
irrigation and propelling mills and factories. The 
sanitary requirements of Philadelphia demand a 
liberal extension of its water-works, and skillful en- 
gineers have ascertained, by levels made and in prog- 
ress, that the upper Perkiomen Valley has an eleva- 
tion with a volume of water and storage capacity suf- 
ficient to meet present and future wants of the great 
city for a century to come, and furnish a healthful 
and perpetual supply of pure water. 

The true latitude and longitude of Montgomery 
County appears to have been ascertained with great 
precision in 1769-70 by David Rittenhouse and his 
distinguished scientific contemporaries. The astro- 
nomical observations which preceded the terrestrial 
measurements were made, taking the " Norriton Ob- 
servatory" as a place of beginning. The extraor- 
dinary importance attached at the time to the work of 
these learned men, and the high standard of authority 
since conceded to them, renders of historical interest 
some account of their labors and the circumstances 
connected with the event. 

Latitude and Longitude, Norriton Observa- 
tory. — Norriton township, created by judicial pro- 
ceedings, 1730, then becoming a geographical subdi- 


vision of Philadelphia, enjoys a world-wide celebrity 
in having had situated within its boundaries the 
"Norriton Observatory," at which place astronomical 
observations were made, and reported as " An Account 
of the Transitof Venus over the Sun's Disk, observed 
at Norriton, in the County of Philadelphia and Prov- 


ince of Pennsylvania, June 3, 1769."^ It was at the 
point where then stood the "Norriton Observatory," 
about fifty feet north of the famous old residence, 

1 The following gentlemRn were appointed by the American Philo- 
aopliical Society, locatefl at Philadelphia, to make the observations and 
astronomical c;iIciilatious : William Smith, D.D., Provost of the College 
of Philadelphia; John Lukens, Esq., Surveyor-General of Pennsylvania; 
David Rittenhrmse, A.M., of Norriton ; and John Sellers, Esq., Repre- 
sentative in Assembly for Chester. Communicated to the society July 
20, 1769, by direction and in behalf of the committee, by Dr. Smith. 

"Gentlemen, — Among the various public-spirited designs that have 
engaged the attention of this society since its first institution none does 
them more honor than their early resolution to appoint committees of 
their own members to make as many observations, in different places, of 
the rare phenomenon, the transit of Venus over the sun's disk, as they 
had any probability of being able to defray the expense of, either from 
their own funds or the public assistance they expected. As the mt^m- 
bers of the Nurriton Committee live at some distance from each other, 
I am therefore, at their request, now to digest and lay before you in one 
view the whole of our observations in that place, distinguishing, how- 
ever, the part of each observer, and going back to the first preparations ; 
for I am persuaded that tlie dependence which the learned world may 
place on any particular transit account will be in proportion to the pre- 
vious and subsequent care which is found to have lieen taken in a series 
of accurate and well-conducted observations for ascertaining the going 
of the time-pieces, and fixing the latitude and longitude of the place of 
observations, etc. And I am the more desirous to be particular in these 
points in order to do justice to Mr. Rittenhouse, one of our committee, 
to whose extraordinary skill and diligence is owing whatever advantage 
maybe derived in these respects to our observation of the transit itself. 
It is further presumed that astronomers in distant countries will be de- 
sinms to have not only the work and reBults belonging to each particu- 
lar transit observation, but the materials also, that they may examine 
and conclude for themselves. And this may be more particularly requi- 
site in a new observatory, such as Norriti>n, the name of which has per- 
liaps never before been heard of by distant astroimmers, and therefore 
its latitude and longitude are to be once fixed from principles that may 
be satisfactory on the present as well as on any future occasion. 

" Our great discouragement at our first appointment was the want of 
proper apparatus, especially good telescopes with micrometers. The 
generosity of our Provincial Assemblysoun removed a great partof this 
discouragement, not only by their vote to purchase one of the best re- 
flecting telescopes, with a Dolland'a micrometer, but likewise by their 
subsequent donation of one hundred pounds for erecting observatories 
and defraying other incidental expenses. It was foreseen that on the 
arrival of this telescope, added tn such private ones as might be pro- 
cured in the city, together with fitting up the instruments belonging to 
the honorable the Proprietaries of the province, viz., the equal-alti- 
tude and transit instrument and the largo astronomical sector, nothing 
would be wanting for the city observatory in the State-House Square 
but a good time-piece, which was easily to be procured. We remained, 
however, still at a loss how to furnish the Norriton Observatory, but even 
this difficulty gradually vanished. Early in September, 17GS, soon after 
the nomination of our committee, I received a letter fi'oni that worthy 
and honorable gentleman, Thomas Penn, Esq., one of the Proprietaries 
of thisprovince, which he wrote at the desire of the Rev. Mr. Makelyne, 
Astronomer Royal, expressing their desire 'that we would exert ourselves 
in observing the transit, which our situation would be so favorable,' 
and inclosing some copies of Mr. Makelyne's printed directions for that 
purpose. Tins gave me an opportunity, which I inmiediately embraced, 
of acquainting Mr. Penn what preparation we had already made, and 
what encouragement the Assembly had given in voting one hundred 
pounds sterling for the purchase of one reflecting telescope and mi- 
crometer for the city observatory ; but that we would be at a great loss 
for a telescope of the like construction for the Norriton Observatory, and 
requesting him to order a reflector of two or two and a half feet, with 
Dolland's micrometer, to be got ready as soon as possible in London. It 
was not long before I had the pleasure of hearing that Mr. Penn had 
ordered such a telescope, which came to hand about the middle of May, 
with a most obliging letter, expressing the satisfaction he had in hearing 
of the spirit shown at Philadelphia for observing this curious phenome- 
non when it should happen, and concluding as follows: * I have sent by 
Capt. Sparks a reflecting telescope, with Dolland's micrometer, exact to 
your request, which 1 hope will come safe to hand. After making your 
observations, I desire you will present it, in my name, to the college. 

still standing, that David Rittenhouse, assisted by 
Archibald McKean and Jesse Lukens, met on July 
2, 1770, to commence the work of surveying a line 

Messrs. Mason and Dixon tell me they never used a better than that 
which I formerly sent to the Library Company of Philadelphia, with 
which a good observation may be made, though it has no micrometer.* 
We were now enabled t) furnish the Norriton Observatory as follows, 
viz. : 

"1. A Gregorian reflector, about 2 f. focal length, with a Dolland's 
micrometer. This telescope has four different magnifying powers, viz. : 
55, 95, 130, and 200 times, by means of two tubes, containing eye-glasses 
that magnify differently, and two small speculuma of differeot focal 
distances. Made by Nairne; used by Dr. Smith. 

*' 2. A refractor of 42 f., its magnifying power about 140. The glasses 
were sent from London witli the large reflector, and belonged to Har- 
vard College, New England; but as they did not arrive time enough to 
be sent to that place before the transit, they were fitted up here by Mr. 
Rittenhouse and used by Mr. Lukens. 

"3. Mr. Rittonhouse's refractor, with an object-glass of 36 f. focus, 
and a convt-x eye-glasa of 3 inches, magnifying about 144 times. Used 
by himself. Bdth these refractors, as well as the reflector, were in most 
exquisite order. 

"4. An equal-altitude instrument, its telescope three and a half feet 
focal length, with two horizontal hairs, and a vertical one in its focus, 
firmly supported on a stone pedestal, and easily adjusted to a plummet 
wire 4 feet in length by 2 screws, one moving it in a north and south, 
the other in an east and west direction. 

"r». A transit telescope, fixed in the meridian on an axis with fine 
steel points, so that the hair in its focus can move in no other direction 
than along the meridian; in which are two marks, south and north, 
about 330 yards distance each, to which it can be readily adjusted in a 
horizontal position by one screw, as it can in a vertical position by another 

"6. An excellent time-piece, having for its pendulum a flat steel bar, 
with a bob weighing about 12 pounds, and vibrating in a final arch. It 
goes eight days, does not flop when wound up, beats dead seconds, and 
is kept in motion by a weight of 5 pounds. These last three articles 
were also Mr, Rittenhouse 's property, and made by himself. 

*'7. An astronomical quadrant, two and a half f. radius, made by 
Sisson, the property of the East Jersey Proprietors, under the care of 
the Right Honorable Wiljiam Earl of Stirling surveyor-general of tliat 
province, from whom Mr. Lukens procured the use of it, and sent it up 
to Mr. Rittenhouse for ascertaining the latitu'le of the observatory. 
Thus we were at length completely furnished with every instnmient 
proper for our work. As Mr. Rittenhonse's dwelling at Norriton is 
about 20 miles nortliwest of Philadelpliia, our other engagements did 
not permit Mr. Lukens or myself to pay much attention to the neces- 
sary preparations. But vk knew that we had intrusted them to a gen- 
tleman on the spot, ^^UlO had, joined to a complete skill in mechanic8,8o 
extensive an astronomical and mathematical knowledge that the use, 
management, and even the construction of the necessary apparatus were 
perfectly familiar to him. Mr. Lukens and myself could not set out till 
Thursday, June 1st; but tfn our arrival there we found every prepara- 
tion so forward that we had little to do but to examine and adjust our 
respective telescopes to distinct vision. He had fitted up the different 
instruments', and made a great number of observations to ascertain the 
going of his time-piece, and so determined the latitude and longitude 
of the observatory. The laudable pains he had taken in these material 
articles will best appear from the work itself, which he has committed 
into my hands, with the following modest introduction, giving me a 
liberty which his own accuracy, care, and abilities leave no room to 
exercise : 

"' Norriton, July 18,1709. 
"'Dear Sir, — The inclosed is the best account I can give of the con- 
tacts as I observed them and of what I saw during the interval between 
them. I should be glad you would contract them, and also the other 
papers, into a smaller compass, as I would have done myself if I had 
known how, I beg you would not copy anything merely because I 
have written it, but leave out what you think superfluous. 

'" I am, with great esteem and affection, 

" ' Yours, etc., David Rittenhouse. 
'**To Rev. Dr. Smith.'" 

Exbyicl from David Rittenhomf'' 8 Report of the Transit of Venus, June 3^ 
1769, observed at the Nvrrilon Observatory.—" ' Early in November, 17*58, 1 
began to erect an observatory, agreeable to the resolutions of the Ameri- 



from the observatory to tlie State-House Square at 
Philadelphia. Mr. Rittenbouse having ascertained 
the latitude and longitude at the point with acknowl- 

cxn Philosophical Society, but, through various disappointnienta from 
■workmen and weather, could not complete it till the middle of April, 
1769. I had for some time expectpd the use of an equal-altitude instru- 
ment from Philadelphia ; hut finding Icunld not depend on having it, I 
felt to work and made one of as Kiini)lea construction as I could. March 
'2uth the instrument was finished and put up out of doors, the observa- 
tory not hL'ing yet ready. 

"'I had for some weeks before this, however, with my 36 f. re- 
fractor, observed eclipsea of Jupiter's satellites in such a manner that, 
though my equal-altitude instrument was not finished, and conse- 
«]nently I could not set my time-piece to the true noon, I should, never- 
theless, be able to tell the time of those eclipses afterwards when the 
instruments sliould be ready. Fur this purpose I observed almost every 
fair evening the time by the clock when the bright star in Orion disap- 
peared behind a fixeil obstacle, by applying my eye to a small sight-hole 
made through a piece of brass fastened to a strong post. From this 
time to May 20 the clock was altered several times, once taken down 
and cleaned, removed back to the observatory, and regulated anew. 
Care was taken, however, to observe equal altitudes of the sun on the 
days preceding and following any visible eclipse of the 1st satellite, when 
the weather would permit. May 20, in the morning, the clock was set 
up for the last time pretty near the mean time. It had no provision for 
preventing the irregularities arising from heat and cold, nor could I find 
leisure to apply any contrivance of this sort. This day I likewise put 
wires instead of hairs in the telescope of the equal-altitude instrument. 
Tlie ill state of my health would not permit me to sit up at nights to 
take equal altitudes of the stars. I was, therefore, obliged to content 
myself with those of the sun only.' 

*'It has been mentioned before that it was on Thursday afternoon, 
June 1, that Mr. Lnkena and myself arrived at Norriton, with a design 
to continue with Mr. Rittenhouse till the transit should be over. The 
prospect before us was very discouraging. That day and several pre- 
ceding had been generally overcast with clouds and frequent heavy 
rains, a thing not very common for so long a period at that season of the 
year in this part of America. But by one of those transitions which 
we often experience here, on Thursday evening the weather became per- 
fectly clear, and continued the day fi>llowing, as well as the day of the 
transit, in ench a state of serenity, splendor of sunshine, and purity of 
atmosphere that nut the least appearance of a cluud was to be seen. 
June 2 and the forenoon of June 3 were spent in making necessary 
preparations, such as examining and marking the foci of our several 
telescopes, particularly the reflector, with and without the micrometer. 
The reflector was also placed on a polar axis, and such supports con- 
trived for resisting the ends of the refractors as might give them a mo- 
tion as nearly parallel to the equator as such hasty preparations' would 
admit. Several diameters of the sun were taken, and the micrometer 
examined by such other methods as the shortness of the time would 
allow. The sun was so intensely bright on the day of the transit that, 
instead of using the colored glasses sent fi-oni England with the re- 
flector, I put on a deeply-smoked glass prepared by Mr. Lukens, which 
gave a much more beautiful, natural, and well-defined appearance of the 
Bun's disk. The smoked glass was fastened on the eye-tube with a 
little beeswax, and there wjis no occasion to change it the whole day, as 
there was not tho least cloud or intermission of the sun's splendor. 
Mr. Rittenhouse, in his previous projection, had made the first external 
contact to be June 3, 2 h. 11' for lat. 40° N., and long. 5'^ W. of Green- 
wich, on a supposition of the sun's parallitx being 8". He happened to 
be very near the truth, for at '.i'' 10'3:i", mean time, the fiist external 
contact was at Norriton, lat. 40° 9' 56" N., and long. S"" 1'31" West. 
Other calculations made it generally from C to 8' later for the latitude 
and longitude. Though this calculatiou was not given to be entirely 
dependedon.yetit was sufficient to make us keep what, in the sea phrase, 
would he called a good look-out ; and therefore at one o'clock we took 
off the micrometer, which had been fitted to the reflector with a power 
of 95, and adjusted it to distinct vision, with the sumo power to observe 
the contacts, and during thi* hour that was to intervene from one to two 
we resolved to keep an alternate watch tlirough the reflector on that half 
of the sun's limb where Venus was certainly expected totouch, while the 
uthera not thus employed were fixing what more remained to be done, 
as follows, viz. : First, That each uf us might the belter exercise our own 
judjiinent without being influenced or thrown into any agitation by the 

edged precision, and his reputation for exactness in 
all astronomical observations and calculations being 
duly credited in scientific and official circles in this 

others, it was agreed to transact everything by signals, and that one 

should not know what another was doing. The situation of the tele- 
scopes, the two refractors being at some distance without tho observa- 
tory, and the reflector within, favored this design. Secondly, two per- 
sons, Mr. Sellers, one of our committee, and Mr. Archibald McClean, 
both well accustomed to matters of this kind, were placed atone window 
of the observatory, to count the clock and take the signal from Mr. Ln- 
kens. Two of Mr. Rittenhonse's family, whom he had often employed 
to count the clock for him in his observations, were placed at another 
window to take his signal. My telescope was placed near the clock, 
and I was to count its beats and set down my own time. These prelim- 
inaries being settled, we prepared at two o'clock to sit down to our re- 
si>ective telescopes, or, I should rather say, lie down to the refractors, 
on account of the sun's greatheight. As there was a large concourse of 
the inhabitants of the county, and many from the city, we wore appre- 
hensive that our scheme for silence would be defeated by sume of them 
speaking when they should see any of the signals for the contacts, and 
therefore we found it necessary to tell them that the success of ourobser- 
vation would depend on their keeping a profound silence till the contacts 
were over. And, to do them justice, during the 12' that ensued there 
could not have been a more solemn pause of silence and expectation if 
each individual had been waiting for the sentence that was to give him 
life or death. So regular and quiet was the whole that, far from hear- 
ing a whisper or word spoken, I did not even hear the feet of tlie count, 
era who passed behind me from the windows to the clock, and was sur- 
prised, when I turned from my telescope to the clock, to find them all 
there before me, counting up their seconds to an even number, as 1 im- 
agined, froui the deep silence, that my associates had yet seen nothing 
of Venus. As the contacts are among the most essential articles rela- 
tive to this phenomenon, it is material, before we set down the times, to 
give a particular account of the manner in which they were observed 
and the circumstances attending them." 

Mr. Ititlenhouse^ a Account of the Contacts. — " At 2i» 11' 39" per clock, the 
Rev. Mr. Barton, of Lanca^^ter, who assisted me at the telescope, on re- 
ceiving my signal, as had been agreed, instantaneously communicated 
it to the counters at the window by waving a handkerchief, who, walk- 
ing softly to the clock, counting seconds as they went along, noted down 
their times separately, agreeing to the same second; and three seconds 
sooner than this, to tho best of my judgment, was the time when the 
least impression made by Venus on the sun's limb could be seen by my 
telescope. When the planet had advanced about one-third of its diam- 
eter on the Bun,as I was steadily viewing its progress, my sight was sud- 
denly attracted by a beam of light which broke through on that side of 
Venus yet off" the sun. Its figure was that of a broad-based pyramid, 
situated about 40 or 45 degrees on the limb of Venus, from a line passing 
through her centre and the sun's, and to the left hand of that line as 
seen through my telescope, which inverted. About the same time the 
sun's light began to spread round Venus on each side from the points 
where their limbs intei^ected each other. As Venus advanced the point 
of the pyramid still grew lower, its circular base wider,until it met the 
light which crept round from the points of intersection of the two limbs, 
80 that when half the planet appeared on the sun, the other half yet off 
the sun was entirely suriounded by a semicircular light, best defined on 
the side next to the body of Venus, which continually grew brighter till 
the time of the internal contact. Imagination caunot form anything 
more beautifully serene and quiet than was the air during the whole 
time, nor did I oversee the sun's limb more perfectly defined or more 
free from any tremulous motion, to which his great altitude undouht- 
odly contributed much. When the internal contact, as it is called.drew 
nigh, I foresaw that it would be very difficult to fix the time with any 
certainty, on account of the great breadth and brightness of the light 
which surrounded that part of Venus yet off the sun. After some con- 
sideration I r'esolved to judge as well as I could of the coincidence of the 
limbs, and accordingly gave the signal for the internal contact at 'l** 28' 
45" by the clock, and immediately began to count seconds, which any 
one who has been accustomed to it may do for a minute or two pretty 
near the truth. In this manner I counted no less than 1' 32" before the 
effect of the atmosphere of Venus on the sun's limb wholly disappeared, 
leaving that part of the limb as well defined as the rest. From this I 
concluded that I had given the internal contact too soon, and the times 
given by the other observers at Norriton confirm me in this opinion." 


country and in Europe, he was selected to report the 

difference of latitude and longitude between the 
*'Norriton Observiitory" and the State-House Square 
at Philadelphia, and harmonize the work with that 
of Mason and Dixon's Observatory at the soutli point 
of said city. 

** To thn American Philosophical Society, etc. : 

"Gkntlemen, — Agreeable to the appointment you made (at the request 
of the Astruuumer Ruyal), Mr. Lukens, Mr. Rilteuhouse, and myself, 
furnished with proper insirmuents, met at Norriton, early on Monday, 
July 2(1, for the above service, and took to our assistance two able and 
experienced surveyors, viz. : Mr. Archibald McClean and Mr. Jesso 
Lukens. ^ The first tiling we did was accurately to a^iceitain the varia- 
tiou of our compass, which we found 3° 8' by Mr. Ritteu house's meridian 
line. We then carefully measured our chain, and adjusted itto the exact 
standard of OG feet. In the execution of the work, whenever the in- 
Etruuient was duly set, each course was taken off and entered down sep- 
arately by three different peraons, who likewise kept separate accounts 
of all the distances, and superinteniled the stretching of every chain, 
and the leveling and plumbing it whenever there was any ascent or de- 
scent in the road. July 1th we tinished the survey, and Mr. McClean, 
Mr. Jesse Lukens, and myself then agreed to bring out the difference 
of latitude and departure separately on each cour^se and distance to four 
or five decimal places ; and theie was so great an agreement in this part 
of the work when executed th;it we had all tlie samo results to a few 
links, and the whole was at last brought to agree in every figure by 
comparing the few places whore there was any difference, which scarce 
ever went further than the last decimal place. Mr. McClean and Mr. 
Lukena took Ihe trouble to bring out their work by multiplying each 
distance by the natural sine of the course to tlie radius unity for the 
departure, and by the co-sine for the latitude. Mine was done by Rob- 
ertson's tables, and the following results obtained : 


Korthing. Southing. 



Chains, Links. 





Total Southing 1205.0648 


Total Easting. 


"Then N A, dif. of lat 1205 0048 

To A E, depart 861.8435 

As rad 

To tang, of E N A, the course 35° 14' 33".08 

of the 

And sine of 35° 14' 33".08 

To rad 

As 861. 8436 

Tu N B. the distance in a straight line = 
1476.2330 chains 




But the course of N E being 35° 14' 33"E., 

With respect only to N A, the magnetic fourth, add 
the variation 3° 8' 0" 

Which gives 38° 22' 33" E. 

for the course of N E with respect to N S, the true meridian. 

"So that the true course and distance from Norriton Observatory to 
Philadelphia Observatory in a straight line, N E, is S. 38° 22' 33" E. 
147G.2336 chains. 

"Then rad 10 

To co-sine of. 38*^ 22' 33" 9.S942913 

As N E 1476.2336 3.1b915ol 

To N S true diff. of lat 1157.3013 3.0634464 

And rad 10 

To sine of. 38° 22' 33" 9.7929G37 

As N E 1476.2336 3.1691551 

ToSE, true diff. of long 91G.4713 2 9621188 

"Thus we have — 

"Norriton Observatory from Philadelphia Observatory: 

Chains. Feet. 
North 1157.30 = 76381.8 =12'35".7 diff. of lat. 

West 916.47 = 60487.02 = 00' 52" of time = 13' diff. of longitude^ 
9'.95 of a great circle or geographical mile. 

"But the observatory in State-House Square, with respect to the 
fourth part of the city of Philadelphia (to which Messrs. Mason and Dixon 
refer their observation), is : 

Chains. Feet. 
N. 40.0685 = 2644.5 = 26".16diff. of lat. 
W. 28.7695 = 1898.8= 1".6 of time. 

"Therefore Norriton Observatory, with respect to the southernmost 
point of Philadelphia, is: 

Chains. Feet. 
North 1157.30 + 40.0685 =1197.3685 = 79,026.3 = 13' 01 ".86 diff. of lat 
West 916.47 + 28.7695= 945.2395 = 62,385.8 = 00' 53".6 of time. 

*' Hence by the above measurement and work we get Norriton Observa- 
tory 52" of time west of the observatory in the State-House Square, which 
is exactly what we got by that excellent element, the external contact of 
Mercury with the sun, Nov. 9, 1769. The internal contact gaveitsome- 
thing more, owing, no doubt, to the difference that will arise among ob- 
servers in determining the exact moment when the thread of light is 
completed ; and the mean of all our other observations gives the differ- 
ence of meridians between Norriton and Philadelphia only 4" of time 
more than the terrestrial measurement and the external contact of Mer- 
cury gave it, which may be taken as a very great degree of exactness 
for celestial observations, if we consider that the difference of meridians 
between the long-established observatories of Greenwich and Paris, as 
Mr. De La Lande writes, Nov. 18, 1762, was not then determined within 
20" of time ; fur he says, 'Some called it 9' 15", others 9' 40", hut that 
he himself commonly used 9' 20", though he could not tell from what- 
ubservations it was deduced.' And it may be needless to add that a 
short distance is as liable to the differences arising from the use of in- 
struments in celestial observations as a greater one. Nevertheless, if 
we apply the difference of meridians between Philadelphia and Norriton 
got by this nieasurement (viz., 52" instead of 56") to the Rev. Mr. 
Ewing's collection of Jupiter's satellites, rejecting those of the 2d sat., 
and also the immersions of May 5th, as too near the opposition, we shall 
get Philadelphia 5h.0'37" and Norriton 5h. 1' 29" west from Green- 
wich. This result is what ought to arise from a diminution of 4" of 
time in tlie difference of meridians by dividing that difference, and 
bringing the meridian 2" more west and the other 2" more east, and we 
ludieve future observations will confirm this as exceeding near the 

"The latitude of Norriton comes out by the meas- 
urement 25^^.09 less north, witli- respect to the south- 
ernmost point of the city of Philadelphia, than Mr. 
Rittenhouse's observations give it ; and if the latitude 
of that point of the city be taken, as fixed by Messrs. 
Mason and Dixon, at 39° 56' 29'' A, then the lat. of 
Norriton (neglecting fractions of seconds) will be 40° 
9' SV, instead of 40° 9' 5&'\ However, as both were 
fixed by celestial observations and experienced men. 



the small difference ought perhaps to be divided; and 
31 a mean be taken to reconcile it with the terrestrial 
measurements, the lat. of the south point of Philadel- 
phia would be 39° 56' 42", and that of Norriton 40° 
9' 43". But as Mr. Rittenhouse had only Sisson's 
two and a half feet quadrant, and Messrs. Mason and 
Dixon were furnished with a complete astronomical 
sector, and did their work to fix the lines of two prov- 
inces, it may be thought that their determination is 
most to be relied upon. Nevertheless, the whole dif- 
ference of 25" in the celestial arc is so inconsidera- 
ble as not to give 40 chains on the surface of the 
earth. All the results in the above work are got 
without any sensible error, by plain trigonometry, as 
the different arcs are so very small. In estimating the 
length of a degree to deduce the difference of latitude 
between the two observations, the spheroidal figure 
of the earth was taken into consideration, and the 
degree measured by Messrs. Mason and Dixon, in 
mean latitude 39° 12', — 363,771 feet, — was made the 
standard, which being lengthened in the ratio of 
59.7866 to 59.8035, gave 363,874 for a degree of the 
meridian in the mean latitude between Philadelphia 
and Norriton, which is only 103 feet more than the 
deg. in lat. 39° 12', and makes but a fraction of a 
second difference in the latitude, so that it might have 
been disregarded. With respect to seconds of time 
in longitude, no sensible difference can be obtained 
in the small difference of about 11 miles, whether we 
consider the earth as a sphere or spheroid. In bring- 
ing out the 52" of time diff. of long., a degree of the 
equator was taken in proportion to Messrs. Mason and 
Dixon's degree of the merid. in lat. 39". 12, in the ratio 
of 60 to 59.7866 (agreeable to Mr. Simspon's table), 
which gave 365,070 for a degree of the equator. By 
taking a degree of longitude as fixed at the middle 
point by Mr. Maskelyne in lat. 38° 7' 35", and saying 
astheco-sineof that lat. is to co-sine of mean latitude 
between Philadelphia and Norriton, so is the length of 
adegree of long, at the middle point (viz., 284,869.5 feet) 
to the length of a degree in mean lat. between Norri- 
ton and Philadelphia, the result was got 52". 13, being 
only thirteen hundredth parts of a second more." 

Philadelphia, Aug. 17, 1770, William Smith, Nor- 
riton Observatory, N. Latitude, 40° 9' 43". 

Note. — The true latitude and longitude of Phila- 
delphia we give from a compilation made by Prof. B. 
A. Gould for one of the numbers of " The American 
Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac." The data are 
determined for the observatories in each case (Inde- 
pendence Hall being here taken) : 

Philadelphia, N. Latitude, 39° 57' 7.5". (MS. 
communication from Prof. Kendall) : Longitude E. 
from Washington (U. S. Coast Survey) : 

m. 8. 

By 5 sets Eastern clock-signals . . 7 33.66 
By " Western " . . 33.60 

Mean 7 33.68 

The mean, by comparison with the 

next East station (Jersey City), is 7 33.64 

Hence the longitude in arc is 358° 6' 35.4" from 
Washington, and from Greenwich, 75° 9' 23.4".' 




Gold. — The precious metals have been found 
throughout Montgomery County, but in such small 
quantities that their occurrence is more of scientific 
interest than of any practical value. Gold occurs 
disseminated throughout the azoic rocks, the oldest 
rocks with which we are acquainted. It is also found 
in the sands of rivers or in alluvial deposits which 
have been formed by the weathering and disintegra- 
tion of the oldest formations. Southern Montgomery 
County, from Philadelphia as far north as Consho- 
hocken, is made up almost entirely of strata of the 
oldest rocks, but only traces of gold have been found, 

1 On July 5, 1773, the Right Honorable the Earl of Dartmouth, who 
waa at that time Colonial Secretary (he had succeeded Lord Hillebor^ 
ongh one year before) in the cabinet of George HI., wrote to the Deputy 
Governor of Pennsylvania (John Penn, the son of Richard Penn, who 
was the fifth child of William Penn by his second wife, Hannah Callow, 
hill) propounding certain " Heads of Enquiry relative to the present 
StHte and Condition"of Pennsylvania. The answers to these inquiries 
were transmitted to Lord Dartmouth under date of Jan. 30, 1775, Id 
the communication the following occurs: " The City of Philadelphia, sit, 
uated near the Conflux of Delaware and one of its chief Branches, the 
Schuylkill, is the most considerable Town in the Province, or indeed in 
North America. The State-House in this City lies in North Latitude, 
39^ 56' 53"; its Longitude from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, 
computed "West, 75° S' 45"; or, in time, 5 hours and 35 seconds. This 
Latitude and Longitude were both fi.xed by accurate astronomical Ob- 
servation at the Transit of Venus, 17G9." In the Journal of Mason and 
Dixon, November, 1763, we learn tliat these surveyors established aa 
observatory in the southern part of Philadelphia, in order to find the 
starting-point of the parallel which they were to run off. Their point 
of departure was*' the most Southern part of Philadelphia," which they 
ascertained to be the north wall of a house on Cedar Street, occupied by 
Thomas Plunistead and Joseph Huddle, and their observatory must have 
been immediately adjacent to this. The latitude of this point they de- 
termined to be 390 50' 29" nortii. In 1845, when the northeast corner- 
stone of Maryland could not be found (it had been undermined by a 
freshet, and was then taken and built into the chimney of a neighbor- 
ing farm-house), the Legislatures of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Dela- 
ware appointed a joint commission, who employed Col. Graham, of the 
United States Topographical Engineers, to review Mason and Dixou'a 
woi k so far as was requisite in order to restore the displaced corner. 
Col. Graham, in thecourseof his measurements, determined thelatituda 
of the Cedar Street observatory to be 39° 66' 37.4" north. This is 8.3" 
more than the latitude given by Mason and Dixon. If we add the dis- 
tance from Cedar Street to Chestnut Street, 2650 feet, we have for Inde- 
pendence Hal 1 latitude as determined by Mason and Dixon, 39° 56' 55" ; 
as determined by Col. Graham, 39° 57' 03". Tlie slight variation id 
these calculations is surpiising. That reported by Governor Penn may 
have beeu based upon data differing from those of the surveys of 1761 
and of Mason and Dixon. The greatest variation, however, is only 
about 1260 feet, or less than the fourth of a mile ; the least is only 2(K1 
feet. — Schar/^a HiHtorij of Philadtljthia. 


notwithstanding frequent reports of rich deposits 
being discovered. 

Dr. Charles M. Wetherill found traces of gold on 
the property of Mr. Yoder, in Franconia township, 
Montgomery Co. The gold was found in quartz- 
rock and in iron pyrites. In the sand and gravel 
thrown out while digging a well he found brilliant 
scales of gold. From an analysis he found that every 
hundred pounds, of gravel contained a quantity of 
gold worth twenty-six and one-half cents. 

A workman who had washed the sands of the 
Bhine in his native country for gold found in the 
gravel of the Delaware River at Bridesburg native 
gold in scales. The gold was extracted from the 
sands by mercury and purified. It was estimated 
that one man could wash from the Delaware sands 
from twenty-five to sixty cents' worth of gold per day. 
From aipaper on the "Natural Dissemination of 
Gold," by Messrs. Dubois and Eckfeldt, the following 
is taken : " There is a deposit of clay underneath the 
city of Philadelphia ten miles square, with an average 
depth of fifteen feet. The inquiry was started whether 
gold was diffused in this earthy bed. From the cellar 
of a new market- house in Market Street, near Eleventh 
Street, we dug out some clay at the depth of four- 
teen feet, where it could not have been an artificial 
deposit. The weight of one hundred and thirty 
grammes was dried and duly treated, and yielded one- 
eighth of a milligramme of gold, a very decided quan- 
tity on a fine assay balance. It was afterwards as- 
certained that the clay in its natural moisture loses 
about fifteen per cent, by drying, so that as it lies in 
the ground the clay contains one part in one million 
two hundred and twenty-four thousand. This ex- 
periment was repeated upon clay taken from a brick- 
yard in the suburbs of the city with nearly the same 
result. In order to calculate with some accuracy the 
value of this body of wealth we cut out blocks of the 
clay, and found that on an average a cubic foot as it 
lies in the ground weighs one hundred and twenty 
pounds, as near as may be, making the specific grav- 
ity 1.92. The assay gives seven-tenths of a grain — 
say three cents' worth — of gold to the cubic foot. As- 
suming the data already given, we get four thousand 
one hundred aud eighty millions of cubic feet of clay 
under our streets and houses, in which securely lies 
one hundred and twenty-six millions of dollars. 
And if, as is pretty certain, the corporate limits of 
the city would afl'ord eight times this bulk of clay, 
we have more gold than has yet (18G1) been brought, 
according to the statistics, from California and Aus- 
tralia. The gravel which underlies this auriferous 
clay is always richer than the clay above it in gold, 
hence if the gravel were assayed instead of the clay 
it would yield still more gold, but be of no practical 

Silver. — Silver generally occurs associated with 
lead ores. The rich Leadville deposits of Colorado 
are found in carbonate of lead, and in most of the 

richest mining districts of the West the silver is con- 
tained in either sulphide of lead or carbonate of lead. 
In Montgomery County only traces of silver have 
been found, associated with a sulphide of lead which 
is known as argentiferous galenite. This lead ore 
holding silver was found at the Ecton mine, Shan- 
nonville, Montgomery Co., about four miles from 
Norristowu. This mine has not been worked since 
the war. 

Several beautiful lead minerals, now quite rare, 
were found at this mine. 

Professor Geuth has assayed nearly all the lead ores 
holding silver in Pennsylvania. According to his 
assays, the lead ores from the Pequea mines in Lan- 
caster County contain more silver than any in the 
State. The Lancaster County ores will yield from 
two hundred aud fifty to three hundred ounces of the 
metal silver per ton of ore. 

The Wheatley lead-mines of Chester County have 
these silver-bearing lead ores, which when assayed 
yield from ten to forty ounces of silver per ton. At 
the Wheatley mines silver has been found in its 
native state, — that is, as the pure metal. It has not 
been found native in Montgomery County. The 
Ecton mine, Montgomery County, yields silver in 
such exceedingly small quantities that it would not 
pay to extract the metal ; when assayed, the ores yield 
only from five to ten ounces of silver per ton. 

Copper. — Copper occurs native and in a variety of 
ores. Tlie only place in the United States where it 
has been found native in great quantities is in North- 
ern Michigan, near Lake Superior. The Michigan 
mines are vertical veins, mostly in trap-rock which 
intersect the red sandstone. The Clifi" mine in that 
locality has yielded great quantities of native copper. 
Que large mass was quarried out forty feet long, six 
feet deep, and averaged six inches in thickness. This 
copper contains mixed with it about three-tenths per 
cent, of silver. Copper occurs in crystalline azoic 
rocks, such as gneiss, mica-schist, and in chloritic 
formations. It is also found in the new red sand- 
stone. In the oldest rocks, such as the schists and 
gneisses, it does not occur in veins, but in beds which 
are parallel to the strata in which it is found. It 
might be regarded as an accessory constituent in those 
rocks. You may find chalcopyrite and magnetic 
iron ore disseminated throughout the rock, but always 
conformable. Such deposits are called lenticular de- 
posits, and are found in Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina. These deposits are very deceptive ; in one bed 
you may find a good deposit of copper ore, and in the 
next bed you may find only a few crystals. Surface 
indications in these deposits are not reliable ; the best 
way is to sink a shaft and run adits in the direction 
of the ore. Deposits like these are supposed to have 
formed at the same time the gneiss-rock which holds 
them formed. 

The two carbonates of copper known under the 
names of azurite and malachite are surface ores, nnd 



are generally found near the top. These ores are 
probably altered from other ores of copper by the 
action of the carbonic acid in the air. Copper ores 
are often found as true veins in quartz. Such are the 
extensive deposits found in Montgomery County, 
which occur in quartz veins which have been depos- 
ited in fissures in the shale by means of infiltrating 
thermal waters. These ores occur in the new red 
sandstone and shale. 

Montgomery County Deposits of Copper. — In the vi- 
cinity of Shannonville, Montgomery Co., indications 
of copper ore were discovered many years ago. As 
early as the year 1800 it was known that copper ore 
occurred in this locality. It is not known with cer- 
tainty who first discovered the ore, or who it was 
that sunk the first shaft or dug the ore from this 
neighborhood. On the property known as the Weth- 
erill estate ore was first discovered by some teamsters; 
it was turned up with the mud by the wheels of the 
wagons. Stephen Girard became interested in these 
surface indications, and he had a shaft sunk, with 
the hope of obtaining rich ore in abundance. His 
efforts proved fruitless. Some ore was taken out as- 
sociated with lead ores, but copper was not found in 
payingquantities. Samuel Wetherill sunk shafts along 
the Perkiomen Creek near WetheriU's mill, but ore 
was not yet found in paying quantities. From time 
to time copper ore had been found in considerable 
quantities at Shannonville, along the creek which 
empties into the Perkiomen. Several parties became 
interested at different times in these deposits. At 
last the ore was found in such abundance, and the 
indications were so promising, that the attention of 
practical miners was directed to this locality. About 
the year 1829, John and Robert Rowe, who were 
English miners from the Cornwall mines, became 
interested in these mines and sunk shafts. They ob- 
tained copper ore of a good quality. The mines 
changed hands several times during the next twenty 
years. The Ecton mine was managed by the Ecton 
Consolidated Mining Company, who sunk a shaft two 
hundred and forty feet deep, and drove a few levels. 
The Perkiomen mine was managed by the Perkiomen 
Mining Association, who sunk a shaft over three 
hundred feet deep, and mined much more success- 
fully and extensively than the Ecton Company. 
They erected Cornish pumping-engines of great 
value, and were provided with all the necessary run- 
ning machinery. These two companies were finally 
bought out by a new company, known as the Perki- 
omen Consolidated Mining Company. They pur- 
chased the real estate, mines, machinery, and other 
property of the Perkiomen Mining Association for 
the sum of one hundred and nine thousand dollars; 
and they purchased the property of the Ecton Asso- 
ciation for one hundred and eleven thousand dollars. 
This new company carried on mining operations very 

It was a stock company. George Cadwalader, of 

Philadelphia, was president, and Samuel Wilcox, 
secretary. The directors were George Cadwalader, 
Charles Macalester, David Longenecker, of Lancaster, 
and Samuel F. Tracy and Horatio Allen, of New York. 
This company was organized in 1852, and they issued 
fifty thousand shares of stock ; the par value of each 
share was six dollars. At the Perkiomen shaft there 
was some valuable machinery, — a fifty-inch cylinder 
Cornish pumping-engine of one hundred horse-power ; 
at the Ecton shaft, a one hundred horse-power high- 
pressure pumping-engine, twenty and a half inch 
cylinder. Besides these pumping-engines there was 
a whim-engine at both of the mines. Powerful crushers 
were on the mine, and other machinery at the surface, 
such as tram-roads and wagons, capstans and shears, 
whims and whim-chains, pulley-stands, etc. The 
value of the machinery at the surface was thirty thou- 
sand two hundred and twelve dollars. The value of the 
underground machinery — plungers and drawing lifts, 
main-rods, bobs, ladders, bucket-rods, etc. — was about 
nine thousand eight hundred and forty-two dollars. 
The Perkiomen mine was situated on low ground near 
the creek, while the Ecton mine was situated on high 
ground about eighteen hundred feet distant. The 
method of mining was to sink shafts, and then to drive 
levels in the direction of the ore. When a bed of ore 
was reached it would be taken out, and this would 
leave an open chamber of rock known as a stope, 
which is shown on the map. Levels were generally 
driven out from the main shaft at distances of ten, 
twenty, thirty, forty, and fifty fathoms from the sur- 
face of the mine, so that there would be no danger of 
caving in. This would leave a distance of sixty feet 
between each level. 

After the main shaft of the Perkiomen mine had 
been sunk two hundred and forty feet, and the main 
shaft of the Ecton mine had reached a depth of three 
hundi-ed and thirty feet, it was determined to connect 
these two shafts by a level or tunnel which would be 
eighteen hundred feet in length. This level was af- 
terwards completed and the mines were connected 
under ground. The extent of these levels and shafts 
and the position of the slopes are shown on the map. 
The various depths of the levels from the surface and 
the depths of the shafts are marked in fathoms. In the 
Perkiomen mine, at the ten-fathom level the lode 
varies from one to fifteen feet in width, and is com- 
posed of gossan, quartz, malachite, and heavy spar; 
at the twenty-fathom level the lode varies from two 
to fifteen feet in width, and is composed of gossan, 
quartz, malachite, and heavy spar; at the twenty- 
fathom level the lode varies from two to fifteen feet 
in width, and is composed of gossan, quartz, malachite, 
chalcopyrite, and heavy spar; at the forty-fathom 
level the lode varies from four to twelve feet in width, 
and is composed of quartz, chalcopyrite, and heavy 
spar ; at the fifty-fathom level the lode varies from four 
to nine feet in width, and is composed of quartz, gos- 
san, heavy spar, malachite, and chalcopyrite. But 



few lodes or mineral Teins were found at the Ecton 
mine. The miners were Englishmen who had been 
brought over from the Cornwall mines in England. 
In 1852 about two hundred men were employed at the 
mines. The miners were not under a regular sa:lary by 
the week or month, but a number of them would club 
together and agree to extend a level or a stope so 
many feet for a certain sum. This method of work- 
ing sometimes proved profitable to the men, but occa- 
sionall}' they would be losers by the contract. The 
men went to work in the mines with candles in their 
hats, which is a rather primitive mode of illumination. 

One great difficulty they had to contend with was 
the water which accumulated in the shafts and inter- 
fered with their mining. The pumping-engines at 
both shafts were kept at work draining the mines. 
The farmers in the vicinity, also, were sorely tried, as 
their well3*(vere drained dry, and no water could be 
procured unless it was pumped from the mines. 
Charles M. Wheatley, who was manager in 1851, says 
"that all persons acquainted with mining opera- 
ions that have examined the workings at Perkiomen 
have expressed astonishment at the regularity, size, 
strength, and productiveness of the veins, and the 
high percentage of the copper ore obtained from 
them. The Perkiomen is the first regular copper lode 
opened in this country, and bears a true resemblance 
to the Cornish system." Professor H. D. Rogers, 
former State Geologist, in speaking of the mines, says, 
'"I hesitate not to declare that I entertain a very firm 
belief that your region is destined to become an im- 
portant mining district, and that the ores of lead and 
copper will return remunerative profits upon the ex- 
ercise of skill and prudence. The remarkable regu- 
larity and parallelism of the lodes is an excellent 
indication of their consistency. Another fact is the 
exceedingly well-defined character of these mineral 
lodes, which do not spread and lose themselves or 
their ores in the adjoining strata, but insulate them- 
selves from the rocks of the country by plainly-marked 
parallel walls, between which all the metallic ores of 
the region and associated gangue-stones are found. 
The veins are true and regular metalliferous lodes. 
A very important feature is the gradation in passing 
downwards from the outcrops of these veins. First 
we have only the vein-stones, the metals being weath- 
ered out or dissolved; then at a few fathoms below 
the surface we find mingled with these vein-stones 
those metallic ores of lead, copper, and zinc which 
are readily vaporized by heat; and deeper still the 
same vein-stones contain the sulphurets and other 
permanent ores of copper." There were no smelting- 
furnaces at the mines, and none of the copper ores 
were smelted in the neighborhood, but were sent to 
New York and Baltimore for reduction. The ore 
was first sent to Umpstead's Landing, at Green Tree, 
and then to Philadelphia by canal-boats, and from 
there to New York. 

The following table, taken from the annual report 

of the directors, shows the amount, percentage, and 
value of the ores mined : 

AUGUST, 1851, TO APRIL, 1S52. 

To Whom Sold. 

1851. 1 
Aug. 5.... Samuel F. Tracy.. 

Oct. 28... Snuiuel F. Tracy., 

Sept. 24.. Baltimore Copper Smelting 

Compauy j 75.'=' 

Baltimore Copper Smeltiugi i 


18.«ia I 
97. 2M 

Dec. 16.. Baltimore Copper Smeitiog 


Baltimore Copper Smelting 


Samuel F. Tracy.. 








23/^5^ 84.00 
lOjVol 30.00 



325 08 







During the year 1853 one hundred and forty-three 
tons were raised and sold for nine thousand nine hun- 
dred and eighty-nine dollars and thirty-nine cents. 

The principal copper ores and minerals which have 
been mined at this locality are chalcopyrite, covellite, 
cuprite, nielaconite, chrysocolla, libethenite, mala- 
chite, and azurite. The most abundant ores were 
chalcopyrite and malachite ; of these two ores of 
copper the sulphide was the more abundant. These 
ores of copper were mixed with an ore of zinc known 
as zincblende, or sulphide of zinc, which made the 
metallurgy of the ores more difficult and expensive. 
The ores were crushed and freed from zincblende by 
mechanical means as much as possible before ship- 

The mines were worked until the year 1858, when 
they were closed, — not enough ore was taken out to 
meet the running expenses. The shafts had been 
sunk much deeper, that of the Perkiomen mine being 
over four hundred and eighty feet in depth, while 
thatof the Ecton was oversix hundred feetdeep. The 
mines from the time they were opened until they were 
closed never paid the amount of money invested in 
them. Many interested in the mines were heavy 
losers. It is said that George Cadwalader, of Phila- 
delphia, who was president of the company in 1851, 
invested one hundred thousand dollars, and many 
others invested large sums in the enterprise. It 
seems to be the general opinion that the mines were 
managed extravagantly and without prudence, and 
that there were too many needless officers drawing 
high salaries. In 18G5 a quantity of refuse ore was 
worked at a profit by C. M. Wheatley, of Phosnix- 
ville, and Capt. Cocking, of Cornwall, England. The 
property is now owned by Richard Ricard, of New 
York, who purchased it for forty thousand dollars. 
The shafts are now full of water, and the machinery 
and buildings are in a state of decay. 



Copper ore has been found and mined in Upper 
Salford township. Tliis vein of copper ore is found 
on Abraham Kober's farm, situated on the Ridge 
road, about four and a half miles west of Tylersport, 
and in the vicinity of Sumneytown. The ore was 
first discovered on the surface in a small outcrop, and 
these surface indications led to further developments. 
Excavations were immediately begun, and at a depth 
of fifteen feet a vein eight inches in thickness was 
discovered. The farm was afterwards leased by Mr. 
Samuel Milligan, of Phoenixville, who set a force of 
men digging deeper, and finally a rich vein of ore 
was reached, which at the beginning was only an 
inch in thickness, but which increased in width until 
a thickness of three feet was reached, when the rock 
was cleared away for several feet. About four tons 
of copper ore were taken out. The ore is found asso- 
ciated with quartz, which is characteristic of some 
copper deposits. It occurs in the new red sandstone 
belt. The ore appears to be chalcopyrite, or copper 
pyrites, which is a sulphide of copper and iron, 
CujS -\- FejSj, containing when pure 34.6 copper, 
30.5 iron, and sulphur 34.9 ; color, brass-yellow, 
often iridescent. The other ore is bornite, which 
varies in color from brown to copper-red, but is 
mostly tarnished to purplish color. This ore is purer 
than chalcopyrite, but is also a sulphide of copper 
and iron, SCu^S -)- Fe,S3. It contains when pure 
copper 55.58, iron lt>.37, and sulphur 28.05. This is 
a valuable copper ore. Mr. William F. Dannehower 
informs me that native copper was also taken from 
this mine. The mine was finally abandoned, as the 
process of mining was expensive, and ore in paying 
quantities was not found after a depth of thirty feet 
was reached. Mining operations were first begun in 
Upper Salford in 1878, and the mine was abandoned 
in 1880. The ore taken from this mine was of a very 
good quality, but it does not exist in paying quanti- 

The next locality in the county where copper was 
found is about one and a half miles below Norris- 
town, along the line of the new Pennsylvania Schuyl- 
kill Valley Railroad. This very small deposit was 
found in the limestone belt, and was thrown out 
by a dynamite blast. It is unusual to find copper in 
limestone deposits. From an examination of the 
specimens I found them to be chalcopyrite, with very 
thin coatings of malachite. There is, however, no 
regular vein in this locality, but the mineral is dis- 
seminated through a vein of quartz which runs 
through bastard marble in the limestone. So far it 
has been found only in very small quantities. 

Tin. — Tin is generally found in rocks of the oldest 
formations, and very often in the same rocks and 
gravels in which gold is found. The Cornwall mines 
in England are the richest and most valuable in the 
world. But little tin has been found as yet in the 
United States. ' 

It is interesting to observe that this exceedingly 

rare metal is found in its native state of purity in the 
gravel of Franconia township, Montgomery Co. It 
occurs in the same gravel in which scales of native 
gold were found. The largest pieces of tin were found 
adhering to the gravel and forming a rounded mass 
of a white malleable metal, which was analyzed and 
found to be pure tin. By panning more spangles of 
native tin were obtained. Tin was first noticed in 
the county by Dr. C. M. Wetherill. 

These slight traces are the only instances on record 
of the occurrence of tin in Pennsylvania. 

Iron Ores. — The principal ores of iron are mag- 
netic oxide, known as magnetite ; red hematite, also 
called specular ore ; brown hematite, known under the 
name of limonite ; spathic iron ore, known as sider- 
ite ; titanic iron ore, which contains titanium ; and 
chromic iron ore, which contains chromium. Among 
the ores of iron might be included iron pyrites, a 
compound of iron and sulphur, which is quite worth- 
less for the manufacture of iron on account of the 
sulphur it contains. 

Magnetic Ikon Ore, FEjO,. — The purest and 
most important ore of iron is magnetite. Pure mag- 
netite is a combination of ferric and ferrous oxides, 
and is represented by the formula FcjO,. It contains 
when pure 72.4 per cent, of iron and 27.6 per cent, of 
oxygen. It is seldom found free from impurities, 
some of which influence its value as a source of iron. 
The minerals generally found with magnetite are 
feldspar, hornblende, quartz, sahlite, and apatite. 
This ore is strongly magnetic, attracting soft iron 
and the magnetic needle, and many masses of this 
ore are true native magnets, and from this interesting 
fact the ore derives its name. It occurs in crystals, 
the usual form being the octahedron ; it also occurs 
in dodecahedral crystals. The hardness is 5.5, and 
the specific gravity about 5. The color is iron-black, 
and the lustre metallic. 

The magnetic ores are found in the oldest rocks in 
the Huronian and Laurentian formations. The ore 
occurs in beds, which are often parallel, and they 
generally coincide with the inclination and direction 
of the crystalline strata between which they lie. They 
are generally found in beds of gneiss, schist, or in 
other granitic rocks that have been metamorphosed 
by heat. These ores are supposed to have reached 
their positions between layers of granitic rocks while 
they were in a melted state, their intrusion being due 
to a force which ruptured the earth's crust in the di- 
rection of the strata and pressed the liquid ore and 
other fused mineral matters into the open fissures. 
The way these ores are mined when the dip is not 
steep is to leave numerous solid pillars of ore stand- 
ing to prop up the rock and act as a support, and 
then remove by blasting the ore which intervenes. 
Another supposition in regard to these ores is that 
they were once hematite ores, and have taken up an 
extra supply of oxygen and been altered by heat into 
magnetite. Beds of magnetic ore are searched i'ur 



by means of the magnetic compass. Whenever the 
compass is in the vicinity of a bed of magnetite the 
needle exhibits a strong disturbance. This, together 
with a geological clue and an inspection of the dip 
and direction of the adjoining gneiss, are necessary 
data for finding the outcrop of the ore. 

This ore is largely developed through Canada 
westward to Lake Huron. Extensive beds occur in 
New York, and a locality at Lake Champlain fur- 
nishes many puddling-furnaces in this State with 
large blocks of crystallized magnetite. It is found 
in some of the New England States, and in the 
mountainous districts of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey. The world-renowned Swedish ore, which is 
so pure, is massive magnetite. No very important 
deposits of magnetic ore are found in Montgomery 
County. Fine octahedral crystals are found at the 
soapstone-quarries near Lafayette, and on the oppo- 
site side of the river, near the abandoned soapstone- 
quarry, I have noticed quite perfect crystals of the 
same form. In many of the creeks and brooks of 
the county, and in the Schuylkill River sometimes, is 
found a black sand which is composed mainly of fine 
particles of magnetite. Crystals are found at Chest- 
nut Hill. Although no large beds are found in the 
county, yet at Boyertown, which is but a few miles 
from the county line, several mines of magnetic ore 
are worked. These mines have been worked for 
many years, both by shaft and slope ; some of the 
veins are over twenty feet in thickness. The ore 
contains a high percentage of sulphur, and is roasted 
before using; many blast-furnaces in the county use 
the Boyertown ore. There are mines of magnetic 
ore at Lebanon, Reading, and on an island in the 
river near Reading. These mines contain impor- 
tant and valuable deposits of magnetite. 

Magnetic ore is indispensable in puddling opera- 
tions to burn the carbon out of the pig-iron. The large 
blocks of crystallized magnetite are arranged by the 
puddlers, who term the process " building the fur- 
nace." The Lake Champlain ore is used by many 
puddling-furnaces in this county. It is more diflicult 
to melt than the hematites, but is purer and richer 
in iron. The following analyses were made by Dr. 
Koenig, of the University of Pennsylvania, and 
show the composition of Lake Champlain magnetic 
ore : 

New Bfd Mine. 

Magnetic oxide of iron 98. "20 coiitaios 71.11 per cent, of iron. 

Phosphate of lime 104 contains .0208 pho8i)horus. 

Titanium oxide 46 

Silica, chlorite, etc 1.04 

Old Bed Mine, ViOOftet below New Bed Mine. 

Magnetic oxide of iron 97.00 contains 70,24 per cent, of iron. 

Phosphate of lime 383 contains .076 phosphorus. 

Titjiniuir oxide 250 

Silica, chlorite, etc 2.45 


The following analyses are of Boyertown magnetic 
ore, furnished by the Pottstown Iron Company, phos- 
phorus and sulphur not estimated : 

(1) (2) 

Iron 46.36 40.159 

Silica 11.90 9.09 

Alumina 5.22 15.173 

Lime 8.37 7.529 

Magnesia 1.18 Trace. 

Browx Hematite, 2FeX>3, — This wide- 
spread ore of iron occurs massive, and often occurs in 
botryoidal, stalactitic, fibrous, and radiating masses. 
The color varies from dark-brown to ochre-yellow; 
very often specimens have a black, lustrous appear- 
ance on the surface and are perfectly smooth, and 
sometimes they show a silky lustre ; this is noticeable 
in the fibrous varieties, which are often called fibrous 
hematite. The massive varieties have an earthy or 
clayey lustre. This ore contains when pure 85.6 
per cent, of Fefi^ (oxide of iron) and 14.4 per 
cent, of water ; this would be equivalent to about 
59.92 per cent, of metallic iron. Whenever brown 
hematite is heated in a glass tube it will give ofi" 
water, which will form in drops on the side of the 
tube. This fact distinguishes it from magnetic iron 
ore and red hematite, neither of which contain any 
water. Another peculiarity of this ore is it always 
contains phosphoric acid and manganese, besides the 
clay and sand which generally accompany it. It is 
much softer than the other iron ores ; its hardness is 
5 to 5.5, specific gravity 3.6 to 4. The stalactitic and 
botryoidal forms which it frequently assumes are 
characteristic, and serve to distinguish it from other 
ores of iron. It melts more readily in a blast-furnace 
than either of the preceding ores. Brown hematite is 
also known under the name of limonite. Brown ochre 
and yellow ochre are varieties of this ore ; they are 
clayej' and ochreous. Bog-iron ore occurs in swamps, 
bogs, and in low grounds. It is a porous, earthy ore, 
of a brownish-black color. It is supposed that this 
ore was deposited from water which was charged with 
iron in solution, and when exposed to oxidation by 
air and the reducing action of decomposing organic 
matter, it was thrown down in layers and formed 
bog-iron ore. When brown hematite occurs stalac- 
titic it forms what is commonly known as pipe-ore; 
the ore looks like a collection of little pipes, which 
sometimes are hollow ; sometimes it forms hollow 
spherical masses, commonly known as pot or bomb- 
shell ore. These hollow bombs often contain water 
or masses of soft clay. The interior often presents a 
varnish-like appearance which is quite lustrous ; this 
is due to a fine coating of oxide of which 
covers the ore. This ore generally occurs in pieces, 
which have to be separated from the clay and quartz 
by washing. Brown hematite is a common ore in 
Montgomery County, and many thousand tons of this 
ore have been taken out. The ore occurs in the lime- 
stone belt from Edge Hill westward to the Chester 
County line. It is found in extensive deposits of clay. 
It is said the first ore ever dug in this valley east of 
the Schuylkill was near Spring Mill, on the farm of 
J. Kirkner; this was in the year 1828. 

From Hitner's mine, near Marble Hall, immense 



quantities of ore have been taken. In the year 1853 
about twelve thousand tons were taken from this 

It is estimated that from the time iron ore was first 
mined in the county up to the year 1858, over sixty 
thousand tons of brown liematite ore were taken from 
the ore-pits which are situated in the limestone belt 
on the east side of the Schuylkill. The iron-ore belt 
begins in the neighborhood of Edge Hill and Oreland. 
In this vicinity there are quite a number of iron-ore 
pits, which furnish large quantities of ore ; many of the 
pits have been exhausted, but new ones are constantly 
started. The ore from this locality is a highly sili- 
cious brown hematite; the silica varies from 10 to 30 
per cent., and the average percentageof silica in these 
ores is about 24 per cent., which is high. These ores 
contain phosphorus; the percentage of this injurious 
impurity varies in different ores, but the average 
Edge Hill ore contains from .18 to .3 per cent, phos- 
phorus. The percentage of metallic iron in the ores 
of Edge Hill and vicinity varies from 35 to 50 per 
",eut. The following analysis will give an idea of the 
composition of the Edge Hill ores. This brown 
hematite is known as the Harvey ore, taken from 
Oreland : 

Silica 27.16 

Iron «.91 

Alumina 40 

Phospiiorua 25 

Lime and magnesia Traces. 

The extensive blast-furnace at Edge Hill uses this 
ore; they enrich on magnetic ore from Spain, which 
contains only .025 per cent, of phosphorus, and they 
also use a foreign hematite of great purity. This 
Edge Hill ore contains so much silica that a lime- 
stone must be used to flux the ore, which is as free as 
possible from silica. The next important deposits of 
hematite are in the vicinity of Marble Hall, and 
are owned by Daniel O. Hitner. The pits in this 
neighborhood have been worked for a great many 
years, and have furnished thousands of tons of 
ore. The mines at the present time are furnishing 
an excellent quality of ore, which is screened before 
using at Mr. Fulton's blast-furnace, in Coushohocken. 
This ore does not seem to contain as much phos- 
phorus as the ore from the extreme eastern part of 
the iron-ore belt. It is highly silicious, like the Edge 
Hill ores, and contains a high percentage of iron. 
The following analysis is of ore from Hitner's pit, 
above Marble Hall : 

Silica. 20.00 

Iron 45.00 

Pliosphorus 10 

Lime ami magnesia Traces. 

The next neighborhood in the limestone valley 
where brown hematite is dug is at Tracey's iron-ore 
pit. This locality is about one mile east of Consho- 
hocken. The ore was first dug there in 1860, and from 
that time until the present a great deal of ore has 
Deen taken out. There is one large open pit where 
the ore was formerly dug, which shows the rude way 

in which the ore was mined in former times. Shafts 
are now sunk vertically, and when a deposit of ore is 
found the opening is made in the direction in which 
the ore extends. The shaft is five feet square gener- 
ally, and sometimes extends down in a vertical direc- 
tion for one hundred feet, and then levels are driven 
in the direction of the ore. The ore, clay, etc., are 
drawn from the bottom of the shaft in buckets, which 
are attached to a windlass. There are two or three 
shafts at this deposit, one of which is ninety feet deep. 
They strike water ab a depth of about one hundred 
feet. This deposit yields about two thousand five 
hundred tons of ore per year. Hallman's mine ad- 
joins Tracey's and has not been worked quite as ex- 
tensively. It also is worked by shafts, one of which 
is over eighty-seven feet deep. They strike water 
sooner at this mine. As high iis sixteen hundred 
tons of ore per year have been taken from this mine. 
Neither of these two deposits are being worked exten- 
sively at present. The ores are brown hematites of 
good quality, which are screened before using. 

Red hematite is found here also, but not in such 
large quantities. In an adjoining field a new bed of 
ore has been opened, and is worked by Mr. Hitner. 
The next deposit of iron ore is between Potts' Land- 
ing and Harmanville. On Mr. Freedley's property, 
near Potts' Landing, a new mine was opened in Au- 
gust, 1883. The ore is found a few feet from the sur- 
face in the clay ; about two hundred and fifty tons of 
ore have been dug from this deposit during August 
and September. The ore is brown hematite, and is 
shipped to the Pottstown blast-furnaces. It is mixed 
with clay to a considerable extent, and has to be 
screened before using. An iron-ore mine was opened 
on the property of William Wills, situated near 
Ridge Road Station, on the Plymouth Railroad. Ore 
was dug here in 1872, and the mines were bought by 
the Phcenix Iron Company, who went to consider- 
able expense in erecting machinery and engines. It 
seems that the project was not a paying- one, and 
finally the machinery and engines were abandoned. 
In 1880 the mines were again worked. This ends 
the principal localities where ore is dug east of the 
Schuylkill River. West of the Schuylkill River, in 
Upper Merion township, are extensive deposits of 
brown hematite, which were worked years ago. Be- 
tween Henderson Station and Gulf Mills there are 
many abandoned ore- pits, which show the direction of 
the iron-ore belt. A short distance from Henderson's 
marble-quarries ore was mined quite extensively. 
Engines, washers, and screens were used, as the ore 
was mixed with a large amount of clay. It was 
screened and washed before it was sent to the blast- 
furnaces. Many of these pits are neglected, and some 
are exhausted. The amount of hematite ore dug in 
Upper Merion township at the present time is very 
small when compared with what was dug in former 
years. Throughout tlie Jlontgomery County limestone 
valley we find extensive deposits of clay, and ;t is in 



these deposits of clay that the brown hematite ore 
occurs. lu fact, nearly all the beds which have been 
worked thus far occur in this clay. The deposits in the 
neighborhood of Marble Hall, Potts' Landing, and 
Gulf Mills are found in clay. Another noticeable fact 
is that both the clays and iron ores are generally found 
in the vicinity of the quartzose mica-schists or the 
slates. These rocks contain quartz, mica, and oxide 
of iron. They are especially rich in o.xide of iron 
(hematite), often containing as high as nine per cent. 
It is supposed that the iron-ore deposits and clay-beds 
have resulted from the decomposition of these mica- 
schists and mica-slates. This is extremely probable, 
because these hydro-mica schists and slates contain 
not only oxide of iron, but also hydro-mica, which 
contains the very elements clay is composed of, 
namely, silica, alumina, and potash. These schists and 
slates are generally of a grayish tint, and of a some- 
what silky lustre ; sometimes they are colored red by 
ferric oxide. They have an unctuous, soapy feel ; on 
exposure to weather they soon decompose, and are 
converted into a soft, unctuous clay. 

All of these slates contain free silica or sand, 
hence when these mica-slates decompose they yield 
clay, brown hematite, or oxide of iron, and free silica, 
or sand. Another fact which goes far to prove that 
this is the true origin of the ores and clays, is that 
near many of the clay deposits we find a pure white 
sand, composed of very fine grains, although some- 
times the sand has a faint brown or red tint. This 
sand bears no resemblance whatever to the new red 
sandstone, as it is often perfectly white, and is made 
up of exceedingly fine particles of silica, containing 
no admixture of feldspar. This is exactly the same 
kind of sand or free silica which these mica-slates 
contain, and it is extremely probable that these de- 
posits of fine white sand found near the clay have re- 
sulted from the rotting and decomposing of the slates. 
This fine sand cannot be melted, and it is mined and 
shipped to the iron-works, where it is used when a 
substance that will stand a high heat without melting 
is required; its principal use is to line puddling- fur- 
naces and heating-furnaces. I noticed a deposit of 
the sand back of Potts' marble-quarries; it is near 
the mica-slates, and is shipped to the furnaces at Con- 
shohocken. A deposit is also found at Lynch's clay- 
beds on the Ridge road. I have been informed that, 
on Mr. Freedley's property, near Potts' Landing, in 
the vicinity of the mica-.slates, a bed of this sand was 
worked. It will be noticed that these deposits are in 
the vicinity of mica-slates. 

Red Hematite, FcjOj. — -This important ore of iron 
is named from its red color. When pure it is ferric 
oxide, Fe^Oj, and contains seventy per cent, of iron 
and thirty per cent, of oxygen. It crystallizes in the 
hexagonal system, and the crystals are often thin and 
tabular. It also occurs massive, granular, foliated, 
micaceous, and sometimes botryoidal and stalactitic. 
It is of about the same hardness as magnetite, 5.5 to 

6.5, and its specific gravity is from 4.5 to 5.3. There 
are several varieties of red hematite. 

Specular iron is a variety of red hematite which has 
a highly brilliant lustre, showing the Spiegel or mir- 
ror ; color, dark steel-gray or iron-black ; composi- 
tion, FcoOs ; lustre, metallic. Notwithstanding the 
steel-gray color of this ore, when it is reduced to 
a powder the color of it is red. When specular iron 
has a foliated structure it is called micaceous iron. 
The finest specimens of crystallized specular ore 
come from the island of Elba. Red ochre and red 
chalk containing clay are varieties of red hematite. 
The fossil ores are the most interesting of red hema- 
tites. There are extensive deposits of fossil ore in 
Tioga, Bradford, Blair, Huntingdon, Juniata, and 
other counties in Pennsylvania. This ore is red, and 
is made of masses of little shells or bivalves, which 
are plainly visible, and the middle bed of this ore 
contains remains of fishes, which are visible in the 
ore. This bed is known as the fish-bed, and the ore 
is ground and used for paint. 

These shells are supposed to have lived in a mud 
which contained an abundance of iron in some form, 
and when they died the organic matter decomposed 
and set up a galvanic action, which precipitated the 
iron on the shells. The organic matter may have re- 
duced and precipitated the iron from solution. This 
ore occurs in layers, and is mined like a coal-bed. 
The deposits are generally thin, varying from a few 
inches to three feet or more in thickness, and run in a 
zigzag style for over one hundred miles. These ores 
contain sulphur and rather a high percentage of phos- 
phorus. Red hematite occurs both in the crystalline 
and stratified rocks, and is of all ages. The most ex- 
tensive beds, however, occur in the oldest rocks, while 
the clayey varieties occur in stratified rocks. It is 
found in the new red and also the old red sandstone, 
and is found also in the limestone belt near Consho- 
hocken. In Montgomery County red hematite has 
been found in several localities in the iron-ore belt. 
At Edge Hill, where the iron-ore belt begins in 
Montgomery County, a variety containing titanium 
oxide has been found. It has also been found at the 
Perkiomen copper-mine, near Shannonville, Mont- 
gomery Co. ; the variety found here is micaceous. Oa 
the road from Jarrettown to Camp Hill, in Upper Dub- 
lin township, I found several large blocks of an impure 
micaceous hematite mixed with an iron-black strati- 
fied rock. The ore has never been found here in 
large quantities, but these surfoce indications warrant 
further investigation. At Tracey's mine, near Con- 
shohocken, which is described under brown hematite, 
I noticed considerable red hematite interspersed with 
brown hematite, which had been thrown out. Mr. 
Hallman, whose mine adjoins this one, informed me 
that quite a considerable quantity had been taken 
from his mine. The samples secured were massive 
and compact, and of a bright red color all over. Tlie 
red sandstone which covers the northern and central 



jiortions of Montgomery County owes its color to the 
j)resence of red hematite. The red soils which are 
prevalent in many localities in the county contain a 
small amount of red hematite, which gives them their 
color, although in many cases, where the soil is de- 
rived from red shale, the percentage of hematite is 
considerable. The red shales of the county contain 
quite a high percentage of red hematite. Along the 
Stony Creek Railroad from Norristown to Lansdale 
are found beds of red shale, alternating with sand- 
stone. At Belfry and Acorn Stations particularly the 
district is very shaly. I secured a sample of shale on 
this road near Norristown, and found on analysis that 
ityielded ten per cent, of red hematite. In case of any 
scarcity of ore perhajjs these shales could be utilized. 
Red ochre has been found in the iron-ore pits which 
are south of Henderson's marble-quarry, in Upper 
Merion township, and red hematite associated with 
brown hematite is also noticed there. 

Impurities. — -The impurities in iron ores are those 
substances which tend to deteriorate or render unfit 
for use the iron made from the ore. The impurities 
often found in iron ores are phosphorus, sulphur, tita- 
nium oxide, copper, and zinc, all of which are injuri- 
ous constituents. Phosphorus is the worst impurity 
we have to deal with and the most difficult to elimi- 
nate. A high percentage of phosphorus in iron 
produces, and makes both iron and 
steel exceedingly brittle. A pencil of cold-short iron 
containing one per cent, of phosphorus is so brittle that 
it will readily snap in pieces when dropped on a piece 
of metal. In the manufacture of steel, ores free from 
phosphorus must be used, as .030 of one per cent, 
phosphorus is the maximum amount allowed in a 
good steel. It is on this account that such large 
quantities of ore are shipped to this country from 
Spain, Africa, and Sweden, — these foreign ores con- 
taining but little phosphorus. Sulphur produces red- 
shortness in iron when heated to a red heat, and the 
iron has a tendency to crumble when passed through 
the rollers. Much of the sulphur in ores can be 
gotten rid of by roasting, and much is eliminated in 
the blast-furnace by the use of a basic slag like lime. 
Titanium oxide generally goes into the slag ; five or 
six per cent, of this impurity makes a very tough 
blue slag. It is apparently of no value to iron ores, 
notwithstanding the fact that for a while there was 
great excitement about titanium steel made from ores 
containing titanium oxide. The titanium oxide does 
not alloy with the iron but goes into the slag, as the 
oxide is not reduced to titanium very readily. There 
seems to be a difference of opinion about copper as an 
impurity. The Bessemer Steel-Works at Bethlehem 
prefer a magnetic ore from Lebanon which contains a 
considerable percentage of copper; but the Midvale 
Steel-Works at Nicetown prefer foreign ores free 
from copper. It is known that arsenic, antimony, 
and tin make iron cold-short and brittle; they act 
like phosphorus and are very injurious impurities. 

Sometimes iron ores contain vanadium and tungsten. 
These elements go into the slag a.nd color it ; they are 
not injurious, but make slags of a high fusing-point. 
Clay and sand are not regarded as impurities, as they 
go into the slag. The following analyses of Mont- 
gomery County ores, kindly furnished by the Potts- 
town Iron Company, and the analysis of African ore 
made by myself, are given for comparison : 








McGuire Ore, 

Edge Hill. 



I .263 








41 319 


20 40 



f .027 

{ .028 

1 .029 




Graphite. — Graphite, or plumbago, is one of the 
numerous forms of carbon. It is sometimes called 
black-lead, but this name is apt to mislead, as no lead 
enters into its composition. It is sometimes found 
crystallized in flat hexagonal tables, but usually oc- 
curs in black scales or flakes. Sometimes it occurs as a 
fine powder, which in the earth looks very much like 
black mud. It is very soft, and the scales can be 
readily cut with a knife. It has a soft, soapy feel, 
very much like soapstone ; color, iron-black to dark 
steel-gray ; lustre, metallic. Fire has very little 
effect on it, as it is infusible. It is rarely found pure, 
and when found thus consists entirely of pure car- 
bon. When mined it generally occurs mechanically 
mixed with mica-schist, quartz, clay, oxide of iron, 
and other earthy impurities. These impurities can 
be separated from graphite by washing. As graphite 
is very light and the earthy impurities heavy, the 
graphite floats away in the water, leaving the im- 
purities behind. No mention is made in the most 
recent geological survey of Montgomery County of 
the occurrence of this valuable mineral in the county. 
I have found several localities in the county where 
there are indications of this mineral ; I have also 
found two extensive deposits of it. In an abandoned 
iron-ore pit near Henderson's Station, near the Chester 
Valley Railroad, there occurs a deposit of graphite. 

In that locality the graphite is found as an impal- 
pable powder, which in rainy weather comes oozing 
out from the sides of the pit, resembling very much 
a deposit of black mud. One side of the pit for a 
distance of seventy-five feet is stained black by the 
graphite. Wishing to know whether the deposit ex- 
tended beyond the pit or whether it was simply a 
pocket, I determined to dig about twenty feet distant 
from the pit where there was no exposure. On clear- 
ing away the soil to a depth of about two feet tlie 
graphite was exposed, thus showing that the deposit 



extended for some distance, and was very near the sur- 
face. I made an analysis of a surface sample which 
was mostly made up of earthy impurities ; it is prob- 
able if a sample were secured at a much greater 
depth that it would contain more graphite. The 
analysis gave the following result : Carbon, 7.50 per 
cent., the residue consisted of mica, oxide of iron, 
silica, and clay. Graphite in this form can be readily 
washed. Workmen from the neighboring quarries 
have used this material as a mineral paint in their 
houses, not knowing the nature of it. Another de- 
posit occurs in a field near Henderson Station, at 
about the junction of the small strip of Potsdam 
sandstone marked on the map and the limestone. 
This deposit is not visible, as it is covered with from 
four to six feet of soil ; it seems to cover almost the 
entire field. 

On digging,in ditferent parts of the field, graphite 
would always be found at a depth of a few feet. This 
deposit seems to be of the nature of a bed, and is 
mixed with sand, oxide of iron, and mica ; it occurs as 
a fine powder, and has a very soapy feel. The surface 
deposit of this bed is not pure. It is not known to what 
depth the bed extends ; it does not seem to extend 
beyond this field. At Henderson's marble-quarry, 
about two and a half miles from Bridgeport, theVe is 
a beautiful vein of highly crystalline black marble, 
susceptible of a high polish. This vein is on the 
south side of the quarry, and is said to be very pure, 
analyzing ninety-eight per cent, of carbonate of lime. 
It is very interesting to observe that this marble is 
colored black by graphite. I found, on dissolving the 
marble in hydrochloric acid, that very small specks 
of graphite were left as a residue. All the black 
marble in this vicinity owes its color to graphite. 
I found traces of graphite between Bridgeport and 
King of Prussia, in the small belt of Potsdam sand- 
stone marked on the geological map. On James 
Coulston's farm, near Chestnut Hill, in an iron-ore 
pit, graphite occurs. Several tons of it were thrown 
out. It is an impure variety, occurring in small 
scales and mixed with earthy impurities. 

The purest graphite is used in the manufacture of 
graphite pencils, commonly called lead-pencils. When 
it is in the form of a very fine powder, free from grit, 
it is mixed with oil, and makes a most excellent lubri- 
cator. Being very soft, its hardness only 2, there is 
no friction worth mentioning with the machinery. 
Hessian crucibles were formerly used in melting steel, 
but would soon melt away; now graphite crucibles 
are made from clay and graphite. They will stand 
several heats or fusions and very high temperatures 
without melting. Graphite is also used in the manu- 
facture of stove-polish and shoe-blacking. Rich de- 
posits of this mineral are valuable. 

Coal. — In the triassic formation, commonly known 

as the new red sandstone, small veins of coal from 

one to two inches in thickness have been found in 

several localities in Montgomery County. No large 


workable veins have been discovered; only these ex- 
ceedingly small deposits are found in the new red 
sandstone, although in Virginia, near Richmond, and 
in the Deep River Region in North Carolina, in the 
same formation of new red sandstone that we find in 
Montgomery County, there are thick beds of good 
mineral coal. The triassic coals are exceedingly in- 
teresting from a geological stand-point, because they 
occur in more recent formations than the coals of the 
carboniferous period, and are of an earlier age. In 
Norristown, on Elm Street, near the Stony Creek Rail- 
road, a vein of coal was found about one inch thick 
in the new red sandstone; the vein extended only a 
few feet, and was not very wide. It was found during 
the grading of the sfreet, about twelve feet below the 
surface. I secured samples of this coal for Professor 
Genth, of the University of Pennsylvania, and found 
in the sandstone the stem of a fossil plant. This coal 
was of a deep black color, with a somewhat pitchy ap- 
pearance, was very brittle, with conchoidal fracture, 
and seemed to burn very well. 

At Gwynedd, in Montgomery County, in the same 
formation, is found a bed of carbonaceous shale col- 
ored black by traces of coal which it contains, and 
it is also said to contain vegetable remains. CoL, 
Bean mentions a vein of coal found in Lower Prov^ 
dence township, Montgomery Co., about one-half of 
a mile west of the Trooper. This vein, like the 
others, was found in the new red sandstone ; it was 
from two to three inches in thickness and from eigh- 
teen to twenty inches in length. During the summer 
of 1883 hands working upon the new tunnel near 
Phoenixville discovered a two-inch vein of coal in the 
sandstone. These triassic coals yield volatile mat- 
ters, which burn with a non-luminous flame, but they 
have not the slightest tendency to form a coherent 
coke. They contain sometimes as high as seventy- 
four per cent, of fixed carbon, eighteen per cent, of 
volatile matter, and about two per cent, of ash. 

Lignite. — Lignite, or brown coal, as it is sometimes 
called, has not been perfectly formed ; the lamellar or 
woody structure can be seen distinctly. In composi- 
tion it is more like wood than true coal. It yields a 
powdery coke in the form of the original lumps. It 
is brittle, burns easily, and often contains from thirty 
to forty per cent, of water. It is of recent geological 
origin, and was evidently not formed like true coal. 
Dr. Leidy mentions it as being found on Plymouth 
Creek near Norristown. 

Fossils and Organic Remains.— Fossils are found 
in stratified rocks, such as sandstones, limestones, and 
slates. These rocks were evidently in a soft state at 
one time, like the sand, mud, and gravel which form 
many of our river-beds, and they were also covered 
with water. Corals, crinoids, shells, and other organ- 
isms lived in these seas, and when they died their re- 
mains became imbedded in the soft mud and sand 
which formed the bottom of these seas and oceans. 
In the course of time, under the influence of press- 



ure and other forces, the mud and sand were con- 
verted into stratified rocks, and it is in these rocks, 
which have at one time been ancient ocean-beds, that 
we find fossils. Tlie highest mountains have been at 
one time the ocean's bottom, for even their peaks con- 
tain fossils. On the Himalayas at the height of nearly 
three miles organic remains are found. 

In Montgomery County there are very extensive de- 
posits of igneous rocks, such as granites, gneisses, 
mica-schists, and syenites, and in rocks of this nature 
fossils are not found, because they are igneous rocks; 
and their structure shows that they have at one time 
been subjected to an intense heat, and it may be they 
were in a molten state, so that any traces of organic 
life that might have existed would be destroyed. The 
red shale and sandstone formations are the only strata 
in which organic remains are found in this county. 
This rock covers the upper and middle portions of 
the county, and although but few fossils have been 
found, yet these remains are very interesting and in- 
structive. The reptilian relics found in Montgomery 
County are the teeth and bones of large lizard-like 
animals which lived in the ancient seas. These re- 
mains have been found at the Phcenixville tunnel, 
Montgomery County. Specimens of coprolite have 
also been found imbedded in the same rock. The 
vertebral bones of these large lizard-like reptiles are 
slightly concave, or hollowed out, at their articulating 
surfaces. Mr. Lea has named this reptile the Chp- 
sisaunis Pennsyhanicus. 

Remains of fishes have been found in this tunnel 
which belong to the order known as ganoids. These 
are fishes which have a cartilaginous skeleton, and 
are covered with enameled scales or with bony plates. 
The sturgeons and gar-pikes are living representa- 
tives of this order. Batrachian remains, such as 
bones and teeth, are found in this locality. But few 
fossil plants have been found in the new red sand- 
stone in this county. Specimens of coniferous wood, 
either petrified or having the nature of coal, and still 
retaining the woody structure, have been found. 
This is termed lignite, and is mentioned by Dr. Leidy 
as being found on Plymouth Creek near Norristown. 
When the small coal vein was found at Norristown, on 
Elm Street, near the Stony Creek Railroad, I secured 
a piece of sandstone from the bottom of the vein, 
which bore the imprint of a fossil plant. Near 
Gwynedd is found a bed of carbonaceous shale which 
is said to contain vegetable remains. The oldest 
fossil yet discovered in Pennsylvania is the Scolithus 
linearis. This fossil is found in the Potsdam sand- 
stone at Edge Hill, and in the vicinity of Willow 
Grove and Rubicam Station. " It consists of a 
straight, cylindrical, stem-like impression in the 
sandstone, usually smooth, but sometimes grooved 
transversely to its axis. Its diameter varies from 
one-eighth to a half an inch, and its length from a 
few inches to two or three feet. Its position in the- 
rock is perpendicular to the bedding, and from this 

fact many think that the impression was produced by 
the boring of a marine worm. The end of the fossil 
terminates in a head, which is always found at the 
upper surface of the sandstone enclosing it. The im- 
pression looks like a large pin. These fossils are 
very abundant in the Potsdam sandstone in Mont- 
gomery County." 

Bone Cave of Port Kennedy. — The following 
account of the cave is taken from the American Journal 
of Science and Arts, vol. i. 1871, p. 235 : 


" Before the discovery of remains in the Port Ken- 
nedy Cave nearly the whole of the walls had been 
removed in quarrying. A tooth of a mastodon hav- 
ing been found by one of the workmen. Dr. Quick, 
of Phamixville, showed it to Mr. Charles Wheatley, 
and these two gentlemen immediately visited the cave 
and commenced the search for remains. They found 
one end of the cave still remaining, and having the 
form in transverse section shown by the figure. The 
width at the top is about twenty feet ; below it grad- 
ually expands to thirty feet, and then there is a 
rapid contraction downward until, at a depth of about 
forty feet, it is ten feet wide. The whole of the space 
above this level is filled with the debris of the ad- 
joining mesozoic red shale, with occasional angular 
fragments of auroral limestone, without any trace 
of organic remains. Where the cave narrows to ten 
feet the floor is composed entirely of a black clay 
eighteen inches thick, filled with leaves, stems, and 
seed-vessels of post-tertiary plants. Scattered all 
through this mass of vegetable remains, and also in 
a red tough clay underneath for six to eight inches 
in depth, are found the fossils. The vertebrate remains 
are as follows (taken from the proceedingsof the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society for April 7, 1871, where 
Professor Cope describes the remains so far identified) : 

" Mammalia. — Megalonij.v loxodon, Cope ; M. Wlieat- 
leiji, C. ; M. dissimilis, Leidy ; M. sphenodon, C. ; M. 



tortiUvt, C. ; Mylodon (?) Harlani, Owen ; Sdurus caly- 
cinus, C. ; Jacnlus (?) Hudsonius, Zimm. ; Hesperomys, 
Waterhouse; Arvicola speolhen,C.; A. ielradelta, C; 
A. didelta, C. ; A. involuta, C. ; A. sigmoides, C. ; A. 
hiaiidem, C. ; Erethizon chacinum, C. ; Lepus sylvaf- 
icus, Bachm.; Praotherium palatinum, C. ; Scalops ; 
Verpertilio (?)/ Mastodon A7nericanm,C\iv.; Tapirus 
Americanus, Auct. ; T. Haysii, Leidy ; Eqiius ; Bos; 
Uritis pristinm, Leidy ; Canis (?) ; Felis. 

" Aves. — Meleagris ; Scolopax. 

"Jlepfilia.— Crotahis (I); Coluber {1) ; Tropidonotus 
(?); Cistudo (•>) ; Emysl'!). 

" Batrachia. — Rana (?). 

"Dr. Horn has examined the insects, and gives a 
preliminary list of the coleoptera, as follows (orthop- 
tera were also found) : 

"Carabidce. — Cychrus Wfieafkyi; C. minor ; Cymindis 
aurora; Chlttnius punctatissimus ; Pterostichus Iwviya- 
tus ; Pt. longipennis ; Dicmlus alutaceus. 

" ScarabaeidiE. — Aphodius scuteHaris; A. micans; Pha- 
nceus antiquus; Coprk punctulatus. 

" Jlisterida'. — Saprimis (?) ebeninus. 

"The remains of mylodon, ursus, and tapirus have 
been mostly obtained from the tough red clay di- 
rectly under the plant-bed, but the remains of rodents, 
snakes, tortoises, birds, plants, and insects are mostly 
confined to the plant-bed." 

Minerals. — Minerals and fossils seldom occur to- 
gether, because many minerals are the result of fusion 
which would burn out any traces of organic remains, 
but occasionally remains of plants are preserved in 
rocks which contain minerals ; for example, mica-schist 
sometimes contains a mineral called made and the fos- 
sils orthis and spiriferes, but in this case the mica-schist 
is not an ancient igneous rock, but is of sedimentary 
origin, and has been formed of rocks of recent origin 
which contain fossils. Many minerals in nature have 
crystallized out of water which held them in solu- 
tion at a high temperature. Of recent years science 
has so imitated nature that many minerals are made 
artificially by fusion, and by the action of water at 
a high temperature. Marble has been made from 
limestone experimentally. A Frenchman, operating 
with the aid of water at a temperature of from one 
hundred and thirty to three hundred degrees centi- 
grade, succeeded in producing in a crystallized state 
the principal minerals found in metallic veins, among 
others quartz, spathic iron, carbonates of manganese 
and zinc, heavy spar, sulphide of antimony, mispickel, 
and red silver. He also produced some of the copper 
minerals found at Shannonville in the same way. 
Facts like these show how nature has formed these 
metallic veins. In France, during the last century, 
nearly all the mineral species have been reproduced 
artificially by various methods. When fusion was 
resorted to the apparatus was simple, consisting of a 
furnace, heated by a blow-pipe, supplied with illu- 
minating gas, and driven by a blast. The substances 
to be fused were put in platinum crucibles encased 

in fire-clay. Not only were minerals formed, but 
also lavas and trap-rocks. All attempts to make rocks 
containing quartz, feldspar, and mica, or hornblende 
(such as granite and syenite), by fusion, proved un- 

Montgomery County contains a variety of minerals. 
But few specimens are found in the new red sandstone, 
except in the localities where metallic veins of copper 
are found. Here we not only find copper minerals 
but ores of zinc and lead. The copper-mines near 
Shannonville have yielded many mineral species, 
such as copper, mispickel, iron pyrites, covellite, 
cuprite, melaconite, hematite, quartz, chrysocolla, 
breunnerite, libethenite, malachite, copper pyrites, 
azurite, wulfenite, galenite, zincblende, calamine, 
pyromorphite, anglesite, cerussite. These species 
were found when the mines were in operation, and 
even at the present time many of them can be secured. 
At the copper-mine in Upper Salford township native 
copper and several copper minerals are found. At 
Henderson's marble-quarry, near Bridgeport, graphite 
and crystals of dolomite which are finely striated are 
found, and occasionally small pieces of malachite. 
At Conshohocken, quartz, flint, chalcedony, chlori- 
toid, and cacoxenite are found; at Bullock's quarry, 
fibrolite, calcite, and occasionally a small seam of iron 
pyrites are found. At O'Brien's quarry beautiful 
crystals of calcite, sometimes oearly transparent, are 
found. At the iron-ore mines near Conshohocken 
the hematite is sometimes coated with a manganese 
mineral called pyrolusite. Edge Hill furnishes speci- 
mens of hematite, braunite, pyrolusite, turgite, and 
gcethite. The soapstone-quarries at Lafayette have 
yielded many mineral species. The following copper 
minerals have been found there, bornite and chalcopy- 
rite. Iron minerals found there are magnetite, pyrrho- 
tite, and titanium iron ore. The silicates found there 
are asbestos, hornblende, garnet, zoisite, albite, talc, 
serpentine, staurolite, jefferisite, enstatite. The sul- 
phates found there are epsoraite and calcanthite. 
Phosphate of lime (apatite) and carbonate of lime 
and magnesia (dolomite) are found. 

On the other side of the river, at the abandoned 
soapstone-quarry, talc, asbestos, and very fine octa- 
hedral crystals of magnetite are found. At Hitner's 
marble-quarry calcite, strontianite, dolomite, heavy 
spar, and iron pyrites are found. 

Quartz. — Quartz is known under the names of 
silica, silex, sand, silicic acid, flint, etc. It crystal- 
lizes in the hexagonal system, mostly in the form of 
hexagonal prisms, terminated with hexagonal pyra- 
mids. It is one of the hardest of minerals, the point 
of a knife-blade or edge of a file making no im- 
pression on it. The highest heat of a furnace will 
not melt it ; the common acids have no action on 
it. It readily scratches glass. Its hardness is 7. 
Quartz occurs of various colors,— white, brown, yellow, 
blue, gray, green, black, violet, and often color- 
less. These colors are generally due to some mineral 



oxide whicb the quartz has taken up. The lustre is 
vitreous, the fracture is conchoidal and uneven. The 
composition of quartz when pure is silicic acid = Sioj. 
The mineral quartz occurs in many varieties. Rock 
crystal, smoky quartz, milky quartz, aventurine 
quartz, ferruginous quartz, and amethyst are the 
crystallized varieties. Chalcedony, carnelian, prase, 
agate, flint, hornstone, jasper, and opal are the 
varieties of quartz which do not exhibit a crystalline 
structure. The colorless variety known as rock crys- 
tal is found in many localities. I have noticed very 
fine crystals on Eastburn's Hill, Bridgeport. They 
have been found in abundance here, but the best 
specimens have been secured. Very large crystals, 
having a pyramid on each end, have been found at 
King of Prussia, and from this place to the Schuyl- 
kill River very fine crystals are found. I have no- 
ticed a peculiar variety of quartz crystals in Shain- 
line's marble-quarry, near Bridgeport. The crystals 
are three-quarters of an inch long, and taper from the 
base to the apex of the crystal. Quartz crystals are 
found in the limestone-quarries near by. Aventurine 
quartz has been found in Conshohocken. Ferruginous 
quartz, colored brown, red, or yellow by oxide of iron, 
I have noticed in the vicinity of Bridgeport. Chal- 
cedony has often been found as a coating on other 
rocks near Conshohocken and Bridgeport. The arrow- 
heads found in many localities are generally com- 
posed of jasper. There is a valuable deposit of sand 
near Valley Forge, which is used as a lining or covering 
for the bottom of the heating-furnaces in the pipe- 
mill, Reading, Pa. Most linings would not stand the 
heat of these furnaces, but this sand is infusible. I 
was requested to examine it, and found on analysis 
that it is composed of fine grains of very pure quartz, 
free from iron, and not a trace of feldspar or any mate- 
rial that would flux with it was found. 

Quartz is one of the most abundant minerals in 
nature, and the most common constituent of rocks. 
The granites and gneisses, which are composed of 
quartz, feldspar, and mica, often contain as high as 
forty per cent, of quartz. The mica-schists, garnetifer- 
ous schists, syenites, and granitic rocks, which com- 
prise the southern end of Montgomery County, from 
Philadelphia to the limestone belt, are made up to 
a great extent of quartz. Mica-schist contains from 
forty to seventy per cent, of quartz, and sometimes a 
still higher percentage of quartz is found in certain 
varieties; the other constituent is mica. The large 
belt of new red sandstone which is found north of 
the Montgomery County line stone belt, extending 
from the Delaware River as far westward as Valley 
Forge, is made up almost entirely of quartz colored 
red by oxide of iron. While existing in rocks abun- 
dantly as quartz, it also makes, on an average, a third 
of many other minerals ; that is, it is chemically com- 
bined with other substances making various common 
minerals. These minerals are known as silicates. 
Of recent years quartz has a new use in tlie arts : 

when found pure and white and free from impurities 
it is mined and made into sand-paper, and is used as 
a polisher of metals softer than steel. It has been 
mined at Bridgeport and Valley Forge for this pur- 
pose. The purest rock crystals are made into lenses. 
Amethysts of fine quality are used in jewelry. 

Suilding Stones of the County. — The best and 
most desirable building stones are those which are 
compact and yet can be readily cut into any desired 
shape. The stone must not be soluble in water, or 
must not be acted on or altered by the impurities 
which are found in the atmosphere. Building stones 
which meet the above requirements are exceedingly 
lasting. The most durable building stones now 
employed are granite, gneiss, basalt, porphyry, ser- 
pentine and compact sandstones. All of these 
rocks are highly silicious, and but little acted on 
by the weather. The hardness of the first four of 
these rocks is so great that it is diflicult to dress 
them, but even this obstacle does not prevent their 
general use. Besides the silicious building stones we 
have the calcareous stones, which are carbonate of 
lime principally. The difiierent colored varieties of 
marble and limestone come under this class ; they are 
much softer than the silicious stones. Of late years 
granite is much used, especially for public buildings ; 
the Masonic Temple and the new post-office building 
at Philadelphia are built of a variety of granite. The 
granites have been employed for too short a time as a 
building stone to measure approximately its rate of 
weathering. The feldspar in granite begins to weather 
first, while the quartz and mica are not so readily at- 
tacked. It has been found that a polished surface of 
granite will weather more rapidly than a rough one, 
but the decay of a polished granite surface is not ap- 
parent after exposure for twenty years or more ; 
there is no doubt but that the polish will finally dis- 
appear and the surface roughen when the weather 
begins to act on the crystals of feldspar. The pol- 
ished columns and surftices of granite, syenite, etc., 
in the new Public Buildings at Philadelphia will fur- 
nish points of observation for the future study of the 
weathering qualities of these stones. 

We have extensive beds of syenite and granitic 
rocks in Montgomery County, which have been little 
used as yet for building stones. They are very hard 
and compact, and are not the fine-grade building 
stone. The new red sandstone, which covers the 
greater portion of Montgomery County, is much used 
as a building stone, and nearly all the stone houses 
in the upper portion of the county are built of this 
rock. The finest silicious sandstones are more durable 
than granite. The best varieties are those which are 
nearly a pure, fine, silicious sand, as free as possible 
from iron or lime. Sandstones are composed of grains 
of sand, which are bound together by a cement. This 
cement, or matrix, may be clay, lime, oxide of iron, 
feldspar, or even gelatinous silica. The grains of 
sand in sandstone are not affected by weathering, but 



it is the weathering of the cement which binds the 
grains that causes sandstones to crumble. If the 
cement be at all soluble in water then the weather- 
ing commences. When a sandstone is composed of 
thin layers or planes of stratification, then it is very 
apt to split up along these planes under the action of 
the weather. This fact is well known to builders, who 
are always careful to lay the stone on its bed. The 
Potsdam sandstone, which is found in Moreland, 
Upper Dublin, Springfield, White Marsh, and Plym- 
outh townships, is a fine-grained white or gray sand- 
stone, with scales of a light-colored mica. It occurs 
in narrow belts, and is composed of thin layers as 
mentioned above. This fact unfits it for a good build- 
ing stone, and it is used but very little. It is the 
new red sandstone which is in such general use as a 
building stone in this county, particularly in the 
country. Quarries of this stone are worked in nearly 
every township in the northern and central portions 
of the county. In some localities the stone is white, 
and makes a beautiful building stone. This white 
stone is extensively quarried on Main Street, near 
the ea.stern limits of Xorristown. The red and the 
white sandstones are found in these quarries; the 
lower strata are white and the upper red, with an 
occasional layer of red shale. The white contains a 
pink feldspar and scales of a pearly mica, and is 
free from iron. This stone makes a very handsome 
building stone, and is much used. Although it con- 
tains the constituents of granite, it is not granite, 
but sandstone with a matrix of feldspar. Stone of 
the same nature is found in Bridgeport. In the 
northern part of Upper Dublin township there is a 
sandstone containing a feldspar, which weathers rap- 
idly and soon disintegrates. One of the best stones 
for bridge-building and foundations and heavy ma- 
sonry of all kinds is extensively quarried at Consho- 
hocken, on both sides of the river. The West Con- 
shohocken quarries were worked sixteen years ago, 
and now they daily average over one hundred tons 
of rock for shipment. The rock is blasted out in 
huge pieces, which are cut by steam drills, and after- 
wai-ds dressed. The shipment of stone from this 
quarry on Sept. 6, 1883, was one hundred and seventy- 
seven tons. Boyd, Stintson & O'Brien's quarry, in 
EastConshohocken, yields the same kind of stone, and 
is a continuation of the strata. This rock is a tough 
quartzose mica-schist, composed of quartz and mica 
mostly, and extends from the county line, in the 
southern portion of Upper Jlerion township, across 
the Schuylkill in a narrow belt and extends into 
White Marsh township. The handsome new railroad 
bridge across the Wissahickon was built of this Con- 
shohocken stone. The blasting at these quarries is 
done by dynamite. 

The most important building stone Montgomery 
County furnishes is marble. The many valuable 
marble-quarries in the county are described under 
limestone in the geology. Hitner's, Potts', Hender- 

son's, and Derr's marble-quarries are the principal 
ones in the county, and they furnish not only the 
county with marble but also Philadelphia. Nearly 
all the marble used in Philadelphia, with the excep- 
tion of the imported, is brought from these quarries. 
It is used principally in building. The handsome 
county court-house at Norristown is built of Mont- 
gomery County marble, and many handsome private 
residences are built of like marble. Notwithstanding 
the general use of marble as a building stone, it is more 
acted on by the weather than any stone in general use 
in large cities. When marble is used for building pur- 
poses it has, at first, a fine polished surface ; exposure 
of two years in a large city sufiices to remove this 
polish, and to give the surface a rough granular char- 
acter. The grains which have been bruised in pol- 
ishing are first attacked, and soon drop out of the 
stone. If the marble be not cared for it soon be- 
comes covered with a dirty crust, beneath which the 
stone seems to be a mass of loose, crumbling calcite 
granules. When this crust is broken the decay is 
rapid. The crust varies from the thickness of writ- 
ing paper to a millimetre, and is of a dirty gray or 
brownish-black color. When examined under the 
microscope it is found to consist of particles of coal 
and soot, grains of quartz sand, fragments of red 
brick or tile, and organic fibres, which are held to- 
gether by an amorphous cement of sulphate of lime. 
This decay and disintegration of marble in large 
cities is due to several causes. The most active de- 
stroyer is rain-water containing carbonic acid gas, 
which dissolves marble. Eain-water always con- 
tains carbonic acid, and in large cities, where com- 
bustion produces an extra amount of this gas, 
rain-water will have an extra amount in solution. 
When rain falls on marble it begins to dissolve very 
slowly, and the grains of marble lose their cohe- 
sion. Marble exposed to rain always weathers more 
rapidly than marble that is sheltered. Another very 
active destroying agent is the sulphuric acid that is 
always present in the air of cities where much coal 
is burned. All coal contains sulphur, mostly in the 
form of iron pyrites, and when it is burnt it is con- 
verted finally on oxidation into sulphuric acid. This 
acid is extremely corrosive. Sulphuric acid is present 
in the air in a considerable quantity in large cities, 
where thousands of chimneys and furnaces send forth 
their smoke. It acts on marble by dissolving it and 
forming sulphate of lime, which is the cement which 
binds the dirty outer crust together. Marble in the 
country, free from this destroyer, lasts much longer. 
The marble columns of the Philadelphia Mint had 
become so corroded and rotten that they were recently 
replaced by granite columns. The marble columns 
of the Custom-House show plainly the action of 
the weather. It is very evident that white marble 
in large cities is utterly unsuited for out-of-door use, 
and its employment for works of art which are meant 
to stand in the open air ought to be strenuously re- 



sisted. The tombstones in our graveyards are con- 
structed of white saccliaroid Italian marble. They 
are generally destroyed in less tlian a century, and 
very often the inscription becomes illegible inside of 
forty years. A walk through the cemeteries will show 
many examples. Granite and syenite are much used 
of late years. 

Soils. — Soil is formed by tlie decomposition and 
erosion of the underlying rocky strata. It is always 
mixed more or less with vegetable mould and decom- 
posing woody fibre which have resulted from the crops. 
When rocks under the soil are exposed, so that air, as 
well as moisture, has free access to them, they become 
changed, and begin to decompose and crumble to 
sand or clayey earth, and begin to form soil. Gneiss 
and mica-schist are very durable rocks, and yet much 
of the gneiss and mica-schist has undergone altera- 
tion, so that in some localities it has rotted down and 
decomposed so as to form soil of earth or gravel to 
the depth of one hundred feet, and in the tropical 
regions soils of much greater depth have been formed 
by the wearing away of rocky masses. It must not 
be supposed that this erosion is the work of a few 
years; centuries rather have elapsed before these rocky 
masses have been worn down and decomposed. Gran- 
ite is an enduring rock, and granite hills, it might be 
supposed, would last forever, and yet when the oxygen 
and moisture commence their work, and the heat of 
summer and the frost of winter lend a helping hand, 
the erosion begins, and the hillsides and plains below 
derive their soil from the constituents of the granite. 

Sandstone rock, in which the grains are cemented 
together by clay or some other binding material, also 
gradually wears away, and the grains of sand do their 
part in forming soils. The enormous beds and clifts 
of limestone also suffer erosion and form a soil un- 
surpassed for fertility. Limestone is readily worn 
away by water containing free carbonic acid gas, in 
which limestone is slightly soluble ; pure water has 
no action on limestone, but when rain-water derives 
carbonic acid gas from the atmosphere and other 
sources, then its action on limestone begins, and it will 
begin its dissolution, however slow it may be. It 
must not be supposed that air and moisture are the 
only agents at work on the rocks to form soils. Frost 
and ice are actively engaged year after year in splitting 
and breaking up rocks. When the crevices in a rock 
become filled with water and the water freezes, the 
tendency is to split the rock into fragments which in 
course of time form soil ; porous rocks, such as sand- 
stones, loose shales and schists, which readily absorb 
water, are often broken apart when the water con- 
geals, so that fresh surfaces are exposed to weather- 

Heat also in a quiet way does its work in form- 
ing soil, — it hastens any chemical change which 
the rock may undergo, tending to its decomposition. 
During the day the rocks are exposed to the rays 
of the sun and become heated and expand; towards 

evening when it becomes cool they contract, and 
this alternate expansion and contraction has a tend- 
ency to loosen the grains of rock, and often splits 
off an outer layer when the rock has become weath- 
ered and softened. All of the above agencies are 
active in forming soils ; the action may be slow, yet 
it is none the less sure. Thus we see how soils are 
formed, and how they derive their mineral constitu- 
ents from the rocks. The vegetable matter of soils 
is derived from the decay of plant life which the soil 
has nourished. On the Western prairies the grass 
grows luxuriantly and then rots, and the next spring 
a new crop grows. This growth and decay has been 
going on for years, and every year furnishes the soil a 
supply of vegetable matter, until in many places the 
soil is twenty feet deep and of great richness and fer- 
tility. The vegetable matter in soil generally colors 
it black, which is due to the carbon it contains. The 
soil of the prairies is of a dark color. The Eastern 
soils which are cultivated yearly are being exhausted 
of vegetable mould, and its place is supplied by barn- 
yard manure. 

