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Vol.4 JANUARY, 1909 No. 1 




Rise of the United Empire Loyalists. By The Viscount de 

Fronsac 1 

A History of Slavery. By Mrs. C. F. McLean . . .21 
Origin of the Book of Mormon. III. By Brigham H 
Roberts ........ 

Two Lincoln Portraits 

The Literature of Colonial Virginia. I. By Carl Holliday ¥ 46 
Book of Bruce. Chapter IV. Collateral Families of Scot- 
land. By Lyman Horace Weeks . . . .72 
A Letter of Lord Napier. Contributed by Duane Mowry . 93 
Origin and Antiquity of Heraldry. Illustrated. By Henry 

Whittemore 94 


The American Historical Magazine is issued on the first 
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Entered as second class matter February 13, 1906, at the 
Post Office at New York under the Act of Congress of March 
3, 1879. 

The Americana Society, 
154 East Twenty-Third Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

Copyright, 1909, by 
The Americana Society 

All rights reserved. 


American Historical Magazine 

VOL. 4 JANUARY, 1909 NO. I 



[Revised— with additions— from the original edition, espec- 
ially for the American Historical Magazine.] 

THE United Empire loyalists of the British Colonies 
in North America of all branches of the Aryan race: 
—French, English, Dutch, German,— whose posteri- 
ty had settled in America are those who decided that 
as much of the empire in America as they were able to preserve 
in 1783 should be saved from republican revolution and demo- 
cratic destruction. In the cases of many it was not affection 
for the British name and connection, since many were of dif- 
erent nationalities, but it was attachment to a constitutional 
and monarchial umpireship of affairs. In fact, many others, of 
the foremost royalists, were opposed in the principle to the 
House of Hanover on the British throne, considering its right 
as resting on parliamentary usurpation rather than on the con- 
stitution. But they advanced nevertheless to sustain the prin- 
ciple of monarchy which it represented in opposition to the lev- 
eling, unpatriotic and unconstitutional democracy to which It 
was opposed. 

The United Empire Loyalist position then is a dual one ; first 
as a maintenance of the royalty and the classes represented in 
the ancient charters of the Anglo-American colonies, secondly 
as a defiance of parliamentary interference from Britain in the 
functions of the crown in the colonies— a recognized protest 
that no ministers, committee or parliament in England shall 
stand between the king and royal and constitutional govern- 
ment in the colonies. 



But to understand this doctrine which is so vital to the his- 
tory of Canada— on the defence of which rests the integrity of 
its institutions and the treaties guaranteeing them, it is neces- 
sary to go to the very beginning, to the causes of the founda- 
tion of the Anglo-American colonies and to the elements which 
enter therein, on which these institutions in Canada are based 
and defended, against the doctrine which has overthrown them 
in what are now the United States of North America. 


It was in the very beginning of these troublous times of the 
Stuart reigns that kingdoms were founded beyond the sea. In 
1606 King James I. granted a charter to two companies to 
extend his empire in America, the Company of London, whose 
territory extended from Old Point Comfort 200 miles north- 
ward and 200 miles southward, and the Company of Plymouth 
whose grant commenced 100 miles further north than the for- 
mer company's. 

The motive which prompted the first settler to go from Eng- 
land to Virginia, as the southern division was called, was for 
commercial self-interest; the finding of gold and the acquiring 
of estates. But the motive of the king in extending his empire 
beyond seas was to create regal states, — states whose autono- 
mies might resemble in every feature the autonomy of the 
parent state as a mirror reflects an image. 

This idea of the Stuarts was not original. Had it been origi- 
nal it would have been unnatural, on a false, unconstitutional 
basis. The Bourbons had practised it before in Canada. This 
idea of the Stuarts and Bourbons was borrowed from the 
feudal system and the feudal system had been derived from the 
Frankish allotment of responsibility to semi-independent 
princes over tracks of conquered domain, wherein each prince 
was sovereign within his allotment, being responsible only to 
the supreme majesty, the king or emperor at the head of all 
the states, which these allotments of domain were forming. In 
a government of this sort, if the king or emperor might be 
coerced by the democracy of his own particular state— as that 


which had murdered King Charles I. — the king or emperor 
could summon the princes of these inferior states, who, true to 
their responsibility, holding fealty to the king, and not to the 
parliament, or democracy, were bound to rally their own proper 
warriors and crush the enemies of the empire, at the mandate 
of theip suzerain. This faith, this fealty, this knightly obliga- 
tion, could be expected only of a knightly race— it would fail 
in the hands of such a civilization as that which commercialism 
causes to flourish— a civilization without a class of honor. It 
was this class of honor, therefore; derived in inspiration from 
that Prankish chivalry— " formed by the hand of God"— that 
each sub-chieftain, or prince, or council of feudatories who held 
a charter from the Stuart king to found colonies beyond seas, 
hastened to develop and put in command in each their colonies 
-to the end that their autonomies might be as royal and sov- 
ereign as that of the parent state and subservient only to the 
sovereign thereof. 

Beginning with this method all the charters granted by the 
Stuarts for the establishment of colonies in America were in 
the sense of feudal holdings and of a royal character. This 
made them so different from the modifications which they re- 
ceived under the succeeding House of Hanover, when these 
charters became subservient to parliamentary jurisdiction and 
were modelled after the commissions of joint-stock companies 
for colonial management and exploitation. LTnder the Stuarts 
the system employed rendered it impossible for parliament 
to intermeddle in colonial affairs. The right of domain in the 
colony was vested by the crown in a person, or a company t,o 
rule according to the terms of the grant from the crown which 
gave him or them the control of that domain, with power to 
choose not only the officers and to make subinfeudations, but to 
name their successors, unless the grant was declared heredi- 
tary—like the principality of Maryland in the family of Lord 

Holding from the king, as an ancient feudal vassal of the age 
of chivalry, the colonies as fiefs were made to respond, not to 
parliament which could not enter a fief, but to the king's great 
vassals, the colonial proprietors, or council of proprietors. In 


their own name, with sovereign power absolute over their 
colonial fiefs, they granted lands and dignities to be held solely 
of themselves. Those receiving grants and dignities in the 
colonies were responsible to their feudal superior, the proprie- 
tor, or council of proprietors, and he or they to the king. In 
this manner the colonies were made royal even when England 
itself was becoming parliamentarian and republican. In this 
manner, from the subinfeudations granted by the proprietor, 
prince, or council of proprietors in the colonies to antrustians 
—to officers, gentlemen and others on whose honor the pro- 
prietor might rely for support, military and administrative, a 
class of honor was being built up, a colonial aristocracy having 
many of the features of the ancient chivalry after whose feudal 
pattern and nature of fealty it was modeled. 

That this was the best system may be understood by reason 
and history proves it by facts. It built up faith and honesty 
in the entire population wherever it was introduced; it devel- 
oped a local centre of administration, free from parliamentary 
interference and in harmony with the condition requisite for 
local prosperity. During that period, after the first hardships 
of colonization had been conquered, the greatest happiness and 
contentment prevailed in the colonies, and the best of those 
ancient colonial residences, preserved to modern times, show 
a their design the aspiration and character of the leading fam- 
ilies, whose colonial importance under the Stuarts is the proud- 
est boast of their descendants of the present day 

Tn adopting this system the Stuarts were acting along con- 
stitutional lines. In regard to the nature of the population, the 
tul. meaning of the common law of England was put in active 
torce This common law recognizes the three classes into 
which every people is divided: I, the nobility; II, the profes- 
sional class, and III the burgesses. The charter of every 
Stuart colony made a provision for the just representation of 
each. Tll some colonies this representation was made more def- 
inite than in others, but in all there was a provision for it 

he charter granted to Virginia in 1606 introduced the land 

settlement period, on account of the lack of an exalted motive 


on the part of the first adventurers going into the country, the 
only idea in their minds was, as herebefore stated, the acqui- 
sition of wealth, and finally, estate. The English law was es- 
tablished. According to English law, not only a city but a divi- 
sion of the country must be erected into a "borough" before it 
might be represented in the legislature. But no baronial or 
manorial grant was made in Virginia from the earliest date 
down to the extinction of crown authority beneath the demo- 
cratic American revolution. A great many " broken' ' gentle- 
men had come over even with the first colonists, and they were 
not of a good quality of their own class. There were a few 
who thought of restoring their family station "in the pomp of 
heraldry" and the pride of statecraft, and of erecting manours 
and baronies in the new world in the romantic spirit of old 
Europe. But the records show that these "decayed gentle- 
men" were in general the least valuable of all the colonists to 
Virginia. In fact, had it not been for the indominatable cour- 
age and genius of a soldier among them, Captain John Smith, 
the early colonists would have perished from their own dissipa- 
tion and ignorance and lack of cohesive energy. Smith organ- 
ized the necessary labors to be performed and compelled their 
performance by his authority as chief of the colony, he having 
been appointed to that position by the London Council in con- 
trol of the colony. This council consisting of thirteen of the 
British nobility held the colony as a direct feudatory of the 
crown, who were to administer the colony according to the 
provisions of the charter. This charter was the constitution of 
Virginia and as such was an abstract of the common law of 
England. In addition this abstract provided that: 

I. The christian religion, Church of England, shall be main- 
tained and the clergy paid from certain revenues of the colony. 

II. Lands are to descend as in England. The entailment of 
estates among the aristocracy was encouraged as a measure 
necessary for local prosperity and for the independence and 
well-being of that aristocracy. 

The officers of a colony were to consist of a governor ap- 
pointed by the great feudatories— the London Council,— assist- 
ed by councellors chosen in the colony from among the great 


land owners. Later there was added a house of burgesses 
elected by the remaining inhabitants, whose office, as every 
representative office is, was to present their grievances to be 
remedied to the governor and council, and to vote the money 
necessary to carry on the government of the colony. Apart 
from the taxation and assessment subject to the house of bur- 
gesses, the governor and council — in the name of the great 
feudatories of the colony (London Council)— administered the 
feudal lands, known as "crown lands." 

The early gentlemen colonists of Virginia, who settled 
Jamestown on the James River in 1607, had their connection 
broken with their families in Britain, several leaving England 
to escape the consequences of their debts. On this account they 
were unable to obtain wives of their own class, even after they 
had gained appropriate estates in the colony. They knew no 
other class than their own in Britain. It became necessary for 
their domestic happiness to have wives of some kind, however, 
and they employed an agent in London, who for the sake of 
40 pounds of tobacco for each respectable female whom he 
could induce to go to Virginia and marry one of the planters, 
agreed to send over the article required for their domesticity. 
History does not state whether this article was a little dear, 
but it was certainly respectable, or the bargain would have 
been declared "off." 

From the time of the settlement of Jamestown in 1607 to 
1649 affairs in Britain were running more and more in a demo- 
cratic channel. The people described in Cromwell's address to 
parliament, the leaders of this democracy, who had raised the 
indignation of Cromwell himself, had murdered the king, 
Charles L, and had usurped the royal power. All the counsel- 
lors and feudatories of the king had been killed in battle, or had 
fled the kingdom and some of those grand old cavaliers came to 
Virginia at this time, as fugitives, burning with indignation 
against the unprincipled and presumptuous democracy, whom 
they had left behind in Britain in the house of empire. 

"For there was dust of vulgar feet 

On that polluted floor; 

And perjured traitors filled the seat 

Where good men sat before." 


It was at this time that the old feudal fealty showed itself in 
Virginia, being given an opportunity of expression in favor of 
the crown of which Virginia was a fief. It was at this time 
that Sir William Berkeley was governor of Virginia, one of 
those few knightly souls of old Europe who came to America 
and whose renown is worthy to live forever in the pages of 
chivalry. ' ' He belonged to an ancient English family ; believed 
in monarchy as a devotee believes in his saint, and brought to 
the little capital at Jamestown all the graces, amenities and 
well-bred ways which at that time were articles of faith with 
the cavaliers. He was certainly a cavalier of cavaliers, taking 
that word to signify an adherent of monarchy and the estab- 
lished church. For these, this smiling gentleman was going to 
fight like a tiger or a ruffian. The glove was of velvet but under 
it was the iron hand which would fall inexorably alike on the 
New England Puritans and the followers of Bacon." 1 

And he was right in his severity, for force only can keep 
fraud at bay! 

To write the life of Berkeley could be done better in verse 
than in prose. He was a hero— a "Bokeby"— the only hero in 
all the history of^he thirteen English colonies of North Amer- 
ica whose personality is surrounded by the halo of romance. 
His mind was exalted, keen and active. He wrote a ' ' Discourse 
and View of Virginia" and his drama "The Lost Lady" was 
acted in London and made an impression for its merit and 
character on Pepys. He was an able administrator and looked 
after the prosperity of the colony in material things. He set 
an example to planters in the manner in which he cultivated his 
estate of Greenspring, ten miles from Jamestown, where he 
raised 1,500 apple trees, besides apricots, peaches, pears, 
quinces and "niellicottons." The colony under his administra- 
tion advanced to a population of 40,000. In his hospitality he 
was unbounded. The noble generosity of his soul caused him 
to stand with knightly valor by those who had pledged them- 
selves in the same cause, through the calamities of misfortune 
and the dangers of civil strife. "When afterwards, in the 
stormy times, the poor cavaliers flocked to Virginia to find a 

i. Cook's "History of Virginia," p. 182. 


place of refuge, he entertained them in a regal fashion at 
Greenspring. ' ' 2 

It was at this time in 1649 that they brought the news with 
them- the cavalier exiles— that the monarchy was wrecked, 
democracy triumphant and the king murdered. It was at this 
time that Sir William Berkeley felt the occasion strong within 
him and did that act which made the memory of the whole col- 
ony of Virginia great, which gave it a reputation from his hero- 
ism and fealty that no other colony has ever achieved and 
which she would never had achieved without that gallant and 
immortal cavalier. He determined in the line of his duty, his 
fealty of knight to king, to rally his little power to the cause of 
the fallen monarchy and to cast the armed gauntlet of defiance 
at the mighty commonwealth of England and all her dependen- 
cies. It was his duty; and not to reason for the expediency of 
it, or to neglect it for the number and strength of the enemy. 

According to a manuscript by a Puritan regicide 3 it is related 
that he 

"laid about him very busily and very loudly all last 
summer both in actions and in speeches. * * * * He got 
the militia of the country to be of his party and nothing talked 
on but burning, hanging, plundering, etc., or anything rather 
than yield to such bloody tyrants," (as the parliament of Eng- 
land). What by threatening some and flattering others, the 
assistance of 500 Indians promised him * * * * he had 
so far prevailed and was of late so far seconded by those un- 
happy gentlemen that help to ruin themselves and' their king 
that there was indeed little else spoken of, or re- 
solved on but ruin for this poor wicked country." 

These "unhappy gentlemen" spoken of, who were brought 
to aid Sir William, were no doubt the few cavaliers who did 
come to Virginia. These he invited to be members of his mil- 
itary council, and their names are more worthy of preservation 
than any in the ancient history of colonial Virginia. Then the 
old hero, Sir William Berkeley, thought it time to break away 
from all connection with such a gang of cut-throats as parlia- 

2. Cook's "History of Virginia," p. 183. 

3- In the British Museum Library, E. 665-3, pages 1604-7, on the "Surrender 
of the Colony of Virginia." 


ment and proclaim an independent monarchy in the American 
colonies. On Oct. 10, 1649, he forced the house of burgesses to 
sign his proclamation. 4 

Te following is the celebrated proclamation of an independ- 
ent kingdom in the colonies under Charles II., against the un- 
constitutional parliamentary government ruling m England : 

"Act I. Whereas divers out of ignorance, others out of mal- 
ice, schism and faction, in pursuance of some design of innova- 
tion, may be presumed to prepare men's minds and inclinations 
to entertain a good liking of their contrivement, by casting 
blemishment of dishonor on the late most excellent and now 
undoubtedly sainted king, and to those close ends vindicating 
and attesting the late proceedings against the late blessed king 
(though by so much they may seem to have color of law and 
form of justice, they may be truly said to have the more and 
greater height of impudence) ; and on this foundation of as- 
serting the clearness and legality of the said unparalleled trea- 
sons, perpetuated on the said king, do build hopes and infer- 
ences to the high dishonor of the regal state and in truth to the 
utter disinheritance of His Most Sacred Majesty that now is, 
and the divesting of him of these rights which the law of Na- 
ture and Nations and the known laws of the Kingdom of Eng- 
land have adjudged inherent to his royal line and the law of 
God, himself (if sacred writ may be so styled of which this age 
doth loudly call in question) hath consecrated unto him. And, 
as arguments easily and naturally deduced from the aforesaid 
cursed and destructive principles, with endeavor they press 
and persuade the powers of the commission to be void and null, 
and all magistracy and offices thereon depending to have lost 
their vigor and efficacy, by such means assuredly expecting ad- 
vantages for the accomplishment of their lawless and tyrane- 
ous intentions. Be it therefore declared and enacted by the 
governor, council and burgesses of this Grand Assembly and 
the authority of the same, that what person soever, whether 
stranger or inhabitant of this colony, after the date of this act, 
by reasoning, discourse, or argument, shall go about to defend 
and maintain the late traitorous proceedings against the afore- 
said King of most happy memory, under any notion of law or 
justice, such person, using reasoning, discourse or argument, 
or uttering any words or speeches to such purpose, and being- 
proven by competent witnesses, shall be adjudged an access- 

4. This is given in full in that very rare book "Henning's Statutes at Large 
of the Colony of Virginia." Vol. I, pp. 358-61. 



ory, post mortem to the death of the aforesaid King and shall 
be' proceeded against for the same according to the known laws 
of England ; or, whoever shall go about by irreverent and scan- 
dalous language to blast the memory and honor of the late most 
pious King, shall on conviction suffer such censure and punish- 
ment as shall be thought fit by the governor and council. And 
be it further enacted, that what person soever shall by words 
or speeches endeavor to insinuate any doubt, scruple or ques- 
tion of or concerning the undoubted and inherent right of His 
Majesty that now is, to the colony of Virginia and these other, 
His Majesty's dominions and countries, as King and supreme 
Governor, such words and speeches shall be adjudged high 

''And it is also enacted, that what person soever, by false 
reports and malicious rumors shall spread abroad among the 
people anything to change of government, or to the lessening 
of the power and authority of the governor, or government, 
either in civil or ecclesiastical causes (which this Assembly 
hath and doth declare to be full and plenary to all intents and 
purposes), such persons, not only the authors of such reports 
and rumors but the reporters and divulgers thereof (unless it 
be done by way of legal information before a magistrate) shall 
be adjudged equally guilty, and shall suffer such punishment 
even to severity, as shall be thought fit, according to the nature 
and quality of the offence." 

The names of the grand assembly that proclaimed King 
Charles IT. in Virginia were: — Sir William Berkeley, Govern- 
or. For James County, Walter Chiles, Thomas Swann, Will- 
iam Barrett, George Reade, William Whittaeker, George Duns- 
ton. For Henrico County, William Hatcher. For Charles 
City, Colonel Edward Hill and Charles Sparrow. For War- 
wick County, Colonel Thomas Harwood and John Walker. For 
Isle of White County, George Handy and Robert Pitt. For 
Nansmond County, Colonel George Carter and Toby Smith. 
For Elizabeth City, Captain William Worlick and Joseph Bob- 
bins. For Lower Norfolk, Barth Hoskins and Thomas Lam- 
bert. For York County, Colonel Ralph Wormley and Ralph 
Burnham. For Northumberland County, Colonel Francis Poy- 
thers and Joseph Trussell. 

"No person elsewhere on the North American Continent," 
says Cook's "History of Virginia," "moved to support the 


King." And Berkeley was alone, for he had to give energy 
to the smaller souls in Virginia and to guard against the 
treachery and conspiracy of a body of "Puritan fanatics" who 
had settled in the colony. 

The Puritan democracy in England began to act. In 1650 
a law of parliament prohibited trade with Virginia and the 
West Indies and a fleet of ships were sent to suppress Sir Will- 
iam Berkeley and his King's adherents. Two war-ships 
reached Virginia in March, 1652, and one of them ascended 
the James River and the commander, in the name of the com- 
monwealth of England, demanded surrender of the colony. But 
Berkeley never thought of surrender. He summoned his 
friends, had cannon placed on the high places and distributed 
muskets to the inhabitants. But the ship's Puritan captain 
recognizing those of the same sort as himself among some of 
the house of burgesses, had a private interview with them, in 
which bribes were distributed, and the house of burgesses 
voted to surrender the colony over the head of Berkeley. The 
parliamentary commissioners were Bennett, Clayborne and 
Curtis. The only requirements made was an oath of allegiance 
to the commonwealth of England, and those who refused to 
take it and abandon "kingcraft" were to be allowed a year in 
which to sell their property and leave the country. 

The haughty cavalier Berkeley turned his back on the up- 
start carls of the Virginia democracy that surged into power in 
the colony with Puritanism. He went to his private estate, and 
in company with a few brother cavaliers not only refused to 
take the oath, but was too strong to be driven out. One of his 
followers boasted that, though "they had been reduced -by the 
power of the Usurper they had never come under his obedi- 
ence." One of the first acts of the Virginian democracy under 
Governor Bennett in 1652 was to curtail representation of the 
cavaliers and abolish the name of the king as the head of state. 
But Virginia was too far away for the English democracy itself 
to meddle with much and the Virginia democrats were too sus- 
picious of each others integrity to accomplish all the leveling 
they desired. During this time, there was nothing but plunder- 
ing and persecuting carried on by the triumphant democracy 



of the Virginia colony against neighboring Catholic proprie- 
tors and lords of the Maryland Manours, who had no protec- 
tion from any source under the "righteous" government of the 
Puritan usurpation, whose pretext had been for "freedom of 
conscience and the rights of men,"— a verbal sheep's garment 
for a voracious wolf. 

But all these troubles ended at once, when in 1660 the news 
came across the water that the Scottish army of General 
Monck, tired of Puritan hypocrisy, corruption and persecution, 
had marched into London, had overthrown the English repub- 
lic and had proclaimed Charles II. as King. 

The great Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, had died 
in 1658. He had stayed the persecution made by the Puritan 
democracy in England and muzzled the democracy itself even 
as Napoleon was to rout the French democracy, — both leaders 
using the only argument which democracy respects, the sword. 
Cromwell had protected the cavaliers who were in hiding in 
different parts of the realm, had stopped the burning of 
witches, and the persecution of the Jews and had maintained 
the integrity of the three estates. Referring to the Puritan 
demagogues whom he despised, he exclaimed "I hate their 
leveling idea; there is nothing in the minds of these men but 
overturn, overturn!" 

On the death of Cromwell, the friends of Berkeley in Vir- 
ginia took up again the feudal principle which Berkeley as a 
cavalier had expressed, that as Virginia was a fief of the crown, 
now that the crown had been abolished in Britain, the fealty 
between Virginia and England was abolished also. In March, 
1660, the planters assembled at Jamestown and agreed to the 
following resolve: "Whereas by reason of the late distraction 
—which God in His mercy put a sudden period to— there being 
ni England no resident, absolute and generally confessed 
power, be it enacted and confirmed that, the supreme power of 
the government of this country shall be resident in the as- 
sembly and that all writs issue of the general assembly of Vir- 
ginia until such a command or commission come out of England 
as shall by the assembly be adjudged lawful." The second Act 


declared: "That the Hon. Sir William Berkeley shall be gov- 
ernor and captain-general of Virginia." 

In May, Charles II. was restored in England and with him 
the monarchy, and in October, 1660, he sent his own commis- 
sion to Sir William Berkeley appointing him governor, which, 
accepted as supreme by all parties, restored the fealty of Vir- 
ginia to the crown. Thus the value of the Stuart system of 
erecting fiefs beyond sea into royal governments dependent 
solely on the command upheld by an independent and localized 
class of honor was made manifest in the action of Virginia, 
although the initiative and energy of the action belonged only 
to one lion-hearted and loyal man. But the restoration was 
superficial in Virginia, where in truth the vast majority of the 
inhabitants were indifferent, cavaliers few and the democrats 
more numerous, with the advantage of not being encumbered 
by honest considerations. In 1663 a number of indentured ser- 
vants were induced to break into revolt with the idea of over- 
turning the government and having a republican model. One 
of them betrayed his comrades, and this revolt was extin- 
guished. Four of the leaders were hung. The burgesses or- 
dered that henceforward "20 guardsmen and one officer shall 
attend the governor," as a protection against conspirators. 

Tranquility was threatened on another side by the Baptist 
preachers, who, inspired with fanaticism, preached a doctrine 
of religious compulsion, which, if practised, would have im- 
posed a tyranny compared to which the rule of the Spanish 
inquisition would have been that of enlightened liberty. The 
invasion of the body politic by their "new f angled conceits and 
heretical inventions" was not only adverse to individual lib- 
erty, to the established estates of the colony, and to the author- 
ity of the crown, but to human happiness and prosperity. For 
these reasons, they were dealt with severely, and in many 
places forbidden to preach. 

But there was another outburst of democracy threatening- 
crown authority, the estates and the governorship of Berkeley 
more seriously than the "Revolt of the Valets" and the 
"Preaching of the Baptists." 

It seems that when Virginia surrendered to the Puritan Eng- 


lisli republic in 1651 that a law had been enacted that Virginia: 
should trade only with England by means of English ships 
manned by English sailors. Besides this, import and export, 
duties were levied on all the commerce of Virginia. 

Even this had not aroused the complaints of the Virginians 
under the commonwealth, possibly because the republicans in 
the colony had clasped hands with the republicans in the old 
country in the mater of division of the spoil. Perhaps the Vir- 
ginians might not have complained of it under the succeeding 
monarchy had not Charles II. granted, as a fief, the territory of 
Virginia and Accomac to the Earl of Arlington and Lord Cul- 
peper. This grant was to terminate in thirty-one years unless 
renewed. It was no more than the original grant to the Council 
of London had been— it disturbed no one. If the sovereign 
proprietors of Virginia overstepped the limits of their holding 
there was an appeal to the crown unless the three estates of 
Virginia might consider a malfeasance to be an absolution of 
allegiance— according to feudal law. 

But republican doctrine had begun to work in Virginia and 
the house of burgesses (1670) sent delegates to the king to pro- 
test against the new grant. The protest was carefully attended 
to. The king promised to "grant them a new charter for the 
settlement and confirmation of all things according to their 
wishes." The new charter was drafted, had received the royal 
signature, and was about to be dispatched to the colony, when 
the news of the rebellion of the faithless Virginian republicans 
stayed the royal concession. It seems that there was one, Na- 
thaniel Bacon, a factious and unprincipled republican, who had 
worked in secret a long while among the servants and lower 
classes of the population and the Puritan fanatics. His course 
of action must be noticed in order to show the characters with 
whom Sir William Berkeley had to deal and who triumphed 
finally in the American Bevolution. Bacon caused himself to 
be elected to the burgesses by the unconstitutional voting of 
servants and non-proprietors. He caused the massacre of six 
Indian chiefs who had come under safe conduct to a council 
with the whites. Under spacious pretences of reform he re- 
belled against the governor and the king's authority, and with 


his malcontents, who seem to have been the major part of the 
Virginians, considered the advisability of proclaiming in- 
dependence of England and the setting up of a republic. In his 
rebellion, while besieging Jamestown, one of his means of pro- 
tection from the cannon of the enemy was putting the wives 
and daughters of the planters, who were defending the town, 
in front of his breastworks. He plundered the private resi- 
dence of the governor, which was outside the town. He suc- 
ceeded in stirring up the greater part of the people for uni- 
versal suffrage, indiscriminate education and the introduction 
of republicanism. 

Berkeley, who had only 30 loyal gentlemen, was driven out of 
Jamestown. He took shelter in Accomac, where he had the 
satisfaction of hanging Captain Carver, one of Bacon's fol- 
lowers, who had been sent with a fleet of small vessels to cap- 
ture and bring back the governor. Berkeley and his men also 
captured "General" Bland, the chief commander of Bacon, 
and after many vicissitudes triumphed over the rebellion. 
Bacon had been succeeded in command by a "rope-dancer" 
named Ingram but he was reduced very speedily. The manner 
in which Berkeley dealt with these people was summary but 
just. It is illustrated by the following story:— One of Bacon's 
officers, named Drummond, was captured; he was brought be- 
fore Berkeley, who said, "Mr. Drummond, you are very wel- 
come. I am more glad to see you than any man in Virginia. 
Mr. Drummond, you shall hang in half an hour." The time 
was extended a little. He was tried and sentenced at noon and 
hung at four in the afternoon. 

Twenty-three of the leaders of this rebellion were hung. 
Charles II., the king, did not approve of these severities, but 
had he shown himself severe in proportion in England it is not 
likely that his brother James II., who succeeded on the throne, 
would have been driven out, in his turn, by the sons of those 
traitors and deserters whom Charles allowed to plot in safety 
during his own reign. 

As for Berkeley, the clamor of the Virginians against the 
punishment he meted out to their political treachery caused 
him to be recalled by the king, and it is said that he died 


"broken-hearted" in England at the ingratitude of his royal 
master. It is certain that all the Virginia historians, afflicted 
with the same complaint of which Bacon suffered, condemn 
Berkeley as a tyrant. Cook, the best of them, says : 

"He was devoted to monarchy, and the church * * * * 
In defence of one he persecuted dissent ; in support of the other 
he waded in blood. For a quarter of a century 

he ruled the colony to the fullest satisfaction of the people. He 
was an elegant host and a cordial companion who made every- 
one welcome. He displayed not the least desire to invade the 
rights of Virginians ; on the contrary he defended them on 
every occasion. It may be said with truth that, in all these 
years, he was the sincere friend of Virginia and Virginians. 
All his interests and affections were centred there— in his wife 
and his home. It was 'the most flourishing country the sun 
ever shone over,' he said. But one day rebellion raised its 
head in tins beautiful land. His idol, the Divine Right, was 
flouted by these old friends * * * * then he was merci- 
less to them when they were at his mercy." 5 

In other words, "he protected their rights" and maintained 
them, and they— what did they? They invaded the rights of 
the crown, which they had promised to respect. They, the 
faithless, the treacherous, the unreliable! How could Berke- 
ley, once they had lost all consideration of honor, feel' confi- 
dence in them ! ! 

The three great innovations on the ancient, political and 
social conditions against which Sir William Berkeley had to 
contend and which are the bane of modern states at the pres- 
ent, were: I, Extreme Public Education; II, Republicanism, 
and I IT, Universal Suffrage. 

I. Berkeley was opposed to extreme public education, be- 
cause it tends to declass the members of the population, and in 
this alone to make them restless, discontented and conceited. 
Not only that, but to tax the provident and industrious for the 
benefit of the slothful and careless— who breed like rabbits— is 
to handicap the better portion of the people. To buy the ma- 
terial of all arts, science and language by enforced taxation 

5. Cook's "History of Virginia," p. 296. 


and give it to those who do not pay for it, which material rea- 
son and fact show that only a few can use, is teaching improvi- 
dence to be wasteful of the property of others. It is to furnish 
to the unprincipled additional means of dishonest livelihood, 
for the scientific adulteration of food and clothing, for the cre- 
ation of fraudulent stock companies, and for the skilful dis- 
semination of dishonest principles of government. It is a vain 
endeavor to produce a republican equality by means of "edu- 
cation" when education itself cannot add one quality to the 
mind or develop a sentiment where there is not the germ of 
that sentiment. 

All the "education" of America has not been able to produce 
a musician, an artist and a historian, to rank with those of old 
Europe, where the class of sentiment has not been destroyed 
by "republicanism." The Inca Turpac Yupanqui declared 
that "Learning was intended for those only of generous 
blood." The clerical classes of ancient Gaul— although pos- 
sessed of the art of writing, considered the pearls of their tra- 
dition too precious to be cast at the feet of swine, and trans- 
mitted them to the accepted and approved members of their 
caste by memory only. It was the same in ancient Egypt. The 
criminal statistics of the United States show that the worst 
criminals are the best "educated." The increase of crime has 
gone the same way, the per cent, rising with the "advantages." 
offered by the free "higher education" from one in ten thou- 
sand in 1850 to one in four hundred in 1890. In the Southern 
States (1890), where "public education" was not so diffused, 
the per cent, of criminality was less than one-half that of New 
England where "free education" is the longest established on 
a "liberal" basis. In New York and Chicago, where the public 
school fund embraces appropriation of millions, filched from 
those who do not patronize the public schools and who do not 
believe in them, the criminality is much higher than in foreign 
cities of the same size where "education" is not so extrava- 
gant. Education of the most exalted and extravagant sort 
can not fill a heart with lofty sentiment where no germs of 
sentiment exist. 

In proportion as education is diffused the standard of liter- 


ary excellence is lowered, and the continuance of writers of 
classics is diminished. Because in former days when " Learn- 
ing was for those of generous blood," who are the few, their 
demand made the standard high; at the present time, the de- 
mand of the "educated" multitude is louder and more potent 
with publishers than that of the ancient few, and the standard 
and style are lowered to comply with the demand. The race 
verges then on an intellectual decline, and the age is called 
"materialistic" but only for this reason — that the instincts of 
the many are gross and unsentimental and must remain so 
ever, and an appeal to them as to a standard results in the ex- 
clusion of everything higher and better. Besides provision for 
a public education shows lack of general ethical perception— 
the very idea of "educating one man's children with another 
man's money" is proof of it. It destroys the value of inherited 
qualities that are not perceptible by educational means, such 
as generosity, magnanimity and honor,— arranged in the pres- 
ent condition of society as handicaps to their possessors in the 
race of life ; the class of their possessors becomes smaller with 
each generation. 

II. In the beginning of the settlement of Virginia, before 
there was any real property interest in the colony, up to the 
year 1655 "all settlers had a voice in public affairs, first in the 
daily matters of the commune, or 'hundreds,' and after 1619 
in electing burgesses * * * * But in 1655 it was changed 
by men of the commonwealth ' (to cut off the influence of the 
retainers of the cavaliers).' In that year the burgesses de- 
clared that none but 'housekeepers, whether freeholders, lease- 
holders, or othrwise tenants,' shall be 'capable of electing bur- 
gesses.' One year afterwards (1656) the ancient usage was 
restored, and all 'freemen' were allowed to vote, since it was 
'something hard and unagreeable to reason that any person 
shall pay equal taxes and yet have no vote in the elections ; but 
the freemen must not vote in a tumultuous manner.' Such was 
the record of the first commonwealth." 6 

"In 1670, the King's men restored the first act restricting 
the suffrage again. The reason is stated:— The 'usual way of 
choosing burgesses by the votes of all persons, who, having 


served their time, are freemen in this country,' produced 
'tumults at the election.' Therfore, it were better to follow the 
English fashion and 'grant a voyce in such election only to 
such as by their estates, real or personal, have interest enough 
to tye them to the endeavor of the public good. ' So, after this, 
none but 'freeholders and housekeepers' were to vote." 

"The persons who had served their time as indentured serv- 
ants had 'little interest in the country'; they were making dis- 
turbances at elections * * * * This was the determinate 
sentiment and the law remained settled, with the exception of 
one year (1676) when Bacon's Assembly changed it, declaring 
that 'freemen should vote.' This was swept away by a general 
repeal of all 'Bacon's laws' and the freehold restriction re- 
mained the law of Virginia nearly to the present time (1870). " 6 

III. Simply because passengers have purchased a railway 
ticket and have ridden on the cars on their journey is no reason 
that they ought to vote with the stockholders of the rail- 
way for the choice of directors and for the management 
of the road. There is but one way for them and that 
is to become an owner in the stock— of something beyond a 
railway ticket. The same law of right holds good for the state ; 
no matter what the education of the citizen may be, if he does 
not own stock in the state he has no ethical right to vote for the 
choice of government, or for the policy of rulership. 

The lack of ethical consideration in the suffrage is to be ex- 
pected from the ingress into public affairs of those who have 
received the unethically obtained public education— of those 
who have been instructed, not by the laudable efforts of their 
own family, but from the results of public robbery— whereby 
one man's property is assessed for the "benefit" of another 
man's children. Those who have been "benefited" by this 
species of robbery are ready to try it over again in the state— 
in the legislature— in the policy of government. Disloyalty re- 
sults and the kingdom is overthrown by the traitors it has nour- 
ished in its bosom, who proceed at once to form a "republic" in 
which those who raise the greatest clamor may rule, and in 
which each opposing minority is subject to turn to proscription 
and plunder. This is the character of the men who have in- 


stituted every republic that has existed in any age or clime, and 
this is the process which their government has followed out 
until, dismembered by its own corruption and infamy it has 
been overthrown by the sword of the dictator. 

But affairs did not come to quite such a pass in Virginia, be- 
cause there was the strong hand of royal power over all. This 
did not suit the Virginians, who seem to have been a very un- 
easy, quarrelsome people. James II., last of the Stuarts, 
wishes to know why they are so "disaffected and unquiet," and 
they are found to be no better under William of Orange, who 
succeeded King James as result of the "Revolution of 1688" 
in England. Having established Virginia and raised it to the 
dignity of a kingdom and filled it full of prosperous conditions, 
the ingratitude of the people looked on the "passing" of the 
Stuarts with indifference. But they were to suffer for it later, 
for in 1861 their own constitution and the better class were 
trampled into the dust by the democracy. 

(To he Continued). 



IN the March, 1909, number of the American Historical 
Magazine will be the first chapters of one of the most valua- 
ble historical publications that has appeared from the Amer- 
ican magazine press for many years. This will be a com- 
plete history of slavery, as it has existed in the United States. It 
will be from the pen of Mrs. C. F. McLean, whose contributions 
to this magazine and to other historical periodicals have given 
her a recognized position among native historical writers. 

In the first installment of this series of papers, Mrs. McLean 
will have an introduction treating briefly of the subject of slav- 
ery from thte world point of view. She will review the origin of 
slavery and present many interesting facts concerning the slav- 
ery of white peoples by those of the same and other nationalities, 
and also the slavery of other races, such as the white slaves of 
the colored races and the colored slaves of the white races. With 
this brief expanatory introduction leading up to the main subject 
the history of white slavery in the American colonies will be 
taken up. Then the beginning of African slavery in these col- 
onies will be related, the cause of its installation and the differ- 
ent phases of its development being carefully set forth and ex- 

Following will be a consideration of the extent and status of 
slavery at the time of the declaration of independence, and the 
attitude of the leaders of the American Revolution in regard 
to it at that date, and, subsequently, their opinions and conclu- 
sions as voiced in the constitutional convention. Connected with 
this part of the subject will be a careful, soundly studied and 
exhaustive review of public opinion in the north and in the" south 
regarding slavery at the close of the Revolution, and the causes 
of the change of views that came about in those two sections 
will be presented. 

Then will come full consideration and explanation of the action 
of the various states on the slavery question and the introduction 
of the subject into national legislation. From that point on- 
ward, in successive numbers of the magazine, the subject will be 
treated completely and in a scholarly manner in all its different 
phases and brought down to the present dav. 




(A Reply to Mr. Theodore Schroeder) 


The Connection of Sidney Rigdon with the Spaulding 


WHAT is relied upon as evidence that Sidney Rig- 
don stole the Spaulding manuscript from Patter- 
son-Lambdin's printing office! When Howe ap- 
pealed for information on this point to Mr. Patter- 
son of Pittsburg, in 1834, Mr. Lambdin had been dead about 
eight years; and Howe writes— "Mr. Patterson says he has no 
recollection of any such manuscript being brought there for 
publication. ' '" This statement of Howe 's has proved very trou- 
blesome to the later, or Pittsburg group of Mr. Schroeder 's 
witnesses. Mr. Howe was appealed to for his authority for the 
statement and replied, "I think Hurlburt was the person who 
talked with Patterson about the manuscript." 100 This is con- 
firmed by the testimony of B. Winchester, author of " The Origin 
of the Spaulding Story," (1840). As soon as the "Storrs-Da- 
vison" statement was published,— asserting that Patterson had 
borrowed the Spaulding manuscript, was very much pleased with 
it, advised the writing of a title page, a preface and then pub- 
lishing it,— a Mr. Green, according to Mr. Winchester, "called 
upon Mr. Patterson to know if this statement was true. Mr. 
Patterson replied, that he knew nothing of any such manu- 
script. I learned this from Mr. Green's own mouth," says Mr. 

99. "Mormonism Unveiled," Howe, p. 289. 

100. American Historical Magazine, November 1906, p. 518. Miller's letter is 
given in full in Gregg's "Prophet of Palmyra," p. 442; Miller also writes another 
letter of similar import to the author of "New Light on Mormonism," p. 240. "Who 
Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 7. 



Winchester, "who is a man of undoubted veracity. 
Mr. Hurlburt states, that he called upon Mr. Patterson who af- 
firmed his ignorance of the whole matter." 101 

In 1842, Mr. Patterson was again appealed to upon the sub- 
ject of the submission of the Spaulding manuscript to him. The 
appeal was made by the Reverend Samuel Williams who at the 
time was preparing for publication a pamphlet entitled "Mor- 
monism Exposed. ' ' Whereupon Mr. Patterson wrote and signed 
a brief statement which was afterwards published by the Rev- 
erend Williams as follows : 

"R. Patterson had in his employment Silas Engles at the 
time, a foreman printer, and general superintendent of the 
printing business. As he (S. E.) was an excellent scholar, as 
well as a good printer, to him was intrusted the entire concerns 
of the office. He even decided on the propriety or otherwise of 
publishing manuscripts when offered,— as to their morality, 
scholarship, etc. In this character, he informed R. P. that a 
gentleman, from the East originally, had put into his hands a 
manuscript of a singular work, chiefly in the style of our Eng- 
lish translation of the Bible, and handed the copy to R. P., who 
read only a few pages and finding nothing apparently excep- 
tionable he (R. P.) said to Engles he might publish it if the au- 
thor furnished the funds or good security. He (the author) 
failing to comply with the terms, Mr. Engles returned the man- 
uscript, as I supposed at that time, after it had been some weeks 
in his possession, with other manuscripts in the office. 

"This communication written and signed 2d April, 1842. 102 

Robert Patterson. 

"It is matter of sincere regret," says the author of "Whp 
Wrote the Book of Mormon?" "that so meagre a document is all 
the written evidence that Mr. Patterson has left." And well 
he may, as one of the Spaulding origin theorists, have such re- 
gret. For there is nothing here of Spaulding and his manu- 
script, nothing of Patterson's interest in it and advising a title 
page, preface, and the publication of it ; nothing of Rigdon and 
his connection with the manuscript; nothing of its being miss- 
ing or stolen or copied. Of course "the gentleman from the 

101. "Origin of the Spaulding Story," p. 13. 

102. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 7. 


East originally, [who] had put into his [Patterson's] hands a 
manuscript of a singular work, chiefly in the style of our Eng- 
lish translation of the Bible," in which neither the printing- 
firm reader, to whom it was referred, nor Mr. Patterson, had 
more than a languid interest, according to the above, is made 
by the Spaulding origin theorists to mean the author of the 
Spaulding manuscript. There is nothing to justify such a con- 
clusion. Had it been Spaulding 's manuscript, which "the gen- 
tleman from the East presented," would not Mr. Patterson 
have remembered it! Would he not have named him? Why 
should he not? There is but one answer— the gentleman was 
not Spaulding. Oh, at this point, for Mr. Patterson's remem- 
brance of an identity of names with "Book of Mormon" names, 
—for a ' ' Nephi ' ' now, or ' ' Moroni, " or " Zarahemla ! ' ' But mark 
you, what Mr. Patterson refuses to do in the signed statement 
he prepared especially at his request, Mr. Williams does for 
him in introducing this signed statement by saying: "Mr. Pat- 
terson firmly believes, also, from what he has heard from the 
Mormon Bible, that it is the same thing he examined at the 
time." 103 Then why is that not in the statement Robert Patter- 
son signed? The manifest dishonesty of these preachers grows 
tedious ! 

Mr. Schroeder next puts in as "evidence" the testimony of 
Joseph Miller, (the name "John" in Mr. Schroeder 's text is 
evidently a misprint), "who knew Spaulding at Amity, bailed 
him out of jail when confined for debt, made his Coffin for him 
when he died, and helped lay him out in his grave" — quite a 
formidable list of services; also gruesome: And his testimony? 
Spaulding told him "there was a man named Sidney Rigdon 
about the office and they thought he had stolen it" 104 (i. e. the 
Spaulding manuscript). This man is heralded in the Cincin- 
natti Gazette as the "one Man in the United States who can 
give its (i. e. the Book of Mormon's), origin." Gregg, whom 
Mr. Schroeder cites as his authority, repeats this announce- 
ment, and we marvel that Mr. Schroeder did not include this 

103. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon ?" p. 7. 

104. American Historical Magazine, November, 1906, p. 518. 


circumstance in his list of qualities that makes this witness so 

The Miller document quoted by Mr. Schroeder from Gregg's 
"Prophet of Palmyra," bears date of January 20, 1882; and 
as Miller was born in 1791 he was then ninety-one years of 
age. 105 The very earliest statement of Miller's story is in the 
Pittsburg Telegraph, February 6, 1879, when Miller would be 
eighty-eight years old. How much reliance is to be placed up- 
on the early recollections of such an aged person after all the 
talk had, and all the newspaper and magazine articles and dis- 
cussions that have been published, leading to confusion in the 
minds of unliterary, uncritical, and often ignorant people, as 
to dates, the order of events, and mind impressions ; and this 
confusion influenced by their religious zeal, not to say fanati- 
cism; prejudices against supposed heresies; and resentment 
of religious innovations— what value, I say, is to be 
given to the recollections of a very aged person under these cir- 
cumstances, must be finally determined by the reader. I only 
ask that the circumstances be known; that they be constantly 
held in mind and given their due weight, and I shall not fear 
the judgment. 

Mr. Schroeder next introduces what he would fondly have us 
believe is the testimony of the Reverend Cephus Dodd, "a 
Presbyterian minister of Amity, Pa." (where Spaulding lived 
1814-16) ; Mr. Dodd was also a practicing physician and at- 
tended Spaulding in his last illness. "As early as 1832," says 
Mr. Schroeder, "this Mr. Dodd took Mr. George M. French 
of Amity to Spaulding 's grave, and there expressed a positive 
belief that Sidney Rigdon was the agent who had transformed 
Spaulding 's manuscript into the Book of Mormon." Mr. 
French, we are told, fixes the date through its proximity to his 
removal to Amity. Following is the comment of Mr. Schroe- 
der on the Reverend Mr. Dodd's "testimony:" 

"The conclusion thus expressed by Mr. Dodd in advance of 
all public discussion or evidence is important, because of what 
is necessarily implied in it? First, it involved a comparison be- 

105. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 6. 


tween Spaulding's literary production and the 'Book of Mor- 
mon,' with a discovered similarity inducing conviction that the 
latter was a plagiarism from the former. This comparison pre- 
supposes a knowledge of the contents of Spaulding's rewritten 
manuscript. The second and most important deduction is to 
be made from the assertion that Sidney Rigdon was the con- 
necting link in the plagiarism. Such a conclusion must have 
had a foundation in Mr. Dodd's mind, and could have arisen 
only if he was possessed of personal knowledge of what he con- 
sidered reliable information creating a conviction in his mind 
of the probability of Sidnev Rigdon 's connection with the mat- 
ter." 106 

But not so fast. Let us think of it. Who tells this story! 
Mr. Dodd in 1832 ? No. And is it of record that he did all these 
things that Mr. Schroeder surmises that he did? Again, no. 
And was Mr. Dodd's "conclusions expressed" in advance of 
all public discussion or evidence, respecting the Book of Mor- 
mon! Not at all. According to the authority Mr. Schroeder 
himself cites for this Dodd * ' evidence, ' ' and from which he gets 
the story, the Reverend Mr. Dodd lived until January 16, 1858. 
But there is no direct statement or evidence from him on the 
matter here discussed. Nothing was said about it until the pub- 
lication of "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" in the "His- 
tory of Washington County, Pa.", 1882, after the discussion of 
all the evidence, instead of in advance of it. Then Mr. George 
M. French, according to the author of "Who Wrote the Book 
of Mormon!" "in his eighty- third year, " "retains a vivid im- 
pression" of the foregoing account of a visit to Mr. Spauld- 
ing's grave in company with Mr. Dodd; and then the story. 107 
And Mr. Schroeder would lead his readers to believe that they 
have in this jumbled mass of second hand "vivid impressions" 
fifty years old, detailed by a man in his dotage, over eight-two 
years old, an expression in "advance of all public discussion or 
evidence" respecting the Book of Mormon— in 1832, in fact! 
And Mr. Schroeder is a professional lawyer! 

Of like character but weaker are the rest of Mr. Schroeder 's 
witnesses to the "theft" of the Spaulding manuscript and its 

106. American Historical Magazine, November, 1906, p. 519. 

107. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 10. 


identity with the Book of Mormon. Such is his "tenth wit- 
ness," Redick McKee (Joseph Miller, considered above, being 
his "ninth witness,") ; and his "eleventh witness," the .Rever- 
end Abner Jackson; and, as Mr. Schroeder himself puts it,— 
"Last but not least," John C. Bennett, who also indorses the 
Spaulding theory of the origin of the Book of Mormon; for 
which I had almost said, "thank God!" for nothing could so 
completely damn a thing as John C. Bennett's endorsement. 
Then I restrained the all but expressed exclamation and soft- 
ened it to the quiet conclusion of— "fitting climax to such a 

Bennett claims to have had it from the "confederation"— 
that "there never were any plates of the Book of Mormon ex- 
cepting what were seen by the spiritual and not the natural 
eyes of the witnesses." 108 All these witnesses are as incompe- 
tent and contemptible as those whose testimony we have ex- 
amined, and with this we leave them. It is not necessary to 
demonstrate over and over again the same proposition, or re- 
fute every specific detail of falsehood when they can be classi- 
fied and dealt with in mass. 

of rigdon 's alleged "religious dishonesty" 

Mr. Schroeder seeks to make much of what he calls "Rig- 
don's religious dishonesty" previous to his joining the Mor- 
mon Church. Of this and the evidence on which it is based, it 
is only necessary to say: said dishonesty is charged by the 
Reverend Samuel Williams, author of "Mormonism Exposed" 
— the Reverend gentleman whom we have seen put into his 
book a statement as to Mr. Patterson's views about the Spauld- 
ing manuscript which Mr. Patterson evidently refused to put 
into his own signed statement, given to Mr. Williams for his 
anti-Mormon work. The dishonesty alleged against Rigdon 
has to do with religious experiences which Rigdon is repre- 
sented by a rival minister as confessing to have feigned in or- 
der to obtain membership in the Baptist Church, at Peters 
Creek. Its source utterly discredits it; and at best it is only 

108. "Mormonism Exposed," pp. 123-4. 


the all-to-usual exhibition of malice expressed in misrepresen- 
tation when a person passes from one religious organization 
to another. 

rigdon's opportunity to steal spaulding 's manuscript 

The next question which Mr. Schroeder considers is Rig- 
don's opportunity to steal the Spaulding manuscript. This de- 
pends upon whether Sidney Rigdon was at Pittsburg when the 
Spaulding manuscript was there between 1812, the time of 
Spaulding 's advent into Pittsburg with his manuscript, and 
1814, the time of his departure. But to humor Mr. Schroeder 
we will extend the time so as to include his fiction about a " re- 
written" manuscript and its "second submission" to Patter* 
son for publication. So the question is, was Rigdon in Pitts- 
burg between 1812 and 1816, the time of Spaulding 's death? 
Here I insert a brief biography of Sidney Rigdon, up to the 
time of his joining the Mormon Church. It is taken from the 
"Illustrated History of Washington County, Pa.," in which was 
published the treatise on "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" 
I select this account of Mr. Rigdon's movements up to 1830, 
because it is the one regarded by Mr. Schroeder as more ac- 
curate than other accounts; and it is only slightly different, 
but in no respect materially so, from the account of Mr. Rig- 
don published in the "History of Joseph Smith," in the Mil- 
lenial Star, supplement, volume XIV., and condensed in a foot 
note in the "History of the Church." 109 

"Sidney Rigdon was born near the present village of Li- 
brary, Allegheny Co., Pa., Feb. 19, 1793; attended in boyhood 
an ordinary country school; joined the Baptist Church near 
his home May 31, 1817 ; studied divinity with a Baptist preach- 
er named Clark in Beaver County, Pa., in the winter of 1818- 
19, and was licensed to preach; went to Warren, Ohio, where 
he was ordained, and in the winter of 1821-22 returned to Pitts- 
burg ; became pastor of the First Baptist Church there Jan. 28, 
1822, and for doctrinal errors was excluded from the Baptist 
denomination Oct. 11, 1823. He continued to Preach in the 
court-house to his adherents, but in 1824, according to one ac- 

109. "History of the Church," vol. I, pp. 120-1, and notes. 


count, he removed to the Western Reserve, Ohio; according to 
another account he engaged in the tanning business in Pitts- 
burg until 1826, and then removed to the Reserve, residing for 
brief periods at Bainbridge, Mentor, and Kirtland. At this 
time he was connected with the Campbellite or Disciple's 
Church, and preached its doctrines, mingled with extravagant 
conceits of his own, until in 1830 he joined the Mormons." 110 

It will be observed that this does not bring Sidney Rigdon to 
Pittsburg until 1821-22, some seven years after the Spauldings 
had left Pittsburg with their precious manuscript, and five 
years after they had departed from Pennsylvania with it. Mr. 
Rigdon 's own account of his going to Pittsburg puts it in Novem- 
ber, 1821, on his return from Ohio, to visit relatives in Alle- 
gheny county, Pa. He preached in Pittsburg a few times, and 
it was his preaching during this visit that led to his being called 
to become the permanent pastor of the First Baptist Church 
of that place, where he took up his residence in 1822. 

In a communication addressed to the Boston Journal, under 
date of May 27, 1839, Sidney Rigdon emphatically denies hav- 
ing any connection with Patterson's printing establishment; or 
with Spaulding and his manuscript. 111 Concerning the charge 
frequently made that Rigdon lived in Pittsburg, and was con- 
nected with Patterson's printing office during 1815 and 1816, 
Mr. Schroeder himself remarks. 

''The evidence upon which is based the charge of Rigdon 
having a permanent residence in Pittsburg during the years 
in question, or his connection with Patterson's printing office, 
is so unsatisfactory that these issues must be found in favor of 
Rigdon 's denial. ' ,m 

Very diligent inquiry was made by the historians of Wash- 
ington County, to ascertain whether or not Rigdon was in Pitts- 
burg at the time the Spaulding manuscript is alleged to have 
been there. What makes the matter of inquiry more interest- 
ing is the fact that the author of that part of the "History of 

no. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 8. 

in. The letter of Rigdon will be found complete in Smucker's "History of the 
Mormons," pp. 45-48. 

112. American Historical Magazine, November, 1906, p. 524. 


Washington County" under the caption "Who Wrote the Book 
of Mormon?" is Robert Patterson, son of Robert Patterson, 
who is said to have been the printer to whom Spaulding's man- 
uscript was taken for publication. Robert Patterson, author 
of "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" in his capacity of his- 
torian, sent out a number of letters soliciting information as to 
the time of Sidney Rigdon's residence in Pittsburg and his 
connection with the Patterson-Lambdin printing establishment; 
and also he made personal inquiry on the same subject. The 
results of such inquiry follows. The term "the present writ- 
er" used in the quotations refer to Mr. Patterson himself. Af- 
ter saying that Carvil Rigdon, Sidney's brother, and Peter 
Boyer, his brother-in-law, were the source of information for 
Rigdon's biography, Mr. Patterson says: 

"Mr. Boyer also in a personal interview with the present 
writer in 1879, positively affirmed that Rigdon had never lived 
in Pittsburg previous to 1822, adding that 'they were boys to- 
gether, and he ought to know.' Mr. Boyer had for a short time 
embraced Mormonism, but became convinced that it was a de- 
lusion, and returned to his membership in the Baptist Church." 

It could not then have been through religious sympathy with 
Mr. Rigdon that Mr. Boyer made this statement. 

"Isaac King, a highly-respected citizen of Library, Pa., and 
an old neighbor of Rigdon, states in a letter to the present 
writer, dated June 14, 1879, that Sidney lived on the farm of 
his father until the death of the latter in May, 1810, and for a 
number of years afterwards; * * * received his educa- 
tion in a log school-house in the vicinity; he began to talk in 
public on religion soon after his admission to the church, (1817) 
probably at his own instance, as there is no record of his li- 
censure; 'went to Sharon, Pa., for a time, and was there or- 
dained as a preacher, but soon returned to his farm, which he 
sold (June 28, 1823), to James Means, and about the time of 
the sale removed to Pittsburg.' 

"Samuel Cooper, of Saltsburg, Pa., a veteran of three wars, 
in a letter to the present writer, dated June 14, 1879, stated as 
follows : ' I was acquainted with Mr. Lambdin, was often in the 
printing-office; was acquainted with Silas Engles, the foreman 
of the printing-office ; he never mentioned Sidney Rigdon's name 


to me, so I am satisfied he was never engaged there as a printer. 
* * * Never saw him in the book-store or printing-office; 
your father's office was in the celebrated Molly Murphy's Row.' 

"Rev. Robert P. DuBois, of New London, Pa., under date of 
Jan. 9, 1879, writes : ' I entered the book-store of R. Patterson 
& Lambdin in March, 1818, when about twelve years old, and 
remained there until the summer of 1820. The firm had under 
its control the book-store on Fourth Street, a book-bindery, a 
printing-office, (not newspaper, but job-office, under the name 
of Butler & Lambdin) entrance on Diamond Alley, and a steam 
paper-mill on the Allegheny (under the name of R. & J. Patter- 
son). I knew nothing of Spaulding (then dead) or of his book, 
or of Sidney Rigdon.' 

Mrs. R. W. Lambdin, of Irving-ton, N. Y., widow of the late 
J. Harrison Lambdin, in response to some inquiries as to her 
recollections of Rigdon and others, writes under date of Jan. 
15, 1882 : 'I am sorry to say I shall not be able to give you any 
information relative to the persons you name. They certainly 
could not have been friends of Mr. Lambdin.' Mrs. Lambdin 
resided in Pittsburg from her marriage in 1819 to the death of 
her husband, Aug. 1, 1825. Mr. Lambdin was born Sept 1 
1798." " ' 

It is to the credit of Mr. Patterson that he recorded these 
testimonies that must be so unsatisfactory to the Spaulding 
theory advocates, among whom must be numbered Mr. Patter- 
son himself. He also says that "impartial justice, requires the 
addition to the above testimony of the very explicit denial of 
Rigdon himself;" and then quotes the essential part of Mr. 
Rigdon 's denial sent to the Boston Journal in 1839. He criti- 
cises the grammar of the passage, and points out that Mr. Rig- 
don was mistaken in saying that there was no ' ' Patterson print- 
ing-office" in Pittsburg during his residence there; "as his ' 
[Rigdon 's J pastorate there began in January, 1822, and the 
firm of 'R. Patterson and Lambdin' was in business until Jan- 
uary 1, 1823." But, as related in the statement of the Rever- 
end Robert P. DuBois, given above, since the job printing-of- 
fice said to be under the "control" of the firm of "R, Patterson 
and Lambdin," was conducted under the name of "Buttler and 
Lambdin," 113 Mr. Schroeder admits that Mr. Rigdon 's slight 

113. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 9. The testimony of the five 
witnesses alluded to will be found in the same work and page. 


mistake was very natural, and does not impair in the least the 
truth of his denial. Having introduced Mr. Rigdon's denial 
Mr. Patterson remarks upon it and upon the witnesses whose 
testimony is given above: 

"But whatever may be thought of his testimony, as that of 
an interested party, there can be no doubt that the five preced- 
ing witnesses on this point have conscientiously stated what 
they firmly believed to be the facts. No one who knew them 
would for a moment doubt their veracity." 114 

Here let us notice a statement by Mr. Schroeder, that seems 
to have some weight on this point. He claims Sidney Rigdon's 
son, John W. Rigdon, says that his father lived in Pittsburg in 
1818; and in the biographical note of Sidney Rigdon published 
in the "History of the Church," following John W. Rigdon's 
"History of Sidney Rigdon," the manuscript of which he has 
deposited with the church historians, it is there stated: 

"In March, 1819, Mr. Rigdon left the farm and made his 
home with the Reverend Andrew Clark of Pittsburg, also a 
Baptist minister. While residing with Mr. Clark he took out 
a license and began from that time his career as a minister. In 
May, 1819, he removed from Pennsylvania to Trumbull county, 
Ohio." 115 

This would give Sidney Rigdon a residence in Pitts- 
burg from some time in March (1819) until some time in May of 
the same year— something like two months. This would give 
some support to Mr. Schroeder 's statement. But in the biograph- 
ical sketch of Mr. Rigdon in the ' ' History of Washington Coun- 
ty, ' ' the data of which was supplied to the writer of it by Carvil 
Rigdon, Sidney's brother, and his brother-in-law, Peter Boyer, 
it is said that Sidney Rigdon "studied divinity with a Baptist 
preacher named Clark in Beaver County, Pa., in the winter of 
1818-19 and was licensed to preach." Beaver County is imme- 
diately north of Allegheny County, in which Pittsburg is lo- 
cated. Notwithstanding the statement of John W. Rigdon has 
found its way into the "History of the Church," as above ex- 

114. Ibid. 

115. "History of the Church," (1906), vol. 1, p. 121, foot note. 


plained, yet Carvil Rigdon and Peter Boyer must be held to be 
more competent witnesses on this point than John W. Rigdon; 
and more especially since the inquiry made by Mr. Patterson in 
his capacity of contributor to the " History of Washington 
County, Pa., ' ' was made in the interest of the Spaulding theory 
that requires the location of Rigdon in Pittsburg earlier than 
1822, when, it is conceded, he took up his residence there. 
Had the Reverend Mr. Clark with whom Rigdon studied di- 
vinity in the spring of 1819 lived in Pittsburg instead of Beav- 
er County, that fact would scarcely have escaped the searching 
inquiry made upon the subject. But even if the residence of 
Rigdon for two months in the year named could be fixed in 
Pittsburg beyond reasonable doubt, the conclusion of Mr. 
Schroeder as to its effect upon Rigdon 's denial of knowledge of 
the existence of the printing-office of Patterson and Lambdin, 
would not stand. He puts his argument in syllogistic form, 

" Rigdon 's son says Rigdon lived in Pittsburg in 1818. 
Church biographers allege that he preached there regularly af- 
ter January 28, 1822. During 1818 and 1822 Patterson was in 
the printing business, and Rigdon 's statement must be deemed 
untrue. ' n16 

To which the answer is : By no means ; since if it be allowed 
that Rigdon was in Pittsburg at all, he was there but some two 
months— and the existence of a certain printing establishment 
might easily escape his knowledge,— and more especially so since 
the printing office was run under another firm name, that of 
"Butler and Lambdin." 117 

Let us now return to Mr. Patterson and his ' ' Who Wrote the 
Book of Mormon f" We have seen how fairly he recorded the 
testimony of witnesses that told against his own side of the 
case, and the certificate of good character he gave those wit- 
nesses. It is but fair to him to say that on the opposite side of 
the question he gives the "Davison" statement credence, appar- 
ently not knowing the ' ' shady" character of that document ; and 
that if it was ' ' in the main true, ' ' then it carried off the Spauld- 

116. American Historical Magazine, November, 1906, p. 526. 

117. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 9. 


ing manuscript beyond the reach of Sidney Rigdon as early as 
1814, when the Spauldings left Pittsburg for Amity. Mr. Pat- 
terson also records the statement of Joseph Miller, Redick Mc- 
Kee and Mr. French's story of the Reverend Cephus Dodd, 
whose statements have already been considered, and shown to be 
incompetent as evidence. 

And then he comes to another witness in whom both he and 
Mr. Schroeder delight as establishing a connection if not be- 
tween Rigdon and Patterson's printing establishment, then at 
least between Rigdon and Lambdin. This is Mrs. R. J. Eich- 
baum of Pittsburg. The facts relating to her are that she was 
the daughter of John Johnston, and was born August 25, 1792. 
Her father was post-master of Pittsburg from 1804 to 1822; 
and was succeeded by William Eichbanm, who held the office 
until 1833. In 1815 Miss Johnston married William Eichbaum. 
As soon as she became old enough she assisted her father in at- 
tending the post-office. From 1811 to 1816 she became the reg- 
ular clerk in the office assorting, opening and distributing the 
mail. And even after her marriage in the absence of her hus- 
band, she sometimes attended to these duties. Pittsburg was 
then a small town, the mail was meagre, and Mrs. Eichbaum re- 
membered those who called regularly for their mail; and now 
her own words : 

"I knew and distinctly remember Robert and Joseph Patter- 
son, J. Harrison Lambdin, Silas Engles, and Sidney Rigdon. I 
remember Rev. Mr. Spaulding, but simply as one who occasion- 
ally called to inquire for letters. I remember that there was an 
evident intimacy between Lambdin and Rigdon. They very of- 
ten came to the office together. I particularly remember that 
they would thus come during the hour on Sabbath afternoon 
when the office was required to be open, and I remember feel- 
ing sure that Rev. Mr. Patterson knew nothing of this, or he 
would have put a stop to it. I do not know what position, if 
any, Rigdon filled in Patterson's store or printing-office, but 
am well assured he was frequently, if not constantly there for a 
large part of the time when I was clerk in the post-office. I re- 
call Mr. Engles saying that * Rigdon was always hanging 
around the printing-office.' He was connected with the tan- 
nery before he became a preacher, though he may have contin- 
ued the business whilst preaching." 118 

n8. Ibid, p. io. 


This is the strongest and I may say the only testimony exist- 
ing concerning any connection between Sidney Rigdon and 
Lambdin. But if this testimony was left to stand with all its 
strength unimpaired, it is a "far way" between this and the 
establishment of a connection between Rigdon and the Spauld- 
ing manuscript. Even Mr. Schroder concedes that. In com- 
menting on the above testimony, he says : 

"While this does not establish that Sidney Rigdon had a per- 
manent abode in Pittsburg, nor that he was connected with Pat- 
terson's printing establishment, it yet explains why seemingly 
everybody who knew him reached that conclusion." 119 

One marvels at the concluding remark in the above passage, 
in the face of the testimony of the five witnesses quoted by the 
author of "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" These five wit- 
nesses had the best opportunity of knowing of such connection if 
it existed. They were Rigdon 's own boyhood and young manhood 
companions, employees of the firm of Patterson and Lambdin, 
including Lambdin 's wife, and they all declare there was no 
such connection, or that they knew of none. And then there is 
the silence of Robert Patterson, of the firm of Patterson and 
Lambdin to account for. Patterson, who was solicited for in- 
formation on the subject but who evidently could give none; 
and whose disclosure if he had any to make, Rigdon boldly chal- 
lenged in his Boston Journal article of 1839. Mr. Patterson did 
not die until September 5th, 1854 ; 120 and in 1839 Rigdon in the 
article referred to said: 

"If I were to say that I ever heard of the Rev. Solomon 
Spaulding and his hopeful wife, until Dr. P. Hurlburt wrote his 
lie about me, I should be a liar like unto themselves. Why was 
not the testimony of Mr. Patterson obtained to give force to 
this shameful tale of lies? The only reason is, that he was not 
a fit tool for them to work with; he would not he for them, for 
if he were called on he would testify to what I have here 
said." 121 

119. American Historical Magazine, September, 1906, p. 5^8. 

120. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 7. 

121. "History of the Mormons," Smucker, p. 96. 


This is Rigdon's challenge, (Mr. Schroeder nowhere deals 
with it) and while we regret its form we rejoice in its boldness 
and emphasis. Mr. Patterson was solicited by the Reverend 
Samuel Williams, when preparing his "Mormonism Exposed," 
for a statement, and Mr. Patterson gave one and signed it un- 
der date of 2nd of April, 1842, but not a word in it of Rigdon 
or of his connection with the printing establishment, or his as- 
sociation with Lambdin, or of the complaints of Engles about 
Rigdon "always hanging around the printing office;" not a 
word about Spaulding and his manuscript. There is but one 
conclusion to be reached from this silence, viz., there were no 
such relations to disclose as are contended for by Mr. Schroe- 

The statement of Mrs. Eichbaum is somewhat weakened by 
the fact that when she gave her statement she was eighty-seven 
years old and what Mr. Schroeder has implied of memories im- 
paired by age in the case of Mrs. McKinstry, ought to have 
some application to the testimony of Mrs. Eichbaum. Another 
consideration weakens it. Taking into account Rigdon's prom- 
inence in the public life of Pittsburg from the time of being set- 
tled there as the regular pastor of the First Baptist Church, in 
1822, up to 1825, the year of Lambdin 's death, if any such inti- 
macy had existed between Rigdon and Lambdin as described by 
Mrs. Eichbaum and contended for by Mr. Schroeder, would not 
Mrs. Lambdin have had some knowledge of it? "Mrs. Lambdin 
resided in Pittsburg from her marriage in 1819 to the death of 
her husband, August 1st, 1825." Yet writing to Mr. Patterson, 
author of "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon," under date of 
Jan. 15th, 1882, in response to inquiries as to her recollections 
of Sidney Rigdon and others she says : 

"I am sorry to say 1 shall not be able to give you any infor- 
mation relative to the persons you name. They certainly could 
not have been friends of Mr. Lambdin. ' n22 

If due weight be given to these considerations, I do not think 
much importance can attach to the testimony of Mrs. Eich- 
baum. It simply represents the confused impressions arising 

122. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 9. 


from the neighborhood gossip and public discussion of the sub- 
ject, in a mind grown old. 

What Mr. Patterson has said at the close of the testimony 
pro and con, which he presents in his article in the History of 
Washington County, is worth repeating: 

"These witnesses are all whom we can find after inquiries 
extending through some three years who can testify at all to 
Bigdon's residence in Pittsburg before 1816, and to his possible 
employment in Patterson's printing-office or bindery. Of this 
employment none of them speak from personal knowledge. In 
making inquiries among two or three score of the oldest resi- 
dents of Pittsburg and vicinity, those who had any opinion on 
the subject invariably, so far as now remembered, repeated the 
story of Rigdon's employment in Patterson's office, as if it 
were a well-known and admitted fact; they 'could tell all about 
it,' but when pressed as to their personal knowledge of it or 
their authority for the conviction they had none." 123 * 

The search for evidence was prolonged and thorough; evi- 
dently, at the outset, the confidence was great; and the results 
evidently a disappointment. That becomes more apparent when 
one reads the foot note of the publishers on Mr. Patterson's 
passage above. 

"If any one would learn an impressive lesson upon the tran- 
sitory nature of man's hold upon the remembrance of his fel- 
low-men, let him engage in an investigation into some matter of 
local or personal histoiy dating back a half century ago. 80 
rapidly, in the very places where a man has lived and labored, 
does the recollection of him fade into rumor, or myth, or obliv- 
ion. The candid reader will doubtless suspend his judgment on 
this hitherto accepted theory of Rigdon's printership, or set it 
down as, at the most, only probable, but certainly not yet 
proved. ' n2i 

To these reflections on how quickly recollections of a man in 
the place where he wrought some portion of his life's work fade 
into myth or rumor, or oblivion, there may be added the other 
side of the case; let ever so little a circumstance happen to a 

123. "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon?" p. 11. 

124. Ibid, p. 9 foot note. 


man in some place where part of his life was passed, and if that 
man becomes famous, or through any cause becomes notorious, 
then mark how local gossips and myth-makers spring up on 
every hand, magnifying the most trivial incidents into events 
of importance; how new incidents are often invented, which 
with those that have some foundation in fact are constantly un- 
dergoing variations by additions or subtractions or a change in 
application, until all is distorted, confused and confounded. 
And many "can tell all about it, until," as Mr. Patterson re- 
marks, "pressed as to their personal knowledge, or their au- 
thority for their conviction, then it is discovered they have 
none." And then one stands face to face with the utter worth- 
lessness of that kind of "evidence" to establish anything good 
or ill concerning a man, or an event, or a cause. It is out of just 
such "evidence" as this that Mr. Schroeder and his fellow 
" Spauldingites, " seek to construct for the Book of Mormon an 
origin other than that vouched for by Joseph Smith and his 


Especially out of just such evidence as this grows Mr. Schroe- 
der 's next subject— "Sidney Rigdon exhibits Spaulding's man- 
uscript." While Rigdon was at Pittsburg, 1822-3, a Dr. Winters, 
then teaching school in the town, was in Rigdon 's study when 
the latter took from his desk a large manuscript and said that a 
Presbyterian minister named Spaulding whose health had 
failed brought it to a printer to see if it would not pay to pub- 
lish it— "it is a romance of the Bible," Rigdon is reported to 
have said. Doctor Winter thought no more about it until the 
Book of Mormon appeared. Then, of course, "he remembered 
all about it," Dr. Winter, did not commit his recollections of 
this interview to writing, though he lived until 1878. But Mr. 
Schroeder finds "something just as good," a daughter writes 
out what she had heard her father, Dr. Winters, say about it. 
This was in 1881, about the time interest was renewed in the 
subject through the publication of Mrs. Ellen E. Dickinson's 
article in Scribner's Magazine for August, 1880. 


Of like import is the story of Mrs. Anious Dunlap, of War- 
ren, Ohio. She wrote in answer to inquiries in December, 1879, 
to the effect that she visited the Rigdon family at Bainbridge, 
Ohio, when quite a child, (Mrs. Rigdon was her aunt). One day 
the following happened: 

"During my visit Mr. Rigdon went to his bedroom and took 
from a trunk, which he kept locked, a certain manuscript. He 
came into the other room and seated himself by the fire place 
and commenced reading it. His wife at that moment came into 
the room and exclaimed, 'What! you're studying that thing 
again?' or something to that effect. She then added, 'I mean 
to burn that paper.' He said, 'No, indeed, you will not. This 
will be a great thing some day!' " m 

Mr. Schroeder introduces this as one of his items of evidence 
that Mr. Rigdon foreknew of the forthcoming and contents of 
the Book of Mormon. The thing that destroys the effect of it is, 
the undoubted fact that if Sidney Rigdon was engaged in such 
a scheme as Mr. Schroeder charges he was, then Mrs. Rigdon 
must have known of it. Now when Mr. Rigdon had before him 
in 1830 the question of what should be his relationship to Mor- 
monism, and he had decided that it was true and that he would 
accept it, he naturally was concerned as to what Mrs. Rigdon 's 
attitude would be in the matter, and when he broached the subject 
to her "he was happy to find that she was not only diligently 
investigating the subject, but was believing with all her heart, 
and was desirous of obeying the truth." 126 If it be urged by 
Mr. Scroeder, as it is most likely to be, that the conversion of 
Mrs. Rigdon, like that of her husband, was but a sham, a pre-, 
arranged affair, that she as well as Mr. Rigdon fore-knew of 
the forth-coming of the Book of Mormon, then the scene at 
Bainbridge, described by Mrs. Dunlap as taking place, supposed- 
ly because of Mr. Rigdon 's absorption in Spaulding's manu- 
script, has no place in the scheme of things to be supported by 
Mr. Schroeder 's contention. But I have referred to this and the 
Dr. Winter episode merely as illustrations of how variations 
and additions multiply upon myths when once started. And so 

125. Ibid, p. 12. 

126. Millennial Star, vol. XIV, supplement, p. 4°- 


it will continue to be as long as there is a relative who had a 
relative who heard something abont what some one else had 
said of Eigdon's connection with Patterson and Spaulding; 
that is, new variations of the story will be constantly appearing. 



This question is more worthy of consideration than the last,, 
because associated with it is a man of character, Alexander 
Campbell. In the Millenial Harbinger of 1844, at page 39, is a 
letter quoted by Mr. Schroeder, bearing date of January 22, 
1841, from Adamson Bently, in which the following passage 
occurs : 

"I know that Sidney Eigdon told me there was a book com- 
ing out, the manuscript of which had been found engraved on 
gold plates, as much as two years before the Mormon book made 
its appearance or had been heard of by me. ' ' 

It must be remembered that Bently and Eigdon married sis- 
ters, that they had family troubles in respect of property, as 
already explained, 127 and were rival preachers, all which would 
go far to discredit Bently 's charge if his charge stood by itself. 
Alexander Campbell, however, was the editor of the Millenial 
Harbinger at this time, and in an editorial note on the above 
mentioned letter, lays the weight of his unqualified confirmation 
upon it. He says : 

"The conversation alluded to in Brother Bently 's letter of 
1841 was in my presence as well as in his, and my recollection 
of it led me some two or three years ago, to interrogate Brother 
Bently touching his recollections of it, which accorded with 
mine in every particular except the year .in which it occurred, he 
placing it in the summer of 1827, I, in the summer of 1826, Eig- 
don at the same time observing that in the plates dug up in 
New York there was an account not only of the aborigines of 
this country, but also it was stated that the Christian religion 
had been preached in this country during the first century just 
as we were preaching it on the Western Eeserve. ' ' 

127. See note 52, etc., .and Evening and Morning Star, p. 301. 



This is Mr. Schroeder's strongest "evidence," and must be 
met at its full height and value. In 1881, in this same Millen- 
nial Harbinger, vol. II, beginning at p. 86, is an exhaustive re- 
view and analysis of the Book of Mormon, and the most power- 
ful critique of it ever published. It is by the Reverend Alexan- 
der Campbell. After giving an analysis of each book, in the 
Book of Mormon, from Nephi I to Moroni, the last book in it, he 
then starts an investigation of its "internal evidences," and in 
the first subdivision he begins in this language : ' ' Smith, its real 
author, as ignorant and impudent a knave as ever wrote a book, 
betrays the cloven foot in basing his whole book upon a false 
fact." Then he proceeds with the argument. In closing his 
argument on the "internal evidence" he uses the following 
language : 

"The book proposes to be written at intervals and by differ- 
ent persons, during the long period of 1020 years, and yet for 
uniformity of style, there never was a book more evidently 
written by one set of fingers, nor more certainly conceived in 
one cranium since the first book appeared in human language, 
than this same book. If I could swear to any man's voice, face, 
or person, assuming different names, I could swear that this 
book was written by one man. And as Joseph Smith is a very 
ignorant man and is called the 'author' on the title page, I can- 
not doubt for a single moment but that he is sole 'author' and 
'proprietor' of it." 

Mr. Campbell also considers the testimony of the three wit- 
nesses, and of the eight witnesses, and denounces them. He is 
acquainted with the whole subject. He knows that it was 
claimed for the record that it was engraved on gold plates ; that 
they were found buried in a stone box in New York ; that an ac- 
count is given in the record of the gospel having been preached 
in America in the first christian century— for all these things 
are subjects of his criticism. He criticises nearly every import- 
ant doctrine and historical event in the book. He revels in his 
criticism, and near the conclusion of the whole says : 

"If this Prophet and his three prophetic witnesses had aught 


of speciosity about them or their book, we would have exam- 
ined it and exposed it in a different manner. I have never felt 
so fully authorized to address mortal man in the style in which 
Paul addressed Elymas, the sorcerer, as I feel towards this 
athiest Smith. ' ' 

And now question to Mr. Campbell, and to Mr. Schroeder: 
Could the event described in the letter of Mr. Bently and con- 
firmed by Mr. Campbell's editorial note, have happened in 1826 
or 1827 without Mr. Campbell remembering it in 1831 when he 
wrote this scathing review and critique on the Book of Mor- 
mon? Let it be held in mind here how explicit the charge of 
Bently is. More than two years before the Book of Mormon 
made its appearance Rigdon told Bently "there was a book 
coming out the manuscript of which had been found on gold 
plates." Campbell was present and heard this remark, and al- 
so says that Rigdon at the same time observed that "the plates 
were dug up in New York," and that "the christian religion 
had been preached in this country during the first christian cen- 
tury, just as we were preaching it on the western reserve." Had 
these things been said in the presence of Alexander Campbell, 
two years before the Book of Mormon came out, and so said 
that they made such a lasting impression upon his mind that in 
1844 he remembered them perfectly— will any reasonable per- 
son undertake to say that under the strong stress of feeling ex- 
hibited by Alexander Campbell against the Book of Mormon in 
1831, remembering too that this same Sidney Rigdon had left 
the Campbellites and joined the Mormon Church— under these 
circumstances, will any person, reasonable or otherwise, say 
that during the writing of this long and bitter criticism of the 
Book of Mormon in 1831 the association of ideas and incidents 
would not have asserted itself and recalled this alleged Bently- 
Rigdon incident to the mind of Alexander Campbell? Yet not 
one word in the Campbell review of 1831, to indicate that the 
Bently-Rigdon incident ever happened. 

Yet as he proceeded with his review, it would have been in- 
evitable that he would have discovered Rigdon 's forth-prom- 
ised book— "the manuscript of which had been found engraved 
on gold plates." "Why, yes," he would have said, "that must 


be the book that Bigdon spoke to Bently about." He read in 
the preface to the first edition of the Book of Mormon— and 
Mr. Campbell made a specialty of this preface in his criticism 
—"I would also inform you that the plates of which hath been 
spoken were found in the township of Manchester, Ontario 
county, New York"— "Yes, I remember," Mr. Campbell would 
have exclaimed— "dug up in New York"— "I remember, that is 
what Sidney Bigdon said to Adamson Bently two or three 
years ago." He came to the account of the appearance of the 
risen Messiah among the aborigines of America; to the choos- 
ing of a ministry and commissioning them to preach the Gospel 
to all the people— "Yes" he would have exclaimed, "it is all 
here ; that is what Rigdon said in that Bently conversation in 
1826 or 1827,— 'the christian religion had been preached in this 
country during the first century, just as we are preaching it on 
the western reserve' — those were his very words, and now Rig- 
don has joined the movement of which the coming forth of this 
book is a leading incident ! Well ! well ! ' ' 

Would not such have been the mental process! And would 
we not, in that event, have had the Book of Mormon criticised 
by Mr.' Campbell in 1831, from quite a different view-point than 
that from which he treated it? Anyone who can believe that 
Campbell could remember such an incident as the Bently-Rig- 
don incident he recites in 1844, and yet that he failed to remem- 
ber it under all the circumstances of writing his review of the 
Book of Mormon in 1831, need not stagger over believing any 
seeming miracle within the experience of man, however extrav- 
agant it may be. 

I shall never be able to express in words the deep depres- 
sion that overcame me when the conviction of Alexander 
Campbell's perfidy was forced upon me. In my early man- 
hood I had read extensively in his works. The evidence he 
compiled and the argument he made in his great debate with 
Robert Owen, the English Communist, I regard as the grandest 
defense ever made of historic Christianity, while his debate with 
Bishop Purcell on the The Roman Catholic Religion is justly 
described as the "battle of the giants." In these and in his de- 
bates with William McCalla and the Reverend N. L. Rice, his 


bearing is admirable; he is the courteous gentleman, the splen- 
did scholar, the patient philosopher, the fair opponent. In dis- 
cussing the Book of Mormon, he exhibits a vulgarity, a bitter- 
ness utterly unaccountable, and entirely unworthy of himself; 
and lastly, and saddest of all, he descends to the low subterfuge 
of falsehood as in this Bently-Rigdon affair. 

One may halt here. The Reverend Mr. Atwater quoted by 
Mr. Schroeder may now tell his little story, in 1873, of his "rec- 
ollection" of Sidney Rigdon's reference to the mounds and oth- 
er antiquities found in some parts of America, and of his say- 
ing before the Book of Mormon was published that "there was 
a book to be published containing an account of these things." 
Dr. Rosa of Painsville, Ohio, also quoted by Mr. Schroeder, can 
now tell, in 1841, of a conversation he had with Sidney Rigdon 
in the early part of 1830, about it being time for a new religion 
to spring up that "mankind were rife, and ready for it;" and 
air his suspicions that Rigdon found his "new religion" in 
Mormonism, and on that and a remembrance of a casual re- 
mark of Rigdon's that he expected to be absent from home a 
few months, build his conclusion that Rigdon "was at least an 
accessory, if not the principal in getting up this farce" 128 — of 
Mormonism. All this I say may be said by these "witnessess," 
but it is of no effect; for if sectarian prejudice and bitterness 
and jealousy, coupled with intellectual pride, can so swerve 
Alexander Campbell from the path direct of truth and fair deal- 
ing, it is not to be marveled at if a thousand little Reverend whif- 
fets spring forward with their timely "recollections," that 
make against the truth. 

(To be Continued.) 

128. American Historical Magazine, November, 1906, p. 532. 


THE two Lincoln steel plate portraits which are printed 
in this number of the American Historical Magazine 
are exceptionally interesting. Both of them are unique 
inasmuch as neither has been heretofore published in 
its present form. For that reason they must be particularly 
attractive to all admirers of Lincoln and an exceptionally import- 
ant contribution to Lincoln pictorial history in this Lincoln 
anniversary year. 

The frontispiece bust portrait is from a drawing which was 
made from life by A. de Szzetter of New York. It is not only an 
artistic piece of work but it is remarkably strong in expressive 
likeness, particularly exhibiting the homely good nature which 
so preeminently characterized the features of the martyred pres- 

The other print is an engraving from a Brady photograph 
which was taken in Washington in the early days of Lincoln's 
presidency. It may have been the first photograph of the presi- 
dent taken after he entered upon office. As it appears in this 
print, it is unique. A reproduction of the head and upper part 
of the body was made years ago as a half-tone illustration, but 
the exact reproduction as it appears in this full life-seated fig- 
ure, has never before been published. 




[This essay was awarded the Colonial Dames' prize for the 
best brief treatise on a subject dealing with colonial Virginia. 
I have thought that it might prove of considerable interest not 
only to Virginians, but also to natives of various other southern 
states, of which Virginia calls herself the "mother." At present 
there is a growing curiosity to know more about the hopes, 
the aspirations, the intellectual endeavors, the spirit of those 
pioneers who struggled to found a civilization amid the forests 
of the Old Dominion; and a clearer view cannot be obtained 
than that found by a study of the quaint writings of those old 
days. I have therefore endeavored to present, in an interest- 
ing way, the thoughts and emotions of the time, as written down 
by our virile but not highly artistic forefathers. Daintiness 
may be lacking, but genuine life never. It is my hope that 
this brief study may arouse other southern students to investi- 
gate the southern foundations of American literature just as 
the New England foundations have been examined— with mi- 
nuteness, with accuracy, with enthusiasm.— The Author.] 


IT has been remarked that American Literature is distinct- 
ly different in its origin from any other literature the world 
has ever known. The development of every other national 
body of letters has been like the growth of a child; it has 
passed through a period of simplicity and even of naivete into 
a stage where it was conscious of its general trend and of its 
intellectual efforts. Certainly the first literature was not known 
to be literature by its creators. The heroic epics, the rough 
sagas, the homely ballads, the Iliad, the Beowulf, the songs of 

*Carl Holliday, M. A., is one of the foremost authorities of the South concern- 
ing the literature of that section of the United States. He has been instructor in the 
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., and professor of literature in Cox Col- 
lege, Atlanta, Ga., and is now, (1909) professor of literature in the Southwestern 
Presbyterian University Clarskville, Tenn. 



Eobin Hood— these were in the bginning the unconscious ef- 
forts of a people striving to express its emotions and its ideals. 
But American literature in its birth was very different. It was 
a conscious effort from the beginning; it was a written litera- 
ture from its earliest conception. Let us not, therefore, expect 
to find in these first intellectual endeavors masterpices 
wrought out from the accumulated deeds, thoughts, and emo- 
tions of a thousand previous years of struggles, victories, and 

"Its origin does not lie in the crude utterances of a virile but 
half-savage race ; but rather in its very beginnings it was the 
product of a cultured, enlighted people. In character it was 
not a pure growth of the native soil, and it had not and never 
has had, as a whole, the national originality, the unmistakable 
native note, such as is found in the writings of France or Ger- 
many or England." 1 

"What, then, was the nature of these earliest writings"? The 
answer is briefly, a literature of information. When that little 
group of bold adventurers assembled in London during Christ- 
mas week, 1606, to prepare for the dangerous voyage and for 
the still more dangrous experiment in a far-away wilderness 
they must have felt that the eyes of all Europe were upon them. 
Drayton, the poet-laureate, declared that they were going forth 
to found a new nation and a new literature, and he spoke with 
more truth -than he realized. 

It was in England an age of great mental activity. Shake- 
speare yet lived ; Francis Bacon thought and wrote : Milton was 
soon to come. Almost daily some new discovery was announced' 
and before the eyes of an amazed people the world had sudden- 
ly doubled its area. There was a quiver in the air; a stimulat- 
ing spirit pervaded all; and every one expected and indeed 
longed for marvelous revelations. Need I say again that our 
first literature was one of information! How the people longed 
for news from this strange land across the seas I For curious,, 
yes, almost unbelievable, tales of wealth and wonders had been 
borne back. And moreover, how crowded and how poor were 

1. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 15. 


the English common folk. "The people," said a preacher of 
the day, "doe swarm in the land as young bees in a hive in 
June, the mighty overcoming the weak." The ruling classes, 
the Church, the common people ; all were anxious to find greater 
room and greater opportunity. As Professor Moses Coit Tyler 
says, 2 "royal influence of favor and disfavor swayed largely 
these new and feeble currents of English life and letters which 
were astir beyond the Atlantic." 

Because of all this we find an astonishingly large amount of 
writings from the scattered colonies of America. True it was 
not a literature of the high creative type ; not many even dared 
to attempt poetry, as did one R. Rich, gentleman, who in his 
' ' Newes from Virginia ' ' sang the colony 's praises in such words 
as these: 

"Great store of fowls, of venison, of grapes and mulberries, 
Chestnuts, walnuts and such like, of fruits and strawberries." 

Perhaps it was well that not many others tempted the muse ! 
But of letters and tracts and small books there was a host. Like 
the American tourist of to-day, every sojourner in the Virginia 
colony was moved by the spirit to write an epistle. However, 
the quality of these efforts— I speak of those in prose,— was 
surprisingly good; for, almost without exception, they were 
composed in strong, energetic English and had in them an ele- 
ment of new life and great wonder that does not fail to attract 
even in our own day. 

And who were these beginners of a new literature! Who set 
moving that spirit which produced a Hawthorne and a Poe, a 
Bryant and a Lanier, a Webster and a Calhoun? Not literary 
men, be it noted at the very beginning of this study; not even 
book-lovers; but men of action, actors in worldly affairs, sol- 
diers of fortune. Generally a hero does the deed and leaves it 
to another man to tell. But we of America have ever been an 
original people, especially in the way of self-advertising, and 
we shall find our earliest heroes not only furnishing the deed, 
but recounting it also. 

2. "History of American Literature." 


Bufus Choate has said that when the Pilgrim Fathers larded, 
they "first fell upon their knees and then upon their ab- 
origines." The Virginia colonists did neither. They were noted 
neither for piety nor energetic cruelty. Gay, reckless, not giv- 
en to work, but ever seeking adventure, they seemingly were 
poor material for the foundation of a lasting nation. And had 
it not been for the firm ability of one man, that foundation 
might speedily have crumbled. 


The significant hint of the future democracy of American life 
and letteis has been noted in the fact that the first leader and 
writer in the Virginia colony bore that most democratic of all 
names, John Smith. 3 John Smith was a strange mingling of 
the audacious warrior and poetic cavalier. He was born in Wil- 
loughby, England, in 1579. While still a boy he enlisted in a 
war against the Turks ; and until his twenty-seventh year he 
was a purposeless wanderer in search of adventure. But in this 
year he joined the Virginia expedition, and henceforth his life 
was to count for much in the progress of the world. Bold, ver- 
satile, persevering, he soon proved his fitness to be the leader 
of the struggling settlement in the wilderness. But 
for his unceasing activities in directing every movement, the 
colony undoubtedly would have perished ; and yet amidst all his 
supervision of forest-clearing, house-building, trading, enforc- 
ing of colonial laws, explorations, and quelling of rebellions, he 
found time to write. " 'A rustless, vain, ambitious, overbear- 
ing, blustering fellow, who made all men either his hot friends t 
or his hot enemies,' he nevertheless belonged to that sane and 
wholesome class of men that can both do and express." 4 

Smith remained with the colonists two years and returned to 
England in the fall of 1609. Remaining there until 1614, he 
then went to the New England coast, returned with a map of 
the section about Cape Cod, and proposed to found a colony in 
that territory. The expedition was ruined, however, by French 
pirates, who captured the ships and sent the captain to prison 

3. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 20. 

4. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 21. 


in Rochelle. Escaping to England, Smith found there an ill- 
concealed feeling of bitterness toward himself; for the unfor- 
tunate attempt had brought sorrow into many an English home. 
But as the years passed, and the colonies at length began to 
prosper, his past endeavors were looked upon with more jus- 
tice, and he came to be considered one of the greatest author- 
ities on explorations and colonization. To use the words of 
Moses Coit Tyler, truly he was "not a doer who is a dumb, not a 
speechmaker who cannot do." 5 His life, so full of events, closed 
in 1631. 

Of course, John Smith's writings cannot come under the 
head of belles-lettres. But such works as "A True Relation of 
Virginia" (1608), "A Map of Virginia" (1612), "New Eng- 
land's Trials" (1620), and "A Generall Historie of Virginia, 
New England, and the Summer Isles" (1624) are of such his- 
torical importance that they are not likely ever to be neglected 
by American scholars. And, aside from their historical attrac- 
tiveness, they possess no small charm in their very expression. 
" 'The True Relation' possesses something of the charm of 
' Robinson Crusoe.' " 6 Dealing as it does with Indian adven- 
tures, travels into an unexplored wilderness, the building of for- 
est-dwellings, the coming and going of friends, the dealings 
with a savage people, it is in fact the story of primitive life, of 
a returning once more to nature and a starting all over. Evi- 
dently John Smith was interested in his work; and his book, 
though scarcely more than a tract, and not at all an intentional 
literary effort, is a manly, cheerful, and hardy contribution to 

The "True Relation" was first sold in 1608 at "the Grey- 
hound in Paul's Church-Yard," on almost the very day of Mil- 
ton's birth and within three blocks of his birth-place. About 
three months later a ship arrived from London bearing a letter 
of complaint from the London stock-holders of the Virginia 
Company. Why had not revenue begun to come in? What was 
the trouble in Virginia? Professor Moses Coit Tyler has given 

5. Tyler's "History of American Literature," Vol. i, p. 119. 

6. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 22. 


Smith's reply the appropriate name of "Hotspur rhetoric." 
There is no mistaking the ring of the doughty Captain's voice: 

"For the charge of this voyage of two or three thousand 
pounds we have not received the value of an hundred pounds. 
. . . From our ship we had not provision in victuals worth 
twenty pounds ; and we are more than two hundred to live upon 
this, the one half sick, the other little better. For the sailors, I 
confess they daily make good cheer : but our diet is a little meal 
and water, and not sufficient of that . . . Captain Rutcliffe 
is now called Sicklemore ... I have sent you him home 
lest the company should cut his throat . . . When you send 
again, I entreat you rather send but thirty carpenters, husband- 
men, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers- 
up of trees' roots, well provided, than a thousand of such as 
we have; for except we be able both to lodge them and feed 
them, the most will consume with want of necessaries, before 
they can be made good for anything. . . . These are the 
causes that have kept us in Virginia from laying such a founda- 
tion that ere this might have given much better content and sat- 
isfaction; but as yet you must not look for any profitable re- 
turns." 7 

But Smith was not merely an unabashed defender of hazar- 
dous undertakings. He had the ability to describe in vivid 
words the strange scenes about him. In his "Map of the Bay 
and the Rivers, with an Annexed Relation of the Countries and 
Nations That Inhabit Them" [such were titles in the good old 
days], he tells most interestingly of many characteristics of the 
lands and people. See his description of old Chief Powhatan: 

"He is of personage, a tall, well proportioned man, with a 
sour look, his head somewhat gray, his beard so thin that it 
seemeth none at all, his age near sixty ; of a very able and hardy" 
body to endure any labor. About his person ordinarily attend- 
eth a guard of forty or fifty of the tallest men his country doth 
afford. Every night upon the four quarters of his house are 
four sentinels, each from other a slight shoot, and at every half 
hour one from the corps de garde doth halloo, shaking his lips 
with his finger between them; unto whom every sentinel doth 
answer round from his stand. If any fail they presently send 
forth an officer that beateth him extremely." 8 

7. "Generall Historie of Virginia," 1. 

8. "Generall Historie of Virginia," I. 


Just here let us hear the captain's description of the truly 
immortal deed of Pocahontas, the daughter of this Powhatan. 
And as we read let us remember that it is the first romance in 
American literature. 

"Here more than two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood 
wondering at him [Smith], as he had been a monster; till Po- 
whatan and his train had put themselves in their greatest brav- 
eries. Before a fire upon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered 
with a great robe, made of Rarowcun skinnes, and all the tayles 
hanging by. On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 or 18 
years, and along on each side the house, two rows of men, and 
behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders 
painted red ; many of their heads bedecked with the white downe 
of Birds; but every one with something; and a great chain of 
white beads about their necks. At his entrance before the King, 
all the people gave a great shout. The Queen of Appamatuck 
was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and an- 
other brought him a bunch of feathers, instead of a towel to dry 
them. Having feasted him after their best barbarous manner 
they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion 
was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as 
many as could laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and 
thereon laid his head and being ready with their clubs, to beate 
out his brains, Pocahontas, the King's dearest daughter, when 
no entreaty could prevaile, got his head in her armes, and laid 
her owne upon his to save him from death; whereat the Emper- 
our was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her 
bells, beads and copper. 

What shall we say of such a man ? Too hot-blooded, too active 
to be a student and a master of literature, he was able, never- 
theless, by this very spiritedness and exuberant enjoyment of 
life's activities to leave to all succeeding writers of America a 
most virile and happy example of vigorously expressed thoughts 
and expressions. Even the writers of his own nation and time 
did not fail to recognize the latent possibilities of his many 
wonderful adventures, and used them without stint. "They 
have acted my fatal tragedies upon the stage, and racked my 
relations at their pleasure," 10 he once complained and it was 

9. "Generall Historie of Virginia," III. 

10. "Epistle Dedicatory, True Travels." 


true. "Hasty and boastful as he was, we find in him a man of 
many noble qualities, an adventurer ready and willing, a hero 
according to many tests. 



Among the venturesome spirits that sailed with Captain 
Smith on the memorable nineteenth of December, 1606, there 
was a young man scarcely twenty years old, named George Per- 
cy. He was from a famous family in English history, his an- 
cestors for at least eight generations having been Earls of 
Northumberland; and he himself in his career as a soldier in 
the Netherlands had provd that the valiant blood had lost none 
of its strength. And in Virginia, too, he showed such traits of 
leadership that next to the incomparable Smith, he was consid- 
ered the ablest man in the colony. When Smith returnd to Eng- 
land in the fall of 1609, Percy, young as he was, was chosen 
president and governor, and served well in that office until the 
arrival of Sir Thomas Gates, in May, 1610. 

And why should this young adventurer be brought into a 
discourse on colonial literature? Well, like many another trav- 
eler of his day, and of later days too, he wrote an account of his 
sight-seeing— "A Discourse of the Plantation of the Southern 
Colony in Virginia by the English." Part of the work appeared 
in "Purchas' Pilgrimes," in 1625, and unfortunately the re- 
mainder is lost; but what we have is indeed interesting. How 
clearly the sufferings of the founders of this nation are brought 
before us. Hear his words : 

"Our men were destroyed with cruel diseases as swellings,' 
nixes, burning fevers, and by wars, and some departed sudden- 
ly ; but for the most part they died of mere famine. There were 
never Englishmen left in a foreign country in such miserie as 
we were in this new discovered Virginia. We watched every 
three nights lying on the bare, cold ground, what weather so- 
ever came warded all the next day, which brought our men to be 
most feeble wretches. Our food was but a small Can of Barley 
sod in water to five men a day, our drink cold water taken out 
of the River, which was at a flood very salt, at a low tide full 

11. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 125. 


of slime and filth, which was the destruction of many of our 
men. Thus we lived for the space of five months in this misera- 
ble distress, not having five able men to man our Bulwarks up- 
on any occasion. If it had not pleased God to have put a terror 
in the Salvages hearts, we had all perished by those wild and 
cruel Pagans, being in that weak estate as we were, our men 
night and day groaning in every corner of the Fort most pitiful 
to hear. If there were any conscience in men, it would make 
their hearts to bleed to hear the pitiful murmurings and out- 
cries of our sick men without relief, every night and day for the 
space of six weeks, some departing out of the world, many times 
three or four in a night, in the morning their bodies trailed out 
of their Cabins like Dogs, to be buried. In this sort did I see 
the mortality of divers of our people." 12 

But it is not all sadness, this story of Percy's. He lingers at 
times over the details of the strange conditions of the country 
and over the characteristics of the curious people who inhabit 
it. Note the fashions of " salvage" ladies in the land of the 
great chief, the Werowance of Rapahanna : 

"There is notice to be taken to know married women from 
Maids. The Maids you shall always see the fore part of their 
head and sides shaven close, the hinder part very long, which 
they tie in a plait hanging down to their hips. The married 
women wear their hair all of a length, and is tied of that fash- 
ion that the Maids ' are. The women kind in this Country doth 
pounce and race their bodies, legs, thighs, arms, and * faces, 
with a sharp iron, which makes a stamp in curious knots, and 
draws the proportion of Fowls, Fish, or Beasts; thin with 
paintings of sundry lively colors, they rub it into the stamp, 
which will never be taken away, because it is dried into the flesh, 
where it is sered. " 13 

We may not linger longer over these curious tales of Percy. 
Have not the quotations given shown that he, like Captain 
Smith, possessed a mastery of clear, lively English and an abil- 
ity to present graphic pictures? Surely these men of action 
give great show of proof to that oft-repeated, even if misquot- 
ed, expression: "Style is the man." 

12. Purchas' "Pilgrimes." 

13. Ibid. 



Some men are made famous through being mentioned by fa- 
mous men. This was almost the case with one, William Strac- 
hey, who sailed on the good ship Sea Venture on the fifteenth 
of May, 1609. Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers were 
in command of that minature fleet of nine small vessels, and 
with such capable leaders the band of colonists hoped to land at 
Jamestown within the usual three months. But the elements 
heed doughty English knights no more than other "folk that 
sail the sea," and eleven long months passed before the broken 
wreck of the expedition drifted into Jamestown. 

Overcome by storms, the ships were scattered far and wide, 
and the little Sea Venture was cast, a shivered hulk, upon the 
Bermuda coast. But such men as Gates and Strachey were not 
easily daunted. After spending the winter there they built from 
the wreckage of the ship two clumsy, little boats, and sailed for 
Jamestown. Any history of America tells what distress they 
found there and how they all were about to desert when Lord 
De La Warr came with supplies and longed-for friends ; but, un- 
fortunately, every history does not tell of that fearful voyage 
across the sea. Let us hear it in Strachey 's own words— from 
his "True Reportory of the Wraeke and Redemption of Sir 
Thomas Gates, Kt., upon and from the Islands of the Bermu- 
das ; his coming to Virginia, and the Estate of that Colony then 
and after under the government of Lord La Warr" (1610). 14 
The title seems a bit forbidding to us concise people of the 
twentieth century; but the story does not depend upon the title 

for merit. We are on the verge of the storm : 


"On St. James his day, July 24, being Monday (preparing 
for no less all the black night before) the clouds gathering thick 
upon us, and the winds singing and whistling most unusually, 
. . . a dreadful storm and hideous began to blow from out 
the Northeast, which, swelling and roaring as it were by fits, 
. . . at length did beat all light from heaven, which like an 
hell of darkness, turned black upon us, so much the more fuller 
of horror, as in such cases horror and fear use to overrun the 

14. Purchas' "Pilgrimes." 


troubled and overmastered senses- of all, which (taken up with 
amazement) the ears lay so sensible to the terrible cries, and 
murmurs of the winds and distraction of our Company as who 
was most armed and best prepared was not a little shaken. . . 

"For four and twenty hours the storm, in a restless tumult, 
had blown so exceedingly, as we could not apprehend in our 
imaginations any possibility of greater violence, yet did we still 
find it, not only more terrible, but more constant, fury added to 
fury, and one storm urging a second, more outrageous than the 
former, whether it so wrought upon our fears, or indeed met 
with new forces. Sometimes strikes in our Ship amongst wo- 
men, and passengers not used to such hurly and discomforts, 
made us look one upon the other with troubled hearts and pant- 
ing bosoms, our clamors drowned in the winds, and the winds 
in thunder. Prayers might well be in the heart and lips, but 
drowned in the outcries of the Officers,— nothing heard that 
could give comfort, nothing seen that might encourage 
hope. . . . 

"Howbeit this was not all; it pleased Grod to bring a greater 
affliction yet upon us, for in the beginning of the storm we had 
received likewise a mighty leak, and the ship in every joint al- 
most having spewed out her Okam, before we were aware . . . 
was grown five foot suddenly deep with water above her ballast, 
and we almost drowned within, whilst we sat looking when to 
perish from above. This, imparting no less terror than danger, 
ran through the whole Ship with much fright and amazement, 
startled and turned the blood and took down the braves of the 
most hardy Mariner of them all, insomuch as he that before 
happily felt not the sorrow of others, now began to sorrow for 
himself, when he saw such a pond of water so suddenly broken 
in, and which he knew could not (without present avoiding) but 
instantly sink him. . . . 

