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Full text of "The History of Muscatine county, Iowa, containing a history of the county, its cities, towns, &c. .."

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Biographical Sketches of Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers 

in the late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits 

of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the 

North-west, History of Iowa, Map of Muscatine 

County, Constitution of the United States, 

Miscellaneous Matters, &c., &c. 




p R E F A c:; E . 

IT has been the purpose of the Publishers to condense, into the convenient 
form of a single volume, the scattered fragments of local history, and to 
give, for the sake of reference, an abstract of the many records of the county. 
In addition to such topics of value, there is herein given a very satisfactory 
paper on the geologic formations and history of the region, from the pen of 
Prof. F. M. Witter, whose research in and acquaintance with the locality, as 
well as with the abstract science, have peculiarly qualified him for such a task. 
The entomology of the county is also treated in a practical manner by Miss 
Alice B. Walton, who has made that branch of science a special study. 
Tlie meteorological record, compiled by Mr. J. P. Walton, is a notable feature 
of the work. The Indian history is prepared from many sources, and contains 
several original conclusions, based upon accurate information. Of the history 
proper, it can be said that careful and painstaking efforts have been put forth 
to please the present and to benefit future generations of readers. The com- 
pilers desire to express their sense of obligation to the Press, the Pulpit, and 
the Pioneers, for their cordial co-operation : and, also, to venture the hope that 
the product of their labors may not prove unacceptable. It would be impos- 
sible to name individuals who have aided in the preparation of this volume, 
and we can, therefore, ofler but a general acknowledgment of the courtesy 
extended. That the History of Muscatine County, as here presented, may 
be satisfactory to all — a sentiment, we confess, that is a bold one, in view of 
the freedom and diversity of public opinion — is the sincere prayer of 

ClTLTKR, Pasi, Hoyks & Co., Pbiitrss, Chicaso. 



Faok, : 

History Northwest Territory.„ 19 1 

G«osravW>^*l Pvwitiou 19 \ 

K»rly Kxploratious 20 

Discviverj- of the Ohio 33 I 

Ktiglish Explorations and Set- ' 

tlements 35 

American Settlements 60 

Division ot the Northwest Ter- 
ritory »>6 

Tecumseh and the War of lSl-2 70 
Blsck Hawk and the Black 

Hawk War 74 

Other Indian Tnjubles. 79 ; 

Present Condition of the SorUi- 

west S6 

Chicaso -.... 95 ' 

niinois 257 j 

Indiana _ 259 

Iovr» „^ 260 

MichigHU .2t>3 | 

Wisconsin ..264 i 

Minnesota 266 

Nebraska 267 

History of Iowa : 

Gev>graphic!»l Situation.^ li>9 

Topography .109 

Dr»ina^ System 110 

History ot Iowa : 

Rivers Ill 

Lakes US 

Springs 119 

Prairies 120 

Q«ology „120 

Climatology 137 

Discovery and Occupation 139 

Territory 147 

Indians 147 

Pike's Exi^edition 151 

Indian Wars 152 

Black Hawk Wiu- 157 

Indian Pnrthase, Reserves and 

Trvatit^s _159 

Spanish Grants 163 

Half-Breoii Tract, 164 

Early Settlements 166 

Territorial History 173 

Boundary Question 177 

State Orjirsuiization ISl 

Growth and Progress 1S5 

.Agricultural OoUegeand Farm.lS6 

State University .'.....1S7 

State Historii-ai Society 193 

Penitentiaries 1*4 

History of Iowa : 

Insane Hospitals „195 

College for the Blind 197 

IV.if and Dumb Institution 199 

Stildiers' Orphans' Homes 199 

State Xormal School 201 

.\sylum for Feeble Minded 

Childnni 201 

Reform School 202 

V"ish Hatching Establishnient..2<>3 

PtiMic Lands 204 

Public Sch.x>ls 21S 

Political Beconl 223 

War Recotvl .229 

Infantry 233 

Cavalry 244 

Artillery 247 

Miscellaneous 24S 

Prvimotions from Iowa Reg- 
iments 249 

Number Casualties — Officers.250 
Xuml>er Casualties — Enlist- 
ed Men _252 

Number Volunteers 254 

Population 255 

Asiricultural Statistics 320 


Adoption of Cluldren 303 

Bills of Exchange and Promisory 

Notes .".2V>3 

Conimerci.^l Terms 305 

Capital Punishment 29S 

Chiuitable, Scientific and Religious 

Associarlons „316 

Descent ..r. _293 

Damages fri>m Trespass- 300 

Exemptions frv^m ^ecution 29S 

Estrays ^^9 

Forms : 

Articles of .\.greement „....o07 

Bills of Sale 30S 

Bond for Dee^l _.._...315 

Bills of Purchase 3>:>6 

Forms ; 

Chattel Mortgage 314 

Confession of Judgment 306 

Lease.- .". 312 

Mongagee 310 

Notice to Quit.- 309 

Notes-. - -306.313 

Orders- ..306 

Quit Claim Deed 315 

Receipts 306 

Wills and Codicils 309 

W"arranty Deed 314 

Fences „ 3'V 

Interest jV. 

Intoxicating Liquors „ olT 

.lurisdictiotrof Cviurts. 297 


Jnrvirs „i97 

Limitation of .\ctions. 297 

Landlord and Tenant. Si>^ 

Married Women ....298 

Marks and Bramls. -300 

Mechanics' Liens. .- 301 

Ki-ads and Bridge' 3Ct2 

Surveyors au"^ Airveys- 3l^ 

Suggestio'- ^-o Persons Purchasing 

Books ' oubscription 319 

Sunr .» fPoor -303 

Tall* ,296 

Wills and Estates „.293 

Weights and Measures - 306 

Wolf Scalps _ 300 

Mouth of the Mississippi 

Source of the Mississippi 

Wild Prairie 

La Salle Landing on the Shore of 

Green Bay „.-. 

Bufliilo Hunt _....„.„ 



Iroquois Chief „ 

Ponti.-»c, the Ottawa C&ieftain - 

Indians .Attacking Frontiersmen.. 
.A Prairie Storm 


Map of Muscatine County Front. 

Constitution of United States 269 

Vote for President. Governor and 

Congressmen 2S;i 

Pr»ctical Rules for Every-Day Use..2S4 
United States Government ' Land 

Msaiure. „ 2S7 



-A Pioneer Irwruiag 61 

Breaking Prai rie- _ 63 

Tecumseh. the Shawatioe Chieftain 69 

Indiiius .Attacking a Stockade 72 

Flack Hawk. the'Sac Chieftain 75 

Big Eagle.- SO 

Captain Jack, the Modoc Chieftain S;5 

Kiniie House.- So 

.\ Representative Pioneer ?f" 

Lincoln Monument %S7 

A Pioneer School House .' &5 



Surveyor's Measure .■.2SS 

Uow to Keep .Accounts 2SS 

Interest Tsible 2S9 

Mi.*cellane^>us Ta'^le 2S9 

Names of the States of the Union 

and their Significations 290 

Population of the United States 291 


Pioneers' First Winter 94 

Grt\il Irxni Bridge of C. R. I. * P. 
R. R., Civ^sing the Mississippi at 

D.aveuport, Iowa- „ 91 

Chicaffo in lS;i3 95 

Old Fort De.arK-irn, 1S30 9S 

Present Site Lake Street Bridge, 

Chicago. 1S33, 9S 

Ruins of Chicagv> 104 

View of the City of Chicago 106 

Huntiui; Prairie Wolves.. .„ 26S 

Population of Fifty Principal Cities 

of the United Stotes 291 

Population and Area of the United 

States.- 292 

Population of the Principal Conn- 
tries in thd World 202 



Geographic and Geologic Features. .32.3 
Drainage and Surface Oharac- 

teristics 323 

Geological 325 

Land and Fresh Water Mol- 

lusks 332 

Prehistoric Remains 333 

Kntomology 334 

Meteorological 338 

Indian Occupancy 346 

Keokuk 349 

Black Hawk 362 

Poweshiek and Other Notable8,373 

A Scene on the Border 377 

Sacs and Foxes 380 

Maj. Beach's Indian Papers 382 

AdTancing Civiliz;»tion 385 

Arrival of the White Man 393 

Settlement of the County 395 

Introductory 395 

Who Was the First Settler 398 

The First Post Office '. 402 

Early Mills 402 

First Survey 403 

How "Claims" were made. ..403 

How Pioneers Lived 405 

Incident of 1839 411 

Organization of Old Des Moines. ..412 
Wisconsin Territory Formed ...413 

Beluiont Legislature 413 

Wisconsin Judiciary 413 

Temporary Seat of Govern- 
ment 414 

First Road west of the River.. .414 
Subdivision of Old Des Moines, 415 
Revision of the Organizing 

Act 416 

The Oldest Records 417 

Commissioners' Records 418 

First Jail 420 

School District No. 1 420 

High Rate of Interest 420 

Court House 420 

County Judge System 421 

Supervisor System 422 

District Court 425 


First Grand Jury 425 

First Ferry 426 

First Petit Jury 426 

Circuit Court 427 

Probate Court 427 

Marriage Records 428 

Recorder's Records 429 

Legislative Representation 429 

Constitutional Coventions 429 

County Officers 430 

Population 4,31 

Statistical Items 432 

Old Settlers' Association 4.32 

The Nye Tragedy 438 

Some Pioneers 4^39 

The Missouri War 442 

The Name "Muscatine" 453 

The Name " Hawkeye " 453 

War History 454 

Soldiers' Monument 456 

Roster 461 

Newspapers 493 

Muscatine Journal 493 

Muscatine Tribune 495 

Other Papers 496 

Wilton Press 496 

West Liberty Enterprise 498 

Educational 498 

County Superintendents 500 

Post Offices 500 

Muscatine 501 

Bloomington ."JOl 

First Frame Building 501 

The First Three Years '03 

Anecdotes of Indians 504 

Bloomington & Cedar Kiver 

Canal Co 506 

Second Survey 507 

Improvement of the Slough. ..507 

Incorporation 507 

Muscatine in 1855 509 

Town Records 510 

City Official Roster 511 

Public Buildings 515 

Police Department 515 

Police Court 515 


Fire Department 515 

Water Works 517 

Post Office 521 

Railroad Interests 522 

RiTer Navigation 523 

Ferry 523 

Religious 523 

Schools 535 

Academy of Science 541 

Conchological Club 545 

Secret Associations and Be- 
nevolent Societies 545 

Miscellaneous Organizations. ..549 

Banks and Corporations 550 

Horse Stock 553 

Star Creamery 554 

Business Interests 5.')4 

West Liberty 555 

Schools 557 

Churches 558 

Lodges 559 

Tnc -porations 560 

Facis and Anecdotes 561 

Wilton .570 

First Settlers 570 

Disastrous Fire .173 

City Officers .574 

Schcolhouse 574 

Churches .575 

Lodges and Bands 578 

Corporations 579 

Nichols .580 

School 581 

Churches 581 

Lodge 582 

Incidents 582 

Moscow 583 

Stockton 584 

Conesville 585 

Atalissa 586 

Port Allen 588 

Adams 588 

Fairport 588 

History of Muscatine County 
Horses 589 


Page. Page. 

Bloomington '•^wnsbip 625 Montpelier Township 656 

Cedar Townsln; 660 i Muscatine City 593 

Fulton Township 663 Moscow Township 665 

Goshen Township 682 i Orono Township 640 

Lake Township .. 645 ! Pike Township 649 


Sweetland Township 633 

Seventy -six Township 653 

Wilton Township 668 

Wapsinonoc Township 689 


Carskaddan, J 321 

Hanna, Thos 389 

Page. I 

Richmanc, D. C 355 Stein, S. G., 

Robbins, A. « 423 | 


I. CJ rJ^HA^ 




R.I E. 



The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
*' New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old " Northwestern 
Territory. " 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no fartlier nortli than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded na 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shoris,"' Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 16o-4, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Maiy, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result ; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. iNIarie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
'taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Igiiatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and ^Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 




request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from IMackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and AUouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said : " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Indian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of th3 Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few daj^s they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, ''did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, buffiiloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The part}-, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the ag& but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake INIichigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions" stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the obiect could easily be gained. He applied to 
Frontenac, Governor General cf Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
fi"om all the noblemen the warmest wislies for his success. The Ohev 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenae and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the Tth of August, 1679. having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some tioB at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a fort, and passed 
oj^to Green Bay, the " Baie des Puans"' of the French, where he found 
a^Hfe quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors. 


Started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts tnitil early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothinir from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty workins; 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, c.\lled by 
the Indians, "Theakeke," n'olf, because of tlie tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans. dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiakiki, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
'•Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuffs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward|evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which iJ^t have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-l-te-wi^J^^ 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives wer6pKt 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
}5lace, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Crevecoeur^'' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship, 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost u iknown route, and in a 
bad season of the j-ear. He safely reach'id Cana ia, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecoeur on the last of February, 
1680. "When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven daj-s after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Fidls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
aearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, lie fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue aiTd disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, cal^ brigan- 
tines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, snpposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea cG^ilf of 
Mexico^ and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi ; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of Avhat they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
■first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1GS2, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6tli of February, 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the loth they commenced their downward course, which they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the Oth of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into The gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event: 

*' "We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (^nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de LaSalle 
wont to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
moan while examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the 8th we reascended tho river, a 
little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
re^H^h of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole Avas here about 
twentv-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
tho column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription: 

Louis Le Graiul, Roi De France et de Navarre, regiie ; Le neuvieme Avril, 16S2. 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Tc Dcum, and then, after 
1 salute and cries of " Vive le Roi," the column was erected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. LaSalle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois, thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
■succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On his third vovage he was killed, through the 



treaeliery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until IGOO, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the "* Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
*^ Mdlhouc-hia^'' and by the Spaniards, ^'la Palissade^'' from the great 


number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its -western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade Avas now opened out which was fidly improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1702, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the Avorld an immense and most valuable country; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecoeur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 

The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated "■ Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de llmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le !^ Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort CreveccBur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly) was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and Avho witli his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

•There is considerable dispute about tliis date, some asserting it was founded as late as 174^. When 
the new court house at Vincennes was erected, all autlioritles on the subject were carefully examined, and 
i/Oa fixed upon as the correct date. It was accordingly eugraveil ou the corner-stone of tlie court house. 


injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez. Although the company 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
told. Most of the French till the soil; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vinceniies in 1812, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 


At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit"), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The Frencli alone were possessors of 
this vast I'eulm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country. 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful " river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money» 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with v/hich LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 

among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawauee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey; but just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to bs Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. He 


had been sent by tlie Canadian Governmenr to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his Avay back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Tndians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following Jtme 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
motis paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French atithorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley up)on another grotmd.- When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why tlie French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : *• We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswoocl, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, b}^ that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all hei: claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes lai'ge tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord Howard, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1744, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received ^200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be j)aid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desiie the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was grantedi, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading- 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the me'mory of residents now living along the "■ Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was onl}'- a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also senc a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* The following is a traiislatioii of the inscriptioa on the plate: "In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV., 
Kitif,'of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Galllsoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, liave 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near tlie river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix LaChapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occuiTed near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the loth of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manoeuvre 
eacli other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in man}- instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1768 : " The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked 3'ou for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us."' 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts 
already l)egun. and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothino- 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center 6f great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away iu hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchnient rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * ^ * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoiur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the ^Monongahela."' 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the caf)ture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of Jul}' 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, snfifered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela. or '• Braddock's Defeat.*' The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 175S, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of Stiite, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the Avar. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abererombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne.' On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac. and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Maior Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to siunender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre- refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under tlie personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town " on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was nov/ entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader nametl 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure i^afety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and tlie English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wvandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, whohad, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 176-^. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August,. 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. xA.t 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many years among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was. however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
• Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered as I We are not vour slaves I These lakes, these woods, 
these mounrains, were left as bj our ancestors. Thej are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for as upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took 'possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might preva^. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the EngHsh, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half centory, from the building of the Fort of Creveccear by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial sod in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain- By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the j^ear 
1764, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
lie afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20tli of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixt3'-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy, Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
Uements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuous!}- objected, giving good reasons therefor, and ^vere allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2. 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana. Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the "West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encotirage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort Tvas under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

Dtiring the years 1775 and 1776, b}- the operations of land companies 
and the perseveranceof individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of EngKsh traders, calKng 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the ^Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the •' Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37.497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
"United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." The^' afterward made 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a leport 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

" Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Cai:ver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest to\yn in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block ) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock, Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who p jr- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset; 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present '' new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the vear previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. Ht 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soutn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose. 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November oth. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th. 
Burgovne had been defeated and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, ha\ing satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the -d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arri\-al in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he weU knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


stou for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. The settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be fountl. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruit? as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his -arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen baud, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
["ar as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Caliokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the •• Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw, that, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, Avith an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival- to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of tha 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in oil ways, and sat qnietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, tlie 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier. Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these hiws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, Xvho 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their clahns, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this 3^ear that the first seminary of learning Avas established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appealed in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendh'^ disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of tliat State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
daring the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which res-ulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post, the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establisldng the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the widely known Moravian missionary, whose band of Christian 
Indians suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the 
frontier settlers, wdio had been exasperated by the murder of several of 
their neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, 
a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

Daring the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in wliich the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
quera])le colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th oi 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 2d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Suj^erior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River; down its center to the 81st parallel of latitude, then on tliat line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Lidiana occurred, upon Avhose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil. Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delpliia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Tvouisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held lai'ge tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. Daring the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 178-3, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before, the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing- 
its claims before Congress, that body Avas bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
])otamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com^ 
pact is fully discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 178G,and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January tlie sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the 8d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been 02)ened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on tlie Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as. the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community." 


On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block -houses stood 
was called '■'- Campus Martins ;''' square number 19, ^'- Capitolium ;"" square 
number 61, '■'■ Cecilia ;'" and the great road through the covert way, " Sacra 
Via." Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the nr?: of v. ; \rhole jv>vrer \ras inve> - c: a 

gv>vernor and ihree -----., , judges This \ras imir., .,. upv-^n 

the Govemcur's arriT*!. and the first laws of the colonv passed on the :2c>:h 
of July. These providevi for the o'_ -^n of the miliiia, and on the 

next day apjvar^ the G\»vemor's i -....»— .i;ion, erecting all that oouniry 
that had Iven ceded by the Indians east of the Soioio River into the 
County of \Vashing:u>n, From that time forirard. xtotxrithstanding the 
dov -^ - --'r as to the Indians, s" ^' v" - v~ : ;.i. and on the 
-u ^ e fir^r »x»urt of the - . :ih impcvsini: 


The t s:vr^:\i a: - was very crea:. The ccru- 

manvier a: : ., ai ihe uiov. e Muskingum, reporiexi four 

thousand five hundred persons as having passed that pc*>t between Feb- 
ruary- and June, ITS^S — ni:jr.v of whora would have puix^hased of the 
" Associaies," as the New Er.glaiui Couir>ar.y was called, had they been 
n^dy to receive them. 

On the :ih>th of XovemWr, 17ST. Symmes issued a ; Jiuiphiet stating 
the terms of his cv^nir^ct and ihe plan of sale he inxeuded lo adopt. In 
January. 17SS. Ma:ihiiis Dennian. of New Jersey, took an active interest 
iu Symmes* purchase, *ud located among other ii*cts the serous upon 
which Ciuciunaii has Iven btiili. Reiaining one-ihird of this locality, he 
sold the other twv>-thirvis to RoWr: Patters^LOi and John Filson. and the 
thi^e, alx»ut August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
xr«s o- " --te Lici '^ the moaih ot which 

theyj:-- -- - - . :ut froiv , The nanung of the 

town is thus narrated in the ** Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filsnw, who V 
been a - - nd. in v - 

its sit V. ,...>..-. ; ;...vvv,.v.. V. ...emixec. - 

were : . :: in after day^, he ixamed it Losaaiiville, which, beinc 

interpreied. means : rUU^ the K»wn ; «jil», against or c>pjx^i* to : i«. t': 
mouth ; /. * ' ": '" 

Meat: • > . Symmes gv>t thirty persons and eight four^horse 

teams uinier way lor the West. Thes»? reached Limestone v»>w Mays- 
viile^ iu S - - - " '" '.>tc«>e. Here 

Mr. Symr. ^ - r^shet v>f 17S^ 

caused the ** Point,*' as it was .iuni is y^t called, to W fifteen feet iu»der 
w;, . V vied. The little hand of s>?ttleas 

j^r.. _ - Hcfore Symmes and his colvMiy left 

the ** Poin:," two settlements havi l>een nvavie on hi^ pui>fhas)e. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the origina^. r of the whole plan, who, with 

cv>lony of Rcsistone jvople, h .-.;e>l at the mouth <rf the Max::.. 

whither Svmmes went with his Mavsville cokaiT. Her>e a ek«nnr l»d 



"iiit^ «^.t>HB 

-its j^f«BttCML xa oionuaicL i. 

. ... / .^.-- ^... Ckir 

: ctl Vayi* ^icas 3ii>-ir sent «!aH^5^ *i»^ ^5fi-r .- - cii5i*lTi*4. 

ri zhsm ufjtr •nie raroas of lie Ifatmoe^, iuji ptiued a e-MCTueie 

.-^ ., ; -i for psarse, joi re: li? ^it;i ca »\-- . . ... iJ- lie 

- «c feeeaiTiIje -irjia. sip^d >t *i»e Tciucpfcl dt5«^ Vr miaf>i a lanr* 
rr -iras «oec t-> xbf . "^ - 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississi^ipi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but liighly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it Avas erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many j^ears this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this 3'ear, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of ChilIicoth6, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill " — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken plaee, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gfin. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved l)y 
the Governor, Avere thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of Decemljer this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to tlie 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that: 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * To 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July -4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides: 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory."' 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From tlie earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the "compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they sliould be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30tli of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Oliio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next year is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were ol)tained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year. Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing tlie Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this Avas being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 






This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present City of Piqua, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of tlie Swanoese nation, and his 
motlier, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chiel 
comes into prominence. He was now about tliirtj'-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enornKuis powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, \)y watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseirs 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the j'ear 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and _ 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chief's headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing effective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Ferry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley of 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen. 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor, 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseli who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 


Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his propert}^ confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territor}^ made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory, 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
*' monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. 



On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish bran^^hes 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not Ijring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War^ 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were' 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among tlie braves. About the year 1783, he 
went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of 'five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war acjainst the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want tivo fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 180L The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
' ^ a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
. ^ . ernment but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action. Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the 

Note.— The above is the generally accepted version of the cause of the Black Hawk War, but in our History of 
Jo Daviei-s County. 111., we liad tccasi( n to go to the bottom of this matter, and have, we think, found the actual 
cause of tlie war, which will be found on page 157. 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the '| 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
Avhich followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until tlie conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at libert3^" They Avere retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Ever3'where they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next day after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His Avife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times Avhen he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- , 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received man}' tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He Avas buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, Avhen the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, M'-as its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region Avas attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 1830 was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it Avas a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances 
compelled its present division. 


1 Before leaving this part of the narrative, we will narrate briefly the 
jlndian troubles in Minnesota and elsewhere by the Sioux Indians. 
' In August, 1862, the Sioux Indians living on the western borders of 
Minnesota fell upon the unsuspecting settlers, and in a few hours mas- 
jsacred ten or twelve hundred persons. A distressful panic was the 
iimmediate result, fully thirty thousand persons fleeing from their homes 
ito districts supposed to be better protected. The military authorities 
at once took active measures to punish the savages, and a large number 
Iwere killed and captured. About a year after, Little Crow, the chief, 
as killed by a Mr. Lampson near Scattered Lake. Of those captured, 
hirty were hung at Mankato, and the remainder, thiough fears of mob 
violence, were removed to Camp McClellan, on tiie outskirts of the City 
of Davenport. It was here that Big Eagle came into prominence and 
ecured his release by the following order : 





"Special Order, No. 430. "War Department, 

" Adjutant General's Office, Washington, Dec. 3, 1864. 

" Big Eagle, an Indian now in confinement at Davenport, lovva^ 
will, upon the receipt of this order, be immediately released from confine- 
ment and set at liberty. 

" B}^ order of the President of the United States. 
" Official : " E. D. TowNSEND, Ass't Adft Gen. 

" Capt. James Vanderventer, Com'y Suh. Vols. 

" Through Com'g Gen'l, Washington, D. C." 

Another Indian who figures more prominently than Big Eagle, and 
who was more cowardly in his nature, with his band of Modoc Indians, 
is noted in the annals of the New Northwest : we refer to Captain Jack. 
This distinguished Indian, noted for his cowardly murder of Gen. Canby, 
was a chief of a Modoc tribe of Indians inhabiting the border lands 
between California and Oregon. This region of country comprises what 
is known as the " Lava Beds." a tract of land described as utterly impene- 
trable, save by those savages who had made it their home. 

The Modocs are known as an exceedingly fierce and treacherous 
race. They had, according to their own traditions, resided here for many 
generations, and at one time were exceedingly numerous and powerful. 
A famine carried off nearly half their numbers, and disease, indolence 
and the vices of the white man have reduced them to a poor, weak and 
insignificant tribe. 

Soon after the settlement of California and Oregon, complaints began 
to be heard of massacres of emigrant trains passing through the Modoc 
country. In 1847, an emigrant train, comprising eighteen souls, was en- 
tirely destroyed at a place since known as " Bloody Point." These occur- 
rences caused the United States Government to appoint a peace commission, 
who, after repeated attempts, in 1864, made a treaty Avith the Modocs, 
Snakes and Klamaths, in which it was agreed on their part to remove to 
a reservation set apart for them in the southern part of Oregon. 

With the exception of Captain Jack and a band of his followers, who 
remained at Clear Lake, about six miles from Klamath, all the Indians 
complied. The Modocs who went to the reservation were under chief 
Schonchin. Captain Jack remained at the lake without disturbance 
until 1869, when he was also induced to remove to the reservation. The 
Modocs and the Klamaths soon became involved in a quarrel, and Captain 
Jack and his band returned to the Lava Beds. 

Several attempts were made by the Indian Commissioners to induce 
them to return to the reservation, and finally becoming involved in a 


difficulty with the commissioner and his military escort, a fight ensued, 
in which the chief and liis band were routed. They were greatly enraged, 
and on their retreat, before the day closed, killed eleven inoffensive whites. 

The nation was aroused and immediate action demanded. A com- 
mission was at once ai)pointed by the Government to see what could be 
done. It comprised tlie following persons : Gen. E. R. S. Canby, Rev. 
Dr. E. Thomas, a leading Methodist divine of California; Mr. A. B. 
Meacham, Judge Rosborough, of California, and a Mr. Dyer, of Oregon. 
After several interviews, in which the savages were always aggressive, 
often appearing with scalps in their belts, Bogus Charley came to the 
commission on the evening of April 10, 1873, and informed them that 
Capt. Jack and his band would have a " talk " to-morrow at a place near 
Clear Lake, about three miles distant. Here the Commissioners, accom- 
panied by Charley, Riddle, the interpreter, and Boston Charley repaired. 
After the usual greeting the council proceedings commenced. On behalf 
of the Indians there were present: Capt. Jack, Black Jim, Schnac Nasty 
Jim, Ellen's Man, and Hooker Jim. They had no guns, but carried pis- 
tols. After short speeches by Mr. Meacham, Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas, 
Chief Schonchin arose to speak. He had scarcely proceeded when, 
as if by a preconcerted arrangement, Capt. Jack drew his pistol and shot 
Gen. Canby dead. In less than a minute a dozen shots were fired by the 
savages, and the massacre completed. Mr. Meacham was shot by Schon- 
chin, and Dr. Thomas by Boston Charley. Mr. Dyer barely escaped, being 
fired at twice. Riddle, the interpreter, and his squaw escaped. The 
troops rushed to the spot where they found Gen. Canby and Dr. Thomas 
dead, and Mr. Meacham badly wounded. The savages had escaped to 
their impenetrable fastnesses and could not be pursued. 

The whole country was aroused by this brutal massacre ; but it was 
not until the following May that the murderers were brought to justice. 
At that time Boston Charley gave himself up, and offered to guide the 
troops to Capt. Jack's stronghold. This led to the capture of liis entire 
gang, a number of whom were murdered hy Oregon volunteers while on 
their way to trial. The remaining Indians were held as prisoners until 
July wlien their trial occurred, which led to the conviction of Capt. 
Jack, Schonchin, Boston Charley, Hooker Jim, Broncho, alias One-Eyed 
Jim, and Slotuck, who were sentenced to be hanged. These sentences 
were approved by the President, save in the case of Slotuck and Broncho 
whose sentences were commuted to imprisonment for life. The others 
were executed at Fort Klamath, October 3, 1873. 

These closed the Indian troubles for a time in the Northwest, and for 
several years the borders of civilization remained in peace. They were 
again involved in a conflict with the savages about the country of the 





Black Hills, in which war the gallant Gen. Custer lost his life. Just 
now the borders of Oregon and California are again in fear of hostilities ; 
but as the Government has learned how to deal with the Indians, they 
will be of short duration. The red man is fast passing away before the 
march of the white man, and a few more generations will read of the 
Indians as one of the nations of the past. 

The Northwest abounds in memorable places. We have generally 
noticed them in the narrative, but our space forbids their description in 
detail, save of the most important places. Detroit, Cincinnati, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia and their kindred towns have all been described. But ere we 
leave the narrative we will present our readers with an account of the 
Kinzie house, the old landmark of Chicago, and the discovery of the 
source of the Mississippi River, each of which may well find a place in 
the annals of the Northwest. 

Mr. John Kinzie, of the Kinzie house, represented in the illustra- 
tion, established a trading house at Fort Dearborn in 180-4. The stockade 
had been erected the year previous, and named Fort Dearborn in honor 
of the Secretary of War. It had a block house at each of the two angles, 
on the southern side a sallyport, a covered way on the north side, that led 
down to the river, for the double purpose of providing means of escape, 
and of procuring water in the event of a siege. 

Fort Dearborn stood on the south bank of the Chicago River, about 
half a mile from its mouth. When Major Whistler built it, his soldiers 
hauled all the timber, for he had no oxen, and so economically did he 
work that the fort cost the Government only fifty dollars. For a while 
the garrison could get no grain, and Whistler and his men subsisted on 
acorns. Now Chicago is the greatest grain center in the world. 

Mr. Kinzie bought the hut of the first settler, Jean Baptiste Point au 
Sable, on the site of which he erected his mansion. Within an inclosure 
in front he planted some Lombardy poplars, seen in the engraving, and in 
the rear he soon had a fine garden and growing orchard. 

In 1812 the Kinzie house and its surroundings became the theater 
of stirring events. The garrison of Fort Dearborn consisted of fifty-four 
men, nnder the charge of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant 
Lenai T. Helm (son-in-law to Mrs. Kinzie), and Ensign Ronan. The 
surgeon was Dr. Voorhees. The only residents at the post at that time 
were the wives of Capt. Heald and Lieutenant Helm and a few of the 
soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and a few Canadian vo}' agers with their 
wives and children. The soldiers and Mr. Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and the Winnebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them, but they could not win them from their attach- 
ment to the British. 



After the battle of Tippecanoe it was observed that some of the lead- 
ing chiefs became sullen, for some of their people had perished in that 
conflict with American troops. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing his violin and his 
children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing into 
the house pale with terror, and exclaiming, " The Indians ! the Indians ! " 
" What? Where ? " eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. " Up at Lee's, killing 
and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, when the alarm was 
given, was attending Mrs. Burns, a newly-made mother, living not far off. 


Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river in boats, and took refuge in 
the fort, to which place Mrs. Burns and her infant, not a day old, were 
conveyed in safety to the shelter of the guns of Fort Dearborn, and the 
rest of the wliite inhabitants fled. The Indians were a scalping party of 
Winnebagoes, who hovered around the fort some days, when they dis- 
appeared, and for several weeks the inhabitants were not disturbed by 

Chicago was then so deep in the wilderness, that the news of the 
declaration of war against Great Britain, made on the 19th of June, 1812, 
did not reach the commander of the garrison at Fort Dearborn till the 7th 
of August. Now the fast mail train will carry a man from New Y.ork to 
Chicago in twenty-seven hours, and such a declaration might be sent, 
every word, by the telegraph in less than the same number of minutes. 




Preceding cluipter.s liave brought us to the close of the Black Hawk 
war, and we now turn to the contemphition of the growth and prosperity 
of the Northwest under the smile of peace and the blessings of our civili- 
Kj^tion. The pioneers of this region date events back to the deep snow 


of 1831, no one arriving here since that date taking first honors. The 
inciting cause of the immigration which overflowed the prairies early in 
the '30s was the reports of tlie marvelous beauty and fertility of the 
region distributed through the East by those who had participated in the 
Black Hawk campaign with Gen. Scott. Chicago and Milwaukee then 
had a few hundred inhabitants, and Gurdon S. Hubbard's trail from the 
former city to Kaskaskia led almost through a wilderness. Vegetable& 
and clothing were largely distributed through the regions adjoining the 



lakes by steamers from the Ohio towns. There are men now living in 
Illinois who came to the state when barely an acre was in cultivation, 
and a man now prominent in the business circles of Chicago looked over 
the swampy, cheerless site of that metropolis in 1818 and went south 
ward into civilization. Emigrants from Pennsylvania in 1830 left behind 


them but one small railway in the coal regions, thirty miles in length, 
and made their way to the Northwest mostly with ox teams, finding in 
Northern Illinois petty settlements scores of miles apart, although the 
southern portion of the state was fairly dotted with farms. The 
water courses of the lakes and rivers furnished transportation to the 
second great army of immigrants, and about 1850 railroads were 
pushed to that extent that the crisis of 1837 was precipitated upon us, 


from tlie effects of which the Western country liacl not fully recovered 
at tlie outbreak of the Avar. Hostilities found the colonists of the prairies 
fully alive to the demands of the occasion, and the honor of recruiting 




:lic vast armies of the Union frll lari>;oly to the Governors of the Western 
States. The struggle, on the Avliole, had a marked eftcct for the hotter on the 
new Northwest, giving it an impetus Avhich twenty years of peace Avould not have 
produced. In a large degree, this prosperity was an inflated one; and, witli 
the rest of the Union, we have since heen compelled to atone therefor by four 


years of depression of values, of scarcity of employment, and loss of 
fortune. To a less degree, however, than the manufacturing or mining 
regions has the West suffered during the prolonged panic now so near its 
end. Agriculture, still the leading feature in our industries, has been 
quite prosperous through all these dark years, and the farmers have 
cleared away many incumbrances resting over them from the period of 
fictitious values. The population has steadily increased, the arts and 
sciences are gaining a stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is 
becoming daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked communities on the 
seaboard dependent wholly on foreign commerce or domestic manufacture. 

At the present period there are no great schemes broached for the 
Northwest, no propositions for government subsidies or national works 
of improvement, but the capital of the world is attracted hither for the 
purchase of our products or the expansion of our capacity for serving the 
nation at large. A new era is dawning as to transportation, and we bid 
fair to deal almost exclusively with the increasing and expanding lines 
of steel rail running through every few miles of territory on the prairies. 
The lake marine will no doubt continue to be useful in the warmer 
season, and to serve as a regulator of freight rates; but experienced 
navigators forecast the decay of the system in moving to the seaboard 
the enormous crops of the West. Within the past five years it has 
become quite common to see direct shipments to Europe and the West 
Indies going through from the second-class towns along the Mississippi 
and Missouri. 

As to popular education, the standard has of late risen very greatly, 
and our schools would be creditable to any section of the Union. 

More and more as the events of the war pass into obscurity will the 
fate of the Northwest be linked with that of the Southwest, and the 
next Congressional apportionment will give the valley of the Mississippi 
absolute control of the legislation of the nation, and do much toward 
securing the removal of the Federal capitol to some more central location. 

Our public men continue to wield the full share of influence pertain- 
ing to their rank in the national autonomy, and seem not to forget that 
for the past sixteen years they and their constituents have dictated the 
principles which should govern the country. 

In a work like this, destined to lie on the shelves of the library for 
generations, and not doomed to daily destruction like a newspaper, one 
can not indulge in the same glowing predictions, the sanguine statements 
of actualities that fill the columns of ephemeral publications. Time may 
bring grief to the pet projects of a writer, and explode castles erected on 
a pedestal of facts. Yet there are unmistakable indications before us of 


the same radical change in our great Northwest wliich characterizes its 
history for the past thirty years. Our domain has a sort of natural 
geographical border, save where it melts away to the southward in the 
cattle raising districts of the southwest. 

Our prime interest will for some years doubtless be the growth of 
the food of the world, in wliich branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival in this duty will naturally be the fertile 
plains of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, to say nothing of the new 
empire so rapidly growing up in Texas. Over these regions there is a 
continued progress in agriculture and in railway building, and we must 
look to our laurels. Intelligent observers of events are fully aware of 
the strides made in the way of shipments of fresh meats to Europe, 
many of these ocean cargoes being actually slaughtered in the West and 
transported on ice to the wharves of the seaboard cities. That this new 
enterprise will continue there is no reason to doubt. There are in 
Chicago several factories for the canning of prepared meats for European 
consumption, and the orders for this class of goods are already immense. 
English capital is becoming daily more and more dissatisfied with railway 
loans and investments, and is gradually seeking mammoth outlays in 
lands and live stock. The stock yards in Chicago, Indianapolis and East 
St. Louis are yearly increasing their facilities, and their plant steadily 
grows more valuable. Importations of blooded animals from the pro- 
gressive countries of Europe are destined to greatly improve the quality 
of our beef and mutton. Nowhere is there to be seen a more enticing 
display in this line than at our state and county fairs, and the interest 
in the matter is on the increase. 

To attempt to give statistics of our grain production for 1877 would 
be useless, so far have we surpassed ourselves in the quantity and 
quality of our product. We are too liable to forget that we are giving 
the world its first article of necessity — its food supply. An opportunity 
to learn this fact so it never can be forgotten was afforded at Chicago at 
the outbreak of the great panic of 187o, when Canadian purchasers, 
fearing the prostrationofbusinessmightbring about an anarchical condition 
of affairs, went to that city with coin in bulk and foreign drafts to secure 
their supplies in their own currency at first hands. It may be justly 
claimed by the agricultural community that their combined efforts gave 
the nation its first impetus toward a restoration of its crippled industries, 
and their labor brought the gold premium to a lower depth than the 
government was able to reach b^- its most intense efforts of legislation 
and compulsion. The hundreds of millions about to be disbursed for 
farm products have already, by the anticipation common to all commercial 



nations, set the wheels in motion, and will relieve us from the perils so 
long shadowing our efforts to return to a healthy tone. 

Manufacturing has attained in the chief cities a foothold which bids 
fair to render the Northwest independent of the outside world. Nearly 

our whole region has a distribution of coal measures which will in time 
support the manufactures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As 
to transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles except 
food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and our facilities are yearly 
increasing beyond those of any other region. 


The period from a central point of the war to the outbreak of the 
panic was marked by a tremendous growth in our railway lines, but the 
depression of the times caused almost a total suspension of operations. 
Now that prosperity is returning to our stricken country we witness its 
Einticipation by the railroad interest in a series of projects, extensions, 
:ind leases which bid fair to largely increase our transportation facilities. 
The process of foreclosure and sale of incumbered lines is another matter 
to be considered. In the case of the Illinois Central road, which formerly 
transferred to other lines at Cairo the vast burden of freight destined for 
the Gulf region, we now see the incorporation of the tracks connecting 
hrough to New Orleans, every mile co-operating in turning to^yard the 
lorthwestern metropolis the weight of the inter-state commerce of a 
:housand miles or more of fertile plantations. Three competing routes 
:o Texas have established in Chicago their general freight and passenger 
igencies. Four or five lines compete for all Pacific freights to a point as 
IS far as the interior of Nebraska. Half a dozen or more splendid bridge 
structures have been thrown across the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers by 
;he railways. The Chicago and Northwestern line has become an aggre- 
gation of over two thousand miles of rail, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
md St. Paul is its close rival in extent and importance. The three lines 
:'unnins' to Cairo via Vincennes form a through route for all traffic wnth 
:he states to the southward. The chief projects now under discussion 
ire the Chicago and Atlantic, which is to unite with lines now built to 
Charleston, and the Chicago and Canada Southern, which line will con- 
nect with all the various branches of that Canadian enterprise. Our 
latest new road is the Chicago and Lake Huron, formed of three lines, 
md entering the city from Valparaiso on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
ind Chicago track. The trunk lines being mainly in operation, the 
[progress made in the way of shortening tracks, making air-line branches, 
ind running extensions does not show to the advantage it deserves, as 
this process is constantly adding new facilities to the established order 
Df things. The panic reduced the price of steel to a point where the 
L-ailways could hardly afford to use iron rails, and all our northwestern 
tines report large relays of Bessemer track. The immense crops now 
l)eing moved have given a great rise to the value of railway stocks, and 
their transportation must result in heavy pecuniary advantages. 

Few are awan-e of the importance of the wholesale and jobbing trade 
af Chicago. One leading firm has since the panic sold (^24,000,000 of 
dry goods in one year, and they now expect most confidently to add 
seventy per cent, to the figures of their last year's business. In boots 
and shoes and in clothing, twenty or more great firms from the east have 
placed liere their distributing agents or their factories ; and in groceries 



Chicago supplies the entire Northwest at rates presenting advantages 
over New York. 

Chicago has stepped in between New York and the rural banks as a 
financial center, and scarcely a banking institution in the grain or cattle 
regions but keeps its reserve funds in the vaults of our commercial insti- 
tutions. Accumulating here throughout the spring and summer months, 
they are summoned home at pleasure to move the products of the 
prairies. This process greatly strengthens the northwest in its financial 
operations, leaving home capital to supplement local operations on 
behalf of home interests. 

It is impossible to forecast the destiny of tliis grand and growing 
section of the Union. Figures and predictions made at this date might 
seem ten years hence so ludicrously small as to excite only derision. 


^i<4tcs^ f^vii> 





It is impossible in our brief space to give more than a meager sketch 
.of such a city as Chicago, which is in itself the greatest marvel of the 
Prairie State. This mysterious, majestic, mighty city, born first of water, 
and next of fire ; sown in weakness, and raised in power ; planted among 
the willows of the marsh, and crowned with the glory of the mountains ; 
sleeping on the bosom of the prairie, and rocked on the bosom of the sea , 


the youngest city of the -vNorld, and still the eye of the prairie, as Damas- 
cus, the oldest city of tlie ■world, is the eye of the desert. With a com- 
merce far exceeding that of Corinth on her isthmus, in the highway to 
the East ; with the defenses of a continent piled around her by the thou- 
sand miles, making ner far safer than Home on the banks of the Tiber; 


Avith schools eclipsing Alexandria and Athens : with liberties more con- 
spicuous than those of the old republics ; with a heroism equal to the first 
Carthage, and with a sanctity scarcely second to that of Jerusalem — set 
your thoughts on all this, lifted into the eyes of all men by the miracle of 
its growth, illuminated by the flame of its fall, and transfigured by the 
divinity of its resurrection, and you will feel, as I do, the utter impossi- 
bility of compassing this subject as it deserves. Some impression of her 
importance is received from the shock her burning gave to the civilized 

When the doubt of her calamity was removed, and the horrid fact 
was accepted, there went a shudder over all cities, and a quiver over all 
lands. There was scarcely a town in the civilized world that did not 
shake on the brink of this opening chasm. The flames of our homes red- 
dened all skies. The city was set upon a hill, and could not be hid. All 
eyes were turned upon it. To have struggled and suffered amid the 
scenes of its fall is as distinguishing as to have fought at Thermopylae, or 
Salamis, or Hastings, or Waterloo, or Bunker Hill. 

Its calamity amazed the world, because it was felt to be the common 
property of mankind. 

The early history of the city is full of interest, just as the early his- 
tory of such a man as Washington or Lincoln becomes public property, 
and is cherished by every patriot. 

Starting with 560 acres in 1833, it embraced and occupied 23,000 
acres in 18G9, and, having now a population of more than 500,000, it com- 
mands general attention. 

The first settler — Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from the 
West Indies — came and began trade with the Indians in 1706. John 
Kinzie became his successor in 1804, in which year Fort Dearborn was 

A mere trading-post was kept here from that time till about the time 
of the Blackhawk war, in 1832. It was not the city. It was merely a 
cock crowing at midnight. The morning was not yet. In 1833 the set- 
tlement about the fort was incorporated as a town. The voters were 
divided on the propriety of such corporation, twelve voting for ic and one 
against it. Four years later it was incorporated as a city, and embraced 
560 acres. 

The produce handled in this city is an indication of its power. Grain 
and flour were imported from the East till as late as 1837. The first 
exportation by way of experiment was in 1839. Exports exceeded imports 
first in 1842. The Board of Trade was organized in 1848, but it was so 
weak that it needed nursing till 1855. Grain was purchased by the 
wagon-load in the street. 

I remember sitting with my father on a load of wheat, in the long 


line of wagons along Lake street, while the buyers came and untied the 
bags, and examined the grain, and made their bids. That manner of 
business had to cease with the day of small things. Now our elevators 
will hold 15,000,000 bushels of grain. The cash value of the produce 
handled in a year is '1)215,000,000, and the i)roduce weighs 7,000,000 
tons or 700,000 car loads. This handles thirteen and a half ton each 
minute, all the year round. One tenth of all the wheat in the United 
States is handled in Chicago. Even as long ago as 1853 the receipts, of 
grain in Chicago exceeded those of the goodly city of St. Louis, and in 
1854 the exports of grain from Chicago exceeded those of New York and 
doubled those of St. Petersburg, Archangel, or Odessa, the largest grain, 
markets in Europe. 

The manufacturing interests of the city are not contemptible. In 
1873 manufactories employed 45,000 operatives ; in 1876, 60,000. The 
manufactured product in 1875 was worth $177,000,000. 

No estimate of the size and power of Chicago would be adequate 
that did not put large emphasis on the railroads. Before they came 
thundering along our streets canals were the hope of our country. But 
who ever thinks now of traveling by canal packets ? In June, 1852, 
there were only forty miles of railroad connected with the city. The 
old Galena division of the Northwestern ran out to Elgin. But now, 
who can count the trains and measure the roads that seek a terminus or 
connection in this city ? The lake stretches away to the north, gathering 
in to this center all the harvests that might otherwise pass to the north 
of us. If you will take a map and look at the adjustment of railroads, 
you will see, first, that Chicago is the great railroad center of the world, 
as New York is the commercial city of this continent ; and, second, that 
the railroad lines form the iron spokes of a great wheel whose hub is 
this city. The lake furnishes the only break in the spokes, and this 
seems simply to have pushed a few spokes together on each shore. See 
the eighteen trunk lines, exclusive of eastern connections. 

Pass round the circle, and view their numbers and extent. There 
is the great Northwestern, with all its branches, one branch creeping 
along the lake shore, and so reaching to the north, into the Lake Superior 
regions, away to the right, and on to the Northern Pacific on the left, 
swinging around Green Bay for iron and copper and silver, twelve months 
in the year, and reaching out for the wealth of the great agricultural 
belt and isothermal line traversed by the Northern Pacific. Another 
branch, not so far north, feeling for the heart of the Badger State. 
Another pushing lower down the Mississippi — all these make many con- 
nections, and tapping all the vast wheat regions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and all the regions this side of sunset. There is that elegant road, 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, running out a goodly number of 




PRKSl-.XT SIXJL: Oi" LAKK MliilKr liRlDGi:, CHICAGO, IX lSu3. 


branches, and reaping the great fields this side of the Missouri River. 
1 can only mention the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, our Illinois Central, 
described elsewhere, and the Chicago & Rock Island. Further around 
we come to the lines connecting us with all the eastern cities. The 
Chicago, Indianapolis & St. Louis, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Michigan Cen- 
tral and Great Western, give us many highways to the seaboard. Thus we 
reach the Mississippi at five points, from St. Paul to Cairo and the Gulf 
itself by two routes. We also reach Cincinnati and Baltimore, and Pitts- 
burgh and Philadelphia, and New York. North and south run the water 
courses of the lakes and the rivers, broken just enough at this point to 
make a pass. Through this, from east to west, run the long lines that 
stretch from ocean to ocean. 

This is the neck of the glass, and the golden sands of commerce 
must pass into our hands. Altogether we have more than 10,000 miles 
of railroad, directly tributary to this city, seeking to unload their wealth 
in our coffers. All these roads have come themselves by the infallible 
instinct of capital. Not a dollar was ever given by the city to secure 
one of them, and only a small per cent, of stock taken originally by her 
citizens, and that taken simply as an investment. Coming in the natural 
order of events, they will not be easily diverted. 

There is still another showing to all this. The connection between 
New York and San Francisco is by the middle route. This passes inevit- 
ably through Chicago. St. Louis wants the Southern Pacific or Kansas 
Pacific, and pushes it out through Denver, and so on up to Cheyenne. 
But before the road is fairly under way, the Chicago roads shove out to 
Kansas City, making even the Kansas Pacific a feeder, and actually leav- 
ing St. Louis out in the cold. It is not too much to expect that Dakota, 
Montana, and Washington Territory will find their great market in Chi- 

But these are not all. Perhaps I had better notice here the ten or 
fifteen new roads that have just entered, or are just entering, our city. 
Their names are all that is necessary to give. Chicago & St. Paul, look- 
ing up the Red River country to the British possessions ; the Chicago, 
Atlantic & Pacific ; the Chicago, Decatur & State Line ; the Baltimore & 
Ohio; the Chicago, Danville & Vincennesi the Chicago & LaSalle Rail- 
road ; the Chicago, Pittsburgh & Cincinnati ; the Chicago and Canada 
Southern ; the Chicago and Illinois River Railroad. These, with their 
connections, and with the new connections of the old roads, already in 
process of erection, give to Chicago not less than 10,000 miles of new 
tributaries from the richest land on the continent. Thus there will be 
added to the reserve power, to the capital within reach of this city, not 
less than $1,000,000,000. 


Add to all this transporting power the ships that sail one every nine 
ninutes of the business hours of the season of navigation ; add, also, the 
5anal boats that leave one every five minutes during the same time — and 
^ou will see something of the business of the city. 


las been leaping along to keep pace with the growth of the country 
iround us. In 1852, our commerce reached the hopeful sum of 
520,000,000. In 1870 it reached $400,000,000. In 1871 it was pushed 
ip above 8150,000,000. And in 1875 it touched nearly double that. 