Why are some soils fertile and others barren 7 All 
grains and vegetables require for their growth certain 
mineral elements in the soil; when these elements are 
absent the plants cannot grow, but will wither and 
die ; but when the soil contains an abundance of tliese 
mineral substances, and in a soluble form so that the 
plants can feed on them, then the soil is fertile and 
will yield abundant crops. What mineral constitu- 
ents of soils are necessary to plants? All plants cul- 
tivated as food require for their healthy growth the 
alkalies, potash and ammonia, and the alkaline earths, 
lime and magnesia, each in a certain proportion. In 
addition to these, cereals or grains cannot attain a 
healthy growth unless silica is present in a soluble 
form suitable for assimilation. But of all the ele- 
ments furnished to plants by the soil, and offering 
nourishment of the richest kind, phosphate of lime 
and the alkaline phosphates generally are the most 
important. A field in which phosphate of lime or 
the alkaline phosphates form no part of the soil is 
totally incapable of raising grains, peas, or beans. 
Wheat especially cannot flourish without phosphates 
in the soil. We find these phosphates in the kernels 
of wheat and in the hulls surrounding the kernels. 
Nearly all vegetables contain phosphates to a greater 
or less degree, and scarcely any plants are wholly 
without them ; and parts of plants which ex- 
perience has taught us are the most nutritious con- 
tain the largest proportion of phosphates ; for example, 
seeds, grain, and especially the varieties of bread- 
corn, peas, beans, and lentils. And if we incinerate 
these and analyze the ashes we can dissolve the alka- 
line phosphates with water, and there will remain 
in the ashes the insoluble phosphates of lime and 
magnesia which are essential to the plant. The phos- 
phates are as necessary to man as to the plants, and a 
deficiency of them in the blood is accompanied al- 



■ways with some form of debility or nervous pros- 
tration. They are much used in medicine. If we 
analyze the ashes of blood we will find phosphate of 
soda and potash present, and also the insoluble pho.s- 
phates of lime and magnesia, the very salts we find 
in wheat, etc. Hence we are brought to the conclu- 
sion that no seed suitable to become food for man or 
animals can be formed in any plant without the pres- 
ence and co-operation of the phosphates, and man 
derives his supply of this nourishing element from 
plants he uses for food. The cereal.9 require the alka- 
lies, potash and ammonia, and in addition the sili- 
cates of potash and soda; these silicates are derived 
from the rock which in a fine state of subdivision forms 
the soil. When the rock decomposes it yields these 
silicates of potash and soda, which are soluble in 
water and which are taken up by the plant. 

Some soils»contain silicates which are decomposed 
so easily that in every two years enough silicate 
or potash is set free to furnish nourishment for the 
leaves and straw of a crop of wheat. In Hungary 
there are extensive districts where wheat and tobacco 
are grown alternately on the same soil for centuries, 
and both of these plants rob the soil of immense 
quantities of potash, tobacco particularly; about 
twenty-five per cent, of the ashes of tobacco are 
composed of potash. But districts like this are the 
exception. In Virginia the tobacco-growing soils 
are exhausted, because tobacco cannot grow in a soil 
unless there is a plentiful supply of potash, and all 
the potash of these soils has been withdrawn. Silica, 
so necessary to wheat, is not required by potatoes or 
turnips, since these crops do not abstract a particle of 
silica. From what source does the soil derive its sup- 
ply of potash for the nourishment of plant-life? and 
what rocks contain potash ? The soil derives its 
supply of potash from minerals, such as feldspars 
and micas principally, and from many other silicates. 
The rocks containing potash are granite, gneiss, 
syenite, mica-schist, trap rock, mica-slate, and many 
others; in fact, nearly all micaceous and feldspathic 
rocks contain this important element. The feldspars 
contain potash, soda, and lime, combined with alumina 
and silicic acid. 

There are several varieties of feldspar,- — orthoclase, 
in which potash predominates ; albite, in which soda 
predominates; anorthite, having a base of lime ; and 
oligoclase and Labradorite, having bases of soda and 
lime. The above bases are always combined with 
silica and alumina, and form what are known as sili- 
cates. The variety known as orthoclase contains 
often as high as fifteen per cent, of potash ; a pure 
orthoclase will yield silica, 64.20; alumina, 18.40; 
potash, 16.95. Thus we see that these feldspars con- 
tain the very elements that the crops feed on ; but 
these elements are in an insoluble form, and are 
bound up in combination in such a form that the 
plant cannot feed on them unless they are decom- 
posed and rendered soluble in water. On long ex- 

posure to air, moisture, and heat these rocks become 
rotten and crumble and decompose ; silicate of pot- 
ash is formed, which tlie rain-water dissolves, and 
the roots of the plants absorb as food. Silicate of 
alumina is also formed which will not dissolve, and 
forms the familiar substance known as clay. The 
feldspars have a pearly lustre, are scratched by 
quartz, and cleave very readily; this property distin- 
guishes them from quartz. 

The other mineral mentioned as containing potash 
is mica. There are several varieties of mica, and in 
composition they are silicates of alumina and potash; 
sometimes part of the alumina is replaced by mag- 
nesia, iron, or soda. Certain rocks, such as granite, 
gneiss, syenite, etc., have been mentioned as contain- 
ing potash. This becomes evident when we consider 
that granite and gneiss are composed of quartz, feld- 
spar, and mica; syenite, of quartz, feldspar, and horn- 
blende ; and mica-schist is composed of quartz, mica, 
and a small proportion of feldspar. These rocks con- 
tain the very minerals that are necessary to form good 
soil. The soil derives its supply of phosphates from 
the rocks also. The Philadelphia and the Montgomery 
County granites aud mica-schists contain from one- 
tenth to four-tenths per cent, of phosphoric acid. 
The syenites, gneisses, trap rocks, and even the new 
red sandstone contain small quantities of phosphates. 
In order to get a correct understanding of the soils of 
Montgomery County we must study the rocks that 
underlie the soil and from which the soil has been 
formed ; we must know whether the minerals compos- 
ing the rock are such as contain plant-food. From 
this study we can get a most intelligent idea of the 
fertility of a soil. Montgomery County has a great 
variety of rocky strata, and hence a variety of soils. 
The limestone soils are generally the most fertile and 
productive. More wheat to the acre is raised on the 
limestone soils than on any other, and corn seems to 
attain a greater size. 

Many of the sandstone soils are productive, but 
this is probably due to the fact that they often contain 
feldspar and sometimes mica. These rocks often con- 
tain little white specks, which seem to be loose and 
crumbling, and are decomposed feldspar. When the 
soil is made up of pure sand it is not fertile, as the 
plants cannot live on silica alone. When the under- 
lying rock is red shale the soil does not amount to 
much, and small crops are raised. Quite a number of 
the townships abound with this red shale, which often 
contains as high as seven per cent of iron. A red shale 
along the Stony Creek, which I analyzed, yielded seven 
per cent, of iron. The red color of this shale is due to 
the oxide of iron it contains. When superphosphate 
is applied to a red shale soil, or one containing much 
oxide of iron, a great deal of the phosphoric acid 
is wasted ; it combines with the iron, forming phos- 
phate of iron, which is insoluble and not readily de- 
composed, so that it is of no use to the plant. The 
red shale generally accompanies the sandstone, and 



the red soils are often derived from shale, although 
sometimes from sandstone. It must not be inferred 
that the soils in the sandstone district are not fertile, 
as they generally yield good crops. 

Some townships contain four different kinds of soil. 
The following is a list of townships and the. beds of 
rock that underlie them. The rocky strata mentioned 
first is the most abundant, and the others are men- 
tioned according to the extent of the deposit in the 
township. The townships not mentioned below are 
included in the sandstone district. 

Lower Merion. — Mica-schist, garnet-schist, syenite 
and granitic rocks. 

Upper Merion. — Limestone, sandstone, and slates. 

Sprinrjfiehl. — Limestone, mica-schist and gneisses, 
syenite and granitic rocks, and sandstone. 

Cheltenham. — Garnet- and mica-schist, syenite and 
granitic rocks, and sandstone. 

Ahincjion. — Mica- and garnet-schist, syenite and 
granitic rocks, sandstone and limestone. 

Moreland. — Syenite and granitic rocks, sandstone 
and mica-schist. 

Plymouth. — Limestone and new red sandstone. 

White Marsh. — Limestone, sandstone, syenite and 
granitic rocks, mica-schist. 

Upper Dublin. — Sandstone, limestone, syenite and 
granitic rocks. 

Horsham. — Red sandstone. 

Gwynedd. — Red sandstone and shale. 

Whitpain. — Red sandstone. 

Loioer Providence. — -Red sandstone. 

Norriton. — Red sandstone. 

Worcester. — Red sandstone. 

Clay and Kaolin Deposits. — The composition of 
kaolin is a hydrous silicate of alumina. It contains 
forty-five per cent, of silica, forty per cent, of alum- 
ina, and fifteen per cent, of water; when pure it is as 
infusible as sand. It is very plastic, and can be 
kneaded into almost any shape when mixed with 
water. It is seldom found pure ; it generally contains 
feldspar, mica, oxide of iron, or calcite, and any one 
of these impurities will make the clay melt. The 
best kinds of clay contain scarcely any of tliese sub- 
stances which tend to make the clay less refractory. 
The tests for a good refractory clay are : It must not 
effervesce when moistened with acid, as this shows 
the presence of carbonates which make it fusible; 
it must not contain more than two per cent, of iron ; 
it must be as free as possible from feldspar, which 
contains potash and makes it fusible. As a rule, the 
less alkali you find the more refractory the clay, and 
six-tenths of one per cent, of potash is the maximum 
amount allowed in a good refractory fire-clay. The 
best way, however, to test a fire-clay is to make a 
brick of it, and put it in a shaft-furnace supplied 
with a blast and fed with anthracite coal. In a fur- 
nace like this steel will melt. After the brick has 
been in the furnace about one hour take it out and 
examine it; if it has melted or crumbled or fused 

much on the edges it is not the kind of clay suitable 
for making fire-bricks. After a successful test of this 
kind an analysis is not necessary. 

The clay-beds of Montgomery County are found ia 
the limestone belt, generally in the vicinity of the 
mica-slates and schists, and it is in these deposits of 
clay that we find the extensive deposits of brown 
hematite ore. The principal clay-beds are found in 
Upper Merion, Plymouth, White Marsh, and Spring- 
field townships. The clay in all of these townships 
is found in the limestone. There seems to be a de- 
pression in the limestone, which may have been the 
former bed of a stream, and the clay is found resting 
on the limestone and filling up this depression or bed. 
Most of the clay, however, has been derived from the 
mica-slates and schists, and the beds are parallel to 
the limestone, and occupy the position of those rocks 
from which they have been derived. These are the 
old clays, while the clay which is found occupying 
the depressions of the limestone and is not parallel 
to it is said to be a more recent clay. The most im- 
portant bed of kaolin now worked in Montgomery 
County is found at Lynch's Kaolin Pit, situated in 
Plymouth township, on the Ridge pike, about two 
and a half miles from the borough of Conshohocken. 
This pit was opened in 1877, and Mr. Lynch informs 
me that over seven thousand tons of kaolin and clay 
have been mined ; the average yield at present is 
about fifteen hundred tons per year. This deposit is 
of local importance, as it supplies clay for the terra- 
cotta works at Spring Mill, owned by Mr. Morehead, 
and also the works owned by Mr. Scharff. At these 
works terra-cotta pipes of all sizes are made. Various 
clay ornaments and chimneys are manufactured here. 
There are several different kinds of clay at this pit: 
First a beautiful white kaolin, which is free from iron 
and is quite coherent ; this variety is used for making 
pottery and also for lining blast-furnaces and pud- 
dling-furnaces, where it has to stand a very high tem- 
perature without melting. This kaolin contains ex- 
ceedingly minute scales of mica, which are scarcely 
visible to the eye. The next clay is the red clay used 
in the manufacture of terra-cotta and also for lining 
and fixing puddling-furnaces. This clay contains a 
little oxide of iron. The next variety is a blue clay, 
and is known as the new clay, and makes most excel- 
lent fire-bricks. It is more coherent and plastic than 
any of the others. Formerly the clay used for making 
the large cylindrical pots in which glass is melted 
was imported from Germany, but recently this blue 
clay was tried, and served the purpose very well, 
standing the high temperature without crumbling or 
fusing. This clay is now used by J. M. Albertson 
& Sons at the Star Glass- Works, Norristown. The 
extent of this deposit is not known ; the bed is about 
seventy feet in thickness and extends over the entire 
field. The clay is shipped to Philadelphia, Norris- 
town, Pottstown, and Conshohocken. Near the clay 
is found a bed of fine white sand. 



Limestone Valley of Montgomery County. — The 

great limestone belt of Montgomery County, which 
has furnished such immense quantities of marble and 
lime, commences in Abington township, about a mile 
and a half north of Abington ; at this point it is quite 
a narrow belt, but it widens as it extends westward, 
entering the northern corner of Cheltenham town- 
ship, aud becoming a. broad belt of limestone as it 
extends through White Marsh, Plymouth, and Upper 
Merion townships. In Montgomery County it extends 
as far south as Conshohocken and Spring Mill, and 
it extends to within a short distance of the towns of 
Barren Hill and Edge Hill. It extends along the 
Schuylkill River from Conshohocken to Norristown, 
and crosses the river, extending into Chester County, 
and forming the beautiful Chester Valley. But this 
limestone belt does not end here, it passes entirely 
through Chester County, and extends into Lancaster 
County as far as the -source of the Big Beaver Creek. 
The total length of this immense limestone belt from 
near Abington, Montgomery Co., its eastern ex- 
tremity, to the Big Beaver Creek, in Lancaster County, 
its western extremity, is fifty-eight miles. The widest 
portion of the belt is three miles, while the average 
width of limestone is two and a half miles. In 
Chester County, at Downingtown, the belt is not so 
wide, being only three-fourths of a mile in width. The 
greatest width of the limestone in Lancaster County is 
not much more than half a mile. The general struc- 
ture of this first main belt of limestone is that of a 
long slender basin or synclinal trough, the southern 
side of which is much steeper than the northern. 
From the neighborhood of the Gulf Mills, a little west 
of the Schuylkill, to its western end this oblique 
symmetry prevails with scarcely any interruption. 

The strata of the north side of the valley, or from 
the synclinal axis northward, dip at an average incli- 
nation of about 45° southward, or more strictly S. 
20° E. But this inclination is not constant east of 
the Schuylkill River. There are two well-defined 
synclinal basins, flanked by the Potsdam sandstone. 
West of the river a synclinal basin extends to the 
northwestward between Bridgeport and Henderson 
Station, and is also flanked on both sides by the 
Potsdam sandstone. The south side of the limestone 
belt between Spring Mill and its eastern extremity is 
bounded by the Potsdam sandstone. But from Spring 
Mill west to the Chester County line the South Valley 
Hill quartzose mica-schists form the remainder of the 
southern boundary in Montgomery County. The 
limestone belt is bounded on the north by the Pots- 
dam sandstone and by the new red sandstone. Folds 
of Potsdam sandstone extend in a diagonal direction 
across the main belt of limestone at Oreland, Cold 
Point, and Henderson. Here we find the Potsdam 
sandstone extending into the limestone. According 
to Professor Rogers, "The southern steeply upturned 
outcrop has been more metamorphosed by heat than 
the northern, aud this alteration is greater when they 

are in a nearly vertical position or inverted. It is 
chiefly within these limits that the blue and yellow 
limestone has been altered by heat and changed into 
crystalline and granular marble of different colors. 
Nearly all the marble-quarries opened are included 
within this steeply upturned or overturned outcrop. 
It is likewise along this convulsed and metamorphosed 
side of the trough that nearly all of the largest, deep- 
est, and richest deposits of brown hematite have been 
met with." The color of the limestone varies in dif- 
ferent localities, — pale grayish-blue, white, pale straw- 
yellow, and bluish-white. The marble is of various 
colors, — white, black, and often mottled. The thick- 
ness of the limestone belt is not known. Professor 
Hall says, " The probability is that it is not far from 
two thousand feet thick, but it may be much less." I 
have noticed that from Potts' Landing to Consho- 
liocken the prevailing color of the limestone is blue, 
and from Potts' to Norristown we have a variety of 
colors, — gray, white, yellow, and blue. Gray is the 
prevailing color. Between these two points there are 
two small veins of mica-schist which are very narrow. 
The limestone directly in contact with these I have 
found has been metamorphosed into a white marble. 
The color of limestones is generally due to organic 
matter which they contain, although not always; the 
black marbles are colored by graphite or carbona- 
ceous matter ; the yellow or brown limestones gen- 
erally contain iron as oxide or carbonate. Very 
often in the same quarry will be found several veins, 
each vein having a different color. The limestones 
of Montgomery County are highly magnesian ; many 
veins contain enough carbonate of magnesia to form 
what is known as dolomite. Dolomite contains about 
45 per cent, of carbonate of magnesia and 55 per 
cent, of carbonate of lime when pure, although the 
percentage of lime and magnesia may be less and 
still be dolomite. Dolomites are harder and tougher 
than limestone, and usually present a finer grain ; a 
true dolomite will not eflfervesce with acetic or hydro- 
chloric acid in the cold, while limestone, composed 
of carbonate of lime only, will effervesce at once with 
either of these acids. The hardness of limestone is 
about 2, while that of dolomite is about 3.5. The 
more magnesia carbonate enters into combination 
with carbonate of lime the more the nature changes; 
it will not effervesce so freely. From an examination 
of a large number of limestones from quarries in the 
county, I find that the. more carbonate of magnesia 
enters into their composition the less readily will 
they effervesce with hydrochloric acid in the cold; 
and when the percentage of carbonate of magnesia 
is small they will effervesce quite freely with hydro- 
chloric acid. This might be an approximate method 
of determining whether a limestone be highly mag- 
nesian. Most of the county limestones are highly 
magnesian, containing from 10 to 35 per cent, of car- 
bonate of magnesia, although many veins contain 
very little, if any, magnesia, and are mostly carbonate 



of lime. The limestones of Port Kennedy are highly 
magnesian, containing as high as 42 per cent, car- 
bonate of magnesia. Another sample yielded 38.40 
per cent, of carbonate of magnesia. The first sample 
might be called a dolomite. The limestone near Con- 
shohocken does not contain so much carbonate of 
magnesia. A sample from O'Brien's quarry yielded 17 
per cent, carbonate of magnesia. The limestones from 
Norristown to Potts' Landing along the river are 
highly silicious, at least some veins are more so than 
in the vicinity of Conshohocken. No rule, however, 
can be laid down about this, for very often in the same 
quarry one vein will contain 3 per cent, of silica and 
the next vein 9 per cent, of silica. The variation 
is so great that it is a source of much trouble and in- 
convenience when the limestone is used as a flux in 
the blast-furnace. When so used it is advantageous to 
secure limestone as free from silica as possible, because 
the object of the limestone is to combine with thesilica 
and clay in the iron ore and form a slag, and if the 
limestone used contain a high percentage of silica it 
will necessitate the use of an extra amount of lime- 
stone. Marble is simply limestone which is changed 
in structure and rendered crystalline and granular; 
by this metamorphosis the organic matter of the lime- 
stone is burnt out and it become^ white, and changes 
from a morphous to a crystalline form. 

If limestone be broken into small pieces and ex- 
amined under the microscope the fragments will be 
found to be of irregular shape, and are not crystal- 
line; but when marble is examined it will be found 
to consist of a mass of crystals or grains, very often 
like loaf-sugar. Marble and limestone are both car- 
bonate of lime, but marble generally has less of for- 
eign impurities, such as silica, iron, and alumina. 
Nearly all the marble-quarries hitherto opened in 
Montgomery County are included within or near 
the southern edge of the limestone belt. The largest 
marble-quarries in Montgomery County are at Marble 
Hall. Marble was first quarried at this place one 
hundred years ago, and immense quantities have 
been shipped all over the country. It has furnished 
Philadelphia with a considerable quantity for build- 
ing and architectural purposes. The quarry is about 
four hundred feet long and nearly three hundred feet 
in depth. The beautiful white marble used to build 
the great monument at Washington was obtained 
from this quarry. It came from a vein about five 
feet in thickness near the bottom of the quarry. 
The present owner of these quarries is Mr. Daniel O. 
Hitner. This quarry is especially interesting, as it 
contains the only layer of statuary marble found in 
the county. It was found at a depth of one hundred 
and twenty feet, and is only six inches wide. It is of 
a. yellowish-white color. Nearly all marble dealers 
import the fine white statuary marble used for head- 
stones, etc., from Italy. This marble is very fine- 
grained and white, and can be readily cut and carved 
into ornamental figures. Our Montgomery County 

marble is too coarse-grained for this fine work. In 

the vicinity of Spring Mill there is a marble-quarry, 
next in position to the westward. This is owned by 
Mr. Channing Potts, and has been worked for many 
years, and has furnished an immense amount of 
marble. White, blue, and mottled marble have been 
mined from this quarry. The next quarry to the 
westward where marble is obtained is west of the 
Schuylkill, near Henderson Station, in Upper Merion 
township. This quarry is now worked by Daniel 
O. Hitner, and was opened about 1869. It is now in 
active operation, and is being extended. Both the 
gray and the blue varieties of marble are mined here. 

About two hundred yards from this quarry, on the 
opposite side of the road, there is Henderson's quarry. 
This is the next marble-quarry in order to the west- 
ward. It was opened about the year 1808. There are 
three kinds of marble mined here, — the blue and the 
gray varieties and a very interesting bed of black mar- 
ble. This black marble occupies the south side of the 
quarry, and is susceptible of a very fine polish. It is 
very coarse-grained and crystalline. On analysis I 
found the black color is due to graphite. When the 
marble is dissolved in muriatic acid these small specks 
of graphite can be readily seen. The amount of silica 
present in this marble is very small. It is quite pure, 
and when burned in a kiln turns white, the graphite 
being burned out. Tlie black marble of the limestone 
belt seems to be confined to this quarry and vicinity, 
where graphite is found. At the beginning of the 
belt in Abington township the limestone is very slaty 
and highly silicious, and where the surface has de- 
composed it looks like a white sand. As you proceed 
westward this is no longer noticed. Between the 
Schuylkill River and the eastern end of the lime- 
stone belt a great many limestone-quarries have been 
opened and are in active operation, supplying an ex- 
cellent quality of lime for building purposes. These 
quarries are located principally in Plymouth, White 
Marsh, and Springfield townships, and are owned by 
L. K. Graver & Co., George Corson & Brother, George 
Hagy & Brother, Daniel Williams, Joseph Smith, 
Thomas Phipps, C. A. Cox, Frank Ramsey, David 
Marple, Charles Marple, and D. M. Leedom. 

About one mile north from Conshohocken there is 
O'Brien's limestone and marble quarry. It was opened 
aljout fifty years ago, and is within a short distance 
of the stone-quarry. This limestone does not con- 
tain as much magnesia as many others. Mr. Fulton 
says the stone seldom contains under seventy per cent, 
of carbonate of lime. The silica varies from three to 
nine per cent., and the phosphorus generally runs 
below .01. On analysis the stone yields : 

Carbonate of lime 75,00= Lime, 42.00. 

Carbonate of magnesia 17.00^ Magnesia, 8.09* 

Ferric oxide and alumina 3.00 

Phogpborus 01 

Silicic acid 5.00 

Sulphur Trace. 




This stone has been much used as a flux in the 
blast-furnaces of Conshohocl^en and vicinity. 

At Norristown is Mogee's quarry, situated between 
a small belt of Potsdam sandstone and the new red 
sandstone. This is the end of the limestone belt east 
of the Schuylkill. 

At Swedesburg are the most extensive quarries and 
limekilns in Montgomery County. They are owned 
by William Rambo. They have been operated for 
many years, and the stone is highly magnesian. 
Thomas Rambo and Nathan Rambo own valuable 
quarries near by. Mclnnes' limestone-quarry, near 
Bridgeport, is highly magnesian, and yields three 
varieties of stone. Derr's marble-quarries, near the 
Chester County line, furnished the marble of the Nor- 
ristown court-house. They are extensively worked. 
The following analyses of Montgomery County lime- 
stones were kindly furnished by the Pottstown Iron 
Company and the Phoenix Iron Company: 









Port Kennedy Lime- 


= -F 

atone, Phoenix Iron 


= > s 


€o.'8 Quarries. 



J ■ 











t. *; 










42 00 





Carbonate of magnesia... 


.38 1 
1.02 J 




Ferric oxide 






The county limestones contain so much magnesia 
that at Ambler Station chemical -works manufacture 
Epsom salts and all other magnesia compounds from 
our county limestone. 

Trap Rock and Trap Dikes of Montgomery 
County. — Trap is an igneous rock that came to the 
surface in a melted state through a fissure or opening 
from a place where the rock was liquid. AVhen the 
opening becomes filled with the rock it is called a 
dike; these dikes vary in width from a few inches to 
many feet, or they may form immense masses of rock, 
like the Palisades along the Hudson River. Some- 
times the trap, when cooling from a molten state, has 
assumed a columnar structure instead of being in 
sharp, irregular masses. The Giant's Causeway, Ire- 
land, and Fingal's Cave, island of Staffa, are exam- 
ples of trap rock crystallizing in columns. Very 
often, when the fissure became full of liquid rock, it 
would overflow, and the rock would run out over 
the surface of the adjoining country; this accounts 
for the many bowlders of trap rock that are found 
some distance from the trap dike of Montgomery 
County. Trap dikes are of various lengths; some- 
times they extend across the country for several miles 
in a straight line, and very often the dikes are curved. 
Trap is commonly known under the name of mun- 

dock ; this term is applied to it at several localities 
throughout the county. In appearance it is a dark- 
colored rock, quite heavy, and exceedingly tough and 
difficult to break, and when broken splits into pieces 
of an irregular shape, very often rounded and curved. 
It may be broken by a hammer or by another piece 
of trap ; ordinary rock will not break it. It is com- 
posed of two minerals, feldspar and augite. The 
feldspar is the variety known as Labradorile, which 
is the lime and soda feldspar. Augite is a mineral 
resembling hornblende, and in composition is a sili- 
cate of lime, magnesia, iron, and alumina; it is of a 
black color. A great many lavas from volcanoes, 
and many other igneous rocks, although not of the 
same structure as trap, are similar in composition. 
Trap is a rock that weathers very slowly; the ele- 
ments seem to have but little action on it, yet many 
of the trap bowlders of the county are coated with a 
brown covering about one-sixteenth of an inch in 
thickness, which it has taken many years' exposure to 
form. The brown color of this coating is probably 
due to oxide of iron. When this coating is broken 
ofl" and a fresh fracture surface exposed, it is found 
to be granular and rather brilliant in appearance. 

Montgomery County has a trap dike running through 
the limestone belt for several miles. This exten- 
sive trap dike commences in Springfield township at 
Flourtown, in the limestone belt, and extends west- 
ward in a straight line through White Marsh town- 
ship ; it follows the southern end of the limestone 
belt through to Conshohocken, where it crosses the 
river, and can be seen in its bed. It outcrops again 
in West Conshohocken below the stone-quarries, and 
extends through Upper Merion township, where it 
can be traced without interruption to the Chester 
County line, being a short distance above the Gulf 
Creek. From the Chester County line to the Schuyl- 
kill at West Conshohocken there is no difficulty what- 
ever in finding excellent exposures of trap, especially 
along the river at West Conshohocken, where there 
is an abutment of trap and numerous weathered 
bowlders along the railroad. Between Conshohocken 
and Marble Hall the dike can be traced easily. It 
passes directly through Conshohocken, and crosses 
five of the county roads before it reaches Marble 
Hall ; between these two points there are many loose 
bowlders of this rock. From Marble Hall to the 
Wissahickon Creek the dike cannot be seen, as it is 
covered with a deposit of clay ; but there is a fine 
exposure on the Wissahickon Creek, where it cuts 
through the dike, and the creek is turned from its 
course at one point by contact with the dike. 

From Flourtown to Marble Hall the trap runs 
through limestone and clay ; from Marble Hall to 
Conshohocken it is found between the southern por- 
tion of the limestone belt and the mica-slates ; from 
Conshohocken through Mechanicsville to the Chester 
County line it extends through the mica-slates of the 
South Yallev Hill. The dike crosses the Bethlehem 



turnpike near the meeting-house. It also crosses the 
Perkiomen turnpike and the Norristown or Ridge 
turnpike. Tliis dike does not end in Chester County, 
but extends on into Delaware County, ending near a 
road leading from the Lancaster turnpike to the 
King of Prussia village.- This is the largest trap 
dike in the county. Where it crosses the Perkiomen 
turnpike, between Marble Hall and Barren Hill, this 
dike is thirty feet in width. Numerous bowlders and 
exposures of trap are found between Camp Hill and 
Jarrettown, and these probably mark the continua- 
tion of the dike. According to the most recent sur- 
vey, " there are exposures of trap in several locali- 
ties northeast of Flourtown, but it has not been traced 
continuously." During the summer of 1883 I found 
almost a continuous line of trap bowlders and expo- 
sures between Jarrettown and Camp Hill, which is 
about one and a quarter miles from Flourtown. The 
school-house at Jarrettown, Upper Dublin township, 
is situated on what is known as Mundoek Ridge. 
Trap rocks are scattered around in great abundance 
on this ridge. They are of various sizes, from quite 
small blocks up to large bowlders which are three 
and four feet in thickness. On the road through 
the ridge which leads to Camp Hill, especially in the 
woods near the school-house, there are many bowlders 
of immense size. In many places between Jarret- 
town and Camp Hill the fields are enclosed by walls 
which are made of trap bowlders of irregular size. 
Some of these blocks are weathered, but most of 
them have fresh black surfaces exposed, and are not 
browned by the weather. 

Between these two points trap bowlders are found 
along the road. Sometimes for a short distance no 
blocks are found ; for instance, at the north base of 
Camp Hill, and for a short distance beyond, we find 
no bowlders; but on the south side of the hill, where 
this road joins the road leading to Edge Hill, I found 
several large trap rocks. These exposures do not 
end at Jarrettown, butare found farther on along the 
road leading to Horshamville. I have since been in- 
formed that trap exposures are found at Horsham- 
ville, which is about two and a half miles northeast 
of Jarrettown. All of these exposures between 
Flourtown and Horshamville indicate that the dike, 
after leaving the limestone, enters the new red sand- 
stone, and probably extends in a northeasterly direc- 
tion as far as Horshamville, and it may be that the 
dike does not end here. Future investigation will 
prove whether the course indicated after the dike 
leaves Flourtown is the true one, but I believe that it 
is. The length of the trap dike from Flourtown to 
Mechanicsville is about eight miles, and if it be 
true that the dike continues as far as Horsham- 
ville, the entire length would be about fifteen miles. 
There are several smaller dikes in the county, but 
none of these compare in size to the dike of the lime- 
stone belt. In Marlborough township near Sumney- 
town there is a small trap dike. 

In Pottsgrove township a short distance from Potts- 
town is the natural curiosity known as the " Ringing 
Rocks." These rocks are widely known throughout 
the county, and are visited frequently by curiosity- 
seekers. Some of the rocks are small, while many are 
the size of a hogshead or larger. These bowlders are 
scattered around the surface for a considerable area ; 
some are weathered, and many have fresh surfaces 
exposed. When these rocks are struck with a ham- 
mer or a piece of metal they give forth a musical 
sound. Different tones are produced by striking dif- 
ferent rocks ; the sound seems to vary with the size of 
the rock. Hence the name Ringing Rocks. These 
rocks are sonorous, and when they are struck with a 
piece of metal the rock is set in vibration, and these 
vibrations are communicated to the air, and sound 
waves are formed. These rocks are trap rocks of the 
same kind as those which form the large dike. The 
popular idea is that this locality is the only one 
where these Ringing Rocks will produce sound. But 
any of the trap bowlders, no matter where found, 
when they rest on a good foundation (for example, 
another piece of trap), will produce musical tones. 
Those near Jarrettown give good tones when struck 
with a hammer. 

There are two or three small trap dikes near Potts- 
town, which extend through the new red sandstone, 
and the bowlders belonging to one of these dikes 
comprise the Ringing Rocks. There are several va- 
rieties of trap rock ; those of the county are known 
under the name of dolerite. This rock is defined 
as a granular mixture of a bluish-black or gray 
color, having a density of about 3, and con- 
taining Labradorite and augite, and sometimes a 
small amount of magnetic iron ore. This rock is 
studied sometimes under the microscope. In order 
to do this the rock is ground on an emery-wheel 
until a thin slice is obtained, and when this thin 
section of rock is examined under the microscope the 
minerals composing the rock can be seen and identi- 
fied. The augite occurs often in crystals of a bright 
black color, and the magnetic iron occurs in tlie form 
of irregular grains or crystals, arranged sometimes in 
regular rows or disposed in files. The Labradorite is 
also found in crystals. 

A sample of trap rock found near the " Bird-in- 
Hand" tavern, on the road from Gulf Mills to Bryn 
Mawr, which is near the end of the dike, was analyzed 
by F. A. Genth, Jr., of the University of Pennsylvania, 
who found 

Per cent 

Loss by ignition 2.15 

Silicic acid 51.56 

Titanic acid 1.63 

Phosplioiic acid 0.13 

Alumina IV-.'JS 

Ferric oxide 6.57 

Ferrous oxide 3.85 

Magnesia 3.42 

Lime 10.19 

Litbia Trace. 

Soda 2.19 

Potash 1.41) 




This analysis gives a good idea of the general com- 
position of trap. 

Serpentine and Soapstone Deposits. — Serpentine 
is a mineral which does not crystallize, but occurs 
massive in large rocks or beds. The rock is usually 
some shade of green, and is quite soft, being readily 
cut by a knife. It makes a very ornamental building 
stone, and many public buildings and handsome 
private residences are built of this rock. Serpentine 
is a magnesian rock; in composition it is a combina- 
tion of silicate and hj'drate of magnesia, containing 
from forty to forty-four per cent, of silica, thirty-three 
to forty-three per cent, of magnesia, ten to fifteen per 
cent, of water, one to ten per cent, of ferrous and 
ferric oxides, and from one to six per cent, of alumina, 
and sometimes a little chromium or nickel oxide. 
This rock is susceptible of a high polish, and presents 
a most beautiful appearance when finely polished. 
One peculiarity of serpentine is it yields up nothing 
nourishing or sustaining to plant life or vegetation, 
and nothing except moss and lichens seem to flourish 
on its surface. Near West Chester are the Serpentine 
Barrens, so called on account of their unproductive- 
ness ; these barrens are in the main composed of ser- 
pentine. In our own county in Lower Merion and 
Springfield townships, where the serpentine beds are 
found, we notice loose blocks of serpentine of enor- 
mous dimensions, and these are covered only by 
lichens and cryptogamous plants, which are low forms 
of vegetation. Nothing else seems to flourish on these 

In New Caledonia and among the Alps the natives 
apply the name Dead Mountains to hills of serpen- 
ti ne, because they can raise but little on them, and they 
are almost devoid of vegetation. Precious serpentine 
is of a rich oil-green color, and is much used for inlaid 
work. Verd antique is a clouded serpentine, used 
for ornamental purposes and tables. 

Soapstone. — Soapstone is also a magnesian rock, 
which contains about sixty-two per cent, of silica, 
thirty-two to thirty-three per cent, of magnesia, and 
about five per cent, of water. It has a very soapy or 
greasy feel, hence the name soapstone. It is of 
various colors ; white, green, and gray of various 
shades are the most common. It is very soft, and can 
be readily cut or carved. Soapstone is also known 
under the name of steatite. There is a mineral of a 
green color which separates into scales like mica and 
which occurs in soapstone; this mineral is called 
talc. It is of the same composition as soapstone, and 
is exceedingly soft ; its hardness is 1, being the first 
member of the scale of hardness. Soapstone occurs 
associated with serpentine ; very often it is found in 
the same belt or bed. Many serpentine beds in this 
State contain soapstone, and most always we find talc 
associated with serpentine. The deposits of serpen- 
tine in Montgomery County have yielded an abund- 
ance of soapstone and many specimens of talc. 

There are two extensive belts of serpentine in 

Montgomery County. The longest belt commences 
on the northern brow of Chestnut Hill, between the 
two turnpikes, and extends westward across the 
Wissahickon Creek. It passes through Springfield 
township; there is an exposure just north of Mana- 
tawna. This belt crosses the Schuylkill River between 
Lafayette and Princeton Stations. It extends through 
Lower Merion township to Bryn Mawr, which is at 
the county line. This deposit is a straight line of 
outcrop of steatite or serpentine from Chestnut Hill 
to Bryn Mawr. Along the eastern and central parts 
of its course the southern side of the belt consists 
chiefly of a talcose steatite, the northern side con- 
taining much serpentine in lumps dispersed through 
the steatite, but towards the western side this separa- 
tion seems to disappear. The serpentine belt is 
plainly seen from Chestnut Hill to Wissahickon 
Creek, where enormous blocks cover the surface of 
the bed. Near the Schuylkill the large blocks of 
serpentine and soapstone are again seen, and they 
choke the bed of the ravine next north of the soap- 
stone-quarry. On the west side of the Schuylkill 
this serpentine and steatite rock is still visible in 
large blocks a little above the soapstone of that bank 
of the river. Near Merion Square the exposure is 
prominent, the surface being strewn with large masses. 
These rocks may be distinguished from others by the 
enormous size of the loose blocks, and by the coating 
of lichens and mosses which flourish on them. The 
rock is visible in the Pennsylvania Railroad cut south 
of Bryn Mawr. It is not certain whether this belt 
from Chestnut Hill to Bryn Mawr is continuous; if 
this be proved, then the entire length of this serpen- 
tine belt would be six miles. It is found entirely 
within the mica-schist belt of rocks. The next ser- 
pentine belt is found near the Schuylkill River, about 
one-third of a mile north of Lafayette; it extends 
east to the brook which flows into the Schuylkill at 
Lafayette. This belt begins in White Marsh township, 
and extends westward across the Schuylkill, through 
Lower Merion township, to the Gulf road about one- 
third of a mile north of Bryn Mawr. This deposit 
occurs along the northern edge of the mica-schists, 
and runs almost parallel to the first belt described ; 
they are only about a mile apart. It is not known 
whether this belt is continuous, but if it be continuous 
the length of it would be about four miles. Another 
outcrop of serpentine is found south of Gulf Mills, 
within half a mile from Morgan's Corner. This 
deposit is found between the slates of the South 
Valley Hill and the syenite. This exposure has only 
a length of a few hundred feet, but it is at least three 
hundred feet wide. It is thought to belong to the 
belt of serpentines which extend through Delaware 
County and part of Chester County. 

The serpentine belt of Bryn Mawr, after leaving 
Lower Merion township, extends through Delaware 
County in a curve towards the city of Chester, on the 
Delaware River. About a mile east of Roxborough, 



near the mouth of Cresheim Creek, there is a small 
bed of serpentine, which seems to be confined to this 
locality only, as it has not been observed anywhere 
else in the neighborhood. There is a quarry near the 
Schuylkill River, and an abandoned quarry near 
Merion Square. The soapstone-quarry at Lafayette 
is owned by Mr. Prince. A great variety of minerals 
is found here. The soapstone is very soft, and is 
readily quarried in blocks, which are used for fire- 
stones in furnaces, and for jambs for fireplaces ; it 
will stand a high temperature. There is a mineral 
found in soapstone called pyrophyllite, which when 
heated will curl like a worm, and sometimes crack 
the stone. Before marble came into use in the county 
for door-steps soapstone was used, but was too soft. 

Mesozoic, or New Red Sandstone.— The familiar 
red sandstone rocks cover the northern and central 
portions of the county. They extend from Trenton to 
Norristown and Valley Forge, and the sandstone and 
red shale can be traced along the Schuylkill River 
from Norristown to Pottstown. All that portion of 
the county north of the limestone belt and north of 
the Potsdam sandstone and syenite is covered with 
new red sandstone and shale. The mesozoic forma- 
tion is composed of reddish-brown shale, sandstone, 
and in some localities of conglomerate. The shales 
and sandstones are generally of red color, which 
is due to the red oxide of iron which they con- 
tain. There are quite a variety of sandstones in the 
county belonging to this formation. In some locali- 
ties we find sandstone mixed with much clay. Else- 
where is found rock composed mostly of grains of 
sand, scarcely any clay or oxide of iron with it. At 
Norristown, Bridgeport, and other localities is found 
white sandstone, containing feldspar and mica, with 
not enough oxide of iron to color it red ; it makes an 
excellent building stone. The red sandstone is more 
abundant than those which contain feldspar. 

At Morgan's Mills and Fort Washington conglom- 
erate is found; A ride over the Stony Creek Railroad 
from Norristown to Lansdale will show an unusually 
shaly district, mentioued under soils. The rocks of 
the red sandstone formation are supposed to have 
been deposited in an inland sea which once covered 
this region, in the same way that gravel, sand, and 
mud are now forming rocks. This was the age of 
reptiles, and their footprints are preserved to this day. 
Immense frog-like creatures and bird-like reptiles, 
whose remains were found in this rock at the Phce- 
uixville tunnel (see Fossils, etc.), are supposed to have 
flourished during this age. Trap dikes traverse this 
formation, and occasionally small veins of coal and 
lignite are found. Red soils result from the rocks of 
this formation. The copper deposits at Shannonville 
and Upper Salford are found in the new red sand- 

Potsdam Sandstone. — Professor Rogers called this 
rock the primal sandstone; it is often called the Edge 
Hill rock. It received the name Potsdam from its 

great development at Potsdam, N. Y. The principal 
exposures of this rock in the county are found flank- 
ing the limestone valley on the north, between Valley 
Forge and the eastern extremity of the limestone 
basin east of Fitzwatertown. It encircles the eastern 
end of the limestone belt, and extends westward as a 
narrow belt south of the limestone to Spring Mill. 
At Henderson's Station, Bridgeport, Hickorytown. 
Cold Point, and Oreland folds of this sandstone are 
found penetrating the limestone. The historic hills 
of Valley Forge are Potsdam sandstone. The forma- 
tion is well developed at Edge Hill, Rubicam Station, 
and Willow Grove; near the latter place there is a pic- 
turesque spot known as "The Rocks." They are cliffs 
of hard conglomerate with pebbles of blue quartz. 
This is supposed to represent the beach of an ancient 
sea, and the pebbles are among the first ever made. 
This Cambrian sea contained no fishes, but only 
the lowest forms of animal life. Any organic re- 
mains or fossils which may have belonged to this 
formation are either obliterated or so flattened that 
they cannot be recognized. One fossil found in 
abundance near Willow Grove is the Scolithus line- 
aris (see Fossils). 

The Potsdam sandstone does not much resemble 
the new red sandstone; it is more slaty, and readily 
broken up into layers, and contains scales of mica, 
which sometimes make it flexible. It is generally 
made up of a fine-grained quartz, and contains fine 
scales of mica, which give it a slaty structure. It is 
generally of a white or gray color, although some- 
times red. Occasional beds of conglomerate are met 
with. Very often this sandstone contains ripple- 
marks due to water; from this fact it is supposed 
that this sandstone was formed at the edge of an 
ancient sea. 

Bryn Mawr Gravel. — Upon the tops of some of 
the high hills north of Philadelphia, near Chestnut 
Hill and Bryn Mawr, there are curious patches of an 
ancient gravel, which has been studied by Professor 
H. C. Lewis, who names it the "Bryn Mawr Gravel." 
It is found at elevations of from three hundred and 
twenty-five to four hundred and fifty feet above the 
Schuylkill. It is supposed that these deposits of 
gravel are the remains of an ancient ocean beach and 
the remnants of a once continuous formation, and 
that erosion has swept away everything except these 
few isolated p.atches. The gravel consists of rounded 
or sharp pebbles of quartzite or grains of sand ce- 
mented by iron. Sometimes the gravel is covered 
with a brownish-black iron glaze. The pebbles are 
very hard. At Bryn Mawr the gravel is seen in the 
railroad cut below the station. It is about four hun- 
dred and thirty feet high and nine miles distant from 
the river. The gravel is ten feet deep, and rests upon 
the gneiss-rock, which is decomposed. Near Chestnut 
Hill, on the City Line road, at its highest elevation, 
'four hundred and twenty-five feet above the river, 
tliere is another deposit of gravel and conglomerate. 



with numerous sharp fragments of quartzite. A sim- 
ilar gravel is found on some of the high hills of New 
Jersey and Delaware, and it continues through the 
Southern States in the same relative position. Pro- 
fessor Lewis assigns it to the tertiary age. It is the 
oldest surface formation in Pennsylvania. 

South Valley Hill Mica-Schists and Slates.— 
These rocks form a ridge which flanks the Chester 
Valley limestone on the south, hence the name. In 
Montgomery County these slates are found in the 
southern part of Upper Merion township. They 
cross the Schuylkill at Conshohocken, and extend 
into White Marsh township. Near the Gulf Mills 
the hill divides into two spurs. This is the rock of the 
Conshohocken stone-quarries, which is always in de- 
mand for bridge-building and heavy masonry. This 
rock is a quartzose mica-schist, and contains seven 
per cent, or more of oxide of iron. It is slaty in ap- 
pearance, and generally of a grayish tint and silky 
lustre. The deposits of clay in the county are found 
in the vicinity of the slates, and it is supposed that 
some of the clay-beds are derived from the decompo- 
sition of the mica in the slates. This seems prob- 
able, as beds of fine white sand sometimes accom- 
pany the clay ; this sand is the quartz of the schists 
and slates. The deposits of iron ore in the county 
are found near the mica-slates in the clay. It is 
thought that some of the brown hematite ores are 
derived from the slates, as they contain over s?ven 
per cent, of oxide of iron, and when they decom- 
pose and form clay the oxide of iron is dejiosited. 
The rocks of this formation rest on the limestone, and 
are of more recent age, according to Professor Hall, 
who assigns them to Hudson River age. 

Syenite and Granitic Rocks (Laurentian). — The 
hard crystalline rocks of this group in Montgomery 
County extend from Moreland township, at the Bucks 
County line, westward across the Schuylkill River to 
the Delaware County line. In Moreland and Upper 
Dublin townships the new red sandstone forms the 
northern boundary. Between Chestnut Hill and the 
Delaware County line the mica-schists form the 
southern boundary, and from the Schuylkill to the 
Delaware County line the limestone and mica-schists 
of the South Valley Hill tbrm the northern bound- 
ary. East of the Schuylkill the Potsdam forms the 
northern boundary to the vicinity of Willow Grove. 
These syenite rocks are exceedingly tough and hard, 
and but little acted on by the weather. Hills of 
softer rock were in the course of time worn down to 
the surface, but the syenite ridges remain as monu- 
ments of the past. The hills known as Spring Mill 
Heights are syenite. The cuts exposed by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad in passing through the Schuylkill 
Valley offer an excellent opportunity for studying the 
syenite belt from Spring Mill to the serpentine rock. 
It was the hardest rock along the line to cut through. 
The Schuylkill River between West Conshohocken 
and Spring Mill is turned from its course by the re- 

sistance offered by the hard syenite rocks. It is the 
oldest rock in Montgomery County, and contains no 

Syenite is composed of quartz, feldspar, and horn- 
blende. It is composed of the same minerals as 
granite, only it contains hornblende instead of mica. 
It makes an excellent building stone. The quartz in 
this belt of syenite is characteristic, as it is of bluish 
tint. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether 
the other rocks of this belt are granites or granitic 
gneisses. The feldspar is both pinkish and white, 
and certain bands of this rock contain so much 
feldspar as to have a structure like porphyry. 

Philadelphia, Manayunk, and Chestnut Hill 
Mica-Schists and Gneisses. — The rocks exposed 
along the Schuylkill River from its mouth to a short 
distance above Lafayette Station on the Norris- 
town Branch of the Reading Railroad have been 
divided into three groups by Professor Hall : First, 
the Philadelphia group ; second, the Manayunk 
group ; and third, the Chestnut Hill group. The 
Philadelphia group underlies the other two, and 
the Chestnut Hill group is the highest. These 
rocks extend eastward as far as Trenton, and west- 
ward into Delaware County. These Schuylkill 
rocks are not visible in New Jersey, as they sink 
beneath the surface; but they come to the surface 
again on Staten Islaud and in New York. Accord- 
ing to Professor Lesley, these three groups of rock 
are between ten thousand and twenty thousand feet 
in thickness. They are known as the azoic rocks, and 
are the oldest rocks of which we have any knowledge ; 
most of the other rocks have been formed from them, 
as they are the foundation rocks of the old continents. 
They were formed when the lowest forms of animal 
life were introduced on our globe, and were the 
beds of the old oceans. Any trace of animal life 
that may have existed in these rocks has become ob- 
literated by the heat and pressure to which they were 
subjected. Many of the minerals of the county are 
found in these formations. These rocks are mica- 
schists and gneisses. Gneiss, like granite, is com- 
posed of quartz, feldspar, and mica ; but the gneiss 
is arranged in parallel layers, while granite is not. 
Mica-schist is a crystalline assemblage of mica and 
quartz, and sometimes feldspar, arranged in layers. 
The Philadelphia group extends from the Delaware 
River on the south to the vicinity of Falls of 
Schuylkill. The rocks of this group are different 
variety of gneisses and mica-schists. The Manayunk 
group extends from the vicinity of the Falls of Schuyl- 
kill to a point half-way between Manayunk and La- 
fayette Station ; it is exposed along the Schuylkill. 
The rocks of this belt are schists and gneisses, and 
are very much weathered, the feldspar especially is 
often white and chalky in appearance from decom- 
position ; this is noticeable at Wissahickon Station. 
The Chestnut Hill group extends from the vicinity 
of Chestnut Hill to the county line at Bryn Mawr. 



Along the Schuylkill the rocks are exposed from a 
point between Manayunk and Lafayette to the syen- 
ite formation, Tlie schists and gneisses of this group 
contain an abundance of garnets. It is in this group 
that serpentine and soapstone occur. The division 
of these Schuylkill .rocks into groups is somewhat 
geographical and is not definite. It is often difficult 
to determine whether the rock is a gneiss or schist. 

Early Accounts of Lime.' — Among the extensive 
manufactures of Montgomery County can be men- 
tioned lime, the history of which we are not aware of 
having been attempted by any other writer. The 
quantity now used for agricultural, building, and 
manufacturing purposes has become immense. The 
annual production here in 1875 was estimated at fully 
two millions of bushels, and has probably reached 
now to nearly one-third more. The census of 1840 
gave the value of lime manufacture in this county at 
$236,162, and for Plymouth township, $45,218; White 
Marsh, S51,458 ; Upper Dublin, $20,275 ; Upper Mer- 
ion, $74,772; and in Abington township, $11,800. In 
18.58 the writer personally visited seventy-five lime- 
kilns in the township of Plymouth, said to contain 
the average capacity of fifteen hundred bushels each. 
This would alone make by one burning considerably 
over one hundred thousand bushels, and the number 
of kilns there has since been increased. 

The earliest mention we have been enabled to find of 
limestone, and of lime being made therefrom to be 
used for building purposes, is in a letter written by 
Robert Turner, of Philadelphia, dated 3d of 6th 
month, 1685, addressed to William Penn in England, 
from which we learn that " Samuel Carpenter is our 
limeburner on his wharf Brave limestone found 
here, as the workmen say, being proved." The next 
mention found is in another letter to Penn, written 
by Nicholas More, dated " Green Spring, the 13th of 
September, 1686," wherein he states that "Madam 
Farmer has found out as good limestone on the 
Schuylkill as any in the world, and is building with 
it; she offers to sell ten thousand bushels at sixpence 
the bushel upon her plantation, where there are sev- 
eral considerable hills, and near to your Manor of 
Springfield." The aforesaid was evidently the wife 
of Jasper Farmer, who had arrived here in Novem- 
ber, 1685, and had taken up in the present White 
Marsh township a tract of five thousand acres of 
land, but died soon thereafter. His son, Edward 
Farmer, subsequently became the owner of about 
three-fourths of this purchase. 

For building purposes the Swedes and other early 
settlers first used lime prepared from oyster shells, of 
which we find mention made by several writers. 
Thomas Budd, in his account of Pennsylvania, 
printed in 1685, says, " We make lime of oyster shells, 
which by the sea and bay-side are so plentiful that 
we may load ships with them." He further informs 
us that there is no limestone " as we yet know of," 

1 By Wm. J. Buck. 

from which we are led to infer that Samuel Carpenter 
and Madam Farmer, as has been mentioned, must 
have been among the earliest to convert limestone 
into lime. Even prior to the summer of 1685 con- 
siderable building had been done in Philadelphia and 
its vicinity, which required no small amount of the 
article as prepared from oyster shells. 

William Penn, in a letter to the Marquis of Hali- 
fax, dated 9th of 12th month, 1683, mentions that 
" about one hundred and fifty very tolerable houses 
for wooden ones" had been erected in Philadelphia. 
In his " Further Account of Pennsylvania," written 
in December, 1685, he states that the number had been 
increased to three hundred and fifty-seven houses, 
" divers of them large, well built, with good cellars, 
three stories, and some with balconies." He also 
mentions in the same of "divers brickeries going on, 
and some brick houses going up." Robert Turner, in 
a letter from Philadelphia, 3d of 6th month, 1685, 
states that "we are now laying the foundation of a 
plain brick meeting-house, sixty by forty feet," and 
that " Pastorius, the German Friend, with his people, 
are preparing to make brick next year." These state- 
ments show the necessity of lime, for which purpose 
no inconsiderable quantities must have been required, 
and that the discovery of limestone so near the city 
created at once a demand from its superior quality, 
ranking, as has since been proven, among the best 
found in the country. 

John Goodson wrote from Philadelphia, 24th of 
6th month, 1690, "that six carters have teams daily 
employed to carry and fetch timber, bricks, stone, 
and lime for building, which goeth on to admiration. 
We have rocks of limestone, where many hundreds, 
yea thousands of bushels of lime are made in one year 
fur this town." John Holme, one of the judges of 
the Philadelphia County Court, in his poem on "The 
Flourishing State of Pennsylvania," written in 1696, 
mentions therein that a few years previously lime had 
been burned from oyster shells, but since a " great 
store" of limestone had been discovered in the ground, 
from which "now is made good stone lime," which 
was not only superior but cheaper than the former 
article. He had arrived here from England in 1686, 
and died in 1701. 

At a meeting of the Provincial Council, held May 
19, 1698, a road was ordered to be laid out from White 
Marsh, for the purpose of hauling lime from the 
kilns there to the city, and to meet the Plymouth road 
near Cresheim, or the upper part of Germantown. 
In 1703, Nicholas Saul and others, at " Sandy Run," 
in the " Manor of Springfield," petition that they 
had formerly received the grant of a road from the 
limekilns to Philadelphia on the Germantown road, 
which the court now ordered should be speedily 
opened. This is evidently the road proposed by the 
Council aforesaid, and the present highway leading 
from the village of White Marsh through Chestnut 
Hill. In 1713 the road was opened from the afore- 



said kilns to Skippack, over which also considerable 
lime was hauled. The Plymouth highway was laid 
out as "a cart road" in the spring of 1G87. This is 
tlie road leading from Plymouth to Philadelphia, and 
now known as the Germantowii and Perkiomen turn- 
pike, which was laid on its bed and finished in 1804. 
It is likely that this was the first road opened for the 
transportation of lime to the city. What is now 
known as the Limekiln road was laid out from Ger- 
mantown to Upper Dublin in 1693, and probably 
also first opened for the purpose of obtaining lime 
from the vicinity of the present Fitzwatertown. The 
road from the latter place to Abington meeting-house 
was confirmed in 1724, and opened the following year. 
From the petition it is ascertained that Thomas Fitz- 
water carried on there the business of lime-burning 
in 1705. 

Gabriel Thomas, who arrived here in 1683, in his 
accountof Pennsylvania, published at London in 1698, 
mentions that here " there is also very good limestone 
in great abundance plenty and cheap, of great use in 
buildings, also in manuring lands." The Manor of 
Mount Joy, containing seven thousand eight hun- 
dred acres, was granted by Penn to his daughter 
Letitia the 24th of 8th month, 1701. This tract was 
partly situated in Upper Merlon, and we have the 
authority of Oldmixon's " British Empire in Amer- 
ica," published in 1708, that it abounded in lime; 
stone, which had been made use of for some time. 
Edward Farmer, whose settlement in White Marsh 
was known in 1708 as " Farmer's Town," supplied 
lime at various times from there for the buildings at 
Springettsbury, erected by Thomas and Richard 
Penn, between the years 1732 to the time of his 
death, in 1745. Francis Rawle, who had settled 
in Plymouth about 1685, in his " Ways and Means," 
printed by S. Keimer, of Philadelphia, in 1725, and 
written the previous year, states on page 54 that of 
" limestone we have great plenty, of which stone 
lime is made, which gives the opportunity to the in- 
habitants to build good stone and brick houses in 
town and country." 

The lime used in building the State-House, from 
1729 to 17.35, was hauled from the kilns of Ryner 
Tyson, in Abington township, fourteen miles north 
of the city. Those kilns and quarries have ever 
since been in the family, and the business of lime- 
burning is still carried on by the descendants. The 
county commissioners in March, 1804, invite pro- 
posals for " hauling by the bushel a quantity of lime 
from Plymouth to Pottstown sufficient to complete 
the bridge" over the Manatawny, a distance of about 
twenty-three miles. In 1810, if not earlier, the lime- 
burners of the county formed themselves into an as- 
sociation, of which Alexander Crawford was presi- 
dent, and John Fitzwater secretary, meeting for 
several years, in January, at the house of Philip 
Sellers, White Marsh. In February, 1S24, they met 
at the house of Andrew Hart, Plymouth. The 

members at this time were George Tippen, Samuel 
Davis, John Shepherd, Daniel Fisher, Benjamin 
Marple, Eleazer Michener, Enoch Marple, John 
Hellings, George Egbert, George Lare, Henry John- 
son, Abraham Marple, William Sands, Joseph Har- 
mer, and Daniel Davis. It appears they soon after 
dissolved, their proceedings being deemed unlawful, 
but we presume no more so than any other combina- 
tion of a similar character. Among their objects 
was to fix the price of lime and the wood they either 
purchased or received in exchange. 

On so a great a business as the production of lime 
it is to be regretted that there are so few statistics. It 
would be interesting to possess a list of the several 
manufacturers, the number of kilns operated, and 
the amount respectively made. The quantity sent 
off by water must be considerable, especially to the 
States of New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, 
as also by railroad to adjoining counties, Philadel- 
phia, and other places, for building, manufacturing, 
and agricultural purposes. The townships of Mont- 
gomery that possess limestone are Abington, Upper 
Dublin, Springfield, White Marsh, Plymouth, and 
Upper Merion. The limestone surface here may 
probably comprise about fifteen square miles. Plym- 
outh, no doubt, is now the greatest producer; next 
Upper Merion, followed by White Marsh and Upper 
Dublin. Norristown, Swedesburg, and Port Ken- 
nedy are extensive shipping-points of this material. 
The lime of Montgomery County for all building 
purposes possesses a high reputation, and is regarded 
among the very best produced. 



Three hundred and ninety-one years have elapsed 
since the commercial nations of the earth first learned 
of the existence of the North American Indians. 
From whence they came remains an archaeological 
problem. Their numbers' were the subject of con- 

> Robert Proud, historian, estimated the nnmber of fighting men of 
eighteen given tribes at 27,900, and total number, 139,500. 

Besides, in an iiistorical account, printed in Philadelphia, of tiie ex- 
pedition against tlio Oliio Indians in 1764, under command of Col. 
BuiKjuet, there is a list 4if tlie Indian nations of Canada and Louisiana, 
saiil to be from good autliority. .and tliat the account may be depended 
on, so far as a matter of this kind can lie brouglit near the truth, in 
which it is asserted that there are 50,580 figliting men of such Indians 
as the French were connected with in Canada and Louisiana. Assuming 
this number to be one-fifth of the population, tliey would have had at 
that date 282,000. 

According to the latest data in the possession of the Interior Depart- 
ment at Washington the number of Indians in the United States is 
202,000, It is claimed that with regard to all Indian tribes receiving 
supplies from the government reasonably accurate statistics have been 
cltained, as in making issues of goods to the Indians the individual 
receipt of each bead of a family is required. The accounts divisiou of 



jecture until after the Revolutionary war, when they 
became objects of governmental solicitude and care. 
As a race, they have displayed rare physical powers 
of endurance, they have shown indomitable courage 

the Indian Office therefore possesses a register of the names of all heads 
of families to whom goods, supplies, or annuities are issued Ijy the gov- 
ernment. Ill must iif the States there are remniningsmall communities 
of Indians, like the Six Nations in New York, the Eastern Cheiokees 
in North Carolina, the Miamis in Indiana, etc. Having tribal property 
they maintain a trihal organization. The Indian Office exercises a sort 
of guardianship over tliem in the protection of their lands, manage- 
ment of their funds, limiting the contracts they may make and the fees 
they may pay to attorneys, deciding questions of membership in the 
tribf, etc. ; but they are self-supporting, and receive no goods or supplies 
from the government. The same maybe said of the "five civilized 
tribes" of the Indian Territory, and of the Indians of the Pacific coast, 
although tiome of the latter receive about five per cent, of their sub- 
sistence from the Department. They are not dependent upon the gov- 
ernment for the supply of tlieir daily wants, and consequently the In- 
dian Department is not able to obtain from them such minute and 
detailed reports as are required from the seini-savage tribes. In some 
cases the government is therefore in possession of better statistics from 
the " wild" tribes than from such as are partially civilized, or at least 

Leaving the five civilized tribes of the Indian Territory' out of the 
question, these statistics show that the Indians are not now, and for sev- 
eral years past have not been, decreasing in numbers. The births re- 
ported in all the tribes last year aggregated 2998 ; the number of deaths 
was 2478. An examination of the reports from all the agencies in de- 
tail shows many iustancesof decrease, but the general result is as stated. 
It is not claimed that these figures are either complete or exact, but 
they are beyund reasonable duubt sufficient to establish the factthatthc 
Indian race, as a whole, in spite of disadvantageous circumstances, is not 
dying out. The niDrtnary customs of most of the tribes render it im- 
probable that many deaths should escape the knowledge of the agent. 
As regards the death of a relative or friend the Indian is not a stoic; 
mourning fur the deceased, whether slain in battle or dying from nat- 
ural causes, is usually loud and long continued, and accompanied with 
ceremonies likely to make every pei-son within the sound of beating 
tom-toms and Wailing Voices aware <)f the loss the tribe has sustained. 
Over births no such demonstrations are ma'le, so that the error in the 
figures given is probably that of reporting too small an incffease in the 
tribal numbera. 

It is easy to find reports from particular tribes showing a decided de- 
crease during the past year.. The Six Nations, New York, lost '2'ict by 
dealh, while there were only 187 births. There are 5116 Indians on the 
several reservaiinus in New York, — the Senecas, Oneidas. CayugJis, 
Onondagiis, Tonawandas, and Tuscaroras. Tliese Indians are second- 
rate farmers, as are the Pottawatomies, Kickapoos, and Munsees of 
Kansas, who al^so lust in numbers last year, the deaths among them ex- 
ceeding the births by 30 per cent. ; and tlie same is true of Indians sim- 
ilarly situated in Michigan,— the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawato- 
mies of the Mackinac agency. In each of these remnants of tribes 
there was about the same per cent, of loss. These Indians nearly all 
wear civilized dress, and they are surrounderl by whites. 

In thelndian Territory, however, nearly all the tribes areincreasing. 
The agent of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes reports 324 births, 110 
deaths among 6769 Indians ; the Kiowa, Comanche, and Wishita agency 
reports 149 births, 96 deaths. Reports from the twenty-one other tribes 
in the Indian Territory indicate a small per cent, of increase in all ex- 
cept two. The ever unfortunate Poncas and the Senecas suffered a fur- 
ther loss in numbers last year. 

Outside of t lie Territory, without going into detail, it may be said gen- 
erally that thii Indians of the Northern plains, the great Sioux tribes 
and the Crows, are about stationary. There is perhaps a small increase, 
but reports are not full enough to show more than that there is no de- 
cided change. Citizens of the Southwest will particularly regret to 
know that the Utes and the IMescalero Aparhes are annually increasing 
in numbers. The fi-^heimen along the borders of Puget Sound, the 
Puyallup, Qiiillehute, Cteur d'Alene, O'Kanagans, etc., are slowly in- 
creasing, while the S'kokomish and Quinaielt Indians of the same re- 
gion report a decided loss last year. 

The generalization indicated by these reports is not a pleasant one. 
It will be iioriced that the uncivilized Indians, or at least those living 

and remarkable sagacity. The exceptional among 
them have been gifted with keen perceptive faculties, 
creating and preserving tribal relations among them- 
selves for centuries, recognizing the obligations of 
truth, virtue, and honor, the omnipotent power of a 
"Great Spirit," ' andagreat" future hunting-ground." 

away from the direct influences of the white race, are increasing, while 

those living in the midst of prosperous white settlements are gradually 
dying out. Thefivecivilized tribes of thelndian Territory, and especially 
the Cherokees, who are themselves prosperous, hold tlie theory that In- 
dians cannot thrive when immediately surrounded by commuuitiesof 
white men ; that, being unable to compete with their neighbors, the In- 
dians become hopelessly discouraged. The figures given above appear 
to confirm this doctrine. Fuller and more accurate statistirs may, how- 
ever, modify or reverse the conclusions based upon the official reports 
we have quoted, which afford the best data now obtainable. 

1 The following letter of Conra<i Weiser, written to a friend, on the 
subject of the Indians^ belief in a Supreme Being, is of more than usual 
interest : 

"Esteemed Friend, — I write this, in compliance with thy request, to 
give thee an account of what I have observed among the Indians in re- 
lation to their belief and confidence in a Divine Being, according to the 
observations I have made from 1714, in the time of my youth, to this 
day (about the year 1746). If, by the word religion, people mean an 
assent to certain creeds, or the observance of a set of religious duties, 
as appointed prayers, singing, preaching, baptism, Jkc.,or even heathen- 
ish worship, then, it may be said, the Five Nations and their neighbors 
have no religion. But if, by religion, we mean an attraction to the soul 
to God, whence proceeds a confidence in, and hunger after, the knowl- 
edge of him, then his people must be allowed to have some religion 
among tiiem, notwithstanding their sometimes savage deportment. For 
we find among them some tracts of a confidence in God alone, and even, 
sometimes, though but seldom, a vocal calling upon him. I shall give 
one or two instances of this that fell under my own otwervation. I^t 
the year 1737, 1 was sent, the first time, to Onondaga, at the desire of the 
Governor of Virginia. I departed in the latter end of February, very 
unexpectedly, for a journey of five hundred English miles, through a 
wilderness where there was neither road nor path, and at such a time 
of the year when creatures (animals) could not be met with tor food. 
There were with me a Dutchman and three Indians. After we had gone 
one hundred and fifty miles on our journey we came to a narrow valley, 
about half a mih^ broad and thirty long, both sides of which were en- 
compassed with high mountains, on which the snow laid about three 
feet deep, in it ran a stream of water also about three feet deep, which 
was 80 crooked that it kept a continued winding course from one 
side of the valley to the other. In order to avoid wading so often 
through the water, we endeavored to pass along the slope of the moun- 
tain, the snow being three feet deep, and so hard frozen on the top 
that we could walk iipon it; but we were obliged to make holes in the 
snow with our hatchets that our feet might not 8lip<lown the mountain, 
and thus we crept on. It happened that the old Indian's foot slipt, and 
the root of a tree, by which he hold, breaking, he slid down the moun- 
tain ns from the roof of a house; but, happily, he was stopped in his 
fall by the string which fastened his pack hitching on the stump of a 
small tree. The other two Indians could not go to his aid, but our Dutch 
fellow-traveller did, yet not without visible danger of his own life. I, 
also, could not put a foot forward till I was helped. After this we took 
the first opportunity to descend into the valley, which was not till we 
had labored hard for half an hour with hands and feet. Having ob* 
served a tree lying directly off from where the Indian fell, when we 
were got into the valley again, we went back about one hundred 
paces, where we saw that if the Indian had slipt four or five paces 
' further he would have fallen over a rock, one hundred feet perpen- 
dicular, upon craggy pieces of rock below. The Indian was a'-tonishod 
, and turned quite pale; then, with outstretched arms and great 
! earnestness he spoke these words: ' I thank the great Lord and gov- 
ernor of this world, in that he has had mercy upon me, and has been 
willing that I should livo longer.' Which words I at that time put 
down in my journal. This happened on the 25th of March, 1737. In 
the 9lh of April lollowing, while we were yet on our journey, I found 
myself t'xtromely weak through the fatigue of so long a joui-noy, with 
the cold and hunger which I had suffered. There having fallen a fresh 
snow, about twenty inches deep, and we being yet three days' journey 



They have been, and still are, a subject of interesting 
study, and as the last of their tribes melt away before 
or are absorbed in the superior civilization that has 
dispossessed them of a continent, interest in their 

from Onondaga, in a frightful wilderness, my spirit fulled, my body 
trembled and shook ; T thought I shoukl full down and die. I stept 
aside and sat down under a tree, expecting there to die. My companions 
soon missed mo. The Indians came back and found me sitting there. 
They remained awhile silent; at last the old Indian said : ' My dear 
companion, thou hast hitlierto encuurageii us, wilt thou now quite give 
up? Remember that evil days are bettor than good days, for when we 
suffer much, we do not sin ; siti will be driven out of us by suffer- 
ing ; but good days will cause men to sin, and God cannot extend his 
jiiercy to them, but, contrawise, when it goeth evil with ua, God bath 
compassion upon us.' These words made me ashamed; I rose up and 
traveled as well as I could. The next day I went another journey to 
Onondaga in company witli Joseph Spanhenberg and two others. It 
happened that an Indian camo to ue in the evening who had neither 
shoes, stockings, sliirf, gun, knife, nor hatcliet ; iu a word, he had 
nothing but an old torn blanket and some nigs. Upon inquiring 
whither he was going, he answered, to Onondaga. I knew him, and 
asked him how he couUi undertake a journey of three hundred miles 
so naked and unprovided, having no provisions nor any arms to kill 
creatures for his subsistence ? He answered, he had been among ene- 
mies, and had been obliged to save himself by flight, and so had lost 
all. Tliis was true in part, for he had disposed of some of his things 
among the Irish for strong liquors. Upon further tilk, he told me very 
cheerfully, that 'Gud fed everything which had life, even the rattle- 
snake itself, though itwas a bad creature, and that God would also pro- 
vide in such a manner tliat he should get alive to Onondaga. He knew 
for certain that he should go thither ; that it was visible God was with 
the Indians in the wilderness, because they always cast their care upon 
him; but that, contrary to this, the Etiropi-ans always carried bread 
with them.' He was an Onondaga Indian ; his name was Onon- 
tagketa. The next day we traveled in company, and the day fol- 
lowing I provided him with a hatchet, knife, flint, and tinder, also 
shoes and stockings, and sent him before mo to give notice to the Coun- 
cil at Onondaga that I was coming, which he truly performed, being 
got thither three days before us. Two years ago I was sent by the 
Governor to Shamokin on accovint of the unhappy death uf John Artn- 
8(rong,the Indian trader (1744). After I had performed my errand, there 
was a feast prepared, to which the Governor's messengers wore itivited. 
There were about one hundred persons present, to whom, after we had 
in great silence devoured a fat bear, the eldest of tlie chiefs made a 
speech, in which he said, 'That by a great misfortune three of their 
brethren, the white men, had been killed by an Indian ; that neverthe- 
less the sun was not yet set (meaning there was no war); it had only 
been somewhat darkened by a small cloud, which was now done away. 
He that had done evil was like to bo punished, and the land to remain 
in peace ; therefore he exhorted his people to tiiankfulnesa to God, and 
thereupon he began to sing with an awful solemnity, but without ex- 
pressing any words. The others accompanied iiim with their voices. 
After they had done the same Indian, with great earnestness or fervor, 
spoke these words: 'Thanks, thanks, be to thee, thou great Lord of the 
world, in that thou hast again caused tlie sun to shine, and iiath dis- 
persed the dark cloud; tho Indians are thine.' One more instance 
may be mentioned on this subject, which has come under my own ob- 
servation and personal knowledge. In the summer of the year 1700 a 
niimber of religious Indians paid a visit to the Quakers in Philadelphia 
on a religious account. They were mostly of the Minusing tribe, and I 
came from a town called Mahackloosing or Wyalusing, on or near the ' 
Kiist Branch of the Susquehanna Uiver, in Pennsylvania, about two hun- i 
dred miles northwestward fiom the city. Tlieir chief man, whom the i 
rest of the company styled their minister, was named Papuneiiung or 
Papounan, and their interpreter, Job Chilloway, an Indian. On their 
arrival they waited on Governor Hamilton, to pay him their respects, ' 
and to deliver three prisoners whom they had reileemed, having them- ' 
selves absolutely refused to join with the other Indians in the savage 
war which niged about that time, though their visit was principally on 
a different account. They had a public conference with the Governor 
in the State-House on the occasion, in the presence of many citizens, 
wherein Papounan expressed the design of their visit was principally 
to the Quakei-8, on a religious account; that they desired to do justice, 
to love God, and to live in peace, requesting at tho same time that none 

origin, antiquity, habits, and customs seems unabated. 
Parkman. Campanius, Acrellus, Heckewelder, Peun, 
Gordon, Proud, and many others have written upon 
these red men of the forest and their occupancy of the 
country we now dwell upon. It is certainly true 
they have nowhere left a deep or lasting impression 
upon the face of the country occupied by them. To 
them the earth seems to have had no higher utilities 
than a vast hunting-ground. The future archaeolo- 
gist may yet find evidence of their origin and earlier 
conditions of life than those ascertained by writers 
of our age; to preserve all knowledge thus far ac- 
quired of them and, if possible, incite and facilitate 
further research concerning the remarkable race 
should induce writers of every century to carry for- 
ward their history. The time is not far distant when 
the remnant of this singular people will accept the 
inevitable and yield their wild and savage natures to 
the constant overtures of Christian civilization, when 
the descendants of chiefs and warriors will open mind 
and heart and take rank with educators of their 
generation. Their own race may yet furnish their 
arclueologists and true historians. 

We have reached a period in our history when In- 
dian training-schools are no longer experimental. 
The school at Carlisle, Pa., in successful operation 
with two hundred youthful inmates of both sexes, is 
in pleasing contrast with the former policy of the 
government, which maintained a military post at the 
same place for the training of " regulars" to slaughter 
the race on the plains of the West. It may well be 
that from the number of these people now in course 
of preparation for intellectual pursuits and a higher 
life there will come some one or more who will fulfill 

of bis company should be.permitted to have any spirituous liquors, etc. 
He refused the presents oflfered by the Governor, and gave him the rea- 
sons, further saying, 'I think on God, who madeua; I want to be in- 
structed in His worship and service. I am a great lover uf peace, and 
have never been concerned in war affairs. I have a sincere remem- 
brance of tho old friendship between the Indians and your forefathers, 
and shall ever observe it.' After mentioning some other things, and 
expressing himself further on the view or design of their visit on a 
religious account, he said, 'Though what he had mentioned respect- 
ing religious affairs might appear trivial to some who thought diff'eront 
from him, yi-t ho was fixed in his mind respecting them ; that their 
young men agreed with him, and wanted to love God, and to desist from 
their former bad course of life,' further declaring, ' I am glad to have 
an opportunity of mentioning these several afi'aira iu the presenceof 
such a large auditory of young and old people. The great God observes 
all that passes in our hearts, and hears all that we say one to an- 
other.' etc. The notes, etc., ou the occasion were taken from the in- 
terpreter by Secretary Peters. He then finished with a solemn act of 
public thanksgiving and prayer to God, with great devotion and energy, 
in the Indian language (not beingable to speak nor understand English). 
The unnsnaluess, force, and sovmd of the Indian language on suclt an 
occasion, with the manifest great sincerity, fervor, and concern of the 
speaker, seemed to strike the whole auditory in an uncommon manner, 
as well as the Indians themselves, who all the while behaved with a 
gravity and deportment becoming the occasion, and appeared to unite 
heartily with him in his devotion." 

Christian nations have always been zealous in missionary work, and 
veiy early in the history of this country pious and devoted men, often 
more eotbusiaatic than learned in their calling, came over from Euro- 
pean countries under special iiiatructious to convert the heathen Indians. 
The Swedes were uotublefor their efforts to "Christianize the savages." 



the hope of Humboldt, who says, "I do not partici- 
pate in the rejecting spirit which has but too often 
thrown popular traditions into obscurity, but I am, on 
the contrary, firmly persuaded that by greater dili- 
gence and perseverance many of the historical prob- 
lems which relate to the maritime expeditions of the 
Middle Ages, to thestrikingidentity in religious tradi- 
tions, manner of dividing time, and works of art in 
America and Eastern Asia, to the migrations of the 
Mexican nations, to the ancient centres of dawning 
civilization in Aztlan, Quivira, and Upper Louisiana, 
as well as the elevated plateaux of Cundinamarca 
and Peru, will one day be cleared iij) by discoveries 
of facts with wliich we have hitherto been entirely 
unacquainted." Professor W. D. Whitney is not so 
prophetic as Humboldt, but in evident sympathy with 
him, and perhaps more practical : " What we have 
to do at present is simply to learn all we can of the 
Indian languages themselves, to settle their internal 
relations, elicit their laws of growth, reconstruct their 
older forms, and ascend toward their original condi- 
tion as far as the material within our reach and the 
state in which it is presented will allow ; if our studies 
shall at length put us in a position to deal with tlie 
questionof their Asiatic derivation, we will rejoice at it. 
I do not myself expect that valuable light will ever be 
shed upon the subject of linguistic evidence; others 
may be more sanguine, but all must at auy rate 
agree that, as things are, the subject is in no position 
to be taken up and discussed with profit." Never- 
theless, Professor Whitney insists that greater dili- 
gence should be devoted to the study of our antiqui- 
ties. **Our national duty and honor," he contends, 
"are peculiarly concerned in this matter of the study 
of aboriginal American languages as the most fertile 
and important branch of American archaeology. Eu- 
ropeans accuse us, with too much reason, of indiffer- 
ence and inefficieucy with regard to preserving me- 
morials of the races whom we have dispossessed and 
are dispossessing, and to promoting a thorough com- 
prehension of their history. Indian scholars and 
associations which devote themselves to gathering 
together and making public linguistic and other 
arch:£ological materials for construction of the proper 
ethnology of the continent are far rarer than they 
should be among us." 

A recent author ' has brought to notice in condensed 

1 Bancroft, in hja first edition, permits himself enough dalliance with 

the hypotbesia of a Ciilmnck or Mungoliiin immigration as to attempt 
to show that it was imt impossible, perhaps not improbahlc. Grotiiis, 
De Iiaet, etc., epecuhitcd with loss irifDrmntion ppihapg tlian our his- 
torian, and with more prejudices, but not more widuly from tlie purpose. 
Some writers luive assumed that the Plicciiicians and Carthaginians, be- 
cause they made adventurous voyages aud passed outsido the Straits of 
Hercules, must have como to America. Plati^'a myth of tiio AthuUidcs 
hafl been miulo (o do service in huuying up asunlcon continent out of 
Oie oozy depths of tho ocean and tlie niermaidcn grottoes of fintastic 
legend, Blcxicoand Peru, as has been iiifallibly shown limoaiid iigaiu, 
must Ijave got their monuments from E;;ypt or fri»m India,— Caniac, 
Luxor, Elephanta aro reprjduced at I'ali-ii(]iio and Cliolula 
and Cuzco. Aristullo is quoted to shuw that tho ancients muttt liavo 

form a number of references to the possible origin of 
the Indian races on this continent, which fully illus- 
trates the speculative theories indulged in by com- 
mentators upon the subject. The Indian tribes who 

had a knowledge of an intercuurse with America. Slight similarities 
of costume, face, and habits have been seized upon as eagerly as Penn 
seized upon the fact that the Indians counted time by moons (as if Penn 
himself did not do the same thing!) to establish relationship for our 
barbarians with the children of Israel, with tlie fugitive Canaanites, 
etc. The sons of Prince Bladoc of course liave not been neglected. 
White Indians in North Carolina spoke the purest sort of a Cymric dia- 
lect, and some of the Shawanese are reported tci have been seen carry iri^r 
around Welsh Bibles in tlie same belt along with their tomakawks and 
scalping-knives, Menassah Ben Israel concludes, upon the same snrt 
of data as those which convinced Penn, that the lost tribes emerged be- 
tween California and the Mississippi, but Spizelius and those who fol- 
lowed him in the last century were content to ascribe the origin of our 
Indians to a country less distant than the Levant. China, Tartary, Si- 
beria, and Kamtschatka, with the Aleutian archipelago, afforded a rnute for immigratinu. though no atiemiit is made to expUin 
how the hordes of savages were able to make their way through the 
frozen wastes of Alaska and British America. The fact that Leif, son 
of the Northman, ICric the Red, did discover America in the yearlOOO 
A.D, has make work for the pseudo-ethnologists as well as the poets in 
the scratchings on the Dighton rocks in Massachusetts, and the old mill 
at Newport, R. I., and has even led to the faciitious discovery of sup- 
posed inscriptions upon the face of the masses of Seneca sandstone at 
the falls of the Potomac. The Norsemen themselves encouraged the 
belief that on tlie Atlantic coast, between Virginia and Florida, a white 
nation existed, wiio clothed themselves in long, snowy robes, carried 
banners on lofty poles, and chanted songs and hymns. These were sup- 
posed to be the Irish immigrants, who replied in pure Gaelic when 
Raleigh's seamen accosted them, and spared Owen Chapebiin's life in 
1G69 because he spoke to them in Welsh, Alexander von Humboldt has 
condescended to listen to some of these fables, and to repeat them iu his 
Cosmos. The Chinese or Japanese settlement of our continent, by 
vessels coming over the Pacific Ocean, has found mauy advocates, Span- 
ish legends are adduced to confirm this view. M. de Guignes, in a 
memoir read before the French Academy of Inscriptions, contends that 
the Chinese penetrated to America A, D, 458, and adduces the description 
and chart of Fon Sang in proof. In our own day that ripe Philadelphia 
scholar, Charles G, Leland, has republished the story of the so-called 
island of Fou-Sang and its inhabitauts, De Guignee holds that the 
Chinese were familiar with the Straits of Magellan, and that theCoreans 
had a settlement on Terra del Fuego, Another Chinese immigration is 
assigned to xn. 1270, the time of the Tartar invasion of the " Ceutrat 
Flowery Kingdom." But there are other speculations still on this sub- 
ject, Thomas Morton, in his "New Canaan" (ad. 1037), argues for the 
Latin origin of the Indians, because he heard them use Latin words, 
and make allusions to the god Pan. Williamson thinks that the race 
unquestionably springs from a Hindoo or a Cingalese source, Thorow- 
good, Adair, and Coudinot agree with Penn and Rabbi hen Menasseh, 
Roger Williams also said, "Some taste of affinity with the Hebrew I 
have found." Cotton Mather thought that "probably tho Devil, seducing 
tho first inhabitants of America into it, therein aimed at the having of 
them and their posterity out of tlie sound of the silver trumpets of the 
gospel, then to bo heard throughout the Roman empire. If tho Devil 
had any expectation that by the peopling of America he should utterly 
deprive any Europeans of the two benefits, literature and religion, which 
dawned upon the miserable world (one just bef»re, tho other just after 
tho first Timed navigation hither), Uis to bo hoped ho will ho disap- 
pninted of tliat expectation," As for iho source of the Indians, Mather 
fancied them SL-ythians, because they answered Julius Cajsar's descrip- 
tion of "lUJfirVitts iiivenire qnam int^rficcre."^ But tho fact of idle aud 
comical opinions on this subject docs not destroy the interest in these 
speculations, nor tho utility of continuing our investigations, on a 
ratiiMial b;isis, into American nrchaiology, 

[Tho AlgonUiits, tho Lenni Lcnapes in Pennsylvania, were also vari- 
ously called irrtjjdiincti (European corruptions: Openaki, Ojjenagi, Abei^ 
agttis, ApcuaJcis). Tho Delaware regions appear to have boon their prin- 
cipal seat, though affiliated and derivative nations of their Rtocltwere 
found from Hudson's Bay to Florida, and from Lake Superior to Enat 
Tennessee, Forty tribes acknowledg'-d the Lonapes as grandfather or 
parout stock. Their ti'adltious, which arc not always authentic, relata 



dwelt among the primitive forests of Pennsylvania, 

as well as those of Delaware, New Jersey, and a part 
of Maryland, called themselves the Lenni Lenape, or 
the original people. This general name compre- 

that the tribe once upon a time dwelt in the far distant wilds of the 
West, whence they moved eastward towards sunrise by slow stages, often 
passinK a year in a single camp, l.nt eventually reaching tht- bank of the 
Namesi Sipu, the River of Fish (Mississippi), where they found the 
Mengwes or Iroquois, migrating like themselves, but who had de- 
scended from the northwest. The Lenape scouts reported the country 
east of the river to be held by a people called tlie AlU'yewi (whence the 
name Allegheny Kiver and Jlouutains), who were numerous, tall, stout, 
some of them giants, all dwelling in intrenched or fortified towns. The 
Lenape were denied leave to settle among the Allegewi.hut obtained 
permission to pass through their country. When they were half over 
the river, however, the AUegewi attacked and drove thera back with 
great loss. The Lenape now formed an alliance with the Mengwe ; the 
two natiiMis united forces, crossed the river, attacked the AUegewi, and 
after a long and desperate war defeated them and expelled them from 
their country, thejf iieeing southward. The conquered country was ap- 
jiortioned between the conquerors, the Mengwes choosing the northern 
part, along the lakes, the Lenapes choosing the more southern section, 
binding on both sides of the Ohio. Moving eastward still, they came 
finally to the Delaware River and the ocean, and them e spread beyond 
the Hudson on the north and beyond the Potomac on the south. This 
legend, however, ia full of inconsistencies and incompatibilities, and 
hardly answers to what was known of the condition and location of the 
great Algonkin race at the time of the first settlement of the whites 
among them. As to their origin as members of the human family, they 
have divers legends. Tliey claim to have come out of a cave in the earth, 
like the woodchuckand the chipmuck; to have sprung from a snail that 
wiig transforuied into a hunuin being and taught to hunt by a kind 
."Manitou, after which it was received into the ludgo of the beaver and 
married the beaver's favorite daughter. In another myth a woman is 
tliscovered hovering in mid-air above the watery waste of chaos. She 
lias fallen or been expelled from heaven, and there is no earth to offer her 
a resting-place. The tortoise, however, rose from the depths and put his 
broad, shield-like back at her service, and she descended upon it and 
made it lier abode, for its doroe-like oval resembled the first emergence 
of dry land from the waters of the deluge. The tortoise slept upon the 
deep, and round the margin of his shell the barnacles gathered, the 
scum of the sea collected, and the floating fragments of the shredded 
sea-weed accumulated until the dry land grew apace, and by and by 
there was all that broad expanse of island which now constitutes North 
America. The woman, weary of watching, worn out with sighs for her 
lonesoinenes^, dropped off into a tranquil slumber, and in that sleep she 
dreamed of a spirit who came to her from her lost home above the skies, 
anil of that dream the fruits were sons and daugliters, from whom have 
descended the human race. Another legend personifies the Great Spirit 
under the form of a gigantic bird that descended upon the face of the 
waters, and brooded there until the earth arose. Tlien the Spirit, exer- 
cising its creative power, made the plants atid animals, and lastly man, 
who was formed out of the integuments of the dog, and endowed with 
a magic arrow that was to be preserved with great care, for it was at 
once a blessing and a safeguard. But the man carelessly lost the arrow, 
whereupon the Spirit soared away upon its bird-like wings and was no 
longer seen, and man had henceforth to hunt and struggle for his live- 
lihood. Manabozho, relates the general Algonkin tradition, created the 
different tribes of red men out of the carcasses of different animals, the 
beaver, the eagle, the wolf, the serpent, the tortoise, etc. Manabozho, 
Messon, Jlichahoo, or Nanabush is a demi-god who works the metamor- 
phoses of nature. He is the king of all the beasts; his father was the 
west wind, his mother the moon's great-grandfather, and sometimes he 
appears in the form of a wolf or a bird, but his usual shape is that of the 
Gigantic Hare. Often Manabozho masquerades in the figure of a man 
of great endowments and ninjeetic stature, when he is a magician after 
the order of Prospero ; but when he takes the form of some impish elf, 
then he is more tricksy than Ariel, and more full of hobgoblin devices 
than Puck. " His powers of transformation are without limit; his 
curitsity and malice are insatiable ;" he has inspired a tliousand 
legends; he is the central figure in the fairy realm of the Indian, 
which, indeed, is not very fully nor genially peopled. Manabozho is 
the restorer of the world, submerged by a deluge which the serpent- 
mauitous have caused. Manabozho climbs a tree, saves himself, and 

handed numerous distinct tribes, all speaking dialects 
of a common language (the Algonkin), and uniting 
around the same great council-fire. Their grand 
council-house, to use their own expressive figure, ex- 
tended from the eastern bank of the Hudson on the 
northeast to the Potomac on the southwest. Many 
of the tribes were directly descended from the com- 
mon stock; others, having sought their sympathy 
and protection, had been allotted a section of their 
territory. The surrounding tribes not of this confed- 
eracy, nor acknowledging allegiance to it, agreed in 
awarding to them the honor of being the grayidfatherf-; 
that is, the oldest residents in this region. There 
was an obscure tradition among the Lenni Lenape 
that in ages past their ancestors had emigrated east 
ward from the Mississippi, conquering or expelling 
on their route that great and apparently more civil- 
ized nation whose monuments, in the shape of 
mounds, are so profusely scattered over the great 
Western valley, and of which several also remain in 
Pennsylvania along the western slope of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. The Lenni Lenape nation was 
divided into three principal divisions, — the Unamis, 
or Turtle tribes j the Unalachtgos, or Turkeys; and 
the Monseys, or Wolf tribes. The two former occu- 
pied the country along the coast between the sea and 
the Kittatinny or Blue Mountain, their settlement 
extending as far east as the Hudson and as far west as 
the Potomac. These were generally known among 
the whites as the Delaware Indians. The Monseys, 
or Wolf tribes, the most active and warlike of the 
whole, occupied the mountainous country between 
the Kittatinny Mountain and the sources of the Sus- 
quehanna and Delaware Rivers, kindling their coun- 
cil-fire at the Minisink flats on the Delaware above 
the Water Gap. A part of the tribe also dwelt on the 
Susquehanna, and they had also a village and a peach- 
orchard in the Forks of the Delaware, where Naza- 
reth is now situated. These three principal divisions 
were divided into various subordinate clans, who as- 
sumed names suited to their character or situation. 

The Shawanos, or Shawanees, a restless and fero- 
cious tribe, having been threatened with extermina- 
tion by a more powerful tribe at the South, sought 
protection among the friendly nations of the North, 
whose language was observed to bear a remarkable 
affinity with their own. A majority of them settled 
along the Ohio, from the Wabash to near Pittsburgh. 
A portion was received under the protection of the 
Lenni Lenapes, and permitted to settle near the Forks 
of the Delaware and on the flats below Philadelphia. 
But they soon became troublesome neighbors, and 
were removed by the Delawares (or possibly by the 

sends a loon to dive for mud from which he can make a new world. 
The loon fails to reach the bottom ; the muskrat, which next attempts 
the feat, returns lifeless to the surface, but with a little sand in the 
bottom of its paw, from which the Great Hare is able to recreate the 
world. In other legends the otter and beaver dive in vain, but the 
muskrat succeeds, losing his life in the attempt.]— Sc/i<«/'? History oj 



Six Nations) to the Susquehanna Valley, where they 
had a village at the Shawnee flats, below Wilkesbarre, 
on the west side of the river. During the Revolu- 
tion and the war of 1812 their name became con- 
spicuous in the history of the Northern frontier. 
The Lenni Leuape tribes consisted, at the first settle- 
ment of Pennsylvania, of the A.ssunpink, or Stony 
Creek Indians; the Rankokas (Lamikas or Chiche- 
quaas) ; Andastakas, at Christiana Creek, near Wil- 
mington; Neshaminies, in Bucks County; Shacka- 
maxons, about Kensington; Mantas, or Frogs, near 
Burlington; the Tuteloes and Nanticokes, in Mary- 
land and Virginia (the latter afterwards removed up 
the Susquehanna) ; the Monseys, or Minisinks, near 
the Forks of the Delaware; the Mandes and the Nar- 
riticongs, near the Raritan ; the Capitanasses, the 
Gacheos, the Monseys, and the Pomptons, in New 
Jersey. A few scattered clans or warlike hordes of 
the Mingoes were living here and there among the 
Lenapes. Another great Indian confederacy claims 
attention, whose acts have an important bearing upon 
the history of Pennsylvania. This confederacy was 
originally known in the annals of New York as the 
Five Nations, and subsequently, after they had been 
joined by the Tuscaroras, as the Six Nations. As 
confederates they called themselves Aquanuschioni, 
or United People. By the Lenapes they were called 
Mengue, or Mingoes, and by the French the Iroquois. 
The original Five Nations were the Onondagas, the 
Cayugas, the Oneidas, the Seuecas, and the Mohawks. 
In 1712 the Tuscaroras, being expelled from the in- 
terior of North Carolina and Virginia, were adopted 
as a sixth tribe. The language of all the tribes of 
the confederacy, except the Tuscaroras, was radically 
the same, and different from that of the Lenni Lenape. 
Their dominion stretched from the borders of Ver- 
mont to Lake Erie, and from Lake Ontario to the 
head-waters of the Allegheny, Susquehanna, and 
Delaware Rivers. This territory they styled their 
long house. The grand council-fire was held in the 
Onondaga Valley. The Seneeas guarded the western 
door of the house, the Mohawks the eastern, and the 
Cayugas the southern, or that which o])ened upon the 
Susquehanna. The Mohawk nation was the first in 
rank, and to it appertained the office of principal war 
chief; to the Onondagas, who guarded the grand 
council-fire, appertained in like manner the office of 
lirincipal civil chief, or chief sachem. The Seneeas, 
in numbers and military energy, were the most pow- 

The peculiar location of the Iroquois gave them 
an immense advantage. On the great channels of 
water conveyance, to which their territories are con- 
tiguous, they were enabled in all directions to carry 
war and devastation to the neighboring or to the 
more distant nations. Nature had endowed them 
with a height, strength, and symmetry of person 
which distinguished them at a glance among the in- 
dividuals of other tribes. They were as brave as they 

were strong, but ferocious and cruel when excited in 
savage warfare; crafty, treacherous, and over-reach- 
ing when these qualities best suited their purpose. 
The proceedings of their grand council were marked 
with great decorum and solemnity. In eloquence, 
in dignity, and profound policy their speakers might 
well bear comparison with the statesmen of civilized 
assemblies. By an early alliance with the Dutch on 
the Hudson they secured the use of fire-arms, and 
were thus enabled not only to repel the encroach- 
ments of the French, but also to exterminate or re- 
duce to a state of vassalage many Indian nations. 
From these they exacted an annual tribute or ac- 
knowledgment of fealty, permitting them, however, 
on that condition to occupy their former hunting- 
grounds. " The humiliation of tributary nations 
was, however, tempered with a paternal regard for 
their interests in all negotiations with the whites, 
and care was taken that no trespasses should be com- 
mitted on their rights, and that they should be justly 
dealt with." To this condition of vassalage the Lenni 
Lenape or Delaware nation had been reduced by the 
Iroquois, as the latter asserted, by conquest. The 
Lenapes, however, smarting under the humiliation, 
invented for the whites a cunning tale in explanation, 
whicli they succeeded in imposing upon the worthy 
and venerable Mr. Heckewelder, the Moravian mis- 
sionary. Their story was that by treaty and by vol- 
untary consent they had agreed to act as mediators 
and peace-makers among the other great nations, 
and to this end they had consented to lay aside en- 
tirely the implements of war, and to hold and to keej) 
bright the chain of peace. This, among individual 
tribes, was the usual province of women. The Dela- 
wares therefore alleged that they were figuralivety 
termed women on this account; but the Iroquois 
evidently called them women in quite another sense. 
" They always alleged that the Delawares were con- 
quered by their arms, and were compelled to this 
humiliating concession as the only means of averting 
impending destruction." In the course of time, how- 
ever, the Delawares were enabled to throw off the 
galling yoke, and at Tioga, in the year 1756, Teedy- 
uscung e.xtorted from the Iroquois chiefs an acknowl- 
edgment of their independence. This peculiar rela- 
tion between the Indian nation that occupied, and 
that which claimed a paramount jurisdiction over, 
the soil of Pennsylvania tended greatly to embarrass 
and complicate the negotiations of the Proprietary 
government for the purchase of lands, and its influ- 
ence was seen and felt both in the civil and military 
history of Pennsylvania until after the close of the 

George Alsop, in bis tract called '" A Character of 
the Province of Maryland" (London, 1666), devotes 
a chapter to " A Relation of the Customs, Manners, 
Absurdities, and Religion of the Susquehaunock In- 
dians in and near Maryland." These were the 
Mengwes of Campanius, and the Susquesahannoughs 



of Capt. Smith. Alsop says they are regarded as " the 
most Noble and Heroick Nation of Indians that dwell 
upon the confines of America; also are so allowed 
and loolct U[)on by the rest of the Indians, by a sub- 
mission and tributary acknowledgment, being a people 
cast into the mould of a most large and warlike de- 
portment, the men being for the most part seven foot 
high in altitude and in magnitude and bulk suitable 
to so high a pitch ; their voyce large and hollow, as 
ascending out of a Cave, their gate and behavior 
straight, steady, and majestick, treading on the Earth 
with as much pride, contempt, and disdain to so sordid 
a Centre as can be imagined from a creature derived 
from the same mould and Earth." They go naked 
summer and winter, says Alsop, " only where shame 
leads them by a natural instinct to be reservedly 
modest, there they become cover'd. The formality of 
Jezabel's artificial Glory is much courted and followed 
by these Indians, only in matter of colours (I con- 
ceive) they differ." They paint tlieir faces in alter- 
nate streaks of different colors, and Alsop thinks, with 
other early writers, that their skins are naturally 
white but changed to red and cinnamon-brown by the 
use of pigments. Their hair is "black, long, and 
liarsh," and they do not permit it to grow anywhere 
except upon the head. Tiie Susquehannas tattooed 
their arms and breasts with their different totems, 
"the picture of the Devil, Bears, Tigers, and Pan- 
thers. They are great warriors, always at war, and 
keep their neighbors in subjection." Their govern- 
ernment is complex and hard to make out; "all that 
ever I could observe in them as to this matter is, that 
he that is most cruelly Valorous is accounted the most 
Noble," which is a very good approximation of the 
fact that the war-chief derives his rank or influence 
from his deeds. Our author adds that when they 
determine to go upon some Design that will and doth 
require a consideration, some six of them get into a 
Corner and sit in Juncto, and if thought fit their 
business is made popular and immediately put in ac- 
tion ; if not, they make a full stop to it, and are 
silently reserv'd. On the war-path they paint and 
adorn their persons, first well greased ; their arms, 
the hatchet and fusil, or bow and arrows. Their war 
parties are small; they march out from their fort 
singing and whooping; if they take prisoners they 
treat them well, but dress them and anoint them so 
that they may be ready for the stake and torture when 
their captors return home. Alsop gives a full account 
of the jirocess of torture, and declares that prisoners 
are hacked to pieces and eaten by the warriors. The 
religion of the Susquehannas Alsop regarded as an 
absurd and degrading superstition, they being devil- 
worshipers; but he admits that, "with a kind of 
wilde imaginary conjecture, they suppose from their 
groundless conceits that the World had a Maker." 
They sacrifice a child to the devil every four years, 
and their medicine-men have great influence among 
them. Their dead are buried sitting, face due west, 

and all their weapons, etc., around them. The houses 
of the Susquehannas "are low and long, built with 
the bark of trees arch-wise, standing thick and con- 
fusedly together." The hunters go on long winter 
liunts; the women are the menials and drudges, and 
yet they are commended for their beauty of form, and 
their husbands are said to be very constant to them. 
"Their marriages," says Alsop, in conclusion, "are 
short and authentique ; for after 'tis resolv'd upon by 
both parties, the Woman sends her intended Husband 
a kettle of boil'd Venison, or Bear, and lie returns in 
lieu thereof Beaver or Otter Skins, and so their Nup- 
tial Rites are concluded without other Ceremony." 

The Rev. John Campanius, Swedish chaplain of 
Governor Printz, and who resided on Tinicum Island, 
near tlio mouth of the Schuylkill, from 1642 to 16-18, 
gives us in his " NyaSwerige" an excellent account 
of the Indians, which contains information we have 
been unable to find in any other work. What adds 
to the interest of his description is, that he wrote 
it from his own actual observations, and that, too, at 
a period dating back nearly to the first landing of the 
Europeans in this part of the country. His arrival 
here was forty years previous to the first landing of 
Penn, or two years before the founder of the colony 
was born. On account of the rarity of Mr. Campa- 
nius' work and its appropriateness, we give place to 
the following extract : 

" Their way of living was very simple. With ar- 
rows, pointed with sharp stones, they killed the deer 
and other creatures. They made axes from stones, 
which they fastened to a stick, to kill the trees where 
they intended to plant. They cultivated the ground 
with a sort of hoe made from the shoulder-blade of a 
deer or a tortoise-shell, sharpened with stones and 
fastened to a stick. They made pots of clay, mixed 
with powdered mussel-shells burned in fire, to pre- 
pare their food in. By friction they made fire from 
two pieces of hard wood. The trees they burnt down 
and cut into pieces for firewood. On journeys they 
carried fire a great ways in spunk, or sponges found 
growing on tlie trees. They burned down great trees, 
and shaped them into canoes by fire and the help of 
sharp stones. Men and women were dressed in skins; 
the women made themselves under-garments of wild 
hemp, of which also they made twine to knit the 
feathers of turkeys, eagles, etc., into blankets. The 
earth, the woods, and the rivers were the provision 
stores of the Indians ; for they eat all kinds of wild 
animals and productions of the earth, fowls, birds, 
fishes, and fruits, which they find within their reach. 
They shoot deer, fowls, and birds with the bow and 
arrow; they take the fishes in the same manner; 
when the waters are high the fish run up the creeks 
and return at ebb-tide, so that the Indians can easily 
shoot them at low water and drag them ashore." 

"They eat, generally , but twice a day, morning 
and afternoon ; the earth serves them for tables and 
chairs. They sometimes broil their meat and their 



fish, other times dry them in the sun, or in the 
smoke, and thus eat them. They make bread out of 
the maize or Indian corn, which they prepare in a 
manner peculiar to themselves : they crush the grain 
between two great stones, or on a large piece of wood; 
they moisten it with water, and make it into small 
cakes, which they wrap up in corn-leaves, and thus 
bake them in the ashes. In this manner they make 
their bread. The Swedes made use of it when they 
first came. They can fast, when necessity compels 
them, for many days. When traveling, or lying in 
wait for their enemies, they take with them a kind 
of bread made of Indian corn and tobacco juice, to 
allay their hunger and quench their thirst in case 
they have nothing else at hand. The drink, before 
the Christians came into this country, was nothing 
but water, but now they are very fond of strong 
liquors. Both men and women smoke tobacco, 
which grows in their country in great abundance. 
They have, besides corn, beans, and pumpkins, a sort 
of original dogs with short pointed ears. 

" The American Indians had no towns or fixed 
places of habitation. They mostly wandered about 
from one place to another, and generally went to 
those places where they could find the most likely 
means of support. In spring and summer they pre- 
ferred the banks of rivers, where they found plenty 
offish ; but in winter they went up into the country, 
where they found abundance of venison. When they 
travel, they carry their game with them wherever 
they go, and fix it on poles, under which they dv^ell. 
When they want fire they strike it out of a piece of 
dry wood, of which they find plenty ; and in that 
manner they are never at a loss for fire to warm 
themselves, or to cook their meat. Their principal 
articles of furniture are a kettle, in which they boil 
their meat, and some dishes or plates of bark and 
cedar-wood, out of which they eat ; for drinking they 
use commonly the shell of the calabash. 