"Once so huge a Sea brake upon the poop and quarter, upon 
us, as it covered our ship from stern to stem, like a garment or 
a vast cloud. It filled her brimful for a while within, from the 
hatches up to the spar deck. This force or confluence of water 
was so violent, as it rushed and carried the Helm man from the 
Helm and wrested the Whipstaffe out of his hand, which so 
flew from side to side, then when he would have seized the same 
again, it so tossed him from starboard to larboard, as it was 
God's mercy it had not split him. It so beat him from his hold, 
and so bruised him, as a fresh man hazarding in by chance fell 
fair with it and by main strength bearing somewhat up, made 
good his place, and with much clamor encouraged and called up- 


on others, who gave her now up, rent in pieces and absolutely 
lost." 15 

William Strachey wrote other works, such as his "For the 
Colony in Virginea Britannia; Laws Divine, Morall, and Mar- 
tiall" (1612), and his "Historie of Travaile in Virginea Bri- 
tannia," 16 (1618?), but he never wrote anything more vivid than 
the description of the storm. Evidently Shakespeare was of 
the same opinion; for turn to the opening scenes of "The 
Tempest ' ' and see if the master has not used that wild word-pic- 
ture. We Americans are noted for our plentiful stock of ideas, 
and even in our very infancy we gave Shakespeare one or two ! 


Goldsmith has portrayed his ideal clergyman in these words : 

"Unpracticed he to fawn, or seek for power 
By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour ; 
Far other aims his heart had learned to prize, 
More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise." 

Alexander Whitaker, (1585-1617), was such a man. "Of all 
the figures in early colonial history, with the possible exception 
of Roger Williams, this man showed the most God-like char- 
acteristics, the most sincere spirit of sacrifice, and the most 
unflagging zeal for the up-lifting of his brother-men." 17 

A graduate of Cambridge University, where his father, Wil- 
liam Whitaker, had long been master of St. John's College, he 
had early gained a comfortable parish in northern England, 
and, through his family connection, his capacity for leadership; 
and his broad learning, might quickly have risen to a lofty posi- 
tion in the service of the English Church. But there was an 
ever-growing conviction in the man's heart that his God was 
calling him to the new world, and "to the wonder of his kin- 
dred and amazement of all that knew him," 18 he resigned his 
pleasant living and all his brilliant prospects, and came as a 

15. Purchas' "Pilgrimes." 

16. Publications of the Hakluyt Society, (1849). 

17. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 29. 

18. Crashawe's "Epistle Dedicatory"; Whitaker's "Good Newes." 


missionary with Sir Thomas Dale, in May, 1611. Well may be 
be called "the apostle to Virginia." Laboring with all his heart, 
undertaking every duty no matter how humble, a living exam- 
ple of his own preaching, he set before the Indians and the col- 
onists, too, such a practical form of Christianity that the entire 
community felt the direct effects. It was while going the round 
of his heavy duties that he met his death by drowning, in June, 

It is no small fame to have been the preacher who baptized 
Pocahontas and married that dusky maid to John Rolfe, and 
thus to have given rise to the vast majority of Virginia's lead- 
ing families ! But it is not because of his being the innocent 
cause of so much earthly pride that we consider Alexander 
Whitaker in a study of early Virginia literature ; rather is it be- 
cause in his zeal he contributed to our earliest literature some 
of its most interesting pages. In 1613 there appeared in Lon- 
don a little book entitled "Good Newes from Virginia." Its sin- 
cerity and earnestness cannot be doubted. Taking a text, like 
the preacher that he is, he expounds most vigorously upon the 
duties of Englishmen toward their benighted brethren, and pro- 
duces indeed a "pithy and godly exhortation interlaced with 
narratives of many particulars touching the country, climate, 
and commodities." 19 

"If we consider," he writes, "the almost miraculous begin- 
ning and continuance of this plantation we must needs confess 
that God hath opened this passage unto us and led us by the 
hand unto this work. For the mariners that were sent hither 
first to discover this Bay of Chesapeake found it only by the 
mere directions of God's providence; for I heard one' of them 
confess that even then, when they were entered within the mouth 
of the Bay, they deemed the place they sought for to have been 
many degrees further. The finding was not so strange, but the 
continuance and upholding of it hath been most wonderful. I 
may fitly compare it to the growth of an infant, which hath been 
afflicted from his birth with some grievous sickness that many 
times no hope of life hath remained and yet it liveth still. Again 
if there were nothing else to encourage us, yet this one thing 
may stir us up to go on cheerfully with it: that the devil is a 

19- Crashawe's "Epistle Dedicatory"; Whitaker's "Good Newes." 


capital enemy against it, and continually seeketh which way to 
hinder the prosperity and good proceedings of it. Yea, hath 
heretofore so far prevailed by his instruments, the covetous 
hearts of many backsliding adventurers at home, and also by 
his servants here— some striving for superiority, others by mur- 
murings, mutinies, and plain treasons, and others by fornica- 
tion, profaneness, idleness and such monstrous sins— that he 
had almost thrust out of his kingdom, and had indeed quitted 
this land of us, if God had not then (as one awakened out of 
sleep) stood up and sent us means of great help when we 
needed most, and expected least relief. 

"Let the miserable condition of these naked slaves of the 
devil move you to compassion toward them. They acknowledge 
that there is a great good God but know Him not, having the 
eyes of their understanding as yet blinded; wherefore they 
serve the devil for fear after a most base manner, sacrificing 
sometimes (as I have here heard) their own children to him. 
. . . Their priests (whom they call Quiokosoughs) are no 
other but such as our English witches are. They live naked in 
body, as if their shame of their sin deserved no covering. Their 
names are as naked as their body. . . . 

". . . They are of body lusty, strong and very nimble: 
they are a very understanding generation, quick of apprehen- 
sion, sudden in their dispatches, subtle in their dealings, ex- 
quisite in their inventions, and industrious in their labor. I 
suppose the world hath no better marksmen with their bow and 
arrows than they be; they will kill birds flying, fishes swimming 
and beasts running: they shoot also with marvellous strength. 
They shot one of our men (being unarmed) quite through the 
body and nailed both his arms to his body with one arrow. . . . 
The service of their God is answerable to their life being per- 
formed with great fear and attention and many strange dumb 
shows used in the same, stretching forth their limbs and strain-' 
ing their body much like to the counterfeit women in England 
who feign themselves bewitched or possessed of some evil spir- 
it." 20 

Thus the little book continues. His plea for the savages has 
a certain sense of dignity about it, a certain disinterestedness 
and high nobility. But we of to-day find more pleasure in such 
interesting descriptions as those just read; for here all stiff- 
ness, all conventionality of style, all signs of affectation are lost 

20. "Good Newes from Virginia." 


in the genuine wonder in which the cultured Cambridge man 
stands before the naked savage of the wilderness. Such meet- 
ings were not unusual in that time. The days of Shakespeare 
had many such characters as W'hitaker,— men of superior intel- 
lectual power, who in a quiter age might have become zealous 
students and deep thinkers and elegant writers, but who in 
those days of marvelous discoveries and wild adventures, felt 
called upon to go forth "to dare and to do." 


Even in a paper dealing with so limited a field as ours one 
may not discuss in deserved detail all the interesting writings 
of those old days. I have said in opening this study that their 
number was legion. We may not linger over gentle John Rolfe, 
who, in such a plain yet winsome manner, told why he married 
the first American heroine, Pocahontas. Read some time the 
quaint "Coppie of the gentle-man's letters to Sir Thomas Dale, 
that after married Powhatan's daughter, containing the rea- 
sons moving him thereunto." 21 Suffice to say here that though 
not "ignorant of the heavie displeasure which almighty God 
conceived against the sons of Levie and Israel for marrying 
strange wives, nor of the inconveniences which may thereby 
arise," he confesses that he can have no rest until he makes her 
a Christian; that is— his wife. 


I have quoted sparingly from E. Eich's alleged "poem," 
"Newes from Virginia;" but again the limited length of this 
study will not allow me to linger over his work ; for which both 
R. Rich and we ourselves are to be congratulated, as neither 
would find great joy in the investigation. It is enough to de- 
clare that his efforts literally contain more truth than poetry. 


Another of these numerous writers whom we shall have to 
pass with but a word was a certain or rather a very uncertain 

21. Printed in Hamor's "True Discourse" (1615). 


Colonel Norwood. Almost nothing is known of the man save 
that he was a near relative of the famous Governor Berkeley 
and made a dangerous voyage to America in 1649. Hear these 
few words from his " Voyage to Virginia" ( 16501 ). 22 

". . . the famine grew sharp upon us. Women and chil- 
dren made dismal cries and grievous complaints. The infinite 
number of rats that all the voyage had been our plague, we now 
were glad to make our prey to feed on; and as they were in- 
snared and taken, a well grown rat was sold for sixteen shill- 
ings as a market rate. Nay, before the voyage did end (as I 
was credibly inform 'd) a woman great with child offered twen- 
ty shillings for a rat, which the proprietor refusing, the woman 

"My greatest impatience was of thirst, and my dreams were 
all of cellars, and taps running down my throat, which made my 
waking much the worse by that tantalizing fancy. Some relief 
I found very real by the captain's favour in allowing me a 
share of some butts of small claret he had concealed in a pri- 
vate cellar for a dead lift. It wanted a mixture of water for 
qualifying it to quench thirst, however, it was a present reme- 
dy, and a great refreshment to me." 


This speaking of wine-cellars and flowing taps and butts of 
claret is not at all a bad introduction to the study of another 
writer of colonial Virginia. His name was John Pory, and, ac- 
cording to his friends, he followed altogether too much "the 
custom of strong potations." Indeed he seemed to be on the 
road to ruin when certain of these friends secured for him the 
position of secretary of the Virginia colony. Born about 1570, ' 
he was graduated from Cambridge University, where he re- 
ceived also the master's degree, and for some time made a 
special study of history, geography, and commerce. He was a 
brilliant man, the efficient translator of an Italian work, "A 
Geographical Historie of Africa," a member of parliament at 
thirty-five and a man apparently having a great future before 
him. But almost fifty years of his life had now passed, and all 
these brilliant prospects had realized little fruit. 

22. Reprinted in Force's "Historical Tracts." 


Under such conditions it was that he came to America. 
Scarcely had he arrived at Jamestown when he became one of 
the principal figures in colonial life. He was made a member of 
the council, and was appointed speaker of that memorable house* 
of burgesses which met on July 30, 1619,— the first body of rep- 
resentatives ever elected in the Virginia colony. But among 
colonial Virginians, a man was not likely to become a teetotal- 
er, and Pory's following of "the custom of strong potation" 
was altogether too strenuous to allow much attention to other 
duties. Consequently we find him in 1621 giving up all offices 
in the colony and returning to England. In 1623 he made a 
brief trip to Virginia to make a report for the king, and then, 
after four almost fruitless years spent in his native land, he 
died in September, 1635. 

Pory wrote no books; he was too busy at a more congenial 
occupation. But he wrote some most interesting letters and ac- 
counts of his adventures in the Old Dominion. Here, for in- 
stance, is a specimen of Indian hospitality: 

"Not long after Namenacus, the king of Pawtuxunt, came to 
us to seeke for Thomas Salvage our Interpreter. Thus insinu- 
ating himself e, hee led us into a thicket, where all sitting down, 
hee shewed us his naked breast ; asking if wee saw any def ormi- 
tie upon it, wee told him, No. 'No more,' said hee, 'is the inside, 
but as sincere and pure; therefore come freely to my Countrie 
and welcome' ;— which wee promised wee would within six weeks 
after. ... 

" ... Passing Russel's He and Onaucoke, wee arrived 
at Pawtuxunt. . . . But here arriving at Attoughcomoco 
the habitation of Namenacus and Wamanato, his brother, long 
wee staied not ere they came aboord us with a brass Kettle, 
as bright without as within, full of boyled Oisters. . . . 
Wamanato brought mee first to his house, where hee shewed 
mee his wife and children, and many Corn-fields. . . . The 
next day hee presented mee twelve Bever skinnes and a Canow, 
which I requited with such things to his content, that hee prom- 
ised to keepe them whilst hee lived, and burie them with him 
being dead. Hee much wondered at our Bible, but much more 
to heare it was the Lawe of our God, and the first chapter of 
Genesis expounded of Adam and Eve, and simple marriage ; to 
which hee replyed, hee was like Adam in one thing, for hee never 
had but one wife at once." 23 

23. In Smith's "Generall Historie of Virginia." 


Doubtless Pory was not without that sense of humor and that 
strain of philosophy which make a man at home wherever he 
may be. Writing from ''James Citty" to Sir Dudley Carleton, 
in September, 1619, he thus expresses his opinion of colonial 
affairs : 

"Nowe that your lordship may knowe that we are not the ver- 
iest beggars in the worlde our cowekeeper here of James citty 
on Sundays goes accowtered all in freshe flaming silke; and a 
wife of one that in England had professed the black arte, not 
of a scholler, but of a collier of Croydon, weares his rough 
bever hatt with a faire perle hattband and a silken suite there- 
to correspondent. But to leave the Populace and to come high- 
er:— the Governor here, who at his first coining, besides a great 
deale of worth in his person, brought only his" sword with'him, 
was at his late being in London, together with his lady, out of 
his meer gettings here able to disburse very near three thou- 
sand pounds to furnishe himselfe for his vovage. And once 
within seven years I am persuaded {absit invidia verba) that 
the Governor's place here may be as profitable as the Lord 
Deputies' of Ireland. . . . 

"At my first coining hither the solitary uncouthness of this 
place compared with those parts of Christendome or Turky 
where 1 had been; and likewise my being sequestred from all 
occurrents and passages which are "so rife there, did not a little 
vexe me. And yet in these five months of my continuance here, 
there have come at one time or another eleven saile of ships in- 
to this river; but fraighted more with ignorance than with anv 
other marchandize. At lengthe being hardned to this custome 
of abstinence from curiosity, I am resolved wholly to minde my 
business here and nexte after my pen to have some good booke 
always in store, being in solitude the best and choicest com- 
pany. Besides among these christall rivers and odoriferous > 
woods I doe escape muche expense, envye, contempte, vanity, 
and vexation of minde. ' ' 

Verily philosphy is a very present help in time of trouble! 


It has been said that "once a Virginian always a Virginian." 
Therefore I am determined to include in this study one John 
Hammond, who was in reality a Marylander. However, he had 


lived in Virginia nineteen years, and what further excuse 
should I desire? He wrote a book named ''Leah and Rachel, 
or the Two Fruitful Sisters. Virginia and Maryland," which 
title, by the way. according to Biblical history, would give Vir- 
ginia something of a shadowy reputation for homeliness and 
trickery. Let us. however, pass that by as a mere oversight 
on the part of honest John Hammond. For he was indeed an 
honest man. Plain, blunt, shrewd, he at once calls to mind the 
practical sterling character of Benjamin Franklin. He was 
'•the first man to express in literature a true love and an un- 
compromising admiration for America." 81 

Having emigrated to Virginia in 1635. he remained in that 
colony for nineteen years and then removed to Maryland, 
where he resided for two years. Because of disturbances in 
that colony he was obliged to return to England; but scarcely 
had he set foot on his native shore when he began to long once 
more for his adopted home. 

"It is that country.*' he exclaims, "in which I desire to 
spend the remnant of my days, in which I covet to make my 
grave." How limited, how mean, how starved the life of the 
English people seemed to him! 

••They itch out their wearisome lives in reliance of other 
men's charities an uncertain and unmanly expectation. . . I 
have seriously considered when I have (passing the streets) 
heard the several cries and noting the commodities and the 
worth of them they have carried and cried up and down, how 
possibly a livelihood could be exacted out of them, as to cry 
'matches, 1 'small coal.' 'blacking,' 'pen and ink,' 'thread,' 
'laces.' and a hundred more such kind of trifling merchan- 

But thing- are very different in Virginia. 

• ' Several way- of advancement there are and employments 
both for the learned and laborer, recreation for the gentry, 
traffic for the adventure: 3 itions for the ministry (and 

oh that God would stir up the hearts of more to go over, such 

24. Holliday's 'History :: Southern Literature," p. 37. 

25. "Leah and Rachel.'' 


as would teach good doctrine, and not paddle in faction or state 
matters . . . ). 

''It is known (such preferment hath this country rewarded 
the industrious with) that some from being wool-hoppers and 
of as mean and meaner employment in England have there 
grown great merchants, and attained to the most eminent ad- 
vancements the country afforded. . . . '"-' : 

Hammond admits that preachers are badly needed in Vir- 
ginia and that 

"very few of good conversation would adventure thither. 
. . . Yet many came, such as wore black coats and could 
babble in a pulpit, roar in a tavern, exact from their parishion- 
ers, and rather bv their dissoluteness destroy than feed their 
flocks." 27 

But such a fault is only a minor one. and, convinced that 
Virginia is the paradise of the world, Hammond clinches his 
argument with the positive statement that 

"therefore those that shall blemish Virginia any more, do 
but like the Dog bark against the Moon, until they be blind and 
weary; and Virginia is now in that secure growing condition, 
that like the Moon so barked at. she will pass on her course, 
niaugre all detractors, and a few years will bring it to that 
glorious happiness that many of her calumniators will inter- 
cede to procure admittance thither, when it will be hard to be 
attained to." 28 

Here. then, is the beginning of that patriotism which within 
a few years was to rouse the people to a spirited and signifi- 
cant rebellion, and which exactly a century after that rebellion 
roused them to a world-changing revolution. Old John Ham- 
mond, with his uncouth but shrewd way of telling the truth, was 
but a forerunner of the irresistible movement. 


We have observed that very little poetry was written in the 
Virginia colony in these early days. E. Rich's attempt has 

26. ibid. 

27. Ibid. 

28. "Leah and Rachel." 


been sufficiently commented upon. The versatile Smith also 
essayed at least one poem, "The Sea Mark," but it is almost 
as disastrous a wreck as the one he attempted to describe. One 
poet, however, among those early adventurers, sang with such 
vigor and beauty that to this day his work is looked upon as a 
real contribution to belles-lettres. This man was George 
Sandys (1578-1644). Tradition says that he walked the crook- 
ed and stump-bedecked streets of "James Citty, " ornamented 
with a costly lace collar and a most carefully waxed mustache ; 
but be all that as it may, he was known both in Virginia and in 
England as a man of exceptional intellect and attainment. A 
son of Edward Sandys, archbishop of York, he was a brother 
of that greatly feared statesman who caused James I. to ex- 
claim, "Choose the Devil if you will, but not Sir Edwin 
Sandys!" A student of Oxford, a traveler in many lands, the 
author of a well-known poem, "A Hymn to my Redeemer," 
written, it is said, within the Holy Sepulchre itself, he was 
looked upon as a man of great possibilities. But he had yet 
another ground for great expectations ; for shortly before his 
departure for America he had brought forth a translation of 
the first five books of Ovid so pure, so vigorous, so excellent in 
many ways that praise was unbounded. 

There was great disappointment when the friends of Sandys 
discovered that he was going to America. Could the muses 
survive in that vast wilderness? Many urged him to remain 
in his homeland, and the poet Drayton felt called upon to en- 
courage and sustain him. 

"Go on with Ovid, as you have begun 

With the first five books ; let your numbers run 

Glib as the former; so shall it live long 

And do much honor to the English tongue. 

Entice the Muses thither to repair; 

Entreat them gently; train them to that air: 

For thy from hence may thither hap to fly. ' ' 

It would seem that there was indeed grave danger of their 
flying back to England; for the duties of the colonial offices 
which he held were arduous, and little time was the poet's own. 
Yet, in spite of the fact, as his dedication declares, that it had 


"wars and tumults to bring it to light, instead of the Muses," 
the remainder of the "Metamorphoses" was finished in 1626. 
This work was as highly praised as were the first books, soon 
sold into several editions, and as a result the poet began to long- 
to be once more among his appreciative friends in England. 
Moreover, his somewhat high-strung nature had led him into 
frequent clashes with the colonists, and he was weary of strife. 
We find him, therefore, leaving Jamestown in 1631, and re- 
turning to Kent, England, where he "after his travaile over 
the world, retired himself for his poetry and contemplation." 

Professor Moses Coit Tyler has called Sandys' translation 
"the first utterance of the conscious literary spirit articulated 
in America." 29 Judged by any standard of criticism, it is a 
highly excellent effort, but considered with the circumstances 
under which it was written, it is nothing short of astonishing. 
Extremely refined, and certainly scholarly, it at the same time 
possesses that virility which is necessary in a worthy transla- 
tion. Oftentimes Sandys seems to catch the very spirit of the 
ancient singer, and to speak, not from a book in a foreign 
tongue, but from his own soul. Space will not permit of many 
selections, but the following often admired one will serve to 
show the vigor and vividness of the whole. King Tereus has 
been unfaithful to his spouse, Procne, and has cruelly debased 
her sister, Philomela. In her bitter ire Procne slays her be- 
loved son, serves him cooked for the king's table, and awaits 
with joy the consequences. The king eats heartily of the ban- 
quet, and then asks for his little son. 

"Procne could not disguise her cruel joy, 

In full fruition of her horrid ire, 

'Thou hast,' said she, 'within thee thy desire.' 

He looks about, asks where ; and while again 

He asks and calls, all bloody with the slain 

Forth like a Fury, Philomela flew 

And at his face the head of Itys threw; 

Nor ever more than now desired a tongue 

To express the joy of her revenged wrong. 

He with loud outcries doth the board repel, 

And calls the Furies from the depths of hell ; 

29. "History of American Literature," vol. I, p. 154. 


Now tears his breast, and strives from thence in vain 

To pull the abhorred food; now weeps amain 

And calls himself his son's unhappy tomb; 

Then draws his sword and through the guilty room 

Pursues the sisters, who appear with wings 

To cut the air; and so they did. One sings 

In words ; the other near the house remains 

And on her breast yet bears her murder's stains, 

He, swift with grief and fury, in that space 

His person changed. Long tufts of feathers grace 

His shining crown; his sword a bill became; 

His face all armed; whom we a lapwing name." 30 

This is the work, be it remembered, of a poet singing amidst 
the hardships of the Virginia wilderness. Truly "wars and 
tumults" brought it forth. Yet, who can say that something 
of its vigor is not due to that very intensity with which circum- 
stances compelled him to write, and, also, to that vast primi- 
tiveness and never-wearying freshness of Nature about him? 

What shall we say in concluding this study of the first period 
of colonial Virginia literature? It approaches greatness in but 
one instance, and yet all of it is decidedly interesting. It is 
so "human," so virile, so full of wonder and renewed life. 
True, it is for the most part geographical and descriptive, but 
its writers knew that they were telling astounding things, and 
each wrote with all his heart. In only one instance have we 
detected the voice of patriotism; but that one instance is clear 
and unmistakable. In the next period, however, we shall see 
that germ of love grow and spread until it has entered the 
heart of every colonist, caused a mighty revolution, and 
brought forth a new nation. 

{To be Continued.) 

30. Sandy's "Ovid," VI. 


IN 1794 



EREWITH, concluded from the November, 1908, 
number of this magazine, is a transcript of docu- 
ments found among the papers of the late Colonel 
William Claus of Niagara, Ontario, for many years 
the deputy-superintendent of the British Indian department for 
upper Canada. As has been already said, it seems probable 
that they were written by John Chew, an officer in the same de- 
partment, for the information of Major-General Simcoe, the 
lieutenant-governor of the province. 

Camp on a branch of the Wabash 95- miles from the Glaise. 
Saturday, June 28th. 

Continued on the same road leading to Fort Greenville S. by 
W. six miles marching in twelve open files. Twenty-five Min- 
goes joined. The number of deer killed this day computed at 
two hundred and as many turkeys. A Miami Indian came into 
camp and says that Wells had killed five more of his nation 
near the Miami towns. The number of men this da} 7 in camp 
amounts to 1,159, one hundred and nine of them without arms. 

This night ten men to be posted on the Greenville road ; bells 
stopped, horses tied up and the men to have their arms in order. 
Cutting off the ammunition between the forts and the Ohio is 
the only project by which we could promise success, but as the 
Northern Indians take the lead we are forced to change our 
course to-morrow for Fort Recovery, where nothing effectual 
can be done, but on the contrary the means perhaps of discover- 
ing our force will put the enemy upon their guard. 

Camp 120 miles from the Glaise. 

Sunday, June 29th. 
Detached twelve men to take a prisoner in order to get infor^ 
mation respecting the force of Wayne's army, and when the pro- 



vision brigade is to set off from Fort Washington. About ninety 
Wyandotts joined. John Norton is supposed to have deserted 
to the enemy. 

Camp before Fort Recovery, 128 miles computed from the 

June 30th. 

Our spies came in and gave information of a vast number of 
post horses being arrived at Fort Recovery last night, and prob- 
ably would return this morning, consequently marched west four 
miles ; came upon the van of the brigade, made an attack and 
killed sixteen men, took four prisoners, 300 pack-horses, thirty 
bullocks and a few light horses. The garrison attempted to 
give them assistance by sending out the light horse, but they 
were soon driven in again. In this attack we had only three men 
killed, but the Indians were so animated [that they] kept up a 
continued fire for a whole day upon the fort by which they lost 
seventeen men killed and as many wounded. I am sorry to say 
that for want of good conduct this affair is far from being so 
complete as might be expected. Captain Reaulvin was shot thro ' 
the body very near the heart, but perhaps not mortal. 

The garrison at Fort Recovery is 350, twenty Chickasaws 
and a party of light horse. Fort Recovery consists of block- 
houses, mounted with cannon and picketed between. The fort 
kept up a continual fire and even now and then a shell, together 
with small arms, so as we were not able to bring off some of 
the dead and wounded. 

Four Wyandotts met a party of Chickasaws and had one 
wounded and another killed or taken prisoner. Between Forts 
Recovery and Greenville they have about one hundred Chicka- 
saws to serve as scouts and expect some hundreds more to come 
as a prisoner says. Wells, May and the Chickasaw chief were 
killed in the attack. Had we two barrels of powder Fort 
Recovery would have been in our possession with the help of 
Sinclair's cannon. 

Camp E. N. E. from Fort Recovery on the head of the Wabash 

July 1st, 1794. 
This day we buried our dead and carried off our wounded 


to this place. One Chickasaw more killed. The Lake Indians 
all went off this day. General Wayne is to commence his cam- 
paign abont the middle of next month. He expects an augmen- 
tation to his force of abont 3,000 militia from Kentucky and 
1,000 Chickasaws and Chocktaws ; he is to build a fort at the 
Glaise and proceed from thence towards Detroit. Captain Gib- 
son, commandant at the fort, is killed. 

July 2d . 
After the Lake Indians went off, the whole army was break- 
ing up, but a message came from the Delawares that they were 
(at last) upon the march and would join this day; the Four 
Nations in consequence will wait until their arrival, aud if they 
can agree to proceed from hence in a circular route to Fort 
Hamilton, where they ought to have gone at first. Instead of 
having about 2,000 men as was expected, we will not now have 
above 500. Such a disappointment never was met with. 

(sg.) J- C. 

John Norton found, he being lost in the woods for several 
days, as he says. The Delawares joined. A council of war was 
held and it was unanimously agreed that it was better for the 
army to return to the Glaise since all the Lake Indians at all 
events were going back and the country now alarmed so as to 
prevent us making any stroke upon the provision-brigades and 
also that there was the greatest probability that Wayne would 
not turn out to fight till the Kentucky militia were arrived ; the 
Delawares in the meantime to keep a lookout and watch the 
motions of the enemy. 

The number of the enemy killed in the last attack cannot be 
ascertained. A great many must have been killed when they 
came out of the fort, together with several shot through the 
embrasures. A great groaning was heard in the fort, so that 
the dead and wounded may be nearer fifty than the number 
before mentioned, that being the number only of those we have 
seen. I must observe with grief that the Indians never had it 
in their power to do more and have done so little. It is not 
above eighty miles from the Glaise to Fort Recovery and can be 
rid in one day. 




Collateral Families of Scotland 

FROM the beginnings of its long career the house of 
Bruce became connected in marriage, generation after 
generation, with most of the powerful families of Scot- 
land. The Bruce strength as claimant to the throne of 
Scotland was decidedly reenforced by these alliances, which 
also added the increased distinction of notable ancestral tradi- 
tions through various collateral lines. The sons and daughters 
of Bruce were naturally sought in marriage by the other noble 
families with whom they were associated, and especially since 
few of those had any trace of royal descent such as made the 
Braces conspicuous among their contemporaries. Almost alone 
in rivalry on the ground of this royal origin were the Baliols 
and the Cumyns who traced to the ancient kingly house of Scot- 
land the same as the Braces. But even they, notable though 
they were, had not behind them the royal ancestry in other lines 
that the Braces possesed. 

Genealogically, therefore, the history of the Braces clearly 
includes the history of the largest proportion of the prominent 
families of Scotland from the year 1000 onward, and after- 
wards of many of the foremost noble families of England as 
well. So far as the marriages of the Bruces, either on the male 
or female lines, into these families is concerned, the distinction 
achieved by them becomes part of the distinction naturally be- 
longing to the Bruce stock. In other chapters of this book 
special attention has been given to the inheritances that came 
to the Bruces through marriage and intermarriage into several 
of the more conspicuous families of that age, such as the Stew- 
arts and the Cavendishes. Scarcely of lesser interest is the his- 




tory of other families, of lesser fame only to those just men- 

By the marriage of Lady Mary, daughter of Donald, the tenth 
earl of Mar, to King Robert Bruce L, the line of one of the old- 
est noble houses of Scotland was connected with that of Bruce. 
Concerning the title of Mar, Lord Hailes remarks that it is 
one of the earldoms whose origin has been lost in the mists of 
antiquity. The first earl of Mar of whom there is any record is 
Martacus who was living under King Malcolm Canmore in 
1065. Gratnach, son of Martacus, is recorded as one of the wit- 
nesses to the foundation charter given by King Alexander I. to 
the monastery at Scone in 1114. Morgundus, son of Gratnach, 
was the third earl of Mar, and lived in the time of King Mal- 
colm IV. Gillocher, son of Morgundus, was living in 1163 and 
was the fourth earl of Mar. 

Morgund, son of Gillocher, was living in 1171 and was the 
fifth earl of Mar. According to a curious writing preserved by 
the historian Selden, he received in 1171 from King William I. 
a renewal of the investures of the earldom. He donated much 
property to the church and gave lands to the priory of St. An- 
drew's "for the welfare of the souls of himself and his wife 
Agnes." He had five sons: Gilbert, who was the sixth earl of 
Mar; Gilchrist, who was the seventh earl of Mar; Duncan, who 
was the eighth earl of Mar; Malcolm and James. 

Duncan, third son of the preceding, became the eighth earl 
of Mar, succeeding his two elder brothers who died without is- 
sue. He was living in the reign of King Alexander II. and 
made donations to the church of St. Mary of Monymunk, being 
also a benefactor of the monks of Culdees. He died some time 
before 1234. He married Isabella, daughter of William, son of 
Nessius, lord of Latherisk. 

William, son of the preceding, succeeded his father and be- 
came the ninth earl of Mar. He was a trusted counsellor of 
King Alexander III. and was one of the nobles who guaranteed 
the treaties of Scotland with England in 1237 and 1244. When 
the party of Henry III. prevailed in Scotland in 1255 he was 
removed from his official position in the government of King 


Alexander, but in 1258 he was chosen a regent of Scotland, and 
in 1264 was made great chamberlain of Scotland. He was sent 
on a special mission to King Henry III. of England in 1270 and 
died shortly after that time. He married Elizabeth Cumyn, 
daughter of William Cumyn, earl of Buchan. She died in 1267. 
He had two sons, Donald and Duncan. 

Donald, eldest son of the preceding, was the tenth earl of 
Mar. He was knighted by King Alexander III. at Scone, Sep- 
tember 29, 1270. He was one of the Scottish nobles who, in 
February 1283-4, bound themselves to support the right of suc- 
cession of Margaret of Norway to the throne of Scotland in 
the contingency that King Alexander III. should die without 
leaving a male heir. He was witness to the contract between 
Margaret of Scotland and King Eric of Norway in 1281, and 
was otherwise prominent in all the great events of his age. He 
died in 1294. His daughter, Lady Isabel, married King Robert 
Bruce I., and his daughter, Lady Mary, married Kenneth, the 
third earl of Sutherland. 

Gratney, son of the preceding, succeeded his father in the 
earldom in 1294. He died some time before 1300. He married 
Christiana Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick, 
and sister of King Robert Bruce. Besides his son Donald, he 
had a daughter who married Sir John Menteith. 

Donald, son of the preceding, became the twelfth earl of Mar 
upon the death of his father in 1300. He was intimately asso- 
ciated with his royal uncle, King Robert Bruce, in the early 
campaigns of that monarch. When the Bruce was defeated in 
1306 the earl of Mar was made a prisoner by the English and 
was detained in captivity until the battle of Bannockburn in 
1314. He was one of the party of Scotch prisoners, which in- 
cluded the wife, sister, and daughter of Bruce, who after that 
event were exchanged for the earl of Hereford. For a short 
time he resided in England, but in 1318 he was a member of the 
parliament that met at Scone. He was appointed by King Ed- 
ward II. of England as the guardian of the castle of Bristol 
which he afterwards delivered to the queen, and himself re- 
turned to Scotland. In the invasion conducted into England by 



Randolph and Douglas in 1327 lie had a small command. After 
the death of Randolph, who was then regent of the kingdom, 
Mar was elected by parliament to the vacancy. As regent he 
assumed command of the Scottish army, but was defeated by 
Edward Baliol in 1332 and killed in the rout that followed. He 
married Isabel, daughter of Sir Alexander Stewart of Bonkill, 
and had, besides his son Thomas, a daughter Margaret. 

Thomas, son of the preceding, succeeded to the earldom of 
Mar. He was conspicuous in public transactions in the time of 
King David II., and held many important official positions. He 
was entrusted with the mission to England to plead for the lib- 
eration of King David II. from captivity in 1351. When King- 
David was released in 1357 he was one of the seven lords of 
Scotland from whom three were selected as hostages for the 
fulfillment of the terms of the treaty. He was Great Chamber- 
lain of Scotland in 1358 and ambassador to England in 1362. 
He held many lands and was made a pensioner by King Ed- 
ward III. He was married three times, but died without issue 
and with him the male line of the earls of Mar became extinct. 

"No surname in Scotland can boast of a more noble origin 
than that of Dunbar; being sprung from the Saxon kings of 
England, the princes and earls of Northumberland." 1 

Crinan, the first of the family of whom there is any record, 
was a nobleman before the conquest of England by William of 
Normandy. He was probably of the royal line of Athol, for it 
is recorded that Crinan was the father of Duncan who attacked 
Macbeth in 1045. The Irish annalists say that Crinan, the ab-, 
bott of Dunkeld, and many with him, even twenty heroes, were 
engaged in that affair. Crinan married Algitha, daughter of 
Uchtred, earl of Northumberland, by Elgiva, his wife, who was 
a daughter of King Ethelbert of England. 

Maldred, was a son of the preceding. 

Cospatric, son of the preceding, was in Scotland before 1068. 
He was created earl of Northumberland by William the Con- 
queror, but was soon deprived of that honor on account of some 

i. Douglas' "Baronage of Scotland." 


disagreement with his royal master. Thereupon he fled to Scot- 
land where he was received by King Malcolm Canmore who 
gave to him Dunbar and lands adjoining. Not only was he an 
earl but he became a monk of Durham, and dying in December, 
1069, was buried in the monks' burying ground at Durham. 

Cospatric, son of the preceding, was the second earl. He 
was a great benefactor to the abbey of Kelso. He died August 
16, 1139. 

Cospatric, son of the preceding, belonged to the brotherhood 
of Kelso. He died in 1147. 

Cospatric, eldest son of the preceding, was the fourth earl. 
He founded the Cistercian convents of Coldstream and Eccles, 
in Berwick County, and was a benefactor of the abbey of Mel- 
rose. He died in 1166, leaving two sons. 

Waldere, eldest son of the preceding, was the fifth earl, but 
the first to have the territorial designation of Dunbar. He 
was one of the hostages for the due performance of the treaty 
for the liberation of King William I. He died in 1182. He 
married Aelina and left two sons and one daughter. 

Patricius, or Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the 
sixth earl. He was justiciary of Lothian and keeper of Ber- 
wick. In 1218 he founded the House of the Eed Friars at Dun- 
bar, and when advanced in years retired to a monastery. He 
died in 1232. He married, first, Ada, daughter of King Wil- 
liam the Lion ; second, Christina. By his first wife he had four 
sons and one daughter. 

Patrick Dunbar, eldest son of the preceding, was the seventh 
earl in 1232. He was a powerful noble of the first rank and was 
a crusader under King Louis IX. He gave a house to the 
monks of Dryebergh and lands to Melros. In 1235 he com- 
manded the army sent against Thomas Dowmac-Allan of Gal- 
loway, the usurper, and made him submit. He was a witness 
to the treaty between King Alexander II. of Scotland and King 
Henry II. of England at York in 1237, and one of the guaran- 
tors of it, and also of another treaty in 1244, between the same 
monarchs. He was killed at the siege of Damietta in 1248. He 
married Eupheme, second daughter of Walter, high steward of 


Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the eighth earl. 
Taking a prominent and active part in Scotch politics, he stood 
with the English party. After the death of King Alexander 
III. he was one of the regents, and one of "the seven earls of 
Scotland," a body wholly distinct from the other estates of the 
kingdom. He died in 1289. He was the first to sign himself 
earl of March, which he did in 1248. He commanded the left 
wing of the Scottish army at Largs. He married Christiana 
Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale. She 
founded "ane house of religione in ye toune of Dunbar." 

Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the ninth earl of 
Dunbar and also bore the title of earl of March. He was sur- 
named Blackbeard. He was a steadfast supporter of the Eng- 
lish interests, in 1298 was King Edward's lieutenant in Scot- 
land, and in 1300 was on the English side at the siege of Carla- 
verock. He married Marjory Comyn, daughter of Alexander 
Comyn, earl of Buchan, and as his wife sided with the Scottish 
party Dunbar was not always able to meet the demands of feal- 
ty to the English sovereign. 

Patrick Dunbar, son of the preceding, was the tenth earl. 
He was with his father at Carlaverock and after the battle of 
Bannockburn assisted King Edward III. to escape. Making- 
peace with King Robert Bruce, he was appointed governor of 
Berwick castle and valiantly held that fortress against King 
Edward III. At the battle of Durham he commanded the left 
wing of the Scottish army. He died in 1369. He married 
Agnes, daughter of Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray. His , 
countess, known in history as Black Agnes, was a grand-niece 
of King Robert Bruce. In January 1337-8, during a siege of 
nineteen weeks, she made a gallant and successful defence of 
the castle of Dunbar against the assault of the English led by 
the earl of Salisbury. This affair is memorable in Scottish an- 
nals and has been the subject of many a minstrel's song. 

In an interpolated passage in Fordun's monumental work on 
early Scotland 2 is the following account of the origin of the 
name of Scrimgeour. 

2. "Scotochronicon," by John of Fordun. 


"Early in the reign of King Alexander I, who ascended the 
Scottish throne in 1107, some of the men of Mearns and Moray 
assaulted the residence of his majesty, who escaped by the as- 
sistance of one of his bed chamber men, called Alexander Car- 
ron, through a private passage. The King raising forces went 
in pursuit of the rebels and came in sight of them on the other 
side of the Spey. The river was then high ; but the King giving 
his standard to Carron, whom he knew to excel in courage and 
resolution, that brave officer crossed the Spey and planted the 
standard on the other side in sight of the rebels. The royal 
army followed, the adversaries taking to flight. In reward of 
the gallant service of Alexander Carron the King constituted 
him and his heirs heritable standard-bearers of Scotland ; made 
him a grant of lands and conferred on him the name of Scrim- 
geour, signifying a hardy fighter." 

Alexander Scrimgeour, descended from Alexander Carron, 
the original holder of the name of Scrimgeour, was one of the 
most active and most valiant associates of William Wallace in 
that patriot's glorious attempt to restore the liberties of Scot- 
land. When Wallace was constituted governor of Scotland, in 
recognition of the services of Scrimgeour he conferred upon him 
the constabulary of the castle of Dundee, giving this grant for 
his "faithful aid in bearing the banner of Scotland which ser- 
vice he actually performs." This grant was dated at Torphic- 
hen March 29, 1298. 

Nicoll Scrimgeour, or Skyrmeschour, as the name is some- 
times spelled in the records, son of the preceding, had from 
King Robert I. a charter of the office of standard-bearer and 
also grants of lands in the barony of Inverkeithing, forfeited 
by Roger Moubray. 

Alexander Scrimgeour, son of the preceding, had a charter 
of lands near Dundee in 1357, and a letter of safe conduct into 
England in 1366. In a charter of 1378 by King Robert II. he 
is spoken of as constable of Dundee. He died in 1383. 

Sir John Scrimgeour, son of the preceding, in several char- 
ters of his time by King Robert II. and King Robert III., also 
is mentioned as constable of Dundee. Among those who accom- 
panied Alexander, earl of Mar, to Flanders, in the service of 
the duke of Burgundy in 1408 was : 


"Schere James Screingeoure of Dundee, 
Comendit a famous Knight was he, 
The Kingis banneoure of fe, 
A lord that wele aucht lovit be." 3 

He fought at the battle of Harlaw, July 24, 1411, under the 
same Alexander, earl of Mar, against Donald, lord of the Isles, 
and was there killed. The name of his wife was Egidia. He 
had a daughter Egidia who married James Maitland, second 
son of Sir Robert Maitland of Leithington. 

Sir John Scrimgeoue, son of the preceding, was also consta- 
ble of Dundee. Previous to April, 1413, he was for many 
months a prisoner in the tower of London, presumably for po- 
litical reasons. In 1444 he had a charter from Alexander, earl 
of Ross, lord of the Isles and baron of Kincardine, of lands in 
Kincardinshire. One of his daughters married Robert Bruce, 
second Baron of Cultmalindie. 

The earldom of Gloucester was a foundation by King Henry 
I. of England. It dates from the early part of the twelfth cen- 

Robert, the first earl of Gloucester, was the son of King- 
Henry I., and was born at Caen, France. Upon the occasion 
of his marriage his father gave to him large properties in Nor- 
mandy, Wales, and England, so that he was one of the richest 
men of his time. Among these properties was the "honour of 
Gloucester" which the king formed into the earldom that after- 
wards became so distinguished. Robert was intimately asso- 
ciated with his father in all that monarch's battling in Nor- 
mandy and elsewhere. He was his father's most beloved son. 
and was preferred far beyond any other member of the family. 

He was the only child present at his father's death, and fol- 
lowing that event he was urged by his father's followers and by 
others to lay claim to and contest the crown of England. But, 
without ambition in that direction, he declined the proffered 
honor, contenting himself with the earldom. His birth gave him 
unusual prominence and he could not keep entirely out of the 
rivalries and contests of the period. King Stephen especially 

3. "Oryganale Cronykil of Scotland," by Andrew Wyntoun. 


disliked him, and quarreled with him frequently, but Robert 
succeeded in maintaining his independence and keeping himself 
aloof during the war that was waged against Stephen. Never- 
theless he felt himself constrained to go to the assistance of his 
half-sister Matilda in Normandy in 1138. 

Subsequently, in 1141, through King Stephen's warring 
against Matilda, he found himself drawn into that contest and 
was captured in the battle at Winchester at the same time that 
Stephen was captured by the opposing forces. The two war- 
riors were exchanged for each other. He always championed 
the cause of his sister and was the main support of the Angevin 
party that was promoted by Geoffrey of Angevin, Matilda's 
second husband. He was a warrior, statesman, and scholar, 
and left a deep impress upon the age in which he lived. He 
died in Bristol, October 31, 1147. He married Mabel, or Ma- 
tilda, or Sybil, daughter of Robert Fitz Hamon and had by her 
six children. 

The ancient family of Fitz Hamon was derived from an an- 
cestor, Richard Fitz Hamon, who was a son or nephew of Rollo, 
the first duke of Normandy. Its representatives were in Neus- 
tria from the very beginning of the invasion of that territory 
by the Normans, and they were possessed of important lord- 
ships in various parts of the country under the rule of the dukes 
of Normandy. The house was old and illustrious and had many 
distinctions long before the appearance of Robert Fitz Hamon 
in England. 

Robert Fitz Hamon came from Normandy with William the 
Conqueror, and after the battle of Hastings settled in Kent 
where he became possessed of extensive lands. When the Nor- 
mans pushed their way into Wales for the purpose of conquer- 
ing that section of Britain this noble had a conspicuous and 
useful part in the campaign. He was really the leader in the 
invasion, and it was wholly due to his efforts that Glamorgan 
w 7 as conquered. So complete was his success that, with the ap- 
proval of King William, he established himself in Wales per- 
manently, beginning the construction at Cardiff, in 1080, of a 
castle which in after years and for many generations was the 


seat of the family. It has been well said of him that he really 
founded in Wales a county palatinate. He added much to the 
possessions of Tewksbury Abbey and was called the second 
founder of that institution. He also endowed the monks with 
many titles and was especially liberal to the abbey of St. Paul's 
in Gloucestershire. Devoted to the cause of King William I, 
he was a close confidant of King William Rufus, King Wil- 
liam's son and successor, until the death of the latter monarch. 
Then he attached himself to the cause of King Henry I, and 
was a stalwart defender of that king in all the difficulties that 
assailed his throne. At the siege of Calais he was wounded 
and as a result died in March 1107. He married Sybil of Mont- 

William, son of Robert, the first earl of Gloucester, by his 
wife Mabel Fitz Hamon, succeeded his father and became the 
second earl of Gloucester. He married Hawse, daughter of 
Robert, surnamed Bossu, earl of Leicester. He died in 1173, 
leaving no son, but three daughters, and with him the earldom 
of Gloucester in the male line of his family ceased. 

Amicia, daughter of the preceding, married Richard de Clare, 
and was the grandmother of Isabel de Clare who married Rob- 
ert Bruce. 

The Huntingdon family to which belonged David, earl of 
Huntingdon, whose daughter, Isabella of Huntingdon, married 
Robert Bruce, was of ancient Saxon origin as well as of the 
royal family of Scotland. 

Waltheof, son of Syward the Saxon, who was earl of North- 
umberland, lived in the time of King William I. of England. He » 
received from King William the earldoms of Huntingdon and 
Northampton, on the occasion of his marriage with Judith, 
daughter of a sister of King William on his Norman mother's 
side. Subsequently W T altheof disagreed with his royal uncle 
and took part in a conspiracy to expel him and the Normans 
from England. In this he was unsuccessful and in consequence 
thereof was beheaded in 1705. 

Maud, or Matilda, daughter of Waltheof, married for her sec- 
ond husband, David, son of King Malcolm of Scotland, and 


through her David became possessed of the earldoms of Hunt- 
ingdon and Northumberland. Subsequently he became king of 

Heney, son of the preceding, obtained from King Stephen of 
England the earldom of Huntingdon. He married Ada, sister 
of William, earl of Warren and Surrey. 

David, son of Prince Henry and great-grandson of Waltheof, 
first earl of Huntingdon, had by his wife, who was the daughter 
of Hugh, earl of Chester, Isabel who married Robert Bruce. 

The de Clare or de Claire family which became connected 
with the house of Bruce was descended from Richard de Claire 
who came into England with William the Conqueror. Geoffrey, 
son of Richard I., duke of Normandy, was its ancestor. He had 
a son Giselbert, named Crispin, who was earl of Brion in Nor- 
mandy. Dugdale gives this ancestry of Richard de Clare, al- 
though Hornby says that he was the son of Gilbert, officiary 
earl of Auci or Owe in Normandy. 

Richard de Clare received great honors and possessions from 
William the Conqueror. At the time of the survey he was called 
Richard de Tonebruge (Tunbridge), Kent, from the seat which 
he had established there. He had thirty-eight lordships in Sur- 
rey, thirty-five in Essex, three in Cambridge, and ninety-five in 
Sussex. Among other places that he owned was Benfield, in 
Northamptonshire, from which he was called Ricardus de Bene- 
facta. From his manor in Suffolk he had the name of Richard 
de Clare. In a few years that became the seat of the family and 
heirs took the title of lords of Clare. It is said that he was 
killed by the Welsh while on a hostile expedition into that coun- 
try. He married Rohesia, daughter of Walter Gifford, earl of 
Buckingham, and had six sons and two daughters. His son 
Richard de Clare, became Abbot of Ely, and his son, Robert de 
Clare, was steward of King Henry I. of England. 

Gilbert de Clare, eldest son of the preceding, succeeded to 
the possession of his father's lands in England and resided at 
Tonebruge. He was engaged in rebellion against King William 
Rufus, but after a time became reconciled to that monarch. He 
married in 1113 Adeliza, daughter of the earl of Claremont and 


had five sons and one daughter. His son, Gilbert de Clare, was 
earl of Pembroke, and had a son who became the celebrated 
Richard Strongbow and conquered Ireland. 

Richard de Clare, eldest son of the preceding, established 
himself in Wales, and his family remained there for generations, 
He is said to have been the first to hold the title of earl of 
Hertford. He was killed by the Welsh in 1139. He married 
Alice, sister of Ranulph, second earl of Chester, and had two 
sons and one daughter. His son, Gilbert de Clare, became the 
second earl of Hertford, but died in 1151 without issue. His 
daughter, Alice de Clare, married Cadwalladerap-Griffith, who 
was a prince of North Wales. 

Roger de Clare, second son of the preceding, succeeded his 
brother, Gilbert de Clare, and became third earl of Hertford. 
From the king he obtained large grants of land in Wales, and 
built and fortified many castles there. In the tenth year of the 
reign of King Henry II., he was one of the earls present at the 
recognition of the ancient customs and liberties confirmed by 
his ancestors. For his works of piety he was surnamed "the 
good." He died in 1173. He married Maud, daughter of James 
de St. Hillary, and had one son. 

Richard de Clare, son of the preceding, was the fourth earl 
of Hertford. He was one of the twenty-five barons who bound 
themselves to enforce the observance of Magna Charta. He 
died in 1218. He married Amicia, daughter of William, the 
second earl of Gloucester, and through his wife became pos- 
sessed of that earldom. 

Gilbert de Clare, son of the preceding, was the fifth earl of 
Hertford, and the first earl of Gloucester and Hertford jointly. 
He was one of the twenty-five barons who opposed the arbi- 
trary proceedings of King John and upheld the Magna Charta. 
He was also prominent in the Barons' War and supported the 
cause of the dauphin Louis of France. At the battle of Lincoln 
in 1217 he was taken prisoner, but afterwards made his peace 
with the king. He died in 1230. He married Isabel, daughter 
of William Mareschal, earl of Pembroke. His youngest daugh- 
ter, Isabel, married Robert Bruce. 


The founder of the house of Carrick of Scotland was Fergus r 
lord of Galloway, who married Elizabeth, daughter of King 
Henry I. At his death in 1161 he left two sons, Gilbert and 
Uchtred, between whom his lands were divided. 

Gilbert, with his brother Uchtred, attended King William 
the Lion in the invasion of England in 1174, but subsequently 
sought the favor of King Henry II. In the same year he pro- 
cured the assassination of his brother, and, although for some 
time he was held in royal disfavor on this account, he was re- 
ceived into the presence of King Henry two years later and was 
pardoned. Under the protection of the English monarch he 
carried war into Scotland in 1184, but before hostilities were 
concluded he died, in January 1185-6. 

Duncan, son of the preceding, in the endaevor to heal the 
family difficulties, entered into an amicable conclusion with his 
cousin Roland, son of the murdered Uchtred. He was also a 
vassal of King William of Scotland, defended the district of an- 
cient Galloway, and was confirmed in the possession of the ter- 
ritory of Carrick in 1186. Carrick was the southern-most of the 
three districts into which the county of Ayr was divided and 
gave title to the earldom. Duncan was created earl of Carrick 
by King Alexander II., founded the abbey of Crossramore, or 
Crossregal, for the Cluniac monks, and also endowed other 
monkish orders of Paisley and Melrose. 

Niel Carrick, son of the preceding, followed the example of 
his father in acts of piety, making liberal gifts to the monas- 
teries of Crossramore, or Crossregal, and of Sandale in Can- 
tire. He was received under the protection of King Henry III. 
in 1255, and the same year was appointed one of the regents of 
Scotland and guardian of Alexander III. and that monarch's 
queen. He died June 13, 1256. He married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Walter, high steward of Scotland. His daughter Marjory 
(Carrick) de Kilconcath married the eighth Robert Bruce and, 
becoming countess of Carrick in her own right, brought to her 
husband and transmitted to her descendants the earldom of 
Carrick. This matrimonial alliance of the Bruces with the house 
of the high steward of Scotland was recalled several genera- 


tions later when Marjory Bruce, daughter of King Robert 
Bruce, married Walter, the head of the house of Stewait of 

Uchtred, the second son of Fergus, lord of Galloway, mar- 
ried Guinolda, who was the daughter of Waldeve of the Dunbar 
family. Waldeve was the grandson of Crinan, the founder of 
the noble house of Dunbar, and, succeeding his brother, Cospat- 
ric, who died in 1139, had the barony of Allandale and other 
lands, maintaining his home at Cockermouth castle. He mar- 
ried Sigarith, a Saxon lady. 

Roland of Galloway, son of the preceding, after the death of 
his uncle Gilbert who had murdered his father, defeated the 
vassals of Gilbert, slaying their commander Gilpatrick in July 
1185. He finally came into possession of the whole of Galloway 
which he stubbornly held against all enemies. He married 
Elena Morville, daughter of Richard Morville, by whom he had 
several sons. 

Alan of Galloway, son of the preceding, had by his first wife, 
whose name is unknown, a daughter, Elena, who married Roger 
de Quincey, earl of Winchester. He married, second, in 1209, 
Margaret, the eldest daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, 
and had a son, Thomas, and two daughters, Christiana and Der- 
vorgill. The last named married John Baliol of Bernard Cas- 
tle and had John Baliol, the competitor, who in 1292 was suc- 
cessful in prosecuting his claim to the throne of Scotland 
against Robert Bruce and other rivals. Thus a branch of the 
house of Carrick became associated with the fortunes of the 
Bruces in another and less agreeable way. 

The de Burgh family from which King Robert Bruce chose 
his second wife was originally of Ireland where it was of spec- 
ial distinction, being connected with one of the first royal 
houses of that land. 

Richard de Burgh, surnamed the Great Lord of Connaught, 
son of William FitzAdelm de Burgh, lord deputy of Ireland in 
the time of Hervig II., was also viceroy of that kingdom 1227- 
29. He built the castle of Galway in 1232 and died in 1243. He 


married Una, or Agnes, daughter of Hugh 'Conor, king of 
Connaught, son of Cathal Crobhdearg, or the Red Hand. 

Walter de Burgh, eldest son of the preceding, was lord of 
Connaught, and in right of his wife became earl of Ulster in 
1243. He married Maud, daughter and heir of Hugh de Laci, 
earl of Ulster, and had four sons. 

Richard de Burgh, son of the preceding, was the second earl 
of Ulster. He was a great warrior and statesman, and com- 
manded all the Irish forces in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and 
Gascoigne. He founded the Carmelite monastery at Loughren 
and built the castles Ballymote, Carran, and Sligo. In his de- 
clining years he retired to the monastery of Athassail. He died 
June 28, 1326. He married Margaret de Burgo, daughter of 
John de Burgo, Baron of Lanville, who was a great-grandson 
of Hubert, earl of Kent. Elizabeth Aylmer de Burgh, daughter 
of Richard de Burgh and his wife Margaret de Burgh, was the 
second wife of King Robert Bruce. 

William de Warren ne, earl of Warrenne in Normandy, was 
a kinsman of William the Conqueror. He was among the Nor- 
man nobles at Hastings, and after the conquest of England re- 
ceived great honors from the king. He married Gundred, a 
daughter of William the Conqueror. Old-time authorities made 
this Gundred a daughter of William by his wife Matilda of 
Flanders. Recent investigations, however, conclusively show 
that she was the daughter of William by another wife. 

William de Warrenne, eldest son of the preceding, built the 
castle of Holt and founded the priory of Lewes in Sussex. He 
made his home principally in Lewes, although he had castles al- 
so in Norfolk and at Coningsburg and Sandal. Dugdale gives 
the following quaint account of his closing hours : 

"It is reported that this Earl William did violently detain 
certain lands from the monks of Ely ; for which being often ad- 
monished by the Abbot and not making restitution he died mis- 
erably. And though his death happened very far off the isle 
of Ely, the same night he died, the Abbot lying quietly in his 
bed, and meditating on heavenly things, heard the soul of this 
earl, in its carriage away by the devil, cry out loudly, and with 
a known and distinct voice; 'Lord have mercy on me. Lord 


have mercy on me.' And moreover on the next day aftor the 
Abbot acquainted all the monks in chapel therewith/ And like- 
wise that about four days after there came a messenger to them 
from the wife of this earl, with one hundred shillings for the 
good of his soul, who told them that he died the very hour that 
the Abbot had heard the outcry. But that neither' the Abbot 
nor any of the monks would receive it ; not thinking it safe for 
them to take the money of a damned person. ... If this 
part of the story, as to the Abbot's hearing the noise, be no tru- 
er than the last, viz., that his lady sent them one hundred shil- 
lings, I shall deem it to be a mere fiction, in regard the lady 
was certainly dead about three years before." 

This William de Warrene joined Robert de Belesme, earl of 
Arundel and Shrewsbury in supporting Robert Curthose, son 
of King William I., against his brother King Henry I. The re- 
bellion was short-lived, however, and subsequently William de 
Warrene was faithful to the cause of King Henry. He mar- 
ried Isabel, daughter of Henry the Great, earl of Vermandois, 
and widow of Robert, earl of Mellent. Adeline, his youngest 
daughter, married Prince Henry of Scotland, son of King Dav- 
id, and was the grandmother of Isabella de Huntingdon who 
married Robert Bruce. 

The Elphinston family derived its name from the lands of 
Elphinston in the vicinity of Edinburgh. It was famous among 
the barons of Scotland before the thirteenth century. 

Alexander de Elphinston acquired the land of Erthberg, 
county Stirling, from his mother Agnes de Erthberg. 

Alexander de Elphinston had a charter of lands from King 
David II. in 1362. 

Sir William de Elphinston had a charter of lands in 1399. 
He had three sons. His son Alexander de Elphinston was killed 
in a conflict with the English at Piperdean September 30, 1435. 
His son Henry de Elphinston succeeded him. His son William 
de Elphinston was the first earl of Blythswood in Larnarkshire, 
and married Mary Douglas. A younger son of William Elphin- 
ston and Mary Douglas was William, Elphinston, bishop of 
Ross and Aberdeen, high chancellor of Scotland, and founder of 
the University of Aberdeen. 


Henry Elphinston, second son of the preceding, was of Pit- 
tendriech, which he had under charter in 1477. He also held 
Erthberg, Strickshaw, and other honors. He had two sons, 
James and Andrew. 

James Elphinston, son of the preceding, died before his fath- 
er, having had two sons, John and Alexander. 

Sir John Elphinston, eldest son of the preceding, had char- 
ter for the lands of Pittendriech, Erthberg, and Cragrossy. He 
had a charter of the barony of Erthberg, and in 1503 the honors 
of Chawmyrlane and Cragoroth were erected into a barony to 
be called Elphinston, the title of which was first conferred up- 
on him. 

Alexander Elphinston, son of the preceding, had numerous 
grants of lands and had the custody of the king's castle of Kil- 
drummie in Aberdeenshire in 1508. He was raised to the peer- 
age in 1509 as Alexander, lord Elphinston. He also had char- 
ters of lands in Fife, Stirlingshire, Banffshire, and elsewhere. 
He fell at Flodden Field, where he was fighting in support of 
James IV. on that fateful day in September, 1513. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Barlow, a noble Englishwoman, who was maid 
of honor to Mary, queen of King James IV. His son, Alexan- 
der Elphinston, succeeded him. His daughter, Elizabeth El- 
phinston, married Sir David Somerville. His daughter, Eu- 
pheme Elphinston, was the mother of Robert Stewart, earl of 
Orkney, by King James V., and subsequently married John 
Bruce of Cultmalindie. 

The ancient family of Oliphant was of Norman origin. Its 
first ancestors known in connection with English history were 
settled in Northamptonshire and held land there. 

David Olifard, or Oliphant, was the first bearer of the sur- 
name. He was intimately associated with King David I. of 
Scotland, who was his godfather. He befriended his royal mas- 
ter during the conspiracy of King Stephen, and was secretary 
of King David I. after the rout of the forces of Matilda at 
Winchester in 1141. He thereupon went to Scotland and was 
rewarded with lands. He was associated in charters with Dun- 
can earl of Fife; Ferteth, earl of Strathern; Gilbride, earl of 


Angus ; Malcolm, earl of Atholl ; and others. He was justiciary 
of Scotland in 1165 under King David L, and also under King 
William the Lion. He died in 1170. 

David Olifard, eldest son of the preceding, succeeded his 
father in his estates and in the justiciary. He died toward the 
end of the twelfth century. 

Sir Walter Olifard, eldest son of the preceding, inherited 
the estates of his father and was justiciary under King Alex- 
ander II. He died in 1249. He married Christiana, daughter 
of the earl of Strathearn. 

Walter Olifard, son of the preceding, was also justiciary. 
He died after 1250. 

Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was a prominent figure in all the campaigning of King 
Robert Bruce for the throne of Scotland. About 1296, after 
the battles of Berwick and Dunbar, he was seized and held in 
prison until some time in the following year. In 1299 Stirling 
Castle, which had been fully garrisoned after the English had 
been driven out of it, was committed to, his care. He held con- 
trol of this fortress for years and skilfuily defended it for three 
months against the determined siege of King Edward in 1304. 
Following the downfall of that fortress he was a prisoner for 
four years in the Tower of London. In 1311 he held Perth as a 
deputy for King Edward. At the siege of Perth by Robert 
Bruce he was taken prisoner and sent into banishment in the 
Western islands. After King Robert had fully established him- 
self in the Kingdom, Oliphant came into favor, received grants 
of land, and was present at parliament in 1320 and in 1326. He 
died February 5, 1329. 

Sir Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgy, son of the preceding 
married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of King Robert Bruce. 

Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgy, son of the preceding, was 
a sheriff of Stirling and keeper of Stirling Castle in 1368. He 
married Mary Erskine, daughter of Sir Robert Erskine of Ers- 

Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the preced- 
ing, was knighted by King Robert II. He died about 1420. He 


married, first, a daughter of Sir William Borthwick; second ,a 
daughter of Sir Thomas Home. 

Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the pre- 
ceding by his first wife, was one of the hostages in England for 
the ransom of King James I. in 1424. He married Isabel Stew- 
art, daughter of John Stewart of Innermeath, lord of Lome. 

Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgy, son of the preceding, was 
by his marriage drawn into the long existing feud between the 
Ogilvys and the Lindsays. In one of these family quarrels he 
was slain at Arbroath January 25, 1445-6. He married Isabel, 
daughter of Walter Ogilvy of Auchterhouse. 

Sir Laurence Oliphant of Aberdalgy, eldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was created a lord of parliament before 1467. He sat 
in the first parliament of King James IV. in 1488 ; was a privy 
councillor; a justiciary in 1490, and a peace commissioner to 
treat with England in 1491. He died about 1531. He married 
Isabel Hay, youngest daughter of William Hay, first earl of Er- 

Sir John Oliphant, eldest son of the preceding, was the sec- 
ond lord Oliphant. Succeeding his father, he sat in parliament 
in 1503 and afterward. He died in 1516. He married Lady 
Elizabeth Campbell, third daughter of Colin Campbell, first 
duke of Argyle. 

Colin Oliphant, eldest son of the preceding, fought with his 
brother, William Oliphant, on the fatal field of Flodden in sup- 
port of King James, both brothers being killed. He married 
Lady Elizabeth Keith, second daughter of William Keith, who 
was the third earl of Mareschal. 

Sir Laurence Oliphant, son of the preceding, was the third 
lord Oliphant, succeeding to the title on the death of his grand- 
father in November, 1526. He took his seat in the Scottish par- 
liament in 1526 and was a member in many subsequent years. 
He was a consistent opponent of the progress of the Reforma- 
tion and was constantly in trouble on account thereof. At the 
rout of Solway he was captured by Dacre and Musgrave in No- 
vember, 1542, was locked up in the Tower of London for some 
time but was ransomed the following year and returned to par- 


lianient. He died at Aldwick in Caithness March 26, 1566. He 
married Margaret Sandilands, eldest daughter of James Sandi- 
lands of Cruvie. 

Sir Laurence Oliphant, eldest son of the preceding, was 
the fourth lord Oliphant. He was born in 1529 and succeeded 
to the title in 1566, having also the barony of Aberdalgy, Gask, 
and Galray. He joined the association in behalf of Queen Mary 
at Hamilton in 1568, and was always a devoted partisan of that 
queen. He was frequently in parliament and a conspicuous 
figure in all the politico-religious controversies and struggles 
of that period. He died in Caithness June 16, 1593, and was 
buried in the church of Wick. An old diary of that time con- 
tains this brief notice: "1593 January 16. Laurens. L. Oliphant 
diet in Kathnes, and buriet in the Kirk of Wik." He married 
in 1552 Lady Margaret Hay, second daughter of George Hay, 
seventh earl of Errol. His daughter, Jean Oliphant, married 
Alexander Bruce of Cultmalindie. Both she and her husband 
were direct descendants from King Robert Bruce, she in the 
eleventh generation and he in the tenth. 

Bards and historians say that the predecessors of the house 
of Campbell, which has been one of the most numerous and 
most powerful in Scotland, were lords of Lochow in Argyle- 
shire as early as the year 40-4. The first appellation that they 
bore was O'Dwbin, or O'Dwin, a name that was assumed by 
Diarmed, a brave warrior. In Gaelic the descendants of this 
Diarmid are called Scol Diarmid or offspring of Diarmed. From 
Diarmed O'Dwbin followed a long series of barons of Lochow 
until the male line ended in Paul O'Dwbin, lord Lochow, called 
Inspuran because he was the king's treasurer. 

Gillespick Campbell, an Anglo-Norman of distinction, mar- 
ried the daughter of Paul 'Dwbin, lord Lochow. 

Duncan Campbell of Lochow lived in the reign of King Mal- 
colm IV. 

Colin Campbell of Lochow was a subject of King William the 
Lion in the latter part of the twelfth century. 

Gillespick or Archibald Campbell of Lochow lived in the 


reign of King Alexander I. He married Finetta, daughter of 
John Fraser, lord of Tweeddale. 

Duncan Campbell of Lochow was also living in the reign of 
King Alexander I. He married a daughter of the house of 
Comyn. His son, John Campbell (1250-86), was a famous au- 

Sir Gillespick or Archibald Campbell of Lochow, the eld- 
est son of the preceding, was living in the reign of King Alex- 
ander III., and married a daughter of William de Somerville, 
baron of Carnwath. 

Sir Colin Campbell was so successful as a soldier that he 
was named More or Great. From him the chiefs of this family 
have ever since been styled MacCalan More. He was knighted 
in 1280 by King Alexander III. He married a daughter of the 
house of Sinclair. 

Sir Niel Campbell of Lochow, the eldest son of the preced- 
ing, was knighted by King Alexander III. He early allied him- 
self to the fortunes of King Robert Bruce, and adhered to that 
monarch through prosperity and adversity. After the battle 
of Bannockburn he was one of the commissioners sent to York 
in 1314 to negotiate a peace with England. He was among the 
great barons who sat in the parliament at Ayr in 1315. He 
died in 1316. He married Lady Mary Bruce, a sister of King 
Robert Bruce. 

In subsequent generations the descendants of this Sir Niel 
Campbell ranked among the most distinguished people of Scot- 
land. His descendant, Sir Duncan Campbell, first assumed the 
title of Duke of Argyle, and other titles were also borne by rep- 
resentatives of the name. Descendants of King Robert Bruce 
several generations later married and intermarried with the 

(To be Continued.) 



THE letter which follows was written by the late Lord 
Napier when connected with Her Brittanic Majesty's 
Legation in Washington. It is of real interest because 
it bears upon a point in diplomacy as well as of inter- 
national etiquette, and was conducted by a master hand. The 
original of the letter is in the possession of the writer in trust 
for the heirs of the late Judge James Rood Doolittle, for twelve 
years United States senator from Wisconsin. The letter is writ- 
ten in the clear, bold hand of the author ; not a word is re-writ- 
ten, modified or corrected. While the letter has little historical 
significance, the fame of the author gives it undoubted value. 


Her Britannic Majesty's 

Legation February 27th 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 24th Instant recommending the case of William Whipple to 
the consideration of Her Majesty's Government. 

I regret extremely that on the grounds stated in the docu- 
ments accompanying your letter I cannot submit this claim 'to 
the Earl of Clarendon. Had the relatives of the person in ques- 
tion proceeded on the plea of his youth, his inexperience, and 
his domestic ties, nothing would have given me greater pleasure 
than to promote his release from the British service and his 
return to his Country and family. But the grounds alleged are 
very different and such as I cannot in justice to my government 

The gentleman who addresses you states that Whipple was 
' ' enticed away ' ' and ' ' fraudulently carried out of the Country. ' ' 



The affidavit of Ira Whipple affirms that his brother was 
"induced through falsehood to go aboard a recruiting vessel" 
at New Orleans, and that 40 other Americans were "decoyed" 
in the same way. It is moreover alleged that through "method- 
ical villainy" of the same parties Whipple, being partly intox- 
icated enlisted in the British Service. It is not clearly intimated 
by whose instigation these proceedings against Whipple and his 
forty companions were carried on, but I may not unnaturally 
infer that Her Majesty's Gov't are aimed at. Now as Her 
Majesty's Gov't have never employed any recruiting vessel at 
New Orleans, and do not induce or inveigle persons into the 
Army when intoxicated, I apprehend that in the letter of your 
correspondent, and in the affidavit, there is some strange delu- 
sion or want of veracity. At least I cannot advise the British 
Gov't to discharge a soldier because he was inveigled into the 
service. Such a thing cannot occur, and if it did or could the 
case would deserve to be dealt with in another manner. I 
return you the papers (of which I have kept copies) and I beg 
you will lay before your correspondent the propriety of address- 
ing you a letter simply stating the hardship of the case, the 
rashness of the man in enlisting, his regrets, and the claims of 
his deserted wife and family, omitting entirely the tale of seduc- 
tion and fraudulent persuasion. Such a statement it will give 
me much gratification to forward to Her Majesty's government 
who would, no doubt, grant it Her benevolent attention both on 
account of the family of Whipple, and in consideration of your 

I have the honor to be, 

Sir, your most obedient 

faithful servant 

The Hon'bl Senator Doolittle 
&c &c &c. 



Continuation of the Consideration of Animals Used in Her- 
aldry, Their Origin and the Sentiments which 
are Represented by Them 

by henry whittemore 

IN armories the proper position of the griffin is rampant 
or salient, and they are sometimes said by the English to 
be segreant— erect with wings endorsed, ready for action. 
Those of the name of Lauder, Lawder, or Lauther, differ 
according to the customs of ancient times, for the name is local 
from the town and lands of Lauder; that is, lower than the 
hills that surmount it. One of this family accompanied David, 
earl of Huntingdon, brother of King William the Lion, to the 
Holy War ; to perpetuate which, some of his descendants made 
the griffin to hold a sword by his fore foot, supporting a Sa- 
racen's head proper. From this family was descended Allen 
Lauder, who got a charter of the lands at Whitslade and Moris- 
ton, in the shire of Berwick, from Robert earl of Stratheon, with 
the consent of John, his eldest son and heir, both afterwards 
kings, by the names of Robert II. and Robert III. This Allen 
Lauder was afterwards designated of Halton, as in a charter 
granted by King Robert II. of the lands of Ratho in the shire 
of Mid-Lothian, anno regni, quo, of whom were descended the 
Lauders of Hattoun. The arms of this family were; argent, 
a griffin, segreant, sable, beaked and membered gules, holding a 
sword with the dexter claw, supporting a Saracen's head proper ; 
crest,— a tower with a demi griffin issuing out of the top; motto, 
— strike alike. 

The principal family of this name are the descendants of Sir 
John Louder of Fountainhall in East Lothian, baronet, one of 
the Senators of the College of Justice, who carried; arms,— 



gules, a griffin rampant within a bordure argent; crest, — a 
tower, argent, masoned sable, with the portcullis down; on the 
top of the embattlement a man in watching position ; supporters, 
—two lions rampant argent, standing on a compartment on which 
are the words, Ut nugsahiris habita. 

So recorded in the Lyon Register as descended from Lauder 
of that Ilk, the above arms were conformed to those of his pro- 
genitors, cut upon gravestones of old dates, which are preserved 
by the descendants of Sir John, lineally descended from Andrew 
Lauder, a son of Robert Lauder of that Ilk, of Lauder-Tower, 
and his wife, Elizabeth Ballinden, daughter of Ballinden of 
Lasswade. This Robert Lauder had three sons, the two eldest 
of whom were cut off, with many of their relatives in a plea, by 
the Home and Cranstons in the minority of King James VI. ; 
but the youngest surviving son, Andrew, retired to his mother's 
friends and married Janet, daughter of David Ramsey, of Pol- 
ton, descended from the family of Dalhousie. 

Forsyth, of that ilk, carries arms, argent, a chevron engrailed 
gules between three griffins rampant, azure, armed and num- 
bered sable, and crowned, or. For the antiquity of the name 
there is a charter in the earl of Haddington's Collections, 
granted by King Robert the Bruce Osberto filo Roberte de For- 
syth, serviants nosteo of an hundred solidatis terrae in tene- 
ments de Salekill, in the shereffdom of Stirling. 

The griffin has been of old frequent in the arms of many fam- 
ilies in England. Sanford says that the armorial seal of Rich- 
ard Riparis, or Rivirs, earl of Devon and the Isle of Wight, 
who died in 1162, carried arms, gules, or griffin segreant or. 
The Griffin family of Wales carry arms,— gules on a fesse be- 
tween three lozenges or, each charged with a fleur-de-lis of the 
first, a demi rose between two griffins segreant, of the field. 

Bunten Birds were carried as relative to the name of Bun- 
tein, or Bunting of Ardoch, viz, argent, a bend gules between 
three bunten birds proper; and for crest, another of the same 
standing on a garb, all proper, with the mottos, Capiase et 

Wings of Birds in armories are said to denote protection, and 
.are either single or double, that is one or two ; but when one, it is 


called a demi orle, as those carried by the name of Falconer, 
gules three demi orles (or lures) or two and one. When two 
wings are joined together they are called orle, or two wings in 
lure, as those of the arms of Seymour, duke of Somerset. Wings 
conjoined are wings expanded, elevated and united at the bot- 

Feathers of Birds are sometimes used in armorial figures, 
especially those of the ostrich, by the royal family of England. 
Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, had an escutcheon sable, charged 
with three ostrich feathers argent, surrounded with the garter 
and supported by a greyhound and antelope. Ashmole in his 
"Institution of the Garter" says that "these three ostrich feath- 
ers were the badge of King Henry IV. of England, which that 
king had from John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, his father, 
who bore them for his device and placed them in a field sable, 
but the pens of the feathers were powdered with ermine. 

These ostrich feathers carried by the royal family of Eng- 
land, were all white, distinguished by their pens, the king's 
were or; the prince's argent; the duke of Lancaster, ermine, 
and the duke of Somerset compone argent, and azure. By which 
it is to be observed (being of one body) they used formal dif- 
ferences as in coats of arms. 


By most heralds these are considered as inferior to animals 
but are suitable marks for military men, to indicate prowess, 
valor, fortitude. Few sovereigns and princes have fishes in 
their arms except they be relative to their names or the pro- 
duct of their territories, but as all are figures of equal dignity, 
the bearers of them are approved of by royal authority. They 
are likewise carried to represent some notable event, juris- 
diction and right of fishing, and frequently as relative to the 
names of the bearers. Fishes are used in these, as in other 
sciences, as emblems of industry and vigilancy, for they swim 
against the streams and waves, and are said never to sleep. In 
this they have several terms of blazon appropriate to them ac- 
cording to their position and parts. 


When fishes are carried pale-ways, they are said to be Jiauri- 
ent; when they are placed transverse the shield horizontally, 
that is fesse-ways, they are naiant— that is, swimming; when 
they are placed back to back, adosse and when face, affronte; 
when they are laid one above the other alternately, they are 
said to be fretted; when their fins are of a different tincture 
from their bodies, they are said to be finned, and by the French 
bore of such tinctures; when their eyes are sparkling, allume; 
when their martlets are open, fame or pasme; and when they 
are feeding, the English say, devouring. 

The Dolphin is taken for the king of fishes (as the lion and 
eagle are said to be sovereigns of beasts and birds) for his 
strength and swiftness in the pursuit of other fishes of his 
prey. He is said to be an admirer of men, so as to be human ; 
and a lover of music, for which he is often used in armor and 
devices. Ulysses is said to have carried the dolphin in his 
shield. His words are: " Significabat se animalis ejus dotes 
maxime sequi velli quod simul et humanitate et musiees amove 
et mira celebrati exteris prestaret omnibus vel mari vitam de- 
gentibus." Hopingeus says that Ulysses carried the dolphin 
on his shield and signet ring, on account of that creature's hu- 
manity for saving his son, Telemachus, when he fell into the 

The dauphin of France had the dolphin as a lover of music 
placed on the frontispiece of the old books which were dedi- 
cated to him with the words, trabitar dulcidene cantees. The 
name dauphin applied to the oldest son of the king of France, 
was derived from the dauphinate, a territory of old France, 
so named from its lords and princes called dauphins, who 
carried for their arms a dolphin relative to their name. Mez- 
eray in his ''History of France," in the life of Philip VI., says 
that Humbert, dauphin de Viennois, being feeble in body, and 
having no children, in odium to the duke of Savoy, who invaded 
his country, made a donation thereof in the year 1343, to King v 
Philip, of France, of the dauphinate and other lands adjoining, 
which were incorporate with France forever upon condition 
that the kings of France, their eldest son and apparent heir, 
should enjoy them. Ever since, the eldest sons of France have 


used the title of dauphin, and their arms have been marshalled 
with those of France; second and third or, a dolphin embowed 
breathing, azure, eared and barbed gules; the French say: 
d'or au dauphin vif d'azure orielle and creste de gacules. 

The courts of the dauphinate D'Auverone, a province of 
France, carry arms, azure seme of fleurs-de-lis, or; a bend of 
the last charged on the top with a dolphin azure, crested and 
eared argent. 

William Moneypenny, Lord Moneypenny, who is found in 
the rolls of parliament in the reign of King James II., carried 
azure, quarterly, first and fourth or, a dolphin azure, finned, 
gules, for Moneypenny ; second and third gules three cross- 
crosslets fitched, issuing out of as many crescents, argent. 
Some conjecture that upon the similitude of arms the Money - 
pennys were originally from the dauphinites of France. 

Barble— There is a fish frequent in arms called by the Eng- 
lish barbie, and by the French bar; this is carried also embowed 
as the dolphin; and when in arms there are two of them they 
are placed ordinarily back to back, for which the English say 
endorsed, and the French adosse. The duchy of Ban* in 
France, carries, in allusion to the name, azure, seme of cross 
crosslets fitched at the foot or, two bars (or barbies), endorsed 
of the last, teeth and eyes argent. 

Salmon— This fish is often made use of in armories and in 
a general way relative to the name. Thus, the name of Fish 
gives azure, three salmon naiant, fesse-ways in pale argent, 
one above the other, of which the French says I'un sur lantre. 

The city of Glasgow, Scotland, carries argent, an oak tree 
growing out of a mount in base, with a bird standing on the top 
thereof, and a bill hanging on a branch on the sinister side, and 
in base a salmon with a ring in its mouth, all proper. These 
arms perpetuate the story of a miracle said to have been 
wrought by St. Mungo, that city's parent saint, in recovering 
by a salmon, in its mouth, the ring of a lady out of the water 
Clyde where she accidentally dropped it; which on being re- 
covered prevented the jealousy of her husband. 

Escallop— There is probably nothing of the fish species car- 
ried so often in armory as that of the escallop, and they are 


frequent in armorial figures it is said in every part of Europe, 
on account of the symbolical and lineroglyphical significations 
which have been given to them. Salter, an English writer, says 
that in the records of the Office-at-Arms in London the escal- 
lop signifies that the first of a family who carried this device, 
had been a commander, and for his virtues and valor had 
gained the hearts and love of his companions and soldiers. The 
Italian, Sylvester Petra Sancta, in his " Treatise," commends 
them as coffers of the riches of the sea, and calls them scrinia 
colorum at que gemmarum. Others, again look upon them as 
fit badges of the inviolable fidelity, for reason that the shells 
of the escallop or coquel, are married by nature in pairs ; and 
that when they separate they can never be matched again to 
join with others; for which they have been chosen by sover- 

Escallop. Chevronels Ura«><?. 

eigns and others as opposite badges of fraternity of several 
orders of knighthood and other societies. Also for many ages 
they have been the badges and marks of pilgrims in their ex- 
peditions and pilgrimages to holy places, and of such a dis- 
tinguishing character and mark, that Pope Alexander IX., by a 
bull, discharged the giving the use of them except to pilgrims 
who were truly noble; as Ashmole, in ''The Institution of the 
Garter," observes (chap. II, sec. 5); where also he gives sev- 
eral instances of the escallops adorning the orders of knight- 
hood, as that called the Order of St. James in Gallicia, insti- 
tuted in the year 857, had for its ensign a red cross in a white 
field cantoned with four escallops. 

The escallop or coquet was so much esteemed in France that 
St. Louis, when in the year 1269 he instituted the noble Order 


of the Sheep, upon the expedition into Africa, adorned the col- 
lar of that order with escallops of gold interlaced with double 
crescents of silver. Louis XL, of France, when he, in the year 
1469, instituted the Order of Stillichel, he composed the collar 
with escallops of gold joined one with another, fastened to a 
small chain or mails of gold. 

The escallop or coquet, with the French are all one ; but when 
they want ears the French call them vannets. The English 
make no distinction and use only the term escallop. 

Odericus Vitalis, who wrote about the middle of the twelfth 
century, states in his "Ecclesiastical History," that Pilras de 
Mandia, lord of that place, gave to St. Ebroulfe and the monks 
of Utica the churches of St. Mary, St. Germain and St. Vincent, 
in villa qua nuncupatur Manila, anno 1076, and after his death 
was buried in the monk's cloister. 

In the middle of the village of Manle are yet standing the 
ruins of the old castle, and on the gate are the arms of the 
family cut in stone, being parted per pale bordure of eight 
escallops. And on the church, within the choir, and near the 
high altar, where the lords of this place lie buried, they are 
again painted on boards quartered with the arms of Moran- 
villiers; being parted per pale, argent and gules, a bordure 
charged with eight escallops, all counterchanged of the same. 
There is also on these boards, a long succession of their names, 
with those of the Moranvilliers, with the dates of their mar- 
riages, deaths and burials, with inscriptions. 

This lordship came at length from the Moranvilliers to the 
Harlays of Simay by marriage ; of whom are descended a num- 
ber of great families in France. Afterward it passed through 
several hands, and later was acquired by one Monsieur de 
Longiviere, being descended to his heirs in succession. About 
half a league from this stands the old castle of Panmure, be- 
longing to the lords of this place, as may be seen on the maps 
of the Isle of France done in the year 1711 by William de ITsle, 
geographer to the French king. 

Sir Peter de Manle, grand-nephew and heir male of the fam- 
ily, in the beginning of the reign of King Alexander II., mar- 
ried Christina de Valoniis, daughter and sole heir of Sir Will- 


iam de Valoniis, and grandchild of Philip de Valoniis, both of 
them successively great chamberlains of Scotland. By her he 
had the lordship of Panmure and Benvie, and he succeeded Sir 
William Manle. 

The family of Panmure, through marriage, have the right 
to carry the arms of the lord of Brechin, and quarter them 
with their paternal thus : quarterly, first parted per pale, ar- 
gent and gules, a bordure charged with eight escallops all coun- 
terchanged of the same for Manle ; second, argent, three pallets 
waved, gules for the Valoniis; third quarter, quarterly first 
and fourth azure, a chevron between three crosses fatees ar- 
gent; second and third or, three piles issuing from the chief 
conjoined by the points in base, gules, for Barclay, Lord 

Escallops are the proper figure of those of the surname of 
Pringle, whose first ancestor is said to have been one Pcterin, 
a famous pilgrim of the holy land, who settled in Scotland and 
whose descendants were called at first, Pilgrims, and after- 
wards, by corruption, Pringles. The most ancient of the fam- 
ily is Hop Pringle, of that ilk, designed of Tevioldale, where 
the name is most numerous; and these carry argent on a bend 
sable three escallops or; crest, an escallop as the former. 



Vegetables, including trees, plants, flowers, herbs, fruits, 
etc., are borne in arms not only as symbolical, but as badges 
and marks of the countries and lands where they are most 
abundant, are carried upon arms on account of the fact that 
their names have relation to those of the bearers. These things 
have proper terms in blazon as other charges according to 
their position, disposition and situation in the shield. 

The Oak Tree is said to represent antiquity and strength; 
the olive tree, place; the vines, joy; the fig, sweetness and 
tranquility; the apple tree, love; the palm, conjugal love, etc., 
which are to be considered more properly in emblems and de- 
vices than in armor. 


With the McGregors, because their lands were overspread 
with the fir tree, carried for arms, argent, a fir tree, growing- 
out of a mount in base, vert, surmounted by a sword bend- 
ways, supporting by its point an imperial crown proper in the 
dexter chief canton to perpetuate a special service done by them 
to the crown. 

Those of the surname of Wood, in old evidents and anciently 
named with that of the Basco, which signifies the same, carry 
trees relative to the names. In a charter of King William to 
the town of Inverness, in the second year of the king's reign, 
William de Basco, cancellarius regis, and Hugh de Basco are 

Wood of Bennyton, the principal family of that name car- 
ried, azure, an oak tree growing out of a mount in base proper 
between two cross-crosslets fttchee or; the last being a part of 
the arms of Tullochy of Bennyton, which the family carried for 
marrying the heiress with whom the lands came. 

Sir John Wood, of Bennytong, baronet, carried the same 
arms recorded in New Register, with the badge of Nova Scotia, 
as baronet; and for crest, a savage from the loins upwards, 
holding a club erect in his right hand and wreathed about the 
head and middle with laurel proper; for supporters, two sav- 
ages, each having a baton erect in their hands, and wreathed 
about the head and middle as the former. 

Wood, of Balbigro, had azure, an oak tree growing out of a 
mount in base or, and in one of its branches are fastened two 
keys, azure, by strap. 

Wood, of Largo, had azure, a tree growing out of a mount in 
base or, between two ships under sail argent, as admiral to 
King James II. and King James IV., under whose reigns he 
defeated the English at sea. King James III. gave to Andrew 
Wood, master of her majesty's Yellow Kerril, the lands of 
Largo, and in the year 1482 he got a grant of them hereditably 
and inredeemably, whose issue male continued in possession of 
the lands of Largo until the reign of King Charles I. John 
Wood, a cadet of Largo, founded a hospital for fifteen old 
men in the reign of King Charles II. near to the line of Largo. 

Those whose names end with wood, as Spottswood, Calder- 


wood, Carrewood, Showerswood, Blackwood, carry trees or 
branches of them relative to the name. 

Spottswood of that ilk, a good old family in the shire of Ber- 
wick, carried argent on a chevron gules between three oak trees,, 
eradicate, vert, a boar's head couped of the field. 

Calderwood, of Picadee, carried argent, a palm tree growing- 
out of a mount, in base proper, surmounted by a saltire gules, 
and on a chief azure, three mullets of the first; crest, a hand 
holding a bunch of palm proper. 

Watson, of Saughton, in the shire of Midlothian had argent,, 
an oak tree, growing out of a mount in base proper ; surmount- 
ed by a fesse azure; crest, two hands issuing out of a cloud 
fesse-ways, holding the trunk of an oak pale-ways, with 
branches spreading forth. 

Wilkinham, of that ilk, carried argent upon a mount, a grove 
of first, proper ; crest, a dove with an olive branch in its beak. 
Supporters, two foresters in long gowns, to show that their 
progenitors were foresters to the high stewards of Scotland. 

Mr. William Arkman, of Cairny, advocate and representa- 
tive of the Arkmans of Lorihen, an old family in Angus, carried, 
argent, a sinister hand in base issuing out of a cloud fesse- 
ways, holding an oak tree pale-ways proper, with a branch 
sprouting out of the top thereof, surmounted by a bend en- 
grailed gules ; crest, an oak tree proper. 

The name of Lothian carries argent on a mount in base prop- 
er, a pine tree vert, a talbot tied thereto proper ; and, upon one 
of the branches a bugle pendant of the second; which arms, 
within a bordure vert are recorded for Richard Lothian, mer- 
chant in Edinburgh; and for crest, a bugle or hunting horn. 

In England many families carry trees relative to their names 
as Pyriton and Pine who carry pear and pine trees. 

The Bkoom-plant was the badge and ancient device of the 
Plantaganet earl of Anjou, father of King Henry II. by his 
wife Maud, the empress,- daughter and heiress of King Henry L 
He did not carry the carbuncle as the armorial figure of his 
father, Anjou, but the figure of England with the broom-plant 
for his device, as did also his son Richard I., of England, who 
adorned his helmet with that plant instead of a crest, as upon 
his seal of arm. 


Henry Plantaganet, son of Geoffrey, count of Anjou, by Ma- 
tilda, queen of England, succeeded Stephen, as King Henry II. 
This surname of Plantaganet came from his father, who, hav- 
ing committed a crime, punished himself by flagellation with 
birches of plantagenet, or green broom. Hence, as stated, that 
count wore a branch of it on his helmet as a sign of his humility 
or penance. This branch being marshalled with the arms of 
Angiers, the capitol of Anjou was introduced into the royal 
escutcheon of England by King Henry II., the Plantaganet. 

Ears of Corn— These, said to represent plenty, are carried 
in arms in relation to the names of the bearers. Their stalks 
are either couped or slipped, or eradicate, and when with leaves 
they are said to be bladed. 

The name of Eiddell carried, argent, a chevron gules between 
three ears of rye stripped and bladed vert. 

Walter Riddell, of Menti, carried argent a chevron engrailed, 
gules between three ears of rye stripped and bladed vert; crest, 
a dexter hand proper, holding an ear of rye stripped and 
bladed vert ; crest, a dexter hand proper, holding an ear of rye 
stripped and bladed or. 

Ears of corn, when they are bound up in sheaves are called 
garbs, and when their bandings are of another tincture, they 
are said to be banded of such. Garb, or jarb is a French word 
for bundles of any kind of grain, called by Latins facis pumen- 
turius, and by some manipulas. Imhoff, in his blazons for 
shields, sheaves and garbs has the word mergetes; as in that 
of Sheffield, earl of Mulgrave, later, duke of Buckingham and 
Normaudy, viz. : argent, a chevron between three garbs gules, 
relative to the name of Sheffield. 

The surname of Cuming carried relative to the name, azure, 
three garbs of cuming or. There were many eminent families 
of this name in Scotland, the first of whom was John Cuming, 
who for his singular valor and other good qualities got several 
lands from King David I., and in the reigns of King Malcom 
and King William, the name of Cuming, John, son of Richard, 
is frequently to be met with in charters, as also that of his son 
William Cuming, who was created earl of Buchan, and made 
justiciary of Scotland by King William. Those of the name of 


Cuming became very numerous and forceful, but most of the 
families were driven out of Scotland for submitting to the Eng- 
lish, and taking part with the Baliols against the Bruces. 

The name of Whiteford had, argent a bend between two 
cotises sable, accompanied with two garbs gules. The first of 
the family was Walter de Whiteford, who, for his good services 
done at the battle of Largs, in the reign of King Alexander III., 
under the command of Alexander, seneschal, high steward of 
Scotland, got the lands of Whiteford, near Paisley, in the shire 
of Renfrew. There is a tradition that one of the heads of the 
family who stood firm for his country in the time of King Rob- 
ert Bruce against the English, surprised a party of English 
who were long encamped on the opposite side of the river Dart, 
by a stratagem of putting great quantities of sheaves of wheat 
and other grain into the water; and to perpetuate this signal 
overthrow of them, they carry in their arms the wheat sheaves. 

Kelso, of Kelsoland, carried sable a fesse engrailed between 
three garbs or, confirmed in 1636, as marked in a book of old 
blazon. John Kelso, of Kelsoland, with the consent of his 
father; mortifies to the abbot and coronet of Paulsing the lands 
of Langlebank between the town of Largs and Kelsoland in the 
year 1399 ; from him was descended Archibald Kelso, of Kelso- 
land, who married a daughter of Steward of Bladthall in the 
reign of King James VI. 

The rxame of Yule cames gules a garb or, between three 
crescents argent. 

In England many families carry garbs, as William Hatton, 
viscount Hatton: azure, a chevron between three garbs or. 


The use of flowers as emblems and devices, on account of 
their beauty and the sentiments expressed by them, existed at a 
very early date. They are among the first designs made use of 
in heraldry ; they have also served as national emblems in vari- 
ous countries. 

The Thistle— This, the most ancient badge of Scotland, sig- 


nifies courage, determination and tenacity of purpose as im- 
plied in the motto Nemo me impune lacessit. (No one provokes 
me with impunity.) It has for many ages been the ensign of 
the most ancient and noble Order of St. Andrew, known also as 
the Order of the Thistle. Its growth is abundant in that coun- 
try and the very nature of it seems to express the characteris- 
tics of the people. 

The thistle, as a part of the royal achievement of Scotland, 
has been in use to be granted by Scottish kings as additional 
honor to well deserving subjects, notably to Kerth, earl of 
Kentore, a part of whose armorial bearings are: supporters— 
two chevaliers in armor, each holding in his exterior hand the 
banner of Scotland, with the motto, pro rege et pat via. The 
thistle also embraces a part of the arms granted to Sir Hugh 
Harris, of Cousland, and to Sir George Oglevie and Sir George 
Oglevie, of Barras. 

The Rose— This beautiful flower is significant as having been 
the device adopted by two royal factions. The rose of England 
was first publicly assumed as devices by the sons of King Ed- 
ward III., viz. : John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, who adopted 
the red rose for the badge of his family, and his brother Ed- 
ward, who was created duke of York in 1385, and took a white 
rose for his device: "which the fantors and followers of them 
and their heirs," sa) r s Nesbit, "did afterwards beat for dis- 
tinction in that bloody war between the two houses of York 
and Lancaster." 

"These ducal ups and downs gradually separated the whole 
nation into the two parties of York and Lancaster, and led up 
to those terrible civil wars long known as the war of the white 
and red roses, because the red rose was the badge of the House 
of Lancaster and the white rose was the badge of the House of 
Y T ork." The facts relating to the origin of this difficulty which 
separated friends and neighbors, parents and children are 
briefly told in the following: 

Richard, duke of Y T ork, protector of the realm, claimed the 
crown from the house of Lancaster, which had been usurped by 
Henry IV., grandfather of Henry VI., then on the throne of 
England. From that time, the nation had been divided into 


two camps of enemies, distinguished by the devices of the two 
chiefs Y r ork and Lancaster. The red rose being assumed as a 
badge of sanguinary vengeance by the Lancastrians, the party 
of York adopted the white rose as a symbol of innocence of 
legitimacy, Richard, duke of York, being descended from Lion- 
el, the second son of Edward III., whilst Henry, duke of Lan- 
caster, issued from John of Gaunt, the third son. The first 
battle between the two roses took place at St. Alban, in 1455. 

These two roses were called sisters, cousins, or rivals, on ac- 
count of the chiefs of the two factions descending from two 
brothers. The streamer of the Yorkists bore the sign of a sun, 
embroidered with gold framed by roses of silver. The two 
families were finally united by Henry VIII., the one male heir 
of the House of Lancaster, in marrying Princess Elizabeth, the 
eldest daughter and heiress of Edward IV. of this House of 
York, in 1486; the two roses were united in one which became 
the royal badge of England. 

King John I., of Great Britain, was the first who adorned the 
compartment of his achievement wherein the supporters stand, 
with a thistle vert, flowered gules, issuing out of the right side ; 
and out of the left, a rose gules, stalked and leaved vert; the 
badges of the two kingdoms; that of England being altogether 
red to show that the right of Lancaster was better than that 
of York in the person of King Henry VII. 

Roses, when they are represented in arms with stalks and 
leaves in blazon, are said to be stalked and leaved of such a 
tincture. When the breast of the rose is of a different tincture 
from the body, they are said to be seeded and leaved of such a 
tincture, and the French say tigees and feuillees. When the 
heart of the rose is of a different tincture from the body it is 

The custom of the Pope's blessing of roses, and other flow- 
ers, has occasioned the bearing of such in arms as those are 
in the bearing of Grenovle. Many carry roses as relative to 
their names as the house of Rosenpan, in Denmark, who charged 
their chevron with three roses. 

The town of Montrose, a burgh-royal, as relative to the name, 
carried roses; argent a rose gules, with helmet, mantling and 


wreath, suitable thereto; crest, a hand issuing from a cloud 
and reaching- down a garland of roses proper; supporters, two 
mermaids rising from the sea. 

David Lindsay, earl of Crawford, being the first that was 
honored with title and dignity of duke of Montrose for life, in 
the reign of King James III., took as an addition to his arms 
an escutcheon argent charged with three roses gules. This he 
carried by way of surtout over his own arms. William, lord 
Graham, when first dignified with the title of earl Montrose, 
quartered with his own, argent, three roses gules for Mon- 
trose; and the family being afterwards raised to the high titles 
of marquis and duke of Montrose, carried the same arms. 

In Scotland the name of Penrose is universally relative to 
their name, carrying primroses, viz.: argent on a fesse azure 
three primroses gules, as many mullets or. 

Dr. Gilbert Primrose, mentioned by Echard in his "History 
of England," was among the eminent men who died in 1642, 
and was particularly recommended by the king himself to the 
University of Oxford for his great worth and learning; and 
afterwards by the same king, he was made a canon of Windsor. 
Dr. James Primrose, his son, was an eminent physician. Arch 
ibald Primrose, son of Duncan Primrose, who descended from 
the Primroses of that ilk, acquired lands of Burnbree from 
abbacy of Oulross, and had two sons. James Primrose, the 
eldest son, was principal clerk of the privy council of Scotland 
in the reign of King James VI. Archibald Primrose, the sec- 
ond son, was knighted by King Charles II. in 1651. And on 
that king's restoration he was made lord register and one of 
the senators of the college of justice. 

The achievements of Sir Archibald Primrose, of Carrington, 
had arms, or, a lion rampant vert and langued gules (being a 
concession by King Charles II. to him for his loyalty.) sur- 
mounting a fesse purpure charged with three primroses of the 
field: crest, a demi-lion gules, holding forth in his dexter paw 
a primrose proper. 

Sir Archibald Primrose, grandson of the above, was, in the 
year 1700, advanced to the dignity and title of viscount Rose- 
berry, and afterwards raised to the honor of earl Poseberry in 


the year 1703. He married Dorothy, daughter and heir of 
Everingham Cressy, of Berking, in the county of York by whom 
he had issue. After he was dignified he used other arms, viz. : 
or, three primroses, within a double treasure, flowered and 
counterflowered gules ; supporters, two lions vert ; crest, a demi 
lion gules holding in his dexter a primrose gules. 

The Roosevelt family, of Holland, relative to the name, bore : 
arms, argent on a mount vert, a rose bush with three roses 
proper; crest, three ostrich feathers per pale gules and argent; 
motto, Qui plantavit curabit (the one who planted it will take 
care of it). Class Martensen Van Roosevelt, meaning Nicholas, 
the son of Martin, of the Rosefield, who emigrated to America 
from Holland in 1654 was the founder of the American family 
of the name, the ancestor of President Theodore Roosevelt. 

(To be Continued.) 

Vo1 - 4 MARCH, 1909 No. 2 




The Literature of Colonial Virginia. II. By Carl Holli- 

da 7 . .111 

A History of Slavery. By Mrs. C. F. McLean . . .136 
Rise of the United Empire Loyalists. By The Viscount 

de Fronsac m ^37 

Pioneer Pennsylvania Days 155 

An Eighteenth Century Print 167 

Origin f the Book of Mormon. IV. By Brigham H. Rob- 

. 168 


Sketches of the Revolutionary Period. By Rev. Andrew M. 

Sherman ' " 197 

Book of Bruce. Chapter XV. Castle and Churches. By 

Lyman Horace Weeks I93, 

Origin and Antiquity of Heraldry. Illustrated. By Henry 

Whittemore m 221 

The American Historical Magazine is issued on the first 
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Permission to reprint any article or illustration must be spe- 
cially obtained from the publishers. 

Entered as second class matter February 13, 1906, at the 
Post Office at New York under the Act of Congress of March 
3, 1879. 

The Americana Society, 

154 East Twenty-Third Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

Copyright, 1909, by 
The Americana Society 

All rights reserved. 

American Historical Magazine 

VOL. 4 MARCH, 1909 NO. 2 




IN the years immediately preceding 1676— perhaps for a 
decade— there was a decided dearth of literary work of any 
sort in the Virignia colony. In New England there had been 
already a crude but virile beginning in such highly edifying 
efforts as the "Bay Psalm Book" and Michael Wiggleworth's 
"Day of Doom," (1662). What was the reason for this early 
contrast? The answer is not difficult to find. Two character- 
istics of the Southern colony— the one economic, the other edu- 
cational—were apparently threatening the intellectual life of the 
people. It has frequently been noted that the units of society 
in the two sections were very different; that in the North the 
people, through necessity, chose the close, densely populated 
community, the township, the village, and the city, while in the 
South the county became the measure of government, and the 
county court house often times the one center of interest in a 
wide area. It must be admitted that the New England environ-, 
ment, resulting from the compact form of settlement, no matter 
what its effects on the moral and physical well-being, was un- 
doubtedly more stimulating to the intellectual life. 

"The manor system of the South discouraged manufactures, 
prevented united municipal endeavors, and created a spirit of 
reluctance toward accepting new movements. Rank was based 
largely on possession of land. Extensive, but not intensive, 
agriculture wrought havoc to both soil and perseverance, and 
sowed the seed of a characteristic Southern form of poverty 
known as 'land-poor.' Such training destroyed here the very 


kind of shrewdness and far seeing business ability which the 
New Englander was so rapidly gaining. 

"Now, as a result of this system, there undoubtedly existed 
an admirable degree of domestic felicity, but, at the same time, 
too much individual independence and a consequent lack of co- 
operation in culture movements. The New England system was 
far more likely to cause greater consideration for the opinions 
of others, while that of Virginia just as certainly presented^ the 
danger of nourishing an intolerance born of ignorant egotism. 
In short, the social structure, a sort of modernized feudal sys- 
tem, with the destructive institution of slavery attached, became 
a blighting force in a district which, by its natural endowments, 
should at once have become the most populous and the richest 
portion of North America." 31 

Whatever influences the intellectual life in one particular must 
influence it in all ; and we find that for the time being Southern 
literature suffered. I have said that the educational conditions 
also had much to do with this literary barrenness. The Virginia 
historian, Campbell, declares that the first and second genera- 
tion of Virginians were far inferior to their ancestors in knowl- 
edge. And yet, popular free education was intended as a part 
of the earliest plans of the Virginia Company. Funds amount- 
ing to several thousand pounds had been appropriated in 1621 
by this corporation, for the founding of a free institution bearing 
the name of ' ' East India School ' ' and to be located at ' ' Charles 
Citty." There was to be a still higher school, and funds for this 
also had been provided. A certain scholar, George Thorpe, 
came over to establish the system, but he perished in the mas- 
sacre of 1622, and thus the scheme failed. The company lost a 
portion of its power over the colonies; the control came par- 
tially into royal hands ; and then it was that an official made the 
sneering remark: "Virginia education be damned; we want 
Virginia tobacco ! ' ' 

These were the conditions during the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century. Even as late as 1715, when Governor Spots- 
wood dissolved the Virginia assembly he felt free to say: "I 
observe that the grand ruling party in your house has not fur- 
nished chairmen of two of your standing committees who can 

31. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 48. 


spell English or write common sense, as the grievances under 
their own handwriting will manifest." But before this time 
educational conditions had begun to improve. In 1693 William 
and Mary College had been established; by 1776 it had taken 
on somewhat the semblance of a university, with small begin- 
nings in law and medicine; and it had already begun to show 
that rich fruit which its long career has given America. John 
Fiske has given but a slight hint of that fruit when he says : 

"Though until lately its number of students at one time has 
never reached one hundred and fifty, it has given to our country 
fifteen senators and seventy representatives in Congress ; sev- 
enteen governors of States and thirty-seven judges ; three pres- 
idents of the United States:— Jefferson, Monroe, and Tyler; 
and the great Chief Justice Marshall." 32 

The colony, moreover, was not without other signs of intel- 
lectual development. Fiske mentions the fact that among a Vir- 
ginia musician's effects sold in 1755 were found Handel's "Acis 
and Galatea" and "Apollo's Feast," four books of the instru- 
mental scores of Handel's oratorios, ten books of Handel's 
songs, the score of several Corelli sonatas, and the works of 
several other standard composers. 33 By 1716 Williamsburg had 
a theatre, and from time to time English companies went there 
and to Charleston. 