One-half of our imported goods come directly to Chicago. Grain 
mough is exported directly from our docks to the old world to employ a 
;emi-weekly line of steamers of 3,000 tons capacity. This branch is 
lot likely to be greatly developed. Even after the great Welland Canal 
s completed we shall have only fourteen feet of water. The great ocean 
i^essels will continue to control the trade. 

The banking capital of Chicago is $24,431,000. Total exchange in 
1875, $659,000,000. Her wholesale business in 1875 was $294,000,000. 
rhe rate of taxes is less than in any other great city. 

The schools of Chicago are unsurpassed in America. Out of a popu- 
lation of 300,000 there were only 186 persons between the ages of six 
md twenty-one unable to read. This is the best known record. 

In 1831 the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who went 
Dn foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back what papers 
ind news he could find. As late as 1846 there was often only one mail 
I week. A post-office was established in Chicago in 1833, and the post- 
master nailed up old boot-legs on one side of his shop to serve as boxes 
for the nabobs and literary men. 

It is an interesting fact in the growth of the young city that in the 
active life of the business men of that day the mail matter has grown to 
a. daily average of over 6,500 pounds. It speaks equally well for the 
intelligence of the people and the commercial importance of the place, 
that the mail matter distributed to the territory immediately tributary to 
Chicago is seven times greater than that distributed to the territory 
immediately tributary to St. Louis. 

The improvements that have characterized the city are as startling 
as the city itself. In 1831, Mark Beaubien established a ferry over the 
river, and put himself under bonds to carry all the citizens free for the 
privilege of charging strangers. Now there are twenty-four large bridoes 
and two tunnels. 

In 1833 the government expended $30,000 on the harbor. Then 
commenced that series of manoeuvers with the river that has made it one 


of the world's curiosities. It used to wind around in the lower end of 
the town, and make its way rippling over the sand into the lake at the 
foot of Madison street. Tliey took it up and put it down where it now 
is. It was a narrow stream, so narrow that even moderately small crafts 
had to go up through the willows and cat's tails to the point near Lake 
street bridge, and back up one of the branches to get room enough in 
which to turn around. 

In 1844 the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by plank 
roads, which acted in wet weather as public squirt-guns. Keeping you 
out of the mud, they compromised by squirting the mud over you. The 
wooden-block pavements came to Chicago in 1857. In 1840 water was 
delivered by peddlers in carts or by hand. Then a twenty-five horse- 
power engine pushed it through hollow or bored logs along the streets 
till 1854, when it was introduced into the houses by new works. The 
first fire-engine was used in 1835, and the first steam fire-engine in 1859. 
Gas was utilized for lighting the city in 1850. The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was organized in 1858, and horse railroads carried them 
to their work in 1859. The museum was opened in 1863. The alarm 
telegraph adopted in 1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The city 
grew from 560 acres in 1833 to 23,000 in 1869. In 1834, the taxes 
amounted to $48.90, and the trustees of the town borrowed $60 more for 
opening and improving streets. In 1835, the legislature authorized a loan 
of $2,000, and the treasurer and street commissioners resigned rather than 
plunge the town into such a gulf. 

Now the city embraces 36 square miles of territory, and has 30 miles 
of water front, besides the outside harbor of refuge, of 400 acres, inclosed 
by a crib sea-wall. One-third of the city has been raised up an average 
of eight feet, giving good pitch to the 263 miles of sewerage. The water 
of the city is above all competition. It is received through two tunnels 
extending to a crib in the lake two miles from shore. The closest analy- 
sis fails to detect any impurities, and, received 35 feet below the surface, 
it is always clear and cold. The first tunnel is five feet two inches in 
diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 50,000,000 of gallons per 
day. The second tunnel is seven feet in diameter and six miles long, 
running four miles under the city, and can deliver 100,000,000 of gal- 
lons per day. This water is distributed through 410 miles of water- 

The three grand engineering exploits of the city are : First, lifting • 
the city up on jack-screws, whole squares at a time, without interrupting 
the business, thus giving us good drainage ; second, running the tunnels 
under the lake, giving us the best water in the world ; and third, the 
turning the current of the river in its own channel, delivering us from the 
old abominations, and making decency possible. They redound about 


|ually to the credit of the engineering, to the energy of the people, and 
1 the healtli of the cit3\ 

That wliich really constitutes the city, its indescribable spirit, its soul, 
le way it lights up in every feature in the hour of action, has not been 
)uched. In meeting strangers, one is often surprised how some homely 
'omen marry so well. Their forms are bad, their gait uneven and awk- 
'ard, their complexion is dull, their features are misshapen and mismatch- 
i, and Avhen we see them there is no beauty that we should desire them, 
ut when once they are aroused on some subject, they put on new pro- 
ortions. They light up into great power. The real person comes out 
■ora its unseemly ambush, and captures us at will. They have power, 
'hey have ability to cause things to come to pass. We no longer wonder 
'hy they are in such high demand. So it is with our city. 

There is no grand scenery except the two seas, one of water, the 
ther of prairie. Nevertheless, there is a spirit about it, a push, a breadth, 
power, that soon makes it a place never to be forsaken. One soon 
3ases to believe in impossibilities. Balaams are the only prophets that are 
isappointed. The bottom that has been on the point of falling out has 
een there so long that it has grown fast. It can not fall out. It has all 
le capital of the world itching to get inside the corporation. 

The two great laws that govern the growth and size of cities are, 
rst, the amount of territory for which they are the distributing and 
jceiving points ; second, the number of medium or moderate dealers that 
this distributing. Monopolists build up themselves, not the cities, 
'hey neither eat, wear, nor live in proportion to their business. Both 
lese laws help Chicago. 

The tide of trade is eastward — not up or down the map, but across 
le map. The lake runs up a wingdam for 500 miles to gather in the 
iisiness. Commerce can not ferry up there for seven months in the year, 
[id the facilities for seven months can do the work for twelve. Then the 
I'eat region west of us is nearly all good, productive' land. Dropping 
)uth into the trail of St. Louis, you fall into vast deserts and rocky dis- 
•icts, useful in holding the world together. St. Louis and Cincinnati, 
istead of rivaling and hurting Chicago, are her greatest sureties of 
ominion. They are far enough away to give sea-room, — farther off than 
aris is from London, — and yet they are near enough to prevent the 
Dringing up of any other great city between them. 

St. Louis will be helped by the opening of the Mississippi, but also 
urt. That will put New Orleans on her feet, and with a railroad running 
ver into Texas and so West, she will tap the streams that now crawl up 
le Texas and Missouri road. The current is East, not North, and a sea- 
ort at New Orleans can not permanently help St. Louis. 

Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the wealth of one- 


fourth of the territory of this great republic. This strip of seacoast 
divides its margins between Portland, Boston, New York, PhiladpTphia, 
Baltimore and Savannah, or some other great port to be created ft • the 
South in the next decade. But Chicago has a dozen empires casting their 
treasures into her lap. On a bed of coal that can run all the machinery 
of the world for 500 centuries ; in a garden that can feed the race by the 
thousand years; at the head of the lakes that give her a temperature as a 
summer resort equaled by no great city in the land ; with a climate that 
insures the health of her citizens ; surrounded by all the great deposits 
of natural wealth in mines and forests and herds, Chicago is the wonder 
of to-day, and will be the oity of the future. 


During the war of 1812, Fort Dearborn became the theater of stirring 
events. The garrison consisted of fifty-four men under command of 
Captain Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant Helm (son-in-law of Mrs. 
Kinzie) and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. The only resi- 
dents at the post at that time were the wives of Captain Heald and Lieu- 
tenant Helm, and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadian voyageurs^ with their wives and cliildren. The soldiers 
and Mr. Kinzie were on most friendly terms with the Pottawattamies 
and Winnebagos, the principal tribes around them, but they could not 
win them from their attachment to the British. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing on his violin and 
his children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing 
into the house, pale with terror, and exclaiming : " The Indians ! the 
Indians!" "What? Where?" eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. "Up 
at Lee's, killing and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, 
when the alarm was given, was attending Mrs. Barnes (just confined) 
living not far off. Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river and took 
refuge in the fort, to which place Mrs. Barnes and her infant not a day 
old were safely conveyed. The rest of the inhabitants took shelter in the 
fort. This alarm was caused by a scalping party of Winnebagos, who 
hovered about the fort several days, when they disappeared, and for several 
weeks the inhabitants were undisturbed. 

On the 7th of August, 1812, General Hull, at Detroit, sent orders to 
Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and to distribute all the United 
States property to the Indians in the neighborhood — a most insane order. 
The Pottawattamie chief, who brought the dispatch, had more wisdom 
than the commanding general. He advised Captain Heald not to make 
the distribution. Said he : " Leave the fort and stores as they are, and 
let the Indians make distribution for themselves ; and while they are 
engaged in the business, the white people may escape to Fort Wayne.' 


Captain Heald held a council with the Indians on the afternoon of 
the 12th, in which his officers refused to join, for they had been informed 
that treachery was designed — that the Indians intended to murder the 
white people in the council, and then destroy those in the fort. Captain 
Heald, however, took the precaution to open a port-hole displaying a 
cannon pointing directly upon the council, and by that means saved 
his life. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Captain. Heald not 
to confide in their promises, nor distribute the arms and munitions among 
them, for it would only put power into their hands to destroy the whites. 
Acting upon this advice, Heald resolved to withhold the munitions of 
war ; and on the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other 
property had been made, the powder, ball and liquors were thrown into 
the river, the muskets broken up and destroyed. 

Black Partridge, a friendly chief, came to Captain Heald, and said : 
" Linden birds ha,ve been singing in my ears to-day: be careful on the 
march you are going to take." On that dark night vigilant Indians had 
crept near the fort and discovered the destruction of their promised booty 
going on within. The next morning the powder was seen floating on the 
surface of the river. The savages were exasperated and made loud com- 
plaints and threats. 

On the following day when preparations were making to leave the 
fort, and all the inmates were deeply impressed with a sense of impend- 
ing danger, Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, was discovered upon 
the Indian trail among the sand-hills on the borders of the lake, not far 
distant, with a band of mounted Miamis, of whose tribe he was chief, 
having been adopted by the famous Miami warrior. Little Turtle. When 
news of Hull's surrender reached Fort Wayne, he had started with this 
force to assist Heald in defending Fort Dearborn. He was too late. 
Every means for its defense had been destroyed the night before, and 
arrangements were made for leaving the fort on the morning of the 15th. 

It was a warm bright morning in the middle of August. Indications 
were positive that the savages intended to murder the white people ; and 
when they moved out of the southern gate of the fort, the march was 
like a funeral procession. The band, feeling the solemnity of the occa- 
sion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. 

Capt. Wells, who had blackened his face with gun-powder in token 
of his fate, took the lead with his band of Miamis, followed by Capt. 
Heald, with his wife by his side on horseback. Mr. Kinzie hoped by his 
personal influence to avert the impending blow, and therefore accompanied 
them, leaving his family in a boat in charge of a friendly Indian, to be 
taken to his trading station at the site of Niles, Michigan, in the event of 
his death. 





The procession moved slowly along the lake shore till they reached 
the sand-hills between the prairie and the beach, when the Pottawattamie 
escort, under the leadership of Blackbird, filed to the right, placing those 
hills between them and the white people. Wells, with his Miamis, had 
kept in the advance. They suddenly came rushing back. Wells exclaim- 
ing, " They are about to attack us ; form instantly." These words were 
quickly followed by a storm of bullets, which came whistling over the 
little hills which the treacherous savages had made the covert for their 
murderous attack. The white troops charged upon the Indians, drove 
them back to the prairie, and then the battle was waged between fifty- 
four soldiers, twelve civilians and three or four women (the cowardly 
Miamis having fled at the outset) against five hundred Indian warriors. 
The white people, hopeless, resolved to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
Ensign Ronan wielded his weapon vigorously, even after falling upon his 
knees weak from the loss of blood. Capt. Wells, who was by the side of 
his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the conflict began, behaved with the greatest 
coolness and courage. He said to her, " We have not the slightest chance 
for life. We must part to meet no more in this world. God bless you." 
And then he dashed forward. Seeing a young warrior, painted like a 
demon, climb into a wagon iu which were twelve children, and tomahawk 
them all, he cried out, unmindful of his personal danger, " If that is your 
game, butchering women and children, I will kill too." He spurred his 
horse towards the Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and 
papooses, hotly pursued by swift-footed young warriors, who sent bullets 
whistling after him. One of these killed his horse and wounded him 
severely in the leg. With a yell the young braves rushed to make him 
their prisoner and reserve him for torture. He resolved not to be made 
a captive, and by the use of the most provoking epithets tried to induce 
them to kill him instantly. He called a fiery young chief a squaw, when 
the enraged warrior killed Wells instantly with his tomahawk, jumped 
upon his body, cut out his heart, and ate a portion of the warm morsel 
with savage delight ! 

In this fearful combat women bore a conspicuous part. Mrs. Heald 
was an excellent equestrian and an expert in the use of the rifle. She 
fought the savages bravely, receiving several severe wounds. Though 
faint from the loss of blood, she managed to keep her saddle. A savage 
raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full in the face, 
and with a sweet smile and in a gentle voice said, in his own language, 
"Surely you will not kill a squaw!" The arm of the savage fell, and 
the life of the heroic woman was saved. 

Mrs. Helm, the step-daughter of Mr. Kinzie, had an encounter with 
a stout Indian, who attempted to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, 
shfi received the dancing blow on her shoulder, and at the same instant 


seized the savage round the neck with her arms and endeavored to get 
hold of liis scalping knife, which hung in a sheath at his breast. Wiiile 
she was thus struggling she was dragged from lier antagonist by anc.:hei 
jjowerful Indian, wlio bore her, in spite of her struggles, to the margin 
of the lake and plunged her in. To her astonishment she was held by 
him so that she would not drown, and she soon perceived that she was 
in the liands of the friendly Black Partridge, who liad saved her life. 

The wife of Sergeant Holt, a large and powerful woman, behaved as 
bravely as an Amazon. She rode a fine, high-spirited horse, which the 
Indians coveted, and several of them attacked her with the butts of their 
guns, for the purpose of dismounting her ; but she used the sword which 
she had snatched from her disabled husband so skillfully that she foiled 
them ; and, suddenly wheeling her horse, she dashed over the prairie, 
followed by the savages shouting. " The brave woman ! the brave woman ! 
Don't hurt her ! '* The}^ finally overtook her, and while she was fighting 
them in front, a powerful savage came up behind her, seized her by the 
neck and dragged her to tlie ground. Horse and woman were made 
captives. Mi-s. Holt Avas a long time a captive among the Indians, but 
was afterwards ransomed. 

In tliis sliarp conflict two-thirds of the white people were slain and 
wounded, and all their horses, baggage and provision were lost. Only 
twenty-eight straggling men now remained to fight five hundred Indians 
rendered furious by the sight of blood. They succeeded in breaking 
through the ranks of the murderers and gaining a slight eminence on the 
prairie near the Oak Woods. The Indians did not pursue, but gathered 
on their flanks, while the chiefs held a consultation on the sand-hills, and 
showed signs of willingness to parley. It would have been madness on 
the part of the whites to renew the fight ; and so Capt. Heald went for- 
ward and met Blackbird on the open prairie, where terras of surrender 
were soon agreed upon. It Avas arranged that the white people should 
give up their arms to Blackbird, and that the survivors should become 
prisoners of war, to be exchanged for ransoms as soon as practicable. 
With this understanding captives and captors started for the Indian 
camp near the fort, to which Mrs. Helm had been taken bleeding and 
suffering by Black Partridge, and had met her step-father and learned 
that her husband was safe. 

A new scene of horror was now opened at the Indian camp. The 
wounded, not being included in the terras of surrender, as it Avas inter- 
preted by the Indians, and the British general, Proctor, having offered a 
liberal bounty for American scalps, delivered at Maiden, nearly all the 
wounded men were killed and scalped, and the price of the trophies was 
afterwards paid by the British government. 



The State of Iowa has an outline iSgure nearly approaching that of a rec- 
tangular parallelogram, the northern and southern boundaries being nearly due 
east and west lines, and its eastern and western boundaries determined by 
southerly flowing rivers — the Mississippi on the east, and the Missouri, together 
with its tributary, the Big Sioux, on the west. The northern boundary is upon 
the parallel of forty-three degrees thirty minutes, and the southern is approxi- 
mately upon that of forty degrees and thirty-six minutes. The distance from 
the northern to the southern boundary, excluding the small prominent angle at 
the southeast corner, is a little more than two hundred miles. Owing to the 
irregularity of the river boundaries, however, the number of square miles does 
not reach that of the multiple of these numbers ; but according to a report of 
the Secretary of the Treasury to the United States Senate, March 12, 1863, 
the State of Iowa contains 35,228,200 acres, or 55,044 square miles. When it 
is understood that all this vast extent of surface, except that which is occupied 
by our rivers, lakes and peat beds of the northern counties, is susceptible of the 
highest cultivation, some idea may be formed of the immense agricultural 
resources of the State. Iowa is nearly as large as England, and twice as large 
as Scotland ; but when we consider the relative area of surface which may be 
made to yield to the wants of man, those countries of the Old World will bear 
no comparison with Iowa. 


No complete topographical survey of the State of Iowa has yet been made. 
Therefore all the knowledge, we have yet upon the subject has been obtained 
from incidental observations of geological corps, from barometrical observations 
by authority of the General Government, and levelings done by railroad en- 
gineer corps within the State. 

Taking into view the facts that the highest point in the State is but a little 
more than twelve hundred feet above the lowest point, that these two points are 
nearly three hundred miles apart, and that the whole State is traversed by 


gently flowing rivers, it will be seen that in reality the State of Iowa rests 
wholly within, and comprises a part of, a vast plain, with no mountain or hill 
ranixes within its borders. 

A clearer idea of the great uniformity of the surface of the State may be 
obtained from a statement of the general slopes in feet per mile, from point to 
point, in straight lines across it : 

From the N. E. corner to the S. E. corner of the State 1 foot 1 inch per mile. 

From the N E. corner to Spirit Lake -3 feet 5 inches per mile. 

From the N. W. corner to Spirit Lake 5 feet inches per mile. 

From the N. W. corner to the S. W. corner of the State 2 feet inches per mile. 

From the S. W corner to the highest ridge between the two 

great rivers (in Ringgold County) 4 feet 1 inch per mile 

From the dividing ridge in the S. E. corner of the State 5 feet 7 inches per mile. 

From the highest point in the State (near Spirit Lake) to the 
lowest point in the State (at the mouth of Des Moines 
River) 4 feet inches per mile. 

It will be seen, therefore, that there is a good degree of propriety in regard- 
ing the whole State as a part of a great plain, the lowest point of which within 
its borders, the southeast corner of the State, is only 444 feet above the level of 
the sea. The average height of the whole State above the level of the sea is 
not far from eight hundred feet, although it is more than a thousand miles 
inland from the nearest sea coast. These remarks are, of course, to be under- 
stood as applying to the surface of the State as a whole. When we come to 
consider its surface feature in detail, we find a great diversity of surface by the 
formation of valleys out of the general level, which have been evolved by the 
action of streams during the unnumbered years of the terrace epoch. 

It is in the northeastern part of the State tlyit the river valleys are deepest ; 
consequently the country there has the greatest diversity of surface, and its 
physical features are most strongly marked. 


The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers form the eastern and western bounda- 
ries of the State, and receive the eastern and western drainage of it. 

The eastern drainage system comprises not for from two-thirds of the en- 
tire surface of the State. The great watershed which divides these two systems 
is formed by the highest land between those rivers along the whole length of a 
line running southward from, a point on the northern boundary line of the State 
near Spirit Lake, in Dickinson County, to a nearly central point in the northern 
part of Adair County. 

From the last named point, this highest ridge of land, between the two great 
rivers, continues southward, without change of character, through Ringgold 
County into the State of Missouri ; but southward from that point, in Adair 
County, it is no longer the great watershed. From that point, another and 
lower ridge bears off more nearly southeastward, through the counties of Madi- 
son, Clarke, Lucas and App;inoose, and becomes itself the great watershed. 



All streams that rise in Iowa rise upon the incoherent surface deposits, 
occupying at first only slight depressions in the surface, and scarcely percept- 
ible. These successively coalesce to form the streams. 

The drift and bluff deposits are both so thick in Iowa that its streams not 
only rise upon their surface, but they also reach considerable depth into these 
deposits alone, in some cases to a depth of nearly two hundred feet from the 
general prairie level. 

The majority of streams that constitute the western system of Iowa drainao-e 
run, either along the whole or a part of their course, upon that peculir deposit 
known as bluff deposit. Their banks are often, even of the small streams, 
from five to ten feet in height, quite perpendicular, so that they make the 
streams almost everywhere unfordable, and a great impediment to travel across 
the open country where there are no bridges. 

The material of this deposit is of a slightly yellowish ash color, except 
where darkened by decaying vegetation, very fine and silicious, but not sandy, 
not very cohesive, and not at all plastic. It forms excellent soil, and does not 
bake or crack in drying, except limy concretions, which are generally dis- 
tributed throughout the mass^ m shape and size resembling pebbles ; not a 
stone or pebble can be found in the whole deposit. It was called " silicious 
marl" by Dr. Owen, in his geological report to the General Government, and 
its origin referred to an accumulation of sediment in an ancient lake, which 
was afterward drained, when its sediment became dry laml. Prof Swallaw 
gives it the name of "bluff," which is here adopted; the term Lacustral would 
have been better. The peculiar properties of this deposit are that it will stand 
securely with a precipitous front two hundred feet high, and yet is easily 
excavated with a spade. Wells dug in it require only to be walled to a point just 
above the water line. Yet, compact as it is, it is very porous, so that water 
which falls on its surface does not remain, but percolates through it; neither 
does it accumulate within its mass, as it does upon the surface of and within 
the drift and the stratified formations. 

The bluff deposit is known to occupy a region through which the Missouri 
runs almost centrally, and measures, as far as is known, more than two hun- 
dred miles in length and nearly one hundred miles in width. The thickest 
part yet known in Iowa is in Fremont County, where it reaches two hundred 
feet. The boundaries of this deposit in Iowa are nearly as follows : Com- 
mencing at the southeast corner of Fremont County, follow up the watershed 
between the East Nishnabotany and the West Tarkio Rivers to the southern 
boundary of Cass County ; thence to the center of Audubon County ; thence 
to Tip Top Station, on the Chicago & Northwestern Railway ; thence by a 
broad curve westward to the northwest corner of Plymouth County. 

This deposit is composed of fine sedimentary particles, similar to that 
which the Missouri River now deposits from its waters, and is the same which 


that river did deposit in a broad depression in the surface of the drift that 
formed a hike-like expansion of that river in the earliest period of the history 
of its valley. That lake, as shown by its deposit, ■which now remains, was 
about one hundred miles wide and more than twice as long. The water of the 
river was muddy then, as now, and the broad lake became filled with the sedi- 
ment which the river brought down, before its valley had enough in the lower 
portion of its course to drain it. After the lake became filled with the sedi- 
ment, tlie valley below became deepened by the constant erosive action of the 
waters, to a depth of more than sufficient to have drained the lake of its first 
waters; but the only effect then Avas to cause it to cut its valley out of the de- 
posits its own muddy waters had formed. Thus along the valley of that river, 
so far as it forms the western boundary of Iowa, the bluffs which border it are 
composed of that sediment known as bluff deposit, forming a distinct border 
along the broad, level flood plain, the width of which varies from five to fifteen 
miks, while the original sedimentary deposit stretches far inland. 

All the rivers of the western system of drainage, except the Missouri itself, 
are quite incomplete as rivers, in consequence of their being really only 
branches of other larger tributaries of that great river, or, if they empty into 
the Missouri direct, they have yet all the usual characteristics of Iowa rivers, 
from their sources to their mouths. 

Chariton and Cinind Rivers both rise and run for the first twenty-five miles 
of their courses upon the drift deposit alone. The first strata that are exposed 
by the deepening valleys of both these streams belong to the upper coal meas- 
ures, and they both continue upon the same formation until they make their 
exit from the State (the former in Appanoose County, the latter in Ringgold 
County), near the boundary of which they have passed nearly or quite through 
the whole of that formation to the middle coal measures. Their valleys gradu- 
ally deepen from their upper portions downward, so that within fifteen or twenty 
miles they have reached a depth of near a hundred and fifty feet below the gen- 
eral level of the adjacent high land. When the rivers have cut their valleys 
down through the series of limestone strata, they reach those of a clayey com- 
position. Upon these they widen their valleys and make broad flood plains 
(commonly termed "bottoms "), the soil of which is stift' and clayey, except 
where modified by sandy washings. 

A considerable breadth of woodland occupies the bottoms and valley sides 
along a great part of their lengtli ; but their upper branches and tributaries are 
mostly prairie streams. 

Platte River. — This river belongs mainly to Missouri. Its upper branches 
pass through Ringgold County, and, with the west fork of the Grand River, 
drain a large region of country. 

Here the drift deposit reaches its maximum thickness on an east and west 
line across the State, and the valleys are eroded in some instances to a depth of 
two hundred feet, apparently, through this deposit alone. 


The term " drift deposit " applies to the soil and sub-soil of the greater part 
of the State, and in it alone many of our wells are dug and our forests take 
root. It rests upon the stratified rocks. It is composed of clay, sand, gravel 
aud boulders, promiscuously intermixed, without stratification, varying in char- 
acter in different parts of the State. 

The proportion of lime in the drift of Iowa is so great that the water of all 
our wells and springs is too '' hard " for washing purposes ; and the same sub- 
stance is so prevalent in the drift clays that they are always found to have suffi- 
cient flux when used for the manufacture of brick. 

One Hundred and Two River is represented in Taylor County, the valleys 
of which have the same general character of those just described. The country , 
around and between the east and west forks of this stream is almost entirely 

Nodaway River. — This stream is represented by east, middle and west 
branches. The two former rise in Adair County, the latter in Cass County. 
These rivers and valleys are fine examples of the small rivers and valleys of 
Southern Iowa. They have the general character of drift valleys, and with 
beautiful undulating and sloping sides. The Nodaways drain one of the finest 
agricultural regions in the State, the soil of which is tillable almost to their very 
banks. The banks and the adjacent narrow flood plains are almost everywhere 
composed of a rich, deep, dark loam. 

Nkhiahotany River. — This river is represented by east and west branches, 
the former having its source in Anderson County, the latter in Shelby County. 
Both these branches, from their source to their confluence — and also the main 
stream, from thence to the point where it enters the great flood plain of the 
Missouri — run through a region the surface of which is occupied by the bluff 
deposit. The. West Nishnabotany is probably without any valuable mill sites. 
In the western part of Cass County, the East Nishnabotany loses its identity 
by becoming abruptly divided up into five or six different creeks. A few 
good mill sites occur here on this stream. None, however, that are thought 
reliable exist on either of these rivers, or on the main stream below the 
confluence, except, perhaps, one or two in Montgomery County. The 
valleys of the two branches, and the intervening upland, possess remarkable 

Boyer River. — Until it enters the flood plain of the Missouri, the Boyer 
runs almost, if not quite, its entire course through the region occupied by the 
bluff deposit, and has cut its valley entirely through it along most of its pas- 
sage. The only rocks exposed are the upper coal measures, near Reed's mill, in 
Harrison County. The exposures are slight, and are the most northerly now 
known in Iowa. The valley of this river has usually gently sloping sides, and an 
ndistinctly defined flood plain. Along the lower half of its course the adjacent 
upland presents a surface of the billowy character, peculiar to the bluff deposit. 
The source of this river is in Sac County. 


Soldier River. — The east and middle branches of this stream have their 
source in Crawford County, and the west branch in Ida County. The whole 
course of this river is through the bluff deposit. It has no exposure of strata 
alons its course. 

Little Sioux River. — Under this head are included both the main and west 
branches of that stream, together with the Maple, which is one of its branches. 
The west branch and the Maple are so similar to the Soldier River that thej 
need no separate description. The main stream has its boundary near the 
northern boundary of the State, and runs most of its course upon drift deposit 
alone, entering the region of the bluff deposit in the southern part of Cherokee 
County. The two principal upper branches, near their source in Dickinson 
and Osceola .Counties, are small prairie creeks, with indistinct valleys. On 
entering Clay County, the valley deepens, and at their confluence has a depth 
of one hundred feet, which still further increases until along the boundary line 
between Clay and Buena Yista Counties, it reaches a depth of two hundred 
feet. Just as the valley enters Cherokee County, it turns to the southward and 
becomes much widened, with its sides gently sloping to the uplands. When the 
valley enters the region of the bluff deposit, it assumes the billowy appearance. 
No exposures of strata of any kind have been found in the valley of the Little 
Sioux or any of its branches. 

Floyd River. — This river rises upon the drift in O'Brien County, and flow- 
in » southward enters the region of the bluff deposit a little north of the center 
of Plymouth County. Almost from its source to its mouth it is a prairie stream, 
with slightly sloping valley sides, which blend gradually with the uplands. A 
sino-le slight exposure of sandstone of cretaceous age occurs in the valley near 
Sioux City, and which is the only known exposure of rock of any kind along 
its whole length. Near this exposure is a mill site, but farther up the stream 
it is not valuable for such purposes. 

Rock River. — This stream passes through Lyon and Sioux Counties. It 
was evidently so named from the fact that considerable exposures of the red 
Sioux quartzite occur along the main branches of the stream in Minnesota, a 
few miles north of our State boundary. Within this State the main stream and 
its branches are drift streams, and strata are exposed. The beds and banks of 
the streams are usually sandy and gravelly, with occasional boulders intermixed. 
Big Sioux River. — The valley of this river, from the northwest corner of 
the State to its mouth, possesses much the same character as all the streams of 
the surface deposits. At Sioux Falls, a few miles above the northwest corner 
of the State, the stream meets with remarkable obstructions from the presence 
of Sioux quartzite, which outcrops directly across the stream, and causes a fall 
of about sixty feet within a distance of half a mile, producing a series of cas- 
cades. For the first twenty-five miles above its mouth, the valley is very broad, 
with a broad, flat flood plain, with gentle slopes occasionally showing indistinctly 
defined terraces. These terraces and valley bottoms constitute some of the finest 


agricultural land of the region. On the Iowa side of the valley the upland 
presents abrupt bluffs, steep as the materials of which they are composed will 
stand, and from one hundred to nearly two hundred feet high above the stream. 
At rare intervals, about fifteen miles from its mouth, the cretaceous strata are 
found exposed in the face of the bluffs of the Iowa side. No other strata are 
exposed along that part of the valley which borders our State, with the single 
exception of Sioux quartzite at its extreme northwestern corner. Some good mill 
sites may be secured along that portion of this river which borders Lyon County, 
but below this the fall will probably be found insufficient and the location for 
dams insecure. 

Missouri River. — This is one of the muddiest streams on the globe, and its 
waters are known to be very turbid far toward its source. The chief pecul- 
iarity of this river is its broad flood plains, and its adjacent bluff deposits. 
Much the greater part of the flood plain of this river is upon the Iowa side, and 
continuous from the south boundary line of the State to Sioux City, a distance 
of more than one hundred miles in length, varying from three to five miles in 
width. This alluvial plain is estimated to contain more than half a million acres 
of land within the State, upward of four hundred thousand of which are now 

The rivers of the eastern system of drainage have quite a different character 
from those of the western system. They are larger, longer and have their val- 
leys modified to a much greater extent by the underlying strata. For the lat- 
ter reason, water-power is much more abundant upon them than upon the 
streams of the western system. 

Des Moines River. — This river has its source in Minnesota, but it enters 
Iowa before it has attained any size, and flows almost centrally through it from 
northwest to southeast, emptying into the Mississippi at the extreme southeast- 
ern corner of the State. It drains a greater area than any river within the 
State. The upper portion of it is divided into two branches known as the east 
and west forks. These unite in Humboldt County. The valleys of these 
branches above their confluence are drift-valleys, except a few small exposures 
of subcarboniferous limestone about five miles above their confluence. These 
exposures produce several small mill-sites. The valleys vary from a few hun- 
dred yards to half a mile in width, and are the finest agricultural lands. In the 
northern part of Webster County, the character of the main valley is modified 
by the presence of ledges and low cliffs of the subcarboniferous limestone and 
gypsum. From a point a little below Fort Dodge to near Amsterdam, in Ma- 
rion County, the river runs all the way through and upon the lower coal-meas 
ure strata. Along this part of its course the flood-plain varies from an eighth 
to half a mile or more in width. From Amsterdam to Ottumwa the subcarbon- 
iferous limestone appears at intervals in the valley sides. Near Ottumwa, the sub- 
carboniferous rocks pass beneath the liver again, bringing down the coal-measure 
strata into its bed ; but they rise again from it in the extreme northwestern part 


of Van Buren County, and subearboniferous strata resume and keep their place 
along the valley to the north of the river. From Fort Dodge to the northern 
part of Lee County, the strata of the lower coal measures are present in the 
valley. Its flood plain is frequently sandy, from the debris of the sandstone 
and sandy shales of the coal measures produced by their removal in the process 
of the formation of the valley. 

The principal tributaries of the Des Moines are upon the western side. 
These arc the Raccoon and the three rivers, viz.: South, Middle and North Riv- 
ers. The three latter have their source in the region occupied by the upper 
coal-measure limestone formation, flow eastward over the middle coal measures, 
and enter the valley of the Des Moines upon the lower coal measures. These 
streams, especially South and Middle Rivers, are frequently bordered by high, 
rocky cliffs. Raccoon River has its source upon the heavy surface deposits of 
the middle region of Western Iowa, and along the greater part of its course it 
has excavated its valley out those deposits and the middle coal measures alone. 
The valley of the Des Moines and its branches are destined to become the seat 
of extensive manufactures in consequence of the numerous mill sites of immense 
power, and the fact that the main valley traverses the entire length of ihe Iowa 
coal fields. 

Skunk River. — This river has its source in Hamilton County, and runs 
almost its entire course upon the border of the outcrop of the lower coal meas- 
ures, or, more properly speaking, upon the subearboniferous limestone, just where 
it begins to pass beneath the coal measures by its southerly and westerly dip. 
Its general course is southeast. From the western part of Henry County, up 
as far as Story County, the broad, flat flood plain is covered with a rich deep 
clay soil, which, in time of long-continued rains and overflows of the river, has 
made the valley of Skunk River a terror to travelers from the earliest settle- 
ment of the country. There are some excellent mill sites on the lower half of 
this river, but they are not so numerous or valuable as on other rivers of the 
eastern system. 

loiva River. — This river rises in Hancock County, in the midst of a broad, 
slightly undulating drift region. The first rock exposure is that of subearbon- 
iferous limestone, in the southwestern, corner of Franklin County. It enters 
the region of the Devonian strata near the southwestern corner of Benton 
County, and in this it continues to its confluence with the Cedar in Louisa 
County. Below the junction with the Cedar, and for some miles above that 
point, its valley is broad, and especially on the northern side, with a well 
marked flood plain. Its borders gradually blend with the uplands as they slope 
away in the distance from the river. The Iowa furnishes numerous and valua- 
ble mill sites. 

Cedar River. — This stl*eam is usually understood to be a branch of the 
Iowa, but it ought, really, to be regarded as the main stream. It rises by 
numerous branches in the northern ])art of the State, and flows the entire length 


of the State, through the region occupied by the Devonian strata and alonnr the 
trend occupied by that formation. 

Tlie valley of this river, in tlie upper part of its course, is narrow, and the 
sides slope so gently as to scarcely show where the lowlands end and the up- 
lands begin. Below the confluence with the Shell Rock, the flood plain is more 
distinctly marked and the valley broad and shallow. The valley of the Cedar 
is one of the finest regions in the State, and both the main stream and its 
branches aftbrd abundant and reliable mill sites. 

Wapsipinnicon River. — This river has its source near the source of the 
Cedar, and runs parallel and near it almost its entire course, the upper half 
upon the same formation — the Devonian. In the northeastern part of Linn 
County, it enters the region of the Niagara limestone, upon which it continues 
to the Mississippi. It is one hundred miles long, and yet the area of its drain- 
age is only from twelve to twenty miles in width. Hence, its numerous mill 
sites are unusually secure. ' 

Turkey River. — This river and the Upper Iowa are, in many respects, un- 
like other Iowa rivers. The difierence is due to the great depth they have 
eroded their valleys and the different character of the material through which 
they have eroded. Turkey River rises in Howard County, and in Winnesheik 
County, a few miles from its source, its valley has attained a depth of more than 
two hundred feet, and in Fayette and Clayton Counties its depth is increased to 
three and four hundred feet. The summit of the uplands, bordering nearly the 
whole length of the valley, is capped by the Maquoketa shales. These shales 
are underlaid by the Galena limestone, between two and three hundred feet 
thick. The valley has been eroded through these, and runs upon the Trenton 
limestone. Thus, all the formations along and within this valley are Lower 
Silurian. The valley is usually narrow, and without a well-marked flood plain. 
Water power is abundant, but in most places inaccessible. 

Tipper Iowa River. — This river rises in Minnesota, just beyond the north- 
ern boundary line, and enters our State in Howard County before it has attained 
any considerable size. Its course is nearly eastward until it reaches the Mis- 
sissippi. It rises in the region of the Devonian rocks, and flows across the out- 
crops, respectively, of the Niagara, Galena and Trenton limestone, the lower 
magnesian limestone and Potsdam sandstone, into and through all of which, 
except the last, it has cut its valley, which is the deepest of any in Iowa. The 
valley sides are, almost everywhere, high and steep, and cliffs of lower magne- 
sian and Trenton limestone give them a wild and rugged aspect. In the lower 
part of the valley, the flood plain reaches a width sufficient for the location of 
small farms, but usually it is too narrow for such purposes. On the higher 
surface, however, as soon as you leave the valley you come immediately upon a 
cultivated country. This stream has the greatest slope per mile of any in Iowa, 
consequently it furnishes immense water power. In some places, where creeks 
come into it, the valley widens and affords good locations for farms. The town 


of Dccorah, in Winnoshcik County, is located in one of these spots, which 
makes it a lovely location ; and the power of the river and the small spring 
streams around it offer fine facilities for manufacturing. This river and its 
tributaries are the only trout streams in Iowa. 

3Iississip2n River. — This river may be described, in general terms, as a broad 
canal cut out of the general level of the country through which the river flows. 
It is bordered by abrupt hills or bluffs. The bottom of the valley ranges from 
one to eight miles in width. The whole space between the bluffs is occupied by 
the river and its bottom, or flood plain only, if we except the occasional terraces 
or remains of ancient flood plains, which are not now reached by the highest 
floods of tlie river. The river itself is from half a mile to nearly a mile in 
width. There arc but four points along the whole length of the State where the 
bluffs approach the stream on both sides. The Lower Silurian formations com- 
pose the bluffs in the northern part of the State, but they gradually disappear 
by a southerly dip, and the bluffs are continued successively by the Upper 
Silurian, Devonian, and subcarboniferous rocks, which are reached near the 
southeastern corner of the State. 

Considered in their relation to the present general surface of the state, the 
relative ages of the river valley of Iowa date back only to the close of the 
glacial epoch ; but that the Mississippi, and all the rivers of Northeastern Iowa, 
if no others, had at least a large part of the rocky portions of their valleys 
eroded by pre-glacial, or perhaps even by palaeozoic rivers, can scarcely be 


The lakes of Iowa may be properly divided into two distinct classes. The 
first may be called drift lakes, having had their origin in the depressions left 
in the surface of the drift at the close of the glacial epoch, and have rested upon 
the undisturbed surface of the drift deposit ever since the glaciers disappeared. 
The others may be properly icrmc^ jiuvatile or alluvial lakes, because they have 
had their origin by the action of rivers while cutting their own valleys out from 
the surface of the drift as it existed at the close of the glacial epoch, and are now 
found resting upon the alluvium, as the others rest upon the drift. By the term 
alluvium is meant the deposit which has accumulated in the valleys of rivers by 
the action of their own currents. It is largely composed of sand and other 
coarse material, and upon that deposit arc some of the best and most productive 
soils in the State. It is this deposit which form the flood plains and deltas of 
our rivers, as well as the terraces of their valleys. 

The regions to which the drift lakes are principally confined are near the 
head waters of the principal streams of the State. We consequently find them 
in those regions which lie between the Cedar and Des Moines Rivers, and the 
Des Moines and Little Sioux. No drift lakes are found in Southern Iowa. 
The largest of the lakes to be found in the State are Spirit and Okoboji, in 


Dickinson County ; Clear Lake, in Cerro Gordo County ; and Storm Jjake, in 
Bunea Vista County. 

Spirit Lake. — The width and length of this lake arc aliout equal, jtujid it 
contains about twelve scjuare miles of surface, its northern border resting directly 
on the boundary of tlie State. It lies almost directly npon the great watershed. 
Its shores are mostly gravelly, and the country about it fertile. 

Okohoji Lake. — This body of water lies directly south of Spirit Lake, and 
has somewhat the shape of a horse-shoe, with its eastern projection within a few 
rods of Spirit Lake, where it receives the outlet of the latter. Okob(jji Lake 
extends about five miles southward from Spirit Lake, thence about the same 
distance westward, and then bends northward about as far as the eastern projec- 
tion. The eastern portion is narrow, but the western is larger, and in some 
places a hundred feet deep. The surroundings of this and Spirit Lake are very 
pleasant. Fish are abundant in them, and they are the resort of myriads of 
water fowl. 

Clear Lake. — This lake is situated in Cerro Gordo County, upon the 
watershed between the Iowa and Cedar Rivers. It is about five miles long, 
and two or three mih-s wide, and has a maximum depth of only fifteen 
feet. Its shores and the country around it are like that of Spirit Lake. 

Storm Lake. — This body of water rests upon tlio great water shed in Buena 
Vista County. It is a clear, beautiful sheet of water, containing a surface area 
of between four and five square miles. 

The outlets of all these drift-lakes are dry during a {jortion of the year, ex- 
cept Okoboji. 

Walled Lakes. — Along the water sheds of Northern Iowa great numbers of 
small lakes exist, varying from half a mile to a mile in diameter. One of the lakes 
in Wright County, and another in Sac, have each received the name of " Walled 
Lake," on account of the existence of embankments on their borders, which are 
supposed to be the work of ancient inhabitants. These embankments are from 
two to ten feet in height, and from five to thirty feet They are the 
result of natural causes alone, being referable to the periodic action of ice, aided, 
to 8om<; extent, ]>y the force of the waves. These lakes are very shallow, and 
in winter freeze to the bottom, so tliat but little unfrozen water remains in the 
middle. The ice freezes fast to everything upon the bottom, and the expansive 
power of the water in freezing acts in all directions from the center to the cir- 
cumference, and whatever was on the bottom of the lake has been thus carried 
to the shore, and this has been going on from year to year, from century to 
century, forming the embankments which have caused so much wonder. 


Springs issue from all formations, and from the sides of almost every valley, 
but they are more numerous, and assume proportions which give rise to the 
name of sink-holes, along the upland Ijoi-dcrs of the L'pper Iowa River, ov/ing 


to the peculiar fissured and laminated character and great thickness of the strata 
of the ago of the Trenton limestone which underlies the whole region of the 
valley of that stream. 

No mineral springs, properly so called, have yet been discovered in Iowa, 
though the water of several artesian wells is frequently found charged Avith 
soluble mineral substances. 


It is estimated that seven-eighths of the surface of the State was prairie 
when first settled. They are not confined to level surfaces, nor to any partic- 
ular variety of soil, for within the State they rest upon all formations, from 
those of the Azoic to those of the Cretaceous age, inclusive. Whatever may 
have been their origin^ their present existence in Iowa is not due to the influ- 
ence of climate, nor the soil, nor any of the undeidying formations. Tlie real 
cause is the prevalence of the annual fires. If these had been prevented fifty 
years ago, Iowa would now be a timbered country. The encroachment of forest 
trees upon prairie farms as soon as the bordering Avoodland is protected from 
the annual prairie fires, is well known to farmers throughout the State. 

The soil of Iowa is justly fiimous for its fertility, and there is probably no 
equal area of the earth's surface that contains so little untillable land, or whose 
soil has so high an average of fertility. Ninety-five per cent, of its surface is 
tillable land. 


The soil of Iowa may be separated into three general divisions, which not 
only possess different physical characters, but also differ in the mode of their 
origin. These are drift, bluff and alluvial, and belong respectively to the 
deposits bearing the same names. The drift occupies a much larger part of the 
surface of the State than both the others. The bluff has the next greatest area 
of surface, and the alluvial least. 

All soil is disintegrated rock. The drift deposit of Iowa was derived, to a 
considerable extent, from the rocks of Minnesota ; but the greater part of Iowa 
drift was derived from its own rocks, much of which has been transported but a 
short distance. In general terms the constant component element of the drift 
soil is that portion which was transported from the north, while the inconstant 
elements are those portions which were derived from the adjacent or underlying 
strata. For example, in Western Iowa, wherever that cretaceous formation 
known as the Nishnabotany sandstone exists, the soil contains more sand than 
elsewhere. The same may be said of the soil of some parts of the State occu- 
pied by the lower coal measures, the sandstones and sandy shales of that forma- 
tion furnishing the sand. 

In Northern and Northwestern Iowa, the drift contains more sand and 
gravel than elsewhere. This sand and gravel was, doubtless, derived from the 



cretaceous rocks that now do, or formerly did, exist there, and also in part 
from the conglomerate and pudding-stone beds of the Sioux quartzite. 

In Southern Iowa, the soil is frequently stiff and clayey. This preponder- 
ating clay is doubtless derived from the clayey and shaly beds which alternate 
with the limestones of that region. 

The bluff soil is that which rests upon, and constitutes a part of, the bluff 
deposit. It is found only in the western part of the State, and adjacent to the 
Missouri River. Although it contains less than one per cent, of clay in its 
composition, it is in no respect inferior to the best drift soil. 

The alluvial soil is that of the flood plains of the river valleys, or bottom 
lands. That which is periodically flooded by the rivers is of little value for 
agricultural purposes ; but a large part of it is entirely above the reach of the 
highest floods, and is very productive. 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclu- 
sive ; but the greater portion of the surface of the State is occupied by those 
of the Palaeozoic age. The table below will show each of these formations in 
their order : 






Upper Silurian 

Lower Silurian 





(Post Tertiary 
Lower Cretaceous. 


1 Coal Measures. 







j fnoceriimous bed 

j Woodburij Sandstone and Shales.. 

Nishnabotany Sandstone 

Upper Coal Measures 

jMiddle Coal Measures 

Lower Coal Measures 

St. Louis Limestone 

Keokuk Limestone 

Burl ington Limestone 

Kinderhook beds 

j Hamilton Limestone and Shales. 

Niagara Limestone 

'Maquoketa Shales 

Galena Limestone 

Trenton Limestone 

jSt. Peter's Sandstone 

Lower Magnesian Limestone 

'Potsdam Sandstone 

iSioux Quartzite 




to 200 








The Sioux quartzite is found exposed in natural ledges only upon a few 
acres in the extreme northwest corner of the State, upon the banks of the Big 
Sioux River, for which reason the specific name of Sioux Quartzite has been 
given them. It is an intensely hard rock, breaks in splintery fracture, and a 
color varying, in different localities, from a light to deep red. The process of 
metamorphism has been so complete throughout the whole formation that the 
rock is almost everywhere of uniform texture. The dip is four or five degrees 
to the northward, and the trend of the outcrop is eastward and westward. This 


•ock may be (luarried in a fi-w rare cases, but usually it cannot be secured in 
iry forms except that iiiti) ^vllicll it naturally cracks, and the tendency is to 
mgular pieces. It is absolutely indcsti iicti))le. 


I'KIMdItDlAL (iUOUl'. 

J*otschifn Sandstone. — This formation is exposed only in a small portion of 
he northeastern portion of the State. It is only to be seen in the biises of the 
tlufls and steep valley sides which border the river there. It may be seen 
mdorlying the lower magnesian limestone, St. Peter s sandstone and Trenton 
imestone, in their regular order, along the bluffs of the Mississippi from the 
lorthern boundary of the State as far south as Guttenburg, along the Upper 
lOwa for a distance of about twenty miles from its mouth, and along a few of 
he streams which empty into the Mississippi in Allamakee County. 

It is nearly valueless for economic purposes. 

No fossils have been discovered in this formation in Iowa. 

Lower 3Iii(jnesiuiu Limestone. — This formation has but little greater geo- 
graphical extent in Iowa than the Potsdam sandstone. It lacks a uniformity 
)f texture and stratification, owing to which it is not generally valuable for 
)uildiiig j)urposes. 

The only fossils found in this formation in Iowa are a few traces of crinoids, 
tear McGregor. 

*S'^ Peter s Sandstone. — This formation is remarkably uniform in thickness 
hroughout its known geographical extent ; and it is evident it occupies a large 
)ortion of the northern half of Allamakee County, immediately beneath the 


Trenton Limestone. — With the exception of this, all tlie limestones of both 
.'j)per and Lower Siluriati age in Iowa are magnesian limestones — nearly pure 
lolomites. This formation occupies large portions of Winnesheik and AUa- 
nakee Counties and a portion of Clayton. The greater part of it is useless for 
iconomic purposes, yet there are in some places compact and evenly bedded 
ayers, which aflbrd fine material for window caps and sills. 

In this formation, fossils are abundant, so much so that, in some places, the 
ock is made up of a mass of shells, corals and fragments of tribolites, cemented 
ty calcareous material into a solid rock. Some of these fossils are new to 
cience and peculiar to Iowa. 

The Galena Limestone. — This is the upper formation of the Trenton group, 
t seldom exceeds twelve miles in width, although it is fully one hundred and 
ifty miles long. The outcrop traverses portions of the counties of Howard, 
iVinnesheik, Allamakee, Fayette, Clayton, Dubuque and Jackson. It exhibits 
ts greatest develoj)HUMit in Dubu(|ue Countv- It is nearly a pure dolomite, 
vith a slight admixture i»f silicious matter. It is usually unfit f^,- dressing. 


though sometimes near tlic top of the bed ^ood Idocks for (lrcRsiii<^ uxc, found. 
This formation is the source of the h^ad ore of the Dubuque lead mines. The 
lead region proper is confined to an area of about fifteen miles H(juare in the 
, vicinity of Dubucpie. The ore occurs in vertical fissures, which truv(;rse the 
rock at regular intervals from east to "west; some is found in those wliich have 
a north and south direction. The ore is mostly that known as (Jalena, or sul- 
phuret of lead, very small (juantities only of the carbonate being found with it. 