" When a Christian goes to visit them in their 
dwellings, they immediately spread on the ground 
pieces of cloth and fine mats or skins ; then they 
produce the best they have, as bread, deer, elk, or 
bear's meat, fresh fish and bear's fat, to serve in lieu 
of butter, which they generally broil upon the coals. 
These attentions must not be despised, but must be 
received with thankfulness, otherwise their friendship 
will turn to hatred. When an Indian visits his friend, 
a Christian, he must always uncover his table at the 
lower end, for the Indian will have his liberty ; and 
he will immediately jump upon the table, and sit on 
it with his legs crossed, for they are not accustomed 
to sit upon chairs ; he then asks for whatever he 
would like to eat of When the Swedes first arrived 
the Indians were in the habit of eating the fiesh of 
their enemies. Once on an occasion they invited a 
Swede to go with them to their habitation in the 
woods, where they treated him with the best the 
house afforded. Their entertainment was sumptuous ; 

there was broiled, boiled, and even hashed meat, all 
of which the Swede partook with them, but it seems 
it did not well agree with him. The Indians, how- 
ever, did not let him know what he had been eating; 
but it was told him some time after by some other 
Indians, who let him know that he had fed on the 
flesh of an Indian of a neighboring tribe with whom 
they were at war." 

The earliest purchase by Penn of any part of what 
now constitutes Montgomery County was made the 
25th of June, 1683, of Wingebone, for all his right to 
lands lying on the west side of the Schuylkill, begin- 
ning at the lower falls of the same, and so on up and 
backwards of said stream as far as his right goes. The 
next purchase was made the 14th of July of the same 
year, from Secane and Idquoquehan and others, for 
all the land lying between the Manayunk or Schuyl- 
kill River and Macopanackhan or Chester River, and 
up as far as the Conshohocken Hill, which is opposite 
the present borough of that name. On the same day 
another purchase was made of Neneshickan, Male- 
bore, Neshanocke, and Oscreneon for the lands lying 
between the Schuylkill and Pennepack streams, and 
extending as fiir northwest as Conshohocken, but now 
better known as Edge Hill. On the 3d of June, 1684, 
all the right of Maughhongsink to the land along the 
Perkiomen Creek was duly sold and conveyed. On 
the 7th of the same month and year, Mettamicont 
relinquished all his right to lands on both sides of 
the Pennepack. July 30, 1685, Shakhoppa, Secane, 
Malebore, and Tangoras conveyed all their right to 
lands situated between Chester and Pennepack Creeks, 
and extending up into the country, in a northwest 
direction from the sources of those streams, two full 
days' journey. This almost takes in the whole of the 
county, excepting only that portion lying east of the 
Pennepack Creek. July 5, 1697, another purchase 
was made from Tamany, Weheeland, Wehequeekhon, 
Yaqueekhon, and Quenamockquid for all their right 
to lands lying between the Pennepack and Neshaminy 
Creeks, and extending in a northwest direction from 
the Delaware as far as a horse could travel in two 
days. Thus was finally extinguished by purchase all 
the right and title of the Indians to any portion of 
the soil now embraced within the limits of Montgom- 
ery County. 

An Indian council was held by previous appoint- 
ment at the house of Edward Farmer, where is now 
the village of White Marsh, on the 19th of May, 1712. 
The Governor, Charles Gookin, was present, with the 
sheriff, John Budd, Conrad Richard Walker, and 
others. A delegation of eleven Delaware Indians 
was present, Sassunan being the principal chief, ac- 
companied by Ealochelan and Scholichy, the latter 
being speaker. Edward Farmer, who was quite fa- 
miliar with the Indian language, performed the duties 
of interpreter, ^cholichy, in his address to the Gov- 
ernor, mentioned that as the Delawares had been 
made tributary to the Mingoes, or Five Nations, many 



years ago, they had tliought proper to call on him 
previous to their seeing those tribes, and that they 
had brought their tribute along, wliich was duly pre- 
sented to the Governor, and consisted of thirty-two 
belts of wampum,^ of various figures, and a long In- 
dian pipe called the calumet, made of stone, the shaft 
of which was adorned with feathers resembling wings, 
besides other ornaments. Their business was amicably 
adjusted to the entire satisfaction of all parties. On 
this occasion the Governor and his friends, thirteen 
in number, came from Philadelphia on horseback. 

Of their true character, tribal relations, habits of 
daily life and customs, William Penn has given us 
graphic pictures. His colonial enterprise necessarily 
comprehended contact with the race possessing the 

1 Wampum passed as current money between the early whites ami 
Indians. There were two kinds of it, the white and purple. They 
were both workerfinto the form of heads, generally each iiboiit half an 
inch long, and one-eighth broad, with a hule drilled through them hi» as 
tu be strung on leather or hempen strings. The white was made out of 
the great couch or sea-shell, and the purple out of the inside of the 
Miussel-shell. These beads, we shall call them, after being strung, were 
next woven by the Indian women into belts, sometimes broader than a 
person's hand, and about two feet long. It was these that were given 
and received at their various treaties as seals of friendship ; in matters 
uf less importance only a single string was given. Two pieces of white 
wampum were considered to equal in value one of the purple. The 
calumel was a large smoking-pipe, made out of some soft stone, com- 
monly of a dark-red color, well polished, and shaped somewhat in the 
form of a hatchet, and ornamented with large feathers of several colors. 
It was used in all their treaties with the whites, and it was considered 
by them as a Hag of truce between contending parties, which it would 
be a liigh crime to violate. In fact, the calumet by them was consirl- 
ered as sacred and as serious an obligation as an oath among the Chris- 

The value of Indian lauds at that time to the savages nmy be gath- 
ered from tlie price paid in 1677 for twenty miles square on the Dela- 
ware between Timber and Oldman's Creeks, to wit. : '-iO match-coats (made 
of hairy wool with the rough side out), 2U guns, 30 kettles.l great kettle, 
iJOpair of hose, 20 fathoms of duflfels (Duffield blanket cloth, of which 
match-coats were made), 30 petticoats, 30 narrow hoes, 30 bars of lead, 
15 smalt barrels of powder, 70 knives, 30 Indian axes, 70 combs. GO pair 
of tobacco tongs, 60 pair of scissors, 60 tinshaw looking-glasses, 12(< 
awl-blades, 120 fish-hooks, 2 grasps of red paint, 120 needles, fiO tobacco- 
lK)xe8, 120 pipes, 2U0 bells, 100 jews-harpa, and 6 anchors of rum. Tlio 
value of these articles probably did not exceed three hundred pounds 
bteiling. But, on the other hand, the Indian titles were really worth 
nothing, except so far as they served as a security against Indian hos- 
tility. It has been said that there is not an acre of larul in the eastern 
part of Pennsylvania the deeds of which cannot be traced up to an 
Indian title, but that in effect would he no title at all. Mr. Lawrence 
Lewis, in his learned and luminous " Essay on Original Land Titles in 
Philadelphia," denies this absolutely, and says that it is " impossible to 
trace with any accuracy" the titles to hind in Philadelphia derived from 
the iTidians. Nor is it necessary to trace a title which is nf no value. 
The Indians could not sell land to individuals and give valid title for it 
in any of the colonies; they could sell if they chose, but only U) the 
government. Upon this subject the lawyers are explicit. All good 
titles in the thirteen original colonies are derived from land-grants, 
made or accepted not by the Indians, but by the British crown. Thus 
Chalmers (Political Annals, 677) say*, "The law of nations sternly 
disregarded the ptjssession of the aborigines, because they had not been 
admitted into the society of nations." At the Declaration of Independ- 
ence (see Dallas' Reports, ii. 470) every acre of land in this country was 
held, mediately oi" immediately, by grants from the crown. All oiir 
institutions (Wheaton, viii. 588) recognize the absolute title of the 
crown, subject only to the Indian right of occupancy, and recognize 
The absolute title of the crown to extinguish that right. An Indian 
conveyance alone could give no title to an individual. (The references 
here given are quoted from the accurate Frothingham's *' Uise of the 

territory granted to him by his royal benefactor; his 
intercourse with them was studied to the extent of 
acquiring a knowledge of their language, hence his 
observations are of more than usual interest. 


" The natives are proper and shapely, very swift, 
their language lofty. They speak little, but fervently 
and with elegancy. I have never seen more naturall 
sagacity, considering them without y* help — I was 
going to say y^ spoyle — of tradition. The worst is 
that they are y'" wors for y* Christians who have propa- 
gated their views and yielded them tradition for y*^ 
wors & not for y^ better things, they believe a Deity 
and Immortality without y*" help of metaphysicks & 
some of them admirably sober, though y' Dutch & 
Sweed and English have by Brandy and Rum almost 
Debaucht y"* all and when Drunk ye most wretched 
of spectacles, often burning & sometimes murdering 
one another, at which times y^ Christians are not with- 
out danger as well as fear. Tho' for gain they will 
run the hazard both of y' and y* Law, they make their 
worshipp to consist of two parts, sacrifices w*" they offer 



of their first fruits with marvellous fervency and la- 
bour of holy sweating as if iu a bath, the other is their 
Canticoes, as they call them, w"^*" is performed by round 
Dances, sometimes words, then songs, then shouts, two 
being in ye midle y' begin and direct y" chorus ; this 
they jierforme with equal fervency but great appear- 
ances of joy. In this I admire them, nobody shall 
want w' another has, yett they have propriety (prop- 
erty) but freely communicable, they want or care for 
little, no Bills of Exchange nor Bills of Lading, no 
Chaacery suits nor Exchequer Acct, have they to per- 
plex themselves with, they are soon satisfied, and 
their pleasure feeds them, — I mean hunting and fish- 

This letter is made much more full in the one to 
the Free Society of Traders, written in August of the 
same year. The natives, Penn says, are generally 
tall, straight in their person, " well built, and of sin- 
gular proportion [/.c, of symmetry] ; they tread strong 
and clever, and mostly walk with a lofty chin.' Of 
complexion black, but by design, as the gipsies in 
England. They grease themselves with bear's fat 
clarified, and using no defence against sun and weather, 
their skins must needs be swarthy. Their eye is livid 
and black, not unlike a straight-looked Jew. The 
thick lips and flat nose, so frequent with the East 
Indians and black, are not common to them ; for I 
have seen as comely European-like faces among them, 
of both sexes, as on your side the sea ; and truly an 
Italian complexion hath not more of the white; and 
the noses of several of them have as much of the 
Roman. Their language is lofty, yet narrow ; but, 
like the Hebrew, in signification full. Like short- 
hand in writing, one word serveth in the place of 
three, and the rest are supplied by the understanding 
of the hearer; imperfect in their tenses, wanting in 
their moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, and 
interjections. I have made it my business to under- 
stand it, that I miglit not want an interpreter on any 
occasion ; and I must say that I know not a language 
spoken in Europe that hath words of more sweetness 
or greatness, in accent and emphasis, than theirs ; for 

1 Penn had noticed a singularity in the Indians' gait, yet did not detect 
what it was; yet it is so obvious tliat a few years back, in Kentucliy, 
where the people still walk like the Indians, even a school-boy would 
recognize a person from the E;i3t by differences in his way of walking 
from the way of those to the manner born. The Indian steps with a 
perfectly straight foot and without turning his toes out, so that if the 
sun were upon his back the shadow of bis shanks would entirely cover 
his feet. This tread U the antithesis of that of the sailor, who walks 
with his toes very much turnetl out, and the European and tlie Eastern 
man walks like him. In both cases convenience and propriety are suited: 
the sailor, by his mode oT locomotion, is enabled to tread more firmly and 
safely upon an uncertain deck that is always uneasy; the Indian, by 
his mode, is able to walk more safely the narrow forest path, and to step 
also with greater stealth and softness in pursuit of his enemy and his 
game where leaves to rustle and twigs to break are numerous. But the 
difference is that the sailor "rolls" in his gait and his slionlders swing 
from side to side, while the Indian's walk makes him carry himself sin- 
gularly straight, his shoulders never diverging frtim a i>erpendicular. 
This little circumstance added materially to the outward appearance of 
;jravity in the savage's general demeanor. 

instance, Octockekon, Rancocas, Oricton, Shak, Mar- 
ian, Poquesian, all which are names of places, and 
have grandeur in them. Of words of sweetness, anna 
is mother ; issimus, a brother ; nefeap, friend ; iw- 
qiieoret, very good ; pane, bread ; mefsa, eat ; mattu, 
no ; halta, to have ; payo, to come ; Sepassen, Passijon, 
the names of places ; Tamane, Secane, Menanse, Seca- 
tareus are the names of persons. If one ask them 
for anything they have not, they will answer, matta 
ne hatta, which, to translate, is 'not I have,' instead 
of ' I have not.' 

" Of their customs and manners there is much to be 
said. I will begin with children. So soon as they 
are born they wash them in water, and while very 
young and in cold weather to choose, they plunge 
them in the rivers to harden and embolden them. 
Having wrapt them in a clout, they lay them on a 
strait thin board a little more than the length and 
breadth of the child, and swaddle it fast upon the 
board to make it straight; wherefore all Indians have 
flat heads ; and thus they carry them at their backs. 
The children will go [walk] very young, at nine 
months commonly. They wear only a small clout 
around their waist till they are big. If boys, they go 
a-fishing till ripe for the woods, which is about fifteen. 
There they hunt; and having given some proofs of 
their manhood by a good return of skins, they marry; 
else it is a shame to think of a wife. The girls stay 
with their mothers, and help to hoe the ground, plant 
corn, and carry burthens; and they do well to use 
them to that, while young, which they must do when 
they are old; for the wives are the true servants of 
the husbands ; otherwise the men are very afl'ectionate 
to them. When the young women are fit for marriage 
they wear something upon their heads for an adver- 
tisement, but so as their faces are hardly to be seen 
but when they please. The age they marry at, if 
women, is about thirteen and fourteen ; if men, seven- 
teen and eighteen. They are rarely older. Their 
houses are mats or barks of trees, set on poles in the 
fashion of an English barn, but out of the power of 
the winds, for they are hardly higher than a man. 
They lie on reeds or grass. In travel they lodge in 
the woods about a great fire, with the mantle of duffils 
they wear by day wrapt about them and a few boughs 
stuck round them. Their diet is maize or Indian corn 
divers ways prepared, sometimes roasted in the aslies, 
sometimes beaten and boiled with water, which they 
call homine. They also make cakes not unpleasant to 
eat. They have likewise several sorts of beans and 
peas that are good nourishment, and the woods and 
rivers are their larder. If an European comes to see 
them, or calls for lodging at their house or wigwam, 
they give him the best place and first cut. If they 
come to visit us they salute us with an Itah .' which is 
as much as to say, ' Good be to you !' and set them 
down, which is mostly on the ground, close to their 
heels, their legs upright; it may be they speak not a 
word, but observe all passages [all that passes]. If 



you give them anything to eat or drink, well, for they 
will not ask ; and, be it little or much, if it be with 
kindness, they are well pleased; else they go away 
sullen, but say nothing. They are great concealers 
of their own resentments, brought to it, I believe, by 
the revenge that hath been practiced among them. 
In either of these they are not exceeded by the 
Italians. A tragical instance fell out since I came 
into the country. A king's daughter, thinking her- 
self slighted by her husband in suffering another 
woman to lie down between them, rose up, went out, 
plucked a root out the ground, and ate it, upon which 
she immediately died ; and for which, last week, he 
made an ofl'ering to her kindred for atonement and 
liberty of marriage, as two others did to the kindred 
of their wives, who died a natural death ; for till 
widowers have done so they must not marry again. 
Some of the young women are said to take undue 
liberty before marriage for a portion ; but when mar- 
ried, chaste. When with child they know their 
husbands no more till delivered ; and during their 
month they touch no meat, they eat but with a stick, 
lest they should defile it; nor do their husbands fre- 
quent them till that time be expired. 

" But in liberality they e.xcel ; nothing is too good 
for their friend ; give them a fine gun, coat, or other 
thing, it may pass through twenty hands before it 
sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon 
spent. The most merry creatures that live, feast and 
dance perpetually ; they never have much, nor want 
much; wealth circulateth like the blood; all poets 
partake ; and though none shall want what another 
hath, yet exact observers of property. Some kings 
have sold, others presented me with several parcels 
of land ; the pay or presents I made them were not 
hoarded by the particular owners ; but the neigh- 
boring kings and their clans being present when the 
goods were brought out, the parties chiefly concerned 
consulted what and to whom they should give them. 
To every king then, by the hands of a person for that 
work appointed, is a proportion sent, so sorted and 
folded, and with that gravity that is admirable. Then 
that king subdivideth it in like manner among his 
dependants, they hardly leaving themselves an equal 
share with one of their subjects; and be it on such 
occasions as festivals, or at their common meals, the 
kings distribute, and to themselves last. They care 
for little, because they want but little ; and the reason 
is, a little contents them. In this they are sufficiently 
revenged on us; if they are ignorant of our pleasures, 
they are also free from our pains. . . . Since the 
Europeans came into these parts they are grown great 
lovers of strong liquors, rum especially, and for it 
they exchange the richest of their skins and furs. If 
they are heated with liquors they are restless till they 
have enough to sleep, — that is their cry. Some more 
and I will go to sleep ; but when drunk one of the most 
wretched spectacles in the world ! 
" In sickness, impatient to be cured ; and for it give 

anything, especially for their children, to whom they 
are extremely natural. They drink at these times a 
<is(in, or decoction of some roots in spring-water; and 
if they eat any flesh it must be of the female of any 
creature. If they die they bury them with their ap- 
parel, be they man or woman, and the nearest of kin 
fling in something precious with them as a token of 
their love. Their mourning is blacking of their faces, 
which they continue for a year. They are choice of 
the graves of their dead, for, lest they should be lost 
by time and fall to common use, they pick off the 
grass that grows upon them, and heap up the fallen 
earth with great care and exactness. These poor 
people are under a dark night in things relating to 
religion ; to be sure the tradition of it; yet they be- 
lieve a God and immortality without the help of 
metaphysics, for they say, 'There is a Great King 
that made them, who dwells in a glorious country to 
the southward of them, and that the souls of the good 
shall go thither where they shall live again.' Their 
worship consists of two parts, sacrifice and cantico. 
Their sacrifice is their first fruits; the first and fattest 
buck they kill goeth to the fire, where he is all burnt, 
with a mournful ditty of hini that performeth the 
ceremony, but with such marvellous fervency and 
labor of body that he will even sweat to a foam. The 
other part is their cantico, performed by round 
dances, sometimes words, sometimes songs, then 
shouts, two being in the middle that begin, and by 
singing and drumming on a board direct the chorus. 
Their postures in the dance are very antick and dif- 
ering, but all keep measure. This is done with equal 
earnestness and labor, but great appearance of joy. 
In the fall, when the corn cometh in, they begin to 
feast one another. There have been two great fes- 
tivals already, to which all come that will. I was at 
one myself; their entertainment was a great seat by 
a spring under some shady trees, and twenty bucks, 
with hot cakes of new corn, both wheat and beans, 
which they make up in a square form in the leaves 
of the stem and bake them in the ashes, and after 
that they fall to dance. But they that go must carry 
a small present in their money ; it may be sixpence, 
which is made of the bone of a fish ; the black is with 
them as gold, the white silver ; they call it all wampum. 
"Their government is Kings, which they call 
Sachama, and these by succession, but always on 
the mother's side.' For instance, the children of 

1 Notwithstanding this mode of succession of their kings, yet for ex- 
traordinary reasons it was sometimes altered, of which appears an in- 
stance in S.Smilli's" History of New Jersey," in the case of the old 
Iting Oclianiclcon, who died at Burlington, in that province, about the 
je:irl681. Before his death he altered the succession, and instead of 
' Sheopi)y and Swampis, who, in regular order, were to have succeeded 
him, lie, for reasons in his speech there given, appointed his brother's 
son, Fahkurfoe, to succeed him, giving him some excellent advice on 
the occasion. This king, as there related, soon after this made a good 
and pious exit, and his remains were interred in the Quakers' burying- 
j ground at that place, being aUended to the grave with solemnity by the 
I Indians, in their manncr.and with great respect by many ofthe English 
settlers, to whom be had been a true friend. 



him who is now king will not succeed, but his 
brother by the mother, or the children of his sister, 
whose sons (and after them the children of her 
daughters) will reign, for woman inherits. The 
reason they render for this way of descent is, that 
their issue may not be spurious. Every King hath 
his Council, and that consists of all the old and wise 
men of his nation, which, perhaps, is two hundred 
people. Nothing of moment is undertaken, be it 
war, peace, selling of land, or traffick, without ad- 
vising with them, and, which is more, with the young 
men too. It is admirable to consider how powerful 
the Kings are, and yet how they move by the breath 
of their people. I have had occasion to be in coun- 
cil with them upon treaties of land, and to adjust the 
terms of trade. Their order is thus : The king sits in 
the middle of an half moon, and hath his council, the 
old and wise, on each hand ; behind them, or at a lit- 
tle distance, sit the younger fry in the same figure. 
Having consulted and resolved their business, the 
King ordered one of them to speak to me ; he stood 
up, came to me, and, in the name of his King, saluted 
me ; then took me by the hand and told me, ' He was 
ordered by his King to speak to me, and that now it 
was not he, but the King that spoke; because what 
he should say was the King's mind.' He first prayed 
me ' to excuse them, that they had not complied with 
me the last time, he feared there might be some fault 
in the Interpreter, being neither Indian nor English ; 
besides, it was the Indian custom to deliberate and 
take up much time in council before they resolve, 
and that if the young people and owners of the land 
had been as ready as he, I had not met with so 
much delay.' Having thus introduced his matter, 
he fell to the bounds of the land they had agreed to 
dispose of and the price, which now is little and dear, 
that which would have bought twenty miles not buy- 
ing now two. During the time that this man spoke 
not a man of them was observed to whisper or smile, 
the old grave, the young reverent in their deport- 
ment. They speak little but fervently, and with ele- 
gance. I have never seen more natural sagacity, con- 
sidering them without the help (I was going to say 
the spoil) of tradition, and he will deserve the name 
of wise that outwits them in any treaty about a thing 
they understand. When the purchase was agreed 
great promises passed between us, ' of kindness and 
good neighborhood, and that the Indians and Eng- 
lish must live in love as long as the sun gave light,' 
which done, another made a speech to the Indians 
in the name of all the Sachemakers or Kings, first to 
tell what was done, next to charge and command 
them 'to love the Christians, and particularly live 
in peace with me and the people under my govern- 
ment; that many governors had been in the river, 
but that no Governor had come himself to live and 
stay here before, and having now such an one, that 
had treated them well, they should never do him or 
his any wrong,' at every sentence of which they 

shouted and said Amen in their way. The justice 
they have is pecuniary. In case of any wrong or evil 
fact, be it murder itself, they atone by feasts and 
presents of their wampum, which is proportioned to 
the quality of the offence, or the person injured, or 
of the sex they are of. For in case they kill a woman 
they pay double, and the reason they render is, 'that 
she breedeth children, which men cannot do.' It is 
rare they fall out if sober, and if drunk they forgive 
it, saying, 'It was the drink, and not the man, that 
abused them.' 

" We have agreed that in all differences between 
us six of each side shall end the matter. Do not 
abuse them, but let them have justice and you win 
them. The worst is that they are the worse for the 
Christians, who have propagated their vices and 
yielded their traditions for ill and not for good 
things. But as low an ebb as these people are at, 
and as inglorious as their own condition looks, the 
Christians have not outlived their sight, with all 
their pretensions to an higher manifestation. What 
good, then, might not a good people graft where there 
is so distinct a knowledge left between good and evil? 
I beseech God to incline the hearts of all that come 
into these parts, to outlive the knowledge of the na- 
tives, by a fixed obedience to their greater knowledge 
of the will of God, for it were miserable indeed for us 
to fall under the just censure of the poor Indians' 
conscience, while we make profession of things so far 

" For their original, I am ready to believe them of 
the Jewish race ; I mean, of the stock of the ten 
tribes, and that for the following reasons : First, they 
were to go to a ' land not planted nor known' ; which, 
to be sure, Asia and Africa were, if not Europe, and 
He that intended that extraordinary judgment upon 
them might make the passage not uneasy to them, as 
it is not impossible in itself, from the easternmost 
parts of Asia to the westernmost of America. In the 
next place, I find them of the like countenance, and 
their children of so lively resemblance that a man 
would think himself in Duke's Place, or Berry Street, 
in London, when he seeth them. But this is not all : 
they agree in rites; they reckon by moons ; they offer 
their first fruits ; they have a kind of feast of taber- 
nacles; they are said to lay their altar upou twelve 
stones; their mourning a year; customs of women, 
with many other things that do not now occur." 

The researches of John Gilmary Shea, Francis 
Parkman, and others who have given a 8{)ecial and 
intelligent attention to the subject, have established 
the fact that the tribe called Minquas or Minquosy 
by the Dutch (in the Latin of De Laet, Machoeretini), 
Mengwes by the Swedes (the English corruption of 
which was Mingoes.), Susquehannocks or Susquehan- 
noughs (Sasquesahannogh is the rendering by Capt. 
John Smith) by the Marylanders, and Andastes or 
Gandastogues (corrupted in Pennsylvania into Con- 
estogas) was a branch of the Iroquois nation, settled 



above tide on the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers. 
This ambitious race of savages, inspired with a con- 
quering instinct which put them on a par with the 
ancient Romans, not only consolidated its strength 
at home by a political and military confederacy, but 
extended its power and influence abroad by the es- 
lablishment of military colonies, just as republican 
Rome was in the habit of doing. One of these colo- 
nies constituted the tribe of the Tuscaroras, occupy- 
ing part of Nortli Carolina and Georgia, upon the 
Hanks of the Cherokee nation. Another was the 
Nottaways, south of the James River, in 
Virginia. A third colony was the tribe of 
the Nanticokes, afterwards (in Pennsyl- 
vania) known as the Conoys, who held the 
Delaware and Eastern Shore of Maryland 
peninsula from the Brandy wine southward 
They were joined on the north by the Min- 
quas or Susquehannas, whose " fort" was 
on the Susquehanna River at or near the 
mouth of Conestoga Creek. The Huron 
Iroquois of Canada were of this same na- 
tion, which thus occupied a belt of terri- 
tory from north to south extending from 
Lake Simcoe to the -southern limits of 
North Carolina, all in the country of the 
Algonkins, yet as distinctly separate from 
them by difference of language, character, 
and habit as a vein of trap rock in a body 
of gneiss or granite. The Andastes (to call 
them by their own tribal name, Andasta 
meaning a cabin-pole, and the tribe wish- 
ing to imply by it that they were house- 
i>uilders rather than dwellers in lodges), 
like the Lenapes, claimed a Western origin, 
and they were the most warlike race upon 
the continent, proud and haughty as the 
Romans whom they so closely resembled, 
and, like them, enabled to conquer by their 
compact military and civil organization. 
Other tribes were split into small bands, 
between which there was only a feeble and 
defective concert and unity of action. The 
Iroquois, on the other hand, were a nation, 
and wherever we find them we discover 
that they lived and acted together in co-operative 
union. In Pennsylvania, for example, in all the land 
purchases made by Dutch, Swedes, and English, we 
find the Minquas acting as one tribe, dealing as one 
people and one name, whereas with the Lenapes each 
petty chief seemed to do what was best in his own 
sight. Tamine or Tanianend was probably the great 
chief of the Lenapes in the time of Penn, and his 
supreme authority was manifest in the councils, but 
when it came to selling land he was no more than on 
a level with the twenty or thirty sachems who signed 
their marks to the deeds of conveyance for the various 
Their industrial arts were of the most primitive 

character. Their tools and implements were made 
of stone, many of which are models of proportion, 
design, and neatness of finish. Campanius says, — 

" They make their bows wMth the limb of a tree, of 
about a man's length, and their bow-strings out of 
the sinews of animals ; they make their arrows out 
of a reed a yard and a half long, and at one end they 
fix in a piece of hard wood of about a quarter's 
length, at the end of which they make a hole to fix 
in the head of the arrow, which is made of black flint- 
stone, or of hard bone or horn, or the teeth of large 

[From Campanius* "New Sweden."] 

fishes or animals, which they fasten in with fish glue 
in such a manner that the water cannot penetrate; at 
the other end of the arrow they put feathers. They 
can also tan and prepare the skins of animals, which 
they paint afterwards in their own way. They make 
much use of painted feathers, with which they adorn 
their skins and bed-covers, binding them with a kind 
of network, which is very handsome, and fastens the 
feathers very well. With these they make light and 
warm clothing and covering for themselves; with the 
leaves of Indian corn and reeds they make purses, 
mats, and baskets, and everything else that they want. 
. . . They make very handsome and strong mats of 
fine roots, which they paint with all kinds of figures; 



they hang their walls with these mats, and make ex- 
cellent bed-clothes out of them. The women spin 
thread and yarn out of nettles, hemp, and some plants 
unknown to us. Governor Printz had a complete set 
of clothes, with coat, breeches, and belt, made by 
these barbarians with their wampum, which was 
curiously wrought with figures of all kinds of ani- 
mals. . . . They make tobacco-pipes out of reeds 

July 15, 1682. 


Jul,/ 15, 1682. 

June 23, 1683. 

Jnue 23, 1683. 


Tamaiten {Receipt for Mimey). 
June 23, 16S3. 


hth Mo. 14, 1683. 


Jmif 25, 16S3. 

bth Mo. 14, 1683. 

5th Mo. 14. 1683. 


bth Mo. 14, 1683. 

C C 

Jime 23, 1683. 

June 23, 1683. 


e 23, I 

June 23, 1683. 

June 23, 1683. 

Kehelappaii . 
June 23, 1683. 

Pendatiouf/hah Neshnnnock. 
6th Mo. 14, 1683. 

Sept. 20, 1683. 

bth Mo. 30, 1683. 

Ath Mo. 3, 1684. 

bth Mo. 30, 1685. 

King Tnmauent. 
June 15, 1692. 

Meltii niicon. 
June 7, 1684. 

June 15, 1692. 


about a man's length ; the bowl is made of horn, and 
to contain a great quantity of tobacco. They gener- 
ally present these pipes to their good friends when 
they come to visit them at their houses and wish 
them to stay some time longer ; then the friends can- 
not go away without having first smoked out of the 
pipe. They make them, otherwise, of red, yellow, and 
blue clay, of which there is a great quantity in the 
country ; also of white, gray, green, brown, black, and 
blue stones, which are so soft that they can be cut 
with a knife. . . . Their boats are made of the bark 
of cedar and birch trees, bound 'together and lashed 
very strongly. They carry them along wherever they 
go, and when they come to some creek that they want 
to get over they launch them and go whither they 
please. They also used to make boats out of cedar 
trees, which they burnt inside and scraped off the 
coals with sharp stones, bones, or muscle shells." 

Charles Thompson,' who enjoyed the confidence of 
the Indians, and whose good offices in effecting pur- 
chases of land were often invoked, and who frequently 
spent days and weeks among them unattended, refers 
to their want of knowledge in the metallic arts. He 

" They were perfect strangers to the use of iron. 
The instruments with which they dug up the ground 
were of wood, or a stone fastened to a handle of wood. 
Their hatchets for cutting were of stone, sharpened 
to an edge by rubbing, and fastened to a wooden 
handle. Their arrows were pointed with flint or bones. 
What clothing they wore was of the skins of animals 
took in hunting, and their ornaments were principally 
of feathers. They all painted or daubed their face 
with red. The men suffered only a tuft of hair to 
grow on the crown of their head ; the rest, whether 

1 He was in fact adopted by them. He touk minutes of the conference 

proceedings in shori-liantI,and tiiese were so uccurute as to be preferred 
by the coniniissioners to tlie official record, and so just to the Indiana 
as to win tlieir prorouiul gratitude. Tliey adopted liini into the Lenape 
nation, and gave him the name of Weg/t-wii-law-tco-tfnd, " the man wlio 
tells tire truth," 



on their head or faces, they prevented from growing by 
constantly plucking it out by the roots, so that they 
always appeared as if they were bald and beardless. 

" Many were in the practice of marking their faces, 
arms, and breast by pricking the skin with thorns 
and rubbing the parts with a fine powder made of 
coal (charcoal), which, penetrating the punctures, 
left an indelible stain or mark, which remained as 
long as they lived. The punctures were made in 
figures according to their several fancies. The only 
part of the body which they covered was from the 
waist half-way down the thighs, and their feet they 
guarded with a kind of shoe made of hides of buffa- 
loes or deerskin, laced tight over the instep and up 
to the ankles with thongs. It was and still continues 
to be a common practice among the men to slit their 
ears, putting something into the hole to prevent its 
closing, and then by hanging weights to the lower 
part to stretch it out, so that it hangs down the cheek 
like a large ring. They had no knowledge of the use 
of silver or gold, though some of these metals were 
found among the Southern Indians. Instead of money 
they used a kind of beads made of conch-shell, manu- 
factured in a curious manner. These beads were 
made, some of the white, some of the black or col- 
ored parts of the shell. They were formed into cyl- 
inders about one-quarter of an inch long and a quarter 
of an inch in diameter. They were round and highly 
polished and perforated lengthwise with a small hole, 
by which they strung them together and wove them 
into belts, some of which, by a proper arrangement 
of the beads of different colors, were figured like 
carpeting with different figures, according to the vari- 
ous uses for which they were designed. These were 
made use of in their treaties and intercourse with 
each other, and served to assist their memory and 
preserve the remembrance of transactions. When 
different tribes or nations made peace or alliance 
with each other they exchanged belts of one sort; 
when they excited each other to war they used 
another sort. Hence they were distinguished by the 
name of peace belts or war belts. Every message 
sent from one tribe to another wa-s accompanied with 
a string of these beads or a belt, and the string or 
belt was smaller or greater according to the weight 
and importance of the subject. These beads were 
their riches. They were worn as bracelets on the 
arms and like chains around the neck by wayof orna- 

When and how the Indians acquired the art of pro- 
ducing fire by friction, prior to the use of flint and 
steel, remains a great mystery. This element was 
absolutely essential to their existence in the northern 
latitudes, and must of necessity have been in use by 
them. Nature may have supplied them by volcanic 
eruptions, and once in their possession they may have 
retained perpetual fires. The discovery of heat, 
generated by friction, may have been accidental in 
fallen forest trees moved or swayed by the wind. 

" Gen. George Crook has described a fire-stick used 
by the Indians of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade 
ranges. ' The fire-stick,' he says, ' consists of two 
pieces. The horizontal stick is generally from one 
foot to a foot and a half long, a couple or three inches 
wide, and about one inch thick, of some soft, dry 
wood, frequently the sap of the juniper. The upright 
stick is usually some two feet long and from a quarter 
to half an inch in diameter, with the lower end round 
or elliptical, and of the hardest material they can 
find. In the sage-brush country it is made of " grease- 
wood." When they make fire they lay the first piece 
in a horizontal position with the flat side down, and 
place the round end of the upright near the edge of 
the other stick ; then taking the upright between the 
hands they give it a swift rotary motion, and as con- 
stant use wears a hole in the lower stick, they cut a 
nick in.its outer edge down to a level with the bottom 
of the hole. The motion of the upright works the 
ignited powder out of this nick, and it is there caught 
and applied to a piece of spunk or some other highly 
combustible substance, and from this the fire is 
started.' " 

Of their tribal relations and intercourse Mr. 
Thompson seems to have been a close observer : 

"Almost every nation being divided into tribes, 
and these tribes subdivided into families, who from 
relationship or friendship united together and formed 
towns or clans ; these several tribes, families, and 
towns have commonly each a particular name and 
chief, or head man, receive messages, and hold con- 
ferences with strangers and foreigners, and hence 
they are frequently considered by strangers and for- 
eigners as distinct and separate nations. Notwith- 
standing this, it is found upon closer examination and 
further inquiry that the nation is composed of several 
of these tribes, united together under a kind of federal 
government, with laws and customs by which they 
are ruled. Their governments, it is true, are verj' 
lax, except as to peace and war, each individual 
having in his own hand the power of revenging inju- 
ries, and when murder is committed the next relation 
having power to take revenge, by putting to death 
the murderer, unless he can convince the chiefs and 
head men that he had just cause, and by their means 
can pacify the family by a present, and thereby put 
an end to the feud. The matters which merely regard 
a town or family are settled by the chiefs and head 
men of the town ; those which regard the tribe, by a 
meeting of the chiefs from the several towns; and 
those that regard the nation, .such as the making war 
or concluding peace with the neighboring nations, 
are determined on in a national council, composed of 
the chiefs and head warriors from every tribe. Every 
tribe has a chief or head man, and there is one who 
presides over the nation. In every town they have a 
council-house, where the chief assembles the old men 
and advises what is best. In every tribe there is a 
place, which is commonly the town in which the 



chief resides, where the head men of the towns meet 
to consult on the business that concerns them ; and 
in every matter there is a grand council, or what they 
call a council-fire, where the heads of the tribes and 
chief warriors convene to determine on peace or war. 
In these several councils the greatest order and de- 
corum is observed. In a council of a town all the 
men of the town may attend, the chief opens the 
business, and either gives his opinion of what is best 
or takes the advice of such of the old men as are 
heads of families, or most remarkable for prudence and 
knowledge. None of the young men are allowed or 
])resume to speak, but the whole assembly at the end 
of every sentence or speech, if they approve it, express 
their approbation by a kind of hum or noise in unison 
with the speaker. The same order is observed in the 
meetings or councils of the tribes and in the national 

Like all barbarous nations, the North American 
Indians were superstitious. Parkman says, " The 
sorcerer, by charms, magic songs, magic feats, and 
the beating of his drum, had power over the spirits 
and those occult influences inherent in animals and 
inanimate things. He could call to him the souls of 
his enemies. They appeared before him in the shape 
of stones. He chopped and bruised them with his 
hatchet ; blood and flesh issued forth ; and the in- 
tended victim, however distant, languished and died. 
Like the sorcerer of the Middle Ages, he made im- 
ages of those he wished to destroy, and muttering 
incantations, punctured them with an awl, whereupon 
the persons represented sickened and pined away." 

Subjects of fear as they were under the sorcerer's 
arts and magic when in health, and pliant patients 
in the hands of the conjurer when stricken with dis- 
ease, yet their ruling passion seems to have been that 
of hate and revenge in the redress of insults and in- 
juries. To gratify this passion of their savage souls 
time, distance, suffering, peril were but food to feed 
upon ; disappointment and delay only served to in- 
crease their thirst for blood when in pursuit of ven- 
geance. "The stealthy blow, the reeking scalp torn 
from the prostrate victim, the yell of triumph when 
the deed was done — this was compensation for all. 
Nor did death suffice; the enemy, public or private, 
must be tortured, and nothing but his agony and his 
groans could satiate the wolfish thirst of the savage 
for blood. His warfare was conducted by stealth and 
strategy and surprise; he imitated the panther, not 
the lion, in his assaults, and he lay by his victim and 
mangled him like the tiger. Sometimes he ate his 
victim if he was renowned, that all of the valor and 
virtue of the slain might not be lost, but some of it 
pass into the slayer's own person. If conquered or 
wounded to death his stoicism was indomitable; his 
enemy might see his back in flight, but never behold 
him flinch under torture; when his finger-nails were 
plucked out one by one, and the raw skull from which 
his scalp was torn seared with live coals, and red-hot 

gun-barrels thrust into the abdominal cavity after he 
had been disemboweled, he would still sing his death- 
song and gather breath to hurl a last yell of defiance 
at his enemy as he expired." 

It seems, however, that limitations were imposed 
upon this passion, at least among themselves, by rules 
or customs of restraint. Offenses were chiefly against 
the person, as there were but few property rights to 
be sinned against among them. Every crime could be 
condoned. This was possible in case of murder. If 
murderer and victim belonged to the same clan, it was 
looked upon as a family quarrel, to be settled by the 
immediate kin. As a rule, public opinion compelled 
the acceptance of the atonement in lieu of blood- 
shed. If the murderer and victim were of different 
clans, the whole tribe went to work to prevent a feud 
from arising and leading to more bloodshed. Every 
effort was made to get the victim's clan to accept the 
atonement offering. Thirty presents was the price of 
a man's life, forty for a woman. If the victim be- 
longed to a foreign tribe, the danger of war led to 
council meetings, formal embassies, and extensive 
making of actual and symbolical presents. 

That the Indians .should place a higher estimate 
upon the life of a woman than the man is in strange 
contrast with their general character, — perhaps it was 
because of her greater value to them as a drudge or 

A wild and singular people were the Indians who 
met our forefathers on the shores of the Delaware 
and Schuylkill Rivers. Evidences of friendship 
and comity towards our race they certainly mani- 
fested, as also a consciousness of our superior condi- 

[From Campantiis' " New Sweden.*'] 

tion ; but, withal, their adult people, rulers and 
ruled, never yielded to the temptations of wealth, 
the greater power or higher enjoyments of life as 
seen in the line of civilization, before which they 
protestingly retreated, league by league, to the Ohio 
and Mississippi. For almost four centuries they 
have stolidly looked on the amazing progress and 
development of the continent over wiiich they 
roamed as its proud possessors. Eye-witnesses to 
the plain and simple forms of government cstab- 



lished in their very midst upon lands purchased from , 
them, in daily contact with a number of different Ian- i 
guages, all far superior to theirs, they remained un- ' 
affected; not even war, with all its potentialities, 
with all its destructive agencies, and in which they 
were used as factors by their cunning and adroit : 
allies, could wake them frona their barbarous inertia. 
One hope still remains ; it is for the youth of the 
race, who can beveducatedJ Through these there 
may be a final redemption of the tribes now on the 
Pacific Slope. 

Note. — About the year 1710 a Swedish missionary preached a sermon 
at an Indian treaty lield at Conestogoe, in Pennsylvania, in which ser- 
niuii he set forth original sin, the necessity of a mediator, and endeavored 
Iiy certain argnments to induce the Indians to embrace tlie Christian 
religion. After he bad ended his discourse one of the Indian chiefs 
made a speech in reply to the sermon, and the discourses on both sides 
wpre made known by interpreters. The missionary, upon his return to 
Sweden, published his sermon and the Indian's answer. Having written 
them in Latin, he dedicated them to the University of Upsal, and re- 
quested them to furnish him witli arguments to confute such strong 
reasoning of the Indians. The Indian speech, translated frum tlie Latin, 
is HS fullows : 

"Since the subject of his (the missionary's) errand is to persuade us 
to embrace a new doctrine, perhaps it may not be amiss, before we offer 
liim the reasons why we cannot comply with his request, to accjuaiut 
him with the grounds and principles of that religion which he would 
have iia abandon. Our forefathers were under a strong persna«iOTi, as 
we are, that those who act well in this life shall be rewarded in the next, 
according to the degree of their virtue; and, on the otLer hand, that 
those who behave wickedly here will undergo such punishments here- 
after as are proportionate to the crimes they were guilty of. This hath 
been constantly and invariably received and acknowledged fur a truth 
through every successive generation of our ancestors. It could not have 
tukL'U its rise from fable, for human fiction, however artfully and plau- 
sibly contrived, can never gain credit long among any people where free 
inquiry is allowed, which was never denied by our ancestoi-s, who, on 
the contrary, thouglit it the sacred, inviolable, natural right of every man 
to exnmine and judge for himself. Therefore we think it evident that 
our notion concerning future rewards and punishments was either re- 
vealed immediately from heaven to some of our forefathers, and from 
them descended to us, or that it was implanted in each of us at our 
creation by the Creator of all things. Whatever the methods might 
have been whereby God hath been pleased to make known to us His 
will, it is still in our sense a divine revelation. Now we desire to 
propose to him some few qtiestions. Does he believe that our fore- 
fathers, men eminent for their piety, constant and warm in the pursuit 
of virtue, hoping thereby to merit everlasting happiness, were all 
damned? Does he tlnnk that we, who are their zealous imitators in 
good works, and influenced by the same motives as they were, earnestly 
endeavoring with the greatest circumspection to tread the paths of in- 
tegrity, aie in a state of damnation ? If these be his sentimi-nts they 
are surely as impious as they are bold and daring. In the next place, 
we beg that he would explain himself more particularly concerning 
the n'velalion he talks of. If he admits no other than what is 
contained in his variUen hook, the contrary is evident from what 
has been shown before. But if he says God has revealed Him- 
self to us, but not suiEcient for our salvation, then we ask to 
what purpose should he have revealed Himself to us iu anywise? It 
is clear that a revelation insufficient to save cannot put ns iu a better 
condition than we should be in without any revelation at all. We can- 
not conceive that God should point out to us the end we ought to aim I 
at without opening to us the way to arrive at that end. But, supposing 
our understandings to be so far illuminated as to know it to be our iluty | 
to please God, who yet hath left us under an incapacity of doing it, will I 
this missionary, therefore, conclude that we shall be eternally damned ? j 
Will be take upon him to pronounce damnation against us for not doing I 
those things whicli he himself acknowledges were impossible by us to , 
be done? It is our opinion that every man is possessed of sufficient 
knowledge for his salvation. The Almighty, for anything we know, 
may have communicated the knowledge of Himself to a different race of 
people iu a different manner. Some say they have the will of God in 
writing: be it so; their revelation has no advantage above ours, since ' 

both must be equally sufficient to save, otherwise the end of the reve- 
lation would be frustrated. Besides, if they both be true they must be 
the same in substance, and the difference can only lie in the mode of 
communication. He tells us there are many precepts in his wriLlen reve- 
lation which we are entirely ignorant of. But these written commands 
can only be designed for those who have the writings; they cannot pos- 
sibly regard us. Had the Almighty tboughtso much knowledge neces- 
sary for our salvation His goodness would not long have deferred the 
communication of it to us ; and to say that in a manner so necessary 
he could not at one and the same time equally reveal Himself to all 
mankind is nothing less than an absolute denial of His omnipotence. 
Without doubt He can make his will manifest without the help of any 
book or the assistance of any bookish man whatever. We shall in the 
next place consider the arguments which arise from a consideration of 
providence. If we are the wurk of God (which I presume will not be 
denied), it follows from thence that we are under the care and protec- 
tion of God ; for it cannot be supposed that the Deity should abandon 
his own creatures and be utterly regardless of their welfare. Then to 
say that the Almighty hath permitted us to remain in a fatal error 
through so many ages is to represent Him as a tyrant. How is it consis- 
tent with His justice to force life upon a race of mortals without their 
consent and then damn Owm cttniKiV y . without ever opening to them 
the duor of salvation ? Our conceptions of the gracious God are more 
noble, and we think that those who teach otherwise do little less than 
blaspheme. Again, it is through the care and goodness of the Almighty 
that from the beginning of time, through many generations to this 
day, our name has been preserved, unblotted out by enemies, unreduced 
to nothing By that same care we now enjoy our lives, are served with 
the necessary means of preserving those lives. But all these things are 
trifling compared with our salvation. Therefore, since God hath been 
so careful of us iu matters of liltle consequence, it would be absurd to 
affirm that He has neglected us in cases of the greatest importance. 
Admit that He hath forsaken us, yet it could not have been without a 
just cause. Let us suppose that an henious crime was committed by 
one of our ancestors, like to that which we are told happened among 
another race of people. In auch case God would certainly punish the 
criminal, but would never involve us, who are innocent, in his guilt. 
Those who think otherwise must make the Almighty a very whimsical, 
ill-natured being. Once more, are the ChrislianH more virtuous, or, 
rather, are they not more vicious than we are ? If 8o, how came it to 
pass that they are tlie objects of God's beneficence, while we are neg- 
lected? Does the Deity confer His favors without reason, and with so 
much partiality? In a word, we find the Christians much more de- 
praved in their morals than ourselves, and we judge of their doctrine 
by the badness of their lives." 

The Loan's Prayer in the Lanou.vge of the Six Nation Inoians. 
Soungwiiuncha, caurounkj'augS, tehseetiiroiin, B."iulwL)neyoufta, 
esa, sawaneyou, 6k<^ttauhseia, ehn^auwoung, na, carounk5auga, 
nugh, wonshauga, neittewehnesaiauga, tjiugwaunautoronoantough- 
sick, tuantangweleewheyouftailng, cheneeyeut, chaqujitaiitaley whey 
ouftriuona, tough fan, tang waussarC-neh, ■ tawautOttenaugalought- 
oungga, nris.H,wu6, sacheautaugwasd, cuntehsalohaunzriikjtw, esa, 
silwauneyou, eei, sashautzta, esa, soungwaaoung, ch6nueauhaiingwa, 



The events connected with and resulting from the 
discovery of the South and North Rivers' by Henry 
Hudson, from 1609 to 1638, are so interwoven with 
the settlements of the Swedes on the shores of the 
Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, as to render some 
account of the advent of the Dutch or Netherlanders 
a necessary prelude to the annals of the later settlers. 

1 Delaware and Hudson. 



The writer has consulted numerous authorities upon 
the remarkable events of the period referred to, and 
has used them freely when deemed essential to a 
concise narrative of facts.' 

There is no subject associated with the history of 
our ancestry more replete with continuing interest 
than that which relates to the experience and 
achievements of the early voyagers, traders, and set- 
tlers who landed upon the shores of the Delaware 
Eiver. The splendid bay which joins river to ocean 
invited them to safe anchorage after their long and 
adventurous passage over a trackless and compara- 
tively unknown " waste of waters" between two con- 
tinents. The Delaware River and its confluents were 
unexplored to them, beyond what they could learn 
from the savages who met them many miles south of 
tide-water levels. The period of these early settle- 
ments, about 1620, was marked by great maritime 
activity, induced by the discovery of the North Amer- 
ican continent by Christopher Columbus and the 
many and remarkable voyagers who subsequently 
crossed the Atlantic Ocean on exploring expeditions, 
first and ostensibly to extend the dominion of their 
" Gracious Sovereigns," and second to gratify their 
professional ambition in opening up new avenues of 
trade and the accumulation of wealth.^ The return 
of these early voyagers and their flattering reports of 
climate, bays and harbors, rivers, soil, surface prod- 
ucts, and minerals, with imaginary possibilities and 
the wild and savage character of the native people, 
all tended to increase public interest in the New 
World and attract adventurous spirits vo its shores.' 

1 Bancroft, Hist. United States ; Proud, Hist. Pennsylvania; Colonial 
Archives; Sliernian Day, Hist. Pennsylvania; Davis, Hist. Bucks County; 
Brodhead, Hist. New York ; Mrs. Martlia J. Lamb, Hist. Nevf York ; 
Scliarf and Westcolt, Hist, of Pliiladelpliia. 

-There is no ground for reasonable doubt that John and Sebastian 
Cabot, natives of Venice, probably sailors almost from birth, but doing 
business in Bristol, England, at the time of their commission under 
King Henry VIT., were the iirst navigators, at least of historic times, to 
discover the actual coast-line of the North American continent, along 
which they sailed from Newfoundland to the parallel of Gibraltar, that 
is to say, to about the latitude of Cape Hatteras. John Cabot, tlie senior 
of these sailors and traders, excited by the news of the great discovery 
made by Christoplier Columbus, and with the certainty thus warranted 
of reaching land by sailing westward, obtained a commission under the 
great seal of Ejigland from King Henry VII., dated March 5, 149G, au- 
thorizing the navigator and his three sons, or either of them, their heirs 
or their deputies, to sail into the Eastern, Western, or Northern seas, 
with a fleet of five ships, at their own expense, in search of unknown 
lands, islands, or provinces; to plant the banner of England on these 
when found, and possess and occupy them as vassals of the English 
crown. Tlie provision that tlie explorers sliould voyage at their own 
expense was characteristic of tlie tlirilty monarch, but tlie commission 
of a king at that day was the only safeguard the navigator had to pro- 
tect him from suspicions of piracy, and the exclusive right of frequent- 
ing and trading to the new countries when found was a privilege for 
which nations were soon to contend. 

3" Every great European event affected the fortunes of America. Did 
a State prosper, it souglit an increase ot wealth by plantations in the 
West ; was a sect persecuted, it escaped to tlie New World. The Refor- 
mation, fcdlowed by collisions between English Dissenters and the 
Anglican hierarchy, colonized New England; the Reformation, eman- 
cipating the Low t^nntries, led to settlements on the Hudson. The 
Netherlands divide with England the glory of having planted the first 
colonies in the United States; they also divide the glory of having set 

This condition of things was suggestive to capitalized 
ambition, and led to the formation of corporations or 
companies for the encouragement of transatlantic 
commerce and the establishment of permanent colo- 
nies at or near convenient points of shipment on 
navigable rivers. 

In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English navigator of 
great experience and remarkable energy, then in the 
service of the Dutch East India Company, explored 
the coast from the Chesapeake Bay to Maine. The 
Delaware River was first explored by this bold mari- 
ner. His first officer, Robert Jewett (or Juet), kept 
a journal of the ship's experience, from which it 
appears that on Aug. 28, 1609 (new style), they en- 
tered the mouth of the river. It was on the strength 
of this discovery, and tliat of the Hudson River by 
the same officer, that the Dutch based their claim to 
the lands between the North and South Rivers, as the 
Hudson and Delaware Rivers were then called, as 
well as that which was contiguous to their shores. 

The accounts of this voyage and the discoveries 
made are said to be accurate, circumstantial, and 
satisfactory to all historians.' The Dutch did not 

the example of public freedom. If England gave our fathers the idea of 
a popular representation, the United Provinces were their model of a 
Federal Union. " 

< We know surprisingly little of Henry Hudson. He is said to have 
been the personal friend of Capt. John Smith, the founder of Virginia, 
and it is probable that he was of the family of that Henry Hudson who, 
in 1554, was one of the original incorporators of the English Muscovy 
Company. This man's son, Christopher, supposed to have been the 
father of the great navigat^ir, was as early as 15G0 and up to 1601 the 
factor and agent on the spot of the London Company trading to Russia, 
and it seems likely that the younger Hudson, from his familiarity with 
Arctic navigation, and his daring pertinacity in attempting to invade 
the ice-bound northern Wiistes.niay have served his apprenticeship as a 
navigator in trading, on behalf the Muscovy Company, from Bristol to 
Russia, as was then often 
done through the North 
Cliiinnel, and round the 
Hebrides, Orkneys, Shet- 
lands, and North Cape to 
the White Sea and Arch- 
angel. Atany ratewhen 
Hudson makes his first 
picturesque appearance 
before us, in the summer 
of 16u7, in the Church 
of St. Etlielliurge, Bish- 
opsgate Street, London, 
where he and his crew 
are present to partakeof 
the Holy Sacrament to- 
gether, it is preparatory 
to a voyage in the ser- 
vice of the newly-or- 
ganized " London Com- 
pany," in Jewetfs own worde,"for to discover a passage by the North 
Pole to Japan and China." The navigator was at that time a middle-aged 
man, experienced and trusted. He bad already explored the northeast 
and the north, and the region between the Chesapeake and Maine. 
There was no room for hope but to the north of Newfoundland. Pro- 
ceeding by way of Iceland, where " the famous Hecla" was casting out 
fire, passing Greenland and Frobisher's Straits, he sailed on the 2d of 
August, WW, into the straits which bear his name, and into which no 
one had gone before him. As he came out from the passage upon the 
wide giiir, he believed that lie beheld " a sea to Ihe westward, "so that the 
short way to the Pacific was found. How great was his disappoiutmenl 




avail themselves at once of the great advantages of 
trade and commerce opened up by the wonderful dis- 
coveries of Hudson, who had ])enetrated the North 
or Hudson River as far as Albany, visiting the river 
tribes of Indians and ascertaining the vast resources 
of valuable furs and skins purchasable from the sav- 
ages at merely nominal prices.' Hudson's report of 
the South or Delaware River was that from obser- 
vations made. He found the land " to trend away 
towards the northwest, with a great bay and rivers, but 
the bay was shoal." It is evident that Hudson did not 
find the Delaware River as inviting in a navigable 
point of view as the North or Hudson River, and there- 
fore it was that the Dutch first settled upon the latter 
river. In 1611 two enterprising men, Hendricks 
Christiaensen, of Cleves, Holland, a West India 
trader, and Adrian Block, of Amsterdam, in company 
with Schipper Rysar, chartered and equipped a ship 
and made a successful voyage to and up the Hudson 
River, exchanging commodities with the Indian 
tribes, and returning with a profitable cargo of furs { 
and skins. They were also successful in securing two 
young Indians, said to be the sons of chiefs, whom 
they christened Valentine and Orson. These sav- 
ages, not less than the possibilities of large trade in 
the rude products of their tribes, excited popular in- : 
terest in the new country. These enterprising traders, 
joined by a number of merchants, memorialized the 
Provincial States of Holland and West Friesland 
by the importance of discoveries made, and it was 
judged of sufficient consequence to be formally com- 
municated to the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, 

when he found himself in a labyrinth without end. Still confident of 
ultimate succosb, the determined mariner resolved on wintering in the 
bay, that he might perfect his discovery in the spring. His crew mur- 
mured at the sufferings of a winter for which no preparations had been 
made. At length the late and an.xiousIy-expected spring burst forth; 
but it opened in vain for Hudson. Provisions were exhausted ; he di- 
vided the last bread among his men and prepared for them a bill of 
return, and "he wept as he gave it them," Believing himself almost 
on the point of succeeding, where Spaniards and English and Danes 
and Dutch bad failed, be left his anchoring-place to steer for Europe. 
For two days the ship was encompassed by fields of ice, and the discon- 
tent of the crew broke forth into mutiny. Hudson was seized, and, with 
his only son and seven others, four of whom were sick, were thrown 
into the shallop. Seeing his commander thus exposed, Philip Staife, 
the carpenter, demanded and gained leave to share his fate, and just as 
the ship made its way out of the ice, on a miilsunimer day, in a latitude 
where the sun In that season hardly goes down and evening twilight 
mingles with the dawn, the shallop was cut loose. What became of 
Hudson? Dill be die miserably of 8tarv:ttion ? Did he reach land to 
perish from the fury of the natives ? Was he crushed between ribs of 
ice? The returning ship encountered storms, by which she was proba- 
bly overwhelmed. The gloomy waste of waters which bears his name 
is bis tomb and bis monument. 

^ Hudson relates that he was taken to a bou.oe well constructed of 
oak-bark, circular in form, and arched in the ro.if, the granary of the 
beans and maize of tlio last year's harvest, while outside enough of 
them lay drying to load three ships. Two mats were spread out as seats 
for the strangers ; food was iumiediately served in neat red bowls; men 
who were sent at once with bows and arrows for game soon returned 
with pigeons ; a fat dog, too, was killed, and haste made to prepare a 
feast. When Hudson refused to wait, they supposed him to be afraid 
of Iheir weapons, and taking their arrows they broke them in pieces 
and threw Iheni into the fire. Of all binds on which I ever set my foot, 
says Hudson, this is the best for tillage. 

Hoorn, and Enckhuysen.^ On the 27th of March, 
1614, the States-General ordained " that private ad- 
venturers might enjoy an exclusive privilege for four 
successive voyages to any pa.ssage, haven, or country 
they should thereafter find." With such encourage- 
ment, a company of merchants in the same year sent 
five small vessels, of which the " Fortune," of Am- 
sterdam, had Christiaensen for its commander; the 
" Tiger," of the same port, Adrian Block ; the " For- 
tune," of Hoorn, Cornells Jacobsen Mey, to extend 
the discoveries of Hudson, as well as the trade with 
the natives. Upon the return of this merchant fleet 
the officers made report to the States-General, in 
conformity with the terms of the "ordinance" under 
which they sailed. This report embraced a detailed 
account of their exploring efforts on the coast, and 
entrance to harbors and rivers. Appended to the 
same were maps representing the topographical face 
of the country for some miles inland. Armed with 
this report and " figurative map" these navigators, 
supported and accompanied by the wealthy mer- 
chants in whose service they were really employed, 
proceeded to the Hague to obtain further conces.sions 
from the "twelve mighty Lords of the States-Gen- 
eral," presided over by John von Olden Barneveldt, 
the advocate of Holland. They presented an ad- 
mirable case, basing their claim for a further and en- 
larged extension of privileges upon the perils and 
hardships endured, misfortunes suffered, and advan- 
tages likely to accrue to the merchants of the Neth- 
erlands. Barneveldt and his associates were favora- 
bly impressed with the flattering report, and promptly 
granted to the united company of merchants and 
their adventurous Dutch captains a three years' 
monopoly of trade with the territory between Vir- 
ginia and New France, from forty to forty-five degrees 
of latitude. This grant was in the nature of a char- 
ter, executed on the 11th day of October, 1614, and 
named the extensive region of country embraced in 
it as the New Netherlands. 

While these early monopolists were paying court to 
the Netherland government, and adroitly laying plans 
for large acquisitions of lands which they claimed to 
have discovered between Virginia and the New Eng- 
land coast, Capt. Cornells Hendricksen manned and 
equipped the "Unrest," or " Restless," a yacht of six- 
teen tons, built by Capt. Block, to take the place of 
the "Tiger," burnt at Manhattan Island, and pro- 
ceeded to explore the Delaware Bay and River. He 
is reported to have landed at several places, made 
soundings, and prepared extensive charts of the shore 
line, and noting the entrance of many of the conflu- 
ent streams emptying into this navigable highway. 
As evidence of the thoroughness of the manner in 
which Hendricksen did his work on the Delaware, it 
is related that, while leaving the " Restless" at anchor 
at the mouth of Christiana Greek, he extended his 

2, i. p. 46. N. Y. Hist. Coll , 2d series, ii. 3o5. 



observations inland for some distance, where he came 
in contact with a small party of Minqua Indians, and 
rescued three white men, Netherlanders, who had 
some months prior strayed away from the fort or 
trading-station at Castle Island, on the Hudson River. 
These men had lost their way in the forest and had 
reached the Mohawk Valley. Crossing from thence to 
the Delaware, they fell in with savages who proved 
friendly, and, by a providence of life deemed most for- 
tunate by them, met their friends on the shore of 
Christiana Creek. Having prepared himself to make 
an advantageous report, he returned to Holland, and 
on the 16th of August, 1016, appeared before the 
States-General, declaring "he had discovered a bay 
and three rivers, situated between thirty-eight and 
forty degrees, and did there trade with the Indians, 
said trade consisting of sables, furs, robes, and other 
skins. He hath found the said country full of trees, 
to wit: oak, hickory, and pines, which trees were in 
some places covered with vines. He hath seen in said 
country bucks and doe, turkeys and partridges. He 
hath found the climate of said country very temper- 
ate, judging it to be as temperate as Holland." On 
this report Hendricksen claimed further and exten- 
sive privileges and immunities. In this he was dis- 
appointed. The authorities refused him upon the 
ground that a change in their policy was expedient, 
looking to the permanent colonization of the country 
he claimed to have explored. This policy compre- 
hended the organization of a" West Indies Company." 
The growth, utility, and experience of this company 
for many subsequent years, resulting from the politi- 
cal agitation of the Netherlands, affords an interesting 
theme for comment, and is nowhere more graphically 
described than in the recently-published " History of 
New York," by Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 

The spirit of religious persecution which prevailed 
in the seventeenth century was also a factor in the 
work of colonization. The Puritan exiles, led by 
John Robinson, William Brewster, and others, who 
had been living in the Netherlands in the enjoyment 
of their religious tenets, were looked upon as a migra- 
tory people, and by a certain class of political econ- 
omists thought available as colonists for the purpose 
of founding a flourishing settlement at some point on 
the Atlantic coast. To these people the New World 
was painted in glowing colors by the Dutch naviga- 
tors and capitalists, while they in turn were willing 
to make unusual sacrifices for the enjoyment of 
religious liberty. Here were conditions of society 
and policy which seemed to synchronize and promise 
the most desirable results to all parties concerned. 
These exiles had made overtures to the Virginia Col- 
ony and the Plymouth Company, but in both instances 
failed to effect arrangements deemed necessary for 
their permanent welfare as a colony, and therefore 
applied to the Netherlands through the Amsterdam 
merchants to settle at some point in the New World 
under the protection of the States-General. John 

Robinson prepared the memorial. He proposed to 
take four hundred families with him, provided they 
were assured of protection. " They desired to go to 
the New Netherlands, to plant there the true Christian 
religion, to convert the savages of those countries to the 
true knowledge and understanding of the Christian 
faith, and through the grace of the Lord, and to the 
glory of the Netherlands' government, to colonize and 
establish a new empire under the order and command 
of the Prince of Orange and the High Mighty Lords 
States-General." The company of merchants heart- 
ily co-operated with Robinson in his comprehensive 
purpose, pledging large sums of money to secure 
transportation for the four luindred families, and all 
the necessary supplies of stock, implements, seeds, 
provisions, etc., and when plans were well matured 
they sent their most influential men to submit the 
memorial to the Hague, with their endorsement of the 
project. The Prince of Orange referred the project 
to the States-General, who, after great consideration, 
refused to sanction the enterprise or grant them the 
protection deemed necessary by Robinson and his 
coadjutors for the success and permanency of the new 
colony in the wilds of America. It was this refusal 
of the Dutch to transplant the " Pilgrims" on the 
Hudson and Delaware Rivers that aroused the re- 
served energies of their restless souls, and led to their 
subsequent departure in the "Speedwell" and "May- 
flower" for Plymouth Rock.' 

About this time religious controversy was renewed 
with great vigor. The Calvinists and Puritans were 
arrayed against the Arminians, who were in control 
of the States and patronage of the country. The 
work of the Reformation was producing its j ust fruits, 
and the freedom of religious thought prevailed. In 
1619, after a bitter contest, the Calvinists triumphed, 
and soon after signalized their success by chartering 
the West India Company, granting to it extraordinary 
powers for the encouragement of maritime commerce 
and the extension of colonial dominion. This charter 
is dated June 3, 1621, and gave to the West India 
Company for the period of twenty-four years the ex- 
clusive monopoly of trade and navigation to the 
coasts of Africa, between the Cape of Good Hope 
and the Tropic of Cancer, and to the coasts of America 
and the West Indies, between the Straits of Magellan 
and Newfoundland. The company was invested with 
enormous powers. In the language of Brodhead, 
it might make in the name of the States-General 

I John Kobinson's fareweU blessing: 

'* I cbarge you before God and His blessed angels that you follow me 
no further than you have seen me follow the Lord Jesus Christ. The 
Lord has more truth yet to break forth out of His holy word. I cannot 
sufficiently bewail the condition of the Reformed Churches, who are to 
come to a period in religion, and will go at present no further than the 
instruments of their reformation. Luther and Calvin were great and 
shining lights in their times, yet they penetrated not into the whole 
counsel of God. I beseech you, remember it, — 'tie an article of your 
church covenant, — that you be ready to receive whatever truth shall be 
made known to you from the written word of God." 



" contracts aud alliances with the princes and natives 
of the countries comprehended within the limits of 
its charter, build forts, appoint and discharge gov- 
ernors, soldiers, and public officers, administer justice, 
and promote trade. It was bound to advance the 
peopling of these fruitful and unsettled parts, and do 
all that the service of those countries and the profit 
and increase of trade shall require." The States- 
General had a sort of general supervision, with the 
privilege of confirming the appointment of superior 
officers, but no other powers over it. The govern- 
ment of the company was vested in five boards of 
managers, — one at Amsterdam, managing four-ninths 
of the whole ; one at Middleburg, iu Zealand, man- 
aging two-ninths; one at Dordrecht, oa the Maese, 
managing one-ninth ; one in North Holland, one- 
ninth ; and one in Friesland and Groningen, one- 
ninth. The general executive power for all purposes, 
the power to declare war only being reserved for the 
approval of the States, was confided to a board of 
nineteen delegates, of whom eight were to come from 
the Amsterdam chamber, and the rest from the other 
chambers in proportion to their shares, except that 
the States-General had one delegate. The States 
were pledged to defend the company against all 
comers, to advance to it a million guilders in money, 
and give it for its a.ssistance sixteen ships of war of 
three hundred tons each, and foi^r yachts of eighty 
tons, fully equipped. This fleet was to be main- 
tained, manned, and supported by the company, 
which besides was to provide an equal number of 
vessels on its own part, the whole to be under the 
command of an admiral selected by the States-Gen- 
era). Any inhabitant of the Netherlands or of other 
countries might become a stockholder during 1621, 
but after that year the subscription books were to be 
closed, and no new members admitted. Colonization 
was one object of this great monopoly, but what its 
chiefs looked to principally for profit was a vast 
system of legalized piracy against the commerce of 
Spain and Portugal in Africa and America. The 
company was not finally organized under the charter 
until June, 1623, when the subscription books were 

In the interval between the lapse of the old United 
Company and the completion of the charter of the 
new monopoly, several ships were sent on trading 
ventures of a more or less private character to the 
North and South Rivers in the New Netherlands, 
among them vessels which had visited those regions 
before. King James I. having granted the charter 
of the Plymouth Company, complaints began to be 
heard about Dutch intrusions. Sir Samuel Argall, 
who is represented in the spurious Plantagenet pam- 
phlet as having forced a Dutch governor in Manhat- 
tan to yield allegiance to the British king in 1613, is 
found in 1621 as complaining, in a memorial signed 
by him. Sir Ferdinando Georges, the Earl of Arun- 
del, and Capt. John Mason, against the " Dutch in- 

truders," who are represented as having only settled 
on the Hudson in 1620. This was claimed by the 
Plymouth Company as proof of the British king's 
title to the whole country, j\ire primce occupationis. 
This led to a protest, in December, 1621, by the Brit- 
ish government, through Sir Dudley Carleton, ambas- 
sador at the Hague. The States professed ignorance, 
and promised to make inquiry, and with that answer, 
after some fretfulness, the British minister was forced 
to content himself In fact, the States-General, en- 
grossed in preparations for the war with Spain, sim- 
ply delayed matters until the West India Company 
was organized, when all such questions were referred 
to it for settlement. It thus became an issue between 
British Plymouth Company and Dutch West India 
Company, and the latter was the stronger of the two, 
both in men and argument. 

The ships of that company, even before the final 
ratification of the amended charter, were trading in 
all the Atlantic waters between Buzzard's Bay (within 
twenty miles of Plymouth) and the Delaware River, 
and a plan of colonization was already matured. A 
number of Walloons (Belgian Protestants of supposed 
Waelsche or Celtic origin), refugees in Holland from 
Spanish persecution, had applied to the British min- 
ister Carleton for leave to emigrate to Virginia. Tlie 
terms offered them do not seem to have been satisfac- 
tory. The Holland Provincials heard of the negotia- 
tions, and suggested to the Amsterdam chamber of 
the West India Company that these would be good 
immigrants with whom to begin the permanent set- 
tlement of the New Netherlands. The suggestion 
was seized upon, and provision made to carry the 
Walloons over in the company's ship then about to 
sail, the " New Netherlands," Capt. Cornells Jacob- 
.sen Mey, he who had first sailed into South River, 
and who was going out now as first resident director ' 
or governor of the colonies. Some thirty families, 
chiefly Walloons, were accordingly taken on board, 
and in the beginning of March, 1623, the " New Neth- 
erlands" sailed from the Texel, Capt. Mey in com- 
mand, the nest highest officer being Adriaen Joris, 
of Thienpoint. The course of the ship (and of nearly 
all vessels making the American voyage at that day) 
was southward from the British Channel to the Cana- 
ries, thence across the Atlantic with the trade-winds 
to Guiana and the Caribbees, then northwest between 
the Bermudas and Bahamas until the coastof Virginia 
came in sight. Mey's vessel reached the North River 
safely and in time to drive ofi' a French vessel which 
sought to set up the arms of France on Manhattan 
Island. The Frenchman was foiled in the same way 
on the Zuydt River. Mey distributed his colonists as 
far as he could. The greater part of the Walloons were 
sent up to Albany, several families went to the Dutch 
factory on the Connecticut; four couples, who had 
married during the voyage out, several sailors, and 
some other men were sent to the South River, now 
also called Prince Hendrick's River. Mey appears 



either to have accompanied them here or visited 
them soon after their arrival. He selected a site for 
their settlement, planting the Walloons on Verhulsten 
Island, near the present city of Trenton, N. J., and 
hastened the construction of a log fort or stockade 
for his sailors and soldiers at the mouth of the Tim- 
iner Kill, on the New Jersey bank of the Delaware, 
not far from where Gloucester now stands. This fort 
was called " Nassau." Its exact site is not deter- 
mined, nor can we decide the original Indian name 
of the spot, having such a variety to choose from.' 
This South River colony was soon given up. The 
men and women of the Walloons grew homesick and 
returned to New York, certainly within a year or so, 
the garrison also abandoning the fort to the Indians, 
who occasionally lodged there during several years, 
probably while waiting for trading vessels. Such a 
vessel was sent round to the South River at least once 
a year from Manhattan Island. Thus, it is supposed 
in 162.5, the first settlement on the Delaware came 
to naught.- Fort Nassau, to conclude its history, 
seems to have been alternately occupied and aban- 
doned by the Dutch until 1650 or 1651, when it was 
destroyed by the Dutch themselves, as being too high 
up the river and too much out of the way. The post 
was then transferred to the new Fort Casimir. In 
1633, De Vries found none but Indians there, but it 
seems to have been restored some time during the 
same year by Governor Van Twiller, who was ac- 
cused of incurring extravagant expense in connec- 
tion with its construction. Arent Corssen was then 
commissary; he had a clerk, and the Governor or- 
dered him to select the site for another structure of 
the same sort on the river. In 1635 an English party 
attempted but failed to capture this fort. They were 
thought to be Lord Baltimore's people, but were more 
likely New Englanders or Virginians. The Swedes 
repeatedly denied that there was any fort of the 
Dutch on the Delaware in 1638 ; but the Dutch ac- 
counts of expenditure for the maintenance of Fort 
Nassau charged against that year in the West India 
Company's books disprove this. There was certainly 
enough of a garrison in the fort to report at once and 
protest against the Swedish settlement at Christiana 

1 HermaomeBsiog, Tachaacbo, Armewamix, Arwames, Tekoke, Ar- 

menvereus, etc. The year in which the fort was Iiuilt is also disputed, 
hut ttie circiimstancea mentioned in tiie text niukc* it probable tliat its 
construction was undertaken very shortly after Capt. Mey's arrival out. 
- It is not possible to state satisfactorily in what year the settlement 
was Riven up nor why. The deposition of Peter Lawrenson before Gov- 
ernor Dongan, of New York, in March, 16S5, says that he came into this 
colony in 1C28, and in 1030 (actually 1131), by oi-der of the West India 
Company, he, with some others, was sent in a sloop to the Delaware, 
where the company had a trading-house, with ten or twelve servants 
belonging to it, which the deponent himself did see settled there. . . , 
"And the deponent further saith that upon an island near the falls of 
that river and near the west side thereof, tlie said company some thn'e or 
four years before had a trading-house, where there were three or four 
families of Walloons. The place of their settlement he saw ; and that 
they had been seated there he was informed by some of the said Wal- 
l)ons themselves when they were returned from Iheiice." Itisiuthis 
in i'-finite way that the beginnings of all bistoiy are written. 

in April, 1638. In 1642 the garrison comprised twenty 
men, and the fort was continually occupied from this 
time forth until the Dutch destroyed it. 

In 1624, Peter Minuet {the name is also spelled 
Minuit, Minnewit, or Minnewe) came out and suc- 
ceeded Mey as director of the New Netherlands colo- 
nies. He held this position until 1632, when he was 
recalled, and Van Twiller became Governor in his 
stead. Minuet, as will be seen further on, was a 
sagacious and enterprising man, but he had to pur- 
sue a conservative policy as director of the New 
Netherlands, for the welfare of the colony was neg- 
lected sadly by the West India Company. But few 
immigrants and colonists came out, the garrisons were 
not strengthened, nor was much effort made to ex- 
tend either the boundaries or the trade of the colony. 
Some negro slaves indeed were landed on Manhattan 
Island at least as early as 1628, but their labor was 
not esteemed. The chief business done was in trading 
with the Indians for peltries and furs. In fact the 
West India Company was so puffed with the arro- 
gance that proceeds from great successes and sudden 
wealth, that the directors despised the small and plod- 
ding colonial ways and the slow and meagre profits 
derived from such sources. It had won brilliant vic- 
tories at sea. It had taken in two years one hundred 
and four Spanish prizes. It had paid dividends of 
fifty per cent. It^had captured the Panama plate 
fleet. It frequently sent to sea single squadrons of 
seventy armed vessels. It had captured Bahia in 
1624, and Pernambuco in 1630, and it aspired to the 
conquest of Brazil. These brilliant performances cast 
the puny interests of the New Netherlands traders 
into the shade, and the company did not care to be 
bothered with the discharge of duties which were 
nevertheless particularly assigned to it in the char- 
ter. So obvious was this departure from the original 
purposes of the company that so early even as 1624 
we find that William Usselincx, the founder of the 
company, had abandoned it in disgust, and was seek- 
ing to persuade King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden 
to establish a Swedish West India Company, such 
as would be operated more in accordance with his 
original plan. 

There were still some very shrewd heads among the 
members of the Amsterdam chamber, men who while 
quite willing to take all the gold and silver and pre- 
cious stones they could get, yet were fully acquainted 
with the more abiding virtues of land. Of these were 
John De Laet, the historian, Killiaan Van Rensselaer, 
the diamond-cutter, Michael Pauw, Peter Evertsen 
Hulft, Jonas Witsen, Hendrick Hamel, Samuel Go- 
dyn, and Samuel Blommaert, all rich, all well in- 
formed, all interested in the support and develop- 
ment of the colonies on the North and South Rivers, 
especially if these could be effected in a w.ay further 
to enrich themselves. The secretary of Minuet and 
the colony, Isaac De Rasieres, a keen observer and 
skillful diplomatist, was devoted to the interests of 



Godyn, Van Rensselaer, and Blommaert, and he prob- 
ably kept them apprised of all that w'as going on in 
the New Netherlands. While Minuet, with reduced 
forces, was compelled through fear of Indians to con- 
centrate his people at Manhattan, abandoning all ex- 
posed places, the Amsterdam directors, after consult- 
ing with De Rasieres, whom Minuet had sent home, 
procured a meeting of the Executive "College" of 
nineteen, and secured from it a Charter of Freedoms 
and Exemptions, which the States-General confirmed 
on June 7, 1629. This was a complete feudal consti- 
tution, adopted years before Lord Baltimore's charter. 
It created a landed aristocracy, and handed the State 
over pretty much to their control. The plan for the 
colonization of the territory was its subdivision into 
separate and independent settlements or estates, 
each to be under the control of a patroon, or feudal 
lord, who was tb settle it at his own expense in ex- 
change for many peculiar privileges. The charter 
provided that any member of the West India Com- 
pany (to none others were these privileges open) who 
should within four years plant a colony of fifty 
adults in any part of New Netherland (except the 
island of Manhattan, which the company, having 
bought it from the Indians, reserved to itself) should 
be acknowledged as a " patroon" or feudal chief of 
the territory he might thus colonize. The land se- 
lected for each colony might extend sixteen miles in 
length if confined to one side of a navigable river, or 
eight miles on each side if both banks were occupied ; 
but they might run as far into the country as the sit- 
uation of the occupiers should permit. More immi- 
grants entitled the patroon to proportionately more 
land. The colonists under the patroons were ex- 
empted from all taxes for ten years; they acquired 
their estates in fee-simple, with power of disposing by 
will ; they were magistrates within their own bounds, 
and each patroon had the exclusive privilege of fish- 
ing, fowling, and grinding corn within his own do- 
main ; they could also trade anywhere along the 
American coast, and to Holland by paying five per 
cent, duty to the company at its reservation of Man- 
hattan. The company reserved the fur trade to itself, 
and none of the colonists were to engage in any man- 

A review of events and circumstances incident to 
the settlement of Eastern Pennsylvania without ref- 
erence to the speculative greed of men whose op)>or- 
tunities misled them would be incomplete. Ordinarj' 
foresight and sagacity induced the belief in the minds 
of these first voyagers that settlements would speedily 
follow the line of commerce, and lands eligibly located 
would soon have market value. Ambitious capi- 
talists, such as Samuel Godyn and Samuel Blom- 
maert, prompted by so keen and observing a resident 
as Isaac De Rasieres, whose official position gave him 
peculiar advantages in advising his friends, were not 
slow in concerting measures to advance their interest 
in large land enterprises. As early as 1629 they re- 

tained two purchasing agents to buy lands from the 
Indians on the south side of the Delaware Bay. Their 
purchase embraced a tract thirty-two miles in length, 
extending a distance of two miles into the country 
from the shore line, the patent thereof being duly reg- 
istered and confirmed June 1, 1630. Similar pur- 
chases were made on and near the Hudson River by 
William Van Rensselaer, Michael Pauw, and John 
De Laet. These extensive operations were viewed 
with disfavor, and led to general and unfriendly criti- 
cism, and naturally excited quarrels among the specu- 
lators and their retainers. To avoid scandal and ex- 
posure there seems to have been what was deemed an 
equitable division of advantages. In a word, there 
had been over-reaching and sharp practice. Explan- 
ations and restitution were discreetly made. Fortu- 
nately for Godyn and Blommaert, who were obliged 
to improve their land on the Delaware Bay, under 
the terms of confirmation of their purchase, they fell 
in with David Pietersen De Vries, who had just re- 
turned from the East Indies. He was a man of un- 
couth exterior, but of good heart, and from experience 
had become observant, not alone in nautical matters, 
but in all worldly affairs, and was on terms of great 
personal intimacy with Godyn. His services were 
deemed so important to the success of the enterprise 
that he was admitted to equal advantages, — i.e., his 
experience was deemed equivalent to the capital of 
those associated in the enterprise. 

De Vries became a patroon Oct. 16, 1630, and at 
once set to work to promote the designs of his asso- 
ciates. The ship " Walvis," or " Whale," of eighteen 
guns, and a yacht were immediately equipped. They 
carried out emigrants, cattle, food, and whaling im- 
plements, De Vries having heard that whales abounded 
in the Bay of South River (Godyn's Bay, or Newport 
May Bay, as it now also began to be called), and ex- 
pecting to establish profitable fisheries there. The 
expedition sailed from the Texel in December under 
the command of Pieter Heyes, of Edam. De Vries 
did not go out at this time, and the voyage was not 
profitable. De Vries accuses Heyes of incapacity 
and cowaidice, saying he would not sail through the 
West Indies in an eigbteen-gun ship. Still, Heyes 
did a large business for his employers. He reached 
South River in the spring of 1631, and established 
his colony on the Horekill, "a fine navigable stream, 
filled with islands, abounding in good oysters," and 
surrounded by fertile soil. The place was near the 
present site of Lewes, Del. Here a palisaded brick 
house was erected, and the colony of more than thirty 
souls was called Swaannendael, the Valley of Swans. 
The Dutch title was inscribed upon a pillar, on a 
plate of tin, surmounted by the arms of Holland. 
The fort, named " Oplandt," was given in the com- 
mand of Gilliss Hossett, Van Rensselaer's agent in 
buying lands around Albany. Heyes, after he had 
settled matters at Swaannendael, crossed to the Jer- 
sey shore and bought from ten chiefs there, on behalf 



of Godyn, Blommaert, and their associates, a tract of 
land extending from Cape May twelve miles north- 
ward along the bay and twelve miles inland. This 
purchase was registered at Manhattan June 3, 1631. 
The whale fishery having come to naught, in Sep- 
tember Heyes sailed for home to report to his em- 

De Vries now determined to go out to the South 
River himself, and preparations were made for him to 
take charge of another ship and yacht. Just as he 
was about to sail from the Texel, May 24, 1632, Gov- 
ernor Minuet arrived from New Amsterdam with 
intelligence of the massacre of the colony at Swaan- 
nendael. This was cold news for De Vries and his 
associates. The patroon sailed, however, and after a 
long and checkered voyage arrived off Swaannendael 
early in December. The site of the little settlement 
told a fearful tale; the house itself nearly ruined, 
the stockade burnt, and the adjacent land strewed 
with the skulls and bones of the colonists, the remains 
of cattle, etc. The valley was silent and desolate. 

De Vries returned 
on board his yacht 
and fired a gun to 
attract attention of 
the savages. After 
some mutual mis- 
trust, communica- 
tion was opened 
with tliem, and 
De Vries was told 
a cock-and-bull 
story of a chief 
having ignorantly 
removed the coat 
of arms from the 
pillar and been 
murdered by the colonists for doing it, whereupon 
his tribe, in revenge, massacred the colonists. De 
Vries knew too much about the Dutch cruelty and 
harshness to the Indians to believe any such story. 
He had before him all the evidences of the white 
man's cruelty and the savage's wild revenge. The 
fatal deed was irreparable, and De Vries, keeping his 
own counsel, did what he could to restore confidence 
and peace by making presents to the Indians of 
" duffles, bullets, hatchets, and Nuremberg toys," so 
as to get them to hunt beaver for him, instead of lying 
in ambush to murder more colonists. The result 
was a treaty of peace, the first ever made in Delaware 

On Jan. 1, 1633, the navigation being open, De 
Vries proceeded up the bay and river in his yacht. 
At Fort Nassau he heard of the murder of the crew 
of an English sloop, and met some Indians wearing 
the Englishmen's jackets. These Indians also made a 
show of offering peace, but De Vries dealt with them 
very cautiously, as they greatly outnumbered his 


On January 10th, De Vries cast anchor at the bar 
of Jacques Eylandt, precisely opposite the present 
city of Philadelphia, somewhere over against Willow 
Street, near the site of what is now known as Wind- 
mill Island.' Thence he went down river again, an- 
choring half a mile above Minquas Kill, on the look- 
out for whales. He was finally twice frozen up, and 
in some danger from Indians, numerous war parties 
of whom he saw, there being some intestine feud 
among the adjacent tribes. Released from the ice, 
he reached Swaannendael on February 20th, and on 
March 6th sailed for Virginia, returning to South 
River only to break up the colony at Swaannendael 
and go home. Once more the Delaware River and 
Bay were abandoned to the Indians, and once more 
the attempt at settlement by white men had failed. 
There were no further efforts made to settle on South 
River until the Swedes came in 1638, but, as has been 
stated, there must have been a more or less intermit- 
tent occupancy at Fort Nassau, and possibly there 
may have been a permanent garrison from the begin- 
ning of Van Twiller's director-generalship.'' 

Note, — If the story of New Albion is other than an )u3torica! myth, 
tlie Englisli were among the earliest adventurers and settlers on the 
Delaware. Between 1G23 and 1634, for several dates are mentioned, 
Charles I. granted an extensive territory to Sir Edmund Plowden, 
which enihraced Long Island, all of New Jersey, Delaware, and parts of 
Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, who formed a company of noble- 

1 The bar of Jacques Eylandt embraces the spot where the city of 
Camden is now built. 

2 The 'list of June, 1634, is the alleged date of the probably spurious 
Sir Kdwurd Plowden or Ploydon's charter for impossible territory some- 
where between the Potomac and Newark Bay. 

Rev. Edward D. Neill, president of Macalester College, Minn., who has 
given considerable attention to Maryland history, though from a rather 
sectarian stand-point, contributed two papers on Plowden to the tifth vol- 
ume of the Pennsylvania MagaziiiCy conCvicted by the Historical Society of 
that State. He assumes Plowden's existence, and that he was the lineal 
descendant of Edmund Plowden, the commentator on English law, who 
earned Coke's encomiums and who died in 1584. Plowden, according to 
Neill, did obtain a grant in lG:j'.i, through King Charles I.'s request to 
the viceroy of Ireland for act-rtain " Isle Plowden" and forty leagues of 
the mainland, called " New Albion." The island lay between 39° and 
40° latitude. Capt. Young, commissioned by the king in September, 
1633, sent out an exploring expedition in 1634, which ascended the Del- 
aware as far as the Falls. ■ If this expedition ever sailed, it must have 
been the one mentioned by De Vries-as having been massacred by the 
Indians, There is no proof that Plowden sent out this party or had aught 
to do with it, Evelyn, who' commanded it, was in the service of Clay- 
bortie's London partners, Plowden, says Mr, Neill, was living at hisseat 
at Wanstead in Hampshire in 163.5, unhappy, heating his wife, quarrel- 
ing with his neighbors, and chatiging his relieion. His wife and his 
clergyman's wife both had him arrested for assault and battery, and his 
wife procured a divorce from him. In 1641, Evelyn wrote a pamphlet 
descriptive of New Albion, dedicated to Plowden's wife. The next year 
Plowden was on the Chesapeake, This was ten years after he is said to 
have procured this rich grant. No one can explain why he did not look 
after such an estate sooner. Plowden lived most of his time in Virginia, 
but waj* in Maryland, on Delaware Bay, at New York, and in New Eng- 
land. He was abroad just seven years, say his chroniclers, and then 
went home to return no more to " New Albion." It is conjectured that 
his seven years' residence was on account of being transported, and that 
his New Albion claim was trumped up after the time of his sentence 
was served out. Plowden is reputed to have died in 1665. Mr. Neill 
further says (hat in 163.5-40, Plowden was a prisoner in the Fleet Prison, 
London, fur refusing to jiay his wile's alimony, Mr, Neill must see that 
the dates of Plowden's adventures are as irreconcilable aa his adven- 



men and gentlemen under the title of "The AUdon Knights." The 
Delaware was the chosen ground to settle, and tlie company pledged 
itself to introduce tlireo tlionsand trained men into the colony. Colo- 
nists were actually introduced, and made their homea on the Delaware; 
but neither the number nor exact location ran be told. Plowden was 
iord proprietor and captain-general, while one Beauchamp Plantagenet 
was made agent of this company of knightly settlers. Tlie earl and 
Plantagenet were here seven years, and became well acquainted with 
the country and Indian tribes. A government was framed, and the 
machinery of civil administration put in operation, but its duration is 
unknown. A history of tlie colony was publisbed in 1048, which con- 
tained the letter of one "Master Robert Evelin," addressed to Lady 
Plowden after his return to England. He was four years on the Dela- 
ware, and i[i his letter he states that "Captain Claybnurn, fourteen 
years there trading," sustains wliat he says of the country. Evelyn evi- 
dently sailed up the river to the falls, for he mentions the streams which 
empty into it, names the tribes which live along it, with their strengtli, 
with some description of the country and the productions. Six leagues 
below the falls he speaks of" two fair, woody islands, very pleasant and 
fit for parks, one of one thousand acres, the other of fourteen hundred 
or thereabouts." Tliese were probatdy Burlington and Newbold's 
Islands. Near the falls, he says, " is an isle fit for a city ; all the m:i- 
teriala there to build, and above the river fair and navigable, as the In- 
dians informed me, for I went but ten miles higher." The "isle fit for 
a city" refere, doubtless, to Morris Island, or the one abreast of Morris- 
ville. It is barely possible that he fell into the popular error of some 
explorers of the period, that the Delaware branched at the falls, and 
that the two branches formed a large island above. He says that a ship 
of one hundred and forty tons can ascend to tlie falls, and that "ten 
leagues higher are lead mines in stony hills." At the falls he locates 
the Indian town of Kildorpy, with clear fields to plant and sow, and 
near it are sweet, large mendows of clover or honeysuckle." The letter 
speaks of the abundant store of fish in the river, of water-fowl that 
swim upon its surface, and the game, fruit, and nuts to be found in the 
woods that line its banks, and of the magnificent forest-trees. Evelyn 
must have traveled well into the interior,and through portions of Bucks 
County. He speaks of the new town of the Susquehannocks as a ** rare, 
healthy, and rich place, and with a crystal, broad river." This must 
refer to the Susquehanna River and the tribe from which it takes its 

What became of Plowden's colony would be an interesting inquiry if 
we had the leisure to pursue it or the data necessary to solve it. The 
late William Rawle, of Philadelphia, who gave the subject a careful 
and intelligent investigation, believed that some of those who welcomed 
Penn to the shores of the Delaware were the survivors of the Albion 
Knights. History offers no (Edipus to unravel the mystery. — Davis, 
History of Bucks Counti). 



The ineffectual efforts of the Dutch to secure a per- 
manent lodgment on the Delaware south of the 
Schuylkill River left their large landed interests in 
an unprofitable and precarious condition. It is not 
seriously pretended by commentators that the Dutcli 
pioneers had any higher motives than those prompted 
by commercial advantages and the hope of obtaining 
wealth. It seems reasonably clear that a tnuling- 
post was still maintained by them on the Delaware, 
known as Fort Nassau, but not permanently occupied. 
It was doubtless an outpost, and for some years after 
the colony at Swaannendael was broken up was vis- 
ited by them at seasonable periods of trade and ex- 
change with the Indians. Tliat they were vigilant in 
their watch upon the Delaware is proven by the fact 
that they sent an armed force to dislodge a small 

party of English who, under George Holmes, had 
taken possession of Fort Nassau. These adventurers, 
thirteen in number, were taken prisoners by the 
Dutch and sent to Virginia, from whence they came, 
as their captors believed, although it is said by some 
writers that they came to the fort from the New Eng- 
land colonies. Samuel Godyn died in the year 1634. 

, His heirs and legal representatives in adjusting his 
estate provoked contentions with those who had been 
engaged in land speculations, which led to discoveries 
bordering upon scandal. The West India Company 
came to the rescue of the litigants, and purchased 
from Godyn's heirs and associates all the territory 
owned by them on both sides of the Delaware River 
for the sum of fifteen thousand six hundred guilders. 
The wide-spread publicity which resulted from the 
operations of the enterprising Hollanders in estab- 
lishing trade with the Indians and possessing them- 
selves of large landed estates in the New World nat- 

I urally stimulated the ambitious princes of Europe to 
efforts for the extension of their power and dominion 

[Used for Public Worship in 1677.] 

on the North American continent. Efforts to estab- 
lish colonies were always made by royal authority 
under liberal grants and chartered privileges. Large 
sums of money in many instances were expended in 
equipping these expeditions, and in capitalizing and 
controlling them and the commerce resulting from 
them. These investments were made upon the ex- 
pectation of a fair return, and when financial reverses 
and disappointments occurred changes in the man- 
agement ensued. Salaried officers were turned out 
at the home office or recalled from abroad, who be- 
came important factors in the formation of new pro- 
jects, and all the more useful by reason of their ex- 
perience. Such a person was William Usselincx,' a 
Hollander, born at Antwerp, in Brabant, who as early 
as 1624 presented himself to King Gustaf Adolph of 
Sweden, and laid before him a proposition for a 
trading company to be established in Sweden, and to 
extend its operations to Asia, Africa, and Magellan's 
Land (Terra Magellanica), with the assurance that 
this would be a great source of revenue to the king- 



dom. Full power was given him to carry out this 
important project, and thereupon a contract of trade 
was drawn up, to which the company was to agree 
and subscribe. Usselincx published explanations of 
this Contract, wherein he also particularly directed 
attention to the country on the Delaware, its fertility, 
convenience, and all its imaginable resources. 

To strengthen the matter a charter was secured to 
the company, and especially to Usselincx, who was to 
receive a royalty of one thousandth upon all articles 
bought or sold by the company. The powerful king, 
whose zeal for the honor of God was not less ardent 
than for the welfare of his subjects, availed himself 
of the opportunity to extend the doctrines of Christ 
among the heathen, as well as to establish his own 
power in other parts of the world.' To this end he 
sent forth letters patent, dated at Stockholm, on the 
2d of July, 1G26, wherein all, both high and low, were 
invited to contribute something to the company, ac- 
cording to their means. The work was completed in 
the Diet of the following year, 1627, when the estates 
of the realm gave their assent and confirmed the 
measure. Those who took part in this company were 
his Majesty's mother, the Queen Dowager, Christina, 
the princess, John Casimir, the Royal Council, the 
most distinguished of the nobility, the highest officers 
of the army, the bishops and other clergymen, to- 
gether with the burgomasters and aldermen of the 
cities, as well as a large number of the people gener- 
ally. The time fixed for paying in the subscriptions 
was the 1st of May of the following year (1628). For 
the management and working of the plan there were 
appointed an admiral, vice-admiral, chaplain, under- 
chaplain, assistants and commissaries, also a body 
of soldiers, duly officered. But when these arrange- 
ments were in full progress and duly provided for the 
German war and the king's death occurred, which 
caused this important work to be laid aside. The 
Trading Company was dissolved, its subscriptions 
nullified, and the whole project seemed about to die 

J The plans of GuBtavus were both deep and patriotic. "The year 

1624," says the historian Geijer, "wasoneof the few ye-irstliat the king 
vas able to devote to tlie iuternal development of the realm." He 
looked at the suhject of colonization in America, says Rev. Dr. W. M. 
Reynolds in the introduction to his translation of Acrelius, " with the 
eye of a statesman who understood the wants not onlyof liisown country 
but of the world, and was able with prophetic glance to penetrate into 
the distant ages of the future." He proposed there to found a free State, 
where the laborer should reap the fruit of his toil, where the rights of 
conscience should he inviolate, and which should he open to the whole 
Protestant world, then engaged in a struggle for existence with all the 
papal powers of Europe. All should be secure in their persons, their 
property, and their rights of conscience. It should be an asylum for the 
persecuted of all nations, a place of security for the honor of the wives 
and daughters of those who were flying from bloody battle-fields and from 
homes madedesolate by the fire and sword of the persecutor. No slaves 
should burden the soil; " for," said Gustavus, — and we realize the pro- 
found truth of his political economy after an experience of two centuries 
at the end of which slavery expired amid the death-throes ot our civil 
war, — "slaves cost a great deal, labor with reluctance, and soon perish 
from hard usage. But the Swedish nation is industrious and intelligent, 
and hereby we shall gain more by a free people with wives and cliil- 
di en." — Scharft History of Philadelphia. 

with the king. But just as it appeared to be at its 
end it received new life. Another Hollander, by the 
name of Peter Menewe, sometimes called Menuet," 
made his appearance in Sweden. He had been in 
the service of Holland in America, where he became 
involved in difficulties with the officers of the West 
India Company, in consequence of which he was re- 
called home and dismissed from their service. But 
he was not discouraged by this, and went over to 
Sweden, where he renewed the representations which 
Usselincx had formerly made in regard to the excel- 
lence of the country, and the advantages that Sweden 
might derive from it. 

Queen Christina,' who succeeded her royal father 
in the government, was glad to have the project thus 
renewed. The royal chancellor. Count A.xel Oxen- 
stierna, understood well how to put it in operation. 
He took the West India Trading Company into his 
own hands as its president, and encouraged other 
noblemen to take shares in it. King Charles I. of 
England had already, in the year 1634, upon repre- 
sentations made to him by John Oxenstierna, at that 
time Swedish ambassador in London, renounced in 
favor of the Swedes all claims and pretensions of the 
English to that countrj' growing out of their rights 
as its first discoverers. Hence everything seemed to 
be settled upon a firm foundation, and all earnestness 
was employed in the prosecution of the plans for a 
colony. As a good beginning the first colony was 
sent off,* and Peter Menewe was placed over it, as 
being best acquainted in those regions. 

They set sail from Gottenburg in a ship of war 
called the " Key of Calmar," followed by a smaller 
vessel bearing the name of " Bird Griffin," both laden 
with people, provisions, ammunition, and merchan- 
dise suitable for traffic and gifts to the Indians. 
These ships successfully reached their place of desti- 
nation. The high expectations which the emigrants 
had of that new land were well met by the first news 
which they had of it. They made their first landing 
on the bay or entrance to the river Poutaxat, which 
they called the river of New Sweden, and the place 
where they landed they called Paradise Point. A 
purchase of land was immediately made from the In- 
dians, and it was determined that all the land on the 
western side of the river, from the point called Cape 
Inlopen, or Henlopen, up to the fall called San- 
tickan,^ and all the country inland, as much as was 

- An autograph letter found in the royal archives in Stockholm gives 
the name as commonly written in English, Minuit, 

3 Christina succeeded her father, the great Gustaf Adolph, in 1632, 
when only six years of age, and the kingdom remained uiidera regency 
until she was ciglitecn,in 1G44. Consequently she was only eleven years 
of age in 1637, when the .\merican colony was established. 

* In August, 1637, although it did not reach the Delaware until 1638. 
' Se'Odhner, "Sveriges Inre Historia,' p. 302. He reached the Delaware 
in the middle of April. 

& Trenton Falls, which Campanius (p. 49 of Translation) calls "the 
Falls of Assinpink." On Visscher's map of Pennsylvania, given in Du- 
Iionceau's Translation of Campanius, to face p. 78, we find "SanhiecanV 
given as the most northern point. 



ceded, should belong to the Swedish crown forever. 
Posts were driven in the ground as landmarks, which 
were still seen in their places sixty years afterwards. 
A deed was drawn up for the land thus purchased. 
This was written in Dutch, for no Swede was yet able 
to interpret the language of the heathen. The In- 
dians subscribed their hands and marks. The writ- 
ing was sent home to Sweden to be preserved in the 
royal archives. Mans Kling was the surveyor. He 
laid out the land, and made a map of the whole river, 
with its tributaries, islands, and points, which is still 
to be found in the royal archives in Sweden. Their 
clergyman was Reones Torkillus, of East Gothland. 

The first abode of the newly-arrived emigrants was 
at a place called, by the Indians, Hopokahacking. 
There, in the year 1G38, Peter llenuet built a 
which he named Fort Christina, after the reigning 



[Fiom Cainpaiiius' New Sweden.] 

A, Fort Chriatina. B, Chrislitm Creek. C, Town of Christina Hamn. 

D, TenneI<onp Land. E, Fish Kill. F.Slaugenborg. G, Myggenborg. 

H, Rottenborg. I, Flingenborg. K, Timber Island. L, Kitchen. M, 

Position of the besiegers. N, Harbor. 0, Mine. P. Swamp. 

queen of Sweden. The place, situated upon the west 
side of the river, was probably chosen so as to be out 
of the way of the Hollanders, who claimed the eastern 
side, — a measure of prudence until the arrival of a 
greater force from Sweden. The fort was built upon 
an eligible site, not far from the mouth of the creek, 
so as to secure them in the navigable waters of the 
Miniquas, which was afterwards called Christina 
Kihl or Creek. The country was wild and unin- 
habited by the Hollanders. They had two or three 
forts on the river, — Fort Nassau, where Gloucester 
now stands, and another at Horekihl, down on the 
bay. But both of these were entirely destroyed by 
the Americans, and their occupants driven away. 
The following extract from the " History of the New 

Netherlands," which Adrian van der Donck pub- 
lished in the year 1655, with the license and privilege 
as well of the States- General as of the West India 
Company, will serve as proof of what we have said: 
"The place is called Horekihl,' but why so called we 
know not. But this is certain, that some years back, 
before the English and Swedes came hither, it was 
taken up and settled as a colony by Hollanders, the 
arms of the States being at the same time set up in 
brass. These arms having been pulled down by the 
villainy of the Indians, the commissary there resident 
demanded that the head of the traitor should be de- 
livered to him. The Indians, unable to e.scape in any 
other way, brought him- the head, which was accepted 
as a sufficient atonement of their offense. But some 
time afterwards, when we were at work in the fields, 
and unsuspicious of danger, the Indians came as 
friends, surrounded the Hollanders with overwhelm- 
ing numbers, fell upon them, and completely exter- 
minated them. Thus was the colony destroyed, 
though sealed with blood and dearly enough pur- 

Notwithstanding all this, the Hollanders believed 
that they had the best right to the Delaware River, 
yea, a better right than the Indians themselves. It 
was their object to secure at least all the land lying 
between said river and their city of New Amsterdam, 
where was their stronghold, and which country they 
once called "The New Netherlands." But as their 
forces were still weak, they always kept one or another 
of their people upon the east side of the river to watch 
those who might visit the country. As soon, there- 
fore, as Menuet lauded with his Swedish company 
notice of the fact was given to the Director-General 
of the Hollanders in New Amsterdam. He waited 
for some time until he could ascertain Menuet's pur- 
pose, but when it appeared that he was erecting a 
fortress for the Swedes he sent him the following pro- 

* Horekill (variously written Horeskill, Hoarkill, Whorekill) is no 
doubt a corruption of Hoornkill, so called from Hoorn, a city in Hol- 
land, from which Captain Mey sailed upon his e.\jiedition to America 
when he discovered or made his first visit to the Delaware. The deri- 
Vrtliitn of the name suggested by Van Sweringen, in his "Account of 
the Settling of the Swedes and Dutcli at the Delaware" (contained in 
vol. iii., pp. 342-347, of " Documents Relating to the Colonial History of 
New York," etc.), is of a piece with the rest of his narrative, and enti- 
tled to no consideration. Horekill was about two leagues from Cape 
Henlopen, and is probably the stream now called Lewes Creek, in the 
State of Delaware. See also the note to p. 21 of Ferris' " Original Set- 
tlements on the Dfilaware." 