But all this was at a later date than that with which we must 
deal at this moment. Ignorance was undoubtedly for a period 
the bane of Virginia life, and bigotry was its companion. 
Witches were tortured in Virginia as in New England. 34 The, 
Virginia assembly passed a law in 1632 punishing all dissenters 
from the Episcopal Church, in 1662 all persons refusing to have 
their children baptized were banished; in 1711 the Presbyteri- 
ans were persecuted by cruel laws ; and as late as 1746 the 
Moravians and Methodists suffered ' ' legal ' ' indignities. Profes- 
sor Moses Coit Tyler has summed it up, perhaps a little unfairly, 
but not greatly so, when he says : 

32. Fiske's "Virginia and Her Neighbors," vol. II, p. 129. 

33. See William and Mary Quarterly, vol. Ill, p. 251. 

34. Burk's "History of Virginia," vol. II, Appendix XXXI. 


' ' The units of the community isolated ; little chance for mind 
to kindle mind; no schools; no literary institutions, high or 
low ; no public libraries ; no printing press ; no intellectual free- 
dom; no religious freedom; the forces of society tending to 
create two great classes ; a class of vast land-owners, haughty, 
hospitable, indolent, passionate, given to field-sports and poli- 
tics, and a class of impoverished white plebeians and black serfs ; 
—these constitute a situation out of which may be evolved 
country gentlemen loud-lunged and jolly fox-hunters, militia 
heroes, men of boundless domestic heartiness and social grace, 
astute and imperious politicians, fiery orators, and, by and by, 
here and there, some men of elegant culture, most acquired 
abroad; here and there, perhaps, after a while, a few amateur 
literary men ; but no literary class, and almost no literature. ' m 

Thus opens the period from 1676 to 1776— the period which 
John Fiske has called "the century of political education." If 
intellectual affairs were in such a condition as that noted above, 
what caused the sudden awakening, the rapid development, which 
took place in the years immediately following 1676! The rea- 
sons again are apparent. 

Bacon's Declaration 

For some time there had been a growing feeling among Vir- 
ginians that they were not receiving all the rights and favors of 
government to which their loyalty to the king and their value to 
English commerce entitled them. Berkeley was frequently care- 
less, impatient of any suggestions on the part of the people, some- 
what haughty, and very slow to act in matters which did not 
immediately concern him and his. He had shown his character 
in his famous or, rather, infamous declaration: "I thank God 
there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we shall not 
have them these hundred years." Also Charles II, when he 
came to the throne had acted in a most fool-hardy manner 
toward the colony. "His first parliament passed navigation 
acts that almost paralyzed her agriculture and industries; he 
himself gave to his favorites immense tracts of land that were 
not his to give ; he placed over the colonists despotic and grasp- 

35. Tyler's "History of American Literature," vol. I, 92. 


ing officials." 36 The people certainly were in no frame of mind 
to receive farther suggestions of serfdom. 

But now in the fall and winter of 1675 the Indians began to 
invade the outer settlements ; the colonists fled toward the coast ; 
and the people called loudly for help from Berkeley. Seemingly 
unconcerned, he remained almost passive, and the savages were 
enboldened to more outrageous deeds. Something had to be 
done, and that immediately. A colonial army was organized, 
and one, Nathaniel Bacon, a man scarcely thirty years of age, 
was called to the leadership of the little band. The Indians were 
vanquished; peace was restored; and Bacon, the young war- 
rior, became the idol of the people. But Governor Berkeley 
had refused to sign Bacon's commission as leader of the army, 
and his haughty spirit could not brook this rebellious act. He 
sent forth throughout Virginia his declaration that "Bacon, 
proceeding against all laws of all nations modern and ancient, 
is rebel to his sacred majesty and this country." 37 But Bacon 
was not so easily abashed, and he came back at the unpopular 
governor with a "Declaration in the Name of the People of 
Virginia." 38 We may not go into the details of that bold state- 
ment, except to note that it contained eight good reasons why 
Berkeley should not be proud of himself, and also to note that it 
ended with the following unblushing demand: 

"And we do further demand that the said Sir William Berke- 
ley with all the persons in this list be forthwith delivered up or 
surrender themselves within four days after the notice hereof; 
or otherwise we declare as followeth: 

"That in whatsoever place, house, or ship, any of the said 
persons shall reside, be hid, or protected, we declare the owners, 
masters or inhabitants of the said places to be confederates 
and traitors to the people, and the estates of them, as also of all 
the aforesaid persons, to be confiscated; and this we the Com- 
mons of Virginia do declare, desiring a firm union amongst 
ourselves that we may jointly and with one accord defend our- 
selves against the common enemy." . . . 39 

36. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 43. 

37. Berkeley's Declaration against Bacon. "Aspinwall Papers," Massachusetts 
Historical Society, 1871. 

38. Ibid. 

39. "Aspinwall Papers," Massachusetts Historical Society, 1871. 


In the conflict which followed, Bacon proved himself decidedly 
the shrewder antagonist, and undoubtedly would have won the 
victory had not death suddenly overtaken him. The cause of 
that death will never be known ; but tradition says that poison 
in the hands of a faithless soldier did the mysterious work. 
His very burial place was kept secret; but tradition locates it 
near Gloucester Court House, Virginia. But one thing is cer- 
tain: the souls of the people were at last fully awakened, and 
the century of political education had begun. 

The Burwell Papees 

In those days it was a dangerous business to praise a patriot. 
Therefore we shall find the first literary results of this "rebel- 
lion" unsigned. They go by the name of the "Burwell Papers" 
—for they long remained in the possession of the Burwell fam- 
ily—and may be found today in the publications of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society. Opening in the midst of a descrip- 
tion of an Indian fight— for the first pages are lost— they tell in 
simple but effective words the story of our first national hero. 

"They began," the account declares, "to have Bacon's merits 
in mistrust as a luminary that threatened an eclipse to their ris- 
ing glories ; for though he was but a young man, yet they found 
that he was master and owner of those inducements which con- 
stitute a complete man." The story tells of Bacon's work as 
leader, the admiration of the people, the refusal on the part of 
the governor to sign his commission. He is proclaimed a rebel. 
Ever a man of quick decision, he at once marches with five hun- 
dred men against the capital, makes terms of peace, and goes his 
way. Again he is proclaimed a rebel. 

"This strange and unexpected news," as the narrative 
quaintly puts it, "put him, and some with him, shrewdly to 
their trumps, believing that a few such deals or shuffles (call 
them which you please) might quickly wring the cards and game 
too out his hand. . . . 

"It vexed him to the heart (as he was heard to say) for to 
think that while he was hunting wolves, tigers, and foxes, which 
daily destroyed our harmless sheep and lambs, that he and those 


with hira should be pursued with a full cry, as a more savage or 
a no less ravenous beast. But to put all out of doubt, and him- 
self in some degree of safety, since he could not tell but that 
some whom he left behind might not more desire his death than 
to hear that by him the Indians were destroyed, he forthwith 
(after a short consultation held with some of his soldiers) 
countermarches his army, and in a trice came up with them at 
the Middle Plantation, a place situated in the very heart of the 
country. ' ' 40 

Have I not intimated that Bacon was the shrewder antagonist"? 
He decided to fight a bloodless battle. Dispatching his men 
throughout the neighboring country, he ordered them to bring 
in all the colonial dames they could find, to place as shields in 
front of his own soldiers. The frightened ladies were brought 
to camp; they were put in the proper, or perhaps improper 
positions ; and Bacon dared the enemy to come forth. Accord- 
ing to the manuscript, 

' ' The poor gentlewomen were mightily astonished at this pro- 
ject ; neither were their husbands void of amazements at this sub- 
tile invention. . . . This action was a method in war that they 
were not well acquainted with (no, not those the best informed 
in military affairs), that before they could come to pierce their 
enemies sides, they must be obliged to dart their weapons 
through their wives' breasts; by which means though they (in 
their own persons) might escape without wounds, yet it might 
be the lamentable fate of their better half to drop by gunshot, 
or otherwise be wounded to death. 

"Whether it was these considerations, or some others I do 
not know, that kept their swords in their scabbards, but this is 
manifest: That Bacon knit more knots by his own head in 
one day than all the hands in town was able to untie in a whole 
week ; while these ladies ' white aprons became of greater force 
to keep the besiegd from falling out than his works (a pitiful 
trench) had strength to repel the weakest shot that should have 
been sent into his leaguer, had he not made use of his inven- 
tion." 41 

Thus the story continues, until it comes to the death of the 
young hero, and here the pathos is indeed sincere. One portion 
of that final description is in the form of an epitaph, "drawn," 

40. Bacon's Proceedings in "Burwell Papers". 

41. Bacon's Proceedings in "Burwell Papers". 


so the manuscript says, "by the man that waited upon his person, 
as it is said, and who attended his corpse to their burial place." 
We shall never know the name of the writer of the sorrowful 
elegy, but he had the gifts of a poet. In these lines we have the 
first original poetry of merit written in America. 

' ' Death, why so cruel ? What ! no other way 
To manifest thy spleen, but thus to slay 
Our hopes of safety, liberty, our all, 
Which, through thy tyranny, with him must fall 
To its late chaos? . . . 

. . . Now we must complain, 
Since thou, in him, hast more than thousand slain, 
Whose lives and safeties did so much depend 
On him their life, with him their lives must end. 

If 't be a sin to think Death brib'd can be 
We must be guilty; say 'twas bribery 
Guided the fatal shaft. Virginia's foes, 
To whom for secret crimes just vengeance owes 
Deserved plagues, dreading their just desert, 
Corrupted Death by Paracelsian art 
Him to destroy; whose well tried courage such, 
Their heartless hearts, nor arms, nor strength could touch. 

Who now must heal those wounds, or stop that blood 
The Heathen made, and drew into a flood! 
Who is't must plead our cause! nor trump nor drum 
Nor Deputations ; these, alas ! are dumb 
And cannot speak. . . . 

While none shall dare his obsequies to sing 
In deserv'd measures ; until time shall bring 
Truth crown 'd with freedom, and from danger free 
To sound his praises to posterity. 

Here let him rest ; while we this truth report 
He's gone from hence unto a higher Court 
To plead his cause, where he by this doth know 
Whether to Caesar he was friend or foe. ' ' 42 

The "T. M." Manuscript 
In 1803 Rufus King, happening one day to attend an auction 
sale in London, found and purchased at a very small price a 
curious manuscript signed "T. M." and dated July 13, 1705. 

42. Bacon's Proceedings in ''Burweli Papers". 


Upon examination it proved to be a report sent to Robert Har- 
ley, at one time Secretary of State for Great Britain, and evi- 
dently had been written in answer to his request for a trust- 
worthy account of Bacon's Rebellion. Rufus King realized the 
value of the manuscript and soon sent it to Thomas Jefferson, 
who had it published in the Richmond Enquirer of September, 
1804. Like the author of the "Burwell Papers," the writer is 
totally unknown, save for his own statement that he had been a 
member of the Virginia Assembly. But it is conjectured, with 
no small degree of reason, that he was Thomas Matthews, son of 
Colonel Samuel Matthews, once governor of Virginia. 

Whoever he was, he wrote a most interesting story. According 
to him the whole rebellion had its origin in the fact that the In- 
dians killed one of his servants, named Hen. Perhaps we who, 
in this day, live amidst the peace and safety of an advanced 
civilization, can gain some idea of the strange life of those times, 
from reading this one paragraph of T. M.'s narrative: 

"My dwelling was in Northumberland, the lowest country on 
Potomac River, Stafford being the upmost, where having also a 
plantation, servants, cattle, etc., my overseer there had agreed 
with one Robt. Hen to come thither and be my herdsman, who 
then lived ten miles above it. But on a Sabbath-day morning, in 
the summer anno 1675, people in their way to church saw this 
Hen lying athwart his threshold, and an Indian without the door, 
both chopped on their heads, arms, and other parts, as if done 
with Indian hatchets. The Indian was dead; but Hen, when 
asked who did that answered,' Doegs, Doegs,' and soon died. 
Then a boy came out from under a bed, where he had hid himself, 
and told them, Indians had come at break of dav and done those 
murders." 43 

There is little need of our again going over the story of the re- 
bellion ; this one but enlarges and adds to the interest of the nar- 
rative found in the "Burwell Papers." Perhaps it would be more 
interesting to turn for a moment to a few of those portions that 
show the character of those curious days. How surprising it is, 
for instance, to read of such superstition as the following : 

43. Force's "Historical Tracts". 


''This unhappy scene ended [the killing of several Indians], 
Col. Mason took the king of the Doegs' son home with him, who 
lay ten days in bed, as one dead, with eyes and mouth shut, no 
breath discerned; but his body continuing warm, they believed 
him yet alive. The aforenamed Capt. Brent (a Papist) coming 
thither on a visit and seeing his little prisoner thus languishing 
said, 'Perhaps he is powwowed' (i. e. bewitched), and that he 
had heard baptism was an effectual remedy against witchcraft, 
wherefore advised to baptize him. Col. Mason answered, no 
minister could be had in many miles. Brent replied, 'Your clerk 
Mr. Dodson may do that office,' which was done by the Church 
of England liturgy ; Col. Mason with Capt. Brent godfather and 
Mrs. Mason godmother, my overseer Mr. Pinet being present, 
from whom I first heard it, and which all the other persons after- 
wards affirmed to me ; the four men returned to drinking punch, 
but Mrs. Mason staying and looking on the child, it opened the 
eyes and breathed, whereat she ran for a cordial, which he took 
from a spoon, gaping for more, and so by degrees recovered, 
though before his baptism, they had often tried the same means, 
but could not by no endeavors wrench open his teeth." 44 

Again, there were rumors of fell disaster in the air. Every- 
body knew that something terrible was about to happen; for— 
But hear it in T. M.'s own words : 

"About the year 1675, appeared three prodigies in that coun- 
try, which from the attending disasters were looked upon as om- 
inous presages. 

"The one was a large comet every evening for a week or more, 
at south-west, thirty-five degrees high, streaming like a horse- 
tail westwards. .... 

"Another was flights of pigeons in breadth nigh a quarter of 
the mid-hemisphere, and of their length was no visible end; 
whose weights break down the limbs of large trees whereon these 
rested at nights, of which the fowlers shot abundance and eat 
them ; this sight put the old planters under the more portentous 
apprehensions, because the like was seen, as they said, in the 
year 1640, when the Indians committed the last massacre. . . . 

"The third strange appearance was swarms of flies about an 
inch long, and big as the top of a man's little finger, rising out of 
spigot holes in the earth, which eat the new spouted leaves from 

44. Force's "Historical Tracts". 


the tops of the trees without other harm, and in a month left 


We of to-day look upon the Red Man as a rather poor speci- 
men of humanity,— an object of government charity, a loafing 
consumer of fire-water and tobacco. But there was a time when 
the native dignity and unbending will of the Indian compelled 
the admiration of his most tyrannical persecutors. H'ear this bit 
of description from the pen of "T. M." A Virginia council of 
war is being held, and an Indian queen has been invited to the 
meeting in order to secure aid from her. 

"Our committee being sat, the Queen of Pamunby . . . 
was introduced, who enter the chamber with a comportment 
graceful to admiration, bringing on her right hand an English- 
man interpreter, and on her left her son, a stripling twenty years 
of age, she having round her head a plat of black and white wam- 
pum peague three inches broad in imitation of a crown, and was 
clothed in a mantle of dressed deer-skins, with the hair outwards 
and the edge cut round six inches deep, which made strings re- 
sembling twisted fringe, from the shoulders to the feet. Thus 
with grave, courtlike gestures and a majestic air in her face, she 
walked up our long room to the lower end of the table where, 
after a few entreaties, she sat down ; the interpreter and her son 
standing by her on either side, as they had walked up. Our chair- 
man asked her what men she would lend us for guides in the 
wilderness and to assist us against our enemy Indians. She 
spake to the interpreter to inform her what the chairman said 
(though we believed she understood him). He told us she bid 
him ask her son, to whom the English tongue was familiar, and 
who was reputed the son of an English colonel ; yet neither would 
he speak to or seem to understand the chairman, but, the inter- 
preter told us, he referred all to his mother, who, being again 
urged, she (after a little musing), with an earnest, passionate 
countenance, as if tears were ready to gush out, and a fervent 
sort of expression, made a harangue about a quarter of an hour, 
often interlacing (with a high, shrill voice and vehement pas- 
sion) these words, 'Tatapatamoi Chipiack' (i. e. 'Tatapatamoi 40 
dead') .... 

"Her discourse ending, and our morose chairman not advanc- 
ing one cold word towards assuaging the anger and grief her 

45. Force's "Historical Tracts". 

46. Her husband. 


speech and demeanor manifested under her oppression, . . 

. rudely pushed again the same question, 'What Indians will 
you now contribute!' etc. Of this disregard she signified her 
resentment by a disdainful aspect, and turning her head half 
aside, sat mute till that same question being pressed a third 
time, she not returning her face to the board, answered with a 
low, slighting voice in her own language, 'Six ;' but being further 
emportuned, she, sitting a little while sullen, without uttering a 
word between, said, 'Twelve,' though she then had a hundred 
and fifty Indian men in her town ; and so rose up and gravely 
walked away. . . ." 47 

These were the people with whom the founders of this nation 
had to contend, and these were the people who, in their thirst for 
revenge, called forth the united efforts of those founders, pre- 
vented a dangerous intellectual apathy, and unconsciously aided 
in causing the power of thought to bring forth a new government 
among men. Friendly environments are always welcome; but 
thank Heaven for our enemies ; they make us think. 

Robert Beverly 

One of those serious thinkers of colonial Virginia was named 
Robert Beverly (1676-1735). He was a native Virginian, the son 
of an English army officer who had settled in Middlesex county 
and who for some time had held the office of clerk in the House 
of Burgesses. Young Beverly was educated in England, and 
upon his return to America soon gained attention through his 
trained and solid intellect. Like his father, he entered actively 
into the political life of the colony, because clerk of the Virginia 
Council in 1697, and was a member of the House of Burgesses in 
the year 1699-1700. 

It so happened that one day Beverly saw some proof-sheets of 
Oldmixon's "British Empire in America." He was astonished 
at the number of mistakes and marks of prejudice in the small 
portion read by him, and he at once saw the dangerous effects of 
such a publication and the need of an antidote. Possessed of an 
accurate knowledge of Virginia records, he himself determined 
to write the story of the colony's life. The result was his author- 

47. Force's "Historical Tracts". 


itative " History and Present State of Virginia" (1705), a work 
which attracted wide attention not only among the English but 
also among the French, into whose language it was translated. 
In Robert Beverly we have something of a Southern Ben 
Franklin. He had "a quaint personality and a deal of sound 
sense," 48 mingled with a good perception of the relative import- 
ance of things, and his discriptions of the Virginia of his day 
are full of both wise criticism and well-phrased pictures. Hear 
him describe an old time "possum" hunt: 

' ' They have another sort of hunting, which is very diverting, 
and that they call vermin-hunting; it is performed a-foot, with 
small dogs in the night, by the light of the moon or stars. Thus 
in summer time they find abundance of raccoons, opossums, and 
foxes in the corn-fields, and about their plantations ; but at other 
times they must go into the woods for them. The method is to 
go out with three or four dogs, and as soon as they come to the 
place, they bid the dogs seek out, and all the company follow 
immediately. Wherever a dog barks, you may depend upon find- 
ing the game; and this alarm draws both men and dogs that 
way. If this sport be in the woods, the game by that time you 
come near it is perhaps mounted to the top of an high tree, and 
then they detach a nimble fellow up after it, who must have a 
scuffle with the beast, before he can throw it down to the dogs ; 
and then the sport increases, to see the vermin encounter those 
little curs. In this sort of hunting, they also carry their great 
dogs out with them, because wolves, bears, panthers, wild cats, 
and all other beasts of prey are abroad in the night." 49 

And see the antiquity of Virginia hospitality : 

"The inhabitants are very courteous to travellers, who need 
no other recommendation, but the being human creatures. A > 
stranger has no more to do, but to inquire upon the road where 
any gentleman or good housekeeper lives, and there he may 
depend upon being received with hospitality. This good nature 
is so general among their people, that the gentry, when they go 
abroad, order their principal servant to entertain all visitors 
with everything the plantation affords. And the poor planters, 
who have but one bed, will very often sit up, or lie upon a form 
or couch all night to make room for a weary traveller to repose 
himself after his journey." 50 

48. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature," p. 51. 

49. Beverly's "History and Present State of Virginia". 

50. Beverly's "History and Present State of Virginia". 


But Beverly's work is not all praise. I have said that he 
indulges in "wise criticism," and in fact his words along this 
line are so wise that even the South of today may get some 
suggestive hints from them. There is no mincing of words in 
this straightforward rebuke: 

"Indeed some few hides with much adoe are tann'd and made 
into servant's shoes; but at so careless a rate that the planters 
don't care to buy them, if they can get others. . . . Nay, 
they are such abominable ill-husbands that tho' their country be 
over-run with wood, yet they have all their wooden ware from 
England; their cabinets, chairs, tables, ... to the eternal 
reproach of their laziness. . . . They spunge upon the bless- 
ings of a warm sun and a fruitful soil, and almost grutch the 
pains of gathering in the bounties of the earth. ' ' 51 

Here, then, we find a distinct demand for a more active intel- 
ligence on the part of Virginians. And here, too, is to be noted 
the still more important fact that the colony is realizing more 
and more the worthiness of its past and the possibilities of its 
future. Virginia now has a history and men take a pride in 
writing it. From now on we shall find the note of national con- 
sciousness ever growing more distinct, more persistent. 

James Blair 

Mention has been made of the early intellectual conditions of 
the colony, of the failure in the intended system of public educa- 
tion, and of the founding and development of William and Mary 
College. The first president of that institution was a power in 
the land. He deposed two governors of Virginia, and in fact, as 
President Lyon G. Tyler of the college has put it, ' ' walked rough 
shod over such small things as grammar masters and colonial 
governors." 52 But let it not be thought that he was a mere wil- 
ful, domineering tyrant ; the intense earnestness of the man and 
the dire necessity of the work compelled him to hold to his course 
in spite of all obstacles. 

James Blair, a young Scotchman, came to Virginia in 1685. 
Born in 1656, he was educated at the University of Edinburgh, 
where he graduated in 1673, and for some years was rector of 

51. Beverly's "History and Present State of Virginia". 

52. Tyler's "Early Courses and Professors at William and Mary College", p. i. 


Cranston. But the bishop of London saw in this man a restless, 
aggressive spirit, one who possessed the Scotch fighting blood 
which had made a Bruce and a Wallace famous ; and the observ- 
ant Bishop seized upon him as a worthy warrior for the cause 
in America. So it was that Blair willingly left a home of com- 
fort and refinement to do battle for his God in a land of hard- 
ships and dangers. He at once perceived that one of the gravest 
evils of the Virginia colony was the ignorance of its people. 
"Possessing the simple, strong, shrewd, persevering, positive, 
and energetic nature of the typical Scotchman, he had to fight, 
and forthwith he found his foe. ' ' 53 

We may not enter into the details of James Blair's untiring 
efforts for the establishment of an adequate school in Virginia. 
Sufficient to say he obtained colonial money for the scheme ; he 
returned to England and received more money and a charter, 
and by 1693 he was prepared to open the doors of William and 
Mary College. From that day his influences was so paramount, 
not only in Virginia, but in all the Southern colonies, that we 
are compelled to recognize him as the founder of Southern cul- 

More than thirty years after the founding of the institution, 
that is in 1727, he published, with the aid of two friends, Henry 
Hartwell and Edward Chilton, a description entitled ' ' The Pres- 
ent State of Virginia and the College." The little book was 
brought out in London, and both there and in Virginia aroused 
no small attention, and not a few evidences of bad feeling. But 
this was exactly what the zealous, hard-headed Scotchman de- 
sired. For the tract deals in no trickeries of language ; it speaks 
frankly and boldly. 

"When one considers the wholesomeness of its air, the fertil- 
ity of its soil, the commodiousness of its navigable rivers and 
creeks, the openness of its coast all the year long, the conveniency 
of its fresh-water runs and springs, the plenty of its fish, fowl 
and wild beasts, the variety of its simples and dyeing-woods, 
the abundance of its timbers, minerals, wild vines and fruits, the 
temperature of its climate ; ... in short, if it be looked up- 
on in all respects as it came out of the hand of God, it is certainly 

53. Holliday's "History of Southern Literature", p. 57. 


one of the best countries in the world. But, on the other hand, 
if we enquire for well-built towns, for convenient ports and mar- 
kets, for plenty of ships and seamen, for well-improved trades 
and manufactures, for well-educated children, for an industrious 
and thriving people, or for an happy government in church and 
state, and in short for all the other advantages in human im- 
provements, it is certainly, for all these things, one of the poor- 
est miser ablest and worst countries in all America, that is inhab- 
ited by Christians." 54 

At this point it would be well for all Virginians to arise and 
recite those significant words of that more kind-hearted Scotch- 
man, Bobby Burns: 

"O wad some Power the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as ithers see us ! " 

I gladly spare the lovers of the Old Dominion from any more 
of such heart-rending quotations. Before leaving Blair, how- 
ever, it would be well for us to consider the fact that he wrote 
one hundred and seventeen sermons on the Sermon on the 
Mount! They filled five goodly volume and created something of 
a stir in the English theological world of that day. The perse- 
verance of a college president is proverbial, but this is a little 
above the average! However, we may not linger here to reflect 
on the psychological make-up of a man who could compose a 
hundred and seventeen sermons on one subject; but let us merely 
note, in passing, that each discourse is clearly and tersely writ- 
ten, that every argument is based on faultless logic, that every 
thought is to the point, and that there is not a line which could 
not be understood by an ordinary reader. At least, that is what 
preachers of the day said. What greater praise could a theo- 
logian desire 1 ? 

Hugh Jones 

In the days of this same James Blair there was at William and 
Mary, a professor of mathematics named Hugh Jones (1669- 
1760). Jones was as frank as Blair, and when he sat down to 
write his own book, "The Present State of Virginia" (1724), he 
described conditions, not as they should have been, but as they 
were. He had previously written an "English Grammar," a 

54. Blair's "The Present State of Virginia". 


book on mathematics, and "Accidence to Christianity," and 
these texts sold rather widely ; but his literary efforts did not at- 
tract extensive notice until his clear descriptions of Virginia and 
Virginians were given in ' ' The Present State. ' ' Jones says of his 
Viiginians that they are, 

"For the most part . . . much civilized and wear the best 
of clothes according to their station ; nay sometimes too good for 
their circumstances, being for the generality comely, handsome 
persons, of good feature, and fine complexions (if they take 
care), of good manners and address. The climate makes them 
bright and of excellent sense, and sharp in trade ; an idiot or de- 
formed native being almost a miracle. ' ' 55 

Thus it is apparent that Virginians change but little as the 
centuries go by. But even Virginians have faults. Listen: 

"They are more inclinable to read men by business and con- 
versation than to dive into books, and are for the most part only 
desirous of learning what is absolutely necessary in the shortest 
and best method. 

"They are not very easily persuaded to the improvement of 
useful inventions (except a few, such as sawing mills), neither 
are they great encouragers of manufacturers, because of the trou- 
ble and certain expense in attempts of this kind, with uncertain 
prospect of gain; whereas by their staple commodity tobacco, 
they are in hopes to get a plentiful provision; nay, often very 
great estates. 

"Upon this account they think it folly to take off their hands 
(or negroes) and employ their care and time about anything that 
may make them lessen their crop of tobacco. ' ' 

And behold the antiquity of the Southern custom of liquid re- 
freshments and hot bread ! 

"Some planters, etc., make good small drink with cakes of 
persimmons, a kind of plums which grow there in great plenty ; 
but the common small beer is made of molasses, which makes ex- 
traordinary brisk, good-tasted liquor at a cheap rate, with little 
trouble in brewing ; so that they have it brisk and fresh as they 
want it in winter and summer. And as they brew, so do they 
bake daily bread or cakes, eating too much hot and new bread, 
which cannot be wholesome, though it be pleasanter than what 
has been baked a dag or two." 

55. Jones' "The Present State of Virginia". 


But in spite of such dangerous customs, Jones sees in Virginia 
a land unequalled in blessings. Can Virginians of to-day speak 
with truth such words as these? 

' ' The plenty of the country and the good wages given to work- 
folks occasion very few poor, who are supported by the parish, 
being such as are lame, sick, or decrepit through age, distempers, 
accidents or some infirmities ; for where there is a numerous 
family of poor children, the vestry takes care to bind them 
out apprentices till they are able to maintain themselves by 
their own labor; by which means they are never tormented 
with vagrant and vagabond beggars. . . ." 

A desirable state of affairs, is it not? Little wonder that 
Jones waxes enthusiastic and delivers himself of the following 
boastful declaration: 

"If New England be called a receptacle of Dissenters, and 
an Amsterdam of religion, Pennsylvania the nursery of Quak- 
ers, Maryland the retirement of Roman Catholics, North Caro- 
lina the refuge of runaways, and South Carolina the delight of 
buccaneers and pirates, Virginia may be justly esteemed the 
happy retreat of true Britons and true Churchmen. . . . ,m 

William Bykd 

Perhaps the most learned and most versatile of all these 
"true Britons and true Churchmen" was Colonel William Byrd. 
Born at Westover, Virginia, the family seat which had been 
established by his father a few years previous, he was educated 
in England, Holland, and France, studied law under the best 
English attorneys of the day, was called to the bar in the Mid- 
dle Temple, was elected a member of the Royal Society, and 
received every advantage which his splendid natural endow- 
ments and great wealth warranted. While still a young man he 
returned to the colony, succeeded his father as receiver-general 
of the colony, was for thirty-seven years a member of the Vir- 
ginia Council, at length became its president, was three times 
colonial agent to Great Britain, and founded the cities of Peters- 
burg and Richmond. We may well believe his epitaph, in its 
declaration that he was "the constant enemy of all exorbitant 
power and a hearty friend to the liberties of his country. ' ' 

56. Jones' "The Present State of Virginia". 


But interesting as it would be to look minutely into the varied 
activities of the talented Colonel, we must confine our inquiries 
to those quieter hours of his life, when he sat in his luxurious 
library and wrote down the memories, sentiments, and theories 
of his brilliant mind. What a library was that for those days! 
More than four thousand volumes, it is declared, and not for 
show, either. Colonel Byrd read them and loved them, and the 
well turned phrases of his writings show their influences. These 
writings may all be found today in the "Byrd Manuscripts," 
and, to use Horace Greeley's pet expression, "make mighty 
interesting reading. ' ' 

In 1729 Byrd had charge of the party that ran the dividing 
line between Virginia and North Carolina. His "History of the 
Dividing Line" tells all about it; but— under no conditions 
should I advise North Carolinans to read the story. There are 
no churches in North Carolina, says Byrd, and the only people 
who have no religion at all are "the Hottentots of the Cape 
of Good Hope and of North Carolina!" But let Byrd himself 
describe the utter depravity of the Old North State: 

' ' One thing may be said for the inhabitants of that province, 
that they are not troubled with any religious fumes, and have 
the least superstition of any people living. They do not know 
Sunday from any other day, any more than Robinson Crusoe 
did; which would given them a great advantage, were they 
given to be industrious. But they keep so many Sabbaths every 
week, that their disregard of the seventh day has no manner 
of cruelty in it, either to servants or cattle. ... A citizen 
here is counted extravagant if he has ambition enough to aspire 
to a brick chimney. Justice herself is but indifferently lodged, 
the court-house having much the air of a common tobacco- 
house. I believe this is the only metropolis in the Christian 
or Mohammedan world, where there is neither church, chapel, 
mosque, synagogue, or any other place of public worship of 
any sect or religion whatsoever." 57 

I am sure that I mean no ill toward the good people of North 
Carolina, when I add this final bit of description— a picture of 
an old-time North Carolinian and his spouse. 

"Like the ravens he neither ploughed nor sowed, but sub- 

57. "History of the Dividing Line" in the "Byrd Manuscripts." 


sisted chiefly upon oysters, which his hand-maid made a shift 
to gather from the adjacent rocks. Sometimes, too, for change 
of diet, he sent her to drive up the neighbors' cows, to moisten 
their mouths with a little milk. But as for raiment, he de- 
pended mostly upon his length of beard, and she upon her 
length of hair, part of which she brought decently forward, 
and the rest dangled behind quite down to her rump, like one 
or Herodotus 's East Indian pigmies. Thus did these wretches 
live in a dirty state of nature, and were mere Adamites, inno- 
cence only excepted." 

We may not linger over the many merry pages in this book 
and in his others, "A Progress to the Mines" (1732) and "A 
Journey to the Land of Eden" (1732). A slight hint of their 
sarcasm is given when we discover the Land of Eden is no 
other than the aforesaid commonwealth of North Carolina. I 
am sure that its citizens all draw a sigh of relief when they 
hear that by this year he had found several preachers within 
its boundaries. 

But it must not be concluded that Colonel Byrd was merely 
a brilliant scoffer. Many portions of his works are of most 
serious interest. His descriptions of the early efforts to ex- 
plore the country, the endeavors to start manufacturing, the 
political issues, the curious customs of the settlers and of the 
Indians— these and many other interesting points are touched 
upon. For instance, note this hint of the misery of a night in 
the Dismal Swamp: 

"They first covered the ground with square pieces of cypress 
bark, which now, in the spring, they could easily slip off the 
tree for that purpose. On this they spread their bedding;; 
but unhappily the weight and warmth of their bodies made the 
water rise up betwixt the joints of the bark to their great in- 
convenience. Thus they lay not only moist, but also exceed- 
ingly cold, because their fires were continually going out. For 
no sooner was the trash upon the surface burnt away, but im- 
mediately the fire was extinquished by the moisture of the soil, 
insomuch that it was great part of the sentinel's business to 
rekindle it again in a fresh place every quarter of an hour." 58 

Many indeed are the extracts which we might take from the 
writings of this wide-awake scholar and man of affairs; but 

58. "History of the Dividing Line" in the "Byrd Manuscripts." 


we must close with the following specimen— his recital of the 
tender Indian legend of a Christ: 

"These Indians have a very odd tradition amongst them, 
that many years ago their nation was grown so dishonest, that 
no man could keep any goods, or so much as his loving wife 
to himself. That, however, their God, being unwilling to root 
them out for their crimes did them the honor to send a Messen- 
gen from Heaven to instruct them, and set them a perfect ex- 
ample of integrity and kind behavior towards one another. 

"But this holy Person, with all his eloquence and sanctity 
of life was able to make very little reformation amongst them. 
Some few old men did listen a little to his wholesome advice, 
but all the young fellows were quite incorrigible. They not 
only neglected his precepts but derided and evil entreated his 
person. At last, taking upon him to reprove some young rakes 
of the Conechta Clan very sharply for their impiety, they were 
so provok'd at the freedom of his rebukes that they tied him 
to a tree and shot him with arrows through the heart. But 
their God took instant vengeance on all who had a hand in that 
monstrous act, by lightning from Heaven, and has ever since 
visited their nation with a continued train of calamities, nor will 
he ever leave off punishing and wasting their people till he 
shall have blotted every living soul of them out of the world." 59 

In "William Byrd the colonies possessed a writer of no small 
ability, a chronicler of most pleasing style and sentiment. Lively 
and witty, he yet possessed great common-sense and saw beneath 
the shallowness and uncouthness of the life about him the possi- 
bilities which have since become realizations. His life was full 
of labors for his native land ; else we might have had more from 
him today. As it is, we know him as one who shows more per- 
sonality and appeals more intimately to us than perhaps any 
other Virginian of the pre-Revolutionary days. 

William Stith 

William Byrd died in 1744. Three years later another Vir- 
ginian brought out a valuable piece of work entitled ' ' The His- 
tory of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia." Its 
author was the Reverend William Stith, president of William 
and Mary College. Stith was born in Virginia in 1689, is be- 
lieved to have studied in England, was there ordained a clergy- 

59. "History of the Dividing Line" in the "Byrd Manuscripts." 


man, and in 1731, became master of the grammar school at Will- 
iam and Mary. It is known that he was chaplain of the Virginia 
House of Burgesses in 1738, and that during the last three years 
of his life he was president of the famous college. Little else 
concerning the details of his life is known; but here and there 
in the records of the times we find traces of his influences in 
colonial activities. We must judge the man chiefly by his one 
piece of literary work. 

In "The History of the First Discovery and Settlement of 
Virginia" Stith intended to give the story of his colony from 
the beginning down to his own day; but the scale upon which 
he attempted the task would have required many, many more 
years than Providence allotted him. That one volume published 
at Williamsburg in 1747 was a lengthy piece of work in itself, 
and yet it covered but the first seventeen years of the colony's 
existence. But his record of those few years, with its detail and 
accuracy, is one of the most valuable contribution to American 
history written before the nineteenth century. Based upon rec- 
ords many of which have since gone out of existence, presenting 
every important fact and proof of every important statement, and 
in almost every event impartial to the last degree, it stands forth 
as the work of a genuine scholar. In spite of the fact that Thom- 
as Jefferson thought the style inelegant, 00 the book impresses the 
reader of today not only by its frankness and evidence of extreme 
carefulness, but also by not a few bits of well written description. 
For instance, read his account of a sea-battle: 

"The following year, 1591, Sir Richard Grenville was sent, by 
the Queen, Vice- Admiral to the Lord Thomas Howard, with sev- 
en ships of war, and a few other small vessels, to intercept the 
Spanish plate-fleet. At the Azores, this small squadron was sur- 
prised by fifty-three capital ships, purposely sent from Spain; 
and Sir Richard Grenville, who was unwilling to leave a great 
part of his men, then on shore for water and other necessaries, 
to the insolence and barbarity of the islanders, staid so long in 
getting them off, that he was hemmed in between the enemy's 
fleet and the island of Flores. In this dangerous situation he 
scorned to show any signs of fear, or to owe his safety to flight ; 
but he bravely bore down upon the enemy, and endeavored to 

60. Jefferson's "Complete Works," vol. VIII, p. 415. 


break through them, in which, attempt he maintained a gallant 
and obtinate fight with the best o,f the Spanish ships for fifteen 
hours together. He was at once laid aboard by the St. Philip, a 
ship of fifteen hundred tons and seventy-eight large pieces of 
ordinance, and four other of the stoutest ships in the Spanish 
fleet. . . . Yet he behaved himself with such uncommon brav- 
ery and conduct that he disabled some, sunk others, and obliged 
them all to retire. Neither did he ever leave the deck, though 
wounded in the beginning of the close fight, till he received a dan- 
gerous wound in the body by a musket bullet. When he went 
down to have it dressed, he received another shot in the head, and 
his surgeon was killed by his side. By this time also most of his 
bravest men were slain, his ship much disabled, his deck covered 
with dead and wounded, and scattered limbs, and his powder 
spent to the very last barrel. Yet in this condition he ordered 
the vessel to be sunk, but it was prevented by the rest of the offi- 
cers; though many of the crew joined with him, and the master- 
gunner, if he had not been restrained, would have killed himself 
sooner than fall into the hands of the Spaniards. 

"When the ship, or rather wreck, was surrendered, Sir Rich- 
ard was carried on board the Spanish Admiral, where he died 
within two days, highly admired by the very enemy, for his ex- 
traordinary courage and resolution. And when he found the 
pangs of death approach, he said to the officers, that stood 
around him, in the Spanish tongue: 'Here die I, Richard Gren- 
ville, with a joyful and quiet mind, having ended my life like a 
true soldier, that fought for his country, Queen, religion and hon- 
or, ' thus summing up, in short, all the generous motives that fire 
the breasts of the truly brave and great, to exert themselves be- 
yond the common pitch of humanity." 61 

With all apologies to Thomas Jefferson, there seems to be, 
nothing inelegant about this. 

Stith had decided opinions as to the duties of the historian, and 
one of these was as to the duty of absolute justice in descriptions 
of all great personages. He says : 

"I take it to be the main part of the duty and office of an his- 
torian, to paint men and things in their true and lively colors; 
and to do that justice to the vices and follies of princes and great 
men, after their death, which it is not safe or proper to do whilst 
they are alive." 

He then proceeds to apply the principle to his Royal Highness, 
James I: 

61. Stith's "History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia. 


"King James I. fell indeed far short of the Caesar's superla- 
tive wickedness and supremacy in vice. He was, at best, only 
very simple and injudicious, without any steady principle of jus- 
tice and honor; which was rendered the more odious and ridicu- 
lous by his large and constant pretentions to wisdom and vir- 
tue. And he had, in truth, all the forms of wisdom ; forever err- 
ing very learnedly, with a wise saw or Latin sentence in his 
mouth. For he had been bred up under Buchanan, one of the 
brightest geniuses and most accomplished scholars of that age, 
who had given him Greek and Latin in great waste and profu- 
sion, but it was not in his power to give him good sense. That is 
the gift of God and nature alone, and it is not to be taught ; and 
Greek and Latin without it only cumber and overload a weak 
head, and often render the fool more abundantly foolish." 62 

I cannot forbear from setting against this some brief passages 
from his description of Captain John Smith. That this first 
leader possessed a fascination for Stith cannot be doubted. With 
what pride he closes his description of the Captain ! 

' ' I shall finish his character with the testimonies of some of his 
soldiers and fellow adventurers. They own him to have made 
justice his first guide and experience his second: That he was 
ever fruitful in expedients to provide for the people under his 
command, whom he would never suffer to want anything he eith- 
er had or could procure : That he rather chose to lead than send 
his soldiers into danger ; and upon all hazardous or fatiguing ex- 
peditions, always shared everything equally with his company 
and never desired any of them to do or undergo anything that he 
was not ready to do or undergo himself : That he hated baseness, 
sloth, pride, and indignity more than any danger : That he would 
suffer want, rather than borrow, and starve sooner than not pay. 
. . . That his wit, courage, and success here, were worthy of 
eternal memory. . . . That notwithstanding such a stern and 
invincible resolution there was seldom seen a milder and more 
tender heart than his was : That he had nothing in him counter- 
feit or sly, but was open, honest, and sincere; and that they 
never knew a soldier before him so free from those military 
vices of wine, tobacco, debts, dice, and oaths. ' ' 63 

Is not the patriotic note clear in this passage? Here again is 
conclusive evidence of that love of home-land and of that admira- 
tion for the past of the homeland, which were soon to cause a 

62. "The History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia." 

63. "History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia." 



new nation to come to light. Men read such lines, not with the 
eyes of temporary sojourners in a wealth-producing land, but 
as proud citizens of a country gained by the toil and suffering 
and very blood of their ancestors. 

We now stand at the middle of the eighteenth century. Rumors 
of rebellion were in the air. The newspapers of New England 
were hinting at English tyranny ; the orators of the South dared 
to speak of a future American commonwealth. Already, (1740), 
Patrick Tailfer, Hugh Anderson and David Douglas of Georgia 
had published a bitter tirade against their governor and against 
British government in general. In it the war-cry of the Ameri- 
can Revolution had been sounded. Everywhere men were dis- 
cussing the rights of the governed ; the ' ' century of political edu- 
cation" was fast drawing to a close. 

A wonderful galaxy of constructive thinkers were preparing in 
that day. Henry Laurens, who was to suffer so much for his 
country in later times, was now a thriving young merchant and 
political leader at Charlestown, South Carolina ; George Wash- 
ington was surveying the western wilderness; Patrick Henry, 
through hearing a school-teacher's stories of Greece and Rome, 
had suddenly felt the thrill of inspiration; William Henry Dray- 
ton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison— But it is useless to at- 
tempt to give the names of those numerous founders of the Re- 
public. Let us leave the subject here. The battle is on; the 
colonial days are soon to pass away; Virginia is to be the Mother- 
State of a mighty Union. No longer shall we find her writers tell- 
ing the sentiments of Virginians for Virginians ; they are about » 
to speak the emotions of a nation. Within a few years Patrick 
Henry is to stand within the old walls of St. John's Church in 
Richmond, and fuse the sentiments of a people into that one sen- 
tence: "Give me liberty, or give me death;" Thomas Jefferson 
is to weld the beliefs of that people into the most eloquent and ef- 
fective document of modern ages ; George Washington is to lead 
the patriots of that people to victory and freedom. Colonial lit- 
erature, like colonial life, has ceased; it has assumed a greater 
importance ; it has entered the stream of National Literature. 



IN the May, 1909, number of the American Historical Maga- 
zine will be the first chapters of one of the most valuable 
historical publications that has appeared from the American 
magazine press for many years. This will be a complete 
history of slavery, as it has existed in the United States. It will 
be from the pen of Mrs. C. F. McLean, whose contributions to 
this magazine and to other historical periodicals have given her 
a recognized position among native historical writers. 

In the first installment of this series of papers, Mrs. McLean 
will have an introduction treating briefly of the subject of slav- 
ery from the world point of view. She will review the origin of 
slavery and present many interesting facts concerning the slav- 
ery of white peoples by those of the same and other nationalities, 
and also the slavery of other races, such as the white slaves of 
the colored races and the colored slaves of the white races. With 
this brief explanatory introduction leading up to the main sub- 
ject the history of white slavery in the American colonies will be 
taken up. Then the beginning of African slavery in these col- 
onies will be related, the cause of its installation and the differ- 
ent phases of its development being carefully set forth and ex- 

Following will be a consideration of the extent and status of 
slavery at the time of the declaration of independence, and the 
attitude of the leaders of the American Revolution in regard 
to it at that date, and, subsequently, their opinions and conclu- 
sions as voiced in the constitutional convention. Connected with 
this part of the subject will be a careful, soundly studied and 
exhaustive review of public opinion in the north and in the south 
regarding slavery at the close of the Revolution, and the causes 
of the change of views that came about in those two sections 
will be presented. 

Then will come full consideration and explanation of the action 
of the various states on the slavery question and the introduction 
of the subject into national legislation. From that point onward, 
in successive numbers of the magazine, the subject will be treated 
completely and in a scholarly manner in all its different phases 
and brought down to the present day. 




[Revised— with additions— from the original edition, espec- 
ially for the American Historical Magazine.] 


The Manorial Establishments of the Colonies 

Maryland Manors 

THE charter and arrangements of colonial Maryland, 
the Carolinas and New York, apart from a general sub- 
infeudation to the king, peculiar to all other feudal 
charters, provided for the especial establishment of 
patrician orders. 

The colony of Maryland, of great extent from beyond the Sus- 
quehanna river on the north to the Potomac river on the south and 
west, was a principality conceded to the family of Calvert, lords 
of Baltimore. The province contains the most beautiful, health- 
ful and most productive part of North America— the unrivalled 
eastern shore of the Chesapeake bay, as well as the less noted 
western shore. A region it is, with easy access to the commerce 
of the seas, to the richness of the land, broken into creeks and in, 
lets teeming with the oyster, the menenoes, the terrapin ; abound- 
ing in fruits including the fig, the best known area for the sweet 
potato and the yam. Truly the province of Maryland was a ter- 
restrial paradise in colonial days— a paradise that even the mad 
extravagance, corruption, oppression and malfeasance of the 
grim democracy of the United States has not yet succeeded in en- 
tirely suppressing — so strong are the arms and limitations of 
Nature ! 

In the beginning, when Lord Baltimore began the settlement 
of the colony of which he was by grant of the king sovereign lord 
proprietor, he decided that an aristocracy was as necessary a 



part of the state as a democracy and that its function should be 
independent— that is, not confused with the function of democ- 
racy; that its true ancient Greek meaning of "right to rule" 
should be exemplified. This was in 1634, after he had brought 
over the first settlers to the shores of the Chesapeake. However, 
although the assembly refused to pass his "Bill for Baronies," 
he possessed sufficient authority from the King as lord proprie- 
tor to establish manors with hereditary magistracy attached 
thereto. This was like what in ancient feudal history is called 
creating subinfeudations. ' ' 

But in regard to the power of the lord proprietor to do these 
things:— In the first place, the statute of Quia Emptoris, which 
had been enacted in the reign of King Edward I., in 1290, and 
which decreed that in all sales or "feoffments" of land the hold- 
er should bear allegiance not to the immediate lord or grantor 
but to the king, was set aside in favor of Lord Baltimore by King 
Charles I., so that in Maryland Lord Baltimore was sole tenant of 
the crown and had the power of erecting manors as though he 
were the king himself. While allegiance to the king was pre- 
served, oath of office was administered in the name of the pro- 
prietor and all writs ran "In the year of our dominion." Now, 
the lord of a manor has a, right to hold court and judge all of- 
fences happening within the limits of his manor, except the crimes 
of murder, counterfeiting and treason. This right is hereditary 
so long as the manor passes in the family from father to son. If 
the manor is sold all rights are transferred to the purchaser. At 
first no one could possess a manor but a "descendant of British 
or Irish," but in 1683 it was decreed that manors might be held 
by ' ' any person living or trading in the province properly quali- 
fied." This was similar to the manner of holding seigneuries es- 
tablished by the French king, Louis XIV., in Canada, in 1663. 
But the seigneur, as an officer, was obliged to be the military 
commander over his tenants, to instruct them for the defense of 
the country and to settle their disputes as a magistrate. 

The ancient records show that in Maryland the manorial sys- 
tem died out, not because it was unpopular, for no complaint is 
mentioned by the people against it, and the benefits as founders 
of the province which the lords of the manors conferred on the 


people could not be fo/gotten. But what caused it to decline was 
the introduction of slavery. Many ignoble and unscrupulous 
but enterprising persons began to use slaves on their places to 
do the work. A manorial grant did not authorize slavery. This 
was in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and as time 
progressed the lords of manors found themselves steadily falling 
behind in revenue, owing to the small return which their tenants 
gave them. They were eclipsed in splendor of display by the 
ignorant, low bred, but wealthy, parvenues whose places were 
worked by slaves. So, one by one, yielding to the temptation and 
pressure of events, the lords of the manors descended from their 
exalted position, sold the portions occupied by tenants to those 
tenants and with the money purchased slaves to work the portion 
of the manor reserved for themselves. So the manor disap- 
peared in the plantation. 

Those who read this should not forget that the lords of the 
manors of Maryland were the founders and patricians of the 
province. Lord Baltimore recognized them as such in the writs 
by which he endowed them with manorial rights. He permitted 
that anyone finding favor in his sight as a proper person and 
bringing wealth and people to the province might acquire such 
manorial rights on the possession of at least 2,000 acres. As an 
example, a part of the writ creating George Talbot, a cousin of 
Lord Baltimore, lord of Susquehanna manor in Cecil county in 
1680 is here in evidence : 

"Know that for and in consideration that our right trusty 
and right well-beloved cousin and counsellor, George Tal- 
bot, of Castle Rooney, of County Roscommon, in the 
Kingdom of Ireland, hath undertaken, at his own proper 
cost and charges, to transport, or cause to be transported into 
the province within 12 years from date thereof 640 persons of 
British or Irish descent here to inhabit, and we not only having 
a great love, respect and esteem for our said cousin and counsel- 
lor, but willing also to give him all due and lawful encouragement 
in so good design of peopling and increasing the inhabitants of 
this our Province of Maryland, well considering how much this 
will conduce to the strength and defense thereof, and that he 
may receive some recompense for the great charge and expense 
he must be at, in importing so great a number of persons into 


this our province aforesaid," * * * J* "we have thought 
fit to grant unto our dear cousin and counsellor all that tract or 
dividend of land called Susquehanna, lying in Cecil County, in 
our said province. * * * * containing an estimate of 32,- 
000 acres. * * * * with all the prerogatives and royalties 
of a manor and the magistracy thereof." 

These Talbots belonged to an ancient Norman family that had 
been settled in Ireland for generations. Of the Catholic party, 
they were opposed to Protestant England, and it was the religion 
only of James II. that recommended him to the Catholic Irish in 
the days when Prince William of Orange, invited to England by 
the Protestants, chased King James over into Ireland. The 
George Talbot mentioned in this as lord of the manor of Susque- 
hanna was cousin of Richard Talbot, earl of Tyrconnell, com- 
monly known as "Dick" Talbot, who was one of the Irish gener- 
als in the service of King James II. against the Prince of Orange 
in 1698. It is said that Talbot, while deputy governor, stabbed a 
man with whom he quarrelled and fled and took refuge in a cave 
in Cecil county, where for a long while his food was brought him 
by several trained falcons. Some of the Talbot loyalists settled 
in Nova Scotia in 1783. 

Bashford Manor, on the Wicomico, was granted to Dr. Thomas 
Gerrard in 1650 for an annual quit rent of 15 bushels of corn. 
In 1678 he sold it to Governor Thomas Notley, who divided it 
afterwards into small holdings and sold it, the manor then be- 
coming extinct. The name of Governor Notley has passed into 
many families and preserves the memory of one of the foremost 
founders of Maryland. 

Brooke Place Manor, in St. Mary's county, in 1654 reckoned 
as its lord Governor Robert Brooke, president of Lord Balti- 
more's council. He had in 1650 the manor of De la Brooke, on 
Battle creek, in Calvert county. He had come from England with 
his wife and 10 children and brought over 28 other persons— 
servants, retainers and colonists. He became the commander of 
the county. His eldest son, Baker Brooke, was confirmed as the 
lord of the manor. The council of Governor Charles Calvert met 
at his manor-house July 19, 1662, and it was standing until 


about 80 years ago. This name may be found among the loyal- 
ists of Ontario. 

Cross Manor, on St. Inigoes Creek, in 1639 had been erected in 
favor of the Honorable Thomas Cornwaleys. The manor-house, 
built of English brick, is the oldest brick house in Maryland, yet 
standing. Captain Cornwaleys was associated with Lord Leon- 
ard Calvert and Mr. Jerome Hawley in the government of the 
province. The Cornwaleys, or Cornwallis family, were repre- 
sented in Nova Scotia. 

Evelynton Manor, in the ' ' Baronie of St. Mary, ' ' was conceded 
to the Honorable George Evelyn in 1638. He was commander of 
Kent county in 1637. He came as agent of Clabery & Co., of Lon- 
don (Claibourne's partners), and he superseded that person af- 
ter that person's departure for England in 1637. He was the 
means of bringing Kent Island under Lord Baltimore's jurisdic- 
tion. He left the colony in 1638 and returned to England, but he 
had a brother, Captain Robert Evelyn, who was interested more 
permanently in the province. The Evelyns are among the earl- 
iest royalist names of Quebec Province. 

Warburton Manor, in Prince George's county, in 1690 owned 
as its lord Colonel William Digges, son of Governor Digges, of 
Virginia, whose father was Sir Dudley Digges, master of the 
rolls to King Charles I. He married Jane Sewall, daughter of 
Lady Baltimore by her former marriage with the Honorable 
Henry Sewall, of London. This manor passed to William, the 
eldest son of Colonel Digges, and to his children, one of whom, a 
daughter— Jane— married Colonel John Fitzgerald, of Virginia. 
The government of the United States purchased a part of the 
manor, on which was erected Fort Warburton, which was blown 
up in 1814. The Diggeses of the Nova Scotia loyalists, some set- 
tling in Ontaria, perpetuate their traditions. 

Fenwick Manor, on Cat Creek, in 1651 became the fief of 
Cuthbert Fenwick, member of Lord Baltimore's council. In 
1 659 the manor house was the scene of the trial of Edward Pres- 
cott for "hanging a witch." The only witness who was sum- 
moned was Colonel John Washington, great-grandfather of 
President George Washington. When the day arrived for the 
trial instead of the witness came a letter of excuse in the follow- 


ing phraseology: "Because then, God willing, I intend to gette 
my yowng sonne baptized, all the Company and Gossips being 
allready invited." As the witness did not appear, the prisoner 
was discharged. The Right Reverend Edward Fenwick, the first 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Cincinnati, was a descendant of Cuth- 
bert, lord of this manor, whose only brother, Ignatius Fenwick, 
married Sarah Taney, of the family that produced Chief Justice 
Roger Brooke Taney, of the United States Supreme Court. Many 
other descendants of the lords of Fenwick Manor are scattered 
about the Western Shore and in the city of Baltimore. It is likely 
that the Fenwick loyalists of Nova Scotia are their best repre- 

Little Bretton Manor, granted to William Bretton in 1640, 
passed to the Jesuit missionaries. The house was built of Eng- 
lish brick and is yet standing. It has a commanding position, 
overlooking St. Clement's bay and the Potomac river. William 
Bretton came over from England in 1637 and was a member of 
the assembly. His wife, Mary, was daughter of Thomas Tabbs, 
who came over at the same time. He brought with him, besides 
his wife and four-year-old son, three servants. For nearly 20 
years he was clerk of the assembly. There were several of this 
Bretton, or Brittain, family among the officers of the loyalist 
corps settled at St. John, New Brunswick having commission* 
from the Province of New Jersey. 

Resurrection Manor between Town and Cuckold creeks, was 
the possession of the Honorable Thomas Cornwaleys in 1650, but 
it passed soon after into the Snowden family. In 1659 and in 
1662 the privy council of the province met there. Captain Corn- 
waleys came to Maryland with the first expedition and brought 
with him five servants. He was one of the earliest commissioners 
of the province. Later he returned to England. The Snowdens 
came from Wales in 1660 and left many descendants. A leading- 
member of this family, Randolph Snowden, was a loyalist gran- 
tee of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Portland Manor, in Anne Arundel county, was the lordship of 
the Darnalls, whose ancestor, Colonel Henry Darnell, relative of 
Lord Baltimore, came over 20 years before the Protestant revo- 
lution in England. Woodyard, another residence of this family, 


in Prince George's county, is in existence at the present time and 
is said to be the most interesting family residence in Maryland. 
This family has many descendants residing in the state. This 
name is met with in Ontario. 

St. Clement's Manor, consisting of St. Clement's island and 
part of the adjacent mainland, in 1639 was one of the manors of 
Dr. Thomas Gerrard, member of the council. It is the only one 
of the old mansions the records of which are preserved. From 
1659 to 1672 court was held there continuously. This Dr. Thomas 
Garrard was a strong Catholic, but he married a Protestant lady 
and became involved in the intrigues of Claiboume against Lord 
Baltimore. For this he was attained of treason and was forced 
to fly into Virginia, in which colony he settled in the county of 
Westmoreland, where his descendants intermarried largely and 
perpetuated the name. The family came originally from Lan- 
cashire, England, where it had been seated for several genera- 
tions, but the name is of Germanic origin and is met with quite 
frequently in localities settled by Saxon and German people. 
Samuel Gerrard, first president of the Bank of Montreal, was 
probably of this family. 

St. Michael's, St, Gabriel's and Trinity Manors were the 
dependencies of Leonard Calvert in 1639. In 1707 these manors, 
with the exception of the Piney Neck estate, had passed by inher- 
itance to the children of George Parker from the line of their 
mother's family, who was a daughter of Gabriel Perrot, The 
first of the Parker family mentioned in the annals of Maryland 
is William Parker, who was one of a committee commissioned 
during the lord protectorate of Oliver Cromwell in England to 
have charge of the affairs of the province, the rights of the 
Lords Baltimore falling in abeyance during that period, as the 
Lords Baltimore were royalists. There were several Parker loy- 
alists of this family settled in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 

St. Elizabeth's Manor, yet another belonging to Hon. Thomas 
Cornwaleys in 1639, was on Smith's creek, but it became the 
property of the Honorable William Bladen, the first "public 
printer" of Maryland. His son was Governor Thomas Bladen, 
who married Barbara, daughter of Sir Thomas Janssen. 

St. Inigoes Manor, in St. Mary's county, was owned by Mr. 


Thomas Copley, better known as the Jesuit priest, Father Philip 
Fisher. The property is yet retained by the Jesuits. 

St. Joseph's Manor, near Tom creek, on the Patuxent, has 
been the lordship of the Edloes and Platers. Both these families 
were among the early settlers. The name of Joseph Edlow, or 
Edloe, is preserved among the Maryland archives as the first 
of that family on American shores in 1634. The Platers were 
disloyal to the crown in 1776, one of them, George Plater, being 
quite notorious for this. But probably in the transfer of the 
manor from one family to another other considerations than that 
of fealty were principal. 

Bohemia Manor, in Cecil county, was conceded to Augustine 
Herman by Lord Baltimore to reward him for making the first 
map of Maryland. He was of a respectable family in Bohemia, 
in Europe, but had settled in the Dutch possessions of New 
Amsterdam, now New York, where in 1651 he married Jane 
Varlett. He had visited England and was thought by the Dutch 
to be altogether too familiar and social with the English to 
suit their taste. So, on one occasion, when he returned to New 
Amsterdam, after 1672, he was arrested and imprisoned. An 
old account says that he was permitted to take his famous gray 
horse into jail with him— which must have been in a barn— 
and that he mounted his horse and dashed out and, though pur- 
sued closely, he escaped by swimming with his horse the Dela- 
ware, his horse dying of exhaustion on reaching the further 
shore. The Augustine Manor was conceded to Herman also by 
Lord Baltimore. 

Within the manorial domain of Bohemia was the first attempt 
made in America by a body of men to practice the principles of 
socialism by the abolition of private property. One of the sons 
of the lord of the manor joined this body to the great grief of 
his father, who manifested that grief in a codicil of his will, 
whereby he put the disposal of his property out of the reach of 
his visionary son. The families of Thomson, Foreman, Cham- 
bers and Spencer claim descent from the lords of Bohemia Man- 
or, and were among the loyalists who left the Province of Mary- 
land when the ancient regime was overthrown. 

Great Oak Manor, in Kent county, was the lordship of Marm- 


aduke Tilden. His ancestors had been lords of Great Tyldens, 
near Harden, South Kent, England. The family had possessed 
lands in the parishes of Brenckley, Otterden, Kennington, and 
Tilmanstone in the reign of King Edward III., and William 
Tylden paid for lands in Kent, England, when the Black Prince 
was knighted. Sir William Tylden, of Great Tyldens, was the 
grandfather of Marmaduke Tilden, lord of Great Oak Manor, a 
direct descendant of Sir Richard Tylden, who was seneschal to 
Hugh de Lacy, constable of Chester, accompanied King Rich- 
ard, the Lion Hearted, to the Holy Land and fought under him 
at the battle of Ascalon against the Sultan Saladian in the year 
1190 A. D. One of the sons of Marmaduke Tilden was his heir, 
also a Marmaduke, and the greatest proprietor in Kent, owning 
31,350 acres. He married Rebecca Wilmer and left a numerous 
posterity. A famous name among the loyalists of Canada. 

Eastern Neck Manor, Kent county, owned the sway of Major 
James Ringgold, whose father, Thomas Ringgold, came to Kent 
in 1650 in the fortieth year of his age, bringing his two sons, 
James and John. Major James Ringgold married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Captain Robert Vaughan, commander of the county. 
Among the descendants of this family may be counted the com- 
mander of Ringgold's artillery in the war between Mexico and 
the United States in 1846. 

Fort Kent Manor, on Kent Island, belonged to Giles Brent. 
The Brents were related to the Calverts, Lords of Baltimore. 
They consisted of the brothers Giles and Foulk, and the sisters, 
Margaret and Mary, who came into the province in 1638, bring- 
ing a considerable number of servants, male and female. Of their 
descendants Robert Brent married Anna M. Parnham, of the 
family of the Honorable John Pole, of the privy council of Eng- 
land; James Fenwick Brent married Laura, daughter of Gen. 
Walter H. Overton, of Louisiana, and General Joseph L. Brent 
married Frances R. Kenner, daughter of Duncan Kenner, of 
Louisiana. Of this family, also, was the Honorable Robert 
James Brent, one time attorney general of Maryland and an 
oracle of the Maryland bar. Some also were more decided for 
the old regime, for nearly all the Maryland gentry favored the 
royal cause. 


Doughoregan Manor was the seat of the Carrolls, the first of 
whom in Maryland was Charles, who landed at Annapolis some- 
time in the seventeenth century. To this family belong two 
celebrated men in the early history of the United States— Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, a signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, and Right. Reverend John Carroll, the first vicar general 
of the United States, as well as the first archbishop in Maryland. 
The grandson of Charles Carroll of Carrollton— John Lee Car- 
roll—was one time governor of Maryland. Two of a junior 
branch of this family were among the loyalists to Nova Scotia. 

Stokley Manor, whose lord was Jeremiah Laton, in 1675 was 
bequeathed to the " first Protestant minister who might settle 
in Baltimore county, ' ' so great was his desire to hear the Word 
spoken as it had been spoken in Massachusetts, from where he 
had emigrated. A branch of this family were among the settlers 
of King's county, Nova Scotia, in 1760, after the expulsion of the 
Acadian French. 

St. Barbary's Manor belonged to the Carvile family, the first 
of whom was the Honorable George Carvile, attorney general 
of the province. A person of great consequence in the romance 
of history has been made the subject of a novel, "Richard 
Carvel," and is supposed to belong to this family. In the city 
of St. John's, New Brunswick, Canada, a mansion house called 
Carvell Hall, belonging to a family of that name, being likely 
of loyalist origin and mayhap from the Western Shore of Mary- 

Beaver Dam, West St. Mary's and Chaptico, with 20 other 
unoccupied manors, belonged to Lord Baltimore's kin until the 
American Revolution, when, as they were loyalists, true to the 
crown, their property with that of their relative, Henry Harford, 
the heir of Frederick Calvert, last Lord Baltimore, and other 
loyalists, was confiscated. And thus perished the last of the 
manors, the property of those who had nourished the province 
into strength and maturnity. 

Caeolina Manors 

From the beginning of Albermarle sound to St. Mary's river 
and back as far in the interior as the French claim along the 


Mississippi were the lands of the Carolinas named for the king, 
Charles II. He was reigning when the province was established 
as a feudal fief, having several Co Seigneurs as Lords-Proprie- 
tors. Before this, in the early part of the 17th century there had 
been established a French Huguenot settlement on the St. Mary's 
river by de Laudauniere, under the patronage of the admiral de 
Coligni of France. But the colonists had been massacred by the 
Spanish of Florida "not as Frenchmen but as heretics"— a pro- 
ceeding that was instigated by the bigot queen of France, Cath- 
erine de Medici— the same who planned the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew in that country. But the Spaniards paid dear for 
it, for a French Huguenot lord, Dominic de Gourgues, fitted out 
an expedition by the sale of his estate for the purpose, and 
landed with an armed force at St. Mary's, where the Spanish 
had built a fort. This he captured and hung every mother 's son 
of them on crosses about the place with the words above each 
"Not as Spaniards but as murderers." 

This was the land, now vacant, which King Charles II. granted, 
as a co-seigneurie to a company of the British noblesse at the 
head of whom was the Duke of Beaufort. The manner in which 
they subinf eudated the territory was into twelve counties ; each 
county into eight seigneuries, eight baronies and twenty-four 
communes. The titles of landgrave, with the rank of earl, and 
cacique, with the rank of viscount, were granted to certain of 
the gentry who undertook to settle in the country and aid with 
their arms and wealth in the establishment and rulership of the 
colony. A landgrave received four baronies and a cacique two 
with seats in the local council, or high court, of the colony. Tracts 
of land of more than 3000 acres and less than 12000 might be 
erected into manours with courtsleet. The communes were di- 
vided into lots for tenants to hold of the lords-proprietors if they 
did not chose to be tenants of the landgraves and caciques. Every 
tenant, or colonist, was obliged to swear allegiance to the king 
and constitution of the province. 

The high court of parliament at first consisted of ten members, 
one-half chosen by the lords-proprietors and one-half by the 
free-holders, but later seven became the number of representa- 
tives for the lords-proprietors. The landgraves were John 


Locke, the philosopher (1671), Sir John Yeamans (1671), James 
Cartaret (1670), James Colleton (1670), Sir Edmund Andros 
(1672), Joseph West (1674), Joseph Morton (1681), Thomas 
Collerton (1681), Daniel Axtell (1681), Sir Richard Kirle (1684), 
John Price (1686) who alienated in favor of Thomas Lowndes. 
There was also a gentleman named Smith among the Land- 
graves whose title passed to the Rhett family. One of the Bel- 
linger family became possessed later with one of these titles. Of 
the early caciques were Capt. Wilkinson (1681), Maj. Thomas 
Rowe (1682), John Gibbes (1682), Thomas Amy (1682), John 
Smith (1682), John Moncke (1683). The government of which 
they were the controlling factors subsisted until 1692, when the 
king purchased from the lords-proprietors their sovereignty and 
issued a royal charter by commission to the governors. The 
province became divided into North and South Carolina and the 
landgraves and caciques, retaining right to their titles, honors 
and estates, were obliged to share the privileges of the council, 
or upper house, of the local government, with the other gentry of 
the colony, while a lower house, or assembly, was created for the 
representation of the free-holders in general. 

"From that period of which the right and title of the land of 
Carolina were sold and surrendered, by the lords-proprietors, 
to the king, and he assumed the immediate care and government 
of the province, a new era commences in the annals of that coun- 
try, which may be called the era of its freedom, security and hap- 
piness. The Carolinians who had labored long under innum- 
erable hardships and troubles from a weak proprietary estab- 
lishment, obtained at length the great object of their desires— 
a royal government the constitution of which depends on commis- 
sions issued to a governor by the crown, and the instructions 
which attend these commissions. The governor and royal council 
formed the executive judiciary and military departments and 
were assisted in the legislative function by an assembly elected 
by the free-holders, as in the other provinces." 1 

The aristocracy of South Carolina has claimed from the first 
a most prominent place in the history of the Anglo-American 
colonies by reason of its firm establishment, its high ancestry and 
its strong hold on the administration of affairs— a hold which 

i. "Historical Collections of South Carolina," vol. I, p. 276. 


was weakened by the revolution of 1776 and disappeared entirely 
before the close of the civil war o£ 1861-5— to be replaced by that 
of the debased and servile democracy of the modern republic. 

New York Manors 

The Dutch had the earliest establishments in New York, al- 
though all that land had been within the empire of Charles V. 
and the claims of the French. The territory of the Dutch Prov- 
ince of New Netherland was colonized by them under patronage 
of the Dutch West Indian Company early in the 17th century, 
and extended from the Connecticut river to Maryland. True to 
the constitutional law of Europe they represented the aristocracy 
not only in the administration but in territorial holdings and 
magistracy. . The charter of New Netherland 2 declares : 

"III. That all such be acknowledged Patroons of New Nether- 
land who shall within the space of four years next, after they have 
given notice to any of the chambers (or colleges) of the West 
Indian Company here (Amsterdam) or to the commander-in- 
chief there (America) undertake to plant a colony there of fifty 
persons to be shipped from here. 

"IV. That from the time that they make known the situation 
of the places where they propose to settle colonies, they shall 
have the preference of all them to the absolute property of such 
lands as they have chosen. ' ' 

"V. That Patroons by virtue of their power shall and may be 
permitted at such places as they shall settle their colonies to ex- 
tend their limits 12 miles along shore. 

"VI. That they shall possess forever and enjoy all the lands 
lying within said limits * * * and also the chief command 
and lower jurisdiction * * * No person to be privileged to 
fish or hunt but by permit of the Patroons And when' 

one may establish one or more cities (towns) he shall have power 
and authority to commission officers and magistrates. 

"XIX. No colonist or servant shall be permitted to leave his 
Patroon without permission." 

Servants and menials were transported to the colony and de- 
scendants of many of these are among the newly rich. Such rise 
from hovel to palace, unless assisted by real merit of race, can 

2. New York Historical Society Collections. Second Series, vol. I, p. 370. 


happen only under corrupt and republican regimes, among polit- 
ical and financial swindlers, confidence men and grafters. And 
when such people rise, merit and honor— "in the opposite scale of 
the balance" as Plato has said,— necessarily "must fall." This 
is why the relics of the ancient provincial aristocracy consider 
such people, in spite of their great but ill-gotten wealth, not only 
no better than their ancestry, but ethically much worse. 

HW different is the aspect with which the honest and sympa- 
thizing reader regards the rise of one endowed by honest genius, 
struggling upward towards that place of command to which he 
has been prepared by Nature. From the labors of the humble 
cot, from the exaction of the laws of existence in other places no 
less lowly, he turns and nourishing the hours of his vigilance, 
and preparation and study by hours plucked from the sheaf of 
his own slumber— as the pelican feeds her offspring by drops of 
blood from her own bosom — he mounts the pathway to dominion. 
By patience, by energy, by talent, by learning, by undying loyal- 
ty to his cause, by honesty in all his obligations, by magnanimity 
to as honest rivals who unite finally with him for constitution 
and state, he succeeds at last to the joy of the honest beholder, or 
perishes like some legendary Old Guard with his face to the 

And that foe in politics, in finance, in sociology, is always the 
political sycophant, the financial swindler and confidence-man, 
the social intriguant and vandal— all combined— who occupy that 
place among mankind which the vampire, the vulture and the 
hyena do in the animal creation. Amidst these two groups 
however flourishing on successful chicanery and legalized fraud 
may be planted the one, what king, or prince, or potentate how- 
ever strong and mighty is there who can expect his empire to 
endure if he turn from these of honorable achievements to those 
of corrupt splendor and wealth? These two forces are in oppo- 
sition in the state, the one the deadly enemy of the other, and 
as Plato says, the one can not rise in power but the other must 
fall. Woe to the state, woe to the king, if it be the fall of genius 
and honor ! 

Among the great Dutch families of patrician degree in New 
York were de Peyster, de Veber, Schuyler, Van Brugh, Bayard, 
Van Rensselaer, Stinwyck, Beekman, Kip, de Milt, Van Bus- 


kirk, Van Curler, Golden, Cuyler, Cruger, Van Twiller, Houten, 
de Vries, Stuyvesant, Kieft. 

Several of the new manors are described in the Heraldic Mag- 
azine of 1867. Cortlandt manor of 83,000 acres was granted by 
royal patent in 1697 to Stephen Van Cortlandt, supposed of 
the Dukes of Courland in Russia and bearing the same blason, 
argent, the wings of a wind-mill, sable, voided of the field, be- 
tween 5 etoiles gules. His ancestor was Stephen Van Cortlandt 
of South Holland in 1610, whose son Oloff came to New York in 
1649 as a freeholder. His son, Stephen, first lord of the manor, 
was mayor of New York and royal counsellor in 1677, from 
whom was descended the last lord of the manor, Colonel Philip 
Van Cortlandt, a United Empire Loyalist in 1783. 

Fordham Manor was granted by royal patent, November 13, 
1671, to John Archer, whose ancestry is traced to Humphrey 
Archer, born in 1527. His son John, 2nd lord of the manor, mar- 
ried Sarah Odell in 1686. The best of this family were royalists 
in 1776. 

Morrisania Manor, by royal patent to Lewis Morris, governor 
of New Jersey in 1638. He descended from William Morris, of 
Tintern, County Monmouth, England, and bore, 1st and 4th 
gules, a lion rampant, regardant or, 2nd and 3rd argent, 3 
torteux in fesse; crest, a castle in flames. His son Lewis, born 
1698, was a judge in admiralty, as was his son Richard. 

Scarsdale Manor was erected by royal patent March 21, 1701, 
for Colonel Caleb Heathcote, son of Gilbert, of Chesterfield, 
County Derby, and brother of Sir Gilbert, Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don. He married a daughter of Colonel Smith of Long Island, 
former governor of Tangier. He was surveyor-general of the 
province. His manor passed to his daughter Ann who married 
James de Lancey, lieut.-governor and ancestor of that noble 
United Empire Loyalist. General James de Lancey, of 1776-83, 
whose posterity are in the lower provinces. 

Pelham manor, 9,166 acres, was granted to Thomas Pell, in 
1666, grandson of John Pell and Margaret Overand who was 
son of the Reverend John Pell, rector of Southwick, County 
Sussex, England, in 1590. His son John obtained additional 
patent in 1687. The family arms are : ermine, on a canton azure, 
a pelican or, vulned gules. 


Livingston Manor, 120,000 acres, in 1686, was granted to 
Robert Livingston who traced to the Reverend Alexander Liv- 
ingstone, of Stirling, Scotland, of 1590. This particular family 
was of extreme puritan-Presbyterian party containing several 
clergymen ancestors in succession. 

Philipsburg Manor, 1,500 square miles, was granted royal pat- 
ent of 1693 to the royal councilor Frederic Philipse, who was 
born in 1626 at Bolsward, Friesland, and whose arms were, 
azure a demi-lion rampant, issuing from a ducal coronet argent, 
crowned or; crest, the same. His son Philip married Maria, 
daughter of Governor Sparks, of the Barbadoes. His son Fred- 
eric married Joanna, daughter of Governor Anthony Brock- 
hoist, of New York, whose children were I., Colonel Frederic, 
United Empire Loyalist, leaving 10 children; II., Philip, United 
Empire Loyalist. ; III., Susan, married Colonel Beverley Robin- 
son, United Empire Loyalist; IV., Mary, married Major Roger 
Morris, United Empire Loyalist. 

Gardiner Manor, 3,300 acres, on Gardiner's Island, New 
York, was erected in 1639, for Colonel Lion Gardiner from Eng- 
land. It was possessed by that family up to the Revolution of 
1776, when its rank and privileges were destroyed. 

Queen's Manor, Long Island, belonging to the Lloyd fam- 
ily of illustrious Welch ancestry, was granted by royal patent 
in 1697. Of this family was Henry Lloyd, a United Empire 
Loyalist who removed to Halifax in 1783. 

There was always considerable hostility between the Dutch 
and English settlements, until it was ended by the treaty of 
Breda which ceded New Netherland to England, the name of 
which was changed to New Y r ork, in honor of James Stuart, 
duke of York, who held it as a fief from his brother, King 
Charles II. The article of the surrender of the province to 
England, stipulates "security of property, liberty of conscience 
and of discipline and the maintenance of existing customs of 
inheritance for the Dutch population." 3 Governor Richard 
Nicholls, commissioned by the duke of York, met thirty-four 
delegates from seventeen counties February 28, 1665. 

Under the English administration the patroonate system 
of the Dutch was continued into a manorial system as in Mary- 

3. Roberts "New York," vol. I, p. 93. 


land, and several manors with local magistracies established a 
nobility in permanent official functions. Among these manorial 
families may be mentioned Livingston, Morris, and de Lancy, 
while later the Johnson obtained a baronetcy, the best of whose 
descendants were loyalist emigres to Canada at the close of the 
American Revolution in 1783. 

Governor Thomas Dongan, son of an Irish baronet, succeeded 
Governor Nicolls, but the extent of his authority had been dim- 
inished by the cession of New Jersey to Carteret and another, 
yet he claimed for the province, Pemaquid, Martha's Vinyard 
and Nantucket, He had been instructed by the duke of York 
to represent the nobility by a council of ten members among whom 
were Stephen Van Courtlandt and Colonel Frederic Philipse, 
both lords of manors. An assembly was instituted of eighteen 
members to be elected by the freeholders of the province. The 
governor and council were to have authority to establish courts, 
appoint officers, make war and peace for the protection of the 
province, but the war-revenue or any excessive call could be 
collected only by assent of the assembly. 4 The assembly had 
''free liberty to consult and debate on all laws." The first gov- 
ernment met at Albany October 17, 1683, in which was signed 
the following resolutions : 

"That the supreme authority under the king and lord-pro- 
prietor shall reside in the governor, council and a general as- 
sembly. The elections of assembly are for all free-holders. No 
aid, tax, custom, loan, benevolence or imposition whatever shall 
be levied within this province, on any pretense, but by the con- 
sent of the governor, council and representatives of the people 
in general assembly." 

When the duke of Y T ork became King James II. he rescinded' 
portions of these resolutions as incompatible with the authority 
of the assembly and the constitution: namely, that the lord- 
proprietor should not be mentioned with the king and that the 
general assembly was not the fount of authority in this province 
(which authority lies in the constitution at the head of which 
is the king). He extended liberty of conscience to "all persons 
of what religion soever," going beyond the resolution of the 

4. Roberts "New York," vol. I, pp. 189-190. 


assembly which included only those " professing faith in God 
by Jesus Christ." 

As for provincial New York, although it was the most foreign 
in its population of all the provinces, it furnished the most loyal 
example— with the exception of Georgia— of all the provinces. 
And Georgia, originally a part of Carolina, had been made a 
personal fief of Sir James Oglethorpe in 1732, and its leading 
people, friends of Oglethorpe and poor-debtors to whom he had 
given homes in his colony, would have been unworthy the name 
of humanity had they been otherwise than loyal. 

The Middle Colonies 

Pennsylvania had been granted by King Charles II., in 1657, 
to William Penn, a wealthy English Quaker, whose father, 
Admiral Penn, had been so angry with his son for adopting 
" Quakerish ideas" that it aroused the son's latent obstinacy on 
this subject until it became a mania in him and a source of ridi- 
cule in others. He prevailed on the good nr.ture of Charles II., 
however, to grant him a tract of land in America, where he 
might try his scheme of founding a ' ' Quaker State. ' ' 

The Quaker did not believe in war or ostentation, so all those 
who wished to escape the danger of the one and the expense of 
the other were enrolled in this peculiar sect whose members 
adoptd a sober garb, sat with their hats on in church and in 
court, refused to take an oath, and "theed and thowed" all the 
world. It is said that they won more land in the New World 
by trading with the Indians on a glass-bead basis than any 
group of the other colonists won with the sword. They were 
a very prosperous and careful people. When the heirs of Penn 
were true to their allegiance in 1776-83 they took the occasion 
to cancel their obligations of debt towards them by an allegiance 
to the opposite party." 

Delaware had been in Lord Baltimore's grant as Avalon but 
was cut off, under the charge of Lord Delaware, for whom it 
was named. Its early people, some Swedes, some Dutch, some 
English, were like those of New Jersey, which had been separ- 
ated from New York. 

{To be Continued). 



OPY of an entry on fly-leaves of a book which be- 
longed to John Ormsby, and is now in the possession 
of Dr. J. A. Phillips of Pittsburgh, Pa. The first 
leaves have been destroyed or lost. 

* * * expectation. The young people came to my Semi- 
nary in numbers so that I had uncommon success in Philadel- 
phia that year. 

Next spring I had equal success in Lancaster and York- 
town, Pennsylvania. By this time I found my finances much 
recruited, so that I was resolved to take a trip to Virginia and 
so on to Charlestown, So. Carolina, and from thence embark for 
Europe. When arrived at Alexandria on Potomack, I put up at 
the best Inn in town, where I was invited to a ball the ensuing 
night, which I unfortunately agreed to. After the diversion was 
over, I escorted my partner, Mrs. Spotswood and family, a mile 
or two up the Rappahannock, and was in a profuse sweat in the 
month of August so that when I returned to my lodging I found 
myself seized with a violent inflammatory fever. Here I was 
attended with three doctors, who with the rapacious landlord, 
fleeced me of all my ready cash so that I had nothing left 
but a handsome Gelding, my sword, watch and very valuable 
clothes, etc. 

However, it pleased God that I recovered as much strength 
as to teach some branches of Mathematics, etc, till I found I was 
able to set out with a heavy heart once more for Philadelphia' 
(instead of going to England or Ireland). 

About this time Gen'l Braddock and his formidable army, 
were daily expected to land in Virginia, etc., and as I was known 
to have served in the British Army (as above mentioned) I was 
offered a Captain's Commission in the Levies, and to act as Ad- 
jutant. To this I cheerfully agreed, as a military life best suited 
my inclinations; but alas, man appoints and God does as he 
thinks fit; just as I was preparing my Regimentals, etc., I was 


ized with a nervous fever and ague, with which I was afflicted 
11 the year 1758, being nearly three years, so that all my golden 
)pes vanished. At the last mentioned era, the savages were 
assacreing the frontier inhabitants of Pennsylvania, etc., so 
iat an expedition was preparing against them, to be under the 
immand of Gen'l Forbes. Now I thought to have an opportun- 
y of gratifying my fondness for military talents, but my •shat- 
red constitution and ill state of health, still like my evil genius 
revented me. 

However, I put on a resolution of going to the frontiers in 
•me capacity, and if I gathered strength, to accept of a commis- 
on which was offered me by different states. Accordingly I set 
it for the Ohio to act as Commissary of Provisions, which was 
wretched employment provisions being so scarce that I could 
irdly supply the General's table. When the Army arrived as 
it as Turtle Creek, a Council of War was held the result of 
hich was that it was impracticable to proceed, all the provisions 
id forage being exhausted. On the General being thus in- 
irmed he swore a furious oath that he would sleep in Fort 
uquesne or in Hell the next night. It was a matter of indiffer- 
lce to the old, emaciated General where he died as he was car- 
ed on a litter the whole distance from Philadelphia and back 
rain. You may judge the situation of nearly 3,000 men, in the 
ilderness, 250 miles from the inhabited country. About mid- 
gut a tremendous explosion was heard from ye westward, up- 
l which old Forbes swore that the French magazine was blown 
o, either by accident or chance, which revived our drooping 
)irits a little. 

The above conjecture of ye head of iron was verified by a 
iserter from Duquesne who said that the Indians who watched 
L e march of the English army declared to the French that there 
as as many white people coming against them as there were 
ees in ye woods. This report so terrified the French that they 
t fire to their magazines, barracks, etc., and pushed off in their 
)ats, some up and some down the Ohio, so that next morning we 
>t peaceable possession without fight. Next morning we arrived 
; Duquesne which made a wreched appearance, as the whole of 
le buildings and other improvements which the French had, 


were burnt to ye ground. You may judge our situation when J 
can assure you that we had neither flour, flesh-meat or liquor in 
store ; the only relief offered for the present was plenty of bear- 
meat and venison, which our hunters brought in and which our 
people devoured without bread or salt. There were several par- 
cels of Pack-horses with provisions coming up from the inhab- 
ited country, but the savages seized the most of them and mur- 
dered the drivers. 

Our emaciated Gen'l Forbes was carried on his litter back to 
Philadelphia where he died in a few days after his arrival. Gen'l 
Forbes was a brave soldier, but was afflicted with a complication 
of disorders. A few hours before his death he swore a great 
oath that he died contented as he got possession of Ft. Duquesne 
and made the damned French rascals run away. You may eas- 
ily judge my situation being improved to purchase plenty of all 
necessaries but could not be supplied for the reasons above men- 
tioned. However, as I was engaged in the business, I thought it 
beneath me to desert it in the time of real distress, so I even 
jogged on in hopes of better times. 

Very few incidents occurred during the year 1759, at the end 
of which a series of fresh troubles commenced. The French in 
Canada began to raise an Army at Niagara to attack our small 
garrison at Duquesne (now called Fort Pitt) which was in an 
ill state for defense, when our Commandant, Col. Mercer was in- 
formed by express that there were 1500 French regulars and a 
strong body of Indians making ready for an expedition to 
Duquesne, which were to attack us in three days at farthest. This 
information, you may be sure, struck a severe panic, being above 
300 miles from any relief and surrounded by the merciless sav- 
ages, from whom no expectation of mercy was in view; but im- 
mediate destruction, either by the Tommahock or famine. I 
must own I made my sincere application to the Almighty to par- 
don my sins and to extricate us from the deplorable situation. 

Our Prayers were heard and extricated from the expected mas- 
sacre, for the day before the expected attack an Indian fellow ar- 
rived from Niagara, who informed us that when the above French 
and Indians got in their boats as far as Vinango on their way 
to F. Pitt, an express came from Niagara informing the com- 


manding officers that General Johnson laid seige to Niagara 
with a formidable English Army, so that the French Army were 
countermanded and ordered to return with the utmost expedi- 
tion. This was done and when they arrived within a days march 
of Niagara, the brave Irish General Johnson ordered an ambush- 
cade in a difficult pass, through which the above troops were to 

march, so that they were ev'ry man either killed or taken, , 

to the great joy, I mean grief, of poor Ormsby and his associates. 
So far from grief was the event that the greatest rejoicings per- 
vaded the whole. Blessed be the Almighty Lord for this, and all 
other mercies conferred on me in particular, which may be 
evinced by the following occurrences of my life. 

In the year of our Lord 1760 Gen'l Stanevix appeared on the 
Ohio at the head of an army with Engineers, artificers with full 
power to build a large Fort redoubts, etc., where Fort Duquesne 
stood. I now had plenty of business on hand as I had the charge 
of the provision branch, and the Engineer branch as paymaster 
to the works, which I continued to transact till I unfortunately 
entered into Indian trade by the advice of the Indian Agent, Col. 
Croghan. At this time I had been accumulating since I arrived 
in these Western Parts, a handsome sum of money, which to my 
sorrow, I laid out for large quantities of Indian goods, Pack- 
Horses, etc., in which trade I had good success till the year 1763 
when the savages murdered my clerks and people and robbed 
me of all my effects and goods to a considerable value, and what 
was more grevious than my losses, left me above £1500 indebted to 
the Philadelphia Merchants. 

You may now look on the roveing blade as irretrievably lost 
and ruined. I was then advised by my merchants to give up as 
an insolvent debtor, but I told them that if they gave me rea- 
sonable time, I would endeavor to pay them honestly, to which 
they agreed. Next year, viz. July 1764, I married a Miss Mc- 
Allister, who made me very happy, not only in bringing me five 
beautiful children, but assisted me with the greatest industry to 
satisfy our creditors and to bring up our children in the fear 
and admonition of God. Our first attempt in business was at 
a village called Bedford in Pennsylvania, where I improved a 
farm, built a house and had pretty good success, till I met with 


an accident which nearly put a period to my existence, in the fol- 
lowing manner : — I employed a number of men to clear a Meadow 
on ye above farm, and when the men went to their dinner, I 
took up one of their axes and began to chop a middleing tree 
(which was the first I ever attempted) and when it was coming 
down I ran for it, but unhappily, right in its way so that it 
struck my head partly in the ground. I was carried home and 
with much difficulty the blood was stopped when, I suppose, very 
little was left. There was no Surgeon in those parts so that I 
was under a necessity to send for one to Monnoccocy at a heavy 
expense. I lay under this doctors hands near six months before 
I could stir abroad. But blessed be my redeemer for it, I then re- 
covered and my senses unimpaired, which very few expected 
wou'd be ye case. 

I now found I was able to apply a little to improve my farm 
and to send a few goods to the care of John McClure at Pitts- 
burgh, but he, unfortunately, was killed by an Indian, left my 
little store exposed to the rabble 'till the Commandant ordered 
the trifles left to be locked up. Here was another crash to a 
weak back, as McClure kept a very wicked account as appeared 
by his private papers. I then employed Eph'm Douglass to look 
after my little affairs. By this time my philad. debt began to 
Swell to a deluge, being near £3500 including int. However, I 
still put my confidence in the Almighty that he would point out 
some way to extricate me, which was done in the following provi- 
dential manner. See the following narrative : 

About the year of our Lord 1770 1 , I moved my family to Pitts- 
burgh, they consisted of my sons John, Oliver and daughter Jen- 
nie, then a child ; our meeting was in one sense agreeable, but as 
to circumstances,— they may be easily guessed. After I left my 
dear wife tollerably settled, I thought I would make one push 
more at dame Fortune, say, rather Providence. Off I set to 
Philadelphia with a heavy heart and empty pockets. However 
I put up (as I always did )at the best Tavern, Litles,— but lived 
in the most economickal manner. I was one day musing over 
my distressed situation, when a certain Maj 'r Trent, an Old In- 
dian Trader, told me he just then met some foreigners who 
wanted to lay out a large sum of depreciated money for lots in 


the Indianna Grant. Y T ou may easily guess how my heart jumped 
in my breast. I, in short, sold out of 21 shares at £300 each, 117 
shares, and to receive the depreciated money in payment. Direct- 
ly I then waited on my creditors and informed them of the above 
offer, which if they would accept of, as it read they wou'l sell off 
my lands and Houses at Bedford, which I was sure would pay 
them off with interest due 11 years. This was agreed to. Happy 
day! I then deposited my large bundles of depreciated money 
in safe hands and out for Bedford, sold my concerns there to 
Co'l. George Woods and Lawyer Smith, crammed my saddle bags 
with de. paper money and waited directly on my creditors and 
cleared off the whole of their demands which amounted to near 
£5000,— took up my bonds and set out for Pittsburgh with a 
much lighter heart than when I left it. You may easily guess the 
reception I met with from the most virtuous and affectionate 
woman in the world. To see my dear, turning over 5 Cancelled 
Judgment Bonds and sundry other papers of consequence,— nay 
the little ones laughed and cried in turn as they saw their parents 

As I mentioned in page 33 of this narrative that the Indians 
robbed me, etc. They served all the traders the same way and 
murdered many. In the year 1764 Mr. William Johnson ob- 
tained from the Indians a compensation for our loss's, which was 
a tract of land consisting of 3y 2 millions acres, which grant was 
called the Indienne. All the surviving sufferers were now in full 
hopes of being reimbursed, but the mercenary Virginia Govern- 
ment sold our land of course cheated many widows and orphans. 
All the suffering traders or their attorneys, gave in their ac- 
count of losses to the agents, so that my account was proved be- 
fore a Magistrate which amounted to £3500,— and some inciden- 
tal accounts. These accounts were thrown into shares of £300 
each in order to share the land in proportion, which landed 
share we never received, owing to the villany of the Virgin- 
ians, etc. The above mentioned Trent was one of the agents, 
and Mr. George Morgan, who lives on Chartiers Creek, is the 
only one alive, who has sued the Virginian Government, but 
whether anything can be recovered, time will tell. 

However, the shares I have sold answered my purpose, as the 


concerns I sold at Bedford and the shares enabled me to get 
clear of an enormous load of debts. For if I had not the good 
fortune to do as I have done in about six months after I cleared 
off with the Merchants, not a shilling of the depreciated money 
would pass, at least none would be obliged to accept it in payment 
of debts. It is true that the above load of debts was contracted 
by means of the Indian depredations, so that the merchants 
promised to accept of any mode of payment I could fall upon in 
future. Thus had I the good fortune to get something out of the 
fire for my losses, which was more than all the rest of the suffer- 
ers got, owing to the cruel treatment of our good neighbors as 
above mentioned. I have still all the documents relative to the 
Indianna affairs, so that an old debt may be better than a new 

After I settled my affairs as aforementioned, I looked after 
my land affairs, having some valuable tracts left and some I 
purchased so that I could support my dear wife and children in 
a state of independence. The first rub I met with was the death 
of my dear daughter Mrs. Bedford and a few years after, my 
elder son John died. The loss of both these well accomplished 
children was a severe trial to their worthy mother and affec- 
tionate father. These losses hardly subsided when my dear wife 
took very ill under which she labored for six months, at the end 
of which, namely, the middle of June A. D. 1799 she expired in 
my arms. If the reader of the mournful catastrophe does or 
ever did know real sorrow for departed friends, cast an eye upon 
an old man who recently lost his beloved children and now his 
heart's delight and the supporter of his old age; it beggars de- 

Wrote the above Dec. 14th, 1802. 

I endeavored to keep house for about three months after my 
recent irreparable loss, but found it impossible as every trifling- 
incident brought the loss of my beloved companion to my view. 
Near 35 years I was blessed with a virtuous and affectionate wife 
and left me a crazy old vessel, almost useless in this world. 

I forgot to mention in the course of this narative, in the year 
1763, that the murdering Indians who robbed me and murdered 
my people, laid siege to the old Fort in Pittsburgh, and as I had 


a house there and a few goods in remnants, etc., I chose to stay 
there and assist in defending it from the savages, etc. The vile 
Indians continued to block up our Garrison for near three 
months when Co'l Bouquet was ordered to proceed to Pittsburgh 
at the head of about 1500 men, part regulars. The savages having 
early intelligence of this march, watched Bouquet's motions very 
narrowly 'till the army encamped on a dry ridge within about 
30 miles of Pittsburgh. Here the savages collected all their 
forces and attacked Bouquet on all sides in a furious manner, 
being sure of their prey as they served Braddock. The English 
army was in a wretched situation as the Indians very artfully 
secured all the Springs of Water in that neighborhood. Thus 
they fought all day without a drop of water but what they sucked 
out of the tracks of beasts as happily a small rain fell. As Bou- 
quet in the beginning ordered an encampment to be made of the 
bags, saddles, etc.; the Indians still advanced that way where 
the sick and wounded lay in a deplorable condition. In this des- 
perate situation of the English army, a certain Captain Barret 
who commanded a small detachment of Maryland Volunteers, in- 
formed Bouquet that he and his army would be cut off if they 
followed that mode of fighting. Bouquet then agreed to his pro- 
posal which was that a quick march shou'd be ordered towards 
the breastworks, which would take up the attention of the In- 
dians, while the two small squads shou'l run round the savages, 
and upon beating a flaen, they should rush up and give the sav- 
ages a general volley in their rear, which had the desired effect, 
for the Indians were sure that a reinforcement attacked them. 
They broke and ran and yelped up the hills and the English in 
close pursuit of them as far as prudence wou'l permit. 

The English began their march and arrived safe at Pittsburgh 
next day without being molested by the Copper Gentry. If 
Capt'n Barrett had not happily suggested the above manovre, 
the savages intended to storm the camp and very probably would 
massacre the chief part of the army. As the success of Bouquet 
in conducting his army and provisions to our relief at Ft. Pitt, 
of course if he was defeated, we wou'd all be either starved or 
Tommohocked. There was not a pound of good flour or meat 
to serve the Garrison and a number of inhabitants who joined 


me to do duty— Notwithstanding' that, under God, the success of 
our preservation was owing to the above mentioned Capt'n Bar- 
rett, yet, when Bouquet and his officers were regaleing them- 
selves in luxious living, not one of them offered the brave New 
Englander a cup of cold water, nay would not own that the vic- 
tory was any way due to him. I happily received a little relief 
by the escort which I gladly shared with Barrett, as I was form- 
erly acquainted with him at Bedford. I think I may set down the 
above deliverance from savage cruelty to a providential escape. 
Bouquet, like an Artful, Cowardly Swiss as he was, accumulated 
the whole honor of the aforesaid success to his superior knowl- 
edge of tactics, by which he was promoted from Lieut. Co'l. to a 
Brigadier. But he did not enjoy it long for in a few months af- 
ter he was ordered to a command to the Southward and died at 
St. Augustine, very little regretted. I think the above may be re- 
counted a providential escape from the barbarous cruel savage 

The next occurrence of consequence in which I was implicated 
was the American Revolution, which, if it turned out in the favor 
of the English would infallibly ruin me, as I adhered to the 
American cause, there would be no mercy showed me by losing 
my chief independence in lands, etc. Notwithstanding my attach- 
ment to the Americans, they never gave me the value of a shilling 
recompense for all my losses. 

In the year of our Lord 1794, another Revolution was very 
near taking place in this Western Country, which went by the 
name of Tom. Tinker's war. It was a deep laid plot to overset 
the established Government to the west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains, which was spreading like wildfire further west; but by 
the intrepid conduct of the Glorious Hero, Gen'l Washington, it 
was suppressed in the bud. As there was neither a regular army 
nor Militia in the country, they might carry on their nefarious 
practices undisturbed if it were not prevented by the vigilance 
and popularity of the worthy Gen'l Washington, who raised a 
considerable number of Volunteers, etc., on the East side of the 
mountains, who were marched to Pittsburgh, so that the Hen- 
hearted Insurgents were glad to cry "Peoavy" and accommo- 
date matters on the terms that were offered them. The low-lived 


rascals were very daring in Pittsburgh, etc. especially. They 
were very near setting fire to a store and the house in which I 
lived,— nay, destroying the whole town and vissinage. By the 
above sketch of these villainous proceedings, I made a Royal, nay 
Providential escape of being totally ruined. There was a great 
deal of damage done on Gen'l Nevil's estate on Chartiers Creek, 
Maj'r Kirkpatricks likewise, where a Mr. McFarlan was shot 

Thus ended Tom Tinker's war, which was aided and abetted 
by many whitelivered rascals who wou'd pass for real Patriots 
and genuine friends to the country. The above was the last ma- 
terial transaction in which the generous and glorious Hero, 
General Washington distinguished himself,— not like the clock- 
ing-hen and croaking frogs, who transact the business of the 
United States at the City of Washington,— Witness the Yellow 
Genevian, etc. The Genevian mentioned in the last page is well 
known by his dapper, swarthy appearance and his extreme 
avarice and cunning is well known. He has accumulated an im- 
mense fortune from a small be-ginning. 

I have given in the last page a sketch of an attempt that was 
villainously made by some of the most wealthy inhabitants of 
the western waters, to overset the established Government, and 
as there was no military force in the country to oppose them, 
there remains no doubt but what they would succeed if it were 
not for the timely exertions of the noble Gen'l Washington who 
raised a large body of militia in Virginia, Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania ; tho ' the military law at that time did not compel them 
to go beyond their respective districts, yet such was the powerful 
influence of the brave veteran, Washington, that many offered 
their services gratis to compliment the saviour of their country. 
It is almost incredible to mention the vast number of men who 
appeared at their respective meetings on the Monongahela, Char- 
tiers, etc. A large gang of fellows forced themselves into my 
house at Pittsburgh, who very impudently called for victuals and 
drink. I told them I had none for them and ordered them out of 
my house, and if it were not for the kind treatment my wife gave 
them they really wou'd burn the house. 

From the year of our Lord 1794 to the year 1804 very few 


transactions occurred worthy notice, but one which to me was 
distressing in the extreme. My youngest son, Joseph, unfortu- 
nately went upon a traiding voyage to New Orleans and from 
thence to Jamaica, where he took in a large cargo of coffee in a 
vessell bound for Norfolk in Virginia, and took a passage for 
himself in another ship bound for the same place. But to my 
unspeakable sorrow, my dear boy was ship-wrecked and drowned 
on that coast. What rendered my affliction compleat was that 10 
more passengers were drowned with him and were thrown into 
a hole in the beach indiscriminately, so that I had not the satis- 
faction of my dear boy being decently buried. God of his infi- 
nite mercy, pitty his old father who will always feel the irrepara- 
ble loss during his life. thou omnipotent power, grant me pa- 
tience and resignation to thy will. Grant me sufficient fortitude 
to pass thro' the vale of misery which the Almighty has allotted 
for me; whether long or short. Grant that I may put my whole 
confidence in the mercies of my redeemer who has shed his prec- 
ious blood for me and the race of Adam. Witness the spikes 
drove into his limbs and the thorns. 

My dear son was drowned the 20th December, 1803. 

Aug'st ye 19th 1792. 


As the following lines may be of service to my family here- 
after, I have taken the trouble to acquaint them that my father, 
Oliver, was the youngest brother of four, viz:— John, Paul, Jo- 
seph and my father. 

My uncle John enjoyed the family estate of Clohane, near 
Newton, Gore and Ballenie, in the province of C'onaht, Ireland, 
—which estate (being very considerable) descended to his eldest 
son Henry, who, I am informed, died without issue, male, if so, 
the estate (being hereditary in the male line for many ages) 
must have descended to James Ormsby Esq., who was grandson 
to my uncle Paul, his father, Charles, then being dead. But 
should the day come that the male line should prove extinct in 
the above mentioned offspring of my uncle Paul and Joseph, then 
it must revert to the eldest of the male line of my family. The 
idea may be thought Chimerical by some, but still it is not im- 


possible, so that this short history may be of service hereafter,— 
if it does not, it will not eat any bread. 

As I was gay and thoughtless when I left my native country, 
I took very little heed to chronological accounts of families ; but 
this far I remember: That my grandfather's name was Robert 
the son of John, etc., and that the first of the name of Ormsby 
(who arrived from England) joined Earl Strangbo in the reduc- 
tion of Ireland, and that another set of adventurers of the name, 
came over with their families in 1641, who assisted in preventing 
the Protestants from being totally massacred in that country. 

I should not forget that my grandfather by my Mother, was 
Co'l Barry, (descended from a Jun'r branch of Lord Barry- 
more,) who lost his leg in the wars of Flanders. 

To conclude this sketch. If being related to the greatest qual- 
ity in that country, namely, the Gores, Blakeneys, Binghams T 
Stauntons, etc., could be of any service, their blood runs in my 
veins, also many other families of distinction. 

Inclosed are two letters received many years ago. 

That which is signed Henry, was then in possession of the ex- 
tensive estate of Clohane, and the other signed James, was then 
the presumptive heir of Clohane and a Maj'r in the British 

His brother Arthur was Maj'r of another regiment, and were 
much esteemed as excellent officers. I might exhibit here some 
mournful and some ludicrous scenes of my life, but as this memo, 
is only intended as a short memento to my family, especially for 
the expectations that may one day be realized respecting the es- 
tate, I shall write no more at this time, but subscribe myself 
John Ormsby. 


O F T H E 


I N 

The Detection of the Confpiracy 

Some White, People in Conjunction with Negro and other Slaves, 


Burning the City of NEIV-YORK in America, 
And Murdering the Inhabitants. 

Which Confpiracy was partly put in Execution, by Burning His Majefty's Houfe in 
Fort G EOR.CI, within the faid City, on Wednefday the Eighteenth of March, 174.1 and 
fetting Fire to feveral Dwelling and other Houfes there;, within a few Days fucceeding. 
And by another Attempt made in Profecution of the fame infernal Scheme, by putting 
Fire between two other Dwelling- Houfes within the faid City, on the Fifteenth Day of 
February } 1742 ; which was accidentally and timely difcovered and exunguifhed. 


A Narrative of the Trials, Condemnations, Executions, and Behaviour of the 
feveral Criminals, at the Gallows and Stake, with their Speeches and Cvnfeffwns ; with 
Notes, Obfervations and Reflections occafionally interfperfed throughout the Whole 

An Appendix, wherein is fet forth fome additional Evidence concerning the faid 
Confpiracy and Confpirators, which has come to Eight fince their Trials and 

J. Lists of the feveral Perfons (Whites and Blacks) committed on Account of the 
Confpiracy ; and of the feveral Criminals executed, and of thofe transported with 
the Places whereto. 

By the Recorder of the City of New York. 

Quid facient Domini, audent cum tdia, Fures? Vira Eel. 