Maquoketa Shalen. — The surface occupied by tliis formation is singularly 
long and narrow, seldom reaching more than a mile or two in width, but more 
than a hundred miles in length. Its most southerly exposure is in the bluHs of 
the Mississij)pi near Bellevue, in Jackson County, and the most northerly yet 
recognized is in the western part of Winnesheik County. Tlie whoh; formation 
is largely composed of bluish and brownish shales, sometimes slightly arena- 
ceous, sometimes calcareous, which weather into a tenacious clay upon the sur- 
face, and the soil derived from it is usually stiff and clayey. Its economic 
Viilue is very slight. 

Several species of fossils which characterize the Cin(;irinati group are found 
in the Maquoketa shales; but they contain a larger nurnb(.'r that have been 
found anywhere else than in tliese shales in Iowa, and their distinct faunal char- 
acteristics seem to warrant the separation of the Maquoketa shales as a distinct 
formation from any others of the group. 


NIAfJAllA G".Oi;i'. 

Niagara Limestone. — The area occuf)ied by the Niagara limestone is nearly 
one hundred and sixty miles long from north to south, and forty and fifty miles 

This formation is entirely a magnesian limestone, with in some places a con- 
siderable proportion of silicious matter in the form of chert or coarse flint. A 
large part of it is evenly bedded, and probably affords the best and greatest 
amount of quarry rock in the State. The quarries at Anamosa, LeClaire and 
Farley are all opened in this formation. 



Hamilton Limestone. — The area of surface occupied by the Hamilton lime- 
stone and shales is fully as great as those by all the formations of both Upper 
and Lower Silurian age in the State. It is nearly two hundred miles long and 
from forty to fifty miles broad. The general trend is northwestward and south- 

Although a large part of the material of this formation is practically quite 
■ajarthless, yet other portions are valuable for economic purposes ; and having a 


large geographical extent in the State, is one of the most important formations, 
in a practical point of view. At Waverly, Bremer County, its vahie for the 
production of hydraulic lime has been practically demonstrated. The heavier 
md more uniform magnesian beds furnish material for bridge piers and other 
material requiring strength and durability. 

All the Devonian strata of Iowa evidently belong to a single epoch, and re- 
ferable to the Hamilton, as recognized by New York geologists. 

The most conspicuous and characteristic fossils of this formation are bra- 
chiopod, mollusks and corals. The coral Acervularia Davidsoni occurs near 
Iowa City, and is known as " Iowa City Marble," and " bird's-eye marble." 


Of the three groups of formations that constitute the carboniferous system, 
viz., the subcarboniferous, coal measures and permian, only the first two are 
found in Iowa. 


The area of the surface occupied by this group is very large. Its eastern 
border passes from the northeastern part of Winnebago County, with consider- 
able directness in a southeasterly direction to the northern part of Washington 
County. Here it makes a broad and direct bend nearly eastward, striking 
the Mississippi River at Muscatine. The southern and western boundary is to 
a considerable extent the same as that which separates it from the coal field. 
From the southern part of Pocahontas County it passes southeast to Fort Dodge, 
thence to Webster City, thence to a point three or four miles northeast of El- 
dora, in Ilardin County, thence southward to the middle of the north line of 
Jasper County, thence southeastward to Sigourney, in Keokuk County, thence 
to the northeastern corner of Jefferson County, thence sweeping a few miles 
eastward to the southeast corner of Van Buren County. Its area is nearly two 
hundred and fifty miles long, and from twenty to fifty miles wide. 

The Kinderhook Beds. — The most southerly exposure of these beds is near 
the mouth of Skunk River, in Des Moines County. The most northerly now 
known is in the eastern part of Pocahontas County, more than two hundred 
miles distant. The principal exposures of this formation are along the bluffs 
which border the INIississippi and Skunk Rivers, where they form the eastern 
and northern boundary of Des Moines County, along English River, in Wash- 
ington County ; along the Iowa River, in Tama, Marshall, Hamlin and Frank- 
lin Counties ; and along the Des Moines River, in Humboldt County. 

The economic value of this formation is very considerable, particularly in 
the northern portion of the region it occupies. In Pocahontas and Humboldt 
Counties it is almost invaluable, as no other stone except a few boulders are 
found here. At Iowa Falls the lower division is very good for building pur- 
poses. In Marshall County all the limestone to be obtained comes from this 
formation, and the quarries near LeGrand are very valuable. At this point 


some of the layers are finely veined with peroxide of iron, and are wrought into 
ornamental and useful objects. 

In Tama County, the oolitic member is well exposed, where it is manufac- 
tured into lime. It is not valuable for building, as upon exposure to atmosphere 
and frost, it crumbles to pieces. 

The remains of fishes are the only fossils yet discovered in this formation 
that can be referred to the sub-kingdom vertebrata ; and so far as yet recog- 
nized, they all belong to the order selachians. 

Of ARTICULATES, only two species have been recognized, both of which 
belong to the genus phiUipsia. 

The sub-kingdom mollusca is largely represented. 

The eadiata are represented by a few crinoids, usually found in a very im- 
perfect condition. The sub-kingdom is also represented by corals. 

The prominent feature in the life of this epoch was molluscan ; so much so 
in fact as to overshadow all other branches of the animal kingdom. The pre- 
vailing classes are : lamellihranchiates, in the more arenaceous portions ; and 
brachiopods, in the more calcareous portions. 

JMo remains of vegetation have been detected in any of the strata of this 

The Burlington Limestone. — This formation consists of two distinct calca- 
reous divisions, which are separated by a series of silicious beds. Both divi- 
sions are eminently crinoidal. 

The southerly dip of the Iowa rocks carries the Burlington limestone down, 
so that it is seen for the last time in this State in the valley of Skunk River, 
near the southern boundary of Des Moines County. The most northerly point 
at which it has been recognized is in the northern part of Washington County. 
It probably exists as far north as Marshall County. 

This formation aifords much valuable material for economic purposes. The 
upper division furnishes excellent common quarry rock. 

The great abundance and variety of its fossils — crinoids — now known to be 
more tlian three hundred, have justly attracted the attention of geologists in all 
parts of the world. 

The only remains of vertebrates discovered in this formation are those of 
■fishes, and consist of teeth and spines ; bone of bony fishes, like those most 
common at the present day, are found in these rocks. On Bufiington Creek, in 
Louisa County, is a stratum in an exposure so fully charged with these remains 
that it might with propriety be called bone breccia. 

Remains of articulates are rare in this formation. So far as yet discovered, 
they are confined to two species of tribolites of the genus j)hillipsia. 

Fossil shells are very common. 

The two lowest classes of the sub-kingdom radiata are represented in the 
genera zaphrentis, amplexus and syringapora, while the highest class — echino- 
derms — are found in most extraordinary profusion. 


The Keokuk Limestone. — It is only in the four counties of Lee, Van 
Buren, lionry and Des Moines that this formation is to be seen. 

In some localities the upper silicious portion of this formation is known as 
the Geode bed. It is not recognizable in the northern portion of the formation^ 
nor in connection \vith it where it is exposed, about eighty miles below Keokuk. 

The geodes of the Geode bed are more or less spherical masses of silex, 
usually hollow and lined with crystals of quartz. The outer crust is rough and 
unsightly, but the crystals which stud the interior are often very beautiful. 
They vary in size from the size of a walnut to a foot in diameter. 

The economic value of this formation is very great. Large quantities of its 
stone have been used in the finest structures in the State, among Avliich are the 
post offices at Dubui^ue and Des Moines. The principal quarries are along the 
banks of the Mississippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

The only vertebrate fossils found in the formation are fishes, all belonging 
to the order selachians, some of which indicate that their owners reached a 
length of twenty-five or thirty feet. 

Of the articulates, only two species of the genus phillipsia have been found 
in this formation. 

Of the mollusks, no cephalopods have yet been recognized in this formation ia 
this State ; gasteropods are rare ; brachiopods and polyzoans are quite abundant. 

Of radiates, corals of genera zaphrentes, amploxus and aulopera are found, 
but crinoids are most abundant. 

Of the low forms of animal life, the protozoans, a small fossil related to the 
sponges, is found in this formation in small numbers. 

The St. Louis Limestone. — This is the uppermost of the subcarboniferous 
^roup in Iowa. The superficial area it occupies is comparatively small, because 
it consists of long, narrow strips, yet its exten*- is very great. It is first seen 
resting on the geode division of the Keokuk limestone, near Keokuk. Pro- 
seeding northward, it forms a narrow border along the edge of the coal fields 
in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jefferson, Wasliington, Keokuk and Mahaska 
Counties. It is then lost sight of until it appears again in the banks of Boone 
River, where it again passes out of view under the coal measures until it is 
next seen in the banks of the Des Moines, near Fort Dodfre. As it exists in 
[owa, it consists of three tolerably distinct subdivisions — the magnesian, arena- 
ceous and calcareous. 

The upper division furnishes excellent material for quicklime, and when 
juarries are well opened, as in the northwestern part of Van Buren County, 
large blocks are obtained. The sandstone, or middle division, is of little 
Bconomic value. The lower or magnesian division furnishes a valuable 
ind durable stone, exposures of which are found on Lick Creek, in Van Buren 
County, and on Long Creek, seven miles west of Burlington. 

Of the fossils of this formation, the vertebrates are represented only by the 
remains of fish, belonging to the two orders, selachians and ganoids. The 


articulates are represented by one species of the trilobite, genus pMlUpsia, and 
two ostracoid, genera, cythre and heyricia. The mollusks distinguish this 
formation more than any other branch of the animal kingdom. Radiates are 
exceedingly rare, showing a marked contrast between this formation and the 
two preceding it. 

The rocks of the subcarboniferous period have in other countries, and in 
other parts of our own country, furnished valuable minerals, and even coal, but 
in Iowa the economic value is confined to its stone alone. 

The Lower Silurian, Upper Silurian and Devonian rocks of Iowa are largely 
composed of limestone. Magnesia also enters largely into the subcarbon- 
iferous group. With the completion of the St, Louis limestone, the 
production of the magnesian limestone seems to have ceased among the rocks of 

Although the Devonian age has been called the age of fishes, yet so far as 
Iowa is concerned, the rocks of no period can compare with the subcarbon- 
iferous in the abundance and variety of the fish remains, and, for this reason, 
the Burlington and Keokuk limestones will in the future become more 
famous among geologists, perhaps, than any other formations in North 

It will be seen that the Chester limestone is omitted from the subcarbon- 
iferous group, and which completes the full geological series. It is probable 
the whole surface of Iowa was above the sea during the time of the 
formation of the Chester limestone to the southward about one hundred 

At the close of the epoch of the Chester limestone, the shallow seas in 
which the lower coal measures were formed again occupied the land, extending 
almost as far north as that sea had done in which the Kinderhook beds Avere 
formed, and to the northeastward its deposits extended beyond the subcarbon- 
iferous groups, outlines of which are found upon the next, or Devonian rock. 


The coal-measure group of Iowa is properly divided into three formations, 
viz., the lower, middle and upper coal measures, each having a vertical thick- 
ness of about two hundred feet. 

A line drawn upon the map of Iowa as follows, will represent the eastern 
and northern boundaries of the coal fields of the State : Commencing at the 
southeast corner of Van Buren County, carry the line to the northeast corner 
of Jefferson County by a slight easterly curve through the western portions of 
Lee and Henry Counties. Produce this line until it reaches a point six or 
eight miles northward from the one last named, and then carry it northwest- 
ward, keeping it at about the same distance to the northward of Skunk River 
and its north branch that it had at first, until it reaches the southern boundary 
of Marshall County, a little west of its center. Then carry it to a point 


three or four miles northeast from Eldora, in Hardin County ; thence west- 
ward to a point a little north of Webster City, in Hamilton County; and 
thence further westward to a point a little north of Fort Dodge, in Webster 

Lower Coal Measures. — In consequence of the recedence to the southward 
of the borders of the middle and upper coal measures, the lower coal measures 
alone exist to the eastward and northward of Des Moines River. They also 
occupy a large area westward and southward of that river, but their southerly 
dip passes them below the middle coal measures at no great distance from the 

No other formation in the whole State possesses the economic value of the 
lower coal measures. The clay that underlies almost every bed of coal furnishes 
a large amount of material for potters' use. The sandstone of these measures 
is usually soft and unfit, but in some places, as near Red Rock, in Marion 
County, blocks of large dimensions are obtained which make good building 
material, samples of which can be seen in the State Arsenal, at Des Moines. 
On the whole, that portion of the State occupied by the lower coal measures, 
is not well supplied with stone. 

But few fossils have been found in any of the strata of the lower coal meas- 
ures, but such animal remains as have been found are without exception of 
marine origin. 

Of fossil plants found in these measures, all probably belong to the class 
acrogens. Specimens of ealamites, and several species of ferns, are found in 
all of the coal measures, but the genus lepidodendron seems not to have existed 
later than the epoch of the middle coal measures. 

Middle Coal Measures. — This formation within the State of Iowa occupies 
a narrow belt of territory in the southern central portion of the State, embrac- 
ing a superficial area of about fourteen hundred square miles. The counties 
more or less underlaid by this formation are Guthrie, Dallas, Polk, Madison, 
Warren, Clarke, Lucas, Monroe, Wayne and Appanoose. 

This formation is composed of alternating beds of clay, sandstone and lime- 
stone, the clays or shales constituting the bulk of the formation, the limestone 
occurring in their bands, the lithological peculiarities of which offer many con- 
trasts to the limestones of the upper and lower coal measures. The formation 
is also characterized by regular wave-like undulations, with a parallelism which 
indicates a widespread disturbance, though no dislocation of the strata have 
been discovered. 

Generally speaking, few species of fossils occur in these beds. Some of the 
shales and sandstone have aff"orded a few imperfectly preserved land plants — 
three or four species of ferns, belonging to the genera. Some of the carbonif- 
erous shales afford beautiful specimens of what appear to have been sea- weeds. 
Radiates are represented by corals. The mollusks are most numerously repre- 
sented. Trilohites and ostraooids are the only remains known of articulates. 


Vertebrates are only known by the remains of salachians, or sharks, and 

Upper Coal Measures. — The area occupied by this formation in Iowa is 
very great, comprising thirteen whole counties, in' the southwestern part of the 
State. It adjoins by its northern and eastern boundaries the area occupied by 
the middle coal measures. 

The prominent lithological features of this formation are its limestones, yet 
it contains a considerabli proportion of shales and sandstones. Although it is 
known by the name of upper coal measures, it contains but a single bed of coal, 
and that only about twenty inches in maximum thickness. 

The limestone exposed in this formation furnishes good material for building 
as in Madison and Fremont Counties. The sandstones are quite worthless. No 
beds of clay for potter's use are found in the whole formation. 

The fossils in this formation are much more numerous than in either the 
middle or lower coal measures. The vertebrates are represented by the fishes 
of the orders selachians and ganoids. The articulates are represented by the 
trilobites and ostracoids. Mollusks are represented by the classes cephalapoda, 
gasteropoda, lamelli, branchiata, hrachiapoda and polyzoa. Radiates are more 
numerous than in the lower and middle coal measures. Protogoans are repre- 
sented in the greatest abundance, some layers of limestone being almost entirely 
composed of their small fusiform shells. 


There being no rocks, in Iowa, of permian, triassic or Jurassic age, the 
next strata in the geological series are of the cretaceous age. They are found 
in the western half of the State, and do not dip, as do all the other formations 
upon which they rest, to the southward and westward, but have a general dip 
of their own to the north of westward, which, however, is very slight. 
Although the actual exposures of cretaceous rocks are few in Iowa, there is 
reason to believe that nearly all the western half of the State was originally 
occupied by them ; but being very friable, they have been removed by denuda- 
tion, which has taken place at two separate periods. The first period was 
during its elevation from the cretaceous sea, and during the long tertiary age 
that passed between the time of that elevation and the commencement of the 
glacial epoch. The second period was during the glacial epoch, when the ice 
produced their entire removal over considerable areas. 

It is difficult to indicate the exact boundaries of these rocks ; the following 
will approximate the outlines of the area : 

From the northeast corner to the southwest corner of Kossuth County ; 
thence to the southeast corner of Guthrie County; thence to the southeast 
corner of Cass County; thence to the middle of the south boundary of Mont- 
gomery County ; thence to the middle of the north boundary of Pottawattamie 
County ; thence to the middle of the south boundary of Woodbury County y 


thence to Sergeant's bluffs ; up the Missouri and Big Sioux 'Rivers to the 
northwest corner of the State ; eastward along the State line to the place of 

All the cretaceous rocks in Iowa are a part of the same deposits farther up 
the Missouri River, and in reality form their eastern boundary. 

Nishnahotany Sandstone. — This rock has the most easterly and southerly 
extent of the cretaceous deposits of Iowa, reaching the southeastern part of 
Guthrie County and the southern part of Montgomery County. To the north- 
ward, it passes beneath the Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter passing 
beneath the inoceramus, or chalky, beds. This sandstone is, with few excep- 
tions, almost valueless for economic purposes. 

The only fossils found in this formation are a few fragments of angiosper- 
mous leaves. 

Woodhuri/ Sandstones and Shales. — These strata rest upon the Nishna- 
botany sandstone, and have not been observed outside of "Woodbury County, 
hence their name. Their principal exposure is at Sergeant's Bluffs, seven 
miles below Sioux City. 

This rock has no value except for purposes of common masonry. 

Fossil remains are rare. Detached scales of a lepidoginoid species have 
been detected, but no other vertebrate remains. Of remains of vegetation, 
leaves of salix meekii and sassafras cretaceum have been occasionally found. 

Inoceramus Beds. — These beds rest upon the Woodbury sandstones and 
shales. They have not been observed in Iowa, except in the bluffs which 
border the Big Sioux River in Woodbury and Plymouth Counties. They are 
composed almost entirely of calcareous material, the upper portion of which is 
extensively used for lime. No building material is to be obtained from these 
beds ; and the only value they possess, except lime, are the marls, which at 
some time may be useful on the soil of the adjacent region. 

The only vertebrate remains found in the cretaceous rocks are the fishes. 
Those in the inoceramus beds of Iowa are two species of squoloid selachians, 
or cestratront, and three genera of teliosts. Molluscan remains are rare. 


Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern Middle Iowa, which, it is esti- 
mated, contain the following areas : 

Countks. Acres. 

Cerro Gordo 1,500 

Worth 2,(00 

Winnebago 2,000 

Hancock 1,500 

Wright 500 

Kossuth 700 

Dickinson 80 

Several other counties contain peat beds, but the character of the peat is 
inferior to that in the northern part of the State. The character of the peat 


named is equal to that of Ireland. The beds are of an average depth of four 
feet. It is estimated that each acre of these beds will furnish two hundred and 
fifty tons of dry fuel for each foot in depth. At present, owing to the sparse- 
ness of the population, this peat is not utilized ; but, owing to its great distance 
from the coal fields and the absence of timber, the time is coming when their 
value will be realized, and the fact demonstrated that Nature has abundantly 
compensated the deficiency of other fuel. 


The only deposits of the sulphates of the alkaline earths of any economic 
value in Iowa are those of gypsum at and in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, in 
Webster County. All others are small and unimportant. The deposit occupies 
a nearly central position in Webster County, the Des Moines River running 
nearly centrally through it, along the valley sides of which the gypsum is seen 
in the form of ordinary rock clifi" and ledges, and also occurring abundantly in 
similar positions along both sides of the valleys of the smaller streams and of 
the numerous ravines coming into the river valley. 

The most northerly known limit of the deposit is at a point near the mouth 
of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the Des Moines River, and almost adjoining 
the town of Fort Dodge. The most southerly point at which it has been 
found exposed is about six miles, by way of the river, from this northerly point 
before mentioned. Our knowledge of the width of the area occupied by it is 
limited by the exposures seen in the valleys of the small streams and in the 
ravines which come into the valley within the distance mentioned. As one goes 
up these ravines and minor valleys, the gypsum becomes lost beneath the over- 
lying drift. There can be no doubt that the different parts of this deposit, now 
disconnected by the valleys and ravines having been cut through it, were orig- 
inally connected as a continuous deposit, and there seems to be as little reason 
to doubt that the gypsum still extends to considerable distance on each side of 
the valley of the river beneath the drift which covers the region to a depth of 
from twenty to sixty feet. 

The country round about this region has the prairie surface approximating 
a general level which is so characteristic of the greater part of the vState, and 
which exists irrespective of the character or geological age of the strata beneath, 
mainly because the drift is so deep and uniformly distributed that it frequently 
almost alone gives character to the surface. The valley sides of the Des Moines 
River, in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, are somewhat abrupt, having a depth there 
from the general level of the upland of about one hundred and seventy feet, 
and consequently presents somewhat bold and interesting features in the land- 

As one walks up and down the creeks and ravines which come into the 
valley of the Des Moines River there, he sees the gypsum exposed on 
either side of them, jutting out from beneath the drift in the form of 


ledges and bold quarry fronts, having almost the exact appearance of 
ordinary limestone exposures, so horizontal and regular are its lines of 
stratification, and so similar in color is it to some varieties of that rock. The 
principal quarries now opened are on Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below 
Fort Dodge. 

The reader will please bear in mind that the gypsum of this remarkable 
deposit does not occur in "heaps " or " nests," as it does in most deposits of 
gypsum in the States farther eastward, but that it exists here in the form of a 
regularly stratified, continuous formation, as uniform in texture, color and 
quality throughout the whole region, and from top to bottom of the deposit 
as the granite of the Quincy quarries is. Its color is a uniform gray, result- 
ing from alternating fine horizontal lines of nearly Avhite, with similar lines 
of darker shade. The gypsum of the Avhite lines is almost entirely pure, the 
darker lines containing the impurity. This is at intervals barely sufficient in 
amount to cause the separation of the mass upon those lines into beds or layers, 
thus facilitating the quarrying of it into desired shapes. These bedding sur- 
faces have occasionally a clayey feeling to the touch, but there is nowhere any 
intercalation of clay or other foreign substance in a separate form. The deposit 
is known to reach a thickness of thirty feet at the quarries referred to, but 
although it will probably be found to exceed this thickness at some other points, 
at the natural exposures, it is seldom seen to be more than from ten to twenty 
feet thick. 

Since the drift is usually seen to rest directly upon the gypsum, with noth- 
ing intervening, except at a few points where traces appear of an overlying bed 
of clayey material Avithout doubt of the same age as the gypsum, the latter 
probably lost something of its thickness by mechanical erosion during the 
glacial epoch ; and it has, doubtless, also sufiered some diminution of thickness 
since then by solution in the waters which constantly percolate through the 
drift from the surface. The drift of this region being somewhat clayey, partic- 
ulary in its lower part, it has doubtless served in some degree as a protection 
against the diminution of the gypsum by solution in consequence of its partial 
imperviousness to water. If the gypsum had been covered by a deposit of sand 
instead of the drift clays, it would have no doubt long since disappeared by 
being dissolved in the water that would have constantly reached it from the sur- 
face. Water merely resting upon it Avould not dissolve it away to any extent, 
but it rapidly disappears under the action of running water. Where little rills 
of water at the time of every rain run over the face of an unused quarry, from 
the surface above it, deep grooves are thereby cut into it, giving it somewhat the 
appearance of melting ice around a waterfall. The fact that gypsum is now 
suffering a constant, but, of course, very slight, diminution, is apparent in the 
fact the springs of the region contain more or less of it in solution in their 
waters. An analysis of water from one of these springs will be found in Prof. 
Emery's report. 


Besides the clayey beds that are sometimes seen to rest upon the gypsum, 
there are occasionally others seen beneath them that are also of the same 
age, and not of the age of the coal-measure strata upon which they rest. 

Age of the Gt/psuni Deposit. — In neither the gypsum nor the associated 
clays has any trace of any fossil remains been found, nor has any other indica- 
tion of its geological age been observed, except that -which is afforded by its 
stratigraphical relations ; and the most that can be said with certainty is that it 
is newer than the coal measures, and older than the drift. The indications 
afforded by the stratigraphical relations of the gypsum deposit of Fort Dodge 
are, however, of considerable value. 

As already shown, it rests in that region directly and unconformably upon 
the lower coal measures ; but going southward from there, the whole series of 
coal-measure strata from the top of the subcarboniferous group to the upper 
coal measures, inclusive, can be traced without break or unconformability. 
The strata of the latter also may be traced in the same manner up into the 
Permian rocks of Kansas; and through this long series, there is no place or 
horizon which suggests that the gypsum deposit might belong there. 

Again, no Tertiary deposits are known to exist within or near the borders 
of Iowa to suggest that the gypsum might be of that age ; nor are any of the 
palffiozoic strata newer than the subcarboniferous unconformable upon each 
other as the other gypsum is unconformable upon the strata beneath it. It 
therefore seems, in a measure, conclusive, that the gypsum is of Mesozoic age, 
perhaps older than the Cretaceous. 

Litliological Origin. — As little can be said with certainty concerning the 
lithological origin of this deposit as can be said concerning its geological age, 
for it seems to present itself in this relation, as in the former one, as an isolated 
fact. None of the associated strata show any traces of a double decompositiom 
of pre-existing materials, such as some have supposed all deposits of gypsum to 
have resulted from. No considerable quantities of oxide of iron nor any trace 
of native sulphur have been found in connection with it ; nor has any salt been 
found in the waters of the region. These substances are common in association 
with other gypsum deposits, and are regarded by some persons as indicative of 
the method of or resulting from their origin as such. Throughout the whole 
region, the Fort Dodge gypsum has the exact appearance of a sedimentary 
deposit. It is arranged in layers like the regular layers of limestone, and the 
whole mass, from top to bottom, is traced with fine horizontal laminrc of alter- 
nating white and gray gypsum, parallel with the bedding surfaces of the layerSj 
but the whole so intimately blended as to form a solid mass. The darker lines 
contain almost all the impurity there is in the gypsum, and that impurity is 
evidently sedimentary in its character. Frc yi these facts, and also from the 
further one that no trace of fossil remains has been detected in the gypsum, it 
seems not unreasonable to entertain the opinion that the gypsum of Fort Dodge 
originated as a chemical precipitation in comparatively still Avaters which Avere 


aturated with sulphate of lime and destitute of life ; its stratification and 
inpurities being deposited at the same time as clayey impurities which had been 
lehl suspended in the same waters. 

Physical Properties. — Much has already been said of the physical proper- 
ios or character of this gypsum, but as it is so different in some respects from 
hat of other deposits, there are yet other matters worthy of mention in connec- 
ion with those. According to the results of a complete and exhaustive anal- 
sis by Prof Emery, the ordinary gray gypsum contains only about eight per 
ent. of impurity ; and it is possible that the average impurity for the whole 
[eposit Avill not exceed that proportion, so uniform in quality is it from to top 
bottom and from one end of the region to the other. 

When it is remembered that plaster for agricultural purposes is sometimes 
>repared from gypsum that contains as much as thirty per cent, of impurity, it 
vill be seen that ours is a very superior article for such purposes. The impu- 
ities are also of such a character that they do not in any way interfere with its 
alue for use in the arts. Although the gypsum rock has a gray color, it 
>ecomes quite white by grinding, and still Avhiter by the calcining process nec- 
ssary in the preparation of plaster of Paris. These tests have all been practi- 
ally made in the rooms of the Geological Survey, and the quality of the plaster 
•f Paris still further tested by actual use and experiment. No hesitation, 
hercfore, is felt in stating that the Fort Dodge gypsum is of as good a quality 
ls any in the country, even for the finest uses. 

In view of the bounteousness of the primitive fertility of our Iowa soils, 
nany persons forget that a time may come wlien Nature will refuse to respond 
o generously to our demand as she does now, without an adequate return. 
?uch are apt to say that this vast deposit of gypsum is valueless to our com- 
nonwealth, except to the small extent that it may be used in the arts. This 
s undoubtedly a short-sighted view of the subject, for the time is even now 
ajiidly passing away Avhen a man may purchase a new farm for less money 
lian he can re-fertilize and restore the partially wasted primitive fertility of the 
)ne he now occupies. There are farms oven now in a large part of the older 
settled i)ortions of the State that would be greatly benefited by the proper 
ipplication of plaster, and such areas will continue to increase until it will be 
liflicult to estimate the value of the deposit of gypsum at Fort Dodge. It 
should be remembered, also, that the inhabitants of an extent of country 
idjoining our State more than three times as great as its own area will find it 
nore convenient to obtain their supplies from Fort Dodge than from any other 

For Avant of direct railroad communication between this region and other 
parts of the State, the only use yet made of the gypsum by the inhabitants is 
for the purposes of ordinary building stone. It is so compact that it is found 
to be comparatively unaffected by the frost, and its ordinary situation in walls 
:^.f houses is such that it is protected from the dissolving action of water, which 


can at most reach it only from occasional rains, and the effect of these is too 
slight to be perceived after the lapse of several years. 

One of the citizens of Fort Dodge, Hon, John F. Duncombe, built a large, 
fine residence of it. in 1861, the walls of which appear as unaffected by 
exposure and as beautiful as they were when first erected. It has been so long 
and successfully used for building stone by the inhabitants that they now prefer 
it to the limestone of good quality, which also exists in the immediate vicinity. 
This preference is due to the cheapness of the gypsum, as compared with the 
stone. The cheapness of the former is largely due to the facility with which it 
is quarried and wrought. Several other houses have been constructed of it in 
Fort Dodge, including the depot building of the Dubuque & Sioux City Rail- 
road. The company have also constructed a large culvert of the same material 
to span a creek near the town, limestone only being used for the lower courses, 
which come in contact Avith the water. It is a fine arch, each stone of gypsum 
being nicely hewn, and it will doubtless prove a very durable one. Many of 
the sidewalks in the town are made of the slabs or flags of gypsum which occur 
in some of the quarries in the form of thin layers. They are more durable 
than their softness would lead one to suppose. They also possess an advantage 
over stone in not becoming slippery when worn. 

The method adopted in quarrying and dressing the blocks of gypsum is 
peculiar, and quite unlike that adopted in similar treatment of ordinary stone. 
Taking a stout auger-bit of an ordinary brace, such as is used by carpenters, 
and filing the cutting parts of it into a peculiar form, the quarryman bores his 
holes into the gypsum quarry for blasting, in the same manner and with as 
great facility as a carpenter would bore hard wood. The pieces being loosened 
by blasting, they are broken up with sledges into convenient sizes, or hewn 
into the desired shapes by means of hatchets or ordinary chopping axes, or cut 
by means of ordinary wood-saws. So little grit does the gypsum contain that 
these tools, made for working wood, are found to be better adapted for working 
the former substance than those tools are which are universally used for work- 
ing stone. 


Besides the great gypsum deposit of Fort Dodge, sulphate of lime in the 
various forms of fibrous gypsum, selenite, and small, amorphous masses, has 
also been discovered in various formations in different parts of the State, includ- 
ing the coal -measure shales near Fort Dodge, where it exists in small quanti- 
ties, quite independently of the great gypsum deposit there. The quantity of 
gypsum in these minor deposits is always too small to be of any practical value, 
and frequently minute. They usually occur in shales and shaly clays, asso- 
ciated with strata that contain more or less sulphuret of iron (iron pyrites). 
Gypsum has thus been detected in the coal measures, the St. Louis limestone, 
the cretaceous strata, and also in the lead caves of Dubuque. In most of these 
cases it is evidently the result of double decomposition of iron pyrites and car- 


"mate of lime, previously existing there ; in which eases the frypsiim is of course 
at an original deposit as the great one at Fort Dodge is supposed to be. 

The existence of these comparatively minute quantities of gypsum in the 
lales of the coal measures and the subcarboniferous limestone which are exposed 
ithin the region of and occupy a stratigraphical position beneath the great 
ypsum deposits, suggests the possibility that the former may have originated as 
precipitate from percolating waters, holding gypsum in solution which they 
ad derived from that deposit in passing over or through it. Since, however, 
le same substance is found in similar smill quantities and under similar con- 
itions in regions where they could have had no possible connection witli that 
eposit, it is believed that none of those mentioned have necessarily originated 
•ora it, not even those that are found in close proximity to it. 

The gypsum found in the lead caves is usually in the form of efflorescent 
bers, and is always in small quantity. In the lower coal-measure shale near 
'ort Dodge, a small mass was found in the form of an intercalated layer, which 
•id a distinct fibrous structure, the fibers being perpendicular to the plane of 
le layer. The same mass had also distinct, horizontal planes of cleavage at 
ight angles wiljh the perpendicular fibers. Thus, being more or less transpa- 
ent, the mass combined the characters of both fibrous gypsum and selenite. 
fo anhydrous sulphate of lime {anhydrite) has been found in connection with 
tie great gypsum deposit, nor elsewhere in Iowa, so far as yet known. 


The only locality at which this interesting mineral has yet been found in 
owa, or, so far as is known, in the great valley of the Mississippi, is at Fort 
)odge. It occurs there in very small quantity in both the shales of the lower 
oal measures and in the clays that overlie the gypsum deposit, and which are 
egarded as of the same age with it. The first is just below the city, near Rees' 
oal bank, and occurs as a layer intercalated among the coal measure shales, 
mounting in quantity to only a few hundred pounds' weight. The mineral is 
ibrous and crystalline, the fibers being perpendicular to the plane of the layer, 
breaking also with more or less distinct horizontal planes of cleavage, it resem- 
les, in physical character, the layer of fibro-crystalline gypsum before men- 
ioned. Its color is light blue, is transparent and shows crystaline facets upon 
oth the upper and under surfaces of the layer; those of the upper surface 
eing smallest and most numerous. It breaks up readily into small masses 
.long the lines of the perpendicular fibers or columns. The layer is probably 
lot more than a rod in extent in any direction and about three inches in maxi- 
num thickness. Apparent lines of stratification occur in it, corresponding with 
hose of the shales which imbed it. 

The other deposit was still smaller in amount, and occurred as a mass of 
;rystals imbedded in the clays that overlie the gypsum at Cummins' quarry in 


the valley of Soldier Creek, upon the north side of the town. The mineral is 
in this case nearly colorless, and but for the form of the separate crystals would 
closely resemble masses of impure salt. The crystals are so closely aggregated 
that they enclose but little impurity in the mass, but in almost all cases their 
fundamental forms are obscured. This mineral has almost no real practical 
value, and its occurrence, as described, is interesting only as a mineralogical 


(Barytfs, Heavy Spar.) 

This mineral has been found only in minute quantities in Iowa. It has 
been detected in the coal-measure shales of Decatur, Madison and Marion 
Counties, the Devonian limestone of Johnson and Bremer Counties and in the 
lead caves of Dubuque. In all these cases, it is in the form of crystals or small 
crystalline masses. 


Epsomite, or native epsom salts, having been discovered near Burlington, 
we have thus recognized in Iowa all the sulphates of the alkaline earths of 
natural origin ; all of them, except the sulphate of lime, being in very small 
quantity. Even if the sulphate of magnesia were produced in nature, in large 
quantities, it is so very soluble that it can accumulate only in such positions as 
afford it complete shelter from the rains or running water The epsomite 
mentioned was found beneath the overhanging cliff of Burlington limestone, 
near Starr's mill, which are represented in the sketch upon another page, illus- 
trating the subcarboniferous rocks. It occurs in the form of efflorescent encrus- 
tations upon the surface of stones and in similar small fragile masses among the 
fine debris that has fallen down beneath the overhanging cliff. The projection 
of the cliff over the perpendicular face of the strata beneath amounts to near 
twenty feet at the point where epsomite was found. Consequently the rains 
never reach far beneath it from any quarter. The rock upon which the epsom- 
ite accumulates is an impure limestone, containing also some carbonate of mag- 
nesia, together with a small proportion of iron pyrites in a finely divided con- 
dition. It is doubtless by double decomposition of these that the epsomite re- 
sults. By experiments with this native salt in the office of the Survey, a fine 
article of epsom salts was produced, but the quantity that might be annually 
obtained there would amount to only a few pounds, and of course is of no prac- 
tical value whatever, on account of its cheapness in the market. 


No extended record of the climatology of Iowa has been made, yet much of 
great value may be learned from observations made at a single point. Prof. T. 
S. Parvin, of the State University, has recorded observations made from 1839 
to the present time. Previous to 1860, these observations were made at Mas- 



;atine. Since that date, they were made in Iowa City. The result is that the 
itmospheric conditions of the climate of Iowa are in the highest degree favor- 
ible to health. 

The highest temperature here occurs in August, while July is the hottest 
nonth in the year by two degrees, and January the coldest by three degrees. 

The mean temperature of April and October most nearly corresponds to the 
nean temperature of the year, as well as their seasons of Spring and Fall, 
,vhilo that of Summer and Winter is best represented in that of August and 

The period of greatest heat ranges from June 22d to August 31st ; the next 
nean time being July 27th. The lowest temperature extends. from December 
I6th to February 15th, the average being January 20th — the range in each 
3ase beins; two full months. 

The climate of Iowa embraces the range of that of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The seasons are not characterized by the 
sequent and sudden changes so common in the latitudes further south. The 
:emperature of the Winters is somewhat lower than States eastward, but of other 
reasons it is higher. The atmosphere is dry and invigorating. The surface of 
the State being free at all seasons of the year from stagnant water, with good 
breezes at nearly all seasons, the miasmatic and pulmonary diseases are 
jnknown. Mortuary statistics show this to be one of the most healthful States 
n the Union, being one death to every ninety-four persons. The Spring, 
Summer and Fall months are delightful ; indeed, the glory of Iowa is her 
A.utumn, and nothing can transcend the splendor of her Indian Summer, which 
iasts for weeks, and finally blends, almost imperceptibly, into Winter. 



Iowa, in the symbolical and expressive lauguage of the aboriginal inhab- 
itants, is said to signify " The Beautiful Land," and was applied to this 
magnificent and fruitful region by its ancient owners, to express their apprecia- 
tion of its superiority of climate, soil and location. Prior to 1803, the Mississippi 
River was the extreme western boundary of the United States. All the great 
empire lying west of the "Father of Waters," from the Gulf of Mexico on the 
south to British America on the north, and westward to the Pacific Ocean, was 
a Spanish province. A brief historical sketch of the discovery and occupation 
of this grand empire by the Spanish and French governments will be a fitting 
introduction to the history of the young and thriving State of Iowa, which, 
until the commencement of the present century, was a part of the Spanish 
possessions in America. 

Early in the Spring of 1542, fifty years after Columbus discovered the New 
World, and one hundred and thirty years before the French missionaries discov- 
ered its upper waters, Ferdinand De Soto discovered the mouth of the Mississippi 
River at the mouth of the Washita. After the sudden death of De Soto, in 
May of the same year, his followers built a small vessel, and in July, 1543, 
descended the great river to the Gulf of Mexico. 

In accordance with the usage of nations, under which title to the soil was 
claimed by right of discovery, Spain, having conquered Florida and discovered 
the Mississippi, claimed all the territory bordering on that river and the Gulf of 
Mexico. But it was also held by the European nations that, while discovery 
gave title, that title must be perfected by actual possession and occupation. 
Although Spain claimed the territory by right of first discovery, she made no 
effort to occupy it; by no permanent settlement had she perfected and held her 
title, and therefore had forfeited it when, at a later period, the Lower Mississippi 
Valley was re-discovered and occupied by France. 

The unparalleled labors of the zealous Fr; nc'i Jesuits of Canada in penetrating 
the unknown region of the West, commencing in 1611, form a history of no ordi- 
nary interest, but have no particular connection with the scope of the present 
work, until in the Fall of 1G(35. Pierre Claude Allouez, who had entered Lake 
Superior in September, and sailed along the southern coast in search of copper, 
had arrived at the great village of the Chippewas at Chegoincegon. Here a 
grand council of some ten or twelve of the principal Indian nations was held. 
The Pottawatomies of Lake Michigan, the Sacs and Foxes of the West, the 
Hurons from the North, the Illinois from the South, and the Sioux from the 
land of the prairie and wild rice, were all assembled there. The Illinois told 


the story of their ancient glory and ahout the noble river on the banks of which 
they dwelt. The Sioux also told their -white brother of the same great river, 
and AUouez promised to the assembled tribes the protection of the French 
nation against all their enemies, native or foreign. 

The purpose of discovering the great river about Avhich the Indian na- 
tions had given such glowing accounts appears to have originated with Mar- 
quette, in 10G9. In the year previous, he and Claude Dablon had established 
the Mission of St. Mary's, the oldest white settlement within the present limits 
of the State of Michigan. Marquette was delayed in the execution of his great 
undertaking, and spent the interval in studying the language and habits of the 
Illinois Indians, among Avhom he expected to travel. 

About this time, the French Government had determined to extend the do- 
minion of France to the extreme western borders of Canada. Nicholas Perrot 
was sent as the agent of the government, to propose a grand council of the 
Indian nations, at St. Mary's. 

When Perrot reached Green Bay, he extended the invitation far and near ; 
and, escorted by Pottawatomies, repaired on a mission of peace and friend- 
ship to the Miamis, who occupied the region about the present location of 

In May, 1671, a great council of Indians gathered at the Falls of St. 
Mary, from all parts of the Northwest, from the head waters of the St. Law- 
vence, from the valley of the Mississippi and from the Red River of the North. 
Perrot met with them, and after grave consultation, formally announced to the 
assembled nations that their good French Father felt an abiding interest in their 
welfare, and had placed them all under the powerful protection of the French 

jSIarquette, during that same year, had gathered at Point St. Ignace the 
vemn ants of one branch of the Hurons. This station, for a long series of 
years, was considered the key to the unknown West. 

The time was now auspicious for the consummation of Marquette's grand 
project. The successful termination of Perrot's mission, and the general friend- 
liness of the native tribes, rendered the contemplated expedition much less per- 
ilous. But it was not until 1G7;5 that the intrepid and enthusiastic priest was 
finally ready to depart on his daring and perilous journey to lands never trod by 
Avhite men. 

The Indians, who had gathered in large numbers to witness his departure, 
were astounded at the boldness of the proposed undertaking, and tried to dis- 
courage him, representing that the Indians of the Mississippi Valley were cruel 
and bloodthirsty, and would resent the intrusion of strangers upon their domain. 
The great river itself, they said, Avas the abode of terrible monsters, who could 
swallow both canoes and men. 

But Marcjuette was not to be diverted from his purpose by these fearful re- 
ports. He assured his dusky friends that he was ready to make any sacrifice, 
even to lay down his life for the sacred cause in Avhich he was engaged. He 
prayed with them ; and having implored the blessing of God upon his undertak- 
ing, on the l-5th day of May, 1678, with Joliet and five Canadian-French voy- 
ageurs, or boatmen, he left the mission on his daring journey. Ascending 
Green Bay and Fox River, these bold and enthusiastic pioneers of religion and 
discovery proceeded until they reached a Miami and Kickapoo village, where 
Marquette was delighted to find '' a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town, oi-namented with wliite skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, which 
these good people had oflered to the Great Manitou, or God, to thank llim for 


die pity He had bestowed on them during the Winter, in having given them 
abundant chase." 

This was the extreme point beyond which the explorations of tlie French 
missionaries had not then extended. Here Marquette was instructed by his 
Indian hosts in tlie secret of a root that cures the bite of the venomous rattle- 
snake, drank mineral water with them and was entertained with generous hos- 
pitality. He called together the principal men of the village, and informed 
them that his companion, Joliet, had been sent by the French Governor of Can- 
ada to discover new countries, to be added to the dominion of France ; but that 
he, himself, had been sent by the Most High God, to carry the glorious religion 
of the Cross ; and assured his wondering hearers that on this mission he had 
no fear of death, to Avhich he knew he would be exposed on his perilous journeys. 

Obtaining the services of two Miami guides, to conduct his little band to the 
Wisconsin River, he left the hospitable Indians on the 10th of June. Conduct- 
ing them across the portage, their Indian guides returned to their village, and 
the little party descended the Wisconsin, to the great river which had so long 
been so anxiously looked for, and boldly floated down its unknown waters. 

On the 25t]i of June, the explorers discovered indications of Indians on the 
west bank of the river and land d a little above the mouth of the river now 
known as Des Moines, and for the first time Europeans trod the soil of Iowa. 
Leaving the Canadians to guard the canoes, Marquette and Joliet boldly fol- 
lowed the trail into the interior for fourteen miles (some authorities say six), to 
an Indian village situate on the banks of a river, and discovered two other vil- 
lages, on the rising ground about half a league distant. Their visit, while it 
created much astonishment, did not seem to be entirely unexpected, for there 
was a tradition or prophecy among the Indians that white visitors were to come 
to them. They were, therefore, received with great respect and hospitality, and 
were cordially tendered the calumet or pipe of peace. They were informed that 
this band was a part of the Illini nation and that their village was called Mon- 
in-gou-nia or Moingona, which was the name of the river on which it stood. 
This, from its similarity of sound, Marquette corrupted into Des Moines 
(Monk's River), its present name. 

Here the voyagers remained six days, learning much of the manners and 
customs of their new friends. The new religion they boldly preached and the 
authority of the King of France they proclaimed were received without hos- 
tility or remonstrance by their savage entertainers. On their departure, they 
were accompanied to their canoes by the chiefs and hundreds of warriors. 
Marquette received from them the sacred calumet, the emblem of peace and 
safeguard among the nations, and re-embarked for the rest of his journey. 

It is needless to follow him further, as his explorations beyond his discovery 
of Iowa more properly belong to the history of another State. 

In 1682, La Salle descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in 
the name of the King of France, took formal possession of all tlie immense 
region watered by the great river and its tributaries from its source to its mouth, 
and named it Louisiana, in honor of his master, Louis XIV. The river he 
called " Colbert," after the French Minister, and at its mouth erected a column 
and a cross bearing the inscription, in the French language, 

" Louis the Great, King of France and Navarre, 
Reigning April 9th, 1682." 

At the close of the seventeenth century, France claimed, by right of dis- 
coveiy and occupancy, the whole valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
including Texas, as far as the Rio del Norte. 


The province of Louisiana stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the sources 
of the Tennessee, the Kanawha, the Allegheny and the Monongahela on the 
east, and the Missouri and the other great tributaries of the Father of Waters 
on the west. Says Bancroft, " France, had obtained, under Providence, the 
guardianship of this immense district of country, not, as it proved, for her own 
benefit, but rather as a trustee for the infant nation by which it was one day to 
be inherited." 

By the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded to England her possessions 
in Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. France still retained 
Louisiana ; but the province had so far failed to meet the expectations of the 
crown and the people that a change in the government and policy of the country 
was deemed indispensable. Accordingly, in 1711, the province was placed in 
the hands of a Governor General, with headquarters at Mobile. This govern- 
ment was of brief duration, and in 1712 a charter was granted to Anthony 
Crozat, a wealthy merchant of Paris, giving him the entire control and mo- 
nopoly of all the trade and resources of Louisiana. But this scheme also failed. 
Crozat met with no success in his commercial operations ; every Spanish harbor 
on the Gulf was closed against his vessels; the occupation of Louisiana was 
deemed an encroachment on Spanish territory ; Spain was jealous of the am- 
bition of France. 

Failing in his efforts to open the ports of the district, Crozat "sought to 
develop the internal resources of Louisiana, by causing trading posts to be 
opened, and explorations to be made to its remotest borders. But he 
actually accomplished nothing for the advancement of the colony. The only 
prosperity which it ever possessed grew out of the enterprise of humble indi- 
viduals, Avho had succeeded in instituting a little barter b^twe-'n themselves 
and the natives, and a petty trade with neighboring European settlements. 
After a persevering effort of nearly five years, he surrendered his charter in 
August, 1717." 

Immediately folloAving the surrender of his charter by Crozat, another and 
more magnificent scheme w^as inaugurated. The national government of France 
was deeply involved in debt; the colonies were nearly bankrupt, and John Law- 
appeared on the scene with his famous Mississippi Company, as the Louisiana 
branch of the Bank of France. The charter granted to this company gave it a 
legal existence of tAventy-five years, and conferred upon it more extensive powers 
and privileges than had been granted to Crozat. It invested the new company 
with the exclusive privilege of the entire commerce of Louisiana, and of New 
France, and with authority to enforce their rights. The Company was author- 
ized to monopolize all the trade in the country ; to make treaties with the 
Indians ; to declare and prosecute Avar ; to grant lands, erect forts, open mine^ 
of precious metals, levy taxes, nominate civil officers, commission those of the 
army, and to appoint and remove judges, to cast cannon, and build and equip 
ships of war. All this was to be done with the paper currency of John Law's 
Bank of France. He had succeeded in getting His Majesty the French King 
to adopt and sanction his scheme of financial operations both in France and in 
the colonies, and probably there never was such a huge financial bul)ble ever 
blown by a visionary theorist. Still, such Avas the condition of France that it 
Avas accepted tis a national deliverance, and LaAV became the most powerful man 
in France. He became a Catholic, and Avas appointed Comptroller General of 

Among the fiist operations of the Company was to send eight hundred 
emigrants to Louisiana, Avho arrived at Dauphine Island in 1718. 


In 1719, Philipe Francis Renault arrived in Illinois with two hundred 
miners and artisans. The war between France and Spain at this time rendered 
it extremely probable that the Mississippi Valley might become the theater of 
Spanish hostilities against the French settlements ; to prevent this, as well as to 
extend French claims, a chain of forts was begun, to keep open the connection 
between the mouth and the sources of the Mississippi. Fort Orleans, high up 
the Mississippi River, was erected as an outpost in 1720.. 

The Mississippi scheme was at the zenith of its power and glory in January, 
1720, but the gigantic bubble collapsed more suddenly than it had been inflated, 
and the Company was declared hopelessly bankrupt in May following. France 
Avas impoverished by it, both private and public credit were overthrown, capi- 
talists suddenly found themselves paupers, and labor was left without employ- 
ment. The effect on the colony of Louisiana was disastrous. 