- New Yo^^ Office in the General Index to the Dutch Records, Lib. A. 
The Swedif'h annalists who have given any account of this Swedish 
colony in America have represented the tii"st emigration as taking place 
in the time of King Giistaf Adolph, about the year 1627. This was the 
opinion of Th. Camp, of Holm. (See his " Nya Swerige" (New Sweden), 
pages 57, 58, 72, 73, which others have followed.) (See the " Dissert, de 
I'lant. Ecclesiffi Swec. in America," p. 5,) But this was only a conjec- 
ture suggested by the great prepanitions which were made at that time, 
but which were suddenly broken off. It would undoubtedly have been 
all the better if the work had been taken hold of at that time with all 
earnestness. But this protest is proof to the contrary, and shows that 
the first arrival must have taken place some time in the year preceding 
the building of the fortress (ihat is to say, in 1638). 



" Thdrspay, May 6, 1638. 
" I, Williiun Kieft, Director-General of the New Netherlands, residing 
upon the islan-l Manhatlan, iu the Fort Amsterdam, under the govern- 
ment belonging to the High and Mighty States-General of the United 
Netherlands and the West India Company, chartered by the Council 
Chamber of Amsterdam, make known to you, Peter Menuet, who style 
yourself Commander in the service of her Royal Majesty, the Queen of 
Sweden ; that the whole South River of the New Netherlands, both 
above and below, hath already, for many years, been our property, oc- 
cupied by our forts, and sealed with our blood; which was also done 
when you were in the servicu of the New Netherlands, and you are, 
therefore, well aware of thin. But whereas you have now come among 
our forts to build a fortress to our injury and damage, which we shall 
never permit; as we are also assured that Her Royal Majesty of Sweden 
has never given you authority to build forts upon our rivers and coasts, 
nor to settle people on the land, nor to traffic in peltries, nor to under- 
take anything to our injury : We do, therefore, protest against all the 
disorder and injury, and all the evil consequences of bloodshed, uproar, 
and wrong which our Trading Company may thus suffer; and that we 
shall protect our rights in such manner as we may find most advisable." 
Then follows the usual conclusion. In the history of the New Nether- 
lands already cited, Adrian van der Donck likewise relates how protest 
was made against the building of Fort Christina, but there also he gives 
evidence of the weakness of the Hollanders in the river on the first 
arrival of the Swedes, and that their strength consisted almost entirely 
in great words, "On the river," he says, "lies, first, Maniqua's Kihl, 
where the Swedes have built Fort Christina, where the largest ships can 
load and unload at the shore. There is another place on the river called 
Schulkihl, which is also navigable. That, also, was formerly under the 
control of the Hollanders, but is now mostly under the government of 
the Swedes. In that River (Delaware) there are various islands and 
other places formerly belonging to the Hollanders, whose name they 
still bear, which sufficiently shows that the river belongs to the Hol- 
landers, and not to the Swedes. Their very commencement will con- 
vict them. Before the year 1638, one Minnewits, who had formerly 
acted as Director for the Trading Company at Manhattans, came into 
the river in the ship 'Key of CoImar,'and the yacht called the' Bird Grif- 
fin.' He gave out to the Hollander, Mr, Van der Nederhorst, the agent 
of the West India Company in the South River, that he was on a voyage 
to the West India Isles, and that he was staying there to take iu wood 
and water. Whereupon, said Hollander allowed him to go free. But 
some time after, some of our people going thither, found him still there, 
and be had planted a garden, and the plants were growing in it. In 
astonishment we asked the reasons for such procedure, and if he in- 
tended to stay there? To which he answered evasively, alleging vari- 
ous excuses for his conduct. The third time they found them settled 
and building a fort. Then we saw their purpose. As soon as he was 
informed of it. Director Kieft protested against it, but in vain." 

Thus Peter Menuet made a good beginning for the 
settlement of the Swedish colony in America. He 
guarded his little fort for over three years, and the 
Hollanders neither attempted nor were able to over- 
throw it. After some years of faithful service he died 
at Christina. In his place followed Peter Hollen- 
dare, a native Swede, who did not remain at the bead 
of its affairs more than a year and a half. He re- 
turned home to Sweden, and was a major at Skeps- 
holm, in Stockholm, in the year 1655. 

The second emigration took place under Lieut.-Col. 
John Printz, who went out with the aj)pointment of 
Governor of New Sweden. He had a grant of four 
hundred rix-dollars for his traveling expenses, and 
twelve hundred dollars silver as his annual salary. 
The company was invested with the exclusive priv- 
ilege of importing tobacco into Sweden, although that 
article even then was regarded as unnecessary and 
injurious, although indispensable since the establish- 
ment of the bad habit of its use.^ Upon the same 

1 riacat on tobacco for the yearlG4l. 

occasion was also sent out Magister John Campaniu? 
Holm,^ who was also called by their excellencies, the 
Royal Council and Admiral Claes Fleming, to become 
the government chaplain,, and watch over the Swedish 
congregation. The ship on which they sailed wa* 
called the " Fama." It went from Stockholm to 
Gotheborg, and there took its freight. Along with 
this went two other ships of the line, the ** Swan" 
and the " Charitas," laden with people and the neces- 
saries of life. Under Governor Frintz, ships came to 
the colony in three distinct voyages. The first ship 
was the " Black Cat," with ammunition and mer- 
chandise for the Indians. Next the ship " Swan," on 
a second voyage, with emigrants, in the year 1647. 
Afterwards two other ships, called the "Key" and 
the *' Lamp." During these times the clergymen, 
Mr. Lawrence Charles Lockenius and Mr. Israel 
Holgh, were sent out to the colony. The instructions 
for the Governor were as follows : 

"Instructions, according to which Her Royal Majesty, our Most Gra- 
cious Qneen, will have the Lieuteoant-Colouel, now also the appointed 
Governor over New Sweden, the noble an(> well-born John Printz, to 
regulate himself as well during bis voyage as upon hie arrival in that 
country. Given at Stockholm, the loth of August, 1642. 

" Inasmuch as some of the subjects of Her Royal Majesty and of the 
Crown of Sweden have, for some time past, undertaken to sail to the 
coast of the West Indies, and have already succeeded in conquering and 
purchasing a considerable tract of land, and in promoting commerce, 
with the especial object of extending the jurisdiction and greatness of 
Her Royal Majesty and of the Swedish crown, and have called the coun- 
try New Sweden ; wherefore and inasmuch as Her Royal Majesty ap- 
proves and finds this, their undertaking and voyaging, not only laud- 
able in itself, but reasonable, and likely, iu the courseof time, to benefit 
and strengthen Her Royal Majesty and the Swedish throne: So has Her 
Royal Majesty, for the promotion of that work and for the assistance of 
those who participate therein, furnished them for the making of that 
important voyage, and also for thecoi^rmingand strengthening of that 
important work thus begun in New Swedf^n, for said voyage, two ships, 
named the Tama' and the 'Swan,' as well as some other means neces- 
sary thereto, under a certain Governor, whom Her Majesty has provided 
with sufficient and necessary powers, having thereunto appointed and 
legitimated Lieutenant-Colonel John Printz, whom she has accordingly 
seen good to instruct upon the points following: 

**2. The ships above named liaving proceeded to Gittheborg, John 
Printz, the Governor of New Sweden, shall now, without any delay, take 
his departure to said place, so arranging his journey by land that he 
may reach there by the first opportunity. Going down to Giithehorg, 
he shall assist in ordering and arranging everything iu the best manner 
possible, and especially in accordance with the best regulations that the 
members of the company can have made ; and as concerns bis own per- 
son and that of his attendants, he shall 60 arrange bis aff.iira that he 
may immediately, in the month of September next following, set sail 
from this country and proceed to sea. 

":i. But either beCore or at the time the ships are about to set sail from 
Giithehorg, tlie Governor shall consult with the skippers and officers of 
the ships, considering and deciding, according to the state of the wind 
and other circumstances, whether he shall direct his course to the 
north of Scotland or through the channel between France and Eng- 

"4. Under way and on the journ£y,he must see to it that the officers 
and peoi)le of the ships perform their duties at sea truly and faithfully; 
and in all important and serious mutters he can always avail himself of 
tlie aid and coutiselof"the persons aforesaid who usually form thecoun- 
cilof asliip; he shall also have every important occurrence carefully 
noted, causing a correct log, or journal, thereof to be kept, of which 
also he shall, by every opportunity, send hither a correct copy. 

2 It was long a favorite usage in Sweden to designate clergymen by 
the name of the place or province in which they were horn, so that Holm 
may here be eriuivalent to "a native of Stockholm." 



"5. The Governor, Gud willing, liaviiig arrived in New Sweden, he 
must, fur liis better iiiforniatioii, bear in miTjd that the boundaries of 
tlie country of wliich onr subjects Iiave taken possession extend, in 
virtvie of the articles of the contract entered into with the wild inhabit- 
ants of the country, as its rightful lords, from the sea-coast at Cape 
Uinlopen,^ upwards along the west side of Godin's Bay,- and so up the 
Great South River,^ onwards to Miugue's Kil,'* where Fort Christina is 
built, and tlience still farther along the South river, and up to a place 
which the wild inhabitants call Sankikans,^ where ttie farthest bounda- 
ries of New Sweden are to be found. This tract or district of couiitiy 
extends in length about thirty German miles, but in breadth, and into 
the interior, it is, in and by the contract, conditioned that Her Royal 
Majesty's subjects, and the participants in this Company of navigators, 
may hereafter occupy as much land as they may desire. 

"6. Recently, and in the year last past, vis., I64I, several English 
families, probably amounting to sixty persons in all, have settled, and 
begun to build and cultivate the land elsewhere, namely, upon the etist 
eide of the above mentiotied South river, on a little stream named Fer- 
ken's Kil ;« so also have the ahove-nam«d subjects of Her Maji-sty, and 
participants in the Company, purchased for themselves of the wild in- 
habitants of the country, the whole eastern side of the river, from the 
mouth of the aforesaid great river at Cape May np to a stream named 
Vr'arraticen's Kil,^ wliich tract extends about twelve German miles, in- 
cluding also the said Feiken's Kil, with the intention of thus drawing 
to themselves the English aforesaid. This jiurcbase the Governor shall 
always, with all his power, keep intact, and thus bring these families 
under the jurisdiction and government of Her Royal Majesty and the 
Swedish Crown; especially as we are informed that they themselves are 
not disposed thereto; and should they be induced, as a free people, 
voluntaiily to submit themselves to a government which can maintain 
and protect them, it is believed that they might shortly amount to some 
hundred strong. But however that may be, tlie Governor is to seek to 
bring these Englisli under the government of the Swedish Crown, inas- 
much as Her Royal Blajesty finds it to be thus better for herself ami the 
Crown as partners in tliis undertaking; and they might also, with good 
reason, be driven out and away from said place; therefore, Ht-r Royal 
Majesty aforesaid will most graciously leave it to the discretion of Gov- 
ernor Printz so to consider and act in the premises as can be done with 
propriety and success. 8 

"7. There is no douht that the Holland West India Company will 
seek to appropriate to tliemselvos the place aforesaid, and the large tract 
of land upon which the English havesettled,and the whole of the above- 
named east side of the Great South River, and that so much the rather 
as their fort or fortification of Nassau, which thry have manned witli 
about twenty men, is not very far tlierefrom,upon thesame eastern side 
of the river, just as tliey also make pretensions to the whole western 
side of the aforesaid South Eiver, and consequently to all that of which 
our subjects aforesaid have t;»ken possession, which they have seized, 
relying upon their Fort Nassau, whereby they would take possession of 
the whole South River, and of the whole country situated on both sides 
of the same river. It is for this that they have protested against the 
beginning wliich her before-mention(;d Majesty's subjects have made in 
settling and building, and, so far as they could, have always opposed and 
suiight to prevent our people from going up the South River aud past 
their Fort Nassau. Therefore shall the Governor take measures for 

1 ('ape Henlopen ; we follow the orthography of the text. 

2 Usually written "Godyn's"; Delaware Bay being so called by the 
Hollanders after Siimutl Godyn, who in 1G29 received a patent for a 
large tract of land there as its patroon. 

3 The river Delaware . 

4 Now Christiana Creek. 

s Trenton Falls, ninety miles from the mouth of Delaware Bay. 

^ Written also" Varken's Kil," i.e.," Hog's Creek," which is now called 
Salem Creek. The Indians called it Oitsessingh, or W(M)tses3ung8ing. 

''Raccoon Creek. The " Naraticongs" are nn^ntioued as an Indian 
tribe north of the Raritan. (See O'Callaghan, i. 49.) 

^ It is not known whence these English settlers came, or the precise 
time of their coming. According to the text above it was in 1641. 
Ferris, in his " History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware" 
(Wilmington, 1S46), p. 65, on what authority he does not tell us, says 
that it was in 1640, and adds, "Some have supposed they were squatters 
from New Haven; some, adventurers from Maryland; and others, the 
pioneers of Sir Edmund Ployden." In all probability they were the 
samo party of people from New Haven who, in the spring of 1642, set- 
tled on the Schuylkill. 

meeting the agents and participants of said Holland West India Com- 
pany in a proper manner, and with mildness, but firmly remonstrate ami 
make known to them the upright intentions of Her Roj'al Majesty and 
her subjects in the premises, that nothing liereJn has been sought, or is 
now Sought, other than a free opening for commerce ; that Her Royal 
Majesty's subjects have, in a just and regular manner, purchased of the 
jtroper owners and possessors of the country thai district of which they 
have taken possession, and which they have begun to cultivate, and that 
they cannot, therefore, without injustice oppose Her Royal Majesty or 
her subjects, or seek to disturb them in their possessions without doing 
them great injury. But should the same Holland Company, contrary 
to all better hopes, allow them-<elves to undertake any hostility, or make 
any attack, then, in such case, it will only he proper to be prepared with 
the best means that circumstances will allow, and to seek to repel force 
by force; therefore, as this, like everything else, is best judged of and 
decided on the ground, so does Her Royal Miij^^sty place it in the Gov- 
ernor's discrerion to meet such vexations in the first instance with kind 
admonitions, but if these are not eftective, then with severity, accord- 
ing to the best of his understauding, so as to arrange everything to the 
best advantage and honor alike of Her Royal Majesty aud the members 
of the Company. But if no such troubles arise, which it is hoped will 
be the case, and Her Royal Majesty and hersubjects remain undisturbed 
in that which they have rightfully brought into their possession, tlien 
shall the Governor hold good friendship and neighborhood with the 
aforesaid Hollandei's at Fort Nassau, and with tliose who dwell upon the 
north river at Mankatan's^ or New Amsterdam, as also with the English 
who dwell in the country of Virginia, and make no inroads upon any 
of them, nor interfere with that of which they are in the actual posses- 
sion. Especially, since the adjacent English in Virginia have already 
commenced to otfer Her Ruyal Majesty's subjects in New Sweden all 
kinds of useful assistance, and to let them procure upon reasonable pay- 
ment such cattle and seed-corn as they may desire ; therefore shall the 
Governor continually seek to give free and undisturbed course to the 
correspondence and commerce thus begun with the English to the use 
and benefit of Her Royal Majesty's subjects aforesaid. 

"8. Those Hollanders who have emigrated to New Sweden, and set- 
tled there under the protection of her royal Majesty and the Swedish 
crown, over whom -lost von deni Boyandh ^^ has command, the Governor 
shall treat according to the contents of the charter and privileges 11 cou- 
fened by her royal Majesty, of the principles whereof the Governor has 
been advised; but in other respects he shall show them all good will 
and kindness, yet so that he shall hold them also to the same, that they 
upon their side comply with the requisitions of their charter, which 
they have received. And inasmuch as notice has already been given 
them that they have settled too near to Fort Christina, and as houses 
are said to be built at the distance of almost three miles from that place, 
they should therefore leave that place and betake themselves to a some- 
what greater distance from the said fort. So also does her royal Maj- 
esty leave it to the good pleasure and prudence of the Governor, when 
on the ground, duly to consider the deportment of said Hollanders aud 
the situation of the place of which they have taken possession, and, ac- 
cording to his judgment, either let them remain there quietly or make 
such a disposition and settlement of the matter as he shall find must 
suitable and advantageous to her royal Blajesty and the participants in 
said company of navigation. 

'•9. The wild nations'- bordering upon all other sides the Governor 
shall understand to treat with all humanity and respect, that no vio- 
lence or wrong be done to them by her royal Majesty or her subjects 
aforesaid ; but he shall rather, at every opportunity, exert himself that 
the same wild people may gradually be instructed in the truths and 

9 Usually called "Manhattan's," also "Manhattoe," from an Indian 
tribe of that name. See O'Callaghan's " History of New Amsterdam," 
i. p. 47. 

i» O'Callaghan, in his *' History of New Netherland," i. p. 366-367, calls 
this person Joost de Bogaert, and (in his note on p. 367) says that'* In 
the translation in the new series of N. Y. Hist. Soc. Trans., p. 411, the 
name is misspelled." The spelling, however, is that of Acrelius, which 
we give above. 

11 "Octroy och privilegio." 

12 The Lenni Lenape, called by the elder Campanius "Renni Ren- 
napi)«"; by the English, Delawares. The Delawares were subdivided 
into the tribes of the Assinpinks, in the north; the Andastakas, on 
Christiana Creek, Del.; theRankokns, orChicheqnaas, and the Mingues, 
the Neshaminies, in Bucks Co., Pa.; the Schackamaxons, the Mantas, 
and the Minuesinks, above the forks of the Delaware. 



worship of the Christinn religion, and in other ways brought to civiliza- 
tiun and good government, and in this manner properly guided. Espe- 
cially shall he seek to gain their confidence and impress upon their 
minds that neithur he, the Governor, nor his people and subordinates 
are come into those parts to do them any wrong or injury, but much 
more for the purpose of furnisliing them with such things as they may 
need for the ordinary wants of life, and so also for such things as are 
found among them which they tlieniselves cannoi make for their own 
use, or buy or exchange. Therefore shall the Governor also see thereto 
that the people of her royal Majesty, or of the company who are engaged 
in trading in those parts, allow the wild people to obtain such things as 
they need at a price somewhat more moderate tlian they are getting 
them of tlie Hollanders at Fort Nassau or the adjacent English, so that 
said wild people may be withdrawn from them and be so much the 
more won to our people. 

" 10. In regard to the Governor's place of residence, Her Royal Maj- 
esty leaves it to him to prtjvide and choose the s;irao according as he 
finds the case to he in the place, or it can be continued where it now is, 
and the residence arranged and ordered in the most convenient manner 
possible; in like manner shall the Governor also provide a suitable place 
for a fortress either at Cape llinlopen, or the island called 'James' 
Island,'^ or wheiever else a good site for the same mny be found; 
wherein he has especially to keep in view these considerations above 
all others, namely, that by such a fortification it should be possible to 
close up the South River, having it commanded bj' the same fortress, 
and that there should also be found there, without great difficulty, a 
suitable harbor wherein tlte ships of Her Royal Slajesty and her sub- 
jects could be iu security, and, if need so were, coplinue to lie there 
over winter. 

*' II. And if theGoTerDordoesnotfindit necessary at once and hastily 
to fortify another new place, hut can for tlie present propetly defend 
himself by Fuit Cliristina, tlien shall he so much tlio more zealously at 
once arrange and urge forward agriculture and the improveinpTit of the 
land, setting and urging the people thereto with zeal and energy, exert- 
ing him elf above all other things that so much seed-corn may be com- 
mitted to the ground that the people may derive from it their necessary 

" 12. Next to tiiis, he shall pay the necessary attention to the culture 
of tobacco^ and appoint thereto a certain number of laborers, so ar" 
ranging that the produce may be large, more and more being set out 
and cultivated from time to time, so that he can send over a good quan- 
tity of tobacco on all ships coming hither, 

"13. That better arrangements may he made for the production of 
cattle, both great and small, the Governor shall at once exert himself to 
obtain a good breed of cattle of all kinds, and especially of that which 
is sent out from this country, and also seek to obtain a supply from the 
neighboring Etiglish, dividing everything with those who will use and 
employ it in aj^ricnlture in exchange for seed, and with such prudence 
as he shall find most serviceable to the members of tlie company. 

"14, Among and above all other things, he shall direct his attention 
to sheep, to obtain them of good kinds, and as soon as may he seek to 
arrange as many 8lieep-f<dd3 as he conveniently can, so that presently 
a considerable supply of wool of good quality may be sent over to this 

"15. The peltry trade with the natives he shall also, as far as possi- 
ble, seek to sustain in a good state, ^ exercise a careful in'^pection of all 
engaged in it, prevent all frauds in established conimisjiions, and take 
care that Her Royal Slajesty and her subjects, ami the members of the 
company, may have reason to expect gooil return fur their cargoes. In 
like manner he shall jirovide that no other persons whatever be per- 
mitted to traffic with the natives in peltries; but this trade shall be 
carried on only by persons thereto appointed in the name of the whole 
"company, and its ways. 

"lf>. Whatever el^e it may at present be necessary to do in tliat conn- 
try will be best committed to the handsof the Governor in the country, 
according to the time and circumstance of the place, more esfpecially a^ 
the same land of New Sweden is situated in the same climate with Por- 
tugal ;< so, apparently, it is to be expected lliat salt-works might be ar- 
ranged on the sea-coasts. But if the salt could not be perfectly evap- 

1 " Jaque's Eyland" was in the neighborhood of Fort Nassau, probably 
between that and where Philadelphia now i8. 

3 "Toback" is the Swedish spelling ; in modern Swedish it is" tobak." 

3 In the original, "i godt c^we." 

* Portugal is situated between 37° and 42° N. latitude, and New Swe- 
den was between 3S° and 41° of the sanie latitude. 

orated by the heat of the bud, yet, at the least, the salt water might be 
brought to such a grade that it might afterwards be perfectly condensed 
by means of fire, without great labor or expense, which the Governor 
must consider, and make such experiment, and if possible put it into 
ojieration and make effective. 

"17. And as almost everywhere in the forests wild grape-vines and 
grapes are found, and the climate seems to be favorable to the produc- 
tion of wine, so shall the Governor also direct his thoughts to the timely 
introduction of this culture, and what might herein be devised and 

" 18. He can also have careful search made everywhere as to whether 
metals or minerals are to be found in the country, and if any are dis- 
covered, send hither correct information, and then await further orders 
from this place. 

" 19. Out Ci the abundant forests the Governor shall examine and con- 
sider how and in what manner profit may be derived from the country, 
especially what kind of advantages may be expected from oak-trees and 
walnut-trees, and whether a good quality of them might be sent over 
here as ballast. So, also, it might be examined whether oil might not 
be advantageously pressed out of the walnuts. 

".0. The Governor shall likewise take into consideration and cor- 
rectly inform himself how and where fisheries nn'ght be most profitably 
established, especially as it is 8:iid that at a certain season of the year 
the whale-finhery can be advantageously prosecuted in the aforesaid 
Godin's Bay^ and adjacently; lie shall, therefore, have an eye upon 
this, and send over hither all needed information as to what can be done 
in this and other matters connected with the country, and what further 
hopes may be entertained in reference thereto. 

"21. The Governor shall also carefully inquire and inform himself 
in regard to the food and convenience for keeping a great number of 
silk-wonns, wherewith a manufacture might be established, and if he 
discovers that something useful might thus be accomplished, he shall 
take measures for the same. 

"22. Whatever else could he done in connection with the successful 
cultivation of the land, but cannot be introduced just for the present, 
this Her Royal Majesty will graciously have entrusted to the fidelity, 
foresight, and zeal of the Governor, with the earnest command and ad- 
monition that he seek in all matters to uphold the service and dignity 
of Her Royal Majesty and the Crown of Sweden, as also to promote the 
advantage and interest of the members of the company in the conser- 
vation of the same land of New Sweden, its culture in every way possi- 
ble, and the increase of its profitable commerce. 

"23. But far above all this, as to what belongs to the political govern- 
ment and administration of jnstice, everything of this kind must he 
conducted under the name of Her Royal Majesty and the Crown of 
Sweden, for no less re:ison than the country enjoys the protection of 
Her Royal Majesty and of the crown, and that the interest of the crown 
isin the highest degree involved in the protection of that country, its 
cultivation and active trade and commerce. To give the Governor spe- 
cific information herein cannot so well and effectually be done at so 
great a distance; it must, therefore, be left to his own discretion and 
good sense that he, upon the ground, provide, arrange, and execute 
whatever conduces to bring matters into good order and a proper con- 
stitution, according as he finds the necessities of the lime and place to 
require. At first, and until matters can be brought into a better form, 
the Governor may use his own seal, but in a somewhat larger form, in 
briefs, contracts, correspondence, and other written documents of a 
public character, 

"24. He shall decide all matters i)f controversy which may arise ac- 
cording to Swedish law and right, custom, and usage ; but in all other 
matters also, so far as possible, he shall adopt and employ the laudable 
customs, habits, and usages of this most praiseworthy realm. 

"25, He shall also have power, through the necessary and proper 
means of compulsion, to bring to obedience and a quiet life the turbu- 
lent and disorderly, who will not live quietly and peacefully, and espe- 
cially gross offenders, who may possibly be found ; lie may punish not 
only with imprisonment and the like duly proportioned means of cor- 
rection, but also, according to their misdeeds or crimes, with the loss 
of life itself, yet not in ahy other than the usual manner, and after ihe 
l»roper hearing and consideration of the case, with the most respectable 
people and the most prudent associate judges who can be found in the 
country as his cuunsellurs. 

6 The Dutch under De Vries, in 1^30, tried to prosecute the whale- 
fishery in the Delaware, but found it unprofitable. (See New York Hist. 
Cullect,, New Series, vol. i p. 250 ) 



"26. Above all tliiii;;s. shiill tlie Governor consider ami see to it that 
a true and due worBliij), becoming honor, laud, and praise be paid to the 
Most nigli God in all things, and to that end all proper care shall be 
tiiken that divine service be zealously performed according to the unal- 
tered Augsburg Confession, the Council of Upsala, and the ceremonies 
of the Swedish Church ; and all persons, especially the young, shall be 
duly instructed in the articles of their Clirislian faith ; and all good 
church discipline shall in like manner be duly exercised and received 
But so far as relates to the Holland colonists that live and settle under 
the government of Her Royal Majesty and the Swedish crown, the Gov- 
ernor shall not disturb them in the indulgence granted them as to the 
exercise of the Reformed religion according to the aforesaid royal 

*'27. In all else which cannot here be set d<iwn in writing, the Gov- 
ernor shall conduct himself as is suitable and becoming to a faithful 
patriot, and take into due consideration whatever is correspondent to 
his office, according to the best of his understanding and with the great- 
est zeal and care, also regulating himself in accordance with that which 
may be here communicated to him by word of mouth ; and there is 
herewith given him a special list of the people who accompany him 
and of the means and equipment of his office. 

"28. Finally, Her Royal Majesty is also well satisfied that the said 
office of his government shall continue and exist for three years, after 
the lapse of which he, the said John Printz, shall be free to return 
hither again, after the necessary arrangements have been made in re- 
gard to his successor, or some substitute in the said service. Should he, 
the said John Printz, have a desire to continue longer in this charge he 
shall have the preference over others therefor, provided that the ad- 
vantage and service of Her Majesty and the crown, and of the com- 
pany, so demand. Given as above. 

"Paehr Beahe, Wranoel, 

"Claes Flemmtno, Axel Oxen.stierna, 

"Grabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna,! And. Gyli.enki.ou."2 

The voyage to New Sweden was at that time quite 
long. The watery way to the West was not yet well 
discovered, and therefore, for fear of the sand-hanks 
off Newfoundland, they kept their course to the east 
and south as far as to what were then called the 
Brazates." The ships which went under the com- 
mand of Governor Printz sailed along the coast of 
Portugal and down the coast of Africa until they 
found the eastern passage, then directly over to 
America, leaving the Canaries high up to the north. 
They landed at Antigua, then continued their voyage 
northward, past Virginia and Maryland, to Cape 
Henlopen. Yet, in view of the astonishingly long 
route which they took, the voyage was quick enough 
in six months' time, from Stockholm on Aug. 16, 
1642, to the new fort of Christina, in New Sweden, 
on Feb. 15, 1643. 

The Swedes who emigrated to America belonged 
•partly to a trading company provided with a charter, 
who for their services, according to their condition or 
agreement, were to receive pay and monthly wages; 
a part of them also were at their own impulse to try 
their fortune. For these it was free to settle and live 

t These five names are historical. They formed at that time the 
Swedish Council of State, who carried on the government immediately 
after the death of Gustaf Adolph the Great, and during the minority of 
his daughter Christiana, who was not quite six years old at the timeof 
her father's death (November, 1632), and consequently in her seventeenth 
year at the date of this document. She ascended the throne as actual 
sovereign on her eighteenth birthday, viz., Dec. 6, 1644. Tlie Swedish 
cohiny in Aineiica was undoubtedly the work of the great Chancellor 
Axel Oxenstierna, though first suggested by Gustaf Adolph. 

2 Gyllenklou was secretary of the Council. 

5 The Azures. 

in the country as long as they pleased, or to leave it, 
and they were, therefore, by way of distinction from 
the others, called freemen. At first also malefactors 
and vicious people were sent over, who were used as 
slaves to labor upon the fortifications. They were 
kept in chains, and not allowed to have intercourse 
with the other settlers ; moreover, a separate place of 
abode was assigned to them. The neighboring people 
and country were dissatisfied that such wretches 
should come into the colony. It was also, in fact, 
very objectionable in regard to the heathen, who 
might be greatly offended by it. Whence it happened 
that when such persons came over in Governor 
Printz's time, it was not permitted that one of them 
should set foot on shore, but they had all to be carried 
back again, whereupon a great part of them died 
during the voyage, or perished in some other way. 
Afterwards it was forbidden at home in Sweden, under 
a penalty, to take for the American voyage any persons 
of bad fame, nor was there ever any lack of good 
people for the colony. 

Governor Printz was now in a position to put the 
government upon a safe footing, to maintain the 
rights of the Swedes, and to put down the attempts of 
the Hollanders. They had Lately, before his arrival, 
patched their little Fort Nassau. On this account he 
selected the island of Tenackong as his residence, which 
is sometimes also called Tutaeaenung and Tenicko, 
about three Swedish mile.s from Fort Christina. The 
convenient situation of the place suggested its selec- 
tion, as also the location of Fort Nassau,* which lay 
some miles over against it, to which he could thus 
command the passage by water. The new fort, which 
was erected and provided with considerable arma- 
ment, was called New Gotheborg. His place of resi- 
dence, which he adorned with orchards, gardens, a 
pleasure-house, etc., he named " Printz Hall." A 
handsome wooden church was also built at the same 
place, which Magister Campanius consecrated on the 
last great prayer-day which was celebrated in New- 
Sweden, on the 4th of September, 1646. Upon that 
place, also, all the most prominent freemen had their 
residences and plantations. 

The Hollanders intruded upon the Swedes in their 
traffic with the Indians, and Printz therefore sought 
to keep them under. In the name of the High and 
Mighty States-General and of the West India Com- 
pany, under which all their transactions were carried 
on, they had never bought so much as a foot's breadth 
of land ; but from time to time sent in some partic- 
ular persons, who treated with the heathen on their 
own account, and thus tried to find out what 

*Fort Nassau was built near the mouth of Timber Creek, below 

Gloucester Point, in New Jersey. It is said to have been built by Cor- 
nelius Mey in 1623 ; hut when visited by De Yries, ten years afterwards 
(Jan. 5, 1633), it was in the possession of the Indians, among whom he 
was afraid to land. We have no evidence that the fort was rcoccupied 
by the Dutcli before the establishment of the Swedish colony in 1638. 
(See Voyages of De Vries in New York Hist. Col., New Series, vol. i. p. 



the Swedes would pursue in consequence. In the 
year 1646 came one Thomas Broen with a permit from 
Peter Stuyvesant, the Holland Director at New Am- 
sterdam, to settle himself at Mantas Hack, on the 
other side of the bay, directly opposite Tenakongh. 
This permit he showed to Governor Printz, and de- 
sired his aid in the building of his abode. The Gov- 
ernor promised this upon condition that he would 
place himself under the Swedish government. But 
when he saw beneath this the trick of the Hollanders, 
he himself bought of the Indians the land from 
Mantas Huck to Narraticon's or Raccoon's Kihl, and 
raised upon it a post to which the Swedish coat of 
arms was affixed, whereby the plan of the Hollanders 
wa§ frustrated for the time. 

Andries Hudde, appointed commandant ad interim 
at Fort Nassau, on the 12th of October, 1645, pro- 
tested in writing against Printz's land purchase of the 
8th of September, 1646, and gave information of the 
same to the director, Peter Stuyvesant, namely, that 
Governor Printz sought to procure for himself all the 
land east of the river; that, if he could. make himself 
master of both sides, it was probaljle that he would 
export annually thirty or forty thousand beaver-skins. 
Now, as the Holland Company's treasury was entirely 
empty, and the Hollanders saw that they had no time 
to lose, they resorted to another plan. Some freemen 
—Simon Ruth, Cornelius Marizen, Peter Hermans- 
son, Andries Hudde, Alexander Boyer, and David 
Davids — united together and purchased of the In- 
dians a piece of land, extending from Ancocus Kihl 
to Tenakongh Island, another place higher up on 
the river than where the Governor had his residence, 
and also took a title therefor; but with the reserva- 
tion that if the company wished to purchase it for 
themselves they might do so by refunding their pur- 
chase-money to them. Governor Printz protested 
against this as an unbecoming proceeding, which 
protest also Hudde sent over to New Amsterdam. 
Peter Stuyvesant, in his answer, complains of their 
inability to maintain their rights, and promises 
money to buy all the land from Narraticon's Kihl to 
the bay, which, however, was never done. 

Governor Printz had blocked up the passage of the 
Hollanders to Fort Nassau by water, but they devised 
another method of evading his superior power. They 
entered into a treaty with the Indians for the land 
which lies between Maniqua's or Minqua's Kihl and 
the river, as far down as Bombe's Huck or Bambo 
Hook, and concluded the purchase on the 19th of 
July, 1651. That agreement was the only one which 
had yet been made in the name of the States-General 
and the West India Company. But by that they 
bought the land which the Minquesses had already, 
in Menewe's time, sold to the Swedes, and it is tliere- 
fore unreasonable to believe that the true owners of 
the land subscribed that bill of sale. Shortly after 
this Fort Casimir was built at Sandhuk. Governor 
Printz at once protested against it ; but either he had 

not the means of hindering it, or had not time for it, 
and so the matter rested. To remedy the injury which 
the Hollanders inflicted by Fort Casimir, Governor 
Printz erected upon the place called Wootsessung 
Sing another Swedish fort, which he called Elfsborg, 
one Swedish mile' below Sandhuk and two miles below 
Christina, but on the eastern shore, from which that 
district of country was in former times, and even now 
is called Elsingborg. From this was fired a Swedish 
salute upon the arrival of Swedish ships. But its 
principal object was to search the Holland ships 
which came before it, and (which stuck very hard in 
their maw) to make them lower their flag. The fort 
was afterwards abandoned by the Swedes and de- 
stroyed, as it was almost impossible to live there on 
account of the gnats (myggor),'' whence it was for 
some time called Myggenborg. Besides these there 
were Fort Korsholm, at Passayunk, where the com- 
mander, Sven Schute, had his residence. Manii- 
yungh, on the Skorkihl or Skulkihl,' was a fine lit- 
tle fort of logs, having sand and stones filled in 
between the wood-work, and surrounded by palisades, 
fourSwedish (twenty-seven English) miles fromChris- 
tina eastwardly. Mecoponacka (Upland) was two 
Swedish miles from Christina and one mile from 
Gotheborg, upon the river shore, on the same plan, 
with some houses and a fort. Other places were 
equally well known, though not fortified. Chinses- 
sing, a place upon the Schuylkill, where five families 
of freemen dwelt together in houses two stories high, 
built of white-nut-tree (hickory), which was at that 
time regarded as the best for building houses, but in 
later times was altogether disapproved of for such 
purposes. Karakung had a water-mill, which the 
Governor had built for the people, it being the 
first in the country. Chamassung was also called 
Finland, a district where the Fins dwelt by the 
waterside, and Neaman's Kihl, one and a quarter 
miles from Christina. Manathaan, or Cooper's 
Island, was an island opposite Fort Christina, so 
called from a cooper who dwelt there with two Hol- 
landers, and made casks or wooden vessels and small 
boats. Techoherassi was Olof Stillt-'s place. Grips- 
holm, Nya Wasa, etc., which are marked upon the 
oldest maps, were places laid out and occupied, but 
did not get established under the Swedish adminis- 

The land on the west side of the river, which the 
Swedes had purchased of the heathen, first in Me- 
newe's time and afterwards under Governor Printz, 
or had acquired a right to by agreement, stretched 
from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of the Delaware, 
and thence westward to the great fall in the river 
Susquehanna, near the mouth of the Conewaga Creek. 

1 A Swedish mile is 6.648 English miles, or 11,7110 yards. 

2 No doubt mosquitoes, which are sometimes very troublesome in that 
part of New Jersey. Compare the English midge. 

3 Now Schuylkill, accordiug to tlie Dutch orthography. 



These Indians were called by Europeans in general 
Delawares, but within a circle of eighteen miles 
around the Swedes there were ten or eleven separate 
tribes, each having its own sackkewan* or king. 
Among these were especially the Minesinkos, the 
Mynkusses or Mineguesses, upon the so-called Mani- 
quas or Minqua's Kihl (Christina), with whom the 
Swedes formed a special friendship. These extended 
twelve Swedish miles- into the interior of the country, 
on to the Conestoga and the Susquehanna, where they 
had a fort, which was a square surrounded by pali- 
sades, with some iron pieces, on a hill, and some 
Jiouses within it. But some of them were with the 
Swedes every day, who also once or twice in a year 
made a journey up into the country among the Mine- 
quesses with their wares for sale. 

The Swedes maintained friendly relations with the 
Indian tribes, and made extensive purchases of lands 
from them, extending to the Susquehanna River. 
Acrelius says, "The old Indians still tell of the 
treaties wliich their forefathers made with the Swedes, 
as also how far they were disposed to admit them into 
their country." Of this it may serve as evidence to 
introduce the following extract from the minutes of 
the treaty made in Lancaster : 

"The Court-House in Lancaster, 
"June 213, 1744, P.M. 
"Present, — Hon. George Thomas, Kt., Lieutenant-Governor of Penn- 
eylvania, etc., the Hon. Commissionera of Virginia, the Hon. Comniis- 
eioners of Maryland, the deputies of the Six Nations of Indiana, Conrad 
Weiser, interpreter. 
" Oanastego, the Indiana' spokesman, spoke as follows: 
'* ' Brother, the Governor of Maryland : When you spoke of the affair 
of the land yesterday, you went back to old times, and told us you had 
tieen in possession of the province of Maryland above onehundred years. 
But what is one hundred years in comparison to the length of time 
since our claim began, since we came up out of this ground ? For we 
must tell you that long before one hundred years our ancestors came 
forth out of this very ground, and their children have remained Iiere 
ever since. You came out of the ground in a country that lies beyond 
seas ; there you may have a just claim, but here you must allow us to 
be your elder brethren, and the lands to belong to us long before you 
knew anything of them. It is true that about one hundred years ago 
a German ship came hither and brought with them various articles, such 
as awls, knives, hatchets, kuus, and many other things, which they gave 
us. And when they had taught us to use these things, and we saw what 
kind of a people they were, we were so well pleased with them that we 
tied their ships to the bushes on the shore, and afterwards, liking them 
still better, and the more the longer tliey stayed with us, thinking that 
the buaheswere too weak, we changed the place of the rope, and fastened 
it to the trees, and as the trees might be overthrown by a storm, or fall 
down of themselves (so strong was our friendship for them), we again 
changed the place of the rope and bound it to a very strong rock. [Here 
the interpreter said, They mean the land of Onondaga.] There we 
fastened it very securely, and rolled wampum around it. For still greater 
security we stood upon the wampum and sat upon it to fasten it, and to 
prevent all injury, and we took the greatest care to keep it uninjured 
for all time. As long as that stood the newly-arrived Germans recog- 
nized our right to the country, and from time to time urged us to give 
them portions of our land, and that they might enter into a union and 
treaty with us, and become one people with us.' " 

That this is more correctly said of the Swedes than 
of the Hollanders can be inferred from this, that the 
Hollanders never made such a purchase from them 

1 Commonly written "sachem" by English writers. 

2 Ninety-three English miles. 

as to include their whole country, which the Swedes 
did. Yet the English are rather disposed to explain 
this in favor of the Hollanders. The savages re- 
garded both the Swedes and Hollanders, being Euro- 
peans, as one people, and looked upon their quarrels 
as disagreements between different families. 

Purchases of land from the wild tribes were made 
in this way : Both parties set their names and marks 
under the purchase contract f two witnesses also 
were taken by the Christians. When these made 
their oath that they were informed as to the transac- 
tion, and had seen the payment made, then the pur- 
chase was valid. If the kings or chiefs of the Indians 
signed such an agreement in the presence of a num- 
ber of their people, then it was legitimate on their 
side. In former times they were quite truthful, al- 
though oaths were not customary among them. But 
it was not so in later times, after they had more inter- 
course with Christians. Payments were made in awls, 
needles, scissors, knives, axes, guns, powder and balls, 
together with blankets of frieze or felt, which they 
wrap around them. One blanket sufficed for their 
dress. These wares they secured for themselves for 
their skins of beavers, raccoons, sables, gray foxes, 
wild-cats, lynxes, bears, and deer. 

Governor John Printz was the most rigorous and 
enterprising official that ruled on the Delaware Biver, 
and was perhaps the most zealous of all his country- 
men for the success and permanency of the New 
Sweden. He resisted the encroachments of the Eng- 
lish on the one hand and the Hollanders on the other, 
while he co-operated with his own people in extend- 
ing their settlements up the Schuylkill Valley and 
westward towards the Susquehanna. He was ap- 

3 Conrad Weiser, born in Germany, 1696, and come to this country in 

his fourteenth year, and present at Lancaster, as above stated, is the an- 
cestor of the Rev. C. Z. Weiser, now residing at Greenville, Montgomery 
Co., Pa. He was greatly beloved by the Indians, and possessed their con- 
fidence in all matters connected with the transfer of lands to thesettlei's. 
William M. Reynolds, I). D., the translator of Acrelius, referring to him 
says, " He stayed at one time in the Ephrata cloister, among the monks 
called Beiselians, Dunkards, or Dumplars, a kind of Anabaptists. Dur- 
ing that time he also let his beard grow, according to the law of the 
order. He was for many yeam an interpreter between the Indians and 
the English in tlieir councils. The former had the same confidence in 
him as one of their own race. They have given him the name of Ta- 
racliawagon. When a sale of land is made the Indians subscribe on the 
one side and the English commissioners upon the other. Then the inter- 
preter must write his name, Tarachawagon, first under those of the In- 
dians, and tlien ' Conrad Weiser' under the P'nglish, as a sign that each 
has an equal share in him. So it also went with his beard. At the meet- 
ing in Lancaster, in 1744 (June), when tliey came together, and before 
tbey began to consult, they first took half of his beard off {all Indians 
hate beards, possibly because they do not or cannot grow any them- 
selves) of him, as their own right. Next it was among their principal 
representations to the meeting, and especially to the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania, that he should take off the otiier part of Taracbawagon's 
beard, since he would otherwise scare their little children when he came 
among them. To give their speech the greater weight, they here deliv- 
ered a string of wampum, as is the custom. The Governor, before his 
departure, assured them that he would take oflF the other part of Weiser's 
beard, and that he had already given an order for this. In contirmatiou 
of his sincerity and good faith he also gave them a string of wampum, 
which was received with their usual exclamation of joy, * Yo-hah, yo- 
hah !' " 



pointed Governor at the instance of Axel Oxen- 
stierua, the most confidential adviser of the fallen 
Gustaf Adolph, and who was the central power 
during the regency of Christina, as well as the author 
of elaborate instructions. He held the Dutch in 
check, closed the mouth of the Schuylkill against 
them, and secured the Indian trade of that river for 
the Swedish West India Company. The thrift and 
business enterprise of the Swedisli colonists in com- 
manding the resources of the outlying country is 
evidenced by the extent of their shipment to the 
home government. In one year " thirty thousand 
skins" were brought in by the Indians, who procured 
them from the country between the Schuylkill and 
Susquehanna. The policy of Governor Printz in 
closing navigable rivers to his rivals was sagacious, 
and merited for him the confidence of his followers. 
Having secured the trade of the Schuylkill, he deter- 
mined to break up a Dutch trading-post on the Dela- 
ware River at a place called Santhickan, where Tren- 
ton is now located. At this point the Holland com- 
mander established himself and planted the arms of 
the States-General on the shore of the river, and ■ 
where large collections of skins were bartered for by 
the Dutcli traders. Printz ordered this national in- 
signia to be displaced, and dispatched a lieutenant 
and squad of men to carry out the order. The event 
took place on the 8th of September, 1646. The officer 
in charge of the expedition carried out his instruc- i 
tions to the letter, and when he was asked by the ' 
Hollanders in charge of the post, " How dare you do 
such a thing?" replied, " If the very standard of the 
States-General stood there I would treat it in the 
same manner." Printz is said to have been the first 
person to build a water-mill in New Swedeland. 
The site selected was on Water-Mill Stream, now 
Cobb's Creek. This was a great convenience to the 
Swedes, and Indian .squaws came for many miles in 
every direction to have their corn ground for domestic 
use. The successful administration of Governor 
Printz cast a shadow upon the Dutch commissary, 
Jan Jansson Iljiendam, who had charge of affairs on 
tlie east shore of the Delaware. Ilpendam was re- 
called, and one Andries Hudde was installed in his 
place. This change increased rather than allayed 
the frequency of contentions between the rival colo- 
nists. Hudde was directed by his superior officer to 
replant the arms of the States-General, which he did. 
Printz dispatched Lieut. Huygens to pull il down. 
Hudde was on the alert, and placed the ofi'ending 
officer in arrest, sending a messenger to Printz 
he would punish him for his intended act of rash- 
ness. Printz replied that he would retaliate, and in- 
sisted upon his company's right to extend their trade 
and dominion; finally, he treated Hudde's messenger 
with indignity, hastening his departure from his pres- 
ence witli threats of violence. This episode ended 
the official correspondence between them, and Printz 
assumed an unfriendly attitude. He guarded tlie 

line of the Schuylkill with care, " persecuted or ex- 
pelled every Dutchman in New Sweden who would 
not take the oath of allegiance to Queen Christina,'' 
sold fire-arms and ammunition to the Indians, over- 
hauled Dutch vessels coming up the Delaware, and 
finally raided the premises of Hudde, despoiled his 
gardens and fruit-trees, and otherwise desolated the 
place and surroundings. His conduct seems to have 
excited public inquiry, and a committee of the High 
Council of the New Netherlands came from Manhat- 
tan to investigate the " outrages." These officials, 
hearing credentials, presented themselves to Gov- 
ernor Printz at Fort Gottenburg. The approaches 
heing duly guarded, the officer in charge kept them 
in waiting until he could communicate with his 
chief; meantime the rain descended in torrents, 
soaking these dignitaries to the skin, greatly to their 
displeasure. All preliminaries being arranged, they 
were finally admitted to an audience with the Gov- 
ernor. They delivered their protest against the con- 
duct of his Excellency, and insisted upon the right 
of their countrymen to make settlements on the 
Schuylkill. They retired without molestation, but 
their effort to secure favor was not reciprocated by 
the implacable Swede. 

A change in the director-generalship of the New 
Netherlands took place May 27, 1647. Peter Stuy- 
vesant succeeded William Kieft. Meantime the im- 
portance of securing titles to lands became a para- 
mount object to the most enterprising of the settlers, 
and trade with the Indians for peltries a secondary 
matter. Stuy vesant employed agents, who wen t among 
the Indians and bartered for large tracts on both sides 
of the Delaware, in many instances purchasing the 
same lands previously sold by the Indians to the 
Swedes, the natives being willing to repeat their sales 
if the "white man would buy," and the Dutch "white 
man" buying in some instances what he knew to have 
been previously sold to the Swedes, but whose evidence 
of purchase was not on record or susceptible of proof. 
As the Hollanders always preserved carefully;prepared 
evidences of their purchases, and had them duly re- 
corded at their pri ncipal office at Manhattan, it enabled 
Stuyvesant to greatly embarrass Printz in disputes 
arising between them. Stuyvesant sent to Printz ex- 
emplifications of his records, describing large tracts 
of land, and demanded of him an exhibition of his 
titles. " Printz could merely define the limits of his 
territory, and say that his papers were on file in the 
Chancellory of Sweden." Finding himself thus em- 
barrassed, Printz sought to make a new contract with 
the chief Waspang Zewan. Stuyvesant' became ap- 
prised of the secret negotiations, and personally dealt 

1 Peter Stviyvesaiit was appointed Governor of the New Netherlands 
July 28, 164G, and arrived at tlie Manhattans (now New York) on tlie 
11th of May, 1G47. His administration lasted nntil Sept. 8, 1604, when 
he snrrendcred to the Kiiglish nudcr Col. Nichols, and the name of New 
York was snbstitutetl fur that of New Amsterdam, and the New Neth- 
erlanils disappeared from the New World. — Aa'elius. 



with the Indians, securing a title to lands on both 
sides of the Delaware River from Christiana Creek to 
Bombay Hook ; and, to make his triumph complete ^ 
over Governor Printz, induced the wily Indians to 
deny that they had ever sold any of the lands de- 
scribed to the Swedes. To protect this acquisition 
from possible loss, Stuy vesant located and constructed 
Fort Casimir on the Delaware River, at a point at or 
near the present town of New Castle. The rivalry 
between these officials continued from 1647 to 1651. 


The increasing interest in their respective colonies 
led to personal interviews, induced by the increa-sing 
numbers and pretensions of the English, who were 
also crowding their way up the Delaware River. 
Finally " they mutually promised to cause no difficul- 
ties or hostility to each other, but to keep neighborly 
friendship and correspondence together and act as 
friends and allies." Two years of amity followed, 
when Printz returned to his native land. 

Before embarking, October, 1653, he committed the 
government of the colony to the official care of his 
son-in-law, John Pappegoya, who ruled till May, 
1654, when he was succeeded by John Claudius 
Rising. Of the advent of this officer and those who 
accompanied him Acrelius says, " In the year 1654 
the ship ' Eagle' arrived from Sweden. Upon it 
came John Claudius Rising, formerly secretary in the 
Royal College of Commerce, but now appointed com- 
missary and Governor's assistant councilor in New 
Sweden. In his company was the engineer, Peter 
Lindstrom, together with various officers, officials, 
and military. Their clergyman was one named Peter. 
The inhabitants of the country, submitting to the 

Swedish government, should enjoy free allodial grants 
for themselves and their heirs, have the liberty of 
trading with the natives at their pleasure, introduce 
their goods into New Sweden, export them at two per 
cent., and then be free from all duties in Sweden and 
its subject provinces. The special privileges given 
to certain participants in the tobacco trade in the 
year 1653 were also revoked, as they had fallen into 
disorder, while, on the other hand, the exclusive privi- 
lege of the American Company to the enjoyment of 
that trade was renewed. The inclination to emigrate 
from Sweden to America was so strong that when the 
ship set sail over one hundred families of good and 
respectable people, provided with good passports and 
recommendations, were compelled to remain inGothe- 
borg. They had sold house and home and all their 
goods in the expectation of becoming Americans, 
along with their wives and children, but could not 
get away for want of room on the ships. They ar- 
rived safely, and immediately came to Fort Casimir, 
the fort upon Sandhuk, which they first saluted with 
two guns. They then sent up to the commandant to 
ask whether he would surrender the fort, which had 
been so improperly erected upon the Swedes' ground 
and against their protests. But when the comman- 
dant required rather a long time for deliberation, 
Commissary Rising landed about thirty soldiers, 
against whom the fort was not strong enough to de- 
fend itself, yet the Hollanders did not at that time 
purchase any right to the land with their blood. A 
correct inventory was made of everything in the fort, 
and every one was allowed to carry off his property, 
whether belonging to the company or to private in- 
dividuals. The people were left at liberty either to 
go away or, after taking the oath of allegiance to the 
Swedish crown, to remain and be protected in all 
their rights. This was done upon Trinity Sunday, 
on which account the fort was called by the Swedes 
the Fort of the Holy Trinity. It was afterwards, ac- 
cording to the plans and measurements of the engi- 
neer, Peter Lindstrom, as good as built anew, and 
was at the same time improved with outworks. 

The Hollanders could not digest the affront put 
upon them when Director Rising captured Fort Casi- 
mir, and at the same time drove them out of New 
Sweden. From that day they began to collect their 
forces, but could not immediately show what they 
had in their mind. Meanwhile, to their great joy, it 
happened that Mr. Deswijk, captain and supercargo 
of a Swedish ship called " Golden Shark," which was 
sent to reinforce the Swedes, as well as to carry goods 
back again, had the misfortune to cast anchor close 
alongside of their coast, while he regarded the Hol- 
landers as old friends and neighbors, but was imme- 
diately seized by them and considered a good prize. 
The following extracts from the New York records 
will give the facts of this seizure : 

" Oct. 17-24, 1654. Capt. Deswijk declares that, by 
an oversight of the pilot, his ship was compelled to 



go up into the Raritan River, where the Hollanders 
forcibly seized them, and kept him a prisoner in New 
Amsterdam, whither he came to obtain a pilot who 
should conduct him to the South River, or the river 
of New Sweden. 'You now pretend,' says he, 'that 
Mr. John Rising, the Governor of New Sweden, had 
taken Fort Casimir from you, to which you pretend 
to have a right, which pretension has no ground nor 

[From Campanius' " New Sweden."] 

certainty. That fortress was built by your general 
director in the year 1651, rather by force and violence 
than by right and justice, on the South River, a soil 
and country belonging to Her Royal Majesty of 
Sweden, my Most Gracious Queen, against which 
Governor Printz protested. Therefore said John 
Rising has not taken it from you, but has only taken 
back property which belongs to her Majesty of Sweden. 
It cannot be proved that he has taken a single penny 
of any of your subjects. But when the free people 
who lived there, and wished to remain permanently, 
had given their oath of allegiance, they were all pro- 
tected in their rights. Further, no man who lives on 
lands there has ever been detained, but has always 
been left at liberty to go where he pleased, and also 
to take his goods and chattels with him. But as con- 
cerns myself you treat me in a very diflerent way,'" 

To this Governor Stuyvesant and his Council 
answered as follows : " To the unfounded protest 
presented by Mr. Deswijk, factor of the Swedish 
Company, it is answered that, although he pretends 
to have sailed into this river by the oversight of his 
pilot, and had sent his people to us as to good friends 
and neighbors, the facts do not so appear to us. Di- 
rector Rising's hostile conduct to us is well known 
when, under an appearance of friendship, he came 
before our Fortress Casimir, on the South River, in 
the New Netherlands, gave two salutes, and sent 

thirty men on shore, who were welcomed by our com- 
mandant and official as friends and neighbors. But 
when they saw the weakness of our garrison they did 
not treat our few soldiers as friends and neighbors of 
the crown of Sweden, but as declared enemies, though 
they belonged to the States-General and the West 
India Company. With force and arms they made 
themselves masters of Fort Casimir, with all its am- 
munition, houses, and other things belonging to the 
far-famed West India Company, in direct opposition 
to all rights and usages of war, and they still hold 
the same. They have also compelled some of our 
officers, together with other free people who repre- 
sented the States-General and the West India Com- 
pany, to renounce their oath of allegiance and submit 
to the crown of Sweden," etc. Other supposed in- 
juries and insults were also recounted, etc. 

What lame pretexts are here urged for that outrage 
all the world can see. What the Hollanders had, on 
various occasions before this, done to the English, 
compelling them to relinquish places which they had 
occupied, and allowing the people to depart with 
their property, or to remain in the country as their 
subjects, that they now determined to do to the 
Swedes, in conflict with all the laws and usages of na- 
tions, because this best pleased themselves, although 
it was an entirely different matter to take possession 
of one's own land from a foreign power and its gar- 
rison, which sought the injury of the country and its 
government, where all had liberty to go their way 
and take with them that which belonged to them, 
and to keep a ship with all its goods and people, 
which had of necessity come into their harbor, but 
was willing to leave it immediately and without cre- 
ating the least disturbance. Finally their hostilities 
burst forth in a full flame. On the 30th of August, 
1655, came the Holland Governoc Peter Stuyvesant, 
with seven vessels, great and small, and from six hun- 
dred to seven hundred men strong, from the North 
River and New Amsterdam up into the river of New 
Sweden, and fell violently upon the Swedes. He 
made his first night-camp in the abandoned and de- 
cayed Fort Elfsborg, where he arrayed his soldiers, 
and took some freemen prisoners. The following 
day he sailed past Fort Trinity, and landed upon a 
point which is now called Swanevik. There they be- 
gan to throw up some intrenchments, and with threats 
and arguments demanded the surrender of the fort. 
Sven Schute, the commander there, endeavored partly 
to dissuade and partly to hold out against their at- 
tack until he could receive reinforcements from 
Christina, but all in vain. The road to Christina 
had already been beset by the Hollanders, so that no 
one could either go or come from that place. Com- 
mander Schute's proceedings were entirely disap- 
proved by Director Rising, especially as he gave up 
the fort without the least resistance. But the excuse 
was that necessity knows no law. The commander 
was allowed to march out of the fort with some few 



men, but the other officers were taken prisoners and 
kept within the fort, and the common soldiers were 
put on shipboard and sent over to New Amsterdam. 
That was, indeed, said to be done of their own good 
will, thus to submit to the power of the Hollanders, 
but their people's own words witnessed to the con- 
trary. As to the rest, all posts were filled with Hol- 
land soldiers. The Swedish flag was hauled down, 
and that of Holland put up in its place. The follow- 
ing document informs us more fully of these trans- 
actions : 

Extract from Governor StuyvesarU^s JourruiJy doted Sept. 10-17, 1655. 
"Tina day, eight days since, we came into the bay of the South Kiver, 
and weredehiyed dming Sunday by the ebb and flo'id tide. On Thurs- 
day following we came before the deserted Fort Elaingburg, and there 
held a review, and divided our troops into five companies. On Friday 
morning, the wind and tide being favorable, we passed Fort Ceisimir 
without any hostile demoHstratiou on either side, and cast anchor a little 
distance above the fort, put the people on shore, and sent Cajit Sniidt, 
with a drummer, to the fort to demand the surrender of our property. 
The commandant desired leave to consult Governor Rising, which was 
retuscd. In the mean time the road to Chris-tina was occupied by fifty 
men, and thecommandant.Sven Schute, sent a messenger to ask a parley 
with us. But we advised him not to wait for a salute from our guns, 
lest the shedding of blood should be charged upon him. He again de- 
sired to confer with us, which was granted, and took place in a valley 
about half-way between the battery which we were commencing and 
the fort. He insisted that he should send an open letter to his Governor, 
which was denied him. Tlien he went away dissatisfied. Our troops 
advanced down into the valley, and our works began to rise up above 
the bushes. The last summons was delivered, and then the commandant 
desired a delay until the next day, which was granted him, inasmuch as 
we could not have our batteries ready before that .time. On Saturday 
morning thecommandaut came out and capitulated at discretion. At 
noon our troops marched into the fort. Sunday. — To-day our first public 
divine service was held, and an imperfect thanksgiving. Yesterday 
came one Factor Elswyk from Christina, and in a polite manner, in the 
name of the Governor, asked for the reason of our coming, and pur 
superior's instructions. Our answer was, to take back that which was 
our own, and keep it. He suggested to us to be satisfieil with that 
which had been taken, and not go any farther, upon which he insisted 
with polite represeutatious and arguments, with the threat finally in- 
troduced, hodie viibi^ craf: tibi. 

"In one or two days our troops shall march hither; but we ehall 
march slowly, so that our people may not be fatigued, and that we may 
have time to receive your orders. In the meati time we shall advance, 
taking counsel with Mr. Sille and Capt. Couingh, according to the best 

of our understanding, etc. 

"Peter Stutvesant. 

"P. S. — There are thirty Swedes who have surrendered to us, and de- 
sire to settle in Manhataan, whom you may expect. It seems that 
many others may follow them." 

The following is the -capitulation^ made at Fort 

1 The capitulation was made between the brave and noble Director 
John Rising, Governor of New Sweden, on the one side, and the brave 
and noble Director Peter Stuyvesant, Governor-General of New Nether- 
lands, on the other side. 

"1. That all cannon, ammunition, provisions, and supplies, together 
with other things belonging to the Crown of Sweden, which are in and 
around the Fort Christina, shall belong to and be preserved as the prop- 
erty of the Swedish Crown and the Sourheru Company, and shall be 
under the power of said Governor to take it away or deliver it to Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, with the proviso that it shall be given up upon order. 

"2. Governor John Rising, his superior and inffrior officers, his offi- 
cials and soldiers, shall march out of the fort with drums and trumpets 
playing, flags flying, matches burning, with hand and side arms, and 
balls in their mouths. They shall first be conducted to Tecumseh Island, 
to which they shall be taken in safety, and placed in the fort which is 
there until Ihe Governor sets sail upon the ship 'Waegh,' upon wliich 
said Governor Kiting, his people aud property, shall be conducted to 

Casimir between the commandant, Sven Schute, and 
Director-General Peter Stuyvesant: 

" 1. The commandant shall have liberty, if he desires it, to take back to 
Sweden by ship, eitherof the Crown or others, the cannon which belong 
to the Crown, both small and great, which, according to said command- 
Sandy Buck, situated five Holland miles the other side of New York, 
under safe conduct, witiiin at least fourteen days. Also the Governor 
and Factor Elswyk shall in the.mean time have allowed them four or five 
servants for attending to their business, whilst the others are lodged in 
the fortress. 

"3. All writings, letters, instructions, and acts belonging to the Crown 
of Sweden, the Southern Company, or private persons, which are found 
in Fort Christina, shall remain in the Governor's hands, to take away 
at his pleasure without being searched or examined. 

"4. None of the crown's or company's officers, soldiers, officials, or 
private persona shall be detained here against their wishes, but shall be 
allowed to go, without molestation, along with the Governor if they so 

•' 5. That all the officers, soldiers, and officials of the crown and of the 
Southern Company, and also all private persons, shall retain their goods 

" T). If some officials and freemen desire to depart, but are not able to 
go with the Governor and his party, they shall be allowed the time of 
one year and six weeks in which to sell their land and goods, provided 
that they do not take the oath of allegiance for the period that they 

" 7. If any of the Swedes or Finns are not disposed to go away, Gov- 
ernor Rising may take measures to induce them to do bo ; and if they 
are so persuaded, they shall not be forcibly detained. Those who choose 
to remain shall have the liberty of adhering to their own Augsburg Con- 
fession, as also to support a minister for their instruction. 

'* 8. Governor Rising, Factor Elswyk, and other superior and inferior 
officers, soldiers, and freemen, with all their property which they wish 
to take away, eliall be provided by the Governor-General with a sound 
ship, which shall receive them at Sandy Huck, and convey them to 
Texel,and thence immediately by a coaster.galliote, or other suitable 
vessel to Gotheborg, without charge; with the proviso that said coaster, 
galliote, or other vessel shall not be detained, for which the said Gov- 
ernor Rising shall be answerable. 

"9. In case Governor Rising, Factor Elswyk, or any other official be- 
longing to the Swedish Crown or the South Company has incurred any 
debts on account of the crown or of the company, they shall not be de- 
tained therefor within the jurisdiction of the Governor-General. 

"10. Governor Rising has full freedom to make himself acquainted 
with the conduct of Commandant Schute and that of his officers and 
soldiers in regard to the surrender of Sandhuk Fort (Fort Casimir). 

"11. Governor Rising promises that between the 15th and 25th of 
September he will withdraw his people from Fort Christina, and deliver 
it up to the Governor-General. 

" Done and signed the 15-2oth of September, 1655, on the parade be- 
tween Fort Christina and the Govemor-General'a camp. 
" Peter Stuyvesant. 
" John Rising, Director of New Streden." 

" It is further capitulated that the captain who is to convey Governor 
John Rising and the Factor Henry Elswyk shall be expressly ordered 
and commanded to put the aforesaid Governor Rising and the Factor 
Elswyk on shore, either in England or in France; and that the Direc- 
tor-General shall lend to Governor Rising, either in money or in bills 
of exchange, the sum of three hundred pounds Flemish, which the said 
Governor Rising engages to repay to the Governor-General or his order, 
in Amsterdam, within six months after the receipt. In the mean time 
he leaves as a pledge and equivalent the property of the crown and 
Southern Company now given up. Hereof we give two copies signed by 
the contracting parties. 

" Concluded September 15-2oth, on the parade between Fort Christina 

and Governor-General Stuyvesant's camp. 

" PETEn Stuyvesant. 

"John Rising." 

Thereupon all who had a desire to remain in the country were called 

together by a proclamation to lake the oath of allegiance, and be allowed 

to remain in the country as a free people. AUothers were to depart, with 

liberty either to carry off their property or to sell it. 

The form of the oath of allegiance was as follows : 

" I, the undersigned, do promise and swear, as in the presence of the 


ant's report, consist of four iron guns of fourteen lis-pounds and five 
field-pieces ; of tliese hitter, four large and one small one. 

"2. Ue shall also inarch out with twelve men fully armed as his life- 
guard, and with the flags of the Crown, the others with their side-arms 
only; the muskets(»f the Crown shall stand to the commandant's ac- 
count, but shall remain in the fort until they take them awrty or send 
an order for tlieui. 

"j. The Commandant shall be secure in his person and individual 
property, either to take it away or to let it remain until further orders. 
The same shall be the case in regard to the property of all the other 

" 4. All this shall be kept inviolate, provided said commandant shall 
imniediiitely surrender into the Director-General's hands Fort Casimir, 
with all its piece.s, ammunition, materials, and other goods belonging to 
the aforesLiid West India Company. 

" Given, done, and signed by the contracting parties, Sept. IG, 1665, on 
the ship ' Waegh,' at Fort Casimir. 

" Peter Stuvvesant. 

" SVEN ScHUTE, Engineer" 

But the matter did not rest here. The evil under- 
taking was continued by a march to Fort Christina. 
The road taken was not directly overland from Sand- 
huk, which would have been about a Swedish mile, 
and would have brought them directly in front of the 
fort, but they marched around over the creek, where 
the Christina bridge now is, which was two and a half 
Swedish miles, and they thus attacked the fort in its 
rear, placing their camp in the field which fenced off 
in front of Christina harbor. No great trouble was 
taken in forming the siege. The time, which was 
only a few days, was mostly occupied with negotia- 
tions, without a single shot fired or a single Holland- 
er's blood shed. 

Commentators differ materially in their accounts 
of Governor Stuyvesant's administration subsequent 
to the submission of the Swedes. It seems certain 
that a sense of oppression was feared by some and 
experienced by others. Acrelius says, " The terrible 
tyranny to which the Swedes were at that time sub- 
jected cannot be fully described. The flower of the 
Swedish male population were at once torn away and 
sent over to New Amsterdam, though everything was 
done as though it was with their free consent. The 
men were taken by force and placed on shipboard ; 
the women at home in their houses were abused, 
their property carried off, and their cattle slaughtered. 
Then it was the right time to send out a proclamation 
and call the people to take the oath of allegiance. 
Those who withheld themselves were held in con- 
tinual disfavor." If the foregoing be correct, the 
sturdy and unwarlike Swedes were truly to be com- 
miserated with. It is undoubtedly true that some of 
their number keenly felt the loss of power resulting 
from the military incursion of the Dutch, and refused 
to take the oath of allegiance prescribed by the new 
ruler. These heroic men left the shores of the Dela- 

omniecient God, that I will remain faithful and obedient to the States- 
General of the United Netherlands, to the Director-General and his 
Council, now or hereafter appointed. And I will remain so without 
giving aid or assistance, by word or deed, to any hostile undertaking or 
commotion, but will conduct myself as an obedient and faithful subject 
BO long as I reniain in the country of the South River, iu the New Neth- 
erlands. So help me Almighty God." 

ware, moving to Maryland, where many of their de- 
scendants are still living. It is also quite certain 
that some of the incorrigible followers of Printz and 
Rising, having refused to take the oath of allegiance, 
were transported to Manhattan. It seems probable 
that Acrelius, who wrote in 1759, drew largely from 
the oflicial report ' made by Governor Rising on his 
return home in 165G, in which the Swedish Governor 
animadverts with great severity upon the conduct of 
the Dutch, and implores his government to send out 
a force of troops strong enough to recapture and forever 

llllliiiii' iriiimnr 

fP^^ $ 


protect and uphold the New Swedeland on the Dela- 
ware and Schuylkill Rivers. There are good grounds, 
however, to question the accuracy of Acrelius and 
Rising as to the treatment and experience of the 
Swedes under the administration of the Hollanders. 
It does not appear that a single life was lost iii the 
many quarrels and disputes which preceded or fol- 
lowed the Swedish submission, or that any outrages 
were committed upon their settlements by the In- 
dians, but that they were left to follow, in a general 
way, their own pursuits and inclinations, and main- 
tain their own habits and customs as a people. The 
following extract from a letter, signed by thirty per- 
sons of their number, dated May 31, 1693, and for- 
warded to John Thelin, his Majesty's loyal subject 

t Translation of Governor Rising's Report, by George P. Marsh : N. T. 
Hist. CollectiuuB, New Series, vol. i. p. 443. 



and postmaster at Gottenburg, is suggestive of fru- 
gality and conteutment, and wbat seems significant 
under the circumstances is, tliat the entire letter is 
without complaint: "We rejoice that his JIajesty 
doth still bear unto us a tender and a Christian care. 
Therefore do we heartily desire, since it hath pleased 
his Majesty graciously to regard our wants, that there 
may be sent unto us two Swedish ministers who are 
well learned in the Holy Scriptures, and who may be 
able to defend them and us against all false oi)posers, 
so that we may preserve our true Lutheran faith, 
which, if called to sufl'er for our faith, we are ready 
to seal with our blood. We also request that those 
ministers may be men of good moral lives and char- 
acter, so that they may instruct our youth by their 
example, and lead them into a pious and virtuous 
way of life. Further it is our humble desire that you 
would be pleased to send us three books of sermons, 
twelve Bibles, forty-two psalm-books, one hundred 
tracts, with two hundred catechisms and as many 
primers ; for which, when received, we promise punc- 
tual payment at such place as you may think fit to 
order. We do promise also a proper maintenance to 
the ministers that may be sent to us, and when this 
our letter is gone, it is our intention to buy a piece of 
land that shall belong to the church, and upon which 
the ministers may live. As to what concerns our 
situation in this country, we are for the most part 
husbandmen. We plow and sow and till the ground; 
and as to our meat and drink, we live according 
to the old Swedish custom. This country is very 
rich and fruitful, and here grow all .sorts of grain 
in great plenty, so that we are richly supplied with 
meat and drink ; and we send out yearly to our 
neighbors on this continent and the neighboring 
islands bread, grain, flour, and oil. We liave here 
also all sorts of beasts, fowls, and fishes. Our wives 
and daughters employ themselves in spinning wool 
and flax and many of them in weaving ; so that 
we have great reason to thank the Almighty for his 
manifold mercies and benefits. God grant that we 
may also have good shepherds to feed us with his holy 
word and sacraments. We live also in peace and 
friendship with one another, and the Indians have not 
molested us for many years. Further, since this 
country has ceased to be under the government of 
Sweden, we are bound to acknowledge and declare 
for the sake of truth that we have been well and 
kindly treated, as well by the Dutch as by his Ma- 
jesty the King of England, our gracious sovereign ; 
on the other hand, we, the Swedes, have been and 
still are true to him in words and in deeds. We have 
always had over us good and gracious magistrates; 
and we live with one another in peace and quiet- 
ness." ' 

Pending the closing scenes of these contentions be- 
tween the Hollanders and Swedes for supremacy on 

1 Aunals of the Swedes on the Delaware: Rev. J. C. Clay, D.D. 

the upper Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, the " Mer- 
cury," with a large number of Swedish emigrants on 
their way to their friends, anchored near Fort Casi- 
mir. On their arrival, much to their surprise and 
chagrin, they were refused permission either to pass 
the fort or to land at all. Governor Stuyvesant insisted 
upon their return to their homes, and was unyielding 
to all importunities coming from those on shipboard, 
or their friends and countrymen among the settlers 
of New Sweden. It was in this emergency that John 
Pappegoya, the son-in-law of Governor Printz, went 
to the rescue of his waiting and discomfited friends 
aboard the " Mercury" at anchor at Fort Casimir. 
Engaging a small party of Indians who were fa- 
miliar with the channel of the river, they surrepti- 
tiously joined their friends in the vessel, and under 
cover of darkness passed the fort unobserved by the 
Dutch. Spreading all possible canvas, they sailed 
up the river to Tinnecum, and there hastily landed 
before Stuyvesant succeeded in concerting measures 
to compel their departure or prevent them from land- 
ing. There was great rejoicing among the Swedes 
over the success of Pappegoya,'' who evidently out- 
witted Stuyvesant. He was the hero of the hour, 
and his wife,' Lady Armegot Printz, daughter of 
Governor Printz, was assiduous in her efforts to 
make the new emigrants comfortable, and in pro- 
viding for their permanent welfare among them. 

The period from 1655 to the beginning of the Penn 
regime in 1682 witnessed many changes in the admin- 
istration of affairs of the early settlers, the details of 
which are too voluminous to be here particularized. 
Governors Paul Jacquet, Alrich, Beckman, and Hin- 
oyosa all left their impress on the history of the 
period, during which the identity of both Dutch and 
Swede was lost in the multitude of English emigrants 
and traders who then began the work of settlement 
on the Delaware River, hastened and encouraged by 
the administration of the Duke of York, who sub- 
stantially advanced the pretensions of the British 
government in claiming the whole line of Atlantic 
coast from Florida to Maine upon the discovery of 
Sebastian Cabot in 1497, and the charters granted by 
King Charles I. and Charles II.* 

2 Riidman does not mention Pappegoya in his account of this episode, 
but attributes the event to the good offices of friendly Indians, and in 
defense of the Dutch authority. 

3 Lady Armegot Printz (for although the wife of Pappegoya she 
always insisted upon being addressed by her maiden name) lived at 
Tenakongli, the residence of her father. Although the situation was 
fine and the soil rich, she was not able to gain her support from it. She 
could neither obtain servants nor rent the furm to any one, since every 
man who was able and willing to work owned more land than he needed. 
Whetlier from sympathy or on account of some debt owing to her, she 
received a support from the Holland government. This for some time 
consisted of " one fat ox, some fattened swine,and a sufticient supply 
of grain." She linaUy returned to Sweden. — Acrelim. 

^ Some Englishmen tiike to themselves the honor that the whole of 
America was discovered by them first of all Christian nations, initsmuch 
as Christopher Columbus did not go beyond the Gulf of Me.xico until 
the year !45>S to tjtke possession of the country, although he visited 
some of the islands in 119-2. — Acrelius. 



Note.— The following drinks, according to Acreliua, were used in 
America during these early times: " French wine, Frontegnac, Pontac, 
Port a Port, Lisbon wine, phial wine, sherry, Madeira wine, which is al- 
together the most need. Siingaree is made of wine, water, sugar, a dash 
of nutmeg, with some leaves of balm put in. Hot wine, warmed wine, 
is drunk warm, witli sugar, cardamons, and cinnamon in it; sometimes 
also it has in it the yolks of eggs beaten up together and grains of all- 
spice, and then it is called mulled wine. Cherry wine: the berries are 
pressed, the juice strained from them ; Muscovado or raw sugar is put 
in; then it ferments, and after some months becomes clear. Currant 
wine, or black raspberry wine, is made in the same manner. Apple 
wine (cider): apples are ground up in a wooden mill, which is worked 
by ahorse. Then they are placed under a press until the juice runs off, 
which is then put in a barrel, where it ferments, and after some time 
becomes clear. When the apples are not of a good sort, decayed, or 
fallen off too soon, the cider is boiled, and a few poundsof ground ginger 
is put into it, and it becomes more wholesome and better for cooking; 
it keeps longer, and does not ferment so soon, but its taste is not so 
fresh as when it is unboiled. The fault with cider in that country is 
that, for the most part, the good and bad are mixed together. Tlie 
cider is drunk too fresh and too soon ; thus it has come into great dis- 
esteem, so that many persons refuse to taste it. The strong acid which 
it contains produces rust and verdigris, and frightens some from its use 
by the fear that it may liave the same effect upon the body. This liquor 
is usually unwholesome, causes ague when it is fresh, and colic when it 
is too old. The common people damask the drink, mix ground ginger 
with it, or heat it with a red-hot iron. Cider royal is so called when 
some quarts of brandy are thrown into a barrel of cider, along with sev- 
eral poundsof Muscovado sugar, whereby it becomes stronger and tastes 
better. If it is then left alone for a year or so, or taken over the sea, 
then drawn offinto bottles, with some raisins put in, it may deserve the 
name of apple wine. Cider royal of another kind is that in which one- 
half is cider and the other mead, both freshly fermented together. 
Mulled cider is warmed, with sugar in it, with yolks of eggs and grains 
of allspice ; sometimes, also, rum is put in to give it greater strength. 
Rum or sugar-brandy: this is made at the sugar plantations in the 
West India islands. It is in quality like French brandy, but has no un- 
pleasant odor. It makes up a large part of the English and French 
commerce with the West India islands. The strongest comes from 
Jamaica, is called Jamaica spirits, and is the favorite article for punch. 
Next in quality to this is the rum from Barbadoes, then that from An- 
tiquas, Monteerrat, Nevis, St. Christopher, etc. The heaviest consumption 
is in harvest-time, when the laborers most frequently take a sup, and then 
immediately a drink of water, from which the body performs its work 
more easily and perspires better than when rye whisky or malt liquors are 
used. Raw dram, raw rum, is a drink of rum unmixed with anything. 
Egg dram, egg nog: the yolk ofan egg is beaten up, and during the beating 
rum and sugar poured in. Cherry bounce is a drink made of the cherry 
juice with a quantity of rum in it. Bilberry dram is made in the same 
way. Punch is made of fresh spring-water, sugar, lemon-juice, and 
Jamaica spirits. Instead of lemons, a West India fruit called limes, or 
its juice, which is imported in flasks, is used. Punch is always drunk 
cold, but sometimes a slice of bread is toasted and placed in it warm to 
moderate the cold in winter-time, or it is heated with a red-hot iron. 
Punch is mostly used just before dinner, and is called a 'meridian.' 
Jtfajnm, made of water, sugar, and rum, is the most common drink in 
the interior of the country, and has set nj) many a tavern-keeper. 
Manathan\ is made of small beer, with rum and sugar. Tiff, or flip, ia 
made of small beer, rum, and sugar, with a slice of bread toasted and 
buttered. Hot rum,warmed with sugar and grainsof allspice, customary 
at funerals. Mulled rum, warmed with egg-yolks aud allspice. Hotch 
pot, warmed beer with rum in it. Sampson ia warmed cider with rum 
in it. Grog is water and rum. Sling, or long sup, half water and half 
rum, with sugar in it. Mint-water, distilled from mint, mixed in the 
rum, to make a drink for strengthening the stomach. Egg punch, of 
yolkaof eggs, rum, sugar, atid warm water. Milk punch, of milk, rum, 
sugar, and grated nutmeg over it ; it is much used in the summer-time, 
and is considered good for dysentery and loose bowels. Sillibul is made 
of lukewarm milk, wine, and sugar; it is used in Buramer-time as a 
cooling beverage. Milk and water is the common drink of the people. 
Still liquor, brandy made of peaches or apples without the addition of 
any grain, is not regarded as good as rum. Whiskey is brandy made of 
grain; it is used far up in the interior of the country, where rum is very 
dear, on account of tlie trausptutation. Beer is brewed in the towns; 
is brown, thick, and unpalatable; is drunk by the common people. 
Small beer, from mohisses. When the water is warmed, the molasses is 
poured in with a little malt or wheat-bran, and is well shaken together; 

afterwards a lay of bops and yeast is added, and then it is put in a keg, 

where it ferments, and the next day is clear and ready for use. It is 
more wholesome, pleasanter to the taste, and milder to the stomach than 
any small beer of malt. Spnice beer is a kind of small beer, which is 
called in Swedish "liirda tidningarne" (learned newspapers). The 
twigs of spruce-pine are boiled in the malt so as to give it a pleasant 
taste, and then molasses is used as in the preceding. The Swedish pine 
is thought to be serviceable in the same way. Table beer made of per- 
simmons. The persimmon is a fruit like our egg-plum. When these 
have been well frosted, they are pounded along with their seeds, mixed 
up with wheat-bran, made into large loaves, and baked in the oven; 
then, whenever desired, pieces of this are taken and moistened, and 
with these the drink is brewed. Mead is made of honey and water 
boiled together, which ferments of itself in the cask. The stronger it 
is of honey the longer it takes to ferment. Drunk in this country too 
soon it causes sickness of the stomach aud headache. Besides these 
tliey use tlie liquors called cordials, such as anise-water, cinnamon- 
water, appelcin-water, and others scarcely to be enumerated, as also 
drops to pour into wine and brandy almost without end. Tea is a drink 
very commonly used. No one is so high as to despise it, nor any one so 
low as not to think himself worthy of it. It is not drunk oftener than 
twice a day. It is always dnink by the common people with raw sugar 
in it. Brandy in tea is called Use. Coffee comes from Martinica, St. 
Dtimingo, and Surinam ; is sold in large quantities, and used for break- 
fast. Chocolate is in general use for breakfast and supper. It is drunk 
with a spoon ; sometimes prepared with a little milk, but mostly only 
with water." 

In reference to the trees in Pennsylvania, Acrelius continues, "White- 
oak grows in good soil; light bark, the leaves long, grass-green, blunt- 
pointed ; the acorn is small, long, with a short cup ; the wood white ; is 
used for ship-timber, planks, staves for hogsheads or wine-pipes for 
spirituous liquors, but not for molasses. There is a heavy exportation 
of it to Europe, Ireland, France, and the West Indies in the form of 
boards and staves. It is also used for posts, with boards and clap-hoards, 
around fields and gardens. It burns well, and makes good ashes. 
White-oak growing upon low land and in swamps is considered mure 
reliable for ship-building than that which is found upon high ground. 
Black -oak grows upon any kind of soil ; bark dark ; leaf dark green, 
very blunt-pointed; the acorn large, with short cup; the wood, when 
split green, is of a reddish-brown color, when dry, darker. It is used 
for staves of molasses-hogsheads or barrels for dry-goods, such as wheat- 
flour, sugar, Muscovado, also for piles or palings built in water, but rots 
on land within three or four years; does not burn well, but dissolves 
into smoke and poor ashes. The bark is used in tanning. Spanish oak 
also grows everywhere ; bark gray ; leaf small, sharp-pointed, and light 
green; the acorns, which are gall-nuts, are serviceable for ink; the 
wood whitish, with spots like the beech-tree, is nsed as black-oak, and 
is considered better; the bark is the best for tanning, and yields a yel- 
lowish color. There are several species of Spanish oak, which are dis- 
tinguished by their leaves, but are the same for fuel, hark, and use. 
Red-oak usually grows upon low land; bark gray; leaf broad, pointed, 
with saw-like teeth towards the stalk ; the wood, when fresh, reddish, 
when dry, whitish ; is used as black and Spanish oak. Black, Spanish,, 
and red-oaks are porous and loose in structure, so that if one takes a 
piece of their wood three feet long, wets the one end and blows into tho 
other, bubbles come out. All these species are usually spoken of under 
the name of black- or red-oak. Few natives of the country know how 
to distinguish them all correctly. Swamp-oak, water-oak, peach-leaf 
oak, live-oak grow in swHnipy places; not common ; high trees; bark 
dark gray ; leaf long as the fingers, narrow, with one point; wood gray, 
but the liardest of all oak ; id seldom nsed for anything but cog-stocks in 
cider-mills. Walnut-tree, black-walnut, grqws in dry ground; bark 
dark gray ; the leaf in pairs on a stalk ; a high tree ; the nuts black, 
large as apples, rough and sharp on the outside, covered witli a 
thick green skin ; the shell hard enough to break with a hammer, the 
kernel very oily, fit for oil for fine paintings; the wood brown, and quite 
firm when the tree grows in free air and good soil, also valuable, hut 
iiKignificant and of little value when it is surrounded by thick and closo 
woods. It is used for furniture of houses, — tables, chairs, bureaus, etc. 
Boards of it are exported in large quantities. Hickory grows in a rich 
soil; the leaves arranged in pairs along the branches, with teeth ser- 
rated at the edges; the nuts white, flat, pointed, large as the culti- 
vated walnuts ; grows within a thick green hull, which, when ripened 
in the month of October, opens itself in four clefts, and pushes out the 
nut; has a division within, as a walnut, but is hard as a bone. The 
Ivprnel has a pleasant taste, and from it the Indians, as it is said, press 
an oil for winter use. The wood is tough, white on the outside, brown ia 


the heart ; that of young trees is used for hoops, that of old ones for ag- 
ricultural implementa and wagons, but chiefly for fuel, and makes the 
best fires, with tho finest ashes. Chestnut-tree grows in dry soil, high, 
straight, and thick ; the bark ash-gray ; the leaf oblong, pointed, with 
serrated teeth at the points ; the shell double, llie outer one large as an 
apple, externally like a burdock-burr, internally with a woolly down ; 
when ripe, naturally opens itself in four clefts and throws out the nut, 
of which there are usually two, round upon one side and flat upon the 
other. If three grow together they are mostly poor, and the middle 
nut is flat on both sides, tlie other two of the ordinary shape. Some- 
times seven nuts are found together, then none of them are good. The 
chestnut-tree, surrounded by thick woods, bears neither large nor 
numerous nuts; but where they are found in abundance the swine have 
an excellent food. The wood is ash-gray, is used for posts or rails, but 
for nothing else except fuel. Poplar grows indiscriminately, high, 
straight, and rich in foliage ; bark of a greenish gray, the seed in pods, 
the leaf broad, single, scalloped ; the wood yellowish, brittle, but hard ; 
used in carpenters' work for door- and window-frames, also fur boards. 
It ia cut out for canoes, is turned for wooden vessels, such aa pails, 
dishes, boxes, and the like. Sassafras grows in rich soil ; low trees and 
bushes. The bark is dark-green, smooth, with a yellow juice; the 
leaves unlike, even on the same tree, oblong, with one, two, or three 
stumpy points; the wood yellowish, especially the root, which, as well 
as the bark, has the smell and taste of saffron. It is used for planks 
and gate-posts, also for palings on the Susquehanna. Cedar grows 
chiefly in swamps or low, sandy ground; in smell and bark like the 
juniper-tree. Its needle-shaped leaves are long and tender. Red- 
cedar is dark-red, hard ; used for planks and posts, and in New England 
for cabinet-work, on the Bermuda isles for ship-timber. White-cedar 
is a soft wood ; used for house-timber, — boards, palings, and shingles. 
Maple grows in dry ground, high and straight; the bark a gray-green; 
the leaf small, three-pointed, serrated at the points; the wood whitish, 
spotted ; used for furniture in houses, — tables, chairs, etc. ; is exported 
from the country in the form of boards. Sweet-gum grows in low 
lands; the bark gray, smooth ; the leaves five-pointed, with serrated 
edges; the wood yellowish, spotted, warps easily when wrought; used 
for furniture and cabinet-work. Sour-gum grows everywhere; the bark 
dark, sharp; theleaf oblong, one-pointed; the wood white, cross-grained, 
does not admit of any splitting, and is used for wheel-naves orliubs. 
Locust grows in dry , rich soil as a high tree ; the bark greenish ; the 
seed in long pods; the kernel large, sweet, edible ; the leaf upon a long 
stalk; the leaves long, one-pointed, in pairs, like the mountain-ash; the 
wood bright, hard, used for pegs in ship-building, for trundles and cogs 
in mills. The streets in New York are planted with locusts. Dogwood 
grows in dry ground, seldom more than four inches in diameter ; the 
flowers white ; the berries red and small; the wood yellowish, hard, like 
boxwood, does not burn well; it is used for little else than carpenters' 
tools. Wild cherry grows in good land, not high, but thick ; the bark 
and leaf like those of the cultivated cherry-tree, but the berry smaller, 
sweeter, with seed and no kernel; the wood reddish, is used for cabinet- 
work. Persimmon grows in good, dry ground, scarcely more thanafoot 
thick; thebark rough and sharp; the leaf single, oblong, one-pointed, 
dark'green; the berry like the wild plum ; when frosted it is used for 
brewing table beer. The fruit and its seed are pounded together, 
kneaded up with wheat-bran, baked in large loaves in a stove; pieces of 
it are then taken at pleasure, and from these the drink is brewed, which 
becomes quite palatable. The wood is white, hard, and used for carpen- 
ters' tools. The button-tree grows wild, but is planted before the doors 
of houses; the bark greenish-gray, smooth ; the seed-pods round and 
large as marbles, hang upon long stems, which when ripe, and one 
strikes them, all at once separate into small pieces, as if one were to 
throw a handful of down into the air; the leaf is quite large, broad, 
single, five-cornered, shari)-pointed; the wuod is brittle; its greatest use 
is for shading houses from the great heat of the sun. Spicewood grows 
in dry and sandy soil aa a bush; the flowers yellow ; the berry red, small, 
mostly single upon the stalks ; the leaves are oblong and one-pointed; 
the bark is green, has the taste of cinnamon when it is chewed, would 
probably serve as a medicine. Pine is planted near houses as an orna- 
ment; boards of it are introduced from other places, where it grows in a 
poor, sandy soil. Beech, hazel, and birch are rare. Alder is found abun- 
dantly in the marshes." 

Israel Acrelius and his translator, William M. 
Reynolds, D.D., have left a vivid picture of these 
early pioneers. It is at once quaint, truthful, and 
life-like, and seems to carry us back among the 

frugality and wealth of agricultural products that 
has always characterized the husbandmen of Eastern 
Pennsylvania. "The farms which were first culti- 
tivated/' Acrelius writes, "have by constant use be- 
come impoverished, so that they are now considered 
of but little value. The people cleared the land, 
which was new and strong, but did not think of 
manuring and clearing meadows until of later years. 
For those who do not keep their animals in stables 
have no other manure than this, that they place a 
few hay-stacks on a field, on which the animals are 
fed during the winter, when they trample as much 
under their feet as they eat, whereby the manure be- 
comes alike unequal and insufficient. That Pennsyl- 
vania is regarded as the best grain country in America 
arises more from the excellence of the climate than 
the fertility of the soil. Yet most of the farms are 
newly cleared. Some miles up in the country but 
few places are to be seen where the stumps do not 
still stand thick upon the ground. Not one-half of 
the forests are cleared off as they ought to be. The 
clearing is not made by the destructive burning of 
trees, whereby the fertile soil is converted into ashes 
and carried away by the winds. Some stocks or 
stumps may be thus burned, so as to put them almost 
entirely out of the way. As labor is very high, so 
sometimes only the bushes and undergrowth are re- 
moved, but the large trees are still left standing. 
But around these a score is cut, and they thus dry 
up within the first year, and thus soon fall down, so 
that one may often see the fields with dry trees and a 
heavy crop of grain growing under them. 

"Theimplementsof agriculture are the plow and the 
harrow. The plow is so made that from the share 
two pieces ascend with a handle upon each, about an 
ell and a half apart from each other. It is put to- 
gether with screws, light and easy to handle. The 
plowman holds each handle with one hand, and 
throws up the field into high * lands,' plowing first 
on the one side and then on the other side of a 
'land,' so that the earth is thrown up high. Im- 
mediately before the plow a pair of oxen draw, or a 
pair of horses, which are guided by some little boy 
either leading or riding on them. The harrow is 
three-cornered and heavy. The traces are fastened 
to it with a link, which makes a convenience in turn- 
ing a pair of horses before the harrow, and a boy on 
the horse's back smooths the field into fine and even 
pieces without any great trouble. Sometimes two 
harrows are fastened together after the same team. 
The beam of the plow does not come forward between 
the draught animals. Under the end of the beam is 
a strong clam with a link, on which is fastened a 
double-tree back of both the animals. At each end 
of this double-tree is another shorter one (single- 
tree), provided with a link for each animal. From 
these single-trees there go upon both sides of the 
draught animals ropes or chains forward to the hames. 


which are held together by a broad strap above and 
below. In place of ropes or chains, most farmers use 
straps of raw deerskins twined and twisted together 
and so dried, which do not chafe the sides of the 
horses. Out of these also the whole of the harness 
is made. 

. "Flax is sown in the beginning of March. The 
ground is plowed for it some days before, and new or 
good ground is required. It is pulled in July and 
much used. Oats are sown at the same time, mostly 
on good ground, which is plowed some days before; 
but if the plowing is done in the autumn before, iu 
November or December, and then again just before 
the sowing, the oats themselves pay for it, according 
to the common saying. It is cut in July. It is used 
a great deal, but only for horses, and is of the thin and 
white kind. Wheat is the land's chief product. It 
is sown in the beginning of September, after three 
plowings preceding, the first in May, then in July, 
and the last just before the sowing, but always accord- 
ing to the moisture and quality of the soil. As the 
autumn is long and warm, the sprouts grow so long 
that all kinds of cattle are fed on them during the 
winter. Strong ground is not required for wheat, the 
middling is good enough. Harvesting is performed 
in July, in the hottest season. Sickles are used, with 
the edge sharpened like a file. The stalk is cut just 
about half its length, so that the stubble is quite high. 
The sheaves, short and small, are counted in dozens, 
and a bushel is expected from each dozen. Eye is 
sown in November, mostly upon some field that has 
borne a crop during the same summer, and one plow- 
ing is usually regarded as sufiicient. If the shoots 
only come up before winter there is hope of a good 
harvest. Where the sowing is made early there is a 
supply for pasturage during the winter. It is cut at 
the same time and in the same manner as wheat. 
Buckwheat is sown at the end of July. For this is 
taken some ground which has just before borne rye or 
wheat. Poor ground and one plowing does very well 
for it. It ripens in October, and is mostly used for 
horses and swine. Turnips are not in general use. 
The seed is sown in the beginning of August. For 
this is taken either a piece of newly-cleared land or 
swamp. Those who have neither of these prefer let- 
ting it alone. The leaves are often exposed to the 
ravages of small flies, which destroy the whole crop. 
Maize is planted at the end of April or the beginning 
of May. Four furrows are placed close to one another, 
and then five or six steps from these four other fur- 
rows, and so over the whole field. The plowing is done 
in the month of March. For the planting is used a 
broad hoe, wherewith the earth is opened to the depth 
of three or four inches, into which are cast five grains 
of corn, which are then covered with the hoe. Some- 
times also they add two Turkish beans, which thrive 
very well with the maize and run up its stalks. Each 
place thus planted is called a hill. An equal distance 
is kept between each hill, so that the rows may be 

straight either lengthwise or crosswise. As soon as 
the young plant comes up it is plowed over, and even 
harrowed, that it may be free of weeds. When the 
plants are half an ell high the ground is hoed up 
around them, and again when they are two ells high. 
In the month of September, when the maize has at- 
tained its greatest growth, although not ripe, the 
strongest blades are cut off for fodder. They then 
plow between the rows of corn, sow wheat, and har- 
row it in, and this, in the next year, gives a full crop. 
By the end of October the ears are ripe, pulled oft" on 
the field, and carried home. The stocks and roots 
are torn up during the winter, when the ground is 
loose, to make the fields clean. Maize is the princi- 
pal food of the Indians, and it has hence been called 
'Indian corn.' 

" Potatoes are quite common, of two kinds, the Irish 
and the Maryland. The Irish are also of two kinds, 
the first round, knotty, whitish, mealy, somewhat 
porous. They are planted thus : upon a smooth and 
hard ground a bed of dung is formed ; portions of 
this are thrown upon the potatoes, which are then 
covered with ground of even the poorest kind. When 
the stalks have come up about a fourth of an ell high 
they are again hilled up with the same kind of earth, 
in order to strengthen the roots, which are thus con- 
siderably increased in number. The other kind is 
long, branching, thick, reddish, juicy, and more 
porous. For these a long ditch, the depth of a spade, 
is dug, the bottom of which is covered with manure, 
set with pieces of potatoes, and covered over with 
earth. When the stalks come up they are treated as 
those above mentioned. Maryland potatoes are long, 
thick, juicy, sweet, and yellow; they are planted 
from sprouts in hills or round heaps of good earth ; 
when the stalks come up they are hoed around. 
These are also wonderfully prolific, so that every- 
where around and between the hills the fruit is 
dug up. 

"Cabbage is planted two or three times a year, but 
seldom thrives well until towards autumn. Crisped 
colewart stands through the whole winter. On cab- 
bage stocks which stand through the winter new 
leaves come out in the spring, which are used for 
greens. Tobacco is planted in almost every garden, 
but not more than for domestic use. It is universal 
among the Indians. When the leaves are ripe they 
are cut, cured, and twined together like twists of flax, 
and are used without any further preparation by the 
country people for chewing and smoking. The trade 
in tobacco is permitted only for Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, although its importation is almost yearly di- 
minished, as its production is increased in Europe. 

"Vegetable gardens are kept for almost every 
house. There are generally cultivated beets, parsnips, 
onions, parsley, radishes, Turkish beans, large beans, 
pepper-grass, red peppers, lettuce, head-lettuce, Ger- 
man lettuce, and scurvy-grass; anything else is re- 
garded as a rarity. Common herbs for domestic 



remedies are wormwood, rue, sage, thyme, chamomile, 
etc. Peas are also grown in gardens, as they can be 
eaten while still green. When dry, a worm grows 
in them, which comes out a fly in spring. And al- 
though the pea then seems destroyed, yet it still serves 
as seed for a new growth. That sort is like field peas. 
Sugar peas are also used, and are free from that evil. 
Orchards may be regarded as among the highest ad- 
vantages of the country, but the fruit consists mostly 
of three sorts, — cherries, peaches, and apples. Pears 
are rare. Cherry-trees are generally planted here 
and there around houses and roads, away from the 
gardens. The berries are generally of the common 
kind, bright and sour; some black and more juicy. 
The better sorts are rare, and lately introduced. They 
bloom in April and ripen in June. Peach-trees stand 
within an inclosure by themselves, grow even in the 
stoniest places without culture. The fruit is the most 
delightful that the mouth can taste, and is often allow- 
able in fevers. One kind, called clingstones, are con- 
sidered the best ; in these the stones are not loose from 
the fruit as in the others. Many have peach-orchards 
chiefly for the purpose of feeding their swine, which 
are not allowed to run at large. They first bloom in 
March, the flowers coming out before the leaves, and 
are often injured by the frosts; they are ripe to- 
wards the close of August. This fruit is regarded as 
indigenous, like maize and tobacco, for as far as any 
Indians have been seen in the interior of the country 
these plants are found to extend. Apple-trees make 
the finest orchards, planted in straight rows with in- 
tervals of twelve or fifteen paces. The best kind is 
called the Van der Veer, as a Hollander of that 
name introduced it ; it serves either for cider or apple 
brandy. Another sort is the house-apple, which is 
good for winter fruit. For apple-orchards not less 
than two or three acres are taken ; some have five or 
.six. The cultivation consists in grafting and pruning 
in the spring, and plowing the ground every five or 
six years, when either maize is planted or rye or oats 
sowed in the orchard." 

In reference to stock-raising, Acrelius continues: 
"The horses are real ponies, and are seldom found 
over sixteen hands high. He who has a good riding- 
horse never employs him for draught, which is also 
the less necessary, as journeys are for the most part 
made on horseback. It must be the result of this 
more than of any particular breed in the horses that 
the country excels in fast horses, so that horse-races 
are often made for very high stakes. A good horse 
will go more than a Swedish mile (six and three- 
quarters English miles) in an hour, and is not to be 
bought for less than six hundred dollars copper coin- 
age. The cattle are also of a middling sort, but 
whence they were first introduced no one can well 
tell. Where the pasture is fair a cow does not give 
less than two quarts of milk at a time, that is twice 
a day. The calf is not taken from the cow until it is 
four weeks old, — that is, as long as she can keep it 

fat, — in case it is to be slaughtered, otherwise two or 
three weeks are regarded as sufficient; and as animals 
are not kept in the house during winter, so it some- 
times happens that calves are sometimes caught in 
the snow, and are none the worse for it; there is no 
such thing heard of here as calves dying. 

"The sheep are of the large English sort. They 
are washed whenever convenient, and then immedi- 
ately shorn, once a year, towards the end of April; 
their wool is regarded as better for stockings than the 
English. The flesh is generally very strong in its 
taste, especially in old sheep; some persons are un- 
able to eat it. When the Christians first came to the 
country the grass was up to the flanks of the animals, 
and was good for pasture and hay-making, but as 
soon as the country has been settled the grass has 
died out from the roots, so that scarcely anything but 
black earth is left in the forests; back in the country, 
where the people have not yet settled, the same grass 
j is found, and is called wild rye. The pasture in the 
forests, therefore, consists mostly of leaves, but also 
I of the grass which grows along water-courses. Until 
pasture comes in the stubble-fields and meadows, the 
best is in the orchards. Early in the spring there 
springs up a strong grass-leek (wild garlic), especially 
on poor ground, which makes the milk and butter 
unpleasant to the taste, but afterwards the fields are 
covered with clover, red and white, and make excel- 
j lent pasture. Some sow clover-seed after they have 
harrowed in their wheat, to make the crop stronger. 
Back in the country, where horses and cattle are pas- 
tured in the wild woods, they become wild, and so 
live in great numbers. 

"The clearing for meadows has advanced very 
slowly, as there was so much new land suitable for 
cultivation. Upland pastures are scarcely advanta- 
geous unless they are frequently plowed, manured, 
sown with good grass-seed along with other seed, and 
j also irrigated. They conduct the water from streams 
; and ditche-s, so far as it is possible to do this with 
1 dams, to irrigate the meadows when the drought 
increases, which must be done in the night-time, 
when the air is cool. Along the Delaware River and 
the streams which fall into it there are large tracts of 
swamp, which within the last fifteen years, to the 
extent of many thousand acres, have been improved 
into good meadows, but at a very great expense. The 
mode of procedure is to inclose a certain amount of 
swamp with a bank thrown up quite high, so as to 
keep out the water (the ebh and the flood) or tides. 
The bank commonly rises as high as five feet, some- 
times ten feet. Also to make a ditch to carry off the 
water which comes on it from the land, and at the 
same time to place drains in the bank to let the water 
out; and then, again, by agate upon the drains, to 
prevent it from running. When dry the earth is 
plowed, some kind of grain is sown in it, and then 
it is afterwards sown with clover and other English 
hay-seeds. When people saw the success of such 



work, their minds were so taken with it that in the 
year 1751 the price of an acre of swamp-meadow 
advanced to six hundred dollars copper coin. But 
just at the same time it also happened that some high 
tides came up from the sea and swept away the em- 
bankments. Numerous muskrats live in these em- 
bankments and make them leaky, also a kind of 
crabs, called ' fiddlers,' dig into them, and make the 
banks like a sieve. Then the ditches were found not 
to be rightly built so as to answer their purpose. 
Thus the grass and grain were destroyed, the land 
returning again to its wild nature, and there was 
no end of patching and mending. Then the price 
of the land fell to half its value, and he thought him- 
self best off who had none of it. Again, in 1755, 
there came a great drought ; no grass nor pasture was 
to be found, and as no other plan could be devised, 
then the price of these lands rose again. The con- 
clusion was that swampland as well as high land has 
its advantages as well as its disadvantages. Experi- 
ence has taught that upland earth improves the swamp 
land, and swamp land the upland ; also that the 
vermin flee from the embankments when upland earth 
is found in them. 