Printed by James Parker at the New Printing-Office, 1744 




(A Reply to Mr. Theodore Schroeder) 


M. Schroeder's Treatment of Parley P. Pratt 

MR. SCHROEDER 'S next development of his at- 
tempted "Cumulative evidence and argument" is to 
establish a connection between Joseph Smith and 
Sidney Rigdon, through Parley P. Pratt. He first 
deals with the movements of Pratt from his birth until he is 
established in Amherst, Lorain County, Ohio, a few miles west 
of Cleveland, in 1826. In order to lay a foundation for his 
conclusion Mr. Schroeder gives an exaggerated idea of the noto- 
riety of Joseph Smith at this time "as a 'peep-stone' money dig- 
ger, through mention made of him in papers published in several 
counties in southern New York and northern Pennsylvania." 129 
For authority of this statement Mr. Schroeder cites only Tucker, 
author of "Origin and Progress of Mormonism," and the Rev. 
Clark Braden, in the "Braden-Kelley Debate." He might just 
as well have only cited Tucker, for Braden but repeats, in slightly 
altered form what was said by Tucker. The latter in his work 
produces not a single news-paper item, nor gives a single ref- 
erence to any publication in justification of his statement. There 
was none to give prior to 1826. Joseph Smith's "notoriety" 
was purely local up to that time. 

Mr. Schroeder represents that Parley P. Pratt was a peddler 
"who knew almost every body in western New York," 130 there- 
fore he very likely knew the Smith's previous to 1826. For the 
statement that Pratt was a peddler, and "ubiquitous," Mr. 

129. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 58. 

130. "Hand Book on Mormonism" (1882), p. 3. 



Schroeder can only cite an address, before the Union Home 
Missionary meeting in 1881, by Mrs. Horace Eaton, oi Pal- 
myra; 131 and she was evidently repeating one of the many idle 
rumors from the vicinity of Palmyra, as there is no evidence for 
the statement of Mrs. Eaton, and the story is refuted by the 
facts as stated in the first three chapters of Pratt's "Autobi- 
ography," where his struggles to secure and clear a farm, in 
partnership with his brother, are detailed. This farm was near 
the then small town of Oswego, on Lake Ontario, in Oswego 
County. It is true that Pratt in the autumn of 1826 visited his 
uncles, Ira and Allen Pratt, in Wayne— then Ontario— county, 
New York,— exact location not given. There is nothing 
' ' ubiquitous ' ' about his movements, or any evidence of his wide 
acquaintance with people. 

To give a coloring of dishonesty to the character of Pratt, 
Mr. Schroeder writes the following passage : 

' ' One of the temptations inducing Pratt 's departure from New 
York was to get to a country where, as he himself expresses it, 
there is 'no law to sweep (away) all the hard earnings of years 
to pay a small debt.' The ethical status of an average country 
ment of his ' small debts' furnishes a fertil immorality in which 
ment of his i l small debts ' ' furnishes a fertil immorality in which 
to plant the seeds of religious imposture." 132 

Mr. Schroeder conceals the fact that the "small debt" not 
' ' debts ' ' as put by him, was merely a remainder due to Mr. Mor- 
gan of whom Pratt had purchased the farm near Oswego, and 
which owing to his brother's failure to meet his share of the pay- 
ments, as also bad markets for the crop of 1826, Mr. Pratt could 
not pay. Whereupon the farm it had taken years to clear of 
timber, and the crop was seized by Morgan for that debt. Is 
Mr. Schroeder justified in giving a sinister aspect to this mat- 

We have Pratt located in Amherst, 1826. Sidney Eigdon makes 
his second journey from Pennsylvania and arrives at Bain- 
bridge, Ohio, in 1826, and in capacity of "Disciple" preacher 

131. American Historical Magazine," Jan., 1907, p. 58, also "Hand Book on 
Mormorism," p. 3. 

132. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 59. 


visits the surrounding towns where he becomes acquainted with 
Pratt. All this is granted. But Mr. Schroeder in trying to fix 
upon the exact time and circumstance of their first meeting, 
resorts to a jugglery of facts, and builds on the distorted mass 
such conclusions as can be characterized only by the term shame- 
ful. I quote Mr. Schroeder : 

"The date of their first meeting is nowhere given, but may 
reasonably be inferred from an address delivered by Parley P. 
Pratt in 1843 or '4. In this discourse Pratt tells of an occurrence 
which transpired on his way to his future Ohio home, which occur- 
rence furnishes the key to his first connection with Mormonism. 
On his way he stopped at a humble cottage, the name of whose 
occupant he carefully fails to give. Here, while asleep (so he 
says), "a messenger of a mild and intelligent countenance sud- 
denly stood before me (Pratt) arrayed in robes of dazzling 
splendor." According to Mormon theology, an angel is but an 
exalted man. Of course Sidney Rigdon was an exalted man; 
why not, then, an angel? This angel claimed to hold the keys 
to the mysteries of this wonderful country, and took Pratt out 
to exhibit those mysteries to him. Pratt then had portrayed 
to his mind the whole future of Mormonism; its cities, with in- 
habitants from all parts of the globe; its temples, with a yet 
unattained splendor; its present church organization was, with 
considerable definiteness, outlined; its political ambition to es- 
tablish a temporal kingdom of God on the ruins of this govern- 
ment was set forth with quite as much definiteness as in the 
subsequent more publicly uttered, treasonable sermons. I con- 
clude from the exact manner in which this "Angel of the Prai- 
ries" foreknew the ambitions, hopes, and future achievements 
of the Mormon Church and the similar admitted fore-knowledge 
of Rigdon and the subsequently established connection between 
Rigdon, Pratt, and Smith, that the "Angel of the Prairies" 
who outlined to Pratt his then contemplated and now executed 
religious fraud, was none other than Sidney Ridgon himself, 
and that this fact accounts for Pratt's failure to give the name 
of his host or the date of his first meeting with Ridgon." 133 

"The Angel of the Praries" 

The work here quoted for these supposedly historical inci- 
dents, is entitled "The Angel of the Praries," and is a work 
of pure fiction, a product of the author's imagination, profess- 

133. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 59. 


edly and confessedly so. 134 It was never delivered as a public 
address in Nauvoo, though Mr. Schroeder in the above calls it 
successively an " Address delivered by Parley P. Pratt," a "dis- 
course," and in his notes a "sermon." 135 It was merely read 
in the presence of Joseph Smith and ' ' a general council, ' ' most 
likely the First Presidency and Mr. Pratt's associates of the 
Twelve Apostles, as "a curious and extraordinary composition 
in the similitude of a dream." Such is its author's character- 
ization of it. "It was designed," he continues, "as a reproof 
of the corruptions and degeneracy of our government, in suf- 
fering mobs to murder, plunder, rob and drive their fellow 
citizens with impunity. It also suggested some reforms." 130 
It is no more history, or even prophecy than Johnson's "Ras- 
selas" or Sir Thomas More's "Utopia" is history or prophecy. 
Yet this fiction, and I charge that Mr. Schroeder knew it to be 
fiction— for he could learn the facts from its preface — must 
be pressel into service as solemn prose history in order to com- 
plete and sustain the vagaries of the Schroeder-Spaulding 
theory! At first on meeting with this shameful perversion 
one is inclined to an outburst of vexation. On second thought 
he remembers that this fragment is but of a piece of the whole 
fabric of the Spaulding theory, and smiles. 

But let us follow Mr. Schroeder further into the realms of 
his deductions built upon this piece of literary fiction, the 
"Angel of the Praries." Parley P. Pratt returned to the home 
of his aunt Van Cott in Canaan, Columbia County, New York, 
for the purpose of marrying a Miss Halsey to whom he was 
engaged. This was in the summer of 1827. Mr. Schroeder 
makes Pratt's visit to New York for the above purpose, the, 
occasion of placing the Spaulding manuscript in the hands of 
Joseph Smith, and all the connections are perfected for re- 
vamping this old manuscript story into a pretended volume of 
scripture. And this is the way of it as per Mr. Schroeder: 

"Pratt was married September 9, 1827. On September 22, 
1827, a 'heavenly messenger' appeared to Joseph Smith and 

134. "Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt," edition of 1874, p. 367. 

135. Note 101 American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 74. 

136. Same as note 134. 


unfolded to him the scheme of the Book of Mormon, and dis- 
closed the whereabouts of the 'Golden Plates.' This 'heavenly 
messenger' is called the Angel Moroni. According to Mormon 
theology, 'God may use any beings he has made or that he 
pleases, and call them his angels, or messengers. ' ' Gods, angels, 
and men are all of one species, one race, one great family.' 
' God is a man like unto yourselves ; that is the great secret. ' 
Why, of course ! ' That is the great secret. ' God is but an ex- 
alted man,' and may call Parley Parker Pratt his angel. Par- 
ley Parker Pratt was the 'heavenly messenger,' the angel who, 
on that day (September 22, 1827), appeared to Joseph Smith 
and told him where were the golden plates, that is, Spaulding's 
'Manuscript Found.' Sidney Rigdon for Smith's purposes, 
was the 'exalted man,' the 'God' who sent this 'heavenly mes- 
senger,' Parley Parker Pratt, just as the Mormon people now 
look upon Joseph Smith as the 'God to this people.' " 13? 

One might well consider himself under no obligation to treat 
seriously such a palpable perversion of Mormon ideas as is 
here presented. But this taking a piece of Mormon fiction, the 
"Angel of the Prairies," and misrepresenting it first as a 
' ' discourse delivered by Parley P. Pratt at Nauvoo ; thence 
elevating it from fiction to a sober historical document; thence 
building upon it this misrepresentation, and perversion of Mor- 
mon ideas and historical facts, exhibits in the person of Mr. 
Schroeder that order of intelligence that could conceive of 
others following the same process in relation to the Spaulding 
Manuscript, until it was converted into a pretended revelation. 
I think Mr. Schroeder will not gain much for his "evidence" 
or his "argument" by this wicked perversion of Mormon ideas 
and facts of history, since it must suggest the innate weakness 
of a cause that requires such intellectual dishonesty, as is here 

It is true that the Mormons are authropomorphists in that 
they believe that Jesus Christ is the "brightness of God's glory 
and the express image of his person" 138 — the revelation of God 
as well in form as in spiritual attributes; they believe that 
Jesus Christ is not only divine, but Diety; that he exists now 
as he did after his resurrection from the dead, an immortal per- 

137. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, pp. 60, 61. 

138. "Hebrews" 1, 3. 


sonage of flesh and bones and spirit-hence that God is an ex- 
alted man; that he uses other men, perfected and glorified 
such as Noah, Moses, Elijah, and others, as his angels and 
arch-angels and messengers, to aid in the accomplishment of his 
purposes. But to represent the Latter-day Saints as believ- 
ing in or accepting such jugglery as that which Mr. Schroeder 
charges is an outrage and a direct and conscious misrepre- 
sentation of the faith of a people. Joseph Smith indeed pro- 
claimed that God appeared to him; in fact he claims that both 
the Father and the Son appeared to him, but it is blasphemy 
to think of Rigdon impersonating them, or either of them, in 
the manner and for the purpose represented by Mr. Schroeder. 
This revelation moreover was given in 1820, not 1827. 139 Jos- 
eph Smith said an angel visited him and revealed to him the 
existence of the Book of Mormon; but this was a very definite 
personage, a man who lived in America in the fourth Centurv 
ot the Christian Era, now raised from the dead and sent to 
make this revelation of the American volume of scripture- he 
was not Parley P. Pratt; and he revealed the existence of 'the 
Book of Mormon to Joseph Smith in September, 1823, not 1827. 140 

The Supposed Meetings of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon 
Before the Publication of the Book of Mormon. 

Mr. Schroeder after getting the Spaulding manuscript into 
he hands of Joseph Smith, via Parley P. Pratt, proceeds next 
to bring Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith together for the 
necessary collaboration on the manuscript. The chief and I 
may say the only, authority that Mr. Schroeder really gives for 
tins charge is that of Pomery Tucker, author of "Origin Rise ' 
and Progress of Mormonism," (1867). Tucker having brought 
his narrative down to the year 1827, announces the appear- 
ance of a "mysterious stranger" at the Smith residence No 
name or purpose of this stranger is given out even to the near- 
est neighbors, but it was observed that "his visits were fre 
quently r epeated." Afterwards Tucker makes out this mys- 

139. See Joseph Smith's own account "Pearl of Great Pr,V* " „,«•+: r 
Joseph Smith, and many other Mormon works ' WntmgS ° f 

140. Ibid. 


terious stranger to be Sidney Rigdon. The other "witnesses,' 
Mrs. Eaton (1881), as also J. H. McCanley, in his "History of 
Franklin County, Pa.," together with Abel Chase and Lorenzo 
Saunders, neighbors of the Smith's (the last three are the "wit- 
nesses" named by Braden in the "Braden-Kelley Debate," and 
for which that disputant gives no authority) but repeat the 
charge of Tucker. Mr. Schroeder himself in another matter, 
however, discredits Tucker. In his note 115, he says: "Tucker 
* * * says Rigdon officiated at the wedding of Joseph Smith 
and Emma Hale, but he fixes the date of the wedding in No- 
vember, 1829, when in fact it seems to have occurred Jan. 18, 
1827. Tucker therefore may have been misinformed." 141 And 
Joseph Smith, who ought to know, says that he and Emma 
were married by Esquire Tarbill. 142 

Lucy Smith, in her ' ' History of the Prophet Joseph, ' ' makes 
mention of a stranger coming to the home of the Smith's in 
company with Joseph about the time Martin Harris lost 116 
pages of the translation of the Book of Mormon. The reason 
for the stranger accompanying the prophet to his home was 
the dejection of spirits and illness and physical weakness of 
the latter, and out of kindness the stranger insisted upon ac- 
companying Joseph home from the point at which he left the 
stage on which he had travelled from his home in Harmony, 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Schroeder, of course, seeks to press the 
incident into service as an evidence of the acquaintance and 
co-operation of Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon before the 
Book of Mormon is published; hence as seen through Mr. 
Schroeder 's eyes, the "stranger" is Sidney Rigdon. There is 
nothing, however, in the narrative of Lucy Smith to warrant 
the conclusion that this stranger was Sidney Rigdon; and Mr. 
Schroeder is certainly in error as to the "stranger" being 
present at the interview between Martin Harris and the 
Smith's on the next day— the only circumstance that could 
have made the coming of the " stranger* ' in any way sig- 
nificant in Mr. Schroeder 's theories. 143 

141. "Origin and Rise and Progress of Mormonism," pp. 28, 46, 75, 121. 

142. "History of the Church," Vol. I, p. 17. 

143. The incident of the "stranger" and Joseph, the prophet is found in chapter 
XXV of Lucy Smith's "History of Joseph, the Prophet," Mr. Schroeder's reference 
to the incident is in his note 113. 


Of course, this allegation of the appearance of Rigdon at 
the Smith home, resting upon no other basis than the fabrica- 
tion of Tucker, comes in direct conflict with the express state- 
ment of both Parley P. Pratt and Sidney Rigdon, but I am 
not trying this issue upon the per contra testimony of "inter- 
ested" witnesses. I hold that this particular charge of collab- 
oration between Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, involving 
frequent association and in fact demanding almost constant 
association between the two in the years from 1827 and 1830, 
necessarily breaks down under its own weight of absurdity. 
The movements of Joseph Smith and of Sidney Rigdon are too 
well known to allow of that association taking place, to say 
nothing of its being kept secret. The distances separating them 
during those years are too great to be covered by Sidney Rig- 
don, even if his falsely alleged occasional absences from Ohio 
were allowed to stand unchallenged. This matter of distance 
that separated them, together with the slow modes of travel — 
by carriage or horse-back— badness of roads, etc., seem not to 
be taken into account at all in the fabrications of Tucker. Sid- 
ney Rigdon is operating exclusively in Ohio, in Kirtland and 
vicinity from 1827 to 1830. Mr. Kelley in his debate with Bra- 
den thus summarized the movements of Rigdon during these 
years from Hayden's "History of the Disciples:" 

"The Disciple (Campbellite) history sets forth, that Rigdon 
was their standing minister for the year 1825, at Bainbridge, 
Ohio ; for the year 1826 at Mentor and Bainbridge ; for the 
year 1827 at Mantua; for the year 1828, at Mentor, and this 
year is the time when he met Alexander Campbell at Warren, 
Ohio, at their assembly, where the famous passage at arms took 
place between Campbell and Rigdon of which so much has been • 
said. The next year, 1829, Rigdon continued the work in Men- 
tor, and at Euclid, and founded the church in Perry, Ohio. 
Aug. 7th. The next year, 1830, he continued as their minis- 
ter, (and the ablest of them all), at Mentor, Euclid, Kirtland, 
and occasionally at Hiram, Perry, Mantua, and Plainsville. m " 

Joseph Smith's movements during the years named are 
between Manchester, New York, Harmony, Pennsylvania, and 

144. "Braden-Kelly Debate," p. 100. 


Fayette township (where the Whitruer's lived), New York; a 
distance from Ohio points, where Rigdon was operating, by 
the nearest roads traveled, of from 250 to 300 miles. Does 
any one believe that the necessary collaboration was possible 
under such circumstance as Mr. Schroeder's theory of origin 
for the Book of Mormon calls for? 

On this whole question of collaboration, and conspiracy by 
Rigdon, Pratt and Smith in the production of the Book of 
Mormon the following paragraph from the writings of Elder 
George Reynolds is most convincing: 

' ' Has it ever entered into the thoughts of our opponents 
that if Sidney Rigdon was the author or adapter of the Book 
of Mormon how vast and wide spread must have been the con- 
spiracy that foisted it upon the world? Whole families must 
have* been engaged in it. Men of all ages and various condi- 
tions in life, and living in widely separate portions of the coun- 
try must have been connected with it. First we must include 
in the catalogue of conspirators the whole of the Smith family, 
then the Whitmers, Martin Harris and Oliver Cowdery ; further, 
to carry out this absurd idea, Sidney Rigdon and Parley P. 
Pratt must have been their active fellow-conspirators in arrang- 
ing, carrying out and consummating their iniquitous fraud. 
To do this they must have traveled thousands of miles and 
spent months, perhaps years, to accomplish— what ? That is 
the unsolved problem. Was it for the purpose of duping the 
world? They, at any rate the great majority of them, were of 
all men most unlikely to be engaged in such a folly. Their habits, 
surroundings, station in life, youth and inexperience all for- 
bid such a thought. What could they gain, in any light that 
could be then presented to their minds, by palming [off] such a 
deception upon the world? This is another unanswerable ques- 
tion. Then comes the staggering fact, if the Book be a falsity, 
that all these families, all these diverse characters, in all the 
trouble, perplexity, persecution and suffering through which 
they passed, never wavered in their testimony, never changed 
their statements, never 'went back' on their original declara- 
tions, but continued unto death (and they have all passed 
away), proclaiming that the Book of Mormon was a divine 
revelation, and that its record was true. Was there 
ever such an exhibition in the history of the world of such con- 
tinued, such unabating, such undeviating falsehood? If false- 
hood it was. We cannot find a place in the annals of their lives 


where they wavered, and what makes the matter more remark- 
able is that it can be said of most of them, as is elsewhere said 
of the three witnesses, they became offended with the Prophet 
Joseph, and a number of them openly rebelled against him; 
but they never retraced one word with regard to the genuine- 
ness of Mormon's inspired record. Whether they were friends 
or foes to Joseph, whether they regarded him as God's con- 
tinued mouthpiece or as a fallen Prophet, they still persisted 
in their statements with regard to the book and the veracity 
of their earlier testimonies. How can we possibly with our 
knowledge of human nature make this undeviating, unchang- 
ing, unwavering course, continuing over fifty years, consistent 
with a deliberate, premediated and cunningly— devised and 
executed fraud ! ' n45 

The last matter of agument in the quotation above, the un- 
wavering adherence of the witnesses to the coming forth of the 
Book of Mormon and the relationship they sustained to that 
work, has peculiar force when applied to the case of Sidney 
Eigdon. He claims to have known nothing of the Book of Mor- 
mon until it was presented to him (as we shall see later by a 
statement of his) by Parley P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery, some 
six months after its publication. But let us suppose for the 
sake of the argument, that he really took the part assigned to 
him by Mr. Schroeder in bringing into existence the Book of 
Mormon; that he stole the Spaulding "Manuscript Found" 
about 1816; that hearing of Smith through Pratt, he then sent 
the said manuscript to Smith to be announced as a revelation 
from God; that afterwards he collaborated with Smith to pro- 
duce the Book of Mormon out of it. It will go with- 
out saying that a thief, and especially such a thief, as 
Pigdon is here represented to be, is a very ignoble 
character; and it will not be too much to say that if such a 
character is hard pressed by his associates, or is, what he might 
consider, ill treated by them, he will very probably betray them. 
Sidney Rigdon certainly considered himself both hard pressed 
and positively wronged by his brethern— but he never "re- 
vealed" the "fraud" in which Mormonism is supposed to have 
had its origin. Joseph Smith sought to be rid of him as his 

145. "Myth of Manuscript Found," (1883) pp. 35-6. 


counselor at the October Conference of 1843. He directly 
charged Rigdon with treachery, of being leagued with his 
deadly enemies, and that he had no confidence in his i ' integrity 
and steadfastness ;" that Rigdon had been profitless to him as a 
counselor since their escape from Missouri in 1839. By virtue 
of a vigorous denial on the part of Rigdon as to some of the 
charges, and a plea for mercy as to some delinquencies con- 
fessed, he was sustained by the conference in his office of coun- 
selor to the prophet, notwithstanding the latter was not sat- 
isfied with the conclusion of the matter reached by the Confer- 
ence. "I have thrown him off my shoulders" said he, "and 
you have again put him upon me. You may carry him, but 1 
will not." 146 

After the death of the prophet Sidney Rigdon put in a claim 
for precedence in authority, claiming that right by virtue of 
his office as counselor to the prophet now martyred. The 
priesthood of the church assembled as a body to hear the cause, 
President Brigham Young presenting the counter claims of the 
Twelve Apostles as the proper presiding authority in the 
absence of the First Presidency. Sidney Rigdon was rejected 
by that body of the priesthood ; 147 and shortly after left Nauvoo 
full of disappointment and bitterness; but he never in those 
trying days, or in any of the subsequent years of his life, by 
hint or direct charge or confession, revealed any "fraud" in 
which Mormonism is supposed to have had its origin; but on 
the contrary, as we shall see, emphatically reaffirmed his true 
relationship to the work, and his faith in it. 

There is one person, however, who undertakes to say that 
Sidney Rigdon "revealed" the secret concerning the origin of 
the Book of Mormon. This is Clark Braden, who quotes one 
James Jeffries of St. Louis, as saying in substance that in the 
fall of 1844, Rigdon in several conversations admitted to him 
the existence of the Spaulding manuscript; that it traced the 
origin of the Indians from the lost tribes of Israel; that the 
manuscript was within his reach for several years; that "He 
(Rigdon) and Joe Smith used to look over the manuscript and 

146. Millennial Star, Vol. 22, pp. 215-6. 

147. Millennial Star, Vol. 25, pp. 215, 279. 


read it on Sundays. Rigdon said Smith took the manuscript 
and said 'I'll print it,' and went off to Palmyra, New York." 
On this ' ' testimony, " the Reverend Clark Braden comments: 
"On his way from Nauvoo to Pittsburg (in the fall of 1844) 
he (Rigdon) called on his old acquaintance, Mr. Jefferies, in 
St. Louis, and in his anger at the Mormons, he let out the 
secrets of Mormonism, just as he told the Mormons he would 
if they did not make him their leader." 148 This "evidence," 
however, since it costs him nothing to set aside such palpable 
absurdity, Mr. Schroeder, with a show of bigness and conde- 
scension, discredits by saying: "an alleged admission of Sid- 
ney Rigdon to James Jefferies I consider of doubtful value." 149 
In this case, as in that of the item presented by Mrs. Ellen 
E. Dickinson, to the effect that it was "remembered" by some 
of the Conneaut witnesses in 1834, that the "Spaulding Manu- 
script was the translation of the Book of Mormon"— the "evi- 
dence" manufactured in support of the Spaulding theory of 
origin, becomes a little too raw for Mr. Schroeder, and his 
gorge rises at it, and with an air of superiority he "considers 
it doubtful." 

Closely connected with Sidney Rigdon \s relationship to the 
coming forth of the Book of Mormon is another matter several 
times alluded to by Mr. Schroeder, in common with all other 
advocates of the Spaulding theory of origin, namely, the as- 
sumption that "Joseph Smith, the nominal founder and first 
prophet of Mormonism, was probably too ignorant to have pro- 
duced the volume unaided." It is because of this assumed 
inability of Joseph Smith to produce the book that the Spauld- 
ing manuscript and Sidney Rigdon are brought into the scheme 
of production. And yet it is clearly demonstrable that Joseph 
Smith did not need the assistance of either Spaulding or of 
Sidney Rigdon in the production of a book equal, if not super- 
ior, to the Book of Mormon from a literary stand point. I 
refer to the "Book of Doctrine and Covenants." It is true this 
book was not published until 1835 ; but the revelations of which 
it is composed began in 1828, and by the close of 1833, one 

148. "Braden-Kelly Debate," p. 42. 

149. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 75 and note 115. 


hundred and one of the revelations forming the major part of 
the book, were received and are of record. 

There can be no question as to the authorship of this book. 
Joseph Smith— under a divine inspiration, as Latter-day Saints 
believe— dictated these revelations, and in this way he is their 
author; and they disclose a literary force and beauty far ahead 
of the Book of Mormon. If any one shall doubt it, let him 
read and compare sections 20, 42, 76, 84, 88, and 107 of the 
"Doctrine and Covenants," with the Book of Mormon. Any 
part of the book would demonstrate what is here claimed, but 
these sections particularly demonstrate it. Moreover in all 
published documents in the current periodicals of the Church, 
those that may be referred respectfully to Joseph Smith and 
Sidney Rigdon, will disclose the superior excellence in every 
respect of those produced by the former, over those produced 
by the latter. 

This Spaulding theory, moreover, supposes the necessity of 
a superior intelligence to Joseph Smith in the production of 
the Book of Mormon— in the inception of the "Mormon fraud." 
But will some one explain — for Mr. Schroeder fails us at this 
point— how it is that Sidney Rigdon, as soon as the Book of 
Mormon is launched, though having been up to this point the 
"master spirit" of Mormonism, now suddenly falls into sec- 
ond place in the development of Mormonism, and becomes 
merely the scribe of the Prophet, as Mr. Schroeder himself 
points out. It should be remembered that in 1827, the year in 
which Mr. Schroeder brings them together for the work of col- 
laboration, Rigdon was thirty-four years old, Joseph Smith 
but twenty-two ; and when the Church was organized, Joseph 
was but twenty-five and Rigdon thirty-seven. With Rigdon 's 
better education (which is granted), how comes it that this 
man, superior in education and knowledge of the world, and of 
greater age, consents to occupy second place to Joseph Smith? 
If Rigdon was the great moving spirit of Mormonism during 
its incubation, why did he not continue so after the Book of 
Mormon was printed ? The answer is that Sidney Rigdon never 
was the prophet's superior in talents or even in literary power 
of expression. 


Then, again, in this connection, I call attention to the fact 
that if the Book of Mormon had been produced as charged by 
Mr. Schroeder, it would not have been so full of petty errors 
in grammar and the faulty use of words as is found in the first 
edition of the Book of Mormon. While entertaining no exalted 
opinion of the education of either Mr. Spaulding or of Mr. 
Rigdon, and the works of both are before me, on which to base 
that judgment, yet I cannot conceive it possible that they, even 
though but half educated would make such lanuage errors as 
appear in the first edition. Take for example the following- 
passages from said first edition of the Book of Mormon— speak- 
ing of the Urim and Thurmim it says : 

"And the things are called interpreters; and no man can 
look in them, except he be commanded, lest he should look for 
that he had not ought, and he should perish; * * * but a 
seer can know of things which has past, and also of things 
which is to come * and hidden things shall come to 

light, and things which is not known shall be made known by 
them." (Page 173). 

"Blessed are they who humbleth themselves without being 
compelled to be humble." (Page 314). 

"Little children doth have words given unto them many 
times which doth confound the wise and the learned." (Page 

"But they had fell into great errors, for they would not 
observe to keep the commandments of God." (Page 310). 

Such errors as the foregoing occur frequently throughout 
the first edition of the Book of Mormon. They are ingrained 
in it; they are constitutional faults. And while perfectly ex- 
plicable on the supposition that one unlearned in the grammar 
of the English language, as confessedly Joseph Smith was/ 
obtaining the thought from the Nephite characters in which 
the Book of Mormon was written, but left to express said 
thought in such faulty English as he was master of 150 ;— yet 
utterly inexplicable on the supposition that the manu- 
script from which the Book of Mormon was printed was 

150. For an exposition and defense of this theory of the translation of the 
Book of Mormon, see the author's treatise of the subject, in "Defense of the Faith 
and the Saints," (1907) pp. 249-311. 


written by Solomon Spanlding and revamped by Sidney Rig- 
don. The errors in grammar and the occasional wrong use of 
words are just such errors as would be made by Joseph Smith, 
an unlettered youth, in working out the translation, but just the 
errors that such educated men as Spaulding and Rigdon would 
pride themselves in avoiding. I am of the opinion that this 
consideration alone would be sufficient to convince a candid 
mind that whoever wrote the Book of Mormon, neither Sidney 
Rigdon nor Solomon Spaulding ever wrote it, or any part of it. 
In this connection I also call attention to the fact that it is 
utterly impossible that the Book of Mormon should be the 
Solomon Spaulding story, "Manuscript Found," plus the relig- 
ious matter supposed to have been supplied by Sidney Rigdon. 
This is the claim of all Spauldingite theorists, including Mr. 
Schroeder. It is based upon the assumption of Joseph Smith's 
lack of knowledge of theological subjects and controversies. If 
the book, however, was constructed as the Spaulding theor- 
ists claim it was, the line of cleavage would be apparent; the 
necessarily incongruous parts must be discernable ; but no critic 
has yet appeared bold enough to point out which was originally 
Spaulding 's, and which the Rigdon addition. The fact of the 
matter is there is no line of cleavage; no point at which one 
ends and the other begins. You might just as well talk about 
a line of cleavage between what the element of earth and what 
the element of sunshine has contributed to the coloring of the 
pansy or the rose, as to try to indicate what is the religious part 
added to the Book of Mormon by Rigdon, and what the historical 
part supplied by Spaulding. The religious and historical parts of 
the Book of Mormon are perfectly fused. They can no more 
be separated than sun-light and sun-warmth can be separated 
from our earth' atmosphere. As the sun's rays penetrate and 
permeate our earth's atmosphere, so the religious elements, 
incidents and spirit alike, permeate the Book of Mormon— in 
it they are one and inseparable. 

Of the Conversion of Pratt and Rigdon 
As part of Mr. Schroeder 's chain of evidence, by which he 
hopes to establish the cumulative proofs that Pratt, Rigdon 
and Joseph Smith connived in palming off upon the world the 


Spaulding manuscript as a revelation— the Book of Mormon — 
he points to discrepences in the published accounts of the sud- 
deness or slowness of Pratt's and Rigdon 's conversions. 
Holding that the accounts of their sudden and miraculous con- 
version, had to be modified, and, in fact, concealed lest 
they should lead to the suspicion of connivance, if Rigdon and 
Pratt should be found giving too ready a credence to the Book 
of Mormon. Of the variations pointed out in Pratt's conver- 
sion it is only necessary to say that they are such variations, 
so slight and unimportant, that if it is considered that they are 
made by different persons, or, as in the case of Pratt himself, 
on widely separted occasions, the variations are the sure wit- 
nesses that the account is not a concocted one. In the case of 
one of the authorities quoted, Lucy Smith, mother of the 
prophet, and author of the ''Life of the Prophet Joseph," Mr. 
Schroeder should be corrected. He states, following a mis- 
apprehension of Orson Pratt's, in order to make his state- 
ment of more force, that Lucy Smith's book was written under 
the supervision of Joseph Smith. 151 This is not true, as Lucy 
Smith did not begin to write her book until after the martyr- 
dom of her son, Joseph. It was in the fall of the year of 1844 
that she began her work, and the prophet was killed in June 
of that year, all of which could have been learned by Mr. 
Schroeder by consulting the foot notes of the edition of Lucy 
Smith's book published by the Reorganized Church, in 1880. 152 
The discrepancy as to the time element in the conversion of 
Sidney Rigdon— as to whether it was two days after Pratt 
and Cowdery's arrival at Kirtland, or two weeks— may not 
be as satisfactorily accounted for as in the case of Parley P. 
Pratt. Still the chief authority for Mr. Schroeder 's whole 
theory of the Spaulding origin of the Book of Mormon favors 
the longer period for the conversion of Rigdon, since Mr. 
Howe represents that the "sudden" conversion of Rigdon 
occurred "after many pretentions to disbelieve it." 153 Further- 
more, in view of the whole question here debated, and the 

151. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 67. 

152. "Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith the Prophet," by Lucy Smith, p. 
90, foot notes. 

153. "Mormonism Unveiled," Howe, p. 290. 


overwhelming evidences educed against the contentions of Mr. 
Schroeder, the matter of the time it took to convert Sidney 
Rigdon to Mormonism is of but slight importance. 

The Denials of Rigdon 

Mr. Schroeder throughout his argument, intermittently seeks 
to add force to his "evidence" by saying that Sidney Rigdon 
never denied this, that, or the other statement though made 
in his life time. He notices only Rigdon 's denial published in 
the Boston Journal in 1839, and represents it as "absolutely 
the only recorded public denial ever made by Rigdon, though 
from 1834 to 1876 he was almost continually under the fire of 
this charge, reiterated in various forms and with varying 
proofs." 154 Of course, Mr. Schroeder is allowed to speak with 
some degree of authority upon the anti-Mormon side of this 
controversy; but for all that there are some things he does not 
seem to know about Sidney Rigdon 's denials and affirmations. 
It may be that of the several statements to which Mr. Schroeder 
attaches the remark of Rigdon 's silence, Rigdon never saw one 
of them; and there is one denial made by Mr. Rigdon that Mr. 
Schroeder has failed to note, made in 1836; and which, since 
it is general in its character, may be made to cover the whole 
period in which Mr. Rigdon is said to have made no denial. In 
the January number of the Latter-day Saints' Messenger and 
Advocate, after denouncing Howe's book and those who advo- 
cate it, and referring to Mr. Scott, Mr. Campbell and other 
professed ministers, he says: 

"In order to avoid investigation this brotherhood will con- 
descend to mean, low subterfuges, to which a noble-minded 
man would never condescend; no, he would suffer martyrdom 
first. Witness Mr. Campbell's recommendation of Howe's 
book, while he knows, as well as every person who reads it, 
that it is a batch of falsehoods." 155 

Inasmuch as Howe's book, published in 1834, charges Rig- 
don 's complicity with the whole procedure by which the Book of 

154. American Historical Magazine, Nov., 1906, p. 527. 

155. Messenger and Advocate, Jan., 1836, p. 242. 


Mormon is alleged to have been produced out of the Spaulding 
manuscript, and Eigdon above denounces Howe's book as "a 
batch of falsehoods," we may say there has been in existence 
ever since January, 1836, Eigdon 's denial of the whole Spauld- 
ing theory of his complicity with a scheme to deceive men in 
respect of the Book of Mormon. 

However, if that is not sufficient to be convincing, then I 
wish to produce a well authenticated denial of the most sweep- 
ing and convincing nature. John W. Eigdon, the son of Sid- 
ney Eigdon, has written a somewhat extended biography of 
his father which he has filed in its manuscript form in the 
Church Historian's Office at Salt Lake City. In this narra- 
tive he relates his own experience in connection with Mor- 
monism, and his attempt to learn the truth from his father- 
respecting the latter 's early connection with the Book of Mor- 
mon. He tells of his visit to Utah, in 1863, where he spent 
the winter among the Mormon people. He was not favorably 
impressed with their religious life, and came to the conclusion 
that the Book of Mormon itself was a fraud. He determined 
in his own heart that if ever he returned home and found his 
father alive, he would try and find out what he knew of the 
origin of the Book of Mormon, "although," he acids, "he had 
never told but one story about it, and that was that Parley 
P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery presented him with a bound 
volume of that book in the year 1830, while he [Sidney Eig- 
don] was preaching Campbellism at Mentor, Ohio." What 
John W. Eigdon claims to have seen in Utah, however, together 
with the fact that Sidney Eigdon had been charged with writ- 
ing the Book of Mormon, made him suspicious, and he remarks : 

"I concluded I would make an investigation for my own sat- ' 
isf action and find out if I could if he had all these years been 
deceiving his family and the world, by telling that which was 
not true, and I was in earnest about it. If Sidney Eigdon, 
my father, had thrown his life away by telling a falsehood and 
bringing sorrow and disgrace upon his family, I wanted to 
know it and was determined to find out the facts, no matter what 
the consequences might be. I reached home in the fall of 1865, 
found my father in good health and (he) was very much pleased 
to see me. As he had not heard anything from me for some 


time, he was afraid that I had been killed by the Indians. 
Shortly after I had arrived home, I went to my father's room; 
he was there and alone, and now was the time for me to com- 
mence my inquiries in regard to the origin of the Book of Mor- 
mon, and as to the truth of the Mormon religion. I told him 
what I had seen at Salt Lake City, and I said to him that what 
I had seen at Salt Lake had not impressed me very favor- 
ably toward the Mormon Church, and as to the origin of the 
Book of Mormon I had some doubts. You have been charged 
with writing that book and giving it to Joseph Smith to intro- 
duce to the world. You have always told me one story; that 
you never saw this book until it was presented to you by Par- 
ley P. Pratt and Oliver Cowdery; and all you ever knew of 
the origin of that book was what they told you and what Jos- 
eph Smith and the witnesses who claimed to have seen the 
plates had told you. Is this true! If so, all right; if it is 
not, you owe it to me and to your family to tell it. You are 
an old man and you will soon pass away, and I wish to know 
if Joseph Smith, in your intimacy with him for fourteen years, 
has not said something to you that led you to believe he ob- 
tained that book in some other way than what he had told you. 
Give me all you know about it, that I may know the truth. My 
father, after I had finished saying what I have repeated above, 
looked at me a moment, raised his hand above his head and 
slowly said, with tears glistening in his eyes : ' My son, I can 
swear before high heaven that what I have told you about the 
origin of that book is true. Your mother and sister, (Mrs. 
Athalia Robinson,) were present when that book was handed 
to me in Mentor, Ohio, and all I ever knew about the origin of 
that book was what Parley P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, Joseph 
Smith and the witesses who claimed they saw the plates have 
told me, and in all of my intimacy with Joseph Smith he never 
told me but the one story, and that was that he found it en- 
graved upon gold plates in a hill near Palmyra, New York, and 
that an angel had appeared to him and directed him where to 
find it; and I have never, to you or any one else, told but the 
one story, and that I now repeat to you.' I believed him, and 
now believe he told me the truth. He also said to me after that 
that Mormonism was true; that Joseph Smith was a Prophet, 
and this world would find it out some day." 156 

Not only does John W. Rigdon give this valuable statement 

156. "Life of Sidney Rigdon," by his son, John W. Rigdon, ms. pp. 188-195. 
The passages quoted in the text will be found in the "History of the Church," 
Vol. I, pp. 122-3. Also "Y. M. I. A. Manual" for 1905-6, pp. 485-6. 


as to his father's position respecting the Book of Mormon, but 
he adds the following from his mother: 

''After my father's death, my mother, who survived him 
several years, was in the enjoyment of good health up to the 
time of her last sickness, she being eighty-six years old. A 
short time before her death I had a conversation with her about 
the origin of the Book of Mormon, and wanted to know what 
she remembered about its being presented to my father. She 
said to me in that conversation that what my father had told 
me about the book being presented to him was true, for she 
was present at the time and knew that was the first time he 
ever saw it, and that the stories told about my father writing 
the Book of Mormon were not true. This she said to me in 
her old age and when the shadows of the grave were gathering 
around her; and I believe her." 157 

The Real Origin of the Spaulding Theory 

A word upon the real origin of the Spaulding theory. It 
did not originate by a "woman preacher," 158 reading extracts 
form the Book of Mormon whereupon there was a "spontane- 
ous" recognition of Solomon Spaulding 's story "Manuscript 
Found," and an outburst of popular indignation against this 
disception, as is usually represented to be the case by those 
who advocate the Spaulding theory, and by Mr. Schroeder in 
particular. 159 Especially is Mr. Schroeder insistent upon the 
"spontaneity" with which the Spaulding work was recognized 
when the Book of Mormon was publicly read at Conneaut; 
though to get this "spontaneity" Mr. Schroeder must needs 
rely upon the Davison statement which he acknowledges Mrs. 
Davison never wrote, and which he says can have no ' ' evidenti- 
ary weight except in those matters where it is plain from the* 
nature of things that she must have been speaking from her own 
personal knowledge" 160 — and in the matter here to be mentioned 

157. "History of the Church," Vol. I, p. 123, note. 

158. It is claimed that the words "woman preacher" found in the Davison 
statement was a typographical error (see Clark's "Gleanings by the Way,") and 
should read "Mormon preacher;" but the typographical error being claimed after it 
was learned that the Mormon Church at that time had no Mormon preachers, gives 
it the color of one of those "afterthoughts" which are so frequently seen in this 
Spaulding theory, that one in spite of himself remains doubtful. 

159. American Historical Magazine, Jan., 1907, p. 71. 

160. Ibid. Sept., 1906, p. 394. 


Mrs. Davison could have had no personal knowledge at all. So 
that Mr. Schroeder throws aside his own limitations within 
which Mrs. Davison's statement is to be given evidentiary 
weight, in the interest of his desire for the force of "spon- 
taneity" in the recognition of the Book of Mormon as Spauld- 
ing's work. According to the Davison statement, then, when 
the "woman preacher" in a public meeting read extracts from 
the Book of Mormon, John Spaulding, residing at Conneaut 
at the time, and present at the meeting, 

"recognized perfectly the work of his brother. He was 
amazed and afflicted that it should have been perverted to so 
wicked a purpose. His grief found vent in a flood of tears, 
and he rose on the spot, and expressed to the meeting his sor- 
row and regret that the writings of his desceased brother 
should be used for a purpose so vile and shocking. The excite- 
ment in New Salem (Conneaut) became so great that the inhab- 
itants had a meeting and deputed Dr. Philastus Hurlburt one 
of their number to repair to this place (Monson) and to obtain 
from me (Mrs. [Spaulding] Davison) the original manuscript 
of Mr. Spaulding." 

One marvels that all this was missed by the authors of ' ' Mor- 
monism Unveiled." Dr. Hurlburt was present, too, in that 
meeting, and was the chief agent and factor in compiling 
Howe's book. Yet in the statement published in that book, 
and credited to John Spaulding, there is not a word of this 
dramatic circumstance— this splendid "spontaneity," so much 
the joy of Mr. Schroeder. There is no "agony of grief;" no 
"flood of tears;" no "denunciation on the spot;" no reference 
to a purpose "vile and shocking;" just a plain statement that 
he had "recently read the Book of Mormon;" and the claim 
that he found nearly the same historical matter in it as in his 
brother 's writings ; some names that were alike ; and that the 
"Manuscript Found" held to the theory that the American 
Indians were descendants of the "lost tribes;" evidently sup- 
posing that the Book of Mormon held the same theory. Had 
any such circumstance as described in the Davison statement 
occurred, it would undoubtedly have appeared in John Spauld- 
ing 's statement published by Howe five years before this sec- 
ond version was put forth. 


But notwithstanding the bad oder of the whole Davison state- 
ment, and the violation of his own principle, under which only 
it is to be considered possessed of evidentiary weight, Mr. 
Schroeder uses this highly dramatic fiction to introduce his 
1 'clinching" evidence of the plagiarism charged against those 
responsible for the publication of the Book of Mormon. 

The true story of the origin of this Spaulding theory is as 
follows: When Dr. Hurlburt was finally excommunicated from 
the Church he took to lecturing against the Mormons, holding 
forth first at Springfield, Erie County, Penn., some distance 
east of Conneaut. Finally visiting the Jackson settlement 
(presumably in the same county) he learned, from one of the 
Jackson's, of Solomon Spaulding, and that he had written a 
story called "Manuscript Found." "Not that any of these 
persons," says my authority, who was well acquainted in the 
Jackson Settlement, also with Dr. Hurlburt, and attended his 
anti-Mormon meetings in the neighborhood— "not that any of 
these persons had the most distant idea that his [ Spaulding 's] 
novel had ever been converted into the Book of Mormon; or 
that there was any connection between them." 161 

It was the conception of Dr. Hurlburt that this Spaulding 
manuscript could be used in concocting a counter theory for 
the origin of the Book of Mormon— "a long felt want," by 
the way, among those who opposed the book and the work grow- 
ing out of it. With the information he had obtained in the 
Jackson Settlement, Hurlburt repairs to Kirtland, holds a pub- 
lic meeting, at which there is great joy, and enthusiasm among 
the anti-Mormons in that vicinity, because of Hurlburt \s theory 
of the origin of the Book of Mormon. One Mr. Newel, a bitter 
anti-Mormon, promised to advance $300 for prosecuting the 
work of identification, and others contributed liberally for the 
same purpose. Out of this meeting grew the public meeting- 
held later at Conneaut; 16 - and which sent Hurlburt upon his 
journey to Monson, Mass., for Spaulding 's manuscript which 
ultimately he obtained of Mr. Jerome Clark at Hartwicks, New 
York, on the order of Mrs. (Spaulding) Davison. This manu- 

161. "Origin of the Spaulding Story" (1840), B. Winchester, p. 8. 

162. Ibid, pp. 6-14. 


script Hurlburt brought to E. D. Howe of Plainsville, Ohio, for 
the forth-coming book, "Morinonisni Unveiled." It was a dis- 
appointment to these conspirators, as already detailed; and as 
explained by Hurlburt in a letter to Mrs. Davison, "It did not 
read as expected, and he should not print it." 163 

In passing, it should be said that Hurlburt never received 
but the one manuscript. The theory put forth that he obtained 
two, one the true "Manuscript Found," which it is alleged, he 
sold to the Mormons, — such is the suspicion of the Spauldings— 
and a worthless one, the Roman manuscript, now at Oberlin, 
which he gave to Howe, is one of the many fictions that have 
grown out of the innumerable surmisings and conjectures asso- 
ciated with the Spaulding theory. Hurlburt himself says on 
this point, in a signed statment under date of August 19, 1879 : 

"I do not know whether or not the document I received from 
Mrs. Davison was Spaulding 's Manuscript Found, as I never 
read it entire, and it convinced me that it was not the Spauld- 
ing Manuscript; but whatever it was, Mr. Howe received it 
under the condition on which I took it from Mrs. Davison— to 
compare it with the Book of Mormon, and then return it to 
her. I never received any other manuscript of Spaulding 's 
from Mrs. Davison, or any one else. Of that manuscript I 
made no other use than to give it, with all my other documents 
connected with Mormonism, to Mr. Howe. I did not destroy 
the manuscript nor dispose of it to Jos Smith, or to any other 
person. ' n64 

This manuscript received by Hurlburt and given to Howe is 
the only Spaulding manuscript written by Spaulding, making 
any reference to the antiquities of America. It is the simon- 
pure and only "Manuscript Found." Against this it is urged 
by Mr. Schroeder that "no such title is discoverable any where 
upon or in the body of the manuscript in the Oberlin library. ' n65 
And yet with strange inconsistency he himself a few pages 
further on admits— "It is even possible that this first manu- 
script (meaning the one now at Oberlin), may at sometime have 

163. See Haven-Davison Interview. 

164. "New Light on Mormonism" appendix, p. 260, No. 17. Letter from Hurl- 
burt; also No. 8, another letter from Hurlburt, and No. 16 a letter from Howe. 

165. American Historical Magazine, Sept., 1906, p. 386. 


been labeled "Manuscript Found." 166 But what is better than 
any "label" on the manuscript inside or outside; better than 
any admission of Mr. Schroeder's, is the fact that this manu- 
script is the one Mr. Spaulding feigned to have found, and that 
he pretended to translate into English. It is the "found" 
manuscript, and the only one that Spaulding pretended or 
feigned to have found. It is the one that Mrs. McKinstry says 
she had in her hands "many times" at Sabine's after 1816; 
and that "on the outside of this manuscript were written the 
words, 'Manuscript Found.' " 

Perhaps it was this positive statement that drove Mr. 
Schroeder to the admission that it is possible that this manu- 
script at Oberlin may have been so labeled. The descriptions 
of the Spaulding manuscript called "Manuscript Found," by 
others, who had knowledge of it, agree very nearly as to its 
size, and their descriptions fit the manuscript at Oberlin and 
not at all such a manuscript as would be required to make the 
Book of Mormon. Thus, Mrs. McKinstry says that the manu- 
script she had in her hands many times at Sabine's, and that was 
tied up with some other stories, and had written on the outside 
of it, ' ' Manuscript Found, ' ' made a manuscript about ' ' one inch 
thick." Mrs. (Spaulding) Davison in the Haven interview 
says her husband's manuscript was "about one third as large 
as the Book of Mrmon. " (i. e. as would be required to make 
the Book of Mormon). The Davison statement represents 
that John Spaulding was perfectly familiar with the work of 
his brother, "Manuscript Found," "and repeatedly heard the 
whole of it read," which might be possible with the Spaulding 
manuscript, which, now that it is printed, makes 112 pages, but 
scarcely possible respecting a manuscript making a book of 
about 600 such pages. 

This manuscript of Spaulding 's has finally been really 
"found" and published as already detailed; and its publica- 
tion has resulted in the overthrow of the Spaulding theory of 
the origin of the Book of Mormon; and that quite in another 
way than from disclosing the fact that there is no incident, or 
name, or set of ideas common to the two productions. The 

166. Ibid, p. 390. 


publication of the "Manuscript Found" not only demonstrates 
that this particular manuscript was not the foundation of the 
Book of Mormon, but it demonstrates, also, that no other writ- 
ings of Solomon Spaulding's could possibly be the Book of 
Mormon. Spaulding's manuscript, as published, makes a 
pamphlet of some 112 pages, of about 350 words to the page, 
enough matter to give a clear idea of his literary style. I am 
sure that no person, having any literary judgment will think 
it possible for the author of "Manuscript Found" to be the 
author of the Book of Mormon. 

Composition in writers becomes individualized as distinctly 
as the looks, or appearance, or character, of separate individ- 
uals; and they no more write in several styles than individ- 
uals impersonate different characters. True, by special efforts 
this latter may be done to a limited extent by a change of tone, 
costume and the like, but underneath these impersonations is 
to be seen the real individual; and so with authors. One may 
sometimes affect a light, and sometimes a serious vein, in prose 
and poetry. He may imitate a solemn scriptural style even, or the 
diction of some Greek or Roman author, but underneath it all 
will be seen the individuality of the writer from which he can- 
not separate himself any more than he can separate himself 
from his true form, features, or character. Since we have in 
this "Manuscript Found" enough of Mr. Spaulding's style to 
determine its nature, if this manuscript of his was used either 
as the foundation or the complete work of the Book of Mor- 
mon, we should be able to detect Spauldingisms in it; identity 
of style would be apparent ; but these things are entirely absent 
from every page of the Book of Mormon. Mr. Rice, in whose 
possession the Spaulding manuscript was found in 1884, does 
not over-state the matter when he says: "I should as soon 
think that the Book of Revelation was written by the author 
of Don Quixote, as that the writer of this manuscript was the 
author of the Book of Mormon." And again, he is right when 
he says: "It is unlikely that any one who wrote so elaborate 
a work as the Mormon Bible, would spend his time in getting 
up so shallow a story as this"— i. e. the Spaulding Story. 


The Motive for Publishing the' Book of Mormon 

It must be said for Mr. Schroeder that his theory of the mo- 
tive prompting the publication of the Book of Mormon is quite 
in harmony with his theory of its origin. For it is fitting that 
a thing founded in fraud should— and it very likely would— 
have the "greed of gain" as the "dynamics of the scheme;" 
and that "love of gold, not God," would be the moving cause 
of action. The only point at which Mr. Schroeder breaks down 
in his theory of the motive, is just where he breaks down in his 
theory of origin— namely, in the proof. 

The excerpts from the revelations quoted by Dr. Schroeder 
fail as proofs for his assumption. He ranges all through the 
numerous revelations given to the Church from 1830 to 1841. 
Of the thirteen excerpts quoted by him two only have any bear- 
ing upon the Book of Mormon ; and these two are from a reve- 
lation to Martin Harris, who had covenanted with Joseph Smith 
and with the publisher of the book, Mr. Grandin, that he would 
pay for printing it. Yet when the time came to make good his 
plighted word, he hesitated; whereupon the word of the Lord 
came, as quoted by Mr. Schroeder: "Impart a portion of thy 
property; yea, even part of thy lands, and all save the sup- 
port of thy family." So far Mr. Schroeder quotes. The very 
next paragraph (35) of the revelation goes on— "Pay the debt 
thou has contracted with the printer. Eelease thyself from 
bondage"— (i. e. the bondage of debt). Again Mr. Schroeder 
quotes (verse 26) "I command that thou shalt not covet thine 
own property." The full paragraph is: "And again I com- 
mand thee, that thou shalt not covet thine own property, but 
impart it freely to the printing of the Book of Mormon, which , 
contains the truth and the word of God." 167 Just wherein these 
passages, which are the only ones out of those quoted from the 
"Doctrine and Covenants" that bear at all on the Book of 
Mormon— just wherein they bear witness to the "greed of 
gain" being the motive that prompted the publication of the 
book; or how they sustain the idea that "love of gold, not 
God." was the "dynamics of the scheme," I fail to see. 

167. "Doctrine and Covenants," Sec. 19: 34, 35, 36. 


As for the rest of the passages quoted by Mr. Schroeder, they 
fall into two classes: first, those that relate to the consecra- 
tion of properties to the Church; and second, those that com- 
mand that provisions be made for the sustainance of Joseph 
Smith and others who were devoting their energies to the work 
of the Lord. In relation to the first class it will make matters 
clear for the reader to know that the Saints were called upon 
to recognize this principle: The earth is the Lord's. He 
created it. It is his, by virtue of proprietorships ; consequently 
all that man holds, of the world's wealth, is held as a steward- 
ship under God. To give visible recognition to this truth, the 
Saints were commanded in Missouri to consecrate their prop- 
erty to the Lord through his servants, and receive back a stew- 
ardship as from the Lord; and this in order that the great 
truth— coming now to be recognized by the best Christian 
thought of the age as the proper attitude of mind for the be- 
liever in God, in respect of his material possessions— might 
once for all be established as a doctrine of the Church, empha- 
sized by this visable act of consecration. 

As to the second class of quotations directing that provi- 
sions shall be made for the material needs of Joseph Smith and 
his family— is it necessary to argue at this late day what Paul 
seems to have settled long ago, viz: "They which minister 
about holy things, live of the things of the temple. * * * 
Even so hath the Lord ordained, that they which preach the 
Gospel, should live of the Gospel." 168 Is not the justice of this 
principle universally recognized! I say Mr. Schroeder breaks 
down at the production of proof for his theory as to motive. 
And his play upon the changes in this respect has but the sound 
of brass when applied to Joseph Smith personally or to all the 
leaders of the Mormon Church from its inception. Never have 
a people been more blessed with unselfish leaders than the 
Latter-day Saints. Men blessed with divine insight and power 
have given their services, practically without remuneration, 
for the welfare of their people. They have labored in season 
and out of season for them. They have given not only a teach- 
ing service, tending to make the truth clear, but they have 

168. "Corinthians" 9: 13, 14. 


given freely of their business ability, executive and judicial 
abilities. Men of statesman-like quality of character have 
devoted their lives to their people, and practicably without 
earthly reward, and many of them, the most of them, in fact, 
have died poor in this world's goods, but rich in the conscious- 
ness of service for fellowman well performed. 

I write these words from the midst of a people, who, when 
they read them, will think of hundreds of men who have lived 
and wrought out life's service among them, in the very spirit 
here described. "Greed of gain" furnish "the dynamics" of 
the Mormon scheme ? "Love of gold, not of God," the motive 
force in Mormonism 1 ? "A desire for money" "the inspiring 
cause of every act of the Mormon Prophet, the very divinity 
that moulded his thoughts and revelations, and brought into 
being Mormon's books!" 169 Nonsense, Mr. Schroeder; you have 
studied human nature as well as Mormonism to little purpose 
if you really think so. Joseph Smith was loved by his people 
to the verge of idolization. He won and kept that love of theirs 
to the day of his death. He had the satisfaction of seeing one 
of his great prophecies fulfilled — a prophecy given out from a 
prison cell, in 1839, and when his fortunes were fallen to their 
lowest point— when his enemies seemed to triumph, and traitors 
were arrayed against him— then came the assurance from God 
— "Thy people shall never be turned against thee by the testi- 
mony of traitors." 170 And they never were, either before his 
death, or since. "Greed of gain," selfishness;' "Love of gold, 
not God," does not produce these results. Selfishness never 
wins or holds hearts. Only a life that pours out itself in floods 
of unselfish service for others wins and holds affections. Such 
was the life of Joseph Smith, such the lives of Mormon leaders.. 

Concluding Remarks 

And now my task draws towards its close. My purpose in this 
paper, in the main, has been merely to refute the theory, 
together with the alleged evidences and arguments of Mr. 
Schroeder. My method has been to refute him largely out of the 

169. American Historical Magazine, May, 1907, p. 221. 

170. "Doctrine and Covenants," Sec. 122. 


material and authorities which he himself has introduced. And 
of course this has kept the discussion of the origin of the Book 
of Mormon within narrow limits. This paper has been more in 
the nature of a rejoinder than anything else to Mr. Schroeder's 
reply to the theory set forth by the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints for the origin of the Book of Mormon. 

By this undesigned order of the discussion and by its neces- 
sary limitations, the reader is at the disadvantage of not having 
immediately before him the theory of the divine origin of the 
Book of Mormon, sustained by the strong array of evidences 
and arguments, that may be marshalled in its support. 171 But 
it will help in forming a right conclusion as to the merits of this 
discussion if what is here suggested be held in mind, namely: 
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints sets forth the 
claim of a divine origin for the Book of Mormon, sustained by 
special witnesses, whom God raised up to testify of that origin ; 
sustained also, as that Church believes, by a world of evidences, 
both external and internal. To this Mr. Schroeder has offered 
a counter- theory of origin, the "Spaulding Theory", to which 
I have offered this rejoinder. My effort has had no higher aim 
than this, believing that nothing more was required of me under 
the circumstances. If my paper shall prove to be, as I think it 
must, a successful rejoinder; if it exhibits how inherently weak, 
and foolish this Spaulding theory is, even when most skillfully 
set forth; if it exhibits the tissue of falsehood and of malice, 
of which that theory is made up ; and the bitterness and hatred 
in which it had its inception ; and exposes the dishonest sophis- 
try by which that theory has been supported,— I shall be con- 

B. H. Roberts. 

Salt Lake City, Jan., 1909. 

171. For an extended treatise on this subject see the writer's "New Witness 
for God," published as Young Men's Manuals, Nos. 7, 8 and 9, 1903- 1906. 


IN the May and July numbers of the American Historical 
Magazine will be the first of a series of interesting historical 
articles from the pen of the Reverend Andrew M. Sherman 
of Morristown, N. J., author of "Historic Morristown," 
< < Life of Captain Jeremiah 'Brien, " " Phil Cerver : A Romance 
of the War of 1812," and other works dealing with our early 
national life. Other papers of like character will follow in sub- 
sequent numbers of the magazine. All will be well illustrated. 

The Wick House, Morris County, New Jersey 

THE Wick House (or "Wick Hall"), as it was some- 
time referred to during the Revolution, built about 
1750, is still standing, in a good state of preservation, 
four miles southwest of Morristown, N. J. It is par- 
ticularly famous because of the well-authenticated fact that in 
the early part of 1781, a saddle horse was for several days kept 
in one of its spare bed chambers to prevent its being taken by 
some intoxicated American soldiers from the owner, "Tempe" 
Wick, the daughter of Major Henry Wick, the proprietor of 
the extensive farm which then comprised about 1,400 acres. The 
rare historical environment of the Wick House has added greatly 
to its fame. It will be described in the May number of the 
American Historical Magazine. 

Captain John O'Brien, Machias, Maine 

CAPTAIN JOHN O'BRIEN, of Machias, Me., was one 
of six stalwart brothers— Jeremiah, Gideon, John, 
William, Dennis and Joseph— all of whom assisted in 
the capture of the British armed schooner Mar- 
garetta, in Machias (Maine) Bay, on the twelfth of June, 1775.» 
This was the first sea-fight, and the first American victory of 
the Revolution, and the brilliancy of the achievement sent a 
thrill of hope through the colonies. John O'Brien, like his broth- 
ers Jeremiah and William, subsequently engaged in privateer- 
ing, and he rendered splendid service to the colonies during the 
seven years war for independence. The forthcoming article 
will be a sketch of this famous privateersman and it will appear 
in the July number of the American Historical Magazine. 





Castles and Churches 

DURING the more than nine centuries that have 
elapsed since the Bruce stock was established in Scot- 
land it has, both in its main line and in its collateral 
branches, been identified with nearly all the famous 
historical places of the Northern Country. In successive gener- 
ations its representatives owned castles which are now in ruins, 
while memories of them and of their ancestors are indissolubly 
attached to such religious and national shrines as Iona, Dunferm- 
line, and others. An account of some of the most important of 
these castles and churches reveals how large a part the Bruces 
had in the life of their times and how tradition and romance have 
lovingly dwelt upon whatever the Bruce name has enriched in 
historical association. 


No island in the waters that roll upon the coast of Scotland has 
been more renowned than Iona, the ancient burial place of the 
Scottish kings before the time of Malcolm Canmore, the royal 
ancestor of the Bruces. As Dr. Johnson expressed it in one of 
his letters it is : 

"The illustrious island which was once the luminary of the 
Caledonian regions, whence savage clans and roaming barbar- 
ians derived the benefit of knowledge and the blessings of reli- 
gion. . . . That man is little to be envied . . . whose 
piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of Iona." 





Castles and Churches 

DURING the more than nine centuries that have 
elapsed since the Bruce stock was established in Scot- 
land it has, both in its main line and in its collateral 
branches, been identified with nearly all the famous 
historical places of the Northern Country. In successive gener- 
ations its representatives owned castles which are now in rains, 
while memories of them and of their ancestors are indissolubly 
attached to such religious and national shrines as Iona, Dunferm- 
line, and others. An account of some of the most important of 
these castles and churches reveals how large a part the Braces 
had in the life of their times and how tradition and romance have 
lovingly dwelt upon whatever the Bruce name has enriched in 
historical association. 


No island in the waters that roll upon the coast of Scotland has 
been more renowned than Iona, the ancient burial place of the 
Scottish kings before the time of Malcolm Canmore, the royal 
ancestor of the Braces. As Dr. Johnson expressed it in one of 
his letters it is : 

"The illustrious island which was once the luminary of the 
Caledonian regions, whence savage clans and roaming barbar- 
ians derived the benefit of knowledge and the blessings of reli- 
gion. . . . That man is little to be envied . . . whose 
piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of Iona." 



Before the sixth century the island was a great centre of druid- 
ism. About the year 563 the Irish saint Columba emigrated 
thither and upon that spot set up the cross and propagated the 
Christian faith. 

Columba, who made Iona famous and sacred, was born in 
521, the son of Felim, who was a son of Neill, the great king of 
Ireland. He was highly educated and travelled widely. Before 
he was twenty-eight years of age he built churches in Ireland 
and then sailed away from his home to carry his religion to the 
lands of the Picts. King Brudius granted him possession of 
Iona and there he established himself to preach and teach the 
doctrines of Christianity. It was not long before Iona became 
celebrated throughout the civilized world. The institutions there 
planted and perfected were the foundations of the church in that 
part of the world, and the library of Columba was known as one 
of the richest in literary treasures in that age. The name of the 
island, Icolmkill, or cell of Columba, was derived from its famous 
monastic establishments. Relics which still exist indicate the 
former greatness of the place. In an enclosure adjoining St. 
Oran's Chapel were buried sixty-one kings; forty-eight Scottish, 
four Irish, eight Norwegian, and one French. 

Paulus Jovius, writing in 'the sixteenth century, said of Iona: 

' ' In the church of Iona there are preserved very ancient annals 
and parchment rolls, containing laws and charters signed by the 
kings and sealed with their effigies on seals of gold or wax. It is 
also reported that in the same library there are ancient works 
of Roman history, from which we may expect the remaining de- 
cades of Titus Livius, which, indeed, we have lately heard, let- 
ters from Scotland have promised to Francis, King of France." 1 

In 1595 the sanctuary of Iona was quaintly thus described by 
another historian: 

"Within this ile of Columkill there is ane sanctuary or kirk- 
zaird, callit in Erische Religioran, (the cemetery of St. Ouran 
who was one of the companions of St. Columbus at the founda- 
tion of the monastery) quhilk is a very fair kirkzaird and wcill 
biggit about with staine and lyme. Into this sanctuary there is 

1. "Descriptione Brittanise," by Paulus Jovius, Venetia, 1548. 


three tombes of staine, formed like little chapelis, witli ane braid 
gray marble or quhin staine in the gavill of ilk ane of the tombes. 
In the stain of the ain tombe there is written in Latin letters, 
'Tumulus Regum Scotiae' that is, the tombe or grave of the 
King of Seotts. Within this tombe according to our Scotts 
and Erische cronikells there layes forty-eight crouned 
Scotts Kings, through the whilk this ile lies been richlie 
dotat be the Scotts Kings, as we have said. The tombe on the 
south syde forsaid, hes this inscription 'Tumulus Regum Hy- 
bernise, ' that is, the tombe of the Irland Kinges ; for we have in 
our auld Erische cronikells, that ther wes foure Irland Kinges 
eirdit in the said tombe. Upon the north side of our Scotts 
tombe the inscription bears 'Tumulus Regum Norwegie,' that 
is, the tomb of the Kings of Norroway, in the quhilk tombe, as 
we find in our ancient Erische cronikells, ther layes eight Kings 
of Norroway, and also we find that Coelus, King of Norroway, 
commandit his noblis to take his bodey and burey it at Colm- 
kill if it chanced him to die in the Isles, but he wes so discomfitit 
that ther remained not so maney of his armey as wald burey 
him ther; therfor he was eirded in Kyle, after he stroke ane 
field against the Scotts, and wes vanquist be them. Within this 
sanctuary also lyes the maist part of the Lordis of the Isles, with 
their lineage, Twa Clan-Lynes (Clan Lean) with their lynage, 
M'Kynnon and M'Guarrie with their lynages, with sundrie 
utheris inhabitants of the hail isles ; because this sanctuary wes 
wont to be the sepulture of the best men of the Isles and also of 
our Kings, as we have said, because it was the maist honerabil 
and ancient place that was in Scotland in thair dayes, as we 
reid." 2 


The town of Scone in the sheriffdon of Perth is situated on 
the north bank of the river Tay near the centre of Scotland. 
Its name in the Gothic, is Skorn and in the Anglo-Saxon, Scon, 
meaning beautiful. It was famous particularly for the abbey 
that was founded there by King David I. for the monks of St. 
Augustine. Some historians assert that a religious house was 
established here for the Culdees monks by King Alexander I. 
During the life of that monarch the place was occasionally the 
royal residence and under the monks it was a trading centre, 

2. "Description of the Western Isles;" by Donald Munro, High Dean of the 



with customs payable to the monastery. The abbey wall enclosed 
about twelve acres of land. In the Reformation the abbey and 
the king's palace were destroyed. 

"So was that abay and plaice appointed to sockage; in doing 
whereof they tuk no long deliberation, bot committed the nolle 
to the merciment of fyre, guhairat no small number of us war 
ofTendit." 3 

At Scone was held the earliest ecclesiastical council of Scot- 
land of which there is any authentic record. In the Pictish 
Chronicle it is said : 

/'Constantine, the son of Ed, and Kellach bishop, together 
with the Scots, solemnly vowed to observe the laws and disci- 
pline of faith, the rights of the churches and of the gospel, on 
the Hill of Credulity, near the royal city of Scone. Hencefor- 
ward this hill deserved this name, i. e. (Collis Credulitatis) 
of the Hill of Credulity." 

Few traces of the old monastery have come down to modern 
times. The contemporaneous church and buildings are of the 
seventeenth century and later. Many memories of the hapless 
Stewarts cling to the place. Queen Mary was often there and 
the king's room where James I. and perhaps Charles II. slept on 
the eve of their coronations is still shown. 

Scone was particularly endeared to the Scots as the ancient 
place of coronation of the Scottish kings. There was the famous 
coronation stone, or stone of destiny, seated on which the mon- 
archs received the crown and sceptre. It is a small block of red 
sandstone imbedded with pebbles and, as the royal emblem of 
Scotland, was always regarded with the deepest veneration. 

According to ancient traditions the history of this stone went 
back to the Tuatha de Danaans, the Scythian family that in- 
vaded Ireland, immediately preceding the Milesian conquest, 
coming from Persia or Greece. They were skillful far above the 
native people about them and for that reason were regarded as 
possessed of magic powers. It is told of them that when they 
came to Ireland they brought with them a remarkable stone 

3. Knox's "Historie," p. 146. 


called lia fail, ' ' the stone of fate or destiny ; ' ' and from this Ire- 
land received the name Inis Fail or Island of Destiny. 

"This lia fail was held in the highest veneration; and sitting 
on it the ancient monarchs of Ireland both in Pagan and in 
Christian times were inaugurated at Tara. " 

It is stated that whenever a legitimate king of the Milesian 
race was inaugurated the stone would emit a peculiar sound, an 
effect produced probably by some mechanical contrivance of the 
clever druids. 

One account has it that in the beginning of the sixth century 
Fergus MacEarca, who had become king of Scotland, requested 
the Irish monarch Murtogh MacEarca, his brother, to send him 
the lia fail to be used on the occasion of his inauguration so that 
he might have security to his throne in accord with the ancient 
prophecy that the Scotic race would continue to rule as long as 
this stone should be in its possession. Another account says 
that the stone was not brought to Scotland until the ninth cen- 
tury, when Aidus Finliath, king of Ireland, sent it to his father- 
in-law Kenneth McAlpin, king of all Scotland. The lia fail 
was preserved with great care and veneration for centuries, first 
in the monastery of St. Columkill, on Iona Island ; afterwards at 
Dunstafrnage in Argyleshire, the first royal seat of the Scottish 
kings of the Irish race, and later at Scone, to which place it was 
taken by King Kenneth and where it was preserved until 1296, 
when King Edward I. carried it away to England with other 
regal appurtenances and deposited it in Westminster Abbey. 

This stone of destiny has been Latinized as saxum fatale and 
has been called by some writers Jacob's stone, from the tradition 
that it is part of the stone called Jacob's pillow at Bethel, as 
related in the book of Genesis. The stone is mentioned by Boe- 
thius and other early Scottish historians and the following Irish 
verse concerning it is classic : 

"Cineadh Scuit, saor an fhine, 
Mun budh breag an fhaisdine, 
Mar a ffuighid an Liagh Fail 
Dlighid flaitheas do ghabhail." 


"If Fate's decrees be not announced in vain, 

Where'er this stone is found the Scots shall reign." 


Associated as it is with the tragedy of Macbeth, Glamis castle, 
in Forfarshire, probably enjoys a wider fame than almost any 
other building in Scotland. The present structure preserves 
little likeness to that which existed in the time of Duncan, and 
indeed changes have been made in it since the poet Gray de- 
scribed it, in 1765, as follows : 

' ' Rising proudly out of what seems a great and thick wood of 
tall trees, with a cluster of hanging towers on top . . . the 
house from the height of it, the greatness of its mass, the many 
towers atop, and the spread of its wings has really a very sin- 
gular and striking appearance." 

Rebuilt and altered as it has been, it is even now one of the 
noblest buildings of its kind in the Land of the Thistle, archi- 
tecturally dating from the fifteenth century and since. Fordun 
and other chroniclers tell that in the vicinity of Glamis Malcolm 
II. was attacked and mortally wounded in 1034, and that his as- 
sassins were drowned by breaking through the ice as they at- 
tempted to cross the neighboring loch of Forfar. The earliest 
proprietary notices of Glamis show it to have been a thanedom, 
and its lands regal domains. In 1372, King Robert II. by char- 
ter granted it to Sir John Lyon, designating it as "our lands of 
the thainage of Glammis." 

Sir Walter Scott spent a night in the castle in 1793, and he 
thus concluded a curious account of his sensations on the occa- 

"In spite of the truth of history, the whole night scene in 
Macbeth 's castle rushed at once upon me, and struck my mind 
more forcibly than even when I have seen its terrors represented 
by John Kemble and his inimitable sister." 


Dunfermline in Fifeshire, some fifteen miles from Edinburgh, 
and the burial place of King Robert Bruce, is indissolubly as- 
sociated with the memory of the kings of Scotland from the time 


of Malcolm Canmore to the days of tlie Bruees. The town is 
beautifully situated on the brow of a gentle eminence that over- 
looks the surrounding country and the waters of Forth. For 
centuries it was the favorite royal residence, and in modern times 
it has been the home of the earls of Elgin, descendants of King- 
Bruce. Its antiquities are many, but of the ancient tower of 
King Malcolm III. only the ruin remains, two low broken walls. 
The tower was probably built about the middle of the eleventh 
century. Fordun, canon of Aberdeen, the early Scottish histor- 
ian, thus describes it in giving an account of the marriage of 
King Malcolm III. 

"The nuptials were magnificently celebrated a. d. 1070 at 
Dunfermline which the reigning king then held pro oppide" 
(his town or fortified residence) "for that place was naturally 
well defended in itself, being surrounded by a very thick wood, 
and fenced with precipitous rocks, in the middle of which was 
a pleasant level ground, also strengthened by rock and water, 
so that this might be supposed to be said of it : 

"Non homini facilis, vox deunda feris. 

"Not easy for man, scarcely to be approached by wild beasts." 4 

This tower or castellated palace was not a spacious edifice nor 
does it appear to have been sumptuous. Still, here the famous 
monarch, ancestor of Robert Bruce, lived with his queen, Mar- 
garet, daughter of Edward, son of Edmund Ironside, king of 
England. Not far away from the hill on which the tower stands 
is St. Margaret's cave, where the Queen was accustomed to re- 
tire for her secret devotion. The tower is referred to in the 
ballad of Sir Patrick Spens : 

"The King sits in Dunfermline toun 
Drinken the blood red wine, 
Whare sail I find a skeely skipper 
Will sail this ship o' mine." 

A short distance from the tower are the ruins of a palace that 
was once the residence of the sovereigns of Scotland. Only a 
small portion of the wall, two hundred and fifty feet in length 
and sixty feet in height, supported by buttresses, now remains. 

4. "Scotichronicon," by John Fordun. 


At the western end is a high window, completely covered with 
ivy, and a chimney of the room in which, tradition says, the ill- 
fated Stewart monarch, Charles I., was born. Subterranean 
passages and crypts are still intact. The palace was probably 
built before 1100. The last monarch who occupied it was Charles 
II., in 1650. 

Most interesting of the antiquities of Dunfermline are the 
ruins of the old abbey which was destroyed at the time of the 
Reformation. It was built "at great expense." John Leslie, 
Bishop of Ross, an old historian, wrote of it as "templum, in 
civitate Dunfermilingensi magnifice suis impensis extructum, 
sanctiss. Trinitate dicavit." Turgot relates that "it was en- 
riched with numerous ornaments, vessels of solid gold, and an 
inestimable crucifix, formed of gold, silver, and precious stones." 
Originally built by Malcolm Canmore, additions were made 
from time to time by the successors of that monarch, particularly 
Alexander I., David I., Alexander II., and James VI. 

The monastery was dedicated to Margaret, the queen of Mal- 
colm Canmore, who died in 1093. Queen Margaret was canon- 
ized in 1249 and on June 13 in the following year the bones of 
the sainted one were transferred from the place where they were 
originally deposited "in the rude altar of the Kirk of Dunferm- 
line" to the choir of the abbey church. The young king, Alex- 
ander III., with his mother and a large company of nobles and 
clergy were present to witness the ceremony. The remains were 
placed in a silver sarcophagus, which, the chroniclers state, was 
adorned with precious stones ; and then a miracle occurred. 
King Malcolm had been buried beside his queen, and at first all 
the strength of many men were not sufficient to remove, the relics 
of the sainted Margaret from the spot until those of her husband 
had first been lifted and deposited in the place where hers were 
destined to lie. Wyntonn in his Cronykil tells of this miracle: 

"With all thare powere and thare slycht, 
Her body to rays thai had na mycht. 
Na lift her anys owt of that plas, 
Quhar sho that tyme lyand was, 

Tj^z-vv* oil +1-iot»/-v rlmrntTrATTTTnrc! 


That the persownys gaddryd there 
Dyd in devot manere: 
Quhell fyrst thai tuk upe the body 
Of hyr lord that lay thereby 
And bare it bene into the quere 
Lysrly syne in fay re manere 
Her cors thai tuk up and bare ben, 
And thaine enteryd togyddyr then. 
Swa trowd thai all than gadryd thare 
Quhat honour till hyr lord scho bare. ' ' 

Following the reinterment of the remains of St. Margaret and 
her husband, the abbey became the burial place of the royal fam- 
ily of Scotland. It succeeded in this respect the island of 
Iona, which for generations had been the ancient place of sepul- 
ture of the Scottish monarchs. Besides Malcolm, his queen, 
Margaret and his son Prince Edward, there were interred : King 
Edgar, King Alexander I., King David II., King Malcolm IV., 
King Alexander III. and his first queen, Margaret ; King Robert 
Bruce and his queen, Elizabeth ; Prince David and Prince Alex- 
ander, sons of Alexander III. ; Mathildis, daughter of King 
Robert Bruce ; Malcolm, earl of Atholl, and his countess ; Anna- 
bell a Drummond, queen of King Robert III. and mother of King 
James I. ; the earls of Elgin, and others of the royal Bruce blood. 

Of Queen Margaret, Sir Walter Scott wrote : 

"She did all in her power, and influenced as far as possible 
the mind of her husband to relieve the distresses of her Saxon 
countrymen, of high or low degree, assuaged their afflictions, and 
was jealous in protecting those who had been involved in the 
ruin which the battle of Hastings brought on the royal house of 
Edward the Confessor. The gentleness and mildness of temper 
proper to this amiable woman, probably also the experience of 
her prudence and good sense, had great weight with Malcolm, 
who, though preserving a portion of the ire and ferocity belong- 
ing to the king of a wild people, was far from being insensible 
to the suggestions of his amiable consort. He stooped his mind 
to hers on religious matters, adorned her favorite books of devo- 
tion with rich bindings, and was often seen to kiss and pay re- 
spect to the volumes which he was unable to read." 

King Robert Bruce was buried in the choir of the church be- 



fore the high altar. His body was embalmed and a rich tomb or 
cenotaph was erected above the spot. The tomb was made in 
Paris, of white marble in Gothic work and richly gilt. Barbour 
wrote : 

"And quhen thai lang thus sorrowit had, 
Thai haifr" had him to Dunferlyne : 
And hym solemply erdyt syne. 
In a fayr tomb, intill the quer. " 

Nearly five hundred years passed and the gilded marble tomb 
had disappeared, perhaps purposely destroyed, or overwhelmed 
in the ruins of the church. Workmen, digging for the founda- 
tions of the new church in 1878, discovered a large leaden coffin 
which, upon official inspection, was found to contain the skeleton 
of Scotland's great king. After examination the remains were 
reinterred in a sealed coffin, on the spot where they had been 
found, and there they now rest. 

The abbey of Dumfermline was the meeting place of the Scot- 
tish nobles during the long warfare between the Baliols and the 
Bruces and in the revolts against the English. It thus fell under 
the marked disfavor of King Edward. When the English king 
journeyed to Scotland in 1303 he spent the winter, from Decem- 
ber until the following May, in the abbe} 7 , where he was magnifi- 
cently entertained. When he and his court departed in the spring 
his soldiers set fire to the building, either in recklessness or un- 
der instructions from the king, who has been accused of thus 
venting his spite against those whom he considered his rebellious 
subjects. Again during the same war the buildings were set on 
fire by the English troops, but the church was saved. In the 
Reformation the abbey was a special object of disfavor of "the 
covenanters. Lindsay of Pittscottie, in chronicling the events of 
May, 1530, briefly and emphatically says : 

Upoun the 28 day thairof, the wholl lordis and baronis that 
war on this syd of Forth, passed to Stirling, and be the way, best 
down the Abbey of Dumferling. " 


One of the finest and strongest fortresses belonging to the 
Bruces was Kildrummie castle, which came to the family in the 


thirteenth century by the marriage of Isabel, daughter of David 
earl of Huntingdon, to Robert Bruce, the fourth baron of Annan- 
dale. It was a home much loved by the Bruces, but in a later 
generation it was the scene of disaster to Queen Elizabeth, con- 
sort of King Robert Bruce, and the Scotch patriots who sur- 
rounded her. 

Ruins of this stronghold remain in the Curgarff mountains in 
the district of Garioch in Aberdeenshire, on the north bank of the 
river Don, about forty miles from the sea. The structure stood 
on an eminence, one side of which is washed by the Don, while 
two other sides are defended by deep ravines. Located in an ob- 
scure spot amid scenery wild and gloomy, it seems to have been 
a stronghold of the old royal domain of Garvyach, the appanage 
of David, earl of Huntingdon. 

The castle was built by Gilbert de Moravia, of the Scottish 
Murray family, Bishop of Caithness, in the time of King Alex- 
ander II. According to tradition, originally it was merely one 
great circular tower or donjon, having five floors or stories. 
When the castle in its fulness was completed this formed the 
western comer and was called the Snow Tower. It is said to 
have been one hundred and fifty feet high, but only the merest 
vestige of it now remains. Subsequent to its establishment the 
fortress was enlarged into an irregular pentagon, surrounding 
a spacious court and defended by six other towers of unequal 
magnitude and dissimilar in form. Four of these protected the 
four angles of the pentagon, while two others were placed in the 
western face or curtain, for the security of the barbican which 
occupied the space between them. 

The intervening buildings connecting the several towers seem 
to have been only two stories high, and the walls are not more 
than four feet thick, of small irregular stones. The western wall, 
in which was the barbican or entrance gate, was reared on the 
western face or curtain, for the security of the barbican which oc- 
cupied the space between them. 

The area of the castle was nearly four acres. In addition to 
the site of a pit-well, a subterranean vault or passage may be 
traced within the ruins. This passage opens to the bank on the 
northern side of the castle and probably served as a sally port. 


By means thereof the wife, daughter, and sisters of Bruce the 
king, with their escort and attendants, are said to have made 
their escape when they fled to the sanctuary of Tain in Rosshire, 
from which they were delivered into the hands of the English 
by the earl of Ross. 

In the middle of the western wall the remains of the chapel 
still may be distinguished by the lancet form of its altar win- 
dows, consisting of three long narrow slits. During the siege of 
the castle this chapel was used as a magazine of forage for the 
horses belonging to the garrison. The besiegers despaired of 
success until, throwing a piece of red-hot iron through the win- 
dow, they set fire to the forage and literally smoked out the de- 


Lochmaben castle in Dumfrieshire, where Eobert Bruce the 
Competitor, grandfather of King Robert Bruce, lived and where 
he died and was buried, was one of the hereditarv castles of the 
Bruce family. In its time it was the most powerful fortress on 
the border. The original structure was on the hill near the town 
of Lochmaben, but the present castle was built in the thirteenth 
century by Bruce the Competitor. Commanding the entrance 
to the southwest of Scotland, it was the subject of many contests 
during the border warfare. It was captured by King Edward I. 
in 1298 and he strengthened its works. When Robert Bruce fled 
from England before taking the field for the crown of Scotland, 
he first sought refuge there. After his success he bestowed it on 
Randolph, earl of Moray. John Baliol handed it over to King 
Edward III., but it was besieged and retaken by King David II. 
in 1346. When Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway, expelled 
the English in 1384, it fell into the Douglas hands and remained 
there until 1455, when it was sequestrated as a royal possession. 

The castle stands on a spit of flat ground running into Loch- 
maben. By a wide ditch cut across the neck of the peninsula the 
site could be converted into an island about sixteen acres in ex- 
tent. Three other ditches protected it. Access was most likely 
by boats that came into the great ditch or moat, which could be 


amply defended from the battlements that overlooked. The walls 
were high and solid and well provided with parapets and de- 
fences, but they are now reduced to mere shapeless fragments, 
having been used in recent generations as a quarry for building 

Turn berry 

Turnberry castle in Carrick, which Marjory, countess of Car- 
rick, brought to the house of Bruce, was one of Scotland's most 
noted fortresses for several centuries. Turnberry Point on the 
coast of Ayrshire, between Ayr and Girvan, is a rock projecting 
into the sea, the top about eighteen feet above high-water mark. 
Upon this rock was built the castle. Only a few feet high of the 
wall next to the sea are now standing. The length of the structure 
was about sixty feet and its breadth fifty -five feet. It was sur- 
rounded by a ditch, but that was filled up many years ago. The 
top of the ruin, rising some forty or fifty feet above the water, 
has a magnificent appearance viewed from the sea. Around the 
castle was a level plain about two miles in extent, forming the 

To Turnberry King Robert Bruce longingly looked several 
times during his troublous career. Once when he made a descent 
upon the coast of Ayr he was, according to tradition, able to gain 
possession of the stronghold. Lord Clifford and Lord Lennox 
held the castle for the English, and the Bruce, with his impetuous 
brother Edward, Lord Douglas, and other followers, were wait- 
ing an opportunity at the Isle of Arran, which had been won by 
Douglas from Sir John Hastings in 1306. There he made ready 
to cross to the mainland of Carrick . Cuthbert, a trusty retainer, 
was sent over into Carrick to sound the people and see if they 
were favorable to the cause of Bruce. If he found that they 
were willing to join the cause of the king, it was arranged that 
he should start a signal light on the shore where it could be seen 
from the Isle of Arran. At nightfall the light eagerly looked for 
gleamed over the water and the impatient watchers hastened to 
sail across the bay to lead the expected uprising. Upon landing 
they found Cuthbert, who said that he had given no signal be- 


cause he had learned that the Bruce vassals of Carrick could not 
be depended upon to support their lord. In this emergency and 
threatened with discovery, it was almost impossible to retreat. 
Prudence gave way to the dictates of valor. Regardless of the 
support of the people of the district, Bruce and Douglas with 
their little band made an impetuous and desperate attack upon 
the castle and were successful in driving out its defenders. 

The unexpected lights that appeared around Turnberry that 
night, as though beckoning the Bruce on to death or to repossess 
his ancestral home, have been explained by prosaic matter-of- 
fact folk as the work of the brush burners at their occupation. 
Sentiment and superstition have attached to the incident, how- 
ever. Sir Walter Scott, in "The Lord of the Isles," refers to the 
belief of the common people of Ayrshire that the fires were really 
the work of supernatural power, unassisted by any mortal be- 
ing; and it is said that for several centuries the flame rose yearly 
at the same hour of the same night of the year that the king first 
saw it from the turrets of Brodick castle. The place where the 
fire is said to have appeared has been called Bogie's Brae beyond 
the remembrance of man. 

The description of Bruce 's descent upon Carrick is one of the 
most beautiful parts of Scott's poem: 

"They gain'd the Chase, a wide domain 

Left for the castle's sylvan reign, 
(Seek not the scene— the axe, the plough, 

The boor's dull fence have marred it now,) 
But then, soft swept in velvet green, 

The plain with many a glade between, 
Whose tangled alleys far invade 

The depth of the brown forest shade. 
Here the tall fern obscures the lawn, 

Fair shelter for the sportive fawn ; 
There, tufted close with copsewood green, 

Was many a swelling hillock seen; 
*And all around was verdure meet 

For pressure of the fairies' feet. 
The glossy holly loved the park, 

The yew-tree lent it shadow dark, 
And many an old oak, worn and bare, 

With all its shiver 'd boughs was there. 


Lovely, between, the moonbeams fell, 
On lawn and hillock, glade and dell. 

The gallant monarch sigh'd to see 

These glades so loved in childhood free, 

Bethinking that, as outlaw now, 

He ranged beneath the forest bough. 

And from the donjon tower on high, 
The men of Carrick may descry 

Saint Andrew's cross in blazonry, 
Of silver waving wide! 

The Bruce hath won his father's hall! 

'Great God! once more my sire's abode 

Is mine,— behold the floor I trod, 
In tottering infancy ! 

And there the vaulted arch whose ground 
Echoed my joyous shout and bound, 

In boyhood, and that rung around 
To youth's unthinking glee.' " 5 


Robert Chambers, in his ' * Pictures of Scotland, ' ' wrote : ' ' The 
time when there was no Stirling castle is not known in Scottish 
annals." The fortification is of great antiquity and the date of 
its origin is so remote that it has been forgotten. The ancient 
inhabitants had a fortress on Stirling rock, and the old chroni- 
cles say that it was held by Agricola during the Roman invasion 
and made an easily defensible headquarters for the Roman le- 
gions. Early monkish writers called it Mons Dolorum, or Moun- 
tain of Grief, and it was also named Styreling, or Hill of Strife, 
both appellations clearly indicating its purpose and its character. 
After the Romans had withdrawn Stirling formed part of the 
Pictish province of Forterin or Forternn. When Egfrid, the 
Anglian king, overran the country in the seventh century, it is 
supposed that he occupied Stirling, which was still a frontier or 
fortress as late as the time when Kenneth the Hardy led his fol- 
lowers across the Scots Water or Forth and destroyed it. 

After King Donald was taken prisoner by the Northumbrians, 

5. "The Lord of the Isles," by Sir Walter Scott, Canto VI. 


he yielded the territory around Stirling as ransom, and the 
Northumbrians rebuilt the castle and strongly garrisoned it. For 
nearly a quarter of a century it was in possession of the North 
Saxons and then it was returned to the Scots. In the tenth cen- 
tury it was a rendezvous of the troops under King Kenneth III. 
when the country was invaded by the Danes; and thence he 
marched to the battle of Longarty. It was not however until 
Forteviot, Scone, and Abernethy ceased to be royal residences 
or capitals that Stirling possessed a castle worthy the name. 

In the reign of King Alexander I., there was a fairly well-built 
fortress on the rock, and that king founded the first chapel within 
its walls. When the successor of Alexander ascended the throne, 
a feudal castle, probably a single square tower or keep with 
spacious courtyard or enciente, replaced the earlier buildings of 
wood and wattles, rudely fortified by earthworks. In the reign 
of King William the Lion, Stirling castle was one of the five 
principal fortresses of the kingdom. During the wars with Eng- 
land, it was more than once destroyed and rebuilt, and it was the 
prize for which the battle of Bannockburn was fought by King 
Eobert Bruce against the forces of King Edward I. of England. 

From the accession of King Alexander I. to the union of Scot- 
land with England, Stirling was one of the chief centres of polit- 
ical activity and statecraft, and a relation of its annals would in- 
volve nearly the whole of Scottish history. By the early kings of 
Scotland it was regarded as one of the most important places in 
the kingdom, and it was a frequent and favorite residence of the 
royal family. In the words of the poet, it was "parent of mon- 
archs, nurse of a kingly race." King Alexander I. died there, and 
when King William the Lion was ill he asked to be carried to 
Stirling, where he lingered for several months before death 
closed his career. The Stewarts recreated Stirling castle and 
it became a delightful and luxurious home for them. There in 
February, 1452, King James II. stabbed the Earl of Douglas : 

' ' Ye towers ! within whose circuit dread 
A Douglas by his sovereign bled." 6 

6. "Lady of the Lake," by Sir Walter Scott, Canto V. 


Stirling castle, well preserved, is one of the most revered 
structures of Scotland. For generations, alike in its picturesque 
beauty and noble grandeur and in its stirring historic associa- 
tions, it has been the admiration of all who have looked upon it 
and has been an inspiration to patriotism and to letters. Said 
one enthusiastic writer describing it : 

"Who does not know Stirling's noble rock rising the monarch 
of the landscape, its majestic and picturesque towers, its amphi- 
theatre of mountain and the winding of its marvelous river; and 
who that has once seen the sun descending here in all the blaze of 
its beauty beyond the purple hills of the west can ever forget the 
plains of Stirling, the endless charm of this wonderful scene, the 
wealth, the splendor, the variety, the majesty of all which lies be- 
tween earth and heaven ? ' ' 

In close proximity to Stirling are the villages of Bannock- 
burn and St. Ninian's, and the famous battleground where Bruce 
achieved the liberation of Scotland lies immediately between 
them. The bore-stone, in which the Scottish king planted his 
standard, is still preserved and occupies its original site near 
the village of Bannockburn. 

On the esplanade of Stirling stands a monument of Robert 
Bruce, of colossal size. The figure is nearly eleven feet high, 
and stands looking in the direction of the field of Bannockburn, 
where King Robert achieved his greatest victory over the Eng- 
lish forces. The king is represented as a knight of the highest 
rank, clad in the fighting armor of the period and in the act of 
sheathing his sword after the victory. On the front of the ped- 
estal is the Scottish shield with the lion rampant in high relief. 
On the western face of the pedestal is the inscription "King- 
Robert Bruce; June 24, 1314," the date of the battle of Bannock- 
burn. The statue was unveiled November 24, 1877. 

Melrose Abbey 

Melrose abbey had a precursor in a religious house of the 
Ouldee brotherhood established in the seventh century, under the 
patronage of Oswald, king of Northumbria. That has long ago 
disappeared, and even the more modern building is in ruins. The 


abbey that stood where ruins now are was founded for the 
Cistercian monks in 1136. The second abbot of the house was 
the famous St. Waltheof , Walthen, or Waldeve, who was related 
to the ancestors of the Bruces. His grandfather was Siward, 
the Saxon count of Northumberland, who strongly opposed Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, by whom he was captured and beheaded. 
Siward 's daughter, the mother of the abbot, married Simon, earl 
of Huntingdon, and after the death of that noble married Prince 
David, who later became the king. 

In the wars between England and Scotland the abbey suffered 
much from the English invaders, who were at odds with the 
monks because the latter avowed the cause of Bruce and Scot- 
land. When Edward II. invaded Scotland in 1322 he intended 
to rest at Melrose. Douglas was near by with a small company 
of retainers and the brotherhood admitted him and his men to 
the abbey, from which they could sally forth in an attack upon 
the English. According to Barbour 7 they sent out to reconnoitre 
"a rich sturdy free, that wes all stout, derft and hardy." 

"Upon a stalwart horse he rad 
And in his hand he had a sper, 
And abaid upon that manner 
Quhil that he saw them command near, 
And quhen the fermost passit wer 
The eoynge— he cryit 'Douglas, Douglas.' 
Then till them all a course he mass, 
And bar ane down delyverly, 
And Douglas and his company, 
Ischyt upon them with a shout." 

Douglas could do little damage to the big English army, and 
after he had fallen back to the forest King Edward occupied the 
place and took summary vengeance, wrecking the building, slay- 
ing the monks, and carrying away with him the silver pix for 
holding the sacramental wafer. 

King Robert Bruce was a good and generous friend to the 
brotherhood. Among the muniments of the foundation is an 
interesting document in which Bruce commends the brotherhood 
with great affection and warmth of expression to the pious 

7. "Metrical Life and Acts of Robert Bruce," by John Barbour. 


charge of his son and successor, David, stating that he intends 
that the monastery shall be the depository of his heart. 

The present buildings, ruined as they are, belong to a date 
much posterior to the time of the reigning Bruces. They are 
not older than the fifteenth centuiy. Few among the ruined his- 
toric structures of Scotland are more picturesquely attractive or 
more generally admired. 

' ' If thou would 'st view fair Melrose aright, 
Go visit it by the pale moonlight : 
For the gay beams of lightsome day 
Gild but to flout the ruins gray. 
When the broken arches are black in night, 
And each shafter oriel glimmers white: 
When the cold light's uncertain shower 
Streams on the ruined central tower; 
When buttress and buttress alternately, 
Seemed framed of ebon and ivory; 
When silver edges the imagery, 
And the scrolls that teach thee to live and die ; 
When distant Tweed is heard to rave, 
And owlet to hoot o 'er the dead man 's grave, 
Then go— but go alone the while- 
Then view St. David's ruined pile; 
And home returning, soothly swear, 
Was never scene so sad and fair. ' ' 8 


Clackmannan tower, home of the Clackmannan branch of the 
Bruces, is situated on the top of a hill on the eastern slope of 
which the town of Clackmannan stands. In 1359, King David 
II. granted a charter of this domain to Robert Bruce, his nephew, 
and the castle was held by his descendants in this branch of 
the Bruce family until the close of the eighteenth century. The old 
tower is remarkably well preserved, being a rectangular keep, 
twenty-four feet by eighteen feet inside, with walls six feet thick. 
In its prime it contained a fine entrance hall with adjacent rooms 
and several floors above. A second tower was added in the six- 
teenth century, and this is now in existence, with fireplace, stair- 

8. "The Lay of the Last Minstrel," by Sir Walter Scott, Canto II. 


case, picturesque belfry, and other appurtenances. In the ad- 
joining village there was long a relic of the Bruce, a large stone 
which, having been broken, was girded with bands of iron and 
preserved with devout reverence. On this stone, says the tradi- 
tion, the king, while residing in the tower, accidentally left his 
glove, and, sending his squire to fetch it, used the two words 
clack, a stone, and, mannan, a glove: from this the tower, vil- 
lage, and county derived their name. 


Rait castle in Nairnshire, the home of Robert Bruce the second 
baron of Clackmannan, is of such ancient origin that there is no 
account of its beginning. It is an interesting and unique building 
about three miles south from the town of Nairn, and commands 
the coast between Nairn and Moray Firth. Tradition says that 
it belonged to the Raits of that ilk and afterwards to the Comyns. 
The ruins show that the castle was an oblong structure about 
sixy-four feet by thirty-three feet, with walls five feet thick. At 
the southwest angle was a round tower twenty-one feet in diam- 
eter. There were three stories, but the upper ones have disap- 
peared. The entrance was one floor from the ground and opened 
upon a great hall with handsome mullioned windows. 


On the coast along the Firth of Forth, not far from Dunferm- 
line, is the ruined castle of Rosyth which was the ancestral home 
of Sir David Stewart, whose daughter Elizabeth Stewart mar- 
ried John Bruce the fourth baron of Clackmannan. It stands 
high on a rock that slopes gently into the sea and that at full tide 
is an island wholly surrounded by water. It consists of a high 
tower, with a vaulted apartment underneath and an inner wind- 
ing staircase leading to the upper room or floor. Portions of the 
north and west walls of an adjoining building on the west are 
still to be seen. In a high compartment over the gateway is a 
defaced armorial bearing surmounted by a crown and the date 
1561, with the letters M. R. (Maria Regina). Mary Queen of 


Scots, whose memory is thus perpetuated, is said to have slept in 
this castle, the first night after her flight from Lochleven on her 
way to Glasgow, near which in May, 1568, was fought the fatal 
battle of Langside. On the south side of the castle, near the door 
was an inscription on an old stone in Roman capital letters : 

' ' In-Dev-Tym-Dra- Yes-Cord- Ye-Bel-to-Clink 
Quahais Mery-Voce-Warns-to-Mete-and-Drink ' ' 

The castle was anciently the seat of the Stewarts of Rosyth or 
Durisdeer, the lineal descendants of the brother-german of Wal- 
ter, the high steward of Scotland, father of King Robert II. 

Birsay Palace 

At the extreme northwest corner of Orkney, twenty miles from 
Kirkwall, is the large and imposing Birsay palace. It was built 
by Robert Stewart, half-brother of Queen Mary and descendant 
of Robert Bruce. He put upon the building this inscription: 
"Dominus Robertas Stewartus, films Jacob i Quinti Rex Scot- 
orum. ' ' It is said that this bad Latin by which the title King of 
Scots was made to pertain to Robert, even if he did not intend it, 
had an influence in bringing Earl Patrick, son of Robert, to the 
block, when he was arraigned on a charge of treason. 

Robert Stewart and his son, Earl Patrick, ruled like kings in 
this far-away part of Scotland, and Birsay was a palace befitting 
a sovereign. It is now very much ruined, but it gives abundant 
evidence of its former grandeur. It is situate close to the sea- 
shore and can be reached easily both from the land side and the 
waterside. It consists of a court yard surrounded with two-story 
buildings and having two vaulted towers at the angles to protect 
the approach. 

Earl Patrick Stewart rivalled his father in the imposing pal- 
ace that he built near the cathedral of St, Magnus and the 
Bishop's palace in Kirkwall. This building has been preserved 
almost entire except the roof. Sir Walter Scott thus described 
the remains of the fortified palace of the earls of Orkney : 

"These remains, though much dilapidated, still exist in the 


neighborhood of the venerable and massive pile, which Norwe- 
gian devotion dedicated to St. Magnus the Martyr, and, being- 
contiguous to the Bishop's palace, which is also ruinous, the 
place is impressive as exhibiting vestiges of the mutations both 
in church and state which have affected Orkney, as well as conn- 
tries more exposed to such convulsions. The earl's palace forms 
three sides of an oblong square, and has even in its ruins, the air 
of an elegant yet massive structure, uniting, as was usual in the 
residences of feudal princes, the character of a palace and of a 
castle. A great banqueting' hall, communicating with several 
large rounds or projecting- turret rooms, and having at either end 
an immense chimney, testifies the ancient Northern hospitality of 
the earls of Orkney, and communicates, almost in the most mod- 
ern fashion, with a gallery or withdrawing room of considerable 
dimensions, and having, like the hall, its projecting turrets. The 
lordly hall itself is lighted by a fine Gothic window, of shafted 
stone at one end, and is entered by a spacious and elegant stair- 
case, consisting of three flights of stone steps. The exterior orn- 
aments and proportions of the ancient building are also very 
handsome, but, being totally unprotected, this remnant of the 
pomp and grandeur of earls who assumed the license, as well 
as the dignity, of petty sovereigns is now fast crumbling to de- 
cay." 9 

Since the time of Scott, this princely palace has gone further 
to ruin, but it still gives plentiful evidence of its former stately 
character. Architecturally, it belongs to the seventeenth cen- 


Muness castle has been called "the most northern specimen of 
our Scottish domestic architecture." Lawrence Bruce, its builder, 
might well have said in the words of Longfellow: 

"So far I live to the Northward, 
No man lives North of Me." 

The castle stands on a rising moorland, about half a mile from 
the sea. It is oblong, seventy four feet by twenty-eight feet, 
with two large round towers. The building is three stories high 
and quite entire. The entrance doorway is on the south front 

9. "The Pirate," by Sir Walter Scott. 


and above this is a large panel with an inscription in German let- 
ters, which runs thus : 

"List ye to know yis building quha began? 
Laurance the Bruce, he was that worthy man, 
Quha earnestlie his airis and offspring prayis, 
To help and not to hurt this wark alwayis. 
The zier of God 1598." 

Above the inscription is a panel with the Bruce arms. 


Campbell castle in Clackmannanshire, the ancient home of the 
noble family of that name, was begun as a single keep and then 
expanded into a large castle with buildings grouped around a 
courtyard or quadrangle. Its situation was magnificent, on a 
large isolated point of high land commanding an opening in the 
Orchil Hills, with an extensive view over the valley of the Forth. 
Approached through dark wooded ravines surrounded with per- 
pendicular rocks, it was practically unassailable with the en- 
gines of war in use in medieval times. Originally called the Cas- 
tle of Gloume, its depressing name was changed by act of Par- 
liament in 1489 at the instance of its owner at that time, the 
first duke of Argyle. In 1645, Montrose succeeded in capturing 
the stronghold and destroyed it. 

(To be Continued.) 



Continuation of the Consideration of Animals Used in Her- 
aldry, Their Origin and the Sentiments which 
are Represented by Them 

by henry whitemore 

THE Lily— This flower is extensively used in armories, 
of which there are two kinds— the lilies of the garden, 
and the lilies of the flag, such as those of France ; the 
first two are used in the emblem of the virgin Mary, 
for which account, Ferdinand, king of Arragon, in the year 
1403, in honor of her, instituted the order of knight- 
hood under the name of the Lily. The collar of the Order of 
the Lily was composed of bough-pots filled with white lilies in- 
terchanged with griffins. These are also used in that sense by 
the town of Dundee, whose patron saint was the virgin Mary, 
and which bore azure a bough-pot full of lilies of the garden. 

The other lilies, or those of France, so well known, from 
being carried through Europe by most of the sovereign princes 
and other noble families, are called the flowers of the flag; and 
differ from the lilies of the garden in having but three leaves. 
This lily is called in Latin flox irides, and by the French fleAir- 
de-iris, being always the flower of the rainbow or irides. The 
royal standard of France was called the oriflam or oriflambo, 
being a blue banner charged with golden fleurs-de-lis, a suitable 
figure say some for the Franks who came from the marches of 
Friezland. They say that the Franks of old had a custom at 
the choosing or proclaiming their kings of placing him aloft, 
above their heads, upon a shield or target, and putting in his 
right hand a flag with its flower in place of the sceptre. From 



this the kings of the first and second race of France are repre- 
sented with sceptres in their hands, like to the flag with its 
flowers and this became the armorial figures of France. 

There are other stories about the fleurs-de-lis of France. 
One is, that a banner came down from heaven; but as to the 
time and manner of descent historians differ. The Germans 
say that St. Dennis gave it to the family of France. Nicol Gil- 
lies insist that the banner was brought by an angel to King 
Clovis after his baptism; and Nicolas Upton, an English writ- 
er, who lived about the year 1428, says that an angel from heav- 
en gave a blue banner seme of fleur-de-lis to Charlemagne. 