While this was going on in Lower Louisiana, the region about the lakes was 
the theater of Indian hostilities, rendering the passage from Canada to Louisiana 
extremely dangerous for many years. The English had not only extended their 
Indian trade into the vicinity of the French settlements, but through their 
friends, the Iroquois, had gained a marked ascendancy over the Foxes, a fierce 
and powerful tribe, of Iroquois descent, whom they incited to hostilities against 
the French. The Foxes began their hostilities with the siege of Detroit in 
1712, a siege which they continued for nineteen consecutive days, and although 
the expedition resulted in diminishing their numbers and humbling their pride, 
yet it Avas not until after several successive campaigns, embodying the best 
military resources of New France, had been directed against them, that were 
finally defeated at the great battles of Butte des Morts, and on the Wisconsin 
River, and driven west in 1746, 

The Company, having found that the cost of defending Louisiana exceeded 
the returns from its commerce, solicited leave' to surrender the Mississippi 
wilderness to the home government. Accordingly, on the 10th of April, 1732, 
the jurisdiction and control over the commerce reverted to the crown of France. 
The Company had held possession of Louisiana fourteen years. In 1735, Bien- 
ville returned to assume command for the King. 

A glance at a few of the old French settlements will show the progress made 
in portions of Louisiana during the early part of the eighteenth century. As 
early a3 1705, traders and hunters had penetrated the fertile regions of the 
Wabash, and from this region, at that early date, fifteen thousand hides and 
skins had been collected and sent to Mobile for the European market. 

In the year 1716, the French population on the Wabash kept up a lucrative 
commerce with Mobile by means of traders and voyageurs. The Ohio River 
was comparatively unknown. 

In 1746, agriculture on the W^ abash had attained to greater prosperity than 
in any of the French settlements besides, and in that year six hundred barrels 
of flour were manufactured and shipped to New Orleans, together with consider- 
able quantities of hides, peltry, tallow and beeswax. 

In the Illinois country, also, considerable settlements had been made, so that, 
in 1730, they embraced one hundred and forty French families, about six 
hundred "converted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. 

In 1753, the first actual conflict arose between Louisiana and the Atlantic 
colonies. From the earliest advept of the Jesuit fathers, up to the period of 
which we speak, the great ambition of the French had been, not alone to preserve 
their possessions in the West, but by every possible means to prevent the 
slightest attempt of the English, east of the mountains, to extend their settle- 


ments toward tlic Mississippi. France was resolved on retaining possession of 
the great territory which her missionaries had discovered and revealed to the 
world. French commandants had avowed their purpose of seizing every 
Englishman within the Ohio Valley. 

The colonies of Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia Avere most affected by 
the encroachments of France in the extension of her dominion, and particularly 
in the great scheme of uniting Canada with Louisiana. To carry out this 
purpose, the French had taken possession of a tract of country claimed by Vir- 
ginia, and had commenced a line of forts extending from the lakes to the Ohio 
River. Virginia was not only alive to her own interests, but attentive to the 
vast importance of an immediate and effectual resistance on the part of all 
the English colonies to the actual and contemplated encroachments of the 

In lies. Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, sent George Washington, then a 
young man just twenty-one, to demand of the French commandant " a reason 
for invading British dominions while a solid peace subsisted." Washington met 
the French commandant, Gardeur de St. Pierre, on the head waters of the 
Alleghany, and having communicated to him the object of his journey, received 
the insolent answer that the French would not discuss the matter of right, but 
would make prisoners of every Englishman found trading on the Ohio and its 
waters. The country, he said, belonged to the French, by virtue of the dis- 
coveries of La Salle, and they would not withdraw from it. 

In January, 1754, Washington returned to Virginia, and made his report to 
the Governor and Council. Forces were at once raised, and Washington, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, was dispatched at the head of a hundred and fifty men, to 
the forks of the Ohio, with orders to "finish the fort already begun there by the 
Ohio Company, and to make prisoners, kill or destroy all Avho interrupted the 
English settlements." 

On his march through the forests of Western Pennsylvania, Washington, 
through the aid of friendly Indians, discovered the French concealed among tiie 
rocks, and as they ran to seize their arms, ordered his men to fire upon them, at 
the same time, with his own musket, setting the example. An action lasting 
about a quarter of an hour ensued ; ten of the Frenchmen were killed, among 
them Jumonville, the commander of the party, and twenty-one were made pris- 
oners. The dead were scalped by the Indians, and the chief, bearing a toma- 
hawk and a scalp, visited all the tribes of the Miamis, urging them to join the 
Six Nations and the English against the French. The French, however, were 
soon re-enforced, and Col. Washington was compelled to return to Fort 
Necessity. Here, on the od day of July, De A'illiers invested the fort with 
600 French troops and 100 Indians. On the 4tlu, Washington accepted 
terms of capitulation, and the English garrison withdrew from the valley of 
the Ohio. 

This attack of Washington upon Jumonville aroused the indignation of 
France, and war was formally declared in May, 175G, and the " French and 
Indian War" devastated the colonies for several years. Montreal, Detroit 
and all Canada were surrendered to the English, and on the 10th of February, 
1T<)3, by tiie treaty of Paris — which had been signed, though not formally ratified 
by the respective governments, on the 3d of November, 1762 — France relinquished 
to Great Britian all that portion of the province of Louisiana lying on the cast 
side of the IMississippi, except the island and town of New Orleans. On the 
same day that the treaty of Paris was signed, France, by a secret treaty, ceded 
to Spain all her possessions on the west side of the Mississippi, including the 


whole country to the head waters of the Great River, and west to the Rockj 
Mountains, and the jurisdiction of France in America, which had lasted nearly 
a century, was ended. 

At the close of the Revolutionary war, by the treaty of peace between Great 
Britain and the United States, the English Government ceded to the latter 
all the territory on the east side of the Mississippi River and north of the thirty- 
first parallel of north latitude. At the same time. Great Britain ceded to 
Spain all the Floridas, comprising all the territory east of the Mississippi and 
south of the southern limits of the United States. 

At this time, therefore, the present State of Iowa was a part of the Spanish 
possessions in North America, as all the territory west of the Mississippi River 
was under the dominion of Spain. That government also possessed all the 
territory of the Floridas east of the great river and south of the thirty-first 
parallel of north latitude. The Mississippi, therefore, so essential to the pros- 
perity of the western portion of the United States, for the last three hundred 
miles of its course flowed wholly within the Spanish dominions, and that govern- 
ment claimed the exclusive right to use and control it below the southern boun- 
dary of the United States. 

The free navigation of the Mississippi was a very important question during 
all the time that Louisiana remained a dependency of the Spanish Crown, and 
as the final settlement intimately affected the status of the then future State 
of Iowa, it will be interesting to trace its progress. 

The people of the United States occupied and exercised jurisdiction over 
the entire eastern valley of tlie Mississippi, embracing all the country drained 
by its eastern tributaries ; they had a natural right, according to the accepted in- 
ternational law, to follow these rivers to the sea, and to the use of the Missis- 
sippi River accordingly, as the great natural channel of commerce. The river 
was not only necessary but absolutely indispensable to the prosperity and growth 
of the western settlements then rapidly rising into commercial and political 
importance. They were situated in the heart of the great valley, and with 
wonderfully expansive energies and accumulating resources, it was very evident 
that no power on earth could deprive them of the free use of the river below 
them, only while their numbers were insufficient to enable them to maintain 
their right by force. Inevitably, therefore, immediately after the ratification of 
the treaty of 1783, the Western people began to demand the free navigation 
of the Mississippi — not as a favor, but as a right. In 1786, both banks of 
the river, below the mouth of the Ohio, were occupied by Spain, and military 
posts on the east bank enfoi-ced her power to exact heavy duties on all im- 
ports by way of the river for the Ohio region. Every boat descending the 
river was forced to land and submit to the arbitrary revenue exactions of the 
Spanish authorities. Under the administration of Governor Miro, these rigor- 
ous exactions were somewhat relaxed from 1787 to 1790 ; but Spain held it as 
her right to make them. Taking advantage of the claim of tlie American people, 
that the Mississippi should be 0})ened to them, in 1791, the Spanish Govern- 
ment concocted a scheme for the dismembership of the Union. The plan was 
to induce the Western people to separate from the Eastern States by liberal land 
grants and extraordinary commercial privileges. 

Spanish emissaries, among the people of Oliio and Kentucky, informed them 
that the Spanish Government would grant them favorable commercial privileges, 
provided they would secede from the Federal Government east of the mountains. 
The Spanish Minister to the United Sta,tes plainly declared to his confidential 
correspondent that, unless the Western people would declare their independence 


and refuse to remain in the Union, Spain was determined never to grant the 
free navigation of the Mississippi. 

By the treaty of Madrid, October 20, 1795, however, Spain formally stij)- 
ulated that the Mississippi River, from its source to the Grulf, for its entire width, 
should be free to American trade and commerce, and that the people of the 
United States should be permitted, for three years, to use the port of New 
Orleans as a port of deposit for their merchandise and produce, duty free. 

In November, 1801, the United States Government received, through Rufus 
King, its Minister at the Court of St. James, a copy of the treaty between Spain 
and France, signed at Madrid March 21, 1801, by which the cession of Loui- 
siana to France, made the previous Autumn, was confirmed. 

The change offered a favorable opportunity to secure the just rights of the 
United States, in relation to the free navigation of the Mississippi, and ended 
the attemi)t to dismember the Union by an effort to secure an independent 
government west of the Alleghany Mountains. On the 7th of January, 1803, 
the American House of Representatives adopted a resolution declaring their 
" unalterable determination to maintain the boundaries and the rights of navi- 
gation and commerce through the River Mississippi, as established by existing 

In the same month. President Jefferson nominated and the Senate confii'med 
Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe as Envoys Plenipotentiary to the 
Court of France, and Charles Pinckney and James Monroe to the Court of 
Spain, with plenary powers to negotiate treaties to effect the object enunciated 
by the popular branch of the National Legislature. These envoys were in- 
structed to secure, if possible, the cession of Florida and New Orleans, but it 
does not appear that Mr. Jefferson and his Cabinet had any idea of purchasing 
that part of Louisiana lying on the west side of the Mississippi. In fact, on 
the 2d of March following, the instructions were sent to our Ministers, contain- 
ing a plan which expressly left to France ''all her territory on the west side of 
the Mississippi." Had these instructions been followed, it might have been that 
there would not have been any State of Iowa or any other member of the glori- 
ous Union of States west of the " Father of Waters." 

In obedience to his instructions, however, Mr. Livingston broached this 
plan to M. Talleyrand, Napoleon's Prime Minister, when that courtly diplo- 
matist quietly suggested to the American Minister that France might be willing 
to cede the whole French domain in North America to the United States, and 
asked how much the Federal Government Avould be willing to give for it. Liv- 
ingston intimated that twenty millions of francs might be a fair price. Talley- 
rand thought that not enough, but asked the Americans to "think of it." A 
few days later, Napoleon, in an interview with Mr. Livingston, in effect informed 
the American Envoy that he had secured Louisiana in a contract with Spain 
for the purpose of turning it over to the United States for a mere nominal sum. 
He had been compelled to provide for the safety of that province by the treaty, 
and he was " anxious to give the United States a magnificent bargain for a 
mere trifle." The price proposed Avas one hundred and twenty-five million 
francs. This was subsequently modified to fifteen million dollars, and on this 
basis a treaty was negotiated, and was signed on the 30th day of April, 1808. 

This treaty was ratified by tlie Federal Government, and by act of Congress, 
approved October 31, 1803, the President of the United States was authorized 
to take possession of the territory and provide for it a temporary government. 
Accordingly, on the 20th day of December following, on behalf of the Presi- 
dent, Gov. Clairborne and Gen. AVilkinson took possession of the Louisiana 


purchase, and raised the American flag over the newly acquired domain, at New 
Orleans. Spain, although it had by treaty ceded the province to France in 
1801, still held quasi possession, and at first objected to the transfer, but with- 
drew her opposition early in 1804. 

By this treaty, thus successfully consummated, and the peaceable withdrawal 
of Spain, the then infant nation of the New World extended its dominion west 
of the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean, and north from the Gulf of Mexico to 
British America. 

If the original design of Jefferson's administration had been accomplished, 
the United States would have acquired only that portion of the French territory 
lying east of the Mississippi River, and while the American people would thus 
liave acquired the free navigation of that great river, all of the vast and fertile 
empire on the west, so rich in its agricultural and inexhaustible mineral 
resources, would have remained under the dominion of a foreign power. To 
Napoleon's desire to sell the whole of his North American possessions, and Liv- 
ingston's act transcending his instructions, Avhich Avas acquiesced in after it was 
done, does Iowa owe her position as a part of the United States by the 
Louisiana purchase. 

By authority of an act of Congress, approved March 26, 1804, the newly 
acquired territory was, on the 1st day of October following, divided : that part 
lying south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called the Territory of 
Orleans, and all north of that parallel the District of Louisiana, which was placed 
under the authority of the officers of Indiana Territory, until July 4, 1805, when 
it was organized, with territorial government of its own, and so remained until 
1812, when the Territory of Orleans became the State of Louisiana, and the 
name of the Territory of Louisiana was changed to Missouri. On the 4th of 
July, 1814, that part of Missouri Territory comprising the present State of 
Arkansas, and the country to the westward, Avas organized into the Arkansas 

On the 2d of March, 1821, the State of Missouri, being a part of the Terri- 
tory of that name, was admitted to the Union. June 28, 1834, the territory 
west of the Mississippi River and ijorth of Missouri Avas made a part of the 
Territory of Michigan ; but two years later, on the 4th of July, 1836, Wiscon- 
sin Territory was erected, embracing Avithin its limits the present States of 
Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

By act of Congress, approved June 12, 1838, the 


was erected, comprising, in addition to the present State, much the larger part 
of Minnesota, and extending north to the boundary of the British Possessions. 


Having traced the early history of the great empire lymg west of the Mis- 
sissippi, of which the State of loAva constitutes a part, from the earliest dis- 
covery to the organization of the Territory of Iowa, it becomes necessary to 
give some history of 


According to the policy of the European nations, possession perfected title 
to any territory. We have seen that the country Avest of the Mississippi was first 
discovered by the Spaniards, but afterward, Avas visited and occupied by the 
French. It was ceded by France to Spain, and by Spain back to France again, 


and then was purchased and occupied hj the United States. During all that 
time, it does not appear to have entered into the heads or hearts of the high 
contracting parties that the country they hougiit, sold and gave away was in 
the possession of a race of men who, although savage, owned the vast domain 
before Columbus first crossed the Atlantic. Having purchased the territory, 
the United States found it still in the possession of its original ownersj who had 
never been dispossessed ; and it became necessary to purchase again what had 
already been bought before, or forcibly eject the occupants ; therefore, the his- 
tory of the Indian nations who occupied Iowa prior-to and during its early set- 
tlement by the whites, becomes an important chapter in the history of the State, 
that cannot be omitted. 

For more than one hundred years after Marquette and Joliet trod the virgin 
soil of Iowa, not a single settlement had been made or attempted ; not even a 
trading post had been established. The whole country remained in the undis- 
puted possession of the native tribes, who roamed at will over her beautiful and 
fertile prairies, hunted in her woods, fished in her streams, and often poured out 
their life-blood in obstinately contested contests for supremacy. That this State 
so aptly styled "The Beautiful Land," had been the theater of numerous, 
fierce and bloody struggles between rival nations, for possession of the favored 
region, long before its settlement by civilized man, there is no room for doubt. 
In these savage wars, the weaker party, whether aggressive or defensive, was 
either exterminated or driven from their ancient hunting grounds. 

In 1G78, when Man^uette discovered Iowa, the lUini were a very powerful 
people, occupying a large portion of the State ; but when the country was again 
visited by the whites, not a remnant of that once powerful tribe remained on 
the west side of the Mississippi, and Iowa was principally in the possession of 
the Sacs and Foxes, a warlike tribe Avhich, originally two distinct nations, 
residing in New York and on the waters of the St. Lawrence, had gra<lually 
fought their Avay westward, and united, probably, after the Foxes had been driven 
out of the Fox River country, in 1846, and crossed the Mississippi. The death 
of Pontiac, a flimous Sac chieftain, was made the pretext for war against the 
mini, and a fierce and bloody struggle ensued, which continued until the Illinois 
were nearly destroyed and their hunting grounds possessed by their victoiious 
foes. The lowas also occupied a portion of the State for a time, in common 
with the Sacs, but they, too, w^ere nearly destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes, and, 
in "The Beautiful Land," these natives met their equally warlike foes, the 
Northern Sioux, with whom they maintained a constant Avarfare for the posses- 
sion of the country for many years. 

When the United States came in possession of the great valley of the ]\Iis- 
sissippi, by the Louisiana purchase, the Sacs and Foxes and lowas possessed 
the entire territory now comprising the State of Iowa. The Sacs and Foxes, 
also, occupied the most of the State of Illinois. 

The Sacs had four principal villages, where most of them resided, viz. : 
Their largest and most important town — if an Indian village may be called 
such — and from which emanated most of the obstacles and difficulties omoun- 
tered by the Government in the extinguishment of Indian titles to land in this 
region, was on Rock River, near Rock Island ; another was on the east bank of 
the Mississippi, near the mouth of Henderson River; the third was at the 
head of the Des IMoines Rapids, near the present site of Montrose, and the fourth 
was near the month of tlie Upper Iowa. 

The Foxes had three principal villages, viz. : One on the Avest side of the 
Mississippi, six miles above the rapids of Rock River ; another about twelve 


miles from the river, in the rear of the Dubuque lead mines, and the third on 
Turkey River. 

The lowas, at one time identified with the Sacs, of Rock River, had with- 
drawn from them and become a separate tribe. Their principal village was on 
the Des Moines River, in Van Buren County, on the site where lowaville now 
stands. Here the last great battle between the Sacs and Foxes and the lowas 
was fought, in which Black Hawk, then a young man, commanded one division 
of the attacking forces. The following account of the battle has been given : 

'•Contrary to long established custom of Indian attack, this battle was commenced in the day 
time, the attending circumstances justifying this departure from the well settled usages of Indian 
warfare. The battle field was a level river bottom, about four miles in length, and two miles 
wide near the middle, narrowing to a point at either end. The muin area of this bottom rises 
perhaps twenty feet above the river, leaving a narrow strip of low bottom along the shore, covered 
with trees that belted the prairie on the river side with a thick forest, and the immediate bank of 
the river was fringed with a dense growth of willows. Near the lower end of tliis prairie, near 
the river bank, was s'tuated the Iowa village. About two miles above it and near the middle of 
the prairie is a mound, covered at the time with a tuft of small trees and underbrush growing on 
its summit. In the rear of this little elevation or mound lay a belt of wet prairie, covered, at that 
lime, with a dense growth of rank, coarse grass. Bordering this wet prairie on the north, the 
country rises abruptly into elevated broken river bluffs, covered with a heavy forest for many 
miles in extent, and in places thickly clustered with undergrowth, affording a convenient shelter 
for the stealthy approach of the foe. 

" Through this forest the Sac and Fox war party made their way in the night and secreted 
themselves in the tall grass spoken of above, intending to remain in ambush during the day and 
make such observations as this near proximity to their intended victim might atford, to aid them 
in their contemplated attack on the town during the following night. From this situation their 
spies could take a full survey of the village, and watch every movement of the inhabitants, by 
which means they were soon convinced that the lowas had no suspicion of their presence. 

" Atthefootof themoundabovementionedjthe lowas hadtheirrace course, where they diverted 
themselves with the excitement of horse r^icing, and schooled their young warriors in cavalry 
evolutions. In tliese exercises mock battles were fought, and the Indian tactics of attack and 
defense carefully inculcated, by which meansaskill in horsemanship was acquired rarely excelled. 
Unfortunately for them this day was selected for their equestrian sports, and wholly uncon- 
scious of the proximity of their foes, the warriors repaired to tlie race ground, leaving most of 
their arms in the village and their old men and women and children unprotected. 

" Pash-a-po-po, who was chief in command of the Sacs and Foxes, perceived at once the 
advantage this state of tilings afforded for a complete surprise of his now doomed victims, and 
ordered Black Hawk to file off with his young warriors through the tall grass and gain the cover 
of the timber along the river bank, and witli the utmost speed reach the village and commence 
the battle, while he remained with his division in the ambush to malje a simultaneous as-ault on 
the unarmed men whose attention was engrossed with the excitement of the races. The plin 
was skillfully laid and most dexterously executed. Black Hawk with his forces reached the 
village undiscovered, and made a furious onslaught upon the defenseless inhabiiants, by firing 
one general volley into their midst, and completing the slaughter with the tomahawk and scalp- 
ing knife, aided by the devouring ihimes with which they enveloped the village as suoa as the 
fire brand could be spread from lodge to lodge. 

" On the instant ot the report of fire arms at the village, the forces under Pash-a-po-po 
leaped from their couthant position in the grass and sprang tiger-like upon tlie astonished and 
unarmel lowas in the midst of tlieir r.icing sports. The fir.-t impulse of the latter natuially led 
them to m ike the utmost speed toward their arms in the village, and protect if poss.blc their 
wives and chl Iren from the attack of their merciless assailants. The distance from the pl.icj of 
attack on the prairie was two miles, and a great number fell in their flight by tlie bullets and 
tomaliawks of their enemies, who pressed them closely with a running fire the whole way. and 
the survivors only reached their town in time to witness the horrors of its desfrnciiun. Their 
whole village was in flames, and the dearest objects of their lives lay in slaughtrr d heaps 
amidst the devouring clem 'nt, an I tho agonizing groans of the dying, mingle 1 with th ■ exuiting 
shouts of the victorious foe, fille I their hearts with maddening despair. Their wives an I cliildren 
who had been spared the general massacie were prisoners, and together with tlieir arms were in 
the hands of the victors ; and all that could now be done was to draw off tlieir shattered and 
defenseless forces, and save as many lives as possible by a retreat across the Des Moinen River, 
which tliey effected in the best possible manner, and took a position among the Soap Creek 

The Sacs and Foxes, prior to the settlement of their village on Rock River, 
h?d a fierce conflict with the Winnebagoes, subdued them and took possession 


of their lands. Their village on Rock River, at one time, contained upward of 
sixty lodges, and was among the largest Indian villages on the continent. In 
1825, the Secretary of War estnnated the entire number of the Sacs and Foxes 
at 4,600 souls. Their village was situated in the immediate vicinity of the 
upper rapids of the Mississippi, where the beautiful and flourishing towns of 
Rock Island and Davenport are now situated. The beautiful scenery of the 
island, the extensive prairies, dotted over with groves ; the picturesque bluffs 
along the river banks, the rich and fertile soil, producing large crops of corn, 
sijuash and other vegetables, with little labor; the abundance of wild fruit, 
game, fish, and almost everything calculated to make it a delightful spot for an 
Indian village, which was found there, had made this place a favorite home of 
the Sacs, and secured for it the strong attachment and veneration of the whole 

North of the hunting grounds of the Sacs and Foxes, were those of the 
Sioux, a fierce and Avarlike nation, who often disputed possession with their 
rivals in savage and bloody warfare. The possessions of these tribes were 
mostly located in Minnesota, but extended over a portion of Northern and 
Western Iowa to the Missouri River. Their descent from the north upon the 
hunting grounds of Iowa frequently brought them into collision with the Sacs 
and Foxes ; and after many a conflict and bloody struggle, n, boundary line was 
established between them by the Government of the United States, in a treaty 
held at Prairie du Chien, in 1825. But this, instead of settling the difficulties, 
caused them to quarrel all the more, in consequence of alleged trespasses upon 
each other's side of the line. These contests were kept up and became so unre- 
lenting that, in 1830, Government bought of the respective tribes of the Sacs 
and Foxes, and the Sioux, a strip of land twenty miles in width, on both sides 
of the line, and thus throwing them forty miles apart by creating between them 
a "•neutral ground," commanded them to cease their hostilities. Both the 
Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux, however, were allowed to fish and hunt on this 
ground unmolested, provided they did not interfere with each other on United 
States territory. The Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux were deadly enemies, and 
neither let an opportunity to punish the other pass unimproved. 

In April, 1852, a fight occurred between the Musquaka band of Sacs and 
Foxes and a band of Sioux, about six miles above Algona, in Kossuth County, 
on the west side of the Des Moines River. The Sacs and Foxes Avere under 
the leadership of Ko-ko-wah, a subordinate chief, and had gone up from their 
home in Tama County, by way of Clear Lake, to what was then the ''neutral 
ground." At Clear Lake, Ko-ko-wah was informed that a party of Sioux were 
encamped on the Avest side of the East Fork of the Des Moines, and he deter- 
mined to attack them. With sixty of his Avarriors, he started and arrived at a 
point on the east side of the river, about a mile above the Sioux encampment, 
in the night, and concealed themselves in a grove, Avhere they Avere able to dis- 
cover the position and strength of their hereditary foes. The next morning, 
after many of the Sioux braves had left their camp on hunting tours, the vin- 
dictiA'e Sacs and Foxes crossed the river and suddenly attacked the camp. The 
conflict was desperate for a short time, but the advantage Avas Avith the assail- 
ants, and the Sioux were routed. Sixteen of them, including some of their 
Avomen and children, were killed, and a boy 14 years old was captured. One 
of the Musquakas was shot in the breast by a squaAV as they were rushing into 
the Sioux's camp. He started to run aAvay, Avhen the same brave squaAV shot 
him through the body, at a distance of twenty rods, and he fell dead. Three 
other Sac braves were killed. But fcAv of the Sioux escaped. The victorious 


party hurriedly buried their own dead, leaving the dead Sioux above ground, 
and made their way home, with their captive, with all possible expedition. 

pike's expedition. 

Very soon after the acquisition of Louisiana, the United States Government 
adopted measures for the exploration of the new territory, having in view the 
conciliation of the numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was possessed, and, 
also, the selection of proper sites for the establishment of military posts and 
trading stations. The Army of the West, Gen. James Wilkinson commanding, 
had its headquarters at St. Louis. From this post. Captains Lewis and Clark, 
with a sufficient force, were detailed to explore the unknown sources of the 
Missouri, and Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike to ascend to the head waters of the Mis- 
sissippi. Lieut. Pike, with one Sergeant, two Corporals and seventeen privates, 
left the military camp, near St. Louis, in a keel-boat, with four months' rations, 
on the 9th day of August, 1805. On the 20th of the same month, the expe- 
dition arrived within the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the Des Moines 
Rapids, where Pike met William Ewing, who had just been appointed Indian 
Agent at this point, a French interpreter and four chiefs and fifteen Sac and 
Fox warriors. 

At the head of the Rapids, where Montrose' is now situated, Pike held a 
council with the Indians, in which he addressed them substantially as follows : 
"Your great Father, the President of the United States, wished to be more 
intimately acquainted with the situation and Avants of the different nations of 
red people in our newly acquired territory of Louisiana, and has ordered the 
General to send a number of his warriors in different directions to take them by 
the hand and make such inquiries as might afford the satisfaction required." 
At the close of the council he presented the red men with some knives, whisky 
and tobacco. 

Pursuing his way up the river, he arrived, on the 23d of August, at what is 
supposed, from his description, to be the site of the present city of Burlington, 
which he selected as the location of a military post. He describes the place as 
being " on a hill, about forty miles above the River de Moyne Rapids, on the 
west side of the river, in latitude about 41° 21' north. The channel of the 
river runs on that shore ; the hill in front is about sixty feet perpendicular ; 
nearly level on top ; four hundred yards in the rear is a small prairie fit for 
gardening, and immediately under the hill is a limestone spring, sufficient for 
the consumption of a whole regiment." In addition to this description, which 
corresponds to Burlington, the spot is laid down on his map at a bend in the 
river, a short distance below the mouth of the Henderson, which pours its waters 
into the Mississippi from Illinois. The fort was built at Fort Madison, but from 
,the distance, latitude, description and map furnished by Pike, it could not have 
been the place selected by him, while all the circumstances corroborate the 
opinion that the place he selected was the spot where Burlington is now located, 
called by the early voyagers on the Mississippi, "Flint Hills." 

On the 24th, with one of his men, he went on shore on a hunting expedition, 
and following a stream which they supposed to be a part of the Mississippi, they 
were led away from their course. Owing to the intense heat and tall grass, his 
two favorite dogs, which he had taken with him, became exhausted and he left 
them on the prairie, supposing that they would follow him as soon as they 
should get rested, and went on to overtake his boat. Reaching the river, he 
waited some time for his canine friends, but they did not come, and as he deemed 
it inexpedient to detain the boat longer, two of his men volunteered to go in pur- 


suit of them, and he continued on his way up the river, expecting that the two 
men wouM soon overtake him. They lost their way, however, and for six days 
were without food, except a few morsels gathered from the stream, and might 
have perished, had they not accidentally met a trader from St. Louis, who in- 
duced two Indians to take them up the river, and they overtook the boat at 

At Dubuque, Pike was cordially received by Julicn Dubuque, a Frenchman, 
who held a mining claim under a grant from Spain. Dubuque had an old field 
piece and fired a salute in honor of the advent of the first Americans who had 
visited that part of the Territory. Dubuque, however, was not disposed to ]uib- 
lish the wealth of his mines, and the young and evidently inquisitive officer 
obtained but little information from him. 

After leaving this place. Pike pursued his way up the river, but as, he passed 
beyond the limits of the present State of Iowa, a detailed history of his explo- 
rations on the upper waters of the Mississippi more properly belongs to the his- 
torv of another State. 

It is sufficient to say that on the site of Fort Snelling, Minnesota, at the 
mouth of the Minnesota River, Pike held a council with the Sioux, September 
23, and obtained from them a grant of one hundred thousand acres of land. 
On the 8th of January, 1806, Pike arrived at a trading post belonging to the 
Northwest Company, on Lake De Sable, in latitude 47°. At this time the 
then powerful Northwest Company carried on their immense operations from 
Hudson's Bay to the St. Lawrence; up that river on both sides, along the great 
lakes to the head of Lake Superior, thence to the sources of the Red River of 
the north and west, to the Rocky Mountains, embracing within the scope of 
their operations the entire Territory of Iowa. After successfully accomplishing 
his mis^iion, and performing a valuable service to Iowa and the whole Northwest, 
Pike returned to St. Louis, arriving there on the 30th of April, 1806. 


The Territory of Iowa, although it haxl been purchased by the Ignited States, 
and was ostensibly in the possession of the Government, was still occupied by 
the Indians, who claimed title to the soil by right of ownership and possession. 
Before it could be open to settlement by the Avhites, it ^Yas indispensable that 
the Indian title should be extinguished and the original owners removed. The 
accomplishment of this purpose required the expenditure of la-ge sums of 
money and blood, and for a long series of years the frontier was disturbed by 
Indian wars, tei'minated repeatedly by treaty, only to be renewed by some act 
of oppression on the part of the whites or some violation of treaty stipulation. 

As previously shown, at the time when the United States assumed the con- 
trol of the country by virtue of the Louisiana purchase, nearly the whole State 
was in possession of the Sacs and Foxes, a powerful and Avarlike nation, who 
were not disposed to submit without a struggle to what they considered the 
encroachments of the pale faces. 

Among the most noted chiefs, and one whose restlessness and hatred of the 
Americans occasioned more trouble to the Government than any other of his 
tribe, was Black Hawk, who was born at the Sac village, on Rock River, in 
1767. He was simply the chief of his own band of Sac warriors, but by his 
energy and ambition he became the leading spirit of the united nation of Sacs 
and Foxes, and one of the prominent figures in the history of the country from 
1804 until his death. In early manhood he attained some distinction as a 
fighting chief, having led campaigns against the Osages, and other neighboring 


tribes. About the beginning of the present century he began to appear prom- 
inent in affairs on the Mississippi. Some liistorians have added to the statement 
that " it does not appear that he was ever a great general, or possessed any of 
the qualifications of a successful leader." If this was so, his life was a marvel. 
How any man v/ho had none of the qualifications of a leader became so prom- 
inent as such, as he did, indicates either that he had some ability, or that his 
cotemporaries, both Indian and Anglo-Saxon, had less than he. He is said 
to have been the " victim of a narrow prejudice and bitter ill-will against the 
Americans," but the impartial historian must admit that if he Avas the enemy 
of theAmericans, it was certainly not without some reason. 

It will be remembered that Spain did not give up possession of the country 
to France on its cession to tlie latter power, in 1801, but retained possession of 
it, and, by the authority of France, transferred it to the United States, in 1804. 
Black Hawk and his band were in St. Louis at the time, and were invited to be 
present and witness the ceremonies of tlie transfer, but he refused the invitation, 
and it is but just to say that tliis refusal Avas caused probably more from 
regret that the Indians were to be transferred from the jurisdiction of the 
Spanish authorities than from any special hatred toward the Americans. In 
his life he says : " I found many sad and gloomy faces because the United 
States were about to take possession of the town and country. Soon after the 
Americans came, I took my band and went to take leave of our Spanisli father. 
The Americans came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out 
of one door as they entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for 
our village, on Rock River, not liking the change any more than our friends 
appeared to at St. Louis. On arriving at our village, we gave the news that 
strange people had arrived at St. Louis, and that we should never see our 
Spanish father again. The information made all our peo])le sorry." 

On tlie 3d day of November, 1804, a treaty was concluded between William 
Henry Iliirrison, then Governor of Indiana Territory, on behalf of the United 
States, and five chiefs of the Sac and Fox nation, by which the latter, in con- 
sideration of two thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars' Avorth of goods 
then delivered, and a yearly annuity of one thousand dollars to be paid in 
goods at just cost, ceded to the United States all that land on tlie east side of 
the Mississppi, extending from a point opposite the Jefferson, in Missouri, to 
the VVisconsin River, embracing an area of over fifty-one millions of acres. 

To this treaty Black Hawk always objected and always refused to consider 
it binding upon his people. He asserted that the chiefs or braves who made it 
had no authority to relinquish the title of the nation to any of the lands they 
held or occupied ; and, moreover, that they had been sent to St. Louis on quite 
a different errand, namely, to get one of their people released, Avho had been 
imprisoned at St. Louis for killing a Avhite man. 

The year folloAving this treaty (1805), Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike came up 
the river for the purpose of holding friendly councils Avith the Indians and select- 
ing sites for forts Avithin the territory recently acquired from France by the 
United States. Lieutenant Pike seems to have been the American Avhom 
Black Hawk ever met or had a personal intervicAV Avith ; and he Avas very much 
prepossessed in Pike's favor. Ho gives the following account of his visit to 
Rock Island : 

" A boat came up the river with a young American chief and a small party 
of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed Salt River. Some of our 
young braves Avatched them every day, to see Avhat sort of people he had on 
board. The boat at lengtli arrived at Rock Rivei", and the young chief came on 


shore with his interpreter, and made a spcecli and gave us some presents. We 
in turn presented them with meat and such other provisions as we had to spare. 
We were well pleased with the young chief. He gave us good advice, and said 
our American father would treat us well."' 

The events which soon followed Pikes expedition were the erection of Fort 
Edwards, at what is now Warsaw, Illinois, and Fort Madison, on the site of the 
present town of that name, the latter being the first fort erected in Iowa. These 
movements occasioned great uneasiness among the Indians. When W'ork was 
commenced on Fort Edwards, a delegation from their nation, headed by some of 
their chiefs, went down to see what the Americans were doing, and had an in- 
terview with the commander ; after which they returned home apparently satis- 
fied. In like manner, when Fort Madison Avas being erected, they sent down 
another delegation from a council of the nation held at Rock River. Accord- 
mg to Black Hawk's account, the American chief told them that he AVas build- 
ing a house for a trader who was coming to sell them goods cheap, and that the 
soldiers were coming to keep him company — a statement which Black Hawk 
says they distrusted at the time, believing that the fort was an encroachment 
upon their rights, and designed to aid in getting their lands away from them. 

It has been held by good American authorities, that the erection of Fort 
Madison at the point Avhere it was located teas a violation of the treaty of 1804. 
By the eleventh article of that treaty, the United States had a right to build a 
fort near the mouth of the Wisconsin River ; by article six they had bound 
themselves " that if any citizen of the United States or any other white persons 
should form a settlement upon their lands, such intruders should forthwith be 
removed." Probably the authorities of the United States did not regard the 
establishment of military posts as coming properly within the meaning of the 
term "settlement," as used in the treaty. At all events, they erected Fort 
Madison within the territory reserved to the Indians, who became very indig- 
nant. Not long after the fort Avas built, a party led by Black HaAvk attempted 
its destruction. They sent spies to Avatch the movements of the garrison, who 
ascertained that the soldiers Avere in the habit of marching out of the fort every 
morning and evening for parade, and the plan of the party Avas to conceal them- 
selves near the fort, and attack and surprise them Avhen they Avere outside. On 
the morning of the proposed day of attack, five soldiers came out and Avere fired 
upon by the Indians, two of them being killed. The Indians Avere too hasty in 
their movement, for the regular drill had not yet commenced. However, they 
kept up the attack for several days, attempting the old Fox strategy of setting 
fire to the fort Avith blazing arroAvs ; but finding their efforts unavailing, the}'' 
soon gave up and returnetl to Rock River. 

When Avar Avas declared betAveen the United States and Great Britain, in 
1812, Black IlaAvk and his band allied themselves Avith the British, partly 
because he was dazzled by their specious promises, and more probably because 
they had been deceived by the Americans. Black HaAvk himself declared that 
they Avere "forced into the Avar by being deceived." He narrates the circum- 
stances as folloAvs : " ScAcral of the cliiefs and head men of the Sacs and 
Foxes were called upon to go to Washington to see their (rreat Father. On 
their return, they related Avhat had been said and done.. They said the Great 
Father wished them, in the event of a Avar taking place with England, not to 
interfere on either side, but to remain neutral. He did not Avant our help, but 
wished us to hunt and support our families, and live in peace. He said that 
British traders Avould not be jiermitted to come on the Mississippi to furnish us 
with good^. but that Ave should be supplied Avith an American trader. Our 


chiefs then told him that the British traders always gave them credit in the 
Fall for guns, powder and goods, to enable us to hunt and clothe our families. 
He repeated that the traders at Fort Madison would have plenty of goods ; 
that we should go there in the Fall and he would supply us on credit, as the 
British traders had done." 

Black Hawk seems to have accepted of this proposition, and he and his 
people were very much pleased. Acting in good faith, they fitted out for their 
Winter's hunt, and went to Fort Madison in high spirits to receive from the 
trader their outfit of supplies. But, after waiting some time, they were told by 
the trader that he would not trust them. It was in vain that they pleaded the 
promise of their great father at Washington. The trader was inexora^ble ; and, 
disappointed and crestfallen, they turned sadly toward their own village. "'Few 
of us," says Black Hawk, "slept that night; all was gloom and discontent. In 
the morning, a canoe was seen ascending the river ; it soon arrived, bearing an 
express, who brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Rock 
Island with two boats loaded with goods, and requested us to come up imme- 
diately, because he had good news for us, and a variety of presents. The 
express presented us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The news ran through 
our camp like fire on a prairie. Our lodges were soon taken down, and all 
started jfor Rock Island. Here ended all hopes of our remaining at peace, 
having been forced into the war by being deceived." 

He joined the British, who flattered him, styled him " Gen. Black Hawk," 
decked him with medals, excited his jealousies against the Americans, and 
armed his band ; but he met with defeat and disappointment, and soon aban- 
doned the service and came home. 

With all his skill and courage. Black Hawk was unable to lead all the Sacs 
and Foxes into hostilities to the United States. A portion of them, at the head 
of whom was Keokuk ("the Watchful Fox"), were disposed to abide by the 
treaty of 1804, and to cultivate friendly relations with the American people. 
Therefore, when Black Hawk and his band joined the fortunes of Great 
Britain, the rest of the nation remained neuti\al, and, for protection, organized, 
with Keokuk for their chief. This divided the nation into the " War and the 
Peace party." 

Black Hawk says he was informed, after he had gone to the war, that the 
nation, which had been reduced to so small a body of fighting men, were unable 
to defend themselves in case the Americans should attack them, and havnig all 
the old men and women and children belonging to the warriors who had joined 
the British on their hands to provide for, a council was held, and it was agreed 
that Quash-qua-me (the Lance) and other chiefs, together with the old men, 
women and children, and such others as chose to accompany them, should go to 
St. Louis and place themselves under the American chief stationed there. 
They accordingly went down, and were received as the "friendly band" of the 
Sacs and Foxes, and were provided for and sent up the Missouri River. On 
Black Hawk's return from the British army, he says Keokuk was introduced 
to him as the war chief of the braves then in the village. He inquired how he 
had become chief, and was informed that their spies had seen a large armed 
force going toward Peoria, and fears were entertained of an attack upon the 
village ; whereupon a council was held, which concluded to leave the village 
and cross over to the west side of the Mississippi. Keokuk liad been standing 
at the door of the lodge where the council was held, not being allowed to enter 
on account of never having killed an enemy, where he remained until Wa-co-me 
came out. Keokuk asked permission to speak in the council, which Wa-co-rae 


)btained for him. Keokuk then addressed the chiefs ; he remonstrated against 
ihe desertion of their village, their own homes and the graves of their fathers, 
md offered to defend the vilhige. The council consented tliat he should be 
heir war chief He marshaled his braves, sent out spies, and advanced on the 
Tail leading to Peoria, but returned Avithout seeing the enemy. The Americans 
lid not disturb the village, and all Avere satisfied with the appointment of 

Keokuk, like Black Hawk, was a descendant of the Sac branch of the 
lation, and was born on Rock River, in 1780. He was of a pacific disposition, 
3ut possessed the elements of true courage, and could fight, when occasion 
required, with a cool judgment and heroic energy. In his first battle, he en- 
countered and killed a Sioux, which placed him in the rank of warriors, and he 
kvas honored with a public feast by his tribe in commemoration of the event. 

Keokuk has been described as an orator, entitled to rank with the most 
gifted of his race. In person, he was tall and of portly bearing ; in his public 
speeches, he displayed a commanding attitude and graceful gestures ; he spoke 
'apidly, but his enunciation was clear, distinct and forcible ; he culled his fig- 
jres from the stores of nature and based his arguments on skillful logic. Un- 
fortunately for the reputation of Keokuk, as an orator among white people, he 
svas never able to obtain an interpreter who could claim even a slight acquaint- 
mcc with pliilosophy. With one exception only, his interpreters were unac- 
[uainted with the elements of their mother-tongue. Of this serious hindrance 
:o his fame, Keokuk was well aware, and retained Frank Labershure, who had 
received a rudimental education in the French and English languages, until the 
latter broke down by dissipation and died. But during the meridian of his 
career among the white people, he Avas compelled to submit his speeches for 
translation to uneducated men, Avhose range of thought fell below the flights of 
1 gifted mind, and the fine imagery drawn from nature was beyond their ])OAver 
)f reproduction. He had sufficient knowledge of the English language tu make 
lim sensible of tills bad rendering of his thoughts, and often a feeling of morti- 
icatiou at the bungling efforts Avas depicted on his countenance Avhile speaking, 
riie proper place to form a correct estimate of his ability as an orator Avas in 
;he Indian council, where he addressed himself exclusively to tliose who under- 
stood his language, and Avitness the electrical eifect of his eloquence upon his 

Keokuk seems to have possessed a more sober judgment, and to have had a 
nore intelliiient view of the great strength and resources of the United States, 
;han his noted and restless cotemporary. Black HaAvk. He knew from the first 
:hat the reckless war which Black H;nvk and his band had determined to carry on 
could result in nothing but defeat and disaster, and used every argument against 
t. The large number of Avarriors Avhom he had dissuaded fnmi folloAving lilack 
[TaAvk became, however, greatly excited Avith the Avar spirit after Stillman's 
lefeat, and l)ut for the signal tact displayed by Keokuk on that occasion, Avould 
lave forced him to submit to their wishes in joining the rest of the Avarriors in 
:he field. A Avar-dance Avas held, and Keokuk took part in it, seeming to be 
noved Avith the current of the rising storm. When the dance Avas over, he 
•ailed the cotnicil to prepare for war. He made a speech, in Avliich he admitted 
he justice of their complaints against the Americans. To seek redress Avas a 
loble aspiration of their nature. The blood of their brethren had been sited by 
:he AAliite man, and the spirits of their braves, slain in battle, called loudly for 
/engeance. "I am your chief," he said, "and it is my duty to lead you to bat- 
:le, if, after fully considering the matter, you are determined to go. . But before 


you decide on taking this important step, it is Avise to inquire into the chances of 
success." He then portrayed to them the great power of tlie United States, 
against "whom they Avould have to contend, that tlieir chance of success was 
uttei'ly hopeless. " But," said he, " if you do determine to go upon the war- 
path, I will agree to lead you, on one condition, viz.: that before we go, we will 
kill all our old men and our wives and children, to save them from a lingering 
death of starvation, and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on 
the other side of the Mississippi." 

This was a strong but truth fid ])icture of the prospect before them, and was 
presented in such a forcible light as to cool their ardor, and cause them to aban- 
don the rash undertakiiio;. 

But during the war of 1832, it is now considered certain that small bands of 
Indians, from the west side of the Mississippi, made incursions into the white 
settlements, in the lead mining region, and committed some murders and dep- 

When peace was declared between the United States and England, Black 
Hawk was required to make peace with the former, and entered into a treaty 
at Portage des Sioux, September 14, 1815, but did not "touch the goose-quill 
to it until May 13, 1816, when he smoked the pipe of peace with the great 
white chief," at St. Louis. This treaty was a renew^al of the' treaty of 1804, 
but Black Hawk declared he liad been deceived ; that he did not know that by 
signing the treaty he was giving away his village. This weighed upon his mind, 
already soured by previous disappointment and the irresistible encroachments of 
the whites ; and when, a few years later, he and his people were driven from 
their possessions by the military, he determined to return to the home of his 

It is also to be remarked that, in 1816, by treaty with various tribes, the 
United States relinquished to the Indians all the lands lying north of a line 
drawn from the southernmost point of Lake Michigan west to the Mississippi, 
except a reservation five leagues square, on the Mississippi River, supposed tlien 
to be sufficient to include all the mineral lands on and adjacent to Fever River, 
and one league square at the mouth of the Wisconsin River. 


The immediate cause of the Indian outbreak in 1830 was the occupation of 
Black Hawk's village, on the Rock River, by the whites, during the absence of 
the chief and his braves on a hunting expedition, on the west side of the 
Mississippi. When they returned, they found their wigwams occupied by white 
families, and their own women and children were shelterless on the banks of 
the river. The Indians were indignant, and determined to repossess their village 
at all hazards, and early in the Spring of 1831 recrossed the Mississippi and 
menacingly took possession of their own cornfields and cabins. It may be well 
to remark here that it was expressly stipulated in the treaty of 1804, to which 
they attributed all their troubles, that the Indians should not be obliged to 
leave their lands until they were sold by the United States, and it does not 
appear that they occupied any lands other than those owned by the Government. 
If this was true, the Indians had good cause for indignation and complaint. 
But the whites, driven out in turn by the returning Indians, became so clamorous 
against what they termed the encroachments of the natives, that Gov. Reynolds, of 
Illinois, ordered Gen Gaines to Rock Island with a military force to drive the 
Indians again from their homes to the west side of the Mississippi. Black Hawk 
says he did not intend to be provoked into war by anything less than the blood of 


some of his own people ; in other words, tliat there wouhl he no war unless it should 
be commenced by the pale faces. But it was said and ])robably thought by the mili- 
tary commanders along the frontier that the Indians intended to unite in a general 
war against the whites, from Rock River to the Mexican borders. But it does not 
appear that the hardy frontiersmen themselves had any fears, for their experi- 
ence had been that, when well treated, their Indian neighbors were not danger- 
ous. Black Hawk and his band had done no more than to attempt to repossess the 
the old homes of which they had been deprived in their absence. No blood 
had been shed. Black Hawk and his chiefs sent a flag of truce, and a new 
treaty was made, by which Black Hawk and his band agreed to remain forever 
on the Iowa side and never rccross the river without the permission of the 
President or the Governor of Illinois. Whether the Indians clearly understood 
the terms of this treaty is uncertain. As was usual, the Indian traders had 
dictated terms on their behalf, and they had received a large amount of pro- 
visions, etc., from the Government, but it may Avell be doubted whether the 
Indians comprehended that they could never revisit the graves of their fathers 
without violating their treaty. They undoubtedly thought that they had agreed 
never to recross the Mississippi Avith hostile intent. However this may be, on 
the Gth day of April, 1832, Black Hawk and his entire band, wuh their women 
and children, again recrossed the Mississippi in plain view of the garrison of 
Fort Armstrong, and went up Rock River. Although this act Avas construed 
into an act of hostility by the military authorities, who declared that Black 
Hawk intended to recover his village, or the site Avhere it stood, by force ; but 
it does not appear that he made any such attempt, nor did his apearance 
create any special alarm among the settlers. They knew that the Indians never 
went on the war path encumbered with the old men, their women and their 

The Galenian, printed in Galena, of May 2, 1832, says that Black Hawk 
was invited by the Prophet and had taken possession of a tract about forty 
miles up Rock River ; but that he did not remain there long, but commenced 
his march up Rock River. Capt. W. B. Green, who served in Capt. Stephen- 
son's company of mounted rangers, says that " Black Hawk and h's band 
crossed the river with no hostile intent, but that his band had had bad luck in 
hunting during the previous Winter, were actually in a starving condition, and 
had come over to spend the Summer with a friendly tribe on the head waters of 
the Rock and Illinois Rivers, by invitation from their chief. Other old set- 
tlers, who all agree that Black Hawk had no idea of fighting, say that he came 
back to the west side expecting to negotiate another treaty, and get a new 
supj)ly of provisions. The most reasonable explanation of this movement, which 
resulted so disastrously to Black Hawk and his starving people, is that, during 
the Fall and Winter of 1831-2, his people became deeply indebted to their 
favorite trader at Fort Armstrong (Rock Island). They had not been fortunate 
in hunting, and ho was likely to lose heavily, as an Indian debt was outlawed 
in one year. If, therefore, the Indians could be induced to come over, and the 
fears of the military could be sufficiently aroused to pursue them, another treaty 
could be negotiated, and from the payments from the Government the shrewd 
trader could get his pay. Just a week after Black Hawk crossed the river, on 
the 13th of April, 1832, George Davenport Avrote to Gen. Atkinson : " I am 
informed that the British band of Sac Indians are determined to make war on 
the frontier settlements. * * * From every information that I have 
received, I am of the opinion that the intention of the British hand of Sac 
Indians is to commit depredations on the inhabitants of the frontier." And 


yet, from the 6th day of April until after Stillman's men commenced war by 
firing on a flag of truce from Bhick Hawk, no murders nor depredations wei*e 
committed by the British band of Sac Indians. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to detail the incidents of the Black 
Hawk war of 1832, as it pertains rather to the history of the State of Illinois. 
It is sufficient to say that, after the disgraceful affair at Stillman's Run, Black 
Hawk, concluding that the whites, refusing to treat Avith him, were determined 
to exterminate his people, determined to return to the Iowa side of the Missis- 
sippi. He could not return by the way he came, for the army was behind him, 
an army, too, that would sternly refuse to recognize the white flag of peace. 
His only course was to make his way northward and reach the Mississippi, if 
possible, before the troops could overtake him, and this lie did ; but, before he 
could get his women and children across the Wisconsin, he Avas overtaken, and a 
battle ensued. Here, again, he sued for peace, and, through his trusty Lieu- 
tenant, "the Prophet," the whites were plainly informed that the starving 
Indians did not Avish to fight, but would return to the Avest side of the Missis- 
sippi, peaceably, if they could be permitted to do so. No attention Avas paid to 
this second effort to negotiate peace, and, as soon as supplies could be obtained, 
the pursuit Avas resumed, the flying Indians Avere overtaken again eight miles 
before they reached the mouth of the Bad Axe, and the slaughter (it should not 
be dignified by the name of battle) commenced. Here, overcome by starA'ation 
and the victorious Avhites, his band Avas scattered, on the 2d day of August, 
1832. Black HaAvk escaped, but Avas brought into camp at Prairie du Chien 
by three Winnebagoes. He Avas confined in Jefferson Barracks until the 
Spring of 1833, when he was sent to Washington, arriving there April 22. On 
the 26th of April, they were taken to Fortress Monroe, where they remained 
till the 4th of June, 1833, Avhen orders Avere given for them to be liberated and 
returned to their own country. By order of the President, he Avas brought 
back to Iowa through the principal JEastern cities. Crowds flocked to see him 
all along his route, and lie Avas very much flattered by the attentions he 
received. He liA^ed among his people on the loAva River till that reserA^ation 
was sold, in 1836, Avhen, Avith the rest of the Sacs and Foxes, he removed to 
the Des Moines Reservation, Avhere he remained till his death, Avhich occurred 
on the 3d of October, 1838. 