" Stables and cow-houses are seldom seen on a farm. 
The first Swedish inhabitants kept their animals under 
shelter during winter; but it was then said that they 
were then exposed to vermin and other diseases, which 
have not been heard of since. Then people went 
into another extreme, that of letting the animals en- 
dure the severity of the winter, which, along with the 
rain, frost, and snow, is sometimes intolerable. A 
good housekeeper has a stable with thin sides for the 
horses, and sheds for the cattle and sheep, built near 
the barn and standing out in the stable-yard, so that 
they may be protected there when the weather is 
severe. In milder weather all the cattle run out in 
the inclosure, and are foddered with hay or straw 
stacks which are set up there. They also graze on 
the land around, which is mostly used for young cat- 
tle. The sheep especially feed themselves on ferns 
and the young grass which grows up under the snow 
in warm weather. The lambs skip about in the snow, 
and stand in danger of being buried under it for want 
of proper care. The man-servant takes care of the 
foddering of the cattle, while the housewife and 
women folks roast themselves by the kitchen-fire, 
doubting if any one can do better than that them- 
selves. Hay alone, even of the best kind, is not suf- 
ficient to keep any horse or cow well ; a considerable 
amount of grain, such as oats, maize, and buckwheat, 
is used for horses and wheat-bran for milch cows. 

" The country is undeniably fruitful, as may be 
judged from the following examples •} Joseph Cobern, 

' Penu con-oboratea Acreliue. He 6uy8, " As they are a people proper 
and stroug of body, bo they have tine children, and almost every liouae 
full ; rare to find one of them without three or four boys and as uian.v 
j^irls, some six, seven, and eight sons. And I must do them tliat right, 
1 see few young men mure sober and industrious." — WUtitnn Ptfitn^s lit- 
/ormaliOH abovX Pennst/Uania^ Aug. 16, 1682. 

in Chester, twenty years ago had the blessing to have 
his wife have twins, his cow two calves, and his ewe 
two lambs, all in one night, in the month of March. 
All continued to live. Olle Tossa (Thoresson), in 
Brandywine Hundred, in 1742, had a cow which in 
the month of March had one calf; at her next calv- 
ing she had three; the third time, five; altogether, 
nine calves within two years. Three continued to 
live, but five died, — two males and three heifers. 
Thomas Bird, of the same place, had a ewe that 
yeaned four Iambs within as many days, only one 

" The land is so settled that each one has his 
ground separate and, for the most part, fenced in. 
So far as was possible, the people have taken up their 
abode by navigable streams, so that the farms stretch 
from the water in small strips up into the land. No 
country in the world can be richer in rivers, creeks, 
rivulets, and good springs. The houses are built of 
bricks, after the English fashion, without coating, 
every other brick glazed ; or they are of sandstone, 
granite, etc., as is mostly the case in the country. 
Sometimes, also, they build of oak planks five inches 
thick. To build of wood is not regarded as economy, 
after everything is paid for. The roof is of cedar 
shingles. Within the walls and ceilings are plastered, 
and whitewashed once a year. Straw carpets have 
lately been introduced in the towns. But the incon- 
venience of this is that they must soon be cleansed 
from fly-spots and a multitude of vermin which har- 
bor in such things, and from the kitchen smoke which 
is universal. The windows are large, divided into . 
two pieces, the upper and lower; the latter is opened 
by raising and shut by lowering. The wood-work is 
painted or it does not last long. The furniture of the 
house is usually made of the woods of the country, 
and consists of a dining-table, tea-table, supper-table, 
bureaus, cabinets, and chairs, which are made of 
walnut, mahogany, maple, wild-cherry, or sweet-gum. 
All these trees are the growth of the country except 
mahogany, which is brought from South America. 

"The articles of dress are very little different 
among city and country people, except that the 
former procure them from the merchants' shops and 
the latter make them for themselves, and usually of 
coarser stuft'. Wool-, weaving-, and fulling-mills are 
not used for manufacturing broadcloth, camelot, and 
other woolen cloths, which might be finer if more 
carefully attended to. The coloring of certain stuffs 
is very inferior. Silks are rare even in the towns. 
Plush is general, and satin is very widely used all over 
the country. Calicoes and cottons are used for 
women's dresses. Handsome linen is the finest stuff 
sought by men, as the heat is great and of long con- 
tinuance. By their dress most people are known, 
whether of Irish or German birth. The meals are 
cleanly, and do not consist of a great variety of food. 
Ham, beef, tongue, roast beef, fowls, with cabbage 
set round about make one meal. Roast mutton or 



veal with potatoes or'turnips form another. Another 
still is formed by a pastry of chickens, or partridges, 
or lamb. Beef-steak, veal-cutlets, mutton-chops, or 
turkey, goose, or fowls, with potatoes set around, with 
stewed green peas, or Turkish beans, or some other 
beans, are anotlier meal. Pies of apples, peaches, cher- 
ries, or cranberries, etc., form another course. When 
cheese and butter are added one has an ordinary meal. 
The breakfast is tea or coffee; along with these is eaten 
long and thin slicesof bread, with thin slices of smoked 
beef, in summer. In winter, bread roasted, soaked in 
milk and l)utter, and called toast, or pancakes of buck- 
wheat, so light that one can scarcely hold them be- 
tween his fingers, are also used. The afternoon meal 
(" four-o'clock piece"), taken at four o'clock, is usually 
the same. Suppers are not much in use. When one 
is so invited chocolate is the most reliable. Whole 
pots of it are sometimes made, but little or no milk 
in it, chiefly of water. Of these articles of food more 
or less is used in the country according to the ability 
or luxury of the people. Tea, coffee, and chocolate 
are so general as to be found in the most remote 
cabins, if not for daily use yet for visitors, mixed with j 
Muscovado or raw sugar. Fresh fish for a meal is 
found nowhere either with high or low. Of soup they 
think in the same manner. It serves only for ordi- 
nary household fare. Salt and dried fish are seldom 
seen ; as few have eaten them they are almost un- 
known. The arrangement of meals among country 
people is usually this: for breakfast, in summer, cold 
milk and bread, rice, milk-pudding, cheese and but- 
ter, cold meat; in winter, mush and milk and milk 
porridge, hominy and milk. The same also serves 
for supper if so desired. For noon, in summer, soup, 
fresh meat, dried beef, and bacon, with cabbage, 
apples, potatoes, Turkish beans, large beans, all kinds 
of roots, mashed turnips, pumpkins, cashaws, and 
squashes. One or more of these are distributed 
around the dish ; also boiled or baked pudding, dump- 
lings, bacon and eggs, pies of apples, cherries, peaches, 
etc. In winter hominy soup is cooked with salt beef 
and bacon. Then also pastries of lamb or chicken 
are used, and can keep cold a whole week ; also pan- 
cakes of wheat-flour or of buckwheat-meal. Bread 
is baked once a week or oftener. It is in large loaves, 
mostly of wheat-flour, seldom of rye. The wheat- 
flour which is used in the towns for bread or table 
use is beautiful, like the finest powder. The flour in 
the country is dark and coarse." 

A Condensed View of the Ministers who Suc- 
cessively Presided over the Swedish Churches in 
America. — l. Reorus Torkillus accompanied Peter 
Menewe, who brought over the first Swedish colony 
about the year 1636, and died here in 1643, aged 
thirty-five years. 

2. John Campanius Holm came over in 1642 with 
Governor Printz, and remained here six years. Cam- 
panius was his proper surname, Holm having been 
added because of Stockholm having been his place of 

residence. He translated Luther's Catechism into 
the language of the Indians. 

3. Laurence Lock came over in the time of Gov- 
ernor Printz. He preached at Tinicum and Chris- 
tina. He was for many years the only clergyman the 
Swedes had. He died in 1688. 

4. Israel Holg came about the year 1650, but did 
not remain long. 

5. With Governor Rising, in 1652, a chaplain came 
over, and returned after the conquest of the Dutch in 

6. Another clergyman came over in the ship " Mer- 
cury" in the year 1656, and returned home two years 

7. Jacob Fabritius, who had been preaching for 
the Dutch in New York, was induced to settle among 
the Swedes, and preached his first sermon at Wicaco 
in 1677. He officiated as their pastor fourteen years, 
nine of which he was blind. He died about 1692. 

Three clergymen arrived in 1697, from which pe- 
riod we may date the regular supply of the churches 
here with Swedish ministers. These were Andreas 
Rudman, Eric Biork, and Jonas Auren. The first 
.settled at Wicaco, the second at Christina, and the 
third at Raccoon and Penn's Neck. 

Wicaco Church. — 1. Andrew Rudman was the 
founder of the present church, which was built in 
1700. In 1702 he went to preach for the Dutch in 
New York; afterwards officiated at Oxford Church, 
n'ear Frankford; then in Christ Church, Philadel- 
phia, where he died in 1708. 

2. Andrew Sandel arrived in 1702 ; returned home 
in 1719. 

3. Jonas Lindman, sent over in 1719; recalled in 
1730. The Rev. J. Eneberg took charge of the church 
during the vacancy. 

4. Gabriel Falk, appointed rector in 1733 ; deposed 
the same year. 

5. John Dylander came over in 1737. He died, 
honored and beloved, in 1741. 

6. Gabriel Nesman, appointed rector in 1743 ; re- 
turned home in 1750. 

7. Olof Parlin arrived in 1750 ; died in 1757. 

8. Charles Magnus Wrangel came in 1759 ; returned 
in 1768 ; died 1786. 

9. Andrew Goeranson, sent over in 1766; became 
rector 1768; officiated until the close of 1779; re- 
turned home in 1785 ; died in 1800. 

10. Matthias Hultgren commenced his official du- 
ties in 1780 ; recalled in 1786. 

11. Nicholas Collin, of Upsal, sent over in 1770; 
appointed to Wicaco in 1786 ; died 1831, close of the 
Swedish mission. 

12. Rev. J. C. Clay, D.D., elected in December, 1831, 
entered upon his duties the January following. 

After the separation of the three churches, in 1843, 
the Rev. Samuel C. Brinkle was chosen rector of this 
church, and continued to officiate as such until 1850, 
when be was succeeded by the Rev. J. Brinton Smith. 



The latter resigned in 1856, and was succeeded by 
Kev. Charles A. Maison. 

Upper Merion Church. — The first rector of this 
church, after it became separated from the others, 
was the Rev. Edward Lightner. He resigned the 
parish in 1855, and was succeeded by the Kev. Wil- 
liam H. Rees, D.D., who retained the charge till 
1861. The following clergymen have officiated at 
this church from 1861 to the present time : Revs. 
Thomas S. Yocum, 1861-70; Octavius Perinchief, 
1870-73; Edward A. Warriuer, 1873-76; Octavius 
Perinchief, 1876-77; A. A. Marple, 1877 to . 

Church at Christina. — 1. Eric Biork built a new 
church at Fort Christina, in 1698, in lieu of that at 
Traubrook. Returned home, 1714; died in 1740. 
■ 2. Andreas Hessefius, sent over in 1711 ; provost, 
1719; recalled in 1723; died in 1733. 

3. Samuel Hesselius, brother to the former, sent 
over in 1729; returned in 1731 ; died, 1755. 

4. John Eneberg, pastor, 1733 ; returned home in 

5. Petrus Tranberg took charge of this church in 
1742, and died in 1748. 

6. Israel Acrelius, sent over in 1749; returned in 
1756; died in 1800, aged eighty-six. He was the 
author of the work on the Swedish congregations in 

7. Eric Unander, sent from Raccoon and Penn's 
Neck to Christina in 1756. 

8. Andreas Borell, sent to preside over the Swedish 
churches in 1757; arrived here in 1759; pastor in 
1762 ; received the king's diploma, constituting him 
provost over all the Swedish churches here, where 
he died in 1768. 

9. The Rev. Laurence Girelius entered upon his 
duties as assistant October, 1767; became provost of 
the churches in the place of the Rev. Mr. Borell in 
May, 1770. He continued in charge until 1791, when 
he returned to Sweden. He was the last of the 
Swedish ministers. 

After the departure of the Rev. Mr. Girelius the 
church at Christina became connected with the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church. For the following details 
with regard to the succession of Episcopal clergymen 
who have officiated there I am indebted to my friend, 
the Rev. Charles Breck : Rev. Joseph Clarkson, 
1792-99; Rev. AVilliam Pryce, 1800-12; Rev. Mr. 
Wickes, 1814-17; Rev. L. Bull, D.D., 1818-19; Rev. 
Richard D. Hall, 1819-22; Rev. Ralph Williston, 
1822-26 ; Rev. Pierce Connelly, 1827-28 ; Rev. Mr. 
Pardee, 1828-35; Rev. Mr. Adams, 1835-38; Rev. 
Dr. McCullough, 1838-47; Rev. Dr. Van Dusen, 
1848-52 ; Rev. Charles Breck, 1853. 

Church at Raccoon and Penn's Neck. — The first min- 
ister was Polfladius. He was drowned in the Del- 
aware in 1706, and was succeeded by 

1. Jonas Auren, who came over with Rudman and 
Biork in 1697; appointed, 1706 ; died in the exercise 
of his functions, 1713. 

2. Abraham Lidenius, sent over in 1711 ; pastor, 
1714; returned home, 1724; died, 1728. 

3. Petrus Tranberg and Andreas Windrufua, sent 
over in 1726. They divided the churches between 
them, and so continued until 1728, when Windrufua 
died. Between the time of Tranberg going to Chris- 
tina and his death, in 1748, these churches had no 

4. John Sandin appointed pastor, 1748 ; died the 
same year. 

5. Professor Kalm, traveling through North Amer- 
ica under authority from the king of Sweden, sup- 
plied the church for a few months. He married the 
widow of Mr. Sandin, and returned to Sweden after a 
perilous voyage. 

6. Eric Unander, sent over in 1749, became pastor 
in 1751. 

7. John Lidenius (son of Abraham above men- 
tioned), appointed pastor in the place of Unander, 
1756 ; died in Pennsylvania. 

8. John Wicksell, sent over in 1760; arrived, 1762; 
returned home in 1774; died, 1800. 

9. Nicholas Collin, pastor 1778 ; appointed to Wic- 
aco in 1786. (See above.) 

The following clergymen have been at diffisrent 
times assistant ministers in the Swedish churches: 

The Rev. Charles Lute was appointed assistant to 
the Rev. Mr. Georgesen in 1774. 

While Dr. Collin was rector, he had for his first as- 
sistant the Rev. Joseph Clarkson, who was appointed 
in 1787, and continued to officiate until 1792. 

The Rev. Slater Clay was appointed in 1792, and 
officiated once a month in Upper Merion, and when 
there was a fifth Sunday in the month at Kingsessing. 
Only part of his time was given to the Swedes, for 
whom he continued to preach until the day of his 
death, in 1821. 

The Rev. Joseph Turner was appointed also in 
1792, and was for many years connected with the 
Swedes as one of their assistant ministers. 

The Rev. J. C. Clay, soon after his ordination, la 
1813, was called to the same churches, and officiated 
therein as an assistant for one year, when he was 
called to the churches at Norristown and German- 

The Rev. James Wiltbank was appointed to the 
same office in 1816, and performed its duties for four 
years, or until 1820. 

The Rev. M. B. Roche, in 1820, became an assist 
ant minister to the Swedes, in which situation he offi- 
ciated for a period of six months. 

The Rev. J. C. Clay became a second time con- 
nected with these churches in 1822, having been ap- 
pointed an assistant for Upper Merion Church, in 
connection with the Norristown and Perkiomen 
Churches. He also officiated every fifth Sunday, or 
four times a year, at Kingsessing. He continued to 
till tills station until called, in 1831, to the rectorship. 
i The Rev. Charles M. Diipuy was, in 1822, appointed 



the assistant for Wicaco and Kingsessing, and was 
continued as such until 1828. 

The Rev. Pierce Connelly succeeded Mr. Dupuy 
and officiated chiefly at Kingsessing, though part of 
the time at Wicaco also, till the close of 1831, when 
he accepted a call to Natchez, Miss. 

The Rev. Raymond A. Henderson was chosen as- 
sistant to the Rev, J. C. Clay in 1832, and continued 
in the churches until the close of 1834, when he was 
called to the French Protestant Church in New Orleans. 

The Rev. John Reynolds was assistant for one year 
at Upper Merion, having been appointed about the 
same time with Mr. Henderson. 

After the last two mentioned, the Rev. William 
Diehl and the Rev. Samuel C. Brinckle acted as 
assistants until the churches were separated. — Annals 
of the Swedes : Rev. J. C. Clay. 

The following is a list of the Swedish families re- 
siding in New Sweden in the year 1693, with the 
number of individuals in each family: 

Namea. Number in/amUy. 

Hindrick Anderson 5 

Johiin Anderssen 9 

Julian Aiidersson 7 

JoFHU Andersen 5 

John Arian ti 

Joran Brtgnmn. 3 

Anders Deiitjstoti 9 

Bengt Hi-Dg6ton '-^ 

And-rsBotui-^ H 

Johiiu 1 

Sven Bonde 5 

LaraBure 8 

Willmm Cobb 6 

Cfirisfiiin Chsaen 7 

Jacob Cliisson 6 

Jacob Clemsun 1 

Eric Cock 9 

Gabriel Cock 7 

JoUun Cock 7 

Capt. lAts»e Cock 11 \ 

Sloens Cock S : 

otto Ernst Cock 5 

Uindrick Coliman 1 

Conrad Constantine .'.. *> j 

Joliaii von Culen 5 I 

OlloDahlbo 7 I 

Peter Dahlbo 9 I 

Uindrick Danielsson 5 

Thurnas Dennis 6 

Ao'lefB Diedricksson 1 I 

Olle Diedricksson 7 ' 

Stcplian Ekhorn 5 \ 

El io EriosoD 1 

GOran Ericsson 1 , 

Matte Ericsson 3 

Hindrick Faske 5 

Cagpi>r Fisk li> 

Matthias do Foff If 

Andiira Frende 4 

Nils Fct-ndes (widow) .. 7 

Olle Fransson 7 

Eric Cristenberg 7 

Nils Gastenberg 3 

Eric Goran >3on 2 

Brita Go-tiifsson fi 

Gustal'Giistafsson S 

Hans Gostafsson 7 

J.ilin IJurttiifysun 3 

Mans (.Moens) Gostafsson 2 

Johan Grantrum 3 

Lar^ Hailing 1 

MoL-ns Halltou 9 

Israel ndiii 5 

Jolian HinderssoQ, Jr 3 

Aii(lfT9 Uiu'lricksaon 4 

Davi.i Hiiidricsson 7 

Jacob Jliii'lrickann 5 

Johiin Ilindricksson 6 

Johan sliiniricsson 5 

Matta Hollsten 7 

Anders II>mtnian 9 

An<lerfi Huppnianu 7 

Frederick Hoppmann 7 

Johan Hoj}pmatni 7 

Nicolas Huppiuana 5 

Names. Xamber infamUy. 

Hindrick Iwarsson 9 

Hindrick Jacob 1 

Matts Jacob 1 

Hindrick Jacobson 4 

Peti'r Joccom 9 

Diedrick Johansson 5 

Lars Johansson G 

Simon Johansson 10 

Anders Juuson 4 

Jon Jonfon 2 

Moem Jon»on 3 

Nils Jonson 6 

Thomas Jonson 1 

Christiorti Jiiraussou I 

Huns JiiraHSSOn 11 

Joran JUransfon 1 

Steplien Jiiransson 5 

Lasse Kempe G 

Frederick Konig 6 

Uliirten Knulsson 6 

Olle Kuckuw G 

Hans Kyas {widow) 5 

Jonas Kyn 8 

Matts Kyn 3 

Nils Laican ~ S 

And. Person Longaker 7 

Hindrick Larsson 6 

Lars Larsson 7 

Lars Lai-ssun 1 

Anders Lock 1 

MoensLock 1 

Antonij Long 3 

Robert Longhorn 4 

Hans Lncasson 1 

Lncas Lticosson 1 

Peter Lncasson 1 

Johan MiJnssoii 5 

Peter Miinsson 3 

Miirtcn MUrtensson, Jr 10 

Mitrten UliirtatsBon, Sr 3 

Mats Martenson 4 

Jolian Mattson » 11 

Nils MattJiOH 3 

Christopher Meyer. 7 

Panl Mink 5 

Eric Molica 8 

Anders Nilsson 3 

Jonaii Xil'mon 4 

Micharl Nihtson 11 

HnttH Oltison 5 

Johan Ommersson 5 

Lorenlz Ostersson 2 

Hindrick Parchen 4 

Bengst Panlssun 5 

GiJHtaf Panlsson G 

Olle Panlsson 9 

Peter Palson 5 

Lars Pehrsson 1 

Olie Pehrsson -. 6 

Brita Petersson 8 

Carl Petereson 5 

Hans Petersson 7 

Lars Petersson 1 

Paul Pi'tersson 3 

Peter Petersson 3 

Names. Number in family. 

Peter Stake {alias Petersson).... 3 

Reinier Peterson 2 

Anders Rambo 9 

Gumvtr Runibo 6 

Johan Rambo 6 

Peter Rambo, Sr 2 

Peter Rambo, Jr 6 

Mats Repott 3 

Nils Repott 3 

Olle Reese 6 

Anders Robertson 3 

Paul Sahlunge 3 

Isaac Savoy 7 1 

John Schrage 6 

Johan Scute 4 

Anders Seneca 5 

Broor Seneca 7 

Johas Scagge's (widow) 6 

Johan Skrika 1 

Matts Skrika 3 

Hindiic^'k Slobey 2 

Carl Springer 6 

MoemStaake 1 

Christian Stalcop 3 

Johan Stalcop 6 

Peter Stalcop G 

Israel Stark 6 

Matt5 Stjirk 1 

Adam Stedham 3 

Asnuind Stedham 8 

Benjamin Stedham 5 

Lncas Stedham 7 

Lyoff Stedham 9 

Johann StUb- 8 

Johann Stillman 5 

Jonas Stillman 4 

Peter Stillman 4 

OlleStobey 3 

Gunnar Svenson 5 

Johan Svenaon 9 

William Talley 7 

EHas Tay 4 

Chri8tii.>ni Thomas (widow) 6 

Olle Tliomaxnon 9 

Olle ThorRson 4 

Hindrick Tossa....' 6 

Johan Tos^<a 4 

Lars Tossa 1 

Matts Tossa 1 

Cornelius Van der Weer 7 

Jacob Van der Wear 7 

Najnes. Number in family. 

Jacob Van der Weer 3 

William Van der Weer i 

Jesper Wallraven 7 

Jonas Wallraven 1 

Anders Weinom 4 

Anders Wibler 4 

List of those still living who 
were born in Sweden ; 
Peter Rambo \ Fifty-four yeara ia 
Anders Bonde] New Sweden. 
A ndera Be}igt8Son. 
Si'en Svenson. 
Michael Nilsson. 
Moens Staake. 
Marten Maxtensson, Sr. 
Carl Xtopher Springer. 
Hindrick Jacobson. 
Jacob Clemsson. 
Olof Rosse. 
Hindrick Andersaon. 
Hindrick Iwarsson. 
Sinion Johaussen. 
Panl Mink. 
Olof Panlsson. 
Olof Petersson. 
Marten Martenson, Jr. 
Eric Mollica. 
Nils Mattson. 
Antony Long, 
larael Helm. 
Anders Homsn. 
Olle Dedrickeson. 
Hans Petersson. 
Hindrick Collraaa. 
Jtins Gostafsson. 
Moens Hailton. 
Hans Olofsson. 
Anders Seneca. 
Bronr Seneca. 
Eskil Anderson. 
Matts de Voss. 
Johan Hin<lrick88on. 
Anders Weinom. 
Stephan Joranseon. 
Olof Kinkovo. 
Anders Didrlcksaon. 
Anders Mink. 

Names of Taxablcs not included in above List. 

Oele Neelson and 2 sons 

Hans Moens 

Eric Poulsen 

Hans Jniian 

Michill Fredericks 

Justa Daniels and serv' 

Hendrick Jacolis (upon y" 


Andreas Swean and father 

Oele Swansen andsert 

Swen Lorn 


Diinck Williams 

Tho. Jacobs. 

Mattliias Claasen 

Jan Claasen imd 2 sons 

Frank Walcker 

Peter Matson 

Jan Bot'lHon 

Jan Schoeten 

Jan Justa and 2 sons 

Peter Andreas and son 

Lace Dalbo 


Mr. Jones y<= hatter 

Harmen Ennis 1 

Pelle Ericssen 1 

Benck Sailing 1 

Andiies Suliug 1 

Harmen Jansen 1 

Hendrick Holman 1 

Bertell Laereen 1 

Hendrick Tade 1 

Andries Bertelsen 1 

Jan Bertelsen 1 

Jan Cornelissen and eon 2 

Lace Mortens 1 

Antony Matson 1 

Claes Schram 1 

Robert Waede 1 

Neele Laersen and eons 2 

Will Orian 1 

Knoet Mortensen 1 

Oele Coeckoe I 

Carell Jansen 1 

Rich. Fredericx 1 

Jurian Hertsveder 1 

Juns .lustasse 1 

Hans Hofman and 2 eons 3 

Pouli Corvorn 1 

The reader will perceive how much the orthography of many of the 
above names has changed in the progress of time. Bengsten is now 
Bankson ; Bonde has become Boon; Svenson, Swanson; Cock, Cox; 
Gostasson, Justis; Jocum, Yocum ; Hollsten, Holatein ; Kyn, Keen ; 
Hoppman, Hoffman; Van Culen, Cnlin; Haling, Hulingsor Hewlingsj 
Whiler, Wlieeler, etc. "With regard to the Christian names many of 
them correspond with our own, and merely show a difference in spelling 
and pronunciation between two languages. Anders, therefore, among 
the Swedes naturally became Andrew among us; Johan, John; Mats, 
Matthias or Matthew; Carl, Charles; Bengt, Benjamin or Benedict; 
Nils, Nicholas; Staphan, Stephen ; Wilhelm, and also Olave, William; 
Hindrick, Henry ; Michel, Michael ; Jons, Jonathan, etc. 

Dr. George W. Holstein, a lineal descendant of 
Matts Holstein, in his response to a toast, *'The 



Swedes," at the first annual banquet of the Mont- 
gomery County Historical Society, held at Norristown 
on the evening of Feb. 22, 1882, pays a beautiful 
tribute to an ancestry who pioneered Christian civili- 
zation up the Schuylkill Valley. The author is a 
true type of the Swedes who still dwell upon the 
heritage of their sturdy and illustrious fathers: 

" As a lineal descendant of tliose Swedes who crossed 
the ocean so early as 1636, I am deeply conscious of 
the compliment thus paid to their memory, and yet I 
feel that it is justly due, in view of the results accom- 
plished by them and their influence in moulding the 
destinies of this great country. 

" Trained at home in a love for the practical teach- 
ings of the 'Sermon on the Mount' and the general 
truths of revealed religion, they early planted the 
Cross of Calvary upon these shores, and in all their 
intercourse with the natives and others illustrated 
the principles heralded thereby. 

" By fair and honorable dealings they gained the 
confidence of the Indians, and lived among them upon 
the most amicable terms. Their influence over them 
was remarkable, as was evinced by many of the na- 
tives attaching themselves to the educational and 
religious institutions established by them, thus ren- 
dering much more easy the great work accomplished 
by William Penn, who came here over forty years 
later as the representative of the Englis"h Crown, sup- 
ported by all the vast influence of that powerful 
nation, commissioned by King Charles II. to act as 
Proprietary Governor of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, having received a grant of land lying north 
of that occupied by Lord Baltimore, and west of the 
river Delaware. This was in lieu of a claim of six- 
teen thousand pounds due him for services rendered 
by his father, Rear-Admiral Penn, a distinguished 
ofiicer of the British navy. The charter for this grant 
still hangs in the office of the Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth at Harrisburg, dated March 4, 1681. 
William Penn reached here in October, 1682. And 
now, in this bi-centennial year of that event, when it 
is proposed to celebrate it with distinguished honors, 
while I would not for one moment detract from the 
glory to which I believe he is eminently entitled, yet 
I do not wish the fact to be lost sight of that the 
Swedes were among the first to establish friendly 
relations with the natives, that the first translation 
into the Indian dialect was the Swedish Catechism by 
Kev. John Campanius, a Swedish missionary. 

" In 1642, six years after their arrival. Col. John 
Printz, of the Swedish army, was sent over as Gov- 
ernor of the colony. His instructions, dated Stock- 
holm, Aug. 15, 1642, contain twenty-eight articles, 
embracing his duties, — first, in relation to the Swedes; 
secondly, to the Europeans living in the vicinity ; and 
thirdly, to the Indians. With respect to these latter, 
the Governor was directed to confirm, immediately 
after his arrival, the treaty with them, by which they 
had conveyed to the Swedes the western shore of the 

Delaware from Cape Henlopen to the Falls of San- 
hickan, since called Trenton, and as much inland as 
gradually should be wanted. Also to ratify the bar- 
gain for land on the east side, and in these and future 
purchases to regard them as the rightful owners of 
the country. 

" He was to treat all the neighboring tribes in the 
most equitable and humane manner, so that no injury, 
by violence or otherwise, should be done to them by 
any of his people. He had also in charge to accom- 
plish, as far as practicable, the embracing of Chris- 
tianity by them, and their adoption of the manners 
and customs of civilized life. 

" He was accompanied by Rev. John Campanius 
as chaplain of the colony. In 1653, Governor Printz 
was succeeded by Governor John Claudius Rising, 
who soon after invited ten of the leading Indian 
chiefs to a friendly conference. It was held at Tini- 
cum on the 17th of June, 1654. 

" He saluted them in the name of the Swedish 
queen, with assurances of her favor, put them in 
mind of the purchase of lands already made, and re- 
quested a continuation of their friendship. He dis- 
tributed various presents among them, and gave a 
good entertainment to them and their company. 
They were much pleased, and assured him of a faith- 
ful affection. 

" One of the chiefs, Naaman, made a speech, 
during which he remarked that ' the Swedes and the 
Indians had been as one body and one heart, and that 
thenceforward they should be as one head,' at the 
same time making a motion as if he were tying a 
strong knot, and then made this comparison, ' that as 
the calabash was round without any crack, so they 
should be a compact body without any fissure.' 

" Campanius represents the Indians as having been 
frequent visitors at his grandfather's house in Dela- 
ware County, which gave him an opporlunity of 
studying their language, in which he became quite 

" In the conversations he had there with them he 
succeeded in impressing upon their minds the great 
truths of Christianity and awakening a deep interest 
among them, hence his translation of Luther's Cate- 

" They attached great value to this act, as evincing 
a deeper interest in their welfare than that indicated 
by mere lip-.service, and it thenceforward proved a 
bond of union, binding them in acts of devotion and 
fealty to the Swedes. 

" The Swedes gave the great and good Penn a most 
cordial welcome, and the benefit of their influence 
and experience, for which he was truly grateful, and 
which he kindly acknowledged in a letter to his 
friends at home in 1683.' 

"This society does itself credit in thus honoring 

1 He interceded in their behalf with the Swedish ambassador at Lon- 
don for Swedish books and ministers. 



the memory of a people who were among the earliest 
to locate in this vicinity, and who established regu- 
lations and usages that have exercised a refining and 
elevating influence in shaping the morals and habits 
of the community around us. I thank you for the 
opportunity of saying thus much in their behalf." 

Note. — The Fatherland hna never lostsight of the Swedes in the Schuyl- 
kill VaUey. As late as 1876, duriug the Centennial period, the blood 
royal of the honie government, accompanied by a large number of dis- 
tinguished guests and citizens, paid a visit to the " Merion Swedes' 
Church." The event took place Sunday, the '2d of July of that year. 
The appearance of the royal party, nearly all of whom were dressed in 
uniform, seated in the sombre old church, was a novel sight. The 
prince occupied a front pew and was the magnet of observation. He was 
a boyish-looking lad, yet possessing a free and unassuming manner. 
Among his retinue were intelligent-looking faces and fine specimens of 
well-developed manhood. The party consisted of tlie following di.stin- 
guished persons: Prince Oscar, Duke of Gottland, second son of the 
King of Sweden ; Count Frederick Posse, Royal Swedish Commissioner 
for the Machinery Department; Le Comte C. Lewenhaupt, Envoy Ex- 
traordinaire and Minister Plenipotentiairo of Sweden and Norway; 
Baron M. D. Ruuth, Royal Swedish Navy Executive officer H.M.S. 
*'Norrkopiug" ; Baron 0. Hermelin, Commissioner for the Fine Art De- 
partment; and many other notables from the Swedish Commission. The 
occasion was memorable, and the following extract from the addre-*s of 
the Rev. 0. Perinchief forms an eventful chapter in the history of the 

"The best thing Europe had in it four or five hundred years ago was 
a deep satisfaction with ever5'thing as it was in church or state. The 
best particular thing was the Bible, hidden away, to be sure, but here 
and there mighty minds that dared all difficulties to get at it and other 
books of thought and learning, not only of the ancient times but of the 
outside nations. A new life began in a whole continent. Thousands 
of men and women felt they were men and women, and went out to tell 
it to all tribes in all tongues. ^V hat we call the Reformation began. 
That reformation was in opening sealed books, in independent thought, 
in new ideas. One of these ideas was tliat of Columbus, who conceived 
tliat over here was another world. At last he found it. That simple 
discovery in itself lent a wonderful impulse to everything in Europe. 
The news set the nations wild. Italy had furnished the man, and 
Spain liad furnished the means. A new world was discovered. Whose 
world was it? Not Spain's, not Italy's. God knew it was here. He 
had kept it for the nurture of all things old or new that were already 
good, and for the production of all things that were in any way belter. 
But though a new continent was discovered a new nation was not born. 
The work of discovery was only begun. Spain, England, Holland, France, 
all had their ships abroad to find out what the new world was. As each 
nation discovered, so each claimed the territory discovered. Nearly a 
century had passed before any attempt was made to settle the hind with 
Europeans, — Spain in the south, the French in the north, England and 
Holland in the middle territories. At last each of all these became suc- 
cessful, and Europe was transplanted in America. All nations took stock 
in the new venture, and from that day to this every American been 
more or less a foreigner, and every foreigner who has been a true man, 
and in his nationality seeking the good of the human race, has been 
more or less an American. We all began, and from that day to this we all 
stand upon our own and greet each other as brothers. Vast is our debt 
to England, to Germany, to all Europe, but in particular we who are 
here to-day are more directly indebted to Sweden. In 16111, or from 
that to 1638, a colony of Swedes landed and settled upon this side of the 
Delaware, at or below the place where now stands the city of Wilming- 
ton. There is some uncertainty about the date. The probability ia that 
attempts had been made, or partial settlements, having for their object 
the necessary investigation preparatory to a permanent occupation, 
which at least did take effect in 1637 or '38. At any rate, we know the 
great Gustavus Adolphus had contemplated the enterprise for many 
years. The great struggle between Romanism and Protestantism was 
then at its bitterest, and the hope and purpose of founding here a Prot- 
estant colony entered largely into the enterprise. But with this was com- 
bined the evangelization of the Indians, and, more than all, the estab- 
lishment of the people — good, honest Swedes— in comfortable homes, 
upon lands they could look at and call their own. The persons who 
came over in that colony were of two classes, — a email class of govern- 
ment officials to administer order and, as occasion occurred, watch 

their own individual chances, but a large class of sober and indnstriouB 
people truly seeking a home. It sometimes happened that persons were 
sent over partly as banishment and partly in hope of reform ; but the 
people not only of this but of sister colonies sent them back, for they 
were always worse than useless. Though bound to hard labor, it was a 
sort of slave labor, and the freemen would rather do their own work, 
because they could do it better and because they abhorred slavery. 
These settlers bought their lands from the Indians, and in later times 
erected substantial homes. Nearly all the men were husbandmen. 
They saw their wealth in the soil. Up tu 1700 the colony had grown 
to over a thousand, though they had been subjected to bitter discour- 
agement and sad vicissitudes. But their prosperity had not been ac- 
complished without great care and generosity on the part of their 
brethren at home. At the very outset the settlers were provided with 
ministers of the gospel — pious and learned men — to teach and admon- 
ish the people, and to preserve the spiritual privileges they had enjoyed 
in their native land. These ministers were supported by the funds of 
the mother-country. The colony was supplied with Bibles, catechisms, 
and books. On one single occasion ministers were sent, bearing books 
in plentiful supply, and encouraged by a donation of three thousand 
dollars from Charles XII. 

"The Swedes were reminded of the Indians around them, and 'Luther's 
Catechism' was translated into the Indian dialect at least as soon, and 
perhaps sooner, than the corresponding work of Eliot in regions farther 
north. The fault of these Swedes, if it may be permitted to speak of 
such a thing to-day, was a want of unity in purpose and harmony in 
action. Their plans lacked breadth and unselfishness. They looked a 
little ahead or not at all. Before their children they set no greatness, 
and made little provision for its creation. In narrowed endeavors to 
save they very frequently lost, and left us, instead of property and rich 
advantages, a legacy of sad reflection and bitter regrets. In the nature 
of things the settlement spread on the other side of the river iu New 
Jersey, and on this side of the Delaware and along the Schuylkill. The 
first settlement in this immediate neighborhood was in 1702. At that 
time the nearest church was at Wicaco, now Glora Dei, in Philadelphia. 
Gradually their numbers thickened, and in a few yeai-s we begin to hear 
of requests for occasional services up hero. In 1733 a lot was given and 
a ho!ise built for the double purpose of school and church. Upon the 
veiy ground within the present stone walls which inclose our yard a 
wooden building was constructed, though we know that prior to 1733 
the grounds had been used as a place of burial. No stated minister 
living nearer than Philadelphia, both religious and educational matters 
languished until 1759, when there arrived from Sweden a very remark- 
able man, whose memory is still green and deserves to be richly 
cherished, Dr. Charles M. Van Itfangel. Under him our church here* 
this very structure, was built in 1760, making this present its one hun- 
dred and sixteenth anniversary. The date '1760' was engraved on its 
walls, and stands there to-day. In 1765 a charter was obtained from the 
Proprietary government of John Penn, then at the head of afl"airs. The 
churches lying within the territorial limits of Pennsylvania were incor- 
poratpd under the name of the ' United Swedish Lutheran Churches of 
Wicaco, Kingsessing, and Upper Merion.' This charter continued until 
1787, when the new stateof things consequent upon the American Revo- 
lution rendered it needful to obtain a charter from the State government 
of Pennsylvania. The new charter was substantially the same as that 
of 17G.5, except that it gave the people the right to elect their own min- 
ister, and provided for the formal ending of the Swedish mission. Thus 
closed the long interval of nursing care which estatdished us here as a 
church, which through many years must have exerted a vast influence 
in shaping the destiny of this commonwealth and nation ; a period marked 
by ni'ble generosity, by many sacrifices, enshrined by many holy and ex- 
emplary lives; a period which left us stewards invested with no slight 
responsibility. The two churches (King.^easing and Upper Merion) con- 
tinued with Wicaco until 184'2, when each church obtained for itself a 
separate and independent charter. The other two churches passed into 
communion with the Protestant Episcopal Church. We remained, as 
we still remain, a separate organization, heir to all the traditions, in- 
vested, too, perhaps in that very fact, with the great responsibility, a 
witness still of a faith and kindness whicli never slumbered, a monu- 
ment of labor which blessed our fathers, still blesses us, and which we 
believe will go on to bless our children. For it all we lift up our hearts 
and praise God, who made man of one blood. We greet our brethren to- 
day from that Fatherland, and thank them, and through them the people 
to whom they belong, and assure them that of whatever things among 
us their ears may hear or their eyes behold, which at the same time 
their hearts approve, they have had their part in producing, and that 
this day as a people we would not be a selfish people taking credit to 



oarseWes, but gratefully acknowledging our debt, and praying God to 
return the blessing a thousandfold upon their own people, Msking in 
turn their prayers that we and the whole nation may be faithful in every 
trust, that we have freely received we niay freely give, until all 
nations, kindreds, tribes, and tongues be gathered into one grand king- 
dom, under one king, the common Redeemer and Saviour of all." 



The life, character, and purposes of William Penn, 
as disclosed prior to the period of his colonial enter- 
prise, rendered him a conspicuous personage in his 
native land. In his minority neither royal power nor 
parental displeasure could swerve him from or mate- 
rially modify his religious, political, or sociiil convic- 
tions of duty. Self-poised and self-reliant, a disciple 
of peace and peaceful methods, he was in strange con- 
trast with the warlike spirit of the age that produced 
him. The young and those of maturer years may 
study his example and the circumstances of his ad- 
vent with manifest advantage. As the founder of 
Pennsylvania and the author of that system of colo- 
nial government which prevailed previous to the in- 
stitution of the commonwealth, his life and public 
services are a part of our common history. The im- 
press which he left upon the laws and the religious 
thought of the period, hi.f love of personal liberty, his 
solicitude for the education of the poor, and his 
abiding faith in the wisdom of the " freemen of the 
province" were essential factors in preparing the pub- 
lic mind for the simple yet adequate forms of self-gov- 
ernment which he imposed in the organization of the 
colony. A pleasing sense of home-esteem insensibly 
associates itself with the memory of the illustrious 
man who gave to his generation characteristics that 
have made us Pennsylvanians in all generations 
since, whether at home or abroad. His boyhood was 
remarkable. He was born Oct. 14, 1644, in the city 
of London. His biographer says, " He was endowed 
with a good genius, and his father, Admiral and Sir 
William Penn,' improved the promising prospect 
which the son inherited by bestowing upon him the 
advantages of a liberal education. He acquired knowl- 
edge easily and rapidly, and in the fifteenth year of 
his age he was admitted a student in Christ's Church 
College, in Oxford. Prior to his admission to this in- 
stitution of learning he seems to have been impressed 

1 His father, Sir Williani Penn, was of eminent character, ani3 served 
botit under the Parliament and King Charles II. in" several of the liij;h- 
est maritime oftices. He was born in Bristol, anno lG".il,aiid married 
Margaret, daughter of John Jasper, of Rotterdam, in Holland, merchant, 
by whom he had his son, William Penn. He was himself the son of 
Capt. Giles Penn, several years consul for the English in the Mediterra- 
nean ; and of tlia Penns of Penn's Lodge, in the county of Wilts; and 
those Penns of Penn, in the county of Bucks; and by his mother frqpi 
the Gilberts, in the county of Somerset, originally from Yorkshire. — 
Proudf But. oj Pfjma., vol. i. 

with religious convictions, induced by the ministry of 
Thomas Loe, a preacher of the Friends. Imparting 
his views to his classmates, he found among them con- 
genial and sympathizing spirits, who withdrew from 
the "national way of worship," and "held private 
meetings for the exercise of religion, where they 
preached and prayed among themselves." This bold 
innovation upon the forms of state church by the 
young Quakers, as they were derisively called, gave 
marked ofl'ense to the professors of the university, and 
young Penn was subjected to a fine for " non-conform- 
ity," and, later, " for his persevering in like religious 
practices, was expelled from the college."'^ Young 
Penn returned to his home, greatly to the displeasure 
of his father, who regarded the expulsion of his son 
as a serious hindrance to the future career of wealth 
and influence in store for him. Still further compli- 
cating the situation, the son sought the society of the 
plain and sober people amofig the Friends, and mani- 
fested an utter disregard of and contempt for the con- 
ventional formalities to which his father was devoted, 
both by inclination and interest. His father sought 
in all proper ways to engage the confidence of the son 
and guide him in the way of public preferment, but 
all to no purpose ; " for, after having used both the 
force of persuasion upon his mind and the severity of 
stripes upon his body without success, he at length 
was so far incensed against him that, in great resent- 
ment of rage, he turned him out of his house," to 
choose between poverty with a pure conscience or for- 
tune and official favor with obedience. 

The virtue of patience, already possessed by the 
son, enabled him to calmly wait for the hour when 
the petulance and anger of a disappointed father 
would yield to the more natural feeling of parental 
love and affection. Results justified the expectation. 
The father relented, and the son was sent to France, 
in company with friends, who were to introduce him 
to persons of rank and distinction, and at the same 
time use all means in their power to break up the 
Quaker notions of the young man. While in France 
he applied himself to study, and acquired a knowl- 
edge of the French language. He subsequently vis- 
ited Italy, and was preparing for an extended tour of 
the Continent when his father was placed in com- 
mand of a British squadron in the naval war with 
Holland, in consequence of which he was obliged to 
return in haste and assume the care of his father's 
estates. The advantages of travel, and the discipline 
of the courtly society in which he was constrained to 
move gave him elegance and grace of manners, and 
" in London the traveled student of Lincoln's Inn, 
if diligent in acquiring a knowledge of English law, 
was also esteemed a most modish fine gentleman." 

This was a critical period in the early career of 
William Penn. He was in the bloom of youth, of 
engaging manners, and " so skilled in the use of the 

2 Proud, Hist, of Penna., vol. i. p. 23. 




sword that he easily disarmed an antagonist," of great 
natural vivacity and gay good humor, and a career 
of wealth and preferment waiting his acceptance 
through the influence of his father and the favor of 
his sovereign. It was in 1664, when Penn was in his 
twentieth year, that his spiritual conflict or religious 
exercise of mind seems to have reached a climax. 
" His natural inclination, his lively and active dis- 
position, his accomplishments, his father's favor, the 
respect of his friends and acquaintances did strongly 
press him to embrace the glory and pleasures of this 
world, but his earnest supplication being to the Al- 
mighty for preservation, he w;is in due time favored 
witli resolution and ability to overcome all opposition 
and to pursue his religious prospects." It was a 
happy providence in the life of Penn when, in the 
twenty-second year of his age, his father committed 
to his care and management a large estate in Ireland. 
It withdrew him from the temptations of a great com- 
mercial centre, and gave him the freedom of a pas- 
toral life, which quickened the spiritual sensibilities 
of his nature. It opened anew visions of a future, 
which, however obscure and uncertain, was, never- 
theless, the hope of his benevolent soul. Removed 
from the conventional atmosphere of London, the 
watchful eye of parental solicitude and official favor, 
the struggle between conviction to self-imposed duty 
and obligations to friends and family became less se- 
vere, and he soon found himself in the society of his 
old spiritual guide and adviser, Thomas Loe, at Cork. 
He was in frequent attendance upon Friends' meet- 
ing in the town of Cork. Freedom of speech was 
indulged in, and this religious liberty, so consistent 
with the ideas of the Friends, was warmly espoused 
by the young and ardent Penn. These frequent meet- 
ings excited the hostile feelings of those in authority, 
and in the year 1667, Penn, with eighteen others, was 
arrested, and by the mayor of the city committed to 
prison. Upon the hearing the mayor observed that 
the dress of Penn was not the same as the other 
" Quakers," whereupon he directed that Penn should 
be discharged upon giving his own bond for his future 
good behavior. This Penn promptly refused to do, 
and with the others suffered imprisonment. While 
in jail he wrote to the Earl of Orrey, Lord President 
of Munster, stating his situation, declaring his inno- 
cence, and protesting against the outrage and perse- 
cution suffered by himself and friends. The earl 
immediately ordered his discharge from prison. 
Concealing with admirable tact his feelings of natural 
indignation, he became more than ever pronounced 
in his favor for the persecuted " Quakers." Those 
who had been his former friends now avoided him, 
and, as is said, " he became a by-word and the subject 
of scorn and contempt, both to the professor of re- 
ligion and to the profane." The facts and circum- 
stances of this episode were reported to his father, 
who immediately recalled him to London. The son 
was obedient, and manifested a profound respect for 

his honored and distinguished parent, but his studi- 
ous deportment and deep concern of mind upon the 
subject of religious controversy left no room to doubt 
the unalterable convictions resting upon his mind. 

" Here my pen," says his biographer, " is diffident 
of her abilities to describe that most pathetic and 
moving contest between his father, and him, — his 
father, by natural love, principally aiming at his 
son's temporal honor; he,guidedby a divine impulse, 
having chiefly in view his own eternal welfare ; his 
father grieved to see the well-accomplished son of his 
hope, now ripe for worldly promotion, voluntarily 
turn his back on it; he no less afflicted to think that 
a compliance with his earthly father's pleasure was in- 
consistent with an obedience to his heavenly one ; his 
father pressing his conformity to the customs and 
fashions of the times ; he modestly craving leave to 
refrain from what would hurt his conscience; his 
father earnestly entreating him and, almost on his 
knees, beseeching him to yield to his desire ; he, of a 
loving and tender disposition, in extreme agony of 
spirit to behold his father's concern and trouble; his 
father threatening to disinherit him ; he humbly sub- 
mitting to his father's will therein ; his father turn- 
ing his back on him in anger ; he lifting his heart to 
God for strength to support him in that time of trial." 

During this memorable conflict between the pas- 
sion of love and the mandates of duty, which scarcely 
finds a parallel in history, the following incident oc- 
curred, which fully attested the sincerity of the son, 
no less than the commanding character of the parent : 
" His father finding him too fixed to be brought to a 
general compliance with the customary compliments 
of the times, seemed willing to bear with him in 
other respects, provided he would be tmcovered in the 
presence of the king, the duke, and himself. This 
being proposed, the son desired time to consider it. 
This the father supposed to be an excuse to find time 
to consult with his Quaker friends ; to prevent this 
he directed him to retire to his chamber and there 
remain until he should answer Accordingly he 
withdrew, and having humbled himself before God, 
with fasting and supplication, he became so strength- 
ened in his resolution that, returning to his fiither, 
he humbly signified that he could not comply with 
his desire therein." All efforts to reach a compro- 
mising line of conduct between tlie haughty and 
commanding father and the remarkable son proved 
unavailing, and again the latter was " turned out of 
doors, having no substance except what his mother pri- 
vately sent him." While Admiral Penn keenly felt 
the disappointment resulting from the conduct of his 
only son, he seems to have been duly impressed with 
his perseverance and integrity of purpose, and in a 
few months thereafter, in deference to the wise and 
loving wife and mother, the son was permitted to re- 
turn and remain at home ; and when he was subse- 
quently imprisoned, the father privately used his 
influence for his liberation. 



William Penn was now in his twenty-fourth year, 
and fearless in the advocacy of the principles he 
cherished ; as a public speaker and author, he an- 
nounced to princes, priests, and people that " he ' 
was one of the despised, afflicted, and forsaken Qua- 
kers, and rejmiring to court with his hat on, he 
sought to engUge tlie Duke of Buckingham in favor 
of liberty of conscience, claimed from those in au- 
thority better ijuarters for Dissenters than stocks and 
whips and dungeons and banishments, and was 
urging the cause of freedom with imjjortunity, when 
he himself, in the heyday of youth, was consigned 
to a long and close imprisonment in the Tower. His 
offense was heresy ; the Bishop of Loudon menaced 
him with imprisonment for life unless he would re- 
cant. ' My prison shall be my grave,' answered Penn. 
The kind-hearted Charles II. sent the humane and 
candid Stillingfleet to calm the young enthusiast. 
' The Tower,' such was Penn's message to the king, 
' is to me the worst argument in the world.' In vain 
did Stillingfleet urge the motive of royal favor and 
preferment; the inflexible young man demanded 
freedom of Arlington, 'as the natural privilege of an 
Englishman.' Club-law, he argued with the minis- 
ter, may make hypocrites ; it can never make con- 
verts. Conscience needs no mark of public allowance. 
It is not like a bale of goods that is to be forfeited un- 
less it has the stamp of the custom-house. After lo.sing 
his freedom for about nine months, his prison-door was 
opened by the intercession of his father's friend, the 
Duke of York ; for his constancy had commanded the 
respect and recovered the favor of his father. The 
Quakers, exposed to judicial tyranny, were led by the 
sentiment of humanity to find a barrier against their 
oppressors by narrowing the application of the com- 
mon law and restricting the right of judgment to the 
jury. Scarcely had Penn been at lilterty a year when, 
after the intense intolerance of ' the Conventicle Act,' 
he was arraigned for having spoken at a Quaker meet- 
ing. ' Not all the powers on earth shall divert us 
from meeting to adore our God who made us.' Thus 
did the young man of five-and-twenty defy the Eng- 
lish Legislature, and he demanded on what law the 
indictment was founded. ' On the common law,' 
answered the recorder. ' Where is that law ?' de- 
manded Penn. 'The law which is not in being, far 
from being common, is no law at all.' Amidst angry 
exclamations and menaces he proceeded to plead 
earnestly for the fundamental laws of England, and 
as he was hurried out of court still reminded the 
jury that 'they were his judges.' Dissatisfied with 
the first verdict returned, the recorder heaped upon 
the jury every opprobrious epithet. ' We will have 
a verdict, by the help of God, or you shall starve for 
it!' 'You are Englishmen,' said Penn, who had 
been again brought to the bar, ' mind your privilege, 
give not away your right.' ' It never will be well 

1 Bancroft's Hist. U. S., vol. i. p. lH. 

with US,' said the recorder, 'till something like the 
Spanish Inquisition be in England.' At last the 
jury, who had received no refreshments for two days 
and two nights, on the third day gave their verdict, 
'Not guilty.' The recorder fined them forty marks 
apiece for their independence, and amercing Penn 
for contempt of court, sent him back to prison." 

The trial was an era injudicial history. The fines 
were soon afterwards discharged by his father, who 
was now approaching his end. " Son William," said 
the dying admiral, " if you and your friends keep to 
your plain way of preaching and living, you will 
make an end of the priests." Inheriting a large for- 
tune, he continued to defend publicly from the press 
the principles of intellectual liberty and moral equal- 
ity ; he remonstrated in unmeasured terras against 
the bigotry and intolerance, '' the hellish darkness 
and debauchery" of the University of Oxford ; he 
exposed the errors of the Roman Catholic Church, 
and in the same breath pleaded for a toleration of 
their worship ; and never fearing openly to address 
a Quaker meeting, he was soon on the road to New- 
gate, to suffer for his honesty by a six months' im- 
prisonment. " You are an ingenious gentleman," 
said the magistrate at the trial, " you have a plenti- 
ful estate, why should you render yourself unhappy by 
associating with such a simple people ''" " I prefer," 
said Penn, " the honestly simple to the ingeniously 
wicked." The magistrate rejoined by charging Penn 
with previous immoralities. The young man, with 
passionate vehemence, vindicated the spotlessness of 
his life. "I speak this," he adds, " to God's glory, 
who has ever preserved me from the power of these 
pollutions, and who from a child begot a hatred in 
me towards them. Thy words shall be thy burden. 
I trample thy slander as dirt under my feet!" From 
Newgate Penn addressed Parliament and the nation 
in the noblest plea for liberty of conscience, a liberty 
which he defended by arguments drawn from experi- 
ence, from religion, and from reason. If the efforts 
of the Quakers cannot obtain "the olive-branch of 
toleration, we bless the providence of God, resolving 
by patience to outweary persecution, and by our con- 
stant sufferings to obtain a victory more glorious than 
our adversaries can achieve by their cruelties." On 
his release from imprisonment a calmer season fol- 
lowed. Penn traveled in Holland and Germany, 
then returning to England, he married a woman of 
extraordinary beauty and sweetness of temper, whose 
noble spirit "chose him before many suitors," and 
honored him with " a deep and upright love." As 
persecution in England was suspended, he enjoyed 
for two years the delights of rural life and the ani- 
mating pursuit of letters, till the storm was renewed, 
and the imprisonment of George Fox on his return 
fi'om America demanded intercession. What need of 
narrating the severities which, like a .slow poison, 
brought the prisoner to the borders of the grave? 
Why enumerate the atrocities of petty tyrants in- 



vested with village magistracies, the ferocious pas- 
sions of irresponsible jailers? The statute book of 
England contains the clearest impress of the bigotry 
which a national church could foster and a parliament 
avow; and Penn, in considering England's present 
interest, far from resting his appeal on the sentiment 
of mercy, merited the highest honors of a statesman 
by the profound sagacity and unbiased judgment with 
which he unfolded the question of the rights of con- 
science in its connection with the peace and happi- 
ness of the state. It was this love of freedom of 
conscience which gave interest to his exertions for 
New Jersey. 

The summer and autumn after the first considerable 
Quaker emigration to the eastern bank of the Dela- 
ware, George Fox and William Penn and Robert 
Barclay, with others, embarked for Holland to evan- 
gelize the continent, and Barclay and Penn went to 
and fro in Germany, from the Weser to the Main, 
the Rhine and the Neckar, distributing tracts, dis- 
coursing with men of every sect and every rank, 
preaching in palaces and among the peasants, rebuk- 
ing every attempt to enthrall the mind, and sending 
reproofs to kings and magistrates, to the princes and 
lawyers of all Christendom. The soul of William 
Penn was transported into fervors of devotion, and 
in the ecstasies of enthusiasm he explained " the 
universal principle" at Herford, in the court of the 
Princess Palatine, and to the few Quaker converts 
among the peasantry of Kirchheim. To the peas- 
antry of the highlands near Worms the visit of 
William Penn was an event never to be forgotten. 
The opportunity of observing the aristocratic institu- 
tions of Holland and the free commercial cities of 
Germany was valuable to a statesman. On his re- 
turn to England the new sufferings of the Quakers 
excited a direct appeal to the English Parliament. 
The special law against papists was turned against 
the Quakers. Penn explained the difference between 
his society and the papists, and yet, at a season when 
Protestant bigotry was become a frenzy, he appeared 
before a committee of the House of Commons' to plead 
for universal liberty of conscience. " We must give 
the liberty we ask," — such was the sublime language 
of the Quakers, — "we cannot be false to our princi- 
ples though it were to relieve ourselves, for we would 
have none to suffer for dissent on any hand." Wil- 
liam Penn was an enthusiast with a benevolent heart ; 
he despised the profligacy of the church that united 
the unholy offices of a subtle priestcraft with the 
despotic power of a warlike state. His study of 
English law intensified his love of tolerance and in- 
spired him with the hope of liberalizing the govern- 
ment that had persecuted him ; as late as 1679 he 
took a prominent part in the elections for that year. 
He was a persuasive speaker, and met with generous 
receptions in a canvass made especially in the interest 
of Algernon Sydney, who, he said, was now " em- 
barked with those that did seek, love, and choose the 

best things." He grew eloquent before the electors 
of England, invoking them to a consciousness of their 
own strength and authority. " Your well-being," he 
said, "depends upon your preservation of your rights 
in the government. You are free! God and nature 
and the constitution have made you trustees for pos- 
terity. Choose men who will by all just ways firmly 
keep and zealously promote your power." But the 
truly Christian patriot was doomed to bitter disap- 
pointment when confronted with the defeat of his 
favorite and the popular will by false and perverted 
election returns. It was in this discouraging period 
of his noble manhood that he conceived of the " Holy 
Experiment" and a " free colony for all mankind." 

The possibilities of the North American continent, 
and especially that portion watered by the Delaware' 

1 But the Proprietors of Western New Jersey being of the people 
called Quakers, their part of the province consequently, through their 
iofluence, tiecanie settled principally by the same kind of people; but 
to prevent any of their religious society from rashly or inadvertently re- 
moving into this new country, or without due consideration, and contrary 
to the mind of their parents and nearest relatives, three of the princi- 

' pal persons among the Proprietors, viz., \V. Penn, G. Lawrie, and N. 

I Lucjts, wrote an epistle of caution to their friends, the Quakers, which, 
as it further shows their rights to this part of the province, the care of 
that people over one another at that time, and their concern for an or- 
derly settlement in>t, that none might be deceived and have occasion to 
repent of such an important undertaking, is not unwoitby of the pe- 
rusal of the posterity and descendants of those early adventurers, set- 
tlers, and cultivators of the country. The epistle was as follows, viz. : 

"Dear Friends and Brethren: In the pure love and precious fellow- 
ship of our Lord Jesus Christ we very dearly salute you, forasmvich as 
there was a paper printed several months ago, entitled 'The description 
of New- West-Jersey,' in which our names were mentioned, as Trustees 
for one undivided moiety of the said province, and because it is alleged 
that some, partly on this account, and others apprehending that the 
paper, by the manner of its expression, came from the body of Friends 
as a religious society of people, and not from particulars, have, through 
these mistakes, weakly concluded that the said description, in matter 
and form, might be writ, printed, and recommended on purpose to prompt 

j and allure people to disgettlt; and plant themselves, as it is also by some 
alleged, and because we are informed that several have, on that account, 
taken encouragement and resolution to transplant themselves and fam- 
ilies to that province ; and lest any of them (as is feared by some) should 
goout of a curious and unsettled mind, and others to shun the testimony 
of the blessed Crois of JesWy of which several weighty friends have a 
godly jealousy upon their spirits, lest an unwarrantable forwardness 

' should act or hurry any beside or beyond the wisdom or counsel of the 
Lord, or tho freedom of his light and spirit in their own hearts, and not 
upon good and weighty grounds; it truly laid upon us to let friends 
know how the matter stands, which we shall endeavor to do with all 
clearness and fidelity. 
" 1. That there is such a place as New Jersey is certain. 

! "2. That it is reputed of those who have lived and traveled in that 

I country to be wholesome of air and fruitful of soil, and capable of sea- 
trade, is also certain, and it is not right in any to despise it or dissuade 
those that find freedom from the Lord and necessity put upon them ou 

"3. That the Duke of York sold it to those called Lord Berkeley, 
Baron of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, equally to be divided between 
them, is also certain. 

" 4. One moiety, or half part, of the said province, being the right of 
the Lord Berkeley, was sold by him to John Fenwicke, in trust for Ed- 
ward Byllinge and his assigns. 

1 "5. Forasmuch as Edward Billinge (after William Penn had ended the 
difference between E. Byllinge and J. Fenwicke) was willing to present 
Ills interest in the said province to his creditors, as all that he had left; 
him, towards their satisfaction, he desired W. Penn (though every way 

; unconcerned" and Gawen Lawiie and Nicholas Lucas, two of his cred- 

' iters, to be trustees for performance of the same, and because several of 



and its coufluents, were well known to him and bis 
associates, resulting in some measure from his official 
connection with the settlement of " West New Jer- 
sey'* and the division of that province in the year 

hia creditors particularly and very importunately pressed W. Penn to ac- 
cept of the trust, for their sakes and security we did all of us comply 
with these and the like requests and accepted of the trust. 

'* 6, Upou this we hecame trustees for one moiety of the said proTince, 
yet undivided, and after no longer labor, trouble, and costa division was 
obtained between the said Sir George Carteret and us, as trustees ; the 
country is situated and bounded as is expressed iu the printed descrip- 

"7. This now divided moiety is to be cast into one liuudred parts, lots, 
or proprietaries, ten of wliich, upon the agreement made bet%YJxt E. 
Bellinge and J. Fenwick, his executors and assigns, with a consider- 
able sum of money by way of satisfaction, for what he became con- 
cerned in the purchase from the said Lord Berkeley, and by him after- 
wards conveyed to John Edridge and Edmund Warner, their heirs and 

" 8. The ninety parts remaining are exposed to sale, on behalf of the 
creditors of the said Edward Byllinge. And forasmuch several friends 
are concerned as creditors, as well as others, and the disposal of so great 
apart of this country being iu our bands, we did in real tenderness and 
regard to friends, and especially to the poor and necessitbus, make friends 
the first offer ; that if any of them,thougli particularly those, who being 
low iu the world, and under trials about a comfortable liveliiiood for 
themselves and families, should be desirous of dealing for any part or 
parcel thereof, that they might have the refusal. 

'*9. This was the real and honest intent of our hearts, and not to 
prompt or allure any out of their places, either by tho credit our names 
might have with our people throughout the nation,^r by representing 
the thing otherwise than it is iu itself. 

" As to the printed paper, some time since set forth by the creditors as 
a description of that province, we say, as to two passages in it, they 
are not so clearly and safely worded as ought to have been ; particularly 
in seeming to biut, the Tl''itt/i?r season to be so short a time; when, on 
further information, we hear it is sometimes longer, and sometimes 
shorter, than therein expressed; and that the last clause, relating to 
liberty of conscience, we would not have any to think that it is prom- 
ised or intended to maintain the liberty of the exercise of religion by 
force of arms, though we shall never consent to any the least violence 
on conscience ; yet it was never designed to encourage any to expect by 
force of arms to have liberty of conscience fenced against invaders 

"And be it known unto you all in the name and fear of Almighty 
God, bis Glory and Honor, Power and Wisdom, Truth and Kingdom, is 
dearer to us than all visible things; and as our eye has been single, and 
our hearts sincere in the living God in this as in other things, so we 
desire all, whom it may concern, that all groundless jealousies may be 
judged down, and watched agaiust; and that all extremes may be 
avoided, on all hands, by the power of the Lord ; that nothing which 
hurts or grieves the holy life of truth in any that goes or stays, may he 
adhered to, nor any provocation given to break precious unity. 

"This am I, William Penn, moved of the Lord to write uuto you, lest 
any bring a temptation upon themselves or others ; and, in off'ending 
the Lord, slay their own peace. Blessed are they that can see and behold 
them their Leader, their Orderer, their Conductor, and Preserver in 
going and staying; whose is the earth and the fullness thereof, and the 
cattle upon a thousand bills; and, as we formerly writ, we cannot but 
repeat our request unto you that, in whomsoever a desire is to be con- 
cerned in this intetided plantation, such would weigh the thing before 
the Lord, and not lieadily or rashly conclude on any such remove; and they do not offer violence to the tender love of their near kindred 
and relations, but soberly and conscientiously endeavor to obtain their 
good wills; the unity of friends where they live, that whether they go 
or stay it may be of good favor before the Lord and good people, from 
whom only can all heavenly and earthly blessings come. 

"This we thought good to write for the preventing all misunderstand- 
ings, and to declare the real truth of the matter, and so we recommend 
yuu all to the Lord, who is the watchman of his Israel. We are your 
real friends and brethren. 

"WiLLTAM Penn, 
"Gawen Lawrie, 
" Nicholas Lucas." 

1676.^ No preparation could have more thoroughly 
fitted Penn for the subsequent work of his life than 
his experience up to 1680-81. Checkmated and re- 
pulsed in his efforts of reform by the brutal element 

^ In 1675, when his disgust with European society and hia conscioua- 
ness of the impossibility to effect radical reform there had been con- 
firmed and deepened, Penn became permanently identified with Amet^ 
ican colonial affairs, and was put in the best possible position for 
acquiring a full and accurate knowledge of the resources and possibili- 
ties of the country between the Susquehanna and the Hudson. This, 
which Mr. Janney calls "an instance in which Divine Providence 
seemed to open for him a field of labors to which be was eminently 
adapted," arose out of the fact of his being chosen as arbitrator in the 
disputes growing out of the partition of the West Jersey lands. As has 
already been stated, on March 12,1664. King Cliarles II. granted to his 
brother James, Duke uf Yurk and Albany, a patent for all the lands in 
New England from the St. Cruix River to the Delaware. This patent, 
meant to lead directly up to the overthrow of the Dutch power in New 
Netherland, was probably also intended no less as a hostile demonstra- 
tion against the New England Puritan colonies, which both the brothers 
hated cordially, and which latterly had grown so independent and had 
so nearly established their own autonomy as to provoke more than one 
charge that they sought presently to abandon all allegiance due from 
them to the mother-country. At any rate, the New England colonies 
at once attempted to organize themselves into a confederacy for pur- 
poses of mutual defense against tlie Indians and Canadian French, as 
was alleged, but for divers other and weighty reasons, as many colonists 
did not hesitate to proclaim. The Duke of York secured New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Delaware to himself as his own private possessions. 
That part of New Netherland lying between the Hudson and the Dela- 
ware Rivers was forthwith (in 1664, before Nicolls sailed from Ports- 
mouth to take New York) conveyed by the duke, by deeds of lease and 
release, to John Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The latter 
being governor of the Channel Islands at the time, the new colony was 
called New Jersey, or rather Nova Cxsarea^in the original grant. In 
1675, Lord Berkeley sold for one thousand pounds his undivided half- 
share iu New Jersey to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Billinge and 
his assigns. Feuwick and Billinge were both Quakers, and Billinge was 
bankrui)t. Not long after this conveyance Fenwick and Billinge fell 
out about the property, and, after the custom of the Friends, the dispute 
was submitted to arbitration. The disputants fixed upon William Penn 
as arbitrator. When he made his award, Fenwick was not satisfied and 
refused to abide by Penn's decision, which, indeed, gave Fenwick only 
a tenth of Lord Berkeley's share in the joint tenancy, reserving the re- 
maining nine-tenths to Billinge, but giving Fenwick a money payment 
besides. Penn was offended at Fenwick's recalcitrancy, and wrote him 
some sharp letters. "Thy days spend on," he said, "and make the best 
of what thou hast. Thy grandchildren may be in the other world be- 
f »re the land thou hast allotted will be employed." Penn stuck to his 
decision, and, for that matter, Fenwick likewise maintiined his griev- 
ance. He sailed for the Delaware at the head of a colony, landed at 
Salem, N. J., and commenced a settlement. Here he carried matters 
with such a high band, patenting land, distributing office, etc., that he 
made great trouble for himself and others also. His authority was not 
recognized, and for several years the name of Maj. John Fenwick fills a 
large place in the court records of Upland and New Yoik, where be 
was frequently imprisoned and sued for damages by many iujured per- 

Billinge^s business embarrassments increasing, be made over hia 
interest iu the territory to his creditors, appointing Penn, with Gawen 
Lawrie, of London, and Nicholas Lucas, of Hertford, two of the cred- 
itoi-8, as trustees in the matter. The plan was not to sell, but improve 
the property for the benefit of the creditors. To this end a partition of 
the province was made, a line being drawn through Little Egg Harbor 
to a point where Port Jervis now is. The part of the province on the 
right of this line, called East New Jersey, the most settled portion of 
the territorj-, was assigned to Carteret. That on the left, West New Jer- 
sey, was deeded to Billinge's trustees. A form of government was at 
once established for West Jersey, in which Penn's hand is distinctly 
seen. The basis was liberty of person and conscience, "the power in 
the people," local self-governmen t, and amelioration of the criminal 
code. The territory was next divided into one hundred parts, ten being 
assigned to Fenwick and ninety to Billinge's trustees, and the land 
was opeued for sale and occupancy, being extensively advertised and 



always conspicuous in British politics, he accepted 
the consequences of defeat, and faced the religious 
bigotry and tyrannical statecraft of the period with 
manly courage and unbroken will ; thenceforth, de- 
spairing of success in his native land, he addressed 
his energies to the establishment of a free govern- 
ment in the New World. England's unfriendly his- 
torians have never borne willing testimony to the 
merits of the distinguished colonist who left her 
shores under the favor of Charles II. in 1682, but 
it is in pleasing contrast to know that American 
commentators pay deserved tribute to the founder 
of the Keystone State, and among them none more 
truthfully and impartially than Bancroft. 

"Possessing an extraordinary greatness of mind, 
vast conceptions remarkable for their universality 
and precision, and 'surpassing in sped lative endow- 
ments,' conversant with men and books and govern- 
ments, with various languages, and the forms of 
political combinations as they existed in England 
and France, in Holland and the principalities and 
free cities of Germany, he yet sought the source of 
wisdom in his own soul. Humane by nature and by 
suffering, familiar with the royal family, intimate 
with Sunderland and Sydney, acquainted with Rus- 
sell, Halifax, Shaftesbury, and Buckingham, as a 
member of the Royal Society the peer of Newton and 
the great scholars of his age, he valued the promptr 
ings of a free mind above the awards of the learned, 
and reverenced the single-minded sincerity of the 
Nottingham shepherd more than the authority of 
colleges and the wisdom of philosophers ; and now, 
being in the meridian of life, but a year older than 
was Locke when, twelve years before, he had framed 
a constitution for Carolina, the Quaker legislator was 
come to the New World to lay the foundations of 
States. Would he imitate the valued system of the 
great philosopher ? 

"Locke, like William Penn, was tolerant; both 
loved freedom, both cherished truth in sincerity. 

particularly recommended to Friends. Id 1677 and 1678 five vessels 
flailed for West New Jersey, with eiglit hundred emigrduts, nearly all 
Quiikei-s. Two conipaniea of tliese, one from Yorkshire, the other from 
London, bought large tracts of land, and sent out commissioners to quiet 
Indian titles and lay off the properties. At Chygoes Island they located 
a town, first called Beverly, then Birdlington, then Burlington. There 
was a regular treaty with the Indians, and the Friends not only secured 
peace for themselves, but paved the way for the pacific relations so firmly 
sealed by Peon's subsequent negotiations with the savages. The Bur- 
lington colony prospereil, and was reinforced by new colonists continu- 
ally arriving in considerable numbers. In 16»0, Penn, as counsel for 
the trustees of West Jersey, succeeded, by means of a vigorous and able 
remonstrance, in getting the Duke of York, then proprietary of New 
York, to remove an onerous tax on imports aud exports imposed by the 
Governor of New York and collected at the Horekill. The next year 
Penn became part proprietor of Kast New Jersey, which was sold under 
the will of .Sir George Carteret, then deceased, to pay his debts. A board 
of twenty-four l)roprietarie3 was organized, Penn lieing one, and to them 
the Duke of York niadea fresh grant of East New Jersey, dated March 
14, 10S2, Robert Barclay becoming Governor, while Penn's friend Bil- 
linge was made Governor of West New Jersey. Both of these govern- 
ments were surrendered to the crown in (^ueen Anne's reign, April 15, 

But Locke kindled the torch of liberty at the fires of 
tradition ; Penn, at the living light in the soul. 
Locke sought truth through the senses and the out- 
ward world ; Penn looked inward to the divine reve- 
lations in every mind. Locke compared the soul to 
a sheet of white paper, just as Hobbes had compared 
it tc a slate, on which time and chance might scrawl 
their experience ; to Penn the soul was an organ, 
which of itself instinctively breathes divine harmo- 
nies, like those musical instruments which are so 
curiously and perfectly framed that, when once set in 
motion, they of themselves give forth all the melodies 
designed by the artists who made them. To Locke 
' conscience is nothing else than our own opinions 
of our own actions;' to Penn it is the image of God, 
and his oracle in the soul. Locke, who was never a 
father, esteemed ' the duty of parents to preserve 
their children not to be understood without reward 
and punishment;' Penn loved his children with not 
a thought for the consequences. Locke, who was 
never married, declares marriage an affair of the 
senses ; Penn reverenced woman as the object of fer- 
vent, inward affection, made not for lust, but for love. 
In studying the understanding, Locke begins with 
the sources of knowledge ; Penn, with an inventory 
of our intellectual treasures. Locke deduces govern- 
ment from Noah and Adam, rests it upon contract, 
and announces its end to be the security of property; 
Penn, far from going back to Adam, or even to Noah, 
declares that 'there must be a people before a gov- 
ernment,' and, deducing the right to institute gov- 
ernment from man's moral nature, seeks its funda- 
mental rules in the immutable dictates 'of universal 
reason,' its end in freedom and happiness. The sys- 
tem of Locke lends itself to contending factions of 
the most opposite interests and purposes ; the doc- 
trine of Fox and Penn, being but the common creed 
of humanity, forbids division, and insures the highest 
moral unity. To Locke happiness is pleasure ; things 
are good and evil only in reference to pleasure and 
pain, and to ' inquire after the highest good is as 
absurd as to dispute whether the best relish be in 
apples, plums, or nuts.' Penn esteemed happiness 
to lie in the subjection of the baser instincts to the 
instinct of Deity in the breast, good and evil to be 
eternally and always as unlike as truth and food, and 
the inquiry after the highest good to involve the pur- 
pose of existence. Locke says plainly that, but for 
rewards and punishments beyond the grave, ' it is 
certainly rUjht to eat aud drink and enjoy what we 
delight in;' Penn, like Plato and Fenelon, main- 
tained the doctrine so terrible to de.spots that God is 
to be loved for His own sake, and virtue to be prac- 
ticed for its intrinsic loveliness. Locke derives the 
idea of infinity from the senses, describes it as purely 
negiitive, and attributes it to nothing but space, dura- 
tion, and number; Penn derived the idea from the 
soul, and ascribed it to truth and virtue and God. 
Locke declares immortality a matter with which rea- 



son has nothing to do, and that revealed truth must 
be sustained by outward signs and visible acts of 
power; Penn saw truth by its own light, and sum- 
moned the soul to bear witness to its own glory. 
Locke believed 'not so many men in wrong opinions 
as is commonly supposed, because the greatest part 
have no opinions at all, and do not know what they 
contend for;' Penn likewise vindicated the many, but 
it was because truth is the common inheritance of 
the race. Locke, in his love of tolerance, inveighed 
against the methods of persecution as ' popish prac- 
tices ;' Penn censured no sect, but condemned big- 
otry of all sorts as inhuman. Locke, as an American 
law-giver, dreaded a too numerous democracy, and 
resolved all power to wealth and the feudal proprie- 
taries ; Penn believed that God is in every conscience, 
His light in every soul ; and therefore he built — such 
are his own words — ' a free colony for all mankind.' 
This is the praise of William Penn, that in an age 
which had seen a popular revolution shipwreck pop- 
ular liberty among selfish factions, which had seen 
Hugh Peter and Henry Vane perish by the hang- 
man's cord and the axe ; in an age when Sydney 
nourished the pride of patriotism rather than the 
sentiment of philanthropy, when Kussell stood for 
the liberties of his order, and not for new enfran- 
chisements, when Harrington and Shaftesbury and 
Locke thought government should rest on property. 


Penn did not despair of humanity, and, though all 
history and experience denied the sovereignty of the 
people, dared to cherish the noble idea of a man's 
capacity for self-government. Conscious that there 
was no room for its exercise in England, the pure en- 
thusiast, like Calvin and Descartes, a voluntary exile, 
was come to the banks of the Delaware to institute 
' The Holy Experiment.' " 

Upon the death of his father, William Penn fell 
heir to estates in England and Ireland, with an in- 
come of fifteen hundred pounds a year. The govern- 
ment was debtor to the estate of Admiral Penn for 
money loaned, amounting to fifteen thousand pounds. 

Charles II. was not blessed with an excessive ex- 
chequer, nor did William Penn press for payment of 
the claim in money. This indebtedness was an avail- 
able basis for tlie colonial enterprise which he was 
projecting, and he therefore proposed to the king to 
grant him a tract of land in America, situated be- 
tween the country held under grants to the Duke of 
York and Lord Baltimore, or between Maryland and 
the Delaware River. Penn's negotiations were suc- 
cessful, not, however, without great eflbrt upon his 
part, as his enterprise was considered Utopian by 
influential members of the government, and looked 
upon with distrust by the agents and proprietaries of 
the Duke of York and Lord Baltimore. William 
Penn and his confidential advisers and coadjutors 
prepared the draft of charter, which was submitted to 
the scrutiny of both state and church authorities. 
Sir William Jones, attorney-general of the realm, 
the Lords of Trade, and the Bishop of London all 
passed upon the form and substance of the grant. It 
was finally signed by the king on March 4, 1681. 
(This historical paper ' is well preserved to this day, 

land, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, Ac, To all to 
whouie Ihetse presents shall come Greeting. Whereas uur Trustie and 
well beloved Subject, AViUiam Penn, Esquire, sonn and heire of Sir Wil- 
liam Penn, deceased, out of a commendable desire to enlarge our Eng- 
lish Empire, and promote such useful] comodities as may bee of benetitt 
to us and our Dominions, as alsoe to reduce the Savage Natives by gentle 
and just manners to the love of civil! Societie aud Christiau Religioa 
hath humbley besought leave of vs to transport an ample colunie vnto 
a certaine Countrey hereinafter described iu the partes of America not 
yet cultevated aud planted. And hath likewise humbley besought our 
Royall majestic to give grant, and confirme all the said countrey wilh 
certaiue jiriviledges and Jurisdiccons recjnisite for the good Governmeut 
and saftie of the said Countrey and Colonie, to him and his lieires for- 
ever. KNOW YEE, therefore, that wee, favouring the petition aud good 
purpose of the said William Penn, and haveing regard to the memorie 
aud meritts of his late father, iu divers services, and perticulerly to his 
conduct, courage and discretion vnder our dearest brother, James Duke 
of Yorke, in that siguall baltell aud victurie, fought and obteyned 
against the Dutch fleete, comanded by the Herr Van Opdam, iu the 
yeare One thousand six hundred sixtie live, in consideration thereof of 
our specia. gmce, certiiine knowledge and meere motion, Have given 
and granted, and by this our present Charter, for vs, our heires and suc- 
cessors. Doe give and grant unto the said William Peuu, his heires and 
assignes all that tract or parte of land in America, witli all the Islands 
therein couteyned, as the same is bounded on the East by Delaware 
River, from twelve miles distance, Norlliwarde of New Castle Towne 
uuto the three and fortieth degree of Northern latitude if the said River 
doeth extend soe farre Northwards; But if the said River shall not ex- 
tend sue farre Northward, then by the said River soe farr as it doth ex- 
tend, and from the head of the said River the Easterne bounds are Ii> 
bee determined by a meridian line, to bee di'awn from the head of the 
said River vnto the said three and fortieth degree, tlie said lands to ex- 
tend Westwards, five degrees in longitude, to bee computed from the 
said Easterne Bounds, and the said lands to bee bounded on the North, 
by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of Northern latitude, 
and on the south, by a circle drawne at twelve niiles, distance from New 
Castle Northwards, and Westwards vnto the begiuiug of tlie fortieth de- 
gree of Northerne Latitude ; and then by a streight line Westwards, tt> 
the limitt of Longitude above menconed. WEE DOE alsoe give and 
gi-ant vnto the said William Penn, his heires aud assignes, the free and 
vudisturbed vse, and continuance in and passage into aud out of all and 
singular Ports, harbours, Bayes, waters, rivers, Isles and luletts, belong- 
ing vnto or leading to and from the Countrey, or Islands aforesaid ; and 
all the soyle, lands, fields, woods, vuderwoods, mountaines, hills, feuns. 



and may be seen by visiting the State Department 
at Harrisburg.) The name of the new colony seems 
to have been left blank in the original draft of 

Isles, Lakes, Rivere, waters, rivuletts, Bays and Inletta, Bcituate or being 
within or belonging vnto tbe Liniitte and Bounds aforesaid together 
with the fishing of all sortes of fish, whales, sturgeons, and all Royall 
and other fishes in the sea, bayes, Iiiletts, waters or Rivi-'rs, within the 
premises, and the fish therein taUen.and alsoe all veines, mines and 
quarries, as well discovered as not discovered, of Gold, Silver, Gemms 
and pretious Stones, and all other whatsoever, stones, metalls, or of any 
other thing or matter whatsoever, found or to bee found within the 
Countrey, Isles, or Limitts aforesaid; and him the said William Penn, 
his beires and assignes, WEE DOE, by this our Royall Cliarter, for vs, 
our heires and successors, make, create and constitute the true and ab- 
solute proprietaries of the Countrey aforesaid, and of all other, the 
premises, saving always to vs, our heires and successors, the failh and 
allegiance of the said William Penn, bis heires and assignes, and of all 
other, the proprietaries tenants and Inhabitants that are, or shall be 
within the Territories and precincts aforesaid; and saving alsoe vnto 
vs, our heires and Successors, the Sovreignity of the aforesaid Countrey, 
TO HAVE, hold and possesse and enjoy the said tract of land, Countrey, 
Isles, loletts and other the premises, veto the said William Penn, his 
heires and assignee, to the only proper vse and behoofe of the said Wil- 
liam Penn, his heirs and assignes forever. To bee holden of vs, our 
heires and Successors, Kings of England, as of our Castle uf Windsor, 
in our County of Berks, in free and comou socage by fealty only for all 
services, and not in Capite or by Knights service, Teelding and paying 
therefor to us, our heires and Successors, two Beaver Skins to bee de- 
livered att our said Castle of Win<lsor, on the first day of January, in 
every yeare ; and also the fifth parte of all Gold and silver Oare, which 
shall from time to time happen to bee found within thelimitts afore- 
said, cleare of all charges, and of our further grace certaiue knowledge 
and meere mocon, wee have thought fitt to Erect, and wee doe hereby 
Erect the aforesaid C-ountrey and Islands, into a province and Seigniorie, 
and doe call itt Pensilvania, and soe from henceforth wee will have itt 
called, and forasmuch as wee have hereby made, and ordeyned tlio afore- 
said William Penn, his heires and assignes, the true and absolute Pio- 
prietaries of all the Lands and Dominions aforesaid. KNOW YEE 
therefore, that wee reposi ng special trust and confidonco in the fidelitie, 
wisedome, Justice and provident circumspeccon of the s;iid William 
Penn, forvs, our heires and successors, Doe grant free, full and absolute 
power, by vertuo of these presents to him and his heirs, and to his and 
their Deputies, and Lieutenants, for the good and happy government of 
the said Countrey.toordeyne, make, enact and vnderhisnnd their Seales 
to publisli any Lawes whatsoever, for the raising of money for the pub- 
lick vse of the said province, or for any other end appcrteyning either 
vnto the publick state peace, or safety of the said Countrey, or vnto the j 
private vtility of perticular persons, according vnto their best discre- 
tions, by and with the advice, absent and approbacon of the freemen of 
the said Countrey, or the greater parte of them, or of their Delegates or 
Deputies, whom for the Enacting of the said Lawes. when, and as often I 
as need shall require. WE WILL, that the said William Penn, and his 
heires shall assemble in such sort and foi-me as to him and them shall 
seeme best, and the same lawes duely to execute vnto, and upon all peo- 
ple within the said Countrey and limitts thereof; and WEE doe likewise 
give and grant unto the said William Penn, and his heires, and to his 
and their Deputies and Lieutenants, such power and authoritie to ap- 
point and establish any Judges, and Justices, magistrates and officers 
whatsoever, for what causes soever, for the probates of wills and for the 
grantingofadministracons within the precincts aforesaid, and with what 
power soever, and in such forme as to the said William Penn, or his 
heires, shall seeme most convenient. Alsoe to remitt, release, pardon 
and abolish, whether before Judgement or after, all crimes and offences, 
whatsoever committed within the said Countrey, against the 8;iid Lawes, 
treason and wilfull and malitious murder onely excepted ; and in those 
cases, to grant reprieves untill our pleasure may bee kuowne therein, 
and to doe all and every other thing and things which vnto the com- 
pleate esta,blishment of Justice vnto Courts and Tribunalls, formes of 
Judicature and manner of proceedings doe belong, altho' in these pres- 
ents expresse mencon bee not made thereof; and by Judges by them 
delegated to award processe, hold pleas and determine iu all the said 
Courts and Tribunalls, all accons, suits and causes whatsoever, as well 
criminall as civill, personall, reall and mixt, which Lawes so as afore- 
said, to be published. Our pleasure is, and soe Wee enjoyne require and 

the charter ; this was consistent with the modesty of 
Penn and his deferential disposition towards his royal 
friend, whose favor he evidently sought with extraor- 

comand shall bee most aheolute and avaylable in law, and that all the 
Liege people and Subjects of vs, our heires and successors, doe observe 
and keepe the same inviolable in those partes, soe farr as they concorne 
them, vnder the paine therein expressed, or to bee expressed. Provided; 
Nevertheles, tliat the said Lawes bee consonant to reason, and bee not 
repugnant or contrarie, but as neere as conveniently may bee agreeable 
to the Lawes, statutes and rights of this our Kingdomo of England, and 
saveing and reserving to vs, our heires and successors, the receiving, 
heareing and determining of the appeale and appeales, of all or any 
person or persons, of, in or belonging to the territories aforesaid, or 
touching any Judgement to bee there made or given. — And forasmuch 
as in the Government of soe great a Countrey, sudden accidents doe 
often happen, whereunto itt will bee necessarie to apply a remedie 
before the freeholders of the said Province, or their Delegates or Depu- 
ties can bee assembled to the makeing of Lawes, neither will itt be con- 
venient that instantly vpon every such emergent occasion, soe greate a 
multitude should be called together. Therefore, for the better Govern- 
ment of the said Countrey, WEE WILL, and ordeyne, and by these 
presents for vs, our heires and successors. Doe grant vnto the said 
William Penn, and his heires, by themselves or by their magistrates and 
officers, in that behalfe, duely to bee ordeyned as aforesaid, to make ami 
constitute, fitt and wholesome ordinances from lime to time within the 
said Countrey, to bee kept and observed as well for the preservacon of 
the peace, as for the better government of the people there inhabiting, 
and publickly to notifie the same, to all persons whome the same doeth 
or any way may concerne, which ordinances our will and pleasure is, 
shall be observed inviolably within the said Province, vnder paines 
therein to beo expressed, soe as the said ordinances bee consonant to 
reason and bee not repugnant nor cotitrary, butsoe farre as conveniently 
may bee agreeable with the Lawes of our kingdome of England, and 
soe as the said ordinances be not extended in any sort to bind, charge 
or take away the right or interest of any person or persons, for or in 
their life, members, freehold, goods or Chattells; and our further will 
and pleasure is, that the Lawes for regulating and governing of prop- 
ertie, within the said Province, as well for the descent and enjoyment of 
lands, as likewise for the enjoyment and succession of goods and Chat- 
tells, and likewise as to felonies, shall bee and continue tbe same as shall 
bee for the time being, by the generall course of the Law in our King- 
dome of England, vntil the said Lawes shall he altered by the said 
William Penn, his heires or assiicnes, and by the freemen of the eaiJ 
Provinc*-, their Delegates or Deputies, or the greater part of them. 
And to tlio End the said William Penn, or heires, or other, the Planters, 
Owners or Inhabitants of the said Province, may not att any time here- 
after, by misconstrucou of the powers aforesaid, through inadvertieucie 
or designe, depart from that faith and due allegiance wliicli by the Lawe* 
of this our Real me of England, they and all our subjects, in our Domin- 
ions and Territories, always owe vnto vs our heires and successors, by 
colour of any extent or largenesse of iwwers hereby given, or pretended 
to bee given, or by force or colour of any lawes hereafter to bee made 
in the said Province, by virtue of any such powers. Our further will 
and pleasure is, that a transcript or Duplicate of all lawes which shall 
bee soe as aforesaid, made and published within the said province, shall 
within five years after the makeing thereof, be transmitted and de- 
livered to the privy Councell, for the time being, of vs, onr heires and 
successors; and if any of the said Lawes within the space of six moneths, 
after that they shall be soe transmitted and delivered, be declared by vs, 
our heires and successors in our or their privy Councell, inconsistent 
with the sovereignety or lawfull prerogative of vs.our heirs or succes- 
sors, or contrary to the faith and allegiance due by the legall Govern- 
ment of this realme, from the said William Penn, or his heires, or of 
the Planters and Inhabitants of the said province; and that therevpoa 
any of the said L.iwes shall bee adjudged and declarpjd to bee void by 
vs, our heires or successors, vnder our or their Privy Seale, that then, 
and from thenceforth such Lawes concerning which such Judgement 
and declaracon shall bee made, shall become voyd, otherwise the 
said lawes soe transmitted, shall remaine and stand in full force ac- 
cording to the true intent and meaneing thereof. Furthermore, that 
this now Colony may the more happily increase, by the multitude 
of people resorting thither: THEREFORE, WEE, for vs, our heires 
and successoi-s, doe give and grant by these presents, power, licence and 
libertie vuto all the liege people and suLjects, both present and future 



dinary zeal and judgment. King Charles filled the 
blauk and called the projected colony Pennsylvania, 
in honor of Sir William and Admiral Penn. It is 

of V6, our lieireo and successors, excepting those who shall bee especially 
forbidden, to transport theuiselves and families vnto the said Countrey, 
^vith such convenient shipping, as by the lawes of this our kingdouie 
of Englanil, they ought to vse with fitting provisions paying only the 
customes therefore due, and there to settle themselves, dwell and in- 
liabitt and phint for thepublick and their own private advantnge; AND 
FURTHERMORE, that our subjects may bee the rather encouraged 
to undertake this expedicon with ready and chcerfull mindes. KNOW 
YEE, that wee of our especial grace certaine knowledge and meere 
luocon, Doe give and grant hy vertue of these presents, as well vnto the 
said William Penn and his heires, as to all others who shall from time 
to time repaire vnto the said Countrey, with a purpose to inliabitt there, 
or to trade with the natives of the said Countrey, fnll license to lade and 
freight in any Ports whatsoever of va, our heires and successors, ac- 
cording to the lawes made, or to be made within our kingdome of Eng- 
land, and into the said Countrey, by them, theire servants or assignes, 
to transport all and singular theire wares, goods Jind merchandizes, as 
likewise all sorts of graiue whatsoever, and all other things whatso- 
ever necessary for food and clotliiug, not pliibited by the lawes and 
Statutes of our kingdomes and Dominions, to be carryed out of the said 
kingdomes without any lett or molestacon of vs, our heires and snccessors, 
or of any the officers of vs, our heires and successors, savoing alwayes 
to vs, our heires and successors, the logall impossitions, customes and 
other duties and payments for the said wares and merchandize, by any 
law or statute due or to be due to vs, our heires and successors. AND 
W'EE DOE further for vs, our heires and Successors, give and grant 
vnto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, free and absolute 
power to Divide the said Countrey,and Islands, into Townes, Hundreds 
and Counties, and to erect and incorporate Townes into Burroughs, and 
Borroughs into Citties, and to make and constitute ffaires and marketts 
therein, with all other convenient privileges and immunities according 
to the meritt of tlie inliabitants, and the ffitnes of the places; & to doe 
all and every other thing and things touching the premises which to 
him or them shall seeme requisite, and meet, albeit they he such as of 
their owne nature might otherwise require a more especiall command- 
ment and warrant, then in these presents is expressed. WEE WILL 
ALSOE, and by these presents for vs, our heirs and successors, WEE doe 
give and grant licence by this our charter, vnto the said William Penn, 
his heires and assignes, and to all the inhabitants and dwellers in 
pvince aforesaid, both present, and to come to import or vnlade by 
themselves or their Servants, ffactors or assignes, all mercliandizes and 
goods whatsoever, that shall arise of the fiuits and comodities of the 
said province, either by Land or Sea, into any of the Ports of vs, our 
heirea and successors, in our kingdonje of England, and not into any 
other countrey whatsoever. And WEE give him full power to dispose 
of tlie said goods in the said ports, and if need hee, within one yeare 
next after the unladeing of the same, to lade the said merchandizes and 
goods again into the same or other shipps, and to export the same into 
jiny other Countreys, either of our Dominions or fforreigne, according to 
la«e: Provided always, that they pay such, customes and imposicons, 
flubsidies and duties for the same to vs, our heires and successors, as the 
rest of our subjects of our kiugdome of England, for the time being 
eliall be boumi to pay, and doe observe the acts of Navigation and other 
lawes in that behalfe made. AND FURTHERMORE, of our more ample 
and especiall grace, certain knowledge and meere motion, WEE DOE, 
for vs, our heirea and successors. Grant vnto the said William Penn, his 
heires and assignes, full and absolute power and autlioritie, to make, 
erect and constitute within the said province, and the Isles and Isletts 
aforesaid, such and soe many Seaports, harliours. Creeks, Havens, Keyea 
and other places, for discharge and vnladeing of goods, & merchandize 
out of the shipps, boatea and other vessells, and Ladeing them in such 
andsoe many places, and witli such rights, Jurisdiccons, liberties and 
priviledges unto the said ports, belonging as to him or them shall seeme 
most expedient, and tiiat all and singular the shipps, hoates and other 
vessells which shall come for merchandize and trade vnto tlie said 
pvince, or out of the same shall departe, shall he laden or vnhiden ouely 
att sucli ports as shall be erected and constituted by the said William 
Penu, his heires and assignes, any vse, custome or other thing to the 
contrary notwithstanding: PROVIDED, that the said William Penn 
and his heires, and the Lieutenants and Governors for the time being, 
sliall udmitt and receive in and about all such ports, havens, Creeks and 

said that William Penn objected to the name, and 
offered a tempting fee to the Under Secretary of Co- 
lonial Affairs to change it to New Wales, and upon 

Keyes, all officers and their Deputies, who shaU from time to time be 
appointed for that purpose, hy the ffarmers or Comisaioners of our cus- 
tomes, for the time being. AND WEE DOE further appoint and or- 
daine, and by these presents for vs, our heires and successors, WEE 
DOE grant vnto the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, that he 
the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, may from time to time 
forever, have and enjoy the customes and subsidies in the ports, har- 
bours and other Creeks, and places aforesaid, within the province afore- 
said, payable or due for merchandizes and wares, there to be laded and 
vnladed, the said customes and subsidies to be reasonably assessed, 
vpuu any occasion by themselves, and the people tliere as aforesaid, 
to be assembled to whom WEE give power, hy these presents for V8» 
our heires and successors, vpon just cause, and in a due pporcon, 
to assesse and impose the same, saveing vnto vs, our heires and suc- 
cessors, such imposcons and customes as by act of parliament are 
and shall lie appointed; and it is our further will and pleasure, that 
the said William Penu, his heires and assignes, shall from time to time 
constitute and api)oint an attorney or agent, to reside in or neare our 
Citty of London, who shall makeknowne the place where he shall dwell 
or may be found, vnto the Clerks of Our privy Counsell, for the time 
being, or one of them, and shall he ready to appeare in any of our 
Courts att Westminster, to answer for any misdemeanors that shall be 
comilted, or hy any wilfull default or neglect pmitted by the said Wil- 
liam Penn, his heires or assignes, against our Lawes of Trade or Navi- 
gacon and after it shall be ascertained in any of our said Courts, what 
damages WEE or our heires or successors shall bane sustained, by such de- 
fault or neglect, the said William Penn, his lieires and assignes, shall pay 
the same within one yeare after such taxacon ami demand thereof, fiom 
such attorney, or in case there shall he noe such attorney, by the space 
of one yeare, or such attorney shall not make payment of such damages, 
within the space of one yeare, and answer such other forfeitures and 
penalties within the said time, as by the acts of parliament in England, 
are or shall he pvided according to the true intent and meaning of these 
jiresents; Then it shall be lawfule for vs, our heires and successors, to 
seize and Resume the government of the said pvince or Countrey, and 
the same to retaine untill payment shall be made thereof. But not- 
withstanding any sucliseizuieor resumption of the Government, nothing 
concereniug the propriety or ownei-ship of any Lands, Tenements or 
other hereditaments, or goods, or chattels of any the adventurers. 
Planters or owners, other than the respective offenders there, shall he 
any way aflfected or molested thereby: PROVIDED alwayes, and our 
will and pleasure is that neither the said William Penn, nor his lieires, 
nor any other of the inhabitants of the said pvince, shall at any time here- 
after haue or maintainany correspondence with any other king, prince 
or State, or with any of theire subjects, who shall then be in warr against 
vs, our heires or successors; Nor shall the said William Penn, or his 
heires, or any other the inhabitants of the said pvince, make warre or 
doe any act uf hostilitie against any other king, prince or state, or 
any of their subjects, who shall then be in league or amity with vs, 
our heires or successors. And because in soe remote a Countrey, and 
scituate neare many Barbarous Nations, the incursions as well of the 
savages themselues, as of other enemies, pirates and Robbers, may pbably 
be feared. Therefore, WEE have given and for vs, our heires and suc- 
cessors, Doe give power by these presents vnto the said William Penn, 
his heirea and assignes, by themselues or their Captaities or other, their 
officers to levy, muster and traine all sorts of men, of what condicon,or 
wheresoever borne, in the said pviticeof Pensylvania,for tlie time being, 
and to make warr and pursue the enemies and Robbers aforesaid, as 
well by Sea as by Laud, yea, even without the Limits of the said pvince 
aTid by God's assistance, to vanquish and take them, and being taken, 
to put them to death by the law of Warr, or to save them att theire 
pleasure, and to doe all and every other act and thing, which to the 
charge and office of a Capitaine generall of an Army, belongeth or 
hath accustomed to belong, as fully and ffreely as any Captain e Generall 
of an Army, liath ever had the same. AND FURTHERMORE, of our 
especiall grace and of our certaine knowledg and meere motion, WEE 
have given and granted, and by these presents for vs, our lieires and suc- 
cessors, Doe give and grant vnto the said William Penn, his heires and 
assignes, full and absolute power, licence and authoritie, That he the 
said William Penn, his heires and Assignes, from time to time hereafter 
forever, att his or theire will and pleasure, may assigne, alien, grant. 



refusal protested that he had no vanity or family 
pride to gratify in the matter, " but it is a just and 

demise or infeoffu of the premisps, soe many, aud such partes and par- 
cells to him or them, that shall be willing to purchase the they 
shall thiuke ffitt. TO HAVE AND TO HOLD to them, the said person 
uud persons willing to take or purcliase.theire heires and assignes, in 
fiee simple or flfeetaile, or for the termeof life,or Hues, yeares, to he held 
of the said William Penn, his heires and a-ssignes, as of tho said Seig- 
niory of Windsor, by such services, custonies and rents, as shall seeme 
ffitt to the said William Penn, his heires and assignes, aud not imme- 
diately of va, our heires aud succesaors, and to the same person or per- 
sons, and to all and every of them, W*EE DOE give and grant by these 
presents, for V8, our heires and successors, LicHUce.authoritie and power, 
tliat such pei-son or persons may take the premisses or any parcell there- 
of, of the aforesaid William Penn, his heires or assignes, and the same 
hold to themselues, their heires aud assignes, in what estate of inherit- 
ance soever, in ffee simple, or in ft'eetaile or otherwise, as to liim the said 
William Penn, his heires and assignes, shall seem expedient. The Stat- 
utes made in the parliament of Edward, Sonne of king Henry, late king 
of England, our predecessor, comonly called the Statute Quia Eniptores 
terrarum, lately published in our kingdtmie of England, in any wise 
notwithstanding, and by these presents, WEE give and grant licence 
vnto the said William Penn, and his heires, likewise to all and every 
such person and pereons to whom the said William Penn, or his heires, 
shall at any time hereafter, grant any estate of inheritance as aforesaid, 
to erect any parcells of Land within the pvince aforesaid, into mannors, 
by and with the licence to be first had and obteyued for that purpose, 
vnder the hand and sealeof the said William Penn, or his heires and in 
every of the said mannors, to haue and to liold a Court Baron, with all 
tbinges whatsoever, which to a Court Baron do belong ; and to haue and 
to hold view of ffrank-pledge, for the conservacon of the peace, and the 
better government of those partes by themselves or their Stewarts, or 
by the Lords for the time being, of other mannors to be deputed when 
they shall be erected, and in the same, to vse all things belongitig to 
view of ffrank-pledge ; and WEE doe further grant licence andauthor- 
itie that every such person and persons, who shall erect any such man- 
nor or mannors as aforesaid, shall or may grant all or any parte of his 
said lanils to any person or persons, in ffee simple or any other estate of 
inheiitance, to be held of the sai<i mantiurs respectively, soe as noe 
further tenures shall be created, but that vpon all further and other 
alienacons thereafter, to be made the said lands soe aliened, shall be 
held of the same Lord and his heires, of wliom the alien did then 
before hold, and by the like, rents and services, which were before 
due and accustomed. Atid further, our pleasure is and by these 
piesents for vs, our heires and successors, WEE doe Covenant and grant 
U> and with the said William Penn, and his heires and assignes, that 
WEE, our heires and successors, shall att no time hereaftej-sett or make, 
or cause to he selt, any imposicon, custome or other taxacun, rate or cuu- 
tribucon whatsoever, in and upon the dwellers and inhabitants of the 
aforesaid pvince, for tlieir lands, tenements, goods or chattels, within the 
said province, or in and vpon any goods or merchandize witliin the said 
pvince, or to be laden orvnladen within the ports or harbours of the said 
pvince, vnless the same be witli the consent of the pprietary, or chiefe 
Governor and Assembly, or by act of parliament in England. And our 
pleasure is, and for us our heires and successors, WEE charge and coni- 
aiid, that this our Declaracon, shall from henceforward be received 
and allowed from time to time in all our Courts, and before all the Judges 
of vs, our heires and successors, for a suflicient and lawful discharge, 
payment and acquittance, comanding all and singular the officers and 
Tiiinisters of vs, our heires and successors, and enjuyneing them vpon 
paine of our high displeasure, that they doe not presume att any time 
ti' attempt any thing to the contrary of the premises, or that they doe 
in any sort withstand the Siune, but that they bee att all timiis aiding 
and assisting as is fitting vnto the said William Penn, and his heires, 
aud to the inhabitants aud merchants of the pvinco aforesaid, their ser- 
vants, ministers, fTactors and assignes, in the full vse and fruition of the 
beneffitt of this our Charter: And our further pleasure is, And WEE 
dne hereby, for vs, our heires and successors, charge and require tliat 
if any of the inhabitants of the said pvince, to the number of TM'enty, 
eball att any time hereafter be desirous, and shall by any writeing or by 
any pson deputed fur them, signify such their desire to the liish<ip off 
Liindon, that any preacher or preachers to be approved of Ity the said 
Bishop, may be sent vnto th'-m fur their iustruccon, that then such 
pieacher or preachers, shall aud may be aud reside withiu the said 

clear thing, and my God that has given it me through 
many difficulties will, I believe, bless and make it 
the seed of a nation." 