Menestrier says that these fables were founded upon the ac- 
tion of Pope Leo III., who at the reception of Charlemagne at 
Rome, declared him with all ceremony, defender of the Church 
of St. Peter, and gave him the keys and a blue banner seme 
of fleur-de-lis of gold. This banner, being of heavenly color, 
blue, was called vexillun celeste, and, having come from the 
pope, the vicar of Christ, it was commonly believed, through the 
ignorance of those times, to have come from heaven; and con- 
firmed by the great success of Charlemagne in his wars where 
that banner was displayed. Yet, says the author, that was not 
the first time that the banner of France was seen adorned with 
fleur-de-lis, for all the regalia of the preceding kings of France 
are known to have been thus adorned. 

The French have sought to magnify this flower and celebrate 
it with many eulogies. Guillim Nanges, in his "History of St. 
Lewis" says that it consists of three leaves which represent 
faith, wisdom, and valor— faith supported by the other two, the 
wisdom and the valor of France. 

"Some theorists," says Nisbet, "have given the mystical ap- 
plication to the honor of this flower by heaping together all the 
places of Holy Writ, where the lily is mentioned, and applying 
them to it, as in Luke XII ' Consider the lilies how they grow ; 
they toil not, they spin not; and yet I say unto you that Solo- 
mon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.' They 
draw them and apply the Salique law which excludes women 
from succeeding to the crown of France; and from the other 
phrase of Holy Writ they magnify their kings above Solomon." 


Tristam, a Frenchman, undertakes to prove that the fleur- 
de-lis was the first and ancient bearing of France; that it has 
always been the device of France in adorning the sceptres and 
crowns, royal robes, shields, and stands, the regalia of France. 

That the fleur-de-lis was more ancient than Ludovicus Flor- 
us, Menestrier asserts, that he has seen the armorial seal of 
King Philip, great grandfather of Louis de Jeune, (who, it is 
claimed, was the first king who carried the fleur-de-lis) charged 
with fleur-de-lis appended to a deed of mortification to the ab- 
bacy of St. Martin de Pourtois, which ever after occasioned 
that abbacy to carry one of them for its arms. He also says 
that the regalia of France were adorned with fleur-de-lis, which 
were the fixed sovereign figures of France many ages before 
Louis de Jeune; and that those figures for their royal antiquity 
were affected by many princes, and amongst other, by one King 
Achaius, who took them into his imperial ensign to adorn the 
double tressure, the badge of the league between him and 
Charlemagne. Several other writers state that Edward III., 
king of England, was not nearly so fond of his claims to the 
crown of France as he was of the sovereign figure of that king- 
dom, which he quartered in the first place before those of Eng- 
land, being then azure seme of fleur-de-lis. 

King Charles L, of France, who began his reign in the year 
1380, reduced the indefinite number of fleur-de-lis to three, dis- 
posed two and one. These fleurs-de-lis were placed, by 
that king's order, on a shield after the form of the three cres- 
cents affyonte with the words Lilia crescent to signify that be- 
ing of a smaller number than before, they would increase ; and 
this form of a shield gave reason to some to allege that the 
arms of France were crescents, after that King's reducing the 
indefinite number of the French lilies to three. King Edward 
IV., of England, reduced also the number of the fleur-de-lis, in 
his bearing, to three. 

The fleur-de-lis are very famous throughout Europe, being 
borne by many princes and persons of high dignity, as well as 
in advancing the imperial crowns of England and Scotland; by 
the first to show a right of pretension, and by the second, its 
unity with France. They are also used as armorial ensigns by 
sovereign princes, as the Medici and the family of Este in 


Italy; and also in the arms of eminent churches and abbacies, 
and great cities to show their acknowledgment and subjection. 
Many noble families in Boulogne, and Genoa, carry fleur-de-lis 
to acknowledge the rise of their greatness to France. So many 
other families do in other countries, and some in Scotland, as 
the dukes of Lennon who quartered the arms of France with 
their own, on account of the noble Feise they were honored 
with in that kingdom. 

The name of Montgomery carries arms, three fleur-de-lis or, 
as being originally from France. Roger Montgomery came to 
England with William the Conqueror, and founded the church 
of Shrewsbury; and his son Robert, for some discontent, went 
to Scotland, where he got a fair inheritance in the Renfrew. 

The name of Brown, a very ancient one, carries for arms 
fleur-de-lis. One Walter de Brun is witness in an instrument 
of inquisition, made by David, prince of Cumberland, after- 
wards king of Scotland, of the possessions of the church of 
Glasgow. He may have been the predecessor of Philip de Brun, 
mentioned in a charter of Robert Moubray to Montcrief in the 
reign of King Alexander II. Richard de Brun was forfeited by 
King Robert the Bruce in 1320. 

Brown, of Coalston, had a charter from King David II., 
granted to David Brown of Coalston, who afterwards morti- 
fied a part of the barony. This Brown carried arms, gules, 
three fleur-de-lis, or; crest, a lion rampant, holding in his dex- 
ter paw a fleur-de-lis, with the motto, Florcal majestas. Thomas 
Brown, of Bonnington, in Midlothian, carried arms, or, on a 
chevron between three fleur-de-lis, a besant of the first ; crest, a 
ship under sail proper. 

Stephenson, of Herronshiels, had arms argent a chevron be- 
tween three fleur-de-lis gules, a chief of the last, as many mul- 
lets or. Alexander Stevenson of Chester, whose father was a 
brother of Herronshiels, carried arms, argent, on a chevron be- 
tween three fleur-de-lis, azure, a cross moline of the first ; and on 
a chief gules, three mullets or; crest, a rose tree bearing roses 
proper. Sir Alexander Stevenson, doctor of medicine, had 
arms, argent, a chevron between three fleur-de-lis azure, on a 
chief of the last, three mullets of the first ; crest, a dexter hand 
issuing out of a cloud holding a laurel garland, all proper. 


Of Cinquefoils, Quarterfoils and Trefoils. Their Frequent 
Uses in Armor and Their Significance 

Cinquefoil derives from the French cinque, five, and feuille, 
a leaf. Other flowers that have but five leaves may be so called 
when their specific names are not known ; yet, on the authority 
of General Leigh if the proper names of flowers of five leaves 
are not known, they should have different names in blazon from 
the nine armorial tinctures of which they are colored. For ex- 
ample, if the cinquefoil be of tincture or, it should be called 
rununcula; if of argent, jessamine; if gules, the rose; if azure, 
pirvincle; if sable, ducal; if vert, five leave grass; if purpure, 
bugloss; if tenny, puppie; and if sanguine, the stock-jelly-flower. 
If they are of any other color besides these and the furs, they 
are then to be blazoned cinquefoils. The French call them 
quint efeuilles, and the English cinquefoils of whatever tincture 
they may be, and are represented pierced or voided in the centre, 
to distinguish them from those that have specific names. 

Menestrier says in his "Rose of Arms" that cinquefoils were 
anciently used by those who went to war, as distinguishing 
badges, because it was latined vinca pervinca, which name seems 
to be likely, having some resemblance to victory. 

Cinquefoils are frequent in England and Scotland in the 
arms of ancient and honorable families, as those borne by the 
name of Fransev, azure, three cinquefoils argent, which are or- 
dinarily called in England fraser, or fraisiers— that is straw- 
berry flowers, and so refer to the name of Fraser. 

The progenitor of the name was Pierre, a Frenchman, who 
went to Scotland in the reign of King Achaius when the famous 
league was made with France. He and his posterity became 
thanes of the Isle of Man, and afterwards settled in Tweeddale, 
and when surnames came into use they took the name of Fraser. 

The male representative of the Frasers of Oliver Castle in 
Tweeddale is said to have gotten great possessions in the north 
of Scotland, which he and his successors enjoyed under the title 
of Lord Fraser, whose armorial bearings were, azure, five frases 
or cinquefoils placed in saltier argent; for many years, though, 
these arms have been: azure, three cinquefoils, two and one, 


The noble family of Hamilton has for its arms: gules, three 
cinquefoils ermine; and it derives descent from the old earls of 
Leicester, in England, and Mellant, in Normandy, who carried 
gules, a cinquefoil ermine, the paternal arms of Millant. 

James, the fourth Lord Hamilton, and second earl of Arran, 
after the death of King James V., was declared governor of 
Scotland and tutor to the infant Queen Mary. He was a long 
time governor after Queen Mary went into France. The collar 
of the Order of St. Michael was placed round his quartered 
arms, being those of Hamilton and Arran, which are to be 
seen in the monumental books of blazon and other paintings. 
Those bearing the surname of Livingston give for their arm- 
orial figures, argent three cinquefoils gules, pierced in the field, 
so carried by Livingston of that ilk in the shire of Lothian, 
and the same within a double tressure, flowered and counter- 
flowered with fleur-de-lis vert, of old by Livingston of Wemyss, 
in Fife. 

The first of the Livingstone name is said to have been one 
of the gentlemen who accompanied Queen Margaret, wife to 
King Malcom Canmore from Hungary to Scotland, and got 
some lands called, either from his own name, or that of his 
successors Livingius, who, by the records of the abbacy, of 
Holyroodshire, possessed lands in West Lothian in the reign of 
King David I. which he called Livingston from his own name. 

One principal family of the name, are the Livingstons of Cal- 
endar, the first of which was Sir William Livingston, who got 
that barony by marrying the daughter of Patrick Callender, 
who was forfeited for being of the Baliol's interest; so that the 
family of Callendar has been since used to quarter the arms 
of Callendar with their own. Of this line is lineally descended 
James, earl of Linlithgow and Callendar, who carried, quart- 
erly, first and fourth, Livingston, argent, three cinquefoils, 
gules, within a double tressure, flowered and counterflowered 
with a fleur-de-lis vert; second and third sable, a bend between 
six billets or, for Callendar ; over all, in the centre, an escutcheon 
azure, a tree growing out of the base or ; within a bordure argent, 
charged with eight cinquefoils gules, for the title of Linlithgow ; 
and a demi savage proper, holding a baton or club, erected in 
his right hand, and about his left arm a surtout twisted vert; 


supporters, two savages proper, wreathed about the head and 
middle, holding batons over their shoulders. 

The first of the family of Earl Callendar was James, second 
son of the first Earl Linlithgow who purchased honoi and riches 
in the wars abroad; and, after his return home he was, by King 
Charles L, created Lord Almond, in 1633 ; and after, in the year 
1641, was honored with the dignity of earl of Callendar; he 
carried Callendar and Livingston, quarterly, with a crescent in 
the centre, for difference ; crest, a dexter hand holding a sword 
proper; supporters, two lions gules. 

The Viscount of Kilsyth was the first cadet of the family of 
Livingston of Callendar, being a son of John Livingston, of 
Callender, and his second wife, Agnes, daughter of Sir James 
Douglass of Dalkeith, and a half brother to Sir Alexander Liv- 
ingston the governor of Scotland in the minority of King James 
II. The family was honored in the person of Sir James Liv- 
ingston with the title of Viscount Kilsyth and Lord Campsie, 
17th Aug. 1662 ; they carry only the crest of Livingston and in 
place of cinquefoils, gillyflowers slipped for difference; as Sir 
George Mackenzie in his "Science of Heraldry,'' who says "hat 
the earl of Callendar used the gillyflowers eradicate. The ex- 
terior ornaments of the viscount of Kilsyth's arms are, for 
supporters, two lions rampant gules; crest, a demi savage 
wreathed about the head and middle with a laurel, all proper. 

Livingston, of Kinnaird, who was the first of this family 
descended from Livingston of West Quarter, was a younger son 
of John Livingston, of Callendar, and his wife, a daughter of 
Monteith of Carse, father and mother of Sir Alexander Livings- 
ton, governor to King James II. The family carried arms, 
argent on a bend between three gillyflowers gules, an anchor of 
the first, all within a double tressure, flowered and connter- 
flowered vert; crest a Moor's head couped proper, banded gules 
and argent, with pendles argent at his ears, supported en the 
dexter by a savage proper, wreathed about die head and middle 
vert, and on the sinister by a horse argent furnished gules. 

The surname of Borthwick carries arms, argent three cinque- 
foils sable. The chief of this naroe was Lord Borthwick who 
carried the same, supported by angels proper, winged or; and 
for crest, a savage's head couped proper. The first of this fam- 



ily and name is said to be one of those gentlemen who attended 
Queen Margaret from Hungary to Scotland. 

The family of Pierrepont had its rise from Robert Pierpont, 
who came to England with William the Conqueror, of which 
family was George Pierepont, who was knighted by King Ed- 
ward VI., of England. His grandchild, Robert Pierrepont, was, 
by King Charles L, in the year 1627, for his unshaken loyality, 
created Lord Pierepont and Viscount of Newark, but was killed 
fighting for the king. His eldest son, Henry Pierrepont, for his 
own and for his father's good services, was created Marquis of 
Dorchester. The proper arms of the family of Pierepont are 
argent seme of cinquefoils gules, a lion rampant sable; some 
make the number of cinquefoils eight. 

D'Arcy, earl of Holdemer, for their paternal arms, carry 
azure seme of cross crosslets and three cinquefoils argent. This 
ancient and honorable family is originally descended from Nor- 
man d'Arcy, who came over to England with William the Con- 
queror, by whose immediate gift, the Norman enjoyed no less 
than thirty-three lordships in Lincolnshire. 

Quatrefoils, or caterfoils, are flowers of four leaves, but 
are not met with so frequently in arms as the cinquefoils. The 
name of White in Scotland, carries arms, argent, a martlet 
sable between three quatrefoils of the first. John Whylt, of 
Benochy, carried argent a martlet displayed between three 
quatrefoils sable, on a chief of the second as many quatrefoils 
of the first. There are many families in England who cany 
quatrefoils ; of these, the name of Piatt carries arms, vert, three 
quatrefoils argent, each charged with a lion's head erased sable. 


Trefoils, flowers or herbs of three leaves, are more frequent 
in armor than the quatrefoil, and are often represented with 
stalks for which in blazon they are said to be slipped which rep- 


resent the choir-grass, the emblem of fertility. "With such the 
Romans adorned the arms and chaplets of the victorious called 
corona graminia. 

Bothwell, Lord Holyroodhouse, carried arms, azure on a chev- 
ron between three trefoils slipped or, a crescent gules, supported 
on the dexter side by a spaniel dog, collared gules and or, the 
sinister by a goshawk proper fessed, beaked and bulled or; 
crest, a naked boy pulling down the top of a green pine tree. 

Bothwell, of Ford, carried the same arms without the cres- 
cent and exterior ornaments, which may be seen illuminated in 
the House of Falehall. Sir Richard Bothwell, provost of Edin- 
burgh in the reign of Queen Mary, and Adam Bothwell, bishop 
of Orkney and commendator of Holyroodhouse, granted a char- 
ter of the date of 17th July, 1572, to which was appended the 
bishop's seal, which had the aforesaid arms, without a crescent 
and exterior ornaments. 

The name of Gilbert carried arms, argent on a chevron azure 
between three trefoils vert, as many fleur-de-lis or. 

Leaves of Trees, Plants and Herbs 

These are used in arms not only on account of their natural 
and symbolic qualities but as relative to the names of their 

Those of the name of Foulis bear argent three leaves vert. 
The name is from the French word foulle, which signifies leaves, 
whence those of the name are said to be of French extraction 
and to have been long in Scotland. The arms of the principal 
family of the name, are, argent three bay leaves, slipped, vert ; 
crest, a dexter hand couped, holding a sword in pale, support- 
ing a laurel all proper; motto, Mente manuque presti. 

Hollin or Holly Leaves are a kind of laurel, so called for 
the reason that, with such evergreens, temples, altars and holy 
places were wont to be adorned. 

Alexander Irvins, of Drum, had arms, argent, three small 
sheafs, or bundles of holly, three and one, vert, each consisting 
of as many leaves slipped of the last, banded gules ; crest a sheaf 
of arrows ; supporters, two savages wreathed about the head and 
middle with holly, each carrying in their hands a baton, all 


Sir George Mackenzie, in his ''Science of Heraldry" says 
that King Robert Bruce, had for his badge and device three 
such leaves, with the motto, Sub soli, sub umbra vericus, which 
was afterward designed of Drum, his armor-bearer, one of 
the progenitors of the Irvins of Drum, an ancient and principal 

Baronet Leaves, so called, are carried by the name of Burnet, 
as relative to the name, which is ancient in England. Thomas 
Burnet, of Innerlath, descended from Leys, had arms argent, 
three holly leaves in chief, and a hunting horn in base, sable, 
garnished, gules, within a bordure indented of the second, and 
a crescent for difference; crest, a holly branch proper; motto, 
Virtute cresco. 

Artificial Figures in Armories 

The Sword, the badge of authority and mark for a military 
man as such, is frequent in arms to perpetrate some military 
exploit done or to be done; its position, with the hilt and pom- 
mel, if of different tinctures, are to be noticed in blazon. 

H'alliday of Tillybole, had arms, argent, a sword paleways, 
the pommel within a crescent in base, gules, and a canton azure, 
charged with a St. Andrews cross of the first, and a boar's head 
couped argent armed or; motto, Virtute parta. 

The ancient family of Paulet, in England, carried sable three 
swords, their points conjoined in base argent, hilted, or. 

The name of Norton in England had arms, azure, three 
swords, one in pale, with the point upwards surmounted of the 
other two placed saltierways with the points downwards argent. 

Crooked Swords are frequently borne, such as shabbies and 
cutlasses, which the French call badelaires. The crumpet of a 
sword, called bouterall by the French, is to be found in the arms 
of the town of Sebach in the county of Touraine— arms, three 
bouteralls gules. 

Battle Axes and Halberts are carried in armorial figures by 
several families in England. David Soshach of Manovaird, or 
of that ilk, whose predecessor is said to have descended from 
the great Macduff, in the reign of Malcom Canmore, carried, 


gules, two pole-axes in pale argent, over all a fesse cheque of 
the second, and azure; crest, a sinister hand issuing out of the 
wreath, and thereon a falcon rising, all proper. 

The name of Dennis carries arms, argent three battle-axes 
sable, with a bordure gules. 

Walter Rankin of Orchardhead, had amis, gules three boars' 
heads erased argent, two and one, between a lance issuing out of 
the dexter base, and a Lochaber-axe issuing out of the sinister, 
both erect in pale, of the second; crest, a lance issuing out of 
the torce. 

A Gauntlet, the armor of the hand, is frequent in heraldry. 
The name of Kein carries argent, a gauntlet glove azure, on a 
chief gules a mullet or. 

Crawford says that Kein of Hithelory carried arms, gules a 
gauntlet in fesse or, and, on a chief argent three stars of the 
first. When the arms are wholly covered with armor then is 
said to be rambraced, as by those of the name of Armstrong, in 
England, viz., gules three dexter arms rambraced proper. 
When the legs are covered with armor they are said to be only 
armed, as in the armorial ensign of the Isle of Man. 

Spurs, with the Romans indicated the badge of knighthood 
proper to their equities aurati, as the golden spurs to the Ger- 
man knights, and the same to the knights of the spur, in Eng- 
land, and it is stated that a family of the name of Knight, in 
Shrewsbury carried argent three pallets gules within a bordure 
engrailed azure, and a dexter canton of the second, charged with 
a spur and its leather, or; and that the same design is carried 
by other families of the name of Knight in England. 

The rowels of spurs are more frequently borne than the whole 
spur, called mallets or mullets, from the French, molettes d' sperm, 
the rowel of a spur. They have ordinarily six points, and are 
pierced in the middle, by which they are distinguished from 
stars. The English do not sharply distinguish in their blazon 
mallets or mullets, whether they represent spur rowel or a star ; 
and distinguish them not by the number of their points, but 
sometimes they add the word pierced to a mullet to represent a 
spur rowel ; though since mullet signifies nothing else, the term 
pierced seems superfluous. Old blazons call the spur rials, or 


revels, to distinguish them from the stars, but our moderns have 
followed the English, calling these stars both mallets or mul- 
lets, without distinction; so that it is hard to know when they 
represent the one or the other except they add the word pierced, 
which is often omitted in their blazons and paintings. 

Sir John Jurdin, of Applegate, Baronet, carried argent a sal- 
tier and chief gules on the last, these spur rowels of six points of 
the first, which arms are supported on the right side by a horse 
at liberty argent ; and in the left a man completely armed cap-a- 
pie proper; crest, a spur rowel of six points on the former, with 
the motto, Cave adsum. 

The name of Burn carries arms, or, two spur rowels and a 
hunting horn in base. 

The Episcopal See of Bangor, in England, carries arms, gules 
on a bend argent, gutte, sable, between two mullets pierced of 
the second. There are many other noble families of England 
who carry these devices on their arms. 

Buckles or Clasps, in arms, are called by the English some- 
times fermachs, from the French, fermeons, buckles. Buckles, 
clasps and rings are said by heralds to represent power and 
authority in the bearers, as also an acknowledgment of a de- 
pendence of sovereign powers, for such things were of old ordi- 
nary gifts of superiors, as badges of fidelity and firmness. Mor- 
gan says in his "Heraldry" that these arming buckles were 
added as a sign of power and authority to the bordures of the 
Stewarts, earls of Darnby and Lennox. 

The name of Sterling has always carried in their anus, buck- 
les, variously situate, three, two, one, at other times in chief or, 
on a chief, in ancient bearings, but more frequently on a bend, 
as now used. Sir James Balfour, in his "Blazons," says: "in 
the year 1292, Sir William Stirling carried arms, parted per 
fesse, sable and or, three buckles of the last on the first, which 
Sir George Mackenzie in his MSS., ascribes to Sterling of Glen- 
esk, viz.: arms or, on a chief sable three buckles of the first. 
The family of Sterling of Glenesk failed in an heir female who 
was married to Sir Alexander Lindsay. 

Sterling of Keir has always been reckoned the principal fam- 
ily of the name, and thought to be descended from the first Wal- 


ter de Strivelin, witness in Prince Henry's charter. Of old, he 
carried arms, argent on a bend sable three buckles or. Some 
authorities have made the bend vert, and others azure, but the 
bend sable is the most frequently to be met with, as on the House 
of Falahall, where the arms of many of the barons of Scotland 
were illuminated in the year 1614. Amongst them are those of 
Sterling of Kier, who carried arms, argent on a bend ingrailed 
sable three buckles or. 

Sir John Sterling, of Gloral, Baronet, carried arms, argent, 
a bend engrailed azure, charged with three buckles or, on a 
chief gules a naked arm issuing out of a cloud from the sinister 
side, grasping a sword in pale, and therewith guarding an im- 
perial crown, placed in the dexter chief point proper, all within 
a double tressure counterflowered with thistles vert. Crest, a 
lion passant gules. 

The ancient name of Bunkle carried buckles relative to the 
name. Sir James Balfour says, in the year 1222, Bunkle, car- 
ried arms, sable three buckles or. The principle family of the 
name was Bunkle, of that ilk ; and the shire of Browne had arms, 
argent on a bend sable three buckles or. 

These arms have been displayed and are perpetuated by many 
noble families, especially those of Stewart, on account of their 
maternal descent. Sir John Stewart, second son of Alexander, 
lord high steward of Scotland, and full brother to James, lord 
high Steward, married Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir 
Alexander Bunkle, of that ilk, about the year 1204, who, in his 
right became possessor of many lands, and especially those of 
Bunkle, in the Merse, after which he was designed Sir John 
Stewart of Bunkle; as also he composed the armorial bearings 
with them, viz. : arms, or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, sur- 
mounted by a bend sable, charged with three buckles or; for 
which their issue carried buckles as the Stewarts, earls of 
Argus, and the Douglasses, as descendants of them, and others 
descended of Stewart of Bunkle, placed the buckles upon their 

Sir James Lumsden, of Inergilly, was Major General to Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, in whose wars he was famous 
for the taking of Frankfort on the Order. The family of Robert 


Lumsden of Inergilly, carried arms, azure, a chevron or, be- 
tween a wolf's head couped, and a buckle in chief, and an escal- 
lop in base argent; crest, an earn devouring a salmon proper. 

The Heads of Speaes, arrows and darts, are frequent in arms 
and in blazons. The heads of darts are called pheons, and ordi- 
narily, by the French fer de dart, and are sometimes said to be 
barbed, when hooked with teeth. The name of Stewart carries 
arms, argent, a chevron between three pheons sable. The name 
of Moodie carries a chevron ermine between three pheons ar- 
gent. In England the pheon is frequently borne as by the noble 
family of Sydney, earl of Leicester, viz. : or, a pheon azure. 

Military Instruments, ancient and modern, such as bows, 
arrows, darts, etc., have been, and are frequent arms, to show 
some singular event, or as relative to the name of the bearer. 
Bower, of Kennettle, had arms, vert, two bows, in full bend 
paleways proper, stringed argent, between three sheaves of 
arrows, two in chief and one in base of the second. The name 
of Littlejohn carries, argent, three arrows, gules, the middle- 
ment paleways, the other two saltierways, with three points 
downward, feathered or, accompanied with six trefoils slipped 
of the second, two in chief and two in fesse and two in base. 

Caltraps, by some called chevaltraps, by the French, chausse- 
traps, are an instrument of iron, used in war to gall and wound 
horses' feet. It consisted of four pricks placed after such fash- 
ion, as which way it was to lie on the ground one point would 
always stick up ; they are to be seen on the compartment of the 
achievements of the earls of Perth; the Latins call them, murices. 

Battery Rams, are to be found in the arms of the earl of Lind- 
say, as their paternal figures, viz: argent three battery rams 
proper, armed and garnished azure. 

Banners, ensigns, standards, pennons, etc. These armorials or 
charges are contained within the shield. The name of Banner- 
man carried anciently, for all armorial figure a banner displayed 
as relative to the name; which was from their offices, they being 
hereditaiy banner-bearers of old, to the kings in the reign of 
Malcolm IV. or William, the Lion. 

Balfour, in his "Manuscripts of Blazons," says that Banner- 
man of Elseke, in the shire of Kincardine, carried arms, or, on a 


fesse, between three bears' heads eouped, azure, as many mascles 
of the first. And Bart, in his "Manuscripts" says "Bannerman, 
of Watertown, anno 1590, carried arms, azure on a fesse or, be- 
tween three bears' heads, eouped of the last, a mascle gules, 
which anus alter somewhat from those of the Forbesses. ' ' 

The Gonfanon, is carried as an armorial figure, or common 
charge, by many families for the reason that they had been gon- 
foliers, that is, standard bearers to the church, on the counts of 
Auvergne, in France, who carried arms, or, a gonfanon gules, 
fringed vert. 

Musical Instruments used in war, such as trumpets, drums, 
etc., are to be found in anus, as explained by Guillim. There is 
a figure carried in the arms of Granville, earl of Bath, viz : gules, 
three clarions or. Some take this to represent musical instru- 
ments. In times of tournaments and joustings knights came 
with their clarions. 

Water Budget, or bucket,, used in armroies by the English, 
is also to be seen in the bearings of some families of Scotland. 
The English disagree about the nature and use. Some take the 
water budget to represent aquafolia, a water plant, but others 
take it for a vessel made of leather filled with wind to help men 
to swim over rivers; they are used also to represent scrips of re- 
ligious votaries. Another theory is that heralds, in England 
take water budgets for vessels of leather which soldiers used for 
carrying water or other liquors in long marches, where liquors 
were scarce. 

The surname of Ross, in England carried arms, or, three wat- 
er budgets sable. The first of that name, says Dugdale in his 
"Baronage," was one Peter, in the reign of Henry I., who took 
his name from the place of his residence called Ross, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire; whose great grandfather was Robert Ross, 
Lord Hamlock of Scotland. Members of this family were prom- 
inent in the reigns of Alexander I. and II. 

Castles and Towers and their uses are defined by Guiliim, 
who says that the architecture of a castle must extend itself over 
all the field, that is from one side of the shield to the other ; but the 
building of a tower is not so extended ; so that the field appears 
on every side. This distinction does not hold in the practice of 


any nation, nor with that of the English. Sylvester Petra San- 
ita says that castles have triple towers above the embattlement 
and a tower has but one above the embattlement. 

Many castles and towers are and may be carried in one shield, 
situated according to the position of the ordinaries, as in fesse, 
in bend, in pale, etc., from which situation on other figures they 
have their blazons. 

Castles, towers and other buildings have one peculiar attribute 
in blazon, which is whatever tincture they be of, if the sediment 
of the building be of another color from the stones represented 
by lines or tracts, then the buildings being argent, are said to be 
masoned of such a tincture, as sable, which the Latins called 
lapidum junctura, or lapidum commissura. When the windows 
and ports of castles and other buildings are of different tincture 
from the field and building, the windows and ports are supposed 
to be shut, and must be so expressed in the blazon ; if the win- 
dows and ports are of the tincture of the field, so that the field 
is seen through them, then they are supposed to be open, which 
is to be so expressed in the blazon, and for which the French say 
ajoure, as other figures that are voided of the field. When the 
port is after the form of a portcullis it is so named in the blazon, 
and by the French coulisse; and the Latins call the portcullis 
pacta calaracta. 

The kingdom of Castile in Spain as relative to the name, car- 
ries gules, a castle triple towered or, masoned, sable, windows 
and ports shut, azure; in that kingdom there are many noble 
families that carry castles in imitation of the sovereign ensign. 

(To be Continued.) 

Vol. 4 MAY, 1909 No. 3 




A History of Slavery. I. By Mrs. C. F. McLean . . 237 
The Wick House and Its Historical Environment. By 

Andrew M. Sherman 251 

The Leddell House, Morris County, New Jersey . . 261 
The Manors of Westchester County, N. Y. By Walter W. 

Spooner 262 

George Washington as a Real Estate Agent. By Griffith 

Morris 272 

Rise of the United Empire Loyalists. By The Viscount de 

Fronsac 275 

Indian Legends of Belle Isle and Bois Blanc. By Elizabeth 

L. Stocking 290 

The Founder of a Famous Pennsylvania Family . . 295 
Book of Bruce. Chapter XVI. Arms of the Braces and Col- 
lateral Families. Chapter XVII. Braces in America. 

By Lyman Horace Weeks 301 

In the Land of the Deerslayer. By Delia Thompson Lutes 312 
Origin and Antiquity of Heraldry. By Henry Whittemore 316 
Some Political Letters of the Reconstruction Days Succeed- 
ing the Civil War. Contributed by Duane Mowry . 331 
A Moravian Mission to the Western Indians. By T. J. 

Chapman 337 

Announcement 346 

The American Historical Magazine is issued on the first 
day each of January, March, May, July, September, and Novem- 
ber, at Three Dollars per annum. Subscribers failing to receive 
their copies by the first day of the succeeding month should im- 
mediately notify the publishers ; otherwise it may not be possible 
to supply the missing number. 

The contents of each number are protected by copyright 
Permission to reprint any article or illustration must be spe- 
cially obtained from the publishers. 

Entered as second class matter February 13, 1906, at the 
Post Office at New York under the Act of Congress of March 
3, 1879. 

The Americana Society, 
154 East Twenty-Third Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

Copyright, 1909, by 
The Americana Society 

All rights reserved, 


Erva^hy CBHoJlMT 


American Historical Magazine 

VOL. 4 MAY, 1909 NO. 3 



Slavery in Ancient Egypt 

WHEN, beyond the twilight of history, in the begin- 
nings of the human race, in the stone age or in 
that time of which no record even in stone re- 
mains, two savage men were contending for ex- 
istence and the conqueror spared the life of his vanquished 
enemy, then began the awakening of those instincts which prove 
that man differed from the wild beasts. "It was an 
advance for the race that a man spared his enemy, 
although the conquered combatant became the slave of his 
foe, a slave so abject that his life was prolonged only so long as 
the savage instinct of slaughter in his captor was in subjection 
to an awakened sense of calculation. In sparing his enemy, in- 
stead of killing him and literally drinking his blood and muti- 
lating his body, savage man first began to think, to calculate. The 
desire to have some one with him, in the chase of the more savage 
beast, on whose slaughter his food and covering depended, and 
to carry for him the burden of the successful chase to where he 
dwelt in cave or jungle, was only a step perhaps, but certainly a 
step toward the time when selfishness, enlightened a little by cal- 
culation, took the place of the primal passion of destruction. 
Then if this cringing slave turned on his captor or attempted 



to escape to desert or jungle, the man who had first thought to 
use his enemy, instead of slaying him, had rekindled in him the 
savage instincts of slaughter and killed his captive. If later on 
deprived of his services and his companionship, he began to re- 
gret the killing, to wish he had again spared the creature like 
unto himself, whom he had at last slain, still another step in 
the awakening of the man above the beast was taken, and the 
more of thought, of selfish calculation grew within him. 

In the history of the most ancient races, especially of those 
who reached their civilization in the valley of the Euphrates, the 
records hewn on rock, pictured on buried and crumbled palace 
walls, or engraved on cylinder and brick something of this de- 
velopment of man in tribe or race is clearly indicated. Repre- 
sentations of executing prisoners taken in battle precede the 
more extended illustrations of the return of the conquering hosts 
to their camp or city, and the train of disarmed and bound cap- 
tives proves that the prisoners then taken in battle were no long- 
er slain but became slaves to their conquerors. 

First definite history belongs to the Egyptians. Their monu- 
ments yet remaining, the interwoven relations of their great per- 
sonages with those of the Old Testament, their connection with 
the ancient peoples of Asia, with the Greeks and Romans and 
therefore with the races that came to inhabit the countries of 
modern Europe, all contribute to make every fact proved by the 
Egyptologists of paramount importance and interest. 

Not only in its general aspects, but also in its restricted divi- 
sions, history is an endless chain. Not only for the nations of 
the present day, but for those of the distant centuries can be 
proclaimed in insistant tones the solidarity of the human race. 
We find that those conditions which made slavery more or less 
revolting and modified the lot of the individual slave were es- 
sentially the same in Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Media, Persia, 
Greece and Rome as they have been in modern times. 

Exactly when slaves were first held in Egypt and distinctly 
designated as such cannot be definitely stated. In the beginnings 
of her recorded history, when the varied industries of a more 
civilized state had not been greatly developed, and the principal 
occupation was agriculture, there is remaining, of that time, a 


piece of literature which bewails the hard lot of the agricultural 
laborer, who was obliged to work for others than the king who 
owned the soil, and also of the lot of the "fellahin," or peasants 
who cultivated holdings of the land which belonged to the king. 

Of the peasant it is written that often his crops were near- 
ly destroyed by the locusts, and then the tax gatherer, the agent 
of the king, would come to claim the remainder. His greatest 
hardship was to be summoned for forced labor on the public 
works, and often when he had there served out his time, he 
would return to find his poor abode in ashes and his family lost 
to him. 

The lot of the one who labored for other owners of land than 
the king, is depicted as hardly less severe except that it is con- 
ceded that he was not forced to labor on the public works. Con- 
temporary with these accounts of the misfortunes of these two 
classes who labored to enrich others, are given the representa- 
tions of the life of ease and comfort of the owners of large es- 
tates. A little later in the history of these earliest centuries, it is 
recorded that these land-owners cultivated their extensive hold- 
ings by " large numbers of hired laborers or slaves." The great- 
est hardships pertaining to a condition of slavery even in those 
early ages, were endured by the poorest classes of the Egyptians 
themselves. The erection of the great pyramid required the la- 
bor of a hundred thousand men during thirty years. It is con- 
ceded that this colossal monument represents the work of the poor- 
est classes of the Egyptian themselves, although contemporary 
with that reading is that of the presence of slaves on large es- 

Before there were great wars between the Egyptians and 
their neighbors there was a traffic with them in human beings 
who became slaves of the Egyptians. Whether these were sold 
by their parents or in what other ways acquired, is not stated by 

After giving the account of the sorrows of the veiy poor in the 
early centuries of Egyptian history referred to, other very differ- 
ent pictures of the condition of the people are drawn. Doubtless 
these more cheerful accounts refer particularly to a later era, 
when advancing civilization brought some better conditions for 


even the poorest classes; or there may have existed then, as we 
can find even now, the greatest comforts and enjoyments for a 
portion of the population, and in connection with them, condi- 
tions of the direst poverty. 
Rawlinson says: 

"Up to the time of the building of the pyramids, (after the 
first) there was no great employment of slaves in Egypt: wars 
were of rare occurrence and when they took place not many 
prisoners would be made, for the tribes on the Egyptian borders 
were then none of them numerous, and the few slaves who were 
occasionally bought passed commonly into domestic service. The 
result was that both the cultivation of the soil and most of the 
other industrial pursuits were in the hands of the native Egyp- 
tians and furnished them with an ample variety of not disagree- 
able careers." 

In this earliest pictorial history of the Egyptians, the laborers 
are represented as doing their tasks with smiling faces, and 
there is no taskmaster with uplifted stick urging on unwilling 
workers. Under later dynasties, and after the advent of wars of 
conquest, this picture is greatly changed. 

It must be recalled that the Egyptians were not an African, 
but an Asiatic people, emigrants from their own territory, which 
they entered from the East; and they were nearly allied to sev- 
eral important races of southwestern Asia, as the Canaanites, 
the Accadians, or primitive Babylonians and the Southern, or 
Himarytic Arabs. The near neighbors of the ancient Egyp- 
tians, the Libyians, came originally from northern Europe, and 
crossed into Africa by way of Spain and Italy. Later they min- 
gled with the people of the country they overcame, and became 
darker in complexion ; originally they were very fair. Toward the 
south, Egypt had as neighbors Nahse or Nahdsu, real negroes, 
now known as Nubians. Doubtless from these turbulent but ill- 
organized tribes, incapable of coalescing, came a great number 
of slaves in the most ancient centuries of the Egyptian monarch- 
ies. Then farther to the south were those known to the Egyp- 
tians as the Kise or Kush, and to the Greeks and Romans as 
Ethiopians, often referred to as their slaves. These were not of 
negro blood, but must be regarded as Caucasian, ethnically con- 


nected with the Canaanites, Southern Arabians, primitive Baby- 
lonians, and with the Egyptians themselves. These Ethiopians 
were war-like, of great strength and unusual height. In the days 
of their power and luxury, the Greeks and Romans greatly pre- 
ferred these Ethiopians for runners and outriders. 

It is therefore conceded that not until there were wars of con- 
quest, with the surrounding tribes or peoples, were there slaves 
in Egypt in great numbers. During those periods in spite of 
wars, or better stated, in the intervening periods of peace, Egypt 
advanced to that knowledge of agriculture, to all the arts of 
representation, and to the art of living, which yet dazzle the 
mind in contemplation. Xot only those stupendous monuments 
which defy the destroying power of time itself, but the remains 
of their manufactures, and the other authentic records of their 
achievements in the arts and sciences, make us seriously ques- 
tion if, in great degree, modern civilization is in advance of that 
of the ancient inhabitants of the great valley of the Nile. 

Not only through wars of conquest, but also by peaceful ad- 
vances the Egyptians extended their civilization and influence in- 
to neighboring territory. Very early in their history it is record- 
ed that commercial intercourse was established with the Nubians, 
"who furnished cattle, gold, and slaves." Under the later dynas- 
ties of the Pharoahs and verging on the era of decline in their 
power, if not of their civilization, it is written of at least one 
reigning monarch, that he was not satisfied with the number of 
slaves he acquired by war, but even in times of peace there were 
regular manhunts after slaves from the negro tribes on the ex- 
tended Egyptian borders. . 

However, although the negro tribes furnished many of -the 
slaves of ancient Egypt, the color of the skin, the thickness of the 
lips, the formation of the skull, had nothing whatever to do with 
the enslavement of the individual, nor did the barbarous or civil- 
ized condition of the tribes or peoples modify their servitude. In 
the centuries when Egypt engaged in war with those ancient 
nations whose beginnings and recorded history belong to the 
valley of the Euphrates, those other early civilized people of As- 
syria, Media, Babylonia and Persia, there were in Egypt many 
slaves with more Caucasian features and complexion than the 


Egyptians themselves. Then again, when during several centur- 
ies, Egypt was governed by the Hyxsos or Shepherd kings, the 
monuments, the statuary recording their reigns prove that the 
monarchs of that dynasty were of a darker race, with thicker lips 
than the Egyptians ; they were from that country where the first 
invading races from northern Europe mingled with the tribes 
they found in Ethiopia, and then became a people darker than 
the Egyptians themselves. 

Nor does it appear that anywhere in the ancient world the ques- 
tion of superiority or of inferiority, any of the essential differing 
characteristics of the individual or of the race, in any way en- 
tered into the consideration of the freedom or enslavement of in- 
dividuals or of people. The fortune of war made the conquered 
slaves, the character of the ruling sovereign, the religious be- 
lief and the more or less civilized character of the conquerors 
modified their treatment, and the economic conditions of the 
country decided the scale of their labors and their relative misery 
or comfort. 

In no country of ancient times could a prisoner of war be ran- 
somed, much less exchanged. Some historians of Egypt claim 
that, in the case of important prisoners, especially if they had 
been in rebellion, the king ordered their execution, but Rawlin- 
son claims that the Egyptians were too just to be guilty of such 
inhumanity; that the sculptured walls telling of the events after 
a battle, and whereon are represented the captives kneeling one 
at a time before the king, while an Egyptian warrior holds 
above each head a sword or mace as though ready to strike a 
deadly blow, are allegorical. They form part of the eulogy of 
the conquering king and represented his power, but also his gen- 
erosity in sparing the lives of those whom the fortune of war had 
made his abject slaves. It is, however conceded, that the Egyp- 
tian warriors carried to the king the head or the hand of the 
enemy they had slain in battle, not only in order that the slaugh- 
tered foe be counted, but also that the conqueror claim the re- 
ward of his valor. Sometimes also the king rewarded individ- 
ual captors with the gift of their prisoners, who then passed 
into private ownership. The following picture of a victorious 
Egyptian king returning from battle is given by Rawlinson: 


"In his triumphal procession an Egyptian Pharoah held the 
cord that united the manacled captives, or this cord was attached 
to his car. When the king repaired to the temple to give thanks 
for his victory, to offer up the choicest parts of the spoil, vases, 
incense, bags of money, jars of ointment and the like, at the 
same time he made a presentation of a large number of Ms 
captives, who were added to the sacred slaves previously pos- 
sessed by the temple. ' ' 

From all the inferences that can be made as to the duties that 
would be performed by slaves at the temple or in the employ of 
priests outside the temple itself, it is pretty certain that the lot 
of these captives, henceforth slaves of the priests of the temple, 
was the least to be dreaded of all the possibilities that defeat in 
battle placed in store for them. 

After the first wars had greatly extended the boundaries of 
Egypt, it is claimed that the slaves formed a large part of the 
population ; a few historians give the number as great as a third. 

The most warlike kings were also the great builders. If not 
directly said in these records of the monarchs of Egypt, it is at 
least inferred by the Egyptologists that one of the impelling 
reasons of the prosecution of the wars of conquest was the desire 
of these rulers to secure more slaves, in order that they might 
thus be able to realize their ambitions to surpass their predeces- 
sors in erecting pyramids, temples, palaces and other monuments 
and in completing other great public works. Not only did these 
kings extend the irrigation system of the Nile by basins and 
canals, but for that extension they also erected great retaining 
walls on the banks, whereon have been placed the imperishable 
records of their achievements. Of them it is written that they 
sometimes took thousands of prisoners of war at one time. 

The periods which best illustrate the work of the slaves, their 
treatment and their connection with the industries of the country 
are those centuries when Egypt was either approaching, or had 
achieved her highest civilization. Through the records of the 
myriad dynasties and the involved chronology of its kings, their 
personal character, their achievements in war and in peace, the 
erection of those monuments and the completion of those other 
public works which yet excite the wonder of the world, their 


achievements in manufactures and other arts than architecture, 
there is to be gathered more by analysis and constructive imag- 
ination, than by recorded facts, a conception of the daily life of 
the people. 

It has been proved that the tenure of land in ancient Egypt 
developed along the same lines as in other ancient nations, as 
well as in those countries which now comprise modern Europe. 
From a recognition of the ownership of the land of the country 
by the tribe itself, grew gradually the vesting of that right in 
the chief, and later in the king. After a time the king abrogated 
to himself the giving outright of a portion of the heritage of the 
entire people to those who had rendered conspicuous service to 
him. The obligations to the country represented by the king to 
make return for this gift in further contribution in wealth or 
fighting men, was in time minimized until the descendents of 
those to whom had been given a portion of the national domain, 
possessed it with little or no recognition of any claim of the 

In later centuries, when the history of succeeding dy- 
nasties became more definite and complete, we distinctly learn 
that the owners of .the soil in Egypt were the kings, the priestly 
communities and the aristocracy. Of the third class of owners 
it is recorded that their lands were cultivated principally by 
slave labor. At the same time the kings let the lands they re- 
served for personal ownership in small holdings to the fellahin 
or peasants ; and as it is recorded that the kings, after their re- 
turn from wars brought to the temples with other gifts, a train 
of slaves, the lands belonging to the priestly communities were 
also cultivated by slave labor. It is not stated that the fellahin 
held slaves to aid in the cultivation of their holdings, but from 
what can be learned of the exactions of the royal tax-gatherers, 
it is more reasonable to infer that their condition was less de- 
sirable than that of the slaves on the estates of the territorial 

It is certain that at least one class of Egyptians themselves was 
held in less esteem than the slaves, and that was the despised 
swineherds. During centuries these were not permitted to mar- 


ry outside of their class, and were looked down upon by even the 
slaves themselves. 

The position of any one class in a community depends on that 
of every other. In ancient as well as in modern times the de- 
gree of the degradation of the slave class, the existence of the 
absence of the most revolting features of that institution depend 
greatly on the religious beliefs of the dominating classes, and, 
included in those religious beliefs the position of honor or of 
dishonor held by the women of the country. 

The religion of Egypt inculcated far higher morality and 
insisted on greater rectitude of personal conduct than any 
other religion of the most ancient world, of those centur- 
ies and of those peoples antedating the knowledge of the 
religion of the Hebrews, and of the contact of that race 
with other ancient races. Of course with the Egyptians, 
as with other peoples, they did not always live up to the 
religious beliefs they professed. We do know however, that the 
higher the standard of morality, the nearer is there an approach 
to it in practice. Also that in ancient, times, the power of the 
priestly class was decidedly greater over all other classes than 
has been the case in more modem times. We may therefore be 
assured, that if the religion of the Egyptians taught more jus- 
tice and leniency to those in their power, the slaves of ancient 
Egypt were less oppressed, especially when in domestic servi- 
tude, than they were in any of the ancient kingdoms of Asia, or 
in Greece or Rome. 

One prevading difference between the Egyptians and the other 
ancient races, and one bearing on the condition of slaves, was 
the higher position accorded to women. That juster considera- 
tion for woman, therefore, eliminated in Egypt some of the re- 
volting features of slavery as it existed in Asia and in Greece 
and Rome. All Egyptologists agree that one of the most authen- 
tic facts about the Egyptian people, one fully established through 
the many dynasties that governed that ancient kingdom, is that 
the position of woman was one of absolute equality with man 
before the law, and one of the largest personal liberty in all con- 
ditions of life. 

Tn every case where the king is represented in audience, 


save on the battle field, in all the occupations of daily life 
except in the hunt of wild beasts, the queen is represented at 
his side, and with a train of attending women as large as that of 
the men who wait upon the king. In all the scenes of daily life, 
women have an equal part with the men. They receive in their 
homes and they extend a welcome to both men and women ; they 
are seen wending their way in the market place, they are seated 
with th men even at the royal banquets, they take part in all 
the domestic ceremonies of the people; they hold a semi-religious 
office in the temples erected to the Egyptian gods ; they appear at 
the burial of the dead of kings and also at those more sacred 
memorial services periodically held at the tombs of the kings, 
and even of the common people. This position of woman thus so 
graphically told on sculptured wall and hierogliphic inscription 
gives us modems one particular surprise. The single place where 
she does not appear, and where we would certainly expect to find 
her, is the kitchen. In all the scenes depicting the preparations 
for a feast either in the palace of the king, or in one of his land- 
holding aristocrats, the cook— cap on head and holding cooking 
utensils in his hands— and the scullions, busy preparing the 
fish and the game and the vegetables, are all men. On the other 
hand, those bearing the branches and flowers to decorate the 
banquet hall, and garlands for the guests are invariably women. 
If the position of the slaves attached to the temples was prob- 
ably the least to be dreaded, there is no doubt that the greatest 
cruelties, the most exhausting and dangerous service, became 
the portion of those captives who were retained as the slaves of 
the king, and who thenceforth engaged on his public works. It 
is nowhere indicated that the Egyptians knew the use of the lever, 
the crane or those other mechanical devices which more than 
aught else differentiate modern from ancient civilization. The 
absence of those mechanical contrivances made the labors inci- 
dent to the erection of their monuments a stupendous undertak- 
ing, and a marvelous achievement. The pillars of the temples, 
the statuary illustrating and decorating them, the huge blocks of 
stone which formed the pyramids, were all taken from their 
quarries, and after their completion, were conveyed to distant 
points and put up in place by human strength alone. The roads 


over which they were transported were oiled, and those colossal 
pieces were drawn on sledges by human beings ; sometimes river 
transportation on huge barges, but rowed by human beings, les- 
sened a. little that vast labor ; by human strength alone were they 
erected to form their intended portion of temple, monument, pal- 
ace, or pyramid, or, as one single piece of greatness to become 
the obelisk. 

The heaviest part of the labor connected with all these public 
works in those centuries when successful wars supplied the 
Egyptian kings with their myriads of captives, was performed 
by the slaves of the king. The death toll exacted by such labors 
must have been large, especially when the great obelisks were put 
up, and the carved columns of the temples and palaces were set. 
in place. The pictures telling of these labors of the slaves always 
represent the overseer with whip in hand urging the workers on 
to renewed exertion in their already almost superhuman efforts. 
Sometimes the illustrations are even more indicative of hard- 
ships, when the toilers are chained in gangs. 

Another division of public works which caused enormous loss 
of life among the slaves was the construction of public roads, es- 
pecially those which reached across the surrounding deserts. 
These roads were not only to enable the king to extend his do- 
minions, but also they were new avenues of increasing trade, a 
trade so extensive, so all embracing, that it brought to Egypt 
besides the domestic animals of other countries, wild animals 
from distant regions, to be placed on the hunting preserves of 
the monarch and his favorite subjects. Up the Nile and over 
these roads came also the agricultural products and the manu- 
factured articles of the other civilized and semi-civilized countries 
of Asia and Africa, and even from those ancient nations of Eu- 
rope bordering the Mediteranean. 

The lot of slaves on the estates and in the city homes of the 
very rich could not have been of so great hardship as in the 
countries of Asia or even in Greece and Borne. The most revolt- 
ing features of domestic slavery as practiced in those countries, 
in great degree were absent in Egypt. As the Egyptians were 
monogamists, and the wife always held her place as the equal of 
her husband in the home, and as even the kings did not arrogate 


to themselves the right of concubinage, there was not that degra- 
dation of the female slave, which was established in other ancient 

The number of attendants for a wealthy land owner was 
about equally divided between male and female slaves; a 
fact that taken with others well established, indicates the better 
condition of sexes. That these slaves of the wealthy living on 
large estates, were more or less engaged in various handicrafts 
is proved. Many of the objects required were there manufac- 
tured and the large life of the owners gave to his slaves varied 
duties and occupations. The personal attendants of both the 
man and his wife are clearly indicated, and as the clothing was 
then nearly the same for man and woman, and each indulged in 
the same luxuries of the toilet,— luxuries scarcely equalled any- 
where in these modern times— the husband and the wife had a 
train of personal attendants about equal in number. With the 
difference in the names of luxuries and habits, in reading an ac- 
count of the manner of life of the wealthy land-owners of Egypt 
in the days of the Pharoahs, one might easily believe that he was 
reading an account of the doings of an English lord or an Ameri- 
can multimillionaire, or more correctly, perhaps, of the son of an 
American multimillionaire. We are told that this wealthy land- 
holder, although not dependant on any position, often did hold im- 
portant office, that he had both a home in the city— generally the 
capital— and an extensive villa in the country. On his large estate 
he had a game preserve, and, in order that he might also have the 
wild animals of other and distant lands, slaves constructed roads 
leading thither, and thence slaves led them and added them to 
the wild game native to the country. If no natural lake were on 
his estate, an artificial one furnished him with the excitement of 
fishing when the charms of the chase palled upon him. 

Chariots, drawn in the earliest centuries by the tamed wild 
asses of Egypt, and later by the beautiful horses originally im- 
ported from Arabia, awaited his fancy and that of his wife when 
they desired an outing. When the motion of the chariot was no 
longer agreeable to tired body and jaded nerves, a litter carried 
by slaves was ready to transport him whither he wished. The 
kings possessed hundreds of chariots and litters and slaves to 


attend the animals and to bear the litters. The home of this 
Egyptian lord, whether in the capital, or set amid lawns and 
flower gardens and surrounded by streams and fruit arbors, was 
always large and completely furnished. The representations of 
Egyptian furniture, as the French say, leave nothing to be de- 
sired in the way of comfort and elegance. 

For the care of these homes and the direction of the work of the 
slaves, this over-lord had a major-domo, who relieved him of the 
care of all the details. How often, or if ever, a slave became this 
major domo cannot be ascertained, but as such a position was 
held by slaves at the time of the ascendency of Greece and Home. 
we may feel sure that such was often the case in Egypt at an 
earlier period. When this landlord of Egypt went on the chase, 
the slaves bore his arms, carried his provisions, set the nets, beat 
the forest or the desert for the wild game, and returned laden 
with the spoils of the master's skill. When this lord went fish- 
ing slaves bore the rods and the spears, rowed the boats and re- 
turned with the baskets laden with the master's luck in fishing. 
All these events in the life of this lord are not told in so many 
words; they are even better depicted, for they are sculptured on 
solid rock and wall. 

Not much definite information is given concerning the work of 
the slaves in manufacturing pursuits, as is abundantly told of 
the slaves of Greece and Rome. The manufactures of Egypt 
were the most varied and highly valued of all the ancient world. 
To the Egyptians belong the discovery of the making of glass, 
not to the Phoenicians. The products of Egyptian looms were 
famed through many centuries ; the fabrics that yet envelope the 
mummies are proof of their excellence. Doubtless in the making 
of the coarse, woven fabrics, and in any other work of manufac- 
turing that demanded small skill, the slaves had a part. It is 
distinctly stated that the sculptors used their labor, and in the 
manufacture of the coarser kinds of pottery, it is recorded that 
the slaves were the only actual workers, while others directed 
their labor. 

Were the Egyptians themselves, who were certainly advanced 
in civilization, never touched by the sight of the hard tasks and 
evident misery of the slaves of the king? Perhaps, when, in rid- 


ing from place to place in their chariot, the rich lord and his 
lady came upon those gangs of slaves enduring the hardships and 
exhausting labors while the monuments to the reigning Pharoahs 
were taking shape, they felt pity and sympathy stirring within 
them; yet doubtless their sentiment went no further than a wish 
that the king possessed taskmasters who were less severe, and 
would less seldom rain blows on the backs of the bondmen. How- 
ever they knew that the fortune of war had made those human 
creatures slaves to the king, and that his great works must be 
completed by their labor. Perhaps, again, when this overlord 
and his lady wended their way back to their villa, or returned 
to their gorgeous city home, they thought again of those strug- 
gling masses of human beings, and as they gave some order to 
their own slaves, they favorably contrasted their condition with 
that of the slaves of the king, and thought that those who had en- 
tered domestic servitude ought to rejoice at their good fortune ! 

All Egyptologists concede that it was during the reign of a king 
of the Hyxsos dynasty, or those darker visaged Shepherd kings 
that Joseph was sold by his brethern and went down into slavery 
in Egypt. Here we come to the records of the Old Testament 
and the account of the sojourn of the people of Israel, the chosen 
people of God, when they dwelt in "the land of Egypt, in the 
house of bondage. ' ' No other pen could add to that account one 
jot or title that would render more complete, more graphic the 
history of those latest slaves of the Egyptians. 

The most attractive of the pictures presented is that of the 
Egyptian princess, that daughter of the reigning Pharoah, who 
with her attendant maids, repaired to the banks of the Nile to 
bathe in its waters, and who, among the rushes, discovered the 
basket wherein rested the future deliverer of his people. The 
fact that the princess was guarded alone by her women offers a 
proof of the correct reading of the Egyptologists that through 
all the centuries of the existence of the ancient kingdom of Egypt, 
the position of women was one of equality and freedom. 

(To be Continued.) 












FOUR miles southwest of Morristown, Morris County, 
New Jersey, "as the crow flies," there now, in 1909, 
stands a large, uupainted (or perhaps, more strictly 
speaking, scantily painted), one-story and a -half frame 
building of the colonial New England style of architecture, 
known far and wide as the Wick house; in Revolutionary an- 
nals it is sometimes spoken of as "Wick Hall." 

It is the only house now in the vicinity; and although it is 
usually occupied, it seems to the sympathetic visitor at all ac- 
quainted with its history and its historical environment a lone 
sentinel in the midst of scenes almost vocal with the story of the 
privations, sacrifices and sufferings of the patriot fathers, the 
unmistakable and numerous marks of whose camps during the 
awful winter of 1779-1780, lie all about it, north, south, east 
and west. Indeed, some of the Revolutionary camp-sites are 
within a few hundred rods of this old, historic house. 

The Wick house was built and owned, and in pre-Revolution- 
ary and Revolutionary days was occupied by Henry Wick; 
hence its name. From "A Branch of the Woodruff Stock, Part 
III," by the Honorable Francis E. Woodruff, it is gleaned that 
Henry Wick was born on the twenty-third day of October, 
1707, on Long Island, N. Y. ; that in 1725 he married Mary 
Cooper, and that in 1737 he was living "near Bridge Hampton 
on the way to Sagg .... In 1746 Nathan Cooper of Rox- 
bury (Chester) township, and Henry Wick of 'Suffolk Co., 
L. I.,' jointly bought 1114 acres on the Passaic, and in 1748 
Cooper released his half to Henry Wick of 'Morristown, N. J.;' 
so he doubtless came here between the two dates. With later 
purchases the 'Wick tract' came to measure over 1400 acres 



and has become widely known through the wintering (1780-81) 
on it and nearby of our Revolutionary army." 

The Wick house seems to have been built between the years 
1746 and 1748, and is, therefore, about one hundred and sixty- 
two years old. The material for the house is said to have been 
brought into the county from the outside; "imported," as 
may very properly have been remarked in those early days of 
rough gravel roads and far distances. It must have been con- 
structed of a superior quality of material, so far, at least, as 
the frame-work is concerned, for it is apparently in as good con- 
dition now as when erected more than a century and a half ago. 

That this house is sometimes referred to as "Wick Hall," 1 is 
sufficiently explained by the facts that while most of the dwell- 
ing houses in Morris County, at the period under review, were 
constructed of logs, this was a frame structure, and of unusual 
dimensions for those primitive days. Then, again, the large 
number and unusual dimensions of its rooms, in comparison 
with the cramped quarters of the average log house, fairly en- 
titled it to the name. And if anything else had been needed to 
warrant the application of the aristocratic, old-country name, 
its fine situation, the extensive and charming southerly view 
from the front, including hill and dale and forests, and the sun- 
sets, often superb, would have fully supplied the need. 

As will be observed in the picture of the Wick house accom- 
panying this article, the front entrance is by way of a door in 
the micfdle of the building, which is now protected by a plain 
portico. This door was originally hung on what were known 
as "strap hinges ;" and on the outside of the door was a knocker 
in the form of a lion's head. Hinges and knocker have both 
given place to more modern appliances. The front door, now 
in one piece, originally was composed of two pieces, after the 
Dutch style. 

i. Major Joseph Bloomfield, of Colonel Elias Dayton's Regiment, Third Bat- 
talion, Second Establishment, of the New Jersey troops of the Continental Line, 
was quartered, during the winter of 1776-1777, in the family of Captain Henry 
Wick; and in a letter written by Major Bloomfield from "Camp Valley Forge, 
April 16th, 1778," he twice refers to the Wick house as "Wick Hall." The letter 
was addressed to : "Mr. Henry Wick, at Wick Hall, Morris County. Favored by 
Lieut. Kinney." A letter written by Dr. Moses Bloomfield, father of Major Bloom- 
field, from Princeton, N. J., "May ye 7th, 1778," was addressed to "Mr. Henry 
Wick, at Wick Hall. Morris Town." 


A huge stone chimney, or "chimney stack," as it is sometimes 
called, about 8 feet by 12 feet, occupies the middle of the in- 
terior of the house. The portion of the chimney now appear- 
ing above the ridge-pole is of brick, and of modern dimensions, 
but the original chimney on the interior remains unchanged as 
to materials and dimensions. 

The front door opens into a hallway about 4 feet by 8 feet 
square. In front of the visitor as he enters the hallway is a 
closet, whose back is the front of the huge stone chimney de- 
scribed. On the right of the hallway is a door leading into what 
in Revolutionary days was the living, or sitting room ; and back 
of the living room is a small bedroom, which occupies the north- 
east corner of the old house. On the left of the hallway is a 
door leading into what was the parlor ; and back of the parlor, 
on the northwest corner of the house is another bedroom, which 
seems to have been the spare room, and it is now so called. 
This latter bedroom is about 10 feet by 12 feet square; and a 
single window on the northwest side furnishes light and air for 
its occupants. This spare bedroom is one of the most interest- 
ing portions of the house, as will be seen later. 

On the back of the house, and occupying all the space between 
the two small bedrooms is a long, but somewhat narrow kitchen, 
access to which from the inside is through a door leading both 
from the living room and from the parlor; and on the rear of 
the house is a single door leading from the outside into the 
spacious kitchen. On the second floor of the house are two fin- 
ished rooms, with two windows opening out of each end room. 

In front of the Wick house once stood a black locust tree, said 
by those who saw it while it was yet standing, as late as the year 
1852, to have been about two and a half feet in diameter. The 
immense stump of this tree, almost level with the ground, and 
fully three feet in diameter, is still to be seen. At the east 
end of the house was a large red cedar tree; and near by 
were several black cherry trees, the decayed stumps of which, as 
visitors testify, were still to be seen as late as the middle of the 
nineteenth century. A large tree, either maple or elm, now 
furnishes shade in the summer time for the front of the house ; 
and a picket fence, of not strictly modern pattern, only a few 


feet removed from the house-front, adds to the present pic- 
turesque appearance of the place. The barns and other out- 
buildings were and are well in the rear of the house ; so far, in- 
deed, as not to be seen in the picture shown in connection with 
this article. 

Before relating the circumstances which particularly make 
the Wick house famous, let us pass on down the hill to the north- 
westward, toward Mendham, about a mile. On the right hand, 
standing on a gracefully rounded knoll, somewhat back from the 
road, is a two-story and a half stone house, with portico over the 
front door at the right hand corner, and a veranda occupying 
a portion, at least, of the house-front. To the left of the pic- 
turesque background is a pond, or "lake," as some call it; Led- 
dell's pond is the name popularly applied to this pretty body of 
water, which, by the way, furnishes "power" for " Leddell 's 
mills," situated to the left of the house. 

On the exact site of this modern stone house, known 
as the Leddell house, there stood, in Revolutionary days, 
a frame building, 2 of practically the same dimensions 
and general appearance as the i:* resen t structure. This 
frame house was owned and occupied by Dr. William Led- 
dell, second, whose strong personality and the far from unim- 
portant part he played in the Revolution and in subsequent 
wars, chiefly give fame to the Leddell place. Not only was he 
a physician, but he was the son of a physician, also. His father, 
William Leddell, was a French naval surgeon "of the high 
seas," (by tradition from Alsace), stationed in Cuba, who re- 
signed from the service and settled in New Jersey. .... His 
name is given as William Leddell, Gent." . . . It is worthy 
of mention that the good doctor was something of a botanist; 
and in the rear of his house, as I have been informed by a liv- 
ing descendant, he had extensive flower gardens, which are said 
to have been the finest for miles around. 

In the latter part of November, 1779, a body of American 

2. The frame house occupied by Dr. Leddell in Revolutionary days was 
burned sometime previous to the year 1818; the fire having been caused by 
flames from the oven-flue. The Dutch oven in the kitchen was being heated, pre- 
paratory to baking. The soot in the flue taking fire, blazed above the chimney 
top, and sparks falling on the dry roof set fire to it. 


troops, unheralded, made their appearance in the vicinity of 
Dr. Leddell's place. It was in the afternoon, as reliable tradi- 
tion informs us, that the troops arrived. Dr. Leddel was absent 
from home at the time of the arrival of the soldiers. They 
marched down the road leading from the Wick house, and took 
possession of the wooded hill a little to the northeastward of 
the Leddell place; and only a short distance from the house, 
they built their camp-fires, and began the construction of the 
log huts which were to shelter them. For fuel and material the 
soldiers cut down the doctor's trees right and left. 

The blazing campfires were so close to the house that the 
women folks at home became alarmed lest the house take fire. 
Immediately on the return of Dr. Leddell he sent his black 
slave servant, "Sam," to the officer in command of the Amer- 
ican troops, requesting his presence at the house. On the 
prompt arrival of the officer, Mr. Leddell gave expression to his 
fears for the safety of the house, and asked that the campfires 
be built further away ; and this was done. 

During the winter of 1779-1780, there were eleven brigades 
of the American army under Washington encamped in Morris 
County; ten of infantry and one of artillery. Some of the in- 
fantry brigades camped near the Wick house. On the opposite 
side of the road from the house, and down in the meadows, and 
over on the side of Blachly's hill, only a short distance, the New 
Jersey brigade was encamped in rude log huts, with stone fire- 

A few hundred rods to the eastward of the house, and on 
the easterly corner of the Jockey Hollow road leading toward 
Morristown, General Hand's brigade of about seven hundred 
men was camped during the winter of 1779-1780, the camp front- 
ing on the "Fort road" and siding on the Jockey Hollow road. 
Numerous heaps of stones used in the chimnies of the soldier's 
huts may still be seen; a long pile running parallel to the "Fort 
road" being conspicuous. In the winter of 1780-1781, this 
camp was occupied by Pennsylvania troops, in command of 
"Mad Anthony Wayne." It was here, on January 1, 1781, that 
Wayne's troops revolted. The camp was so near the Wick 
house that the noises of the revolters were heard by Mrs. Wick, 


who was ill at the time. Down the "Fort road" a short dis- 
tance, and off a little to the left, there were two brigades of Con- 
necticut troops. 

Five minutes brisk walking will suffice to take one from the 
Wick house to the camp-site of the Connecticut brigades. It 
is only a few years since, that, with Emory McClintock, LL. D., 
as a competent guide, I visited this camp-site; and among the 
interesting things pointed out to me by Mr. McClintock, were 
the ruins of a stone oven, used by the soldiers for baking bread. 
The stones once composing the oven, now lie in a circular heap, 
as if they had fallen in of their own weight. Numerous heaps 
of stones once composing the hut-chimnies of the Connecticut 
soldiers may be seen, some of them apparently undisturbed 
since they fell. The Traces of the camp alignment are vivid re- 
minders of the actual presence here, during the Revolution, of 
the two brigades. 

If the tourist proceeds up the Jocky Hollow road a short dis- 
tance, in the direction of Morristown he will see the camp-sites 
of two Maryland brigades, one on either side of the road. Let 
us suppose the tourist is standing between the two Maryland 
brigade camp-sites, and has turned his face backward toward 
the corner of the Jocky Hollow and Mendham roads. On his 
right hand, just below the reservoir of the Morris aqueduct, and 
on the side hill, he will see the site of one of the brigades. On 
his left, as he still faces toward the intersection of the same 
two roads, he will see the camp-site of another brigade; this 
camp seems to have run parallel to the road for quite a dis- 
tance. Off to the left, opposite to the reservoir, and somewhat 
back from the highway, lying just behind a worm fence, are 
the ruins of a stone oven, used by the Maryland troops for bak- 
ing bread. The ruins are circular in shape, and perceptibly 
concave on the upper side ; and the oven has the appearance of 
having but recently collapsed. Not a few of the stones still bear 
the marks of fire and smoke. 

If now the tourist walks down the Jocky Hollow road in the 
direction of the Mendham road, he will see on the left, just before 
reaching the terminus of the former road, a large black oak 
tree, standing a little up from the highway. In front of this 


tree is a small square granite stone, bearing the following in- 
scription : 

"In Memory of Captain Adam Bettin Shot in the Mutiny Jan. 
1, 1781. Erected by the Morristown Chapter D. A. R." 

Up the hill slope almost to the eastward from the Bettin mon- 
ument, and only a short distance away, is a level piece of 
ground which was cleared by General Wayne's troops to afford 
free movements of the light artillery planted there for use in 
case of attack by the enemy; for, from the summit of this hill, 
now known at "Fort Hill," cannon could sweep the entire sur- 
rounding locality. Two or three lines of fortifications, partly 
of stones and partly of logs and brushwood, were also thrown 
up on the summit of "Fort Hill ;" traces of the former may still 
be seen. 

It is a matter of history that during the encampment of the 
brigades of Washington's army in the vicinity of the Wick house 
the sufferings of the soldiers were indescribable. During the 
winter of 1779-1780, Captain Henry Wick, the owner of the Wick 
house, was absent from home, serving with a company of Mor- 
ris County cavalry; and again quoting the Honorable Mr. Wood- 
ruff, it (the cavalry) "did good service in the war and engaged 
in at least one sharp fight, though frequently detailed as guard 
for Gov. Livingston and the Privy Council. . . ." As an 
illustration of the extreme sufferings of the American soliders in 
the winter mentioned, it may be said, that some of the Jersey 
troops in going barefooted, or partially so, to and from the 
W 7 ick house, presumably for camp supplies of some sort, _not 
infrequently left blood marks in the paths over which they 

In one of the Jersey regiments was a William Tuttle, who 
subsequently became a captain. He was a frequent visitor at 
the W 7 ick house during the winter of 1779-1780; and as, after 
the close of the Revolution, Captain Tuttle married a daughter 
of Captain Henry Wick, it is a justifiable inference that some- 
thing beside the need of camp supplies attracted him to the 
house on the hill. Tuttle unquestionably visited the Wick house 
during the winter above mentioned, for it is he who has in- 


formed us of the blood tracks between the Jersey camp and 
the house. 

About a mile and a quarter almost due north from the Wick 
house is a copse of locust trees, under which lie buried at 
least one hundred Revolutionary soldiers, most of whom died 
in the hospital of the two Pennsylvania brigades encamped in 
the vicinity in the winter of 1779-1780. 3 These patriot graves 
may now be reached from the Wick house by taking a private 
road at the rear of the house, and following it for a mile or 
more through the woods and fields. No doubt this same road 
was used by the Pennsylvania troops as a means of getting to 
the Wick house and vicinity. 

Captain Henry Wick, the owner of the Wick house, died on 
the twenty-first of December, 1780, only ten days previous to 
the revolt of Wayne's troops. Mrs. Wick, at the time was in 
poor health; the recent decease of her husband doubtless con- 
tributing in no small measure to her illness. The noises con- 
sequent upon the unbridled carousals of the intoxicated sol- 
diers, greatly annoyed her. Sometime during the day, she had 
an ill turn ; and the immediate presence of a physician became 
imperative. Upon her only daughter then at home, Tempe 
(an abbreviation of Temperence), devolved the duty of "go- 
ing for the doctor." The family physician was Dr. William 
Leddell, who lived about a mile to the northwestward, toward 

After carrying her mother down into the cellar, the more 
completely to insure her safety during her solitary sojourn in 
the house, Tempe proceeded to the barn, where she saddled and 
bridled and mounted her favorite young riding horse, and sped 
away down the hill toward Dr. Leddell 's. Her errand was soon 
accomplished; and she lost no time in remounting her horse. 

As she turned her head homeward, preparatory for a start, 
two or three intoxicated soldiers, some of the revolters, or per- 
haps stragglers, made their appearance. One of them seized 
the horse's bridle, and ordered Tempe Wick to dismount, as 

3. The mounds of many of these graves, as I have been informed by a long- 
time resident of Morristown, who himself saw them, could be distinctly seen less 
than forty years ago. The mounds are now so completely obliterated that not 
even a trace of them is to be seen. 


they had use for the animal. This occurred in front of Dr. Led- 
dell's house. Tempe Wick was strongly attached to her young 
horse, and was, therefore, disinclined to give him into the hands 
of drunken soldiers ; so she resorted to a very clever ruse to re- 
tain him. Assuming the air of submission to the soldier's de- 
mand, she entreated him to treat her horse kindly, and, if pos- 
sible, to return him to her. The soldier was entirely thrown off 
his guard by the seeming acquiesence of the fair horsewoman, 
in consequence of which he released his grip of the bridle. Im- 
mediately Tempe touched the whip to the side of her horse, and 
he shot away from the soldiers like an arrow from a bow drawn 
by a strong arm. As the young woman rode away from them 
toward home, one or more of the soldiers fired after her; the 
object probably being to intimidate the bold rider into slacken- 
ing her speed, that they might make another and more success- 
ful attempt to secure the horse. 

But Miss Wick, with a fresh application of the whip to her 
pet horse, sped up the long hill leading to her home, on reach- 
ing which, the horse was driven round to the kitchen door, on 
the north side of the house. Dismounting hastily, Tempe led 
the horse into the big kitchen, thence into the parlor, and 
through the parlor into the spare bed chamber on the north- 
west corner of the house. Immediately closing and fastening 
the wooden shutter of the one window in the room, she drew 
from the bedstead the generous feather bed of those days, and 
placed it on the floor. 4 She then tied her horse to a ring-bolt 
in some way attached to a timber in the room, adjusting the 
feather bed so that the horse should stand upon it ; by so doing 
the stamping of the animal would be less likely to be heard on the 
outside of the house. But notwithstanding this clever act, the 
horse stamped through the feather bed, and left the marks of 
his iron shoes on the floor. With a fond caress Tempe left her 
pet, and going into the cellar, brought her mother upstairs. 

Hastening on foot up the long hill to the Wick house, the 

4. Mrs. McClough, who lived in the vicinity of the Wick house, in Revolu- 
tionary days, and was acquainted with all the circumstances of the horse espisode, 
is authority for the statement that a featherbed was placed for the horse to stand 
on. From Mrs. McClough the statement has come down to the present writer 
through a relative who is now alive, and residing not far from the Wick house. 


baffled soldiers searched the barn and woods for the horse' 
they so devoutly coveted, but in vain. Crestfallen they de- 
parted from the premises. In the spare bed chamber the horse 
was kept, with shutters securely closed, some say three weeks 
and others say several days. 

Until within a few years, the marks of the horse's iron shoes 
on the floor of the spare bed chamber of the Wick house have 
been visible; and several persons have informed the writer that 
they have seen these marks. They could be seen today, but that 
a new floor has been laid over that on which the horse stood. 
It is, however, one of the pleasant memories of my life that I 
have two or three times traversed the rooms of the famous 
Wiek house, including the room where, by an ingenious ruse, a 
horse was hidden from intoxicated soldiers several days. 

Perhaps it should be said in conclusion that the window of 
the room in the Wick house where the horse was hidden, may 
be seen in the picture accompanying this article ; it is on the 
first floor and fartherest from the front of the house. 













>— I 

SteE) fc^SSSS 



THE subject of manorial grants, with the exact privi- 
leges (as well as limitations), involved, is one of the 
most interesting but least understood aspects of Amer- 
ican colonial history. The following article by Mr. 
Spooner (a former editor of this Magazine) presents 
the distinctive phases of the subject in a very lucid and able man- 
ner. It is reprinted by the courtesy of the publishers from Mr. 
Spooner 's book, "History of Westchester County," pp. 184-192. 
— Editor. 

With the beginning of the eighteenth century the whole of 
Westchester County had come under definite tenure— a period 
of some seventy-five years after the first organized settlement on 
Manhattan Island having been required for that eventuality. 
With the exception of a few localities of quite restricted area— 
namely, on the Sound the Rye, Harrison, Mamaroneck, New 
Rochelle, Eastchester, and Westchester tracts and settlements; 
on the upper Hudson the Ryke and Kranckhyte patents, upon 
which the village (now city) of Peekskill was built; and in the 
interior the disputed White Plains lands, the Bedford tract, and 
some minor strips bought or occupied by men from the older 
settlements on the Sound,— all of Westchester County, as origin- 
ally conveyed by the Indians under deeds of sale to the whites, 
was parceled out into a small number of great estates or patents 
representing imposing single proprietorships, as distinguished 
from ordinary homestead lots or moderate tracts taken up inci- 
dentally to the progress of bona fide settlement. 

These great original proprietorships were, indeed, only nine 
in number, as follows: (1) Cortlandt Manor, the property of 
Stephanus Van Cortlandt, which went after his death to his chil- 
dren jointly and was by them preserved intact for many years ; 
(2) Philipseburgh Manor, founded by Frederick Philipse, and 



retained as a whole by the Philipse Family until confiscated in 
Revolutionary times; (3) Fordham Manor, established by John 
Archer, subsequently forfeited for mortgage indebtedness to 
Cornelius Steenwyck, and by him and his wife willed to the 
Nether Dutch Congregation in New York, which continued in 
sole ownership of it until the middle of the eighteenth century; 
(4) Morrisania Manor, the old "Bronxland," built up into a 
single estate by Colonel Lewis Morris, by him devised to his 
nephew, Lewis Morris the younger, who had the property erected 
into a manor, and whose descendants continued to own it entire 
for generations; (5) Pelham Manor, originally, as established 
under Thomas Pell, its first lord, an estate of 9,166 acres, but by 
his nephew John, the second lord, divided into two sections, 
whereof one (the larger division) was sold to the Huguenots, 
and the other was preserved as a manor until after the death of 
the third lord; (6) Scarsdale Manor, the estate of Colonel Caleb 
Heatbcote, which for the most part remained the property of his 
heirs until sold by partition in 1775; and (7, 8, 9) the Three 
Great Patents of Central Westchester, granted to Heathcote 
and associates on the basis of purchases from the Indians, and 
by the patentees gradually subsold, mainly to settlers, who in 
the course of time occupied the lands. In the nine estates and 
patents thus enumerated were contained, at a rough estimate, 
about 225,000 of the 300,000 acres belonging to the old county 
of Westchester. 

It will be observed that with the single exception of Pelham 
the six manors of the county long retained their territorial 
integrity. A small portion of the Manor of Philipseburgh, it is 
true, was transferred by the Philipses to the younger branch 
of the Van Cortlandts, but this was a strictly friendly conveyance, 
the two families being closely allied by marriage. Even in the 
three manors where no second lord succeeded to exclusive pro- 
prietorship— Cortlandt, Fordham, and Scarsdale— sales of the 
manorial lands in fee to strangers were extremely rare, and it 
was an almost invariable rule that persons settling upon them, 
as upon Philipseburgh, Morrisania, and Pelham Manors (where 
the ownership devolved upon successive single heirs), did not 
acquire possession of the soil which they occupied, but merely 


held it as tenants. The disintegration of the manors, and the 
substitution of small landed proprietorship for tenantiy, was 
therefore a very slow process. Throughout the colonial period 
tenant farming continued to be the prevailing system of rural 
economy outside of the few settlements and tracts which from 
the start were independent of the manor grants— a system which, 
however, did not operate to the disadvantage of population in 
the manor lands. Upon this point de Lancey, the historian of 
the manors, says : "It will give a correct idea of the great extent 
and thoroughness of the manorial settlement of Westchester 
County, as well as the satisfactory nature of that method of set- 
tlement to its inhabitants, although a surprise, probably, to many 
readers, when it is stated that in the year 1769 one-third of the 
population of the county lived on the two manors of Cortlandt 
and Philipesburgh alone. The manors of Fordham, Morrisania, 
Pelham, and Scarsdale, lying nearer to the City of New York 
than these two, and more accessible than either, save only the 
lower end of Philipseburgh, were, if anything, much more set- 
tled. It is safe to say that upward of five-eighths of the people 
of Westchester County in 1769 were inhabitants of the six man- 
ors. ' ' 

The distinguishing characteristics of the manors are of much 
interest, though little remembered at this distance of time. 1 First, 
it should be understood that the manors, one and all, were only 
ordinary landed estates, granted to certain English subjects in 
America who, while popularly styled "lords" of the manors, 
enjoyed no distinguished rank whatever, and were in no way ele- 
vated titularly, by virtue of their manorial proprietorships, above 
the* common people. In no case was a manorial grant in West- 
chester County conferred upon a member of the British nobility, 
or even upon an individual boasting the minor rank of baronet ; 
and in no case, moreover, was such a grant bestowed in recogni- 
tion of services to the crown or as a mark of special honor by 
the sovereign. Without exception, the proprietors of the manors 
were perfectly plain, untitled gentlemen. Yet, says de Lancey, 
1 ' we often, at this day, see them written of and hear them spoken 

i. Readers desiring a more detailed account are referred to Edward Floyd 
de Lancey's "Origin and History of the Manors," in Scharf's "History of West- 
chester County." 


of as nobles. 'Lord Pliilipse' and 'Lord Pell' are familiar 
examples of this ridiculous blunder in Westchester County. No 
grant of a feudal manor in England at any time from their first 
introduction ever carried with it a title, and much less did any 
grant of a New York freehold manor ever do so. Both related 
to land only. The term Lord of a Manor is a technical one, and 
means simply the owner, the possessor of a manor— nothing 
more. Its use as a title is simply a mark of intense or ignorant 
republican provincialism. ' Lord ' as a prefix to a manor owner 's 
name was never used in England nor in the province of New 

The manor was a very ancient institution in England, but by 
the statute of quia emptores, enacted in 1290, the erection of new 
manors in that kingdom was forever put to an end. The old Eng- 
lish manors, founded in the Middle Ages, were of course based 
upon the feudal system, involving military service by the fief 
at the will of his lord, and, in general, the complete subjection 
of the fief. The whole feudal system of land tenure having been 
abolished by a statute of Charles II. in 1660, and the system 
of "free and common socage" (meaning the right to hold land 
unvexed by the obligation of feudal service) having been sub- 
stituted in its stead, New York, both as a proprietary province 
under the Duke of York and subsequently as a royal province, 
never exhibited any traces of feudality in the matter of land 
tenures, but always had an absolutely free yeomanry. But it 
was never contemplated that New York or any of the other 
provinces in America should develop a characteristically demo- 
cratic organization of government or basis of society. Titled 
persons were sent to rule over them, and, particularly in New 
York, there was a manifest tendency to render the general aspect 
of administration and social life as congenial as possible to peo- 
ple of high birth and elegant breeding. Moreover, there being 
no provision for the creation of an American titled aristocracy, 
it was deemed expedient to offer some encouragement to men of 
aristocratic desires, and the institution of the manor was selected 
as the most practicable concession to the aristocratic instinct — 
a concession which, while carrying with it no title of nobility, did 
cany a certain weighty dignity, based upon the one universally 


recognized foundation for all true original aristocracy— large 
landed proprietorship, coupled with formally constituted author- 

The establishment of new manors in England was discontinued 
by the statute of 1290 for the sole reason that at that period no 
crown lands remained out of which such additional manors could 
be formed, the essential preliminary to a manor being a land 
grant by the sovereign to a subject. But in the American prov- 
inces, where extensive unacquired lands were still awaiting ten- 
ure, the manor system was capable of wide application at discre- 
tion ; and in New York and some of the Other provinces it was the 
policy of the English government from the beginning to encourage 
the organization of manors. ' ' The charter of Pennsylvania, ' ' said 
the learned Chief Judge Denio of the New Y r ork Court of Appeals, 
in his opinion in the Rensselaer swyck case," empowered Penn, 
the patentee, to erect manors and to alien and grant parts of 
the lands to such purchasers as might wish to purchase, 'their 
heirs and assigns, to be held of the said William Penn, his heirs 
and assigns, by such services, customs, and rents as should seem 
'fit to said William Penn, etc., and not immediately of the said 
King Charles, his heirs or successors,' notwithstanding the 
statute of quia emptor es." Similarly in New Y r ork, the manor 
grants issued during the time that it remained a proprietary 
province (namely, those to Thomas Pell in 1666, and to John 
Archer in 1671) were made by the authority and in the name 
of the Duke of York as proprietor, and not of the king. After 
New York was changed into a royal province, the manor grants 
were continued by the authority and in the name of the king. 

The privileges attaching to the manor grants in Westchester 
County varied. All of them, however, had one fundamental 
characteristic. Each manor was, in very precise language, 
appointed to be a separate and independent organization of juris- 
diction, entirely detached from other established political divi- 
sions. To give the reader an idea of the formality with which 
such separation was made, we reproduce the wording of one of 
the manor grants upon this point, which is a fair specimen. In 
his letters patent to John Archer for the Manor of Fordham, 
Governor Lovelace says: "I doe grant unto ye said John 


Archer, his heirs and assigns, that the house which he shall 
erect, together with ye said parcel of land and premises, shall 
be forever hereafter held, claimed, reputed and be an entire and 
enfranchised township, manor, and place of itself, and shall 
always, from time to time and at all times hereafter, have, hold, 
and enjoy like and equal privileges and immunities with any town 
enfranchised or manor within this government, and shall in no 
manner or way be subordinate or belonging unto, have any 
dependence upon, or in any wise be under the rule, order, or 
direction of any riding, township, place, or jurisdiction, either 
upon the main or Long Island. ' ' 

Thus, first of all, and as its great essential characteristic, the 
manorial estate was always made a political entity. As such 
it was under the government of its propreitor and his subor- 
dinates, who, however, in all their acts were subject to the general 
laws of the land, simply applying those laws as circumstances 
and conditions required. According to the theory of the old 
English manors, a so-called "Court Baron" was an indispensa- 
ble attachment of every manor— that is, a court for the trial of 
civil cases, over which the lord or his steward presided, the jurors 
being chosen from among the freehold tenants. There was also 
usually a so-called "Court Leet," which has been described as 
"a court of record having a similar jurisdiction to the old sher- 
iff's 'Toums' or migratory courts held by the sheriff in the dif- 
ferent districts or 'hundreds' of his county, for the punishment 
of minor offenses and the preservation of the peace," which 
was provided for in order that the lords of manors "might 
administer justice to their tenants at home." In all the West- 
chester County manor grants, except Fordham, authority is given 
to the grantee to hold "one Court Leet and one Court Baron." 
This privilege was not always availed of; for example, in the 
Manor of Scarsdale the manorial courts were never organized. 
It is worthy of note in this connection that among the manor 
lords of Westchester County were several of the early judges of 
the province, including John Pell (second lord of Pelham 
Manor), who was the first judge of Westchester County; Caleb 
Heathcote, of Scarsdale Manor, who served as county judge for 
twenty-seven years, and was also an admiralty judge; Lewis 


Morris, of Morrisania, one of the most famous of the royal chief 
justices; and the second Frederick Philipse, who was a puisne 
judge of the Supreme Court. To this list should be added the 
name of the celebrated chief justice and royal governor, James 
de Lancey, who married the eldest daughter of Caleb Heath- 

In addition to their civil functions, the proprietors of four of 
the manors (Cortlandt, Philipseburgh, Pelham, and Morrisania) 
enjoyed the right of advowson and church patronage, under 
which they had the power to exercise controlling influence in 
church matters within their domains. The prevailing sectarian 
tendencies of different localities in Westchester County during 
the colonial era and for many years subsequently were owing 
mainly to the particular religious preferences and activities of 
the respective manor lords of those localities. In Westchester, 
Eastchester, and Rye the Church of England early secured a firm 
foundation through the zeal of Colonel Caleb Heathcote, of 
Scarsdale, who was its earnest supporter. A similar influence, 
with a similar result, was exercised in the Yonkers land by the 
second Frederick Philipse, who had been educated in England, 
where he became attached to the Established Church, and who 
as proprietor of the lower part of Philipseburgh Manor founded 
Saint John's Church at Yonkers, which to this day maintains 
the leading position in the community. On the other hand, at 
Tarrytown, on the upper part of Philipseburgh Manor, the Dutch 
Reformed Church enjoyed supremacy from the beginning, on 
account of the patronage accorded it by the first lord and by his 
son and successor in that division of the manor, Adolph. 

Upon one of the Westchester manors, Cortlandt, was bestowed 
an extraordinary privilege, that of being represented in the gen- 
eral assembly of the province by a special member. This privi- 
lege was granted to no other manor of New Y r ork, except Rens- 
selaerswyck and Livingston, although it was enjoyed also by the 
two borough towns, Westchester and Schenectady. But it was 
provided that the exercise of the privilege, so far as Cortlandt 
Manor was concerned, was not to begin until twenty years after 
the grant (i. e., in 1717). At the expiration of that time, Ste- 
phanus Van Cortlandt, his heirs or assigns, had full authority 


to return and send a discreet inhabitant in and of the said manor 
to be a representative of the said house, to have and enjoy such 
privilege as the other representatives returned and sent from 
any other county and manors." Cortlandt Manor did not, how- 
ever, choose a representative in the assembly until 1734, when 
Philip Verplanck was elected to sit for it. He continued to serve 
in that capacity for thirty-four years, being succeeded by Pierre 
Van Cortlandt, who remained a member of the assembly until 
1775. Notwithstanding the exceptional privilege of representa- 
tion given to Cortlandt Manor as a manor, the other manors 
of Westchester County were equally able to make their influence 
felt in that body. In addition to the special members from Cort- 
landt Manor and Westchester town, the county as a whole was 
entitled to representation by two general delegates. Heathcote, 
John Pell, the Philipses, and the Morrises all sat at various times 
for the county. 

The original purpose of the manor grants being to encourage 
the development of the semi-aristocratic system for which they 
provided, no onerous charges in the way of special taxation were 
assessed upon the manor proprietors. In each grant was incor- 
porated a provision for the payment of annual ' ' quit-rent ' ' to the 
provincial government, but the amount fixed was in every ease 
merely nominal. The various quit-rents exacted were, for the 
Manor of Pelham, as originally patented to Thomas Pell, "one 
lamb on the first day of May (if the lamb shall be demanded) "; 
for Pelham, as repatented to John Pell, "twenty shillings, good 
lawful money of this province, at the City of New York, on the 
five and twentieth day of March"; for Fordham, "twenty bush- 
els of good peas, upon the first day of March, when it shall be 
demanded"; for Philipseburgh, "on the feast day of the Annun- 
ciation of the Blessed Virgin Maiy, . . . the annual rent 
of four pounds twelve shillings current money of our said prov- 
ince"; for Morrisania, "on the feast day of the Annunciation 
of our Blessed Virgin, . . . the annual rent of six shillings ' ' ; 
for Cortlandt, "on the feast day of our Blessed Virgin, the 
yearly rent of forty shillings, current money of our said prov- 
ince"; and for Scarsdale, "five pounds current money of New 
York, upon the nativity of our Lord. ' ' Appended to most of the 


quit-rent leases was the significant statement that the prescribed 
payment was to be "in lieu of all rents, services, and demands 
whatever, ' ' apparently inserted to emphasize the well-understood 
fact that the manor grants were strictly in the line of public pol- 
icy, and were in no way intended to become a source of revenue 
to the government. 

The importance of the manorial proprietorships in Westchester 
County, in their relations to its political and social character, 
and to its eventful history for a hundred years, cannot be over- 
estimated. All the founders of the six manors were men of force- 
ful traits, native ability, and wide influence. With a single 
exception, 2 they left their estates, entirely undiminished and 
unimpaired, either to children or to immediate kinsmen, who, in 
turn, by their personal characters and qualities, as well as by 
their marital alliance, solidified the already substantial founda- 
tions which had been laid, and greatly strengthened the social 
position and enlarged the spheres of their families. To enumer- 
ate the marriages contracted during the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, in the male and female lines, by the Van 
Cortlandts, the Philipses, the Morrises, the Pells, and the de- 
scendants of Caleb Heathcote, would invovle almost a complete 
recapitulation of the more conspicuous and wealthy New York 
families of the entire colonial period, besides many prominent 
families of other provinces. 

To the Westchester manorial families belonged some of the 
most noted and influential Americans of their times— men of shin- 
ing talents, fascinating manners, masterful energy, and splendid 
achievement; statesmen, orators, judges, and soldiers— who were 
among the principal popular leaders and civic officials of the 
province, and who won renown both in the public serivce and in 
the field during the Revolution. Alike to the patriot cause and 
the Tory faction these families contributed powerful and illus- 
trious supporters. As the issues between the colonies and Great 
Britain became more closely drawn, and the inevitable struggle 
approached, the influences of the representative members of the 

2. John Archer, of Fordham. In consequence of financial complications, 
his manor did not remain in his family. Yet the Archer Family continued to be 
a respectable and useful one in the county. 


Westchester families were thrown partly on one side and partly 
on the other. The tenants in each case were controlled largely 
by the proprietor, and thus an acute division of sentiment and 
sympathies was occasioned which, in connection with the unique 
geographical position of Westchester County in its relations to 
the contending forces of the Revolution, caused it to be torn by 
constant broils and to be devastated by innumerable conflicts 
and depredations. Remembering that the old manorial families 
of Westchester County rested upon an original foundation of 
very recognizable aristocratic dignity, which was made possible 
only by monarchial institutions; that the pride of lineage had, 
at the time of the Revolution, been nourished for the larger part 
of a century ; and that the disposition of attachment to the king- 
naturally arising from these conditions had been much strength- 
ened by continuous intermarriage with other families of high 
social pretension and political conservatism, it seems at this day 
remarkable, or at least a. source of peculiar satisfaction, that 
their preferences and efforts were, on the whole, rather for the 
popular cause than against it. 

Even in the formative period of the Revolution, before pas- 
sions had been stirred by experience and example, and before 
actual emergency impelled men to put aside caution, it was dis- 
tinctly apparent that the Tory party was the weaker, both numer- 
ically and in point of leadership ; and at a very early period of 
the war, notwithstanding the loss of New York City to the 
American army and the retreat of Washington into New Jersey, 
Toryism became an unwholesome thing throughout much the 
larger part of Westchester County. The influence of the Tory 
landlords, even upon their own tenantry, was, indeed, a con- 
stantly diminishing factor, while that of the patriotic leaders 
steadily grew. This could not have been the case if the weight 
of sentiment among the principal families of the county had not 
been genuinely on the side of American freedom. 



IN the Baltimore Journal of one hundred and thirty-six years 
ago (1773) George Washington advertised for sale 20,000 
acres of land on the Kanawha and Ohio rivers. The old 
paper containing this notice was found more than a century 
later between the lids of an old Welsh Bible, belonging to a cit- 
izen of Covington, Ky. How it got there and was preserved is 
hard to tell. In this advertisement Washington approaches the 
standard of any of his Western less illustrious successors, but 
it is doubtful if he comes up to the standard of veracity laid 
down in the "hatchet and cherry tree" affair. 

In the light and experience of the one hundred and thirty-six 
years of development of the Kanawha and Meigs county hills, 
the facts do not seem to justify the father of his country in his 
naming description of the fertility and beauty of his domain. 
Washington was early impressed with a great future for the 
West ; whether the events of the coming revolution were already 
casting their shadows before them, may be inferred from the 
following lines of his advertisement: 

"If the scheme for establishing a new government on the Ohio, 
in the manner talked of, should ever be effected, these lands would 
prove to be the most valuable, because of their contiguity to the 
seat of government which, more than probable, would be at the 
mouth of the Kanawha." 

It is from the life of Colonel Crawford, the life-long friend and 
agent of Washington in his western land ventures, that we gather 
our information in this matter. Crawford, who afterward lost 
his life in the campaign against the Indians at Sandusky, was 
with Washington at Braddock's defeat; had left the Shenan- 
doah, and settled on the Youghioghany as agent for Washington. 
He had selected lands for himself, his brothers, Samuel and John 
Augustine, and Lund Washington, a relative. Washington and 
Crawford were surveyors, and it is not improbable that the large 



slices of land lie got from the erratic old Lord Fairfax for sur- 
veying, first developed a spirit of land speculation. Crawford 
was his agent in the West. September 21st, 1769, he writes from 
Mt. Vernon: 

"If you will be to the trouble of seeking out the land, I will 
take upon me the trouble of securing them, as there is a possibil- 
ity of doing it. I will, moreover, be at all the cost, and charges 
of surveying and patenting the same. You shall have such a 
reasonable proportion of the whole as we may fix upon at our first 
meeting. ' ' 

It is needless to say, the matter was promptly attended to. 
These lands were on the Youghioghany. The fees for surveying 
in those days were ample, and Crawford and Washington often 
got one-fourth of the land for their services, while the latter, 
doubtless, got many valuable slices from his old patron, Fairfax. 
It is not strange, therefore, that he became a large Virginia land 

About three years previous to this advertisement in the Bal- 
timore Journal, Washington left Mt. Vernon on horseback to 
cross the Alleghany mountains and visit Crawford on the 
Youghioghany to look after his landed interest there, and to 
descend the Ohio on a prospecting tour. He and Crawford left 
the Youghioghany and came to Pittsburgh, a trading post of 
twenty log cabins. Here, in company with Mr. Harrison and 
others, they secured a large canoe and floated slowly down the 
Ohio, examining the land. At Mingo Bottom, now Steubenville, 
they found an Indian town of twenty-five log huts; this was 
afterwards the starting point of Crawford's fatal campaign 
against Sandusky. 

They floated down as far as the mouth of the Great Kanawha. 
On their return, Washington wishing to examine the land in the 
great bend of the Ohio, in what is now Meigs county, he and 
Crawford walked across the neck, which they estimated at eight 
miles. Whether this land on the Ohio was secured or not is not 
told, and as there were then no United States, and the colonial 
claims of Virginia were rather indeterminate, the metes and 
bounds of his 20,000 acres are not very close. 

The party pursued their way home still more slowly than they 


came, for pushing this big canoe against the current was quite 
different from floating with it. At Mingo Bottom they were met 
by horses sent from Crawford's home to meet them. On their 
way home they met a canoe loaded with sheep going to Illinois. 
This was nearly fifty years before the waters of the Ohio were 
disturbed by a paddle wheel, and doubtless it was the first ship- 
ment of live stock from Pittsburgh to the vicinity of St. Louis. 

Arriving at Crawford's home on the Youghioghany, they found 
the river very high and the canoe gone. Finally, finding a boat, 
they paddled over, swimming their horses. Resting a few days 
here, Washington returned over the mountains on horseback, 
and reaching Mount Vernon in nine weeks and one day from the 
time he left. The fact that Washington does not include his 
Youghioghany land in his Kanawha advertisement, may be 
accounted for by the conflicting colonial claims of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia. As many lost their homes in this cause, it is pos- 
sible that Washington suffered in this way to some extent. 

About two years later Washington, in company with Lord 
Dunmore had arranged to visit the west on a land-inspecting 
tour. He had written to Lord Dunmore asking when he would 
be ready to start, so that Crawford could be notified to be ready 
to accompany them, but the death of Miss Custis, June 19th, 
frustrated this plan. He still instructed Crawford to inspect the 
land about the mouth of the Sciota and secure it to him, but the 
mutterings of the Revolution were heard, and soon both these 
men were'in the biggest real estate transaction the world ever 
saw. It was not 20,000 acres on the Kenawaha, but it was half 
a continent, and they got it. 

This was about the end of the real estate matters with these 
men. They had been together at Braddock's defeat; they were 
at the heroic crossing of the Delaware on Christmas day, and at 
the victory of Trenton the next day, and Princeton the 3rd of 
January, 1777. Not much more is known of Washington's land 
scheme, and his agent and life-long friend, Colonel Crawford, 
lost his life in the Sandusky campaign against Indians. 



[Revised— with additions— from the original edition, especially 
for the American Historical Magazine.] 


The New England Colony and Government— Founding of 
Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies 

IT was the distinctive purpose of establishing an independ- 
ent state that prom ted the Massachusetts colonization. It was 
to set up a "commonweath without a king and a church 
without a bishop" as wrote the old chronicalists. But the 
development of nature will have course, in spite of men's minds 
to the contrary and their adverse enactments. As Momsen 
discovered of this law among the ancients, that even in democ- 
racy, "It has at its core a monarchical principle in which the 
idea of a periclean commonwealth floats ever before the minds 
of its best citizens." 

Now the reason for the attempt to set up a community "with- 
out a king and without a bishop" is traced to the preceding re- 
ligious controversy in England. The king was included with 
the bishop, solely because the king for the time became a religi- 
ous partizan and countenanced the bigotry of church ordin- 
ances. The ruler of a state must be superior to creeds and 

It was in 1604 when England began to turn bigot. The bis- 
hop of London in that year procured the ratification of a "Book 
of Canons" of 141 articles, non-conformation to which was pun- 
ishable with outlawry, excommunication and imprisonment. 

At this time, Holland was more liberal than England; so 
a congregation of people from Gainsborough in Lincolnshire, 
and Scrooby in Nottinghamshire, under the leadership of the 



Reverend Richard Clifton, John Robinson and William Brews- 
ter, after may risks and persecutions, succeeded in escaping 
to Leyden, in Holland, in the year 1608. Here it may be added 
that the rigors of the doctrine of these "puritan" people were 
if anything severer than the papal and semi-papal from which 
they fled; for those who did not believe were no less heretics 
than they themselves were to the Church of Rome. 

The Puritans who escaped from the persecution of the Church 
of England differed only in the elective principle of the office 
of the church which they adopted. They proscribed the grand 
music of the masters and reprobated the aesthetic ornamenta- 
tion and development of life as superfluous. They rejected 
symbolism as a specie of idolatry. They proscribed in witch- 
craft and burned witches with the same fury and abhorence as 
the Catholics burned heretics. They gave the individual the 
privilege of self-representation before God and repudiated the 
demands of the confessional. During their residence in Hol- 
land, they enjoyed the esteem of the Dutch magistrates by their 
orderly conduct and attention to industry, many among them 
laboring as spinners and craftmen. Yet although enjoying 
"complete freedom of conscience" in Holland, they reverted 
often to their original plan of "founding a state without a king, 
and a church without a bisliop." Thus urged by the stimulus 
of this ambition, they resolved to go to America. Learning of 
their intent, the Dutch government offered them lands in their 
American possessions, but they preferred independence. 

Now as all the land in America was holden by European pow- 
ers, they were obliged to obtain a charter for colonization from 
some one of them. They chose England, because England was 
their home, the provisions of an English charter would be as 
liberal as any and they were better acquainted with English in- 
stitutions and law than with those of other states. By the pro- 
visions of this 'charter, which they obtained, they were obliged 
to take oath of allegiance to the sovereign, making the king, at 
least in name, the chief authority of their proposed state. 

In the cabin of their little ship Mayflower, they outlined the 
measure of their own government, thus:— 

"November 11th, 1620, this day before we come to harbor 


. . . it was thought good that there should be an association 
and agreement, that we should combine together in one body 
and submit to such government and governors as we shall by 
common consent agree to choose." 1 

In 1627, Isaac de Rasiere, a prominent officer and merchant of 
New Netherland (New York) wrote a description of the condi- 
tion in New England: — 

"The governor has his council, which is chosen every year by 
election by the entire community, or by prolongation of term. 
In the inheritance they place all the children in one degree, only 
the eldest son has an acknowledgement for his seniority." 

Soon after the news of their establishment was arrived in 
England, there came out a great multitude to keep company 
with their primitive state, among whom were some liberal and 
others more conventional. This new company obtained an ex- 
tensive grant of land from the Crown, which grant was de- 
nominated "Massachusetts Bay." This was obtained by Sir 
John Rowell, kt., Sir John Young, kt., Thomas Southcote, John 
Humphrey, John Endicott, and Simon Whitcomb, gentlemen; 
but there were with them a great many preachers, and the re- 
ligious, or church, idea was dominant. May 18th, 1631, the Gen- 
eral Court of Boston declared:— 

"To the end the body of the commons be preserved of honest 
and good men, ordered and agreed, that, for the time to come 
no man shall be admitted to the freedom of this body politic but 
such as be members of some of the churches within the same." 2 

That is, no member of the Church of England, no Catholic, no 
Quaker, no free-thinker could be a citizen of the new common- 
wealth. Moreover, a little later, such people when found com- 
ing to the colony, were banished with penalties against their 
returning. This induced a struggle of the non-bigoted. 

The beginning of the fling of defiance against this theological 
tyranny was made by men of rank, birth and education. These 
demanded the magistracy. There was a provision that "the 

(1) History of New England, by J. G. Palfrey, Vol. T, p. 227. 

(2) History of New England, by J. G. Falfrey, Vol. 


magistrates should be men of quality." After this there were 
three classes, mutually opposed: — 1, the magistrates; 2, the 
clergy; 3, the citizen-electors. The magistrates, originally ap- 
pointed in England, were confined thenceforward to men of 
rank in the colony. 

In 1637, by desire of this genealogical element of rank, since 
property was evenly divided among the children and was not 
a factor in the reckoning, it was decided:— 

"That the General Court be holden in May next (1637) for 
the election of magistrates, and so from time to time as occa- 
sion shall require, shall elect a certain number of magistrates 
for the term of their lives, as a standing council, not to be re- 
moved but on due conviction of crime," etc. 

The governor was president of this council. Winthrop, Endi- 
cott and Dudley were the first life-counsellors. About this 
time others were admitted to vote for the choice of military offi- 
cers who were not of the congregational church, provided they 
were in some of the colonial military organizations. Thus early 
a distinction began to grow up among military men, proclaim- 
ing them to be of a different mind from those of the civil com- 
munity. Before this, in 1634, under the governorship of John 
Endieott, who was thus false to his oath of allegiance, the red 
cross was cut out of the white flag of England in the colony and 
the pine tree was substituted as the ensign of New England. A 
short time after this, a ship of the king sailed into port. There 
was no royal ensign at the fort to salute. A sailor having de- 
clared the inhabitants to be rebels and traitors was imprisoned 
by order of the governor. The captain of the ship demanded an 
English flag to salute. Not one could be found in the colony. 
The captain agreed to loan one for temporary use at the fort. 
The governor's council permitted it, without taking formal ac- 
tion to restore the colors, after the loan had been 'returned— so 
far had they embarked with their idea of an independent state. 