At the close of the Black Hawk War, in 1832, a treaty Avas made at a 
council held on the Avest bank of the Mississippi, where noAV stands the thriving 
city of DaA^enport, on grounds now occupied by the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railroad Company, on the 21st day of September, 1832. At this 
council, the United States Avere represented by Gen. Winfield Scott and Gov. 
Reynolds, of Illinois. Keokuk, Pash-a-pa-ho and some thirty other chiefs and 
Avarriors of the Sac and Fox nation Avere present. By this treaty, the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of land on the eastern border of Iowa 
fifty miles Avide, from the northern boundary of Missouri to the mouth of the 
Upper Iowa River, containing about six million acres. ThcAvestern line of the 
purchase was parallel Avith the Mississippi. In consideration of this cession, 
the United States Government stipulated to pay annually to the confederated 
tribes, for thirty consecutive years, twenty thousand dollars in specie, and to 
pay the debts of the Indians at Rock Island, which had been accumulating for 


seventeen years and amounted to fifty thousand dollars, duo to Davenport & 
Farnham, Indian traders. The Government also generously donated to the 
Sac and Fox women and children whose husbands and fathers had fallen in the 
Black Hawk war, thirty-five beef cattle, twelve bushels (>f salt, thirty barrels of 
pork, fifty barrels of flour and six thousand bushels of corn. 

This territory is known as the "Black Hawk Purchase." Although it was 
not the first portion of Iowa ceded to the United States by the Sacs and Foxes, 
it was the first opened to actual settlement by the tide of emigration that flowed 
across the Mississippi as soon as the Indian title was extinguished. The treaty 
was ratified February 13, 1833, and took efiect on the 1st of June following, 
when the Indians quietly removed from the ceded territory, and this fertile and 
beautiful region was opened to white settlers. 

By the terms of the treaty, out of the Black Hawk Purchase Avas reserved for 
the Sacs and Foxes 400 S([uare miles of land situated on the Iowa River, and in- 
Icuding within its limits Keokuk's village, on the right bank of that river. This 
tract was known as " Keokuk's Reserve; ' and was oceujiied by the Indians until 
1836, when, by a treaty made in September between them and Gov. Dodge, of 
AVisconsin Territory, it was ceded to the United States. The council was held 
on the banks of the Mississippi, above Davenport, and was the largest assem- 
blage of the kind ever held by the Sacs and Foxes to treat for the sale of lands. 
About one thousand of their chiefs and braves were present, and Keokuk was 
their leading spirit and principal speaker on the occasion. By the terms of the 
treaty, tiie Sacs and Foxes Avere removed to another reservation on the Des 
Moines River, where an agency was established for them at what is now the 
town of Agency City. 

Besides the Keokuk Reserve, the Government gave out of the Black Hawk 
Purchase to Antoine Le Claire, interpreter, in fee simple, one section of land 
opposite Rock Island, and another at the head of the first rapids above the 
island, on the Iowa side. This was the first laud title granted by the United 
States to an individual in Iowa. 

Soon after the removal of the Sacs and Foxes to their new reservation 
on the Des Moines River, Gen. Joseph M. Street was transferred from the 
agency of the Winncbagoes, at Prairie du Chien, to establish an agency 
among them. A farm was selected, on which the necessary buildings were 
erected, including a comfortable farm house for the agent and his family, at 
the expense of the Indian Fund. A salaried agent was employed to superin- 
tend the farm and disp')se of the crops. Two mills were erected, one on Soap 
Creek and the other on Sugar Creek. The latter was soon swept away by a 
flood, but the former rcuiained and did good service for many years. Connected 
with the agency were Joseph Smart and John Goodell, interpreters. The 
latter was interpreter for Hard Fishs band. Three of the Indian chiefs. Keo- 
kuk, Wapello and Appanoose, had each a large field improved, the two iormer 
on the right bank of the Des jNIoines, back from the river, in what is now 
"Keokuk's Prairie," and the latter on the present site of the city of Ottumwa. 
Among the traders connected Avitli the agency were the Messrs. Ewing, from 
Ohio, and Phelps & Co., from Illinois, and also Mr. J. P. Eddy, who estab- 
lished his post at what is now the site of Eddyville. 

The Indians at this agency became idle and listless in the absence of their 
natural and wonted excitements, and many of them plunged into dissipation. 
Keokuk himself became dissipated in the latter years of his life, and it has 
been reported that he died of deUrium tremens after his removal with his 
tribe to Kansas. 


In May, 1843, most of tlie Indians were removed up the Des Moines River, 
above the temporary line of Red Rock, having ceded the remnant of their 
lands in Iowa to the United States on the 21st of September, 1837, and on the 
11th of October, 1842. By the terms of the latter treaty, they held possession 
of the "New Purchase" till the Autumn of 1845, when the most of them 
were removed to their reservation in Kansas, the balance being removed in the 
Spring of 1846. 

1. Treaii/ with the Sioux — Made July 19, 1815 ; ratified December IG, 1815. This treaty 
was made at Portage des Sioux, between the Sioux of Minnesota and Upper Iowa and the United 
States, by William Clark and Ninian Edwards, (Commissioners, and was merely a treaty of peace 
and friendship on the part of those Indians toward the United States at the close of the war of 

2. Treaty with the Sacs. — A similar treaty of peace was made at Portage des Sioux, between 
the United States and the Sacs, by William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Clioteau, on the 
13th of September, 1815, and ratified at the same date as the above. In this, the treaty of 1804 
was re-affirmed, and the Sacs here represented promised for themselves and their bands to keep 
entirely separate from the Sacs of llock River, who, under Black Hawk, had joined the British 
in the war just then closed. 

3. Treat;/ with the Fozeif. — A separate treaty of peace was made with the Foxes at Portage 
des Sioux, by the same Commissioners, on the 14th of September, 1815, and ratified the same as 
the above, wherein the Foxes re-affirmed the treaty of St. Louis, of November 3, 1804, and 
agreed to deliver up all their prisoners to the officer in command at Fort Clark, now Peoria, 

4. Treaty with the lowas. — A treaty of peace and mutual good will was made between the 
United States and the Iowa tribe of Indians, at Portage des Sioux, by the same Commissioners 
as above, on the IGth of September, 1815, at the close of the war with Great Britain, and ratified 
at the same date as the others. 

5. Treaty with the Sues of Ro'-k River — Made at St. Louis on the 13th of May, 1816, between 
the United States and the Sacs of Rock River, by the Commissioners, William Clark, Ninian 
Edwards and Auguste Choteau, and ratified December 30, 181G. In this treaty, that of 1804 
was re- established and confirmed by twenty-two chiefs and head men of the Sacs of Rock River, 
and Black Hawk himself attaclicd to it his signature, or, as he said, "touched the goose quill." 

6. Treaty of 16'^4 — On the 4th of August, 1824, a treaty was made between the United 
States and the Sacs and Foxes, in the city of Washington, by William Clark, Commissioner, 
wherein the Sac and Fox nation relinquished their title to all lands in Missouri and that portion 
of the southeast corner of Iowa known as the " Half-Breed Tract" was set off and reserved for 
the use of the half-breeds of tlie Sacs and Foxes, they holding title in the same manner as In- 
dians. Ratified January 18, 1825. 

7. Treaty of August 19, 1825. — At this date a treaty was made by William Clark and Lewis 
Cass, at Prairie du Chien, between the United States and the Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Me- 
nomonees, Wiunebagoes and a portion of the Ottawas and Pottawatomies. In this treaty, in 
order to make peace between the contending tribes as to the limits of their respective hunting 
grounds in Iowa, it was agreed that the United States Government should run a boundary line 
between the Sioux, on the north, and the Sacs and Foxes, on the south, as follows: 

Commencing at the mouth of the Upper Iowa River, on the west bank of the Mississippi, 
and ascending said Iowa River to its west fork ; thence up tiie fork to its source ; thence cross- 
ing the fork of Red Cedar River in a direct line to the second or upper fork of the Des Moines 
River ; thence in a direct line to the lower fork of the Calumet River, and down that river to its 
junction with the ]\Iissouri River. 

8. Treaty of ISSO.—On the 15th of July, 1830, the confederate tribes of the Sacs and Foxes 
ceded to the United States a strip of country lying south of the above line, twenty miles in width, 
and extending along the line aforesaid from the Mississippi to the Des Moines River. The Sioux 
also, whose possessions were north of the line, ceded to the Government, in the same treaty, a 
like strip on the north side of the boundary. Thus the United States, at the ratification of this 
treaty, February 24, 1831, caine into possession of a portion of Iowa forty miles wide, extend- 
ing along the Clark and Cass line of 1825, from the Mississippi fo the Des Moines River. Thif 
territory was known as the " Neutral Ground," and the tril)es on cither side of the line wt-re 
allowed to fish and hunt on it unmolested till it was made a Winnebago reservation, and the 
Winnebagoes were removed to it in 1841. 

9. Treaty with the Sacs and Fuxcs and other Tribes.— i^i the same time of the above treaty re- 
specting the " Neutral Ground" (July 15, 1830), the Sacs and Foxes, Western Sioux, Omahas, 
lowas and Missouris cedeil to tlie United States a portion of the western slope of Iowa, the boun- 
daries of which were defined as follows: Beginning at tlie upper fork of the Des Moines River, 
and passing the sources of the Little Sioux and Floyd Rivers, to tlie fork of the first creek that 
falls into the Bio- Sioux, or Calumet, on the east side ; thence down said creek and the Calumet 


River to the Missouri River; (hence down said Missouri River to the Missouri State line above 
the Kansas ; thence along said line to tiie northwest corner of said State ; thence to the high lands 
between tlie waters falling into the Missouri and Des Moines, passing to said high lands along 
the dividing ridge between the forks of the Grand River ; thence along said higli lands or ridge 
separating the waters of the Missouri from those of the Des Moines, to a point opposite the source 
of tlie Hoycr River, and thence in a direct line to the upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of 

It was understood that the lands ceded and relinquished by this treaty were to be assigned 
and allotted, under the direction of the Tresident of the Unite(l States, to tlie tribes then living 
thereon, or to such other tribes as the President might locate thereon for hunting and other pur- 
poses. In consideration of three tracts of land ceded in this treaty, the United States agreed to 
pay to the Sacs three thousand dollars; to the Foxes, three thousand dollars; to the Sioux, 
two thousand dollars; to the Yankton and Santie bands of Sioux, three thousand dollars; to the 
Omahas, two thousand five hundred dollars; and to tlie Ottoes and Missouris, two thousand five 
hundred dollars — to be paid annually for ten successive years. In addition to these annuities, 
the Government agreed to furnish some of the tribes with blacksmiths and agricultural imple- 
ments to the amount of two hundred dollars, at the expense of the United States, and to set apart 
three thousand dollars annually for the education of the children of these tribes. It does not 
appear that any fort was erected in this territory prior to the erection of Fort Atkinson on the 
Neutral Ground, in 1S40-41. 

This treaty was made by William Clark, Superintendent of Indian affairs, and Col. Willoughby 
Morgan, of the United States First Infantry, and came into etlcct by proclamation, February 
24, 1831. 

10. Treat]/ with the Winnebagoes. — Made at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, September 15, 1832, 
by Gen. Winfield Scott and Hon. John ReynoMs, Governor of Illinois. In this treaty the Win- 
nebagoes ceded to the United States all their land lying on the east side of the Mississippi, and 
in part consideration therefor the United States granted to the Winnebagoes, to be held as other 
Indian lands are held, that portion of Iowa known as the Neutral Ground. The exchange of the 
two tracts of country was to take place on or before the 1st day of June, 1833. In addition to 
tiie Neutral Ground, it was stipulated that the United States should give the Winnebagoes, begin- 
ning in September, 1833, and continuing for twenty-seven successive years, ten thousand dollars 
in specie, and establish a school among them, with a farm and garden, and provide otlier facili- 
ties for the education of their children, not to exceed in cost three thousand dollars a j'car, and 
to continue the same for twenty-seven successive years. Six agriculturists, twelve yoke of oxen 
and plows and other farming tools were to be supplied by the Government. 

11. Treat)/ of 18S2 with the Sac.i and Fores. — Already mentioned as the Black Hawk purchase. 

12. Treat)/ of JSSC, with the Sacs and Foxes, ceding Keokuk's Reserve to (he United States; 
for which the Government stipulated to pay thirty thousand dollars, and an annuity of ten thou- 
sand dollars for ten successive years, together with other sums and debts of the Indians to 
various parties. 

13. IVeati/ of 1837.— On the 21st of October, 1837, a treaty was made at the city of Wash- 
ington, between Carey A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and the confederate tribes of 
Sacs and Foxes, ratified February 21, 1838, wherein another slice of the soil of Iowa was obtained, 
described in the treaty as follows: "A tract of country containing 1,2")0,000 acres, lying west 
and adjoining the tract conveyed by them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 
1832. It is understood that the points of termination for the present cession shall be the north- 
ern and southern points of said tract as fixed by the survey made under the authority of the 
United States, and that a line shall be drawn between them so as to intersect a line extended 
westwardly from the angle of s.aid tract nearly opposite to Rock Island, as laid down in the above 
survey, so far as may be necessary to include the number of acres hereby ceded, which last 
mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five miles " 

This piece of land was twenty-five miles wide in the middle, and ran off to a point at both 
ends, lying directly back of the Black Hawk Purchase, and of the same length. 

14 Treaty of Relinquishment. — At the same date as the above treaty, in the city of Washing- 
ton, Carey A. Harris, Commissioner, the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United Sta(es all (heir 
right and interest in the country lying south of the boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes 
and Sioux, as described in the treaty of August lU, 182.'>, and between the Mississippi and Mis 
spuri Rivers, the United States paying for the same one hundred and sixty thousand dollars 
The Indians also gave up all claims and interests under the treaties previously made with them 
for the satisfaction of which no appropriations had been made. 

15. Treat)/ of ISJfS. — The last treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes October 11, 1842 
ratified March 23, 1843. It was made at the Sac and Fox agency (.\gency City), by John 
Chambers, Commissioner on behalf of the United States. In this treaty the Sac and Fox Indians 
" ceded to the United States all their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any claim 
or title." By the terms of this treaty tliey were to be removed from the country at the expira- 
tion of three years, and all who remained after (hat were to move at their own expense. Part 
of them were removed to Kansas in the Fall of 1845, and the rest the Spring following. 



While the territory noAv embraced in the State of Iowa was under Spanish 
rule as a part of its province of Louisiana, certain claims to and grants of land 
were made by the Spanish authorities, with which, in addition to the extinguishment 
of Indian titles, tlie United States had to deal. It is proper that these should 
be briefly reviewed. 

Dubuque. — On the 22d day of September, 1788, Julien Dubuque, a French- 
man, from Prairie du Chien, obtained from the Foxes a cession or lease of hxnds 
on the Mississippi River for mining purposes, on the site of the present city of 
Dubuque. Lead had been discovered here eight years before, in 1780, by the 
wife of Peosta Fox, a warrior, and Dubuque's claim embraced nearly all the lead 
bearing lands in that vicinity. He immediately took possession of his claim and 
commenced mining, at the same time making a settlement. The place became 
known as the "Spanish Miners," or, more commonly, "Dubuque's Lead 

In 1796, Dubuque filed a petition with Baron de Carondelet, the Spanish 
Governor of Louisiana, asking that the tract ceded to him by the Indians might 
be granted to him by patent from the Spanish Government. In this petition, 
Dubuque rather indefinitely set forth the boundaries of this claim as "about 
seven leagues along the Mississippi River, and three leagues in width from the 
river," intending to include, as is supposed, the river front between the Little 
Maquoketa and tlie Tete des Mertz Rivers, embracing more than twenty thou- 
sand acres. Carondelet granted the prayer of the petition, and the grant was 
subsequently confirmed by the Board of Land Commissioners of Louisiana. 

In October, 1804, Dubuque transferred the larger part of his claim to 
Auguste Choteau, of St. Louis, and on the 17th of May, 1805, he and Choteau 
jointly filed their claims with the Board of Commissioners, On the 20th of 
September, 1806, the Board decided in their favor, pronouncing tlie claim to be 
a regular Spanish grant, made and completed prior to the 1st day of October, 
1800, only one member, J. B. C. Lucas, dissenting. 

Dubuque died March 24, 1810. The Indians, understanding that the claim 
of Dubucpe under their former act of cession was only a permit to occupy the 
tract and work the mines during his life, and that at his death they reverted to 
them, took possession and continued mining operations, and were sustained by 
the military authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the 
Commissioners. When the Black Hawk purchase was consummated, the Du- 
l)U([ue claim thus held by the Indians was absorbed by the United States, as the 
Sacs and Foxes made no reservation of it in the treaty of 1832. 

The lieirs of Choteau, however, were not disposed to relinquish their claim 
Avitliout a struggle. Late in 1832, they employed an agent to look afcer their 
interests, and authorized him to lease the right to dig lead on the lands. The 
miners who commenced work under this agent were compelled by the military to 
abandon their operations, and one of the claimants went to Galena to institute 
legal proceedings, but found no court of competent jurisdiction, although he did 
bring an action for the recovery of a quantity of lead dug at Dubu(iue, for the 
purpose of testing the title. Being unable to identify the lead, however, he was 

By act of Congress, approved July 2, 1836, the town of Dubuque Avas sur- 
veyed and platted. After lots had been sold and occupied by the purchasers, 
Henry Choteau brought an action of ejectment against Patrick Malony, who 


held land in Dubuque under a patent from the United States, for the recovery 
of seven undivided eij^htli parts of the Dubuque claim, as purchased by Auguste 
Choteau in 1804. The case was tried in the District Court of the United States 
for the District of Iowa, and was decided adversely to the plaintift". The case was 
carried to the Supreme Court of the United States on a writ of error, when it 
was heard at the December term, 1853, and the decision of the lower court was 
aflirmcd, the court holding that the permit from Carondolet was merely a lease 
or j)ermit to work the mines ; that Dubu(iue asked, and the Governor of Louisiana 
granted, nothing more than the '' })eaceable possession" of certain lands obtained 
from the Indians ; that Carondelet had no legal authority to make snch a grant 
as claimed, and that, even if he had, this was but an " inchoate and imperfect 

Giaj-d. — In 1795, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana granted to 
Basil Giard five thousand eight hundred and sixty acres of land, in what is now 
Clayton Coulity, known as the "Giard Tract." He occupied the land during 
the time that Iowa passed from Spain to France, and from France to the United 
States, in consideration of which the Federal Government granted a patent of 
the same to Giard in his own right. His heirs sold the whole tract to James H. 
Lockwood and Thomas P. Burnett, of Prairie du Chien, for three hundred dollars. 

Honori. — March 30, 1799, Zenon Trudeau. Acting Lieutenant Governor of 
Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Ilonori a tract of land on the site of the 
present town of Montrose, as follows : " It is permitted to Mr. Louis (Fresson) 
Henori, or Louis Honore Fesson, to establish himself at the head of the rapids 
of the River Des Moines, and his establishment once formed, notice of it shall be 
given to the Governor General, in order to obtain for him a commission of a space 
sutlicient to give value to such establishment, and at the same time to render it 
useful to the commerce of the peltries of this country, to watch the Indians and 
keep them in the fidelity Avhicli they owe to His Majesty." 

Honori took immediate possession of his claim, Avhich he retained until 1805. 
While trading Avith the natives, he became indebted to Joseph Robedoux, w ho 
obtained an execution on which the property was sold INIay 13, 1803, and was 
purchased by the creditor. In these proceedings the property was described as 
beinsj; "' about six leao-ues above the River Des Moines." Robedoux died soon 
after he purchased the proprerty. Auguste Choteau, his executor, disposed of 
the Ilonori tract to Thomas F. Reddeck, in April, 1805, up to which time 
Honori continued to occupy it. The grant, as made by the Spanish government, 
was a league square, but only one mile square was confirmed by the United 
States. After the half-breeds sold their lands, in which the Ilonori grant was 
included, various claimants resorted to litigation in attempts to invalidate the 
title of the Reddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by a decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in 1839, and is the oldest legal title to any 
land in the State of Iowa. 


Before any permanent settlement had been made in the Territory of Iowa, 
white adventurers, trappers and traders, many of whom were scattered along 
the Mississippi and its tributaries, as agents and employes of the American Fur 
Company, intermarried with the females of the Sac and Fox Indians, producing 
a race of half-breeds, whose number Avas never definitely ascertamed. There 
were some respectable and excellent peojde among them, children of men of 
some refinement and education. For instance : Dr. Muir, a gentleman educated 


at Edinburgh, Scotland, a surgeon in the United States Army, stationed at a 
military post located on the present site of Warsaw, married an Indian woman, 
and reared his family of three daughters in the city of Keokuk. Other exam- 
ples might be cited, but they are probably exceptions to the general rule, and 
the race is now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa. 

A treaty was made at Washington, August 4, 1824, between the Sacs and 
Foxes and the United States, by which that portion of Lee County was reserved 
to the half-breeds of those tribes, and which was afterward known as " The 
Ilalf-Breed Tract." This reservation is the triangular piece of land, containing 
about 119,000 acres, lying between the Mississippi andDes Moines Rivers. It is 
bounded on the north by the prolongation of the northern line of Missouri. 
This line was intended to be a straight one, running due cast, which would have 
caused it to strike the ]\Iississippi River at or below Montrose ; but the surveyor who 
run it took no notice of the change in the variation of the needle as he proceeded 
eastward, and, in consequence, the line he run Avas bent, deviating more and more 
to the northward of a direct line as he approached the Mississippi, so that it 
struck that river at the lower edge of the town of Fort Madison. " This errone- 
ous line," says Judge Mason, "has been acquiesced in as well in fixing tlie 
northern limit of the Half-Breed Tract as in determining the northern boundary 
line of the State of Missouri." Tlie line thus run included in the reservation 
a portion of the lower part of the city of Foi't Madison, and all of the present 
townships of Van Buren, Charleston, Jefferson, Des Moines, Montrose and 

Under the treaty of 1824, the half-breeds had the right to occupy the soil, 
but could not convey it, the reversion being reserved to the United States. But 
on the 30th day of January, 1834, by act of Congress, this reversionary riglit 
was relinquished, and the half-breeds acquired the lands in fee simple. This 
was no sooner done, than a horde of speculators rushed in to buy land of the 
half-breed owners, and, in many instances, a gun, a blanket, a pony or a few 
quarts of whisky was sufficient for the purchase of large estates. There was 
a deal of sharp practice on both sides; Indians would often claim ownership of 
land by virtue of being half-breeds, and had no difficulty in proving their mixed 
blood by the Indians, and tliey would then cheat the speculators by selling land 
to which they had no riglitful title. On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed land in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut diamond, 
until at last things became badly mixed. There were no authorized surveys, 
and no boundary lines to claims, and, as a natural result, numerous conflicts and 
quarrels ensued. 

To settle these difficulties, to decide the validity of claims or sell them for 
the benefit of the real owners, by act of the Legislature of Wisconsin Territory, 
approved January 16, 1838, Edward Johnstone, Thomas S. Wilson and David 
Brigham were appointed Commissioners, and clotlied witli power to cflcct these 
objects. The act provided that these Commissioners shoidd be paid six dollars 
a day each. The commission entered upon its duties and continued until the 
next sessiim of the Legislature, when the act creating it was repealed, invalidat- 
ing all that had been done and depriving the Commissioners of their pay. The 
repealing act, however, authorized the Commissioners to commence action against 
the owners of the Half-Breed Tract, to receive pay for their services, in the Dis- 
trict Court of Lee County. Two judgments were obtained, and on execution 
the whole of the tract was sold to Ilngh T. Reid, tlie Sheriff' executing tlie 
deed. Mr. Reid sold portions of it to various parties, but Iiis own title was 
questioned and he became involved in litigation. Decisions in favor of Reid 


and those holding under him •were made by both District and Supreme Courts, 
but in December, 1850, these decisions were finally reversed by the Supreme 
Court of the United States in tlie case of Joseph Webster, plaintiff in error, vs. 
Hugh T. Reid, and the judgment titles failed. About nine years before the 
"judgment titles " were finally abrogated as above, another class of titles were 
brought into competition with them, and in the conflict between the two, the 
final decision was obtained. These were the titles based on the " decree of 
partition " ' issued by the United States District Court for the Territory of Iowa, 
on the 8th of May, 1841, and certified to by the Clerk on the 2d day of June of 
that year. Edward Johnstone and Hugh T. Reid, then hnv partners at Fort 
Madison, filed the petition for the decree in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of 
half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, author of the Star Spangled Banner, avIio 
was then attorney for the New York Land Company, which held heavy interests 
in these lands, took a leading part in the measure, and drew up the document in 
which it Avas presented to the court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, pre- 
sided. The plan of partition divided the tract into one hundred and one shares 
and arranged that each claimant should draw his proportion by lot. and should 
abide the result, whatever it might be. The arrangement was entered into, the 
lots drawn, and the plat of the same filed in the Recorders office, October (). 
1841. Upon this basis the titles to land in the Half-Breed Tract are now held. 


The first permanent settlement by the whites within the limits of Iowa was 
made by Julien Dubuque, in 1788, when, with a small party of miners, he set- 
tled on the site of the city that now bears his name, where he lived until his 
death, in 1810. Louis Honori settled on the site of the present town of Mon- 
trose, probably in 1799, and resided there until 1805, when his property passed 
into other hands. Of the Giard settlement, opposite Prairie du Chien, little is 
known, except that it was occupied by some parties prior to the commencement 
of the present century, and contained three cabins in 1805. Indian traders, 
although not strictly to be considered settlers, had established themselves at 
various points at an early date. A Mr. Johnson, agent of the American Fur 
Company, had a trading post below Burlington, where he carried on traffic with 
the Indians some time before the United States possessed the country. In 
1820, Le Moliese, a French trader, had a station at what is now Sandusky, six 
miles above Keokuk, in Lee County. In 1829, Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a set- 
tlement on the Lower Rapids, at Avhat is now Nashville. 

The first settlement in Lee County Avas made in 1820, by Dr. Samuel C. 
Muir, a surgeon in the United States army, who had been stationed at Fort 
EdAvards, noAV Warsaw, 111., and who built a cabin Avhere the city of Keokuk 
now stands. Dr. ISIuir was a man of strict integrity and irreproachable char- 
acter. While stationed at a military post on the Upper Mississippi, he had 
married an Indian Avoman of the Fox nation. Of his marriage, the folloAving 
romantic account is given : 

The post at -which he was stationed was visited by a beautiful Indian maiden — whose native 
name, unfortunatelv, has not been preserved — wlio, in her dreams, had seen a white brave un- 
moor liis canoe, paddle it across the river and come directly to her lodge. She felt assured, 
according to the superstitious belief of her race, that, in her dreams, she had seen her future 
husband, and had come to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. Muir, she instantly recognized 
liim as the hero of her dream, which, with childlike innocence and simplicity, she related to 
him. Her dream was, indeed, prophetic. Charmed with Sophia's beauty, innocence and devo- 
tion, the doctor honorably married lier; but after a while, the sneers and gibes jof his brother 


officers — less lionorable than he, perhaps — made him feel ashamed of his dark-skinned wife, and 
wlien his regiment was ordered down the river, to Bellefontaine, it is said he embraced the 
opportunity to rid himself of her, and left her, never expecting to see her again, and little 
dreaming that she would have the courage to follow him. But, with her infant child, this in- 
trepid wife and mother started alone in her canoe, and, after many days of weary labor and a 
lonely journey of nine hundred miles, she, at last, reached him. She afterward remarked, when 
speaking of this toilsome journey down the river in search of her husband, " When I got there 
I was all perished away — so thin ! " The doctor, touched by such unexampled devotion, took her 
to his heart, and ever after, until his death, treated her with marked respect. She always pre- 
sided at his table with grace and dignity, but never abandoned her native style of dress. In 
lSli)-2(), he was stationed at Fort Edward, but the senseless ridicule of some of his brother 
officers on account of his Indian wife induced him to resign his commission. 

After building his cabin, as above stated, he leased his claim for a term of years to Otis 
Reynolds and .John Culver, of St. Louis, and went to La Pointe, afterward Galena, where he 
priicticed his profession for ten years, when he returned to Keokuk. His Indian wife bore to 
him four children — Louise (married at Keokuk, since dead), James, (drowned at Keokuk j, .Mary 
ami Sophia. Dr. Muir died suddenly of cholera, in 18:^2, but left his property in such condition 
thiit it was soon wasted in vexatious litigation, and his brave and faithful wife, left friendless and 
penniless, became discouraged, and, with her children, disappeared, and, it is said, returned to 
her people on the Upper Missouri. 

Messrs. Reynolds & Culver, who had leased Dr. Muir's claim at Keokuk, 
subsequently employed as their agent Mr. Moses Stillwell, who arrived Avith 
his family in 1828, and took possession of Muir's cabin. Ilis brothers-in-law, 
Amos and Valencourt Van Ansdal, came with him and settled near. 

His daughter, Margaret Stillwell (afterward Mrs. Ford) was born in 1831, 
at the foot of the rapids, called by the Indians Puch-a-she-tuck, where Keokuk 
now stands. She was probably the first white American child born in Iowa. 

In 1831, Mr. Johnson, Agent of the American Fur Company, who had a 
station at the foot of the rapids, removed to another location, and, Dr. Muir 
having returned from Galena, he and Isaac R. Campbell took the place and 
buildings vacated by the Company and carried on trade Avith the Indians and 
hiilf-breeds. Campbell, who had first visited and traveled through the southern 
part of Iowa, in 1821, was an enterprising settler, and besides trading with the 
natives carri(ul on a farm and kept a tavern. 

Dr. Muir died of cholera in 1832. 

In 1830, James L. and Lucius H. Langworthy, brothers and natives of 
Vermont, visited the Territory for the purpose of working the lead mines at Du- 
buque, They had been engaged in lead mining at Galena, Illinois, the former 
from as early as 1824. Tlie lead mines in the Dubuque region Avere an object 
of great interest to the miners about Galena, for they were known to be rich in 
lead ore. To explore these mines and to obtain permission to work them was 
therefore eminently desirable. 

In 1829, James L. Langworthy resolved to visit the Dubuque mines. Cross- 
ing the Mississippi at a point now known as Dunleith, in a canoe, and swim- 
ming his horse by his side, he landed on the spot now known as Jones Street 
Levee. Before him spread out a beautiful prairie, on which the city of Du- 
buque now stands. Two miles south, at the mouth of Catfish Creek, Avas a vil- 
lage of Sacs and Foxes. Thither Mr. LangAvorthy proceeded, and Avas Avell re- 
ceived by the natives. He endeavored to obtain permission from them to mine 
in their hills, but this they refused. He, however, succeeded in gaining the con- 
fidence of the chief to such an extent as to be alloAved to travel in the interior 
for three weeks and explore the country. He employed tAvo young Indians as 
guides, and traversed in different directions the Avhole region lying between the 
Ma(iuoketa and Turkey Rivers. He returned to the village, secured the good 
will of the Indians, and, returning to Galena, formed plans for future opera- 
tions, to be executed as soon as circumstances would permit. 


In 1830, with his brother, Lucius H., and otliers, liaving obtained the con- 
sent of the Indians, Mr. Langworthy crossed the Mississippi and commenced 
mining in tlie vicinity around Dubu(|ue. 

At this time, the hinds were not in the actual possession of the United States. 
Although they had been purchased from France, the Indian title had not been 
extinguished, and these adventurous persons were beyond the limits of any State 
or Territorial government. The first settlers were therefore obliged to be their 
own law-makers, and to ajiree to such re<iuhitions as the exij^encies of the case 

o ..... . . *-^ 

demanded. The first act resembling civil legislation within the limits of the 
present State of Iowa was done by the miners at this ])oint, in June, 1830. They 
met on the bank of the river, by the side of an old cottonwood drift log, at 
what is now the Jones Street Levee, Dubuque, and elected a Committee, con- 
sisting of J. L. Langworthy, H. F. Lander, James McPhetres, Samuel Scales, 
and E. M. Wren. This may be called the first Legislature in Iowa, the mem- 
bers of which gathered around that old cottonwood log, and agreed to and re- 
ported the following, written by Mr. Langworthy, on a half sheet of coarse, un- 
ruled paper, the old log being the writing desk : 

We, a Coniniiltee having been chosen to draft certain rules and regulations (laws) by 
which we as miners will be governed, and having duly considered the subject, do unanimously 
agree that we will be governed by the regulations on the east side of the Mississippi River,* with 
the following exceptions, to wit : 

•iRTiCLR I. That each and every man shall hold 200 yards square of ground by working 
said ground one day in six. 

ARTioLr. K. We further agree that there shall be chosen, by the majority of the miners 
present, a person who shall hold this article, and who shall grant letters of arbitration on appli- 
cation having been made, and that said letters of arbitration shall be obligatory on the patties so 

The report was accepted by the miners present, who elected Dr. Jarote, in 
accordance with Article 2. Here, then, Ave have, in 1830, a primitive Legisla- 
ture elected by the people, the law drafted by it being submitted to the people 
for approval, and under it Dr. Jarote was elected first Governor within the 
limits of the present State of Lnva. And it is to be said that the laws thus 
enacted were as promptly obeyed, and the acts of the executive officer thus 
elected as duly respected, as any have been since. 

The miners Avho had thus erected an independent government of their own 
on the Avest side of the Mississippi River continued to Avork successfully for a 
long time, and the ncAV settlement attracted considerable attention. But the 
west side of the Mississippi belonged to the Sac and Fox Indians, and the Goa'- 
ernment, in order to preserve peace on the frontier, as Avell as to protect the 
Indians in their rights under the treaty, ordered tlie settlers not only to stop 
mining, but to remove from the Indian territory. They Avere simply intruders. 
The execution of this order Avas entrusted to Col. Zacliary Taylor, then in com- 
mand of the military post at Prairie du Chien, Avho, early in July, sent an officer 
to the miners Avith orders to forbid settlement, and to command tlie miners to 
remove Avithin ten days to the east side of the Mississippi, or they Avould be 
driven off by armed force. The miners, howeA'er, Avere reluctant about leaving 
the rich "leads" they had already discoA-^ered and opened, and Avere not dis- 
posed to obey the order to remove Avith any considerable degree of alacrity. In 
due time. Col. Taylor dispatched a detachment of troops to enforce his order. The 
miners, anticipating their arrival, had, excepting three, recrossed the river, and 
from the east bank saAv the troops land on the western shore. The three Avho 
had lingered a little too long Avere, however, permitted to make their escape 

* Established by the Superintendent of V. S. Lead Alines at Fever RjTer. 


unmolested. From this time, a military force was stationed at Dubuque to 
prevent the settlers from returning, until June, 1832. The Indians returned, 
and were encouaged to operate the rich mines opened by the late white 

In June, 1832, the troops were ordered to the east side to assist in the 
annihilation of the very Indians whose rights they had been protecting on the 
west side. Immediately after the close of the Black Hawk war, and the negotia- 
tions of the treaty in September, 1832, by which the Sacs and Foxes ceded to 
the United States the tract known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," the set- 
tlers, supposing that now they had a right to re-enter the territory, returned 
and took possession of their claims, built cabins, erected furnaces and prepared 
large quantities of lead for market. Dubuque was becoming a noted place on 
the river, but the prospects of the hardy and enterprising settlers and miners 
were again ruthlessly interfered with by the Government, on the ground that 
the treaty with the Indians would not go into force until June 1, 1833, although 
they had withdrawn from the vicinity of the settlement. Col. Taylor was again 
ordered by the War Department to remove the miners, and in January, 1833, 
troops were again sent from Prairie du Chien to Dubu(|ue for that purpose. 
This was a serious and perhaps unnecessary hardship imposed upon the settlers. 
They were compelled to abandon their cabins and homes in mid-winter. It 
must now be said, simply, that "red tape" should be respected. The purchase 
had been made, the ti*eaty ratified, or was sure to be ; the Indians had retired, 
and, after the lapse of nearly fifty years, no very satisfactory reason for this 
rigorous action of the Government can be given. 

But the orders had been given, and there was no alternative but to obey. 
Many of the settlers recrossed the river, and did not return ; a few, however, 
removed to an island near the east bank of the river, built rude cabins of poles, 
in which to store their lead until Spring, when they could float the fruits of 
their labor to St. Louis for sale, and where they could remain until the treaty 
went into force, when they could return. Among these were James L. Lang- 
worthy, and his brother Lucius, who had on hand about three hundred thousand 
pounds of lead. 

Lieut. Covington, who had been placed in command at Dubuque by Col, 
Taylor, ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to be torn down, and wagons 
and other property to be destroyed. This wanton and inexcusable action on 
the part of a subordinate clothed with a little brief authority was sternly 
rebuked by Col. Taylor, and Covington was superseded by Lieut. George Wil- 
son, who pursued a just and friendly course with the pioneers, who were only 
waiting for the time when they could repossess their claims. 

June 1, 1833, the treaty formally went into effect, the troops were withdrawn, 
and the Langworthy brothers and a few others at once returned and resumed 
possession of their home claims and mineral prospects, and from this time the 
first permanent settlement of this portion of Iowa must date. Mr. John P. 
Sheldon was appointed Superintendent of the mines by the Government, and a 
system of permits to miners and licenses to smelters was adopted, similar to that 
which had been in operation at Galena, since 1825, under Lieut. Martin Thomas 
and Capt. Thomas C. Legate. Substantially the primitive law enacted by tlie"^ 
miners assembled around that old cottonwood drift log in 1830 was adopted and 
enforced by the United States Government, except that miners were required to 
sell their mineral to licensed smelters and the smelter was required to give bonds 
for the payment of six per cent, of all lead manufactured to the Government. 
This was the same rule adopted in the United States mines on Fever River in 


Illinois, except tliat, until 1830, the Illinois miners were compelled to pay 10 
per cent. tax. This tax upon tlic miners created much dissatisfaction among 
the miners on the >vest side as it had on the east side of the Mississippi. They 
thought they had suft'ered hardships and privations enough in opening the way 
for civilization, without being subjected to the imposition of an odious Govern- 
ment tax upon tiieir means of subsistence, "svhen the Federal Government could 
better afford to aid than to extort from them. The measure soon became unpop- 
ular. It was difficult to collect the taxes, and the whole system was abolished 
in about ten years. 

During 1833, after the Indian title was fully extinguished, about five hun- 
dred j)eople arrived at the mining district, about one hundred and fifty of them 
from Galena. 

In the same year, Mr. Langworthy assisted in building the first school house 
in Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of the now populous and thriving 
City of Dubuque. Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked prairie on which he 
first lauded become the site of a city of fifteen thousand inhabitants, the small 
school house which he aided in constructing replaced by three substantial edifices, 
wherein two thousand children Avere being trained, churches erected in every 
part of the city, and railroads connecting the wilderness which he first explored 
with all the eastern Avorld. He died suddenly on the 13th of March, 18(35, 
while on a trip over the Dubu(i[ue & Southwestern Railroad, at Monticello, 
and the evening train brought the news of his death and his remains. 

Lucius II. Langworthy, his brother, was one of the most worthy, gifted and 
nifluential of the old settlers of this section of Iowa. He died, greatly lamented 
by many friends, in June, 18G5. 

The name Dubuque was given to the settlement by the miners at a meeting 
held in 1834. 

In 1832, Captain James White made a claim on the present site of Montrose. 
In 1834, a military post was established at this point, and a garrison of cavalry 
was stationed here, under the command of Col. Stephen \V. Kearney. The 
soldiers were removed from this post to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1837. 

During the same year, 1832, soon after the close of the Black Hawk War, 
Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jennings, Aaron White, Augustine Ilorton, 
Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter Williams made claims at Fort 
Madison. In 1833, these claims were purchased by John and Nathaniel 
Knapp, upon which, in 1835, they laid out the town. The next Summer, lots 
were sold. The town was subsequently re-surveyed and platted by the United 
States Government. 

At the close of the Black Hawk War, parties who had been impatiently 
looking across upon "Flint Hills," now Burlington, came over from Illinois 
and made claims The first was Samuel S. White, in the Fall of 1832, who 
erected a cabin on the site of the city of Burlington. About the same time, 
David Tothero made a claim on the prairie about three miles back from the 
river, at a place since known as thefaim of Judge Morgan. In the Winter of 
that year, they were driven off by the military from Rock Island, as intruders 
upon the rights of the Indians, and White's cabin was burnt by the soldiers. 
He retired to Illinois, where he spent the Winter, and in tiie Summer, as soon 
as the Indian title was extinguished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. White 
was joined by his brother-in-law, Doolittle, and they laid out the original town 
of Burlington in 1834. 

All along the river borders of the Black Hawk Purchase settlers were fiockmg 
into Iowa. Immediately after tiie treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, in Septem- 


ber, 1832, Col. George Davenport made the first claim on the spot where the 
thriving city of Davenport now stands. As early as 1827, Col. Davenport had 
established a flatboat ferry, which ran between the island and the main shore of 
Iowa, by which he carried on a trade Avith the Indians west of the Mississippi. 
In 1833, Capt. Benjamin W. Clark moved across from Illinois, and laid the 
foundation of the town of Buffalo, in Scott County, which was the first actual 
settlement within the limits of that county. Among other early settlers in this 
part of the Territory Avere Adrian 11. Davenport, Col. John Sullivan, Mulli- 
gan and Franklin Easly, Capt. John Coleman, J. M. Camp, William White, 
H. W. Higgins, Cornelius Harrold, Richard Harrison, E. H. Shepherd and 
Dr. E. S. Barrows. 

The first settlers of Davenport were Antoine LeClaire, Col. George Daven- 
port, Major Thomas Smith, Major William Gordon, Philip Hambough, Alexan- 
der W. McGregor, Levi S. Colton, Capt. James May and others. Of Antoine 
LeClaire, as the representative of the two races of men who at this time occu- 
pied Iowa, Hon. C. C. Nourse, in his admirable Centennial Address, says : 
" Antoine LeClaire was born at St. Joseph, Michigan, in 1797. His father 
was French, his mother a granddaughter of a Pottowatomie chief In 1818, 
he acted as official interpreter to Col. Davenport, at Fort Armstrong (now Rock 
Island). He was well acquainted with a dozen Indian dialects, and was a man 
of strict integrity and great energy. In 1820, he married the granddaughter 
of a Sac chief. The Sac and Fox Indians reserved for him and his wife two 
sections of land in the treaty of 1833, one at the town of LeClaire and one at 
Davenport. The Pottawatomies, in the treaty at Prairie du Chien, also 
reserved for him two sections of land, at the present site of Moline, 111. He 
received the appointment of Postmaster and Justice of the Peace in the Black 
Hawk Purchase, at an early day. In 1833, he bought for $100 a claim on the 
land upon which the original town of Davenport was surveyed and platted in 
1836. In 1836, LeClaire built the hotel, known since, with its valuable addi- 
tion, as the LeClaire House. He died September 25, 1801." 

In Clayton County, the first settlement was made in the Spring of 1832, 
on Turkey River, by Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman. No further 
settlement was made in this part of the State till the beginning of 1836. 

In that portion now known as Muscatine County, settlements were made in 
1834, by Benjamin Nye, John Vanater and G. W. Kasey, who were the first 
settlers. E. E. Fay, William St. John, N. FuUington, II. Reece, Jona Petti- 
bone, R. P. Lowe, Stephen Whicher, Abijah Whiting, J. E. Fletcher, W. D. 
Abernethy and Alexis Smith were early settlers of Muscatine. 

During the Summer of 1835, William Bennett and his family, from Galena, 
built the first cabin within the present limits of Delaware County, in some 
timber since known as Eads' Grove. 

The first post office in Iowa was established at Dubuque in 1833. INIilo II. 
Prentice was appointed Postmaster. 

The first Justice of the Peace was Antoine Le Claire, appointed in 1833, as 
"a very suitable person to adjust the difficulties between the white settlers and 
the Indians still remainmg there." 

The first Methodist Society in the Territory was formed at Dubuque on 
the 18th of May, 1834, and the first class meeting was held June 1st of that 

The first church bell brought into Iowa was in March, 1834. 

The first mass of the Roman Catholic Church in the Territory was celebrated 
at Dubuque, in the house of Patrick Quigley, in the Fall of 1833. 


The first school house in the Ten-itorv was erected bv the Dubuque miners 
in 1833. 

The fii-st Sabbath school was organized at Dubuque early in tlie Summer 
of 1834. 

The fii*st woman who came to this part of the Territory with a view to per- 
manent residence was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the Fall of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of Hosea T. Camp, 
in 1832. 

The first meeting house was built bv the Methodist Episcopal Church, at 
Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubuque Visitor, issued May 11th, 1836. 
John Kinii. afterward Judge King, was editor, and William C. Jones, printer. 
The pioneers of Iowa, as a class, were brave, hardy, intelligent and 
enterprising people. 

As early as 1824, a French trader named Hart had established a trading 
post, and built a cabin on the blufts above the large spring now known as 
'•Mvnster Spring," within the limits of the present city of Council Bluffs, and 
had probably been there some time, as the post was known to the employes of 
the American Fur Company as Lacote de JIart,ov " Hart's Bluff'.'" In 1827, 
an aixent of the American Fur Company. Francis Guittar. with others, encamped 
in the timber at the foot of the blufts. about on the present location of Broad- 
way, and afterward settled there. In 1839, a block house was built on the 
bhiff in the east part of the city. The Pottawatomie Indians occupied this part 
of the State until 1846-7, when they relinquished the territory and removed to 
Kansas. Billv Caldwell was then principal chief. There were no white settlers 
in that part of the State except Indian traders, until the arrival of the Mormons 
under the lead of Brigham Young. These people on their way westward halted 
for the "Winter of 184G-7 on the west bank of the Missouri River, about five 
miles above Omaha, at a place now called Florence. Some of them had 
reached the eastern bank of the river the Spring before, in season to plant a 
crop. In the Spring of 1847, Young and a portion of the colony pursued their 
journey to Salt Lake, but a large portion of them returned to the Iowa side and 
settled mainlv within the limits of Pottawattamie County. The principal settle- 
ment of this strange community was at a place first called "Millers Hollow.'" 
on Indian Creek, and afterward named Kanesville, in honor of Col. Kane, of 
Pennsvlvania. who nsited them soon afterward. The Mormon settlement 
extended over the county and into neighboring counties, wherever timber and 
water furnislied desirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, lawyer and editor, was 
installed as President of the Quorum of Twelve, and all that j^art of the State 
remained under Mormon control for several yeai-s. In 1846, they raised a bat- 
talion, numbering some five hundred men, for the Mexican war. In 1848. Hyde 
started a paper "called the Frontier Guardian, at Kanesville. In 1849. after 
many of the faithful hail left to join Brigham Young at Salt Lake, the Mormons 
in this section of Iowa numbered 6,552, and in 1850. 7.828. but they were not 
all within the limits of Pottawattamie County. This county was organized in 
1848. all the fii-st officials being Monnons. In 1852. the order was prom ulgtued 
that all the true believers should gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles flocked 
in. and in a few years nearly all the first settlei-s were gone. 

May 9, 1843". Captain James Allen, with a small detachment of troops on 
board tlie steamer lone, arrived at the present site of the capital of the State. 
Des Moines. The lone was the first steamer to ascend the Des Moines River 
to this pt^int. The ti oops and stores were landai at what is now the foot of 


Court avenue, Des Moines, and Capt. Allen returned in the steamer to Fort 
Sanford to arrange for bringing up more soldiers and supplies. In due time 
they, too, arrived, and a fort was built near the mouth of Kaccoon Fork, at its 
confluence with the Des Moines, and named Fort Des Moines. Soon after the 
arrival of the troops, a trading post was established on the east side of the river, 
by two noted Indian traders named Ewing, from Ohio. 

Among the first settlers in this part of loAva were Benjamin Bryant, J. B. 
Scott, James Drake (gunsmith), John Sturtevant, Robert Kinzie, Alexander 
Turner, Peter Newcomef, and others. 