Having obtained his charter, Penn at once com- 
missioned William Markham his deputy, and urged 
his prompt departure for the new field of labor. 
Markham was in New York by June, 1681, He 
secured the friendly offices of Governor Anthony 
Brockholls, and then hastened to Upland to meet 
Lord Baltimore, whose friendship he courted in order 
to arrange boundary lines on the south and west of 
the new colony. Unable to adjust the southern bound- 
ary of the grant without making concessions which 
he deemed unjust to William Penn, he deferred further 
action, and immediately organized the Council of 
Nine, being the first exercise of "duly constituted 
authority" under the charter of Charles 11. This 
Council of Nine was, in fact, a provisional govern- 
ment, with power to make public surveys, establish 
boundary lines, constitute courts, appoint justices of 
the peace, constables, sheriffs, to suppress violence, 
and generally to institute and enforce such measures 
as inured to the peace and good order of the province. 
The following is the self-instituted warrant for the 
Council of Nine: "Whereas, wee whose hands and 
Seals are hereunto Sett are Chosen by Wm. Mark- 
ham (agent to Wm. Penn, Esq., Proprietor of y® 
Province of Pennsylvania) to be of the Councill for 
y® s** province, doe hereby bind ourselves by our liands 
& Seals, that wee will neither act nor advise, nor Con- 
sent unto anything that shall not be according to our 
own Consciences the best for y^ true and well Govern- 
ment of the 8^ Province, and Likewise to Keep Secret 

pvince, without any Denial! or molestacon whatsoever; and if pchauce 
it should hapiien hereafter, any doubts or questions should arise con- 
cerneing the true senco & meaning of any word, clause or sentence, 
conteyned in this our present charter, WE WILL urdaine and comand, 
that att all times and in all things such interpretacun be made thereof, 
and allowed in any of our Courts whatsoever, as shall be adjudged most 
advantageous and favourable unto the said William Penn, bis heires and 
assignes: PIIOVIDED alwayes, that no interpretacon be admitted 
thereof, by which the allegiance due vnto va, our heires and successors, 
may suffer any prejudice or diminucon, although expres mencon be not 
made in these presents, of the true yearly value or certainty of llie 
premisses, or of any parte thereof, or of other guifts and grants made 
by vs, our pgenitors or predecessoi-s, vnto the said William Penn, or any 
Statute, act, ordiiumce, pvision, pclaiuacon or restraint heretufore, had 
made, published, ordained or pvided,or any other thing, cause or matter 
whatsoever to the contrary thereof, in any wise notwithstanding. In 
Witness Whereof WEE have caused these our letters to be made patents, 
Witness our selfe at Westminster, the fourth day of March, in the three 
aud thirtieth yeare of our Reigne. 


By Writt of privy Scale. 

John Shaler, chvt. 

xxvij die Janry, 1G82, Fir, 



all y votes and acts of us The a^ Councell, unless 
Such as by the General Consent of us are to be pub- 
lished. Dated at Upland y' third day of August, 

" Eobert Wade, Morgan Drewet, W". Woodmanse, 
(W. W. The mark of) William Warner, Thomas 
Ffairman, James Sandlenes, Will Clayton, Otto Er- 
nest Koch, and y' mark (L) of Lacy (or Lasse) 

By September, 1681, Deputy Markham had the 
new arrangement of things in working order, and the 
first court, for jury trials was held at Upland. The 
justices present at the meeting of this newly-organ- 
ized court were William Clayton, William Warner, 
Kobert Wade, William Byles, Otto Ernest Cock, 
— ^Robert Lucas, Lasse Cock, Swen Swenson, and 
Andreas Bankson, five of them being members of 
Markham's Council. The clerk of the court was 
Thomas Revell, and the sheriff's name was John 
Test. The first jury drawn in this court — the first 
drawn in Pennsylvania — was in a case of assault and 
battery (Peter Ericksen vs. Harnian Johnson and 
wife), and their names were Morgan Drewet, Wil- 
liam Woodmanson, William Hewes, James Browne, 
Henry Reynolds, Robert Schoolpy, Richard Pittmau, 
Lasse Dalboe, John Akraman, Peter Rambo, Jr., 
Henry Hastings, and William Oxley; two more of 
the Deputy Governor's Council being on this jury. 
At the next meeting of Upland Court, in November, 
Markham was present, and be attended all the sub- 
sequent sessions up to the time of Penn's arrival. 

Deputy Governor Markham was thoroughly con- 
versant with the purposes and plans of Penn. He 
carried with him instructions which were broad 
enough to cover all possible contingencies, and 
enabled him to prepare a warm welcome to the dis- 
tinguished colonist upon his advent on the Delaware 
River. Meantime, Penn was addressing his entire 
energies to his scheme of colonization. He gave the 
utmost publicity to his chartered privileges, and in- 
vited the co-operation of all classes in founding a 
free and industrial State. He published a pamphlet 
entitled "Some Account of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania in America." It contained a truthful account 
of the resources of the country. The author was 
candid in pointing out to all the possible hardships 
and perils likely to be experienced in tlie New World, 
and impressed upon the mind of his followers the ne- 
cessity of careful preparations for the long voyage and 
the life of toil and self-denial essential to their success. 
Referring to the country he says, " I shall say little 
in its praise to excite desires in any, whatever I could 
truly write as to the soil, air, and water; this shall 
satisfy me, that by the blessing of God and the hon- 
esty and industry of man, it may be a good and fruitful 
land." Penn made direct overtures to men and fam- 
ilies of all religious persuasions, assuring them of a 
tolerant government in all things. He invited pur- 
chasers and renters of lands, and made special pro- 

visions for those without means. "To the first, the 
shares I sell shall be certain as to number of acre*; 
that is to say, every one shall contain five thous^d 
acres, free from any incumbrance, the price a hun/red 
pounds, and for the quit-rent but one English sjifiling, 
or the value of it, yearly, for a hundred acres ; and 
the said quit-rent not to begin to be paid till 1684. 
To the second sort, that take up land upon rent, they 
shall have liberty so to do, paying yearly one penny 
per acre, not exceeding two hundred acres. To the 
third sort, to wit, servants that are carried over, fifty 
acres shall be allowed to the master for every head, 
and fifty acres to every servant when their time is 
expired. And because some engage with me that may 
not be disposed to go, it were very advisable for every 
three adventurers to send over an overseer with their 
servants, which would well pay the cost." 

Referring to the peculiar fitness of certain person* 
for frontier life, Penn classifies them as follows : 

"1st, industrious husbandmen and day laborers 
that are hardly able (with extreme labor) to main- 
tain their families and portion their children ; 2d, la- 
borious handicrafts, especially carpenter.s, masons, 
smiths, weavers, taylors, tanners, shoemakers, ship- 
wrights, etc., where they may be spared or low in the 
world, and as they shall want no encouragement, so 
their labor is worth more there than here, and there 
provisions cheaper." 3d, Penn invites ingenious 
spirits who are low in the world, younger brothers with 
small inheritances and (often) large families ; " lastly," 
he says, "there are another sort of persons, not only 
fit for but necessary in plantations, and that is men of 
universal spirits, that have an eye to the good of pos- 
terity, and that both understand and delight to pro- 
mote good discipline and just government among a 
plain and well-intending people; such persons may 
find room in colonies for their good counsel and con- 
trivance, who are shut out from being of much use or 
service to great nations under settled customs ; these 
men deserve much esteem and would be hearken'd 

He enumerates and commends the resources of the 
country. " Timber was abundant, also game, wild- 
fowl, and fish, flax, hemp, cider, wood, madder, 
liquorish, tobacco, and iron, hides, tallow, staves, beef, 
pork, sheep, wool, corn, wheat, rye, barley, also furs, 
minks, raccoons, martins, and such like store of furs 
which is to be found among the Indians that are 
profitable commodities in England." Referring to 
the arrival of colonists in the fall months he says, 
" Two men may clear as much ground by spring 
(when they set the corn in that country) as will bring 
in that time, twelve months, forty barrels, which 
makes twenty-five quarters of corn. So that the first 
year they must buy corn, which is usually very plen- 
tiful. They must, so soon as they come, buy cows, 
more or less, as they want or are able, which are to be 
had at easy rates. For swine, they are plentiful and 
cheap, these will quickly-increase to a stock. So that 




HyV . 



















ytuima/ Tieimeli 



after the first year, what with the poorer sort some- 
times laboring for others, and the more able fishing, 
fowling, and sometimes buying, they may do very 
well till their own stocks are sufficient to supply them 
and their families, which will quickly be, and to 
spare, if they follow the English husbandry, as they 
do in New England and New York, and get winter 
fodder for their stock." 

"To conclude, I desire all ray dear country-folks 
who may be inclined to go into those parts to con- 
sider seriously the premises, as well the inconve- 
niency as future ease and plenty, that so none may 
move rashly or from a fickle, but from a solid mind, 
having above all things an eye to the providence of 
God in the disposing of themselves ; and I would 
further advise ;tU such at least to have the permis- 
sion, if not the good liking, of their near relations, 
for that is both natural, and a duty incumbent upon 
all. And by this will natural affections be preserved, 
and a friendly and profitable correspondence between 
them, in all which I beseech Almighty God to direct 
us, that His blessing may attend our earnest en- 
deavors, and then the consequence of all our under- 
takings will turn to the glory of His great name, and 
all true happiness to us and our posterity. Amen." 

Feeling assured of a large and intelligent following 
to the New World, he was anxious to facilitate trade 
and commerce between the colony and the mother- 
country. To this end he encouraged the organization 
of " The Free Society of Traders," ' looking upon the 
enterprise as a potent and peaceful agent in main- 
taining frequent intercourse between the inhabitants 
of the two continents, and as a certain avenue for 
continued emigration, which he felt sure once opened 
to the superior advantages of a new and fertile country, 
where religious and political freedom could be fully 
enjoyed, would never be closed. In his solicitude for 
the persons forming his colony Penn showed his hu- 
manity ; in his forecast of a commercial future for 
the State he was founding he disclosed the character 
of a benefactor. One thing more, however, remained 
for him to do, and that was to frame a government. 
This was the work of statesmanship. There were 
three distinct subjects of consideration in framing a 
code of laws for the colony : 1, the limitations im- 
posed by the charter of Charles II. ; 2, the peaceful 
relations with the native Indians ;^ 3, the unrestrained 

' On publishing these proposals concerning the new colony, a great 
number of purchasers soon appeared in London, Liverpool, and espe- 
cially about Bristol ; among these were James Claypole,Nicbolas Moore, 
Philip Forde, and others, who firmed a colony called The Free Society 
of Traders in Pennsylvania. These last-mentioned persons, with Wil- 
liam Sharloe, Edward Pierce, .loh n Simcock, Thomas Bracy, and Edward 
Brooks, having purchased twenty thousand acres of land, in trust for 
the said company, published articles of trade, and entered into divers 
branches thereof themselves, which were soon improved upon by others. 

- •' LoxDOX, the ISth of the eighth month, 1681. 

"Mt Friends: There is a great God and power, that hath made the 

world, and all things therein ; to whom you and I, and all people owe 

their being and well-being; and to whom you and I must one day give 

an account for all that we do in the world. — This great God hath writ- 

exercise of religious liberty and the institution of 
self-government among the freemen of the province. 
It is a rare occurrence in the history of public men 
to find a broad humanity associated with a high order 
of executive ability and commercial sagacity, and it 
is still more exceptional to find these two qualities 
combined with that degree of foresight and conser- 
vatism that always characterizes the true statesman. 
It is said that it required the corollated powers of 
Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan to match one Napo- 
leon Bonaparte ; and, without extravagance, we may 
say that William Penn alone foreshadowed the pol- 
icy of state and republic that was later formulated in 
national unity by the combined wisdom of Washing- 
ton, Jefferson, and Hamilton. In the marvelous light 
of two centuries we turn back and read his remarkable 
state papers. He was in his thirty-eighth year when 
he prepared his " CertaiQ Conditions or Concessions," ' 

ten his law in our hearts, by which we are taught and commanded to 

love and help, and do good to one another. Now this great God hath 
been pleased to make me concerned in yonr part of the world ; and the 
King of the country where I live hath given raea province therein; but 
I desire to enjoy it icUh iiour lore und consent; that we may always live 
together as neighbors and friends, else what would the great God do to 
us, who hath made us, not to devour and destroy one another, but to 
live soberly and kindly together in the world? Now I would have you 
well observe that I am vei-y sensible of the unkiudness and injustice 
that have been too much exercised towards you, by the people of these 
parts of the world, who have sought themselves, and to make great ad- 
vantages by you, rather than to be examples of goodness and patience 
unto you, which I hear hath been a matter of trouble to you, and caused 
great gmdgings and animosities, sometimes to the shedding of blood, 
which hath made the great God angry. But I am not such a man, as is 
well known in my own country. I have great love and regard towards 
you, and desire to win and gain your love and friendship, by a kind, 
just, and peaceable life ; and the people I send are of the same mind, 
and shall in all things behave themselves accordingly ; and if anything 
shall offend you or your people, you shall have a full and speedy satis- 
faction for the same, by an equal number of just men, on both sides, 
that by no means you may have just occasion of being offended against 
them. I shall shortly come to you myself, at which time we may more 
largely and freely confer and discourse of these matters ; in the mean 
time I have sent my commissioners to treat with yon about land, and a 
lirm league of peace ; let me desire you to be kind to them and the peo- 
ple, and receive these presents and tokens, which I have sen t you, as a 
testimony of my good will to you, and my resolution to live justly, 
peaceably, and friendly with you. 

" I am your loving friend, 

"William Penn." 

3 " Cbbtais Conditions or Concessions, agreed upon btj WiUiam Pcnri, 
Proprietary and Governor of the Promrtce of Pfnnsytvaniaf and thos'; 
mho an- adfi'nturers and purchasers in the same province^ the eleventh of 
July^ One thousand sir hundred and <:ighty-one. 

"First. That so soon as it picaseth God that the above said persons 
arrive there, a quantity of land or Ground plat shall be laid out for a 
large Town or City, in the most convenient place upon the lliver for 
health and navigation; and every purchaser and adventurer shall by 
lot have so much land therein as will answer to the proportion which 
he hath bought or taken up upon rent. But it is to be noted that the 
surveyors shall consider what Koads or Highways will be necessary to 
the Cities, Town-, or through the lands. Great roaiis from City to City, 
not to contain less than forty feet in breadth, shall be first laid out and 
declared to be highways before the Dividend of acres be laid out for the 
purchaser, and the like observation to be had for the streets in the 
Towns and Cities, that there may be convenient roads and streets pre- 
served, not to be encroached upon by any planter or builder, that none 
may build irregularly to the damage of another. In this custom 

"Secondly. That the land in the Town be laid out together, after the 



and his "Frame of Government and Laws," includ- 
ing "The Great Law/' all of which evidence great 
thoughtfulness, a thorough knowledge of details, 
and a master mind. We think his " Preface" to the 

proportion of ten tlionsaml acres of the whole country, — that is, two 
hundred acres, if the place will bear it. However, that the proportion 
be by lot and entire, so aa those that desire to be together, especially 
those that are by the catalogue laid together, may be so laid together 
both in Town and Country. 

"Tliirdly. That when the Country lots are laid out, every purchaser 
from one tliousand to ten thousand acres or more, nut to have above one 
thousand acres together, unless in three years they plant a family upon 
eveiy thousand acres; but that all such as purchase together, lie to- 
gether; and if as many as comply with this condition, that the whole 
be laid out togotlier. 

"Fourthly. That where any number of purchasers, more or less, 
whose number of acres amounts to five or ten thousand acres, desire to 
Bit together in a lot or Township, they shall have their lot or Township 
cast together in such places as have convenient Harbours or navigabU' 
rivers attending it, if such can be found, and in case any one or more 
Purchasers plant not according to agreement in this concession, to the 
prejudice of others of the same Township upon complaint thereof, made 
to the Governor or his deputy, witli assistance they may award (if they 
see cause) that the complaining purcha-ser may, paying the survey 
money and purchase money and interest thereof, be entitled, inrolled, 
and lawfully invested in the lands so not seated. 

"Fifthly. That the proportion of lands that shall be laid out in the first 
great Town or City for every purchaser shall be after the proportion of 
Ten acres for every Five hundred acres purchased, if the place will 
allow it. 

"Sixthly. That notwithstanding there be no mention made in tlie 
several Deeds made to the purchasers, yet the said William Penti does 
accord and declare that all Rivers, Rivulets, Woods and Underwoods, 
Watere, Watercourses, Quarries, Mines, and Minerals (except mines 
Royal), shall be freely and fully enjoyed and wholly by the purchasers 
into whose lot they fall. 

"Seventhly. That for every Fifty acres that shall be allotted to a ser- 
vant at the end of his service, his Quitrent shall be two shillings per 
annum, and the master or owner of the Servant, when he shall take up 
the other Fifty acres, his Quitrent shall he Four shillings by the year, 
or if the master of the servant (by reason in the Indentures he is so 
obliged to do) allot out to the Servant Fifty acres in his own Division, 
the said master shall have on demand allotted him from the Governor, 
the One hundred acres at the chief rent of Six shillings per annum. 

"Eighthly. And for the encouragement of such as are ingenious and 
willing to search out Gold and silver mines in this province,ii is hereby 
agreed that they have liberty to bore and dig in any man's property, 
fully paying the damage done, and in case a Discovery should be made, 
that the discoverer have One Fifth, the owner of the soil (if not the 
Discoverer) a Tenth part, the Governor Two fifths, and the rest to the 
public Treasury, saving to the king the shaie reserved by patent. 

** Ninthly. In every hundred thousand acres the Governor and Pro- 
prietary by lot reserveth Ten to himself, which shall lie but in one 

"Tentlily. That every man f^hall he bound to plant or man so much 
of his share of Land as shall be set out and surveyed within three years 
after it is so set out and surveyed, or else it shall be lawful for new 
comers to be settled thereupon, paying to Ihem their survey money, and 
they go up higher for their shares. 

"Eleventhly. There shall be no buying and selling, be it with an 
Indian, or one among another of any Goods ti> he exported hut what 
Bhall be performed in public market, when such place shall be set apart 
or erected, where tliey shall pass the public Stamp or Mark. If bad 
ware and prized as good, or deceitful in proportion or weight, to forfeit 
the value as if good, and full weight and proportion to the public Treas- 
ury of the Province, whether it be the merchandise of the Indian or 
that of the Planters. 

"Twelfthly. And fni-asrnuchasit isusual with the planters to overreach 
the poor natives ol the Country in Trade, by Goods not being good of the 
kind, or deba'-ed with mixtures, with wliich they are sensibly aggrieved, 
it is agreed whatever is sold to the Indians in consideration of their furs 
shall be sold in the market place, and there suffer the test, whetliergoiwl 
or bad ; if good to pa^B, if not good, not to be sold for good, that the 
natives may not be abused nor provoked. 

"Frame of Government" is the best illustration of 
the man and his purposes; its promulgation and ac- 
ceptance by the colonists as the fundamental law of 
the province was a safe guide in those primitive 
days, and implanted in Pennsylvania a love for self- 
government which has continued through all later 
generations, as marked in peace as it has been sacri- 
ficial in war. This state paper, unique and compre- 
hensive, is an essential part of our history, and should 
be the property of every household, as it has been, and 
still is, the subject of study among all true political 

" Thirteenthly. That no man shall by any ways or means, in word or 
deed, afl'ront or wrong any Indian, but he shall incur the same penalty 
of tlie Law as if he had committed it against his fellow planters; and if 
any Indian shall abuse in Word or Deed any plaster of this province 
that he shall not be his own Judge upon the Indian, but he shall make 
his complaint to the Governor of the Province, or his Lieutenant or 
Deputy, or some iuferior magistrate near him, who shall to the utmoit 
of his power take care with the king of the said Indian that all reason- 
able Satisfaction be made to the said injured planter. 

"Fourteenthly. That all differences between the planters and the 
natives shall also be ended by Twelve men, that is by Six plantei-s and 
Six natives, that so we may live friendly together as much as in us lieth, 
preventing all occasions of Heart burnings and mischief. 

"Fifteenthly. That the Indians shall have liberty to do all things 
relating to improvement of their Ground, and providing sustenance for 
the families tliat any of the planters shall enjoy. 

"Sixteenthly. That the laws as to Slanders, Drunkenness, Swearing, 
Cursing, Pride in apparel, Trespasses, Distresses, Replevins, Weights 
and measures, shall be the same as in England till altered by law in this 

"Seventeenthly. That all shall mark their hogs, sheep, and other 
cattle, and what are not marked within three months after it is in their 
possession, be it young orold, it shall be forfeited to the Governor, that 
so people may be compelled to avoid the occasions of much strife be- 
tween Planteis. 

*' Eighteenthly. That in clearing the ground care be taken to leave 
One acre of trees for every five acres cleared, especially to preserve oak 
and mulberries for silk and shipping. 

"Nineteenthly. That all ship masters shall give an account of their 
Countries, Names, Ships, Owners, Freights, and Passengers, to an oflicer 
to be appointed for that purpose, which shall be registered within Two 
days after their arrival; and if they shall refuse so to do that then none 
presume to trade with them upon forfeiture thereof, and that such mas- 
ters be looked upon as having an evil intention to the province. 

"Twentiethly. That no person leave the Province without publica- 
tion being made thereof in the market-place, Three weeks before, and 
certificate from some justice of the peace of his clearness with his 
neighbors and those he has dealt withal, so far aa such an assurance can 
he attained and given ; and if any master of a ship shall contrary here- 
unto receive, and carry away any person that hath not given that public 
notice, the said master shall be liable to all debts owing by the said per- 
son so secretly transported from the province. Lastly that these are to 
be added to or corrected by and with consent of the parties hereunto 
"Sealed and delivered in the presence of 

"William Pfnn, "Griffith Jones, 

"HuMPuuF.y Soi'TB, "Hugh Lambe, 

"Thomas Barker, "Thomas Fabrinborhougii, 

"Samuel Jouson, "John Good^on, 

"John Joseph Moore, "William Boelham, 

"William Puwel, "Harbert Springet, 

"Richard Davie, "Thomas Pbcdyard. 

"Sealed and delivered in the presence of all the proprietors who hare 
hereunto subscribed, except Thomas Farrinborrough and JohnGoodson,. 
in the presence of 

"Hugh Chamberlen, 
" R. Murray. 
"Harbert Springet." 




" When the great and wise God had made the world, of all his crea- 
tures it pleased him to choose man his deputy to rule it, and to fit him 
for 80 great a charge and trust, he did not only qniilify him with skill 
andpower, hut with integrity to use them juistly. This native goodness 
was equally his honour and his happiness; and whilst he stood here, all 
wen t wel 1 ; t liere was no need of coercive or compulsive means ; the pre. 
cept of divine love and truth in his hosom was the guide and keeper nl 
bis innocency. But lust prevailing against duty, made a lamentable 
breach upon it; and the law, that before had no power over him, took 
place upon him and hi» disobedient posterity, that such as would not 
live conformable to the lioly law within, should fall under the reproof 
and correction of the just law without, in ajudicial administration. 

" This the apostle teaches in divers of his epistlns. The law (says he) 
was added because of transgression : In another place, knowing that the 
law was not made for the righteous man ; but for the disobedient and 
ungodly, for sinners, for unholy and prophane,for murderers, for whore- 
mongers, for them that defile themselves with mankiud, and for men- 
Btealers, for liars, for perjured persons, &c. But this is not all, he opens 
and carries the matter of government a little further: Let every soul 
be subject to the higher powers, for there is no power but of God. The 
powers that be are ordained of Gud : whosoever therefore resisteth the 
power, resisteth the ordinance of God. For rulers are not a terror to 
good works, but to Evil: wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? 

Do that wliich is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same. He 

is the minister of God to thee for good. Wherefore ye must needs 

be subject, not only for wratli, but for conscience sake. 

" This settles the divine right of government beyond exception, and 
that for two ends : first, to terrify evil-doers ; secondly, to cherish those 
that do well; which gives government a life beyond corruption, and 
makes it as durable in the world, as good men shall be. So that govern- 
ment seems to me a part of religion itst'lf, a Ihing sacred in its institu- 
tion and end. For if it does not directly remove the cause, it crushes 
the effects of evil, and is as such (tho' a lower yet) an emanation of tlie 
same Divine Power, that is both author and object of pure religion; the 
difference lying here, that the one is more free and mentjil, the other 
more corporal and compulsive in its operations; but that is only to evil- 
doers ; government itself being otherwise as capable of kindness, good- 
ness, and charity, as a more private society. They weakly err, that 
think there is no other use of government tlian correction, which is the 
coarsest part of it: daily experience tells us, that the care and regula- 
tion of many other affairs more solt and daily necessary, make up much 
the greatest part of government; and which must have followed the 
peopling of the world, had Adam never fell, and will continue among 
men on earth under the high attainments they may arrive at, by the 
coming of the blessed second Adam, the Lord from Heaven. Thus 
much of government in general, as to its rise and end. 

" For particular frames and models, it will become me to say little ; 
and comparatively I will say nothing. My reasons are: first, that the 
age is too nice and ditticult for it ; there being nothing the wits of men 
are more busy ami divided upon. 'Tis true, they seem to agree in tlie 
emi, to wit, happiness ; but in the means they differ, as to divine, so to 
this human felicity ; and the cause is much the same, not always want 
of light and knowledge, but want of using them rightly. Men side 
with their passions against their reason, and their sinister interests 
have so strong a bias upon their minds, that they lean to them against 
the good of the things they know, 

"Secumlly, I do not find a model in the world, tlnit time, place, and 
some singular emergencies have not necessarily altered ; nur is it easy 
to frame a civil government, that shall serve all places alike. 

" Thirdly, I know what is said by the several admirers of monarchy, 
aristocracy, and democracy, which are the rule of one, a few, and many, 
arul are the three common ideas of governoient, when men discourse on 
that subject. But I choose to solve the controversy with this small dis- 
tinction, and it belongs to all three : any government is free to the peojde 
under it (wliatever be tlie frame) where tlie laws rule, and the people 
are a party to those laws, and more than this is tyranny, oligarchy, and 

" But liistly, when all is said, there is hardly one fiame of government 
in the world so ill designed by its first founders, that in good hands 
would not do well enough ; and story tells us, the best in ill ones can 
do nothing that is great or good ; witness the .Jewish and Roman states. 
Governments, like clocks, go from the motion men give them, and as 
governments are made and moved by men, so by tliem they are ruined 
too. Wherefore governments rather depend upon men than men iipuu 
government^. Let men be good, and the government cannot be bad; 

if it be ill, they will cure it. But if men be bad, let the government bo 
never so good, they will endeavor to warp and spoil it to their turn. 

" I know some saj', let us have good laws, and no matter for the men 
that execute them: but let them consider, that though good laws do 
well, good men do better: for good laws may want good nten, andbe 
abolished or invaded by ill men ; but good men will never want good 
laws, nor suffer ill ones. 'Tis true, good laws have some awe upon ill 
ministers, but that is where they have not power to escape or abolish 
them, and the people are generally wise and good: but a loose and de- 
praved people (which is to the question) love laws and an administra- 
tion like themselves. That therefore, which makes a good constitution, 
must keep it, viz: men of wisdom and virtue, qualities, that because 
they descend not with worldly inheritances, must be carefully propa- 
gated by a virtuous education of youth, for which after ages will owe 
more to the care and prudence of founders, and the successive magis- 
tracy, than to their parents for their private patrimonies. 

"These considerations of the weight of government, and the nice and 
various opinions about it, made it uneasy to me to think of publishing 
the ensuing frame and conditional laws, foreseeing both the censures 
they will meet with from men of differing humours and engagements, 
and the occasion they may give of discourse beyond my design. 

*'But next to the power of necessity (which is a solicitor that will 
take no denial) this induced me to a compliance, that we have (with 
reverence to God, and good conscience to men) to the best of our skill, 
contrived and composed the FRAME and LAWS of this government, to 
the great end of all government, viz: to support power in reverence 
with the people, and to secure the people from the abuse of power ; tliat 
they may be free by their just obedience, and the magistrates hon- 
ourable for their just administration : for liberty without obedience i» 
confusion, and obedience without liberty is slavery. To carry this even- 
ness is partly owing to the constitution, and partly to the magistracy ; 
where either of these fail, government will be subject to convulsiooe; 
but where both are wanting, it must be totally subverted : then where 
both meet, the government is like to endure. Which I humbly pray 
and hope God will please to make the lot of this of Pennsylvania. Amen. 

"William Penx." 


"First. That the charter of liberties declared, granted, and confirmed 
the five and twentieth day of the Second month, called April, 1682, before 
divers witnesses by William Penn, Governor and chief proprietary of 
Pennsylvania, to all the freemen and planters of the said province, is 
hereby declared and approved, and shall be forever held forfundamental 
in the government thereof, according to the limitations mentioned in the 
said charter. 

" Second. That every Inhabitant in the said province, that ia or shall 
be a purchaser of one hundred acres of land or upwards, his heirs and 
assigns, and every person who shall have paid his passage, and taken 
up one hundred acres of land, at one penny an acre,and have cultivated 
ten acres thereof, and every person that has been a servan t or bondsman, 
and is free by his service, that shall have taken up his fifty acres of land, 
and cultivated twenty thereof; and every inhabitant, artificer, or other 
resident in the said province, that pays scot and lot to the government,, 
shall be deemed and accounteil a freeman of the said province; and 
every such person shall and may be capable of electing or being elected 
representatives of the people in Provincial Council or General Assembly 
in the said province. 

"Third. That all elections of members or representatives of the people 
and freemen of the province of Pennsylvania, to serve in Provincial 
Council or General Assembly, to be held within the said province, shall 
bo free and voluntary ; and that the elector that shall receive any reward 
or gift, in meat, drink, moneys, or otherwise, shall forfeit his right to 
elect; and such person as shall, directly or indirectly, give, promise, or 
bestow any such reward as aforesaid, to be elected, shall forfeit his elec- 
tion, and be thereby incapable to serve as aforesaid. And the Provincial 
Council and General Assembly shall be the sole judges of the regularity 
or irieguhirity of the elections of their own respective members. 

"Fourth. That no money or goods shall be raised upon, or paid by any 
of the people of this province, by way of a publick tax, custom, or con- 
tribution, but by a law for that purpose made ; and whosoever shall levy, 
collect, or pay any money or goods contrary thereunto, shall be held a 
publick enemy to the province, and a betrayer of the liberties of the 
people thereof. 

"Fifth. That all courtsshall be open, and justice shall neither be sold, 
denied, or delayed. 

"Sixth, That in all courts all persons of all persuasions may freely 



appear in their own way, and according to their own manner, and there 

ptTSonally plead their owu cause themselves, or if unable, by their 
frieuds. And tlie firet process eliall he the exhibition of the complaint 
iu court, fourteen days before the trial; and that the party complained 
ayaiufit may bo fitted for the same, he or she sliall be summoned no less 
than ten days before, and a copy of the complaint delivered him or her, 
at his or her dwelling-bouse. But before the complaint of any person 
be received, he shall solemnly declare in court, that he believes in his his cause is Just. 

"Seventh. That all pleadings, processes, and records in courts, shall 
tie short, and iu Englisb, and iu an onliuary and plain character, that 
they may be understood, and justice speedily administered. 

"Eightb. That all trials shall be by twelve men, and as near as may 
be, peers or equals, and of the neighborhood, and men without just ex- 
ception. In cases of life, there shall be first twenty-four returned by 
the sheriff for a grand iuquest, of whom twelve at least shall find the 
complaint to be true ; and then the twelve men, or peers, to be likewise 
returned by the sheriff, sliall have the final jndgmeut. But reasonable 
challenges shall be always admitted against the said twelve men or any 
of them. 

"Ninth. That all fees in all cases shall be moderate, and settled by 
the Provincial Council and General Assembly, and be bung up in a 
table in every respective court and whosoever shall be convicted of 
tiking more, shall pay twofold, and be dismissed his employment, one 
moiety of which shall go to the party wronged. 

"Tenth. That all prisons shall be workhouses for felons, vagrants, 
and loose and idle persons; whereof one shall be in every county. 

"Eleventh. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, 
unless for capital oflfeuces, where the proof is evident or tlie presump- 
tion great. 

"Twelfth. That all persons wrongfully imprisoned or prosecuted at 
law shall have double damages against the informer or prosecutor. 

"Thirteenth. That all prisons shall he free as to fees, food, and 

"Fourteenth. That all lands and goods shall be liable to pay debts, 
except whero there is legal issue, and then all the goods and one-third 
of the land only. 

"Fifteenth. That all wills and writing, attested by two witnesses, 
shall he of the same force as to lauds as other conveyances, being 
legally proved within forty days, either within or without the said 

"Sixteenth. Tliat seven years quiet possession sJiall give an unques- 
tionable right, except iu cases of infants, lunaticks, married women, or 
persons beyond the seas. 

*' Seventeenth. That all briberies and extortions whatsoever shall be 
severely punished. 

"Eighteenth. That all fines shall be moderate, and saving mens con- 
tenements, merchandize, or wainage, 

"Nineteenth. That all marriages (not forbidden by the law of God, as 
to nearness of blood and afiinily by marriage) shall be encouraged ; but 
the parents or guardians shall be first consulted, and the marriage shall 
be published before it be solemnized, and it shall be solemnized by 
taking one another as husband and wife, befure credible witnesses, and 
a certificate of the whole, under the bands of parties and witness'e.s, 
shall be brought to the proper register of that county, and shall be reg- 
istered in his office. 

"Twentieth. And to prevent frauds and vexatious suits within tiie 
said province, that all charters, gifts, grants, and conveyances of land 
(except leases for a year or under), and all bills, bonds, and specialties 
have five pounds, and not under three mouths, made in the said prov- 
ince, shall be enrolled or registered iu the public eniolineiit office of 
the said province within the space of two months uextafter the making 
thereof, else to be void in law. And all deeds, grants, and conveyances 
of laud (except as aforesaid) within the said province, and made out ol 
Ibe said province, shall be iurulled or registered as aforesaid within Mx 
months next after the making thereof, and settling and constituting au 
enrolment office or registry within the said province, else to be void in 
law against all peisoua whatsoever. 

"Tw«nty-first. That all defacereor corrupters of charters, gifts, grants, 
bonds, bills, wills, contracts, aud conveyances, or that shall deface or 
falsify any enrolment, registry, or record within this province, shall 
make double satisfaction for the same ; half whereof shall go the party 
wronged, and they shall be dismissed of all places of trust, aud be pub- 
lickly disgraced as false men. 

"Twenty-second. That there shall be a register for births, ninr- 
riages, burials, wills, and letters of administration, distiuct from the 
other registry. 

"Twenty-third. That there shall he a register for all servants, where 

their names, time, wages, and days of payment shall be registered. 

"Twenty-fourth. That all lands and gr>ods of felons sliall be liable to 
make satisfaction to the party wronged twice the value ; and for want 
of land or goods, the felons shall be bondmen, to work in the cummon 
prisuu or workhouse, or otherwise, till the party injured be satisfied. 

"Twenty-fifth. That the estates of capital offenders, as traitors and 
murderers, shall go one-third to the next of kin to the sutferer, and the 
remainder to the next of kin to the criminal. 

"Twenty-sixth, That all witnesses, coming or called to testify their 
knowledge in or to any matter or thing in any couit, or before any 
lawful authority within the said province, shall there give or deliver 
in their evitlence or testimony, by solemnly pmmising to speak the 
truth, the whole tiuth, and nothing but the truth, to the matter or 
thing in question. And in case any person so called to evidence shall 
be convicted of wilful falsehood, such person shall suffer and undergo 
such damage or penalty as the person or persons against whom he or 
she bore false witness did or should undergo; and shall also make sat- 
isfaction to the party wronged, and be puldickly exposed as a false-wit- 
ness, never to be credited in any court or before any magistrate in the 
said province. 

"Twenty-seventh. And to the end that all officers chosen to serve 
within this province may with more care and diligence answer the trust 
, reposed in them, it is agreed that no such pei-son shall enjoy more than 
I one publick office at one time. 

*' Twenty-eighth. That all children within this province of the age of 
twelve years shall be taught some useful trade or skill, to the end none 
may be idle, but the poor may work to live, and the rich, if they become 
poor, may not want. 

"Twenty-ninth. That servants be not kept longer than their time^ 
and such as are careful be both justly and kindly used in their ser- 
vice, and put in fitting equipage at the expiration thereof, according to 

"Tliirtieth. That all scandalous and malicious reporters, backbiters, 
defaniers, and spreaders of false news, whether against magistrates or 
private persons, shall be accordingly severely punished as enemies to 
the peace and concord of this province. 

" Thirty-first. That for the encouragement of the planters and traders 
in this province, who are incorporated into a society, the patent granted 
to them by William Penn, Governor of the said province, is hereby 
ratified and confirmed. 

" Thirtv-second. ******* 

"Thirty-third. That all factors or correspondents in the said prov- 
ince wronging their employers, shall make satisfaction, and one third 
over to their said employers : and in case of the death of any such fac- 
tor or correspondent, the committee of trade shall take care to secure so 
much of the deceased party's estate, as belongs to his said respective 

"Tliirty-fonrth. That all treasurers, judges, masters of the rolls, 
sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other officers and pereons whatsoever, 
relating to courts or trials of causes, or any other service in the govern- 
ment; aud all members elected to serve in provincial Council and Gen- 
eral Assembly, and all tliat have right to elect such members, shall be 
such as profess faith in Jesus Christ, and that are not convicted of ill 
fame, or unsober and dishonest conversation, and that are of one and 
twenty years of age at least and that all such so qualified, shall he 
capable of the said several employments and privileges as aforesaid. 

"Thirty-fifth. Tliat all persons living in this province, who confess 
and acknowledge the one almighty and eternal God, to he the creator, 
upholder and ruler of the world, and that hold themselves obliged in 
conscience to live jieaceably and justly in civil society, shall in no ways 
be molested or prejudiced for their religious pei-suasion nr practice in 
matters uf faith and worship, nor shall they he compelled at any time to 
fiequent or maintain any religious worship, place or ministiy whatever. 

" Thirty-sixth. That according to the good example of the primitive 
chiistians, and for the ease of the creation, every first day of the week, 
called the Lord's day, peojde shall abstain from their common daily 
labour, that they may the better dispose themselves to worship God 
according to their understandings. 

" Thirty-seventh. That as careless and corrupt administration of jus- 
tice draws the wrath of God upon magistrates, so the wildness and loose- 
ness of the people provoke the indignation of God against a country: 
therefore, that all such oftences against God, as swearing, cursing, lying, 
prophane talking, drunkenness, drinking of healths, obscene words, 
incest, sodomy, rapes, whoredom, fornication, and other uncleanliness 



(not to be repeated). All treasons, misprisions, murders, duels, feloDiest 
seditions, maims, forcible entries, and other violences, to the persons and 
estates of the inhabitants within this province: all prizes, stage plays, 
cards, dice, may-games, masques, revels, boll-baitings, cock-fightings, 
bear-baitings, and the like, which incite the people to rudeness, cruelty, 
looseness, and irreligion, shall be respectively discouraged, and severely 
punished, according to the appointment of the governor and freemen in 
Provincial Council and General Assembly, as also all proceedings con- 
trary to these laws, that are not here made expressly penal. 

"Thirty-eighth. That a copy of these laws shall be hung up in the 
Provincial Council, and in publick courts of justice, and that they shall 
be read yearly, at the opening of every Provincial Council and General 
Assembly, and courts of justice, and their assent shall be testified by 
their standing up, after the reading thereof. 

"Thirty-ninth. That there shall be at no time any alteration of any 
of these laws, without the consent of the governor, his heirs or assigns, 
and six parts of seven of the freemen, met in Provincial Council and 
General Assembly. 

" Fortieth. That all other matteraaud things not herein provided for, 
which shall and may concern the publick justice, peace or safety of the 
said province; and tho raising and imposing taxes, customs, duties, or 
other charges whatsoever, shall be, and are hereby referred to the order, 
prudence and determiDBtion of the governor and freemen in Provincial 
Council and General Assembly, to be held from time to time in the said 

"Signed and sealed by the Governor and freemen aforesaid, the fifth 
day of the Third month, called May, one thousand six hundred and 

This code was a practical outline of the " Holy 
Experiment." It could be agreed upon in England, 
but must come with devoted colonists to the virgin 
soil of Pennsylvania for trial. These laws, so free 
from all repressive measures in relation to religious 
tolerance, were far in advance of all ecclesiastical or 
legislative thought in Europe, and, with but one nota- 
ble exception' among the provinces fringing the At- 
lantic coast in this country, were alike new and start- 
ling. The manner of perpetuating evidences of 
purchase and titles to landed estates, their liability 
for debt, the establishment of courts of justice, the 

1 But we must except the Catholic colony in Maryland, founded by Sir 

George Calvert, whose charter of 1632 and the act of toleration passed 
by the Assembly of Maryland in 1G49, under the inspiration of Sir 
George's son, Ciecilius, must be placed alongside of Penn's work. Two 
brighter lights in au ageof darkness never shone. Calvert's charter was 
written during the heat of the Thirty Years' religious war, Penn's Con- 
stitution at the moment when all Disssenters were persecuted in England 
and when Louis XIV. was about to revoke the Edict of Nantes. The 
"Virginians were expelling the Quakers and other sectaries. In New 
England the Puritan Separatists, themselves refugees for opinion's sake, 
martyrs to the cause of religious freedom, were making laws which were 
the embodiment of doubly distilled intolerance and persecution. Roger 
Williams was banished in 1635, in 1650 the Baptists were sent to the 
whipping-post, in 1634 there was a law passed for the expulsion of Ana- 
baptists, in lG-17 for the expulsion of Jesuits, and if they returned they 
were to be put to death. In 1656 it was decreed against " the cursed sect 
of heretics lately risen up in the world, are commonly called 
Quakers." that captains of ships bringing them in were to be fined or im- 
prisoned, Quaker books, or*' writings containing their devilish opinions," 
were not to be imported, Quakers themselves were to be sent to the house 
ofcorrection,kept at work, made to remain silent, and severely whipped. 
This was what the contemporaries of Calvert and Penu did. We have 
seen Penn's law of liberty of conscience. Calvert's was equally liberal. 
The charter of Calvert was not to be interpreted so as to work any dim- 
inution of God's sacred Christian religion, open to all sects, Protestiint 
and Catholic, and the act of toleration and all preceding legislation, ofii- 
cial oaths, etc., breathed the same spirit of toleration and determination, 
in the words uf the oath of 16.i7, that none in the colony, by himself or 
other, directly or indirectly, will "trouble, molest, or discountenance 
any person professing to believe in Jesus Christ for or on account of his 


manner of distributing decedents' property, and the 
practical sundering of church and state all marked 
an era of progressive legislation. 

" There are few more striking differences between 
the mother-country and her colonies, from the first 
settlement of the latter down to the present day, than 
the system of registration of deeds, or, as it is gener- 
ally called here, their recording. It was a favorite 
object of the old common law — I mean long before 
the Conquest — that possession of land and its transfer 
should be open and notorious, and the livery of seisin 
(the mode of transfer long before the introduction of 
deeds) was made in the presence of others. And 
when later, though still in Saxon times, deeds came 
into use, it was the custom to transact all conveyances 
at the County Court, and enter a memorial of them 
in the ledger book of some adjacent monastery, and 
these gradually became the depositaries of the char- 
ters or title deeds of the great landed proprietaries. 
All such deeds as could be found were destroyed by 
William the Conqueror, as part of his policy that all 
titles should commence from himself, and thenceforth 
we lose, for several hundred years, all trace of any 
such thing as registration. Not only this, but with 
the introduction of Uses lands came to be secretly 
held and secretly conveyed, so that ' scantly any per- 
son could be certainly assured of any lands by them 
purchased, nor know surely against whom they should 
use their actions or executions for their rights, titles, 
and duties,' — so ran the preamble to the Statute of 
Uses, — ' to the utter subversion of the ancient common 
lawsof this realm.' In the same year of Henry VIII. 's 
reign there was passed both the Statute of Uses and 
the first of the present register acts still in force, viz., 
'The Statute for inrollment of bargains and sales.' 
But this, as also a subsequent local statute of Elizabeth, 
proved inoperative, first, by reason of being limited 
to deeds of estates of inheritance of freehold, and 
the device was soon introduced of a bargain and sale 
for a terra of years followed by a release of the re- 
version, which effectually evaded the statute, and, 
secondly, because neither was there a place assigned 
for keeping the records, nor was the registrar made 
responsible for his duty. During the time of the 
Commonwealth the subject was more than once pre- 
sented to Parliament, and unsuccessfully, and it was 
not until the reign of Anne that there was passed the 
first of the statutes now in force, providing with 
some care for the registration of all deeds in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, and this was followed by 
similar local statutes in the same reign, and in those 
of William and Mary and George II. Their sum 
may be stated in that they applied to all the Ridings 
of York, the town and county of Kingston-upon-Hull, 
the county of Middlesex, and the Bedford Level 
Tract; and in the preambles to those statutes you 
will find how earnestly are set forth the evils sought 
to be cured by registration. But such has been the 
1 settled dislike of the people, or at least that land- 



holding portion of it whicli make tlie laws, that no- 
toriety or even possibility of knowledge outside of 
those concerned should attend the transfer of land that 
there has never been in England even an approach 
to the system which we have. Not that the subject 
has not been mooted. During the eighteenth century 
six registration bills were presented which never even 
went to a second reading. In the present century, in 
1815, a statute for a general registration was presented 
by Romilly, which shared the same fate. In 1829 
there was appointed the well-known commission, 
with Lord Campbell at its head, 'to inquire into 
the state of real property in England.' Prominent 
in the inquiry was registration, and you will find in 
the folio volumes of their report hundreds of pages 
of evidence of the ablest lawyers of the kingdom, — 
evidence as to the register counties, evidence as to the 
English colonies, evidence as to some of the United 
States, evidence as to Continental States, — the great 
weight of which the commission thought was de- 
cisive upon the question. Accordingly they reported 
a bill, which was introduced in an able speech by 
Campbell, and opposed by Sugden and others, but 
it only passed a first reading. You will find the 
subject again brought up in 18.31, in 1832, in 1833, 
and finally in 1834, after an elaborate debate, in 
which the opponents of the measure had really little 
more to urge than that there was a prejudice against 
it, the bill was lost on second reading by a vote of 
nearly three to one, and Campbell tells us in his auto- 
biography just published, with perhaps just a little 
malice, that it was owing to the country members 
being persuaded by their attorneys to vote against it. 
"In 1854 another royal commission was issued, 
which, after investigation, rejected the scheme for the 
registration of deeds, and recommended the registra- 
tion of titles, and such a bill was, in 1859, brought in 
by Sir Hugh Cairns. It was dropped, however, ana 
then, in 18G2, was passed Lord Westbury's act for 
the registration of indefeasible titles. These were 
very like the snakes in Iceland, — there were none, or 
at least very few, and the act practically came to 
nothing. Then came the Land Transfer Act of 1875, 
which was not compulsory, and came practically to 
nothing. Then, in 1878, was appointed a select com- 
mittee to report what steps should be taken to fticili- 
tate the transfer of land, and a mass of important and 
interesting testimony was taken under it, including 
that of Lord Cairns, then Chancellor, who thought 
that one of the great objections to registration was 
that ' in the English mind there was, at the bottom, a 
most profound respect for title deeds, and that when 
the supreme moment comes at which a man is told 
that he must part with all his title deeds, and receive 
in lieu a little piece of paper, which is to be the evi- 
dence of his title to the land, the sacrifice is too great 
for human nature to make, and he declines to make 
it.' The committee reported a bill in the session of 
1880, which went further than any of the previous 

ones, and it might have passed, but there were several 
other land bills of confessedly greater importance, 
such, Mr. Gladstone said, as the one as to ' ground 
game,' and accordingly, as we all remember, the 
House talked about ' the Hares and Rabbits Bill' till 
late into a late session. Finally there was passed the 
' Conveyancing and Law of Property Act,' which re- 
ceived the royal assent, but which omits any provi- 
sions as to general compulsory registration. 

" It is somewhat curious that it seems to be almost 
taken for granted in England that no system of regis- 
tration can be effectual which does not depend upon 
the good-will of the land-dealing community, — in 
other words, that there can be no such thing practi- 
cally as compulsory registration ; but it would seem 
that nothing can be simpler than to provide for the 
postponement of the unregistered deed to the regis- 
tered one, and this provision secures the practical, 
successful working of the system throughout the 
breadth of this country. 

" In contrast with the English system, how striking 
is the fact that from the earliest settlement of our 
colonies the benefits of registration were seen. In 
Pennsylvania, some years before the charier to Penn, 
it had been provided in the early provincial laws that 
every clerk of every Court of Sessions should enter 
all grants, bargains, sales, and mortgages of land, 
' together with the estates of the grantor and grantee, 
things and estates granted, together with the date 
thereof.' Then, in the ' Laws agreed upon in Eng- 
land,' shortly after the grant to Penn, provision was 
made for the registration of all charters, gifts, and 
conveyances of land, except leases for a year and 
under, 'in the public enrollment office of the prov- 
ince.' Tills was accordingly approved and enacted in 
the 'Great Law,' passed at Chester in 1682, and the 
next year it was declared that the laws as to registry 
should, like others deemed of great importance, such 
as those concerning liberty of conscience, liberty of 
property, liberty of person, open courts, speedy jus- 
tice, the laws to be in English, etc., be reputed and 
held for fundamental in the government of the prov- 

" There is much curious learning about the various 
recording acts which were passed after this, in 1693, 
1700, 1705, 1710, and 1715, all of them except the 
last repealed by the Queen in Council, and much that 
is interesting and not generally known as to the re- 
peal of these laws and their re-enactment here at the 
singular intervals of five years. It is enough here to 
say that finally the act of 1715 was passed, which, es- 
caping the fate of repeal, remains in full force to-day. 
It provided, in effect, for a record office in every county, 
and that all deeds of lands properly acknowledged 
and recorded were to have the force and effect of 
deeds of feoffment with livery and seisin, or deeds 
enrolled in any of the king's courts at Westminster. 
Except as to mortgages, however, the statute was not 
compulsory, and it was not until 1775 that it was re- 



quired that all deeds and conveyances should be re- 
corded within six months after their execution, or 
else to be adjudged fraudulent and void against any 
subsequent purchaser or mortgagee for valuable con- 
sideration. It is natural to pass from the devolutioa 
of estates to their administration. 

" Penn's charter gave him power to establish among 
other things officers for the probate of wills, and for 
the granting of administration. 

" A little thought as to what was the law in Eng- 
land with respect to this will show how inapplicable 
was its machinery to the wants of the new colony, 
for England was then, as now, divided, ecclesiasti- 
cally, into the provinces of York and Canterbury ; 
each of these was divided into dioceses, and the 
bishop of each diocese where a decedent had his 
domicile possessed, by the name and style of the 
Ordinary, the jurisdiction of the probate of wills, the 
granting of letters testamentary, the appointment of 
administrators, and the control over them and their 
accounts, and the courts in which these and cognate 
matters came up for judicial action were ecclesiastical 
courts, of which the principal ones were the Preroga- 
tive Courts of Canterbury and York, the Peculiar, 
the Royal Peculiar, and certain manorial courts. 

" But while this was so as to the estates of decedents, 
the care of the persons and estates of infants had been 
from an early day vested in the sovereign as parens 
patriw, and was later exercised, as it is to this day, 
by the Court of Chancery. 

" But our colonists needed neither ecclesiastical 
courts for their decedents nor a parens patriae for their 
infants. Before the charter, provision had been al- 
ready made for the probate of wills and granting of 
administration by the Court of Sessions, as also for 
the distribution and sale of the estates of decedents, 
and for the filing of an inventory by ' all persons who 
have any estate in their possession belonging to any 
that are under age.' Provisions were made in the 
' Laws agreed upon in England,' as also in the ' Great 
Law,' for a register for births, marriages, burials, 
wills, and letters of administration, and the register- 
general was, after the charter, appointed by the Pro- 
prietary and granted letters. 

" The act of 1705 was precise as to the appointment 
by the Governor of the register-general, who should 
keep his office at Philadelphia, and from time to time 
constitute deputies in each of the other counties. 

"From the preamble to the act of 1712 it would 
seem that no register-general, either for the other 
counties or even for Philadelphia, had been appointed, 
and the provisions of the act of 170.5 were thereby re- 
enacted, with others, providing for the appointment 
of a register-general by ' the commissioners, agents, 
or stewards of the Proprietary,' if he should neglect, 
and in case of their neglect by the judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia County. 

" The law as to registers remained unaltered till the 
Revolution, when, owing to the change of govern- 

ment, the office of register-general was by the act of 
1777 abolished, and an office called the ' Register's 
Office' established in each county and such is sub- 
stantially the law to the present day. 

" To the register and the Register's Court was com- 
mitted that class of cases relating to decedents' estates 
which were cognizable by the Ecclesiastical Courts in 
England ; and this continued until, by our recent 
Constitution of 1874, the jurisdiction of the Register's 
Court was transferred to the Orphans' Court. 

"The Orphans' Court had a different origin, and 
was taken from one of the customs of London. If the 
sovereign had, as we have seen, ss parens palrim, the 
care of the persons and estates of infants, the 'cus- 
tom of orphanage, one of the most considerable cus- 
toms of London, as it respects the children of free- 
men who died possessed of great personal estates,' 
was of at least equal antiquity. The Court of Or- 
phans was held before the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
of the city of London, and the custom was that ' if 
any freeman or freewoman die, leaving orphans 
within age, unmarried, the said court have the cus- 
tody of their body and goods.' To this end execu- 
tors and administrators were bound to exhibit true 
inventories before it, and to become bound to the 
chamberlain to the use of the orphans to make a true 
account upon oath, on pain of commitment. As in 
the case of a ward in chancery it was a contempt to 
marry one without the leave of the court, it was 
equally a contempt of the Court of Orphans, who 
promptly acted by fine and imprisonment, and, as 
was and is the case with the Court of Chancery, only 
released its severity upon submission by the offender 
and making a proper settlement. 

" Many of the colonists came from the city of Lon- 
don, and it was natural that some of the laws upon 
our early statute books, and some of our customs not 
found in written laws, were the same as those accord- 
ing to the custom of London. We have already no- 
ticed the early and vague laws of 1676, of 1683, and 
of 1693, but in 1701 was passed a law of greater 
precision. It was an elaborate act for establishing 
courts of judicature, and gave to the Orphans' Court 
jurisdiction over all persons intrusted with the prop- 
erty, real and personal, of orphans or persons under 
age, either as guardians, tutors, trustees, executors, or 
administrators. You will observe that this was still 
an Orphans' Court; it bad no jurisdiction over execu- 
tors or administrators, except as to the property of 
7ninors in their hands, and as to such property, its 
jurisdiction extended to both lands and chattels. This 
was in 1701. Then in 1705 was passed the intestate 
law we have already referred to, by which adminis- 
trators (not executors) were to account to the Orphans' 
Court (meaning the Orphans' Court under the act of 
1701), which also had jurisdiction of the distribution 
of the surplus, the partition of the real estate of in- 
testates, and its sale for the payment of debts and 
maintenance of children. But in the same year the 




Orphans' Court Act of 1701 was repealed in England, 
and the Intestate Act of 1705 stood, so to speak, 
alone, and this continued for eight years. Then in 
1813 was passed ' An Act for establishing Orphans' 
Courts,' under which and its supplements we acted 
until the revised statute of 1832. Reciting the ex- 
istence and repeal of the former laws, and that thereby 
orphans and persons concerned for them or intrusted 
with their estates labored under great inconveniences, 
the Orphans' Court, composed of the judges of the 
Court of Quarter Sessions in each county, was estab- 
lished as a court of record, and jurisdiction given 
over all persons who, as guardians, trustees, tutors, 
executors, administrators, or otherwise, should be in- 
trusted with or accountable for lands, tenements, 
goods, or estates belonging to any orphan or person 
under age. The register was obliged to transmit to 
the Orphans' Court copies of all inventories, accounts, 
etc., power was given to the court to dismiss adminis- 
trators in certain cases, and to exercise all the juris- 
diction granted to the Orphans' Court by the Intestate 
Act of 1705; and so things remained until after the 
Revolution. Since then various supplements to the 
act of 1713 and other acts have greatly enlarged the 
power of the Orphans' Court, and in the Constitutions 
of 1776 and 1790 the Orphans' Court was enumerated 
as one of the courts of the Commonwealth. Still, 
however, its precise position was less settled and de- 
fined than that of any court thei-ein. Though ex- 
pressly created a court of record, and as such coming 
within the rule of all English-speaking countries, that 
its judgments could not be inquired into collaterally, 
cases were decided in which the rule was applied, and 
others in which it was not. The reasons for this were 
clearly given by the revisers of our code when, in 
1830, they were expressly directed, such was the 
urgency of the case, to give their first attention to 
the several statutes relating to the settlement of ac- 
counts before registers and proceedings in the Orphans' 
Courts. 'The peculiar structure of that court,' said 
they, 'its extremely ill defined sphere of jurisdiction, 
the magnitude of the interests upon which it operates, 
the uncertainty of the code of law by which it is reg- 
ulated, and its equally uncertain and insufficient 
practice and process serve to surround with difficul- 
ties every attempt to frame a regular system for 

" The act reported and passed brought harmony and 
symmetry to the subject, although the court was still 
composed of judges of the Courts of Common Pleas. 
Finally, by the Constitution of 1874, the Orphans' 
Court was erected into a separate and independent 
tribunal, the separate Registers' Courts were abolished, 
their jurisdiction given to the Orphans' Court, and 
the register himself made the clerk of the court. Its 
jurisdiction and that of the register may be thus 
briefly summed up: 

" 1. The register has the old jurisdiction of the 
ordinary in England as to the probate of wills and 

the granting of letters testamentary and of adminis- 
tration, and in his office are filed the accounts of 
executors, administrators, guardians, and testament- 
ary trustees ; there his power ceases. 

"2. The Orphans' Court has the power of dismissal 
of executors and administrators and the appointment 
of others in their place, the settlement of their ac- 
counts and the distribution of the personal estate, 
and so fiir its jurisdiction is in analogy to that of the 
Ecclesiastical Courts. But, above and beyond this, 
its large and extended jurisdiction, including every 
case in which the estate of a decedent or the care 
of infants and their property is involved, is in anal- 
ogy to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery, and 
is exercised substantially in the same manner. Mean- 
while, in England, it was not until our own time that 
any substantial change was m.ade,and the jurisdiction 
of the Ecclesiastical Courts continued as for centuries 
it had until the year 1857, when by the act of 20 
and 21 Victoria, c. 77, the jurisdiction and authority 
of all ecclesiastical and other courts in the probate 
of wills and granting administration were given to 
the Court of Probate. And now by virtue of the 
Probate Court is exercised by the Probate, Divorce, 
and Admiralty Division of the High Court of Jus- 
tice." • 

Penn's work of preparation for his departure from 
England was completed by August, 1682. The 
"Welcome," under command of Robert Greenway, 
had shipped her stores, her crew was in service, and 
the "jolly tars" waited with impatience for the 
"Governor of the Colony" and the adventurous 
people who were to cross the ocean with them to 
come on board. 

August 30th, he wrote his " valedictory epistle to 
England" and his affectionate farewell to his wife 
and children. 

September 1st, he was ready to sail, in the posses- 
sion of a charter for a province and future State, 
protected by the flag of his native land, his system 
of government prepared for submission to the free 
men of Pennsylvania. His Deputy Governor Mark- 
ham, Surveyor-General Thomas Holme, and Special 
Commissioners Nathaniel Allen, John Bezar, and 
William Crispin were busy in preparing the minds 
of the settlers and the watchful Indian chiefs for, his 
coming. Surrounded by the hundred and more con- 
fiding souls that had taken passage with him, he 
keenly felt the responsibility of the hour and situa- 
tion ; but, with settled purpose and convictions deep- 
ened by years of painful experience, he sought con- 
solation and repose of mind in the hopefulness of a 
near and still more eventful future among a free 
people and in a new country. As. the time of Penn's 
arrival approached, expectancy was intense among the 
settlers on the Delaware. The sale of lands by his 
agents, over five hundred thousand acres, with ships 

1 William Hoary Kiwle.Esij.: Pennaylvania and Kngliflh Law. 



accommodations for Masonic lodge and post-office; 
Western Marl^et-House and Hall, at Kohn and Mar- 
shall Streets. Conspicuous among Norristown's latest 
public improvements is the great State Hospital for 
the Insane. The fire department of the borough con- 
sists of the Norris, Humane, and Montgomery Hose 
and Steam Fire-Engines, and the Fairmount Hose or 
Hook-and-Ladder Company. All of these associa- 
tions have erected large three-story brick engine- 
houses with capacious halls ; the first especially is 
one of the stateliest edifices in the town, and it is not 
an over-estimate to value the apparatus and real 
estate of all the firemen of Norristown at near a hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 

Pottstown. — Very soon after the completion of the 
Norristown Railroad, which started the villages of 
the lower Schuylkill, the great Philadelphia and 
Reading was opened to the public along and through 
the whole southwestern border of the county, fur- 
nishing another rapid way to Philadelphia market.' 
The opening of this road started Pottstown from its 
sleep of nearly a century, a place which enjoys the 
rare distinction of being the first laid-out town in the 
county, having been surveyed and designed for a 
city by John Potts in 1753, thus antedating Norris- 
town over thirty years. Like his great exemplar, 
William Penn, he placed the streets at right angles 
and in line with the cardinal points, and High or 
Main Street, like Market Street, Philadelphia, was 
laid out near a hundred feet wide. But notwith- 
standing its site, almost level as a floor, seemed formed 
for a city far above the line of overflow from the 
river, and in the midst of rich bottom land, above 
and below, it improved little until the railroad broke 
in upon its rural slumber, about 1842. It was, how- 
ever, incorporated as a borough in 1815, and for 
many years from that period justly sought to become 
a county-seat of adjoining parts of Chester, Berks, 
and Montgomery Counties, under various names, but 
finally "Madison." That enterprise failed through 
purely selfish and political motives among the people 
of the opposing county towns ; but Pottstown ad- 
vanced, nevertheless, through the new-born energy 
already described. Since 1845 its three churches 
have increased to ten, including the following: 
Episcopal, 1833; Methodist Episcopal, 1839; St. 
Aloysius' (Catholic), 1850; Presbyterian, 1853; First 
Baptist, 1859; Salem Church (Evangelical Associa- 
tion), 1870; African Methodist Episcopal Church, 
same year. During this period also Friends' Meeting 
was rebuilt (1876), and the Reformed and Lutheran 

1 The author recalls an incident worth recording here to show bow the 
railroad broke iu upon settled notions and habits of farmers of the upper 
townships: An enterprising Pliiladelphian, about 1845, passed up to 
Pottstown, and thence came downward to Norristown, soliciting far- 
mers on the way to contract for daily supplies of milk, deliverable at 
the stations, for coosumption in Philadelphia, without securing a single 
contract, although he offered cash on delivery. Farmers had not 
thought of it, aud were afraid to try what has now grown into an im- 
mense trade. 

Churches erected separate edifices, which were fin- 
ished 1870 and 1872. 

The manufacturing industry of the borough has 
rested on a solid basis for many years, there being 
several corporations combining very heavy capital, 
and in matters of town improvements, such as gas, 
hydrant-water, markets, and the like ; the first was 
secured by a company, which erected works in 1858 ; 
the second by another corporation, 1869; and the 
last by another, still earlier, which also furnishes a 
public hall, with additional lodge-rooms above. 

The fire department of Pottstown is now well or- 
ganized, having two steam fire-engines, the com- 
panies being named "Good- Will" and "Philadel- 
phia" ; they have hose-carriages annexed, and all 
their apparatus is of the most efficient description. 

The school department has two or three large 
houses, including the former academy building. 
Like Norristown, the borough has passed its original 
; barriers two or three times, there being extensive ad- 
ditions of laid-out and improved streets on the north, 
and especially eastward, now being rapidly covered 
with buildings. The large blast-furnace just over the 
Manatawny, added to the immense iron-works and 
other manufactures of iron in the borough proper, 
gives Pottstown a fair claim to contest with Consho- 
hocken the title of " iron-clad." Pottstown has 
founded two public cemeteries, a little out of town, — 
" Pottstown" and " Edgewood." The town maintains 
two or three well-conducted newspapers, and from its 
grand site, and public-spirited, wealthy inhabitants 
also, we infer that at no distant day it will become 
a considerable city. Population (by census 1880), 

Conshohocken. — The manufacturing town of Mont- 
gomery County is Conshohocken, which at the open- 
ing of the era under consideration hardly had a place 
on any printed map ; its population now cannot be 
less than five thousand souls. When Plymouth dam 
and the aqueduct over the creek of that name were 
being built by the Navigation Company, a few acres 
of land adjoining were purchased by it for conveni- 
ence in prosecuting its work at that place, which, 
after the canal was finished, were sold to John 
Freedley and James Wells, of Norristown. The 
latter built a hotel aud store on the line of the rail- 
road (site of present station), and the former erected 
below the canal on the river bank a mill for sawing 
marble, which was run by water-power for some years 
by Freedley & Heebner, the senior partner supplying 
much of the stone from quarries worked or owned by 
him in Massachusetts. A few years later they sold 
the residue of their purchase in lots to improvers, 
which was the beginning of the town. David Harry 
erected also a flouring-mill on the bank of the river 
(site of the present print-works), and just above it, 
driven also by water-power of the canal company, 
James Wood erected, 1832, a mill to manufacture 
spades, saws, and other tools, as also sheet-iron. 



Tliese mills were the nucleus from which the present 
immense maiiufjictures of the place have sprung. It 
is needless to add more, as these will be treated of 
elsewhere. The further extension of streets and 
building improvements was promoted by sale.s of 
land eastward of the town by Isaac Jones, along 
Hector Street, and later by Benjamin Harry, who 
sold nineteen acres along Fayette Street, on the rear 
centre of the town. Tliat main avenue, turnpiked in 
1847 (which was the township line between Plymouth 
and White Marsh), is already adorned by numerous 
palatial mansions, and by a handsome Episcopal 
Church, chapel, and adjacent rectory, which last 
property in completeness would do credit to any 
city. The borough has also a Presbyterian, Cath- 
olic, Baptist, Methodist, and an African Methodist 
Church, as also a handsome ijublic hall, with market 
and lodge-rooms combined, the last three stories and 
a Mansard roof, built by a company, 1872. Two 
other corporations, chartered a few years ago, have 
erected water- and gas-works. The Washington Hose 
and Steam Fire-Engine Company erected in 1878 a 
handsome and substantial building for their steamer 
and hose- carriage, which, with the superior apparatus, 
is valued at twelve thousand dollars. In addition to 
a substantial open iron bridge over the river, Con- 
shohocken has two large public school buildings, and 
another owned by the Catholics. Considerable atten- 
tion has been given recently to grading, curbing, and 
paving the sidewalks, and the population is increasing 
quite as rapidly as any town of the county. It was 
chartered May, 1850. 

West Conshohocken. — This new borough, formerly 
called by an Indian name, Baligomingo, now just en- 
tering its second decade as a corporate town (char- 
tered 1874), owe.s its chief importance to the valuable 
water-power of Gulf Creek and to the extensive 
woolen manufactures of George Bullock and others 
near by, as also the extensive blast-furnace of Moore- 
head & Co. The latter works are established on 
territory taken from Lower Merion, and the former 
belonged to Upper Merion, the borough limits as in the 
case of East Conshohocken being taken from two ad- 
joining townships. Population (1880), 1462. Mostof 
the manufactories of the borough line the ravine of 
Gulf Creek, and being so situated the town offers 
little opportunity for street improvements, and yet its 
one or two avenues, as also the upper ones, are kept 
in superior condition. Here, in this mountain-like 
glen, fifty years ago. Bethel Moore successfully carried 
on the manufacture of woolen cloths, the first in our 
county. The borough contains a number of mills, a 
church, and some school buildings, as also a reservoir 
on the hillside to provide water for extinguishing 

Bridgeport. — This is the fourth borough of the 
county in order of incorporation, being one year 
younger than Conshohocken, its charter dating Feb. 
27, 1851. It was in its early history called Evans- 

ville, after its then owner, Elisha Evans. It possesses 
a number of manufactories of textile fabrics, a paper- 
mill, market-house and hall combined, a Baptist and 
a Presbyterian Church, and the extensive depots of 
the Heading and Chester Valley Railroads. It also 
has a number of stores, and just below its corporate 
limits perhaps the largest manufactory of mixed 
woolens on the line of the Schuylkill, owned by the 
Lees Brothers. The population of Bridgeport is 

Hatboroagh. — The name of this lower end borough 
comes down to us from colonial times, said to have 
been named from a manufactory of hats established 
there before the Revolution, though the village was 
as often called " The Billet," or " Crooked Billet," 
from a tavern sign which bore that name or symbol, 
no doubt of English importation. The place is one 
of the oldest settled districts of the county, and is 
full of historical and legendary remains. It was the 
residence of Col. Robert Lollar, of Revolutionary 
fame, and Hon. Nathaniel B. Boileau, both distin- 
guished and active business men in the early days of 
our county. It contains a public library, the oldest 
and most extensive in our bounds, an academy, with 
many handsome residences and churches. Hatbor- 
ough is no exception to the rule that our recent bor- 
oughs owe their corporate existence to the railroad, 
as the locality was densely settled for years past, but 
only erected into a municipality in 1871, when being 
opened to railroad travel. The borough contains also 
two or three schools, which occupy the academy ; it 
has a weekly paper, and a handsome monument to 
commemorate the resting-place of soldiers killed by 
the British during the Revolution. Population (1880), 

Jenkintown. — This younger sister of Hatborough 
was chartered 1874, also made up mainly of old set- 
tled families in Abington township, and organized 
into a borough to provide local improvements. It 
has one of the oldest Presbyterian Church buildings, 
and near by one of the oldest Friends' in the county. 
It contains also an Episcopal, a Catholic, and a Meth- 
odist Church, and numerous fine buildings of the 
olden style, as also some of modern elegance. There 
have been recently built a bank, a large school build- 
ing, and a Masonic Hall. Population, 810. 

Lansdale. — This young thriving borough, which 
only dates its charter from 1872, owes its rare distinc- 
tion as a manufacturing place to the North Pennsyl- 
vania, the Stony Creek and Doylestown Branches of 
that railroad, which intersect at that point. Heeb- 
uer's agricultural machine-works are famous all over 
the Union, as also known in places abroad. It is 
taken from Gwynedd and Hatfield townships, is fully 
surveyed and carefully laid out, and for a town of its 
age is wonderfully improved. It lies over a plain on 
both sides of the North Pennsylvania Railroad ; it 
has two or three public schools, a Reformed and a 
Methodist Church, a bank, and a weekly newspaper. 



It is destined to be a place of great importance, and 
its population, at present 798, is growing rapidly. For 
the purpose of supplying pure water it has put down 
an artesian well. 

North Wales. — This is the elder sister of the bor- 
ough just described, being distant from it about two 
miles, and chartered in 1869. It was taken from 
Gwyuedd township, and is situated on the Sumney- 
town and Spring House turnpike, on elevated ground, 
and beside the North Pennsylvania Railroad. Like 
its neighbor, it has grown up within little over a 
decade. It contains a Reformed, Baptist, Lutheran, 
and Methodist Episcopal Church, two or three school 
buildings, and a fine seminary, a steam-flouring mill, 
bell foundry, and other manufactures, as also a 
weekly newspaper. The town has been carefully sur- 
veyed and laid out into streets, and active means have 
been employed to place its avenues and walks in good j 
condition; population (1880), 673. 

Green Lane. — This is one of the latest boroughs, j 
chartered 1875, and has been surveyed and laid out 
into streets and building lots. It is situated on Per- 
kiomen Creek, in Marlborough township, on the 
Sumneytown and Spring House pike, and covers one 
hundred and fifty-four acres of ground. It is the old 
locality of Schall's Forge, which was famous in its 
day, and as it is adjacent to the Perkiomen Railroad, 
it will doubtless grow rapidly. Population, last 
census, 187. 

East Greenville. — This borough is taken out of 
Upper Hanover township, and is also situated near 
the Perkiomen Railroad ; it was incorporated 1875, 
and contains considerable improvements, consisting 
of a seminary for both sexes, one or two churches, 
schools, cigar manufactories, and other industries. It 
is on Green Lane and Goshenhoppen turnpike. Popu- 
lation, 331. 

Royer's Ford. — This youngest of the boroughs was 
chartered 1879. It is a thriving manufacturing town, 
taken out of the lower corner of Limerick township, 
and is situated on the Schuylkill, where the river was 
formerly crossed by a deej), dangerous ford. There 
is a substantial bridge here now, connecting it witli 
the borough of Spring City, in Chester County. Some 
years ago an extensive stove foundry was established 
there, which, with other manufactures, have caused 
an influx of population. There have been recently 
erected two or three churches, and a fire company has 
been organized. The streets are being graded and 
rapidly improved. Population, 558. 

The foregoing hasty review of the boroughs was 
not undertaken or designed as a full exhibit of the 
material development of large centres of population, 
but only to show how corporate towns spring up as 
by magic in this labor-saving, railroad age. But 
to complete the picture we must name in order 
the other villages of the couuty which are on a 
like career, such as Trappe, Freeland, Collegeville, 

Schwenksville, Iron Bridge, Gilbertsville, and Sum- 
neytown ; Valley Forge, Port Kennedy, Swedesburg, 
Spring Mill, Pencoyd, and West Manayunk, on the 
line of the Schuylkill; Barren Hill, Marble Hall, 
Plymouth Meeting, Flourtown, Edge Hill, Chelten- 
ham, Ashborne, Kulpsville, and Centre Square, in the 
centre; Ardmore, Bryn Mawr, Merion Square, and 
the rural seats (almost rivaling the outlying villas 
which once stood around ancient Rome) now spread- 
ing over the plateau beside the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, in Lower Merion. 

But new ideas and methods of living are not con- 
fined to towns and villages, they extend to the re- 
motest farm-house. Free schools and improved land, 
with ready access to market, have excited all over 
the county a desire for more easy and eflicient 
methods of farming and other production. Years 
ago farmers threw aside sickles, scythes, and hand- 
rakes, resolving to keep abreast of the times by using 
horse-power implements to cultivate, gather, and pre- 
pare farm products for market. Thus by improved 
tillage upon limed land, with use of other fertilizers, 
crops have been nearly doubled ; and now, instead of 
spending two months of exhaustive labor, as formerly, 
to gather and store a harvest, it is done in a fortnight. 
Thus, also, increased profit in agriculture excited a 
desire for more comfortable dwellings, capacious 
barns, more elegant equipages and attire, as also 
handsomer churches, and more roomy and convenient 

Travelers on the continent of Europe inform us 
that in many parts, especially in rural departments of 
France, the people are seen using the rude imple- 
ments of husbandry and wearing the same style of 
attire that their fathers and mothers wore almost cen- 
turies ago ; while here, on the contrary, observant 
people of advanced years express wonder and aston- 
ishment on visiting hardware-stores and other depots 
of merchandise, at beholding new, handy, inge- 
nious, and often almost unimaginable contrivances 
for farmers', householders', and mechanics' uses. 
And no well-filled grocery is without manufactured 
viands, syrups, and canned edibles without number, 
showing to what a prodigious stretch of activity the 
industrial mind of the country is brought in this 
labor-saving or rather labor-combination era. 

No sooner did the railroad get into operation across 
our territory than the telegraph wire followed it, thus 
putting us into instantaneous communication with 
the outside world. Now, poles and wires pass along 
many leading highways, as along all railroads ; and 
still again the telephone, which enables us to con- 
verse with friends or correspondents in distant places, 
is also established in most of our chief towns ; but, 
more wonderful than all, the electric light is coming, 
which will nearly actualize the Bible expression, 
" There shall be no night," for the sun or its reflex, 
electricity, almost turns night into pure daylight. 
But the two grandest elevators — we might say insti- 



tutions — of society in this last quarter of the century 
are the reaping- or mowing-machine of the farmer 
and sewing-macliine of the household. By their use 
the man or woman who employs either has quadru- 
pled his or her productive power, thus approximating 
the philosophic principle of the machine itself, — "an 
instrument that produces, but consumes nothing." 

Our proximity to the great cities and large manu- 
facturing towns has also nearly revolutionized agri- 
culture in another particular. The farmers of Mont- 
gomery County, instead of raising beef, pork, and 
mutton for Philadelphia market, as formerly, have to 
some extent come to consuming meat grown and 
fattened on the great plains of the far West, and it is no 
unusual thing to see beef-cattle driven through our 
streets bearing the brands of herders of Texas or Ari- 
zona. Thus transformed, husbandry in our county 
largely takes the exclusive type of "the dairy," 
boys and men doing the milking, while the product 
is worked into marketable shape at "creameries," 
now recently built and furnished all over the county, 
the latter worked also by men and boys, while many 
of our mothers and .sisters only ply the needle and 
sewing-machine, or perhaps finger the piano or harp. 

Another institution of the present, though not ma- 
terial in nature, must be mentioned in this connec- 
tion as at the bottom of nearly half the town im- 
provements which have sprung up during this era, — 
we refer to building, savings, and loan associations. 
These enable mechanical and manufacturing em- 
ployes in our towns to build themselves homes, with 
a reasonably sure opportunity of paying for them in 
installments, by help of loans which cannot be fore- 
closed until savings have secured a dwelling free of 

But in nothing has the progress of society been 
more marked and surprising than in the various so- 
cial or voluntary associations to protect individual 
members against the ills of life, as beneficial and in- 
surance companies, such as fire, life, health, and 
accident insurance companies, including farmers' in- 
stitutes, fairs, and the like. 

The Montgomery Agricultural Society was formed, 
and buildings erected at Springtovvn, two miles north- 
east of Norristown, as early as 1848, which had a suc- 
cessful career for several years, its fairs being well 
attended and salutary in their influence. A few years 
after it was removed to near Norristown, and mei'ged 
into the " East Pennsylvania Agricultural and Me- 
chanical Society," which continued a number of 
years ; but dissensions arising, many members of the 
original society reorganized under the old name, and 
purchased land at Ambler, Upper Dublin, and erected 
new buildings, which after some years has somewhat 
declined again, in consequence of the predominance 
of the sporting over the strictly farming class of pa- 
trons. These county agricultural associations and 
fairs, when properly conducted, cannot be too highly 
commended as educational institutions. 

After nearly thirty years' experience the various 
fire, storm, and live-stock insurance companies have 
come to be among our most valued corporations, fur- 
nishing as they do reliable insurance at cost. 



The river Schuylkill has its origin from two small 
streams which rise in the Broad Mountain, in Rush 
township, Schuylkill Co. Following its windings to 
where it empties into the Delaware, which is five 
miles below Philadelphia, its total length is about 
one hundred and twenty-five miles, flowing in its 
general course, a southeasterly direction. Its prin- 
cipal tributaries in Schu7,'lkill County are the Little 
Schuylkill, Bear, and Tumbling Creeks ; in Berks 
County, Maiden and Tulpehocken Creeks ; in Mont- 
gomery County, Manatawny, Perkiomen, and Stony 
Creeks ; in Chester County, Pigeon and French 
Creeks; and in Philadelphia, the Wissahickon. Fol- 
lowing its courses the Schuylkill laves the shores of 
Montgomery County for about forty miles. 

On it in this distance are located nine townships 
and six boroughs, namely : Pottsgrove, Limerick, 
Upper Providence, Lower Providence, Norriton, 
Plymouth, White Marsh, Upper Merion, and Lower 
Merion townships ; and Pottstown, Royer's Ford, Nor- 
ristown, Bridgeport, Coushohocken, and West Consho- 
hocken boroughs. Within these limits it is spanned 
by no less than thirteen noble bridges ; railroads 
pass on its eastern and western margins, while itself 
has been made navigable for boats of one hundred 
and eighty tons. These grand improvements, won- 
derful to relate, have been chiefly eflfected within 
three-fourths of a century. They show the energy, 
the thrift and enterprise of our countrymen in these 
latter days, for two hundred and sixty-eight years 
have passed away since its first discovery by the 
European. What a subject is here ofl'ered for reflec- 
tion ! 

Within these limits there are no mountains, though 
the country is most agreeably diversified by undulat- 
ing hills and valleys, interspersed with towns, villages, 
and various manufacturing establishments, all beau- 
tifully situated by its banks, or nestled near by in 
some lateral valley. Though not on a grand scale, 
yet few valleys in any country for the same distance 
can boast of more lovely and varied picturesque 
scenery, sometimes meandering through broad cul- 
tivated fields and fertile plains, on which are studded, 
like gems in a casket, substantial stone houses and 
barns ; next, on some eminence, may be seen an ele- 
gant country-seat ; then it sweeps past bits of wood- 

1 Bv Wm. J. Buck. 



land, tufting the hill-slopes, or contracted by a bolder 
bluff of rocks ; then, again, follow in succession the 
park-like islands, so gently reposing on its bosom, 
and the long stretches of green meadow. Here is to 
be found the utile et duke of the ancients to a greater 
degree than perhaps in any other section of equal ex- 
tent in our wide-spread republic. And however 
much the hand of improvement may alter this 
valley it will still present those ever-varying suc- 
cession of scenes which charm the landscape and are 
the admiration of every traveler. 

In the year 1609, Capt. Henry Hudson, an English- 
man in the service of the Dutch East India Company, 
it is believed, touched at the mouth of what is now 
known as Delaware Bay ; but, finding shoal water 
and fearful of grounding, he retired, and in a few 
days after entered the harbor of New York and 
sailed up the rivef*to which his name has been given. 
In the summer of 1610, it is said. Lord Delaware, 
while on his voyage to Virginia as Governor, entered 
the bay which now bears his name, as well as the 
large river that empties into it. In 1612 the Dutch 
commenced settlements at Fort Orange, now Albany, 
and at Manhattan Island, the present site of the 
city of New York. Capt. Hendrickson, a Dutchman, 
liaving built a yacht at Manhattan, called the " On- 
rust," which in English means restless, of only sixteen 
tons burden, set out on a voyage of discovery in 
1616. From a map which he made of this expedi- 
tion, it would appear as if he had sailed along the 
coast from Nova Scotia to the capes of Virginia. 
While on this trip he entered Delaware Bay and 
ascended its river as far as the Schuylkill, which he 
entered a short distance, and in consequence is, there- 
fore, entitled to the honor of being its discoverer. 

The origin of any name that has for a long time 
been applied to an object whicli in itself is permanent 
and likely to remain so is ever interesting to the in- 
habitants of the vicinity, especially when of a local 
nature. In consequence, before proceeding further in 
this undertaking, it may be well to venture on an 
explanation, if not rather an investigation of the 
name of Schuylkill, as well as of several others that 
have been applied to it. The Indians, it appears, had 
several names for this stream. One was " Nittaboc- 
kunk," which we know was applied in 1655, if not 
earlier. In the deeds of purchase from the Indians 
to William Penn, in 1683 and 1685, it is called 
"Manaiunk." John Heckewelder, the missionary, 
says it was called by the natives " Ganschowehanne," 
which signified, in their language, a stream whose 
falls and ripples make a noise. Mr. Heckewelder's 
statement is doubted, for the reason that no authority 
has yet been found to corroborate that the Indians 
had ever called it by this name. The Swedes, as may 
be seen on Peter Lindstrom's map of " New Sweden," 
made in 1655, also called it the " Linde Kileu," or 
Linden Stream, from the large trees of this kind that 
grew along its banks. Its present name of Schuylkill 

was given it by the Dutch, very probably by Capt. 
Hendrickson, in 1616; if not, it bore this name at 
least seventeen years later. By means of a rare 
work, entitled " Woordenbock der Nederduitsche in 
Fransche Taalen," by Francois Halma, published at 
Amsterdam, in 1729, we are enabled to give some light 
as to the origin of the Dutch name of this stream. 
Schuil, or Schuilen, in the Dutch signifies concealed 
or hidden, that is, by land or otherwise ; Kil signifies 
a channel, stream, or river. Therefore the meaning of 
Schuil-Kil, or Schuilen-Kil (the way it is spelled in 
the Dutch, and as it should be now written), is Hid- 
den River, or Concealed Stream. This name was given 
it by its discoverers from the fact of its mouth being 
so concealed by several low islands that the river can- 
not be found till actually entered, to the truth of 
which the writer can vouch from personal observa- 
tion while ascending the Delaware and entering the 

Respecting a knowledge of this river, we can also 
glean some valuable additional information from early 
maps. The map of New Netherlands accompanying 
John Ogilby's " America," published at London in 
1671 , is remarkable for having it denoted thereon as the 
" Schuylkill," precisely the orthography of this day. 
According to Roggeveen's map, published at Amster- 
dam in 1676, its stream is represented up to about 
the present town of Manayunk. In Gabriel Thomas' 
"Historical and Geographical Account of the Prov- 
ince of Pensilvania," printed at London in 1698, the 
Schuylkill is represented from its union with the 
Delaware upwards of one-third its length, with the 
Wissahickon, Perkiomen, and the Manatawny, and 
their several leading branches emptying therein, with 
great accuracy considering so early a date, clearly 
demonstrating that at that time all of the present 
territory of Montgomery County must have been 
pretty well explored. In consequence this map pos- 
sesses an unusual interest, which it appears has hitherto 
entirely escaped the observation of our historians. 

Orders were given in 1633 to Arent Corsson, the 
commissary of Fort Nassau, by authority of Governor 
Van Twiller, of Manhattan, to purchase a tract of 
land on the Schuylkill on which to erect a fort; for 
the Dutch had this year commenced upon its waters 
the vigorous prosecution of the fur trade with the 
natives, particularly for that of the beaver, regarded 
as not only the most but profitable of all the 
peltries. This traflic had so increased along this val- 
ley that in 1643 no less than two thousand one hun- 
dred and twenty-sevenpackagesof skins were shipped 
at one time to Europe. By 1648, Corsson concluded 
his purchase from several Indian chiefs to the satis- 
faction of the West India Company, a record of which 
was placed in their office. The fort was now soon 
completed, called " Beversrede," and was stated to be 
a place remarkably well situated, and was named thus 
on account of the beaver trade which was carried on 
there so extensively with the Indians. This fo't, it is 



supposed, stood at or near the present Gray's Ferry, 
near the lower or western extremity of the city of 
Philadelphia. This trade, it appears, had increased so 
by 165G that the documents of the company speak of 
it as the " great beaver trade of the Schuylkill." The 
result was that the business so stimulated the enter- 
prise of the Indians that by constant and persistent 
trapping and hunting the animals became scarce and 
higher prices were demanded. These skins were also 
used for currency, and in the payment for imported 
goods; the standard value fixed on each by the Gov- 
ernor was eight guilders, or 13.S. 4rf., equivalent to three 
dollars, no inconsiderable value for that time. Their 
greatest resort, the Little Schuylkill, in consequence 
was called by the Delaware Indians "Tamaquan," 
signifying the Beaver Stream, from whence Tamaqua, 
the name of this animal. The Dutch under the 
auspices of the company, being actuated by mere 
traffic and a love for gain, did little for the progress 
or development of the country, hence at last their 
easy subjugation by the English. 

Though unknown to the generality of our people, 
the Schuylkill was about a century and a half ago 
the scene of a violent struggle between those who 
resided on its shores in this county and those who 
navigated its waters in canoes from the upper country, 
now better known as Berks, while on their voyages 
with produce to the Philadelphia markets. This was 
a contest that lasted many years, and in which both 
parties contended for their respective interests, which 
here unfortunately came in conflict. With what nov- 
elty at the present day must we view such a struggle, 
when we reflect on the many and mighty changes 
that man and time have wrought on this river. When 
we behold its canals, with their deeply-laden boats, 
its several railroads, with their long dark trains, the 
many thriving towns and villages that adorn its banks, 
and the many busy manufactories and quiet, pleasant 
villa residences, what a tale is told of progress ! To 
the period to which we refer hamlets and villages 
were unknown ; even the spot where is now our popu- 
lous county -seat was perchance unmarked by a single 
house. The hills and the valleys were covered with 
their majestic ancient forests to the very shores, with 
the exception of here and tliere, where occasionally 
the hardy settlers had effected clearings and erected 
rude log dwellings. The contrast is enougli to make 
one smile, especially now, when we reflect that the 
dispute which we intend to speak of simply origi- 
nated from the obstructions placed in the channels of 
the Schuylkill by the shoremen for the purpose of as- 
sisting them to catch fish, and which considerably 
impeded, if it did not really render the navigation 
thereof dangerous. 

It appears that as early as 1683, when William 
Penn and his colonists had not been a year in this 
country, that an act had been passed against the 
erecting of racks, wears, or dams in any navigable 
waters which might otherwise hinder the free inter- 

course thereon, and also tend greatly to diminish the 
brood of fish. Through the influence of Governor 
Penn another act was passed in the year 1700, with 
the intent of more effectually securing this object. 
After this, from what we have been enabled to ascer- 
tain, the matter remained quiet for a number of years, 
or with but little agitation, till in May, 1724, when 
the Governor's Council introduced " A bill entitled 
an act for demolishing and removing fishing dams, 
wears, and kedles set across the river Schuylkill," 
which was read and ordered to be returned with amend- 
ments. It next appears that the Council on the 15th 
of August, 1730, passed a law entitled "An Act to 
prevent the erecting of wears, dams, etc., within the 
river Schuylkill." Yet even this was found to be 
not altogether sufficient. It was by an act passed in 
1734 further strengthened and rendered more effect- 
ual. The shoremen made a strong effort, in the 
years 1735 and 1736, to get an amendment, or rather 
a repeal, so as to get permission to erect wears in the 
months of April and May of every year, which was 
as warmly resisted by the navigators, or those living 
on the upper parts of the Schuylkill. The Governor, 
Patrick Gordon, being also opposed to any permission 
of the kind being given, the shoremen at length 
yielded so far as to look for any redress for their 
grievances from the Legislature. 

It became a matter of complaint against the shore- 
men that for several miles above the racks and wears, 
they were in the habit of riding their horses in the 
river and striking the water as they came downwards 
with stakes and long brushes, so as to drive and 
frighten the fish into them, to their great diminution ; 
that they carried stones into the river to hold the 
stakes and wears, which not only obstructed but ren- 
dered navigation difficult and dangerous. They were 
also charged on these occasions, while chasing fish, 
of bringing the young people together, who would 
become riotous and quarrelsome, "which was a re- 
proach to good order, peace, and tranquillity." A 
number of depositions were taken in March, 1732, by 
George Boone, a justice of the peace residing in the 
township of Oley, in the present Berks County, but 
then belonging to Philadelphia, as did likewise the 
intervening territory now comprised in Montgomery. 
These Mr. Boone, who was equally interested with his 
neighbors, transmitted to the Governor and Legisla- 
ture, and the result was the stringent enactment of 
1734, to which reference has been made. To these 
depositions we are indebted for the following adven- 
tures encountered by the navigators of Amity and 
Oley townships while on their canoe voyages to 
Philadelphia in 1731 and 1732. 

Marcus Hulings states that as he was going down 
the Schuylkill with a canoe loaded with wheat it 
struck against a fish-dam and took in a great deal of 
water, which damaged the wheat considerably, caus- 
ing nearly a total loss of the load. He further says 
that on another occasion his canoe got in a similar 

















predicament, and he would have lost his whole load 
of wheat if he had not leaped into the river, and with 
much labor succeeded in preventing it from swinging 
around, otherwise it would have been capsized by the 
current. In so doing he " suffered very much in his 
body by reason of ye water and cold." Again, on 
another occasion, he got fast on one of the rack dams, 
and only by great hazard escaped with his life and 
freight. In the month of February, while it was ex- 
tremely cold, Jonas Jones relates that he got " fast on 
a fish-dam, and to save his load of wheat was obliged 
to leap into ye river to ye middle of his body, and 
with all his labor and skill could not get off in less 
than half an liour ; afterwards proceeding on his 
journey with ye said clothes, they were frozen stiff 
on his back, by means whereof he underwent a great 
deal of misery." The nest sufferer we shall mention 
was Jacob Warren, who relates that his canoe, loaded 
with wheat, got fast on a dam, when he and his part- 
ner were forced into the river, and while one, with all 
his power, was obliged to hold the canoe, the other 
had to open a passage to get through, which with 
great difficulty was effected. 

Isaac Smally affirms that in going down the river 
with one hundred and forty bushels of wheat he got 
fast on a rack-dam, " and in order to save ye load 
from being all lost he was, much against his mind, 
obliged to leap into ye river, the water being to his 
chin, frequently dashed into his mouth, where be- 
tween whiles he breathed, and he and bis partner 
held ye canoe with great labour, while a young man 
there present ran above a mile to call help to get off." 
Jonas Yocum and Richard Dunklin also state that 
they got fast on a fish-dam with a canoe, on board of 
which was Dunklin's wife and child, besides sixty 
bushels of wheat, and that for more than an hour 
they were in imminent danger of being overset and 
drowned. Barnaby Rhoades relates how he got fast 
with Ills canoe on a fish-dam for several hours in the 
winter season, when, being without any assistance, he 
had to suffer considerably from the severity of the 
cold, besides being in danger of losing both his life 
and load. The sufferings of the complainants might 
be much extended, but shall let this suffice, without 
going into details, that among tliem could also be 
mentioned Walter Campbell, George Boone, John 
Boone, and several others, who had been at divers 
times fast with their canoes on the fish- and rack- 
dams in the Schuylkill, and to preserve their loads 
had been forced at diflerent times to leap into the 
river at the peril of their lives to save their property. 

The freight carried in some of their canoes shows 
to what a prodigious size the timber had attained at 
the arrival of the early settlers, for it should be recol- 
lected that they were always hewn from out a single 
trunk. William Penn, in a letter from Philadelphia, 
dated 30th of 5th month, 1683, to Henry Savell, in 
England, mentions of his having seen a canoe made 
from a poplar-tree that carried four tons of bricks. 

Isaac Smally's canoe, as has been stated, carried one 
hundred and forty bushels of wheat, which is a still 
heavier load, and consequently must have been larger. 
Our information so far has been to favor the cause 
of the navigators, but the shoremen no doubt believed 
that they had just reasons to complain from the 
stringent enactments passed against them. Their 
dams and wears were formed at a considerable ex- 
pense and labor, for the sole purpose of supplying 
fish to their families. They were always placed con- 
venient to their residences, and near their own lands. 
Generally the most advantageous place for them was 
where they were the most detrimental to the interests 
of navigation, such as below the mouths of creeks, 
and where islands and shallows rendered them of 
easy construction. The navigators, too, on many oc- 
casions did much injury by breaking through their 
dams and maliciously destroying them, with the racks, 
wears, and baskets. Nay, the shoremen charged them 
with stealing at divers times the proceeds of their 
honest labor, the fish. 

Thus between 1731 and 1740 there was an intense 
excitement produced by these conflicting interests 
along the hitherto peaceful valley of the Schuylkill. 
Many deeds of heroism were achieved on both sides 
and prodigies of valor performed which no chroni- 
cler has thought proper to transmit to posterity. The 
result, however, was that at length it terminated in 
open war between the parties. Fleets of canoes 
would put off on the voyage together, for the pur- 
pose of mutual protection to themselves and the 
mutual destruction of all fish-dams, wears, and baskets. 
On the other hand, the shoremen would congregate 
in their respective neighborhoods for the protection 
of their property thus assailed, and should any un- 
lucky wights get fast with their canoes or venture too 
near the shore, they would bring their artillery to 
bear on them in a shower of stones. The navigators, 
being generally the greatest sufferers, at length con- 
cluded to call on the magistrates for assistance, when 
William Richards, the constable of Amity township, 
received a warrant from George Boone, Esq., " one of 
his Majesty's justices of the peace" for Philadelphia 
County, to remove the said obstructions as the true 
authors of the mischief. What Mr. Richards accom- 
plished in the undertaking we shall leave him state 
in his own words, given on oath before Ralph Asheton, 
Esq., and corroborated by Benjamin Milliard, who 
was one of his assistants on this memorable affair, 
which happened the 20th of April, 1738. 

Having " received a warrant requiring him to take 
to his assistance such persons as this deponent should 
think proper, and go down the Schuylkill and remove 
all such obstructions as should be found in the said 
river. In obedience to which warrant took several 
persons, inhabitants of the said county, as his assist- 
ants, and together with one Robert Smith, constable 
of Oley, who had received a warrant to the same pur- 
pose, went down the said river, in three canoes, to 



Mingo Creek, where they found a large number of 
racks and obstructions in the said river, and saw four 
men upon an island near the said racks ; that this de- 
ponent and company removed the said racks without 
receiving any opposition. From thence they pro- 
ceeded down the river to the mouth of Pickering's 
Creek, near which they found several racks across the 
said river to an island, wlwch racks this deponent and 
company also removed. Immediately about the num- 
ber of two hundred men came down on both sides of 
the river, and were very rude and abusive, and threat- 
ened this deponent and his company. E.xpecting 
from the ill language and tlireats given that some 
mischief or a quarrel would ensue, he took his staff 
in his liand and his warrant, and commanded the 
said men, in the king's name, to keep the peace, and 
told them that he came there in a peaceable manner, 
and according to law, to move the racks and obstruc- 
tions in the river, upon wliich some of the said men 
damned the laws and the law-makers, and cursed this 
deponent and his assistants ; that one James Starr 
knocked this deponent down in the river with a large 
club or stake, after which several of the said men at- 
tacked this deponent and company with large clubs, 
and knocked down Robert Smith, the constable, as 
also several of his assistants ; that one John Wain- 
wright was struck down with a pole or staff, and lay 
as dead; that this deponent and company, finding 
that they were not able to make resistance, were 
obliged to make the best of their way in order to save 
their lives ; proceeded down the river, in order to go 
to Philadelphia, to make complaint of the ill usage 
they had received. As they came to Ferkiomen 
Creek they found another set of racks, which were 
guarded by a great number of men. That this depo- 
nent and company requested the said men to let them 
go down the river, they would not meddle with their 
racks; upon which the said men abused and cursed 
this deponent in a very gross manner, that they should 
not ])ass them. One of the said men called out aloud, 
and offered five pounds for Timothy Miller's head, 
who was one of the deponent's assistants; and after- 
wards the said men pursued this deponent and com- 
pany, who, for fear of being murdered, made the best 
of their way with their canoes to the mouth of the 
Perkioraen Creek, and then went ashore, and left 
their canoes there, with clothes, which are since re- 
ported split in pieces and the clothes turned adrift." 
This affair reached the heads of the government, 
whereupon the Hon. James Logan, president of the 
Council, issued a proclamation and a warrant, April 
25, 1738, for the arrest of the " rioters," who are " to 
be proceeded against according to law, and that they, 
the said justices, exert the powers wherewith they are 
invested for the preservation of his Majesty's peace 
and the good order of government in those parts 
where the late tumult arose, or others may be likely 
to arise. And the sheriffs of the said counties of 
Philadelphia and Chester, respectively, are hereby 

enjoined and required, with a sufficient assistance, if 
need be, to cause the warrants to be duly executed." 
This is the last official act we have been enabled to 
find on the subject, from whence we conclude that 
tlie shoremen, after contending for half a century, to 
some extent at least gave way before the majesty of 
the law, and the navigators, the fish, and the waters 
of the Schuylkill were permitted, till a recent time, 
to pass on less obstructed. Mingo, Pickering, and 
Perkiomen Creeks still retain their time-honored 
names. The same islands and channels are there, 
but the people are changed. The inhabitants of 
Limerick and Upper and Lower Providence town- 
ships, witli those on the opposite side of the river, 
are reckoned now among our most peaceable citizens. 
The contest between the navigators and shoremen is 
long, long past, — it might be said long, long forgotten, 
— but the wand of the antiquary is mighty. Out of old 
musty tomes it may recreate a world to live again in 
imagination, as it once did in reality. 

That considerable importance was attached to the 
navigation of the Schuylkill at an early period has 
been already shown in the contest between the navi- 
gators and the shoremen. Even William Penn, in 
his proposals for a second settlement in the province 
of Pennsylvania, published in 1690, alludes to the 
practicability of effecting a communication by water 
between a branch of the Schuylkill and the Susque- 
hanna. This, the reader should remember, was over 
half a century before canals were known in Great 
Britain. However, nothing was done, we believe, to- 
wards improving its navigation for a considerable 
length of time, though tlie matter was occasionally 
agitated. To promote the same an act was passed by 
the Assembly, March 14, 1761, from which we give 
the following extract: "Whereas, the river Schuyl- 
kill is navigable for rafts, boats, and other small craft 
in times of high freslies only, occasioned by the ob- 
struction of rocks and bars of sand and gravel in 
divers parts of the same; and whereas, the improving 
of the navigation of said river, so as to make it pass- 
able at all times, will be very advantageous to the 
poor, greatly conductive to the promotion of indus- 
try, and beneficial to the inhabitants residing on or 
near said river, by enabling them to bring the pro- 
duce of the country to the market of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and thereby increase the trade and commerce 
of the province; and whereas, divers of the inhabi- 
tants of this province, desirous to promote the welfare 
of the public, have subscribed large sums of money 
for the purpose aforesaid, and, by petition to the As- 
sembly, have requested that commissioners may be 
appointed by law to take, receive, and collect the 
said subscriptions, and such others as shall hereafter 
be given or subscribed, and to apply and appropriate 
the same for and towards the clearing, scouring, and 
rendering the said river navigable as aforesaid." 