No sooner was the colony in a prosperous condition than 
colonists, some Presbyterian, some Huguenot, the former from 
the British Isles, the latter from France and Holland, came, at- 
tracted by this condition. With them came gradually the infil- 
tration of loftier standards and nobler thoughts, borne from the 


aristocratic principality of La Kochelle that had withstood the 
assaults of the Catholic power in France and had made a treaty 
with the Protestant monarchy of England under Queen Eliza- 
beth; that had already plotted with the great C'oligny to erect 
the structure of a Roman commonwealth on the Carolinian 
shore, after the pattern of the palatine burghs of the south of 

Now this idea of a Roman commonwealth, or empire, in 
America, borne across the sea from the south of France, legiti- 
mated in continuing the empire in America first instituted by 
Charles V. in the 16th century, although blotted out by Catholic 
intrigue, had much to do in shaping after-politics in America. 

The palatine burghs of the Roman Empire in France had 
been Marseilles, Narbonne, Toulouse and Bessieres. Those 
regions of France in which they were most dominant were 
Aquitaine and Provence. It was in the palatine burghs of these 
provinces that freedom of thought ventured first in Europe, in 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, to stand erect in the glori- 
ous magnificence of its genius. In the crucible of its liberality 
it united the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, which the 
Arabian doctors brought across the Pryenees from the Moorish 
kingdoms of Granada and Cordova, then in effulgent growth in 
the Spanish Peninsula. With them was carried the precepts 
of Mahomet to be united with those of Christ, producing a 
species of deism whose liberality was above all creeds. 

This rennaissance in the South of France was the brightest 
and most splendid of Europe. From the warm glow of its 
light and life, came a flash that fell as a menace on the dark and 
gloomy church of the popes. The sound of its joys of earth's 
blessing awakened the wrath of the Catholic heirarchy that was 
striving to repress the same to its own behests. The sight of 
the prosperity of the teeming cities of Narbonne, Bessieres and 
Toulouse, rich with the products of the most intelligent and 
best trained industry of Europe, aroused the cupidity and envy 
of the Catholic Christians and gave a stimulus to the pope to 
pronounce an anathema against this and to preach that Albegeu- 
sian crnsade which brought the savage allies of the papacy from 
everv country in Europe in a flood of hatred, lust and exter- 


mination. That civilization was swept away. The king of Ara- 
gon, who was of this proscription, was slain in battle, helping 
bravely his friends of France. The scattered remnants fled into 
the Pyrennian mountains. 

This was the origin and the end for a time, of freedom of 
thought in Europe— modeled after that which had existed in 
the old empire of the Romans, when the diligence of philoso- 
phers conspired to confound superstition by bringing the vari- 
ous gods of the world together in one temple. With a liberty 
like this, there can be no equality. As Lord Rosebery, of the 
time of Beaconsfield, said before the Conservative Club: "Lib- 
erty and equality are mutually exclusive." There must be 
room for genius, for those who are great, else there is no liberty 
for them who are the gems of the human race. The rest of the 
world profits by it, for by the few are made all the advance- 
ments which benefit the race and to the few is due something 
beyond the mockery of thanks— that is, the reins of power and 
the honor of Dominion. 

This recognized truth, brought to the cities of the Roman em- 
pire the conference of rank for merit, which should not be con- 
founded with the feudal tenure of the middle ages, when the 
holding of a lordship was reserved for nobility of race alone. 
Nobility, with the Romans, went genealogically within the 
"gnome, name, "gens", race, "pater," and " patricius," father. 
In the degenerate application in some countries of Europe, no- 
bility went often, but not always, with the possession of the 
fief, "No land, no noble." The qualities originally of race 
then inherred in the tenure. In the organization of each city of 
the Roman empire, the senate contained the patricians, or chiefs 
of the nobility; the second chamber, the representatives of the 
trades. The duties of the senate pertained to diplomacy and 
military affairs; of the second chamber, to decide disputes be- 
tween trades-associations ; of both, to regulate taxation and ex- 
penditure. Thus all classes were represented in each city, or 
state, of the Roman empire. 

It was the coming of people with memories of these things 
into the American colonies that worked a ferment and reaction 
against the puritan bigotry of the primitive Yankees. There- 


from, in the North, the clergy, finding a growing difference of 
opinion, religions and political, proceeded to stir up the most 
ignorant, the more numerous and intolerant of their congrega- 
tions to the sending of deputies to the general court to make 
stringent religious laws. Thus originated the celebrated "blue 
laws" of New England. ''Forbidden to kiss wife and child on 
the Sabbath" was not the least of their ridiculous and con- 
temptible ordinances. While in power, they pressed heavily on 
the necks of the people and imposed a tyranny of greater bigotry 
and oppression than even that of the Inquisition of Rome. This 
body, the clergy, in every state, in every clime and of every 
creed, has been the greatest hindrance to the friendly inter- 
course of peoples of different faiths. 

They formulated against the armorials and ranks of the gen- 
try, against the science and art of the professions, against the 
estates of the proprietors — unless goodly portions were devoted 
to their own maintenance. They are the direct cause for the 
sterility of artistic and chivalrous impulses in New England 
life, by their influence in the body politic; for the dearth of ro- 
mantic elements in the communities over which they were the 
presiding ogres. At that time, just previous to 1639, one of 
them named Wheelwright received a reprimand from the mag- 
istrates and was adjudged guilty of sedition by the excessive 
violence of his preaching. 

Nov. 5th, 1639, "Divers gentlemen and others, out of their 
care for the public weal and safety, and for the advancement of 
the military art and exercise of arms, desired license of the 
court to join themselves in one company and to have liberty to 
exercise themselves at such times and places as their occa- 
sions would permit." 3 

Tt was only in such military formations that safety could be 
had against the wrath of the clergy. Thus was founded the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. 
But at the time of its formation in 1638, the civil council, under 
influence of the clergy, prophesied its "ungodly" influence- 
that is the protection of individuals joining it against their 

(3) History of New England, by J. G. Palfrey. Vol. I, p. 550. 


"considering from the example of the Pretorian Band among 
the Romans, and the Templars in Europe, how dangerous it 
might be to erect a standing authority of military men, which 
might easily, in time, overthrow the civil power." 

Thus the military idea began to show itself as a means of 
liberating people of the better classes from the theological and 
leveling democracy. During this time, the spirit of an inde- 
pendent state was developing. In 1642, the four New England 
colonies assumed some of the prerogatives of sovereignty, with 
the king as the knot of their union, in a "firm and perpetual 
league of friendship and amity for offence and defence." 
Massachusetts went further yet and established a mint in 1652 
and proceeded to coin her own money. However, this was dur- 
ing the protectorate of Cromwell over England and her de- 
pendencies. Cromwell favored Massachusetts and promoted 
the military spirit in the colony. He had relied on the same 
weapon in England to relieve himself from the narrowness and 
bigotry of the theological democracy in England. With the 
hypocrisy usual to members of that body, they had installed 
themselves as the supreme power of the English parliament 
and were proceeding to use the government for their own pur- 
poses and to shape its destinies to conform to their belief, when 
Cromwell appeared before them suddenly on the day of their 
most iniquitous proceedings. He accused them of corruption, 
hypocrisy and double-dealing and caused his soldiers to drive 
them from the seat of authority. "There is nothing in their 
minds but overturn, overturn," said he. 

Now the people in power in New England were mostly of the 
stamp of Praise God Bairbones parliament in England, and the 
religious persecution went on unrestricted. Later, after Crom- 
well 's government has passed away and Charles II. in 1660 had 
ascended the throne, the budget of complaints against the theo- 
logical democracy of Massachusetts for persecution, bloodshed, 
torture, banishment and loss of property and life was very 
large. The king sent commissioners to the colony in 1666 to 
report on these abuses of power. Commissioner Randolph de- 
clared that the better portion of the people had been driven 
away and that the public offices had fallen in the hands of the 


most virulent. Among others reported to the king as an abuse 
was the exercise of the sovereign prerogative of coining money ; 
for although the king had been proclaimed in the colony in 1661, 
the pine-tree shilling was coined the very next year without any 
other legend than that of the sovereignty of the colony. But the 
king was mollified considerably when Governor John Leverett, 
who had been summoned to England to answer for the colony, 
remarked that the figure on the coin was that of the Royal oak, 
which had sheltered his majesty after the Battle of Worcester 
— a witty reply which gained for the Massachusetts governor 
the honor of knighthood. 

While making the greatest professions of loyalty and agree- 
ing that all the requirements of their charter had been fulfilled, 
the investigation showed that Puritan loyalty was a lie and 
that they had not fulfilled one of the requirements which they 
had promised to fulfil. The king found it necessary therefore 
that a new charter be given so as to bring the officers in direct 
contact with his majesty's government, and that the governors 
be sent from England, so that they should not belong to any 
cabal in the colony. The Puritans had not proved themselves 
to be a trustworthy people. Their word could not be relied on. 

As an example of the prosecution of the leveling Puritan 
democracy of New England whose unethical and republican 
ideas were being put constantly in force against all comers who 
were different from them, the history of the early king's chapel 
of Boston is an enlightenment to those who are capable of profit- 
ing by a lesson. Besides, King's Chapel, although having pass- 
ed into the hands of the enemy, is the cradle of the United Em- 
pire Loyalists from Boston and vicinity. 

William Vassell had come over in 1630. He was so disgusted 
with Winthrop and others in authority who were ignoring their 
pledges to the crown, that he returned to England, but came 
back again to the colony determined to make a stand for free- 
dom of conscience and liberty of the individual. He commenced 
by sending in the following "Remonstrance and Humble Peti- 
tion" to the general court. This was signed by five others, 
among them being Samuel Maverick and Robert Child. 

"That they could not discern in this colony a settled form of 


government according to the laws of England, that many thou- 
sands in these plantations of the English nation were debarred 
all civil employments . . . and that numerous members of 
the Church of England . . . were detained from the seats 
of the covenant of free grace." 

They demanded relief from these disabilities and threatened 
if not relieved to appeal to the high court of England. The 
general court of Massachusetts, after a great delay, rejected 
their petition with coarse jocoseness. "And these are the 
champions," said the court, "who must represent the body of 
non-freemen. If this be their head sure they have an unsavory 
head, not to be seasoned by much salt." The petitioners were 
fined and their papers seized. 

When King Charles II. had come to the throne, the absolute 
rulership of this Puritan hypocrisy and chicanery was brought 
to an end. Bradstreet and Norton, June 28, 1662, received a 
letter from the king. It declared, that: 

"Since the principal end of that charter was, and is, the free- 
dom and liberty of conscience, we do hereby charge and re- 
quire you that freedom and liberty be duly admitted and al- 

The general court demurred, pursed up its lips and attempted 
to play hide and seek with the meaning of words, to hood-wink, 
in fact, to come a "Yankee trick" over the commissioners sent 
from England. But Commissioner Randolph, an old cavalier 
and royalist, did not fail to see through this chicanery. He 
wrote back to the king, that by the means employed by the lead- 
ers of the puritan democracy, the best people had been driven 
out of the colony or into retirement and that menials and ser- 
vants with pretentious mannerisms were in the high places. So 
the king thought he would abridge it all. 

The English king is head of the Anglican Church, and his 
own church could not exist in the colony under a government 
elected by the Puritans, although they had promised to respect 
the kings' authority, the Church of England and the laws of the 
realm. In order that the king's chapel could be built, then, it 
was necessarv to give Massachusetts a royal charter, in which 


the power of appointing the chief officers should reside in the 
crown. On Feb. 22, this charter was made. May 15, 1686, there 
entered Boston harbor the Rose, frigate, bearing a commission 
from the king to Joseph Dudley to act in the royal name as 
president of Massachusetts, Maine, Nova Scotia and the lands 
between. And with her came the Reverend Robert Radcliffe, 
first minister of the king's chapel. 

In October, 1688, the foundation of King's Chapel was laid 
on Tremont Street, in Boston, on the corner of what is now 
School Street. About that church gathered those far-seeing 
and high-minded royalists in the colony who beheld in the king's 
authority the only barrier against the narrow Puritan demo- 
cracy, that, when in power with brute force, and, when not in 
power, with cunning and chicanery, sought to accomplish its 
purpose. As Voltaire says, it is " better to be under the paw of 
the lion than be knawed by a million rats. ' ' 

The building of his majesty's chapel brought the royal char- 
ter to supercede the original permit of government, which had 
left the power in the hands of the majority to persecute those 
who did not believe as they. Even the land on which the chapel 
stands the king's governor was obliged to appropriate as the 
local authorities refused to sell, and the records show that he 
paid the original owners four-fold the value of the land. 

But, the time of the Puritan triumph was coming, again, and 
in it they were to show "what manner of men they were." 
When the House of Stuart that had created the church and 
charter ceased to reign in England in the person of King James 
II., who was succeeded by William of Orange, whom the treach- 
ery and Revolution of 1688 put on the throne, the Puritan mob 
in Boston, according to a pamphlet printed in London in 1690, 
entitled "New England's Faction Discovered," proceeded to 
their work. They seized the governor and principal members of 
the king's chapel and put them in prison. 

"The church, itself, had great difficulty to withstand their 
fury, receiving the marks of their indignation and scorn by 
having the windows broken and the doors and walls daubed and 
defiled with dung and other filth in the rudest and basest man- 
ner imaginable, and the minister for his safety was forced to 
leave the country and s>'o to England." 


But the revolution in England, of 1688, did not go so far as 
the Puritan democracy of Massachusetts had hoped. Sullenly 
but cringingiy they retraced their steps when King William of 
Orange showed that liberality which intelligent men hope ever 
to find in a king. He continued the royal favor to King's 
Chapel and presented the service with new silver. 

"It was the only building in New England where the forms 
of the court church might be witnessed. The prayers and 
anthems which sounded forth in the cathedrals of the mother- 
country were here no longer dumb. The equipages and uni- 
forms which made gay the little court of Boston brightened its 
portals. Within, the escutcheons of the royal governors hung 
against the pillars. At Christmas time it was the only church 
that was wreathed in green, or celebrated the nativity of Christ 
with gladness and song of rejoicing,— for Christmas had been 
forbidden to be celebrated among the Puritans, because they 
said it was popish and idolatrous," 4 

Here on the walls of the chapel were emblazoned in all the 
pomp of heraldry the royal arms, the arms of the royal gov- 
ernors, Dudley, Shute, Burnet, Belcher, Shirley and Andros, 
and those of Colonel Nicholson and Captain Hamilton. And 
what rays of chivalry had penetrated the thick and somber at- 
mosphere of Puritan bigotry and intolerance were focused into 
a brighter light in the immediate circle of those royalists who 
gathered within its walls. 

Sir William Shirley had done most to prop the royal cause 
in the colony, and, as a means to that end, had favored the 
king's chapel with all his influence. In 1741, just before he was 
appointed governor, Lieutenant-Governor Dunbar wrote, from 
New Hampshire to the Board of Trade : 

"New England might be made a very useful colony . . . 
were the Church of England encouraged, it would bring them 
(the people) to better principles than they are now of, being 
generally republicans." 

Another cause of trouble to the Puritan republicans was the 
culture of art and music, which the liberties of the new char- 

(4) History of King's Chapel, Vol. I. 


ter allowed to be encouraged with the building of King's Chapel. 
One very beautiful picture was Benjamin West's Last Supper, 
which was one of the adornments of the chapel's interior. At 
the time of the American Revolution, when the hand of lawless 
violence was unrestrained against everything that had pro- 
voked republican bigotry and hate, Mr. Davis, who had the 
guardianship of the picture, committed it to the protection of 
the republican leader, John Hancock, which protectorate seems 
to have terminated in proprietorship, without compensation to 
the original owners. 

Now it must not be thought that all the royalists in New 
England were Church of England men, or, that all in Boston 
were members of King's Chapel. Many of the Presbyterians 
who came to New Hampshire, New York and Virginia, espec- 
ially those from Ireland, among whose members were descend- 
ants of the Huguenots, who had followed the banner of the - 
Marquis de Rouvigni into England and Ireland in 1688-90, were 
distinctly royalists, although not ardent for the domination of 
England. Guizot notices the royalism of the Presbyterians in 
his "Vie de Charles I." In Britain, after the Church of Eng- 
land and the monarchy had been overthrown by Cromwell and 
the Puritans, it was the Presbyterians who pronounced against 
republicanism and took up arms for the king, and finally, witli 
General Monck at their head, proclaimed Charles II. as king 
and entered London with their armed hosts to restore the mon- 
archy. But among the royalists of King's Chapel alone at this 
time, immediately preceding the republican revolution of 1776, 
were Peter Faneuil, who gave Faneuil Hall to the city, Dr. 
Gardiner, who supplied the colonial troops with medicine free 
of charge, and Isaac Royall who founded the first law profes- 
sorship at Harvard University. Whatever was great and ex- 
cellent and unselfish belonged to them. They were, in truth, 
as Leckey, the historian, says, "The gentry of the colonies." 
The entire membership of King's Chapel were royalists to the 
core, loyal to the head of the colony, which head was the king, 
the emperor of all the provinces. 

A month after the royal authority had left Boston, in 1776, 
with the British troops and the members of King's Chapel, the 


chapel was reopened by the enemy, by the Puritan congrega- 
tional republicans, whose sires had opposed the erection of the 
church, and had "besmeared its walls with dung" during the 
disturbance of 1688. They came from the Old South meeting- 
house, and occupied the king's property without warrant; for 
the king's property passed to the commonwealth by act of the 
treaty of 1783, as the property of absentee royalists had passed 
before by the confiscation acts of 1778-9. In consequence of 
persecutions like the above, the democracy of Masschusetts Bay 
was deprived of its usurpation by order of King Charles II. 

The colony of Plymouth was united to that of Massachusetts 
Bay, under a royal charter from King Charles II., Feb. 22, 1669, 
with the following provisions : 

I. "That all householders, inhabiting in the colony, take the 
oath of allegiance, etc." 

II. "That all men of competent estate; that is men who own 
property enough to enable them to have a right to vote, and 
civil conversation, though of different judgments, may be ad- 
mitted to be freemen, and have liberty to choose and be chosen 
as officers both civil and military." 

III. "That all men and women of orthodox opinion, competent 
knowledge and civil lives (not scandalous) be admitted to the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper, and their children to baptism, 
if they desire it." 

IV. ' i That all laws and expressions of law derogatory to His 
Majesty, if any such have been made in these troublous times, 
be repealed, altered, and taken off from the file." 

The Plymouth colony had fulfilled all these provisions. The 
Massachusetts colony had violated every one. Yet the gover- 
nor and chief men of the colony testified that all had been car- 
ried out. In the first instance the oath of allegiance was not 
administered in Massachusetts at this time or before. In the 
second instance only those were allowed to vote who belonged 
to the Congregational church of the colony, and all others were 
persecuted. In the third instance no one but of the Congrega- 
tional church was permitted to receive the sacraments or bap- 
tism. Laws were made forbidding any other form of worship. 
It was an act of treason to appeal from the laws of the colony 
to the crown that had given the colony its charter. This was 


also a violation of the fourth requirement, because such laws 
were contrary to the charter from the crown on which the gov- 
ernment of the colony existed. Thus from the very beginning, 
the religious democracy of Massachusetts manifested a desire 
to be as far away from royal government as possible. 

Roger Williams, desirous of religious and political liberty, 
fled away from the tyranny of the Massachusetts democracy 
and founded the Providence Plantation in 1636, now known as 
Rhode Island. The Connecticut colony was established about 
the same time at Hartford and New Haven. 

Captain John Mason obtained a grant of land between the 
colony of Massachusetts and the Province of Maine, which lat- 
ter was conferred on Sir Ferdinand Gorges. Mason's land 
was known as New Hampshire and was a royal colony. Maine 
was under the proprietorship of Gorges, until 1690, when it 
was ceded to Massachusetts. 

Massachusetts then may be seen to have been not only the 
leading colony of the north, but the parent of three others. In- 
deed, her population flowed over into them all. Plymouth and 
the Province of Maine were incorporated with Massachusetts 
in 1690. Before this the governors had been elected by the peo- 
ple, after 1690 they were appointed by the crown, together with 
the Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of the Province and the 
councillors. The governor, under the last charter, appointed 
also, the judges, sheriffs, marshals, provosts and military offi- 
cers. The people of the colony elected their deputies to the gen- 
eral court as formerly, and any man was qualified to vote and 
serve in any office, if elected or appointed, if he possessed land 
in the province to the value of 40 shillings per annum or to the 
worth of £50 sterling. It was impossible after 1690 for the Pur- 
itan malignants to burn witches, persecute Quakers, drive off 
Episcopalians and disfranchise those who differed from them 
in opinions political and religious, because the chief magistrate 
was now appointed by the crown. 

{To be Continued.) 



IN the Detroit river, opposite the eastern part of the city of 
Detroit, and connected with it by a bridge, lies the beautiful 
island park of Belle Isle. It is the people's play-ground, 
free to their use for picnics, boating and bathing. All the 
year round they flock there ; in winter for skating and sleighing, 
and as the weather grows pleasant, from early morning until late 
evening, family parties bearing huge picnic-baskets, or youths 
and maidens with cameras and boat-cushions form a constant 
procession across the bridge, or pour over the gang-planks of 
the ferry-boats. There is room for all, and each may find a suit- 
able haunt. 

A system of canals through the island, miles long, and span- 
ned by charming little bridges, forms an ideal waterway for 
canoeists. There are smooth roads for the automobiles and 
pleasant groves for the picknickers, while on the upper part of 
the island, still stand the primeval forests almost untouched, 
dense with undergrowth, and in the spring, carpeted with innu- 
merable wild-flowers. 

As, on a summer-day, we watch the hundreds of brightly 
bedecked canoes which are paddled through the canals and along 
the shore of Belle Isle by laughing, happy, modern young peo- 
ple, our fancy, perhaps, goes back two hundred years to another 
vision of canoes bearing a duskier burden,— Indians with bright 
feathers and stern painted faces, seeking the shore of Belle 
Isle to avenge their outraged Manitou. 

So runs the legend : Many, many years ago, two French priests 
accompanied by seven other men and guided by a chart of the 
Great Lakes drawn on a sheet of bark with a piece of charcoal 
by an Indian, landed on the shore of the Detroit river where the 
great city now stands. They found there only beautiful virgin 
forest, bright with gorgeous birds and flowers and teeming with 





herds of deer and bison. As they wandered through the dense 
woods, suddenly they came upon an open clearing in the center 
of which rose a grassy mound bearing on its summit a rude, 
vermillion-painted idol before which had been placed, in profu- 
sion, offerings of tobacco, food, and skins of animals. 

Many tales had reached the missionaries of the Indians ' Great 
Manitou who governed the winds and whose mighty voice was 
heard when storms raged over the Great Lakes, and they knew 
that no Indian would venture on the bosom of these waters for 
a journey of any length, without an offering to appease this 
deity. Now, they felt, had been given to them the chance to make 
their first attack on such idolatry. Uniting all the strength of 
their party, they hurled the idol from its eminence, breaking it 
into a thousand pieces. In its place on the mound, they trium- 
phantly erected a cross, placing beneath it the arms of France, 
and an inscription stating that they had taken possession of the 
land in the name of the King. 

Seizing the largest fragment of the idol which remained, and 
hauling it to the shore, they lashed two canoes together and 
fastening to them the great piece of stone, towed it to the deep- 
est part of the river, where they sunk it beneath the waters, so 
that the Manitou could never more be reconstructed and wor- 
shipped by the Indians. 

After the priests were far away on their journey, a band of 
Indians coming with gifts for their Manitou, found to their 
astonishment and grief, only its shattered remains. Who would 
protect them now from the winds and the waves? Calling upon 
the name of their God, they sorrowfully gathered up the frag- 
ments of stone and placing them in their canoes, were guided by 
them to the spirit of the offended Manitou which had taken 
refuge under the dark, overhanging trees on the shore of Belle 
Isle. "Take all the fragments of stone," commanded the Mani- 
tou, "and scatter them along the shores of this island." 

The Indians obeyed, when behold ! each stone became a rattle- 
snake to guard the abode of the god from the intrusion of the 
hated white man. Even now, gay parties of pleasure-seekers 
floating on the waters of the river near Belle Isle on moonlight 
nights, sometimes arouse the angry spirits of the Manitou which 


slumbers there, and he vindictively throws back a mocking echo 
of their voices. 

All Detroiters know that our island park was once called ' ' Rat- 
tlesnake Island," on account of the number of these reptiles 
which infested it. Now, as there is one creature which is not 
afraid of a rattlesnake and can destroy it, and that is a hog, a 
drove of these animals was let loose on the island, and the rat- 
tlesnakes being exterminated by them, the island naturally took 
the name of the victors,— Hog Island. 

After having ascended from the Reptilian Age to the Age of 
Four-footed Beasts, the island finally reached the culmination 
of its upward development when it was stamped with the name 
of a beautiful woman, Miss Belle Cass, daughter of Gen. Lewis 
Cass. Since then it has been known and loved by the people of 
Detroit as " Belle Isle." 

The island of Bois Blanc lies at the mouth of the Detroit 
river. Being only an hour's steam-boat ride from Detorit, it is a 
favorite resort for excursions from the city. "Bois Blanc" 
means "white wood," the island being so called from a superb 
forest of white-wood trees which crowned it long ago. The 
variety of ways in which the name of this island is pronounced, 
has become a standing joke among Detroit people. Some folks 
call it, frankly and phonetically, ' ' Boys Blank. ' ' To others, with 
some pretense of a knowledge of the French language, it is " Boy 
Blong," but to the majority of happy excursionists who gather 
there, it is simply "Bob '-Low." 

On the southern end of the island is a light-house, whose bright, 
blinking eye nightly directs the big freighters on Lake Erie to 
the entrance of the Detroit river. Not far from the light-house 
stands an old block-house telling of the times when Indians and 
whites struggled together for supremacy. On this island, Tecum- 
seh and his braves, in 1813, awaited the issue of the Battle of 
Lake Erie; here, in 1722, a Huron mission flourished, and in 
1747 the Indians gathered on Bois Blanc to plan a massacre of 
the French at Fort Ponchartrain in Detroit. 

Many years ago, at a time when the Hurons were wont to erect 
their wigwams on the island of Bois Blanc, there lived a beautiful 
maiden,— White Fawn, daughter of a great Huron chief, but 


whose mother had belonged to the ' ' pale-face. ' ' Her father and 
mother both being dead, she lived with her father's tribe, which 
regarded her with much pride, and her admirers were "as numer- 
ous as the leaves of the forest." They wooed her according to 
the peculiar mode of Indian courtship, by whittling tiny sticks 
and throwing them at her. If she picked them up, favor was 
shown to the suit, but if she passed them unheeding, the Indian 
lover sadly gathered and buried them in token that his unrequited 
affection must be buried too. Among them all, there was only 
one, Kenen, a noted young Indian warrior whose love-tokens 
caused the maiden shyly to hesitate, showing that she needed 
more time to decide. 

One day, Kenen brought from the forest a white hunter whom 
he had accidentally wounded and left him with White Fawn, 
that she might nurse him back to health. The girl, anxious to 
please her lover, devoted her time to the injured white man, but 
alas, as she cared for him, the traditions of her mother's race 
spoke to her heart, the voice of her warrior lost its power, and 
she loved the white man. "The words of the pale-face became 
stars and the heart of the maiden the lake whereon they rested, 
and as he looked down he saw no other light reflected there." 

Kenen, noticing the change in his sweetheart, bitterly 
reproached, and charged her with loving the pale-face, but she 
only bowed her head in silence. Then, for a moment, in the 
Indian's uplifted hand, gleamed a knife above the maiden's 
breast; in another second, however, it was hurled far out into the 

"The arm of Kenen is stronger than his voice, and his anger 
like the mighty tempest that sweeps over the forest, but he is not 
strong enough to strike the heart of the White Fawn," he 

Shortly afterward the Hurons left Bois Blanc for their winter 
hunting-grounds, and later, in a fight with the Iroquois, the 
white hunter was captured and carried a prisoner to the island, 
where he had passed so many happy hours with White Fawn. 
He was bound to a tree, and the Indians had gathered in a 
remorseless circle about him to torture and kill him, when, into 
their midst, strode a. tall young warrior. 


"Have the Iroquois heard the name of Kenen?" he demanded. 

A murmur of astonishment ran through the band of Indians. 

"There is no greater in the Huron nation," replied their 

The warrior stood before them, his eyes flashing, his head 
raised haughtily. 

"Let the pale-face go," he commanded. "Kenen will die in 
his place." 

The Indians, hiding their surprise and exultation under their 
usual mask of stolidity, cut the cords which bound the white man, 
and Kenen whispered in his ear. 

"There is sorrow in the heart of the White Fawn and the eyes 
of Kenen cannot look upon it. Go to her. ' ' 

All had taken place so quickly that before the white man 
scarcely realized what was done, or had a chance to make 
remonstrance, he had been led to the shore, placed in a canoe, and 
strong Indian arms were paddling him towards the shore. That 
night the soul of Kenen on its journey to the "Happy Hunting 
Grounds," lingered for a time above the wigwam of the White 
Fawn in the camp of the Hurons ere it was wafted upward to the 
reward of the true and the brave. 



THE O'Hara Family, of Ireland, from which the 
O 'Haras of western Pennsylvania are descended, is 
of old and distinguished lineage, tracing to the an- 
cient Celtic kings of Ulster. Teige Buihde O'Hara, 
the last Lord of Leyney, was killed by an O'Connor. His son 
was Teige Oge O'Hara, who left two sons, John and Cormac; 
the elder son forfeited his estate under the Cromwellian settle- 
ment of Ireland. Charles O'Hara, son of Cormac O'Hara, was 
the father of Sir Charles O'Hara, Baron Tyrawley, whose son, 
James O'Hara, was the second Lord Tyrawley. Felix O'Hara, 
a nephew of Sir Charles O'Hara, was a major in Dillon's Regi- 
ment of the Irish Brigade, in the service of France and his son, 
John O'Hara, born in France, was also a major in the same reg- 
iment, General James O'Hara, the revolutionary patriot of 
Pennsylvania, was a son of Major John D. O'Hara. 

General James O'Hara Avas the first Napoleon of industry in 
Pittsburgh, Pennslyvania. There he was the pioneer of the 
glass industry, a shipbuilder and merchant, founder of the 
Schenley and Denny estates and the first quartermaster-gen- 
eral of the United States army. 

General O'Hara was born in Ireland about 1751, received a 
good education in France, and was commissioned in the cele- 
brated Cold Stream Guards. Coming to America in 1772, and 
landing in Philadelphia, he entered the service of a firm in that 
city as Indian trader, an occupation which took him to west- 
ern Virginia. Afterwards, from December, 1773, until March, 
1774, he was employed by Devereux Smith and Ephraim Doug- 
las, of Pittsburgh, in the same capacity. In 1774 he was ap- 
pointed government agent among the Indians, and so continued 
until the outbreak of the War of the Revolution. While thus 
employed, he made many friends among the Indians, acquired 
a knowledge of the wily Indian character and learned many of 



their dialects, all which, added to his fluency in French, was 
of great value to him in after years. His many hair-breadth 
escapes from Indians and other dangers are more thrilling, in 
their telling. Upon one occasion, having been sent^ to the upper 
Moravian town on the Muskingum river, he was apprised by 
a friendly Indian runner that a party of hostiles were on their 
way to capture or kill him. Heckvelder, the celebrated Mor- 
avian missionary, immediately procured for him a conductor, 
and with this Indian for a guide he set out for Fort Pitt. They 
were successful in throwing the hostile Indians off the trail 
and reached Fort Pitt in safety. This Indian, with his father, 
mother, and entire family, was massacred by the whites at 
Gnadenhutton a few years afterwards. 

At the breaking out of the Revolution, James O'Hara en- 
listed in the Virginia regiment as a private, but was almost im- 
mediately promoted to a captaincy, and raised and equipped 
his own company. He was stationed at Fort Kanawha, to hold 
the Indians in check and prevent them from aiding the British 
forces and was with the famous expedition of General George 
Rogers Clarke against Vincennes and other border towns, in 
pursuit of the Indians. The hardships of the march were 
severe, but the success of the expedition insured the safety of 
the western frontier from the savage incursions of the Indians. 
After the completion of that campaign, O'Hara 's company was 
so reduced (numbering only twenty-nine men) that it was an- 
nexed to the Ninth Virginia regiment, and Captain O'Hara, 
being relieved, was sent to Pittsburgh with dispatches. 

In 1780, Captain O'Hara was appointed commissary of the 
general hospital in Carlisle, Pa. In 1781 he was made assist- 
ant quartermaster-general and attached to General Greene's 
command during the campaign against Cornwallis in the Caro- 
linas. From a brief diary kept by him at that time, it appears 
that he was present at Cowpens, Guilford Court House, and 
Eutaw Springs. Little is known of his participation in Greene's 
campaign in the south, except that he was with ' ' Mad Anthony ' ' 
Wayne's army and, as quartermaster, provided for the troops. 

At the close of the war, Captain O'Hara returned with Gen- 
eral Wayne to Philadelphia, where he married Miss Mary Car- 


son, daughter of William Carson of that city. From there he 
took his newly wedded wife to Pittsburgh, over the mountains 
in a wagon, the only means of transportation except on foot or 
horseback. His residence then consisted of a log house, but in 
it were all the comforts and many luxuries of the age, includ- 
ing carpets, then almost unknown in the western country. 

After the close of the War of the Revolution, Captain 6 'Hara 
took the contract to furnish supplies to General Harmar's army 
during the campaign against the western Indians, and was ap- 
pointed to act as Quartermaster and Paymaster. The succes- 
sive defeats of Harmar and St. Clair had filled the frontier col- 
onists with alarm. 

In 1789, Captain 'Hara, as presidential elector, cast his vote 
for General George Washington to be the first president of the 
United States. Tn 1792 he was commissioned quartermaster- 
general of the United States Army and served as such until 
179(). In that capacity he accompanied General Wayne, in 1794, 
in the campaign which brought the Indians to terms. 

All the duties pertaining to these offices were performed with 
ability and fidelity. His tours of inspection and supervision 
led him not only through western Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
Ohio, but to New York and Michigan, and through Illinois to 
Kentucky and Tennessee. These journeys were mainly made 
on horseback by a trail or bridle path through an otherwise 
trackless wilderness, or, if by water, in a skiff or canoe, or, at 
best, a barge; but, whether by land or warter, encountering 
dangers from savage Indians and savage beasts. 

After his services in the Revolution and in the wars with the 
Indians which followed, General O'Hara returned to Pittsburgh 
and devoted his energies to mercantile and industrial pursuits. 
He was the pioneer in all the industries which have made Pitts- 
burgh great. He established a glass works in 1795. The diffi- 
culties he surmounted can scarcely be realized in this day; the 
pots were made in Pittsburgh, but the clay for making them 
was brought from Germany and Philadelphia, being trans- 
ported from the latter place across the mountains on the backs 
of pack horses or mules. The expense was enormous, but at 
last heroic endeavor was rewarded and the first bottle of green 


glass was turned out at a cost of thirty thousand dollars — 
quite a little fortune in those days. 

A project of more imposing and daring proportions, so far 
as transportation was concerned, was General O'Hara's origi- 
nal scheme to bring salt from New York State to Fort Pitt. 
During the period when he was supplying the northwestern 
army he found that salt from the Onondaga works could be 
furnished more cheaply than salt brought from Baltimore. But 
the great difficulty lay in transporting it, as there were no 
good roads, no vessels on the lakes, and no efficient means 
of water carriage down the Allegheny River. All these had to 
be provided. General O'Hara, however, quailed at nothing. 
He created the entire line of transportation, building vessels on 
Lake Erie, buying wagons and securing boats for the river car- 
riage. The road to French Creek from Erie was improved also. 
Flour and provisions, packed in barrels suitable for salt, were 
sent from Pittsburgh, General O'Hara reserving the barrels in 
his contract. The undertaking was a complete success. The 
salt was set down in Pittsburgh at four dollars per bushel, and 
the salt-carrying trade over the Allegheny Mountains was 
brought to an end. Later the price was reduced to two dol- 
lars and forty cents per bushel. 

General O'Hara also built ships at Pittsburgh. They cleared 
from this inland port and made voyages to Liverpool, South 
America, and the West Indies, taking a cargo of fur and pel- 
tries for the English port, and flour for South America and 
the West Indies. In 1805 he built the General Butler, which 
sailed for Liverpool, taking a cargo of glass for river ports and 
taking on a shipment of cotton at New Orleans. A return cargo 
was also taken on. Captain Samuel Lake was the captain, and 
W. C. O'Hara, the General's eldest son, was supercargo. In 
May, 1807, the new ship again sailed down the Ohio, but was 
captured by a Spanish schooner in the Caribean Sea and taken 
to Vera Cruz. The Betsey, another vessel built by him, plied 
between Baltimore and the West Indies. 

General O'Hara's hospitality was famous. His house was al- 
ways open to rich and poor alike. When Louis Philippe, heir 
to the throne of France, came to Pittsburgh, with General 


Moreau and other French officers, the General entertained them. 
Louis was then in exile on account of the French Revolution. 

When the Branch Bank of Pennsylvania was established in 
Pittsburgh in 1804, General O'Hara was chosen one of the di- 
rectors and succeeded General John Wilkins, who was the first 
president. This was the first bank established west of the Al- 
legheny Mountains. 

General O'Hara died, in the sixty-seventh year of his age, on 
the twenty-first of December, 1819, at his home in Water Street, 
and the entire town mourned. It is said that at his coffin the 
tears of the rich and poor were commingled, for he had been the 
firm friend of both, treating all with justice. His wife, Mary 
Carson O'Hara, survived him several years. She died April 
8, 1834, aged seventy-three. The children of General O'Hara 
were : 

William Carson O'Hara, who married his cousin, Mary Car- 
son and died without issue; James O'Hara, who married Eliz- 
abeth Neville and died without issue; Charles O'Hara, who 
died young; Richard Butley O'Hara, who married Mary Fitz- 
simmons and had issue; Elizabeth Febiger O'Hara, who mar- 
ried Harmer Denny and had issue; Mary Carson O'Hara, who 
married William Croghan of Louisville, and had issue. 

New -York Weekly JOURNAL 

Containing the freflxft Advices, Foreign, and Vomeftick. 

MUNDJ T January 27th, 1734.. 

Jujlum et tenatem propofiti Virum, 
Kon civium Ardor prava jnbentium, 
Kon Vultus infiantis Tyrannic 
Mente quatit foliaa. 


HE fipft effential Ingre- 
dient NecefTary to 
form a Patriot, is Im- 
partiality •, tor if a 
Perfon (hall think 
himfelf bound by 
any other Rules but thofe of his own 
Reafon and Judgment, or obliged to 
follow the Dictates of others, who 
(hall appear the. Heads of the 1 Party 
he is ingaged in, lie (inks below the 
Dignity of a Humane Creature, , and 
voluntarily refigns thofe Guides which 
Nature has given him, to direct' him 
in all Spheres of Life. 

The Coldnefs, and fometimes Dif- 
dain, which a Man governed thus by 
the Principles of Honour generally 
meets with on fuch Occafions from 
the Friends he has ever acted in Con- 
cert with, for the former Part of his 
Life, are ConfideniWJns which but 
too often fubdue the bed inclined Spi- 
rits, and prevail with 'them to be 
paflive and obedient, rather than ac- 
tive and refolute : But if fuch Per- 
fons could but once feel the Comfort 
and Pleafure of having done their 
Duty, they would meet with a fuffi- 
cient Reward within themfelves, to 
over ballance the Lofs of their Friends, 
* r the Malke lof their Enemies* 

Ambition and Avarice are two V\- 
ces, which are directly oppofite toffctfJ 
Character of a Patriot, for tho* an 
Jncreafe of Power, or of Riches, may 
be the proper Reward of Honourjjui 
Merit, apd the moft honeft Statefman 
may, with Juftice accept of either; 
yet when the Mind is infected with a 
Thirft after them, all Notions of 
Truth, Principle and Independency 
are Loft in fuch Minds, and, by 
growing Slaves to their own Paffions, 
they become Naturally fubfervient to 
thofe who can indulge and gratify 

Jn public Affairs it is the Duty of 
every Man to be free from perfooal 
Prejudices \ neither ought we to op- 
pofe any Step that is taking for the 
Good of our Country, purely beeaufe 
thofe that are the Contrivers and Ad- 
vifers of it, are Obnoxious to us. 
There are but too many Precedents of 
this Nature, when Men have caft the 
mod black Colours on the Wifeft of 
Adminiftrations, beeaufe thofe that 
had the Direction of Affairs were 
their Enemies in private Life; and 
this illWay of Judging may be atten- 
ded with dangerous Confequences to 
the common Weal. 

Intrepidity and Firmnef6 are two 
Virtues which every Patriot ma(t be 
Mafter of, or elfe all the other TalenW 
he is poftefs'd of are ufelefsand barren. 

Whoever, therefore, when he has 
formed a Judgment on any Subject re- 





Arms of the Bruces and Collateral Families 

AS to armorial bearings, in the early centuries of the 
Christian era, either none were worn, or they were 
continually changed, says Hemy Drummond, the anti- 
quarian. In some instances they were even taken irre- 
spective of relationship, and in other cases members of the same 
family varied them as suited their respective inclinations. Arms 
of the Bruces in the different branches, and of the leading Scot- 
tish families that became allied to the Bruces, are given here- 

Bruce— The bearings of the original stock of the Scottish 
Bruces were: a lion rampant azure on a field argent. Alan de 
Brusee had : a lion rampant gules on a field or. The Skelton line 
adopted a lion rampant azure on a field argent, and the Brember 
line a lion or on a field azure. Jacques de Breze, Baron de 
Brieuze, marshal of Normandy, had : a lion rampant azure on a 
field or. After the Bruces became fully established in Scotland 
many changes were made in their arms. Robert Brusee, Robert 
Le Meschin, the fourth of the name, had : or, a saltire and chief 
gules. Robert Bruce, sixth of the name, had: or, a saltire gules, 
chief argent, a lion passant. The same Robert Bruce used as a 
seal the arms of the earls of Huntingdon. The arms of King 
Robert Bruce were: or, a saltire gules, on a chief gules, a lion 
passant, Edward Bruce of Blairhall had: or, a saltire gules, 
chief gules charged with a crescent. George Bruce of Camock 
had: quarterly, first and second argent, a lion rampant azure; 
second and third or, a saltire and chief gules. The Bruces of 
Carrick adopted the arms of the Bruces barons of Annandale: 
or, a saltire and chief gules; in a later generation one of the 

(301 1 


Ailesbury branches of the family used the same arms with a lion 
rampant azure on a canton argent. 

Huntingdon— Nisbet the antiquarian observed: 

" David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of King William of 
Scotland, did not use the entire arms of his grandfather, King 
David I., but only a small part of them; argent, an escutcheon 
within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered gules. He 
had the field of his arms argent and not of the metal or, that of 
Scotland, because it was the field of arms of his grandmother, 
daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland and Hunting- 

Robert Bruce of Annandale sometimes bore the arms of Hunt- 

Waltheof— The last Saxon earl of Northumberland, Wal- 
theof, ancestors of the earls of Huntingdon, had: argent, a lion 
rampant azure, chief gules. 

Orkney— The arms of the earldom of Orkney were: azure, a 
ship at anchor, oars in saltire and sails furled within a double 
tressure, flory and counterflory or. 

Caithness— The arms of the ancient earldom of Caithness 
were: azure, a ship under sail or, the sails or. 

Normandy— William the Conqueror used the arms of his great 
ancestor, Rollo, the first duke of Normandy: gules, two lions 
passant, guardant or. 

Gloucester— The earls of Gloucester— de Clare— who were 
the ancestors of Isabel de Clare, who married the seventh Robert 
Bruce, had: three chevrons or, gules. This line became extinct 
in 1313. 

Warren— The earls of Warren and Surrey had: chequy, or 
and azure. 

De Burgh— The first earl of Ulster, Richard de Burgh of Ire- 
land, whose great-granddaughter, Elizabeth Aylmer de Burgh, 
was the second wife 0]f King Robert Bruce, had: or, a cross, 

Elgin and Kincardine— The lords of Kinloss and the .earls 
of Elgin and Kincardine with their near connections have had 
almost exclusive distinction as the remaining direct line of male 
descendants from King Robert Bruce. As has been genealogic- 


ally shown on other pages, they are derived from the Clackman- 
nan branch of tne Bruce stock, which has been the one line most 
conspicuously preserved in its identity. The arms of the earls 
of Elgin and Kincardine are: or, a saltire and chief gules, on a 
canton argent, a lion rampant azure; crest, a lion statant azure; 
supporters, two savages proper wreathed about the head and mid- 
dle with laurel vert; motto: Fuimus. 

Ailesbury— The Ailesbury branch, Barons Bruce of Whorl- 
ton, Yorkshire, now extinct, had these arms: or, a saltire and 
chief gules, on a canton argent a lion rampant azure,— the same 
as the earls of Elgin and Kincardine, to whom they were allied. 
The arms of the modern Ailesbury family are: quarterly, first 
and fourth or, a saltire and chief gules, on a canton argent, a 
lion rampant azure, for Bruce; second and third argent, a 
chevron gules between three morions or steel caps azure, for 
Brudenell; crests, first, a seahorse argent, and second, a lion 
passant azure ; supporters, two savages proper wreathed around 
the loins and temples vert, each supporting in the exterior hand 
a flag, thereon the first quarter of the arms for Bruce ; motto : 

Clackmannan— The arms of Bruce of Clackmannan in the 
sixteenth century were: or a saltire and chief gules, the latter 
charged with a mullet argent in dexter chief. Later arms of this 
branch are: or, a saltire and chief gules; crest, a hand in armor 
proper (including the upper part of the elbow) issuing out of a 
cloud, grasping a sceptre, and signed on the point with a closed 
crown or; supporters, dexter, the lion of England, and sinister, 
the royal unicorn of Scotland ; motto, Fuimus. These were the 
heraldic ensigns of Henry Bruce, the last of the ClaekmanrTas. 
They were also carried by David Bruce in 1686, who added the 
motto: No deest generoso pectori virtus. 

Cultmalindie— Robert Bruce of Cultmanlindie had: quar- 
terly, first and fourth, or a saltire and chief gules, charged with 
a mullet or ; second and third gules, a lion rampant argent. 

Devonshire — The arms of the Cavendish family, dukes of 
Devonshire, to which the marriage of Christiana Bruce to Will- 
iam Cavendish gave added distinction, are: sable, three bucks' 
heads, caboshed argent; crest, a serpent, nowed, proper; sup- 


porters, two bucks proper, each wreathed around the neck with 
a chaplet of roses alternately argent and azure; motto, Cavefido 

Stewart— The arms of the Stewarts were: or, a fesse chequy 
argent and azure. These arms were quartered by the several 
branches of the family. 

Moray— The Randolphs who were Earls of Moray were Bruces 
through Isabel Bruce,— sister of King Robert Bruce I.,— who 
married Thomas Randolph. The earldom became extinct in 
1465. The arms were: or, three cushions, two and one of a 
lozenge form, with a double tressure, flory and counterflory gules. 

Dunbar— The arms of the ancient house of Dunbar were: 
gules, a lion rampant argent, within a bordure of the last, charged 
with eight roses of the field. The earlier seals exhibit simply 
the lion rampant, the bordure of roses being, according to Nisbet, 
the badge of the comital office of the Patrick Dunbar who was 
first designated earl of March. 

Elphinston— The arms of the Elphinston family are: argent, 
a chevron sable between three boars' heads, erased gules, armed 
of the first; crest, a lady, from the middle, richly attired proper, 
holding in her dexter hand a castle argent, and in her sinister 
hand a branch of laurel proper; supporters, two savages 
proper with laurel garlands around their heads and loins and 
carrying clubs on their shoulders proper; motto, Cause causit. 

Oliphant— The arms of the Oliphants are: gules, three cres- 
cents argent; crest, a unicorn's head, couped, argent, maned 
and horned, or; supporters, two elephants proper; motto: A 
tout pourvoir. 

Vipont— The Viponts of Scotland have for arms: gules, six 
mascles, three, two and one or. 

Campbell— The oldest arms of the Campbells of Lochow 
were: gyronny of eight or and sable. The arms of the later 
Campbells of Glenlyon, with whom the Bruces married, are in 
part like those of the earls of Breadalbane, also a Bruce family. 
They are: quarterly, first and fourth, gyronny of eight or and 
sable, for Campbell ; second, or, a fesse chequy argent and azure, 
for Stewart ; third, argent, a lymphad, her sails furled and oars 
in action, all sable, for Lorn; in the centre of the quarters a 



man's heart gules, crowned or; crest, a demi-lion porper with 
a collar gyronny of eight or and sable and holding in his dexter 
paw a heart crowned as in the arms ; motto, Quae recta sequer. 
Campbell of Barbreek, descended from Sir Colin Campbell of 
Lochow, nephew of Sir Robert Bruce, had: quarterly, first and 
fourth, gyronny of eight or and sable; second, argent a broad- 
sword in bend gules, hilted sable; third, argent, a castle triple- 
towered sable; on an escutcheon of pretence sable, a boar's head 
erased or, a crescent argent in chief; crest, a lion's head affrontee 
proper; motto, I bear in mind. 


Bruces in America 
George Bruce of New York and His Descendants 

THE ancient Scottish family of Bruce has been trans- 
planted to America at different periods of our country's 
history by various emigrants. These representatives 
settled in several states and their descendants have been 
numerous and influential in many communities. Pre-eminent 
among these American branches are those established by the 
brothers David Bruce and George Bruce, the celebrated type- 
founders, both whom were conspicuous citizens of New York in 
their generation. This memoir is concerned with the younger 
of these brothers, George Bruce, his wife, Catherine (Wolfe) 
Bruce,— daughter of David Wolfe,— and their children. 

George Bruce, son of John and Janet (Gilbertson) Bruce,- was 
born in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 26, 1781. His eldest brother, 
David Bruce, came to America about 1790, establishing himself 
in the printing business in Philadelphia. During the Napoleonic 
wars, John Bruce, a younger son of this family, lost his life in the 
army in Egypt, and, the family fearing to lose another of its 
members in the same way, George Bruce followed his brother to 

Upon arriving in Philadelphia, the Scotch laddie, then only 
fourteen years old, obtained employment with a firm of book 
printers and binders. In 1797, he entered the office of the Phil- 


adelphia Gazette, an afternoon paper rejoicing in a circulation 
of some two thousand. There he remained about a year, when, to 
escape the yellow fever epidemic then raging, he and his brother 
left the Quaker City. He was attacked by fever on Ms way north 
and, being unable to obtain a place to stop, remained in a shed, 
being taken care of by his brother; he always believed that he 
owed his life to this enforced fresh-air treatment. The two 
brothers proceeded to New York and from there went to Albany, 
where they were employed in the office of the Sentinel, which did 
the official printing for the state legislature. 

In the spring of 1799, the brothers went to New York city, a 
removal which was destined to be permanent and to lead them to 
both fortune and fame. George Bruce, now in his eighteenth 
year, secured a position in the printing establishment of the Mer- 
cantile Advertiser, owing to his youth being able to obtain only 
three-fourths journeyman's wages. Subsequently he was 
employed on books in the offices of Isaac Collins, James Crane, 
and T. & J. Woods. During this time the Franklin Typograph- 
ical Association was organized by the journeyman printers of the 
city, about fifty signing the constitution, and he was elected its 
secretary— an evidence of the substantial standing which already 
he had attained in his craft. In 1802, he became connected with 
the office of the Daily Advertiser, of which he was made foremau 
in the course of a year; later, he assumed entire responsibility 
for the publication of the paper, his name appearing as its printer 
in the volumes for 1803, 1804, and 1805. 

About the end of 1805 Mr. Bruce embarked in the printing- 
business on his own account, and among other works issued from 
his press were reprints of various standard books from England. 
Joining in partnership with his brother, the firm of D. & G. Bruce, 
which afterwards attained a wide celebrity, was organized. 
With a new press and types from Philadelphia, ' ' they established 
themselves in the upper part of a house at the southwest corner 
of Wall and Pearl streets. The apartment, which they hired of 
Miss Rivington, was the same which had been occupied by her 
father, as the king's printer, during the Revolutionary War." 
Marked prosperity attended this venture, and within a brief time 
the firm had nine presses in operation. As an instance of their 
vigorous enterprise, it is noteworthy that they regularly brought 


out reproductions of the Edinburgh, London, and Quarterly 
Reviews, the first American reprints of those British periodicals. 

In 1812 was taken the first step which resulted in the introduc- 
tion by them of the art of stereotyping in America, and, incident- 
ally, in establishing of their great type-founding business. During 
that year David Brace made a visit to England to look into the 
merits of the stereotyping process, then newly invented and 
known only to a Mr. Walker of London and to the printers to 
the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. He obtained by pur- 
chase the rights to the process, and in 1814 the Bruce firm issued 
the first edition of the New Testament from plates stereotyped 
in America, while in 1815 the first edition of the Bible was 
thus produced. As a measure of economy, to provide the requisite 
qualities of type for stereotyping, a type-foundry was begun, at 
first as a mere incident of the printing business. Owing to betrayal 
of trust by one of the workmen of the establishment, the stereo- 
typing business did not continue profitable. On the other hand 
the type-founding department speedily grew in importance, and 
after the retirement of David Bruce in 1822, George Bruce, who 
succeeded to the direction of the concern, turned his energies 
exclusively to type manufacture. 

The Bruce foundry under his management promptly took rank 
among the leading establishments of its kind in the world. The 
personal contributions of George Bruce towards the perfecting 
of type manufacture, in both its mechanical and its artistic 
aspects, were in the highest degree noteworthy, leaving a last- 
ing impress upon the progress of that industry. 

" Aiming to attain to the best process of 'punch-cutting,' he 
was enabled to produce many fonts of type for ordinary use" of 
the most perfect symmetry, while his fancy types and borders 
were of such variety and excellence as to enable the letter-press 
printer to rival the productions of the copper-plate presses in 
superior execution and effect. He himself cut two fonts of beauti- 
ful 'script' probably yet unexcelled. He formed a new scale for 
the bodies of printing type, by means of which each body bears 
a certain relative proportion to the next, thus leading to the pres- 
ent perfect 'point' system adopted by printers generally. His 
nephew, David Bruce, Jr., invented the only type-casting machine 
that has stood the test of practical work and is now in general use. 
To this he added some improvements and bought the patent from 
his nephew." 


For many years George Bruce was president of the Mechanics ' 
Institute of New York city and the Type Founders' Association. 
He was a member, among other organizations, of the New York 
Historical Society, Saint Andrew's Society, and the General 
Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen. Says one of his biogra- 
phers : 

' 'He was a man of great thought, quiet benevolence, of thorough 
business integrity and loyalty to principle, and of unusual force 
of character. The success he achieved was due to his own intel- 
ligent foresight and patient attention to business. He never 
received financial aid in his business or otherwise, but, always 
living within his income, was able to permit himself the luxury 
of assiting others." 1 

He died in New York, July 5, 1866. 

He married, in 1811, Catherine Wolfe, daughter of David 
Wolfe of New York. 
Issue : 

1. Janet (Jenet) Bruce. She married Dr. G. Brown of Newburgh, N. Y., 
and left one son? G. Bruce Brown, of whom below. 

2. Catherine Wolfe Bruce, of whom below. 

3. David Wolfe Bruce. He died March 13, 1895, in his seventy-first year. 
He was named from his maternal grandfather. Succeeding to the conduct of 
the Bruce type-foundry, he manged it successfully until his retirement from active 
business. Like his father, he was a man of high business and personal standing in 
the community. 

4. Matilda Wolfe Bruce, who is now the only survivor of this family. Her 
home is in New York city. 

5. George Wolfe Bruce. He was born in 1828 and died November 14, 1887. 
He attended Columbia College, but before graduation left to engage in business, 
becoming one of the most reputable merchants in New York. 


Catherine Wolfe Bruce was born in New York and died 
March 13, 1900. She left an enduring name in connection with 
the encouragement and advancement of educational and scientific 
interests, especially in the department of astronomical science. 
From the early age of five years she loved the science of astron- 
omy. Her services for the promotion of astronomical work are 
known throughout the world, and were the more valuable for 
being judiciously directed. During her lifetime she gave in 
excess of $200,000 to that end. To the Harvard Observatory she 

i. "Memorial History of New York," Biog. Vol., p. 2T,. 


presented the splendid Bruce photographic telescope, with which 
much of the most notable scientific work of our times has been 
achieved, including the discovery of Phoebe, the satellite of 
Saturn, by Professor W. H. Pickering, in August, 1898. This 
instrument is in constant use for photographing, and for spec- 
troscopic plates showing the composition of stars too faint to be 
studied in this way elsewhere. In 1897 she established a fund 
under the auspices of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, to 
provide for the award of a gold medal annually for distinguished 
achievements in astronomy. Her benefactions in other direc- 
tions, and her contributions to charity, were large. 

At the time of her death the following tribute, signed W. L. 
K. was published in the New York Tribune of March 25, 1900 : 

"Miss Catherine Wolfe Bruce, who died after a long illness at her home, No. 
810 Fifth Avenue, on the night of March 13, deserves more than the ordinary 
obituary record, for she was a woman of the hightest character, and contributed 
nobly of her means to the cause of charity, of education, and of science. The 
George Bruce Free Library she built, established, and endowed, and it is to-day 
one of the most flourishing branches of the free-library system. Her benefactions 
in the cause of astronomy are known all over the world, and her name is identi- 
fied with many important advances in that science. She corresponded with eminent 
professors here and in Europe, and was the recipient of distinguished honors for 
her interest and service. A gold metal was presented to her by the Grand Duke 
of Baden, and she enjoyed the signal distinction of having her name given to a 
newly discovered asteroid. Upward of $200,000 has been her contribution to the 
science she loved. Her charitable gifts and those of private benevolence need not 
be mentioned here. 

"Miss Bruce was the daughter of George Bruce, the famous typefounder, whose 
work has stood the test of time and change, and is still in use at the present day. 
Naturally she was interested in the art of printing— that art 'preservative of all 
arts,' as she was fond of quoting. It has been said that she was an accomplished 
woman. She had made a study of painting and was a painter herself. She knew 
Latin, German, French, and Italian, and was familiar with the literature of those 
languages. She wrote and published in 1890 a translation of the Dies Irae. For 
many years she was an invalid, and deprived of that society which her talents and 
* character well fitted her to adorn. She was always patient and uncomplaining, 
and entirely resigned to the will of the Almighty Disposer of Events. She has 
left a gracious memory of good and generous deeds and an impressive example 
of noble womanhood." 


George Bruce Brown, son of Dr. George Brown and his wife, 
Janet (Janet) Bruce, married, first, Virginia McKesson; second, 
Ruth Arabella Loney— Mrs. Bruce-Brown. 


Issue (by first wife) : 

i. George McKesson Brown. * 

2. Catherine Wolfe Brown, who married Allen Donellan Loney and had 
Virginia Bruce Loney. 

(By second wife) : ■ 

3. William Bruce-Brown. 

4. David Loney Bruce-Brown. 

In America four generations of the old Lutheran family Wolfe 
have been resident in New York city in the line of Catherine Lor- 
illard Wolfe, of beloved memory, and her honored father, John 
David Wolfe (second of that name), each reflecting credit upon 
the name and being remembered for its usefulness in the com- 
munity. The family became allied to the Bruces by the marriage 
of Catherine Wolfe, daughter of David and Catherine (Forbes) 
Wolfe, to George Bruce. 

John David Wolfe, who established the family in America, 
was born of Lutheran parents in Saxony, Germany, October 
13, 1693. He came to the province of New York in the first quar- 
ter of the eighteenth century, at the time of the notable German 
movement to the American shores. Entering upon business, he 
soon attained a substantial position in the commercial world and 
from the outset of his career enjoyed excellent social standing. 
He died in 1795. He married, in the Dutch Church, November 
21, 1747, the widow Catherine Busch, who survived him: Issue: 
1. David Wolfe, of whom below. 2. Christopher Wolfe. 3. Maria 
Wolfe. 4. John Albert Wolfe. 

David Wolfe, son of the preceding, was born in New York, 
August 21, 1748. Inheriting the paternal home, he lived there 
during nearly the whole of his life of eighty-three years. He was 
one of the first to volunteer in the cause of American indepen- 
dence, and became captain of a company of militia. He continued 
in the service until the end of the Revolution, being for a portion 
of the time quartermaster in Washington's army under Quarter- 
master-General Timothy Pickering. After receiving his honor- 
able discharge he engaged in the hardware trade in New York. 
He died August 13, 1836. He married Catharine Forbes. Issue: 
1. John David Wolfe, o,f whom below. 2. Catharine Wolfe, who 
married George Bruce. 3. Harriet Matilda Wolfe, who married 
Japhet Bishop. 


John David Wolfe, son of the preceding, was born in New 
York, July 24, 1792. Succeeding his father in business, he was 
a man of consummate business abilities, and enjoyed a high 
degree of prosperity. The last thirty years of his life were spent 
in retirement from active pursuits and in works of benefaction 
and philanthropy. 

He was for many years a vestryman of Trinity Church, and 
later was senior warden of Grace Church. He was deeply inter- 
ested in the work of the American Museum of Natural History, 
of which he served some time as president. He died May 17, 
1872. He married Dorothea Ann Lorillard, daughter of Peter 
A. Lorillard, of the second American Lorillard generation, and 
his wife, Maria Dorothea Schultz. Issue: 1. A daughter who 
died young. 2. Catherine Lorillard Wolfe, of whom below. 

Catherine Lorillard Wolfe was born in New York, March 
8, 1828. She was by far the most notable American woman of 
her time in works of philanthropy. 

"At first her benefactions amounted to $100,000 per year, but 
as her resources increased they rose to an average of more than 
double that sum. It is estimated that in the last fifteen years of 
her life, she gave away more than $4,000,000. She fostered all 
the charities established by her father, and carried out his design 
by purchasing thirteen acres at Fordham, N. Y., which she gave 
as a site for the Home for Incurables. She built schools and 
churches in many places, West and South; added to the funds 
of the Seminary at Alexandria, Egypt, and to the American 
School in Athens, and contributed largely to the building of the 
American chapels in Rome and Paris. She distributed large 
amounts annually to indigent clergymen or their families left 
destitute, as also to the deserving poor in general through the 
ministers and charitable institutions of the Protestant Episcopal 
church and aided many religions and educational institutions. In 
1884, she supplied funds for the expedition of exploration to 
Asia under charge of Dr. William H. Ward, which opened the 
way for important archaeological discoveries." 2 

She died in New York City, April 4, 1887. 

2. "Memorial History of the City of New York," Biog. Vol., pp. 26-27. 



SUMMER guests in the village of Cooperstown who relig- 
iously visit the little old burying ground in Christ Church 
yard and stand before the age blackened marble slab under 
which lies all that is mortal of James Fenimore Cooper, 
seldom pause to remember that less than two hundred years ago 
these hills reverberated to the red man's war whoop, or that the 
waters of the placid stream which finds its source in the lake 
upon which Cooperstown is situated, once ran red with mingled 
blood of Indian brave and white man, pioneer. 

So rapidly had our country advanced, so swift has been its 
history that we find it difficult to realize how few are the years 
between conflict and peace. And yet on these village streets still 
stand houses whose first occupants were pioneer settlers. 

Cooperstown was founded by Judge William Cooper wno came 
West from Burlington, N. J., in 1785, when he came into posses- 
sion o,f a large tract of land lying along the shores of Otsego lake 
and the Susquehanna below. The forests about the lake were 
then so dense that Judge Cooper was obliged to climb a tree in 
order to get a view of the lake. 

Two years previous to this George Washington, on a tour of 
inspection of the inland waters of New York State, with a view 
to their navigable possibilities, had visited the lake and spoke of 
the charm of the scenery in a letter written home ; and still pre- 
vious to this, in 1779, General James Clinton in the Revolution- 
ary Conflict had built a dam near the source of the Susquehanna 
in order that he might float his boats to Tioga Point to join 
forces with General Sullivan. This is the only Revolutionary or 
historic event which happened in this immediate vicinity, 
although Cherry Valley twelve miles away was the scene of one 
of the bloodiest massacres in the war, and Springfield but eight 
miles away was completely burned to the ground, and all its 
inhabitants driven away as were those of Milford, Unadilla, 
Otego and Oneonta. 



A stone marker fittingly inscribed marks the spot at the mouth 
of the Susquehanna where this dam was erected and near it in the 
edge of the lake, is a rock around which, tradition says, the 
Indians gathered in canoes and on shore to hold friendly council, 
and which is still known as Council Rock. Just where the main 
street of the village turns to wind up hill to Mt. Vision, within 
an inclosure known as the Indian Battle Ground, is a mound in 
the side of which is fitted a stone slab bearing this inscription: 

"White Man, Greeting! 


A feeling of melancholy possesses one as he reads this inscrip- 
tion, almost that of a usurper, and into his mind comes the stories 
of "Ramona,"— and "The Last of The Mohicans." This was 
the country to which Judge William Cooper brought his family 
in 1789, James Fenimore Cooper then being one year old. In 
this country ' ' with the vast forest around him, stretching up the 
mountains that overlook the lake, and far beyond, is a region 
where the Indians yet roamed, and the white hunter, half Indian 
in his dress and mode of life, sought his game. A region in which 
the bear and the wolf were yet hunted, and the panther, more for- 
midable than either, lurked in the thickets and tales of wander- 
ing in the wilderness and encounters with these fierce animals, 
beguiled the length of the winter nights." James Fenimore 
Cooper lived for sixty-eight years. Here, also he wrote the 
famous ' ' Leatherstocking Tales, ' ' the scenes for which he found 
in these hills and along the shores of this lake. 

All about the village and surrounding country are reminders 
of these tales, and no one forgets as he goes from mountain to 
glen that he is in a land haunted by the memory of the Deer 
slayer. On Mt. Vision, just above the village at the lower end of 
the lake, stands a little observatory out upon a rocky promon- 
tory which was the opening scene of the Pioneers. Farther alon°- 
the crest of the hill is Leatherstocking Cave in which small bovs 


love to hide and conjure up the vision of Indian war-paint and 
tomahawk, and from which they send out upon the lake a sort 
of civilized version of the war whoop. 

Streets, hotels, steamers, all bear the names of these famous 
novels and their characters, and one wanders about in summer 
days from Mohican Glen to Leatherstocking Falls; takes the 
steamer "Deerslayer" for H utter 's Point or the scene of the 
sunken Islands where stood the hunting shanty of old flutter 
the trapper and his beautiful daughters, Judith and Hetty, and 
almost fancies himself in an enchanted land. 

James Fenimore Cooper is ranked amongst the foremost of 
American novelists and it is but just that the home of his 
childhood, the scene of his famous novels should receive all the 
homage that is being so gladly given it by not only American 
lovers of his work, but by literary devotees of the world. At the 
centennial of his birth which was celebrated in Cooperstown in 
1907, men and women of world wide fame came many miles to 
give of their talent in tribute to Cooper 's memory, and many who 
could not come sent letters of regret and loving messages. Ed- 
ward Everett Hale, H. M. Alden, Donald G. Mitchell (Ik Marvel), 
John Burroughs, Admiral George Dewey and many other noted 
people sent letters of congratulation upon this occasion, and many 
of them recalled visits they had paid to this delightful spot, one 
and all praising with lavish terms the magnificent scenery. Queen 
Elisabeth of Roumania, better known as "Carmen Sylva" who 
is an ardent admirer of the Cooper tales sent a letter of congratu- 
lation and a large photograph of herself. The Honorable John 
Northington told of an interview with the Khedive of Egypt in 
which the latter expressed an "admiration for Cooper that could 
not be excelled in earnestness and ardor by any utterance of his 
most enthusiastic American appreciator. ' ' He said that when a 
student in Paris he had come upon Cooper 's ' ' Spy, ' ' and had fol- 
lowed this with the ' ' Leatherstocking Tales, ' ' which had ' ' opened 
up a new world to him and he was charmed. The sublime and 
shadowy forests, the silent lakes high up in the evergreen hills, 
the cool rivers— how they captivated his soul! He would, he 
exclaimed, give a year of his life if he might view the Glimmer- 
glass— if he could tread a forest trail." 


"In his fine library," said Mr. Northington, "the Khedive 
showed me with very evident satisfaction, his three magnificent 
sets of Cooper 's works, in French, German and English. ' ' 

Thanks to generous and tradition loving land owners to whom 
large tracts of the lands surrounding Otsego lake belong, the 
forests remain the same, the Indian trails still lead to cave and 
observatory; no signs or advertising placards are allowed to 
mar the exquisite scenery ; no bill board or posters greet the eye, 
but instead are solid banks of stately pines relieved by slender 
birch and glossy chestnut. Beautiful summer homes here and 
there stand out from a background of pine and hemlock, and an 
enormous summer hotel is being built on the lower shore of the 
Otsego, to be known as the Otesaga, and which will be ready 
for guests in the early summer season. 

Many wealthy New Yorkers spend the entire summers here, 
having fine residences with large grounds. The late Bishop Pot- 
ter's summer residence is here, and here he died last summer 
Mr. Spaulding, of Spaulding Glue fame, has a magnificent sum- 
mer residence at the head of the lake, and Adolphus Busch— the 
Busch of 'Anheuser" notoriety, also has a large estate upon 
which is grown many acres of the hops used in manufacturing his 
famous beer. The Clark estate is the largest of many, extending 
many hundreds of acres along the shores of the lake. 

Cooperstown, in the days of the old Cooper house, was the 
scene of much gayety and social life, and many guests of renown 
have registered upon the old books which were destroyed in the 
fire which destroyed it in 1891. In the days of the new Otesaga 
there will be new social life, new gayety ; the lake will resound 
with gay voices and modern canoes will float upon the same 
waters where once the humble bark noiselessly drifted "its 
shadowed way ; daintily shod feet will tread the same trail over 
which moccasin once stealthily slipped; a younger generation 
will read with slightly curious gaze the inscription on age worn 
slab and Indian battle ground, but let us hope that with all this, 
the men and women of letters, the lover of literature as well as 
the lover of beautiful scenery will make of Cooperstown the lit- 
erary shrine of America, as Stratford-on-Avon is the Mecca of 
literary devotees in England. 



Continuation of the Consideration of Animals Used in Her- 
aldry, Their Origin and the Sentiments which 
are Represented by Them 

by henry whittemore 

TOWERS differ from castles, being smaller, and are not 
triple-towered as pasties; they have one or two tow- 
ers above the embattlement, by the French called dou- 
jonne. The same may be said of the town of Aberdeen, 
doujonne de trois pieces, which in English are to be blazoned 
gules, three towers (not castles) triple towered, within a double 
tressure, flowered and counter-flowered argent, supported by two 
leopards proper, with the motto "bon accord." 

The double tressure being a part of the royal arms, was 
granted as an honorable additament for the singular loyalty of 
the citizens of Aberdeen, who cut off in one night their old ene- 
mies, the English, their word being "bon accord," which arms 
are on the face of the town seal, and on the reverse in a field 
azure, a church argent, masoned sable, St. Michael standing in 
the porch, mitred and vested proper, with his right hand lifted 
up, praying over three children in a boiling cauldron of the first, 
and in his left hand a crozier or. 

Edinburgh, the metropolitan city of Scotland, is eminent for 
its impregnable castle, which is thought to beholder than the 
city anciently called arx puellarum, the Warden Castle; where 
the honorable virgins, the daughters of the sovereigns and of 
the nobility were kept from the insults of the enemy in time of 
war. The city has that castle represented for its arms, some- 
times black in a white field ; and at other times white in a black 



The laird of Kineaird, in Stirlingshire, chief of the name, 
whose predecessor, for his valiant service in recovering of the 
castle of Edinburgh from the English in the time of King Ed- 
ward L, was made constable of the castle, and whose posterity en- 
joyed that office for many years, carried the castle in his arms 
in memory thereof. There is an old broadsword belonging to 
some of the families of the name of Kincard upon which were 
the above arms, with the castle and inscribed with the following : 

"Who will persew, I will defend 
My life and honor to the end." 

Churches, Bridges, and other architectural designs are car- 
ried in arms. There are families in Piedmont of the name of 
Chiesa— signifying in that county a church— who carry churches 
relative to their names. Thus, the name of Templeton carries, 
azure, a fesse or, and in a base a church or temple argent. 

In England the name of Trowbridge, in allusion to the name, 
quasi. Throughbridge, carried arms, a bridge of three arches in 
fesse gules, masoned, sable, the streams transfluent proper. 

The name of Arches, in England carries gules three arches, ar- 
gent, masoned, sable 2 and 1. 

Portcullis, Latined porta catarata or rostrum militairo, was 
the hereditary badge, or cognizance of the sons of John Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, for which reason they were borne in the cas- 
tle of Beaufort, in France. The name of Yelts, of Teverodale, 
carried anus, or, a fesse embattled, being three portcullis gules. 
The name of Yates, in England cany gates in allusion to the 

Ships, and their parts are frequently carried for the arms of 
maritime countries and towns, and also by families, on account 
of their situation and trading by sea, or for the service they were 
obliged to perform to their kings by their charters. 

The arms of Orkney are azure, a ship with its sails furled up, 
and oars cross the mast, or, carried by the old earls of Orkney as 
feudal arms. Thorfinn, earl of Orkney, married a natural 
daughter of King William ; she bore to him John, earl of Orkney 
and Zieland; for this reason it is said the double tressure was 
placed round the ship as an additamert of honor. 


The ship, or lymphad, is the armorial figure of the McPher- 
sons, and the coat their crest ; the badge of Catte, who have been 
considered the stock of the Clauchattan in the highlands by sev- 
eral writers, and represented by the noble families of the Keiths 
and Sunderlands. All of which are said to have been originally 
from the Catte, in Germany. Forced by Tiberius Caesar to 
leave their own country and seek for another, and having em- 
barked for Britain, they were driven by stress of weather to the 
north of Scotland, where they landed in a country called after 
them Caithness; that is the Catte 's Corner. Afterwards they 
spread southwards to the country now called Sutherland; to 
which they gave the name of Callow, from their own, and the in- 
habitants were called South Catte. 

The Chatti, or Clauchattan, continued several ages in both 
these countries ; some of them joined with the Picts and some of 
them with the Scots, of whom were the progenitors of the Keiths 
and Sutherlands. The others, after the decisive battle given to 
the Picts by Kenneth II., King of Scots, were forced to leave 
their country, Caithness ; but, by mediation of their friends got 
liberty to settle themselves at Lochaber, where they continued a 
long time, being called the Clauchatten, as by a manuscript of the 
family from the tradition of the Highland senaehes and bards. 
In the reign of Makon IV., one Muriah, who was parson of the 
Kirk of Kinguisse in Badenoch, after the death of his elder 
brother, who died without male issue, was called by the whole 
clan and family to be their head. He married a daughter of the 
thane of Calder and by her had several sons. 

McPherson, chief of the name carried arms, parted per fesse 
or, and azure, a lymphad or galley, with his seals tressed up, the 
oars in action of the first, in the dexter chief point a hand couped 
grasping a daggar, point upwards gules, and in the sinister chief 
point a cross crosslet, fetched of the last ; crest, a cat saiant prop- 
er ; with the motto, Touch not the cat but the glove. 

This family have had their arms supported with two High- 
landers with steel helmets on their heads, and short doublets 
azure, thighs bare, their shirt tied between them, and round tar- 
gets on their arms, being the dress wherein those of the clan were 
wont to fight in many battles for the crown, being always loyal. 


Sir Hector McLean was chief of the McLeans, an ancient, loyal, 
potent clan in the Highlands of Scotland, of which there have 
been very brave men. The achievement of the family of McLean 
as illuminated in the book of James Esplin, Marchmont Herald, 
1630, has four coats; quarterly, first, argent, a rock gules; sec- 
ond, argent, a dexter hand, fesseways, couped, gules, holding a 
cross crosslet, fitched in pale azure; third or, a lymphad sable; 
fourth, argent, a salmon naiant proper, and in chief two eagles 
This achievement is represented standing on a compartment rep- 
heads erased aff route gules; creste, a tower embattled argent, 
resenting green land and sea. 

The town of Leith, the suburb and seaport of Edinburgh, has 
for arms a ship, as on the seal of Edinburgh; on the seal is a 
shield, with the castle of Edinburgh acote, with another of the 
arms of Leith, having a ship with her sails trussed up. 

Nantz and Rochelle, maritime towns in France, cany ships 
for their armorial figures. 

The arms of the city of Paris, France, carry or, gules a ship 
equipped in full sail argent, a chief consee azure, seme of fleur- 
de-lis, or. Menestrier says it carries a ship because the isle, or 
land upon which the city is built, in its form represents a ship. 

The equipment of ships— anchors, sails and rudders— are also 
used in arms. 

Artificial Things or Charges as They Relate to Civil Life in 
Temporal and Ecclesiastical Affairs. 

These are considered as armorial figures within the shield, 
which form and constitute arms, as tesseras of descent, and en- 
signs of dominions, territories, and offices, to distinguish one 
kingdom from another, and one family from another, and some 
of them as honorable additaments to their paternal bearings, in- 
cluded in these are crowns, ancient and modern; the imperial 
mond, or globe ; sceptres, buttons, the archiepiscopal pall, mitre, 
crosiers and keys. Crowns within the shield are no more marks 
of sovereignty and dignity than lions, horses, mullets, buckles, or 
other armorial figures. 

The old earls of Garioch carried for anus, or, a fesse cheque, 


azure aud argent between three antique crowns (open ones with 
points) , gules. David, earl of Huntingdon, younger. son of Prince 
Henry, eldest son of King David I., was by his brother, King Mal- 
com IV., honored with the title of Earl of Garioch, which after- 
wards he resigned into the hands of his brother, King William 
for the earldom of Angus, which he did not keep long. Henry 
de Brechin, so designed from the place of his birth, a natural son 
of King William, was, by King Alexander II., made Earl of 
Garioch, and was succeeded in that dignity by his son Walden. 

The armorial figures of the kingdom of Sweden, are three an- 
tique crowns, or ; for the reason, it is said, that the bodies of the 
three kings, or wise men, who came from the East to adore our 
Saviour at his birth, are interred there. 

The country of Murcia, in Spain, carries arms, azure ; six ducal 
crowns, or three, two and one. They are said to be carried to rep- 
resent and perpetuate as many victories obtained in that country 
by the Christians over the Moors. 

Menestria says that crowns as armorial figures or charges in a 
shield are not to be taken for marks of dignity, but as rewards 
of valor and good counsel, with which great men were anciently 
honored ; and with these armorial figures were adorned. 

The name of Grant carries gules, three antique crowns or. 

One Vanbassen, a Dane, in his manuscript in the Lawyers' 
Library, brings the first of the name from Norway to Scotland ; 
and Sir George Mackenzie, in his manuscript, brings them from 
England, as Hollingshead mentioned one of the name of Grant, 
of old, a repairer of the University of Cambridge. There are 
many of that name in England, but by their arms they appear 
not to be the same stock with the Grants in Scotland, for they 
carry argent, three lions rampant, and a chief azure. 

Others are of the opinion that the Grants are of the same 
stock with the Byzarts or Bissets, or Lovarts, who carried also 
the same crowns for their armorial figures; and by an evident 
granted by Bisset of Lovat to the Bishop of Murray, A. D., 
1258, in which is mentioned Dominus Laurentius Grant, and 
Rebecca Grant, friends of the same Besset, However, the fam- 
ily of Grant is both ancient and powerful. 

John Grant, of Frenchie, obtained a charter of confirmation 


of the barony from King James IV., holding it of his majesty 
for military services, as by the charter in the earl of Hadding- 
ton's Collection, by which it is evident that he was the head of 
a potent clan. John Grant, of Bellendallach, carried gules, a 
boar's head couped between three antique crowns, or; crest, 
an oak tree growing out of the wreath proper. 

Sir Francis Grant, of Cullen, baronet, one of the senators of 
the college of justice, carried, gules, three antique crowns, or; 
as descended from Grant of that ilk, within a bordure of er- 
mine, in quality of a judge; supported with two angels proper; 
crest, a book expanded. 

John Grant, of Carron, a descendant of Frenchie, carried 
gules, a dove argent, holding in its beak an olive branch vert, 
between three antique crowns, or; and for crest, an adder new, 
with head erect proper ; motto : Wise and harmless. 

Sir Thomas Brand, gentleman usher of the Green Rod of the 
most ancient Order of the Thistle, or St. Andrew, in Scotland, 
carried quarterly, first and fourth azure two buttons, (or rods) 
or; ensigned on the top with the Union of Scotland, as to the 
badge of the official ; second and third or, on a bend sable, three 
mascles argent, and a chief azure charged with as many stars 
of the third, for his paternal coat, and over all by way of an 
escutcheon, a geronne of eight, ermine and gules, within a 
bordure engrailed of the last for Campbell of Lundie, whose 
daughter he married. 

The Archepiscopal pall, mitres, crosiers and keys, which are 
all marks of ecclesiastical authority, are frequent in arms, and 
especially those of the episcopal sees in England. 

The Archepiscopal see of Canterbury carried arms, azm*e, a 
pastoral staff in pale argent, topped with a cross patee or, 
surmounted by an archepiscopal pall of the second, edged and 
fringed of the third, and charged with four crosses, fitched, 

The archepiscopal see of York carried gules, two Keys adosse 
in saltier argent, and in chief an imperial crown. 

Mitres, crosiers, crosses and keys, have made up the arms of 
several churches, churchmen and laymen, who have had a de- 
pendence on the church, or from their name relative thereto; 


as those of the name of Kirk, who, in the old and modern books 
of arms, carried gnles, a bishop's crosier, or, with a sword sal- 
tier ways argent, and on a chief of the second, a thistle vert. 
The last figure shows them to have been of Scotch extraction, 
and to have assumed the surname from the Kirk or church, 
probably on account of some of them belonging thereto. 

Sir William Kirk is mentioned in the first book of Knox's 
"History of the Reformation," as being the first, among many 
others, whom Cardinal Beaton summoned before him in the 
Abbey Kirk of Hollyroodshire, in 1534, because he favored the 
Reformation. King James V., being then present, and inter- 
posing his authority, commanded Sir William to return to his 
former principles, to which he submissively acquiesced, and 
publicly burned his bill. He was brother to Daniel Kirk, 
burgess of Edinburgh, father of John Kirk, the writer, whose 
son was Jerome Kirk, minister of Aberfoyl, in Perthshire. 

There are several well known families of the name of Kirk 
in England, who carry other figures, as is pointed out in Gil- 
lim's "Display of Heraldry." Sir John Knox, of Eastham, in 
the county of Essex, descended from Sir David Kirk, who was 
governor and proprietor of Newfoundland, carried arms, part- 
ed per fesse, or and gules, a lozenge counterchanged, with a 
canton azure, thereon a lion supporting a cutlas, charged and 
collared argent. This canton was given on an augmentation to 
the said Sir Daniel Kirk, and to Lewis Kirk, governor of Can- 
ada, and to Captain Thomas Kirk, vice admiral of the English 
fleet, and to their descendants, for their good services done 
in encountering and vanquishing the French navy, and bring- 
ing the admiral prisoner to England, and for taking the coun- 
try of Canada, then belonging to the French, in which expe- 
dition Sir David took the governor and brought him prisoner to 

Crosses are the badges of devotion, and especially the port- 
able ones, the cross crosslets, which are frequently seen in the 
hands of churchmen, represented on seals and by the bearings 
of ancient families. 

Cushions are looked ujjon as a mark of authority, and have 
been carried as armorial figures by ancient families, as of the 


Randolphs, earls of Moray, and also those of the name of John- 

Caps are likewise used as armorial figures, and even from the 
office of butler to sovereign, as by the Butlers, dukes of Ormond, 
who quarter their coat of office, azure, three cups, or (with their 
paternal coat, or, on a chief indented, azure. The figures of the 
coat of office have descended from the branches of the family 
of that name in Scotland. England and Ireland as relative to 
the name. Butler, of Kirkland, in East Lothian, carried arms, 
parted per fesse, engrailed, azure and gules, three covered cups, 
two in chief and one in base or; crest, a cup without a cross, 

Hunting Horns or bugles are ordinarily hung by strapping: 
which, if of a different tincture from the bugle, are then said, 
by the old heralds, to be bendressed, because worn over the 
shoulders by way of a bend. The modern heralds say stringed 
of such a tincture, and the French say liez. Hunting horns 
sometimes have three mouthpieces, and rings of a different tinc- 
ture from the body of the horn, for which the French say en- 
ginche and verrte of such tinctures. The English say of such 
a tincture, garnished. 

The surname of Forrester is from the office of keeper of the 
king's forests, as appears by their armorial figures, hunting 
horns, called bugles. King Robert III. gave a charter of an- 
nuity of ten marks sterling to Sir Adam Forrester, out of the 
customs of Edinburgh. Forrester of Cardon, in Sterlingshire, 
carried arms, argent, three hunting horns sable garnished. 

Of Artificial Things or Charges As They Relate to Profes- 
sions Liberal and Mechanical 

These figures are not so frequent in England as in other 
nations. Some of them are made use of by merchants and 
tradesmen as packs of manufactured goods in oval and quad- 
rangular cartouches, since it is not allowed by the laws of well 
governed nations to place such in formal shields. 

The letter A., with the Roman was the mark of absolution, 
and carried a token of honor and innocency. 


The republic of Lucas as a trophy of its preserved liberty, 
carries azure, the word libertas in bend, between two cotises or. 

The Turks and Moors, being forbidden by their religion the 
use of images and figures of living creatures, place letters on 
their ensigns. 

The Spaniards who had long wars with the Moors in Spain, 
placed letters and words on their armorial ensigns ; as the fam- 
ily of Vigo and Andria, in Spain, place the word are maria, orle- 
ways round their arms. 

The name Bell carries relative to the arms, balls ; as Bell of 
Kirkonnel, azure, three bells or. When the tongue or clapper 
of a bell is of a different tincture the French use the term 

Padlocks are carried by the Lockharts as pertaining to the 

Chess-rooks used in the game of chess are carried in the name 
of Orrock. 

Wheels are carried in the arms as that ancient one to be seen 
in the first quarter of the achievement of the archbishop of Mentz, 
elector and grand chancellor of the empire, viz : gules, a wheel or, 
which had its rise from one Willigis, or Willikis, who came to be 
an archbishop and elector in the time of the Emperor Otto II. 
Being the son of a mean man, or carter, or wheelwright, he took 
for his arms a wheel as a sign of his humility, to show the mean- 
ness of his birth and had the wheel painted on all the rooms of 
his house and furniture to remind him of his mean extract, with 
the words rillegis recolles ques es S unde venes. And ever since 
that wheel has become the fixed figure of that see, which the em- 
peror, Henry II., confirmed. 

The St. Katharine wheel is another sort of a wheel met with in 
arms, which has iron teeth around it, used as an instrument of 
torture of old, upon which St. Katharine, a confessor, was put to 
death. Sir James Turner, one of the chief commanders of the 
forces of King Charles II. of Scotland, carried arms, sable, a St. 
Katharine's wheel argent, quartered with, argent gouttes de 

The Plough, Wagon, and all other implements of agriculture, 


are met with in arms. The name of Kroyo, in England carries 
azure, a plough in fesse argent, with the motto juvat dum lace rah 

The Wagon is carried by the name of Benning, a descendant of 
the family of Fast-Benning, by Benning, of Carlouriehall, and 
Benning, of Walliford. It is said that one William Benning, of 
this family, surprised the castle of Linlithgow by a stratagem 
with a wagon full of hay, in the reign of King Robert the Bruce; 
and for this good service in dispossessing the English, he ob- 
tained the lands of East Benning, with the wagon added to his 
arms to perpetuate that achievement. 

Barnacles, an instrument used by horse farriers to curb and 
command unruly horses was carried in arms by the ancient 
family of Geneville, by corruption called Grenville, sometimes 
great in England and lords of Meath, in Ireland, viz : three horse 
barnacles extended, in pale or, on a chief ermine, a lion issuant 

The De Lyons in France, originally from the ancient Leons in 
Rome had for their armorial bearings a lion. A branch of the 
family in France accompanied William the Conqueror to Eng- 
land and some of them later went to Scotland with King Edgar, 
son of King Malcom III., and obtained from that king sundry 
lands in the shire of Perth, which were called Glen Lyon. 

The achievement of this ancient and noble family is, argent, a 
lion rampant azure, armed and langued gules, within the double 
tressure, flowered and counterflowered of the last ; crest, a lady to 
the girdle, holding in her right hand the royal thistle, and en- 
closed within a circle of laurels proper; in memory of the honor 
that family had by marrying the daughter of King Robert. 

The Label or Lambel is taken for a piece of silk, stuff, or linen, 
with pendants. The French take it for a scarf or ribbon which 
young men wore anciently about the neck of their helmets with 
points hanging down when they went to the wars, or to military 
exercises in company with their fathers by which they were dis- 
tinguished from them. 

To the eldest son, in his father's life time was assigned a label 
with three points plain; but if his grandfather was living, says 
Gerard Lee, a label with five points. The label is always placed 
on the upper part of the shield, the chief, or collar points of the 


shield, and sometimes also by English heralds upon their exterior 
ornaments. The transverse part is called beam; this does not 
touch the sides of the shield, and the pieces that hang down are 
the points, which are always broad at the ends. 

This figure is an ancient difference or brisure made use of by 
all nations, and the heralds who wrote in Latin gave leminiscus 
lambella, and fascicula brifidia, because its points are ordinarily 
three, and plain of metal or color, especially when it is used by 
the eldest son in his father 's lifetime. 

The plain label is seldom assigned to the younger brother, but 
when the heirs male of the eldest brother fail, and the inheritance 
falls to their daughters, and their heirs, the younger brother and 
his issue may use the plain label as heir expectant. When the la- 
bel is not plain, but under accidental forms, or changed with fig- 
ures, it then shows the bearers to be younger sons or the descend- 
ants of such. 

The younger sons of King Edward III., of England differenced 
themselves and their families from one another by a label over 
their imperial arms. Edward, the Black Prince of Wales, bore 
his father's sovereign ensign, viz: France quartered with Eng- 
land, bruised with a label of three points argent. Lionel Plant- 
agenet, third son of King Edward, carried the same arms and 
label, parti gules and argent. 

John, of Gaunt, the fourth son of King Edward, who was duke 
of Lancaster in right of his wife, the heiress thereof, carried also 
France and England quarterly, with a label ermine for his dif- 

Edmund, the Duke of York, carried the same arms, with a 
label argent, but for difference charged it with tortauxe's gules. 
These last two brothers were the founders of the great families 
of Lancaster and York whose devices were the red and white 
roses, which became badges to their heirs and followers in the 
long and bloody war between the two famlies; and thereafter 
these were the badges of the kings of England. Since those days 
the label has been used to difference families by the greatest in 


The Helmet, Helme, Casque, or Morion of Leather or Metal 
of Various Kinds for the Protection of the Head. 
Helmets of old were made of leather, called galea, meaning the 
skin of a beast, with which the ancients carved their heads to 
make them appear terrible in battle. But at last they came to be 
made of metal for the defence of the head. As early as 1063 B. 
C. the metal helmet was used to protect the head and face from the 
several offensive weapons of warfare. Thus Samuel referring to 
the giant Goliah, whom David slew, said : "and he had a helmet of 
brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail ; and 
the weight was five thousand shekels of brass." In the New 
Testament Paul, in his Epistle to the Ephesians, urges his fol- 
lowers to, "take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the 
spirit. ' ' 

Burke in his description says: "The most ancient form is the 
simplest, composed of iron, of a shape fitted to the head, and flat 
upon the top, with an apperture for the light. This is styled the 
Norman helmet, and appears on very old seals attached to the 
gorget, a separate piece of armor which covered the neck. 

The French for helmet use the beaum, especially when they un- 
derstand an old fashioned, close helmet, with holes for breathing 
and seeing through. But when the helmet is open with bars, and 
adorned with lambrequen, crest, and other ornaments, they call 
it then the casque, or timbre. The last they use ordinarily for all 
marks of dignity that are placed upon the top of the shield or 
escutcheon, whether military, civil or ecclesiastic. 

Heralds have observed three things in respect to the helmet; 
its matter, form and situation. 

The matter of which they are supposed to be made, is of the 
metals, gold, silver, and steel, which show three degrees of digni- 
ty, viz : those of sovereign princes, of gold; those of high nobility, 
of silver ; and those of lesser nobility, such as gentlemen, of pol- 
ished steel. This order was observed in Germany, especially in 
Flanders, where, by an edict, in 1616, it was not lawful for any 
one to use a gold helmet on his shield under the penalty of 
three hundred florins. 

As to their form, they are either close or open; there are some 
who claim that the first is a sign of military nobility; and the 


open one of civil nobility. In Germany, says one authority, a 
close helmet is a sign of bezure nobility, and an open one of an- 
cient nobility; a helmet altogether open, a sign of sovereignty; 
when with bars, of dignified nobility ; and when with a vizor, with 
holes only, a sign of inferior nobility. The Germans also distin- 
guish the degrees of nobility by the number of the bars ; eleven of 
them show the sovereign dignity of a superior and king ; nine, the 
dignity of a duke and marquis ; seven, that of an earl ; five that of 
a lord ; and three bars show the dignity of a knight, and a gentle- 
man of descent. 

Burke, in describing the English custom in the use of helmets, 
says : ' ' The helmet assigned to kings and princes of the blood roy- 
al, is fullfaced, composed of gold, with the beauvoir divided by 
six projecting bars, and lined with crimson. The Helmet of the 
nobility is of steel, with five bars of gold; it is placed on the 
shield inclining to profile. The helmet of knights and Baronets is 
the fullfaced steel helmet, with the visor thrown back, and with- 
out bars. The Helmet of Esquires, always depicted in profile, is 
of steel, with the visor closed. ' ' 

The situation of the helmet on the shield fore-right, fronting, 
or side-ways, intimating also the degree of greatness and power, 
by the matter of forms as above. So that a close helmet, situated 
side-ways is a mark, as heralds tell us, of a gentleman or soldier 
who has acquired honor by his assiduous services, being always 
ready to fight, and give attention to the command of his superior. 

When a close helmet stands direct forward, it shows nobility 
altogether new, and acquired by some heroic action ; when barred 
and placed sideways, it is the mark of some lord who has no com- 
mand in battle, or otherwise, except over his own vassals. When 
placed fronting, it intimates a chief command, not only of his own, 
but other companies, and when altogether open and fronting, it 
shows some absolute and independent power. 

Menestrier, in his "Origin of Exterior Ornaments" says that 
"all Helmets were of old, close and plain, until their metal, 
number of bars, and separation came to be taken notice of, 
and that not long ago ; but since the year 1559, when the French 
gave over the use of tournaments because an accident which 
happened to King Henry II. of France, jousting in disport at 


a tournament with Gilbert, Earl of Montgomery, Captain of the 
Scots Guards, who thereby was wounded in the eye, with the 
splinter of a spear, of which his majesty died." After this 
various forms of helmets were used, and placed upon shields 
of arms by the nobility to show their degrees of dignity and 
quality, especially by the number of bars. 

The degrees of heraldry, according to the French standard, 
are thus described. The helmet of kings and emperors are all 
of gold, damasked, fronting altogether open, without bars and 
visor; because they are to see and know all things, and com- 
mand all without contradiction. Dukes, marquises and earls 
have silver helmets damasked with gold ; fronting with nine 
bars. Viscounts, barons and knights, have silver helmets with 
gold edges, standing in profile, or little turned to the side with 
seven bars. Esquires and gentlemen of ancient descent, have 
side standing helmets of polished steel with five bars in the 
guard visor. To gentlemen of their descent they give a helmet 
in profile; that is standing sideways with three bars only. To 
a knight they assign the helmet standing right forward, with 
the bearer a little open, to signify direction and command. 

The Scots and the English have their helmets after one form, 
somewhat different from those of the French. A gentlman and 
an esquire have their helmets in profile, that is, posted side- 
ways, with the bearer close, to signify attention and obedience. 
The helmet in profile, open with bars, belongs to all noblemen in 
Britain under the degree of a duke. The helmet right for- 
ward, and open with many bars, is assigned to dukes, princes of 
the blood, royal, and monarchs. The monarchs of Great Britain 
have their helmets the same way, fronting with bars, but the 
French give to their sovereigns a forestalling helmet open, 
without bars, and visor of gold. 

All agree that an open helmet is nobler than a close one, 
and a direct fore-standing helmet than side-standing one. Ac- 
cording to English custom a knight has a fore-standing helmet 
open; and the dignified nobility, a side-standing helmet with 
bars ; for the reason that bars are more noble than visors or 
bearers, though cast up. 

When they all go to battle thev have close helmets of steel or 


brass for the defence of the head, which are not of gold or sil- 
ver, nor forward with a certain number of bars, which are used 
for ostentation, and placed upon the top of the shield to show 
the dignity of nobility in public places, and at solemn assem- 

Elias Ashmole, in his "Institutions of the Most Noble Order 
of the Garter," says that: 

"The Knights Companies of this Order have, besides their 
escutcheons of arms, their helmet, crest, and sword, hung up 
over their stalls in the chapel of St. George, at Windsor, and 
ordered to remain there during the lives of their possessors. 
The helmets used for their reason are made of steel, large and 
fair, of more than ordinary proportions, and of two sorts ; one 
appointed for sovereign princes ; gilded and formed open, with 
bailes or bars ; the others for knights. Subjects in the reign 
of Henry VIII. were parcal gilt; but in Queen Elizabeth's reign 
and since, it is the custom to gild all over, having close visors, 
and to" place St. George's red cross in the middle before the 
visors ; and these are the form of the helmets of the Knights of 
the Garter at Windsor." 

When there are two helmets on an escutcheon of arms they 
are placed facing each other, and when there are three helmets, 
that in the middle is placed fronting; and the other two cou- 
tourne, that is, turned to it; and if three to four helmets in a 
shield, two looks to two. The practice of multiplying helmets 
is frequent with the Germans. The helmet with them is a 
sign of eminent nobility ; if there are four, six, or eight helmets, 
the one half of them are turned looking to the other, and their 
mantlings and crests. 

The wreath upon which the crest is generally borne is com- 
posed of two cords of silk interwoven or twisted together, the 
one tinctured of metal, and the other of the principal color in 
the arms. It was used to fasten the crest to the helmet. 

The Crest, or Cognizance, (derived from the Latin word 
crista, a comb or tuft), originated in the thirteenth century, and 
served to distinguish the combatants in the battle or tourna- 
ment. The crest, unless expressly stated to be on a chapeau or 
coronet is always on a wreath, which need not therefore be 
named in the blazon. 

The helmet is placed immediately above the escutcheon, and 
supports the wreath on which is the crest. 



THE letters which follow are all written in the same 
bold handwriting, evidently that of General John A. 
Dix. They were in the correspondence of ex-Senator 
James Rood Doolittle, of Wisconsin, and are now in 
the writer 's possession. They have never been published. If not 
historically important, they are certainly valuable as throwing 
some light on the political affairs of the general government at 
the time to which they relate. 

The ' ' call ' ' referred to in these letters is an interesting politi- 
cal document. It was dated July 10, 1866, and was designed to 
bring together at Philadelphia "a convention of the ablest men of 
the nation, without regard to their party antecedents, who favor, 
generally, the restoration policy President Johnson has advo- 
cated as against the dangerous course pursued by the majority of 
Congress." Of course, Judge Doolittle, then a United States 
senator, was one of the instigators of the patriotic movement; 
and it seems that from the letters submitted, General Dix, was 
one of his faithful sympathizers and supporters. The names 
signed to the call include some of the most eminent public men 
at that time in public life. The convention was known as the Na- 
tional Union Convention. 

Union Pacific Company, President's Office, 
Private. 20 Nassau St., 

New York, 14 June, 1866. 
My dear Sir : I rec'd a letter from Genl. G. Clay Smith yester- 
day asking me to come to Washington the last of this week or the 
first of next to see you & some other gentlemen in regard to polit- 


2>Z 2 


ieal matters. I fear it will be impossible, as I am just now kept 
here awaiting very important communications in regard to the 
Union Pacific R. Road from Nebraska. 

Fortunately, however, Judge Pierrepont, who with myself & 
some other democrats led off against the Chicago Convention in 
1864, went to Washington this morning. He will be at Willards. 
He is a man of influence & his opinions reflect fairly those of the 
"War Democrats here. I wish you could see him. Indeed, I think 
it important, But he may not feel exactly at liberty to do so 
without a suggestion from you. 

I have dropped a line to Genl. Smith by this mail. 

In great haste, 

Very truly yours, 

Hon. J. R. Doolittle. John A. Dix. 

New York, 10 July, 1863. 

My dear Sir : I am doing all in my power to bring the right 
kind of men into the Philadelphia Convention. Our danger is 
that the men, whom we do not want, will get in to cover up their 
past political sins. This would be a most serious injury, & might 
imperil the whole movement, 

I am very busy with the great railroad, and may not be able to 
do so much as I otherwise could ; but I have arranged with Judge 
Pierrepont to see our most reliable and active men, and by next 
week I hope to be able to give you some definite information as to 
what can be done. There will be, I hope, a full delegation from 
this State, & it is indispensable that it should be of men of the 
right stamp. 

I just learn that you are likely to adjourn this week. Do not 
fail to let us see you here as you go home. I think there is a gen- 
eral disposition to organize against the radical majority in Con- 
gress, and there is a corresponding anxiety to have the movement 
so managed as to insure success. 

Yours very truly, 

Hon. J. R. Doolittle. John A. Dix. 

P. S.— I will procure & send you my letter to the Brooklyn 
meeting in support of the President's plan of restoration. 


m A a . T ^ New York > 13 July, 1866. 

My dear Sir: I have received the call signed by yourself and 
others for a National Union Convention in Philadelphia on the 
14th Aug. I concur in its propositions, its reasonings & its ob- 
jects, and will do all in my power to carry them out. 

I long since expressed the opinion that the States were entitled 
to their representation in Congress; that their exclusion was a 
violation of good faith and of the obligations of the Constitution- 
and that a persistence in such a policy must lead to consequences 
most disastrous to the peace and prosperity of the country. 

These and other considerations connected with the present un- 
satisfactory relations of the States to the federal government and 
to each other render most timely and proper such a meeting as 
you have recommended of the patriotic and reflecting men of the 
Union to consult together for the general welfare. 

I am truly yours, 
Hon. Jas. R. Doolittle. John A< Dix . 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, President's Office. 

20 Nassau St., 
New York, 20. July, 1866. 

Dear Sir: I have just rec'd yours of the 18th & am glad my 
letter was what you wished. 

It is settled that the democratic organization in this state, as 
such, will not be represented at the Phila. Convention. This is 
as it should be. The Union men should be prominent in order to 
make it successful. I think by the 1. of Aug. the delegations from 
all the Congress Districts will be complete by separate action. 
We are now talking about the best mode of appointing State del- 
egates. D. D. Field was to call a meeting at Albany. If this is 
not done, there will be a movement here for the purpose. I am 
only waiting for the return of Judge Pierrepont, who has been 
absent ten days, to consult with him, Morgan, Hoffman & others. 

In regard to the naval office, I have expressed no opinion what- 
ever, but have refused to recommend any candidate. If the Pres- 
ident had said anything to me, I should have been very frank with 
him. He has been very unfortunate in the appointment of a Col- 


lector. That office, which should have been a tower of strength 
to him, is not of the slightest account. Mr. Smythe is an amiable 
gentleman ; but his sight is such that the duties of the office must 
be discharged by subordinates ; and he has no political influence 
or status even. I say this as a proper introduction to the subject 
—the naval office. It is one of the utmost importance, and more 
especially when the Collectorship is so filled. The naval office, 
tho, not generally understood, is a perfect check on the Collec- 
tor's. There can be no defalcation, no fraud, no irregularity in 
the latter if the former is properly administered. Formerly the 
first men in the State were selected for the office. Michael Hoff- 
man, one of the ablest men this State ever produced, once filled it. 
The President should, under existing circumstances, select such 
a man if he can find one to take it. I do not know who all the 
candidates are ; but I have declined to recommend five or six. 

What I say is strictly confidential, tho' I have no objection that 
you should communicate it to the President, should he desire to 
know what I think. I will only add that the duties of the naval 
officer are by no means engrossing & he would have time to be 
useful to the government in other ways. 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Yours Sincerely, 

John A. Dix. 

I have found the paper (World of 26 April) containing my let- 
ter approving the President's policy & send it in another en- 

Private. N. Y., 23. July, 1866. 

Dear Sir: I was very much disappointed not to see you yes- 
terday. I saw Mr. Field & Mr. Weed and telegraphed you to 
come directly to my house, where you could have seen them quiet- 
ly, as well as Mr. Wood. 

It is very important that you should see Mr. Field & Mr. Weed. 
The latter remained here over Sunday to see you. A paper was 
presented to me calling a State Convention, to be signed by some 
democrats, & republicans who were friends of Mr. Seward, 
leaving Mr. Field & the old democrats of the republican party 
out. This will not do. 


I am sorry that the democracy of Ohio & Penn. go in as organi- 
zations. It will seriously injure the movement, and they should 
stand back. The republicans & war democrats should take the 
lead & let others come in as individuals. 

Are you coming here? I can go to Washington the last of the 
week, if necessary. 