The Western States have been settled by many of the best and most enter- 
prising men of the older States, and a large immigration of the best blood of 
the Old World, who, removing to an arena of larger opportunities, in a more 
fertile soil and congenial climate, have developed a spirit and an energy 
peculiarly Western. In no country on the globe have enterprises of all kinds 
been pushed forward Avith such rapidity, or has there been such independence 
and freedom of competition. Among those who have pioneered the civiliza- 
tion of the West, and been the founders of great States, none have ranked 
higher in the scale of intelligence and moral worth than the pioneers of Iowa, 
who came to the territory when it was an Indian country, and through hardship, 
privation and suifering, laid the foundations of the populous and prosperous 
commonwealth which to-day dispenses its blessings to a million and a quarter 
of people. From her first settlement and from her first organization as a terri- 
tory to the present day, Iowa has had able men to manage her affairs, wise 
statesmen to shape her destiny and frame her laws, and intelligent and impartial 
jurists to administer justice to her citizens ; her bar, pulpit and press have been 
able and widely influential ; and in all the professions, arts, enterprises and 
industries which go to make up a great and prosperous commonwealth, she has 
taken and holds a front rank among her sister States of the West. 


By act of Congress, approved October 31, 1803, the President of the United 
States was authorized to take possession of the territory included in the 
Louisiana purchase, and provide for a temporary government. By another act 
of the same session, approved !March 26, 1804, the newly acquired country was 
divided, October 1, 1804 into the Territory of Orleans, south of the thirty-third 
parallel of north latitude, and the district of Louisiana, which latter was placed 
under the authority of the officers of Indiana Territory. 

In 1805, the District of Louisiana was organized as a Territory with a gov- 
ernment of its own. In 1807, Iowa was included in the Territory of Illinois, 
and in 1812 in the Territory of Missouri. When Missouri was admitted as a 
State, March 2, 1821, ^- Iowa," says Hon. C. C. Nourse, "was left a political 
orphan," until by act of Congress, approved June 28, 1834, the Black Hawk 
purchase having been made, all the territory west of the Mississippi and north 
of the northern boundary of Missouri, was made a part of Michigan Territory. 
Up to this time there had been no county or other organization in what is now 
the State of Iowa, although one or two Justices of the Peace had been appointed 
and a post office was establislied at Dubuque in 1833. In September, 1834, 
however, the Territorial Legislature of Michigan created two counties on the 
west side of the Mississippi River, viz. : Dubuque and Des j\Ioines, separated 
by a line drawn westward from the foot of Rock Island. These counties were 


partially organized. John King Avas appointed Chief Justice of Dubuque 
County, and Isaac Lcffler, of Burlington, of Des IMoines County. Two 
Associate Justices, in each county, were appointed by the Uovernor. 

On the first Monday in October, 1835, Gen. George W. Jones, now a citi- 
zen of Dubuque, Avas elected a Delegate to Congress from this part of Michigan 
Territory. On the '20th of April, 1836, through the efforts of Gen. Jones, 
Congress passed a bill creating the Territory of Wisconsin, which went into 
operation, July 4, 1836, and Iowa was then included in 


of which Gen. Henry Dodge was appointed Governor; John S. Horner, Secre- 
tary of the Territory ; Charles Dunn, Chief Justice ; David Irwin and William 
C. Frazer, Associate Justices. 

September 9, 1836, Governor Dodge ordered the census of the new Territory 
to be taken. This census resulted in showing a population of 10,531 in the 
counties of Dubuque and Des Moines. Under the apportionment, these two 
counties were entitled to six members of the Council and thirteen of the House 
of Representatives. The Governor issued his proclamation for an election to be 
held on the first Monday of October, 1836, on which day the following members 
of the First Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin Avere elected fiom the two 
counties in the Black Hawk purchase : 

Duhuque County. — Council: John Fally. Thomas McKnight, Thomas Mc- 
Craney. House: Loring Wheeler, Hardin Xowlan, Peter Hill Engle. Patrick 
Quigley, Ilosea T. Camp. 

Des Moines County. — Council: Jeremiah Smith, Jr., Joseph B. Teas, 
Arthur B. Ingram. House: Isaac Lefiier, Thomas Blair. W^arren L. Jenkins, 
John Box, George W. Teas, Eli Reynolds, David R. Chance. 

The first Legislature assembled at Belmont, in the present State of Wiscon- 
sin, on the 25th day of October, 1836, and was organized by electing Henry T. 
Baird President of the Council, and Peter Hill Engle, of Dubuque, Speaker of 
the House. It adjourned December 9, 1836. 

The second Legislature assembled at Burlington, November 10, 1837. 
Adjourned January 20, 1838. The third session Avas at Burlington; com- 
menced June 1st, and adjourned June 12, 1838. 

During the first session of the AVisconsin Territorial Legislature, in 1836, 
the county of Des Moines Avas divided into Des Moines, Lee, Van Buren, Henry, 
Muscatine and Cook (the latter being subsequently changed to Scott) and defined 
their boundaries. During the second session, out of the territory embraced in 
Dubuque County, were created the counties of. Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette, 
Delaware, Buchanan, Jackson, Jones, Linn, Clinton and Cedar, and their boun- 
daries defined, but the most of them were not organized until several years 
afterAvard, under the authority of the Territorial Legislature of loAva. 

The question of a separate territorial organization for loAva, which was then 
a part of Wisconsin Territory, began to be agitated early in the Autumn of 
1837. The Avishes of the people found expression in a convention held at Bur- 
lington on the 1st of November, Avhich memorialized Congress to organize a 
Territory Avest of the Mississippi, and to settle the boundary line between Wis- 
consin Territory and Missouri. The Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, then 
in session at Burlington, joined in the petition. Gen. George W. Jones, of 
Dubuque, then residing at Sinsinawa Mound, in what is noAV W^isconsin, was 
Delegate to Congress from Wisconsin Territory, and labored so earnestly and 
successfully, that " An act to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to estab- 


lish the Territorial Government of Iowa," was approved June 12, 1838, to take 
eft'ect and be in force on and after July 3, 1838. The new Territory embraced 
" all that part of the present Territory of Wisconsin Avhich lies west of the Mis- 
sissippi River, and west of a line drawn due north from the head water or 
sources of the Mississippi to the territorial line." The organic act provided 
for a Governor, whose terra of office should be three years, and for a Secretary, 
Chief Justice, two Associate Justices, and Attorney and Marshal, who should 
serve four years, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. The act also provided for the election, by the white 
male inhabitants, citizens of the United States, over twenty-one years of age, 
of a House of Representatives, consisting of twenty-six members, and a Council, 
to consist of thirteen members. It also appropriated |5,000 for a public library, 
and $20,000 for the erection of public buildings. 

President Van Buren appointed Ex-Governor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be 
the first Governor of the new Territory. William B. Conway, of Pittsburgh, 
was appointed Secretary of the Territory; Charles Mason, of Burlington, 
Chief Justice, and Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of 
Pennsylvania, Associate Judges of the Supreme and District Courts; Mr. Var, 
Allen, of New York, Attorney; Francis Gehon, of Dubuque, Marshal; Au 
gustus C. Dodge, Register of the Land Office at Burlington, and Thomas Mc 
Knight, Receiver of the Land Office at Dubuque. Mr. Van Allen, the District 
Attorney, died at Rockingham, soon after his appointment, and Col. CharleM 
Weston was appointed to fill his vacancy. Mr. Conway, the Secretary, also 
died at Burlington, during the second session of the Legislature, and Jameii 
Clarke, editor of the Gazette, was appointed to succeed him. 

Immediately after his arrival, Governor Lucas issued a proclamation for tho 
election of members of the first Territorial Legislature, to be held on the lOtL 
of September, dividing the Territory into election districts for that purpose, and 
appointing the 12th day of November for meeting of the Legislature to bo 
elected, at Burlington. 

The first Territorial Legislature was elected in September and assembled al; 
Burlington on the 12th of November, and consisted of the following members: 

Cou7icil. — Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. A. M. Swazey, Arthur Ingram,, 
Robert Ralston, George Hepner, Jesse J. Payne, D. B. Hughes, James M 
Clark, Charles Whittlesey, Jonathan W. Parker, Warner Lewis, StepheL 

House. — William Patterson, Hawkins Taylor, Calvin J. Price, Jamea 
Brierly, James Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, James W. Grimes, 
George Temple, Van B. Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George H. Beeler," 
William G. Coop, William H. Wallace, Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, 
William L. Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, Robert G. Roberts, Laurel 
Summers,! Jabez A. Burchard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, Andrew Bankson, Thomas 
Cox and Hardin Nowlin. 

Notwithstanding a large majority of the members of both branches of the 
Legislature were Democrats, yet Gen. Jesse B. Browne (Whig), of Lee County, 
was elected President of the Council, and Hon. William H. Wallace (Whig), of 
Henry County, Speaker of the House of Representatives — the former unani- 
mously and the latter with but little opposition. At that time, national politics 

* Cyni3 S. Jacobs, who was elected for Dos Moines County, was killed in an unfortunate encounter at Burlington 
before the meeting of tlie Legislature, and Mr. Beeler was elected to fill the vacancy. 

fSiimuel R. Murray was returutd aa fleeted from Clinton County, but Lis seat was successfully contested by 


were little heeded by the people of the new Territory, but in 1840, during the 
Presidential eauipaigii, party lines Avere strongly drawn. 

At the election in September, 18-)S, for members of the Legislature, a Con- 
gressional Delegate was also elected. There were four candidates, viz. : William 
\V. Chapman and David Rohrer, of Des Moines County ; B. F. Wallace, of 
Henry County, and P. II. Engle, of Dubuque County. Chapman was elected, 
receiving a majority of thirty-six over Engle. 

The first session of the Iowa Territorial Legislature was a stormy and excit- 
ing one. By the organic law, the Governor was clothed with almost unlimited 
veto power. Governor Lucas seemed disposed to make free use of it, and the 
independent Hawkeyes could not (juietly submit to arbitrary and absolute rule, 
and the result was an unpleasant controversy between the Executive and Legis- 
lative departments. Congress, however, by act approved March 3, 1830, 
amended the organic law by restricting the veto power of tlie Governor to the 
two-thirds rule, and took from him the power to appoint SheritVs and Magistrates. 

Among the first important matters demanding attention was the location of 
the seat of government and provision for the erection of public buildings, for 
which Congress had appropriated §1^0,000. Governor Lucas, in his message, 
had recommended the appointment of Commissioners, with a view to making a 
central location. Tlie extent of the future State of Iowa was not known or 
thought of. Only on a strip of land fifty miles wide, bordering on the Missis- 
sippi River, was the Indian title extinguished, and a central location meant some 
central point in the Black Hawk Purchase. The friends of a central location 
supported the Governor's suggestion. The southern members were divided 
between Burlington and Mount Pleasant, but finally united on the latter as the 
proper location for the seat of government. The central and southern parties 
were very nearly e([ual, and, in consequence, much excitement prevailed. The 
central party at last triumphed, and on the 21st day of January, 1839, an act 
was passed, appointing Chauncey Swan, of Dubuque County ; John Ronalds, 
of Louisa County, and Robert Ralston, of Des Moines County, Commissionei's, 
to select a site for a permanent seat of Government within the limits of John- 
son County. 

Johnson County had been created by act of the Territorial Legislature of 
Wisconsin, approved December 21, 1837, and organized by act passed at the 
special session at Burlington in June, 1838, the organization to date from July 
4th, following. Napoleon, on the Iowa River, a few miles below the future 
Iowa City, was designated as the county seat, temporarily. 

Then there existed good reason for locating the capital in the county. The 
Territory of Iowa was bounded on the north by the British Possessions ; east, by 
the Mississippi River to its source; thence by a line drawn due north to the 
northern boundary of the fnited States; south, by the State of Missouri, and west, 
by the Missouri and White Earth Rivers. But this immense territory was in un- 
disputed possession of the Indians, except a strip on the Mississippi, known as 
the Black Hawk Purchase. Johnson County was, from north to south, in the 
geogiaj)hical center of this pmvhase, and as near the east and west geographical 
center of the future State of Iowa as could then be made, as the boundary line 
between the lantls of the f nited States and the Indians, established by the 
treaty of October 21, 1837, was immediately west of the county limits. 

The Commissioners, after selecting the site, were directed to lay out 640 
acres into a town, to be called Iowa City, and to proceed to sell lots and erect 
public buildings thereon. Congress having granted a section of land to be 
selected by the Territory for this purpose. The Commissioners met at Napo- 


leon, Johnson County, May 1, 1839, selected for a site Section 10, in Town- 
ship 79 North of Range G West of the Fifth Principal Meridian, and immedi- 
ately surveyed it and laid off' the town. The first sale of lots took place August 
16, 1839. The site selected for the public buildings was a little west of the 
geographical center of the section, where a square of ten acres on the elevated 
grounds overlooking the river was reserved for the purpose. The capitol is 
located in the center of this S(][uare. The second Territorial Legislature, Avhicli 
assembled in November, 1839, passed an act requiring the Commissioners to 
adopt such plan for the building that the aggregate cost when complete should 
not exceed $51,000, and if they had already adopted a plan involving a greater 
expenditure they were directed to abandon it. Plans for the building were designed 
and drawn by Mr. John F. Rague, of Springfield, 111., and on the 4th day of July, 
1840, the corner stone of the edifice was laid with appropriate ceremonies. 
Samuel C. Trowbridge was Marshal of the day, and Gov. Lucas delivered the 
address on that occasion. 

When the Legislature assembled at Burlington in special session, July 13, 
1840, Gov. Lucas announced that on the 4th of that month he had visited Iowa 
City, and found the basement of the capitol nearly completed. A bill author- 
izing a loan of $20,000 for the building was passed, January 15, 1841, the 
unsold lots of Iowa City being the security off"ered, but only $5,500 was 
obtained under the act. 


The boundary line between the Territory of Iowa and the State of Missouri 
was a difficult question to settle in 1838, in consequence of claims arising from 
taxes and titles, and at one time civil war was imminent. In defining the 
boundaries of the counties bordering on Missouri, the Iowa authorities had fixed 
a line that has since been established as the boundary between Iowa and Mis- 
souri. The Constitution of Missouri defined her northern boundary to be the 
parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the Des Moines River. 
The lower rapids of the Mississippi immediately above the mouth of the De» 
Moines River had always been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or " the 
rapids of the Des Moines River." The Missourians (evidently not well versed 
in history or geography) insisted on running the northern boundary line from 
the rapids in the Des Moines River, just below Keosauqua, thus taking from 
Iowa a strip of territory eight or ten miles wide. Assuming this as her 
northern boundary line, Missouri attempted to exercise jurisdiction over the 
disputed territory by assessing taxes, and sending her Sherifts to collect them by 
distraining the personal property of the settlers. The lowans, however, were 
not disposed to submit, and the Missouri officials were arrested by the Sheriffs 
of Davis and Van Buren Counties and confined in jail. Gov. Boggs, of 
Missouri, called out his militia to enforce the claim and sustain the officers of 
Missouri. Gov. Lucas called out the militia of Iowa, and both parties made 
active preparations for war. In Iowa, about 1,200 men were enlisted, and 
500 were actually armed and encamped in Van Buren County, ready to defend 
the integrity of the Territory. Subsequently, Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, 
Gen. Churchman, of Dubu(|ue, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were sent to 
Missouri as envoys plenipotentiary, to eff"ect, if possible, a peaceable adjustment 
of the difficulty. Upon their arrival, they found that the County Commissioners 
of Chirke County, Missouri, had rescinded their order for the collection of the taxes, 
and that Gov. Boggs had despatched messengers to the Governor of Iowa proposing 


to submit an agreed case to tlie Supreme Court of the United States for the 
final settlement of the boundary question. This proposition was declined, but 
afterward Congress authorized a suit to settle the controversy, Avhich Avas insti- 
tuted, and Avliich resulted in a judgment for Iowa. Under this decision, 
"William G. Miner, of Missouri, and Henry B. Ilendershott were appointed 
Commissioners to survey and establish the boundary. Mr. Nourse remarks 
that " the expenses of the war on the part of Iowa were never paid, either by 
the United States or tlie Territorial Government. The patriots who furnished 
supplies to the troops had to bear the cost and charges of the struggle." 

The first legislative assembly laid the broad foundation of civil equality, on 
which has been constructed one of the most liberal governments in the Union. 
Its first act was to recognize the equality of woman with man before the law by 
providing that " no action commenced by a single woman, who intermarries 
during the pendency thereof, shall abate on account of such marriage." This prin- 
ciple has been adopted by all subsequent legislation in Iowa, and to-day woman 
has full and equal civil rights with man, except only the right of the ballot. 

Religious toleration was also secured to all, personal liberty strictly guarded, 
the rights and privileges of citizenship extended to all white persons, and the 
purity of elections secured by heavy penalties against bribery and corruption. 
The judiciary power Avas vested in a Supreme Court, District Court, Probate 
Court, and Justices of the Peace. Real estate was made divisible by will, and 
intestate property divided equitably among heirs. Murder was made punishable 
by death, and proportionate penalties fixed for lesser crimes. A system of free 
schools, open for every class of white citizens, Avas established. Provision Avas 
made for a system of roads and highAvays. Thus under the territorial organi- 
zation, the country began to emerge from a savage Avilderness, and take on the 
forms of civil government. 

By act of Congress of .lune 12, 1838, the lands Avhich had been purchased 
of the Indians Avere brought into market, and land offices opened in Dubuque 
and Burlington. Congress provided for military roads and bridges, Avhich 
greatly aided the settlers, Avho Avere noAv coming in by thousands, to make their 
homes on the fertile prairies of loAva — " the Beautiful Land." The fame of the 
country had spread far and Avide ; CA'en before the Indian title was extinguished, 
many Avere croAvding the borders, impatient to cross over and stake out their 
claims on the choicest spots they could find in the neAV Territory. As 
soon as the country Avas open for settlement, the borders, the Black Hawk 
Purchase, all along the Mississipi, and up the principal rivers and streams, and 
out over the broad and rolling prairies, began to be thronged Avith eager land 
hunters and immigrants, seeking homes in loAA'a. It Avas a sight to delight the 
eyes of all comers from every land — its noble streams, beautiful and picturesque 
hills and valleys, broad and fertile prairies extending as far as the eye could 
reach, Avith a soil surpassing in richness anything Avhich they had ever seen. It 
is not to be Avondered at that immigration into loAva Avas rapid, and that Avithin 
less than a decade from the organization of the Territory, it contained a hundred 
and fifty thousand people. 

As rapidly as the Indian titles were extinguished and the original owners 
removed, the resistless tide of emigration flowed AvestAvard. Tlie folloAving extract 
from Judge Nourse's Centennial Address shoAVS hoAV the immigrants gathered 
on the Indian boundary, ready for the removal of the barrier : 

In obedience to our progressive and aggressive spirit, the Government of the United States 
made another treaty witli the Sac and Fox Indians, on the 11th day of August, 1842, for the 
remaining portion of their land in Iowa. The treaty provided that the Indians should retain 


possession of all the lands thus ceded until May 1, 1843, and should occupy that portion of the 
ceded territory west of a line running north and south through Kedrock, until October 11, 1845. 
These tribes, at this time, had their principal village at Ot-tum-wa-no, now called Ottumwa. As 
soon as it became known that the treaty had been concluded, there was a rush of immigration to 
Iowa, and a great number of temporary settlements were made near the Indian boundary, wait- 
ing for the 1st day of May. As the day approached, hundreds of families encamped along the 
line, and their tents and wagons gave the scene the appearance of a military expedition. The 
country beyond had been thoroughly explored, but the United States military authorities had 
prevented any settlement or even the making out of claims by any monuments whatever. 

To aid them in making out their claims when the hour should arrive, the settlers had placed 
piles of dry wood on the rising ground, at convenient distances, and a short time before twelve 
o'clock of the night of the 30th of April, these were lighted, and when the midnight hour arrived, 
it was announced by the discharge of firearms. The night was dark, but this army of occupa- 
tion pressed forward, torch in hand, with axe and hatchet, blazing lines with all manner of 
curves and angles. When daylight came and revealed the confusion of these wonderful surveys, 
numerous disputes arose, settled generally by compromise, but sometimes by violence, Between 
midnight of the 30th of April and sundown of the 1st of May, over one thousand families had 
settled on their new purchase. 

While this scene was transpiring, the retreating Indians were enacting one more impressive 
and melancholy. The Winter of 1842-43 was one of unusual severity, and the Indian prophet, 
who had disapproved of the treaty, attributed the severity of the Winter to the anger of the Ureat 
Spirit, because they had sold their country. Many religious rites were performed to atone for 
the crime. When the time for leaving Ot-tum-wa-no arrived, a solemn silence pervaded the Indian 
camp, and the faces of their stoutest men were bathed in tears; and Avhen their cavalcade was 
put in motion, toward the setting sun, there was a spontaneous outburst of frantic grief from the 
entire procession. 

The Indians remained the appointed time beyond the line running north and south through 
Redrock. The government established a trading post and military encampment at the Raccoon 
Fork of the Des Moines River, then and for many years known as Fort Des Moines. Here the 
red man lingered until the 11th of October, 1845, when the same scene that we have before 
described was re-enacted, and the wave of immigration swept over the remainder.of the " New 
Purchase." The lands thus occupied and claimed by the settlers still belonged in fee to the Gen- 
eral Government. The surveys were not completed until some time after the Indian title was 
extinguished. After their survey, the lands were publicly proclaimed or advertised for sale at 
public auction. Under the laws of the United States, a pre-emption or exclusive right to purchase 
public lands could not be acquired until after the lands had thus been publicly offered and not 
sold for want of bidders. Then, and not until then, an occupant making improvements in good 
faith might acquire a right over others to enter the land at the minimum price of $1.25 per 
acre. The " claim laws " were unknown to the United States statutes. They originated in the 
" eternal fitness of things," and were enforced, probably, as belonging to that class of natural 
rights not enumerated in the constitution, and not impaired or disparaged by its enumeration. 

The settlers organized in every settlement prior to the public land sales, appointed officers, 
and adopted their own rules and regulations. Each man's claim was duly ascertained and 
recorded by the Secretary. It was the duty of all to attend the sales. The Secretary bid off the 
lands of each settler at $1.25 per acre. The others were there, to see, first, that he did his duty 
and bid in the land, and, secondly, to see that no one else bid. This, of course, sometimes led to 
trouble, but it saved the excitement of competition, and gave a formality and degree of order 
and regularity to the proceedings they would not otherwise have attained. As far as practicable, 
the Territorial Legislature recognized the validity of these " claims " upon the public lands, and 
in 1839 passed an act legalizing their sale and making their transfer a valid consideration to sup- 
port a promise to pay for the same. (Acts of 1843, n. 456). The Supreme Territorial Court 
held this law to be valid. (See Hill v. Smith, 1st Morris Rep. 70). The opinion not only con- 
tains a decision of the question involved, but also contains much valuable erudition upon that 
" spirit of Anglo-Saxon liberty" which the Iowa settlers unquestionably inherited in a direct 
line of descent from the said " Anglo-Saxons." But the early settler was not always able to pay 
even this dollar and twenty-five cents per acre for his land. 

Many of the settlers had nothing to begin with, save their hands, health and 
courage and their family jewels, "the pledges of love," and the "consumers of 
bread." It was not so easy to accumulate money in the early days of the State, 
and the "beautiful prairies," the "noble streams," and all that sort of poetic 
imagery, did not prevent the early settlers from becoming discouraged. 

An old settler, in speaking of the privations and trials of those early days, 

Well do the "old settlers ' of Iowa remember the days from the first settlement to 1840. 
Those were days of sadness and distress. The endearments of home in another land had been 


broken up; and all that was hallowed on earlli, the home of childhood and the scenes of youth, 
we severed ; and we sat down by the gentle waters of our noble river, and often " hung our harps 
on the willows." 

Another, from another part of the State, testifies : 

There was no such thing as getting money for any kind of labor. I laid brick at $3.00 
per thousand, and took my pay in anything I could eat or wear. I built the first Methodist 
Church at Keokuk, 42x60 feet, of brick, for §(100, and took my pay in a subscription paper, part 
of which I never collected, and upon which 1 only received $50 00 in money. Wheat was hauled 
100 miles from the interior, and sold for 37^ cents per bushel. 

Another old settler, speaking of a later period, 1843, says : 

Land and everything had gone down in value to almost nominal prices. Corn and oats 
could be bought for six or ten cents a bushel ; pork, $1.00 per hundred ; and the best horse a 
man could raise sold for $50.00. Nearly all were in debt, and the Sheriff and Constable, with 
legal processes, were common visitors at almost every man's door. These were indeed " the times 
that tried men's souls." 

"A few," says Mr. Nourse, "who were not equal to the trial, returned to 
their old homes, but such as had the courage and faith to bo the worthy founders 
of a great State remained, to more than realize the fruition of their hopes, and 
the reward of their self-denial." 

On Monday, December 6, 1841, the fourth Legislative Assembly met, at 
the new capital, Iowa City, but the capitol building could not be used, and the 
Legislature occupied a temporary frame house, that had been erected for that 
purpose, during the session of 1841-2. At this session, the Superintendent of 
Public Buildings (who, with the Territorial Agent, had superseded the Commis- 
sioners first appointed), estimated the expense of completing the building at 
$33,330, and that rooms for the use of the Legislature could be completed for 

During 1842, the Superintendent commenced obtaining stone from a new 
quarry, about ten miles northeast of the city. This is now known as the '" Old 
Capitol Quarry," and contains, it is thought, an immense quantity of excellent 
building stone. Here all the stone for completing the building was obtained, 
and it was so far completed, that on the 5th day of December, 1842, the Legis- 
lature assembled in the new capitol. At this session, the Superintendent esti- 
mated that it would cost $39,143 to finish the building. This was nearly 
$6,000 higher than the estimate of the previous year, notwithstanding a large 
sum had been expended in the meantime. This rather discouraging discrep- 
ancy was accounted for by the fact that the ofiicers in charge of tlie work were 
constantly short of funds. Except the congressional appropriation of $20,000 
and the loan of $5,500, obtained from the Miners' Bank, of Dubuque, all the 
funds for the prosecution of the work were derived from the sale of the city 
lots (which did not sell very rapidly), from certificates of indebtedness, and from 
scrip, based upon unsold lots, which was to be received in payment for such lots 
when they were sold. At one time, the Superintendent made a requisition for 
bills of iron and glass, which could not be obtained nearer than St. Louis. To 
meet this, the Agent sold some lots for a draft, payable at Pittsburgh, Pa., for 
which he was compelled to pay twenty-five per cent, exchange. This draft, 
amounting to $507, that officer reported to be more than one-half the cash 
actually handled by him during the entire season, when the disbursements 
amounted to very nearly $24,000. 

With such uncertainty, it could not be expected that estimates could be very 
accurate. With all these disadvantages, however, the work appears to have 
been prudently prosecuted, and as rapidly as circumstances would permit. 


Iowa remained a Territory from 1838 to 1846, during which the oflBce of 
Governor was held by Robert Lucas, John Chambers and James Clarke. 


By an act of the Territorial Legislature of Iowa, approved February 12, 

1844, the question of the formation of a State Constitution and providing for 
the election of Delegates to a convention to be convened for that purpose was 
submitted to the people, to be voted upon at their township elections in April 
following. The vote was largely in favor of the measure, and the Delegates 
elected assembled in convention at Iowa City, on the 7th of October, 1844. 
On the first day of November following, the convention completed its work and 
adopted the first State Constitution. 

The President of the convention, Hon. Shepherd Leffler, was instructed to 
transmit a certified copy of this Constitution to the Delegate in Congress, to be 
by him submitted to that body at the earliest practicable day. It was also pro- 
vided that it should be submitted, together with any conditions or changes that 
might be made by Congress, to the people of the Territory, for their approval 
or rejection, at the township election in April, 1845. 

The boundaries of the State, as defined by this Constitution, were as fol- 
lows : 

Beginning in the middle of the channel of the Mississipjii River, opposite mouth of the 
Des Moines River, thence up the said river Des Moines, in the middle of the main channel 
thereof, to a point where it is intersected by the Old Indian Boundary line, or line run by Johu 
C. Sullivan, in the year 1816 ; thence westwardly along said line to the " old " northwest corner 
of Missouri ; thence due west to the middle of tlie main channel of the Missouri River; thence 
up in the middle of the main channel of the river last mentioned to the mouth of the Sioux or 
Calumet River ; thence in a direct line to the middle of the main channel of the St. Peters River, 
where the Watonwan River — according to Nicollet's map — enters the same ; thence down the 
middle of the main channel of said river to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi 
River ; thence down the middle of the main channel of said river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries were rejected by Congress, but by act approved March 3, 

1845, a State called Iowa Avas admitted into the Union, provided the people 
accepted the act, bounded as follows : 

Beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines River, at the middle of the Mississippi, thence 
by the middle of the channel of that river to a parallel of latitude passing through the mouth of 
the Mankato or Blue Earth River; thence west, along said parallel of latitude, to a point where 
it is intersected by a meridian line seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian 
of Washington City ; thence due south, to the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri; 
thence eastwardly, following that boundary to the point at which the same intersects the Des 
Moines River ; thence by the middle of the channel of that river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries, had they been accepted, would have placed the northern 
boundary of the State about thirty miles north of its present location, and would 
have deprived it of the Missouri slope and the boundary of that river. The 
western boundary would have been near the west line of what is now Kossuth 
County. But it was not so to be. In consequence of this radical and unwel- 
come change in the boundaries, the people refused to accept the act of Congress 
and rejected the Constitution at the election, held August 4, 1845, by a vote of 
7,656 to 7,2.35. 

A second Constitutional Convention assembled at Iowa City on the 4th day 
of May, 1846, and on the 18th of the same month another Constitution for the 
new State with the present boundaries, was adopted and submitted to the people 
for ratification on the 3d day of August following, when it was accepted ; 9,492 
votes were cast "for the Constitution," and 9,036 "against the Constitution '* 


The Constitution was approved by Con<Tress, and by act of Congress approved 
December 28, 1846, Iowa was admitted as a sovereign State in the American 

Prior to this action of Congress, however, the people of the new State held 
an election under the new Constitution on the 26th day of October, and elected 
Oresel Briggs, Governor ; Elisha Cutler, Jr., Secretary of State ; Joseph T. 
Fales, Auditor ; Morgan Reno, Treasurer ; and members of the Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

At this time there were twenty-seven organized counties in the State, with 
a population of nearly 100,000, and the frontier settlements were rapidly push- 
ing toward the Missouri River. The Mormons had already reached there. 

The first General Assembly of the State of Iowa was composed of nineteen 
Senators and forty Representatives. It assembled at Iowa City, November 30, 
1846, about a month before the State was admitted into the Union. 

At the first session of the State Legislature, the Treasurer of State reported 
that the capitol building was in a very exposed condition, liable to injury from 
storms, and expressed the hope that some provision would be made to complete 
it, at least suiricieiitly to protect it from the weather. The General Assembly 
responded by appropriating $2,500 for the completion of the public buildings. 
At the first session also arose the question of the re-location of the capital. The 
western boundary of the State, as now determined, left Iowa City too far toward 
the eastern and southern boundary of the State ; this was conceded. Congress 
had appropriated five sections of land for the erection of public buildings, and 
toward the close of the session a bill was introduced providing for the re-location 
of the seat of government, involving to some extent the location of the State 
University, which had already been discussed. This bill gave rise to a deal of 
discussion and parliamentary maneuvering, almost purely sectional in its character. 
It provided for the appointment of three Commissioners, who were authorized to 
make a location as near the geograpliical center of the State as a healtliy and 
eligible site could be obtained ; to select the five sections of land donated by 
Congress ; to survey and plat into town lots not exceeding one section of the 
land so selected ; to sell lots at public sale, not to exceed two in each block. 
Having done this, they were then recjuired to suspend further operations, and 
make a report of their proceedings to the Governor. The bill passed both 
Houses by decisive votes, received the signature of the Governor, and became a 
law. Soon after, by "An act to locate and establish a State University," 
approved February 25, 1847, the unfinished public buildings at Iowa City, 
together with the ten acres of land on which they were situated, Avere granted 
for the use of the University, reserving their "use, however, by the General 
Assembly and the State officers, until other provisions were made by law. 

The Commissioners forthwith entered upon their duties, and selected four 
sections and two half sections in Jasper County. Two of these sections are in 
what is now Des Moines Township, and the others in Fairview Township, in the 
southern part of that county. These lands are situated between Prairie City 
and Monroe, on the Keokuk & Des Moines Railroad, which runs diagonally 
through them. Here a town was platted, called Monroe City, and a sale of 
lots took place. Four hundred and fifteen lots were sold, at prices that were 
not considered remarkably remunerative. The cash payments (one-fourth) 
amounted to $1,797.43, while tlie expenses of the sale and the claims of the 
Commissioners for services amounted to $2,206.57. The Commissioners made 
a report of their proceedings to the Governor, as required by law, but the loca- 
tion was generally condemned. 


When the report of the Commissioners, showing this brilliant financial ope- 
ration, had been read in the House of Representatives, at tlie next session, and 
while it was under consideration, an indignant member, afterward known as 
the eccentric Judge McFarland, moved to refer the report to a select Committee 
of Five, with instructions to report " how much of said city of Monroe was under 
water and how much was burned." The report was referred, without the 
instructions, however, but Monroe City never became the seat of government. 
By an act approved January 15, 1849, the law by which the location had been 
made was repealed and the new town was vacated, the money paid by purchas- 
ers of lots being refunded to them. This, of course, retained the seat of govern- 
ment at Iowa City, and precluded, for the time, the occupation of the building 
and grounds by the University. 

At the same session, $3,000 more were appropriated for completing the 
State building at Iowa City. In 1852, the further sum of $5,000, and in 1854 
$4,000 more were apppropriated for the same purpose, making the whole cost 
$123,000, paid partly by the General Government and partly by the State, but 
principally from the proceeds of the sale of lots in Iowa City. 

But the question of the permanent location of the seat of government was 
not settled, and in 1851 bills were introduced for the removal of the capital to 
Bella and to Fort Des Moines. The latter appeared to have the support of the 
majority, but was finally lost in the House on the question of ordering it to its 
third reading. 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was introduced in the Senate for the 
removal of the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, and, on final vote, 
was just barely defeated. At the next session, however, the effort was more 
successful, and on the 15th day of January, 1855, a bill re-locating the capital 
within two miles of the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, and for the appoint- 
ment of Commissioners, was approved by Gov. Grimes. The site was selected 
in 1856, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the land being donated 
to the State by citizens and property -holders of Des Moines. An association of 
citizens erected a building for a temporary capitol, and leased it to the State at 
a nominal rent. 

The third Constitutional Convention to revise the Constitution of the State 
assembled at Iowa City, January 19, 1857. The new Constitution framed by 
this convention was submitted to the people at an election held August 8, 1857, 
when it was approved and adopted by a vote of 40,311 " for " to 38,681 
" against," and on the 3d day of September following was declared by a procla- 
mation of the Governor to bo the supreme law of the State of Iowa. 

Advised of the completion of the temporary State House at Des Moines, on 
the 19th of October following. Governor Grimes issued another proclamation, 
declaring the City of Des Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa. 

The removal of the archives and offices was commenced at once and con- 
tinued through the Fall. It was an undertaking of no small magnitude; there 
was not a mile of railroad to facilitate the work, and the season was unusually 
disagreeable. Rain, snow and other accompaniments increased the difficulties; 
and it was not until December, that the last of the effects — the safe of the State 
Treasurer, loaded on two large " bob-sleds " — drawn by ten yoke of oxen was de- 
posited in the new capital. It is not imprudent now to remark that, during this 
passage over hills and prairies, across rivers, through bottom lands and timber, 
the safes belonging to the several departments contained large sums of money, 
mostly individual funds, however. Tims, Iowa City ceased to be the capital of 
the State, after four Territorial Legislatures, six State Legislatures and three 


Constitutional Conventions liad held their sessions there. By the exchange, 
tiie old capitol at Iowa City became the seat of the University, and, except the 
rooms occupied by the United States District Court, passed under the immedi- 
ate and direct control of the Trustees of that institution. 

Des Moines was now the permanent seat of government, made so by the 
fundamental law of the State, and on the 11th day of January, 1858, the 
seventh General Assembly convened at the new capital. The building used 
for governmental purposes was purchased in 1864. It soon became inadequate 
for the purposes for which it was designed, and it became apparent that a new, 
large and permanent State House must be erected. In 1870, the General 
Assembly made an appropriation and provided for the appointment of a Board 
of Commissioners to commence the work. The board consisted of Gov. Samuel 
Merrill, ex officio. President ; Grenville M. Dodge, Council Bluffs ; James F. 
Wilson, Fairfield; James Dawson, Washington; Simon G. Stein, Muscatine; 
James 0. Crosby, Gainsville; Charles Dudley, Agency City; John N. Dewey, 
Des Moines ; William L. Joy, Sioux City ; Alexander R. Fulton, Des Moines, 

The act of 1870 provided that the building should be constructed of the 
best material and should be fire proof; to be heated and ventilated in the most 
approved manner; should contain suitable legislative halls, rooms for State 
officers, the judiciary, library, committees, archives and the collections of the 
State Agricultural Society, and for all purpoees of State Government, and 
should be erected on grounds held by the State for that purpose. The sum first 
appropriated was ^150,000 ; and the law provided that no contract should be 
made, either for constructing or furnishing the building, which should bind the 
State for larger sums than those at the time appropriated. A design was drawn 
and plans and specifications furnished by Cochrane & Piquenard, architects, 
which Avere accepted by the board, and on the 23d of November, 1871, the cor- 
ner stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies. The estimated cost and present 
value of the capitol is fixed at $2,000,000. 

From 1858 to 1860, the Sioux became troublesome in the northwestern 
part of the State. These warlike Indians made frequent plundering raids upon 
the settlers, and murdered several families. In 1861, several companies of 
militia were ordered to that portion of the State to hunt down and punish the 
murderous thieves. No battles were fought, however, for the Indians fled 
when they ascertained that systematic and adequate measures had been adopted 
to protect the settlers. 

" The year 1856 marked a new era in the history of Iowa. In 1854, the 
Chicago & Rock Island Railroad had been conipleted to the east bank of the 
Mississippi River, opposite Daven})ort. In 1854, the corner stone of a railroad 
bri<lge, that was to be the first to span the "Father of Waters," was laid with 
appropriate ceremonies at this point. St. Louis had resolved that the enter- 
prise was unconstitutional, and by writs of injunction made an unsuccessful 
effort to prevent its completion. Twenty years later in her history, St. Louis 
repented her folly, and made atonement for her sin by imitating our example. 
On the 1st day of January, 1856, this railroad was completed to Iowa City. 
In the meantime, two other railroads had reached the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi — one opposite Burlington, and one opposite Dubuque — and these were 
being extended into the interior of the State. Indeed, four lines of railroad 
had been projected across the State from the Mississippi to the Missouri, hav- 
ing eastern connections. On the 15th of May, 1856, the Congress of the 
United States passed an act granting to the State, to aid in the construction of 



railroads, the public lands in alternate sections, six miles on either side of the 
proposed lines. An extra session of the General Assembly was called in July 
of this year, that disposed of the grant to the several companies that proposed 
to complete these enterprises. The population of our State at this time had 
increased to 500,000. Public attention had been called to the necessity of a 
railroad across the continent. The position of Iowa, in the very heart and 
center of the Republic, on the route of this great highway across the continent, 
began to attract attention Cities and towns sprang up through the State as 
if by magic. Capital began to pour into the State, and had it been employed 
in developing our vast coal measures and establishing manufactories among us, 
or if it had been expended in improving our lands, and building houses and 
barns, it would have been well. But all were in haste to get rich, and the 
spirit of speculation ruled the hour. 

" In the meantime, every effort was made to help the speedy completion of 
the railroads. Nearly every county and city on the Mississippi, and many in 
the interior, voted large corporate subscriptions to the stock of the radroad 
companies, and issued their negotiable bonds for the amount." Thus enormous 
county and city debts were incurred, the payment of which these municipalities 
tried to avoid upon the plea that they had exceeded the constitutional limit- 
ation of their powers. The Supreme Court of the United States held these 
bonds to be valid ; and the courts by mandamus compelled the city and county 
authorities to levy taxes to pay the judgments. These debts are not all paid 
even yet, but the worst is over and ultimately the burden will be entirely 

The first railroad across the State was completed to Council Bluffs in Jan- 
uary, 1871. The others were completed soon after. In 1854, there was not 
a mile of railroad in the State. In 1874, twenty years after, there were 3,765 
miles in successful operation. 


When Wisconsin Territory was organized, in 1836, the entire population of 
that portion of the Territory now embraced in the State of Iowa was 10,531. 
The Territory then embraced two counties, Dubuque and Des Moines, erected 
by the Territory of Michigan, in 1834. From 1836 to 1838, the Territorial 
Legislature of Wisconsin increased the number of counties to sixteen, and the 
population had increased to 22,859. Since then, the counties have increased 
to ninety-nine, and the population, in 1875, was 1,366,000. The following 
table Avill show the population at different periods since the erection of Iowa 
Territory : 

Year. Population. 

1852 230,713 

1854 326,013 

1856 519.055 

1859 638,775 

1860 674,913 

1863 701,732 

1865 754,699 

1867 902,040 

The most populous county in the State is Dubu(p'e. Not only in popula- 
tion, but in everything contributing to the growth and greatness of a State has 
Iowa made rapid progress. In a little more than thirty years, its wild but 
beautiful prairies have advanced from the home of the savage to a highly civ- 
ilized commonwealth, embracing all the elements of progress which characterize 
the older States. 

Year. Population. 

1838 22,589 

1840 43,115 

1844 75,152 

1846 97,588 

1847 116,651 

1849 152,988 

1850 191,982 

1851 204,774 

Year. Population. 

1869 1,040,819 

1870 1,191,727 

1873 1,251,333 

1875 1,366,000 




Thrivin*; cities and towns dot its fair surface ; an iron net-work of thou- 
sands of miles of railroads is woven over its broad acres; ten thousand school 
houses, in which more than five hundred thousand chihh'en are being taught 
the rudiments of echication, testify to the culture and liberality of the people; 
liigh schools, colleges and universities are generously endowed by the State ; 
manufactories spring up on all her water courses, and in most of her cities 
and towns. 

Whether measured from the date of her first settlement, her organization as 
a Territt)ry or admission as a State, Iowa has thus far shown a growth unsur- 
passed, in a similar period, by any commonwealth on the face of the earth ; 
and, with her vast extent of fertile soil, with her inexhaustible treasures of 
mineral wealth, with a healthful, invigorating climate; an intelligent, liberty- 
loving people; with equal, just and liberal laws, and her free schools, the 
future of Iowa may be expected to surpass the most hopeful anticipations of her 
present citizens. 

Looking upon Iowa as she is to-day — populous, prosperous and happy — it 
is hard to realize the wonderful changes that have occurred since the first white 
settlements were made within her borders. When the number of States was 
only twenty-six, and their total population about twenty millions, our repub- 
lican form of government was liardly more than an experiment, just fairly put 
upon trial. The develojunent of our agricultural resources and inexhaustible 
mineral wealth had hardly commenced. Westward the "Star of Empire" 
had scarcely started on its way. West of the great Mississippi was a mighty 
empire, but almost unknown, and marked on the maps of the period as " The 
Great American Desert." 

Now, thirty-eight stars glitter on our national escutcheon, and forty-five 
millions of people, who know their rights and dare maintain them, tread 
American soil, and the grand sisterhood of States extends from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Canadian border, and from the rocky coast of the Atlantic to 
the golden shores of ihe Pacific. 


Ames, Story County. 

The Iowa State Agricultural College and Farm were established by au act 
of the General Assembly, approved March '1'2, 1858. A Board of Trustees was 
appointed, consisting of Governor R. P. Lowe, John D. Wright, William Duane 
W^ilson, M. W. Robinson, Timothy Day. Richard Gaines, John Pattee, G. W^ 
F. Sherwin, Suel Foster, S. W. Henderson, Clement Coffin and E. G. Day; 
the Governors of the State and President of the College being ex officio mem- 
bers. Subsequently the number of Trustees was reduced to five. The Board 
met in June, 1859, and received propositions for the location of the College and 
Farm from Hardin, Polk, Story and Boone, Marshall, Jeft'erson and Tama 
Counties. In July, the proposition of Story County and some of its citizens 
and by the citizens of Boone County was accepted, and the farm and the site 
for the buildings were located. In 18C)0-G1, the farm-house and barn were 
erected. In 1862, Congress granted to the State 240,000 acres of land for the 
endowment of schools of agriculture and tlie mechanical arts, and 195,000 acres 
were located by Peter Melendy, Commissioner, in 1862-3. George W. Bassett 
was appointed Land Agent for the institution. In 1864, the General Assem- 
bly appropriated $20,000 for the erection of the college building. 


Tn Juno of that year, the Building Committee, consisting of iSncl Foster 
Peter Melendy and A. J, Bronson, proceeded to let the contract. John IJrowne 
of Des Moines, \vas employed as architect, and furnished the plans of thohuild- 
ing, but was superseded in its construction by C. A. Dunham. 1'he ^20,000 
appropriated by the General Assembly were expended in putting in the foun- 
dations and making the brick for the structure. An additional appropriation 
of $91,000 was made in ]S()0, and the building was comijleted in l!SOS. 

Tuition in this college is made by law forever free to pupils from the State 
over sixteen ycai's of age, who have been resident of the State six months pre- 
vious to their admission. Each county in the State has a prior right of tuition 
for three scholars from each county ; the remainder, cfjual to tho capacity of the 
college, are by the Trustees distributed among the counties in proportion to the 
population, and subject to tho above rule. All sale of ardfsnt spirits, wine or 
beer are prohibited by law within a distance of three miles from the college, 
except for sacramental, mechanical or medical purposes. 

The course of instruction in tho Agricultural College embraces tho following 
branches: Natural I'hilosophy, Chemistry, Boty.ny, Horticulture, FiMiit Growing, 
Forestry, Animal and Vegetable Aiuitomy, Geology, Mineralogy, Meteorology, 
Entomology, Zoology, tho V(!t('rinary Art, Plane Mensuration, Leveling, Sur- 
veying, Pookkeeping, and such Mechanical Arts as are directly connected 
with agriculture ; also such other studies as the Trustees may from time to time 
prescribe, not inconsistent with the purposes of the institution. 

The funds arising from the lease and sale of lands and interest on invest- 
ments are sufficient ibr the support of the institution. Several College Societies 
are maintained among tho students, who publish a monthly paper. There is 
also an " out-law " called ,the " A TA^ Chapter Gmega." 

The Board of Trustees in 1877 was composed of C. W. Warden, Ottumwa, 
Chairman; ITon. Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa City; William B. Treadway, 
Sioux City ; Buel Sherman, Fredericksburg, and Laurel Summers, Le Claire. 
E. W. Starten, Secretary ; William i). Lucas, Treasurer. 

Board of Instruction. — A. S. Welch, LL. ]J., President and Professor of 
Psychology and Philosophy of Science ; Gen. J. L. Geddes, Professor of Mili- 
tary Tactics and Engineering; W. 11. Wynn, A. M., Ph. D., Professor of 
English Literature; C. E. Bessey, M. S., Professor of Botany, Zoology, Ento- 
mology ; A. Thompson, C. E., Mechanical Engineering and Suj)erintcndent of 
Workshops; F. E. L. Beal, li. S., Civil Engineering; T. E. Pope, A. M., 
Chemistry; M. Stalker, Agricultural and VcterinMry Science; J. L. Budd, 
Horticulture ; J. K. Macomber, i'hysics ; E. W. Stanton, Mathematics and 
Political Economy ; Mrs. Margaret P. Stanton, Preceptress, Instructor in 
French and Mathematics. 


Iowa City, Johnson County. ' 

In the famous Ordinance of 1787, enacted by Congress before the Territory 
of the United States extended beyond the Mississippi River, it was declared 
that in all the territory northwest of the Ohio River, " Schools and the means 
of education sluiH forever l)e encouraged." By act of Congress, approved July 
20, 1840, the Secretary of the Treasury was authorized "to set apart and re- 
serve from sale, out of any of the public lands within the Territory of Iowa, to 
which the Indian title has been or may be extinguished, and not otherwise ap- 
propriated, a quantity of land, not exceeding the entire townships, for the use 


and support of a university within said Territorry -svlien it becomes a State, and 
for no other use or purpose whatever ; to be located in tracts of not less than an 
entire section, corresponding with any of the large divisions into which the pub- 
lic land are authorized to be surveyed." 

William W. Dodge, of Scott; County, was appointed by the Secretary of the 
Treasury to make tlie selections. He selected Section 5 in Township 78, north 
of Range 3, east of the Fifth Principal INIeridian, and then removed from the 
Territory. No more lands were selected until 184G, when, at the request of the 
Assembly, John M. Whitakerof Van Buren County, was appointed, who selected 
the remainder of the grant except about 122 acres. 

In the first Constitution, under which Iowa was admitted to the Union, the 
people directed the disposition of the proceeds of this munificent grant in ac- 
cordance witii its terms, and instructed the General Assembly to provide, as soon 
as may be, effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the 
funds of the university derived from the lands. 

The first General Assembly, by act approved February 25, 1847, established 
the " State University of Iowa " at Iowa City, then the capital of the State, 
"with such other branches as public convenience may hereafter require." 
The " public buildings at Iowa City, together with the ten acres of land in which 
they are situated," were granted for the use of said university, provided^ how- 
ever, that the sessions of the Legislature and State offices should be held in the 
capitol until otherwise provided by law. The control and management of the 
University were committed to a board of fifteen Trustees, to be appointed by the 
Legislature, five of whom Avere to be chosen bienially. The Superintendent 
of Public Instruction was made President of this Board. Provisions were made 
for the disposal of the two townships of land, and for the investment of the funds 
arising therefrom. The act further provides that the University shall never be 
under the exclusive control of any religious denomination whatever," and as 
soon as the revenue for the grant and donations amounts to ^2,000 a year, the 
University should commence and continue the instruction, free of charge, of fifty 
students annually. The General Assembly retained full supervision over the 
University, its officers and the grants and donations made and to be made to it 
by the State. 

Section 5 of the act appointed James P. Carleton, H. D. Downey, Thomas 
Snyder, Samuel McCrory, Curtis Bates, Silas Foster, E. C. Lyon, James H. 
Gower, George G. Vincent, Wm. G. Woodward, Theodore S. Parvin, George 
Atchinson, S. G. Matson, II. W. Starr and Ansel Briggs, the first Board of 

The organization of the University at Iowa City was impracticable, how- 
ever, so long as the scat of government was retained there. 