To carry out this measure Joseph Fox, John 
Hughs, Samuel Rhoads, John Potts, William Palmer, 



David Davis, Mordecai Moore, Henry Pawling, James 
Coultas, Jonathan Coates, Joseph Millard, William 
Bird, Francis Parvin, Benjamin Lightf'oot, and Isaac 
Levan were appointed commissioners. This act had 
also for its object the preservation of fish, especially 
the shad, herring, and rockfish, which ascended this 
stream annually in great shoals from the sea. For 
this purpose the commissioners were empowered not 
only to destroy but to prevent the erection of all 
wears, racks, fish-dams, and baskets within the same. 
Several of the commissioners mentioned having died, 
a new board was appointed by the Assembly in 1773 
to carry out the measures contained in the act of 
1761. For this purpose David Rittenhouse, Anthony 
Levering, John Roberts, William Dewees, Jr., David 
Thomas, James Hockley, Thomas Potts, Mark Bird, 
James Starr, Jacob Kern, and John Pawling, Jr., 
were selected. Several of this number, with David 
Rittenhouse, proceeded in 1773 to an examination of 
the channel, and estimated the cost of clearing the 
river from the Falls above Philadelphia to Reading at 
eleven hundred and forty -seven pounds. This amount 
included the sum of one hundred and ninety-two 
pounds from the Falls to Spring Mill, a distance of 
over seven miles, regarded the most expensive por- 
tion. It is supposed that but little was done at this 
time towards the improvement of its navigation) 
which the approaching troubles of the Revolution 
must have checked. 

We hear of nothing further on this subject until 
during the encampment of Washington and his army 
at Valley Forge, when it became a question as to a 
means of procuring supplies. Charles Pettit thus 
wrote from the camp. May 16, 1778, to Thomas Whar- 
ton, Jr., president of the Supreme Executive Council 
of Pennsylvania : " The necessary transportation of 
stores and forage is so great that we wish to improve 
the little water-carriage left in our power to the best 
advantage. For this end we have got a number of 
boats now in use on the Schuylkill, which answer the 
purpose very well when the river is pretty full, but it 
is now so low that the navigation is much obstructed. 
Maj. Eyre has surveyed the river from Reading 
hither, and informs me it may without difficulty be 
rendered navigable through the summer season for 
the boats lately constructed, which are calculated to 
draw but little water in proportion to the burden they 
carry. The river is now so low, and if a number of 
the people of the counties bordering on the river 
could be assembled at each of the passes nearest to 
their respective habitations, the work might be com- 
pleted in a very few days. Maj. Eyre informs me the 
expense will not probably exceed two thousand 

Accompanying Mr. Pettit's communication was a 
report on the condition of the several fords of Schuyl- 
kill between Reading and Valley Forge. We extract 
that portion relating to Montgomery County as pos- 
sessing interest in showing the changes that may have 

since been made at these several places above a cen- 
tury ago : " Jacob Floyd's Ford, 21 miles below Read- 
ing, 11 inches of water ; Pottsgrove Ford, 2 miles, 11 
inches ; Mr. Bechtel's, 1 mile, 6 inches ; Mr. Potts' 
Dam, 4 miles, 5 inches ; Bombay Hook Ford, 6 inches; 
John Heisler's Ford, 2 miles, 12 inches ; Daniel 
Matts' Shoals, 1 mile, 10 inches ; Edward Barker's 
Ford, 1 mile, 6 inches, with small rocks; Barker's 
Shoals, J mile, 6 inches; George Ross' Fish-dam, 1:| 
miles, 12 inches; Erasmus Lewis' Shoals, li miles, 
6 inches, rocky ; Frederick Lower's Shoals, J mile, 
6 inches, rocky; Lawrence Nipple's Ford, i mile, 6 
inches, level bottom ; Adam Hallman's Long Shoals, 
2^ miles, 7 inches; Black Rock, 4 to 20 feet; John 
Buckwalter's Fish-dam, 2 miles, 6 inches ; Gordon's 
Ford, 7 to 15 inches ; French Creek, 1 mile, and 
Moore Hall, 9 inches; Richardson's Ford, 1 mile, 7 
inches, rocky ; Pennypacker's, i mile, 7 inches ; Paw- 
ling's Ford, 7 inches ; Sullivan's Bridge, 8 to 12 inches, 

An account of the early fords and ferrying-places 
of the Schuylkill as an aid to traveling facilities be- 
fore the construction of bridges is an interesting sub- 
ject to the antiquary, and will be more fully treated 
in the history of the several townships and boroughs, 
where they more properly belong. During high 
water fording was rendered dangerous from the greater 
depth and velocity of the water, and with the increase 
of travel ferriage became more common, being made 
likewise less dangerous during the winter season from 
the ma.sses of floating ice, or when not of sufiicient 
thickness to permit wagons to cross upon it. Swedes' 
Ford was a noted fording-place even back to 1730. 
A tavern was there in 1760, and on its sign was a rep- 
resentation of a ferry. A rope was here stretched 
across the river in a sloping direction, securely fast- 
ened to a tree or a post or building on either shore. 
To this a stout iron ring was secured, to which the 
boat or scow would be fastened, while it would slide 
along, propelled more or less by the current. These 
ropes, so necessary in securely transporting passen- 
gers, horses, wagons, and freight, were occasionally 
cut and purloined by some evil-disposed persons. 
In consequence the ferrymen petitioned the Assem- 
bly for protection from these outrages on their prop- 
erty, when an act vras passed Feb. 8, 1766, making 
such offenses along the Schuylkill finable in the sum 
of ten pounds to -each. The first bridges to cross the 
river within the county were built at Flat Rock and 
Pawling's about ISIO, at Pottstown, 1819, and at 
Norristown in 1829, not until more than a century 
had elapsed since its settlement, so slow was the 
spirit of enterprise. 

John Adlum and Benjamin Rittenhouse, who had 
been appointed commissioners to examine into the 
feasibility of still further improving the navigation 
of the Schuylkill, proceeded on this labor in the fall 
of 1789 and the following year. Their report, ad- 
dressed to Thomas Mifflin, president of the Supreme 



Executive Council, was printed in 1791, from which 
we condense the following: " We conceived it most 
advisable to examine that part of the Schuylkill lying 
between Spring Mill and the Great Falls, being that 
part of the river said to be the most dangerous to the 
navigation of boats from Reading to this city. The 
2d of November we began at Spring Mill, and pro- 
ceeded down the river, carefully noting every obstruc- 
tion to be removed and necessary improvements to be 
made, with the probable expense attending the same. 
On the 7th we set off for Hamburg, near the foot of 
the Blue Mountain, and proceeded down towards 
Reading, taking the courses, measuring the distance, 
and taking the quantity of fall .in the river down to 
the ford opposite said town, carefully noting the fish- 
dams, the rocks, and other obstructions necessary to 
be removed. As it appears probable the principal 
advantages that can accrue from that part of the 
river, at least for some time, will be in rafting of 
lumber down to the city, little more is necessary at 
present than removing a few rocks, some fixed and 
others loose, lying in the channel, as the expense will 
be small to render the passage safe for that purpose. 
At Reading we hired a boat, and came down the 
Schuylkill to where we first began, and it is with 
great pleasure we can say we have, on a careful ex- 
amination, found the Schuylkill River an object of 
much greater consequence to the State than we be- 
fore had an idea of. The channel we find almost 
uniformly on the east side, in one instance near two 
miles without variation, generally very near the shore, 
and we are of opinion that it be made navigable for 
boats of eight or ten tons burthen at all seasons, ex- 
cept when obstructed by ice, at the expense esti- 

" We conclude our report by remarking that we 
have in the prosecution of this business observed with 
regret the great number of fishing-dams erected in 
defiance of the law, as a nuisance of the worst kitid. 
In many instances, where they have been continued 
for a number of years, the sand and gravel has gradu- 
ally settled amongst the stones, and by that means 
formed a firm bar or shoal from one side of the river 
to the other, which will be expensive to remove. We 
therefore are of opinion that if an effectual stop is 
not put to that mischievous practice every attempt to 
render the navigation beneficial will be abortive. 
The only certain method we can conceive to put a 
stop to the practice in future will be to lay a heavy 
penalty on the proprietors of the lands where such 
dams shall be erected." The expense estimated in 
this report from Philadelphia to Reading was £1519 
13s., which sum included £270 for clearing the 
Schuylkill from the Falls to Spring Mill. Through 
these efibrts, besides the removal of rocks and other 
obstructions, dams were made at various places to 
deepen the water and increase the volume of its cur- 
rent, so that boats of a greater draught could be used. 

An act was passed the 29th of September, 1791, to 

incorporate a company to connect the Schuylkill with 
the Susquehanna by a canal and slack-water naviga- 
tion, and also to improve the navigable waters of the 
Schuylkill from the Lower Falls, a few miles above 
Philadelphia, to Reading, for which purpose the 
Assembly appropriated two thousand five hundred 
pounds as an encouragement to the enterprise. A 
company was also incorporated April 10, 1792, to 
make a canal from Norristown to the river Delaware 
at Philadelphia. From the former place the Schuyl- 
kill was to be temporarily improved, and thus form 
with the works of the former company an uninter- 
rupted water comniunicatiou with the interior of the 
State. One of the objects, also, in constructing the 
canal from Norristown was by this means to furnish 
Philadelphia with water. The undertaking was com- 
menced by the two companies, and at the close of 1794 
they had expended four hundred and forty thousand 
dollars, and had nearly completed fifteen miles of the 
most difficult part of the two works, six miles of which 
was on the east bank of the Schuylkill. Some of the 
principal stockholders liaving become involved at the 
time in commercial difficulties, and declining to pay 
in their installments, they were compelled to suspend 
operations. As an additional inducement to revive 
the companies the State passed an act April 17, 1790, 
to empower them to raise by way of lottery the addi- 
tional sum of four hundred thousand dollars, for the 
purpose of completing their works, as mentioned in 
the acts of incorporation. Naught availed, though 
this offer induced several abortive attempts, which 
only tended to continue in these companies a languish- 
ing existence. Below Norristown, beginning near the 
Swedes' Ford bridge, by the banks of the Schuylkill, 
may still be seen the excavation made for this canal 
for some distance above the river. It remains there, 
a monument of an undertaking commenced in 1792, 
but never finished. 

In the year 1811 the two companies were united as 
the Union Canal Company, and in 1819 and 1821 the 
State granted further aid by a guarantee of interest 
and a monopoly of the lottery privilege. In conse- 
quence of this legislative encouragement, there were 
additional subscriptions obtained to the stock of the 
company to resume operations in 1821. The line was 
relocated, the dimensions of the canal changed, and 
the whole work finished in about six years from this 
period, after thirty-seven years had elapsed from the 
commencement of the work and sixty-five from the 
date of the first survey by David Rittenhouse and 
Rev. William Smith. This canal is eighty miles in 
length, extending f^rom the Schuylkill four miles 
below Reading, where it connects with the works of 
the Schuylkill Navigation Company, thence up the 
Tulpehocken Creek to the Swatara, and thence down 
the same to Middletown, on the Susquehanna, thus 
connecting the two rivers, which William Penn con- 
ceived in 1G90, but which required an interval of one 
hundred and thirty-seven years to be put into prac- 



tical operation. The whole cost of this work was 
about two million dollars. 

The Schuylkill Navigation Company was incorpo- 
rated under the act of the 8th of March, 1815, by 
which they were required to commence operations at 
each end of the route simultaneously; their labor.s, in 
consequence, were rendered nearly useless until the 
whole line would be completed. This certainly was 
an ingenious plan in the Assembly to insure the com- 
pletion of the undertaking. This work is about one 
hundred and ten miles in length, beginning at Fair- 
mount, Philadelphia, and extending to Mill Creek, at 
Port Carbon, in Schuylkill County. It consists of a 
series of canals sixty-three miles in length, and slack- 
water-pools for forty-seven miles, produced by thirty- 
four dams, which feed the canals. This work in its 
whole length was made three and a half feet deep, 
with a width ^f no less than thirty-six feet at the 
surface. There were one hundred and nine locks, of 
six hundred and twenty feet ascent, each eighty feet 
long and seventeen broad, and one tunnel three hun- 
dred and eighty-five feet in length, the first, it is said, 
attempted in the United States. The whole cost of 
the line was two million nine hundred and sixty-six 
thousand one hundred and eighty dollars. It was 
commenced immediately after its incorporation, and 
finished in 1826. In 1818 it was sufficiently com- 
pleted to allow the descent of a few boats, on which 
tolls were collected to the amount of two hundred 
and thirty dollars, which comprised the total of its 
first year's receipts. 

In consequence chiefly of the great increase of the 
coal trade, it was determined to enlarge the capacity 
of the canal for a greater amount of business, which 
was accordingly done in 1846. Hitherto it had only 
admitted the passage of boats of sixty-six tons, but 
by the enlargement boats of one hundred and eighty- 
six tons are enabled to pass through its whole length 
of one hundred and ten miles, being one of the 
grandest works of the kind in the Union. As will be 
observed, a great improvement was made. The locks 
were reduced in number from one hundred and nine 
to seventy-one, and enlarged to one hundred and ten 
by eighteen feet, the width of its canals to not less 
than sixty feet, with a depth of at least five and a 
half feet. To guard against the danger of a deficiency 
of water, to which the navigation is exposed in dry 
seasons, the company has erected several large dams 
upon tributary streams at the head of navigation 
from which to draw supplies in cases of deficiency. 
The dam at Silver Creek covers nearly sixty acres, 
and is estimated to hold suflicient water of itself to 
float about 120,000 tons of coal annually to market. 
As may be expected, the business of this great work 
has increased wonderfully. In 1825 this line brought 
about 5000 tons of coal to market; in 1827, 31,300 
tons; and in 1857 it was 1,275,988 tons, showing that 
forty tons had now gone over the works to one thirty 
years previously. It is stated on reliable authority 

that the coal consumed by the various furnaces, forges, 
and manufactories in the valley of the Schuylkill 
amounted in 1860 to 500,000 tons annually, and now 
no doubt has reached double that amount. Thus we 
see how greatly important this trade has become. 
We have said that the Schuylkill flows by Montgomery 
County about forty miles, in which distance the Navi- 
gation Company has erected six dams across it, which 
at Norristown and Conshohocken afibrd valuable 
water-power. This great work has been leased by the 
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company for 
several years, under whose management it is now 

After having treated on the several means adopted 
for the improvement of the navigation of the Schuyl- 
kill, it now becomes us to give some account of the 
various kinds of craft used for this purpose. In the 
prosecution of the beaver trade by the Dutch and the 
Indians the canoe must have been their chief de- 
pendence for travel and freight. We know that some 
of these were so large as to carry in periods of high 
water as much as one hundred and forty bushels of 
wheat before 1732 to Philadelphia from a distance of 
at least ten miles beyond the upper limits of the pres- 
ent county. The Swedish settlers of Morlatton had 
a strong attachment to the Schuylkill, and were 
skilled in its navigation with the canoe some time 
even before 1716, transporting themselves and their 
produce chiefly by this means to the mill, the store, 
the church, and the market. We even ascertain that 
to their weddings and funerals they were frequently 
thus conveyed. As has been stated, with the greatest 
care they were therein at almost any time liable to 
accident Abraham Adams was drowned in the Per- 
kiomen Creek by fiiUing out of his canoe, April 5, 
1738. Thomas Lewis, in an advertisement in 1752 of 
his mill property for sale near the mouth of Mingo 
Creek, mentions among its advantages that " loaded 
canoes can come to the mill-door." 

With the improvement of the navigation the " Read- 
ing boat," as it was called, became more and more in- 
troduced, as a decided improvement over the clumsier 
canoe, for the general purposes of transportation. By 
the Revolution it had been largely substituted as 
much more convenient and expeditious. These boats 
were long and narrow, sharp at both ends, and carried 
from seventy-five to one hundred barrels of flour. 
From their size were chiefly used in freshets or high 
water, and for their management required a crew of 
from three to five men. Coming generally from Read- 
ing, they were besides called "long boats." They 
drifted down rapidly with the current ; but to take 
them back was chiefly done with poles shod with iron, 
which was laborious work. Their return cargoes in 
consequence had to be light. Between Spring Mill 
and the Lower Falls the river descended twenty-four 
feet in about six miles, and it was here, at the most 
difficult places, as at Flat Rock, an exciting scene to 
see these boats shoot rapidly through the turbulent 



current, at times almost lost to sight. The down-trip 
took from one to two days, and the return sometimes 
as many as five or six. They carried flour, grain, pro- 
visions, and other articles, besides, occasionally, pas- 
sengers. During the war of 1812, Capt. Daniel D. 
B. Keim's company of soldiers from Reading and Capt. 
Hanley's, of Pottstown, were transported in this man- 
ner to Philadelphia. 

In 1858, Rachel Roberts, of Bridgeport, then in her 
seventy-eighth year, informed the writer that in her 
youth she went with her father to Philadelphia in 
a canoe, and in passing through the Falls became 
greatly frightened from the danger attending its un- 
steady motion and velocity. In returning, it had to 
be poled the greater portion of the distance. Canoes, 
Reading boats, and rafts were quite common in the 
river at that time, but the people had no knowl- 

upwards of one hundred and sixty tons, and would 
require, in the present condition of the roads, at least 
one hundred and sixty teams of good horses to haul 
the same to market." 

Owing to the abundance of pine and hemlock tim- 
ber among the mountains and sources of the Schuyl- 
kill, the first settlers, excepting a few hunters, came 
hither to avail themselves of this means for a liveli- 
hood. At first rafts were entirely constructed of logs, 
seldom over twelve feet in width and generally six- 
teen feet in length. Sometimes ten such rafts or sec- 
tions would be fastened behind each other and laden 
with shingles; being yielding, though of so consider- 
able a length, would readily, in favorable stages of 
water, pass over the shallowest places. When saw- 
mills became more numerous, these rafts were more 
and more constructed of boards placed crossways tO' 


edge of bateaux. Strange to say, she stated that there 
were taverns then along the shore for the especial ac- 
commodation of voyagers, which were known as boat- 
houses ; although travelers carried their provisions 
along, yet they were often obliged to resort to these 
public-houses for lodging and other necessaries. My 
informant was the great-granddaughter of Mats and 
Breta Holstein, among the early settlers of Upper 
Merion. This canoe-trip was probably made about 
1790. Some knowledge of the commerce on the river 
may be gained from a statement made in a Reading 
newspaper under date of March 6, 1802 : " Within 
the present week were taken down on the Schuylkill 
to the mills and city of Philadelphia in the boats of 
this place in one day the following articles : 1201 bar- 
rels of flour, 1425 bushels of wheat, 17 tons of barr 
iron, 1492 gallons of whiskey, 365 pounds of butter, 
and 500 pounds of snuft". The whole amounted to 

each other in alternate layers, securely fastened to- 
gether by hickory withes. When the whole was ar- 
ranged, a long oar was placed at each end for direct- 
ing its course through the windings of the stream and 
where its channel was the safest. On these, shingles 
would also be piled and no inconsiderable quantities 
of lathe and scantling, until they would draw a depth 
rarely exceeding fifteen inches. Two or three xnen 
would be attached to one raft, and on a favorable rise 
of the water their 2)rovisions and other comforts 
would be hurried on board, and the hardy adventu- 
rers would proceed on their voyage to the distant 
market from the vicinity of the present towns of Port 
Carbon, Pottsville, and other sections of Schuylkill 
County, as well as the adjoining portion of Berks. 
The distance to Spring Mill would be often made in 
a day and a half, and to Reading in six or seven 
hours, a distance of nearly forty miles. Of course the 



completion of the canal with its dams put an end to 
rafting, but not until it had caused the hills and val- 
leys of that section to be pretty well denuded of its 
choicest timber, that had given employment to hun- 
dreds of saw-mills since gone to decay. It was from 
this source chiefly that the people of Montgomery 
County were supplied for some time with their best 
lumber for building purposes. 

As soon as the canal was sufficiently completed an 
accommodation boat, as it was then called, was es- 
tablished in June, 1825, for the conveyance of passen- 
gers from Reading to Pawling's Bridge, making three 
trips a week. At the latter place they were trans- 
ferred to a line of stages passing through Norristown 
to Philadelphia. The following year the packet-boat 
"Planet" commenced making regular through trips 
between Reading and the city. Mention is made 
that on her return, May 10, 1826, she carried sixty- 
four through passengers. In the beginning of June, 
1829, the "Comet," of Norristown, succeeded in 
making five trips per week to Philadelphia. A news- 
paper of the time states that " we notice this in order 
that our friends in the city and country may have a 
chance of enjoying a pleasant ride. Those who go 
on business and would prefer expedition will take the 
stage," — intimating that while the cost of travel was 
less it was not as speedy. As a consequence the 
stages at this time reduced the fare from one dollar 
to seventy-five cents ; what the cost was by packet has 
not been ascertained. Several attempts were also 
made to establish steamboat lines between the afore- 
said places. The first was by Capt. Hewit, about 
1822. He made several trips to Norristown, but the 
detention was such in passing through the several 
locks that it discouraged him. Another effort was 
made in 1829, and also still later, but were soon aban- 

As may be judged from what has been stated, the 
Schuylkill was noted from an early period for the 
abundance of its fish. Shoals of shad, herring, rock- 
fish, and sturgeon would ascend its free and uninter- 
rupted course every spring from the sea, furnishing 
to the hardy settlers along its banks no inconsider- 
able supply of food. The antiquarian, Samuel W. 
Pennypacker, of Philadelphia, has quite a collection 
of spear-heads or darts from four to six inches in 
length, collected from the shallow channels of the 
river in the vicinity of Phcenixville, that must from 
their size been chiefly used there for the capture of 
sturgeon. In 1781, 2792 shad were caught in the 
seine at the fishery at Pottstown, and in the following 
year 3701. Benjamin B. Yost, formerly register, aged 
seventy-two years, informed me in 1858, but a few 
weeks before his death, that he well remembered see- 
ing shad and herring caught there in abundance. 
Rachel Roberts recollected also of numerous shad, 
herring, and rockfish being caught in the vicinity of 
Norristown near the close of the last century. Jacob 
S. Otto, in 1803, advertises a farm of three hundred 

and two acres for sale, bounded by the Schuylkill and 
Perkiomen, " where there is a shad fishery." Catfish 
Island is advertised in 1806 as containing nearly five 
acres, with the " privilege reserved by John and Henry 
Pawling to fish in the pool above and to draw out the 
net on its shore." In the spring of 1811 upwards of 
five barrels of shad were caught and salted down at 
the poor-house for the use of the paupers, as we learn 
from the directors' report for said year. William 
Bakewell, in offering his farm of two hundred acres 
for sale in 1813 at Fatland Ford, does not omit men- 
tioning its "shad fishery." All this is indicative of 
the value the people then set on those fisheries. How- 
ever, the construction of the several dams across the 
Schuylkill and the completion of the canal prevented 
the further ascent of the fish, and hence the supply 
ceased. Besides the goldfish and carp, the black 
bass was introduced from the Potomac in 1870, and 
their catching prohibited by law for three years. 
They appear to thrive rapidly, a few having been 
caught after the prohibited time with the hook that 
weighed from four to six pounds each. It is supposed 
from their voracious habits that the catfish, chub, 
sucker, and other fish, formerly so numerous, have 
thus been greatly diminished. 

Although William Scull, in his map of the province, 
published in 1770, had denoted coal thereon at three 
places in the vicinity of the present Pottsville, and 
also on the Mahanoy Creek, yet some time elapsed 
before any attention was directed towards it. A 
meeting of the inhabitants of Schuylkill County was 
held Dec. 18, 1813, in the court-house at Orwigsburg, 
to take into consideration the propriety of rendering 
the Schuylkill navigable by dams and locks, by 
which means the coal and iron ore abounding there 
might be much more cheaply and expeditiously sent 
to market and prove peculiarly advantageous to that 
section. This early movement on the part of the 
aforesaid no doubt helped to direct further attention 
to the subject. The first coal sent by water of which 
there is an account was by Abraham Pott on flats la 
1821-23, two or three trips being made in each year. 
He soon after had the " Stephen Decatur" built, 
which in 1824 carried twenty-eight tons of coal as far 
as Reading, a feat also performed by the company's 
boat " Pioneer." Several arks and boats are men- 
tioned as having passed through Norristown on their 
way to Philadelphia loaded with coal in September 
of said year, indicating that the canal and navigation 
had been sufficiently completed for its accomplish- 
ment. The result of this was an announcement in 
the Beading Journal of Nov. 27, 1824, that " the pres- 
ent price of freight from Philadelphia to Reading is 
only twelve and one-half cents per hundredweight on 
the canal, whereas by land transportation the general 
price is forty cents." 

Daniel Pastorius, of Norristown, advertised in Jan- 
uary, 1825, that he had just received " several arks of 
Schuylkill coal, and families and smiths supplied 



with any quantity on reasonable terms." On June 
mil, thirteen boats are announced as having passed 
through the locks at Reading destined for Philadel- 
phia from Mount Carbon with coal, and that the 
whole line could now be considered as finished. On 
the following July 2d forty boats are mentioned as 
having passed through Norristown with coal for the 
city. Respecting the early introduction of coal into 
Norristown, the Herald of October 26th gives us the 
following interesting information : " We are pleased 
to find that a number of our enterprising citizens 
have commenced the burning of stove coal. Grates 
and stoves are now fixing up in several of the offices, 
bar-rooms, and private dwellings in this borough. It 
is generally believed that coal at seven dollars per 
ton is cheaper than hickory wood at five dollars per 
cord." Poulson's Advertiser of September, 1827, 
states that the "Schuylkill navigation has improved 
and the trade on the river increased within a short 
period, far exceeding the most sanguine expectations. 
The scene of canal-boats with coal and iron and mer- 
chandise above and below Market Street bridge indi- 
cated great commercial activity. Between Market 
Street and Spruce Street there were this morning 
three large brigs of two hundred to two hundred and 
forty tons each and five large schooners and sloops 
loading coal from Mount Carbon for Newport, Boston, 
Providence, Albany, and other Eastern ports ; also 
four schooners and sloops loading iron ore." 

The Norristown Herald of July 8, 1829, announces 
that "ninety-seven boats, carrying two thousand five 
hundred and fifty-three tons of coal, a quantity of 
iron, flour, eleven hundred and twenty bushels of 
flaxseed, and other eatables, departed from Mount 
Carbon during the last week. We expect that about 
two hundred boats now pass up and down the river 
Schuylkill weekly. The tolls will greatly exceed 
any former year, and will pay a considerable part of 
the debts of the company." "The advantages we 
reap," says James Mease, in his " Picture of Phila- 
delphia," " from the coal trade is of considerable mo- 
ment, from the consideration that wood has become 
almost a drug, and we purchase it this year, Dec. 30, 
1830, at from four to five dollars per cord, almost as 
low as it sells in the early part of the fell. Eighty- 
one thousand tons of coal have descended the Schuyl- 
kill Canal this season, producing to the various per- 
sons engaged in mining, hauling, trans-shipping, and 
transporting nearly five hundred thousand dollars. 
The freight and tolls continue high, the former being 
now two dollars and the latter one dollar per ton; 
but, notwithstanding this, it is expected that coal in 
1831 will be sold for four dollars ; now it brings from 
five to six and a half." 

The original capacity of the navigation was for 
boats of twenty-eight to thirty tons, which by subse- 
quent improvements was increased to sixty-six tons. 
The enlargement of 1846 and a somewhat later 
period enabled the scow " Hercules," belonging to 

Messrs. Kirk & Baum, of Pottsville, in the beginning 
of December, 1858, to pass through with two hundred 
and twelve tons, and the " Pilgrim," of Scliuylkill 
Haven, with two hundred and thirteen tons, in 1860, 
drawing only five feet eight inches of water, — a ca- 
pacity exceeding fourteen times that of the largest- 
sized Reading boats used sixty years previously, and 
which could then only ascend but little over half the 
present distance. The opening of the Schuylkill 
navigation was celebrated in what would now be 
regarded as a rather novel manner. It was com- 
pleted as far as Reading July 1, 1824, and the 5th was 
selected for the event. A number of persons from 
Philadelphia, Reading, and neighborhood assembled 
on this day and embarked on board of the boats 
"Thomas Oaks," "Stephen Girard," "DeWitt Clin- 
ton," and " Reading Packet," and thus from Pottstown 
to the aforesaid place the first experiment of canal 
navigation was made in Pennsylvania to the entire sat- 
isfaction of those j^resent. By order of the managers, 
the name of " The Girard Canal" was given to the 
said twenty-two miles of cut as a mark of respect to 
Stephen Girard, to whose liberality the company was 
so greatly indebted. To attend the reception of La- 
fayette at Philadelphia in September, four boats were 
dispatched from Reading filled with volunteers and 
passengers, besides several laden with coal from 
Mount Carbon, which was regarded collectively as a 
subject for triumph and congratulation. 

For a few years the stagnation of the water by the 
erection of dams caused some alarm among the resi- 
dents of the vicinity from the increase of fever and 
ague, but tlie reclamation and cultivation of the 
low grounds and other improvements have restored it 
fully to its former condition of healthfulness. The 
Norristown dam was not completed until 1828, its 
breast being eight feet high, with a width of eight hun- 
dred and eighty feet. It appears strange now to state 
that no tow-path was constructed for the use of horses 
until the latter part of June, 1825, when Col. Hun- 
zinger dispatched a boat from Pottsville loaded with 
lumber drawn by a horse, it being the first attempt of 
the kind, at least from the upper section of the navi- 
gation. It appears to have been the original inten- 
tion that the boats should be propelled by oars or set- 
ting-poles as formerly. As an after-thought for this 
construction, the company had to receive a special act 
of the Legislature. In some instances the boats pre- 
viously were drawn by two men attached to long lines 
to the end of which sticks were fastened and held at 
the breast. The first trips occupied three and four 
weeks, which was reduced by the use of horse-power 
down to ten or eleven days in the spring of 1826. 

The Schuylkill at times has been subject to severe 
freshets. In February, 1784, a destructive flood oc- 
curred in the breaking uj) of the ice. In October, 
1786, another occurred which occasioned the river to 
rise at Pottstown eighteen feet, and brought down 
immense numbers of pumpkins. July 29, 1824, the 



Schuylkill arose at Norristown thirteen feet, and 
brought down trees, boats, logs, boards, rails, hay, 
oats, and cord-wood that had been swept away by the 
rapidly descending current. The bridge at Flat Rock, 
undergoing repairs and a few days more would have 
completed, was again destroyed, causing a heavy loss 
to its contractor, Mr. Wernwag. However, the freshet 
of Sept. 2, 1850, surpassed all former ones in destruc- 
tiveness, rising twenty-one feet above ordinary level, 
carrying away the bridges at Pottstown, Consho- 
hocken, Flat Rock, and Manayunk, besides occasion- 
ing a vast amount of damage throughout the valley. 
Those that witnessed the scene will have occasion to 
hold it long in remembrance. 



With the introduction of railroads the palmy days 
of the stage-coach are over, which, by reason of its 
long and continued use as an important adjunct to 
travel, deserves notice in these annals. Montgomery 
County, located so near Philadelphia, with all its 
main roads leading there from the northeast, north, 
and west, including intermediate points, must neces- 
sarily in the past have been n great thoroughfare for 
numerous lines of stage-coaches in the conveyance 
of passengers, when no readier or better facilities for 
expeditious travel existed. This mode of travel has 
now gone out of usage, and although our local histo- 
rians have as yet given little attention to its history, 
there are many facts and reminiscences connected 
with it well worthy of preservation. 

The first through line of stages from Philadelphia 
to Baltimore and New York was established in 1756, 
To the latter city John Butler was the proprietor, the 
distance requiring three days, and the fare twenty 
shillings, or three pence per mile. Charles Bessonett 
in 1773 reduced the time to two days. The first line 
it is supposed that passed through the present terri- 
tory of this county was that established by George 
Klein between Bethlehem and Philadelphia, on what 
was known as the King's Highway, but later the Old 
Bethlehem road. His first trip was made in Septem- 
ber, 1763, in what he termed a " stage waggon." He 
started regularly every Monday morning from the 
Sun Tavern, Bethlehem, and returned from the city 
every Thursday morning, thus consuming a week in 
his round. His starting-place was from the King of 
Prussia, a noted inn on Race Street, and the charge 
through was ten shillings. This no doubt was the 
pioneer passenger line entering the city from either 
the north or the west. Bradford, in his account of the 
distances from the court-house in Philadelphia in 

1 By Wm. J. Buck. 

1772, thus mentions the King's road : To Rising Sun, 
3.1 miles ; Mount Airy, SJ ; Scull's, 10 ; Ottinger's, 12J ; 
White Marsh Church, 13', ; Benjamin Davis, at the 
Spring House, 16; Baptist Meeting,nearMontgomery- 
ville, 23 ; Housekeeper's, 25 ; Swamp Meeting, 37 ; 
Stoffel Wagner's, 47 ; and to Bethlehem, 52| miles. 

Housekeeper's must have evidently been at the 
present Line Lexington, from its distance above the 
Baptist Church. In 1797 a stage started for Bethle- 
hem from Lesher's tavern, sign of the " Stage Wag- 
gon," located in Second Street below Race, on every 
Wednesday morning at ten o'clock, and was probably 
an opposition line. 

The post-office was established at Bethlehem in 
July, 1792, and as a consequence an additional en- 
couragement was given for the transportation of the 
mail. The stages now reduced their time to two days 
to the city, which in 1798 was brought down to one 
by the mail line. In 1802 the Bethlehem and Allen- 
town stage left Philadelphia on Wednesday and Satur- 
day mornings at five o'clock from the Franklin and 
Camel Inns. The latter place was in Second Street 
above Race. It appears that two lines were running 
to Bethlehem in 1820, both leaving Philadelphia on 
Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday mornings at four 
o'clock. One started from Yolie's Hotel, in Fourth 
Street a few doors above Market ; the other from the 
White Swan, in Race Street above Third. The Union 
line of stages for Bethlehem, AUentown, and Mont- 
rose, via Nazareth, Easton, and Wilkesbarre, departed 
from the latter place. This was an association formed 
by the proprietors of several lines to resist compe- 
tition, whicli at this time was quite active. 

About 1781, William Coleman, an energetic busi- 
ness man, established a line from Philadelphia to 
Reading, of which he was the proprietor, and drove 
himself for twenty -seven consecutive years. He 
started from the White Swan, in Race Street, every 
Wednesday morning at seven o'clock, making a trip 
every week. Having received the contract for carry- 
ing the mail in 1804, he started from the Widow 
Wood's inn, Reading, every Monday and Thursday 
morning, arriving in the city the same days. Return- 
ing, left Philadelphia every Wednesday and Satur- 
day mornings. This arrangement existed from May 
1st to November 1st. This line passed through Nor- 
ristown, Trappe, and Pottsgrove, since called Potts- 
town. In the winter season he left the White Swan 
every Tuesday and Friday at two o'clock a.m. From 
Reading this line was continued to Harrisburg and 
Carlisle. Its stopping-place in Pottstown in 1806 was 
at the Rising Sun tavern, kept by Jacob Barr. Mr. 
Coleman, in August, ISOS, opened an inn at Reading 
for the accommodation of his passengers, his stages 
arriving and departing there in several directions. In 
1811 he put on an additional line from Pottstown to 
Philadelphia, leaving John Boyer's tavern every 
Tuesday morning at six o'clock, arriving in the city 
in the evening, and returning from the White Swan 



every Thursday morning at the same hour, the fare 
being two dollars and twenty-five cents. This is the 
last account given of Mr. Coleman, after an expe- 
rience in staging of at least thirty years. In thi.s last 
venture he *innounces in both English and German 
that " a sober and careful driver will attend the stage, 
80 that passengers may travel with safety and 
pleasure." The " Gentlemen's Pocket Almanac," 
published in 1769, thus gives the distances from Phil- 
adelphia over the Reading road to Pottstown : To 
Robin Hood, 4 miles; to Plymouth Meeting, 14; 
to Bartlestall's, 18; to Perkiomen Church, 24; to 
Shrack's, 26 ; to Widow Lloyd's, 30 ; to Potts', 38 

On the completion of the canal in the summer of 
1825, passengers from Reading were conveyed in a 
boat to Pawling's Bridge, and there transferred to 
stages passing through Norristown to Philadelphia, 
making three trips weekly. The packet-boat " Planet," 
during the summer of 1829, continued to convey pas- 
sengers from Reading to the city at the reduced rate 
of $2.25, going through in a day. In 1831 we learn 
that the stage for Reading and Pottsville still left its 
old place, the White Swan, daily at the early hours 
of 2 and 4 a.m. Ah, ye sluggards by rail, think of 
these sweet morning hours for travel on a cold win- 
ter's day! In December, 1839, the railroad was com- 
pleted to Reading, and the shrill whistle of the loco- 
motive along the Schuylkill Valley proclaimed the 
triumph of the iron horse over wearied flesh and 
bones, through mud and dust and snow-drifts, as well 
as over hill and dale and rugged pikes. 

A daring robbery was perpetrated on the Reading 
and Harrisburg mail-stage at three o'clock on Sun- 
day morning of Dec. 6, 1829, that at the time made 
no little excitement. It was committed by three 
armed men in disguise with lanterns on the Ridge 
road, a short distance beyond the present Girard 
College. The horses were seized, and with a flourish 
of pistols the lines were demanded from the driver, 
and were taken from oif the gears. The passengers, no 
less than ten in number, were ordered respectively to 
get out, and their hands secured on their backs with 
their own handkerchiefs, when their pockets were 
rifled. When this operation was through the driver 
was permitted to secure his lines, while they decamped 
with the mail and the contents of several trunks. 
The plot was brought about by the rogues having as- 
certained in some way that a drover, known to carry 
considerable money with him, would be in this morn- 
ing's stage. Tlie drover was one of the passengers, 
and whether they succeeded in securing as much 
plunder from him as was expected is not known. 
Although he had frequently boasted of what he would 
do should just such an attempt be made on him, yet 
on this occasion he proved as meek as the rest. 

The line to Lancaster was established in April, 1785, 
by Frederick Doersh and Adam Weaver, who state 
that their " Stage Waggon" will set out every Monday 

and Friday morning from the King of Prussia tavern, 
in Market Street above Third ; and from the Black 
Horse tavern, Queen Street, Lancaster, every Tuesday 
and Saturday morning. Each passenger was allowed 
fourteen pounds of baggage. The fare was twenty 
shillings, " one-half to be paid on entering the name 
in the book." This stage passed over the Old Lan- 
: caster road for a distance of nearly six miles through 
[ Lower Merion. The mail line in 1820 started from 
f 286J Market Street daily (Sundays excepted) at 7 
o'clock A.M. for Lancaster and Pittsburgh, the " Lan- 
caster coaches" starting every morning from the Red 
Lion, 200 Market Street. There was in addition the 
"Accommodation" for Lancaster at 4 o'clock a.m. 
from 286i Market Street, thus showing no incon- 
siderable amount of travel at this time towards the 
West. In 1831 the Lancaster and Pittsburgh mail- 
stage is mentioned as starting from 284 Market Street 
every morning at sis and a half o'clock, and for Har- 
risburg, Pittsburgh, Erie, Reading, Pottsville, and 
Northumberland from 200 Market Street. The com- 
pletion of the turnpike to Lancaster in 1794 must 
have subsequently proved highly advantageous to 
these several lines, especially during the winter sea- 
son and early spring, when the condition of the roads 
was often very bad. In April, 1834, the railroad was 
completed to Lancaster, and through to Pittsburgh in 
1854, which in consequence must have caused along 
this great thoroughfare csnsiderable decline in stage 

John Nicholas in 1792 established a line from 
Easton to Philadelphia, starting on Mondays, and 
making one trip a week, stopping at the present 
Stony Point, Doylestown, and Willow Grove ; leav- 
ing the " White Swan" every Thursday morning at 
six o'clock ; fare, two dollars. It carried also the mail, 
a post-office having been established at Easton three 
years previously. In 1800 a semi-weekly line was 
placed on this route to Bethlehem by John Brock, 
Joseph Hillman, James Burson, Charles Meredith, 
Charles Stewart, Alexander McCalla, Elijah Tyson, 
and William McCalla, the fare through beiug $2.75, 
with the same charge for one hundred and fifty pounds 
of baggage. About 1810, Mr. Nicholas commenced 
three trips a week, making Doylestown a stopping- 
place for the night. In 1820 it started from the " Green 
Tree" inn, No. 50 North Fourth Street, on every Sun- 
day, Tuesday, and Thursday at four o'clock a.m. 
Samuel Nicholas, on the death of his father, became 
the proprietor of the line, and was long its driver, to 
whom were joined in partnership AVilliam AVhite, of 
Philadelphia, John Moore, of Danborough, and a Mr 
Wilson. About 1825, William Shouse, the proprietor 
of a hotel in Easton, and Col. Reeside introduced a 
daily opposition line of stages to the city, which was 
continued until 1832, when the old line was bought 
out for a fair consideration. It is said that when the 
spirit of opposition began it required fifteen hours 
on the journey, which was reduced on good roads to 



eight, an average of seven miles per hour. The relay 
stations were at Bucksville, Doylestown, and Willow 
Grove. Mr. Shouse, who became an extensive and 
successful stage proprietor, was still living in Easton 
in 1876, at the advanced age of eighty-nine years. 
In 18-51 a daily line of stages still passed through 
Doylestown from Easton for the city carrying the 
mail, but reduced from four to two horses. On the 
completion of the Belvidere and Delaware Railroad 
in 1854 the line was withdrawn after an establish- 
ment of about fifty-eight years. 

It was customary along these routes for the stage- 
driver, when within a mile of the place at which the 
stage usually stopped for breakfast, to blow a horn, 
the sweet and mellow tones of whicli would announce 
his approach, that breakfast might be in readiness on 
Lis arrival. Nq sooner there than he would drop his 
lines, aid the passengers out of the coach, and pro- 
ceed to the awaiting meal ; in the mean time the 
horses would be changed, when the seats would be 
again occupied, and the journey resumed. In some 
cases fifteen miles having been made over the rugged 
road, it may be well supposed that an appetite had 
been awakened to be here appeased. At every post- 
office, generally about four or five miles apart, a brief 
stop would be made to have the mail changed and 
the horses watered. They were what was generally 
termed Troy coaches, painted red with a profusion 
of gilding, having the proprietors' names blazoned 
on the panels. Four horses were always driven to 
each coach, who were generally selected for beauty, 
speed, and powers of endurance, iu the proper care 
of which the hostlers appeared to take a delight. 

Before 1802 a line was running over the Old York 
road to New York, passing through Jenkintown, 
Hatboro', or Crooked Billet, Coryell's Ferry, now New 
Hope, and Lambertville. It started from Mann's 
inn daily at eighto'clock in the morning. This coach 
was drawn by four horses, and carried the mail on 
down to the completion of the Belvidere and Dela- 
ware Railroad. John M. Jones, of Hatboro', was 
long a popular driver on this line. In proceeding 
from Pliiladelphia they breaktasted at the "Red 
Lion," Willow Grove, where the Easton stage also 
stopped and changed horses. 

It is known that a stage for Pottsgrove passed 
through Norristown in 1802, leaving Hay's inn, 
Philadelphia, every Wednesday at sunrise. In 1804, 
William Coleman drove his stage through the place 
from the city to Reading, making two trips a week. 
These were evidently distinct lines, as the latter 
started from the White Swan, in Race Street. We 
possess no earlier knowledge of a stage terminating 
its journey at Norristown until in August, 1808, 
when Hezekiah Jeffries established one, starting 
from Jesse Roberts' inn, sign of the Rising Sun, 
every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings 
at six o'clock, returning on the intervening days 
at 2 P.M. from the White Horse, kept by John 

' Haines, on Fourth Street below Race. The fare 
through was one dollar, allowing fourteen pounds 
of baggage; way passengers, six cents per mile; one 
hundred and fifty pounds of baggage was rated the 
same as a passage. The following year Jesse Roberts 

; & Co. assumed the proprietorship, leaving the city 
from Alexander McCalla's sign of the Green Tree. 
Packages under ten pounds were chargeable six 
cents. In the beginning of 1812, Daniel Woodrufi" 
became the proprietor, who in the spring of the fol- 
lowing year changed it into a daily line, starting for 
the city at 7 o'clock a.m., and returning at 3 p.m., 
thus making now at least two daily lines for the con- 
veyance of passengers to Philadelphia. Lewis Shrack 
became the owner in 1824, and announced its start- 
ing from John Branch's tavern, and returning from 
Robert Evans' inn. Race Street. He commenced tri- 
weekly trips the following 8th of November, leaving 
Norristown at 8 o'clock a.m., and arriving at Robert 
Evans' inn at 12, returning at 1 o'clock p.m., thus 
showing that the distance of about eighteen miles 
was accomplished in four hours, evidently in oppo- 
sition now to the packets on the canal. In the fall 
of 1827, Henry Styer and Levi Roberts established a 
daily line to the city and a copartnership in the liv- 
ery business, keeping " horses, gigs, and dearborns to 
hire at all times." By their advertisement they now 
made the distance through in three and a half hours. 
The aforesaid daily mail line in 1829 was owned by 
John Crawford & Co., who announce it to start from 
Levi Roberts' Rising Sun Hotel every morning at 
seven and a half o'clock, and to pass through Yerkes', 
Freas' Store, Barren Hill, Hagey's, Manayunk, Falls, 
and Robin Hood ; leaving John Hunter's hotel, sign 
of the Wagon, in Race above Fourth, with the fare 
reduced to seventy-five cents. 

The railroad was opened from Philadelphia to Nor- 
ristown in August, 1835, and on the opposite side of 
the river through to Pottsville in 1842. These sev- 
eral improvements of course now greatly lessened 
the amount of travel by stages over their old and 
long established routes, and necessarily had to with- 
draw more or less where opposition would have been 
useless. Yet to our surprise, with the growth and 
prosperity of Norristown and the country around, it 
really in 1860 became quite a considerable centre 
for staging in various directions. A line proceeded 
tri-weekly to Sumneytown, passing through Centre 
Square, Skippackville, Lederachsville, and Salford- 
ville, from the Pennsylvania Farmers' Hotel, on the 
north side of Main Street above Markley. For Mil- 
lerstown tri-weekly, by Perkiomen Bridge, Zeiglers- 
ville, Pennsbury, Treichlersville, and Shimersville. 
For Pottstown tri-weekly, by the Trappe and Limer- 
ick. For Boyerstown tri-weekly, by Limerick Square 
and New Hanover. A daily line for the Trappe, 
leaving at 4 o'clock p.m., via JefTersonville, Eagle- 
ville, and Freeland ; also a daily line for Phcenix- 
ville by way of Shannonville, and a tri-weekly still 



running on the pike to Philadelphia at 1 o'clock 
P.M. The advantages derived from carrying the mail 
contributed materially to the encouragement of the 
several lines, but the building of additional rail- 
roads since, for instance along the Perkiomeu and 
Stony Creeks, has again lessened the number of 
stages, until we have almost ceased to wonder at the 
marvelous changes going on. A writer in the Penns- 
hury Valley Press, on the completion of the railroad 
there in 1874, stated that "the old stage-coach has 
disappeared, and instead of taking three days to go 
from Pennsburg to Philadelphia and return, as it did 
a few years ago, the people of the former place can 
now go by train in the morning and return early in 
the evening, after having spent the full business part 
of the day in the city." 

The earliest line probably from Doylestown to the 
city was established in the fall of 1813, making two 
trips weekly, the fare each way being seventy-five 
cents. In 1815 tri-weekly trips were made, and the 
price advanced to one dollar and twenty-five cents. 
This stage in 1820 made the Buck Tavern, 130 North 
Second Street, its stopping-place, starting from there 
during the summer at 8 o'clock a.m., and in the win- 
ter at 9, making then one trip less. In 1831 the 
Doylestown stage was announced to start from the 
Camel Tavern, in Second Street above Race. About 
1846 two daily lines were running on this route in 
opposition to each other for several years, with the 
fare reduced as low as seventy-five and fifty cents, 
and yet from the number of passengers they carried 
the proprietors did not money. One was termed 
the High Grass Line, driven by Benjamin T. Clark, 
and the other by Joseph Lewis, succeeded by John 
Servis. The proprietors of the former were Charles 
H. Mann, Jacob E. Buck, and Joseph Harnett. The 
proprietor of the latter was Daniel Shelmire, of Ab- 
ington. On Mondays and Saturdays during the sum- 
mer season these coaches were generally drawn by 
four horses and sometimes six. The aforesaid fare 
for a distance of twenty-five miles is quite a contrast 
to what the Norristown lines charged, ranging from 
one dollar and twenty-five cents to seventy-five cents 
for only eighteen miles. In October, 1856, the branch 
from the North Pennsylvania Railroad to Doylestown 
was completed, which of course now tended to 
greatly reduce the amount of travel over the hitherto 
well-worn turnpike to the city, when the coaches were 

In 1820, Flourtown became a noted terminus for 
several lines passing through Rising Sun, German- 
town, and Chestnut Hill ; a stage leaving the Cross 
Keys, in Fourth Street above Market, daily at 8 a.m. 
and 2 p.m., and another, the Old Rotterdam, at 3 p.m. ; 
from the White Swan a line left daily at 9, 10, and 
11 A.m., returning at 3, 5, and 6 p.m. From this it 
would appear that these several lines made nor less 
than six daily trips to and from the city, thus show- 
ing more than sixty years ago a great amount of travel 

along this route. Jacob AcufF had a daily mail line 
running from the Broad Axe tavern in 1828, starting 
every Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday morning at 
5.30 o'clock, arriving at Evans' tavern. Race Street, in 
three hours; returning on the same days at 3 p.m. 
This line proceeded from the Broad Axe to Kutz- 
town on Thursday morning at 5 o'clock, returning on 
the following day. This route lay through Nicetown, 
Germantown, Chestnut Hill, Flourtown, White Marsh, 
Broad Axe, Pigeontown or Blue Bell, Centre Square, 
Zeiglersville or Skippack, Sumneytown, and Tres- 
ler's Furnace. 

A new mail route having been formed by thePost- 
Office Department in the spring of 1828 over the Gulf 
road, a stage left the city on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays at 4 o'clock a.m., passing the Gulf Mills, 
breakfasting at the Bird-in-Hand, thence through 
Valley Forge and Kimberton, arriving at Lancaster 
next morning. In consequence of this contemplated 
line a meeting of the citizens of Upper and Lower 
Merion was called at the house of Joseph King, sign 
of the Bird-in-Hand, January 19th, previous to fur- 
ther improving this highway so as to render its travel 
easier, " it being the only free road from the Cones- 
toga Valley to Philadelphia," thus intimating that 
now all the other prominent roads in that direction 
had been turnpiked. At this time a stage line was 
also established from Pottstown to meet this line at 
Kimberton, when the passengers could either proceed 
to Lancaster or Philadelphia ; the starting-place in 
the city being from Van Buskirk's hotel, 244 Market 
Street, arriving at the Union Hotel, Pottstown, in time 
to dine ; fare through, two dollars and twenty-five 

To show what importance staging had assumed, 
it may be stated that James Reeside owned in the 
business in 1825 above one thousand horses. Through 
his extensive business in this direction he had be- 
stowed on him the title of " admiral." The credit is 
due him for the introduction of the more comfortable 
and stylish Troy coaches, a decided improvement 
over the earlier "stage waggon." Elliptic steel 
springs did not come into general use for the pur- 
poses of conveyance until after 1885. The noted 
White Swan, in Race Street, was long kept by Jacob 
Peters, who was also widely known as a stage pro- 
prietor. Even down to 1854 the Willow Grove had 
still five daily lines stopping there for Philadelphia. 
The line from Easton was established in 1792, and 
from New York at least in 1802, besides the two 
Doylestown lines, and one from Hartsville, now re- 
duced to bijt one, carrying the mail between said 
village and Doylestown. 

The business of staging, directly and indirectly, 
gave employment and support to a number of per- 
sons in Montgomery County, among whom could 
be enumerated the proprietors, the drivers, grooms- 
men, inn-keepers, smiths, and coach-makers, besides 
the toll arising therefrom for the turnpike companies 






Although the present territory of Montgomery 
County within the Scliuylkill valley may have been 
pretty well explored by the Dutch, Swedes and Eng- 
lish, in the pursuit of l)eaver and other peltries from 
the Indians, for forty years before the arrival of Penn, 
yet no evidence exists of any permanent settlement 
having been made within said time by Eurojieans 
upon this soil. Those engaged in the traffic were 
actuated entirely by a love for gain, and in no way 
concerned for the improvement or material develop- 
ment of the country. As the supply of furs dimin- 
ished through the activity of the pursuit, these 
adventurous spirits, in consequence, had to seek new 
fields, and thus one section would be abandoned for 
another. True, along the valley of the Delaware, 
south of the present city of Trenton, the Swedes had 
secured a foothold by attaching themselves to the 
cultivation of the soil, but it was hardly ever beyond 
the landing of their canoes. To them great honor is 
due for the peaceable relations that they so long 
maintained here with the Indians, thus making it a 
comparatively easy task, by the example set him, for 
William Penn in continuing the policy that Queen 
Christiana had so long before strictly enjoined should 
be carried out with the natives for their lands, — that 
they should be treated with justice and moderation, 
and, a step further, that they should be instructed in 
the Christian religion, for which purpose schools 
were established and catechisms and portions of the 
gospels and doctrines translated into their language, 
the evidences of which exist unto this day. 

In securing his province from the British King, the 
chief aim of William Penn was to insure an asylum 
or refuge for the persecuted of his denomination, and 
of all others that professed faith in Christianity. For 
these liberal views he deserves credit, although they 
had been carried out for some time previously by 
Roger Williamsand Lord Baltimore. Fromthecircum- 
stances of his position he could not do otherwise. In 
palliation for persecution, it was their resistance to the 
established laws of the land that in many cases brought 
the earliest immigrants hither, no matter whether from 
the British Isles or along the whole course and valley 
of the Rhine, — namely, the refusal to bear arms or do 
military duty and the non-payment of church-rates or 
tithes. To the former our own government has even 
not yielded, as shown in the late great Rebellion, and 
as to the latter, is still enforced by almost every na- 
tionality in Europe. However unjust the compulsory 
payment may be to an established church, this was 
certainly avoided in coming to Penn's distant colony, 
and was no small gain, when one-tenth of the farmer's 

1 By Will. .r. Buck. 

products were required. It was probably as much the 
resistance to the two aforesaid enactments that led to 
fines and imprisonments as in promulgating or join- 
ing new doctrines that were regarded by those in 
power at variance with their own long-established 
principles. It was these several causes that chiefly 
led to early immigration hither from Wales, the 
larger proportion of which were Friends, the Bap- 
tists being next in number. A few, it appears, 
were Episcopalians, who in some cases, were induced 
to follow from a relationship existing with those who 
left on account of persecution or conscientious scru- 

In this county the date of settlement appears very 
close with the English in Cheltenham, but the honor 
of priority appears due to the Welsh. These people 
before the arrival of Penn had purchased in England 
from him forty thousand acres of land, which was 
subsequently located in Merion, Haverford, Goshen 
and extending partly into several adjoining town- 
ships. Under this encouragement, the ship " Lyon," 
JohnCompton, master, arrived with forty passengers, 
in the Schuylkill River, August 13, 1682, almost two 
months preceding Penn's arrival, on board of which 
was Edward Jones, " chirurgeon," with his family, 
who on the following 26th, sent a letter to John Ap 
Thomas, residing near Bala, in North A\'ales, wherein 
he states, " The Indians brought venison to our door 
for sixpence ye quarter. There are stones to be 
had enough at the Falls of Skoolkill, that is where 
we are to settle, and water power enough for mills, 
but thou must bring mill-stones and the irons that 
belong to it, for smiths are dear. They use both 
hooks and sickles to reap with." We have the 
authority of John Hill's map of the environs of 
Philadelphia, published in 1809, that the aforesaid 
made "the first Brhish settlement, 18th of 6th 
month, 1682," being only five days after his arrival 
in the Schuylkill. The place designated thereon 
is now the estate of his descendant, the late Colonel 
Owen Jones, near the present Libertyville, in Lower 
Merion, and is certainly an early claim, for Philadel- 
phia had not then been founded. 

In the following November, Dr. Thomas Wynne 
arrived with his family in the ship "Welcome" 
with William Penn. He settled beside his son-in- 
law Edward Jones. From him originated the name 
of Wynnewood. John Roberts came from Penny- 
chlawd, Denbighshire, in 1683, a millwright by occu- 
pation, and is supjjosed to have erected the third mill 
in the province. Among those who followed and 
settled early in Lower Merion may be mentioned 
Robert Owen, John Thomtis, Tljomas Owen, Hugh 
Roberts, Rowland Ellis, Robert Jones, John C'adwal- 
lader, Benjamin Humphreys and others. William 
Penn, by an order dated Pennsbury, 13th of First 
Month, 1684, directed Thomas Holmes, his surveyor- 
general to lay out the tract to which reference has 
been made. He therein states, " I do hereby charge 



thee and strictly require thee to lay out ye sd tract of 
Laud iu an uniform manner, conveuiently as may be, 
upon the West side of Skoolkill river, running three 
miles upon ye same, and two miles backwards, and 
then extend ye parallel with the river six miles and 
to run westwardly so far as till the said quantity of 
land be completely surveyed unto them." This sur- 
vey is known to have been made before the end of the 
aforesaid year. Owing to the continued immigration 
from Wales this tract within the first forty years was 
pretty well taken up and settled upon. 

One matter caused them considerable uneasiness. 
They had expected, and no doubt were promised 
that by thus locating together, they should all be 
under one municipal government, which would enable 
them the better to manage their own affairs. When 
the division line was run between Philadelphia and 
Chester Counties by order of the Governor's Council, 
passed 8th of Second Month, 1685, the said tract be- 
came divided, and only that portion since known as 
Lower Merion town.ship retained in Philadelphia and 
the balance left to Chester. This gave rise to a 
great deal of dissatisfaction, in which they proceeded 
almost to the verge of rebellion. The inhabitants 
of Radnor and Haverford refused to recognize the 
validity of said line, and in 1689 cast their votes for 
members of Assembly in Philadelphia. These were set 
aside as invalid. The result was that Griffith Owen 
and other inhabitants of the Welsh tract sent a long 
statement of their grievances to the commissioners 
the 13th of Tenth Month, 1690,— 

"We the Inhabitants of the W^elsh tr.icti in the Province of Penn- 
sylvania, in America, being descended of tlie Antieiit Britains, who 
always in the land of onr Nativity, under the Crown of England, have 
enjoyed that liberty and privilege as to have our bounds and litnits by 
ourselves, within which all causes, quarrels, crimes and titles were 
tryed and wholly determined by olliceii*, magistrates, juries of our 
own language, which were our equals. Having our faces towards these 
Countries, made the motion to our Governor that we might enjoy the 
same here, which thing was soon granted by him before he or they were 
ever come to these parts, and when he came over he gave forth his war- 
rant to lay out 40,0U0 acres of land to the intent we might live together 
here, and enjoy our liberty and Devotion iu our own Language as afore 
in our Country, and on tlie 40,00*1 acres was surveyed out and by his 
own wan'ant Confirmed by several Orders from the Conimissionei-s of ye 
Proprietary, and settled upon already with near four score settlements." 

In the aforesaid extract we see a strong, prevailing 
sentiment — the pride of ancestry — and an uncommon 
zeal evinced for the due preservation and jjcrpetua- 
tion of their ancient language. Those that had settled 
.so early in the townships of Upper and Lower Merion, 
it would ap2-)ear, belonged chiefly to the Society of 
Friends. In the latter district they erected, in 1695, 
the first house of worship in the county, a temporary 
structure of logs. This, in 1713, was su|)planted by a 
substantial stone edifice, which is still standing, and 
therefore ranks now as one of the oldest buildings 
used for the ]nirpose in Pennsylvania. The popula- 
tion of the Welsh had increased so by continuous im- 
migration and settlement in the two townships that 

* See Fenn. Archives, i. p. 108. 

out of eighty-four resident taxables in 1734, sixty- 
eight were actually of that nationality, being con.sider- 
ably over three-fourths the whole number. 

About the beginning of 1698, William, John and 
Thomas Ap Evan ])urchased of Robert Turner, a mer- 
chant of Philadelphia, seven thousand eight hundred 
and twenty acres in the present Gwynedd, being the 
larger portion of the township. The last-named pur- 
chaser settled on this tract, and was soon after joined 
by his brothers, Cadwalladcr, Owen and Robert Ap 
Evan. In July of said year more Welsh immigrants ar- 
rived in the ship " Robert and Elizabeth," among whom 
were William John (since changed to Jones), Hugh 
Griffith, Ellis David, Robert Jones, Edward Foulke, 
John Hugh and J(jhn Humphrey. All these, except- 
ing the last two, were originally Episcopalians, who 
afterwards joined the Friends. Edward Foulke came 
from Merionethshire, North Wales. He embarked at 
Liverpool with his wife, four sons and five daughters, 
and arrived in Philadelphia .luly 17, 1698, whore he 
was kindly treated and entertained by his former ac- 
quaintances who had i>receded him. Having purchased 
a tract of seven hundred acres in Gwynedd, he removed 
thereon the beginning of the following November. 

Having become sufficiently numerous, the Welsh 
Friends, iu 1700, erected in Gwynedd a small log build- 
ing for wor.shipin the centre of the township. There 
is a tradition that William Penn, accompanied by 
his daughter Letitia and a servant, came out on horse- 
back to visit the settlement shortly after its erection, 
and that he preached in it, staying, on this occasion, 
over night at the house of his friend, Thomas Evans, 
the first settler, who resided near by. His return to 
England in November, 1701, will nearly determine 
the time that he made this visit. Owing to the 
influx of more Welsh settlers, a larger stone building 
was determined on, which was erected in 1712. In a 
petition from this settlement, which is therein called 
North Wales, dated June, 1704, ])raying for a road 
through Germantown to Philadelphia, it is stated 
that they then numbered thirty families. The list of 
1734 gives Gwynedd forty-eight resident taxables, of 
which number thirty-nine bear Welsh surnames. 

Immediately adjoining Gwynedd on the north is 
Montgomery township, which, according to the re- 
port of Rev. Evan Evans bore this name at least as 
early as 1707. Here John Evans, William James, 
Thomas James, Josiah James, James Lewis, David 
Williams, David Hugh and James Davis settled before 
1720. In this year they built the first Bajjtist Church 
in the county, above the present Montgomeryville, in 
which preaching in the Welsh language was main- 
tained down to the Revolution. In the list of 1734, 
out of twenty-eight residents in Jlontgomery, nine- 
teen bear Welsh surnames. Before 1703, David Mer- 
edith, Thomas Owen, Isaac Price, Ellis Pugh and 
Hugh Jones, all from Wales, had settled in Plymouth 
township, where in 1734 they numbered nine out of 
its sixteen residents. Abraham Davis and David 



Williams had settled in Whitemarsh before 1703. 
Stephen Jenkins, in 1698, purch.ased four hundred 
and thirty-seven acres adjoining the present borough 
of Jenkintown, after whose descendants the place has 
been called. Before 1710, Robert Llewellyn and 
Evan Hugh had settled in Upper Merion. The Rev. 
Malachi Jones, from Wales, organized at Abing- 
ton, in 1714, the first Presbyterian congregation in 
the county, and here five years later, a church was 
built. Evan Lloyd, who settled in Horsham in 1719, 
was one of the first ministers there of the Friends' 
Meeting, whose original membership was probably 
one-third Welsh. 

From the list of 1734 we ascertain that the Welsh 
at that date outnumbered, in a total of 760 names, the 
English in the proportion of ISl to 163, thus consti- 
tuting at that time almost one-fourth the entire pojiu- 
lation within the present limits of the county. With 
the cessation of religious persecution, the Welsh al- 
most ceased coming, and this is one reason for their 
having since so diminished. According to the assess- 
ment of Lower Merion in 1780, out of 153 taxables 
only 34 bore Welsh names ; in Upper Merion for said 
year, out of 173 taxables, 36 are Welsh; in Gwynedd 
for 1776, of 143, only 43 are Welsh ; in Montgomery 
for said year, of 74, but 24 are Welsh ; and in Ply- 
mouth in 1780, of 93, only 13 are Welsh. The dispro- 
portion at present has become still greater. 

That the early Welsh possessed a pride of country, 
language, ancestry and other characteristic traits 
somewhat at variance with the views entertained by 
their English neighbors here will admit of no doubt. 
That they are the direct lineal descendants of the 
ancient Britons, with little or no admixture of foreign 
blood, will not be denied. That they fought valiantly 
in resisting the invasion of the Romans, Saxons, 
Danes and Xormans, as they w-ithdrew to their moun- 
tain fa.stnesses, will not be disputed. Next to the 
Irish, the Welsh is now regarded as one of the oldest 
living languages spoken in Europe. Essentially it is 
the same language that Csesar and Agricola heard on 
their first landing on the British shores, and in conse- 
quence deserves to be regarded with veneration as 
the only living link that unites those distant ages 
with the present. But the Engli-sh language is in- 
debted to it but little, so strongly is it Saxon and 
Latin. Rev. Joseph Harris, with ideas like some of 
the genealogists among his countryman, stated, in the 
"Seren Gomer," a work he edited in 1814, that "it is 
supposed by some, and no one can disprove it, that 
Welsh was the language spoken by Adam and Eve 
in Paradise." 

In their petition of grievances to Penn's commis- 
sioners in 1690, they particularly specify- therein that 
they are descended from the " Antient Britains," and 
desire that they may enjoy their " own language as 
afore in our Country." Rowland Ellis, a minister 
among Friends, arrived here in 16S6, and settled in 
Lower Merion, where he made himself useful to his 

countrymen as an interpreter and translator in their 
intercoui-se with the English. Bowden, in his "His- 
tory of Friends in America,"' states that "the mem- 
bers of his meeting being Welsh people, his ministry 
was in that language." Ellis Pugh, who arrived in 
1687 and soon after settled in Plymouth township, 
wrote a religious work there in Welsh, entitled " A 
Salutation to the Britains," which was translated by 
Rowland Ellis, and printed in Philadelphia in 1727, 
making a duodecimo of two hundred and twenty-two 
pages. Respecting Hugh Griffith and the brothers 
Robert and Cadwallader Evans, who settled in Gwy- 
nedd, Samuel Smith remarks in his " History of Penn- 
sylvania," ^ that they " could neither read or write 
in any but the Welsh language." The subscription 
paper for the rebuilding of their meeting-house, in 
1712, was written in Welsh, to which was affixed sixty- 
six names. Edward Foulke, of this congregation, 
wrote an account and genealogy of his family in 1702 
in Welsh, which was afterwards translated by his 
grandson, Samuel Foulke. The late Hugh Foulke, 
a life-long resident of Gwynedd, who died in 1864, 
aged seventy-six years, exhibited to the writer in 
18.55 the family Bible of Hugh Griffith in Welsh, 
printed in London in 1654. Dr. George Smith in his 
" History of Delaware County," mentions that the 
meeting-house at Haverford was built in 1700, where 
" William Penn preached to Welsh Friends, who sat 
quietly listening to an address from the Proprietary, 
of which they did not understand a word." 

William Jones, Hugh Griffith, Ellis David, Robert 
Jones and Edward Foulke, as well as several others, 
by leaving their church and attaching themselves to 
Friends, appear to have attracted the attention of the 
churchmen, if we are to judge by the correspondence 
published in the "Collections of the Episcopal Church 
in Pennsylvania." 

The Rev. Evan Evans, in his report dated Septem- 
ber IS, 1704, states that he frequently went out to Mont- 
gomery, twenty miles, and Radnor, fifteen miles from 
Philadelphia, "determined to lose none of those 
whom I had gained, but rather add to them, where I 
preached in Welsh once a fortnight for four years, till 
the arrival of Mr. Nichols, minister from Chester, in 
1704." He adds that a hundred names had been 
signed to a petition to have settled among them, in 
Radnor and Merion, a minister " that understands the 
British language, there being many ancient people 
among those inhabitants that do not understand 
the English. Could a sober and discreet person be 
secured to undertake that mission, he might be 
capable to bring in a plentiful harvest of Welsh 
Quakers, that were originally born in the Church of 
England, but were unhappily perverted, before any 
minister in holy orders could preach to them in their 
own language." He continues that "there is another 
Welsh settlement, called Montgomery, in the county 

1 Vol. ii, p. 21)2. 

2 Hazard's Register, vol. vi. 



of Philadelphia, twenty miles distant from the city, 
vhere were a considerable number of Welsh people, 
formerly, in their native country, of the communion of 
the Church of England ; but about 1698, two years be- 
fore my arrival, most of them joined the Quakers ; but 
some of them are reduced, and I have baptized their 
children and preached often to them." The Gwynedd 
congregation is evidently here meant, for which he 
has unintentionally substituted Montgomery, which, 
it is likely, at this early time, was the only name 
known to him for this section. 

As the Rev. Benjamin Griffith jn-eached in the Welsh 
language in the Montgomery Baptist Church down to 
his death, in 1768, in which he was also followed 
by his successor, the Rev. John Thomas, this estab- 
lishes the fact that, in consequence, the language must 
have been retained and spoken in some of the families 
in that section and in the adjoining townships of Hill- 
town and New Britain until the beginning of this 
century. We have thus been curious to gather from 
a variety of sources the aforesaid facts respecting the 
powerful hold of the language on the early Welsh 
settlers in this county, and to show how most of them 
■were unacquainted with any other. Its duration here 
may be set down at about a century before the 
English had entirely supplanted it. Necessity at 
first compelled the Welsh, English, Germans and the 
Swedes to form settlements by themselves, owing to 
a general ignorance of each others' language, which, 
of course, for a long time must have greatly inter- 
fered with their social intercourse. 

The early Welsh that came here at first continued 
the practice that had so long prevailed in their native 
country of reversing their family names. Thus John 
and Evan Griffith were the sons of Griffith John, 
taking their father's Christian name for their surname. 
Thomas Ap John, the son of John Ap Thiimas, when 
he attained to manhood, wrote his name here Thomas 
Jones. Hugh Evan was the son of Evan Hugh, and 
married to Mary Robert, the daughter of Robert 
John. Edward and Evan Jones were the sons of 
John Evan ; Robert and Griffith Hugh sons of Hugh 
Griffith. John Roger is mentioned in a marriage 
certificate at Merion, as late as 1717, as being the son 
of Roger Roberts. In the early records of Haverford 
and Merion Monthly Meeting, and also in that of ■ 
Gwynedd, only a few instances are found in births 
where the surnames were exchanged. A large 
majority of the Welsh, however, soon after their 
arrival, adopted the English method, that the father's 
surname be retained and perpetuated, as indicative 
of a family origin, and which, from its simplicity, 
cannot be well improved upon. The Welsh practice, 
in consequence, has often here been puzzling in 
tracing early family genealogies. Welsh, like German 
names have also been Anglicized. John has thus 
been changed to Jones, David to Davis, Matthew to 
Matthews, Philip to Philips, Robert to Roberts, 
William to Williams, Hugh to Hughes, Jenken to 

Jenkins, Edward to Edwards, which are only a few 
of many that can be mentioned. 

A question now arises in regard to their numbers 
and singular characteristic traits, — What impress have 
the Welsh made here in the two past centuries, 
through their descendants, on the existing condition 
of society ? As respects their language, they have 
been certainly given to applying and perpetuating 
here local names from the land of their nativity. In 
a list of one hundred and twelve post-offices in the 
county, thirteen are ascertained to be more or less of 
Welsh origin. Outside of local names, remarkable to 
relate, after the most diligent inquiry, we cannot find 
a single word of the language retained or in use at 
this time that might have been either apjilied to 
some living object, utensil, or implement used in 
agriculture and mechanics, or relating to dress, food, 
furniture, buildings, scenery, habits, customs, etc., 
it thus seeming as if the language had never been 
spoken here. 



The proprietary or colonial government of Penn- 
sylvania from 1682 to 1776 seems to have been of a 
peaceful and conservative character. All nations 
and tongues and kindred were here cordially invited 
to unite in their efforts to form and administer a sys- 
tem of government that would secure to mankind the 
measure of human happiness believed to be incident 
to the providence of life. Peaceful relations with the 
aborigines were first secured. On the banks of the 
Delaware, at a point marked by a great elm-tree, the 
founder of the colony, surrounded by a few judicious 
followers, met in council a large delegation of the 
Leuni-Lenape tribes. " We meet in good faith 
and good will ; no advantage shall be taken on either 
side, but all shall be openness and love. We are the 
same as if one man's body were to be divided into 
two parts, we are all one flesh and blood." The re- 
sponse was natural, — " We will live iu love with you 
and your children as long as the moon and the sun 
shall endure." This covenant of peace and amity 
had neither signature, seal nor oath to confirm it. 
No record of it can be found. The sons of the wilder- 
ness, returning to their forest homes, preserved the 
history of the great event by strings of wampum, and 
later generations would count over the shells on a 
clean piece of bark, and repeat to child and stranger 
the magic words of "peace and good will." 

Honorable jjeace with the natives gave to all a 
sense of permanent security. Contentment and in- 
terest in the colony were inspired by assuring to a tax- 
paying citizenship a participation in making laws to 
govern themselves. The people responded promptly 




to the privilege, and tlirough tlieir represeatatives en- 
tered upon the work of preparatory legislation at 
Chester, and in a session of three days completed a 
form of government. By the joint act of the people 
and the proprietary all were united ou the basis of 
equal rights. The rule of eiiuality in descent and in- 
heritance was secured in families by abrogating the 
laws of primogeniture. The standard of woman was 

lurking in many minds. The establishment of "an 
asylum for the oppressed of every nation" was an in- 
vitation to the children of misfortune of every clime 
to seek refuge in it. Adventurers came in throngs, 
demanding personal license in the name of public 
liljerty. The mass of emigrants came with minds 
clouded by the gloomy terrors of an invisible world of 
attending fiends. Witchcraft found advocacy and 


raised to an inheritable person in the distribution of 
all intestate estates. Every resident who paid "scot 
and lot to the Governor" possessed the right of suf- 
frage, and every Christian was eligible to public 
office. No tax or custom could be levied or collected 
but by law, murder was the only crime punishable by 
death, marriage was declared a civil contract, every 
prison for convicts was made a work-house, there 
were neither poor-rates nor church tithes. The 
Swedes, Finns, Dutch, and all men of whatever nation 
were invested with the liberty of Englishmen. It 
was a bold dejsarture in a right direction, keenly ap- 
preciated by the newly enfranchised men, and led to 
open exclamations of joy by many leading spirits, 
among them Lawrence Cook, who declared for his 
fellow-citizens, " that it .was the best day they had 
ever seen." 

The birth of popular power and the institution of 
forms of government demanded by it imposed the 
dutyj of dislodging the prejudice and superstition 

belief, and demanded the arrest and trial of a common 
scold in the person of a woman. The event was im- 
portant and the scene memorable. Penn presided as 
judge; the jury was carefully selected, the Quakers 
outnumbered the Swedes. The nature of the accusa- 
tion was carefully considered, the witnesses were 
patiently examined, the jury received the charge of 
the court, and after mature deliberation returned the 
following verdict : " The prisoner is guilty of the com- 
mon fame of being a witch, but not guilty as she 
stands indicted." The personal friends of the liber- 
ated but incorrigible scold were directed to enter into 
bonds that she should keep the peace and be of good 
behavior towards all good citizens, and from that day 
henceforth in the colony of Pennsylvania witchcraft 
became an extinct offense. The sinful arts of con- 
juration were obscured, if not eradicated, by this 
public trial, and " neither demon nor hog ever rode 
through air on goat or broom-stick," in the presence 
of a Quaker judge or jury thereafter. 



Late in the year of 1682, Thomas Holmes, Penn's 
surveyor-general, laid out the city of Philadeljihia on 
land ]mrchnsed the Swedes. In the spring of 


1683 it became the capital city, the proprietor having 
previously divided the province into the counties 
Bucks, Chester, and Philadelphia, and the " territo- 
ries" into three, — New Castle, Kent, and Sussex. The 
political freedom of the colonists induced frequent 
modifications in their form of government. The 
Council and Assembly were in session in the spring 
of 1683. Addressing them in reference to the form 
of government, Penn said, " You may amend, alter, or 
add; I am ready to settle such form or additions as 
may be for yonr happines." The question before 
them was " whether to have the old charter or a new 
one." A new one was adojited and approved by the 
Governor of the province. By this charter the Pro- 
vincial Council was to consist of eighteen persons, 
three from each county, and the Assembly of thirty- 
six persons " of most note for virtue, wisdom and 
ability." The laws were to be prepared and proposed 
by the Governor and Council, and the numlier of 
Assemblymen to be increased at their own pleasure. 

The popular branch of the Legislature had no power 
to originate laws or measures, but could negative or 
defeat those proposed by the Governor and Council. It 
was soon discovered that an elective Assembly, repre- 
senting a large constituency, were unsatisfied with 
the exercise of a negative power. Discussions were 
frequent and animated. This led to conferences with 
the Council and the Governor; the associated wisdom 
of the many became manifest, and the privilege of 
suggesting measures was conceded to the Assembly- 
men. In return, they conferred upon the Governor the 
l^ower to negative measures proposed by the Council. 
In the light of experience, it would seem to have been 
better to repose the veto power in the executive, 
granting to the most popular branch of the Assembly 
power to originate all laws for the public welfare. As 

modified in 1683, the colonial government continued 
until 1696. Having established the colony upon 
principles of con.stitutinnal freedom, Penn confided 
the executive power to Thomas Lloyd, an eminent 
Quaker, and in the month of July, 1684, returned to 
England. Commentators concur in reporting serious 
dissensions among those vested with the power of 
government. The trouble was mainly due to the dis- 
tinction between the proprietary interests and those 
of the common people. 

In August, 1684, the province contained eight 
thousand souls; over these Penn had established a 
democracy, while his great landed interests made him 
a feudal sovereign. Bancroft declares, " The two 
elements in the government were incompatible, and 
for ninety years the civil history of Pennsylvania is 
but an account of the jarring of the opposing inter- 
ests, to which there could be no happy issue but in 
popular independence." Sherman Day says, " The 
different authorities did not support each other as 
they should have done ; there was constant bickering 
between the legislative and the executive, and be- 
tween the members from the ' territories ' and those 
of the province."' The "territories" or what sub- 

1 The following conference bet^veen the Assembly and the Governor 
illustrates the temper and character of the conflict during the colonial 
period, and is referred to by histonans generally : 

"John White, David Lloyd, Saml. Carpenter and Edward Blake, from 
the house of representatives, bring in and offerthe Bill of supjilies for the 
government, which they say is read two times in their house, but not 
passed, and desires to know what is become of the other bills they have 
sent up ; whether they are passed or not, or what amendments are made^ 

*' His Excell. Geutl., This is no bill. I will not look upon it untill it 
be passed the house and signed by the Speaker. I have sent you word 
formerlie that the Speaker was to cause be wrote under each bill, 'This 
bill being three times read, is assented unto by the House of Representa- 
tives, and oriiered to be transmitted to the Governor and Council for their 
assent thereimto, and then signed by order of the house his name.' But 
this you will not follow becaus bid to doe it. 

" Mr. White. May it please the Governor not to take it amiss that the 
representatives are'desirous to know what is become of the other bills, 
ere they proceed to the passing of it. They judge it the practice of the 
Couions of England and their right, therefore pray, Governor, excuse it 
and peruse the bill. 

"His Excell. Gentl., If you did design to compliment me with the 
sight of this Bill before it was psissed yor house, you might have followed 
other meiisures. I can take no notice of it here untill it come signed by 
the SiJcaker and past the house. I will not look upon it. 

"Mr. Lloyd. To be plain with the Governor, here is the monie bill, 
and the bouse will not pass it untill they know what is become of the 
other hills that are sent up. 

"Mr. White, aiay it please the Governor, the House doe not know 
hut those bills the Governor may see cause to lay aside may be the bills 
they putt the greatest value upon, therefore pray thee to excuse it and 
condescend to them in that thing. 

"His Kxcell. Gentl., You have not dealt I'airlie by uie. You have no 
candor ; you have sitt these fifteen days and nothing done. No vote 
mentioning those laws ever came to my hand untill you surprise me 13 
hills ; ami again more, some of which are directlie opposite to their 
Slaties Lres patents. I came not here to make bargains nor expose the 
king's honour. I will never grant any such for all the money in your 
Countrie. You have had her Maties' Letter before you, and lei the house 
consider what they are doing. I must be accompttiddc at Whitehall for 
everie thing tliat is transacted here in this assembly. I shall be surrie if 
I can be able to give you no hetter character ; and in short, you must 
expect to be an annexed to New Yorke or Maryland. I will not look 
upon the Bill untill it will be three times read and signed by the Speaker. 



sequently became the State of Delaware were a source 
of solicitude to Penn, and the representatives from 
them were generally hostile to the proprietary inter- 
The third frame of government was adopted iu 

and in securing unity in the administration of the 
laws. The Assembly met in extra session in May, 
and again in October, 1700. A new charter or frame 
of government, and a new code of laws were sub- 
mitted. After long and bitter discussion both were 


fAc-simile of \villl\m pexn's autograph and seal, and the autographs of attesting witnesses to the 

CHARTER of 1682. 

160*», which continued in force until 1700. Mean- 
time Penn returned to his colony and applied himself 
diligently to a further modification of the government 

**Tho RapresentatiTes did throw down another bill upon the table and 


"The Bill last delivered is concerning the estate of persons deceased, 
and not signed by the Speaker. 

' ' His Extell. ordered Sir. Robinson to carie the same back to the 
honse, and tell them that his Excell. hath passed a bill against abusing 
Magistrates this day in Council ; that they sufficientlie abuse liis Excell. 
in sending np s\ich scripts of paper without being signed, and that they 
niuet not expect that hee will take anie notice of such. 

" His Excell. sent Mr. Robinson and Mr. Forman to inquire if the 
house of representativee had any more Bills to offer. Who in ansr. 
said, the house wer in di'luite whether they should send any more bills 
for iissent until they heard that the other former bills were passed. 

" His Excell. after long expectation, did desire the advice of the board 
whether he should not dissolve the asseniblie, having had no regard to 
their Maijesties' demands for assisting New Torke. 

" His Excell. ordered Pat. Robinson and Geo. Forman, Esqrs., to wait 
upon the house of Representatives, and demand of them whether they 
have complied with their Majesties' demand for assisting New Yorke ; 
whether they had considered of a Quota of men or nionie, or both, and 
that they return an ansr. in writing, signed by the Speaker. 

"Hie Excell. gave them the Queen's Letter, of which the Represen- 
tatives had formerlie a copie, that they might see it. 

"They brought in ansr. that sborthe they would bring an ansr. in 


adopted. The charter continued in force until the 
separation of the province from Great Britain, 1776.* 

"His Excell. did demand of the Council If they have observed him to 
take wrong measures to disobhge the representatives and make the in- 
habitants uneasie since he came amongs them, and prayed them to use 
their freedom of speech. 

"The Members of the Council did return, That they were admirers 
of his Excell. patience, and wer wittnesses that bee hath taken all the 
steps of condescension imaginable to gain them, and that they wer 
afraid the Countrie will be att hist sufferers through their means. 

" His Excell. gave the board to understand that he hath sent several 
messages to the Representatives — they have done nothing to answer the 
Queen's Letter. They have adjourned ymselves twice this day, and it 
is now three hours since the last message was sent to them ; Therefore, 
asks the advice of the board to send for them and dissolve them. 

"Andrew Robeson, Esq., made answer. That he was ashamed of their 
behaviour to his Excell., after all that condescention and patience his 
Excell. hath shown to them ; being putt to the vote. It is the opinion of 
the Council {ouly Sir. Salway excepted) that his Excell. have patience 
till morrow morning, and if they give not satisfactorie ansr. to the 
Queen's Letter by 8 o'clock to-morrow morning, then to dissolve the 
present assembly. 

"Adjourned till 5 o'clock morrow morning." 

{Col.Rec. vol. i.) 

1 This charter of rights and privileges, under which our progenitors 
lived for seventy-five years, from 1701 to 1776, merits preservation for 
convenient reference, containing, as it does, the germ of the common- 
wealth and State. 



The expense attending upon the settlement and 
improvement of the province impaired the fortune of 
its founder, and in the year 170S he was obliged 
to mortgage his proprietary possessions for the sum 



" W'Jiereas, King Charlee the Second^ by liis Lettei-s Patents under the 
Great Seal of England, bearing date the fourth day uf March, in tlie year 
One Thousand Six Hundred and Eighty, was graciously pleased to give ami 
grant unto me, my heire and assigns, forever, thisProvinceof Pennsylva- 
nia, with Divera Great Powei-g and Jivrisd ction for the Well Government 
thereof; and whereas the King's Dearest Brother, James, Duke of York 
and Albany, &c., by his Deeds of feoffment under his hand and Seal, 
duly perfecting, bearing Date the Twenty fourth Day of August, One 
Thousand Six liundred Eighty and two, Did grant unto nie, my heirs 
and assigns, all that Tract of Land now called the Territories of Penn- 
sylvi'a, together with Powers and Jurisdiction for the good Government 
thereof; and Whereas, for the Encouragement of all the freemen and 
Planters that might be concerned in the said Province and Territo- 
ries, and for the good government thereof, I, the said William Penn, in 
the year One thousand Six hundred Eighty and three, fur me, my heii-s 
and assigns. Did grant and Confirm unto all the freemen, Planters and 
adventurers therein, Divers Liberties, franchises and Proi)ertys, as by 
the said grant Entitled the Frame of the Government of the Province of 
Pennsylvania and Territories thereunto belonging, in America, may ap- 
pear. Which Charter or frame, being found in some parts of it not so 
suitable to the Present Circumstances of the Inhabitants, was, in the 
third month, in the year One thousand seven hundred, Delivered up to me 
by six parts of seven of freemen of this Province and Territories, in 
General Assembly met, provision being made in the said Charter for 
that end and Purpose; and Whereas, I was then pleased to promise that 
I would restore the said Charter to them again with necessary altera- 
tions, or, in Lieu thereof, Give them another, better adapted to answer 
the Present Circumstances and condition of the said Inliabitants, which 
they have now by their Representatives in General Assembly met 
in Philadelphia, Requested me to grant ; know ye therefore that I, for 
the further well-being and good Govrmt of the said Province and Territo- 
ries, and in purauance of the Rights and Powei-s before mentioned, I, the 
said William Penn, do Declare, grant and('onfirm unto all the freemen, 
planters and adventurere and other inhabitants of and in the said 
Province and Territories thereunto annexed, forever ; 

" Fii-st. Because no people can be truly happy, though under the 
greatest Enjoyment of Civil Liberties, if abridg'd of the freedom of 
their Consciences as to their Religious profession and Worship ; and 
Almighty God being the only Lord of Conscience, father of Lights and 
Spirits, and the author as well as object of all Divine Knowledge, faith 
and Worehip, who only doth Enlighten the mind and persuade and con- 
vince the underetanding of People, I do hereby grant and declare that 
no person or persons, inhabiting in this Province or Territories, who 
shall confess and acknowledge one Almighty God, the Creator, Upholder 
and Ruler of the World, and Profess him or tliemselvcs obliged to live 
quietly under the Civil Government, shall be in any case molested or 
prejudiced in his or their person or estate, because of his or their con- 
scientious persuasion or practice, nor be compelled to frequent or main 
tain any Religious Worship, place or ministry contrary to his or their 
mind, or to do or suffer any other actor thing contrary to their Re- 
ligious pei-suasion. And that all persons who also profess to believe in 
Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the World, shall be capable (notwithstand- 
ing their other pereuasions and practices in point of Conscience and Re- 
ligion) to serve this Government in any Capacity, both Legislatively and 
Executively, he or they Solemnly promising, when Lawfully required, 
allegiance to tlie King as Sovereign and fidelity to the Proprietor and 
Governor, and taking the attests as now established, by the law made at 
New Castle, in the year One Thousand seven hundred, Intitled an act 
Directing the attests of several officei-s and miuistei-s, as now amended 
and coufirnied by this present Assembly. 

**Secondly. For the well governing of this Provinc-' and territories, 
there shall be an Assembly yearly chosen by the freemen tbeirof, to 
Consist of four persons out of each County uf most note fbr Virtue, 
"Wisdom and Ability (or of a greater number at any time as the Governour 
and Assemtily shall agree), upon the fii-st day of October, forever; and 

of thirty thousand dollars. This is said to be the 
first debt of the State. In 1712, Penn negotiated 
with Queen Anne for the transfer of the government 
of the province and territories to the crown, for 

shall sitt on the fourteenth day of the said mouth, at Philadelphia, un- 
less the Governour and Council, for the time being, shall see cause to ap- 
point another place witiiin the said Province or Territories, which sis- 
sembly shall have power to Choose a Speaker and their other officers, 
and shall be Judges of the Qualifications and Elections of their own 
membere, sitt upon their own adjournments, appoint Cummiftees, pre- 
pare bills in or to pjiss into Laws, Impeach criminals and Redress Griev- 
ances; and shall have all other powers and Privileges of an Assembly, 
according to the rights of the free-born subjects of England, and as is 
usual in any of the King's Plantacons in America. And if any Court or 
Counties shall refuse or neglect to choose their Respective representa- 
tives, as aforesaid, or, if chosen, do not meet to serve in Assembly, those 
who are chosen and mett shall have the full power of an Assembly, in as 
ample manner as if all the Rejiresentatives had been chosen and mett ; 
Provided they are not less than two thirds of the whole number that 
ought to meet ; And that the (Qualifications of Electors and Elected, and 
all other matters and things Relating to Elections of Representatives to 
serve in Assemblys, though not herein particularly exprest, shall be 
and remain as by a Law of this Govermt, made at New Castle in the year 
One thousand seven hundred, Intitled an Act to ascertain the number of 
membere of Assembly, and to regulate the Elections. 

"Thirdly. That tlie freemen in each Repi-esontative County, at the 
time and place of meeting for Electing their Representatives tu serve in 
Assembly, may, as often as there shall be occasion, choose a Double num- 
ber of persons to present to the Govr. for Sheriffs and Coroners, tu serve 
for three years, if they so long behave themselves well, out of which 
respective Elections and Presentments The Gov. shall nominate and 
Commission One for each of the said otficers The Third Day after such 
presentment, or else the first named in such presentment for each office, 
as aforesaid, shall stand and serve in that office for the time before 
Respectively Limited ; and in case of death or Default, such vacancies 
shall be supplied by the Governor to serve to the End of the said Term ; 
Provided always, that if the said freemen shall at any time neglect or 
Decline to Choose a person or persons foi- Either or both the aforesjiid 
offices, then and in such Case the persons that are or shall be in the 
Respective offices of Sherjf or Coroner at the time of Election shall 
remain therein untill they shall be Removed by another Election, as 
aforesaid. And that the Justices of the Respective Counties shall or may 
nominate and present to the Govr. three persons to serve for Clerk of the 
Peace for the said County when there is a vacancy. One of which the 
Governour shall Coinmissionate witliin Ten Days after such presentment, 
or else the fii"st nominated shall serve in the said office during good 

" Fourthly. That the Laws of this Govrmt. shall be in this stile, \izt : 
[By the Governour with the Consent and api>robation of the freemen iu 
General Assembly mett] and shall be, after confirmation by the governour, 
forthwith Recorded in the Roll's office and kept at Philadia., unless the 
Govr. and Assembly shall agree to appoint another place, 

"Fifthly. That all Criminals shall have the same Privileges of Wit- 
nesses and Council as their Prosecutors. 

"Sixthly. That no pei-son or persons shall or may, at anytime here- 
after, be obliged to answer any Complaint, matter or thing Whatsoever 
relating to Property before the Governr. and Council, or in any other 
place but iu the ordinary Courts of Justice, unless appeals thereunto shall 
be hereafter by Law appointed. 

"Seventhly. That no person within this Government shall be licensed 
by the Governor to keep Ordinary, Tavern, or House of Publick Enter- 
tainment, but such who are fii-st Recommended to him under the hand of 
the Justices of the Respective Counties signed in open Court, wch. Jus- 
tices are and shall be hereby Impowered to suppress and forbid any person 
keeping such Publick House, as aforesaid, upon their misbehaviour, on 
such Penalties as the Law doth or shall direct, and to Recommend othere 
from time to time as the}' shall see occasion. 

"Eighthly. If any pereon, through Temptaticm or melancholly. shall 
Destroy himself, his Estate, Real and Personal, shall, notwithstanding, 
Descend to his wife and Children or Relations as if he had died a natural 
Death ; and if any person shall be Destroyed or kill'd by Casuality or 
accident, theie shall be no forfeiture to the Governour by reason thereof; 
and no act. Law or Ordinance whatsoever shall at any time hereafter be 
made or done to alter. Change or Diminish the form or effect of thiB 





which he was to receive sixty thousand dollars. 
Pending legislation upon this subject, Penn became a 
hopeless invalid with impaired faculties, and after a 
lingering illness of six years he died at Kushcomb, 
in Buckinghamshire, England, on the 30th day of 
July, 1718. 

Charter, or of any part or clause therein Contrary to the true Interest 
and meaning thereof, without tlie Consent of the Govr. for the time 
being, and Six parts of SevL*n of the Assembly mett. But because the 1 
happiness of mankind depL-nds so much upon the Enjoying of Liberty of 
their Consciences, as aforesaid, I do hereby Soleoiiily Declare, promise 
and Grant fur me, my heirs and assigns, that the first article of this 
Charter, Relating to Liberty of Conscience, and every part and Clause 
therein, according to the true intent and meaning thereof, shall be kept 
and remain without any alteration inviolably forever. "^"'^ 

*'And Lastly, I, the said William Penn, Proprietor and Govr. of the 
Province of Pennsylvania and Territories thereunto belonging, forniyself, 
my heira and Assigns, have solemnly Declared, Granted and Confirmed, 
and do hereby Solem^y Declare, Grant and Confirm, that neither I, my 
heirs or Assigns shall procure or do anything or things whereby the 
Liberties in tliis Charter Contained and Exprest, nor any part thereof, 
shall be infringed or Broken ; and if anything shall be procured or done 
by any person or persons contrary to these presents, it shall be held of no 
force or eftect. 

" In Witness whereof, I, the said William Penn, att Philadia., in Penn- 
sylvania, have unto this present C'harter of Liberties sett my hand and 
Broad Seal, this Twenty-Eighth Day of October, In the year of our Lord 
One tlioueand Seven hundred and One, being the thirteenth year of the 
Reign of King William the Third over England, Scotland, France, and 
Ireland, Ac, and in the Twenty-fii-st year of my Govrmt. And notwith- 
standing the Closure and test of this present Charter, as aforesaid, I think 
fitt to add this following proviso thereunto as part of the same, that is to 
say : that notwithstanding any Clause or Clauses in the above mentioned 
Charter obliged the Province and Territories to join together in Legisla- 
tion, I am content and do hereby declare that if the Kepresentativea of 
the Province and Territories shall not hereafter agree to Joyn together 
in Legislation, and if the same shall be signified to me or my Deputy, in 
open Assemlily or otherwise, from under the hands and seals of the 
Representatives (for the time being) of the province or Territories, or the 
major part of Either of them, any time within three years from the date 
hereof ; That in such Ciise tlie Iniiabitants of Each of the three Counties 
of this Province shall not have less than Eight persons to Represent them 
in Assembly for the Province, and the Inhabitants of the town of 
Philadia. iwhen the said Town is incorporated) Two persons to represent 
them in Assembly ; and the Inhabitants of Each County in the Territories 
shall have ;is many persons to Represent them in a Distinct Assembly for 
the Territories as shall be by them requested, as aforesaid, Notwithstand- 
ing which sopaiution of the Province and Territories in respect of Legis- 
lation, I do hereby promise, Grant and Declare that the Inhabitants of 
both Province and Territories shall separately enjoy all other Liberties, 
Privileges and benefits Granted Jointly to them in this Charter, any Law 
usage or Custom of this Govrmt. heretofore made and pnictised, or any 
Law made and passed by this General Assembly to the contrary hereof 

"Copia Vera, "William Pen.v. 

" p. .Jos. Antrobus, 

" i^lurk of the Assembly. 

"This Cliarter of Privileges being Distinctly Read in Assembly, aud 
the whole anil every part thereof being approved of aud agreed to by us, 
we do thankfully receive the same from our Proprietor and Govr. at 
Philadelpliia, this Twenty-Eighth Day of October, 1701. 

"Signed on bdiulf iuid by onler of the Assembly. 

"p. Jos. GrOWDON, Speaker. 
"■ Enwn. Siili'PEN, 
"Phink.vs Prmberton, 


"Griffith Owen, 
"Caleb Pusey, 
"Thos. Storv, 

"Recorded in the Rolls Office at Philadelphia, In Patent Book A., 
Vol. 2ad, pa. 125 to 129, the 31st of 8th Mo., ITiH. 

"By me, Thos. Story, Mr. ibim." 

— Col. liec, vol. ii. 

Propri/. fiivl <;ov'rs Council. 

By his will the government or jurisdiction of 
Pennsylvania and territories was given in trust to the 
Earls of Oxford (Mortimer aud Powlet), to be dis- 
i^osed of to the Queen or an}' other person to the best 
advantage. The proprietary right of government of 
the province was claimed by the eldest son, William. 
The hereditary succession was disputed, and the case 
found its way to a Court of Chancery, which decreed 
the right of government to be a part of the personal 
estate. Under this decision the widow aud executrix, 
Hannah Penn, exercised a proprietary interest dur- 
ing the minority of the heirs and for many years 
afterwards. She is said to have been a woman of 
"powerful intellect, and exerted it in securing the 
appointment of Governors, and in directing of the 
affairs of the colony." 

The colony established as a " Holy Experiment " 
was geographically known throughout Christendom, 
and the tide of emigration was tending in the direc- 
tion of Pennsylvania. Men of enterprise, possessing 
capital, came to secure timber lands, to engage in ship- 
building, to explore and develop mineral wealth and 
to foster the growth of cattle and grain for exportation. 
This development attracted the New England traders, 
trained in the school of republican Puritanism, who 
found here a congenial climate and sources of wealth 
which induced many of them to become permanent 
settlers. Among them was the boy Benjamin Frank- 
lin, who arrived in October, 1728. Among those who 
came from the mother country at this period were 
many connected with the Church of England. Fol- 
lowing these were Presbyterians from Scotland and 
Ireland. These people were not averse to bearing 
arms in self-defense ; in truth, they were aggressive 
and were active, as have been their patriotic descend- 
ants in extending the line of civilization westward. 
In contrast with tliis class were the Mennonists or 
German Baptists, a religious people who adhered to 
the principles of nou-resistance, and because of this 
belief were persecuted in Northern Europe. They 
naturally sought a country tolerant in its laws, and 
thousands of them settled in Eastern Pennsylvania 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century. These 
were followed by the Dunkers and German Luther- 
ans. Amid this great diversity of races, languages, 
interests, and prejudices, agitation and sharp conflicts 
of opinion were natural, and slowly but surely led up 
to and expended their force in the Revolution that 
followed. Cause was not wanting to excite a well- 
marked division of public opinion upon subjects asso- 
ciated with the general welfare. On the one side was 
the proprietary family with their landed prerogatives, 
their manors of many thousand acres of the most 
valuable of improved lands, their quit-rents and 
baronial pomp, alienated in their sympathies from 
the colony, preferring the luxuries of aristocratic life 
in England to the simple manners and customs of the 
New World, ruling the colony by capricious Governors 
and deputies, and persistingly reliising to be taxed in 



common for the defense of the country. On the other 
side was a hardy, self-reliant and enthusiastic band 
of pioneers, free in this New World to develop and 
maintain the great principles of civil liberty and self- 
government then just dawning upon the human mind, 
willing to bear their share of the pecuniary burdens of 
the frontier wars against the encroachments of the 
French and their savage allies, provided the proprie- 
taries would consent to be equally taxed ; a part of 
them ambitious to take up arms in defense of the 
colony, while the Quakers and other non-resisting 
sects were zealous in their humane efforts to promote 
peace. The policy of the home g(5verunient was to 
keep the colonists dependent ; the ambition of the 
enterprising colonists was to be self-supporting and 
The conflict of opinion upon the subject of taxa- 

1 The reBtrictive policy of the home government is shown in the fol- 
lowing proclamation conceding the privilege of exporting the fruits of 
coarse and cheap labor, but denying to the enterprising manufacturer 
the right to employ skilled labor in the higher and more profitable 
branches of productive industry. 

•'By the Honourable James Hamilton, Esqr., Lieutenant-Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania and Counties 
of New Castle, Kent and Sussex , on Delaware : 

"A PUU('LAM-\T10N. 

" niteyeas, By an Act of Assembly passed in the twenty-third year of 
his Majestie's Keign, entitled 'An Act to encourage the importation of 
Pig and Bar Iron from his Majestie's Colonies in America, and to pre- 
vent tlie erection of any mill or other engine for slitting or rolling iron, 
or any plating forgo to work with a Tilt Hammer, or any furnace for 
making steel in any of the said colonies," it is enacted ' That from and 
after the Twenty-Fourth day of.lune, in the Year of our Lord One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty, every Governor, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor and Commander-in-Chief of auy of his Majestie's Colonies in 
America shall forthwith transmit to the Commissionei's for Trade and 
Plantations a certificate under his Hand and Seal of otiice, containing a 
particular account of every mill or engine for slitting and rolling Iron, 
and every plating forge to work with a Tilt Hammer, and every furnace 
for making Steel at the time of the commencement of this act erected in 
his Colony, expressing also in the said Certificate such of them as are 
used, and the name or names of the proprietor or proprietors of each 
such mill, engine, forge and furnace, and the place where each such mill, 
engine, forge and furnace is erected, and the number of engines, forges 
and furnaces in the said Colony.' To the end, therefore, that I may be 
the better enabled to obey the directions of the said .\ct, I have thought 
tit, with the advice of the Council, to issue this Proclamation, hereby en- 
joining and requiring the proprietor or proprietoi'S, or in case of their 
absence, the occupiers of any of the above mentioned mills, engines, 
forgesand furnaces erected within this Province, to appear before me at 
the city of Philadelphia on or before the Twenty-first day of September 
next, with proper and ample testimonials of the rights of such proprie 
tor, proprietoi'S and occupiers therein, and sufficient proofs whether the 
said mills, engines, forges and furnaces, respectively, were used on the 
said Twenty-fourth day of June or not. And I do further hereby re- 
quire and conmiand the Sheriff of every County in this Province respec- 
tively on or before the said Twenty-first day of September to appear be- 
fore me at the city of Philadelphia, afores;iid, and then and there, by 
writings under their Hands and Seals, to certify and make known to me 
every mill or engine for slitting and rolling Iron, every plating forge to 
work with a Tilt Hammer, and every furnace for making steel which 
were erected within their several and respective counties on the said 
Twenty-fourth day of June, and the place and places where the same 
were erected, with the names of their reputed proprietor or proprietoi'S, 
and the occupiei's of tliem and every of them, and whether they or any 
of them were used on the said Twenty-fourth d.iy of .lune or not, as they 
and each of them will answer the contrary at their peril.'' 

"August 10, 1700." 

— Col. Sec. vol. V. 

tion was intensified by the declaration of hostilities 
between France and England, in March 17-t4. The 
French seized upon and fortified important points on 
the Ohio Kiver, and by artful means secured the Shaw- 
nees and other Indian tribes to join them. The 
situation lioded evil to the colony, and a frontier war 
seemed inevitable. Deferential measures were neces- 
sary for the protection of life and property. The 
Assembly urged that the proprietary estates, as well 
a-s those of the common people, should be taxed for 
warlike purposes. The proprietaries, through their 
deputies, opposed the measure, pleading prerogative, 
diarter and law ; the representatives of the people 
urged equity, common danger and reciprocal benefits. 
The Assembly passed laws laying taxes, but annexing 
conditions. The Governors objected to the condition, 
and insisted upon laws taxing the people, but not the 
proprietaries. Benjamin Franklin was at this date a 
leading member of the Assembly, and took an active 
part in this controversy in relation to the equality of 
taxation. He was subsequently commissioned to 
visit London, where, in 1759,- he secured the royal 
assent to a law authorizing the taxation of proprietary 
estates in the province. This was deemed an im- 
portant triumph at the time, and gave to Franklin his 
first diplomatic honors. 