I think of going to Luzerne this evening, but shall be back 
Thursday morning. 

Yours veiy truly, 

Hon. J. R. Doolittle. John A. DLx. 

Paris 8. January, 1867. 


des Etats Unis. 

My dear Sir: — 

Yours of the 23rd is rec'd. I concur with you 
fully in the opinion you entertain in regard to all the causes 
which contributed to our defeat last fall. In regard to the 
future I have, I confess, no distinct impression except this— 
that we cannot count upon any wise or disinterested action by 
the Democratic party with its present leadership, and if it 
changes its leaders at all, I think it will be to put forth others of 
the same stamp. I have, therefore, no hope except in the forma- 
tion of a conservative party, with loyal men, & preferably, repub- 
licans at its head. If Messrs. Wade, Howard, and others will 
take the lead in this movement, I shall have new hope that some- 
thing will be accomplished. I shall look with great interest to 
your proceedings. 

In regard to myself I have not had, and do not mean to have, 
a moment of uneasiness. Should a majority of the Senate refuse 
to assent to my appointment, I think I am philosopher enough to 
bear it. I hope, in that case, that in justice to me, the injunction 
of secrecy may be removed from the proceedings. 

Here everything is on the most satisfactory footing. The 
Emperor is doing all he can to get out of Mexico, and in March 
the whole French force will be withdrawn. My address suffered 
so much in the translation for the monitequs into French and back 


again into English for Galigmani that I scarcely recognized some 
passages. I sent a correct copy to the State Department. The 
Emperor's reply was even warmer than was reported. Of "his 
friendly sentiments, & his readiness to do anything to preserve 
amicable relations with us, there is not the slightest doubt. 

I am writing for the mail and am obliged to close. I will advise 
you if there is anything interesting here, and pray let me hear 
from you.— 

Yours very truly, 


I will write to my friends about your son. 


IN 1758 


IN the middle of July, 1758, Christian Frederick Post received 
orders from the governor of Pennsylvania to proceed to the 
western part of the province and endeavor to withdraw the 
Indian tribes there from the French interest. Post was an 
unassuming Moravian preacher who had come from Germany 
in 1742. For several years he had preached among the Indians, 
and he had married a baptized Indian woman. His own tem- 
perament and his intimate knowledge of the Indian character 
caused him to be well fitted for the duty with which he was 
entrusted. He was accompanied by Tom Hickman, an inter- 
preter, and a number of Indians, among them Pisquetumen and 
Wellemeghihink. 1 

The Indians were at Germantown, a hamlet a few miles north 
of Philadelphia. When Post arrived there on the fifteenth of 
July, he found them all drunk, except Wellemeghihink, who had 
gone to Philadelphia for a horse that had been promised him. 
Post waited until near noon the next day for the return of the 
Indian, and when he came he was so drunk that he could get no 
farther, and the expedition proceeded without him. Post had a 
good deal of trouble to get his Indians off, as they made out to 
be generally either drunk or sick; but on the sixteenth of the 
month he was properly started on his perilous journey. 

At Fort Allen, where he arrived on the twentieth, he met with 
serious opposition from King Teedyuscung. Two years before, 
at Easton, Teedyuscung had made a treaty of peace and friend- 
ship with the English. He was now about fifty years old. He 
is described in the records of the time as "a lusty, rawboned 
man, haughty and very desirous of respect and command. ? ' He 

i. In the "Pennsylvania Archives" we find this name printed Wilhn. McKak- 
ing. See Vol. Ill, p. 520. In Prond's "History of Pennsylvania" it appears as 
Willamegicken and Wellemeghihink. See Vol. II, appendix. 



had also a great capacity for firewater. "He can drink three 
quarts or a gallon of rum a day without being drunk." Hence 
there is no telling what quantity he must have imbibed on those 
festive occasions when he became intoxicated, as at the council 
at Easton, when it is said that he and "his wild company were 
perfectly drunk, very much on the Gascoon, and at times abusive 
to the inhabitants." He was also "full of himself, saying fre- 
quently that which side soever he took must stand, and the other 
fall." 2 He declared that he had been made king by ten nations, 
namely, the united Six Nations, and the Delawares, Shawanese, 
Mohicans and Munceys. "He carried the belt of peace with 
him," he said, "and whoever would might take hold of it." At 
this treaty he declared that he was present by the appointment 
of these nations, and that what he did they would all confirm. 
Yet a day or two afterwards he qualified this statement. He was 
not sure that he could prevail on the Ohio Indians. "I cannot 
tell," he said, "that they will leave off doing mischief;" and 
he advised the English to make themselves strong on that side. 
He was right as to the Indians on the Ohio. His treaty was 
effective so far as regarded the Indians on the Susquehanna, but 
the tribes in the Ohio Valley scouted his authority. 

Teedyuscung now protested against Post's proceeding on his 
mission. "His reasons were," says Post, "that he was afraid 
the Indians would kill me, or the French get me; and if that 
should be the case he should be very sorry, and did not know 
what he should do. ' ' His opposition was such that but three of 
the Indians offered to go any farther with Post. "We con- 
cluded," says Post, "to go through the inhabitants, under the 
Blue mountains, to Fort Augusta, on Susquehanna." This fort 
stood at Shamokin, where Sunbury now stands. It was built in 
the summer of 1756. Post arrived there on the twenty-fifth of 

"It gave me great pain," he says, "to observe many planta- 
tions deserted and laid waste, and I could not but reflect on the 
distress the poor owners must be drove to, who once lived in 
plenty, and I prayed the Lord to restore peace and prosperity to 
the distressed." 

2. "Pennsylvania Archives," Vol. II, page 724. 


At Fort Augusta the unpleasant news was brought by some 
Indians that the English army had been destroyed at Ticonde- 
roga, which so discouraged one of his companions, "Lappopet- 
ing's son," that he refused to accompany the expedition any 
farther. This reduced the original company to only two men, 
evidently Pisquetumen and Tom Hickman. He must here have 
recruited his force, as we know that he afterwards had at least 
four men with him. One of those whom he here picked up was 
Shamokin Daniel, and Shamokin Daniel afterwards turned out 
to be a thorn in the flesh. 3 At the fort they were furnished with 
everything necessary for the journey, and on the twenty-seventh 
they "set out with good courage." After various adventures 
they came, on the seventh of August, in sight of Fort Venango. 4 
"I prayed the Lord to blind them," says Post, "as he did the 
enemies of Lot and Elisha, that I might pass unknown." They 
slept that night within half gunshot of the fort. On the tenth 
they met an Indian, and one whom Post believed to be a renegade 
English trader, from whom they learned that they had lost the 
way, and that they were within twenty miles of Fort Dequesne. 
Upon this they struck off to the right, and slept that night 
"between two mountains." On the second day after this they 
came to the Connoquenessing, or, as Post writes it, the Cona- 
quanoshon, where, he says, was an old Indian town, fifteen miles 
from Kushkushkee. 5 

"The point at which Post saw the Conaquanoshon was prob- 
ably about where Harmony now stands, as this village is just 
fifteen miles in a straight line from Newport, which occupies 
the sight of Cushcushcunk, or Kosh-kosh-kung. If this supposi- 
tion is correct there must have then been, in 1758, 'an old Indian 
town' upon or veiy near the ground on which Harmony is 
built." 6 

3. The Indians at Shamokin were a very depraved set. Good David Brain- 
erd, who had visited them some years hefore. says of them : "The Indians of 
this place are accounted the most drunken, mischievous and ruffian-like fellows of 
any in these parts ; and Satan seems to have his seat in this town in an eminent 
manner." — Brainerd's "Diary," Sept. 13, 1745. 

4. This was the French fort at the mouth of French creek. It was called by 
the French, Fort Machault. 

5. This name is variously spelled in the old records. In Weiser's journal it 
is written Coscosky; in Washington's journal, Kuskusgo; in Post's journal, Kush- 
Kiishko ; while two other varieties of spelling are seen above. 

6. "History of Butler County, Pennsylvania," p. 15. 


From this point they sent Pisquetumen to Kushkushkee in 
advance of the party, with a message of friendship and explana- 
tion. About noon they met some Shawanese that had formerly 
lived at Wyoming. They knew Post, and greeted him very 
kindly. "I saluted them," says he, "and assured them the gov- 
ernment of Pennsylvania wished them well, and wished to live 
in peace and friendship with them." Before they reached the 
town, two men came out to meet them and bring them in. King 
Beaver seemed to be the chief man in the place. He received 
them and showed them a large house in which they could lodge. 
The news soon spread, and the people gathered about to see them. 
There were about sixty young warriors who came and shook 
hands with them. 

King Beaver spoke to the people. 

"Boys," said he, "hearken. We sat here without ever expect- 
ing again to see our brethren, the English ; but now one of them 
is brought before you that you may see your brethren, the Eng- 
lish, with your own eyes ; and I wish you may take it into con- 
sideration. ' ' 

Then turning to Post, he said : 

"Brother, I am very glad to see you; I never thought we 
should have had the opportunity to see one another more; but 
now I am very glad, and thank God, who has brought you to us. 
It is a great satisfaction to me. ' ' 

To this address of welcome Post replied: 

"Brother, I rejoice in my heart; I thank God, who has brought 
me to you. I bring you joyful news from the governor and peo- 
ple of Pennsylvania, and from your children, the Friends ; and, 
as I have words of great consequence, I will lay them before you 
when all the kings and captains are called together from the 
other towns. 

Messengers were at once dispatched to the surrounding towns 
and villages, but it was not until the seventeenth of the month 
that the different "kings and captains" could be got together. 
In the meantime Post had been treated with the greatest kindness. 
The Indians seemed really pleased that he had visited them. 


Thy came to his lodgings, where they would remain and dance 
sometimes until after midnight. Some Frenchmen, who were 
in the town building houses for the Indians, also came to see him. 
Among those who came to the great council were two Indian cap- 
tains from Fort Duquesne. They were very surly. 

"When I went to shake hands with one of them," says Post, 
"he gave me his little finger; the other withdrew his hand 
entirely; upon which I appeared as stout as either, and with- 
drew my hand as quick as I could. Their rudeness to me," he 
adds, "was taken very ill by the other captains, who treated 
them in the same manner in their turn." 

With these two messengers from Fort Duquesne, had come a 
French captain and fifteen men. But Post would have nothing 
to do with them; he had been sent to the Indians, he said, and 
not to the French. In the councils that followed, the Indians 
expressed a desire for peace. 

"All the Indians," said they, "a. great way from this, even 
beyond the lakes, wish for a peace with the English, and have 
desired us, as we are the nearest of kin, if we see the English 
incline to a peace, to hold it fast. ' ' 

They entirely ignored Teedyuscung, however, and would not 
hear of any treaty that had been made by him. But, as they said, 
they could not make peace alone ; it was necessary that all should 
join in it, or it could be no peace. They therefore proposed to go 
to a neighboring town called Sawkunk, 7 and consider the matter 
further there. To this Post consented, and they set out on the 
twentieth. The party consisted of twenty-five horsemen and fif- 
teen foot, and they arrived at Sawkunk in the afternoon. Post's 
reception there was not so friendly as at Kushkushkee. ' f The 
people of the town were much disturbed at my coming," says 
he, "and received me in a very rough manner. They surrounded 
me with drawn knives in their hands, in such a manner that I 
could hardly get along." They evidently thirsted for his blood, 
and seemed to desire some pretense to kill him; but some 
Indians coming up, whom Post had formerly known, and who 

7. Sawkunk was an important Indian town at the confluence of the Big 
Beaver and Ohio rivers. The name signifies "at the mouth/' or where one stream 
flows into another. See Boyd's "Indian Local Names," p. 43. 


now greeted him in a friendly manner, the behavior of the others 
quickly changed. 

Here it was proposed that he should proceed to Fort Duquesne, 
as there were eight different nations there who desired to hear 
his message. To this Post earnestly objected, but in vain; the 
Indians insisted, telling him he need not fear the French, that 
they would carry him "in their bosoms." They accordingly 
set out for the fort, but went only so far as Logstown that day. 
The next day, August 24, they continued their journey, and in 
the afternoon came in sight of the fort. They did not cross over, 
but remained on the north bank of the river. As they had come 
up the river from Logstown, the place where they halted was, 
perhaps, a little below the point where the fort stood. Imme- 
diately all the Indian chiefs at the fort crossed over, when King 
Beaver presented Post to them, saying: "Here is our English 
brother, who has brought great news." Some of the chiefs sig- 
nified their pleasure at seeing him ; but one old, deaf Onondago 
denounced him. " I do not know this Swannock, ' ' said he ; " it 
may be that you know him. I, the Shawanese, and our father, do 
not know him." The next day, however, he acknowledged that 
he had been wrong; he said that "he had now cleaned himself," 
and hoped they would forgive him. 

The French, and some of the Indians, demanded that Post 
should be sent into the fort; but the other Indians would not 
hear of this. On the twenty-fifth the chiefs assembled again and 
had a great deal of councelling among themselves. The French 
were still intriguing to get Post into their hands, but his friends 
would not give him up. He was told not to stir from the fire, 
for the French had offered a great reward for his scalp, and that 
some parties were desirous to secure it. "Accordingly I stuck 
constantly as close to the fire, ' ' says he, " as if I had been chained 
there." The following day the Indians and a number of the 
French officers crossed the river again to hear what Post had to 
say. They brought with them a table and writing materials, to 
take down what might be said. Post stood among them and 
spoke at considerable length "with a free conscience." The 
French, he says, did not seem pleased with his speech. 

1 ' Brethren at Allegheny, ' ' said he, ' ' hear what I say : Every 


one that lays hold of this belt of peace, I proclaim peace to them 
from the English nation, and let you know that the great king 
of England does not incline to have war with the Indians ; but he 
wants to live in peace and love with them, if they will lay down 
the hatchet and leave off war with him. We let you know that 
the great king of England has sent a great number of warriors 
into this country, not to go to war with the Indians in their towns, 
no, not at all; these warriors are going against the French. By 
this belt I take you by the hand, and lead you at a distance from 
the French, for your own safety, that your legs may not be 
stained with blood. Come away on this side the mountain, where 
we may oftener converse together, and where your own flesh and 
blood lives. I have almost finished what I had to say, and hope 
it will be to your satisfaction. My wish is that we may join 
close together in that old brotherly love and friendship which 
our garndfathers had, so that all the nations may hear and see 
us, and have the benefit of it ; and if you have any uneasiness 
or complaint in your heart and mind, do not keep it to yourself. 
We have opened the road to the council fire, therefore, my breth- 
ren, come and acquaint the governor with it ; you will be readily 
heard, and full justice will be done you." 

After the council the French and Indians returned to the fort, 
except Post's companions, who were about seventy in number. 
One of the latter, however, Shamokin Daniel, went over to the 
fort, though his comrades disapproved it. Here he had some 
conversation with the commandant, and soon returned with a 
laced coat and hat, a blanket, shirts, ribbons, a new gun, powder, 
lead, etc. He was quite a changed man. He reviled Post and the 
English, and " behaved in a very proud, saucy and imperious 
manner." Post was informed that as soon as they got back to 
the fort, the French proposed to the Indians to cut off Post and 
his party. To this the Indians would not consent. "The Del- 
awares," said they, "are a strong people, and are spread to a 
great distance, and whatever they agree to must be." The French 
again insisted that Post must be delivered up to them; but the 
Indians refused to do so, except the traitorous Shamokin Daniel, 
who had received a string of Wampum to leave him there. Post's 
friends then determined that he should set off the next mornimr 
before day, which he did. They returned through Sawkunk, and 
arrived at Kushkushkee in the evening of the twenty-eighth. 



Pisquetumen, Tom Hiskman, Shingiss, and the rascally Shamo- 
kin Daniel were of the party. 

Though the Delawares had treated Post kindly, and had 
refused to deliver him to the French, they were not ready yet 
to surrender themselves to the English cause. They were sus- 
picious of the English, and of their good intentions. 

"It is told us," said they, after they had got back to Kush- 
kushkee, ' ' that you and the French contrived the war to waste the 
Indians between you; and then you and the French intended to 
divide the land between you. This was told us by the chief of 
the Indian traders; and they said further, 'Brothers, this is the 
last time we shall come among you, for the French and English 
intend to kill all the Indians, and then divide the land among 
themselves. ' ' 

Post made answer to this: 

' ' I am very sorry to see you so jealous. I am your own flesh 
and blood, and sooner than I would tell you any stoiy that would 
be of hurt to you or your children, I would suffer death. And if 
I did not know that it was the desire of the governor that we 
should renew our brotherly love and friendshp that subsisted 
between our grandfathers, I would not have undertaken this 
journey. I do assure you of mine and the people's honesty." 

In a council held on the fourth of Septemebr, the chiefs 
addressing him, said: 

"Brother, you very well know that you have collected all your 
young men about the country, which makes a large body, and 
now they are standing before our doors. You come with good 
news and fine speeches. This is what makes us jealous, and we 
do not know what to think of it. If you had brought the news 
of peace before your army had begun to inarch, it would have 
caused a great deal more good. We do not so readily believe you, 
because a great many great men and traders have told us, long 
before the war, that you and the French intended to join and cut 
all the Indians off." 

To this speech Post replied : 

"Brothers, I love you from the. bottom of my heart. I am 
extremely sorry to see the jealousy so deeply rooted in your 


hearts and minds. I have told you the truth ; and yet, if I was to 
tell it you a hundred times, it seems you would not rightly 
believe me. I do now declare, before God, that the English never 
did, nor never will, ojin with the French to destroy you." 

Having performed the task that had been given him to do, Post 
now desired to return home; but the Indians, on one pretext or 
another, delayed him day after day. They were not entirely sat- 
isfied in their minds. 

"It is a troublesome cross and heavy yoke to draw this peo- 
ple," wrote Post; "they can punish and squeeze a body's heart 
to the utmost. My heart has been very heavy here, because they 
kept me for no purpose. The Lord knows how they have been 
counselling about my life; but they did not know who was my 
Protector and Deliverer." 

At length, however, on the afternoon of the eighth of Sep- 
tember, Post and his party set off from Kushkushkee, and pro- 
ceeded ten miles on their return journey. They suffered much 
from hunger and exposure on the way, and were in great danger 
from the enemy, but finally arrived at Fort Augusta, on the twen- 
ty-second, "very weary and hungry, but greatly rejoiced of our 
return from this tedious journey." 


WITH the July issue the American Historical Maga- 
zine changes its name, widens its field and passes 
under new editorial management. 
The new name is Americana, a title that seems to 
the publishers more in harmony with the scope of the National 
Americana Society, but no radical departure from its historical 
character is intended. There will be an enriching of its resources 
in this direction, and writers will be employed who have been 
sucessful in bringing to the light the buried treasures of our his- 
torical literature. Biography will remain a prominent feature, 
and several notable articles in this line are in preparation. 

But Americana is to have a more distinct literary atmosphere 
from this time. The articles will be rather shorter and more 
narrative in character ; there will be besides the editorial depart- 
ment, several others later on, which will add much to the attrac- 
tion. The management will spare no pains to make of the maga- 
zine a distinguished, progressive periodical, the fitting organ of 
all that is best in our history and of most permanent value in our 
American life. 

The new editor, Mrs. Florence Hull Winterburn, is a Washing- 
ton woman who has made a substantial reputation as the author 
of sociological books, and has been several times associate editor 
of New York magazines. Completely identified with the interests 
of her country both by the traditions of her family as well as by 
her strong patriotism, Mrs. Winterburn is well qualified to take 
charge of a magazine so essentially patriotic as Americana. 

The illustrative department of the magazine will be richer and 
stronger than ever. The illustrations will include, as formerly, 
steel plates, half-tones and line engravings in the text. 

The subscription price will remain at three dollars a year. 
Address all communications of a literary nature to the Editor 
of Americana, and all business communications to 


154 East Twenty-third Street, 

New York. 

JULY, 1909 




How Dolly Madison Outwitted the British. By Helen Har- 

court 347 

The Song of Peace, an Indian Legend. By Aileen Cleve- 
land Higgins 361 

History of the Mormon Church. By Brigham H. Roberts 367 

The Hero in History. By H. L. Conroy .... 394 
Some Old Church Silver in America. By Miriam Cruik- 

shank 398 

The Need of Science in American Family Rule. By Flor- 
ence Hull Winterburn 403 

The Captain of the Dreadnaught. By Walter B. Norris . 415 

Burgoyne's Campaign. By H. H. Robertson . . . 421 
Rise of the United Empire Loyalists. By the Viscount de 

Fronsac 429 

Captain John O'Brien. By Andrew M. Sherman . . 443 

A National Anthem. Poem. By J. E. Holden . . 455 

Editorial 456 

Literature 461 

Announcements 466 

Copyright, 1909, by 
The National Americana Society 

All rights reserved. 



July, 1909 


By Helen Harcourt 

THE twenty-fourth of August, 1814, was the most mem- 
orable day iu the history of our then young national 
capital. On that day the troops of Great Britain 
marched through its streets and destroyed all the best 
that was in it. It was the culmination of two years of fierce war- 
fare, the outcome of British interference with jour foreign com- 
merce and the seizure of American sailors under the right 
claimed by England to search our ships for English deserters. 

It was however, with avowed reluctance that President Madi- 
son, on June eighteenth, 1812, signed the declaration of war 
against Great Britain. He knew the power of the enemy, and 
our own unpreparedness for war, but his calmer judgment was 
forced to yield to the clamor of the nation and the will of con- 
gress. The President declared that such a war could only result 
in a fruitless destruction of American lives and property. And 
he was right. When the bloody war of two years was ended, the 
questions that had caused all the trouble were still far from 
being settled as the United States desired. 

In the winter of 1812 Admiral Oockburn with a squadron of 
warships entered Chesapeake Bay. His proximity to the nation- 
al capital naturally excited great apprehension among the peo- 
ple, but General Armstrong, the secretary of war, and other high 
military authorities, ridiculed the idea of the enemy's attacking 
Washington. The city was declared to be impregnable, and so 
vehemently did those who should have known insist on this being 



the case, that a bill to increase the military forces in the District 
of Columbia was voted down by the congress as being unneces- 

And as a matter of fact the English admiral had at this time no 
thought of attacking Washington, supposing the city and its 
approaches to be well fortified. His object in entering the bay 
was not a dangerous attack on the capital, but a safe attack on 
the defenceless seaboard town and villages, dock yards and har- 
bors. Accordingly, he bombarded every little town that could be 
reached by his ships. Marauding parties were landed, towns pil- 
laged and burned, many of their inhabitants killed or carried off 
as prisoners, and others wounded and left to die or live as the 
case might be. Such superfluous cruelty gained for their perpe- 
trator the contemptuous title of "Cockburn the marauder." 
The very mention of his name filled timid hearts with terror, 
brave ones with scorn and hatred. 

As the months rolled on the admiral became emboldened by 
success, and drew nearer and nearer to the capital. And still, 
in spite of the ur'gent advice of the President, his military chiefs 
derided the idea of danger to the city of Washington. Finally, in 
the early summer of 1814, came the startling news that a fleet of 
transports carrying a large force of Wellington's veterans had 
sailed from Bermuda for the Potomac river. Then at last active 
steps were taken for defence. A hasty cabinet meeting was held 
and the President laid before it a well considered plan of de- 
fence, which was eagerly adopted. The execution of the plan was 
placed in the hands of General Winder, and he was authorized to 
raise an army of ninety-three thousand men. 

But now, as ever from that day to this, "red tape" obliged the 
general to submit to annoying and useless delays at every step. 
Official interference and leisurely ways handicapped his every 
effort even in the face of impending danger. His urgent call for 
volunteers too, met with but a feeble response, and ten thousand 
raw, undisciplined militia, instead of the desired ninety-three 
thousand, were all that answered the call. The only quick re- 
sponse came from the gallant Commodore Barney, who, with 
his little flotilla of fourteen armed vessels, took his station in 
the Patuxent river, twenty-five miles south-east of the city. 


In the meantime the British were not idle. Admiral Cock- 
bum's squadron had been joined by twenty-one others under 
Admiral Cochrane, and these, carrying the five thousand veter- 
ans from Bermuda, under General Ross, entered the Patuxent 
river on the eighteenth of August. Two days later, the brave 
Barney, realizing that the only hope of saving his flotilla was to 
conceal the vessels, retreated as far up the river as it was 
possible to navigate them. Then, leaving a few sailors on guard 
with orders to burn the ships rather than permit them to fall 
into the hands of the enemy, he himself marched with four hun- 
dred of his men to join the militia who were hastily assembling. 

Suddenly, on the early morning of the nineteenth, the people 
of the towns and villages lying between the Patuxent river and 
the capital, were startled from their slumbers by the furious 
clatter of a horse's hoofs through their main street, and the 
voice of a man shouting: "To arms, to arms, Cockburn is com- 

Fast upon the heels of the excited rider came the official intel- 
ligence that a British force of five thousand troops under Cock- 
burn and Boss had landed not more than forty miles from the 
city. The hated name of Cockburn was full of terror, and all 
along the route women and children prepared for flight to the 
woods. Some men also fled, but more, thank heaven, prepared 
to defend their homes and their country. 

General Winder ordered a large detachment of militia to 
march out to intercept the enemy, whose avowed intention was 
to overtake and capture Commodore Barney and his brave band 
of four hundred sailors. The latter, however, succeeded in join- 
ing the militia unmolested. It was only now, it would seem, that 
emboldened by previous impunity and enraged by his failure to 
intercept Barney, Admiral Cockburn resolved to march on the 
cherished seat of the American government. One document 
above all others he vowed to seize and destroy, the hated Declar- 
ation of Independence; two persons above all others he vowed 
to capture and send to England as prisoners,— the President and 
his wife. It was the belief of this gallant persecutor of helpless 
women and children that thus the British government could 
wrest whatever terms it desired from the audacious Americans. 


Admiral Cockburn succeeded in neither one nor the other of his 
objects. The bravery of one frail woman alone, however, stood 
between the spoiler and the precious document that he would 
have destroyed, a woman in whose honor a grateful nation should 
long ago have erected a monument in memory of her heroism in 
saving its most precious treasure from destruction. 

In the midst of all the wild excitement following upon the 
news of the landing of the British, Mrs. Madison, Dolly Madison, 
as the people termed her with affectionate respect, continued 
quietly in her accustomed round of duties, although she was not 
quite satisfied by the assurances of her husband and General 
Armstrong that there was no danger of the enemy invading the 
city, as General Winder had ample forces for driving him back. 

But serene though she seemed, Dolly Madison's senses were 
on the alert. The spirit of unrest was in the air ; the gathering 
of troops, the roll of drums, the galloping couriers from the out- 
lying army, the hurried flight of the people, bearing such house- 
hold goods as they could carry, the shouts and cries in the 
streets, all imbued her with a sense of impending calamity. And, 
as the event proved, with reason. Each succeeding ' dispatch 
from the front told of the continued advance of the British with- 
out opposition. On the afternoon of the twenty-second, Mrs. 
Madison's husband bade her a hasty farewell and sped away on 
horseback to join Winder on the field. Then indeed, his wife's 
anxiety and dread became acute. 

Scarcely had the President left the city when came the start- 
ling news that the flotilla in the Patuxent river had been burned 
to prevent it from falling into the hands of the enemy, who was 
now at a point almost opposite to the city. Wild rumors of all 
sorts added to the ominous news. Nor was the general terror 
lessened the next morning by a dispatch from James Monroe, 
secretary of state, who, with General Winder, had been recon- 
noitering, "The enemy is in full march to Washington. Have 
materials prepared to destroy the bridge. You had better remove 
the records." 

Had a bomb alighted in the midst of government circles the 
consternation could hardly have been greater. Not a moment 
was lost in beginning the work of saving the records and public 


documents. All that day and late into the night every clerk and 
official worked at top speed. In the midst of scenes of wildest 
confusion, Dolly Madison waited anxiously for tidings from her 
husband, knowing that his life was in danger not only from his 
natural foes, but from his own affrighted people who on all sides 
were loudly blaming him for the failure to check the British 
advance and to defend the city. To the worse than uncertainty 
of her own position, Dolly Madison gave little heed, though most 
of her personal friends had left the city, after vainly urging her 
to accompany them. The White House guard of one hundred 
men had deserted in a body, and it was with difficulty that the 
few servants were kept from following their example. At last 
came a hasty note from the President asking his wife to be ready 
at a moment's notice to enter her carriage and leave the city. 

Soon brave Dolly was at work. Her first thought was for the 
valuable national documents that were stored in the White 
House. These, with the help of the remaining servants, were 
quickly packed into the two or three trunks that could be taken 
in the carriage. No personal belongings of her own or her hus- 
band's could be saved. It was impossible to hire a wagon or 
conveyance of any kind. Such as had not been pressed into ser- 
vice for the army, had been captured by the departments for the 
removal of the government records. When wagons failed, any- 
thing that could run upon wheels was eagerly seized upon by the 
terror-stricken citizens. Wheel barrows, dump carts, ox-carts, 
hand carts, sledges, big boxes, and even row boats set on hastily 
'•(instructed runners in lieu of wheels, were piled high with 
household goods and with women and children and invalids, and 
hurried out of the city. Thus, those who were so fortunate, but 
the majority could find no medium whatever for removing their 
personal belongings, therefore the most valuable articles were 
buried, and their owners generally remained on guard, hoping 
with a forlorn hope, to find some means of saving their property 
from the ruthless foe. 

As the day wore on all sorts of rumors fiHed the air, and the 
excitement and disorder increased. The British were advanc- 
ing; there had been a battle and the Americans were retreating; 
the slaves were preparing for an uprising, and were arming 


with knives and whatever other weapons they could procure. 
The government clerks, spurred on by desperation, summarily 
seized every wagon in sight, ejecting army rations and private 
goods and replacing them with bags and bundles of priceless rec- 
ords and documents. Thus the twenty-third of August, 1814, 
closed on a scene of uproar and fearful suspense. 

As may well be imagined, that was a sleepless night for Dolly 
Madison. Repeatedly urged to fly from the approaching perils 
she as often refused to go until her husband returned or she was 
assured of his safety. Sunrise on the morning of that fateful 
twenty-fourth of August found the brave mistress of the White 
House at a window, eagerly scanning the horizon with a field- 
glass. All through the morning she waited and watched, hoping 
to see a loved form approaching. In the distance she saw only 
groups of soldiers marching here and there. Towards noon these 
groups united and got into active motion, and then presently 
came the dull, rumbling roar of cannon from a point scarce five 
miles distant. 

It was on the famous tract known as the "Blandensburg duel- 
ling ground" that the British met the Americans who had hastily 
assembled, ready to fight a wholesale duel for the honor of their 
country, a duel on the result of which depended the fate of the 
national capital. It needed no prophet to foretell that result, 
when six thousand tried veterans hurled themselves upon 
three thousand raw, undisciplined militia, many of them under 
fire for the first time. 

The Americans fought bravely, but in vain. Individual valor 
could not withstand the disciplined attack of a perfectly trained 
foe with a settled plan of battle, which latter was totally lacking 
on the part of the Americans. All evidence points to the fact 
that the whole engagement was hopelessly mismanaged by the 
American general. A Washing-ton, a Moultrie, a Marion, would 
have spared the national capital the disgrace and destruction of 
an invasion by an enemy who now boastfully announced his in- 
tention to capture the President and his wife and to burn the 
nation's treasured Declaration of Independence. 

The only portion of the American army which distinguished it- 
self, were the sailors under Commodore Barney, who served as 


gunners and made a stand so heroic and determined as to evoke 
the admiration of their enemies. This gallant band might have 
saved the day had they not been forgotten then, and a retreat or- 
dered, leaving the brave sailors to their fate. Even so they fought 
on, yielding not one jot until they saw their noble leader fall 
wounded and helpless. Still they would have continued the hope- 
less struggle but for his stern commands to leave him and save 
themselves. "Go, your country can't spare you," he said, "I 
command you to retreat while you may. "?Te himself was taken 
prisoner by the triumphant enemy, and, as he said later on, "was 
treated by them as a brother. ' ' 

Laughter is akin to tears ; humor is a sister to adversity. Prom- 
inent among the militia was a company from Baltimore, com- 
posed almost entirely of the higher classes, and therefore nick- 
named the "Silk Stockings." After their return home as van- 
quished heroes, its members were quite naturally made a target 
for good-humored jokes. One of the men was a witty fellow, and 
not even misfortune could drown his sense of humor. 'Yes," 
said he, when teased on the subject of their encounter with the 
foe, ' ' The British did get the better of us at first, but we got the 
better of them in the long run ! ' ' 

Of how the battle was faring, however, no word reached the 
city. For two hours it raged with ceaseless fury; so much the 
people of the doomed capital knew, because they could hear the 
roar of the big guns, the rattle of musketry. But at last, emerg- 
ing from the distant smoke of the conflict, arose a cloud of dust in 
the road. The cloud grew larger and larger as it swept on 
towards the city. In its midst was a rider, the inglorious van- 
guard of the coming flood of fugitives. His horse was. foam- 
flecked, himself covered with blood and begrimed with powder, 
panic-stricken and shouting hoarsely as his weaiy steed dashed 
up Pennsylvania avenue, 

' ' Fly, fly, the enemy are coining ! ' ' 

Close behind the messenger who bore into the city of Wash- 
ington the first definite of the defeat of the Americans and the 
approach of the British, came General Armstrong, secretary of 
war, lie who had so ]>ersistently laughed to scorn the idea of 
danger to the capital. He was not laughing now. Behind him 


swept on a terrified mob of terrified militia, in a whirl of dust 
and of horror. Their panic spread as panics will. Men, women 
and children rushed for the river, crossed the Long Bridge, and 
sought hiding places in the woods of Virgina in a perfect frenzy 
of fear. The terror of "Cockburn the Marauder" was as great 
as would have been that of a band of savage Indians. 

Two gentlemen on foaming horses dashed up to the White 
House to inform its mistress of that which needed no telling, 
and to urge instant flight. Mrs. Madison calmly bade them 
secure their own escape, but for herself, she would remain until 
the last possible moment in the hope of seeing her husband re- 
turn and of accompanying him in his flight. So bravely Dolly 
waited, but not in idleness, and her friends reluctantly waited 
also, patrolling the streets near by. In one of the state parlors 
hung a valued life size portrait of the ''Father of his Country." 
This Mrs. Madison resolved should not be lost to the city, or at 
least not desecrated by the hands of the enemy. The portrait 
was in a heavy frame screwed to the wall. There was no time to 
unscrew it, so she ordered one of the few remaining slaves to 
loosen the frame with an axe, and lay it upon the floor. She 
then cut the picture without injuring it save at the very mar- 
gin. Carefully rolling up the percious portrait, she wrapped it 
in coarse brown paper, with a. ragged edge of old muslin con- 
spicuously protruding, so that it looked like nothing more than 
some "old clothes," treasure of a poor woman to whom she has- 
tily confided the package. This trusty woman was a Mrs. Baker, 
and she at once started in a hack for Georgetown. The studied 
choice of the most forlorn old rattletrap of a hack that could be 
found, resulted in its passage without molestation. Who would 
have dreamed of a famous treasure of the American republic 
being concealed in such a dilapidated conveyance and in the cus- 
tody of a solitary old woman? No one, and that was just what 
shrewd Dolly Madison calculated upon. "But," said she, as her 
faithful messenger departed on her mission, "If there is danger 
of the portrait falling into the hands of the British, destroy 
it. It must not be desecrated by their touch. ' ' It was not, and 
to-day is one of the treasures of the nation. 

Scarcelv had Mrs. Baker left the mansion when the two gen- 


tlemen again dashed up to the door. ' ' Fly, fly, ' ' they exclaimed, 
"The British are almost upon us!" Then at last brave Dolly 
felt that the time had come for her retreat. And now came the 
moment of inspiration, for such it must have been, that has made 
the name of Dolly Madison immortal in the heart of every true 
American. She was in the act of hurriedly stepping into the 
carriage when she turned to look back at the beautiful home she 
was about to abandon. She had no doubt that it would be burned 
to the ground. Had she overlooked anything of special value? 

Startling as a lightning flash in the midst of darkness, came 
the answer. The Declaration of Independence! Yes, she had 
indeed lost sight of this, the most precious of all the treasures 
of the American people. Better that any other document should 
be lost rather than this. Specially guarded in a glass case apart 
from all other documents, and in an apartment but seldom 
entered, it had been forgotten in the wild rush and packing of 
more conspicuous papers. 

"Thank Heaven that I remembered in time," gasped Mrs. 
Madison, turning red and white, ' ' I must go back ! ' ' 

"Stop, for Heaven's sake, stop!" cried her astonished friends, 
as the gallant little woman, regardless of the danger of delay, 
darted into the house and sped into the room where was the 
priceless document for which she was willing to sacrifice life or 
liberty, if need be to secure its safety. The case was locked, the 
key was not at hand, and so pausing only to wrap her handker- 
chief around her hand, Dolly Madison drove her little fist right 
through the glass door, and snatching up the precious document, 
waved it triumphantly over her head as she met her anxious 
friends at the door. Entering her carriage at last, she was 
driven rapidly out of the city in the direction of Georgetown, 
the Declaration carefully concealed in the folds of her gown, 
where it remained during the remainder of her flight. 

The doomed city had been left but a short distance behind 
when having learned that the enemy had not yet reached the cap- 
ital, Mrs. Madison ordered her reluctant coachman to return to 
the White House in the hope of gaining some tidings of her hus- 
band. Her joy, therefore, was great when presently she met 
him approaching on horseback, accompanied by several other 


gentlemen. Mournfully the party turned their backs upon their 
beloved city, forlorn fugitives, like hundreds of others, desper- 
ately seeking a haven of refuge. Crossing the Potomac to the 
Virginia shore, Dolly Madison set off for a rendezvous some 
miles up the river where the President planned to meet her on 
the following day, his pressing duties preventing his accom- 
panying her further. 

The roadway was so crowded with fugitives, military and 
civilian, with horses and wagons and sledges, that Mrs, Madi- 
son was finally obliged to leave her carriage in the woods and 
tramp through the scorching heat and deep sand, and in the 
midst of a mob of rough soldiers, country people and insolent 
negroes who rudely pushed her aside and insulted her with 
coarse and angry remarks. To these, whenever she was recog- 
nized, were added insults and threats against her husband. Thus, 
suffering, humiliated and exhausted, she took refuge in a farm- 
house for the remainder of the night. 

The battle of Blandensburg ended at four o'clock in the after- 
noon of the twenty-fourth of August; at eight o'clock "Cockburn 
the Marauder" marched triumphantly inlo the city. As we have 
seen, the admiral had openly avowed to destroy the document 
so revered by the young republic, and to capture the President 
and his wife. With this first object in view he marched his troops 
to the Capitol, in the belief that so precious a document would be 
stored there and in a conspicuous place. Cockburn at the head 
of a detachment of officers and privates, burst in the doors and 
entered the building. A hurried search was made for the coveted 
paper. Needless to say, in vain, and angered by failure, Cock- 
burn mounted the speaker's chair, and with mock gravity, put 
the question, "Shall this harbor of Yankee democracy be burnt?" 

The hint was sufficient. A shout of delighted assent rang 
through the building. Papers and other combustible materials 
were piled under the desks and set on fire. The magnificent Con- 
gressional Library was broken into and there also books and 
papers were heaped up and fired. In a few moments the stately 
building that had been twenty years in course of construction, 
was a mass of seething flames. Involved in this wanton destruc- 



tion was a vast quantity of official documents of great historical 
value which had been stored in the library. 

Another of the chief objects of Admiral Cockburn 's invasion 
was the capture of the stores in the navy yard and arsenal, but as 
he had been forestalled in the capture of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence by brave Dolly Madison, so was he forestalled in this 
object also by the commandant of the navy yard, Commodore 
Tingly. Acting under orders received from the navy depart- 
ment, he set fire to all the stores, magazines and shipping as 
soon as he was assured that the British had actually entered the 
city. This second failure to make good his boasts still further 
incensed the brutal Cockburn. 

From the burning Capitol he turned to the White House hop- 
ing to intercept the flight of the President and Mrs. Madison. 
Here too, as we know, he met with disappointment. Finding the 
house locked and deserted, the vandals fired volleys of musketry 
into the windows, then battered down the doors and swarmed into 
the building, breaking mirrors and furniture, raided the provi- 
sion closets and enjoyed a hastily prepared feast in the state din- 
ing-room. The banquet finished, the soldiers threw the costly 
dishes on the floor, looted the silverware, ransacked the mansion 
from attic to basement, looting every small article of value, and 
finally finished their work of destruction by setting fire to the 
stately building. 

Guards were left at the Capitol and White House to prevent 
the outraged citizens from attempting to extinguish the blaze, 
while Cockburn marched his marauders up Pennsylvania avenue 
and set fire to the Treasury building and those of War, State 
and Navy departments. Not content with the destruction of pub- 
lic buildings, many handsome private residences were fired, 
among them that which had been the residence of the first Presi- 

A detachment of troops were sent to destroy the Patent office 
building, and their commander, finding that to set it on fire 
would involve the destruction of a number of dwelling'houses, 
prepared to batter down its walls with cannon. Needless to say 
that this commander was not Cockburn, else had such a trivial 
consideration not deterred him from using the torch. The head 
of the Patent office at that time was gallant William Thornton, 


and seeing what the enemy was about to do, he threw himself in 
front of the cannon. 

"Are you Englishmen or Goths or Vandals?" he cried indig- 
nantly. "This is the Patent office, the repositoiy of the inven- 
tive genius of America, in which the whole world is concerned. 
Would you destroy it? If so, fire away and let the charge pass 
through my body ! ' ' 

The cannon was not fired and the Patent office and its valua- 
ble contents were saved by the heroism of this one man who 
risked his life for the good of others. 

Fanned by the gusts of a coming storm, the fires that had been 
started in various parts of the city spread in all directions with 
increasing fury, lighting the streets with a brilliancy greater 
than that of daylight, and revealing the marauders looting the 
houses and reveling in their terrible work of wanton destruction. 
Higher and higher leaped the flames, spreading further and 
further until the whole city was enveloped in a sea of flame 
whose lurid glow startled the people of Baltimore forty miles 

The mighty waves of flame rolled and surged high above the 
doomed city until it seemed as though the black vault of the heav- 
ens were afire. And as if excited to frenzy by the horrors of the 
scene, and anxious to pit the powers of the elements against the 
comparatively puny efforts of man, thunder and lightning broke 
forth in a storm of almost unparalled violence. For hours wind, 
rain, thunder and lightning raged with increasing fury until the 
dawn of day, when a hurricane of terrific proportions completed 
the ruin that the flames, extinguished in many places during the 
night by the deluge of rain, had left unfinished. 

Overawed as they might well have been, at the fearful devasta- 
tion wrought by their own hands and supplemented by the pow- 
ers of nature, the British marched silently out of the city on the 
night of the twenty-fifth of August, retreating in haste, having 
received information that a large force of Americans were pre- 
paring to intercept their return to their ships on the Patuxent 
river. It was an additional evidence of the incompetency of the 
military chiefs that this information was false, and that the 
British were permitted to reach their haven of refuge on the 


twenty-sixth without the slightest molestation. Their advance 
had been made through a country which the Secretary of War 
himself described as "covered with woods, and offering at every 
step strong positions for defence." But in spite of this advan- 
tage, as Cockburn contemptuously remarked ' ' Not a single mus- 
ket was fired during the retreat." 

And what of brave Dolly Madison? According to appoint- 
ment she was rejoined by her husband on the twenty-fifth at a 
small tavern sixteen miles from Washington. Arriving before 
the President, she was at first refused admittance, and it was 
only the fierceness of the storm that finally induced the rough 
mob which had taken shelter in the tavern, to permit her en- 
trance, though the permission was accompanied with gross in- 
sults. She who a week before had been the idol of the populace 
was now contemned and humiliated because that same populace 
had turned against her husband, who, of all the high officials, 
was probably the least to blame for their misfortunes. 

Gladly therefore, Dolly Madison left this inhospitable shelter 
on the afternoon of the twenty-sixth, in disguise and attended 
only by a friend and trusty soldier. The President had been 
compelled to leave her on the twenty-fifth, having heard that 
Cockburn had learned his location and had sent a detachment 
in pursuit. Reaching Washington on the night of the twenty- 
sixth, Mrs. Madison paused only to take a brief and mournful 
survey of the smouldering ruins of her late beautiful home ami 
then drove to the house of her sister which had escaped the gen- 
eral disaster. Here she anxiously awaited her husband, who 
presently rejoined her in safety. 

The noble capital of the young republic lay in ruins, but its 
destruction roused the spirit of patriotism of whole American 
people. Forgetting party lines and partisan bitterness, they 
rallied as one man to the support of the government, and by 
glorious victories of Baltimore and New Orleans effaced the dis- 
grace that had fallen upon the nation, and wiped out the .shame- 
ful defeat at Blandensburg. From the ashes of the inglorious 
fall of the capital city, arose another and greater city, a verti- 
able Phoenix, the grandest and most beautiful city in the world 


But all the spirit, all the patriotism, all the wealth,* all the 
architects in all the earth, could never have replaced the price- 
less piece of parchment that Dolly Madison risked her life and 
liberty to save for her country's honor and glory. Surely for 
such a heroic deed her memory should be enshrined in every 
heart, and perpetuated by a grateful nation. Among all the dis- 
tinguished men immortalized in Statuaiy Hall, none are more 
worthy the place than Dolly Madison, the preserver of the sacred 
Declaration of Independence. 


A Legend of Owotannak 


ON late, long winter nights in the northwest, many are 
the legends, which the old tell the young. Full of 
charm and mystery are these strange primeval his- 
tories which have come down from generation to gen- 
eration, lip from lip, to present day hearers. Of all these stories, 
the one which listeners lean most eagerly to hear and the one 
which the old love most to tell is the legend of Owotannak. 

Owotannak, an Indian brave of the Sisseton tribe, was a 
dreamer of dreams and a singer of songs, a poet of the forest who 
voiced the wonderful mystery and the pulsing beauty of the wild- 
erness. His eyes were ever open to the fair, changing panorama 
about him, and his ears were always listening to the symphony 
of nature's music. 

His quick eyes caught numberless shifting changes of color to 
which others were blind: the delicate network of gray limbs 
blending into the mauve twilight-haze, the glinting rose-gold of 
the embers, the deep brown of fir trunks against the blue-white 
snow, the iridiscent sheen of the dragon-fly's gauze-wing, the 
silver flash of dancing mist-sprites in the marsh, the quiver of 
rainbow-lights across the distance of open space, the sheathed 
pinkness of willow buds, the blue gossamer veil, enwrapping the 
far mountains. 

He heard music when to others there was silence. He was sen- 
sitive to all exquisite gradations of sound: the muffled fall of 
snow, the soft stir of bird's wings, the rhythmical swaying of 
young growing branches, the gentle drop of leaves, the opening 
of buds, the music of waiting dawn. 

He sang of all these things about the camp-fires, voicing the 



fancies and dreams of his comrades for which they had no words. 

The song he sang most often was his Song of The Unbroken 
Trail, which was the cry of his restless spirit, his response to the 
call of the unknown and the untried. 

His tribe loved him well. Every Sisseton knew Owotannak's 
songs. The braves sang them over and over in their hearts, but 
there was not one in the tribe who could voice a single song which 
was Owotannak's. 

The old braves nodding over their pipes, whispered among 

"A spell is cast about Owotannak's songs — so it is no other 
can sing them. ' ' 

Thus a strange air of mystery grew about Owotannak and 
when he approached the camp-fires he was greeted with a certain 

Beside his gift of song, Owotannak was miraculously sure with 
his arrow. His tent was crowded with wonderful trophies of his 
hunts. His comrades in the hunt watched him bring down zig 
zagging game with astonishing sureness. Many were the excited 
tales of Owotannak's prowess which were told and retold amon^ 
the Sissetons. 

Strange it was,— no Indian maid had ever held his thought. 
His glance which clung so caressingly to the faces of flowers, nev- 
er rested but passingly upon the fair oval of a maiden's cheek, 
or the smouldering fire of her passionate eyes. The maidens 
whispered among themselves that it might be Owotannak was 
wedded to a spirit-maid— some dream princess of his fantasy to 
whom he sang his rare songs of love. When sometimes, at twi- 
light, he lifted his wonderful voice full of such haunting witchery, 
and sang his songs of love, his listeners caught their breath, so 
poignant was the stinging sweetness of these melodies which 
gripped their hearts the closest. 

One day when the forest was a-pulse with spring promise, 
Owotannak pushed aside the red kinnikinic boughs and stood up- 
on the edge of the water, singing his Song of The Unbroken 
Trail. He slipped into his canoe and paddled alone down the 
river. Upon the wind spiced fragrantly with new pine needles, 
echoes of his song came back to his tribe who knew that he had 


started upon another of his adventurous trips into the unex- 
plored parts of the country. 

"When he returns, what tales he will have to tell !" sighed the 
young braves enviously. 

"And his spoils,— always more wonderful than the last," mur- 
mured Winnepak, the old chief reminiscently. 

It was many days before Owotannak came back. He went 
far to the southeast where white men were setting up their 
camps. When he returned, he brought with him no big game, no 
rich treasure of gems. 

They heard him coming far off singing a new song, a pean of 
joy. And who came with him! They leaned and listened. Like 
the faint trill of birds above the blue, like the tinkle of far-off 
bells, like the lute-notes of little singing winds, was the voice 
which sang in unison with his. When he came in sight they saw 
that he carried in his arms a little white child, who snuggled her 
head upon his shoulder in rapturous response to his crooning 

The Sissetons gazed at the wee child in wonder and crowded 
about Owotannak with many questions. How had he come by 
her? Had he stolen her from her people! Where had he found 

"She is mine, she is content, as you see, to be with me, what 
matter how I came by her 1 ' ' Such was Owotannak 's answer. 

They called her Ortega, "the golden-crested," because of the 
golden shower of hair which fell softly about her flower-like face. 

' ' The face of her is like the pink of early blossoms beneath the 
snow," exclaimed one of the Sisseton maidens. 

1 ' And her hands ! They move like quickly poising humming- 
birds!" cried another. 

The old squaws shook their heads as they touched her softly. 

"She is like a dream-child. She is so frail, she will soon 
waste away from sickness, or will die of longing for her own 

"Hark, her laugh!" interrupted a young brave. "It ripples 
like the soft fall of waters slipping along through the willows." 

Each day the Sissetons grew in wonder over Ortega. She lived 
among them quite contentedly with never a moment of sickness. 


She was always with Owotannak and the two seemed strangely 
akin. They were very happy together. Owotannak set before 
her every dainty of the wilderness and with his own hands, fash- 
ioned her garments from soft skins. 

Together Owotannak and little Ortega sang about the camp- 
fires. They sang of gypsy winds, the wing-to-wing flight of 
birds, the flow of heedless brooks, the beckon of waving poplar 
tassels, the vagabonding flash of color in the spring, the hum of 
insects sharing the summer-sweets, the gold in the forest-lily's 
heart, the crash of trees in storm, the rush of waters, of all these 
things they sang, telling endlessly of the heritage of the world's 
beauty which is mortal's own for the taking. 

Sometimes they sang of things of the spirit, which the tribe 
only dimly understood but which lingered in their memory and 
roused the dormant poetical response of their beings. 

Soon they found that Ortega had a strange kinship with wild 
things. No creature of the forest was afraid of her. Wild ani- 
mals came to her and played with her fearlessly. She seemed to 
understand their language, and answered their calls in mimicry, 
wonderfully like. 

One day there came hovering about her tent a white bird, the 
like of which the Sissetons had never seen. It brought her ber- 
ries from the deep of the woods. She took it in her hands each 
day and kissed its little white crest. Soon the Sissetons per- 
ceived that the crest was turning from snow-white to gold, the 
color of Ortega's own silken hair. Then they came to look 
askance at her and draw apart from her with wonder and half- 

Before many months a strange sickness came upon the tribe. 
None of the medicine men could stay the disease for it was some- 
thing for which herbs seemed to have no healing. The tribe fell 
away till but a handful was left. 

Then the white people began to edge their way into the Sis- 
seton's lands. The tribe was worsted in every attack they made 
upon the white people. 

"An evil spell is upon us," declared Winnipak, the chief. 

He held long talks with his braves, all except Owatannak, who 
was excluded from all their meetings, for it was whispered 


among the tribe that he had wrought ill luck upon them by bring- 
ing Ortega to live among them. At last it was decided that in 
order to break the spell, both Owotannak and Ortega must die. 

So it came that Ortega was bound to Owotannak 's back, and 
together they were tied to the old oak which overshadowed Or- 
tega's tent portectingly by the edge of the lake. Owotannak 
fought with all his wild strength to save Ortega. He begged to 
die any death of slow torture if they would but let Ortega go and 
restore her to her own people. But the Sissetons were deaf to 
his pleadings. With the look of a wounded deer in his eyes, 
Owotannak watched his people pile the brush thickly about him. 

Winnipak set fire to the brush and a frenzied shout went up 
as the flames leaped upward. 

A hush fell upon the tribe as suddenly Ortega and Owotannak 
began to sing. It was a song of triumph, this, their last song 
together, as if they glorified in the liberty of death. Soon the 
flames reached little Ortega ; her golden head drooped, and her 
voice died away in a soft cadence. 

As Owotannak heard Ortega 's voice grow silent and her little 
body relax in death against his own, his voice rang out in an im- 
perious call. He cried out to his tribe for an oath that they 
would make a vow of peace with Ortega's people, the white set- 
tlers who were coming into the Sisseton's territory. He sang 
so compellingly that the tribe huddled before him, and brokenly 
shouted their oath to hold peace forever with the white people. 

Then Owotannak chanted a Song of Peace, a melody so solemn 
and full of unearthly beauty that it rang out through the forest- 
gloom like some spirit-song. It ended with a low minor note, 
then Owotannak 's voice rose in a terrible curse upon his tribe 
should they ever break their vow and raise a hand against Or- 
tega's people. 

Owotannak 's head dropped back against Ortega's and as 
Death softly muted Iris glorious voice, the gold-crested bird flut- 
tered down from the oak into the flames and perished with 

At the sight of the white bird, the Sissetons sprang forward, 
as if released from a strange thrall, to rescue the two victims 
from the flames. Remorsefully they unbound Ortega from 


Owotannak's body, and frantically sought to bring the two still 
figures to life. But their healing touches were futile. The tribe 
gathered around silently for the death rites. 

Winnipak, impelled by some inexplicable force commenced to 
sing Owotannak's Song of Peace. All the tribe took it up, 
amazed that they could voice a song which Owotannak had sung. 
They buried Ortega and Owotannak together beneath the old 
oak. Each night thereafter the tribe sang the Song of Peace, 
the only song of Owotannak 's they could ever sing. Then one by 
one they each dropped two handfuls of earth upon the grave, in 
token of their remorse. So faithfully they observed this rite, 
that the grave grew to be a great mound. 

One morning the Sissetons awoke to find the mound and the 
old oak tree separated from the rest of the land, floating in the 
lake. They named the new island the Isle of the Golden Spirits. 

Every night, as they listened at the hour when Ortega and 
Owotannak were burned, they could hear,— as those whose spir- 
its can perceive other than things of earth, can still hear, in the 
rustling leaves of the fire-scarred oak, the echoing Song of Peace, 
sung by the soft spirit voices of Ortega and Owotannak. 

So it was that the Sissetons became and remained forever a 
tribe of peace. 

k It is an historical fact that the Sissetons were a tribe of peace. 


by brigham h. robebts 
Assistant Historian of the Chubch 


The Ancestry of Joseph Smith, the Prophet 


The Smiths of Topsfield, Massachusetts 

ON the paternal side the ancestry of Joseph Smith the 
Prophet, can be traced only to Robert Smith, who is 
known to have come from England to America in 1638, 
when about fifteen years of age. Nothing is known of 
the antecedents of Robert in England. After his arrival in 
America he settled in Essex county, Massachusetts, where he 
married Mary French, by whom he had ten children. Robert is 
accredited with having begun life in a humble way ; with having 
won the esteem of his neighbors; and with having prospered 
fairly well as to material things. He purchased two hundred 
and eight acres of land located partly in Boxford township, 
partly in Topsfield. He was usually spoken of as Robert Smith 
of Boxford, but some times of Topsfield. He was esteemed as a 
quiet, unassuming man ; interested in the welfare of Boxford, 
and generous to the needy. It was from this man that the Mor- 
mon Prophet descended through the following line : 

— Samuel (I) third son of the above Robert; 

— Samuel (II) first son of the above Samuel ; 

*The official name of the Church is, "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints; but for reasons that are obvious the name by which the organization is 
more generally known is here used. 



—Asael, second son of the above Samuel (II) ; 

—And Joseph, second son of the above Asael, and father of 
the Prophet. 

In view of recent efforts to account for the Mormon 
Prophet and what are regarded as his "more or less abnormal 
performances, ' ' in bringing into existence the Book of Mormon, 
and founding the "Mormon" Church, the study of his ancestry 
becomes important, since no pains are spared in making sys- 
tematic pathological studies of that ancestry in the hope of find- 
ing some abnormalities that would justify the theory that the 
Prophet's revelations were but hallucinations, the product of a 
mind diseased. It will be well, therefore, to state what is known 
of this line of men from whom the Prophet descended, as also to 
inquire concerning his maternal ancestors. 

Samuel Smith (I) son of the aforesaid Robert Smith, was 
born January 26, 1666. He was a carpenter by trade and mar- 
ried Rebecca Curtis, daughter of John Curtis ; and to them were 
born nine children, two sons and seven daughters. Twenty-three 
days before his death Robert Smith made his will, which bears 
the date of August 7th, 1693, in which he appointed his wife 
Mary and Samuel (I) his executors. But later, and at the 
request of both mother and children, Samuel (I) became sole 
administrator of his father's estate, a substantial testimony of 
the family's confidence in his ability and integrity. The letter 
of administration was issued from Judge Jonathan Corwin, 
October 3rd, 1698. After the settlement of the estate. Samuel 
(I) moved from Boxford to Topsfield where he became an influ- 
ential member of society, and while a carpenter by trade, he was 
also a land owner, and held several offices of trust. He died July 
12th, 1748. 

Samuel Smith (II) first son of the above Samuel Smith (I) 
was born January 26th, 1714. He inherited from his father the 
homestead in Topsfield, and married, first, Priscilla Gould, by 
whom he had five children. After her demise he married, second, 
her cousin of the same name. From the number of public offices 
Samuel (II) filled and the length of time he served in them, it is 
evident that he was a man of education and enterprise, promi- 
nent in the affairs of Topsfield, and active even in the affairs of 


the State. From the public records of Topsfield town it appears 
that he was grand juryman in 1760; in 1770, road supervisor; in 
1779, 1780, 1783, 1784, and 1785 he was on the Committee of 
Safety. 1 

From 1771 to 1777 and in 1781 and 1782 Samuel (II) was 
assessor and selectman in Topsfield, declining the honor in 1783; 
he was moderator of the Topsfield town meetings— chosen by 
the ballots of the people at each meeting 2 — in 1758, 1759, 1760, 
1762, 1764, 1766, 1767, 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 
1775, 1778, 1779, 1780, 1782, and 1783 ; recognizer of debts in 
1777, 1778, 1779, 1780, 1782, and 1783 ; representative to the Gen- 
eral Court (H. of R.) in 1764, 1765, 1766, 1767, 1768, 1769, 1770, 
1772, 1777, 1778, and 1781 ; town clerk in 1774, 1776, and 1777 ; 
delegate to the Provincial Congress at Concord, October 11, 
1774, and again January 19, 1775. He was chairman of the local 
"Tea Committee," and thus had some part in that move- 
ment which more than any other of the preliminary steps of 
resistance to Great Britain's encroachments upon the rights of 
the colonies, gave good earnest of the greater resistance so soon 
to follow. 

In the "Massachusetts Archives" 3 is found the following 
entry : 

1. This was a patriotic organization that grew out of the "provincial con- 
gress" movement, that had John Hancock for President. Dr. Joseph Warren, 
the hero of Bunker Hill, was chairman of the committee. It was made the duty 
of the committee to collect military stores, with power to call out the militia — 
(Fiske's "American Revolution" I. — Cambridge edition — p. rjg; "History of the 
United States," Morris, p. 1S9), in a word, to prepare for the impending Revo- 
lution. Feeling surprised that the "Committee of Safety" should have been per- 
petuated in Topsfield, according to the town records — from which the above 
information was obtained, a letter was written to Mr. George Francis Dow, Sec- 
retary of the Topsfield Historical Society, which elicited the following" answer, 
bearing date of April 28th, 1909 : 

" 'Coriimittees of Correspondence' were organized as early as May, 1764. The 
first one being in Mass. At the beginning the correspondence concerned a federa- 
tion of Colonies, but as the Revolution drew near the towns appointed 'Commit- 
tees of Correspondence' to keep in touch with the central Committee located at 
Boston. This central committee early in 1775 was styled 'The Committee of 
Safety and Correspondence for Boston,' and similar Committees in all the other 
towns in the Province shortly began to adopt the name 'Committee of Safety.' 
That Topsfields' Committee continued to be elected until March, 1785, is not 
surprising. The war was not over until the spring of 1783 and political conditions 
were in a very unsettled situation for several years. The Committee was 
in a way the mouthpiece of the central agency at Boston and in turn repre- 
sented the influence and political power of the town, as a unit in the government 
of the State.' " 

■2. "Civil Government," Fiske, p. 26. 

3. Vol. 157, page 519. 


"Province of the Massachusetts Bay. To the honorable the 
general court, Committee Accounts now Sitting at Wattertown : 

' ' The selectmen of Topsfield hereby exhibit for allowance the 
account of the powder and lead that the said selectmen delivered 
out of the town stock, to the minute men and others, to the 
number of 32, in the whole— and all of the town. It being what 
they expended in the engagement with the ministerial troops, 
on their retreat from Concord on the 19th day of April last, viz : 
One quarter of a pound of powder to each man, amounting in 
the whole to eight pounds of powder, and also to each man 12 
leaden bullets, amounting in weight to 17 pounds. By order of 
the selectment of Topsfield. 

Topsfield, April 11, 1776. Pr. Sam'l Smith." 

Samuel (II) was active throughout the Revolutionary war, 
and was known as "Captain Samuel Smith," a title he received 
from service in the militia. He died November 14, 1785, in the 
ninth year of the Independence of the United States, to obtain 
which independence he had devoted courageous and efficient ser- 
vice. On his death he left an estate valued at five hundred 
and forty-four English pounds, which roughly estimated would 
be equivalent to $2,700. His obituary published in the "Salem 
Gazette" of 22nd of November 1785, said of him: — 

"Died.— At Topsfield, on Monday the 14th instant, Samuel 
Smith, Esq., aged 72. — So amiable and worthy a character as he 
evidently appeared, both in public and private, will render the 
memory of him ever precious. For a number of years he repre- 
sented the town in the General Court, where he was esteemed 
i man of integrity and uprightness. His usefulness among those 
with whom he was more immediately conversant was eminent. 
He was a sincere friend to the liberties of his country, and a 
strenuous advocate for the doctrine of Christianity." 

"The memory of the just is blessed." 

Asael Smith, second son of the above Samuel Smith (II) was 
born 7th of March, 1744. His early life was spent in Topsfield, 
and at twenty- three he married Mary Duty, of Windham, New 
Hampshire, in which place he lived for sometime, thence moving 
successively to Dunbarton, and Manchester in the same State. 


During the American Revolution he served, though with less 
distinction than his father, in the American army. 

On the death of his father, Samuel Smith (II), Asael returned 
to the old homestead at Topsfield, which he had inherited. At 
Topsfield, Asael was made to feel the pressure of sectarian 
intolerance. It is evident that he had strong inclination himself 
towards that system of doctrine known as universalism— the 
belief that all souls will finally be saved, that good will finally 
triumph, universally and permanently. 

He was a man of strong convictions in religion, courageous, 
outspoken, but tolerant withal ; and held to the view, not so pop- 
ular then as it afterwards became, that men should be free to 
worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience. 
These views brought upon him the displeasure of the severely 
orthodox, who, at that time were swayed by the spirit that 
regarded toleration w T ith the suspicion, so well expressed in the 
following quartrain: 

' ' Let men of God in courts and Churches watch 
O'er such as do a toleration hatch, 
Lest that ill egg bring forth a cockatrice 
To poison all in heresy and vice." 4 

This long had been the spirit dominant in New England, and 
therefore when Asael Smith made free to express his unorthodox 
opinions and further emphasized these by giving shelter in his 
home to a despised and persecuted quaker, it brought such dis- 
pleasure of the community upon him that he resolved to leave 
Topsfield, the home of his fathers, and seek a more congenial 
society. He went first to northern New Hampshire, thence to 
Tunbridge, Vermont, where with the aid of his sons he cleared 
a large farm of virgin forest. In the later years of his life he 
made his home with his son Silas at Stockholm, St. Lawrence 
county, New York, where he died October 31st, 1830, in his 

eighty-sixth year. 


4. These lines were found on the person of Thomas Dudley, who was the 
author of them, at the time of his death. Dudley, it will be remembered, was asso- 
ciated with John Winthrop, as Deputy Governor of Massachusetts. "Beginnings 
of New England," Fiske, p. 125. 


It is necessary to deal further with the character of this ances- 
tor of the Mormon Prophet, since he is much relied upon by 
the hallucination theorists to prove the physical and mental de- 
fects which they feign Joseph Smith, the Prophet, inherited from 
his forefathers. It has been said that Asael had a physical de- 
formity, that one shoulder was higher than the other. Nehemiah 
Cleveland, in an address at Topsfield, on the occasion of the 
two hundredth anniversary of the town's incorporation, alluded 
to this supposed defect by saying: 

"This man, like 'Amnion's great son, one shoulder had too 
high,' and hence usually bore the significant and complimen- 
tary ( !) designation of ' Crooked Neck Smith'." One may easily 
discern the bias of the speaker, as he adds : " He was so free in 
his opinions on religious subjects, that some regarded his senti- 
ments as more distorted than his neck." 5 The facts in relation 
to this physical "deformity" are, that while a small child Asael's 
neck was severely burned, the cords contracted, drawing the 
neck to one side, and rendering it stiff. This misfortune the 
malice of those whom he offended by the freedom of his religious 
opinions seized upon as an "abnormality" that later was pressed 
into service to account for supposed mental abnormalities in his 
grand-son, founder of the "Mormon" Church. As to the "dis- 
tortion" of iVsael's mind, two documents of his exist which 
reflect the quality of his mind so clearly, that he will need no 
other evidence to establish the soundness of his understanding, 
the clearness of his intellect, or the refinement of his nature, 
than their publication. 

The first of these documeuts is a letter written by Asael Smith 
after his removal from Topsfield, Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, 6 and reads as follows : 

Asael Smith's Letter to Mr. Jacob Town. 

"Tunbridge, Jan. 14th, 1796. 
"Respected Sir:— Having a favorable opportunity, altho' on 

5. "Address at Topsfield, Massachusetts," New York, 1851, p. xxv, quoted 
by Riley, "Founder of Mormonism," note, p. 63. 

6. The original, in 1872, was in the hands of the son of Jacob Town, then 
the town clerk of Topsfield; who, while not willing to part with the original 
permitted a copy to be taken by the Mormon Church Historian, George Albert 
Smith, grandson of Asael, which copv is npw on file at the Church Historian's 
Office, Salt Lake City. 


very short notice, I with joy and gratitude embrace it, returning 
herewith my most hearty thanks for your respect shown in your 
favor of the 30th of November, by Mr. Willes, which I view as 
a singular specimen of friendship, which has very little been 
practiced by any of my friends in Topsfield, altho' often 

"My family are all, through the goodness of the Divine Bene- 
diction, in a tolerable good state of health, and desire to be 
remembered to you and to all inquiring friends. 

' * I have set me up a house since Mr. Willes was here and ex- 
pect to remove into it next spring, and to begin again on an en- 
tire new farm, and my son Joseph will live on the old farm (if 
this that has been but four years occupied can be called old), and 
carry it on at the halves, which half I hope will nearly furnish 
my family with food, whilst I with my four youngest sons shall 
endeavor to bring to another farm, etc. 

"As to news, I have nothing, as I know of, worth noticing, ex- 
cept that grain has taken a sudden rise amongst us, about one- 

"As to the Jocobin party, they are not very numerous here, or 
if they are they are pretty still ; there are some in this state, viz., 
in Bennington, who, like other children crying for a rattle, have 
blared out against their rulers, in hopes to wrest from them, if 
possible, what they esteem the plaything of power and trust. But 
they have been pretty well whipped and have become tolerably 
quiet again, and I am in hopes, if they live to arrive to the years 
of discretion, when the empire of reason shall take place, that 
they will then become good members of society, notwithstanding 
their noisy, nauseous behavior in their childhood, for which they 
were neither capable of hearing or giving any reason. - 

"For my part, I am so willing to trust the government of the 
world in the hands of the Supreme Ruler of universal nature, 
that T do not at present wish to try to wrest it out of His hands, 
and I have so much confidence in His abilities to teach our sena- 
tors wisdom, that I do not think it worth while for me to inter- 
pose, from the little stock of knowledge that He has favored me 
with, in the affair, either one way or the other. He has conducted 
us through a glorious Revolution and has brought us into the 


promised land of peace and liberty, and I believe that He is 
about to bring all the world into the same beatitude in His own 
time and way; which, altho' His ways may appear never so in- 
consistent to our blind reason, yet maybe perfectly consistentwith 
His designs. And I believe that the stone is now cut out of the 
mountain without hands, spoken of by Daniel, and has smitten the 
image upon his feet, by which the iron, the clay, the brass, the sil- 
ver and the gold, (viz.) all the monarchial and ecclesiastical ty- 
ranny will be broken to pieces and become as the chaff of the 
summer thrashing floor, the wind shall carry them all away, that 
there shall be no place found for them. 

"Give my best regards to your parents and tell them that I 
have taken up with the eleventh commandment, that the negro 
taught to the minister, which was thus— 

' ' The minister asked the negro how many commandments there 
were, his answer was 'Eleben, sir.' 'Aye,' replied the other, 
'what is the eleventh? That is one I never heard of.' 'The elev- 
enth commandment, sir, is mind your own business. ' 

"So I choose to do, and give myself but little concern about 
what passes in the political world. 

"Give my best regards to Dr. Meriam, Mr. Willes, Joseph Dor- 
man, and Mr. Cree, and tell Mr. Cree I thank him for his respects 
and hope he will accept of mine. Write to me as often and as 
large as you can and oblige your sincere friend and well wisher. 

(Signed) Asael Smith. 

' ' Mr. Jacob Town, Jun. ' ' , 

The second document is an intended posthumous address to his 
family. This brave, silent man, who had suffered because of his 
opinions, is conscious that he " is not free of speech, ' ' even under 
any circumstances, but especially not free of speech "when sick 
or sad." And not knowing what leisure he might have in the 
hour of death, or how soon death might overtake him, he writes 
this Address some thirty years before his demise, in which he 
"speaks his heart" to his beloved. ones, and wishes them to cher- 
ish the product. Though it was the intention of the writer of 
the document not to have it delivered to the family until after his 
demise, yet, owing perhaps to the unexpected prolongation of his 
life after he had written it, its existence became known to and 


was read by the family before the death of its author. The orig- 
inal writing, in a good state of preservation, is now in the posses- 
sion of a branch of his family, in Salt Lake City, by whom it is 
treasured, as well it might be, as a sacred heirloom. 7 
Asael Smith's Address to His Family. 

"A few words of advice which I leave to you, my dear wife and 
children, whom I expect ere long to leave : 

"My Dear Selfs—I know not what leisure I shall have at the 
hour of my death to speak to you, and as you all know that I am 
not free in speech, especially when sick or sad; and therefore 
now do speak my heart to you, and would wish you to hear me 
speaking to you as long as you live (when my tongue shall be 
mouldered to dust in the silent tomb) in this my writing which I 
divide among you all. 

"And first to you, my dear wife, I do with all the strength and 
power that is in me, thank you for your kindness and faithful- 
ness to me, beseeching God who is the husband of the widow, to 
take care of you and not to leave you nor forsake you, or never 
suffer you to leave nor forsake Him, nor His ways. Put your 
whole trust solely in Him, He never did nor never will forsake 
any that trusted in Him. One thing, however, I would add, if 
you should marry again, remember what I have undergone by a 
stepmother, and do not estrange your husband from' his own 
children or kindred, lest you draw on him and on yourself a great 
sin. 80 T do resign you into the everlasting arms of the great 
Husband of husbands, the Lord Jesus Christ. 

' ' And now my dear children let me pour out my heart to you 
and speak first to you of immortality in your souls. Trifle not 
in this point ; the soul is immortal ; you have to deal with an 
infinite Majesty; you go upon life and death; therefore in this 
point be serious. Do all to God in a serious manner ; when you 
think of Him, speak of Him, pray to Him, or in any way make 
your addresses to His great Majesty, be in good earnest. Trifle 
not with His name nor with His attributes, nor call Him to wit- 
ness to any thing but is absolute truth ; nor then, but when sound 
reason on serious consideration requires it. And as to religion, 

7. "Asael Smith of Topsfield," by Joseph F. Smith. Jr., from Topsfield His- 
torical Collections, Vol. VIII. 


I would not wish to point any particular form to you ; but first I 
would wish you to search the Scriptures and consult sound 
reason and see if they (which I take to be two witnesses that 
stand by the God of the whole earth) are not sufficient to evince 
to you that religion is a necessary theme. Then I would wish 
you to study the nature of religion, and see whether it consists 
in outward formalities, or in the hidden man of the heart; 
whether you can by outward forms, rites and ordinances, save 
yourselves, or whether there is a necessity of your having help 
from any other hand than your own. If you find that you stand 
in need of a Savior, Christ saith : ' Look unto me and be ye saved 
all ye ends of the earth ; ' then look to Him, and if you find from 
Scripture and sound reason that Christ hath come into the 
world to save sinners, then examine what it was that caused 
Him to leave the center of consummate happiness to suffer as 
He did— whether it was to save mankind because they were 
sinners and could not save themselves ; or, whether He came to 
save mankind because they had repented of their sins, so as to be 
forgiven on the score of their repentance. If you find that He 
came to save sinners merely because they were such, then try if 
there is any other [sinner] so great that He cannot save him; 
but mind that you admit no others as evidences but the two that 
God hath appointed, viz., Scripture and sound reason. And if 
these two witness that you are one whit better by nature than 
the worst heathen in the darkest corner of the deserts of Arabia, 
then conclude that God hath been partial towards you and hath 
furnished you with a better nature than others ; and that conse- 
quently, He is not just to all mankind. But if these two wit- 
nesses testify to you that God is just to all and His tender mer- 
cies are over all His works; then believe them, and if you can 
believe that Christ came to save sinners and not the righteous 
Pharisees, or self-righteous ; that sinners must be saved by the 
righteousness of Christ alone, without mixing any of their own 
righteousness with His, then you will see that He can as well 
save all as any. And there is no respect of persons with God, 
who will have all mankind to be saved and come to the knowledge 
of the truth, viz., 'that there is one God and one Mediator 
between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself 


a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.' And when you 
believe this you will enter into His rest, and when you enter into 
His rest you will know what that rest is, and not before. And 
having gotten this evidence that God is true, be still adding to 
your evidence and enjoy your present assurance. Do all to your 
God as to your father, for His love is ten thousand times greater 
towards you than ever any earthly father's could be to his off- 

' ' In the next place strive for those graces, most which concern 
your places and conditions and strive most against, those failings 
which most threaten you. But above everything avoid a melan- 
choly disposition, that is a humor that admits of any temptation 
and is capable of any impression and distemper ; shun as death 
this humor which will work you to all unthankfulness against 
God, unlovingness to men and unnaturalness to yourself and one 

"Do not talk and make a noise to get the name of forward men, 
but do the thing and do it in a way that is fair and honest, which 
you can live and die by and rise and reign by ; therefore, my chil- 
dren do more than you talk of, in point of religion; satisfy your 
own consciences in what you do; all men you shall never satisfy, 
nay, some will not be satisfied though they be convinced. 

"As for Your Calling— Any honest calling will honor you if 
you honor that. It is better to be a rich cobbler than a poor mer- 
chant; a rich farmer than a poor preacher; and never be discour- 
aged though sometimes your schemes should not succeed accord- 
ing to your wishes. 

' i Persevere in the way of well-doing and you may hope for suc- 
cess. For myself (who had never your parts nor helps), I never 
found anything too hard for me in my calling, but discourage- 
ment and unbelief. If I was discouraged and did not believe I 
could do a thing, I never could ; therefore, when you think any- 
thing is too hard for you, do not undertake it. 

"As to Your Company— Abandon all infectious, self-serving- 
companions ; when once you have found them false, trust them no 
more. Sort with such as are able to do or receive good. Solo- 
mon gives you the best counsel for this in many places. Bead 
the Proverbs and remember him in this : Forsake not an old 
friend; be friendly and faithful to your friends. Never trouble 


nor trust friends unless there be a necessity, and lastly be long 
in closing with friends and loth to lose them upon experience of 

"As to your Marriages— I do not think it worth while to say 
much about them, for I believe God hath created the persons for 
each other and that nature will find its own. 

"But for Your Children— Make it your chief est work to bring 
them up in the ways of virtue that they may be useful in their 
generation. Give them if possible a good education; if nature 
hath made no difference do you make none in your affections, 
countinances nor portions; partiality this way begets envy, ha- 
tred, strife, and contention. 

"And as for Y r ourself Within Y r ourselves— My desire hath been 
to cany an even hand towards you all and I have labored to re- 
duce you as near as I could, all circumstances considered, to an 
equality; and, therefore, my last request and charge is, that you 
will live together in an undivided bond of love. Y"ou are many of 
you, and if you join together as one man, you need not want any- 
thing. What counsel, what comfort, what money, what friends 
may you not help yourselves unto, if you will all as one contrib- 
ute your aids. 

"Wherefore, my dear children, I pray, beseech, and adjure you 
by all the relations and dearness that hath ever been betwixt us 
and by the heart-rending pangs of a dying father whose soul hath 
been ever bound in the bundle of life with yours, that you know 
one another. Visit as you may each other. Comfort, counsel, re- 
lieve, succor, help and admonish one another; and, while your 
mother lives, meet her, if possible, once every year. When she 
is dead, pitch on some other place, if it may be your elder broth- 
er's house; or if you cannot meet, send to and hear from each 
other yearly and oftener if you can ; and when you have neither 
father nor mother left, be so many fathers and mothers to each 
other, so you shall understand the blessings mentioned in the 
133 Psalm. 

"As to Your Estates— Be not troubled that you are below your 
kindred; get more wisdom, humility and virtue and you are 
above them, only do this. Deal with your hearts to make them 
less ; begin low, join together to help one another ; rest upon the 
promises which are many and precious this way. Love mercy 

Fac-simile of the concluding 
paragraph of Asael Smithes letter, v 

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i \ . ,. , '-" •.- " J ' : C ' ' - v . ■ - v ••■';'"■ f\i''''.fv'.-.'' i .' l ''-v , MY'*f ; 


and have mercy on yourselves and one another, and I know, I 
know, I say and I am confident in it, that if you will trust God 
in His own way He will make comfortable provisions for you. 
Make no more objections but trust Him. 

"For the public— Bless God that you live in a land of liberty 
and bear yourselves dutifully and conscionably towards the au- 
thority under which you live. See God's providence in the ap- 
pointment of the Federal Constitution and hold union and order 
precious jewels. And for the church of Christ; neither set her 
above her Husband nor below her children ; give her that honor, 
obedience and respect that is her due. And if you will be my chil- 
dren and heirs of my comfort in my dying age, be neither anoth- 
ers nor factions of any party or factions of novelty; it is true 
that this is not a rising way, but it is a free, fair, comfortable 
way for a man to follow his own judgment without wavering to 
either hand. I make no doubt but you will hear divers opinions 
concerning me both before and after I shall sleep in silence ; but 
do not be troubled at that. I did what in my circumstances 
seemed best for me for the present ; however, the event hath not 
in some points answered my expectations ; yet I have learned to 
measure things by another rule than events and satisfy myself 
in this that I did all for the best as I thought, and if I had not so 
much foresight as some others I cannot help it. 

Sure am I, my Savior, Christ, is perfect, and never will fail in 
one circumstance. To Him I commit your souls, bodies, estates, 
names, characters, lives, deaths and all, and myself, waiting 
when He shall change my vile body and make it like His own 
most glorious body. And wish to leave to you everything I 
have in this world but my faults, and them I take with me to the 
grave, there to be buried in everlasting oblivion; but leaving my 
virtues, if ever I had any, to revive and live in you, Amen; so 
come Lord Jesus ; come quickly. Amen. 

"The above was written April 10, 1799, and left for my dearly 
beloved wife and children to view after my decease. 8 
* [Signed] Asael Smith." 

8. The original copy of this article, which is in a well preserved condition 
is now m the possession of the Smith family. It was read and well understood 
by Asael s family many years before his death and no doubt had a "Teat influence 
over them in their actions for good. -'Asael Smith of Topsfield,"' bv Joseph F 
Smith, Jr., from the Topsfield Historical Collections, Vol VI II 


Making due allowance for some provincialisms, and in one 
or two places lack of precision of expression, we have in these 
two papers documents that one would be glad to find that any 
ancestor of his had written and left as a family heritage. While 
as a replica of Asael Smith's mind, character, and manners, 
they certainly reveal him to be a serious minded man, yet of a 
pleasant humor, and polite manners. A man of noble independ- 
ence of mind, yet of child-like humility. Of unbounded faith and 
trust in the wisdom of Providence and His over-ruling hand in 
the affairs of nations. Loyal to his country, and full of faith in 
the stability of the American government, under the over-ruling 
providences of God. A family solicitude, most admirable; a 
knowledge of both the problems of life and the best means of 
their solution. This is not the language of adulation, but merely 
the summing up of the contents of these two documents. 

Joseph Smith, son of the above Asael Smith, and father 
of the Prophet, was born at Topsfield, Massachusetts, July 12, 
1771. He accompanied his father first to northern New Hamp- 
shire, thence to Tunbridge, Vermont, where he assisted in clear- 
ing a farm of which, four years after it was first cleared, he took 
possession to cultivate on the half share system, common to 
those times in New England; while his father and four other 
sons went on clearing other lands. Here he married Lucy Mack, 
daughter of Solomon Mack of Gil sum, Cheshire county, New 
Hampshire. The young people met during the repeated visits 
of Lucy to her brother Stephen Mack, who was engaged in the 
mercantile and tinning business with John Mudget at Tunbridge. 
The marriage took place on the 24th of January, 1796. 

Soon after the marriage as the young people were starting on 
a visit to the bride's parents at Gilsum, the matter of making 
Lucy a wedding present became a subject of conversation. 
' ' Well, ' ' said Mr. Mudget, ' ' Lucy ought to have something worth 
naming, and I will give her just as much as you will;" this to 
Stephen Mack. "Done," said the brother, "I will give her five 
hundred dollars in cash." "Good," said the other, "and I will 
give her five hundred dollars more. ' ' They drew a check for one 
thousand dollars upon their bankers, and Lucy had been pro- 
vided with her dowery. 9 ' ' This check, ' ' says Lucy. ' ' I laid aside, 

9. "History of the Prophet Joseph," Iby Lucy Smith, ch. IV. 


as I had other means by me sufficient to purchase my house- 
keeping furniture. ' no 

Six years Joseph Smith cultivated his farm at Tunbridge— 
Lucy calls it a "handsome farm— " and then the ambitious pair 
determined upon a business career in merchandising. The Tun- 
bridge farm was rented and the family removed to Randolph, 
where in a short time Joseph Smith learned of the large profits 
in raising ginseng root, the medicinal properties of which were 
highly prized in China. 11 Joseph invested all the means he could 
command in this enterprise ; and evidently was successful, since 
a local merchant of Royalton offered him three thousand dollars 
for the first quantity he had prepared for shipment. As this 

10. "History of the Prophet Joseph," by Lucy Smith, His Mother, ch. x. As 
it will be necessary to make frequent reference to this book, it is proper to say 
that it was originally published under the title "Biographical Sketches of Joseph 
Smith the Prophet and his Progenitors for many Generations," by Lucy Smith, 
mother of the Prophet, published by Orson Pratt, Liverpool, England. In the 
Preface to the edition published in England, Orson Pratt says that these Bio- 
graphical sketches "were mostly written previous to the death of the Prophet, 
and under his personal inspection." In this matter Elder Pratt was misled, as 
Lucy Smith did not begin dictating these memoirs until the fall of 1844, after 
the murder of her two sons Joseph and Hyrum at Carthage, Illinois. The work 
was completed in 1845. Mrs. Martha Jane Knowlton Coray was "Mother Smith's" 
amanuensis; and' made two copies of the work, one of which she left with Lucy 
Smith, and the other she took to Utah and deposited it in the hands of Presi- 
dent Brigham Young. The copy left with Lucy Smith fell into the hands of her 
son Wm. Smith, thence into the hands of one Isaac Sheen, who sold it to Orson 
Pratt in 1852, when the latter was en route to England on a mission, and called 
upon Sheen in Illinois. There were some slight inaccuracies in the English edi- 
tion, the work not being carefully edited, or Mother Smith's recollections correlated 
with established historical data. In consequence of these errors, and also being 
displeased with the proceedure of Elder Pratt in publishing so important a work 
without consultation or knowledge of either the Presidency of the Church or 
the Twelve Apostles, President Brigham Young ordered the edition suppressed. 
A new edition of the book, however, was published by the Improvement Era in 
1901 at Salt Lake City, with the sanction and approval of President Joseph F. 
Smith, nephew of the Prophet, who wrote an Introduction to the work setting forth 
the above facts. But instead of the ponderous title of the first edition the m<3re sim- 
ple one "History of the Prophet Joseph," by his mother, Lucy Smith, is used and by 
such title it will be referred to in this writing. 

There was also an edition of this book published at Piano, 111., 1880, by what 
is known as the "Reorganized Church." It follows the English edition published 
by Orson Pratt. The notes in its Preface and a foot note on page 90-91 bear 
out the statements above set forth. All the editions are identical in chapter 
numbering, hence the chapters are given in references instead of pages. 

11. Ginseng: — A herb of the genius Aralia, having a root of aromatic and 
stimulant properties, in great esteem in China. The true Manchurian ginseng of 
China is A. Ginseng. A. quinaue folia of the eastern United States (doubtless the 
species grown in Vermont) is closely akin to it, and is exported to China in 
large quantities. (Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary). In recent years the 
industry of raising ginseng root has been taken up in Oregon. There is always 
a good market at high prices for this product, and an immense amount of the 
stuff can be grown on a small piece of ground. 


was but about two-thirds the current value of the product. Joseph 
determined upon finding a shipper independently, and for this 
purpose visited New York City. Finally he and Mr. Stevens 
shipped their ginseng in the same vessel for China, where evi- 
dently it sold to great advantage: but through the rascality of 
Mr. Steven's son, who, according to mutual agreement, went with 
the cargo to China, Joseph Smith received no returns whatever 
from this venture. The younger Stevens, after his return told a 
plausible story of failure to sell the ginseng cargo, but he at once 
employed eight or ten men and prepared to go into the business 
of crystalizing ginseng root on a large scale. His embezzlement 
of the Smith proceeds of the cargo sent to China began to come 
to light, however; thereupon he fled to Canada, and that was 
the last the Smiths heard of him. Meantime Joseph Smith's 
affairs were desperate. He had risked all his means on this 
ginseng venture. He had lost about two thousand dollars in bad 
debts while merchandizing. He was owing eighteen hundred 
dollars to Boston merchants, payment of which he expected to 
meet from the proceeds of his China shipment of ginseng. The 
only resource left was the Tunbridge farm. This was sold for 
eight hundred dollars, about half its value; and Lucy bravely 
brought forth her wedding dowery deposit of one thousand dol- 
lars, and this with the proceeds from the sale of the farm, met 
Joseph's obligations to the Boston merchants. 

After disposing of his farm at Tunbridge, Joseph Smith lived 
a short time at Eoyalton, and thence moved to Sharon— the dis- 
tances not great— Windsor county. Here Joseph rented a farm 
of his wife's father, Solomon Mack, which he cultivated in the 
summer and taught school in the winter. By dint of the father 
following the two occupations, the affairs of the family began 
to improve and take on an air of comfort. And here, on the old 
Mack farm, among the hills of Sharon overlooking the beautiful 
White River Valley, Joseph, the future Mormon Prophet, 
was born on the 23rd of December, 1805. 

1±±0±V_'1\I Wl' J 111^ nivji\i\]\;i\ VIlL'IXLn 



The Ancestry of Joseph Smith, The Prophet. — (Continued). 

The Macks of N( j ic England. 

On the maternal side the Prophet's ancestry cannot be traced 
beyond JohnJVlack, who was born in 1653, in Inverness, Scotland ; 
and who came to America about 1680. He settled in Lyme, Con- 
necticut, in 1734. 1 The Prophet Joseph Smith descended from 
this man in the following line : 

-Ebenezer Mack, son of the above John Mack; 

— Solomon Mack, son of the above Ebenzer Mack ; 
-Lucy Mack, daughter of Solomon Mack, and mother of the 

John Mack the Scotch immigrant of 1680 was the original and 
early settler of that name in the colony of Connecticut, and the 
ancestor of the early Macks of that State. In the ''History of 
Five Colonial Families," of which the Mack family is one, the 
following occurs : 

"It is thought that the Mack family dropped their original 
name, retaining the prefix only, thereby being better able to es- 
cape persecution on account of their religious belief. It is said 
that part of their coat-of-arms was a boar's head. The Scotch 
families of McDougal and McTavish have as parts of their coats- 
of-arms a boar's head erased. One branch of the family thinks 
that the original name was McDermon." 2 

Ebenezer Mack was born at Lyme, December 8th, 1697 ; and 
became pastor of the Second Congregational Church at that 
place. He was a man of considerable property and lived, in good 
style, commanding the respect and attention usually accorded 
those engaged in his calling, and who follow habits of strict mo- 
rality. But after enjoying these advantages for a time, misfor- 
tunes overtook Ebenezer Mack and the family once so comfort- 
ably situated was scattered. 

Solomon Mack was born at Lyme, Connecticut, September 

i. "American Ancestry." Vol. II, p. 76. "Five Colonial Families," Vol. I, p. 

2. Vol. I, Appendix. See also "History of the Town of Gilsnm." N. H., r>. 357. 
Here also is given the family tradition by Wm. Mack of Stanstead, Canada — "I have 
heard my father say he never knew a Mack convicted of any crime." 


15 th, 1732. 3 When misfortune befell his father's family, Solo- 
mon was but four years of age. He was apprenticed to a farmer 
of the neighborhood, and experienced the hardships of an "ap- 
prenticed hand"— all too common in New England in those 
times, and afterwards— long hours of incessant toil, cold neglect, 
with no schooling, and but little opportunity for self improve- 
ment. Not until he attained his majority was Solomon Mack set 
free from this semi-bondage. Then he entered the service of his 
majesty, King George IT, the French and Indian War being at its 
heighth. He saw active service during the next four years, being 
in a number of important engagements with the French and In- 
dians about Lake George— at Fort Edward, Fort William Henry, 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point. At the last named place in the 
spring of 1759 Solomon Mack received his discharge; and the 
same year he married Lydia Gates, the daughter of Nathan Gates 
of East Haddam, Connecticut. Lydia was a school teacher. Solo- 
mon speaks of her as an ' ' accomplished young woman ; ' ' and lat- 
er in his "Narrative" justifies the description by a further ref- 
erence to her in the most complimentary terms, in connection 
with the rearing of their family. The money that accumulated 
in Solomon's hands by four year's service in the army was in- 
vested in lands in Grandville, Washington county, New York, 
east of Lake George, and near the Vermont line. Part of the 
settler's contract was to build a number of log houses on the tract 
he had purchased. About this time Solomon had the misfortune 
to cut his leg and he was disabled for work throughout the sum- 
mer. The man whom he employed to build the aforesaid log 
houses, and whom he paid in advance, absconded with the money, 
the part of the contract pertaining to building the houses was 
not fulfilled, and consequently the land with the investment was 
lost. After this the family settled in Marlow, Cheshire County, 
New Hampshire. "No other than a desolate, dreary wilder- 
ness," is Solomon's description of it, "only four families within 

3. This date is the one given in "Five Colonial Families," Lncy Smith 
gives the date of birth September 26, 1735. The date of the text is most prob- 
ably the right one, since Solomon Mack's '"Narrative" states that he left his 
master at twenty-one, to enlist in the service of his country, and describes an 
engagement with the enemy at Half Way Brook in 1755. If Lncy Smith's date 
were the right one, it would have been 1756 before Solomon enlisted. The author 
of the "History of the Town of Gilsum," however, ( Silvanus Hayward— 1881) gives 
Lucy Smith's date for the birth of Solomon Mack. 



forty miles." But here the talents and virtues of Lydia, his wife, 
shone out. The pair now had four children, and the husband 
says : 

''Here I was thrown into a situation to appreciate more fully 
the talents and virtues of my excellent wife; for, as our children 
were deprived of schools, she assumed the charge of their educa- 
tion, and performed the duties of an instructress as none, save a 
mother, is capable of. Precepts accompanied with examples 
such as hers, were calculated to make impressions on the minds 
of the young, never to be forgotten. She, besides instructing 
them in the various branches of an ordinary education, was in 
the habit of calling them together both morning and evening, 
and teaching them to pray; meanwhile urging upon them the 
necessity of love toward each other, as well as devotional feel- 
ings towards Him who made them. In this manner my first chil- 
dren became confirmed in habits of piety, gentleness, and reflec- 
tion, which afforded great assistance in guiding those who came 
after them, into the same happy channel. The education of my 
children would have been a more difficult task if they had not in- 
herited much of their mother's excellent disposition." 4 

This lady, it should be remembered, was the maternal grand- 
mother of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet. 
_ In 1776 Solomon Mack enlisted in the American army, serving 
for some time in the land forces, but subsequently with his two 
sons, Jason and Stephen, he served in a privateering expedition 
under Captain Havens. After serving his country for four 
years he returned to Gil sum, New Hampshire. Owing to expo- 
sure and the hardships of his early life Solomon Mack's health 
failed him in his later years ; he was feeble and much afflicted 
with rheumatism. In making journeys about the country in 
those days he rode on horseback, and for his greater comfort 
used a woman's saddle— a circumstance pressed into service to 
emphasize the existence of an "abnormality" in one of the 
ancestors of Joseph Smith ! 5 

The circumstance that, following a severe injury in the head, 

4- The passage recalls the lines of Burns: 

"I've scarce heard aught descrih'd sae weel. 
What generous, manly bosoms feel." 




Erected by members of the Church he organized, and dedicated on the One 
Hundredth Anniversary of his birth, December 23rd, 1905. 


The monument stands on the crown of a hill eighty seven feet from the hearth- 
stone of the old home, where the Prophet was born; and is 1,350 feet above sea level. 
The foundation of the monument is of concrete fourteen feet square at the bottom 
and seven feet deep. Upon this rests the first granite base twelve feet square and 
twenty inches thick, weight eighteen tons. The second base is nine feet square and 
two feet thick, weight thirteen tons. Upon this stands the inscription die six feet 
square at the bottom and two inches less at the top. It is six feet two inches high, 
weight nineteen tons. It is covered by a moulded cap seven feet four inches square, 
by two feet six inches thick, weight ten tons. Upon this stands the shaft of the 
monument four feet square at the base, and three feet at the top — the peak rises 
three feet higher. Its whole length is 38^2 feet, weight thirty-nine tons. 

All the granite of the monument is highly polished from base to pinnacle. It 
is 50 feet ten inches high and weighs nearly one hundred tons. The lines of the 
monument are squared with the ancient town line of Sharon, running north 40 
degrees 10 minutes east, and is parallel with the front of the memorial cottage, 
built on the spot where the foundation and hearthstone of the old Smith house was 
found. The inscriptions are as follows : Upon the southerly side in sunken letters — 






23rd DECEMBER, 1805; 

27th JUNE, 1844. 

On the opposite, or northerly side this inscription : 


In the spring of the year of our Lord, 1820, The Father and The Son appeared 
to him in a glorious vision, called him by name and instructed him. 

Thereafter heavenly angels visited him and revealed the principles of the 
Gospel, restored the authority of the Holy Priesthood, and the organization of the 
Church of Jesus Christ in its fulness and perfection. 

The engraved plates of the Book of Mormon were given him by the angel 
Moroni. These he translated by the gift and power of God. 

He organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on the sixth day 
of April, 1830, with six members. 

He devoted his life to the establishment of this Church, and sealed his testimony 
with his blood. 

In his ministry he was constantly supported by his brother Hyrum Smith, 
who suffered martyrdom with him. 

Over a million converts to this testimony have been made throughout the 
world ; and this monument has been erected in his honor, to commemorate the one 
hundredth anniversary of his birth, by members of the Church which he organized. 

They love and revere him as a Prophet of God, and call his name blessed for- 
ever and ever. Amen. 

Around the capstone just above the die, in letters three inches long, is the 
following quotation from the Bible, which led Joseph to seek the Lord : 

"If any of you lack wisdom let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally 
and upbraideth not; and it shall he given him." (James 1:5) 



; HAR N, VE R M O N T 


ten statement of Horace Stanley, Stephen Mack was the pro- 
prietor of a large mercantile establishment in Detroit— large for 
those days, employing six clerks. Besides this establishment he 
had a number of stores in various parts of Michigan, and Ohio. 
At his own expense he built a turn-pike road from Detroit to 
Pontiac where he owned a large farm upon which he lived. In 
1828 he was a member of the Council of the territory of Michi- 
gan. All this would indicate that Stephen Mack was a man 
of intelligence, judgment, enterprise, and successful withal. 
When he died he left his family an estate of $50,000, without 
incumberance, which, in those days, was a large fortune. 9 

Lovisa and Lovina Mack, daughters of Solomon, died in early 
womanhood. Both being of a deeply religious nature they had 
some experiences in spiritual manifestations and bodily healings 
regarded at the time as bordering on the miraculous, but which 
now, in the larger experience of Christian life, including the 
claims of "Christian Science", and of the "Iininanual Move- 
ment," would scarcely be looked upon as ultra remarkable. 

Lydia Mack, the third daughter of Solomon Mack, was less 
religiously inclined than her sisters. Of her it is said: "She 
seemed to float more with the stream of common events. 
She sought riches and obtained them: yet in the day of pros- 
perity she remembered the poor, for she dealt out her substance 
to the needy with a liberal hand to the end of her days, and died 
the object of their affection." 10 

Daniel, the third son of Solomon Mack, is described as 
"worldly minded, but not vicious," and was noted for two 
things : daring and philanthropy. In proof of the first trait he 
is credited with rescuing three men from drowning in one 
adventure, at the risk of his own life." 11 

Solomon Mack (II), the fourth son of Solomon (I), was born 
in the town of Gilsum, New Hampshire, where also he married. 
He was known as "Captain" Solomon Mack of Gilsum. He 
stayed close to his home town, traveling no farther than to 
Boston, to which city for some time his business called him about 

9. "History of the Prophet Joseph," (Lucy Smith) ch. 
io. "History of the Prophet Joseph," (Lucy Smith) ch. v. 
ii. Ibid, ch. vi. 


twice a year. But in the rocky hills of the old New Hampshire 
town prosperity responded to his industry and business acumen, 
and he was held in honor by the local community in which he 
lived and died, surrounded by the dignity of a large family. 12 

With Lucy Mack added, of whom something has already been 
said, and more remains to say— such was the family that Solo- 
mon Mack, maternal grand-father of Joseph Smith, the prophet, 
gave to his country. This veteran soldier of two wars, the French 
and Indian War, and the War of the American Revolution— es- 
pecially when it is remembered that in the latter war two of his 
sons fought by his side— may be pardoned the vanity of thinking 
that his life warranted the publication of a brief autobiography, 
even if, owing to an entire absence of opportunity for schooling 
in youth, the "narrative" was faulty in literary style, imperfect 
in authography and grammar, and included some "hymns" of 
doubtful poetic value. 13 

Notes on Joseph Smith 's Ancestry. 

Three things are commonly charged against the ancestors of 
Joseph Smith, the Prophet: "restlessness," "illiteracy," and 
"credulity." 14 The statement of facts in the preceding chapters 
on the ancestry of Joseph Smith, drawn from trust-worthy 
sources of information, and relating to both his paternal and ma- 
ternal ancestry, as far as it can be traced, may be relied upon 
to reflute all three of these charges, so far as it is necessary to 
refute them; for to a certain extent these qualities may be ad- 
mitted without prejudice either to Joseph Smith or his ancestors. 
For instance, as to 

" Restessness:" On the paternal side it can only be alleged 
as to Asael Smith and Joseph Smith, Sen., grand-father and 
father respectively of the Prophet. The former removed from 

12. "History of the Town of Gilsum, N. H." "His father lived with him for 
some years. He was captain in the militia and served the town as select man." 

Also "History of the Prophet Joseph" chs. vii and ix. 

13. Both Riley and Linn think it worth while to speak sneeringly of the Old Sol- 
dier's "Narrative," see "Founder of Mormonism," pp. 12-18; and "Story of the 
Mormons," pp. 8, 9. The full title of this autobiography is as follows: 

"A Narative of the Life of Solomon Mack, containing an account of the 
many severe accidents he met with during a long series of years, together 
with the extraordinary manner in which he was converted to the Christian Faith. 
To which is added a number of Hymns, composed on the death of several of his 
relations. Windsor : Printed at the expense of the author." 

14. "Founder of Mormonism,'' p. 12; also pp. 25. 26. "Story of the Mor- 
mons," pp. 8, 9. Kennedy's "Early Days of Mormonism," ch. i. 


Topsfield to northern New Hampshire, thence to Tunbridge, 
Vermont, where he engaged with his sons in clearing farms ; and 
in his old age moved to Stockholm, St. Lawrence county, New 
York, where he might spend the closing days of a long and ardu- 
ous life in the midst of his children and grandchildren. As to the 
"restlessness" of Joseph Smith, Sen., previous to the commence- 
ment of his son Joseph's career, as founder of a church, it was 
manifested only in several removals covering no great distances 
in Vermont, and New Hampshire; and thence, the longest dis- 
tance of all, to Palmyra, New York. As to the restlessness of the 
Macks, it may not be alleged against any of them, except it may 
be Solomon Mack, maternal grand-father of the Prophet. And 
even in him only during the period of the French and Indian 
War, and the war of the American Revolution. Apart from his 
movements in that period, and one voyage to Liverpool, England, 
the limits of his "wanderings" were marked by Cheshire county, 
New Hampshire, and Windsor county, Vermont— located at no 
great distance apart across the State line. And what is their in 
this "restlessness" that was reprehensible! And why should 
it subject these men to the spiteful epithets of "tramp" 15 and 
"vagabond"! 16 It was only such "restlessness" as sought to 
better industrial conditions by change of habitat ; and the soil of 
New Engand, sterile at best, and the uncertainty of the climate 
in the hill country of Vermont and New Hampshire, at least justi- 
fied if they did not compel the removals. It was the "restless- 
ness" that sent the people of New England, Pennsylvania and 
Maryland through the gateway to the west provided by the head 
waters of the Ohio, into the Western Reserve; and the people 
of Virginia and the South Atlantic States, over the Appalachian 
Mountains into Kentucky and Tennessee ; and finally westward 
to the Pacific coast. It was the "restlessness" that led Ameri- 
cans to take possession of their heritage— was this reprehen- 

The biographers of Lincoln have to meet this same charge of 
a restless, migratory spirit in the great President's immediate 
ancestors ; and Mr. Henry C. Whitney, in his biographical treat- 
ise— "Lincoln the Citizen/' published 1907, in defense of the mi- 
grations of the Lincoln family, says : "Migration is an American 
institution. Instances are not rare of men who have actually 
lived in a dozen different States; and California, Oregon, and 
Washington are largely peopled by men who commenced their 
tours of migration in the Atlantic States, and by slow approaches 
ultimately reached the ultimate limits of Western civilization. 

15. "Story of the Mormons," p. 8 

16. "Founder of Mormonism," p. 33. 


Andrew Jackson, William Henry Harrison, James K. Polk, 
Zachary Taylor, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, and Benja- 
min Harrison were emigrants." (Lincoln the Citizen, p. 59.) 

"Illiteracy." This may not be strictly charged upon any of 
the Prophet's ancestry except, perhaps, on Solomon Mack. Cer- 
tainly not upon the Smiths of Topsneld, the two Samuels and 
Asa el ; for the evidence that refutes the charge is before the read- 
er in these chapters. Certainly illiteracy may not be charged upon 
Joseph Smith, Sen., father of the Prophet, for he taught school 
in Sharon; notwithstanding which Linn says of him: "The fath- 
er and several of the boys could not read!" 17 And while Riley, 
admits the school teaching, he seeks to minimize the fact by say- 
ing: "How much knowledge this would imply is conjectural. 
The course of study in a Vermont district school at the beginning 
of the last century did not consist of much more than reading, 
writing and arithmetic." 18 

The remark is not objectionable. It is 'safe to say that the edu- 
cational equipment of school teachers in Vermont and New York 
was limited; and Mr. Riley himself in a subsequent passage to 
the one just quoted, gives a sufficient explanation of such limita- 
tions: "Of the founders of Vermont it was said that few were 
versed in the rules of grammar. A like state of affairs existed 
on the frontiers of New York, where the average school attend- 
ance was but three months in the year and where, at the time of 
the writing of the Book of Mormon, there were not two acade- 
mies to a county. Moreover in their toils in the backwoods the 
boys were needed at home. Along with these short 

comings in education went an equal scarcity of books : every 
house had its Bible, but of general reading there was a woeful 
lack. If at this time it cost a day's wages to carry a letter from 
Boston to Cincinnati, books could not have been widely circulated 
by mail. ' ' 

But one whose knowledge extended to "the three R's", who 
read the Bible. 1 '" and doubtless other books, ought not to" be 
classed as illiterate. Such illiteracy, then, as may be, in a limited 
way, attributed to the ancestors of the Prophet, or himself, was 
that enforced upon them by environment, by lack of opportunity, 
by the fault of the times, of their location, and of their fortunes ; 
not a deliberate choice of illiteracy in the midst of opportunities 
to have it otherwise; and hence they bear the charge sans 

17. "Story of the Mormons," p. II. 