In January, 1849, two branches of the University and three Normal 
Schools were established. The branches were located — one at Fairfield, and 
the other at Dubuque, and were placed upon an equal footing, in respect to 
funds and all other matters, Avith the University established at Iowa City. 
"This act," says Col. Benton, "created three State Universities, with equal 
fights and powers, instead of a 'University with such branches as public conven- 
ience majf hereafter demand,' as provided by the Constitution." 

The Board of Directors of the Fairfield Branch consisted of Barnet Ris- 
tine, Christian AV. Slagle, Daniel Rider, Horace Gaylord, Bcrnhart Henn and 
Samuel S. Bayard. At the first meeting of the Board, Mr. Henn was elected 
President, Mr. Slagle Secretary, and Mr. Gaylord Treasurer. Twenty acres 
of land were purchased, and a building erected thereon, costing $2,500. 


This building was nearly destroyed by a hurricane, in 1850, but was rebuilt 
more substantially, all by contributions of the citizens of Fairfield. This 
branch never received any aid from the State or from the University Fund, 
and by act approved January 24, 1853, at the request of the Board, the Gen- 
eral Assembly terminated its relation to the State. 

The branch at Dubuque was placed under the control of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, and John King, Caleb H. Booth, James M. Emerson, 
Michael J. Sullivan, Richard Benson and the Governor of the State as 
Trustees. The Trustees never organized, and its existence was only nominal. 

The Normal Schools were located at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mount 
Pleasant, respectively. Each was to be governed by a board of seven Trustees, to 
be appointed by the Trustees of the University. Each was to receive $500 annu- 
ally from the income of the University Fund, upon condition that they should ed- 
ucate eight common school teachers, free of charge for tuition, and that the citizens 
should contribute an equal sura for the erection of the requisite buildings. 
The several Boards of Trustees were appointed. At Andrew, the school was 
organized Nov. 21, 1849; Samuel Ray, Principal; Miss J. S. Dorr, Assist- 
ant. A building was commenced and over $1,000 expended on it, but it was 
never completed. At Oskaloosa, the Trustees organized in April, 1852. This 
school was opened in the Court House, September 13, 1852, under the charge 
of Prof. G. M. Drake and wife. A two story brick building was completed in 
1853, costing $2,473. The school at Mount Pleasant was never organized. 
Neither of these schools received any aid from the University Fund, but in 
1857 the Legislature appropriated $1,000 each for those at Oskaloosa and 
Andrew, and repealed the law authorizing the payment of money to them from 
the University Fund. From that time they made no further effort to 
continue in operation. 

At a special meeting of the Board of Trustees, held February 21, 1850, 
the " College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Upper Mississippi," established 
at Davenport, was recognized as the '" College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
the State University of Iowa," expressly stipulating, however, that such recog- 
nition should not render the University liable for any pecuniary aid, nor was 
the Board to have any control over the property or management of the Medical 
Association. Soon after, this College Avas removed to Keokuk, its second ses- 
sion being opened there in November, 1850. In 1851, the General Assembly 
confirmed the action of the Board, and by act approved January 22, 1855, 
placed the Medical College under the supervision of the Board of Trustees of 
the Universit3'-, and it continued in operation until this arrangement was termi- 
nated by the new Constitution, September 3, 1857. 

From 1847 to 1855, the Board of Trustees was kept full by regular elec- 
tions by the Legislature, and the Trustees held frequent meetings, but there was 
no effectual organization of the University. In March, 1855, it was partially 
opened for a term of sixteen weeks. July 16, 1855, Amos Dean, of Albany, 
N. Y., was elected President, but he never entered fully upon its duties. The 
University was again opened in September, 1855, and continued in operation 
until June, 1856, under Professors Johnson, Welton, Van Valkenburg and 

In the Spring of 1856, the capital of the State was located at Des Moines; 
but there were no buildings there, and the capitol at Iowa City was not vacated 
by the State until December, 1857. 

In June, 1856, the foculty was re-organized, with some changes, and the 
University was again opened on the third Wednesday of September, 1856. 


There were one hundred and twenty-four students — eighty-three males and 
forty-ono females — in attendance during the year 1856-7, and the first regular 
catalogue was published. 

At a special meeting of the Board, September 22, 1857, the honorary de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred on D. Franklin AYells. This was the 
first degree conferred by the Board. 

Article IX, Section 11, of the new State Constitution, which went into force 
September 3, 1857, provided as follows : 

The State TJniversitv shall be established at one place, without branches at any other place ; 
and the University fund shall be applied to that institution, and no other. 

Article XI, Section 8, provided that 

The seat of Government is hereby permanently established, as now fixed by law, at the city 
of Des Moines, in the county of Polk ; and the State University at Iowa City, in the county of 

The new Constitution created the Board of Education, consisting of the 
Lieutenant Governor, who was ex officio President, and one member to be elected 
from each judicial district in the State. This Board was endowed with 
" full power and authority to legislate and make all needful rules and regula- 
tions in relation to common schools and other educational institutions," subject 
to alteration, amendment or repeal by the General Assembly, which was vested 
with authority to abolish or re-organize the Board at any time after 1863. 

In December, 1857, the old capitol building, now known as Central Hall of 
the University, except the rooms occupied by the United States District Court, 
and the property, Avith that exception, passed under the control of the Trustees, 
and became the seat of the University. The old building had had hard usage, 
and its arrangement was illy adapted for University purposes. Extensive repairs 
and changes were necessary, but the Board was without funds for these pur- 

The last meeting of the Board, under the old law, was held in January, 
1858. At this meeting, a resolution was introduced, and seriously considered, 
to exclude females from the University ; but it finally failed. 

^March 12, 1858, the first Legislature under the now Constitution enacted 
a new law in relation to the University, but it was not materially different from 
the former. March 11, 1858, the Legislature appropriated $3,000 for the re- 
pair and modification of the old capitol building, and $10,000 for the erection 
of a boarding house, now known as South Hall. 

Tiie Board of Trustees created by the new law met and duly organized 
April 27, 1858, and determined to close the University until the income from its 
fund should be adequate to meet the current expeiises, and the buildings should 
be ready for occupation. Until this term, the building known as the " Mechan- 
ics' Academy" had been used for the school. The Faculty, except the Chan- 
cellor (Dean), was dismissed, and all further instruction suspended, from the close 
of the term then in progress until September, 1859. At this meeting, a reso- 
lution was adopted excluding females from the L^niver.sity after the close of the 
existing term ; but this was afterward, in August, modified, so as to admit them 
to the Normal Department. 

At the meeting of the Board, August 4, 1858, the degree of Bachelor of 
Science wjis conferred upon Dexter Edson Smith, being the first degree con- 
ferred upon a student of the University. Diplomas were awarded t(^ the mem- 
bers of the first graduating class of the Normal Department as follows : Levi 
P. Aylworth, Cellina H. Aylworth, Elizabeth L. Humphrey, Annie A. Pinney 
and Sylvia M. Thompson. 


An " Act for the Government and Regulation of the State University of 
Iowa," approved December 25, 1858, was mainly a re-enactment of the law of 
March 12, 1858, except that changes were made in the Board of Trustees, and 
manner of their appointment. This law provided that both sexes were to be 
admitted on equal terms to all departments of the institution, leaving the Board 
no discretion in the matter. 

The new Board met and organized, February 2, 1859, and decided to con- 
tinue the Normal Department only to the end of the current term, and that it 
was unwise to re-open the University at that time ; but at the annual meeting 
of the Board, in June of tlie same year, it was resolved to continue the Normal 
Department in operation ; and at a special meetmg, October 25, 1859, it was 
decided to re-open the University in September, 1860. Mr. Dean had resigned 
as Chancellor prior to this meeting, and Silas Totten, D. D., LL. D., was elected 
President, at a salary of $2,000, and his term commenced June, 1860. 

At the annual meeting, June 28, 1860, a full Faculty was appointed, and 
the University re-opened, under this new organization, September 19, 1860 
(third Wednesday) ; and at this date the actual existence of the University may 
be said to commence. 

August 19, 1862, Dr. Totten having resigned, Prof. Oliver M. Spencer 
was elected President and the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
upon Judge Samuel F. Miller, of Keokuk. 

At the commencement, in June, 1863, was the first class of graduates in 
the Collegiate Department. 

The Board of Education was abolished March 19, 1864, and the office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction was restored ; the General Assembly 
resumed control of the subject of education, and on March 21, an act was ap- 
proved for the government of the University. It was substantially the same as 
the former law, but provided that the Governor should be ex officio President of 
the Board of Trustees. Until 1858, the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
had been ex officio President. During the period of the Board of Education, 
the University Trustees were elected by it, and elected their own President. 

President Spencer was granted leave of absence from April 10, 1866, for 
fifteen months, to visit Europe ; and Prof. Nathan R. Leonard was elected 
President pj'o tern. 

The North Hall was completed late in 1866. 

At the annual meeting in June, 1867, the resignation of President Spencer 
(absent in Europe) was accepted, and Prof Leonard continued as President j)ro 
tern., until March 4, 1868, when James Black, D. D., Vice President of Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, Penn., was elected President. Dr. Black entered 
upon his duties in September, 1868. 

The Law Department was established in June, 1868, and, in September fol- 
lowing, an arrangement was perfected with the Iowa Law School, at Des Moines, 
which had been in successful operation for three years, under the management 
of Messrs. George G. Wright, Chester C. Cole and William G. Hammond, by 
which that institution was transferred to Iowa City and merged in the Law De- 
partment of the University. The Faculty of this department consisted of the 
President of the University, Hon. Wm. G. Hammond, Resident Professor and 
Principal of the Department, and Professors G. G. Wright and C. C. Cole. 

Nine students entered at the commencement of the first term, and during 
the year ending June, 1877, there were 103 students in this department. 

At a special meeting of the Board, on the 17th of September, 1868, a Com- 
mittee was appointed to consider the expediency of establishing a Medical De- 


partment. This Committoo reported at once in favor of the proposition, the 
Faculty to consist of the President of the University and seven Professors, and 
recommended that, if practicable, the new department should be opened at the 
commencement of the University year, in 1809-70. At this meeting, Hon. 
Ezekiel Clark was elected Treasurer of the University. 

By an act of the General Assembly, approved April 11, 1870, the "Board 
of Regents" was instituted as the governing power of tiie University, and since 
that time it has been the fundamental law of the institution. Tlie Board of 
Regents held its first meeting June '28, 1870. Wm. J. Haddock was elected 
Secretary, and Mr. Clark, Treasurer. 

Dr. IMaek tendered his resignation as President, at a special meeting of the 
Board, held August 18, 1870, to take eftbct on the 1st of December following. 
His resignation was accepted. 

The South Hall having been fitted up for the purpose, the first term of the 
Medical Department was opened October 24, 1870, and continued until March, 
1871, at which time there were three graduates and thirty-nine students. 

March 1, 1871, Rev. George Thacher was elected President of the Univer- 
sity. Mr. Thacher accepted, entered upon his duties April 1st, and was form- 
ally inaugurated at the annual meeting in June, 18(31. 

In June, 1874, the *' Chair of Military Instruction" was established, and 
the President of the United States was requested to detail an officer to perform 
its duties. In compliance with this request, Lieut. A. D. Schenck, Second Artil- 
lery, U. S. A., was detailed as "Professor of Military Science and Tactics," 
at Iowa State University, by order of the War Department, August 26, 1874, 
who rej)orted for duty on the 10th of September following. Lieut. Schenck 
was relieved by Lieut. James Chester, Third Artillery, Jaimary 1, 1877. 

Treasurer Clark resigned November o, 1875, and John N. Coldren elected 
in his stead. 

At the annual meeting, in 1876, a Department of Homoeopathy was 

In March, 1877, a resolution was adopted affiliating the High Schools of 
the State with the U^niversity. 

In June, 1877, Dr. Thacher's connection Avith the University was termi- 
nated, and C. W. Slagle, a member of the Board of Regents, was elected Pi"es- 

In 1872, the ex officio membership of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion was abolished : but it was restored in 1876. Following is a catalogue of 
the officers of this important institution, from 1847 to 1878: 




James Ilnrlan, Superintendent Public Instruction, ox officio 1847 1848 

Thoinas H. Benton, Jr.. Superintendent Public Instruction, ex officio 1843 1854 

James I>. Eads, Superintendent Public Instruction, ex officio... 1854 1857 

Maturin E. Fisher, Superintendent Public Instruction, ex officio 1857 1858 

Amos Ocan, Chancellor, ex officio 1858 1859 

Thomas 11. Benton, Jr 185') 1803 

Francis Springer 1863 1804 

William M. Stone, Governor, ex officio 1864 1868 

Samuel Merrill, Governor, ex officio 1868 1872 

Cyrus (\ (^arpenter, Governor, ex officio 1872 1876 

Samuel J. Kirkwood, Governor, ex officio 1576 1877 

Joshua G. Newbold, Governor, ex officio 1877 1878 

John II. Gear ; Iii78 



Silas Foster 1847 1851 

Robert Lucas 1851 185.3 

Edward Connelly 1854 18-55 

Moses J. Morsman 1855 1858 


Hugh D. Downey 1847 1851 

Anson Hart 1851 1857 

Elijah Sells 1857 1858 

Anson Hart 18.58 1864 

William J. Haddock 1864 


Morgan Reno, State Treasurer, ex officio 1847 1850 

Israel Kister, State Treasurer, ex officio 1850 1852 

Martin L. Morris, State Treasurer, ex officio 1852 1855 

Henry W. Lathrop 1855 1862 

William Crum 1862 1868 

Ezekiel Clark 1868 1876 

John N. Coldren 1876 


Amos Dean, LL. D 1855 1858 

Silas Totten, D. D., LL. D 1860 1862 

Oliver M. Spencer, D. D.* , 1862 '1867 

James Black, D. D 1868 1870 

George Thacher, D. D 1871 1877 

C. W. Slagle 1877 

The present educational corps of the University consists of the President, 
nine Professors in the Collegiate Department, one Professor and six Instructors 
in Military Science ; Chancellor, three Professors and four Lecturers in the 
Law Department ; eight Professor Demonstrators of Anatomy ; Prosector of 
Surgery and two Lecturers in the Medical Department, and two Professors in 
the Homoeopathic Medical Department. 


By act of the General Assembly, approved January 28, 1857, a State His- 
torical Society was provided for in connection with the University. At the 
commencement, an appropriation of ^250 was made, to be expended in collecting, 
embodying, and preserving in an authentic form a library of books, pamphlets, 
charts, maps, manuscripts, papers, jjaintings, statuary, and other materials illus- 
trative of tlie history of Iowa; and with the further object to rescue from 
oblivion the memory of the early pioneers; to obtain and preserve various 
accounts of their exploits, perils and hardy adventures ; to secure facts and 
statements relative to the history and genius, and progress and decay of the 
Indian tribes of Iowa; to exhibit faithfully the antiquities and past and present 
resources of the State; to aid in the publication of such collections of the Society 
as shall from time to time be deemed of value and interest; to aid in binding 
its books, pamphlets, manuscripts and papers, and in defraying other necessary 
incidental expenses of the Society. 

There was appropriated by law to this institution, till the General Assembly 
shall otherwise direct, the sum of $500 per annum. The Society is under the 
management of a Board of Curators, consisting of eighteen persons, nine of 
whom are appointed by the Governor, and nine elected by the members of the 
Society. The Curators receive no compensation for their services. The annual 


meeting is provided for by law, to be held at Iowa City on Monday preceding 
the last Wednesday in June of each year. 

The State Historical Society has published a series of very valuable collec- 
tions, including history, biography, sketches, reminiscences, etc., with quite a 
large number of finely engraved portraits of prominent and early settlers, under 
the title of " Annals of Iowa." 

Located at Fort 3Iadison, Lee County. 

The first act of the Territorial Legislature, relating to a Penitentiary in 
Iowa, was approved January 25, 1839, the fifth section of which authorized the 
Governor to draw the sum of $20,000 appropriated by an act of Congress ap- 
proved July 7, 1838, for public buildings in the Territory of Iowa. It provided 
for a Board of Directors of three persons elected by the Legislature, Avho should 
direct the building of the Penitentiary, which should be located within one mile 
of the public square, in the town of Fort Madison, Lee County, provided Fort 
Madison should deed to the directors a tract of land suitable for a site, and assign 
them, by contract, a spring or stream of water for the use of the Penitentiary. 
To the Directors was also given the power of appointing the Warden ; the latter 
to appoint his own assistants. 

The first Directors appointed were John S. David and John Claypole. They 
made their first report to tiie Legislative Council November 9, 1839. The citi- 
zens of the town of Fort Madison had executed a deed conveying ten acres of 
land for the building site. Amos Ladd was appointed Superintendent of the 
building June 5, 1839. The building was designed of sufficient capacity to con- 
tain one hundred and thirty-eight convicts, and estimated to cost $55,933.90. 
It was begun on the 9th of July, 1839 ; the main building and Warden's house 
were completed in the Fall of 1841. Other additions were made from time to 
time till the building and arrangements were all complete according to the plan 
of the Directors. It has answered the purpose of the State as a Penitentiary 
for more than thirty years, and during that period many items of practical ex- 
perience in prison management have been gained. 

It has long been a problem how to conduct prisons, and deal with what are 
called the criminal classes generally, so as to secure their best good and best 
subserve the interests of the State. Both objects must be taken into considera- 
tion in any humaritarian view of the subject. This problem is not yet solved, 
but Iowa has adopted the progressive and enlightened policy of humane treat- 
ment of prisoners and the utilization of their labor for their own support. The 
labor of the convicts in the Iowa Penitentiary, as in most others in the United 
States, is let out to contractors, who pay the State a certain stipulated amount 
therefor, the State furnishing the shops, tools and machinery, as well as the 
supervision necessary to preserve order and discipline in the prison. 

While this is an improvement upon the old solitary confinement system, it 
still falls short of an enlightened reformatory system that in the future will 
treat the criminal for mental disease and endeavor to restore him to usefulness 
in the community. The objections urged against the contract system of dis- 
posing of the labor of prisoners, that it brings the labor of honest citizens into 
competition with convict labor at reduced prices, and is disadvantageous to the 
State, are not without force, and the system will have no place in the prisons of 
the future. 


It is right that the convict should labor. He should not be allowed to live 
in idleness at public expense. Honest men labor ; why should not they? Hon- 
est men are entitled to the fruits of their toil ; why should not the convict as 
well ? The convict is sent to the Penitentiary to secure public safety. The 
State deprives him of his liberty to accomplish this purpose and to punish him 
for violations of law, but, having done this, the State wrongs both itself and the 
criminal by confiscating his earnings ; because it deprives his family of what 
justly belongs to them, and an enlightened civilization will ere long demand 
that the prisoner in the penitentiary, after paying a fair price for his board, is 
as justly entitled to his net earnings as the good citizen outside its walls, and 
his family, if he has one, should be entitled to draw his earnings or stated portion 
of them at stated periods. If he has no family, then if his net earnings should 
be set aside to his credit and paid over to him at the expiration of his term of 
imprisonment, he would not be turned out upon the cold charities of a somewhat 
Pharisaical world, penniless, with the brand of the convict upon his brow, with 
no resource save to sink still deeper in crime. Let Iowa, " The Beautiful Land," 
be first to recognize the rights of its convicts to the fruits of their labor ; keep 
their children from the alms-house, and place a powerful incentive before them 
to become good citizens when they return to the busy world agq-in. 


Located at Anamosa, Jones County. 

By an act of the Fourteenth General Assembly, approved April 23, 1872, 
William Ure, Foster L. Downing and Martin Heisey were constituted Commis- 
sioners to locate and provide for the erection and control of an additional 
Penitentiary for the State of Iowa. These Commissioners met on the 4th of 
the following June, at Anamosa, Jones County, and selected a site donated by 
the citizens, within the limits of the city. L. W. Foster & Co., architects, of 
Des Moines, furnished the plan, drawings and specifications, and work was 
commenced on the building on the 28th day of September, 1872. May 13, 
1873, twenty convicts were transferred to Anamosa from the Fort Madison 
Penitentiary. The entire enclosure includes fifteen acres, with a frontage of 
6G3 feet. 


Mount Pleasant, Henry County. 

By an act of the General Assembly of Iowa, approved January 24, 1855, 
^4,425 were appropriated for the purchase of a site, and $50,000 for building 
an Insane Hospital, and the Governor (Grimes), Edward Johnston, of Lee 
County, and Cliarles S. Blake, of Henry County, were appointed to locate the 
institution and superintend the erection of the building. These Commission- 
ers located the institution at Mt. Pleasant, Henry County. A plan for a 
building designed to accommodate 300 patients, drawn by Dr. Bell, of Massa- 
chusetts, was accepted, and in October work Avas commenced under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Henry Winslow. Up to February 25, 1858, and including an 
appropriation made on that date, the Legislature had appropriated $258,555.67 
to this institution, but the building was not finished ready for occupancy by 
patients until March 1, 1861. The Trustees were Maturin L. Fisher, Presi- 
dent, Farmersburg; Samuel McFarland, Secretary, Mt. Pleasant; D. L. 


McGu^rin, Keokuk; G. W. Kincaid, Muscatine; J. D. Elbert, Keosauqua ; 
John 13. Lash and Harpin Riggs, Mt. Pleasant. Richard J. Patterson, M. D., 
of Ohio, was elected Superintendent; Dwight C. Dewey, M. D., Assistant 
Physician; Henry Winslow, Steward; Mrs. Catharine Winslow, Matron, 
The Hospital was formally opened March 6, 1861, and one hundred patients 
were admitted within three months. About 1865, Dr. Mark Ranney became 
Superintendent. April 18, 1876, a portion of the hospital building was 
destroyed by fire. From the opening of the Hospital to the close of October, 
1877, 3,584 patients had been admitted. Of these, 1,141 were discharged 
recovered, 505 discharged improved, 589 discharged unimproved, and 1 died ; 
total discharged, 2,976, leaving 608 inmates. During this period, there were 
1,384 females admitted, whose occupation was registered "domestic duties ;" 
122, no occupation; 25, female teachers; 11, seamstresses; and 25, servants. 
Among the males were 916 farmers, 394 laborers, 205 Avithout occupation, 39 
cabinet makers, 23 brewers, 31 clerks, 26 merchants, 12 preachers, 18 shoe- 
makers, 13 students, 14 tailors, 13 teachers, 14 agents, 17 masons, 7 lawyers, 
7 physicians, 4 saloon keepers, 3 salesmen, 2 artists, and 1 editor. The pro- 
ducts of the farm and garden, in 1876, amounted to $13,721.26. 

Trustees, 1S77 :—T. Whiting, President, Mt. Pleasant; Mrs. E. M. Elliott, 
Secretary, Mt. Pleasant; William C. Evans, West Liberty; L. E. Fellows, 
Lansing ; and Samuel Klein, Keokuk ; Treasurer, M. Edwards, Mt. Pleasant. 

Resident Officers: — Mark Ranney, M. D., Medical Superintendent; H. M. 
Bassett, M. D., First Assistant Physician; M. Riordan, M. D., Second Assistant 
Physician ; Jennie McCowcn, M. I)., Third Assistant Physician ; J. W. Hender- 
son, Steward ; Mrs. Martha W. Ranney, Matron ; Rev. Milton Sutton, 


Independence, Buchanan County. 

In the Winter of 1867-8, a bill providing for an additional Hospital for the 
Insane Avas passed by the Legislature, and an appropriation of $125,000 was 
made for that purpose. Maturin L. Fisher, of Clayton County ; E. G. Morgan, 
of Webster County, and Albert Clark, of Buchanan County, were appointed 
Commissioners to locate and supervise the erection of the Building. Mr. Clark 
died about a year after his appointment, and Hon. G. W. Bemis, of Indepen- 
dence, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

The Commissioners met and commenced their labors on the 8th day of 
June, 1868, at Independence. The act under which they were appointed 
required them to select the most eligible and desirable location, of not less than 
320 acres, within two miles of the city of Independence, that might be offered 
by the citizens free of charge to the State. Several such tracts were offered, 
but the Commissioners finally selected the south half of southwest quarter of 
Section 5; the north half of northeast quarter of Section 7 ; the north half of 
northwest quarter of Section 8, and the north half of northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 8, all in Township 88 north. Range 9 west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. 
This location is on the west side of the AVapsipinicon River, and about a mile 
from its banks, and about the same distance from Independence. 

Col. S. V. Shipman, of Madison, Wis., was employed to prepare plans, 
specifications and drawings of the building, which, when completed, were sub- 
mitted to Dr. M. Ranney, Superintendent of the Hospital at Mount Pleasant, 
who suggested several improvements. The contract for erecting the building 


was awarded to Mr. David Armstrong, of Dubuque, for $88,114. The con- 
tract Avas signed November 7, 1868, and Mr. Armstrong at once commenced 
work. Mr. George Josselyn was appointed to superintend the work. The 
main buildings were constructed of dressed limestone, from the quarries at 
Anamosa and Farley. The basements are of the local granite worked from the 
immense boulders found in large quantities in this portion of the State. 

In 1872, the building was so far completed that the Commissioners called 
the first meeting of the Trustees, on the 10th day of July of that year. These 
Trustees were Maturin L. Fisher, Mrs. P. A. Appleman, T. W. Fawcett, C. 
C. Parker, E. G. Morgan, George W. Bemis and John M. Boggs. This board 
was organized, on the day above mentioned, by the election of Hon. M. L, 
Fisher, President ; Rev. J. G. Boggs, Secretary, and George W. Bemis, Treas- 
urer, and, after adopting preliminary measures for organizing the local govern- 
ment of the hospital, adjourned to the first Wednesday of the following Septem- 
ber. A few days before this meeting, Mr. Boggs died of malignant fever, 
and Dr. John G. House was appointed to fill the vacancy. Dr. House was 
elected Secretary. At this meeting, Albert Reynolds, M. D., was elected 
Superintendent; George Josselyn, Steward, and Mrs. Anna B. Josselyn, 
Matron. September 4, 1873, Dr. Willis Butterfield was elected Assistant 
Physician. The building was ready for occupancy April 21, 1873. 

In the Spring of 1876, a contract was made with Messrs. Mackay & Lundy, 
of Independence, for furnishing materials for building the outside walls of the 
two first sections of the south wing, next to the center building, for $6,250. 
The carpenter work on the fourth and fifth stories of the center building was 
completed during the same year, and the wards were furnished and occupied by 
patients in the Fall. 

In 1877, the south wing was built, but it will not be completed ready for 
occupancy until next Spring or Summer (1878). , 

October 1, 1877, the Superintendent reported 322 patients in this hospital, 
and it is now overcrowded. 

The Board of Trustees at present (1878) are as follows : Maturin L. 
Fisher, President, Farmersburg ; John G. House, M. D., Secretary, Indepen- 
dence ; Wm. G. Donnan, Treasurer, Independence ; Erastus G. Morgan, Fort 
Dodge ; Mrs. Prudence A. Appleman, Clermont ; and Stephen E. Robinson, 
M. D., West Union. 


Albert Reynolds, M. D., Superintendent ; G. H, Hill, M. D., Assistant 
Physician; Noyes Appleman, Steward; Mrs. Lucy M. Gray, Matron. 


Vinton, Benton County. 

In August, 1852, Prof Samuel Bacon, himself blind, established an Insti- 
tution for the Instruction of the Blind of Iowa, at Keokuk. 

By act of the General Assembly, entitled " An act to establish an Asylum 
for the Blind," approved January 18, 1853, the institution was adopted by the 
State, removed to Iowa City, February 3d, and opened for the reception of pupils 
April 4, 1853, free to all the blind in the State. 

The first Board of Trustees were James D. Eads, President ; George W. 
McClary, Secretary; James H. Gower, Treasurer; Martin L. Morris, Stephen 
Hempstead, Morgan Reno and John McCaddon. The Board appointed Prof. 


Samuel Bacon, Principal; T. J. McGittigen, Teacher of Music, and Mrs. Sarali 
K. Bacon, Matron. Twenty-three pupils -were admitted during the first term. 

In his first report, made in 1854, Prof. Bacon suggested that the name 
should be changed from " Asylum for the Blind," to that of " Institution for 
the Instruction of the Blind." This was done in 1855, when the General As- 
sembly made an annual appropriation for the College of $55 per quarter for 
each pujiil. This was subsequently changed to $3,000 per annum, and a cliarge 
of $25 as an admission fee for each pupil, which sum, with the amounts realized 
from the sale of articles manufactured by the blind pupils, proved sufficient for 
the expenses of the institution during Mr. Bacon's administration. Although 
Mr. Bacon was blind, he was a fine scholar and an economical manager, and 
had founded the ]>lind Asylum at Jacksonville, Illinois. As a mathematician 
he had few superiors. 

On the 8th of May, 1858, the Trustees met at Vinton, and made arrange- 
ments for securing the donation of $5,000 made by the citizens of that town. 

In June of that year, a quarter section of land .was donated for the College, 
by John W. 0. Webb and others, and the Trustees adopted a plan for the 
erection of a suitable building. In 1860, the plan was modified, and the con- 
tract for enclosing let to Messrs. Finkbine & Lovelace, for $10,420. 

In August, 1802, the building Avas so far completed that the goods and fur- 
uiture of the institution were removed from Iowa City to A'^inton, and early in 
October, the school was opened there with twenty-four pu])ils. At this time. 
Rev. Orlando Clark was Principal. 

In August, 1864, a new Board of Trustees were appointed by the Legisla- 
ture, consisting of James McQuin, President; Reed Wilkinson, Secretary; Jas. 
Cluipin, Treasurer; Robert Gilchrist, Elijah Sells and Joseph Dysart, organized 
and made important changes. Rev. Reed Wilkinson succeeded Mr. Clark as 
Principal. Mrs. L. S. B. Wilkinson and Miss Amelia Butler were appointed 
Assistant Teachers ; Mrs. N. A. Morton, Matron. 

Mr. Wilkinson resigned in June, 1867, and Gen. James L. Geddes was 
appointed in his place. In September, 1869, Mr. Geddes retired, and was 
succeeded by Prof. S. A.Knapp. Mrs. S. C. Lawton was appointed Matron. 
and was succeeded by Mrs. M. A. Knapp. Prof. Knapp resigned July 1, 

1875, and Prof. Orlando Clark was elected Principal, who died April 2, 

1876, and was succeeded by John B. Parmalee, who retired in July, 1877, 
when the present incumbent. Rev. Robert Carothers, was elected. 

Trustees, 1S77-S. — Jeremiah L. Gay, President ; S. II. Watson, Treasurer; 
II. C. Piatt, Jacob Springer, C. L. Flint and P. F. Sturgis. 

Faculty. — Principal, Rev. Robert Carothers, A. M. ; Matron, Mrs. Emeline 
E. Carothers; Teachers, Thomas F. McCune, A. B., Miss Grace A. Ilill 
Mrs. C. A. Spencer, Miss Mary Baker, Miss C. R. Miller, Miss Lorana Mat- 
tice. Miss A. M. McCutcheon ; Musical Director, S. 0. Spencer. 

The Legislative Committee who visited this institution in 1878 expressed 
their astonishment at the vast expenditure of money in proportion to the needs 
of the State. The structure is well built, and the money properly expended ; 
yet it was enormously beyond the necessities of the State, and shows an utter 
disregard of the fitness of things. The Committee could not understand why 
$282,000 should have been expended for a massive building covering about two 
and a half acres for the accommodation of 130 people, costing over eight thou- 
sand dollars a year to heat it, and costing the State about five hundred dollars 
a year for each pupil. 



Council Bluffs, Pottawattomie County. 

The Iowa Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was established at Iowa City 
by an act of the General Assembly, approved January 24, 1855. The number 
of deaf mutes then in the State was 301 ; the number attending the Institution, 
50. The first Board of Trustees were: Hon. Samuel J. Kirkwood, Hon. E. 
Sells, W. Penn Clarke, J. P. Wood, H. D. Downey, William Crum, W. E. 
Ijams, Principal. On the resignation of Mr. Ijams, in 1862, the Board 
appointed in his stead Mr. Benjamin Talbot, for nine years a teacher in the 
Ohio Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. Mr. Talbot was ardently devoted to 
the interests of the institution and a faithful worker for the unfortunate class 
under his charge. 

A strong effort was made, in 1866, to remove this important institution to 
Des Moines, but it was located permanently at Council Bluffs, and a building 
rented for its use. In 1868, Commissioners were appointed to locate a site for, 
and to superintend the erection of, a new building, for which the Legislature 
appropriated $125,000 to commence the work of construction. The Commis- 
sioners selected ninety acres of land about two miles south of the city of Coun- 
cil Bluffs. The main building and one wing were completed October 1, 1870, 
and immediately occupied by the Institution. February 25, 1877, the main 
building and east wing were destroyed by fire ; and August 6 following, the 
roof of the new west wing was blown off and the walls partially demolished by 
a tornado. At the time of the fire, about one hundred and fifty pupils were in 
attendance. After the fire, half the classes were dismissed and the number of 
scholars reduced to about seventy, and in a week or two the school was in run- 
ning order. 

The Legislative Committee which visited this Institution in the Winter of 
1857-8 was not well pleased with the condition of affairs, and reported that the 
building (west wing) was a disgrace to the State and a monument of unskillful 
workmanship, and intimated rather strongly that some reforms in management 
were very essential. 

Trustees, 1877-8. — Thomas Officer, President ; N. P. Dodge, Treasurer ; 
Paul Lange, William Orr, J. W. Cattell. 

Superintendent, Benjamin Talbot, M. A. Teachers, Edwin Southwick, 
Conrad S. Zorbaugh, John A. Gillespie, John A. Kennedy, Ellen J. Israel, 
Ella J. Brown, Mrs. H. R. Gillespie; Physician, H. W. Hart, M. D.; Steward, 
N. A. Taylor; Matron, Mary B. Swan. 


Davenport, Cedar Falls, Glemvood. 

The movement which culminated in the establishment of this beneficent in- 
stitution was originated by Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, during the civil war of 
1861-65. This noble and patriotic lady called a convention at Muscatine, on 
the 7th of October 1863, for the purpose of devising measures for the support 
and education of the orphan children of the brave sons of Iowa, who had fallen 
in defense of national honor and integrity. So great was the public interest in 
the movement that there was a large representation from all [)arts ©f the State 
on the day named, and an association was organized called the Iowa State Or- 
phan Asylum. 


The first officers Avere : President, William jVI. Stone ; A ice Presidents, Mrs. 
G. G. Wright, Mrs. R. L. Cadle, Mrs. J. T. Hancock, Jchn 11. Needhani, J. W. 
Cattell, Mrs. Mary M. Bagg ; Recording Secretary, Miss Mary Kibben ; Cor- 
responding Secretary, Miss M. E. Shelton ; Treasurer, N. 11. Braincrd; Board 
of Trustees, Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer, Mrs. C. B. Darwin, Mrs. D. T. Newcomb, 
Mrs. L. B. Stephens, 0. Fayville, E. H. Williams, T. S. Parvin, Mrs. Shields. 
Caleb Paldwin, C. C. Cole, Isaac Pendleton, H. C. Henderson. 

The first meeting of the Trustees was held February 14, 18(34, in the Repre- 
sentative Hall, at Des Moines. Committees from both branches of the General 
Assembly were present and were invited to particij)ate in their deliberations. 
Gov. Kirkwood suggested that a home for disabled soldiers should be connected 
with the Asylum. Arrangements Avere made for raising funds. 

At the next meeting, in Davenport, in March, 18(34, the Trustees decided to 
commence operations at once, and a committee, of whieh Mr. Howell, of Keo- 
kuk, was Chairman, was appointed to lease a suitable building, solicit donations, 
and procure suitable furniture. This committee secured a large brick building 
in Lawrence, Van Buren County, and engaged Mr. Fuller, of Mt. Pleasant, as 

At the annual meeting, in Des Moines, in June, 1864, Mrs. C. B. Baldwin, 
Mrs. G. G. Wright, Mrs. Dr. Horton, Miss Mary E. Shelton and jNIr. George 
Sherman were appointed a committee to furnish the building and take all neces- 
sary steps for opening the "Home," and notice was given that at the next 
meeting of the Association, a motion would be made to change the name of the 
Institution to Iowa Orphans' Home. 

The work of preparation was conducted so vigorously that on the 1 3th day 
of July following, the Executive Committee announced that they Avere ready to 
receive the children. In tliree weeks tAventy-one Avere admitted, and the num- 
ber constantly increased, so that, in a little more than six months from the time 
of opening, there were seventy children admitted, and tAventy more applica- 
tions, which the Committee had not acted upon — all orphans of soldiers. 

ISIiss M. Elliott, of Wasliington, Avas appointed Matron. She resigned, 
in February, 1865, and Avas succeeded by Mrs. E. G. Piatt, of Fremont 

The " Home " was sustained by the voluntary contributions of the people, 
until 1866, Avhen it Avas assumed by the State. In that year, the General 
Assembly provided for the location of several such "Homes" in the different 
counties, and Avhich Avere established at Davenport, Scott County ; Cedar Falls, 
Black HaAvk County, and at GleuAvood, Mills County. 

The Board of Trustees elected by the General Assembly had the oversight 
and management of the Soldiers' Orphans' Homes of the State, and consisted 
of one person from each county in Avhich such Home Avas located, and one for 
the State at large, Avho held their office two years, or until their successors were 
elected and (qualified. An appropriation of $10 per month for each orphan 
actually supported Avas made bv the General Assembly. 

The Home in Cedar Falls was organized in 1865, and an old hotel building 
was fitted up for it. Rufus C, Mary L. and Emma L. Bauer were the first 
children received, in October, and by January, 1866, there were ninety-six in- 

October 12, 1869, the Home Avas removed to a large brick building, about 
two miles jvest of Cedar Falls, and was very prosperous for several years, but 
in 1876, the General Assembly established a State Normal School at Cedar 
Falls and appropriated the buildings and grounds for that purpos.e. 


By "An act to provide for the organization and support of an asylum at 
Crlenwood, in Mills County, for feeble minded children," approved March 17, 
1876, the buildings and grounds used by the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that 
place were appropriated for this purpose. By another act, approved March 15, 
1876, the soldiers' orphans, then at the Homes at Glenwood and Cedar Falls, 
were to be removed to the Home at Davenport within ninety days thereafter, 
and the Board of Trustees of the Home were authorized to receive other indigent 
children into that institution, and provide for their education in industrial 


Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County. 

Chapter 129 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, in 1876, estab- 
lished a State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, and required 
the Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home to turn over the property in their 
charge to the Directors of the new institution. 

The Board of Directors met at Cedar Falls June 7, 1876, and duly organ- 
ized by the election of H. C. Hemenway, President; J. J. Toleston, Secretary, 
and E. Townsend, Treasurer. The Board of Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home met at the same time for the purpose of turning over to the Directors the 
property of that institution, which was satisfactorily done and properly receipted 
for as rcfjuired by law. At this meeting, Prof. J. C. Gilchrist was elected 
Principal of the School. 

On the 12th of July, 1876, the Board again met, when executive and 
teachers' committees were appointed and their duties assigned. A Steward 
and a Matron were elected, and their respective duties defined. 

The buildings and grounds were repaired and fitted up as well as the appro- 
priation would admit, and the first term of the school opened September 6, 1876, 
commencing with twenty-seven and closing with eighty-seven students. The 
second term closed with eighty-six, and one hundred and six attended during 
the third term. 

The following are the Board of Directors, Board of Officers and Faculty : 

Board of Directors. — H. C. Hemenway, Cedar Falls, President, term 
expires 1882 ; L. D. Lewelling, Salem, Henry County, 1878 ; W. A. Stow, 
Hamburg, Fremont County, 1878 ; S. G. Smith, Newton, Jasper County, 
1880 ; E. H. Thayer, Clinton, Clinton County, 1880 ; G. S. Robinson, Storm 
Lake, Buena Vista County, 1882. 

Board of Officers. — J. J. Toleston, Secretary; E. Townsend, Treasurer; 
William Pattes, Steward; Mrs. P. A. Schermerhorn, Matron — all of Cedar 

Faculty. — J. C. Gilchrist, A. M., Principal, Professer of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy and Didactics ; M. W. Bartlett, A. M., Professor of Lan- 
guages and Natural Science ; D. S. Wright, A. M., Professor of Mathematics ; 
Miss Frances L. Webster, Teacher of Geography and History ; E. W. Burnham, 
Professor of Music. 


Glenwood., Mills County. 

Chapter 152 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, approved 
March 17, 1876, provided for the establishment of an asylum for feeble minded 
children at Glenwood, Mills County, and the buildings and grounds of the 


Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place were to be used for that purpose. The 
asylum was placed under the management of three Trustees, one at least of 
whom should be a resident of Mills County. Children between the ages of 7 
and 18 years are admitted. Ten dollars per month for each child actually sup- 
ported by the State was appropriated by the act, and ^2,000 for salaries of 
officers and teachers for two years, 

lion. J. W, Cattell, of Polk County ; A. J. Russell, of Mills County, and 
W. S. Robertson, were appointed Trustees, who held their first meeting at 
Glenwood, April 26, 1876. Mr. Robertson was elected President; Mr. Russell, 
Treasurer, and Mr. Cattell, Secretary. The Trustees found the house and farm 
which had been turned over to them in a shamefully dilapidated condition. The 
fences were broken doAvn and the lumber destroyed or carried away ; the win- 
dows broken, doors oft" their hinges, floors broken and filthy in the extreme, 
cellars reeking with offensive odors from decayed vegetables, and every conceiv- 
able variety of filth and garbage ; drains obstructed, cisterns broken, pump 
demoralized, wind-mill broken, roof leaky, and the wdiole property in the worst 
possible condition. It was the first work of the Trustees to make the house 
tenable. This was done under the direction of Mr. Russell. At the request 
of the Trustees, Dr. Charles T. Wilbur, Superintendent of the Illinois Asylum, 
visited Glenwood, and made many valuable suggestions, and gave them much 

0. W. Archibald, M. D., of Glenwood, was appointed Superintendent, 
and soon after was appointed Secretary of the Board, vice Cattell, resigned. 
Mrs. S. A. Archibald was appointed Matron, and Miss Maud M. Archibald, 

The Institution was opened September 1, 1870 ; the first pupil admitted 
September 4, and the school was organized September 10, with only five pupils, 
which number had, in November, 1877, increased to eighty-seven. December 
1, 1870, Miss Jennie Van Dorin, of Fairfield, was employed as a teacher and 
in the Spring of 1877, Miss Sabina J. Archibald was also employed. 


Eldora, Hardin County. 

By "An act to establish and organize a State Reform School for Juvenile 
Offenders," approved March 31, 1808, the General Assembly established a 
State Reform School at Salem, Lee (Henry) County ; provided for a Board of 
Trustees, to consist of one person from each Congressional District. For the 
purpose of immediately opening the school, the Trustees were directed to accept 
the proposition of the Trustees of White's Iowa Manual Labor Institute, at 
Salem, and lease, for not more than ten years, the lands, buildings, etc., of the 
Institute, and at once proceed to prepare for and open a reform school as a 
temporary establishment. 

The contract for fitting up the buildings was let to Clark & Haddock, Sep- 
tember 21, 1868, and on the 7th of October following, the first inmate was 
received from Jasper County. The law provided for the admission of children 
of both sexes under 18 years of age. In 1870, this was amended, so that they 
are now received at ages over 7 and under 10 years. 

April 19, 1872, tlie Trustees were directed to make a permanent location 
for the school, and $45,000 was a])propriated for the erection of the necessary 
buildings. The Trustees were further directed, as soon as practicable, to 
organize a school for girls in the buildings where the boys were then kept. 


The Trustees located the school at Eldora, Hardin County, and in the Code 
of 1873, it is permanently located there by law. 

The institution is managed by five Trustees, who are paid mileage, but no 
compensation for their services. 

The object is the reformation of the children of both sexes, under the age 
of 16 years and over 7 years of age, and the law requires that the Trustees 
shall require the boys and girls under their charge to be instructed in piety and 
morality, and in such branches of useful knowledge as are adapted to their age 
and capacity, and in some regular course of labor, either mechanical, manufac- 
turing or agricultural, as is best suited to their age, strength, disposition and 
capacity, and as may seem best adapted to secure the reformation and future 
benefit of the boj'S and girls. 

A boy or girl committed to the State Reform School is there kept, disci- 
plined, instructed, employed and governed, under the direction of the Trustees, 
until he or she arrives at the age of majority, or is bound out, reformed or 
legally discharged. The binding out or discharge of a boy or girLas reformed, 
or having arrived at the age of majority, is a complete release from all penalties 
incurred by conviction of the off'ense for which he or she was committed. 

This is one step in the right direction. In the future, however, still further 
advances wdl be made, and the right of every individual to the fruits of their 
labor, even while restrained for the public good, will be recognized. 


Near Anamosa, Jones County. 

The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874, passed " An act to provide for 
the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction of 
Fishways for the protection and propagation of Fish," also "An act to provide 
for furnishing the rivers and lakes with fish and fish spawn." This act appro- 
priated $3,000 for the purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the first 
act above mentioned, on the 9th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans of Ottumwa, 
Wapello County ; B. F. Shaw of Jones County, and Charles A. Haines, of 
Black Hawk County, were appointed to be Fish Commissioners by the Governor. 
These Commissioners met at Des Moines, May 10, 1874, and organized by the 
election of Mr. Evans, President ; Mr. Shaw, Secretary and Superintendent, 
and Mr. Haines, Treasurer. 

The State was partitioned into three districts or divisions to enable the 
Commissioners to better superintend the construction of fishways as required by 
law. That part of the State lying south of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad was placed under the especial supervision of Mr. Evans ; that part be- 
tween that railroad and the Iowa Division of the Illinois Central Railroad, Mr. 
Shaw, and all north of the Illinois Central Railroad, Mr. Haines. At this 
meeting, the Superintendent was authorized to build a State Hatching House ; 
to procure the spawn of valuable fish adapted to the waters of Iowa ; hatch and 
prepare the young fish for distribution, and assist in putting them into the waters 
of the State. , 

In compliance with these instructions, Mr. Shaw at once commenced work, 
and in the Summer of 1874, erected a " State Hatching House" near Ajiamosa, 
20x40 feet, two stories ; the second story being designed for a tenement ; the 
first story being the "hatching room." The hatching troughs are supplied 
with water from a magnificent spring four feet deep and about ten feet in diam- 
eter, aifording an abundant and unfailing supply of pure running water. During 


the first year, from May 10, 1874, to May 10, 1875, the Commissioners distributed 
within the State 100,000 Shad, 300,000 California Sahnon, 10,000 Bass, 
80,000 Penobscot (Maine) Salmon, 5,000 land-locked Salmon, 20,000 of 
other s})ecies. 

By act approved March 10, 1876, the law was amended so tliat there should 
be but one instead of three Fish Commissioners, and B. F. Shaw was appointed, 
and the Commissioner was authorized to purchase twenty acres of land, on 
which the State Hatching House was located near Anamosa. 

In the Fall of 1876, Commissioner Shaw gathered from the sloughs of the 
Mississi})pi, where they would have been destroyed, over a million and a half of 
small fish, which were distributed in the various rivers of the State and turned 
into the Mississippi. 

In 1875-6, 533,000 California Salmon, and in 1877, 303,500 Lake Trout 
were distributed in various rivers and lakes in the State. The experiment of 
stocking the small streams with brook trout is being tried, and 81,000 of the 
speckled beauties were distributed in 1877. In 1876, 100,000 young eels were 
distributed. These came from New York and they are increasing rapidly. 

At the close of 1877, there were at least a dozen private fish farms in suc- 
cessful operation in various parts of the State. Commissioner Shaw is en- 
thusiastically devoted to the duties of his office and has performed an important 
service for the people of the State by his intelligent and successful operations. 

The Sixteenth General Assembly passed an act in 1878, prohibiting the 
catching of any kind of fish except Brook Trout from March until June of each 
year. Some varieties are fit for food only during this period. 


The grants of public lands made in the State of Iowa, for various purposes, 
are as follows : 

1. The 500,000 Acre Grant. 

2. The IGth Section Grant. 

3. The Mortgage School Land«. 

4. The University Gram. 

5. The Saline Grant. 

6. The Des Moines Hivcr Grant. 

7. The Ues Moines River School Lands. 

8. The Swamp Land Grant. 

9. The Railroad Grant. 

10. The Agricultural College Grant. 


When the State was admitted into the Union, she became entitled to 
500,000 acres of land by virtue of an act of Congress, approved September 4, 
1841, which granted to each State therein specified 500,000 acres of public land 
for internal improvements ; to each State admitted subsequently to the passage 
of the act, an amount of land which, with the amount that might have been 
granted to her as a Territory, would amount to 500,000 acres. All these lands 
were required to be selected^ within the limits of the State to which they were 

The Constitution of Iowa declares that the proceeds of this grant, together 
with all lands then granted or to be granted by Congress for the benefit of 
schools, shall constitute a ])erpetual fund for the support of schools throughout 
the State. By an act approved January 15, 1849, the Legislature established 


a board of School Fund Commissioners, and to that board was confided the 
selection, care and sale of these lands for the benefit of the School Fund. Until 
1855, these Commissioners were subordinate to the Superinteudent of Public 
Instruction, but on the 15th of January of that year, they were clothed with 
exclusive authority in the management and sale of school lands. The ofiice of 
School Fund Commissioner was abolished March 23, 1858, and that officer in 
each county was required to transfer all papers to and make full settlement with 
the County Judge. By this act, County Judges and ToAvnship Trustees were 
made the agents of the State to control and sell the sixteenth sections ; but no 
further provision was made for the sale of the 500,000 acre grant until April 
3d, 1860, when the entire management of the school lands was committed to 
the Boards of Supervisors of the several counties. 


By the provisions of the act of Congress admitting Iowa to the Union, there 
was granted to the new State the sixteenth section in every township, or where 
that section had been sold, other lands of like amount for the use of schools. 
The Constitution of the State provides that the proceeds arising from the sale 
of these sections shall constitute a part of the permanent School Fund. The 
control and sale of these lands were vested in the School Fund Commissioners 
of the several counties until March 23, 1858, when they were transferred to the 
County Judges and Township Trustees, and were finally placed under the 
supervision of the County Boards of Supervisors in January, 1861. 