Braddock's defeat, in the summer of 1753, gave rise 
to apprehension among settlers between the Schuyl- 
kill and Delaware Rivers. The peaceful Moravians 
fortified Bethlehem and took up arms for their de- 
fense. Colonel William Franklin with a regiment of 
five hundred men proceeded to the Lehigh and super- 
intended the erection of a line of fortifications. The 
precautionary measures were wisely taken ; the line of 
frontier from the Delaware Water Gap to the Potomac 
was the scene of burning settlements, massacre and 
cruelty. The imperiled condition of the colony as 
represented by Franklin attracted the attention of the 
home government, whose affairs at this date were 
guided by the statesmanship of William Pitt. The 
French were vigorously attacked on the northern 
frontier of New York, compelling their withdrawal 
from all operations on the frontier of Pennsylvania. 
Meantime, efforts were made by the unwarlike people 
of the colony to renew peaceful relations with the In- 
dian tribes "who were in sym])athy ■\vith the French. 
Grand councils were held at Easton in November, 
1756, and at the same place in the autumn of 1758. 
At the last-named council the chiefs of the Six Na- 
tions and the Delawares were present. The com- 
plaints of the Indians concerning lands were duly con- 
sidered, and all difierences were for the time amicably 
settled. Two years later the French were driven 
from the colonial bouiularies, and in 1762 a treaty of 
peace was concluded between Great Britain, France 

*The famous "Review of the History of Pennsylvania," written by 
Franklin, wsis published in London, anonymously, in 17.59. It is an able 
argument in favor of the position taken by the Assembly, and against 
the proprietors of the province. 




aud Spain, by which Canada became a British colony. 
At this period of our colonial history the province 
and "Territories" of Pennsylvania were supposed to 
have a population of two hundred thousand souls.' 

Although no census had been taken, the number of 
men capable of military duty was estimated to be 
about thirty thousand. It had no organized militia, 
but maintained and garrisoned a chain of forts pro- 
tecting its frontiers, at an annual cost of seventy 
thousand] pounds currency. The Assembly were 
steadily encroaching upon the prerogatives of the 
executive powers of the government. When new- 
public offices were created by law, as the growing 
necessities of the 
jieople required, the 
names of those who 
were to fill them 
were inserted i« the 
bill, with a clause 
reserving to the As- 
sembly the power to 
nominate in case of 
death. Sherift's, cor- 
oners, and all per- 
sons connected with 
the treasury were 
named Ijy the peo- 
I'lr, and were re- 
sponsible to their 
constituency. The 
AssemVdy could not 
lie prorogued or dis- 
solved, and adjourn- 
ed at its own ]ilea- 
sure. "In Pennsyl- 
vania," wrote Lou- 
don, ill the hope of 
of Pitt, " the major- 
ity of the Assemldy 
are Quakers; whilst 
that is the case they 
will always oppose 
every measure of 
Government and 
support that indr- 
pendence vhioh is 
deep-rooted evirijwliere in this country. " 

" The people of Pennsylvania," said Thomas Penn 
in 1757, J' will soon be convinced by the House of 
Commons, as well as by the ministers, that they have 
not a right to the powers of gorernment they claim." 
The same year the House of Commons resolved that 
"the claim of right in a Colonial Assembly to raise 
and apply public money, by its own act alone, is 
derogatory to the Crown and to the rights of the 
people of Great Britain." Said Granville to Franklin, 

1 li.iiiiruft. vol. iii, !>. 1C7. 


on his arrival in London, " Your Assemblies slight 
the King's instructions ; they arc drawn up by men 
learned in the laws and constitution of the realm ; 
they are brought into Council, thoroughly w^eighed, 
and amended, if necessary, by the wisdom of that 
body, and when received by the Government they are 
laws of the land, for the King is the legislator of the 

In 1758 Parliament laid grievous restrictions on the 
export of provisions from the British colonies. 
America protested against the wrong and injury. 
Granville replied, " The Colonies must not do any- 
thing to interfere with Great Britain in the European 

markets." "If we 
I'lant and reap and 
must not ship," re- 
torted Franklin, 
"your lordships 
should apply to Par- 
liament for trans- 
ports to bring us all 
back again." 

Peace with France 
and the acquisition 
of the Canadian pro- 
vinces gave impetus 
to the colonizing ef- 
forts of the crown, 
whose troops were 
stationed at remote 
points from Lake 
Huron to and be- 
yond the Ohio. The 
peace that followed 
was of short dura- 
tion. The Indians 
around the great 
lakes and on the 
Ohio cheerfully as 
sented to the build- 
ing of a chain of 
Inrts by the French, 
from Presque Isle to 
t he Monongahela, so 
long as they proved 
a barrier to the ad- 
vance of the Eng- 
lish westward. But now they saw the English in 
possession of Canada and all the forts, with the 
evident intent to occupy the country for purposes 
of agriculture. This line of occupation was fully 
a hundred miles west of all purchases, and ex- 
cited the hostility of the savages. Pontiac, "the 
King and Lord of all the Northwest," and chief of 
the Ottawas, counseled with the Senecas, Delawares, 
Shawnees, Miamis and Wyandots. In their own 
councils they said, " The English mean to make 
slaves of us, by occupying so many posts in our 
c luntrv ; we had better strike now to recover our 



liberty and our country than wait until it is too late." 
Pontiac proposed the gigantic plan of uniting all the 
northwestern tribes in a simultaneous attack upon 
the whole frontier. The forts and garrisons were to 
be taken by force or artful stratagems by separate 
parties on the same day, the border settlements were 
to be attacked in the harvest season, and men, women 
and children were to be killed or carried into captiv- 
ity. The events which speedily followed crimson the 
annals of our early history. The forts of Presquc 
Isle, Le Boiuf, Venango, St. Joseph and Michilimack- 
iuac were taken with a general slaughter of their 
garrisons, while those of Bedford, Ligonier, and Pitt 
were preserved through great loss and privation. 

The frontier settlements among and near the 
mountains were overrun with scalping-parties, mark- 
ing their track with l)lood and fire. Of one hundred 
and twenty English traders located on the line of 
operations, only three escaped the general massacre. 
Consternation spread throughout the colony, and 
thousands of settlers refuged from the Juniata and 
Susquehanna, fleeing with their families and flocks 
for shelter to Carlisle, Lancaster, and Reading. 

John Penn, grandson of William Peun, was then 
Governor, and heartily seconded the eflbrts of General 

The military operations conducted by Colonel 
Bouquet in the autumn of 1764 were successful. 

Gage to repel the invasion. His conduct was in 
strange contrast with that of his great progenitor. 
He published his proclamation in July, 17(34, offering 
the following bounties for the capture or scaljis and 
death of Indians: "For every male above the age of 
ten years captured, one hundred and fifty dollars ; 
scalped, being killed, one hundred and thirty-four 
dollars ; for every female Indian enemy, and every 
male under the age of ten years, captured, one hun- 
dred and thirty dollars ; for every female above the 
age of ten years, scalped, being killed, fifty dollars. " 

^^^ X^^^^^^^^^''^^ 

Tlie Indians were overawed and sued for peace. 
The Delawares, Shawnees and Senecas agreed to 
cease hostilities, and in token of their good faith sur- 
rendered a large number of prisoners, among them 
many women and children, whose safe return glad- 
dened many hearts and homes in Pennsylvania. 

All wars are costly, and this last one had entailed 
large expenses that now must be met. Taxation was 
the basis of credit, and a revival of the subject in the 
Assembly raised anew the controversy between the 
people and the proprietaries. The Governor used 
his influence in shielding his family estates from 
their eqnital)le share of the public burden, debtors 
became cliimorous, and finally the Assembly was 
compelled to provide for the necessities of the prov- 
ince, and the supplies were granted ; but the conduct 
of the executive so incensed the Assembly that they 
determined by a large majority to petition to the 
King to purchase the proprietarj' interests and vest 
them in the crown for the common welfare. 

The taxable resources of the province and the ne- 
cessary consumption of two hundred thousand people 
now began to attract the attention of the ministry, 
and tlie measures adopted by the British government 
to replenish its home treasury by a grievous system of 
taxation upon all the American colonies introduced a 
new and absorbing subject of great public interest. 
The policy of England was to secure the mo- 



nopoly of manufactured articles, to encourage 
her home population of artisans, to develop 
maritime enterprise, and by legislation perpetu- 
ate the dependency of her distant colonies. This 
policy involved the question of taxing a people with- 
out their consent and without allowing them a repre- 
sentation in the Parliament laying the tax. It was at 
this pei'iod in the colonial era, and in the well-con- 
certed but ill-advised eftbrts to enforce this policy, 
that those convictions of hostility that later developed 
in revolution were inspired. No period in the his- 
tory of our country can be studied with greater ad- 
vantage than that from 1765 to 1776. Colonies fringed 
the Atlantic from Massachusetts Bay to Florida. 
They emerged from a wilderness and were possessed 
by two millions of pef)ple, who were pressing west- 
ward to civilize a continent. The frontier line re- 
ipiired the presence of an army of ten thousand troops ; 
the cost of these required an annual expenditure of 
one million five hundred thousand dollars. Naturally 
the home government felt that the colonies should 
bear a part of this expense. On March 22, 1765, 
the Stamp Act was passed. It consisted of fifty-five 


resolutions embracing all details, and making all 
offenses against it cognizable in the Courts of Admi- 
ralty without any trial by jury. 

To prove the fitness of the tax, George Grenville 
argued that the colonies had a right to demand pro- 
tection from Parliament, and Parliament, in return, 
had a right to enforce a revenue from the colonies ; 
that protection implied an army, an army must re- 
ceive pay, and pay required taxes ; that, on the peace, 
it was found necessary to maintain a body of ten 
thousand men, at a cost of three hundred thousand 
pounds, most of which was a new expense ; that the 
duties and taxes already imposed or designed would 
not yield more than one hundred thousand pounds, 
so that England would still have to advance two- 
thirds of the new expense; that it was reasonable for 
the colonies to contribute this one-third part of the ex- 
pense necessary for their own security ; that the debt of 
England was one hundred and forty millions sterling, 
of America but eight hundred thousand pounds ; that 
the increase of annual taxes in England within ten 
years was three millions, while all the establishments 

of America, according to accounts which were pro- 
duced, cost the Americans but seventy-five thousand 

The charters of the colonies were referred to, and 
Grenville interpreted their meaning. The clause 
under which a special exemptifm was claimed for 
Maryland was read, and he argued that the province, 
upon a public emergency, is subject to taxation, 
in like manner with the rest of the colonies, 
or the sovereignty over it would cease; and if 
it were otherwise, why is there a duty on its staple 
of tobacco ? and why is it bound at present by several 
acts affecting all America, and passed since the grant 
of its charter? Besides, all charters, he insisted, were 
under the control of the Legislature. " The colonies 
claim, it is true," he continued, " the privilege which 
is common to all British subjects, of being taxed only 
with their own consent, given by their representatives, 
and may they ever enjoy the privilege in all its 
extent ; may this sacred pledge of liberty be preserved 
inviolate to the utmost verge of our dominions, and 
to the latest pages of our history. I would never lend 
my hand towards forging chains for America, lest in 
so doing I should forge them for myself. But the re- 
monstrances of the Americans fail in the great point 
of the colonies not being represented in Parliament, 
which is the common council of the whole empire, 
and as such is as capable of imposing internal taxes 
as impost duties, or taxes on intercolonial trade, or 
laws of navigation." 

The House was full, and all present seemed to 
acquiesce in silence. Beckford, a member for London, 
a friend of Pitt, and himself a large owner of West 
India estates, without disputing the supreme authority 
of Parliament, declared his opinion that " taxing 
America for the sake of raising a revenue would never 
do." Jackson, who had concerted with Grenville to 
propose an American representation in Parliament, 
spoke and voted against the resolutions. " The Par- 
liament," he argued, "may choose whether they will 
tax America or not; they have a right to tax Ireland, 
yet do not exercise that right. Still stronger objec- 
tions may be urged against their taxing America. 
Other ways of raising the moneys there requisite for 
the public service exist and have not yet failed ; but 
the colonies in general have with alacrity contrib- 
uted to the common cause. It is hard all should 
suffer for the fault of two or three. Parliament is, 
undoubtedly, the universal, unlimited legislature of 
the dominions, but it should voluntarily set 
I bounds to the exercise of its power ; and, if the ma- 
jority think they ought not to set these bounds, 
then they should give a share of the election of the 
legislature to the American colonics ; otherwise the 
liberties of America I do not say will be lost, but will 
be in danger, and they cannot be injured without 
danger to the liberties of Great Britain." 

Grenville had urged the House not to suffer them- 
selves to be moved by resentment. One member, 



however, referred, with asperity, to the votes of New 
York and Massachusetts ; and it is generally held 
that America was as virtually represented in Parlia- 
ment as the great majority of the inhabitants of 
Great Britain. 

Isaac Barr^, the companion and friend of Wolfe, 
sharer of the dangers and glories of Louisburg and 
Quebec, seemed to admit the power of Parliament to 
tax America, yet derided the idea of virtual rep- 
resentation. " Who of you, reasoning upon this 
subject, feels warmly from the heart?" he cried, 
putting his hand to his breast. " Who of you feels 
for the Americans as you WQuld for yourselves, or as 
you would for the people of your own native 
country?" And he taunted the House with its 
ignorance of American atliiirs. 

The charge of ignorance called upon his feet 
Charles Townshend, the professed master of them. 
He confirmed the equity of taxation, and insisted that 
the colonies had borne but a small proportion of the 
expense of the last war, and had yet obtained by it 
immense advantages at a vast expense to the mother- 
country. " And now," said he, " will these American 
children, planted by our care, nourished up by our 
indulgence to a degree of strength and opulence, 
and protected by our arms, grudge to contribute their 
mite to relieve us from the heavy burden under which 
we lie?" 

As he sat down Barre rose, and, with eyes darting 
fire and outstretched arm, uttered an unpremeditated 

" They planted hif YuvR care! No; your oppression planted them in 
America. They fled from your tyranny to a then uncultivated, unhos- 
pitable country, where they exposed themselves to almost all the hard- 
Bhips to which human nature i.s liable, and, among others, to the cruelties 
of a savage foe, the most subtle, and, I will take upon me to say, the 
most formidable of any people upon the face of God's earth ; and yet, 
actuated by princijdes of true English liberty, they met all hjirdships with 
pleasure, compared with those they suffered in their own country, from 
the liands of those who should have been their friends. They nourished 
up by vot'B iiuliihjeiice ! They grew by your neglect of them. As soon as 
you began to care about them that care exercised in sending persons 
to rule them in one department and another, who were, perhaps, the 
deputies of deputies to some niembere of this House, sent to spy out their 
liberties, to misrepresent their actions and to prey upon them, — men 
whose behavior on many occasions have caused the blood of those sons ot 
liberty to recoil within them ; men promoted to the highest seats of jus- 
tice, some who, to my knowledge, were glad, by going to a foreign 
country, to escape being brought to the bar of a court of justice in tlieir 
own. They protected by YOUR anus ! They have nobly taken up arms in 
your defense ; have exerted a valor, amidst their constant and laborious 
industry, for the defense of a country whose frontier was drenched in 
blood, while its interior parts yielded all its little savings to your emolu- 
ment. And believe me — remember 1 this day told you so — the same 
spirit of freedom which actuated that peol)le at firet will accompany them 
Btill. But prudence forbids me to explain myself further. God knows 
I do not at this time speak from motives of party heat ; what I deliver 
are the genuine sentiments of my heart. However superior to nie in 
general knowledge andexperience the respectable body of this House may 
be, yet I claim to know more of .-Vmerica than most of you, having seen 
and been conversant in that country. The people, I believe, are as truly 
loyal as any subjects the King has, but a people jealous of their liberties, 
and who will vindicate them if ever they should be violated. But this 
subject is too delicate ; I will say no more." 

As Barre spoke, there sat in the gallery Ingersoll, 
of Connecticut, a semi-royalist, yet joint agent for 

that province. Delighted with the speech, he made a 
report of it, which the next packet carried across the 
Atlantic. The lazy post of that day brought it in 
nearly three months to New London, in Connecticut, 
and it was printed in the newspaper of that vil- 
lage. May had not shed its blossoms before the 
words of Barrfe were as household words in every 
New England town. Midsummer saw them circulate 
through Canada in French, and the continent rung 
from end to end with the cheering name of the Sons 
of Liberty. But at St. Stephen's the members only 
observed that Townshend had received a heavy blow. 
The opponents of the measure dared not risk a 
division on the merits of the question, but about 
midnight, after a languid debate of seven hours, 
Beckford moved an adjournment, which Sir William 
Meredith seconded ; and, though they were aided by 
all those interested in West Indian estates, it was 
carried against America by two hundred and forty- 
five to forty nine. Conway and Beckford alone were 
said to have denied power of Parliament, and it 
is doubtful how far it was questioned even by them. 

Wliile this debate was proceeding, faith in Eng- 
lish liberty was conquering friends for England in 
new regions. The people of Louisiana, imj)atient of 
being transferred from France, would gladly have 
exchanged the dominion of Spain for that of Eng- 
land. Officers from West Florida reached Fort 
Chartres, preparatory to taking possession of the 
country, which was still delayed by the discontent of 
the Indians. With the same object, Croghan and a 
party descended the Ohio from Pittsburg. A plan 
was formed to connect Mobile and Illinois. The 
Governor of North Carolina believed that by pushing 
trade up the Jlissouri, a way to the great western 
ocean would be discovered, and an open trade to it 
be established ; so wide was the territory, so vast the 
interests for which the British Parliament was legis- 

On the 7th of February, Grenville, Lord North 
and Jenkinson, with others, were ordered to bring in 
a stamp bill for America, which, on the 13th, was 
introduced by Grenville himself, who read the first 
without a syllable of debate. Among the pajiers that 
were to be stamped, it enumerated the several instru- 
ments used in the courts of episcopal jurisdiction, for 
he reasoned that one day such courts might be es- 
tablished in America. On the 15th, merchants 
trading to Jamaica offered a petition against it, and 
prayed to be heard by counsel. " No counselor of 
this kingdom," said Fuller, formerly chief justice of 
Jamaica, " would come to the bar of this House and 
question its authority to tax America. Were he to 
do so, he would not remain there long." It was tlie 
rule of the House " to receive no petition against a 
money bill," and the petition was withdrawn. 

Next, Sir William Meredith, in behalf of Virginia, 
presented a paper in which ]\Iontague, its agent, 
interweaving expressions from the votes of the As- 



sembly of the Old Dominion, prayed that its House of 
Burgesses might be continued in the possesion of the 
riglits and privileges they had so long and uninter- 
ruptedly enjoyed, and might be heard. Against this, 
too, the same objection existed. But Virginia found 
an advocate in Conway. Indignant at his recent 
dismissal from the army, as he rose in opposition to 
Grenville, his cheeks flushed, and he was tremulous 
from emotion. 

"Shall we shut our ears," he argued, "against the 
representations which have come from the colonies, 
and for receiving which we, with an affectation of can- 
dor, allotted sufficient time? For my own part, I 
must declare myself just as much in the dark as I 
was tlie last year. My way of life does not engage 
me in intercourse with commercial gentlemen or 
those who have any knowledge of the colonies. I 
declare, upon fhy honor, I expected, as a member 
sitting in this House, in consequence of the notice 
given, to receive from the colonies information by 
which my judgment might be directed and my 
conduct regulated. The light which I desire the 
colonists alone can give. The practice of receiving 
no petitions against money bills is but one of con- 
venience, from which, in this instance, if in no other, 
we ought to vary ; for from whom, unless from them- 
selves, are we to learn the circumstances of the 
colonies, and the fatal consequences that may follow 
the imposing of this tax? The question regards two 
millions of people, none of whom are represented in 
Parliament. Gentlemen can not be serious when 
they insist even on their being virtually represented. 
Will any man in this House get up and say lie is one 
of the representatives of the colonies?" 

" The commons," said Gilbert Elliot, " have main- 
tained against the crown and against the lords their 
right of solely voting money, without the control of 
either, any otherwise than by a negative ; and will 
you suffer your colonics to impede the exercise of 
those rights, untouched as they now are by the other 
branches of the Legislature?" 

" (Jan there be a more declared avowal of your 
power," retorted Conway, "than a petition submitting 
this case to your wisdom, and praying to be heard 
before your tribunal against a tax that will affect 
them in their privileges, which you at least have 
suffered, and in tlieir jiroperty, which they have ac- 
quired under your protection ? From a principle of 
lenity, ot policy and of justice, I am for receiving 
the petition of a people from whom this country 
derives its greatest commerce, wealth, and considera- 

In reply, Charles Yorke entered into a long and 
most elaborate defense of the bill, resting his argu- 
ment on the supreme and sovereign autliority of 
parliament. With a vast display of legal erudition, 
he insisted that the colonies were but corporations, 
their power of legislation was but the power of mak- 
ing by-laws, subject to Parliamentary control. Their 

charters could not convey the legislative power of 
Great Britain, because the prerogative could not 
grant that power. The charters of the proprietary 
governments were but his hereditary Governors. The 
people of America could not be taken out of the 
general and supreme jurisdiction of Parliament. 
The authority of Yorke was decisive ; less than forty 
were willing to receive this petition of Virginia. A 
third from South Carolina, a fourth from Connecti- 
cut, though expressed in the most moderate language, 
a fifth from Massachusetts, though silent about the 
question of " right," shared the same refusal. That 
from New York no one could be prevailed upon to 
present. That from Rhode Island, offered by Sher- 
wood, its faithful agent, claimed by the charter under 
a royal promise equal rights with their fellow-subjects 
in Great Britain, and insisted that the colony had 
faithfully kept their part of the compact; but it was 
as little heeded as the rest. The House of Commons 
would neither receive petitions nor hear counsel. 
All the effbrts of the agents of the colonies were 
fruitless. " We might," said Franklin, "as well have 
hindered the sun's setting." The tide against the 
Americans was irresistible. " We have power to tax 
them," said one of the ministry, "and we will tax 
them. The nation was provoked by American 
claims of legislative independence, and all parties 
joined in resolving by this act to settle the point." 
Within doors less resistance was made to the act than 
to a common turnpike bill. "The aflfair passed with 
so very little noise that in the town they scarcely 
knew the nature of what was doing." 

On the 27th the House of Commons sent up 
the Stamp Act to the House of Lords. In that 
body Rockingham was silent ; Temple and Lyttelton 
both ajjproved the principle of the measure and the 
right asserted in it. Had there existed any doubt 
concerning that right, they were of opinion it should 
then be debated before the honor of the Legislature 
was engaged to its support. On the Sth of March 
the bill was agreed to by the lords without having 
encountered an amendment, debate, protest, division 
or single dissentient vote. 

The King was too ill to ratify the act in person. 
To a few only was the nature of his affliction known. 
At the moment of passing the Stamp Act, George 
III. was crazed ; so on the 22d of March it received 
the royal assent by a commission. The sovereign of 
Great Britain, whose soul was wholly bent on exalt- 
ing the prerogative, taught the world that a bit of 
parchment bearing the sign of his hand, scrawled in 
the flickering light of clouded reason, could, under 
the British constitution, do the full legislative office 
of the King. Had he been a private man, his com- 
mission could have given validity to no instrument 
whatever. It was thought "prudent to begin with 
small duties and taxes, and to advance in proportion 
as it should be found the colonies would bear." For 
the present Grenville attempted nothing more than 



to increase the revenue from the colonial post-office 
by reducing the rate of postage in America. 

His colleagues desired to extend the mutiny act to 
America, with power to billet troops on private houses. 
Clauses for that purpose had been strongly recom- 
mended by Gage. They had neither the entire convic- 
tion nor the cordial support of Grenville, so that they 
were introduced and carried through by the Secretary 
at War as a separate measure. In their progress, pro- 
vincial barracks, inns, ale-houses, barns and empty 
houses were substituted by the merchants and agents 
for private houses ; but there remained a clause to 
compel the colonies to furnish the troops with various 
articles, and the sums needed for the purpose were 
"required to be raised in such manner as the public 
charges for the province are raised." 

Thus the billeting act contained what had never 
before been heard of, — a Parliamentary requisition on 
the colonies. Bounties were at the same time granted 
on the importation of deals, planks, boards and timlier 
firom the plantations. Coffee of their growth was 
exempted from an additional duty ; their iron might 
be borne to Ireland, their lumber to Ireland, Madeira, 
the Azores and Europe south of Cape Finisterre; the 
prohibition on exporting their bar-iron from England 
was removed ; the rice of North Carolina was as 
much liberated as that of South Carolina, and rice 
might be warehoused in England for re-exportation 
without advancing the duties. It was further pro- 
vided that the revenue to be derived from the Stamp 
Act should not be remitted U> England, but constitute 
a part of the sum to be expended in America. Gren- 
ville also resolved to select the stamp officers for 
America from among the Americans themselves. The 
friends and agents of the colonies were invited to 
make the nominations, and they did so. Franklin 
among tlie rest. " You tell me," said the minister, 
" yon are poor and unable to bear the tax ; others 
tell me you are able. Now, take the business in your 
own hands ; you will see how and where it pinches 
and will certainly let us know it, in which case it 
shall be eased." 

Not one of the American agents in England " ini- 
agined the colonies would think of disputing the 
stamp tax with Parliament at the pointof the sword." 
"It is our duty to submit" had been the words of 
Otis. " We yield obedience to the act granting 
duties" had been uttered by the Legislature of 
Massachusetts. "If Parliament, in their superior 
wisdom, shall pass the act, we must submit," wrote 
Fitch, the (iovernor of Connecticut, elected by the 
people, to Jackson. " It can be of no purpose to 
claim a right of exemption," thought Hutchinson. 
"It will fall particularly hard on us lawyers and 
printers," wrote Franklin to a friend in Philadelphia, 
never doubting it would go into ett'ect and looking for 
relief to the rapid increiwe of the people of America. 
The agent for Ma.ssachusetts had recommended it. 
Knox, the agent fort ieorgia, wrote publicly in its favor. 

Still less did the statesmen of England doubt the 
result. Thomas Pownall, who had been so much in 
the colonies and really had an affection for them, 
congratulated Grenville in advance "on the good 
effects he would see derived to Great Britain and to 
the colonies from his firmness and candor in conduct- 
ing the American business." No tax was ever laid 
with more general approbation. The act seemed sure 
to enforce itself. Unless stamps were used, marriages 
would be null, notes of hand valueless, ships of sea 
prizes to the first captors, suits at law impossible, 
transfers of real estate invalid, inheritances irreclaim- 
able. Of all who acted with Grenville in the govern- 
ment, he never heard one prophesy that the measure 
would be resisted. " He did not foresee the opposi- 
tion to it, and would have staked his life for obedi- 

The following correspondence with (iovernor John 
Penn shows the persistency of the British government 
in efforts to enforce the odious measures (»f taxation, 
and the inability or unwillingness of the Governor to 
comprehend the true situation and temper of the 
colonists : 

STATK HdlSE IX 1744. 

'*At a (.'onncil held at Philadelphia, on Wednesday, the inth of 
Feltniary, 1760. Present : The Honourable .Tolin Ponn, Esquire, Lieu- 
tenant-) iovernor, &c, ; Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, Riehard 
Penn, Esiiru. 

"The Governor laid before the Board a letter he lately received by 
the packet from the Right Honourable Henry Seymour Conway, Esq., 
one of his majesty's priucij)al Secretaries of Stjite, dated the 24th of 
0cti)ber last, expressing the King's concern at the late coniniotions in 
some of the American colonies, which liappened on account of a late 
Act of Parliament for collecting Stamp Duties, and setting forth his 
majjest.v's ple;isure respecting the conduct to be observed liy this Govern- 
ment in case any such disturbance should take place in Pennsylvania, 
which letter being read, was ordered to be entered, anil follows in these 
words, viz. : 

".-1 Letter from the li't. Hon'bie. H. S. Conway, Esi/f., to the Governor. 
"'St. Jamks', October 24, 1765. 

^'^Sir: It is with the greatest concern that his majesty learns the 
disturbances which have arisen in some of the Xorth .\nu'rican Ci'louies. 
If this evil should spread to the Government of Pennsylvania, where 
you preside, the utmost exertion of your prudence will be necesSJiry so 
as justly to temper your conduct between that caution and coolness 
which the delicacy of such a situation may demand on one liand and 
the vigour necessary to suppress outrage and violence on the other. It 
ie impossible at this distance to assist by any particular or positive in- 
struction, because you will find yourself necessjirily obligetl to take your 
resolution as particular circumstances and exegencies may require. 

" ' His Majesty, and the servants he honors with his confidence, cannot 
but lament the ill-advised intemperance shown already in some of the 
provinces by taking up a conduct which can in no way contribute to the 



removal of any real grievance they might labour tinder, but may tend to 
obstruct and impede the exertion of His MiyestyV benevolent attention 
to the ease and comfort as well as welfare of all hifs people. It is hoped 
and expected that this want of confidence in the justice and tenderness 
of the mother country, and this open resistance to its authority, can only 
have found place among the lower and more igni.inint of the people. 
The better aud wiser part of the colonies will know that decency and sub- 
mission may prevail, not only to redress grievances, but to obtain grace 
and favour, while the outrage of a public violence can exi>ect nothing 
but severity aud chastisement. These sentiments you and all his 
majesty's servants, from a sense of your duty to and love of your 
country, will endeavour to excite and encourage; you will all, in a par- 
ticular uuiuner, call upon them not to render their case desperate ; you 
will, in the strongest colours, represent to them the dreadful consequences 
that must inevitably attend the forcible and violent re(^istance to Acts 
of the British Parliament, and the scene of misery and calamity to them- 
selves and of mutual weakness and distraction to both countries insepa- 
rable from such a conduct. 

'* ' If by lenient and persuasive methods you can contribute to restore 
that peace and tniuquillity to the provinces on which their welfare and 
happiufss depend, you will do a most acceptable and essential service to 
your country. But having taken every step which the utmost prudence 
and lenity can dictate,Ali compassion to the folly and ignorance of some 
misguided people, you will not, on the other hand, fail to use your utmost 
power for the repelling of all acts of outrage and violence, and to provide 
for the maintenance of peace and good order in the province by such a 
timely exertion of force as the occasion may require, for which purpose 
you will make the proper applications to Geneiul Gage or Lord Colvill, 
commanders of his niiijesty's land and naval forces in America. For, 
however unwilling his majesty may consent to the exertion of such pow- 
ers as may endanger the s;ifety of a single subject, yet can he mit permit 
his own dignity and the authority of the British Legislature to be 
trampled on by force and violence, and in avuw'd contempt of all order, 
duty and ilecorum. If the Subject is aggrieved, he knows in what man- 
ner legally and constitutionally to apply for relief; but it is not suitable, 
either to the safety or dignity uf the British Empire, that any individuals, 
under the pretence of redressing grievances, should presume to violate 
the public peacf. 

" ' I am, with great truth and regard, Sir, 

" ' Your most obedient humble Servant, 

" 'H. S. Conway. 

" * Deputy-Governor I'eun.' 

" The above letter having been taken into due consideration, and an 
answer thereto prepared in order to be transmitted by the m-xt pacquet, 
the same was approver! by the B^iard, and is as follows : 

*' A Lftier to the Right Honhle. H. S. Coitwuy, Inquire, Jrom the Governor. 
" 'PniLAnELPiiiA, 19th February, 176G. 
*' * Sir : I had the honour of your letter of the 24th October last, re 
spectingthe distin-bances which have lately been committed in severa 
of the Nortli American colonies. Give me leave to assure you. Sir, tha 
no one of his majesty's servants is more sensible than I am of the rash 
ness and folly of those who have been concerned in these outrages, 
which at the same time that they violate the public tranquillity and sej 
Government at nought, are undutiful and affrontive to the best of kings 
and productive iif the most dangerous consequences. lam sorry to be 
under the necessity of informing you that the dissatisfaction with some 
of the late Acts of the British Legislature iparticTilarly the Stamp Act) 
is almost universal in all the colonies on the continent, and prevails 
among all ranks and orders of men ; but I should do great injustice to 
numbers of his majesty's faithful subjects if I did not represent to you at 
the same t- ne that the wiser and more considerate among them highly 
disapprove of and detest the violent and illegal measures which have 
been pursued in many of the colonies. In the province of Pennsylvania, 
where I have the honor to preside, mattei-s have been conducted with 
more moderation and respect td his majesty and Parliament than in most 
others, and the giddy multitude have hitherto lieen restrained from com- 
mitting any acts of open violence. 

"'Upon the arrival of the firet cargo of stamp'd papers into this 
province, in the month of October last, John Hughes, of this city, who 
was reported and indeed generally known to be the person appointed to 
distributr; ttiem, refused to take charge of them, tho" they were con- 
signed to him, under [ueteuce that he had not received his commission or 
had any authority to take them into his possession ; and there being no 
fort or place of security where I could lodge them on shore, I thought it 
most advisable to order them on board his Majesty's Sloop of War, the 

"Sardoine," Captain James Hawker, commander, stationed in the River 
Delaware, to whose care (on Hughes' afterwards resigning his office of 
Stamp Distributer), I have also committed all the papers which have 
since been sent by the Commissioners for the use of this province, till 
his Majesty's further orders can be received or another person shall be 
appointed to the office of distributor by the Commissioners, agreeable to 
the directions of the Act. The Americans have the most sanguine hopes 
that the remonstrances drawn up by the committees of the several 
Assemblys at the Congress held for that purpose at Xew York last Fall, 
and transmitted by them to the Parliament, will produce a repeal of the 
Stamp Act ; but if they should be disapi>ointed in their expectations, it 
is impossible to say to what length their irritated and turbulent spirits 
may carry them. Of this, however, Sir, you may rest assured, that I 
shall esteem it my indispensible duty on this an<l every other occasion to- 
use every means in my power to preserve the public peace, aud support 
to the utmost the honor and dignity of his Majesty's Government com- 
mitted to my care. 

*' ' I have the honor to be, with great truth and regard, Sir, 
" 'Y'' most obed' 'hble servant, 

" 'John Penn." " 

The Stamp Act excited the bitter and uncompro- 
mising hostility of all the colonies.^ The Sons of 
Liberty of Xew England and New York concerted 
with leading citizens of Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
the Carolinas, and a united protest went back to the 
mother-country, which resulted in the speedy recon- 
sideration of the measure. Benjamin Franklin had 
been commissioned by the anti-proprietary party of 
Pennsylvania to visit London as early as November, 
1764, to secure the transfer of all proprietary estates 
to the crown, but the question of taxation without 
representation as embodied in the Stamp Act became 
of such widespread importance that he was appointed 
general agent for all the colonies,'^ and played a con- 
spicuous part in the repeal of the infamous act. 
Franklin was summoned before the bar of the House 
of Commons on the 13th of February, 1766. In 
i answer to questions, he declared that "America could 
not pay the stamp tax tbr want of gold and silver, 
and from want of post-roads and means of sending 
stamps back into the country; that there were in 
North America about three hundred thousand white 
men from sixteen to sixty years of age; that the in- 
habitants of all the provinces together, taken at a 
medium, doubled in about twenty-four years ; that 
their demand for British manufactures increased 
much faster; that in 1723 the whole importation 
from Britain to Pennsylvania was but about fifteen 

1 Dr. Franklin, with a view to place the execution of the act in proper 

hands, got his friend, John Hughes, nominated as stamp oflBcer at Phila- 
delphia. On the arrival at Philadelphia, in October, 1765, of the stamps 
from England, the vessels hoisted their colors at half-mast, bells were 
muffled, aud thousands of citizens a-ssenibled in a state of great excite- 
ment. Mr. Hughes was called on to resign his connnission, but he only 
agreed for the present not to pei-form the duties of the oflRce. The in- 
habitants, determining not to encourage monopoly, determined to manu- 
facture for themselves. This touched a vital cord in Great Britain, and 
the clamors of her own mannfacturei*s were raised in opposition to the 
oppressive act. The Stamp Act was repealed on the 18th of March, 17tJ6, 
but the right of taxation by Parliament was reaffirmed.— Duy's "Hint, of 

2 New England urged and organized continental resistance and non- 
conformity. " The bum of domestic industry was heard more and more. 
Young women would get together and merrily and emulously drive the 
spinning wheel from sunrise till dark, and every day the humor spread 
for being clad in homc-F^pun." 



thousand pounds sterling, and had already become 
near half a million ; that the exports of the province 
to Britain could not exceed forty thousand pounds." 

" Do you think it right," asked Grenville, " that 
America should be protected by this country, and pay 
no part of the expense?" " That is not the case," an- 
swered Franklin; "the colonies raised, clothed and 
paid during the last war twenty-five thousand men, 
and spent many millions." "Were you not reim- 
bursed by Parliament?" rejoined Grenville. "Only 
■what, in your opinion," answered Franklin, "we had 
advanced beyond our proportion ; and it was a very 
small part of what we spent. Pennsylvania, in par- 
ticular, disbursed about five hundred thousand pounds, 
and the reimbursements, in the whole, did not exceed 
sixty thousand pounds." "Does the distinction be- 
tween internal and external taxes exist in the charter 
of Pennsylvania ?" asked a friend of Grenville. " No," 
said Franklin; "I believe not." "Then," asked 
Charles Towushend, " may they not, by the same in- 
terpretation of their common rights as Englishmen, 
as declared by Magna Charta and the Petition of 
Eight, object to the Parliament's right of external 
taxation?" And Franklin answered instantly : "They 
never have hitherto. Many arguments have been 
lately used liere to show them that there is no dift'er- 
ence, and that, if you have no right to tax them in- 
ternally, you have none to tax them externally, or 
make any other law to bind them. At present, they 
do not reason so ; but, in time, they may be convinced 
by these arguments." 

The question of repeal came before the House of 
Commons on the 21st of February. Every seat had 
been taken ; between four and five hundred members 
were in attendance. Pitt was ill, but his zeal was 
above disease. "I must get up to the House as I 
can," said he ; " when in my place I feel I am toler- 
al)ly able to remain through the debate and cry 
aye to the repeal with no sickly voice." And through 
the huzzas of the lobby he hobbled into the House on 
crutches, swathed in flannels. Conway moved for 
leave to bring in a bill for the repeal of the American 
Stamp Act. It had interrupted British commerce, 
jeopardized debts to British merchants, stopped one- 
third of the manufacturers of Manchester, and in- 
creased the rates on land by throwing thousands of 
poor out of employment. The act, too, breathed op- 
pression. It annihilated juries and gave vast power 
to the Admiralty Courts. The lawyers might decide 
in tavor of the right to tax, l)Ut the conflict would 
ruin both countries. In three thousand miles of ter- 
ritory the English had but five thousand troops, the 
Americans one huudred and fifty thousand fighting 
men. If they did not repeal the act, France and 
Spain would declare war, and protect the Americans. 
The colonies, too, would set up manufactories oftheir 
own. Why, then, risk the whole tor so trifling an 

Jenkinson, on the other side, moved a modification 

of the act, insisting that the total repeal, demanded 
as it was with menaces of resistance, would be the 
overthrow of British authority in America. In reply 
to Jenkinson, Edmund Burke spoke in a manner un- 
usual in the House, connecting his argument with a 
new kind of political philosophy. About eleven Pitt 
rose. He conciliated the wavering by allowing good 
ground for their apprehensions, and, acknowledging 
his own perplexity in making an option between two 
ineligible alternatives, he pronounced for repeal, as 
due to the liberty of unrepresented sulijects and in 
gratitude to their having supported England through 
three wars. He spoke with an eloquence which ex- 
pressed conviction, and with a suavity of manner 
which could not offend even the warmest friends of the 
act. "The total repeal," replied Grenville, "will 
persuade the colonies that Great Britain confesses 
itself without the right to impose taxes on them, and 
is reduced to make this confession by their menaces. 
Do the merchants insist that debts to the amount of 
three millions will be lost, and all fresh orders be 
countermanded ? Do not injure yourselves from fear 
of injury; do not die from the fear of dying. With a 
little firmness, it will be easy to compel the colonists 
to obedience. America must learn that prayers are 
not to be brought to Caesar through riot and sedition." 
The lobbies were crammed with upwards of three 
hundred men, representing the trading interests of 
the nation, trembling and anxious, and waiting to 
learn the resolution of the House. Presently it was 
announced that two hundred and seventy-five had 
voted for the repeal of the act against one hundred 
and sixty-seven for softening and enforcing it. The ■! 
roof of St. Stephen's rung with the long-continued ■ 
shouts and cheerings of the majority. When the 
doors were thrown open and Conway went forth there 
was an involuntary burst of gratitude from the grave 
multitude which beset the avenues ; they stopped 
him ; they gathered round him as cliiklren around a 
parent, as captives round a deliverer. The pure- 
minded man enjoyed the triumph ; and while they 
thanked him, Edmund Burke, who stood near him, 
declares that ' his face was as if it had been the face 
of an angel.' As Grenville moved along, swelling 
with rage and mortification, they pressed on him with 
hisses. But when Pitt appeared the crowd rever- 
ently pulled oft' their hats, and their applause touched 
him with tender and lively joy. Many followed his 
chair home with benedictions. He felt no illness 
after his immense fatigue. It seemed as if what he 
saw and what he heard, the gratitude of a rescued 
people and the gladness of thousands, now become 
his own, had restored him to health ; but his heart- 
felt and solid delight was not perfect till he found 
himself in his own house, with the wife whom he 
loved and the children for whom his fondness knew 
no restraint or bounds, and who all ])artook of the i I 
overflowing jiride of their mother. This was the first T | 
great political lesson received by his second son, then 



not quite seven years old, the eager and impetuous 
William, who, flushed with patriotic feeling, rejoiced 
that he was not the eldest born, but could serve his 
country in the House of Commons, like his father. 

In the House of Lords ten peers spoke against the 
repeal, the session being the longest ever experienced 
by that body to that date. Sixty-one votes were 
recorded against repeal and seventy-three in favor. 
Royal sanction was given the measure on the 18th 
day of March, 1766, and the odious Stamp Act was a 
matter of history. The colonies had triumphed.^ The 
sense of peace and joy resulting from the repeal of 
the Stanip Act was of short duration. The King and 
his political followers smarted under their defeat, and 
regarded the repeal as "a fatal compliance" which 
had " planted thorns " under his royal pillow and 
forever " wounded the majesty of England." " The 
administration is dead and only lying in state," was 
the common criticism of the hour. A keen satire still 

1 The joy of the colonies was, for a time, unmixed with appreliensiou. 
Virginia voted a statue to the King, ami an obelisk on which were to be 
engnived the names of those who, in England, had sigmilized them- 
selves for freedom. " My thanks they sluiU luive cordially," said Wash- 
ington, "for their opposition to any act of oppression." The conse- 
quences of enforcing the Stamp .\ct, he was convinced, "would have 
been more direful than usually apprehended." Otis, at a meeting at the 
town-hall in Boston, to fix a time for the rejoicings, told the people that 
the distinction between inland taxes and port duties wag without founda- 
tion ; for whoever had a riglit to impose the one had a right to impose 
the other, and, therefore, as tiie Parliament had given up the one, they 
had given up the other ; and the merchants were fools if they submitted 
any longer to the laws restraining their trade, which ought to be free. 
A bright day in May was ."et apart for the disjilay of the public gladness, 
and the spot where resistance to the Stamp Act began was the centre of 
attraction. At one in the morning the bell nearest Liberty Tree was 
the first to be rung ; at dawn colors and pendants rose over the house- 
tops all around it, and the steeple of the nearest meeting-house was 
hung with banners. Dvu-ing the day all prisoners for debt were re- 
leiu^ed by subscription. In the evening the town shone as though night 
had not come, an obelislc on the common was brilliant with a loyal in- 
scription, the houses round Liberty Tree exhibited illuminated figures of 
the King, of Pitt and Camden and Barre, and Liberty Tree itself was deco- 
rated with lanterns till its boughs could hold no more. All the wisest 
agreed that disastrous consequences would have ensued from the attempt 
to enforce the act, so that never was there a nuu'e rapid transition of a 
people from gloom to transport. They compared themselves to a bird 
escaped from the net of the fowler, and once more striking its wings in 
the upper air ; or to Joseph, the Israelite, whom Providence had likewise 
wonderfully redeemed from the perpetual bondage into which he was 
sold by his elder brethren. 

The clergy from the pulpit joined in the fervor of patriotism and the 
joy of success. "The Americans would not have submitted," said 
Cltauncy. " History aflbrds few examples of a more general, generous 
and just sense of libeity in any country than has appeared in America 
within the year past." Such were Mayhew's words, and while all the 
continent was calling out and cherishing the name of Pitt, the greatest 
statesman of England, the conqueror of Canada and the Ohio, tlio foun- 
der of empire, the apostle of freedom, "tlie genius and guardian of 
Britain and British America." " To you," said Mayhew, speaking from 
the heart of the people and as if its voice could be heard across the ocean, 
"to you, grateful America, attributes that she is reinstated in her 
former liberties. The universal joy of America, blessing yon as our 
father, and sending up ardent vows to Heaven for you, must give you a 
sublime and truly god-like pleasure ; it might, perhaps, give you vigor 
to take up your bed and walk, like those cured by the word of Him who 
came from heaven to make us free indeed. America calls you over and 
over again her father ; live long in health, happiness and honor. Be it 
late when you must cease to plead tlie cause of liberty on earth." — 
Bancroft'K •'Hill, o/ U. S." 

further wounded ihe household of state, shrewdly 
predicting the independence of the American colo- 
nies. The causes which hastened the close of our 
colonial era were still active. Parliament reasserted 
its supremacy and resolved to try a new mode of 

Heavy duties were imposed on goods, wares and 
merchandise ; necessities and luxuries were offered to 
rich and poor subject to the tax or duty imposed 
without the assent of the colonies. John Dickinson 
of Pennsylvania, led public opinion in resisting the 
right of Parliamentary taxation. So persistent was 
the opposition to the measure that the home govern- 
ment modified the law, 1770, retaining only a tax of 
threepence a pound on tea, and yet so uncompro- 
mising was the spirit of Pennsylvania to the principle 
of the law that "this duty was jiaid on but one single 
chest of tea." 

The Assembly declared against the "iniquitous 
act." Governor Penn was advised by the secretary 
of colonial affairs to prorogue the Assembly. The 
Assembly resolved " they had the right to sit on 
their own adjournments." And this popular branch 
of the provincial government continued their agents 
at London with full pay ;ind emoluments of office to 
protest against a " tea tax " or any other tax involv- 
ing the same principle, and also to oppose any plan 
that might be proposed for an American representa- 
tion in Parliament, " the principle of Pennsylvania 
being that taxation of the colonies should not in 
any shape be allowed except by the Provincial As- 
sembly." " I will freely spend nineteen shillings in 
the pound," said Franklin, " to defend my right of 
giving or refusing the other shilling, and after all, if 
I cannot defend that right, I can retire cheerfully 
with my little family into the boundless woods of 
America, which are sure to afford freedom and subsist- 
ence to any man who can bait a hook or pull a 

"The Americans," said Thomas Mason, the leader 
of the Virginia bar, " are hasty in expressing their 
gratitude, if the repeal of the Stamp Act is not at least 
a tacit compact that Great Britain will never again 
tax us." Laymen, lawyers, preachers and philoso- 
phers all united in support of a principle deemed 
essential to the development of the colonies, and for 
the maintenance of which they accepted the chal- 
lenge to arms. 


1623. — The Dutch planted a colony on the Delaware, under Cornelius 
Jacob May, appointed Governor of the W'est India Company, under the 
authority of the States-General. 

1624. — William Useling appointed Governor of the Swedish colony to 
be established on the Delaware, but he never came here. 

1630.— David Petei-son De Vries (Dutch). 

1031.— John Printi! (Swedish). 

1638. — Peter Minuits (Swedish, but himself a native of Holland). 

1640.— William Kieft, Dutch Governor of New York. 

1643.- John Printz (Swedish). 

1053. — Papegoia (son-in-law to Printz). 

1654. — Risingh. 



1657.— Alrichs. 

1668. — John Paul Jaquet.^ 

1659. — Beekman.l 

1664.— Robert Carr.- 

1673. — .\utbony Coivc, Dutch Governor of New Tork. 

1674. — SirEdnnmd .\nUiuss, English Oovernor of New York. 

16S1. — "William Penn, founder of the province. 

16S4. — Governor's Council, Thomas Lloyd, president. 

1687. — Five commissioners apiJointed by William Penn. 

1688. — John Blackwell, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1690. — Governor's Council. 

1691. — Thomas Lloyd, Deputy Governor. 

1692. — Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York. 

1693. — William Slarkbani, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1700.— William Penn. 

1701. — Andrew Hamilton, Deputy Governor. 

1704.— John Evans. 

1709.— Charles Gooken. 

1717.— Sir William Keith. 

1726.— Patrick Gordon. 

1736. — James Logan, President of Council. 

1738. — George Thomas, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1747. — Anthony Palmer, President of Council. 

1748. — James Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1754. — Richard H. Morris, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1756. — William Denny, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1759. — James Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1763. — lohn Penn, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1771. — Richard Penn, Lieutenant-Governor till 1776. 

Philadelphia City and County, organized 1682. 
Bucks County, organized 1682. 
Chester County, organized 1682. 
Lancaster County, organized May 10, 1729. 
York County organized, August 9, 1749. 
Cumberland County, organized January 27, 1750. 
Burka County, organized March 11, 1752. 
Bedford County, organized March 9, 1771. 
Northampton County, organized March 21, 1772. 
Northumberland County, organized March 21, 1772 . 
Westmoreland County, organized February 26, 1773. 

Council of Safety, instituted at Philadelphia, June 
30, 1775, by the Assembly of the province. 

** Resolvedf That this House approves the association entered into by 
the good people of this colony for the defense of their lives, liberty and 

" lie^olved, That John Dickinson, George Gray, Henry Wynkoop, 
Anthony Wayne, Benjamin Bartholomew, George Ross, Michael Swoope, 
John Montgomery, Edward Biddle, William Edmunds, Bernard 
Daugherty, Samuel Hunter, William Thompson, Thomas Willing, 
Benjamin Franklin, Daniel Eoberdeau, John Cadwalader, Andrew 
Allen, Owen Biddle, Francis Johnson, Richard Keiley, Samuel Morris, 
Jun., Robert Morris, Thomas Wharton, Jan., and Robert White, Gentle- 
men, be a committee of safety for calling forth such, and so many, of 
the aasociators into actual service, when necessity requires, as the said 
committee shall judge proper." 

The Council of Safety was organized July 3, 177-5, 
by electing Benjamin Franklin president and Wil- 
liam Govett clerk. 

The first Constitutional Convention convened in 
Philadelphia on the 15th of July, 1776. This body 
not only entered upon the task of framing the con- 
stitution, but assumed the legislative power of the 
State. This was followed by the institution of the 
Supreme Council of Safety, in which reposed the 
executive powers of the commonwealth until the 
first constitution wiis revised in 1790. Thomas Whar- 

t Under Stuyvesant, Dutch Governor of New York. 

* Under Richard Nichols, English Governor of New York. 

ton, Joseph Keed, John Dickinson, Benjamin Frank- 
lin and Thomas Mifflin presided over this body in 
the order named between the years 1776 and 1788. 

The colonial era closed with the adjournment of 
the Provincial Assembly on the 23d of September, 
1776. Governor Richard Penn yielded reluctantly 
to the forces of revolution, and the last act of pro- 
vincial authority was a fierce denunciation of the 
Constitutional Convention in assuming the legislative 
power of the State. " God save the King ! " was said 
for the last time in a Pennsylvania Assembly ; hence- 
forth it was to be " God save the Commonwealth!" 



The memorable events associated with the move- 
ments of the Continental army, under the personal 
direction of General Washington, in the autumn of 
1777 and winter of 1778, will always render Eastern 



Pennsylvania conspicuous in the annals of the Revo- 
lution. The provincial cimservatism and peaceful 
character of the peojde who had permanently settled 
in the Schuylkill Valley woke slowly and painfully 
to the warlike preparations which preceded Lord 
Howe's attack upon Philadelphia, and when reverses 
befell our armies on the Brandywine a profound sense 
of alarm pervaded the capital city, shared by many 
sorrowing homes that Itiy on the line of march, and 
within limits certain to be desolated by hostile armies. 



"The spirit of 1776," which animated leaders and Revo- 
lutionists, was by no means universal in the pi'ovince. 
Society was divided by well-marked differences of 
ojiinion, stoutly maintained at the cost of large es- 
tates, the sacrifice of comfortable homes, domestic 
pleasures and social advantages. A century and 
moreof time has well and wisely obscured from public 
notice the bitter feuds and political animosities which 
prevailed in this locality during and for many years 
after the close of the struggle. The student of our 
colonial era is amazed at the uncompromising char- 
acter of the men and measures of the period. The 
British officers found ready friends in every township 
from the Brandywine to the Delaware, from the fetal 
massacre of Paoli to its attempted repetition upon the 
force of Lafayette at Barren Hill. The Tory, not less 
for his King than for the love of his gold, was ever 
ready to peril Mis life and honor ; on the other hand, 
the Revolutionists resorted to confiscation of property, 
banishment and imprisonment of those who declined 
to esi)ouse their cause. For eight years these aliena- 
tions prevailed, until society seemed to be known, in 
the common parlance of the day, as "Rebel" and 
" Tory." 

No just conception of the scope and magnitude of 
the campaign organized for the defense of Eastern 
Pennsylvania and the capital city in the autumn of 
1777 can be realized unless it comprehend the move- 
ments and results of the two principal armies of the 
Middle States, and for whose conduct Washington, as 
commander-in-chief, was responsible to the Conti- 
nental government.' To disconcert him by strategy, 
to compel him to battle with troops superior in arma- 
ment and discipline, and to overwhelm him with 
numbers was the general and well-matured plan of 
the enemy. The preparations of the home govern- 
ment to this end were commensm-ate with the reason- 
able hope of success ; and the belief that the resources 
of men and means so lavishly confided to commanders 
would speedily end the conflict, and compel submis- 
sion to the mother-country, was shared by many of 
the wayward and doubting of the j>eriod. 

The efforts of Washington through the winter of 
1777 to organize a powerful army for the ensuing 
campaign is a matter of history. The hopes inspired 
from time to time by the flattering reports which 
reached his headnuarters were cruelly disappointed, 
and he found himself not only jiowerless to take the 
aggressive, but unequal to that measure of defensive 
warfare necessary to preserve his long lines unbroken. 

1 On the 19th of June, 1775, "Washington received his commission and 
instructions as "General and Commander-in-Chief of the armies of tlie 
United Colonies, and of all the forces raised or to be raised by them, and 
r.ll others wlio shall voluntarily offer their services and join the army for 
the defense of American Liberty." 

The favor lavished on the new chief of the Northern Department raised 
a doubt whether W^ashington retained authority over him, till Congress 
resolved, .\ugust, 1777, that "they never intended to supercede or cir- 
cumscribe his power." — BancrofCt ^* HUlorif of the United Slaltjs,'' iol. r. 
p. 591. 

The steady and persevering courage, however, which 
had supported him and the American cause through 
the gloomy scenes of the preceding year did not for- 
sake him, and that sound judgment which applies to 
the best advantage those means which are attain- 
able, however inadequate they may be, still remained. 
His plan of operation was adapted to that which he 
believed the enemy had formed. He was persuaded 
either that General Burgoyne would endeavor to take 
Ticonderoga, and penetrate to the Hudson, in which 
event General Howe would co-operate with him, by 
moving up that river and possessing himself of the 
forts and high grounds comiuaiidiiig its passage, or 
that Burgoyne would join the grand army at New 
York by sea, after which the combined armies would 
proceed against Philadelphia. 

To counteract the designs of the enemy, whatever 
they might be, to defend the three great points alike 
vital to the country — Ticonderoga, the Highlands of 
the Hudson and Philadelphia — against two power- 
ful armies so much superior to his in arms, num- 
bers and discipline, it was necessary to make 
such disposition of his troops as would enable the 
several departments to recii^rocally aid each other 
without neglecting objects of great and almost equal 
magnitude, which were alike endangered, though 
widely divergent. To effect these purposes, the troops 
of New England and New York- were divided between 
Ticonderoga and Peekskill, while those from New 
Jersey to North Carolina, inclusive, were directed to 
assemble at the camp to be formed in New Jerse)'. 

The situation in May, 1777, was critical, and called 
into activity the magnificent horoscope of the com- 
mander-in-chief. In camp at Morristown, with an 
effective rank and file, excluding cavalry and artil- 
lery, of less than six thousand men, after a winter of 
ceaseless anxiety in camp and field and vain endeavor 
to secure large and certain accessions to his army; the 
enemy certain to assume the aggressive as soon as the 
season would warrant the movement of troops ; the 
Howes in possession of New York City with an army 
twice the number of his own, with a navy at command 
large enough to transport it with the speed of the 
winds to any point on the coast deemed vulnerable ; 
General Burgoyne with ten thousand veteran and 
volunteer troops on Lake Champlain, and Colonel St. 
Leger with a co-operating army of veterans, Tories, 
and savages in the Mohawk Valley, waiting orders 
to march at the earliest practicable moment. 

As late as June 18th, says a distinguished historian,^ 
" the cares of the Northern Department were thrown 
upon the American commander-in-chief, and Schuy- 
ler besieged him with entreaties to supply his wants 
and remedy all that was going wrong." As com- 
mander-in-chief of America, Washington watched 
with a peculiar care the Northern Department. 

2 Marshall's "Life of Washington," vol. i. p. 145. 
3Baucroft'sJ'Histoi-y of the United States," vol. v. p. 566. 



Alarmed at Schuyler's want of fortitude, he ordered 
Arnold to his command, also Lincoln, who was ac- 
knowledgedly pojjular among the New England troops. 
Besides detaching these two distinguished officers 
and assigning them to the Northern Department, 
he added to their command General Glover's brigade 
of Continental troops, and yielded Colonel Morgan's 
corps of riflemen, upon request being made through 
Congress for them. The Continental army,' under 
the immediate command of Washington, charged 
with the defense of the capital city, was the objec- 
tive-point of the grand campaign, and the coveted 
prize of Lord Howe. To engage it in battle, to 
thoroughly defeat and dispirit it, to seize, fortify 
and garrison Philadelphia, then quickly transfer the 
bulk of his army to co-operate with Burgoyne, and 
insure his triumpli over Schuyler and Gates on the 
Hudson, was a consummation to which all energies 
were directed. 

The persistence of Washington in declining battle, 
save in his fortified camp at Middlebrook, his 
constant readiness to attack the flank of his sagacious 
adversary should he attempt to cross the Delaware, 
there to be confronted by Arnold with a hastily im- 
provised army, compelled General Howe to change 
the general plan of operations for the season, and 
rendered all further co-operation between him and 
Burgoyne impossible. While employed in discom- 
fiting Howe, he was actively engaged in resisting the 
impending advance of St. Leger and Burgoyne- 
Says Marshall : '■' " He hastened the march of those 
generals designed to act in that department, pressed 
the Governors of Eastern States to reinforce the 
retreating army with all their militia, and made large 
detachments of choice troops from his own army. 
The fame of being himself the leader of the victorious 
army did not, with false glare, dazzle his judgment or 
conceal the superior public advantage to be derived 
from defeating Burgoyne." 

Having used his best eflbrts to hasten the concen- 
tration of troops from the Eastern States, and over- 
come in some measure the shock to public confi- 
dence resulting from the loss of Ticonderoga 
and the disastrous retreat of General St. Clair ; 
having strengthened the willing hands of General 
Schuyler in bringing into the field the militia of New 
York State, rendering the victory at Bennington and 
other minor points i)ossible, and witnessed the de- 
parture of Lord Howe from New York Bay, he turned 
the head of his devoted columns toward the Dela- 
ware, massing his army at Germantown early in the 
month of August, 1777. 

For days and weeks the work of marshaling new 
troops, collecting supplies and fitting the command 
to resist tlie impending attack by Howe went on. 
The commauder-in chief was in dailv consultation 

1 Bancroft's '* History of the United States ■' vol. v. p. 002. 
'^Mtirt'liiiirs "Life of Washington," vol. i. p. 152. 

with committees of Congress, heads of departments, 
and for the first time met the youthful and heroic 
Lafayette, who was by him assigned to duty on his 
staff, with the rank of major-general. The public 
mind became feverish and excited in anticipation of 
events now certain to aflect the gravest interests of 
the colony. War, with its desolation, its bloody 
horrors, its blighting consequences upon society and 
sacrifice of life, was at the threshold of a community 
devoted by sentiment, religion, and pecuniary inter- 
ests to peaceful pursuits. Evidence of disaft'ection 
increased with the certainty of Howe's approach, and 
when his presence, with fleet and army, in the Chesa- 
peake Bay was announced, it was deemed politic by 
the government that Washington should march his 
army through the city as he moved soutli to meet the 
advance of the foe. It was accordingly done, and the 
24tli of August, 1777, was a memorable day in the 
history of the capital city, as well as in the lives of 
the patriotic soldiers, who received at every square 
the most marked consideration at the hands of the 
populace, who were wild in their demonstrations of 
joy as di\isions marched by them under commanders 
who had grown into popular favor, resulting from 
tlieir distinguished services in the field. On the 
other hand, the displeasure of those who, from a 
sense of duly, adhered to the mother-country was 
manifest in the frowning faces and silent contempt 
with which they apparently treated the unusual 
events of the day. 

The story of the campaign which was opened by 
this movement of the Continental army, to meet and 
resist the combined operations of the enemy, to save 
the capital if possible, and to preserve the army, 
thougli the city should be lost, has always possessed 
a rare interest to Pennsylvanians who participated in 
it and to their descendants. 

Other fields, in other States, before and afterwards, 
witnessed the brighter triumph of our arms and the 
more immediate results of victories won ; but nowhere 
on the long and varying line of battle were more san- 
guinary engagements fought, in no campaign of the 
protracted struggle was the suttering of the troops so 
continuous and severe, at no time was the solicitude 
of the commander-in-chief so keenly exercised or tlie 
patriotism of the peojile more sorely tried. 

The field of Eastern Pennsylvania presented a 
tempting prize to the British commander at the peiiod 
referred to. Philadelphia was the seat of the colonial 
and continental government. Its occupation by the 
enemy, it was thought, would greatly dispirit the 
colonists from Massachusetts to South Carolina. 
Howe's point of attack being selected but fifty-one 
miles south of the city, with no natural barriers to 
resist the advance of his laud forces, assuming, not 
without reason, that Washington's army had been 
weakened by detachments sent to the Northern De- 
partment, he was confident that, with a few days' easy 
marches and perhaps a battle, the fall of the capital 



would follow. Then a rapid march across New Jersey, 
aud he would be able to co-oijerate with Burgoyne 
and St. Leger, and overwhelm Gates in New York. 

With these results accomplished, his fleet securely 
anchored in the Delaware, a base of operations for 
fresh conquest farther south would be finally estab- 
lishi'd, and the work of subduing the colonists so 
nearly done as to assure the home government of 
ultimate success and prevent the interposition of those 
friendly offices of France, growing more and more 
imminent each succeeding month. One more con- 
sideration entered into the plans of the campaign 
upon the part of the enemy. The settlement was 
largely of Englishmen, and it was therefore assumed, 
because of the intluential following of Penu and the 
many devotees of the Established Church, that sen- 
timents of loyalty to King George would be inspired 
anew by their presence, and terms of accommodation, 
permanent in character, would be suggested and 
accepted as inevitable. 

Washington promptly drew his line of battle be- 
tween the approaching enemy and the capital city. 
Conscious of the overwhelming disparity of numbers, 
impressed with the importance of preventing the con- 
centration of Howe's forces with those from which he 
had recently separated, believing that his dispositions 
in the Northern Department w'ere such as would in- 
sure success, his great work in hand now was to delay 
the enemy in the accomplishment of a purpose which, 
with the means at hand, he might not ultimately de- 
feat. His hostile attitude on White Clay Creek and 
display of resources put Howe upon his caution, who, 
pleading the want of cavalry — which in truth he greatly 
felt — lost days and weeks in feeling his way from the 
place of debarkation. Twenty-three days elapsed be- 
fore he drew the American commander to determined 
battle on the Brandywine, and then he was obliged to 
concede to him the choice of position. 

On the 11th of September, 1777, the battle of 
Brandywine was fought. The plan of the engage- 
ment, as subsequently revealed, the necessities which 
induced it, the skillfully executed movement of the 
enemy upon the right of the patriot army, the ineffi- 
ciency of Washington's mounted troops in not dis- 
closing the movement of Cornwallis at an earlier hour 
in the day, the uncertain and embarrassing reports 
that reached hira from sources that should have been 
reliable, the partial surprise, and the heroic, though 
ineffectual, effort to meet and resist a fierce attack 
from a direction unlocked for, the deeds of valor upon 
the part of officers who sought to retrieve misfortune 
by personal daring, and the usual conduct of battle- 
shocked troops have gone into history, and been graph- 
ically descril)ed by Marshall, Botta, Lossing, Headley, 
Bancroft and ijthers, less distinguished in history, it 
may be, but by no means less truthful in narrative.' 

1 The arrival of Sir William Howe in the Chesapeake Bay late in the 
month of August, 1 777, with an army eighteen thousand strong, removed 

The battle was lost, and its discouraging features 
were keenly felt by those who left the field in posses- 
sion of the enemy. But its efl'ects, as measured by 
them, were by no means as disastrous as intended or 

all doubt in tlie mind of Washington as to the designs of the enemy, and 
in his judgment left but one proper course to pursue : to give battle to 
the enemy. He at once proceeded to concentrate all his forces. Orders 
were issued directing detachments to join the main army by forced 
marches, while the greatest activity prevailed in all the departments, in 
order to prepare the army for a vigorous campaign. In order to 
strengthen the regular or Continental army, and have in process of or- 
ganization a reserve force, the militia of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Dela- 
ware and the northern part of Virginia were direct to report to the main 
army. Assoonasthe forces thus concentrated were in a condition to 
move Washington commenced his march to meet Uowe. 

In order to enconmge the patriots and overawe, if possible, the many 
disaffected residents of Philadelphia, who were fully apprised of the de- 
signs of the enemy, Washington concluded to march his troops through 
the principal streets of the city as he moved South. 

The movement continued southward, until the advance guard reached 
White Clay Creek, Delaware, when it halted, while the main body of the 
army took position on the left bank of ll«d Clay Creek, the right wing 
resting on the town of Newport, on the then great road to Philadelphia 
and the left wing extending to the town of Hockesen, in the direction of 
the Delaware River. 

The enemy, who by this time had disembarked, were in position on the 
left bank of the Elk River, with the advanced guard as far north as 
Gray's Hill. General Maxwell, of the patriot army, with his corps of 
riflemen, held the line on White Clay Creek with slight defensive earth- 

In advance of Maxwell there were employed four regiments of cavalry, 
composed of nine hundred men, including persons of every description. 
These partisan soldiers, composed of independent organizations, occupied 
the country as far south as Iron Hill, and did good service in watching 
the movements of the enemy and reporting the same to the commander- 

The enemy, having completed bis preparations to advance upon Phila- 
delphia, commenced a flank movement upon the right of Washington, 
and succeeded in compelling him to fall back to the Brandywine River, 
which he crossed at Chadd's Ford, on the 10th of September, and went 
into position. Here he determined to give battle to the enemy if he at- 
tempted to advance upon him, believing, as he did, that Philadelphia 
could only be stived by a victory. 

The centre of Washington's army covered Chadd's Ford, his right 
wing extending in the direction of Birniingh.'im Meeting-House, north- 
west of the ford, and ti'e left, several miles south of the ford, was held by 
Genem! ,\rmstiong, who connnandcd the Pennsylvania militia. 

The front, on the south or right bank of the river, was occupied by 
ilaxweU's rirteToeu, who had been delaying the advance of the enemy's 

The situation was critical ; the stake for which the impending battle 
was to be fought on the morrow involved the fate of the capital of the 
new nation, and, to an unusual degree, the hopes of the people who had 
resolved to sever their political relations with Great Britain. On the 
other hand, Howe, with a finely appointed army, which outnumbered 
that of Washington, felt that victory was within his grasp— only a silver 
thread, whicii tlie morning sun would betray, and mark as the coming 
line of battle, lay between him and the coveted prize. At the dawn of 
day on the morning of the luh the British army was in motion. 

Howe had formeil his army into two grand divisions. The one de- 
signed to make a feint on the position of Washington, at Chadd's Ford, 
was commanded by General Knyphausen, the Hessian, the other, the 
flanking column, was commanded by Lord Cornwallis. They moved up 
its right flank on south side of the Brandywine some fifteen miles, cross- 
ing at Jefi'ries' and other ferries, where the headwaters unite, and where 
the stream is narrow and easily forded. 

\i^n\fi this movement was in progress, unknown to Washington, the 
advance of General Knyphausen fell in ivith the troops commanded by 
General Maxwell, on the south side of the river, and a skirmish ensued. 
Maxwell's forces fell back, were promptly reinforced, and in turn drove 
the English back upon the original line. Knj-phansen immediately 
brought up his reserves, and compelled Maxwell to retire to the north 
side of the river. 

Batteries were immediately'placed in position, and a furious cannonade 



believed to be. Marshall, referring to the immediate 

results of the engiigment, decUireSj "It was uot con- 
sidered decisive by Congress, the general or the 

opened upon the American line, while the disposition of troops, now 
plainly visible, was of aucb a character as indicated an intention to force 
a passage of the river at the point covered by the centre of Washington's 

The advance upon this part of the line was promptly met with counter 
dispositions of troops by the commander-in-chief, and the enemy seemed 
to be foiled in every effort to cross the river at this point. Meanwhile 
Lord Cornwallis, at the head of the flanking column, by ii well-conceived 
and unobserved line of march, reached the furks of the Brandywine, 
crossing at Trimble's and Jeffries' Fords, without opposition, at about 
two o'clock in the iifternoon, and then turning down the river, took the 
road to Dilwortb, in order to strike the right flank of the Americiin army. 

This was a most critical hour on that inemorable day. The fact that 
Cornwallis bad reached a position on the Hank uf Washington's army 
was at the liour spoken of unknown to him. Various reports reached his 
ear ; about noon he received a report that General Howe was in command 
of a large body of the enemy, who were moving on his right Hank. 
Upon this information, which he deemed reliable, he immediately con- 
ceived the idea of recroswing the river with the main body of his army, 
overwhelm Knypliauwen before Howe could reach him, very pjuperly 
concluding that tlie advantage thus obtained would more than conijien- 
sate for wtiatever loss he might sustain by leaving his right wing exposed 
to the assault of Howe and Cornwallis. Accordingly, he ordered General 
Sullivan to pass the river at an upper ford and attack Knyphausen on 
his left, while he in pereon should cross lower down, and fall upon his 
right. They were both in the act of moving their troops when a second 
report arrived, representing what had really taken place as false, or, in 

army," ^ and cites the fact that the government, 

upon receiving Washington's official report, immedi- 
ately passed vigorous resolutions for reinforcing the 

porlance, comprehending the doubt still in the mind of Washington, he 
exclaimed, "Take my hfe, General, if I deceive you ! " Washington was 
at length convinced, and a few momentsafterwardsfuund that the enemy 
were within sight of liis extreme right wing. 

As soon as the api'roacb of C<»rnwallis upon the right flank became a 
certainty, General Sullivan, who was in command of that wing of the 
army, made every proper disposition of the troops at his disptisal to resist 
it. The pii9itit>n of the troops was taken on the commanding gi'ound 
above Birmingham Meeting-House, the left extending toward the Brandy- 
wine, both tlanks being covered by densely wondcd countiy. His artil- 
lery was well posted; the position had great advantage for defensive 
operations, and but for the fact that one brigade of this division waa 
absent from the line, having been withdrawn some hours previous to join 
in the intended attack upon Knyphausen, and therefore could not reach 
the position which it left in time to defend it, the results would certainly 
have been modified, if in no ottier particular than that of delaying his 
march until Washington could haw made the necessary dispositions to 
meet it, or if unable to muet it, then to have fallen back upon a new position. 

The attack upon the outpost of General Sullivan was followed up with 
overpowering numbers, which ijuickly developed the length of his line. 
This done; the British commander hastened his formation, and attacked 
the patriot troops with the utmost impetuosity. Tlie engagement be- 
came equally fierce on both sides abtmt four o'clock in the afternoon. 
For some length of time, says Botta, the Americans defended themselves 
with great valor, and the carnage was terrible. But such was the emu- 
lation which invigorated the British and Hessians that neither the ad- 
vantages of the situation, the deadly effect of the artilleiy, the ceaseless 


other words, that the enemy had nut crossed the headwaters of the 
Brandywine, and hence the army of Howe was not divided for the day, 
and therefore not in such a position as to invite the attack designed by 
the commander-in-chief. 

Deceived by this false intelligence, Washington recalled Geneiul 
Greene, who crossed the river with the advance. Time now was of in- 
calculable value, and the want of a reliable body of cavalry was severely 
and fatally felt. The confusion and conflict of reports received at head- 
quarters, the inability to determine whether the demonstration of Knyp- 
hausen was the prelude to an attack in force of the entire army of Howe 
upon the centre of the line at Chadd's Ford or a feint to cover a move- 
ment in great force upon tlie right of the position, rendered the situation 
painfully imcertain. Strange to say, yet it seeniiS to be aiithoritatively 
stated, that a citizen, in the pei-son of Squire Cheyney, was the first man 
to give Washington reliable information of the enemy's approach upon 
his right wing or flank. He was well mounted and incidentally had been 
within a short distance of the enemy, and with trouble made his escape 
and hastened with the utmost speed to coummnicate the fact, doubtless 
unconscious of the terrible impoitance his message bore. Washington at 
first was unwilling to believe his statement, classing it with the exagger- 
ated and stJimpeding reports that had been embarrassing him during 
the entire day's opGratit)nB. He put the squire to the test. He ordered 
him to disn.ount an<l draw a draft of the roads in the Siind, and give a 
clear description of the movement of the troops he reported to have seen. 
This was promptly and skillfully done. Wjisliington still appeared to doubt 
the statement, unwilling to believe that be had so fatally misconceived 
the operations t>f the army up to so late an hour in the liay. tCheyney 
was a pure and devoted patriot ; his whole soul was in the cause. Con- 
scious of the truth of his statement, although unaware of its groat im- 

fire of musquetry, nor the uu^ihaken ctmrage of the line from one end to 
the other could resist the onslaught. 

The fury of the enemy was directed towanl Sullivan's left flank, which, 
after a gallant resistance, gave way. This success upon the part of Corn- 
wallis was quickly followed up, the troops were thrown into confusion, 
the line felt the shock, wavered a few moments, and then gave way in 
rapid retreat. Sullivan's men fled into the woods in their rear, their 
pursuers following on the great road toward Diiworth. Upon the first 
fire of the artillery, Washington, having no longer any doubt of what 
was passing, had pushed forward the reserve to the aid of Sullivan ; but 
this corps, on approaching the field of battle, under the immediate direc- 
tion of General Greene, was met by the very men to whose succour they 
had been rapidly marching, in full retreat. A proper disposition was at 
unce made to receive the fugitives, and, after their p:iss:ige to the rear, 
Greene conducted 'the retreat in good order, checking the pursuit of the 
enemy by a continual fire of the artillery', which covered his rear. Hav- 
ing at length reached a defile covered on both sides with woods, he again 
went into position, with the full determination to finally check the ad- 
vancing foe. The troops of General Greene were composed <jf Virginians 
and Pennsylvanians, and their conduct in defense of this position is said 
to have been remarkable for its gallantry and heroism. Conspicuoua 
among those on the line of battle, and in immediate command, were 
General Muhlenburg and Colonel Stephens. 

General Knj-phausen, finding the Americans to be fully engaged on 
their right, and observing that troops opposed to him at Chadd's Ford 
were enfeebled by those withdrawn under Greene to the support of the 
right wing, began to make his dispositions for crossing the river in real- 

Mai-shall's " Life of W'ashington," vol. i. p. 160. 



army, and directed him to complete the defenses of 
the Dehiware. 

On the loth, four days after this battle, the army 
was on the march to attack Howe, who, apprised of 
the movement, immediately put his army in motion, 
and the opposing armies met between the Goshen 
Meeting-House and the White Horse Tavern, on the 
table-land south of the Great Valley. The choice of 
position was again with Washington. Hostilities 
had actually commenced, when storm and flood ren- 
dered the movement of troops impossible, and dis- 
closed the alarming fact that arms and ammunition 
were so seriously damaged that to further engage the 
enemy would be suicidal. 

This exigency decided temporarily the fate of the 
capital city, and doubtless hastened the period of 
occupation by the British troops. The situation was 
critical, and the day certainly memorable. To retire 
upon Philadelphia and sutler a partial investment, 
leaving the country open from the Schuylkill to the 
Hudson, making a diversion in favor of Burgoyne not 
only possible, but probable, would be unwise for many 
reasons ; to give up all further defense of the capital 

ity. The foi*d was defended by a line of entrenchment and one battery. 
The troops left in defense of this position (commanded by General Wayne) 
successfully resisted the crossing of the Hessian general until the force 
of Cornwallis made their appearance on their right flank. This devel- 
opment convinced them of the hopelessness of their task, and they fled in 
disorder, ahandoniug their artilleiy, ammunition and stores to the 

In their retreat they passed to the rear of General Greene, who, with 
the unlnoken troops under him, was still able to maintain the position he 
had selected, and was the last to quit the field of battle. Night rtnally 
came to the rescue of the vanquished, under cover of wliich the army re- 
treated to Cliester, and on the following day to Philadelphia. Hundreds 
of men who had become fugitives in the rapid retreat of the right wing, 
as well as of the extreme left wing, in retiring from the ford promptly 
rejoineil the aruiy again within twenty-four hours at Philadelphia. The 
loss of the Americans, however, was heavy. It is reported that three 
hundred were killed, six hundred wounded and nearly four hundred 
captuicd ; they also lost eleven pieces of artillery. The loss of the enemy 
is reported to have been one hundred killed and four hundred wounded. 
—Histurical Oration, Valleif Forge, 1878. 

•William Dunning, a blacksmith of Cumberland County, during the 
Revolution endeavored to serve his country by the construction of a 
wrought-irou cannon of a curious description. One of these is said to 
have fallen into the hands of the British at the battle of Brandy wine, 
and is to this day preserved in the Tower of London, and another unfin- 
ished specimen is said to be at the arsenal in Philadelphia. These sin- 
gular pieces of ordnance were made of " wrought-iron staves, hooped like 
a barrel, with bands of the same material, excepting there were four 
layers uf staves breaking joint, all of which were firmly bound together, 
and then boxed and breeched like other cannon." An obituary notice 
of Denning, who died in Qlifflin township, in 1830, at the age of ninety- 
four, states that he was an artificer in the Revolutionary army, and that 
his was the only successful attempt ever made in the world to manufac- 
ture wrought-iron cannon, one of which he completed in Middlesex, Pa., 
and commenced another and larger one at Mount Holly, but 
could get no one to a^^ist him who could stand the heat, which is said to 
have been so great as " to melt tlie lead buttons on his clothes." The 
British, it is added, offered a stated annuity and a large sum to the per- 
son who would instruct them in the manufaetrue of that article, but the 
patriotic blacksmith preferred obscurity and poverty in his own beloved 
country, though the country for which he had done so much kept her 
purse closed from the veteran soldier until near the close of his long life. 
— Bishop, " Hist, of American Manufacturee,^^ vol. i. 

would subject him to severe criticism,^ injuriously 
affect public affairs in the Middle States, in some 
measure discourage the troops, and increase the spirit 
of disaffection in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.^ It 


was an hour of supreme interest in the struggle, and 
upon his decision hung the most momentous results. 
Assuming the entire responsibility, courting the 

1 See remonstrance, Pennsylvania Assembly. 

2 On the morning of the 18th a messenger arrived in the American 
camp, bringing letters from Putnam and Clinton, prematurely, but 
positively, announcing the surrender of the army of Burgoyne. Wash- 
ington received them with joy unspeakable and devout gratitude "for 
this signal stroke of Providence." "All will be well," he said, "in His 
own good time," The news circulated among the Americans in every 
direction, and quickly penetrated the camp of Sir William Howe. The 
difficulty of access to the upper ckevaux-de-frise had rendered ita re- 
duction much more tedious than was conceived; under a feeling of 
exasperated impatience, he gave verbal orders to Colonel Donop, who 
had expressed a wish for a separate command to carry Red Bank by 
assault if it could be easily done, and make short work of the affair. On 
the 22d, Donop, with five regiments of Hessian grenadiers and infantry, 
four companies of yagers, a few mounted yagei's, all the artillery of the 
five battalions and two English howitzers, arrived at the fort. Making a 
reconnoissance with his artillery oflicers, he found that on three sides it 
could be approached through thick woods within four hundred yards. 
It was a pentagon, with a high earthy rampart, protected in front by an 
abattis. The battery of eight three -pounders and two howitzers was 
brought up on the right wing, and directed on the embrasures. At the 
front of each of the four battalions selected for the assault stood a captain 
with the carpenters and one hundred men, bearing the fascines which 
had been hastily bound together. Mad after glory, Donop, at half-past 
four, summoned the garrison in arrogant language. A defiance being 
retiu'ned, he addressed a few words to his troops. 

Each colonel placed himself at the head of his division, and at a 
quarter before five, under the protection of a brisk cannonade from all 
their artillery, they ran forward and carried the abattis. On clearing it, 
they were embarrassed by pitfalls, and were exposed to a terrible fire of 



counsel of his subordinates, but acting upon his own 
mature judgment, he uncovered Philadelphia, de- 
taching General AVayne, and directing him to attack 
the extreme left of the enemy, in the hope of 
detaining him until he could refit his army and 
renew the conflict, providentially postponed. 

Disasters seemed to repeat themselves in quick suc- 
cession during those trying days. General Wayne's 

small arms anduf grape-shot from a concealed galley, while two galleys, 
which the bushes had hidden, raked their flanks with chain-shot. Yet 
the brave Hessians funned on the glacis, filled the diti-h, and pressed on 
towards the rampart. But Donop, the officers of his staft, and more than 
half the other officers were killed or wounded ; the men who climbed 
the parapet were beaten down with lances and bayonets ; and as twihglit 
was coming on, the assailants fell back under the protection of their re- 
serve. Many of the wounded crawled away into the forest, but Donop 
and a few others were left behind. The party marched back during the 
night unpursue<l. As the British ships-uf-war which had attempted tu 
take part in the attiick fell down the river, the "Augusta," of sixty-four 
guns, and the "Merlin" frigate grounded. The next day the "Augusta'" 
was set on fire by red-hot shot from the American galleys and flouting 
batteries, and blown up before all her crew conld escape ; the " Merlin '' 
was abandoned and set on fire. From the wrecks the Americans brought 
off two twenty-four poundera. "Thank Oud," reasoned John Adams, 
"the glory is not immediately due to the commander-in-chief, or idolatry 
and adulation would have been so excessive as to endanger our liberties." 
By the 10th of November the British had completed their batteries on 
the reedy morass of Province Island, five hundred yards from the Ameri- 
can fort on Mud Island, and began an incessiint lire from four batteries 
of heavy artillery. Smith gave the opinion that the garrison could nut 
repel a storming-party, but Major Fleury, the French engineer, reported 
the place still defensible. On the eleventh, Sruith, having received u 
slight hurt, passed immediately to Red Bank ; the next in rank desired 
to be recalled and early on the thirteenth the brave little garrison of two 
hundred and eighty-six fresh men and twenty ai'tillerists Wiia confided 
to Major Simeon Thayer, of Rhode Island, who had distinguished him- 
self in the expedition against Quebec, and who now volunteered to take 
the desperate command. Supported by his superior ability and the skill 
and cool courage uf Fleury, the garrison held out gallantly during an 
incessant bombardment and csinnonade. On the fifteenth, the wind 


proving fair, the "Vigilant," carrying sixteen twenty-four poundere, 
aided by the tide, was warped through an inner channel which the ob- 
structions in the river had deepened, and anchored so near the American 
fort that they could send into it hand-grenades, and marksmen from the 
mast of the " Vigilant" could pick off men from its platform. 

Five large British sbips-of-war, which drew near the chevavx-de-frise, 
kept off the American flotilla, and sometimes directed their fire at the fort 
on its unprotected side. The land batteries, now five in number, played 
from thirty pieces at short distances. The ramparts and block-houses 
on Mud Island were honey-combed, their cannon nearly silenced. A 
storming-party was got ready ; but, to avoid bloodshed, Sir William 

enterprise, from which further delay was ardently 
hoped, resulted in his early discomfiture, occasioned 
by the betrayal of his position to the enemy by spy 
or Tory, promptly followed by a night attack, led by 
General Grey, characterized by a fierceness and bru- 


tality ^ which has justly obscured the fame of that 
officer, and rendered his name forever odious in the 
annals of the Kevolution. The season of anxiety 
was intensified by this unexpected misfortune, fol- 
lowed by the removal of the seat of government, the 
establishment of new lines of communication, new 
sources of supplies, and the "perplexing manoeuvres 
of Howe," which required counter-movements to 
prevent a farther advance into the interior of the State 
with a view to the destruction of government stores 
at Reading, or in the direction of the Hudson River 

Howe, who on the fifteenth was present with his brother, gave ordei-s to 
keep up the fire all night through. In the morning, Thayer sent all the 
garrison but forty men over to Red Bank, and after midnight followed 
with the rest. When on the sixteenth, the British troops entered the 
fort, they found nearly every one of its cannon stained with blood 
Never were orders to liefeud a place to the last extremity mure faithfully 
executed. Thayer was reported to W:ishiug1on as an urticer of the 
highest merit ; Fleui'y won well-deserved promotion from Con- 
gress. Cornwallis was next sent by way of Chester to Billingsport with 
a strong body of troops to clear the left bank of the Telaware. A divi 
sion under Greene was promptly despatched across the river to give him 
battle. But Cornwallis was joined by five British battalions from New 
York, while the American reinforcements from the northern army were 
still delayed. It therefore became necessary to evacuate Red Bank. 
(^^'ornwallis, having leveled its ramparts, returned to Philiulelphia, and 
Greene rejoined Washington, but nut till Lafayette, who attended thftl I 
expedition as a volunteer, had secured the applause of Congress by rout* * , 
ing a party of Hessians. For all the seeming success, many ufflcera in 
the British camp expressed the opinion that the States could not be sub- 
jugated, and should bo suftered to go free. — Bancroft, " History of [7. iK.," 
vol. vi. 

i"One Hundredth Anniversary of Paoli Massacre," by J. Smith 
Futhey, Esq. 



to relieve Burgoyue, who was theu beseeching for 
reiutbrcements to save him from disaster. 

After a succession of feints by Howe, indicating his 
eager desire for more substantial conquests^ he moved 
from the neighborhood of these hills, crossing the 
Schuylkill at Fatland Ford on the 22d day of Septem- 
ber, and from necessity, rather than choice, occupied 

while encamped upon the Perkiomen hills; from 
them, on the night of October 3d, the advance was 
made, and after it was fought and lost, on the day 

enough to take their arms and form for action. They retreated of ne- 
cessity before the greatly superior furce of the whole right wing of our 

"But the 'leaving of their baggage' authorizes the inference that 
Philadelphia on the 24th of the same month. Ligllt i they had no knowledge of the march of the American army until the 

brigades of Continental troops 
interposed between the enemy 
and the Delaware, and watched 
his movement in the direction 
of Philadelphia by day and 
night, while the main army un- 
der Washington took position 
on the hills of Perkiomen and 
Skippack. At this place rein- 
forcements reached him, and 
his army, decimated by the un- 
toward events of the campaign, 
was reported eight thousand 
Continental troops and three 
thousand militia present and 
eftective for duty. With this 
force at command he deter- 
mined upon further operations 
against the enemy, whose situ- 
ation, as disclosed to him by 
information deemed reliable, 
invited rather than repelled 

The plan of the battle of 
Oermautown' was then formed 

iThe following letter, written by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel T. Pickering, who was 
serving as adjutant-general on the staff of 
Geiieriil Washington at the battle of Ger- 
niantowu, dated Salem, Mass., August 23, 
18'26, will be read with interest in con- 
nectiun with the events of a day which 
opened so auspiciously for American amis, 
and closed in gK»om and disaster : 

^^ Sir : Nearly forty-nine yeai-a have 
elapsed since tlie battle of Germantown. 
Of course, yon may well suf>i>ose tluit many 
facts respecting it are beyund my power 
of recollection, while a few are indelibly 
impressed on my memory. General Wash- 
ington, in his letter to Congress of Octo- 
ber oth, the day after the battle, tjiays tliat 
* the anny marched about 7 o'clock on 
the evening of the 3rd, and that General 
Sulliviin'3 advam-ed party attacked the 
enemy's picket at Mount Air>', or Mr. Al- 
len's house, alKjut sunrise the next morning, which presently gave way. 
His main body, cunsisting of the right wing, following soon, engaged the 
light infantry and other troops encamped near the picket, which they 
forced from the ground. Leaving their baggage, they retreated a con- 
siderable distance, having previously thrown a party into Mr. Chew's 

"The tenn here applied to the advanced corps of the enemy, that 
*they were forced from the ground," shows that they were in arms, and 
resisted their assailants, and that the previuus bnish with the piiket, a 
guard always pusted in advance on purpose to give notice ot the enemy's 
appna-li, roused 'the light infantry and other troops,' who had time 

firing in the engs^ement with the picket guard gave the alarm. If, 
then, these advance corps of the enemy were not, in the strict sense of the 
word, surprised^ — that is, * caught napping," unprepared for action, — much 
less could the main body, posted in the centre of Germantown, two miles 
farther off, have been surprised. The distance gave them ample time to 
prepare for action in any manner which the attack of their enemy 
should require. 

"You ask 'at what distance from Chew's house the attack com- 
menced?" At tliat time I was a stranger to that part of the country. 
From my subsequent acquaintance with it, during my reeideni-e in Penn- 
sylvania, I should estimate the distance from Mount Aii-j- to Philadelphia 



following (October 4th), to the same hills the army 

returned, defeated, it is true, with considerable loss in 
killed, wounded and captured, but with its organiza- 
tion unimpaired and its devotion to the cause still 

to be eight miles, Chew's house seven miles, and the centre ot German- 
town six miles. And these, I think, are the distances as I have occasion- 
ally heard them mentioned. ' 

*'Yo» iisk 'how long a pause was made at Chew's house, and what 
space of time probably intervened between the beginning of the action 
and the general engageinent at the head of the village?' The pause at 
Chew's house, in the manner I shall presently mention, probably delayed 
the advance of the i-ear division of our army into action for half an hour. 
Taking the attack on the picket at Mount Airy as the beginning of the 
action, it was probably nearly half an hour before it became general as 
to the whole of Sullivan's column, aud this general engagement must 
have commenced after he had passed Chew's house, for I saw not one 
dead man until I had piissed it, and then but one, lying in the road 
where I fell in with General Sullivan. I presuiue that following close 
upon the heels of the British battalion of light infantry and the Fortieth 
Regiment, which were retiring before him, Sullivan, with his column, 
had passed Chew's house without annoyance from it, for it must have 
taken Colonel Musgrave, who entered it with sis companies of the 
Fortieth Regiment, some time to barricade and secure the doors and 
vrinduws of the lower story, before ht- would he ready to fire from the 
chamber windows- and it was from them that the firing I saw proceeded. 

**In the march of the army. General Washington, following Sullivan's 
column, kept in the road leading to and through Germantown to 
Philadelphia. When he had entered the northern part of the village, 
we heard in advance of us (I was liding by the Generars side) a very 
heavy fire of musketry. General Sullivan's divisions, it was evident, 
were wanuly engaged with the enemy, but neither were in sight. This 
fire was brisk and heavy, and General Washington s;iid to me, 'lam 
afraid General Sulhvan is throwing away his ammunition ; ride forward 
and tfll him to reserve it.' I do not know what was the precise idea 
■which at that moment struck the mind of the general. I can only 
conjecture that he wiis apprehensive that Sullivan, after meeting the 
enemy in the front, kept up his brisk and incessant fire, when the 
haziness of the air and its increased obscurity, from the burning of so 
much powder, prevented his troops having such a distinct view of the 
enemy as would render their fire efficient. Be that as it may, the 
instant I received the general's ordei-s I rode forward, and in the road, 
three or four hundred yards beyond Chew's house, met Sullivan, and 
delivered to him the general's ordere. 

" At this time I had never heard of Chew's house, and had no idea 
that an enemy was in my rear. The firet notice I received of it was from 
the whi/.zing of the musket-balls across the road, before, behind and 
above mo as I was returning, after delivering the orders to Sullivan. In- 
stantly turning my eyes to the right, I saw the blaze of the muskets, 
whose sliots were still aimed at me from the windows of a large stone 
house, standing back about a hundred yards from the road. This was 
Chew's house. Passing on, I came to some of our artillery who were 
tiring very obliquely on the front of the house. I remarked to them that 
in that position their fire would be unavailing, and that the only chance 
of their shot making any impression on the house would be moving down 
and firing on its front. Then immediately passing on, I rejoined General 
Washington, who, with General Knox and other ofticers, was in front of 
a stone liuuse {nearly all the houses in Germantown were of stone), next 
northward of the open fields on which Chew's house stood. I found 
they were discussing, in Washington's presence, this question, — Whether 
the whole of our troops then behind should immediately advance, regard- 
less of the enemy in Chow's house, or fii-st summon them to surrender? 
General Knox strenuously urged the sending of a summons. Among 
other things, he said, *It would be unmilitary to leave a castle in the 
rear.' I answered, ' Doubtless that is a correct general maxim ; hut it 
does not api)ly in this case. We know the extent of this castle (Chew's 
house), aud to guard iigainst the danger of theenemy's sallying and fall- 
ing on the rear of our troops, a small regiment may he posted here to 
watch them ; and if they sally such a regiment will hike them. But,' I 
added, * to snmmoti them to sun-ender would be useless. We are now in 
the midst of the battle, and its issues are unknown. In this state of un- 
certainty, and so well secin*ed as the enemy find themselves, they will 
not regard a summons. Thetj will fire at yonrfing." 

However, a fiag Wiis .sent with a summons. Lieutenant Sinitli, of 

Mr. Bancroft, in writing of this battle, says :^ " In the 

official report of this engagenaent the commander-in- 
chief stated with exactness the tardy arrival of Greene," 
and adds, "Had the forces trusted to that officer 
and the militia under Armstrong acted as efficiently 
as the troops with Washington, the morning might 
have been fatal to Howe's army. The renewal of the 
attack so soon after the defeat at the Brandywine, and 
its partial success, inspirited Congress and the army. 

Virginia, my assistant in the office of adjutant-general, volunteered his. 
service to carry it. As he was advancing, a shot from the house gave- 
him a wound of which he died. Whatever delay in the advance of the 
division in our rear was occasioned by the pause at Chew's liouse, I am 
satisfied that Sullivan's column did not halt there at all, as mentioned by 
Judge Johnson. The column was certainly not in sight when the gen- 
eral sent me with the orders already noticed, and it is alike certiiin that 
it was then beyond Chew's house. Nor were the enemy forming under 
cover of the house, or I would have seen them. When the orders were- 
sent to our troops in the rear to lulvance I do not know, but it must 
have been subsequent to the sending of the flag, and, I should think,, 
twenty minutes, at least, after it was found that an enemy was in the- 
house. The general did not pass it at all. I had remained near him 
until our troops were retreating, when I roile off to the right to endeavor 
to stop and rally those I met r.-tiring in companies and squads ; but it 
was impracticable. Their ammunition, I sui»pose, had generally been, 

"In the foregoing letter from Geneml Washington to Congress, he- 
says, 'The attack from our left column, under General Greene, begaa 
about three-quarters of an hour after that from our right.' Yuu iisk the- 
cause of this. Tlie answer is obvious. The right column, under General 
Sullivan, which Wiishington accompanied, nuirched on the direct road to- 
Germantown ; Greene, with his column, w;is obliged to make a circuit to- 
the left to gain the road which IbiI to his point of attack. The columns 
thus entirely separated, and at a distance from each other, no calculations- 
of their coumianders couhl have insured their arriving at the same time- 
at their respective points of attjick. 

"Judge Johnson, in his 'Life of Greene,' hits represented as 'almost 
ludicrous' the 'scene' exhibited by some writers of the discussion near 
Chew's house in the presence of General Washington, in which it is- 
hinted that opinions were 'obtruded, and that even field offlcere may- 
have expressed their opinions ; but,' he adds, ' General Washington wa 
listening to the counsels of his own mind and of his gem-ral officers.' 
I know, however, that he did listen to the discussion, and Lee (Light- 
Horse Harry) commanded a troop of hoi-se that day on duty near the- 
General's person. This accounts for his determination to send the sum- 
mons. ' Knox,' he says, ' being always high in the general's confidence 
his opinion prevailed.' Further, I must remark, that the general ofliccrs 
whom the judge supjioses to have been present and advising the com- 
mander in-chief, were in their proper places with their divisions and 
brigades. Knox alone, of the general officers, was present. Command- 
ing in the artillery department, and the field pieces being distributed 
among the brigades of tlie army, he Wiis always at liberty in time of 
action to attend the commander-in-chief. 

" Some two or three years since I wrote to Judge Johnson, informing^ 
him of his mistakes in the matter noticed in this paragraph. Otiiers of 
his details of this battle, which arc inconsistent with the stivtements I 
have here given to you, must be incorrect. The truth is that General 
Washington, not sjinguine in his own opinion, and his diffidence beings 
increased, probably, by a feeling sense of high responsibility as comman- 
der-in-chief, was ever disposed, when occasions occurred, to consult those- 
officers who were near him in whose discernment anil fidelity he placed 
a confidence, and certainly his decisions were often influenced by their 
opinions. This is within my knowledge. 

" I am, etc., 


The retreat of W'ashington from Germantown Wiis accomplished with- 
out the loss of material. Ho retired to Skippack Creek, placed his 
wounded and disabled soldiers in hospitals wherever he could establisli 
them, generally using the churches aud other public buildings between 
the Perkiomen and Keathng for that purpose. 

' Vol. vi.. p. 19. 

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In Europe it convinced Frederick of Prussia and tlie 
Cabinet of France that the independence of xVraerica 
was assured." 

Information of the success of General Gates in the 
Northern Department reached the commander-in- 
chief on tlie 18th of October, — one day after the sur- 
render. The event was promptly made known to the 
army, and received by soldiers and citizens with man- 
ifestations of joy. Immediately the Continental 
troops under General Glover and Morgan's corps of 
riflemen were recalled from the Department of the 
Xorth. Delay followed, with evident disinclination 
upon the part of General Gates to promptly obey the 
order of the commander-in-chief, and not until 
Colonel Hamilton was dispatched in person to renew 
the demand was the summons obeyed. 

Pending the movement of reinforcements from the 
North, the puolic mind, having recovered from the 
first effects of the reverses at Brandywine, Paoli and 
Germantown, perhaps unduly elated liy the surrender 
of Burgoyne and its sequences, clamored for further 
aggressive movements against Howe. Partly in def- 
erence to tliis feeling, and to quiet the unfriendly 
criticism inspired by the disingenuous spirit subse- 
quently and more notoriously connected with the 
developments of the Conway cabal, Washington moved 
his army to the east, taking a strong position at White- 
marsh, from which he was able to watch the move- 
ments of the enemy, harass his outposts, cut of!' his 
source of supjjlies, give {protection to the agricultural 
people and confidence to the public mind. Here, 
after an inert'ectual attempt' on the part of the enemy 

1 When treneral Howe took formal possession of Philadelphia, in the 

autumn of 1777, he established his headquarters in Second Street, fourth 
door below Spruce, in a liouse formerly occupied bj' Uenei-al Cadwalladcr. 
Directly opposite resided William and Lydia Dari'acli, members of the 
Society ot Ki'iends. A superior otticer of the British army, believed to 
be the adjutant-general (Major Andre), fixed upon one of tiieir cham- 
bers, a back room, for private conference, and two oflficei-s frequently met 
there, with fire and candles, in close consultation. About the 2d of 
December the at^jutant-genei-al told Lydia that they woubl be in the 
room at 7 o'clock and remain late, and that they wished the family to re- 
tire early to bed, adding tliat when they were going away they would 
call her to let them out and extinguish their fire and candles. She ac- 
cordingly sent all her family to bed ; but jus the officer had been so par- 
ticular her curiosity was excited. She took off her shoes, put her ear to 
the keyhole of the conclave, and overheard an order read for all the British 
troops to march out late on the evening of the 4th and attack General 
Washington, then encamped at Whiteniai-sh. On hearing this she return- 
ed to her chamber and laid down. Soon after, the officer knocked at her 
door, but she rose only at the third summons, having feigned herself asleep. 
Her mind was so agitated tliat she could neither eat nor sleep, supposing it 
in her power to Have the lives of thousands of her fellow-countrymen, but 
not knowing how she was to convey the information to General Washing- 
ton, not daring to confide it to her husband. The time, llowever, was short. 
She quickly determined to make her way as siion as possible to the Ameri- 
can outposts, where she had a son who was an officer in the .\merican 
army. She informed her family that as she was in want of rtour, she would 
go to Frankford for it. Her husband insisted she should take her servant 
maid with her, but to his surprise she positively refused. She got access 
to General Howe and solicited what he readily granted,— a pass through the 
British lines. Beyond the lines she wjis met by an American officer, 
Lieutenant-Col. Craig, of the Light Horse, M-hoknew her. To him she dis- 
closed her secret, after having obtained from him asolemn promise never 
to betray her individnally, as her life might be at stake with the British. 
He conducted her to a house near at hand, directed something for her to 

to dislodge him, on the 5th and 6th of December, the 
campaign closed, Howe retiring within his lines of 
defense, reaching from the Delaware to the Schuylkill 
River. The war-worn and jaded condition of the 
patriot troops, the want of supplies, the hopelessness 
of further operations to repossess Philadelphia, and 
the approach of winter, all admonished the commander 
to seek shelter and repose for his army. 

The proposition to retire the army for the winter 
gave rise to well-marked differences of opinion. 
Within army circles the only question was that of 
location. Whether it should fortify and remain where 
it was, or retire to the Perkiomen hills, or move south 
and occupy the vicinity of Wilmington, was canvassed 
by leading ollicers in the army, whose opinions were 
sought by the commander-in-chief In political cir- 
cles, and among a large and influential class of patri- 
otic citizens of Pennsylvania, a different view pre- 
vailed. In their opinion, the exigency of the public 
service demanded a continuation of active operations 
upon the part of this army. Their hostility to the 
proposed cantonment of- troops culminated in a re- 
monstrance prepared by the General Assembly, and by 
that body presented to Congress, then in session at 
York. We recite the remonstrance here in order to 
illustrate the wisdom and force of character of the 
great and good man who, in serving the higher inter- 
ests of his country, disregarded the remonstrance of 
those whose sensibilities were shocked by the calami- 
ties of war, and who, for a temporary respite from its 
ravages, would have sacrificed the army of hope by 
denying it that well-earned repose absolutely neces- 
sary at that season and period to preserve its existence. 


*'At a (■(Uifeivnce with the Supreme Kxecutive Council and General 
Assembly of the State, held in Ihe Assembly Boom, Uesolvcd, that a re- 
monstrance be immediately drawn up anil forwarded to Congress against 
the projiosed cantonment of the army of the I'tiited States under com- 
mand of His Excelleficy, General Washington, and that the following 
reasons be nrgeii.