18. "Founder of Mormonism," p. 25 

19. ''Founder of Mormonism," p. 4T-42. 

20. See chanter iii. 


Credulity: Yes; the Prophet's ancestors were credulous in 
that some of them believed that they were healed of bodily ail- 
ments by the power of faith in God. Others had dreams, as 
their neighbors had, that they could refer to no other than the 
spiritual forces of this God's world. In common with their 
neighbors they lived in a spiritual world as well as in a material 
one ; they experienced much that they could not understand, and 
after the manner of their times and the locality in which they 
lived, they attributed the phenomena of this spiritual world to 
God or Satan— the names that stood to them for good and evil 
forces. It may be admitted that some of them believed in for- 
tune telling, in warlocks and witches — though, to their credit 
be it said, they are not found among those who burned the 
witches, or who oppressed others for their religious opinions, or 
for the lack of religious convictions — all this may be admitted. 
Indeed it is scarcely conceivable how one could live in New 
England in those years and not have shared in such beliefs. To 
be credulous in such things was to be normal people. To have 
been incredulous in such matters in that age and locality, would 
have stamped them abnormal. And then, it might be pertinent 
to ask those who now sneer at the "credulity" of past ages, if 
their "philosophy" has driven the phenomena of mind, or spirit 
from the realm of man's experience? Or have they merely satis- 
fied themselves with what seems to them a more rational expla- 
nation of the sources of these phenomena? And are they quite 
certain that they have reached the last analysis of such phenom- 
ena! If not, does not the truly scientific spirit, which is the 
boast of our age, require that they be a little modest before 
speaking too contemptuously this word "credulity"? Then for 
Christian people who sneer at the "credulity" that in modern 
times believes in dreams, in healing of bodily infirmities through 
faith-power, in angel visitations, spirit voices and promptings, 
amounting sometimes to revelations— for them there are the 
origins of Christianity to reconcile with their unaccountable 
scorn of that "credulity" which merely accepts the reality of 
just such things as those that are associated with Christian 
origins. Are not we of this age believing more than our ances- 
tors? Let the bulky tomes of the Society for Psychological 
Research answer. Is not this the twentieth century? Is it not 
an age pre-eminent for its precision in scientific knowledge ; for 
universal education; for breadth and soundness of philosophy? 
And yet as these pages are written the press dispatches are 
burdened with accounts of the Beatification of Joan D'Arc, 21 

21. This April, 1909, and Joan D'Arc with elahorate ceremonies was solemnly 
heatified at Rome on the iRth. 


the maid of Orleans, the national Heroine of France, and can- 
nonization is practically assured a few years later. After the 
severe trial of thorough investigation, the "spirit voices" that 
Joan heard in her girlhood, the revelation to her that France 
would be saved from the English and that she would save it, are 
declared to be spiritual realities. All our hard-headed science, 
our philosophy, our universal enlightenment, our thought-to-be 
skeptical age, cannot drive out these "super-natural" realities 
from human life. Credulity is not necessarily a badge of igno- 
rance. A truly enlightened age is going to be more thoroughly 
credulous than an age of darkness. It will not always be an apt 
saying— "the slighter intelligences are much given to convic- 
tions;" nor this, "those who know a few things, believe a great 
many." Those of the enlightened age to be, now dawning— 
those of profound intelligence will have the firmer and larger 
convictions ; those who know many things, will believe very many 
more. And that which men now and in the past have sneeringly 
called "credulity," may yet stand, as often it has stood in the 
past, for rational faith in the spiritual realities of life. 



I FEAR that in seeing my heading, readers will be led 
instantly to suppose that I contemplate intrenching upon 
the field Carlisle has made so particularly his own in his 
renowned Hero Worship. But if it should unhappily 
appear, in the course of these pages, that I have been influenced 
or swayed in my views by that master mind, it is with entire 
unconsciousness, and only as one in the same line of thinking 
is necessarily emulative of what is admirable; sometimes echo- 
ing without being aware of the imitation, a note or so that has 
entwined itself with the little songs of his own making. 

I wish to say, at the first, that if I owe to any one the direct 
incitation of this, it is to a certain old Italian literature which 
recently fell into my hands, and that contained some interesting 
matter upon the subject of a disputed British chronicle from 
which the legends of Arthur have been largely drawn. It was 
in reading of the Arthur of Britton, and comparing him with 
the Charlemagne of the northern French, that I was borne to 
reflect upon the great similarity of the views of different men, in 
different countries, on the stuff that makes a hero. Our own 
Dr. Holmes once said, in whimsically caustic vein: "The world 
has got to thinking what it calls an ' intellectual ' man to be made 
up of nine- tenths, or thereabouts, book learning." He was not 
of this opinion himself, but he was in everything, most original, 
and perhaps he found at least one reason for not believing a 
thing, the fact that it was a popular idea. However, it seems 
pretty evident that most people are contented to take what is cur- 
rent coin of the intellectual mint, without being at the trouble of 
setting up a little private manufactory of their own. And we find 
through all the historical legends and chronicles certain well 
accepted views and superstitions that change only in expressions 
and are always fundamentally the same. 



To chase through all the disguises and metamorphoses imposed 
by perpetual wandering through foreign lands, the ever delusive 
and surprisingly familiar character has been for sometime past 
an amusement for me and not the less wanting in zest that others 
have pursued it before me. 

The first thing that has struck me as a constant truth, never 
contradicted, is that all fables of heroes, in all countries, have a 
veritable basis in fact. The imagination of man may or may not 
have wings, but it always has feet ; and habitually one foot rests 
on solid earth. It is as if that glittering trail of color of all the 
loveliness that "never was on sea or land" were really built on 
a cobweb form that the first architect constructed, and that no 
one has ever known how to alter. All the national poets resemble 
one another in their subjects; all the imaginative historians — 
those who go out from the beaten path of dry details to dwell 
somewhat upon the genius of man, the maker of history — place 
before us something virile, active, ambitious and far-seeing, as 
the central figure of an epoch, or a century. Everywhere the 
polished Saladin and the extraordinary Haroun, all with the 
"main de fer" in ready training to execute vengeance and cre- 
ate fear. Over the border arises the curious figures of Macduff, 
and of Fitz James, kings who talked philosophy between their 
adroit sword thrusts ; but always with the sword at side. Ever 
and always, the weapon. What would Charlemagne, or even the 
revered Alfred have amounted to in history, without their skill 
in marshalling armed men ? 

This is the necessary basis in the case ; the gift of brute force 
in the hero. With this to build upon, the historian begins to 
construct and adorn his figure, according to the ideals of his age. 
We thus see Mark Anthony rising like a phoenix from the dead 
ashes of his victims, to sing his own triumphs in melodious verse ; 
the man of the ancient salon ; poet, philosopher, sage. But weak 
as a lover always must be. We see the British general, Arthur, 
elevated to kingship, and embellished with every virtue belong- 
ing to mankind ; wisdom, patience, fortitude, but not so success- 
ful in the home as in the field of battle. The Henrys, Edwards, 
and Charlies of England have a strange similarity of character 
with the ancient Pompeys, Ceasars and Hannibals ; and whether 


the wind blows from the east or south, and forces before it some 
ferocious Philip or monstrous Timon, the soft zephyr of fame 
fails not to smooth out the wrinkles of the angry Simoon, and the 
historian finds his hero ready made in the traditions of his own 
land, and only requiring to be well placed in the favorable foot- 
light of the stage for the world to see. 

The same man lives, dies and comes to life again, in Rome, in 
Gaul, in Ireland, in Norway and in America. Then, there is 
but one man, and he has the gift of being everywhere at once, 
and uttering his battle cries in every language known to the 
civilized, and uncivilized world. He has even been found yester- 
day in Africa, to be lost and re-discovered to-day in St. Peters- 
burg ! He is assasinated here to be resuscitated and feted there ; 
always changing and always the same. Does he exist in the 
mind of his biographer, only, and is his actuality a mere outcome 
of some striking event that requires a leader to account for it? 
To separate the fact from the accompanying fancy is a curious 
part of mental science, and for my part, I am not sure whether all 
men are heroes, unchronicled except upon rare occasions, or 
whether the hero is a sort of ornament to facts, like a banner 
placed on the top of a solid piece of masonry, to draw attention 
to something of local importance. 

But positively, we have first the fact; without a war there is 
no hero ; without victory, no general. In times of peace the king 
who rests from combat occupies himself in revising the statutes ; 
but King Louis, the Lamb went first to the Crusade, and then 
talked about the beauty of love to our neighbor. He would have 
appeared feeble without that background of the bloody Orient, 
with its over-rid hosts of slain. Arthurt first slew Uther, and 
then preached to his knights the grace of forgiveness. And the 
same tales told of him are related of Charlemagne the Great. 
Which came first, and who borrowed and who loaned the 
romance that adorns the brow of the hero ? It seems to me the 
most idle of questions; the poetry was all ready made some- 
where, to be thrown like a wreath, over the head of the first 
comer. The Skalds, the trouveres, the minnesingers, the trou- 
badours turned their lay to suit the feeling of worship of power 
in an individual. What and where the individual, who cared'? 


And who knows, after a short lapse of time, if the wreath 
belonged on the head that wore it? Where the fields are so full 
of the flowers of fancy, every little two penny bard may cull a 
few blossoms to add to the mass that embellishes the hero of 
the hour. 

But history takes its laudations seriously, and resents misap- 
propriations. It would undo wrongs and "wrest the wreath of 
fame from the hand of fate, ' ' where fate has been too kind. We 
see now and then, a poor hero denuded of his bravery, and 
exposed to the scorn of posterity. He either "was not there" 
when the event happened or he was not equal to the occasion. 
In either case he is some weakling, masquerading as a giant. The 
real giants defy time and modern science to hunt them from 
their haunts. But they cannot have the comfort of knowing it, for 
during their life time they are simply tentative heroes ; waiting 
on the future generation to ratify or refuse the verdict of their 
contemporaries. Often over-praise in one decade is offset by a 
succeeding wave of approbruin, and among moderns, especially 
when more is exacted than that a hero should hold his own among 
other leaders, the popularity of a day is no guarantee of con- 
tinued favor. I am much struck with the extraordinary depar- 
ture in our history, from the ideals that have so long obtained in 
the world. It almost seems as if among so many eccentricities, 
the American people are about to develop the real eccentricity of 
a new type of hero. 

I do not forget that there existed a Bayard, a Percivale, a 
Gorozola de Cordova, when I say that it is a new tiring for a 
man of peace, a stainless knight of humanity, not a man of the 
battle field to be placed upon the pedestal of fame by his country- 
men, as a national hero. Yet, we are now in way to commit this 
unheard of act. Among all the men of our land who have been 
accorded a high place in our annals, none stands so high as 
Abraham Lincoln, not "first in war" but always and ever we 
may hope, ' ' first in the hearts of his countrymen. ' ' 

Columbus gave a new world to Spain, and it has passed away 
from her ungracious hands into those that can hold it more 
bravely, and more wisely. But Lincoln gave to the world a new 
type of hero ; let that not pass away from us. 



WHEN the Exposition at Jamestown was held in 1907 
it was planned that among the exhibits there should 
be one of old church silver loaned by such of the 
parishes in the thirteen original states as were exis- 
tent during the colonial period of our history. Unfortunately, the 
impression got abroad that this special exhibit was to be purely 
local in character and when the time came only Virginia and one 
parish in North Carolina were represented. 

It seemed a pity, for while ecclesiastical silver is probably less 
interesting to the average collector than rare spoons, historic lov- 
ing cups or obsolescent patterns in candlesticks ; yet it represents 
its period quite as faithfully as any piece of household or "col- 
lege" plate. Then too, since the day when Joseph of Arimathaea 
brought into Britain that treasure for which King Arthur's 
knights searched so long and earnestly there has hung about the 
sacramental cup a charm for every lover of legend or history 
whether he be a good churchman or not. 

We do not know the form or substance of that Mystic Holy 
Grail, "Rose red with beatings in it" upon which Sir Galahad 
looked before he died ; but all traditions and all early eucharistic 
vessels that have come down to us to prove that a chalice and 
paten were the two essentials in the serving of the sacred feast. 
Later usuage requires a flagon for the holding of additional wine 
and in some instances (since the modern paten is small, its bed 
being of the proper size to fit upon the top of the chalice) a flat 
plate for extra bread or wafers. In passing it might be added 
that a full sacramental service has two chalices, two patens and a 
baptismal bowl ; but to hark back to the Jamestown silver exhibit. 
St. John's Church, Hampton, Va., which is the oldest active 
parish in this countrv, having been founded in 1610, sent a silver 



set that bore the hallmark of 1618 — the year the gallant Raleigh 
was executed, the year of the breaking out of the thirty years 
war, the reign of James 1. 

This silver was brought to the colonies in 1619 to be used in St. 
Mary's Church, Smith's Hundred, Va., a church that was en- 
dowed by a legacy from one pious Mistress Mary Robinson of 
London, who was desirous of promoting missionary work among 
the Indians. In the Indian massacre of 1622 the church was de- 
stroyed but the silver was rescued and sent to Jamestown. About 
1632 it was turned over to the church at Hampton— then known 
as Elizabeth City— where it has been ever since. It seems as if 
this silver had indirectly kept alive the memory of that godly 
Mistress Robinson and her zeal for the Indians' wellfare, for the 
Indian pupils at the Normal school at Hampton attend St. John's 
and they have placed in the church a memorial window to their 
own princess— Pocahontas. 

The chalice of this set bears the inscription:— "The Commun- 
ion Cupp of St. Mary's Church in Smith's Hundred, Va." One 
of the two small patens is inscribed, tk Whoever shall eate this 
bread and drink this cupp unworthily shall be gilty of the body 
and blood of the Lord," and the other— "If any man eate this 
bread he shall live forever. ' ' 

Scarcely less interesting was the silver sent from the parishes 
of Pharnham and Lunenburg, which bore the date 1720 and 
which, so says tradition, was purchased from Queen Anne's 
Bounty. In 1803 the church in these parishes was confiscated 
and the silver was put up at public auction. It was bought by a 
Colonel John Tayloe who presented it to St. John's Church, 
"Washington, about 1816, but in 1876 it was restored to Pharn- 
ham and Lunenburg. 

Some few years before the outbreak of the Civil war negroes 
at work in a field in Accomack County, Virginia, dug out of the 
ground a metal cup of unusual design. Pleased with their dis- 
covery, yet ignorant of its value, they carried it to the well to 
be used as a common drinking vessel. In time the cup attracted 
the attention of passers by and it was redeemed by Mrs. Peggy 
Bailey Custis, who had it cleaned and polished. When the mold 
and other discoloration were removed it was found that the cup 


was of silver and bore the inscription— "For the use of the Par- 
ish Church of Accomack in Assuaman. ' ' Mrs. Custis presented 
the chalice — -which no doubt had been buried in the field for safe 
keeping during some early war— to Emanuel Church, Assuaman 
Parish, which Parish loaned it to the Jamestown Exposition. 

Among other single pieces in the collection was a chalice from 
Wicomoco Church, Northumberland Co., Va., which is dated 1711 
and inscribed—' ' Ex Done Hancock Lee to ye Parish of Lee. ' ' A 
flagon from this same parish had the date 1729 and was given in 
memory of a Mr. Bartholomew Shriver by his son Bartholomew. 

The one parish in North Carolina which chose to be repre- 
sented at the Exposition was old St. Paul's Edenton. This 
church sent a Chalice and paten, both inscribed, "Ye gift of Col- 
onell Edward Moseley for ye use in ye church in Edenton in ye 
yeare 1725." In this same old church there is a flagen of unusual 
design, which tradition says is an old English "pottle" or half 
gallon tankard. This was given to the parish in 1833 by a Mrs. 
Mary Granby. 

When confronted by the records of the Colonial churches one is 
almost appalled by the generosity of Queen Anne. Old Trinity, 
Newport, R. I. owes her its bell— twice recast since 1709. Im- 
manuel Church, New Castle, Del., founded in 1689 received from 
her royal hand its plate, pulpit and vestments and a large num- 
ber of the churches in America founded before or during her 
reign, point proudly to their communion services built in the 
massive fold prevalent in her time, and undoubtably the gift of 
the Queen. 

It was Queen Anne, it may be remembered, who created the 
celebrated Queen 's Bounty by taking the produce from the tithes 
and first fruits— hitherto a perquisite of the crown— and devot- 
ing it to the needs of church livings, valued at less than fifty 
pounds a year. Perhaps Her Majesty took pride in the strides 
made in the art of the smith and the cunning of the artisan dur- 
ing her reign and wished to give their skill the approval of her 
patronage. Perhaps there was balm to her mother's heart for a 
row of little graves and a desolate nursery, in the giving of the 
plate and cup that were to bring spiritual comfort to others who 
travailed and were heavy laden. Whatever the cause there are 


few Colonial parishes that can doubt the munificence of that 
stout, commonplace dame— the last sovereign of the house of 

Some of the silver to be found in old churches is of American 
make— notably the service at St. Mary's, Whitechapel, Lancas- 
ter Co., Va., inscribed-" Gift of Capt. David Fox 1669." and 
the chalice and a small paten at Abingdon Church in Gloucester 
County. When, as in the latter instance, no date is engraved on 
the vessel, the interested onlooker must gauge its history by his 
knowledge of "periods" for the American silversmith places no 
hallmark upon his wares. It may be that he is animated by the 
patriotic spirit of that doughty Paul Revere, who practised his 
art in the early days of our country's history and flouts the cus- 
tom as smacking too strongly of the ways of Mother England ; 
or it may be that he thinks it a waste of time. 

Now, the veriest tyro in the art of silver collecting can tell you 
that a goldsmith's guild was founded in England in 1300; that a 
charter was granted to the guild in 1337 by Edward III. ; that 
since that time no piece of silver has been turned out without a 
hallmark, which is a protection to the dealer and a guarantee of 
good faith to his patron, for any piece so marked must have 
passed triumphantly through one of the four assayers ' offices of 
the United Kingdom. 

He can proudly point to a leopard's head alone as distinguish- 
ing silver made between 1300 and 1337 ; he can show you the 
mark of a leopard's head and crown on the silver that was 
turned out between 1337 and 1545 and he can discant learnedly 
upon an alphabetical system of dates that was adopted sometime 
in Edward IV. 's reign (1441-1483) by which the initiated w'ho 
runs may read; but he cannot combat the iconoclasm of his age. 

This is a generation of paste diamonds, of blown "cut" glass, 
of watered stocks and gold bricks in general. A man who has 
made a long and exhaustive study of the matter, sorrowful h" ad- 
mits that it is not only a possibility but an accomplished fact for 
the shrewd and skillful Yankee goldsmith to so successfully imi- 
tate the hallmark that is early Victorian, or late Georgian, or 
solid Queen Anne, as to fool the very elect. 

Old St. Michael's Church, Charleston, S. C, which opened its 


doors for service on the first of February, 1761, has a record 
to this effect: That on Feb. 18, 1762, the wardens inform the 
vestry of the gift, from his Excellency Thomas Boone, Esq., Gov- 
ernor of the Province, of a service of silver plate— two flagons, 
a chalice and cover and a large dish— which "dish" we are au- 
thoritatively informed was the plate for holding the bread at 
the time of celebration. 

In 1764 George Somers, Esq., added two silver alms dishes 
to this collection; in 1816 another chalice was presented by 
"Elias Horry, Esq., intendent of this city;" in 1819 Miss Anne 
McPherson gave the same church a silver christening bowl. 

When the great Civil war swept the country in the early six- 
ties all this silver was sent to Columbia for safe keeping and when 
that city was burned by Sherman the silver disappeared. When 
peace was declared the vestry advertised their loss and in 1867 
a gentleman in New York returned one of the flagons which he 
had come across in a pawn broker's shop. A year or so later 
the "chalice cover"— really a paten, was discovered in Ohio and 
bought by the church authorities. Both of these pieces are en- 
graved: "The gift of his Excellency Thos. Boone, Esq., Gov- 
ernor of this Province to the church of St. Michael's, Charles 
Town, So. Carolina, 1762." The flagon bears also the British 
coat of arms. None of the other pieces have ever been heard 

In an obscure North Carolina village there is a little old lady 
who is the proud possessor of a pewter chalice and paten— all her 
own. Many years ago these vessels were made in Phiadelphia 
and presented to the first Dutch Reformed Church in North Caro- 
lina, where they were in regular use. Time passed by and the 
church was burned, it was never re-built and the parish was ab- 
sorbed in a neighboring one of greater pretensions, that had no 
need of the humble communion set. 

So, after due deliberation on the part of those in authority, it 
was decided that the two pieces be handed over to the oldest liv- 
ing communicant of the old parish, to be passed on at his death 
to the next in age. The present owner is the last survivor of 
that faithful little band and no doubt the unusual legacy will 
go down to her descendants as a treasured heirloom. 



IN studying the constitution of the United States one remarks 
the wisdom which provided such strict time limitations of 
authority. Corruption of power rarely follows immediately 
upon the assumption of it. Men coming into office feel at 
first that they are watched and are made careful by the sense of 
their prominence, as an actor appearing for the first time before 
the footlights is nervously afraid of blundering. This diffidence 
wearing away after awhile is replaced by a certain callousness ; 
what the people think is not so important after the place is 
secured. But as nothing is so corrupting as the habit of exercis- 
ing command, the person in power once ceasing to fear oppo- 
sition, feels his heart harden and his sympathy dull day by day ; 
the people subject to him become nothing, and the routine which 
formulates his own ideas becomes everything. Like a lioness 
defending her young, he would defend his regulations; the off- 
spring of his brain they are part of the ego, and to subject them 
is to cripple him and degrade his dignity. 

At tliis point, before the period arrives for him to grow wan- 
ton in the abuse of his power, our constitution steps in and 
despoils him of it, and installs a novice in his place. The heads 
of the great departments of our government, petty kings in many 
respects, have every temptation to become tyrannical and auto- 
cratical. What restrains them is the knowledge that their reign 
is not only limited, but preparatory for their successor. What- 
ever in their administration is meant only for self-aggrandize- 
ment, whatever is not founded upon a just conception of utility 
will not only be swept away, but will furnish a topic of ridicule 
for the whole country. 

This publicity given to all their proceedings is an effectual 
check upon self-seeking politicians. If "the spoils of office glit- 



ter in his eye " he is obliged to veil his eagerness by a semblance 
of public spirit. There can be no display of force, and any 
attempt at dishonesty is so hazardous that only determined 
rogues venture it. Our statesmen are imbued with a deep belief 
in the inclination of truth to show itself. With a people so alert, 
a free press so vigilant and keenly inquisitive, nothing can be 
long hidden, and men in office must walk in the clear light of 
noon day. 

These precautions are all to prevent unscrupulous men gaining 
possession of authority. An office is hedged about with restric- 
tions, and a conscientious official has his upright intentions stim- 
ulated, and any latent capacity to become a rogue sternly dis- 
couraged. Everything depends upon his own conduct. In our 
judicial department there is the nicest adjustment of liberty of 
action and moral restraint. The judges are absolutely free from 
control, and their decisions, however unpopular, cannot be used 
against them by hostile political parties. And yet their "tenure 
of office is only during good behaviour, ' ' for they are liable to be 
impeached or tried. So, although they enter upon what is called 
a life appointment, they realize that it is for a good life, one 
fulfilling all the requirements of morality, decency, and justice. 
Behind all the temporary enactments made by our rules, and 
beyond all the authority with which they may be invested, lies 
the constitution, the supreme authority which may not be set 
aside, and which may hardly be altered ; that has provided for all 
emergencies, and abrogated all disputes, that holds each man to 
his duty and checks every impulse toward license. 

So much did our wise and cautious forefathers know about 
human nature, and so rightly did they estimate the appetite of 
men to abuse power. Yet with all these interpositions, with every 
restraint and guard that ingenuity can devise and watchfulness 
maintain, the constant endeavor is made in our country to give 
office only to the most suitable men. Notwithstanding the ' ' rings 
and the ring-leaders, ' ' the mobs and the mob-laws, ' ' and the out- 
breaks here and there of wicked and undisciplined beings who are 
enimical to what is orderly and fair, it is proven over and over 
again, when the test of general election comes, that these evils 
are of a cast merely local, and that the sentiments of the major- 


ity in our country are in harmony with the spirit of the founders 
of the republic; they uphold the eternal principle of right and 
justice, and they will intrust the carrying out of the law only to 
upright and trustworthy men. 

And now I wish to draw attention to the great and momentous 
dissimilarity between the provisions made for securing men of 
excellent character and abilities to fill places of public trust, at 
the same time that by both restrictions and watchfulness they are 
prevented from abusing their power, and the total absence of 
such selection in character and limitation of power in that private 
and important province, the family. 

In modern times the family has been considered sacred from 
interference by the law. The police of Russia and Paris, so 
vigilant in ferreting out crimes, and bringing criminals to> pun- 
ishment, are helpless before the citadel which guards the rights 
of family relationships. A father may squander his fortune on 
courtezans and leave his children penniless, a mother may pander 
to the gambling mania of a depraved son, and deprive her remain- 
ing children of the necessaries o ; f life; a husband may beat his 
wife, a parent may cruelly abuse infants, and the victim's tears 
falling in his own house, are unseen by the public, his cries 
unheard by the police who have no warrant for entering the 
sacred family precinct, even if hell were being enacted within, 
unless the excuse was afforded that the peace of the neighborhood 
was disturbed, or some desperate sufferer should violate usage 
and decency enough to sally out and enter a complaint against 
his family. Children never do this. They do not know that they 
can, and they would be afraid, for even the protection of the law 
can affect nothing salutary, except in cases of extrordinary 
cruelty; it is at best, but temporary, and the power of their 
parents, for good or ill, permanent. A parent's power is not like 
that o t f a judge, "dependent upon good behaviour." It is for 
life, whether the behaviour be good or ill. 

It is apparent that the law taking cognizance of a man only in 
his public capacity as a citizen, trusts his private life in his own 
hands, assuming that the same self-retraint which enables him 
to avoid encroachments upon the rights of his neighbors, will 
make him faithful to his duties toward his family. The gradual 


loosing of authority which has taken place, until among civilized 
nations men of good conduct think themselves free agents, has 
regard to the individual in his entirety. The presumption is 
that a man who is never accused by his fellow men of stealing 
or lying is honest; that one who shows no signs of being cruel 
or oppressive is amiable. The world takes the character of a 
man largely upon trust, having the right of inquiry only into such 
acts as concern society. In his private relations he has long been 
emancipated. It is useless to ask if he was ready for this, if the 
policy which holds him strictly to account for every public act, 
and leaves him totally unaccountable in his private relations is 
the best policy. It is the policy that prevails and is, under the 
circumstances of modern life, the only possible one. A man 
worthy to be a good citizen of an enlightened republic ought to 
be so far developed in his moral nature as to need no other 
officer than his conscience to keep him to his duty to his family. 
So public opinion declares, and the ideal is a right one. 

But it is certain that the facts fall far short. A good citizen, 
i. e. one who violates none of the laws, and conducts himself to 
all outward appearances in a seemly fashion, is not necessarily 
a pattern family man. The explanation is not far to seek. Civil 
law is a positive thing ; there is no ambiguity about an ordinance 
which forbids the counterfeiting of currency, and puts its veto 
upon street fights. Uniformed guardians of the peace stroll 
around casually, and would-be offenders entertain lively appre- 
hensions of the consequences of exploiting their evil impulses. 
The necessity of attending to these restrictions, acknowledged by 
generation after generation, has become a habit, and the asso- 
ciation of peace and order with obedience has favored the growth 
of self-control. A certain discipline has wrought a certain effect. 
The efforts of civilized nations long directed to the point of 
securing good citizens have been effectual. The repetition of any 
set of actions long continued, induces a mechanical tendency 
toward them, and even if there is lacking the mental capacity 
to apprehend moral distinctions, mere association of pleasure 
and pain with special kinds of conduct establishes a sort of 
morality of action that may have every appearance of virtue, 



and yet leave the individual totally unenlightened in all matters 
not directly embraced in his education. 

Civil laws are directed, not to conduct in the abstract, but in 
the concrete; certain acts are forbidden, but beyond a vague 
and general inference possibly to be drawn by the intelligent 
mind as to the bearing upon general welfare, there are no rea- 
sons of explanations which would induce reflection tending to 
an extended elevation of moral nature. 

Experience goes to prove instead, that close attention 
to the details of civil codes leads to a rather barren, arid dispo- 
sition, and discourages sympathetic, lenient views of humanity. 
So, it appears that the man who has walked uprightly before the 
eyes of the public all day, intelligently conforming to customs 
he has inherited a pre-disposition to, and yielding with docility to 
specific regulations his business and occupations impose upon 
him, may not, for all his excellent carriage, be the better dis- 
ciplined in his whole character, or fitted to deal with matters 
where there is no law to restrict, no public opinion to protest, 
and no clear code to enlighten. He leaves knowledge in the street 
and enters upon a realm where right feeling and instinct are sup- 
posed to be his sufficient guides. For business and for citizenship 
he has had special education, for family life, none. Some slight 
training in moral philosophy he may have had, but it must be 
confessed that much that purports to be moral philosophy is not 
only useless, but an absolute hindrance to the liberal and refined 
tendencies of our modern civilization. But unless he has had 
the questionable good fortune to have pursued studies in this line 
even of the old-fashioned sort, he is left absolutely without 
anchor in the swift running sea of domestic perplexities. " 

Nature, who is snubbed in the courts and offices of cities, brow- 
beaten in schools, and flouted everywhere else, is given a 'sort of 
contemptuous recognition at this juncture. She is supposed to 
be in charge of the family, and responsible for the actions of its 
members; although, let it be remarked, it is the rarest thing 
for anyone to perceive that there are any reciprocal obligations, 
and that in return for the beneficence of the godmother they are 
bound to try in some degree to understand and carry out her 
intentions. The questions now come up : Is nature more fallible 


than civil law? Does she fail to confer necessary enlightenment, 
and is instinct a mere by-word that covers real poverty of heart 
and mind? The answers to these questions involve some of the 
widest reaching consequences possible to life. 

It is a truism that happiness has no autobiography. Discon- 
tent finds a voice, and misery takes up the pen to write its des- 
pairing record. But when everything is going fairly well with 
a people, they are "by the world forgot." Whence wails pro- 
ceed is sorrow, and reason for investigation. No one will dis- 
pute that although from the time of Adam down, domestic 
unhappiness has been heard of, there has never been a period 
when there was so general a stirring of the waters, and such a 
complete manifestation of internal discord and infelicities as at 
present. There is an agitation of all questions relating to the 
rearing of offspring, and a general sentiment in favor of the 
adoption of some new method, all the old ones having proved 
inadequate to the demands of modern life. Yet, it has for so long 
been believed that family relations were something unique, not 
subject to the laws ruling elsewhere, and the idea has been so 
thoroughly implanted that some super-natural agency expressing 
itself, through "instinct" was the right Mentor in these affairs, 
that there has been no organized effort made as yet, to treat 
such moral maladies as bad parentage and unfilial conduct from 
the scientific standpoint. 

With an edifying trust in an overruling Providence, which 
would yet by no means be expected to supply the wisdom prop- 
erly belonging to a practical art or trade, and inspire a man for 
instance, how to build a wagon, the parent, unsuccessful in his 
efforts from day to day, casts the blame upon nature, laments 
the waywardness of his offspring, and with shame acknowledges 
himself inadequate to the situation. 

Instinct, so long relied upon as an infallible guide to parents, 
does not, seemingly, give entire satisfaction. Possibly not only 
the word but the idea attaching to it may be at fault. People 
speak of instinct as if it implied inspiration, tutelage from an 
infinite source of wisdom. Says Darwin: "It is worthy of 
remark that a belief constantly inculcated during the early years 
of life, while the brain is impressible, appears to acquire almost 


the nature of an instinct, and the very nature of an instinct is 
that it is followed independently of reason." Is it then, this 
divine monitor upon whom such reliance is placed— not a higher 
sort of reason, but something "followed independently!" An 
automatic motion toward acts previously performed? It must 
be confessed that certain modes of discipline run in families, 
and some children are allowed to eat candy simply because their 
mothers ate it when they were children, while a boy has been 
known to receive a flogging to keep up the traditionary standard 
of punishment. 

When we reflect that every sort of progress made by men has 
been the result of reason, and that only through the active co-or- 
dination of all the mental faculties has it been possible to arrive 
at the conceptions of conduct to which we have attained, it 
becomes apparent why domestic relations continue to be most 
disproportionately backward, and still too often a mere barbar- 
ism. Everyone would instantly see the absurdity of trying to 
substitute instinct for acumen in business matters. It would make 
a man turn down a certain street to reach his office if he had 
turned down the same street many times before, but it would not 
enable him to guess the correct quotation of the stock market for 
the ensuing day, even if his ancestors had been stock brokers for 
generations and he had inherited their shrewdness in trade. 

Instinct can only deal with what has already been done, and 
is helpless in the face of a new situation. We may correctly 
speak of ' ' instinctive liking, " " instinctive repugnance, ' ' but who 
would seriously speak of instinctive judgment? And certainly 
judgment, not preference, is the quality necessary to every kind 
of government. It is regarded as so dangerous to admit prefer- 
ence as a factor in cases requiring careful consideration, that 
the judge upon the bench endeavors to eliminate from his mind 
eveiy sentiment in favor or disfavor of a culprit, and impar- 
tiality implies the absolute absence of preference. 

Our intellectual and social life has become so complex that we 
now profess to be actuated by reason instead of instinct in almost 
all relations with others. The wise man controls his passions 
and prejudices, subjecting them to scrutiny and the dominion of 
his will. But the same diversity which has grown up in all other 


conditions has affected domestic relations also, and it is absurd 
to exempt these from the rule obtaining elsewhere, that feeling 
is not a trustworthy guide and that knowledge of natural law is 
as necessary in dealing with the members of our own family as 
it is in the conduct of trade or science. 

It cannot be too often impressed upon men that impulse has 
no moral character, but takes the form of good or bad from 
the amount of knowledge possessed by the person who is acting. If 
he enters upon a new experience his impulses are as likely to lead 
him into measures which are practically wrong, as they occasion 
misfortune to others, as they are to lead him into right measures. 
Now, new experiences are of hourly occurrence in .family life; 
the changes of environment which take place from one generation 
to another are not greater than the changes in the nervous struc- 
ture of each member; the change consisting in a differentiation 
which renders the individual more keenly sensitive, more irrit- 
able, more difficult to deal with. His capacity for reasoning hav- 
ing increased he perceives more and more the complex aspects 
of facts, and questions of conduct have a thousand bearings, 
where to a more simply constituted creature they would have but 
one or two. Prevision being the outcome of past experience, each 
succeeding generation, inheriting the results of ancestral experi- 
ence naturally is endowed with longer sight, and the greater 
insight one is possessed of the more he is constrained to recog- 
nize the many effects springing from a single cause. This makes 
thinking rapid and conduct nervous. Our civilization has the 
hum of an unceasing Corliss engine, and the multiplicity of 
revolving wheels dazzles the eye. Young children feel it. The 
stir is in their blood and they fidget from the first as if sensing 
thus early the vast responsibilities awaiting them. 

A few centuries ago in the rural sections of England the 
squire's boys and girls opened their eyes to gaze placidly upon the 
green fields and take in little by little the knowledge leisurely 
imparted to them ; a knowledge almost wholly classical, and deal- 
ing with the history of the past. On Sundays they trooped to 
church and heard good sleepy sermons, and came home to eat 
their syllabub and beef, going early to bed in quietness of soul 
without a thought of anxiety for the future to give them a night- 


mare. To-day the descendants of these same placid country 
children live in our new, seething country, a life which makes 
their blood run like quick silver and inspires in them a feeling 
of restlessness and emulation. Instruction has changed in char- 
acter; the classics are less prominent, and science, which is lore 
of a prophetic, not meditative nature, is assuming more import- 
ance. Locke's idea that children were fair, white pages, blank 
till the teacher writes thereon, has fallen into disrepute. The 
design of intelligent modern teachers is not to cram, but to 
develop the minds of their charges. From the mite in the kin- 
dergarten exercising his budding perceptions to distinguish the 
colors of his worsted balls to the youth in college, thinking less 
of his Greek verbs than of his critical treatise upon the improb- 
ability of the existence of Homer, the entire trend of modern 
education has in view, perhaps unconsciously, the arousing and 
cultivating of the critical faculty. We are a race of critics and 
seers, quick to detect an anachronism, a false quantity, a polit- 
ical blunder. Our minds are little engaged by the past, hardly 
by the present, but constantly with the future. Toil, anxiety, 
incessant calculation, mark our days. We have no repose, but a 
vigor ever on the wing, and we realize— no other people realize 
it to anything like the same extent, because no other people are 
so constrained by nature— the enormous importance of the moral 
element in our country and our government. We need leaders 
who are men of sound, common sense, and trained judgment, not 
men of hasty passions, not of wily, self-seeking disposition. We 
know that we are not a simple-minded, easily governed people; 
we give ourselves full credit for our egotism, our quick-witted- 
ness, and our keenness to detect flaws in those men we tempo- 
rarily invest with power. How we would ridicule anyone who 
should advance the opinion that in governing men and adminis- 
tering the affairs of a nation that knowledge is not essentia], and 
that instinct will infallibly enable men to order things right ! 

But this is the absurdity we are guilty of when we come in 
from the great world to the little world of the interior, where the 
forces we have to deal with are the same in kind, and only differ- 
ent in degree. To the nervous, sensitive children of a restless, 
alert race we apply the same arbitrary measures that successfully 


obtained with the docile little creatures that lived before steam 
and electricity thrilled their nerves, and in ages when argument 
was deemed heresy, and to doubt what an elder said, a crime. 
Were it nothing else but the "droppings from the sanctuary," 
the stray sentences heard in the parlor and at table, suggesting 
free disapproval of pulpit oratory, of political measures, of pre- 
vailing social customs— the education would be sufficient to dis- 
turb a child's equilibrium and incite him to become critical of 
what seems strong. But added to this is the education at school, 
much more encouraging to originality than any ever given before ; 
the stimulation of high-spirited young companions, all sniffing 
like Bucephalus, the air of a free country, and longing to get out 
of the path of routine and into new courses ; and the suggestions 
of the vast new literature which has grown up lately for children, 
treating of all things, from children's standpoint, and enabling 
them to conceive that there is nothing from clay modelling to 
evolution which they may not try to understand. 

It may be then, that as such children are the product of our 
century and civilization, that disaffection in families must inev- 
itably follow from parental neglect of the principle that com- 
plexity of mental organization includes complexity of moral 
organization, and from depending wholly upon parental instinct 
as a motor of government. That feeling is right in its place and 
at the proper time ; it is animal, aff ectional, it is not intellectual 
or moral. 

Now, it must be asked, why should an animal instinct be pro- 
moted to the position of a completely developed moral faculty? 
The provisions of nature are not at fault. If we should insist 
upon using our toes for fingers, and abuse the providence that 
gave us such cumbersome members, denying the existence of 
hands, the folly would be apparent. But is there not some folly, 
too, in neglecting to employ to their highest use, the faculties 
assidiously developed through all the ages, and retaining for 
use in our loftiest, finest function only the rude sense possessed 
by the lower animals for the protection of their young? We do 
not think that we are any the less in harmony with nature for 
being highly developed and well educated. Facts favor the 
opposite opinion ; the more ignorance is overcome the more we 


harmonize with natural laws. Where, then, would there be any- 
thing unnatural in extending our education into regions where it 
would be most beneficial I 

If the question was directly put to him a parent would surely 
admit that he owes his child the same consideration he owes to 
himself; that he is bound to insist for them upon a wise, just, 
and consistent government in the same way that he insists for 
himself that the government to which he submits shall be prop- 
erly administered. But if the point were pressed it would prob- 
ably be hard for him to prove that he takes the same care to 
secure the welfare of his offspring in this matter that he takes 
to secure his own. How many hours does he spend over news- 
papers and political discussions, and how many moments in 
thinking of his parental duties? He has time to give to the one 
matter because it involves large interests — the interests of grown 
people. It is exigent— pressing, which means that it concerns 
himself. He has no time to give to the other matter, but nature 
attends to that for him. It is singular that man has not yet 
learned that this one great exception which he makes exists only 
in his own imagination. Nature who confers latent capacity does 
not make that capacity available without effort upon our part. 
She does not teach men to be carpenters, nor does she teach them 
how to be parents, except in the performance of mere animal 
functions. If we want to bring our children up to be animals 
we need no special training, and instinct is indeed sufficient. But 
if we want to rear them to be intellectual, moral beings, fitted 
to carry on from the point attained by us the progress of the race, 
we must bring to bear upon the problem of their education the 
same intelligence we use for our own advantage, recognizing for 
once and all, that it is our privilege to have arrived at a stage 
of enlightenment where we can, by rightly directed efforts, under- 
stand and interpret the true laws of development. 

To the fair and conscientious mind, thus resolute to give due 
consideration to a matter so important as the improvement of 
the race and the securing of their rightful portion of happiness 
to the majority of its members, it must appear that not only 
should we be as careful in the establishment of government over 
our children as we are in securing good legislation for ourselves, 


but that we ought to be far more careful ; for when our rulers 
interpret the law wrongly the evil is remediable because their 
term of office is temporary; but when a parent either through 
viciousness, ignorance, or carelessness, is unfit for his high office, 
he cannot be displaced, but retains his position during the whole 
minority of the unfortunate child under his jurisdiction. And 
this security of office, exempting him from the fear of criticism 
and interference, is so calculated to undermine the most sturdy 
justice, that more than common watchfulness and self-restraint 
is necessary to make him continue even moderately fair and con- 
sistent. So, as our rulers are required to thoroughly understand 
the law which they are to expound, as well as bound by oath to 
be conscientious, and truthful in interpreting it, there is a heavier 
responsibility resting upon parents, considering their unlimited 
power: to understand the law of natural equity, which is their 
children's unwritten "magna charta," and to hold them- 
selves bound, by the most solemn of tacit obligations, 
to exercise all their knowledge as well as all their virtue, 
in interpreting this law for the helpless beings under their con- 
trol: beings who have not the power to discharge incompetent 
rulers, who are denied the right of protest, and who, from their 
extreme sensitiveness suffer even more from bad government 
than any grown person suffers under the worst conditions to 
which he can be subjected. 

The first duty therefore belonging to the prospective parent, is 
to prepare himself for his responsible position with more care 
than he prepares for any other duty in life. For in the perfor- 
mance of his public duties he is always under the law, while as a 
parent he is a law unto himself, since the protests nature makes 
are not always immediate, like those of civil law, but are often 
deferred, and of such various character that it is sometimes, 
although not always, possible to disclaim the justice of them. 

By Walter B. Norms 

IF a boy reader of sea stories should open a new volume to 
find that the hero ran away to sea at eleven to escape a dis- 
agreeable stepmother, fled from the first ship he sailed in, 
travelled a few thousand miles in a crazy schooner, was 
wrecked, rescued, enlisted in a government vessel only barely to 
escape a severe flogging, deserted and was kidnapped into a rot- 
ten, fever-stricken ship bound across the ocean, saw half the crew 
die of hard work and lack of food, fought pirates and cannibals, 
sailed in a haunted ship around the world, was taught navigation 
by a kind-hearted captain's wife, became an under officer, and at 
twenty-one a captain,— the boy would think that he had found a 
first class story. 

If, then, in a sequel he found the author's imagination still ac- 
tive, and his hero performing such feats as out-sailing a British 
fleet, hob-nobbing with a, Sultan who offers him the post of ad- 
miral but is refused, rescuing a beautiful lady from a harem, as- 
sisted by a sentimental stranger who later finds that he has res- 
cued his first love, and if he then sails the Atlantic in the fastest 
ship afloat, the boy, one imagines, would think that the writer 
was a good one. 

If, however, the boy should be told that he was reading not- a 
piece of fiction but a true, unvarnished story, would he not be 
more amazed at truth stranger than fiction. 

Yet there died in Brooklyn, New York, not long ago the man 
who had done all of these things and more, Captain Samuel Sam- 
uels, the famous commander of the Dreadnought. The story of 
his life is full of excitement, but will not necessarily give a boy 
an unconquerable longing for the life on the ocean wave. Besides, 
the life he knew no longer exists. Sea life to-day is not only less 



interesting but less dangerous than in the days of Marryat, 
Cooper, or the author of ' ' Two Years Before the Mast. ' ' 

Captain Samuels was born in Philadelphia in 1825, and began 
his sailor days when only eleven years old, by running away from 
home and sailing on a schooner bound for New York. He was so 
worn out by sea-sickness and hard work, and so frightened by 
the grusome tales about river pirates that while the ship lay at 
the wharf in New York, he would dream at night of murderers 
boarding the ship, and cry out so as to wake all the crew. But he 
was reckless enough to run away before the ship sailed, and to 
ship on a boat to Newport, R. I., where he shipped again, this 
time for the Gulf of Mexico. 

This was the scene of a number of his experiences, not many 
of them pleasant ones. Just before the ship reached its destina- 
tion, it was wrecked, and it was with difficulty that Samuels 
reached Mobile. Here he got his first dose of kidnapping, or 
"shanghaiing" as it was called. Captains in need of crews se- 
cured them through "crimps" who drugged desirable men and 
carried them on board. The sailor would find himself on board 
a ship bound on a long voyage, and find that he had already re- 
ceived a part of his wages in advance. He had no redress against 
such swindling, as he could prove nothing. 

Samuels began by deserting his ship and enlisting on a revenue 
cutter as an able seaman. Here he got a taste of navy discipline, 
as he soon showed that he could not furl a square sail properly, 
and was swung up by the thumbs, body bent forward, just about 
to be given a dozen lashes on the bare back, when the captain in- 
tervened, and released him on account of his youth. Though he 
had almost fainted with fear, he had wisely said nothing. Here 
he became a firm friend of an old seaman, French Peter, who was 
with him on several voyages, and protected him at times. 

But the life on a revenue cutter was not to Samuels' liking, 
and he and his friend deserted, but in a sailor's boarding-house 
were drugged, and found themselves on a ship bound for Liver- 
pool. It was a horrible experience. So many men died of yellow 
fever that the survivors were overworked. Provisions gave out, 
disease appeared, but at last they reached England. 

He returned to America by way of Galveston, narrowly avoid- 
ing being captured by pirates in the Caribbean Sea. There he 


enlisted in the Texan navy during that gallant little republic's 
fight for freedom from Mexico. But yellow fever broke out on 
board and he got away to New Orleans, where he worked on the 
stage or in the cotton fields until he was shanghaiied again, but 
escaped by jumping overboard as the ship was passing down 
the Mississippi. 

Several other voyages then intervened, one of which gave him 
a chance to return home. He soon went back to sea-faring, how- 
ever, and in 1840 left Philadelphia in a ship that had never made 
a voyage without disaster. Nevertheless, Samuels got around 
the world in this unlucky vessel. In Sydney, Australia, he reck- 
lessly failed to return before the vessel had left the dock, and had 
to swim three miles to its anchorage in the outer harbor. 

From Australia the ship headed for Manila but stopped at 
several islands in the South Seas. At one Samuels and a few 
others ventured ashore in a boat. The natives, largely cannibals, 
met them in the surf, overturned the boat, and would have killed 
them all if help had not come from the ship. 

At Manila he learned something of Spanish methods in in- 
trigue. Becoming infatuated with a Spanish girl, he was almost 
assassinated by a rival suitor for her hand. Sailing away, he 
encountered a typhoon in the China Sea, but reached Philadel- 
phia safely. 

On his next voyage, in the ship Henry Pratt, he went as sec- 
ond mate, and on a later voyage, he learned mathematics and 
navigation under the tuition of the captain's wife. He was now 
nearly twenty-one and at last seems to have been fired with some 
ambition to advance. He also married and, after several voy- 
ages on well-known ships and under able commanders, secured 
a position as chief officer of the Manhattan. At Amsterdam the 
ship was sold to a Dutch merchant, who put on board a Dutch 
crew and made Samuels, though only twenty-one, their captain. 

On the ship's first voyage, through the Mediterranean to Con- 
stantinople and Odessa, his luck for adventure did not desert 
him. Sailing up through the Grecian Archipelago, he met two 
veiy fast British war vessels, and as they wanted a race, be 
consented and beat them decisively. At Constantinople his skill 
and daring in coming into the harbor gained him the notice of 


the Sultan and he was actually offered the position of admiral 
in the Turkish Navy. However, he wisely declined the precari- 
ous post. 

One adventure of his in Constantinople was perhaps the most 
romantic in his career. While passing a house one afternoon, 
a beautiful lady showed herself at a window high above the 
street and dropped a note to him and his companion, a Swedish 
sea-captain. It proved to be the piteous plea for rescue of a 
Christian girl who had been captured by Turks and placed in a 
harem as the wife of an army officer. Samuels, with the help of 
the Swedish captain, who was also stirred by the romance of 
the affair, actually rescued her in a few weeks, and the Swedish 
captain took her on board his ship, carried her to England, and 
married her. Strangest of all, the lady proved to be the girl 
whom the Swedish captain had loved in his youth but whom her 
parents had kept him from marrying. He had gone to sea in 
desperation, and her family had travelled to Egypt, where they 
had been captured by bandits, and the women sold into Turkish 

Samuels, himself, had an experience with bandits in Italy 
near Pisa, soon after this, but was rescued by officers from an 
American man-of-war. In the Mediterranean he was also chased 
by Sicilian pirates but so disabled their ships by firing at the 
rigging that he was able to escape. 

His next voyage, also under Dutch ownership, took him to 
the Dutch colony of Java, where, as captain of an important 
ship, he was lavishly entertained. On his return around the 
Cape of Good Hope he was washed overboard, but saved him- 
self by climbing into a lifeboat that had also been knocked into 
the sea by the same wave. During several of these later voy- 
ages his wife and children sailed with him. 

By this time Samuels was known as a daring yet skillful sea- 
man, and as a captain able to control his men and prepared 
for any emergency. When, therefore, a group of New York 
merchants wished to build a swift packet ship for the New York- 
Liverpool trade, and to make it the fastest sailing vessel on the 
Atlantic, they not only made Samuels its captain but entrusted 
him with much of the construction of the ship. The ship was 


built at Newburyport in 1853 and named the Dreadnought for 
the famous vessel of that name in Lord Nelson's fleet and for 
which the Dreadnought in our navies to-day are also named. 

Under Samuel 's command the new ship soon carried off most 
of the sailing records for the Atlantic. On her first trip from 
Liverpool, she left a day after the Cunard steamer Canada sailed 
for Boston. Yet no sooner had the Canada reached her destina- 
tion than the Dreadnought was sighted off the entrance of New 
York harbor. 

Twice she left between steamers, and arrived in Liverpool 
soon enough to bring the latest news. In 1859 she crossed in a 
little over thirteen days, good time for a steamship, and in 1860, 
she made the fastest time ever made by sail power, 2,760 miles 
from New York to Queenstown in nine days and seventeen hours. 

Such speed was only secured by attention to every detail of 
seamanship. The ship carried every bit of sail that her masts 
could bear, from main-sail and top-gallant-sail to royals and 
flying masses of studding-sails. Samuels' practice, which ex- 
plaines many of his quick passages, was carrying as much sail 
by night as by day. 

Life on a transatlantic packet of the '50 's was not a monoto- 
nous existence. Sail was crowded on and then every piece of 
canvas and every change of wind watched vigilantly. Discipline 
was much like that of a man-of-war, and the captain was a man 
of great importance. Passengers were numerous, and it is said 
that Samuels read the Episcopal service each day of the voyage. 
On one occasion it is related that a lady asked why the flags were 
flown on Sunday during church service, although not a ship was 
in sight to notice them. 

"God sees them," was the reply. "We feel ourselves nearer 
to him on the ocean as only six inches of planking separates us 
from eternity." 

Danger was indeed not far away at any time. On one passage 
from Liverpool in 1859, Samuels was obliged to take as sailors 
thirty men said to be members of a desperate gang known as the 
Forty Thieves. On the trip the ruffians attempted to kill the of- 
ficers and rob the ship and its passengers. When their attempt 
was nipped in the bud by Samuels' pistols, they refused to work 


the ship, and for several days the ship sped on with all sails 
spread and no provision for a squall or a change of wind. 

Nevertheless, so determined was Samuels to break the spirit of 
the mutineers that when the passengers protested at the danger 
they were in and urged him to make concessions to the crew, he 
clapped the spokesman in irons. By his determination and per- 
sonal courage he forced the crew to go back to work, made the 
leader of the mutiny beg for pardon for his evil deeds, and 
brought his ship safely into New York. 

During the Civil War Captain Samuels was in the Union ser- 
vice and took part in both attacks on Fort Fisher. After the 
Civil War he gained new laurels as a seaman in several interna- 
tional yacht races. In 1866 he sailed the schooner yacht Henriet- 
ta from Sandy Hook to the Isle of Wight, beating both of his 
competitors. He also sailed the Dauntless in several such rases, 
the last in 1887. 

In the same year he published an interesting account of his life 
in "From the Forecastle to the Cabin," which has become a pop- 
ular book with boys, and even up to the time of his death last 
May he was connected with business and maritime interests in 
New York City. 



SOME unpublished testimony that he expected co-opera- 
tion from Sir William Howe is herewith given. 
To the student of Burgoyne's campaign, the Memorial 
of Joseph Beaty of Balston, hitherto unpublished, 
(Canadian Archives B. Vol. 214 page 275) throws light on sev- 
eral points of importance in the justification of the much 
maligned Burgoyne. His memorial relates that about the mid- 
dle of September, 1777, he, with six men, arrived at Burgoyne's 
Camp and joinel Captain McAlpin's Corps. Captain McAlpin 
referred to, was an officer of the GOth Regiment who was put in 
command of a corps of provincials. The middle of September 
was a critical period. On the 19th September, the first battle of 
Saratoga, commonly called Freeman's Farm, was fought, the 
last victory for Burgoyne, who maintained his ground against 
vastly superior numbers. Between the 19th September and the 
7th October, when the final struggle occurred, the testimony of 
Joseph Beaty shows conclusively that Burgoyne at that time 
looked for the promised co-operation of Sir William Howe from 
New York in furtherance of the main object of his expedition, 
namely his junction with Sir William Howe's army at Albany. 
The testimony of Joseph Beaty is, that as late as the 4th October 
he was sent from the British camp southward through the ene- 
mies' lines, on a most perilous expedition to ascertain whether 
the British fleet was coming up the North River.* On that day 
Beaty went as far as Catskill and found a rebel officer in a public 
house, who informed him that Fort Montgomery was taken in 
the Highlands, and Aesops was destroyed by fire, and returned 
with the news back through the enemies' lines to Burgoyne on 
the 16th October. The great Convention of Saratoga was held 

*The Hudson. 



on the 15th October,— the day before Beaty's arrival in Bur- 
goyne's camp. It was owing to Beaty's intelligence that Bur- 
goyne baulked and hesitated in signing the articles of the con- 
vention. Even at this late hour Borgoyne was not without hope 
of co-operation. His army at this time amounted to less than 
4,000 effective men, while that of the enemy, certified by General 
Gates, totaled 18,624. The negotiations for the surrender began 
on the 13th October. At a council of war on the 16th, Burgoyne 
voted with a minority including Generals Phillips, Hamilton and 
Balcarras, against signing the treaty of capitulation. Although 
no book of history records the source of Burgoyne 's intelligence, 
his own account and all the evidence taken in the House of Com- 
mons shows this vain hope still in his mind. Earl Balcarras was 
examined " (Question 130). When advice was received "that 
Sir Henry Clinton was coming up the North River, did you 
' ' apprehend the question of treaty had gone so far that it could 
"not be broken?" (A) My opinion was with respect to that 
"question that all military negotiations were fair and justifiable 
"to make delays and to gain time. I therefore thought and 
' ' declared my sentiments that General Burgoyne was at full lib- 
' ' erty to break off that treaty in the stage it was then and I could 
"not conceive that the public faith was engaged until the treaty 
"was actually signed and exchanged." 

It was General Fraser who dispatched Beaty on the 4th Oq- 
tober to ascertain whether the long looked for succour was on the 
way, the same General Fraser who was fated to fall, three days 
afterwards, in the battle of the 7th. The story of his death and 
the heroism of the Baroness Reidasel, the wife of the General 
in command o*f the Hessians is to be found in her memoirs. The 
whole of the provincial corps Jessups, McAlpines, MacKays and 
Peters Corps were under the supervision of General Fraser. 
Every paragraph of Beaty's petition contains some statement 
which revives the tragic events of those few days on the Banks 
of Fish Kill, where both armies stood in close proximity on either 
side of the ravine waiting for the end, Burgoyne 's little army 
hoping against hope for relief, while General Gates was adding 
to his already comparatively enormous host, almost hourly. On 
the 16th October, says Beaty, he was carried before General 


It is to be remembered that despite all honor the solemn un- 
dertaking that the army should be sent to England free was 
broken by Congress. The army never returned but were kept 
prisoners for years in Southern Virginia, and ultimately scat- 
tered in all directions, some going to Canada and others to dif- 
fernt parts of the colonies. Beaty was captured on the 15th 
January 1779, put in irons, condemned to death but he made 
his escape on the 16th August. His hand had been seriously in- 
jured yet he had the temerity to go to Balston to have the hand 
healed of which he had lost the use, the irons eating into his 
flesh while confined by the rebels. On the 2nd October 1781, hav- 
ing been much injured in health and strength and lost the use 
of one of his hands he indites his petition to Governor Haldi- 
mand. On the 6th October, four days afterwards, he received 
an appointment as an officer in the Provincial Corps (Canadian 
Archives, B. 160, page 96). From Stone's 'Life of Brant' page 
211, we learn of his capture near Balston in the winter of 1781 
and '82, while on a recruiting expedition. On the 17th June 
1782, the widow of Ensign Beaty is to receive her husband's 
pay until the 24th June and afterwards a pension of £20 a year. 
(Canadian Archives 160, page 111). The memorial in which 
Joseph Beaty 's movements are detailed is filed amongst the 
Haldimand Collection of documents which only of late years 
have been available to students of American History. It is safe 
to say that Col. Stone had not access to these papers when he 
wrote this history of Joseph Brant. It was not until the year 
1853 that this collection became available in the British Museum. 
It was not until 1883 that the documents were transcribed in the 
Canadian Archives. There are two sides to every story, the 
spirit of American historians at the time Stone wrote his his- 
tory was worse than partisan and is now confessed by American 
writers to have been written in a policy which sacrificed truth for 
the sake of national patriotism. Sydney Fisher makes this con- 
fession in his "True Revolution." That Beaty should have en- 
countered so much adventure and risk in the cause of constitued 
authority, stamps him as a hero of no mean order. 

That Joseph Beaty the memorialist, is the man spoken of by 
Stone, is my inference from the evidence. The spelling of the 


surname is not the same but the evidence otherwise points con- 
clusively to the identity. His petition to Haldimand is dated 
Otcober 2, 1781. He was captured (according to Stone) in the 
winter of 1781-2. It appears from the Calendar of the Haldi- 
mand Collection that a Ensign Joseph Beaty's widow is ordered 
a pension. (Can. Arc, 160-111). 


C. Archives Series B. Vol. 214 p. 275. 

To His Excellency Frederick Haldiman, Esqr., Captain Gen- 
eral and Governor in Chief of the Province of Quebec and its 
Dependants Vice Admiral of the same, etc., General and Com- 
mander in Chief of his Majesty's forces in the said Province and 
the frontiers thereof, etc, etc., etc. 

The Memorial of Joseph Beaty of Bal stone in the County of 
Albany in the Province of New York. 

Humbly Sheweth 

That your Memorialist about the middle of September 1777, 
arrived at General Burgoiens Camp at Freeman's Farm with 
eight men, six of whom joined Captain McAlpin's Cour, and your 
memorialist also joined the said cour as volunteer and was prom- 
ised a commission in said cour; Captain McAlpin soon after- 
wards recommended your memorialist to General Burgoien and 
General Fraser as a person capable to be of service upon which 
General Fraser sent your memorialist to the Rebel Camp in or- 
der to eonniture the works and know what number of cannon and 
how supplied with provisions. Accordingly your memorialist 
went into the Rebel Camp and got intelligence from a Rebel Of- 
ficer a Lieutenant as he could not see the works himself. 

Your memorialist immediately after took the Road for Albany 
and went to New Scotland twelve miles west of Albany and there 
got forten men. Amongst those were Captain Duncan and 
Chief White of Trion County who came with your memorialist to 
General Burgoyne's camp and arrived there the third day of 
October and delivered his message to General Fraser who had 
sent him. On the following day your memorialist was ordered 


again by Genl Fraser to go and learn wether the British Fleet 
was up the North River and wether Genereal Picot was on his 
way from Road Island through Connecticoute and to learn all 
the intelligence he possible could and return immediately. 

Your memorialist went as far as Cats Kill and there found an 
officer of the Rebells in a Public House who informed your me- 
morialist that the Fort in the High Lands was taken and that Ex- 
sopes was destroyed by tier, upon which your memorialist imme- 
diately returned with the news to Genl Burgoine on the sixteenth 
of October at about three of the clock in the morning and was 
carried before Genl Redasel and from there to Genl Burgoine. At 
eight the same evening Genl Burgoine ordered your memorialist 
to go for New York and inform Sir Henry Clinton of his situa- 
tion, accordingly your memorialist set out for New York and was 
fired upon by the Rebells three different shots that night. 

Your memorialist was obliged to travel night and day till he 
arrived at New York, on his way down was fired upon sundry 
times by the Rebells and was one near being taken by a party of 
the Rebels the number of forty who fired several shots at your 
memorialist by which means he was obliged to quite his horse and 
take to the woods, soon after your memorialist came through a 
party of men who was going to the shipping then at Flooke Bush 
the Road was so guarded by the Rebels that they would not pro- 
ceed any further they thought the risque to great. Your me- 
morialist left them and proceeded alone to the vessels which was 
nine miles off. On his arrival there found a boat on shore which 
with great difficulty got off himself and was fired upon by a large 
party of Rebells soon after he embarked on board the boat some 
of which shot struck the boat and he got on board the shipping 
and there delivered his message to Genl Vaughan who then com- 
manded. Your memorialist was the first person that brought 
any kind of intelligence to them from General Burgoyne and ob- 
tained a certificate from General Vaughan to that purpose but 
misfortunately the certificate is now at New York. 

Your memorialist was immediately sent by General Vaughan 
to Governor Trion then at Fort in the Highlands, he then exam- 
ined your memorialist and sent him for New York to Sir Henry 
Clinton and arrived at New York on the 21st of said October. 


On the twenty-sixth of said October your memorialist was or- 
dered to go on board a ship for Philadelphia by Sir Henry Clin- 
ton and to Sir William How for further examination was ten 
days on the passage there when your memorialist was examined 
by Sir William How and sent back to New York. 

Your memorialist on the fourteenth of December was ordered 
by Sir Henry Clinton to go for Road Island to wait on General 
Burgoin, from thence went with the fleet to Cape Codd that was 
ordered to take General Burgoin on board, on there arrival there 
they would not suffer General Burgoin to embark so that your 
memorialist returned to Road Island again and remained there 
till General Burgoin cam there. Upon General Burgoin 's arrival 
at Road Island he gave your memorialist some money and a 
recommendation to Sir Henry Clinton at New York. 

Your memorialist returned to New York again on the first of 
April 1778. There your memorialist was subsisted at four shill- 
ings per day till better provided for. In May following your 
memorialist was ordered into Connecticote by Sir Henry Clinton 
with printed proclamations to distribute amongst the inhabitants 
which he did for about eighty miles in length and returned to 
New York again. 

Your memorialist in June following was ordered out again to 
Connecticote by General Robertson on secret service which he 
performed and returned to New Y r ork and afterwards was 
ordered out again by General Robertson on Secret Service and 
returned again to New York. 

Y r our memorialist in January 1779 was ordered by Governor 
Irion to go for Danbury in Connecticote ; on the 15th day of said 
January your memorialist was taken prisoner by a party of 
Rebels at Sand Mill River near King's Bridge, was immediately 
stript naked and lost all and from thence was carried to Peek's 
Hill and was put into irons hand and feet chained downto the 
flower where your memorialist remained some time and then 
was tryed for his life and condemned to suffer death. On the 
approach of the King's troops your memorialist was removed 
up to Fish Kills and remained still in irons till the sixteenth of 
August following when your memorialist made his escape by 
Ijraking out of Gaul. 


Your memorialist when out of confinement went to Balls Town 
and there remained for some time to recruite his health and have 
his hand healed which he had lost the use of by the irons eating 
into the flesh when confined by the Rebels. 

Your memorialist on the second of November following set 
out for Balls Town with ten men for Canada and went through a 
great deal of hardship being obliged to travel through woods 
and not acquainted and arrived at St. John's on the second of 
December following there being a great deal of snow in the 
Roads and allmost starved for the want of provisions. On your 
memorialist arrival at St. Johns the ten men was claimed by by 
Coin Close as part of Joseph Brant's men and they remained 
with Colonel Close (Claus?) 

Your memorialist on the sixteenth of March 1780 turned out 
a voluntier with Lieut Blurce for Steens Borough (Skenesboro) 
with a party of Indians on their arrival at Skeens Borough took 
fourteen prisoners and killed four and returned again to St. 

Your memorialist on the fourth of May following turned out 
a Volunteer again and went with Sir John Johnstone to the 
Mowhawk Rover where they destroyed a number of houses and 
took severl prisoners. 

Your memorialist obtained leave from Sir. John Johnstone to 
remain and recruite men for Major Rogers Cour for which your 
memorialist was promised a commission. 

Your memorialist proceeded ten or twelve miles below Albany 
and then got five men and proceeded for Canada, on there way 
through Balls Town took a scout of three men, brought one to St. m 
Johns, was obliged for the want of provisions to let two escape, 
the man brought was sent to Chamble Prisones. 

Your memorialist obtained leave from Major Carleton then 
commanding officer to return again to the Colleries to recruite 
men for Major Rogers Cour. 

Your memorialist on his return joined Major Carleton at Mill 
Bay nine miles this side of Crown Point with nine men, four of 
which joined Major Rogers Cour the other five joined other 

Your memorialist obtained leave again from Major Carleton 


to return again to the Colleries for the purpose of recruiting. 
The season being very severe was obliged to remain all winter. 
In May 17S1 your memorialist set out with twenty men, eighteen 
joined Major Rogers Cour, they took one prisoner, brought him 
to St. Johns and was sent to Chamble Prisoner. 

Your memorialist came to Quebec from St. Johns in June wetn 
up again and on the sixteenth of July was ordered by Doiter 
Smith to go for Albany and there to tale Doitor Stringer Pris- 

Tour memorialist went according to orders and took the four 
men that was ordered for that purpose, on his arrival near 
Albany found it impractible to anything as three of the four men 
left him upon which he immediately returned to Canada. 

Your memorialist prays Your Excellency to consider him, the 
Hardships that he has gone through, the risques he has run the 
raising me at his own expense, the loss of his health and the use 
of one of his hands and that he may be provided for in Major 
Eogers Cour as he has raised a number of men for that Cour as 
your Excellency shall think fitt. 

And your memorialist as in Duty bound shall ever pray &c kc 

Sgd Joseph Beaty 

Quebec 2nd October 1781. 



''Parliament became corrupt, jealous of power, fickle in its 
resolves and factious in spirit. ... It grumbled at the ill- 
success of the war, at the suffering of the merchants, at the dis- 
content of the churchmen, and it blamed the crown and its min- 
isters for all at which it grumbled. . . . Its mood changed, 
as William bitterly complained with every hour." 1 

It seems that before this date, in 1672, the late king. James 
II., had formed a cabinet of five members, chosen by himself. 
as advisers on different functions of the administration. Par- 
liament had no right to expect a share in these functions of the 
crown at that time. But after the Revolution of 1688— after it 
had put on the throne a king of its own, it felt that it ought 
to be the guardian of that king, by shaping the administration 
through the cabinet indicated by itself. William of Orange had 
continued the practice of forming his cabinet without consult- 
ing parliament, and what parliament was aiming to do was to 
control the king's choice. But not one of its members knew 
how to accomplish it, as it had never been done before. The 
credit of solving the difficulty, of further betraying his country 
and bringing disaster on it in the subsequent loss of the Ameri- 
can empire, belongs to Robert Spencer, earl of Sunderland. He 
had been a minister in the reign of Charles II. and part of that 
of James II., whom he had betrayed by the basest treachery to 
William of Orange . 

" Since the Revolution (1688) Sunderland had striven to es- 
cape public observation in country retirement, but he came for- 
ward now with his plan for William" — 

(i) History of the English People. Vol. IV. p. 



Who felt that something must be done to appease the appetite 
of parliament, because parliament that had made him, contrary 
to the constitution, could unmake him in the said manner. 

"His plan was to place all the power of the crown in parlia- 
ment by choosing the ministers from the strongest faction in par- 
liament. ' ' From that date the government became not the gov- 
ernment of the empire, of the king, but of a faction ; from that 
date (1697) the power of the crown became the jack-pot for the 
play of political parties ; from that date, by the plan of a rene- 
gade, the loyalty of the ministry is pledged not to the crown and 
empire, but to the faction from whom they are chosen, while 
their oath of office to crown and constitution remains a constant 
perjury on their lips. Green in his "History of the English Peo- 
ple" shows that this class in power in England carried corrup- 
tion on by excesses throughout the entire administration. 

Now while the Anglo-American provinces made no great trou- 
ble over the change of dynasty, they refused to recognize in the 
slightest degree this participation of parliament in the govern- 
ment of the colonies,— even the best features of that government. 
And the worst features the provinces would not endure. 

1 ' The Southern colonies with those of New England shared the 
same fate of misrepresentation, abuse and invasion of their 
rights as British subjects. The flames of discontent were spread 
through all the colonies by a set of incompetent and reckless gov- 
ernors, the favorites and tools of perhaps the worst administra- 
tion and the most corrupt that ever ruled in Great Britain." 1 

It is true the American colonies, especially the four New Eng- 
land colonies, had been protected by Great Britain during all the 
past wars with the French in Canada, into which Great Britain 
had been drawn on their account. For a period of seventy years 
the fleets and armies of England had been employed in the ser- 
vice of Massachusetts and her dependant off-shoots to save them 
from being ' ' driven into the sea. ' ' The debt of Great Britain, in- 
consequence of these exertions, amounted in 1764 to £140,000,000 
or $700,000,000. 

Ryerson's "Loyalists of America," Vol. I., p. 473. 


Even in the struggle for their own preservation and security, 
what the colonies had contributed had been subject to the caprice 
of their legislatures. Some of the colonies had made exertions 
4 ' so far beyond their quota ' ' as to be able to demand a reimburse- 
ment from the national treasury, which was accorded them ; the 
other colonies had paid only part of the debt long after it was 
due; and who could compel them, and how was that compulsion to 
be enforced in the future? 

The solution of the problem by parliamentary interference led 
to disturbance and to the final separation of the American solon- 
ies from Great Britain. Even Mr. Pitt, so long the friend of 
America, told Dr. Franklin that 

'.'When the war closed, if he should be in the ministry, he 
would take measures to prevent the colonies from having a pow- 
er to refuse or delay the supplies that might be wanted for na- 
tional purposes." 

The first act of the British parliament to force the colonies to 
pay their part of the war debt was passed March 10, 1764. It 
levied heavy duties on all articles brought into the colonies from 
the French and other West Indian islands, and ordered that these 
duties must be paid into the treasury of London in specie. An- 
other bill was brought into parliament in the same session to 
' ' Restrain the currency of paper money in the colonies. ' ' Popu- 
lar meetings were held in the colonies, when the news of this 
reached them, to express indignation thereat. Associations re- 
solved to abstain from the use of all articles imported on which 
duties were assessed, and to use only home-made goods. 

But parliament when it discovered that, through evasion and 
the non-use of articles of foreign^ make, very little money was 
raised, began to devise other means, and these means effected 
the internal arrangements of the colonies, which the colonists 
felt were infringements of the rights of their own legislatures 
and of their own charters of self-government. The chief bill of 
this description was introduced into parliament by Mr. Gren- 
ville, March 10, 1765, to raise a revenue in the colonies by stamps 
which should be affixed to all newspapers, law papers, ship 
papers, property transfers, college diplomas and marriage 


licenses. A fine of £10 was imposed for non-compliance with the 
act. Jurisdiction was taken away from the local courts by this 
act and confined to the courts of admiralty without juries, the 
officers of which were appointed by the London parliament, and 
who were paid fees out of fines imposed, the informer receiving 

Thus, by this act, the colonies felt that, not only were the 
rights conferred on them by charter interfered with and their 
local courts debarred from exercising power, but that the Lon- 
don Parliament, contrary to the constitution, was usurping the 
prerogative of the crown in America. The legislative assembly 
of Massachusetts was dissolved by the royal governor Barnard 
because of its remonstrance, and also on account of a circular 
letter addressed by it to the other colonial legislatures. The Vir- 
ginia house of burgesses was also dismissed by the royal gover- 
nor, Lord Botetout. 

The British parliament, however, in 1769, was brought to 
repeal 5s 6d of the duties on imported goods. But the next year, 
1770, an affray occurred in the streets of Boston between some 
soldiers on duty and a mob of rioters who were creating a reign 
of terror. The British parliament then made the governor and 
judges independent of all colonial power. These actions on the 
part of the British parliament added to the hostility of the Amer- 
ican colonists. It needed but a few more measures on both sides 
to change the latent hostility into strife. 

In 1770 parliament allowed the East India Company of Eng- 
land to sell tea in the colonies free of duty, thereby depriving the 
American merchants of a share in the profits of that trade. The 
Americans throughout the years 1771, 1772 and 1773 contented 
themselves with forming associations pledging themselves not to 
use the tea imported. These were the conditions in all the col- 
onies. But in September, 1774, a congress, composed of mem- 
bers sent by the citizens of all the colonies, met at Philadelphia 
to consider the state of affairs and what measures ought to be 
taken to correct them. An address was offered to the crown. 
It terminated with these words:— ''Place us in the same situa- 
tion that we were at the close of the late war, and our former 
harmony will be restored." 


When the British parliament met in January, 1774, there were 
laid before it, not only the papers from the colonial congress, 
but a number of letters from the royal governors and revenue 
and military officers, testifying to the spirit of opposition exist- 
ing in the colonies against the unconstitutional acts of the Lon- 
don parliament. The consequence was, that, instead of renoun- 
cing the tax on the colonies, recalling the troops sent to coerce 
them and restoring to their courts and legislatures their proper 
functions, the English parliament resolved to abate nothing of 
their vigor against the Americans until they yielded uncondition- 
ally. Moreover, parliament proceeded to pass an act to punish 
all of the New England colonies for their sympathy with Massa- 
chusetts, by restricting their trade with England and depriving 
them of Newfoundland fisheries. 

In 1775 the general assembly of New York adopted a memorial 
to present to the king, begging him to restore the charter to 
Massachusetts, which had been taken away, and to open the port 
of Boston which had been closed. The petition of New York was 
rejected by the British ministry without a hearing. In the same 
year, 1775, the second continental congress met again at Phila- 
delphia. All the colonies sent representatives but Georgia. The 
mission of this congress was to restore harmony in the colonies 
between the royal and local authorities and to obtain a redress 
of grievances. 

A petition was framed by this congress and presented to the 
king. Like all similar colonial documents of the period, it 
abounded in expressions of loyalty and humbly prayed for just 
and constitutional usage such as was accorded them by their 
charters, whose rights were now infringed. The petition sent 
by the continental congress, asking that the restrictions be re- 
moved, was ignominously disregarded by parliament, and the 
colonists were termed rebels for exercising this constitutional 
right of protest. The royal officers in the colonies were com- 
manded to seize the cannon and ammunition and small arms of 
the colonists. 

The attempt of General Gage, who commanded the British 
troops in Boston, to capture the stores of the colonists, thirty 
miles awav, at Concord and Lexington, led to an engagement be- 


tween the provincials and the king's troops, in which the stores 
were saved and lives were lost on both sides. Lord Dunmore, 
governor of Virginia for the king, performed a similar hostile 
act by seizing the stores at Williamsburg in that colony. He 
was driven, however, by the armed forces of the Virginians to 
seek shelter on a British ship of war. 

It was during this state of feeling that the continental con- 
gress reassembled on May 10, 1776. The delegates to this con- 
gress were nerved to more determined action by the knowledge 
of what had taken place in Massachusetts and Virginia, and by 
the fact that parliament had, in the preceding December, passed 
an act to increase the army and navy, and had hired 17,000 Hes- 
sian and Hanoverian troops to aid in reducing the colonies to 
submission. But the colonists would not recede from their de- 
mands, which were these: 1, The right to tax themselves by 
their own elected representatives; 2, the right of providing for 
the support of their own civil government and its officers, and 
3, non-interference of parliament with crown functions in the 
provinces. These rights they had already enjoyed, according 
to the privilege of British citizenship and the provisions of their 
own charters, until these privileges and charters were taken 
away. The colonists declared that they would defend these 
rights and oppose with arms the enforcement of whatever was 
contrary to them. 

It had been the policy of the Stuarts, according to the feudal 
constitution, to create a confederacy— a federation of states — 
each independent of the others but in feudation to the king. 
England was but one of these states, although the principal one 
— the one in which was to be situated the general capital of the 
empire. In this system— which was the feudal system— the same 
on which rested the constitution of Britain and of all European 
states— the parliament of England had no more right to legis- 
late for the province of Virginia, or Maryland, than the parlia- 
ment of Virginia or Maryland had to legislate for the kingdom 
of England. In England the chief authority was the king and 
parliament ; in Virginia it was the king and government of Vir- 
ginia; in Massachusetts it was the king and government of Mas- 
sachusetts, and likewise in each of the other provinces. 


For furtherance of the plan of federating the various states 
and principalities of his empire, King James II. had ordered 
in 1688— the very year that the revolution in England prevented 
its execution— the confederation of the Northern colonies at Al- 
bany under the name of the ' ' Dominion of New England. ' ' May 
1, 1690, a congress of their representatives did meet to consider 
means for a common defence against the Indians, the New York 
members being Jacob Leister and Peter de La Noy. Another 
congress met in Albany for the same purpose in 1722. But these 
meetings were inspired by the encouragements given by the 
former Stuart kings as means of building up centres of power on 
the outskirts of the empire as well as for local needs and pro- 
tection. But after the revolution of 1688, when the London 
parliament usurped crown functions and extended its withering, 
jealous and illegitimate authority to every province, blighting 
provincial life and expansion for the benefit of its own narrow 
constituency, these provincial confederations were discouraged. 

In 1754 seven governors assembled at Albany, in the province 
of New York, and signed a treaty of peace with the Iroquois In- 
dians. At the same time they addressed the home government 
on the project of a federal union, whereby the force of several 
colonies might be employed to act against a common enemy. 
This proposed government was to consist of a president ap- 
pointed by the crown, and a general council commissioned by 
the provincial authorities. The president was to have execu- 
tive authority, appoint all civil and military officers and act 
with his council legislatively. This government was to have 
power to make war and peace in America, and impose taxes with 
approval of the crown. The project was rejected by the Eng- 
lish parliament. 

In 1778 Mr. Ogden, chief justice of New Jersey, suggested a 
government for America to have similar power, its composition 
to consist of a governor-general appointed by the crown, and a 
legislature to consist of a house of barons with hereditary privi- 
leges created by the crown for honorable and meritorious fam- 
ilies in the colonies, and a house of assembly elected by the free- 
holders of the population. The political disturbances existing 
in the colonies at that time prevented the entertainment of Mr. 


Ogdon's proposition, but it is likely that the English parliament 
would have viewed it with disfavor. David Ogden was at that 
time one of the board of delegates of the United Empire Loyal- 
ists and his proposition was advanced as a remedy for healing 
the wounds made by the English parliament in the Provincial 
understanding of constitutional government. The particular of 
his proposal provided that: 

"The light of taxation of America by the British parliament 
be given up ; that the several colonies be restored to their former 
constitutions and form of goverment. . . . that each colony 
have a governor and council appointed by the Crown, and a 
house of representatives elected by the free-holders inhabiting 
the several counties . . . who shall have power to make all 
necessary laws for the internal government and benefit of each 
colony that are not repugnant to the laws of Great Britain or 
the laws of the American parliament . . . that an Ameri- 
can Parliament be established for all the English colonies on the 
continent to consist of a Lord-Lieutenant, Barons (to be created 
for the purpose), not to exceed for the present more than twelve 
nor less than eight from the principles of each colonly. A 
House of Commons not to exceed twelve nor less than 
eight from each colony to be elected by the house of rep- 
resentatives of each colonly . . . that this American Par- 
liament have supervision and government of the several 
colleges in North America, most of which have been the great 
nurseries of the late rebellion, instilling into the tender minds 
of youth principles unfavorable to monarchical government and 
favorable to republican and other doctrine incompatible with the 
British constitution." 

But while the intelligent and conservative people were basing 
their opposition on an assertion of the constitution as a means 
of redress,— a constitution that the London parliament was 
knawing and eating into by those rats of jurisprudence, the "fic- 
tions" of the English law— the demagogues and liberals of the 
colonies were stirring up the lower classes with democratic 
intent, for separation from the empire, the plunder of the royal- 
ists and the institution of a republic. From the time of the 
earliest Puritan settlements there had been a strong democratic 
inclination among the lower orders of the population and the 


extreme Congregationalists. This feeling, re-enforced by relig- 
ious prejudice, was hostile to monarchical institutions— notwith- 
standing that the Bible favors monarchy and Heaven is repre- 
sented as a Kingdom. In 1704 Chief-Justice Montperron of New 
York wrote to the earl of Nottingham that : ' ' The inhabitants of 
Rhode Island conduct their affairs as though they were not of 
the British dominions." About the same time Lord Cornbury 
wrote to the London Board of Trade that the people of Connecti- 
cut bore "a great hatred towards those who held allegiance to 
the sovereign." 

It is true that there were many arguments used to promote 
this feeling of hostility. Not the least of these were the restric- 
tions placed by the London Parliament— since it had usurped 
royal functions in the colonies over barter and sale, commercial 
contracts and colonial manufactures. But the London parlia- 
ment, representing the English trading classes alone, could not 
be expected to use the royal prerogative over the colonies but to 
restrict the actions of the American trading classes for the bene- 
fit of its own constituency. America was not the constituency of 
the London parliament, but was a fief of the crown. 

It is true that the crown had a claim on all ship timber and on 
all mines of coal and ore, none of which might be taken without 
the sovereign's permission. But this permission was granted 
for the benefit of the people and withheld only from speculators 
and exploiters. The crown in this matter acts but as trustees for 
the people's lands, and it would be better for Canada were this 
trusteeship not so much rat-eaten by legal fictions — for, by the 
delegation of authority to a parliamentary ministry— responsi- 
ble not to the crown— but to parliament— a corrupt party in 
power is continually robbing the real estate of the country— of 
the crown— to enrich itself. 

The slighting of colonial petitions by the London Parliament 
from 1763 to 1775, which petitions were for constitutional 
observance in the government of the empire, and the difference 
manifested towards the people of the colonies by the partizans 
of the House of Hanover, raised a yet stronger feeling in the col- 
onies against the home government. The more southern colonies 


did not suffer directly as did those of the North by this action of 
the London parliament, although their charters were threatened 
but the Northern colonies, early attached to a Puritanical democ- 
racy, were studious to enflame resentment in the South, so the 
better to carry out the secret intent of revolution. These demo- 
crats in the North, anxious to "get rich quick" at some other 
person's expense, confused the position occupied by the honest 
and aristocratic who were attached to the constitution. Here 
was their method of procedure : 

"They proposed in the legislature (of Massachusetts) various 
schemes for bolstering up the depreciated currency. . . One 
of these was a Land Bank, which was actually established. About 
800 people, among whom was the father of Sam. Adams, were 
incorporated with power to issue bills on security, chiefly of real 
estate" . . (beginning of the scheme of Yankee capitaliza- 
tion frauds). "This enterprise made confusion worse con- 
founded. The securities were usually of little value and the 
Land Bank bills were refused utterly by the better classes to the 
great wrath of the populace." . . "In 1738 the paper money 
party in town-meeting proposed that Boston's representatives 
in the General Court be instructed to favor the emission of more 
paper money. Hutchinson (the Tory delegate) promptly refused 
to be bound by such a mandate. . . When his house caught 
fire some of the people on the street shouted, ' ' Curse him, let it 
burn. " . . 

"In 1749 the English Parliament voted that a large sum of 
money should be paid the Massachusetts colony as compensation 
for its expenditures in the recent capture of Louisbourg. Hutch- 
inson proposed that this money should be used to redeem and 
cancel the paper currency of the colony." . . "By his force 
of argument Hutchinson carried the measure through the House 
against what had been a majority in favor of irredeemable paper 
money. The Governor and Council (Royalists) promptly 
approved of the measure and it became a law. All over the col- 
ony there was an outcry of wrath. Hutchinson was in danger 
of personal violence and was defeated for re-election. Within a 
year, however, the blessings of a fixed and stable currency and 
the consequent improvement of business became so obvious that 
Hutchinson's conduct was loudly praised and censure ceased 


except among those who had hoped to turn a dishonest penny by 
the steady decrease in the values of paper money." 2 

The financial policy of the United States began here and was 
the oil on the fire of the Revolution. It is said that there is 
"nothing in a name." The lie is no more potently expressed 
than in the difference between honest, old-fashioned and legal 
"mortgage" and the dishonest, revolution-bred and illegitimate 
"capitalization." To work an estate, a man can by law mort- 
gage it to others for two- thirds its value, so that the mortgages 
have a legitimate security. But several people are allowed to 
join their estates into a company and sell stock "capitalized" to 
the extent of ten and sometimes a hundred, yea, and in the 
United States often to a thousand times their value ; and in the 
course of time "put their company into the hands of a receiver," 
fail up, and retire (limited) worth several millions each, leaving 
their creditors with the "capitalized stock," not worth a dollar. 
That there should be a law-decision that capitalized industries 
may be raised to but two-thirds of their actual value, like any 
other mortgaged estate, is evident— even if they are on a paying- 
basis. And they are not on a paying basis until they monopolize 
the market by shutting out, through legislation, similar products. 
Then their per cent, payments are not due from their own indus- 
tries but from the tribute of high prices wrung from the entire 
people by concurrence of a corrupt and purchased legislature. 
It was for the accomplishment of such things as these which the 
restraint of crown and aristocracy forbade in the colonies, that 
fostered the Revolutionary party. 

"Hutchinson's hostility to a paper currency had fixed a deep 
gulf between him and the more democratic element among hrs 
neighbors. The chasm had been widened by his opposition in 
1757 to the creation of Danvers as a separate township, princi- 
pally because an increase of representatives would give the 
house (democratic) an undue influence in legislation." 

"One of Hutchinson's first acts as chief-justice was destined 
to increase the alienation between him and the populace. He 
was called on to decide whether the superior court could issue 

(2) From the sketch of Thomas Hutchinson, ///■• Tory Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts," by President Charles H. I. evermore of Adelphi College, Brooklyn, in 
the February, 1902, number of the New England Magazine. 


lawfully writs of assistance to customs officers in their search 
for smuggled goods." "Hutchinson (himself) was op- 

posed to any close scrutiny by the British government into the 
trade of the colonies, but he decided this question, moderately, 
wisely and loyally in the only way in which a judge sworn to 
interpret and obey the law could decide it." * * * * 

"Hutchinson wrote: 'This trial (about writs of assistance) 
and my pernicious principles about the currency have taken 
away a great number of friends and the House have not only 
reduced the allowance to the Superior Court, but have refused to 
make any allowance at all to me as chief-justice. "' . . . 

"Against the enforcement of the Sugar Acts (of the London 
Parliament), which would destroy the New England trade with 
the West Indies, he had protested publicly and privately. His 
letters to English correspondents pleaded against that policy and 
against the Stamp Act. " . . . "In spite of all this it was on 
Hutchinson that the worst violence of the Boston mob fell. ' ' 

"That mob was the most thoroughly organized rabble in the 
Colonies. It consisted largely of the seamen and artisans who 
lived among the water front. Their immediate leader was a 
shoemaker named Mackintosh, a coarse and reckless fellow. The 
men who directed him and his lieutenants were Sam. Adams, 
William Cooper and other leading spirits of the far-famed Cau- 
cus Club. This club was the local Tammany. John Adams yields 
us a few glimpses of its operations as its members sat smoking 
and drinking in Adjutant Thomas Dawes's garret, parcelling out 
the local offices as a sort of nominating convention, and inculcat- 
ing a strict obedience to what we would now call 'the machine. ' To 
this compact body of workers, a background of respectability was 
furnished by the Merchants' Club, wherein men like Richard 
Dana, John Hancock (the smuggler), and James Otis, worked 
with Sam. Adams (the dishonest ex- tax collector). . . . 
These were the managers who were ultimately responsible for 
the destruction of Hutchinson's house. In that house were depo- 
sitions against certain merchants of Boston who were accused of 
smuggling . . . and the records of the Admirality Courts 
which had cognizance of such cases. Some of the usual leaders 
of the populace undoubtedly knew who had spread the false re- 
port that Hutchinson had favored the Stamp Act." . . . 

"On Monday evening (26 Aug., 1765) Mackintosh collected 
his gang about a bon-fire on State Street. They had liquor to 
drink, but desiring further inspirations, they broke into the cel- 
lars belonging to two royal officers and consumed all the liquors 
therein. Thus fortified, these 'Sons of Liberty' betook them- 
selves to Hutchinson's house in Garden Court Street. He and 


his children had barely time to escape to a neighboring house. . 
. . Hutchinson's letter describes this: — 

" 'The hellish crew fell on my house with the rage of devils 
and in a moment split down the doors and entered. My son being 
in the great entry, heard them cry. ' Damn him, he is upstairs; 
we'll have him!' . . . 'Not content with tearing off all the 
wainscot and hangings, and splitting the doors to pieces, they 
beat in the partition walls . . . cut down the cupola . . . 
and began to take the slate and boards from the roof but were 
prevented by approaching daylight. . . . The garden house 
was laid flat and all my trees broken to the ground. . . . Be- 
sides my plate and family pictures household furniture of every 
kind, my own, my children's and servants' apparel, they carried 
off about £900 sterling and emptied the house of everything 
whatsoever. . . . They have scattered or destroyed all the 
MSS. and other papers I had been collecting for 30 years, besides 
a great number of public papers in my custody. ' ' ' 

' ' During the riot one of the militia officers observed two men 
disguised, with long staves in their hands, who acted as directors. 
He ventured to say to> them that the Lieutenant-Governor might 
not be the only one injured by the destruction of so many papers. 
Answer was made that it had been resolved to destroy everything 
in the house, and such would be carried out. "... 

"For weeks and months the leaders of the democracy governed 
the town by a system of espionage and terrorism, boycotting 
tradesmen not favorable to them, mobbing the persons or houses 
or both of those who censured them, and maintaining a sort of 
Holy Inquisition into the daily business of counting-rooms and 
the daily contents of kitchens. Gov. Hutchinson doubted his right 
to call out the troops. . . . He exhorted the justices to act. 
They replied that the assemblies might be unwarrantable, but 
there were times when irregularities could not be restrained. 
Had either Barnard or Hutchinson used the regiments with 
proper vigor the Mackintoshes would never have dared to stain 
the cause of liberty and that conflict between the citizens and sol- 
diers, miscalled the 'Boston Massacre,' would never have oc- 
curred. ' ' 

This mob and its leaders so well described by Levermore was 
the counterpart of other mobs existing in the colonies from whose 
organizations have sprung the government of the republic of the 
United States and its existing society. Samuel xldams, its lead- 
er, had been dismissed from the British civil service as a dishon- 
est collector of taxes. And he has described John Hancock (the 


smuggler) "as an ape, Robert Treat Paine as an ox, and Cushing 
as an ass." The entire scheme of these Sons of Liberty" was to 
liberate themselves from parliamentary authority for the sake 
of the plunder and proscription of the great provincial families. 
An United Empire Loyalist officer of Georgia said : ' ' They are 
vermin who seek to drive out the old families." To accomplish 
this, their leaders, the "smartest rascals" in the colonies, seized 
on the justice of the cause, namely, that the provinces are not 
constituencies of the London Parliament, but are fiefs of the 
crown, over which parliament has no legal jurisdiction. They 
hoped after embroiling all the colonies to call in foreign aid by 
means of which the crown itself might be separated from its 
provincial fiefs, which would fall a prey to the democracy con- 
trary to all the previous oaths of allegiance and spurious pre- 
tentions of its lea,ders. 

{To be Continued.) 




CAPTAIN JOHN O'BRIEN, the subject of this sketch, 
was the third eldest son of Morris O'Brien and Mary 
O'Brien, and was born in 1750, in Scarboro, on the 
Maine seacoast, about ten miles to the southwestward 
of Portland. 

While John O'Brien was an infant in his mother's arms, an 
attack upon the English settlement at Scarboro by the Indians 
was threatened ; and it was therefore resolved to flee for safety 
into the surrounding wilderness. Fearing that the crying of the 
infant would disclose to the savages the direction to be taken by 
the settlers in their flight, and also their chosen hiding-place, 
it was advised, and insisted that the mother leave her infant 
behind in the settlement. Against this she earnestly protested, 
assuring her neighbors that she could keep the infant quiet. She 
was therefore allowed to take the infant along. Folding him 
affectionately to her breast, and soothing him as only a fond 
mother could, she succeeded in keeping the infant quiet, not only 
during their hasty flight but during their sojourn in the depths 
of the wilderness. 

This incident is related by the descendants of Captain O'Brien 
as a most impressive illustration of mother-love, which, indeed, 
it is. They congratulate themselves also upon the fact that an 
infant who, on reaching manhood, became so famous as he as a 
patriot and as a successful privateersman in connection with 
the Revolution ; and so conspicuous in later years as a citizen 
and as a man of affairs, should have been thus providentially 
preserved in tender infancy from the hands of hostile Indians. 

Of the boyhood of John O'Brien in Scarboro, little has been 
preserved; he must, however, have been different from other 
boys of his age, if he did not, living in such close proximity to 



the water, acquire a fondness for it. This much is certainly 
known ; that in the autumn of 1765, when the boy was about fif- 
teen years of age, the entire family, comprising Mr. and Mrs. 
O'Brien and six sons and three daughters, removed to Machias, 
on the southeasterly coast of Maine; the father and two eldest 
sons having been down there on a prospecting trip, in a sailing 
vessel, during the previous year. 

Prom the arrival of the lad, John O'Brien, in Machias, until 
the breaking out of the Revolution, little or nothing is certainly 
known concerning him, That he attended school, for a time, at 
least; and that he engaged in the usual sports of robust boyhood, 
including swimming, fishing and boating, may be safely inferred. 
Neither is it a far-fetched conclusion, that on attaining to a suit- 
able age, he assisted his father and two eldest brothers in the 
sawmills erected by them in Dublin, as the southern village of 
Machias was early named. 

The Machias Elver, which separates the northern and south- 
ern villages of Machias, empties into Machias Bay about four 
miles to the southeastward of the town; and the river, as far in- 
land as Machias, is navigable for large vessels. Machias, there- 
fore, was and is a seaport town; and vessels of various kinds 
were constantly arriving and leaving. Machias early became 
the shire-town of Lincoln County, now Washington County, and 
hence was a place of considerable importance. In the light of 
these facts it is not surprising that most of Morris O'Brien's 
"six strapping boys" were, in early life, at least, seafaring men ; 
for from their peculiar environment they naturally acquired a 
taste for that sort of employment. John O'Brien, as will be 
seen, devoted himself, in later life, exclusively to commercial 
pursuits, with excellent success ; indeed, had the acquisition of 
"filthy lucre" been his chief ambition, he might easily have be- 
come one of the wealthiest men of his time. 

It is in connection with the outbreak of the Revolution that the 
subject of this sketch first comes into public notice as a citizen 
and ardent patriot; and as the war progressed, his fame as a pri- 
vateersman increased. His achievements as a privateersman 
have never received the publicity they unquestionably deserve; 
and it will be the aim of this sketch to acquaint the American 


reading people, so far as can be done in the limited space allowed 
with, the story of the truly romantic career of this hitherto "un- 
sung hero" of New England. 

John O'Brien, at the outbreak of the Revolution, was about 
twenty-four years of age. He was fully six feet in height ; and 
must have weighed at that time not far from one hundred and 
seventy-five pounds. That he was well endowed with force of 
character was amply demonstrated at the very opening of his 
public career; as an illustration of which it may be said that 
none was more resolutely opposed to or more fearlessly outspok- 
en against the repeated acts of tyranny of the mother country 
than he. He was a member of the first Committee of Safety ap- 
pointed in Machias, after the issuance of the proclamation of 
the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, authorizing and re- 
quiring preparations and efforts to be made incident to a state of 

At the first recorded gathering of the Machias patriots, held in 
the east room of the Burnham tavern,* a picture of which ap- 
pears in connection with this sketch, John O'Brien was present, 
and gave his hearty assent to the proposition for the erection of 
a liberty pole in the village, as a symbol of the freedom for the 
achievement of which the people of that then isolated frontier 
town were willing, if need be, to sacrifice their fortunes and their 
lives. In procuring and afterward raising the liberty pole, young 
O 'Brien played a unique and conspicuous part. 

When Captain Moore, the gallant young Irishman command- 
ing the British armed schooner " Margaretta, " then lying at 
anchor in the Machias River, came on shore and demanded that 
the liberty pole be taken down, John O'Brien, on behalf of the 
inhabitants, defiantly refused to accede to the peremptory de-~ 
mand of the King's officer. The following conversation* is said 
to have taken place: 

"Who erected this pole?" inquired Captain Moore, as he 

*The Burnham tavern is still standing, and is said by local historians to have 
the same sash, glass, chimney and rooms as when built in 1770. The east room 
is the one on the first floor (front) farthest to the right. This famous Revolutionary 
building is now owned by the local organization of the Dauguhters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and is the repository of relics of the Revolution. 

*From "The Liberty Pole; A Tale of Machias." 


came ashore from the " Margaretta .; " to which the staunch 
Machias patriot, John O'Brien, replied: 

' ' That pole, sir, was erected by the unanimous approval of the 
people of Machias." 

"Well, sir," said Moore, "with or without their approval, it 
is my duty to declare it must come down ! ' ' 

"Must come down!" repeated O'Brien with warmth. "Those 
words are very easily spoken, my friend. You will find, I ap- 
prehend, that it is easier to make them than it will be to enforce 
a demand of this kind." 

"What! Am I to understand that resistance will be made? 
Will the people of Machias dare to disregard an order, not 
originating with me, but the government whose officer I am?" 

"The people of Machias," replied O'Brien, "will dare do any- 
thing in maintenance of their principles and rights!" 

"It is useless to bandy words," rejoined the officer, a little 
nettled at the determined spirit manifested around him; "my 
orders are peremptory, and must be obeyed. That liberty pole 
must be taken down, or it will be my painful duty to fire on the 
town ! ' ' 

From that rash act, however, Moore was dissuaded by a mu- 
tual friend; and the liberty pole stood until it rotted down. 

To John 'Brien belongs the honor of proposing, at a meeting 
of the Machias patriots, held in a private house soon after the 
notable gathering in the Burnham Tavern, that Captain Moore 
be seized while attending the village church on the following Sun- 
day; after which, in accordance with the well-conceived plan 
there agreed upon, the "Margaretta" was to be captured, also. 
In compliance with young O'Brien's expressed wish, he was 
chosen to be the principal actor in the proposed seizure of 

John O'Brien, as he subsequently stated, hid his gun under a 
board, before entering the church. He was expected, at a signal 
to be given by one of the patriots outside the church, to per- 
sonally seize Captain Moore, when his compatriots were to come 
to his assistance. So far as young O'Brien was concerned, the 
preliminaries were well carried out. Because of the vigilance 
and prompt action of the British officer, however, the plan for 


Lis seizure miscarried. Receiving timely warning of the trap 
into which he was being lured, he escaped from the church by 
way of a low, open window. On reaching his vessel, he was 
quickly assisted on board by an officer awaiting his arrival ; and, 
after firing a few shots over the villagers' heads, for intimida- 
tion, he dropped down the river to a place of safety. 

When it had been resolved by a few of the bolder spirits of 
Maehias to attack and capture the "Margaretta," by pursuing 
and boarding her, John O'Brien and his five brothers, Jeremiah, 
Gideon, William, Dennis and Joseph, were among the party of 
about thirty-five who sailed down the Maehias River in the 
lumber sloop "Unity" on that extremely hazardous undertak- 
ing. After the little American sloop had entered Maehias Bay, 
and the "Margaretta" had been sighted, Jeremiah O'Brien was 
unanimously chosen to the command of the "Unity." 

"The first man who boards her (the "Margaretta") shall be 
entitled to the palm of honor," said Captain Jeremiah O'Brien, 
soon after taking command of the "Unity." 

After the "Margaretta had been sighted in Maehias Bay, 
where she was becalmed, the American sloop was brought along 
side of her. As the two vessels came together, the rigging of the 
"Unity" became entangled with that of the British vessel. The 
two vessels had no sooner touched, than John O'Brien, who was 
standing at the bow of the "Unity," leaped aboard the "Mar- 
garetta." Almost at the same moment, the American sloop hav- 
ing no grappling-irons, the vessels suddenly parted; and young 
O'Brien was left alone on the quarter-deck of the British 
schooner. Seven Britishers almost simultaneously fired at the 
intrepid Yankee boarder; but he was unhurt. The Britishers 
then charged upon O'Brien with their bayonets; and to save his 
life he jumped overboard and started to swim to the Yankee 
sloop, which had then drifted about seventy-five feet away. 

On reaching the side of the American sloop, John O'Brien 
was promptly assisted on board. As he stepped upon the deck 
of the "Unity," his brother, Captain Jeremiah, grasped him by 
the hand, exclaiming as he did so : 

"Brother John, you've won the palm;" and then addressing 
his men, he continued : " But man the sweeps, my hearties, and 


Jay us along side once more, and stand ready to fasten on to 
him when yon reach him. ' ' 

For the second time the two vessels came together; and this 
time, in accordance with the orders of the commander of the 
Yankee sloop, they were fastened together. The ' ' Margaretta "* 
was boarded, and in an hour's time was captured, and was 
taken in triumph up the river to Machias, reaching the wharf 
at about sunset of the same day, which was the 12th of June, 
1775. Captain Moore, the gallant British commander, was mor- 
tally wounded, and died next day in Machias. 

John O'Brien, as a recognition of the conspicuous bravery 
•exhibited by him in the capture of the "Margaretta," was sent 
by the Machias Committee of Safety to the Provincial Congress 
body of the capture of the "Margaretta," and to ask protec- 
tion for the feeble settlements in eastern Maine, including 

The news of the brilliant victory in Machias Bay spread rap- 
idly through the Colonies, and everywhere the colonists were 
stirred with the ambition to emulate the splendid achievement. 

The "Unity" was at once fitted out as a cruiser, the arma- 
ment of the "Margaretta" being transferred to her. She was 
re-named the "Machias Liberty,"* and Captain Jeremiah 
O'Brien was appointed as her commander. 

After the capture, in July, 1775, of the British armed vessels 
"Diligence" and " Tapnaquish, " near Buck's harbor, in which 
captures John O'Brien, on his brother Jeremiah's vessel, took 
part, the former vessel was refitted as an American cruiser. Of 
the "Machias Liberty" (or "O'Brien"), Jeremiah O'Brien was 
continued as commander ; and his younger brother William was 
appointed first Lieutenant. John Lambert was appointed to the 
command of the "Diligence," and John O'Brien was appointed 
as his first Lieutenant, The "Diligence" had a crew of forty 
men, and carried eight guns and twenty swivels. 

For nearly a year, the "Machias Liberty" and the "Dili- 

*For a detailed account of the armament of the "Margaretta," and of the 
engagement between her and the American sloop, see "Life of Captain Jeremiah 
O'Brien, Machias, Me.," by the writer of this sketch. 

*According to at least one authority, the "Unity" was re-named the "O'Brien." 



gence", by order of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, 
cruised chiefly up and down the eastern coast, protecting Ameri- 
can shipping, and capturing British prizes. John O'Brien con- 
tributed in no small measure to the success of the cruise. Some- 
time in the early part of 1776 the "Diligence" was laid up; but 
the "Machias Liberty" was continued in the Provincial service. 

During the night following its capture, the "Margaretta" was 
taken up Middle River, a branch of the Machias River, a few- 
miles, and there beached. "We cut down trees and bushes and 
enclosed her from view so much as we could and returned to 
Machias in season for a late breakfast", said one who took an ac- 
tive part in the disposal