These do not belong to any of the grants of land proper. They are lands 
that have been mortgaged to the school fund, and became school lands when bid 
off by the State by virtue of a law passed in 1862. Under the provisions of the 
law regulating the management and investment of the permanent school fund, 
persons desiring loans from that fund are required to secure the payment thereof 
with interest at ten per cent, per annum, by promissory notes endorsed by two 
good sureties and by mort"gage on unincumbered real estate, which must be 
situated in the county where the loan is made, and which must be valued by 
three appraisers. Making these loans and taking the required securities was 
made the duty of the County Auditor, who was required to report to the Board 
of Supervisors at each meeting thereof, all notes, mortgages and abstracts of 
title connected with the school fund, for examination. 

When default was made of payment of money so secured by mortgage, and 
no arrangement made for extension of time as the law provides, the Board of 
Supervisors were authorized to bring suit and prosecute it with diligence to 
secure said fund ; and in action in favor of the county for the use of the school 
fund, an injunction may issue without bonds, and in any such action, when 
service is made by publication, default and judgment may be entered and 
enforced without bonds. In case of sale of land on execution founded on any 
such mortgage, the attorney of the board, or other person duly authorized, shall, 
on behalf of the State or county for the use of said fund, bid such sum as the 
interests of said fund may require, and if struck off to the State the land shall 
be held and disposed of as the other lands belonging to the fund. These lands 
are known as the Mortgage School Lands, and reports of them, including 
description and amount, are required to be made to the State Land Office. 



By act of Congress, July 20, 1840, a quantity of land not exceeding two 
f^ntire townships was reserved in the Territory of Iowa for the use and support 
>f a university within said Territory wlicn it should become a State. This land 
was to be located in tracts of not less than an entire section, and could be used 
for ho other purpose than that designated in the grant. In an act supplemental 
to that for the admission of Iowa, March 3, 1845, the grant was renewed, and it 
was provided that the lands should be used "solely for the purpose of such 
university, in such manner as the Legislature may prescribe." 

Under this grant there were set apart and approved by the Secretary of the 
Treasury, for "the use of the State, the following lands : 


In the Iowa City Land District, Feb. 26, 1849 20,150.49 

In the Fairfield Land District., Oct. 17, 1849 9,685.20 

In the Iowa City Land District, Jan. 28, 1850 2,571.81 

In the Fairfield Land District, Sept. 10, 1850 3,198.20 

In the Dubuque Land District, May 19, 1852 10,552.24 

Total 45,957.94 

These lands were certified to the State November 19, 1859. The University 
lands are placed by law under the control and management of the Board of 
Trustees of the Iowa State University. Prior to 1865, there had been selected 
and located under 282 patents, 22,892 acres in sixteen counties, and 23,036 
acres unpatented, making a total of 45,928 acres. 


By act of Congress, approved March 3, 1845, the State of Iowa was 
granted the use of the salt springs within her limits, not exceeding twelve. 
By a subsequent act, approved May 27, 1852, Congress granted the springs 
to the State in fee simple, together with six sections of land contiguous to each, 
to be disposed of as the Legislature might direct. In 1861, the proceeds of 
these lands then to be sold were constituted a fund for founding and support- 
i'ng a lunatic asylum, but no sales were made. In 1856, the proceeds of the 
saline lands were appropriated to the Insane Asylum, repealed in 1858. In 
1860, the saline lands and funds were made a part of the permanent fund of 
the State University. Tliese lands were located in Appanoose, Davis, Decatur, 
Lucas, Monroe, Van Buren and Wayne Counties. 


By act of Congress, approved August 8, 1846, a grant of land was made 
for the improvement of the navigation of Des Moines River, as follows : 

B" it enacted bxj the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of Avierica in 
Congress assembled, That there be, and hereby is, granted to said Territory of Iowa, for the 
purpose of aiding said Territory to improve the navigation of the Des Moines River from its 
mouth to the Raccoon Fork (so called) in said Territory, one equal moiety, in alternate sections, 
of the public lands (remaining unsold and not otherwise disposed of, incumbered or appropri- 
ated), in a strip five miles in width on each side of said river, to be selected within said Terri- 
tory by an agent or agents to be appointed by the Governor thereof, subject to the approval of 
the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. 

Sec. 2. Awl be it furth'r enacted, That the lands hereby granted shall not be conveyed 
or disposed of by said Territory, nor by any State to be formed out of the same, except as said 
improvement shall progress; that is, the said Territory or State may sell so much of said lands 
as shall produce the sum of thirty thousand dollars, and then the sales shall cease until the Gov- 
ernor of said Territory or State shall certify the fact to the President of the United States that 
one-half of said sum has been expended upon said improvements, when the S£iid Territory or 


State may sell and convey a quantity of the residue of said lands sufficient to replace the amount 
expended, and thus the sales shall progress as the proceeds thereof shall be expended, and the 
fact of such expenditure shall be certified as aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the said River Des Moines shall be and forever 
remain a public highway for the use of the Government of the United States, free from any toll 
or other charge whatever, for any property of the United States or persons in their service 
passing through or along the same: Provided always, That it shall not be competent for the said 
Territory or future State of Iowa to dispose of said lands, or any of them, at a price lower than, 
for the time being, shall be the minimum price of other public lands. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That whenever the Territory of Iowa shall be admitted 
into the Union as a State, the lands hereby granted for the above purpose shall be and become 
the property of said State for the purpose contemplated in this act, and for no other: Provided 
the Legislature of the State of Iowa shall accept the said grant for the said purpose." Approved 
Aug. 8, 1846. 

By joint resolution of the General Assembly of Iowa, approved January 9, 
1847, the grant was accepted for the purpose specified. By another act, ap- 
proved February 24, 1847, entited "An act creating the Board of Public 
Works, and providing for the improvement of the Des Moines River," the 
Legislature provided for a Board consisting of a President, Secretary and 
Treasurer, to be elected by the people. This Board was elected August 2, 
1847, and was organized on the 22d of September following. The same act 
defined the nature of the improvement to be made, and provided that the work 
should be paid for from the funds to be derived from the sale of lands to be 
sold by the Board. 

Agents appointed by the Governor selected the sections designated by "odd 
numbers" throughout the whole exten"; of the grant, and this selection was ap- 
proved by the Secretary of the Treasury. But there was a conflict of opinion 
as to the extent of the grant. It w^as held by some that it extended from the 
mouth of the Des Moines only to the Raccoon Forks ; others held, as the 
agents to make selection evidently did, that it extended from the mouth to the 
head waters of the river. Richard M. Young, Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, on the 23d of February, 1848, construed the grant to mean that 
" the State is entitled to the alternate sections within five miles of the Des 
Moines River, throughout the whole extent of that river within the limits of 
Iowa." Under this construction, the alternate sections above the Raccoon 
Forks would, of course, belong to the State; but on the 19th of June, 1848, 
sonrie of these lands were, by proclamation, thrown into market. On the 18th 
of September, the Board of Public Works filed a remonstrance Avith the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office. The Board also sent in a protest to the 
State Land Office, at which the sale was ordered to take place. On the 8th of 
January, 1849, the Senators and Representatives in Congress from Iowa also 
protested against the sale, in a communication to Hon. Robert J. Walker, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, to Avhich the Secretary replied, concurring in the 
opinion that the grant extended the whole length of the Des Moines River in 

On the 1st of June, 1849, the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
directed the Register and Receiver of the Land Office at loAva City " to with- 
hold from sale all lands situated in the odd numbered sections Avithin five miles 
on each side of the Des Moines River abi^ve the Raccoon Forks." jNIarch 13, 
1850, the Commissioner of the General Land Office submitted to the Secretary 
of the Interior a list "showing the tracts falling within the limits of the Des 
Moines River grant, above the Raccoon Forks, etc., under the decision of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, of March 2, 1849," and on the 6th of April 
following, Mr. EAving, then Secretary of the Interior, reversed the decision of 
Secretary Walker, but ordered the lands to be Avithheld from sale until Con- 


gress could have an opportunity to pass an explanatory act. The Iowa author- 
ities api)ealed from this decision to the President (Taylor), who referred the 
matter to the Attorney General (Mr. Johnson). On the 19th of July, Mr. 
Johnson submitted as his opinion, that by the terms of the grant itself, it ex- 
tended to the very source of the Des Moines, but before his opinion was pub- 
lished President Taylor died. When Mr. Tyler's cabinet was formed, the 
question was submitted to the new Attorney General (Mr. Crittenden), who, on 
the 30th of June, 1851, reported tiiat in his opinion the grant did not extend 
above the Raccoon Forks. Mr. Stewart, Secretary of the Interior, concurred 
with Mr. Crittenden at first, but subsequently consented to lay the whole sub- 
ject before the President and Cabinet, who decided in favor of the State. 

October 29, 1851, Mr. Stewart directed the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office to "submit for his approval such lists as had been prepared, and to 
proceed to report for like approval lists of the alternate sections claimed by the 
State of Iowa above the Raccoon Forks, as far as the surveys have progressed, 
or may hereafter be completed and returned." And on the following day, three 
lists of these lands were prepared in the General Land Office. 

The lands approved and certified to the State of Iowa under this grant, and 
all lying above the Raccoon Forks, are as follows : 

By Secretary Stewart, Oct. 30, 1851 81,707.93 acres. 

March 10, 1852 143,908.37 " 

By Secretary McLellan, Dec. 17, 1853 33,142.43 " 

Dec. 30, 1853 12,813.51 " 

Total 271, 572. 24 acres. 

The Commissioners and Register of the Des Moines River Improvement, in 
their report to the Governor, November 30, 1852, estimates the total amount of 
lands then available for the Avork, including those in possession of the State and 
those to be surveyed and approved, at nearly a million acres. The indebtedness 
then standing against the fund was about $108,000, and the Commissioners 
estimated the work to be done would cost about $1,200,000. 

January 19, 1853, the Legislature authorized the Commissioners to sell 
" any or all the lands which have or may hereafter be granted, for not less than 

On the 24th of January, 1853, the General Assembly provided for the elec- 
tion of a Commissioner by the people, and appointed two Assistant Commission- 
ers, with authority to make a contract, selling the lands of the Improvement 
for $1,300,000. This new Board made a contract, June 9, 1855, with the Des 
Moines Navigation k Railroad Company, agreeing to sell all the lands donated 
to the State by Act of Congress of August 8, 1846, which the State had not 
sold prior to December 23, 1853, for $1,300,000, to be expended on the im- 
provement of the river, and in paying the indebtedness then due. This con- 
tract Avas duly reported to the Governor and General Assembly. 

By an act approved January 25, 1855, the Commissioner and Register of 
the Des Moines River Improvement were authorized to negotiate with tlie Des 
Moines Navigation & Railroad Company for the purchase of lands in Webster 
County which had been sold by the School Fund Commissioner as school lands, 
but which had been certified to the State as Des Moines River lands, and had, 
therefore, become the property of the Company, under the provisions of its 
contract with the State. 

March 21, 1850. the old question of the extent of the grant was again raised 
and the Commissioner of the General Land Office decided tlu^ it was limited to 


the Raccoon Fork. Appeal was made to the Secretary of the Interior, and by 
him the matter was referred to the Attorney General, who decided that the grant 
extended to the northern boundary of the State ; the State relinquished its 
claim to lands lying along the river in Minnesota, and the vexed question was 
supposed to be finally settled. 

The land which had been certified, as well as those extending to the north- 
ern boundary within the limits of the grant, were reserved from pre-emption 
and sale by the General Land Commissioner, to satisfy the grant of August 8, 
1846, and they were treated as having passed to the State, which from time to 
time sold portions of them prior to their final transfer to the Des Moines Navi- 
igation & Railroad Company, applying the proceeds tliereof to the improve- 
ment of the river in compliance with the terms of the grant. Prior to the final 
sale to the Company, June 9, 1854, the State had sold about 327,000 acres, of 
which amount 58,830 acres were located above the Raccoon Fork. The last 
certificate of the General Land Office bears date December 30, 1853. 

After June 9th, 1854, the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company 
carried on the Avork under its contract with the State. As the improvement 
progressed, the State, from time to time, by its authorized officers, issued to the 
Company, in payment for said work, certificates for lands. But the General 
Land Office ceased to certify lands under the grant of 1846. The State 
had made no other provision for paying for the improvements, and disagree- 
ments and misunderstanding arose between the State authorities and the 

March 22, 1858, a joint resolution was passed by the Legislature submitting 
a proposition for final settlement to the Company, which was accepted. The Com- 
pany paid to the State $20,000 in cash, and released and conveyed the dredge boat 
and materials named in the resolution ; and the State, on the 3d of May, 1858, 
executed to the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company fourteen deeds 
or patents to the lands, amounting to 256,703.64 acres. These deeds were 
intended to convey all the lands of this grant certified to the State by the Gen- 
eral Government not previously sold ; but, as if for the purpose of covering any 
tract or parcel that might have been omitted, the State made another deed of 
conveyance on the 18th day of May, 1858. These fifteen deeds, it is claimed, 
by the Company, convey 266,108 acres, of which about 53,367 are below the 
Raccoon Fork, and the balance, 212,741 acres, are above that point. 

Besides the lands deeded to the Company, the State had deeded to individual 
purchasers 58,830 acres above the Raccoon Fork, making an aggregate of 271,- 
571 acres, deeded above the Fork, all of which had been certified to the State 
by the Federal Government. 

By act approved March 28, 1858, the Legislature donated the remainder of 
the grant to the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines & Minnesota Railroad Company, 
upon condition that said Company assumed all liabilities resulting from the Des 
Moines River improvement operations, reserving 50,000 acres of the land in 
security for the payment thereof, and for the completion of the locks and dams 
at Bentonsport, Croton, Keosauqua and Plymouth. For every three thousand 
dollars' worth of work done on the locks and dams, and for every three thousand 
dollars paid by the Company of the liabilities above mentioned, the Register of 
the State Land Office was instructed to certify to the Company 1,000 acres of 
the 50,000 acres reserved for these purposes. Up to 1865, there had been pre- 
sented by the Company, under the provisions of the act of 1858, and allowed^ 
claims amounting to $109,579.37, about seventy-five per cent, of which had 
been settled. 


After tlio passage of tlic Act above noticed, the question of tlie extent of the 
original grant Avas again mooted, and at the December Term of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, in 1859-GO, a decision was rendered declaring that the 
grant did )iot extend above Raccoon Fork, and that all certificates of land above 
the Fork had been issued without authority of law and were, therefore, void 
(see 23 How., (jC)). 

The State of Iowa had disposed of a large amount of land without authority, 
according to this decision, and appeal was made to Congress for relief, which 
was granted on the od day of March, 18G1, in a joint resolution relinquishing 
to the State all the title which the I'nited States then still retained in the tracts 
of land along the Des Moines River above Raccoon Fork, that had been im- 
properly certified to the State by the Department of the Interior, and which is 
now held by bo)ui fide purchasers under the State of Iowa. 

In confirmation of this relinquishment, by act approved July 12, 1862, 
Congress enacted : 

That the grant of luiuls to the (hen Territory of Iowa for the improvement of the Des IVIoines 
River, made by the act of August 8, 18-t(), is hereby extended so as to inchule the alternate sec- 
tions (designated l>y odd numbers) lying within five miles of said river, between the Raccoon 
Fork and the northern boundary of said State; such lands are to be held and applied in accord- 
ance with the }>rovisions of the original grant, except tliat the consent of Congress is hereby given 
to tlie application of a portion thereof to aid in the construction of the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines 
& Minnesota Railroad, in accordance with the provisions of the act of the General Assembly of 
the Stale of Iowa, approved March 22, 1858. And if any of the said lands shall have been sold 
or otherwise disposed of by the United States before the passage of this act, except those released 
by the United States to the grantees of the State of Iowa, under joint resolution of March o, 
18(il , tlie Secretary of the Interior is hereby directed to set apart an equal amount of lands within 
said Slate to be certified in lien thereof; Provideif, that if the State shall have sold and conveyed 
any jiortion of the lands lying within the limits of the grant the title of wliich has proved invalid, 
any lands which shall be certified to said State in lieu thereof by virtue of the provisions of this 
act, shall inure to and be held as a trust fund for the benefit of the person or persons, respect- 
ively, whose titles shall have failed as aforesaid. 

The grant of lands by the above act of Congress was accepted by a joint 
resolution of the General Assembly, September 11, 1862, in extra session. On 
the same day, the Governor was authorized to appoint one or more Commis- 
sioners to select the hinds in accordance with the grant. These Commissioners 
were instructed to report their selections to the Registrar of the State Land 
Office. The lands so selected were to be held for the purposes of the grant, and 
were not to be disposed of until further legislation should be had. D. W. Kil- 
burne, of Lee County, was appointed Commissioner, and, on the 25th day of 
April, 1864, the General Land Officer authorized the selection of 300,000 acres 
from tlic vacant^niblic lands as a part of the grant of July 12, 1862, and the 
selections were made in the Fort Dodge and Sioux City Land Districts, 

Many difficulties, controversies and conflicts, in relation to claims and titles, 
grew out of this grant, and these difficulties were enhanced by the uncertainty 
of its limits until the act of Congress of July, 1862. But the General Assem- 
bly sought, by wise and appropriate legislation, to protect the integrity of titles 
derived from the State. Especially was the determination to protect the actual 
settlers, who had paid their money and made improvements prior to the final 
settlement of the limits of the grant by Congress. 


These lands constituted a part of the 500,000 acre grant made by Congress 
in 1841; including 28,378.46 acres in "Webster County, selected by the Agent of 
the State under that grant, and approved by the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office February 20, 1851. They were ordered into the mavket June 6, 


1853, by the SiqxM'iiitcndcnt of I'nblic Instruction, wlio auiliorizod John To]- 
man, School Fund Conunissioncr for Webster County, to sell tliein as bcIiooI 
lands. ISubsequently, when the act of 184G was construed to extend tlie Des 
Moines lliver grant above Raccoon Fork, it was held that the odd numbered 
sections of these lands witliin five miles of tlie river were appropriated by that 
act, and on tlie 30th day of December, 1853, 12,813.51 acres were set apart 
and approved to the State by the Secretary of the Interior, as a part of the 
Des Moines River giant. January G, 1854, the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office transmitted to the Superintendent of Public Instruction a certified 
copy of the lists of these lands, indorsed by the Secretary of the Interior. 
Prior to this action of the Department, however, Mr. Tolman had sold to indi- 
vidual purchasers 3,104.28 acres as school lands, and th(;ir titles were, of course, 
killed. For their relief, an act, approved April 2, 1S()0, provided tliat, upon 
application and proper showing, these purchasers should be entitled to draw 
from the State Treasury the amount they had paid, Avith 10 per cent, interest, 
on the contract to purchase made with Mr. Tolman. Under this act, five appli- 
cations were made prior to 1804, and the applicants received, in the aggregate, 

By an act approved April 7, 1862, the Governor "vvas forbidden to issue to 
the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad Company any certificate of tlie completion 
of any part of said road, or any conveyance of lands, until the company should 
execute and file, in the State Land Office, a release of its claim — first, to cer- 
tain swamp lands; second, to the Des Moines River Lands sold by Tolman; 
third, to certain other river lands. That act provided that "the said company 
shall transfer their interest in those tracts of land in Webster and Hamilton 
Counties heretofore sold by John Tolman, School Fund Commissioner, to the 
Register of the State Land Office in trust, to enable said Register to carry out 
and perform said contracts in all cases when he is called upon by the parties 
interested to do so, before the 1st day of January, A. D. 18G4. 

The company filed its release to the Tolman lands, in the Land Office, Feb- 
ruary 27, 18G4, at the same time entered its protest that it had no claim upon 
them, never had pretended to have, and had never sought to claim them. The 
Register of the State Land Office, under the advice of the Attorney General, 
decided that patents would be issued to the Tolman purchasers in all cases 
where contracts had been made prior to December 23, 1853, and remaining 
uncanceled under the act of 18G0. But before any were issued, on the 27th of 
August, 18G4, the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company commenced a 
suit in chancery, in the District Court of Polk County, to enjoin the issue of 
such patents. On the 30th of August, an ex parte injunction was issued. In 
January, 1868, Mr. J. A. Ilarvey, Register of the Land Office, filed in the 
court an elaborate answer to plaintiffs' petition, denying that the company had 
any right to or title in the lands. Mr. Harvey's successor, Mr. C. C. Carpen- 
ter, filed a still more exhaustive answer February 10, 18G8. August 3, 1868, 
the District Court dissolved the injunction. The company appealed to the 
Supreme Court, where the decision of the lower court was affirmed in December, 


By an act of Congress, approved March 28, 1850, to enable Arkansas and 
other States to reclaim swampy lands within their limits, granted all the swamp 
and overflowed lands remaining unsold within their respective limits to the 
several States. Although the total amount claimed by iowa under this act 


docs not exceed 4,000,000 acres, it has, like the Des Moines River and some 
of the hind grants, cost tiie State considerable trouble and expense, and required 
a deal of legislation. The State expended large sums of money in making the 
selections, securing proofs, etc., but the General Government appeared to be 
laboring under the impression that Iowa was not acting in good faith ; that she 
had selected a large amount of lands under the swamp land grant, transferred 
her interest to counties, and counties to private speculators, and the General 
Land Ottice ])ermitted contests as to the character of the lands already selected 
by the Agents of the State as "swamp lands." Congress, by joint resolution 
Dec. 18, 1856, and by act March 3, 1857, saved the State from tlie fatal result 
of this ruinous policy. Many of these lands were selected in 1854 and 1855, 
immediately after several remarkably wet seasons, and it was but natural that 
some portions of the selections would not appear swampy after a few dry seasons. 
Some time after these first selections were made, persons desired to enter 
parcels of the so-called swamp lands and offering to prove thcni to be dry. In 
such cases the General Land Office ordered hearing before the local land officers, 
and if they decided the land to be dry, it was permitted to be entered and the 
claim of the State rejected. Speculators took advantage of this. Affidavits 
were bought of irresponsible and reckless men, who, for a few dollars, would 
confidently testify to the character of lands they never saw. These applica- 
tions multiplied until they covered 3,000,000 acres. It was necessary that 
Congress should confirm all these selections to the State, that this gigantic 
scheme of fraud and plunder might be stopped. The act of Congress of 
March 3, 1857, was designed to accomplish this purpose. But the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office held that it was only a qualified confirma- 
tion, and under this construction sought to sustain the action of the Department 
in rejecting the claim of the State, and certifying them under act of INIay 15, 
1856, under Avhich the railroad companies claimed all swamp land in odd num- 
bered sections within the limits of their respective roads. This action led to 
serious complications. When the railroad grant was made, it was not intended 
nor was it understood that it included^ any of the swamp lands. These were 
already disposed of by previous grant. Nor did the conq)anies expect to 
receive any of them, but under the decisions of the Department adverse to the 
State the way was opened, and they were not slow to enter tlieir claims. March 
4, 1862, the Attorney General of the State submitted to the General Assembly 
an opinion that the railroad companies were not entitled even to contest the 
right of the State to these lands, under the swamp land grant. A letter from 
the Acting Commissioner of tlie General Land Office expressed the same 
opinion, and the General Assembly by joint resolution, approved A])ril 7, 1862, 
expressly repudiated the acts of the railroad companies, and disclaimed any 
intention to claim these lands under any other than the act of Congress of 
Sept. 28, 1850. A great deal of legislation has been found necessary in rela- 
tion to these swamp lands. 


One of the most important grants of public lands to loAva for purposes of 
internal improvement was that known as the "Railroad Grant," by act of 
Congress approved May 15, 1856. This act granted to the State of Iowa, for 
the purpose of aiding in the construction of railroads from Burlington, on the 
Mississippi River, to a point on the Missouri River, near tlie mouth of Platte 
River ; from the city of Davenport, via Iowa City and Fort pes Moines to 


Council BluflFs ; from Lyons City northwesterly to a point of intersection with 
the main line of the Iowa Central Air Line Railroad, near Maquoketa ; thence 
on said main line, running as near as practicable to the Forty-second Parallel ; 
across the said State of Iowa to the Missouri River ; from the city of Dubuque 
to a point on the Missouri River, near Sioux City, with a branch from the 
mouth of the Tete des Morts, to the nearest point on said road, to be com- 
pleted as soon as the main road is completed to that point, every alternate section 
of land, designated by odd numbers, for six sections in width on each side of 
said roads. It was also provided that if it should appear, Avhen the lines of those 
roads were definitely fixed, that the United States had sold, or right of pre- 
emption had attached to any portion of said land, the State was authorized to 
select a quantity equal thereto, in alternate sections, or parts of sections, within 
fifteen miles of the lines so located. The lands remaining to the United States 
within six miles on each side of said roads were not to be sold for less than the 
double minimum price of the public lands when sold, nor were any of said lands 
to become subject to private entry until they had been first offered at public 
sale at the increased price. 

Section 4 of the act provided that the lands granted to said State shall be 
disposed of by said State only in the manner following, that is to say: that a 
(juantity of land not exceeding one hundred and twenty sections for each of said 
roads, and included within a continuous length of twenty miles of each of said 
roads, may be sold ; and when the Governor of said State shall certify to the 
Secretary of the Interior that any twenty continuous miles of any of said roads 
is completed, then another quantity of land hereby granted, not to exceed one 
hundred and twenty sections for each of said roads having twenty continuous 
miles completed as aforesaid, and included within a continuous length of twenty 
miles of each of such roads, may be sold ; and so from time to time until said 
roads are completed, and if any of said roads are not completed within ten 
years, no further sale shall be made, and the lands unsold shall revert to the 
United States." 

At a special session of the General Assembly of Iowa, by act approved July 
14, 1856, the grant was accepted and the lands were granted by the State to 
the several railroad companies named, provided that the lines of their respective 
roads should be definitely fixed and located before April 1, 1857 ; and pro- 
vided further, that if either of said companies should fail to have seventy-five 
miles of road completed and equipped by the 1st day of December, ] 859, and 
its entire road completed by December 1, 1865, it should be competent for the 
State of Iowa to resume all rights to lands remaining undisposed of by the 
company so fiiiling. 

The railroad companies, with the single exception of the Iowa Central Air 
Line, accepted the several grants in accordance with the provisions of the above 
act, located their respective roads and selected their lands. The grant to the 
Iowa Central was again granted to the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad 
Company, which accepted them. 

By act, approved April 7, 1862, the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad Com- 
pany was required to execute a release to the State of certain swamp and school 
lands, included within the limits of its grant, in compensation for an extension 
of the time fixed for the completion of its road. 

A careful examination of the act of Congress does not reveal any special 
reference to railroad companies. The lands were granted to the State, and the 
act evidently contemplate the sale of them hy the State, and the appropriation 
of the proceeds to aid in the construction of certain lines of railroad within its 


limits. Section 4 of the act clearly defines the authority of the State in dis- 
posing of the lands. 

Lists of all the lands embraced by the grant were made, and certified to the 
State by the proper authorities. Under an act of Congress approved August 3, 
1854, entitled "^>i act to vest in the several States and Territories the title in 
fee of the lands ivhich have been or may he certified to them" these certified lists, 
the originals of which are filed in the General Land Office, conveyed to the State 
"the fee simple title to all the lands embraced in such lists that are of the char- 
acter contemplated " by the terms of the act making the grant, and "intended 
to be granted thereby ; but where lands embraced in such lists are not of the 
character embraced by such act of Congress, and were not intended to be granted 
thereby, said lists, so far as these lands are concerned, shall be perfectly null 
and void; and no right, title, claim or interest shall be conveyed thereby." 
Those certified lists made under the act of May 15, 1856, were forty-three in 
number, viz.: For the Burlington & JNIissouri River Railroad, nine ; for the 
Mississippi & Missouri Raih'oad, 11 ; for the Iowa Central Air Line, thirteen ; 
and for the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad, ten. The lands thus approved to 
the State Avere as follows : 

Burlington & Missouri River R. R 287,095.34 acres.- 

Mississippi & Missouri River R. R 774,674.30 " 

Cedar Rapids & Missouri River R. R 775,454.19 " 

Dubuque & Sioux City R. R 1,226,558.32 " 

A portion of these had been selected as swamp lands by the State, under 
the act of September 28, 1850, and these, by the terms of the act of August 3, 
1854, could not be turned over to the railroads unless the claim of the State to 
them as swamp was first rejected. It was not possible to determine from the 
records of the State Land Office the extent of the conflicting claims arising under 
the two grants, as copies of the swamp land selections in some of the counties 
were not filed of repord. The Commissioner of the General Land Office, however, 
prepared lists of the lands claimed by the State as swamp under act of September 
28, 1850, and also claimed by the railroad companies under act of May 15, 
1856, amounting to 553,293.33 acres, the claim to which as swamp had been 
rejected by the Department. These were consequently certified to the State as 
railroad lands. There was no mode other than the act of July, 1856, prescribed 
for transferring tlie title to these lands from the State to the companies. The 
courts had decided that, for the purposes of the grant, the lands belonged to the 
State, and to her the companies should look for their titles. It was generally 
accepted that the act of the Legislature of July, 1856, was all that was neces- 
sary to complete the transfer of title. It was assumed that all the rights and 
powers conferred upon the State by the act of Congress of May 14, 1856, were 
by the act of the General Assembly transferred to the companies ; in other 
words, that it was designed to put the companies in the place of the State as the 
grantees from Congress — and, therefore, that which perfected the title thereto 
to the State perfected the title to the companies by virtue of the act of July, 
1856. One of the companies, however, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road Company, was not entirely satisfied with this construction. Its managers 
thought that some further and specific action of the State authorities in addition 
to the act of the Legislature was necessary to complete their title. This induced 
Gov. Lowe to attach to the certified lists his official certificate, under the broad 
seal of the State. On the 9th of November, 1859, the Governor thus certified 
to them (commencing at the Missouri River) 187.207.44 acres, and December 
27th, 43,775.70 acres, an aggregate of 231,073.14 acres. These were the only 


lands under the grant that were certified by the State authorities with any 
design of perfecting the title already vested in the company by the act of July, 
1856. The lists which were afterward furnished to the company were simply 
certified by the Governor as being correct copies of the lists received by the 
State from the United States General Land Office. These subsequent lists 
embraced lands that had been claimed by the State under the Swamp Land 

It was urged against the claim of the Companies that the effect of the act 
of the Legislature was simply to substitute them for the State as parties to the 
grant. 1st. That the lands were granted to the State to be held in trust for the 
accomplishment of a specific purpose, and therefore the State could not part 
with the title until that purpose should have been accomplished. 2d. That it 
was not the intention of the act of July 14, 1856, to deprive the State of the con- 
trol of the lands, but on the contrary that she should retain supervision of them 
and the right to withdraw all rights and powers and resume the title condition- 
ally conferred by that act upon the companies in the event of their failure to 
complete their part of the contract. 3d. That the certified lists from the Gen- 
eral Land Office vested the title in the State only by virtue of the act of Con- 
gress approved August 3, 1854. The State Land Office held that the proper 
construction of the act of July 14, 1856, when accepted by the companies, was 
that it became a conditional contract that might ripen into a positive sale of the 
lands as from time to time the work should progress, and as the State thereby 
became authorized by the express terms of the grant to sell them. 

This appears to have been the correct construction of the act, but by a sub- 
sequent act of Congress, approved June 2, 1864, amending the act of 1856, the 
terms of the grant were changed, and numerous controversies arose between the 
companies and the State. 

The ostensible purpose of this additional act was to allow the Davenport & 
Council Bluffs Railroad "to modify or change the location of the uncompleted 
portion of its line," to run through the town of Newton, Jasper Count}^ or as 
nearly as practicable to that point. The original grant had been made to the 
State to aid in the construction of railroads within its limits and not to the com- 
panies, but Congress, in 1864, appears to have been utterly ignorant of what 
had been done under the act of 1856, or, if not, to have utterly disregarded it. 
The State had accepted the original grant. The Secretary of the Interior had 
already certified to the State all the lands intended to be included in the grant 
within fifteen miles of the lines of the several railroads. It will be remembered 
that Section 4, of the act of May 15, 1856, specifies the manner of sale of 
these lands from time to time as work on the railroads should progress, and also 
provided that "if any of said roads are not completed Avithin ten years, no fur- 
ther sale shall be made, and the lands unsold shall revert to the United /States." 
Having vested the title to these lands in trust, in the State of Iowa, it is plain 
that until the expiration of the ten years there could be no reversion, and the 
State, not the United States, must control them until the grant should expire 
by limitation. The United States authorities could not rightfully require the 
Secretary of the Interior to certify directly to the companies any portion of 
the lands already certified to the State. And yet Congress, by its act of June 
2, 1864, provided that. whenever the Davenport & Council Bluffs Railroad Com- 
pany should file in the General Land Office at Washington a map definitely 
showing such new location, the Secretary of the Interior should cause to be cer- 
tified and conveyed to said Company, from time to time, as the road progressed, 
out of any of the lands belonging to the United States, not sold, reserved, or 


otherwise disposed of, or to Avliich a pre-emption claim or ri^lit of homestead had 
not attached, and on which a birna jide settlement and improvement had not 
been made under color of title derived from the United States or from the State 
of Iowa, within six miles of such newly located line, an amount of land per 
mile e»[ual to that originally authorized to be granted to aid in the construction 
of said road by the act to which this Avas an amendment. 

The term "'out of any lands hehnnbui to the United States, not sold, re- 
served or otherwise disposed of, etc.," would seem to indicate that Congress did 
intend to grant lands already granted, but when it declared that the Company 
should have an amount per mile equal to that originally authorized to be granted, 
it is plain that the framers of the bill were ignorant of the real terms of the 
ori^rinal irrant, or that they designed that the United States should resume the 
title it had already })arted with two years before the lands could revert to the 
United States under the original act, which was not repealed. 

A similar change was made in relation to the Cedar Rapids & Missouri 
Railroad, and dictated the conveyance of lands in a similar manner. 

Like provision was made for the Dubu(|ue & Sioux City Railroad, and the 
Company was permitted to change the location of its line between Fort Dodge 
and Sioux City, so as to secure the best route between those points ; but this 
change of location was not to impair the right to the land granted in the orig- 
inal act, nor did it change the location of those lands. 

By the same act, the Mississippi k Missouri Railroad Company was author- 
ized to transfer and assign all or any part of the grant to any other company or 
person, " if, in the f)pinion of said Company, the construction of said railroad 
across the State of Iowa would be thereby sooner and more satisfactorily com- 
pleted ; but such assignee should not in any case be released from the liabilities 
and conditions accompanying this grant, nor acquire perfect title in any other 
manner than the same would have been acquired by the original grantee." 

Still further, the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad Avas not forgotten, 
and Avas, by the same act, empowered to receive an amount of land per mile 
equal to that mentioned in the original act, and if that could not be found Avithin 
the limits of six miles from the line of said road, then such selection might 
be made along such line within twenty miles thereof out of any public lands 
belonging to the United States, not sold, reserved or otherAvise disposed of, or 
to which a pre-emption claim or right of homestead had not attached. 

Those acts of Congress, Avhich evidently originated in the ''lobby," occa- 
sioned much controversy and trouble. The Department of the Interior, hoAv- 
ever, recognizing the fact that Avhen the Secretary had certified the lands to the 
State, under the act of 1856, that act divested the United States of title, under 
the vestinor act of August, 1854, refused to review its action, and also refused 

11'/ • 

to order any and all investigations for establishing adverse claims (except m 
pre-emption cases), on the ground that the United States had parted with the 
title, and, therefore, could exercise no control over the land. 

May 12, 18(34, before the passage of the amendatory act above described. 
Congress granted to the State of loAva, to aid in the construction of a railroad 
from McGregor to Sioux City, and for the benefit of the McGregor Western 
Railroad Company, every alternate section of land, designated by odd numbers, 
for ten sections in Avidth on each side of the proposed road, reserving the right 
to substitute other lands Avhenever it Avas found that the grant infringed upon 
pre-empted lands, or on lands that had been reserved or disposed of for any other 
purpose. In such cases, the Secretary of the Interior Avas instructed to select, in 
lieu, lands belonging to the United States lying nearest to the lijnits specified. 



An Agricultural College and Model Farm was established by act of tlie 
General Assembly, approved March 22, 1858. By the eleventh section of the 
act, the proceeds of the five-section grant made for the purpose of aiding in the 
erection of public buildings was appropriated, subject to the approval of Con- 
gress, together with all lands that Congress might thereafter grant to the State 
for the purpose, for the benefit of the institution. On the 23d of March, by 
joint resolution, the Legislature asked the consent of Congress to the proposed 
transfer. By act approved July 11, 1862, Congress removed the restrictions 
imposed in the "five-section grant," and authorized the General Assembly to 
make such disposition of the lands as should be deemed best for the interests of 
the State. By these several acts, the five sections of land in Jasper County 
certified to the State to aid in the erection of public buildings under the act of 
March 3, 1845, entitled " An act supplemental to the act for the admission of 
the States of Iowa and Florida into the Union," were fully appropriated for 
the benefit of the Iowa Agricultural College and Farm. The institution is 
located in Story County. Seven hundred and twenty-one acres in that and 
two hundred in Boone County were donated to it by individuals interested in 
the success of the enterprise. 

By act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, an appropriation was made to 
each State and Territory of 30,000 acres for each Senator and Representative 
in Congress, to which, by the apportionment under the census of 1860, they 
were respectively entitled. This grant was made for the purpose of endowing 
colleores of agriculture and mechanic arts. 

Iowa accepted this grant by an act passed at an extra session of its Legis- 
lature, approved September 11, 1862, entitled "An act to accept of the grant, 
and carry into execution the trust conferred upon the State of Iowa by an act 
of Congress entitled ' An act granting public lands to the several States and 
Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts,' approved July 2, 1862." This act made it the duty of the 
Governor to appoint an agent to select and locate the lands, and provided 
that none should be selected that were claimed by any county as swamp 
lands. The agent was required to make report of his doings to the Governor, 
who was instructed to submit the list of selections to the Board of Trustees of 
the Agricultural College for their approval. One thousand dollars were appro- 
priated to carry the law into effect. The State, having two Senators and six 
Representatives in Congress, was entitled to 240,000 acres of land under this 
grant, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining an Agricultural College. 
Peter Melendy, Esq., of Black Hawk County, was appointed to make the selec- 
tions, and during August, September and December, 1863, located them in the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines and Sioux City Land Districts. December 8, 1864, 
these selections were certified by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
and were approved to the State by the Secretary of the Interior December 13, 
1864. The title to these lands was vested in the State in fee simple, and con- 
flicted with no other claims under other grants. 

The agricultural lands Avere approved to the State as 240,000.96 acres ; but 
as 35,691.66 acres were located Avithin railroad limits, which were computed at 
the rate of two acres for one, the actual amount of land approved to the State 
under this grant Avas only 204,309.30 acres, located as follows : 

In Des Moines Land District G, 804.96 acres. 

In Sioux City Land District 50,025.37 " 

In Fort Dodge Land District 188,478.97 " 


By act of the General Assembly, approved March 29, 1864, entitled, " An 
act authorizing the Trustees of the Iowa State Agricultural College and Farm 
to sell all lands acquired, granted, donated or appropriated for the benefit of 
said college, and to make an investment of the proceeds thereof," all these lands 
were granted to the Agricultural College and Farm, and the Trustees Avere au- 
thorized to take possession, and sell or lease them. They were then, under the 
control of the Trustees, lands as follows : 

Under the act of July 2, 1852 204,309.30 acres. 

Of the five-section grant. 3,200.00 " 

Lands donated in Story County 721.00 " 

Lands donated in Boone County 200.00 " 


Total 208,-430.30 acres. 

The Trustees opened an oflSce at Fort Dodge, and appointed Hon. G. W- 
Bassett their agent for the sale of these lands. 


The germ of the free public school system of Iowa, which now ranks sec- 
ond to none in the United States, was planted by the first settlers. They had 
migrated to the " The Beautiful Land" from other and older States, where the 
common school system hatl been tested by many years' experience, bringing 
with them some knowledge of its advantages, which they determined should be 
enjoyed by the cliildren of the land of their adoption. The system thus planted 
was expanded and improved in the broad fields of the West, until now it is 
justly considered one of the most complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 

Nor is this to be wondered at when it is remembered humble log school 
houses were built almost as soon as the log cabin of the earliest settlers were 
occupied by their brave builders. In the lead mining regions of the State, the 
first to be occupied by the white race, the hardy pioneers provided the means 
for the education of their children even before they had comfortable dwellings 
for their families. School teachers were among the first immigrants to Iowa. 
Wherever a little settlement was made, the school house was the first united 
public act of the settlers; and the rude, primitive structures of the early time 
only disappeared when the communities had increased in population and wealth, 
and were able to replace them with more commodious and comfortable buildings. 
Perhaps in no single instance has the magnificent progress of the State of Iowa 
been more marked and rapid than in her common school system and in her school 
houses, which, long since, superseded the log cabins of the first settlers. To- 
day, the scliool houses which everywhere dot the broad and fertile prairies of 
Iowa are unsurpassed by those of any other State in the great Union. More 
especially is this true in all her cities and villages, Avhere liberal and lavish 
appropriations have been voted, by a generous people, for the erection of large, 
commodious and elegant buildings, furnished with all the modern improvements, 
and costing from 8l<>,000 to $00,000 each. The people of the State have ex- 
pended more than $10,000,000 for the erection of public school buildings. 

The first house erected in Iow^a was a log cabin at Dubuque, built by James 
L. Langworthy and a few other miners, in the Autumn of 1833. When it was 
completed, George Cabbage was employed as teacher during the Winter of 
1833-4, and thirty-five pupils attended his school. Barrett AVhittemore taught 
the second term witli t-.venty-five pupils in attendance. Mrs. Caroline Dexter 


commenced teaching in Dubuque in March, 1836. She was the first female 
teacher there, and probably the first in Iowa. In 1839, Thomas H. Benton, 
Jr., afterward for ten years Superintendent of Public Instruction, opened an 
English and classical school in Dubuque. The first tax for the support of 
schools at Dubuque was levied in 1840. 

Among the first buildings erected at Burlington was a commodious log school 
house in 1834, in which Mr. Johnson Pierson taught the first school in the 
Winter of 1834-5. 

The first school in Muscatine County was taught by George Bumgardner, 
in the Spring of 1837, and in 1839, a log school house was erected in Musca- 
tine, which served for a long time for school house, church and public hall. 
The first school in Davenport was taught in 1838. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa 
Sawyer, James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught school in 1839. 

When the site of Iowa City was selected as the capital of the Territory of 
Iowa, in May, 1839, it was a perfect wilderness. The first sale of lots took 
place August 18, 1839, and before January 1, 1840, about twenty families had 
settled within the limits of the town ; and during the same year, Mr. Jesse 
Berry opened a school in a small frame building he had erected, on what is now 
College street. 

The first settlement in Monroe County was made in 1843, by Mr. John R. 
Gray, about two miles from the present site of Eddyville; and in the Summer 
of 1844, a log school house was built by Gray, William V. Beedle, C. Renfro, 
Joseph McMullen and Willoughby Randolph, and the first school was opened 
by Miss Urania Adams. The building was occupied for school purposes for 
nearly ten years. About a year after the first cabin was built at Oskaloosa, a 
log school house was built, in which school was opened by Samuel W. Caldwell 
in 1844. 

At Fort Des Moines, now the capital of the State, the first school was 
taught by Lewis Whitten, Clerk of the District Court in tlie Winter of 1846-7, 
in one of the rooms on " Coon Row," built for barracks. 

The fii'st school in Pottawattomie County was opened by George Green, a 
Mormon, at Council Point, prior to 1849 ; and until about 1854, nearly, if not 
quite, all the teacliers in that vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was taught in 1853, by T. W. Burdick, then a 
young man of seventeen. In Osceola, the first school was opened by Mr. D. 
W. Scoville. The first school at Fort Dodge was taught in 1855, by Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, since Govei-nor of the State. In Crawford County, the first school 
house was built in Mason's Grove, in 1856, and Morris McHenry first occupied 
it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the history of Iowa, the log school house pre- 
vailed, and in 1861, there were 893 of these primitive structures in use for 
school purposes in the State. Since that time they have been gradually dis- 
appearing. In 1865, there were 796; in 1870, 336, and in 1875-, 121. 

Iowa Territory was created Jnly 3, 1838. January 1, 1839, the Territorial 
Legislature passed an act providing that " there shall be established a common 
school, or schools in each of the counties in this Territory, which shall be 
open and free for every class of white citizens between the ages of five and 
twenty-one years." The second section of the act provided that "the County 
Board shall, from time to time, form such districts in 'their respective counties 
whenever a petition may be presented for the purpose by a majority of the 
voters resident within such contemplated district." These districts were gov- 
erned by boards of trustees, usually of three persons ; each district was required 



to maintain school at lea;?t tliree montlis in every year ; and later, laws were 
enacted providing for county sdiool taxes for the payment of teachers, and that 
whatever additional sum might be required should be assessed upon the parents 
sending, in proportion to the length of time sent. 

When Iowa Territory became a State, in 1846, with a population of 100.- 
000, and with 20,000 scholars within its limits, about four hundred school dis- 
tricts had been organized. In ISoO, there were 1.200. and in 1857, the 
number had increased to o,2G5. 

In March, 1858. upon the recommendation of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction, the Seventh General Assembly enacted that 
'• each civil township is declared a school district," and provided that these should 
be divided into sub-districts. This law went into force March 20. 1858. and 
reduced the number of school districts from about 3.500 to less than 900. 

This change of school organization resulted in a very material reduction of 
the expenditures for the compens;ition of District Secretaries and Treasurers. 
An effort was nuide for several years, from 1867 to 1872, to abolish the sub- 
district system. Mr. Kiss;ll, Superintendent, recommended, in his report of 
January 1. 1872. and Governor Merrill forcibly endorsed his views in his annual 
message. But the Legislature of that year provided for the formation of inde- 
pendent districts from the sub-districts of district townships. 

Tlie system of graded schools was inaugurated in 1849 ; and new schools, in 
which more than one teacher is employed, are universally graded. 

The tii'st official mention of Teachers' Institutes in the educational records 
of Iowa occurs in the annual report of Hon. Thomas H. Benton. Jr.. made 
December 2, 1850, who said, "An institution of this character was organized a 
few years ago, composed of the teachei's of the mineral regions of Illinois. 
Wisconsin and Iowa. An association of teachei's has. also, been formed in the 
county of Henry, and an eft'ort was made in October last to organize a regular 
institute in the county of Jones." At that time — although the beneficial 
influence of these institutes was admitted, it was urged that the expenses of 
attending them was greater than teachers with limited compensation were able 
to bear. To obviate this objection, Mr. Benton recommended that *• the sum of 
§150 should be appropriated annually for three yeai-s. to be drawn in install- 
ments of §50 each by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and expendeil 
for these institutions." He proposed that three institutes should be held annu- 
ally at points to be designated by the Superintendent. 

No legislation in this direction, however, was had until March. 1858. when 
an act was passed authorizing the holding of teachers' institutes for periods not 
less than six working days, whenever not less than thirty teacliers should desire. 
The Superintendent was authorized to expend not exctxxling SlOO for any one 
institute, to be paid out by the County Superintendent as the institute might 
direct for teachei's and lecturers, and one thousand dollars was appropriated to 
defray the expenses of these institutes. 

December 6, 1858, Mr. Fisher reporteii to the Board of Education that 
institutes had been appointed in twenty counties within the preceding six months, 
and more would have been, but the appropriation had been exhausted. 

The Board of Education at its first session, commencing December 6. 1858, 
enacted a code of school laws which retained the existing provisions for teachers' 

In March, 1800, the General Assembly amended the act of the Board by 
appropriating *' a sum not excetnling fifty dollai-s annually for one such institute, 
held as proviiled by law in each county. " 


In ISiiJ). Mr. Faville reported that "the provision made bv the State for the 
henetir of teachers' institutes lias never been so fully appreciated, both by the 
people and the teachers, as during the last two years. 

Bv act approved March 19, 1ST4. Normal Institutes were established in 
each county, to be held annually by the County Superintendent. This was 
regarded as a very decided step in advance by Mr. Abernethy, and in 1870 the 
Sixteenth General Assembly established the first permanent State Normal 
School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, appropriating the building and 
property of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place for that purpose. This 
school is now •* in the full tide of successful experiment." 

The public school system of Iowa is admirably organized, and if the various 
offieei"s Avho are entrusted with the educational interests of the commonwealth 
are faithful and competent, should and will constantly improve. 

*• The }»ublic schools are supported by funds arising from several sources. 
The sixteenth section of every Congressional Township was set apart by the 
Genet-al Government for school purposes, being one-thirty-sixth part of all the 
lands of the State. The minimum price of these lands was fixed at one dollar 
and twenty-five cents per acre. Congress also made an additional donation to 
the State of five hundred thousand acres, and an appropriation of five per cent, 
on all the sales of public lands to the school fund. The State gives to this 
fund the proceeds of the sales of all lands which escheat to it ; the proceeds of 
all fines for the violation of the liquor and criminal laws. The money derived 
from these sources constitutes the permanent school fund of the State, which 
cannot be diverte<I to any other purpose. The penalties collected by the courts 
for fines and forfeitures go to the school fund in the counties Avhere collected. 
The proceeds of the sale of lands and the five per cent, fund go into the State 
Treasury, and the State distributes these proceeds to the several counties accord- 
ing to their request, and the counties loan the money to individuals for long 
terms at eight per cent, interest, on security of land valued at three times the 
amount of the loan, exclusive of all buildings and improvements thereon. The 
interest on these loans is paid into the State Treasury, and becomes the avail- 
able school fund of the State. The counties are responsible to the State for all 
money so loaned, and the State is likewise responsible to the school fund for all 
moneys transferred to the counties. The interest on these loans is apportioned 
by the State Auditor semi-annually to the several counties of the State, in pro- 
portion to the number of pei'sons between the ages of five and twenty-one yeai*s. 
The counties also levy an annual tax for school purposes, which is apportioned 
to the several district townships in the same way. A district tax is also 
levied for the same purpose. The money arising from these several sources 
constitutes the support of the public schools, and is sutlicient to enable 
every sub-district in the State to aflbrd from six to nine months' school 
each year." 

The taxes levied for the support of schools are self-imposed. Under the 
admirable school laws of the State, no taxes can be legally assessed or collected 
for the erection of school houses until they have been ordered by the election of 
the district at a school meeting legally called. The school houses oi Iowa are 
the pride of the State and an honor to the people. If they have been some- 
times built at a prodigal expense, the tax payers have no one to blame but 
themselves. The teachers" and contingent funds are determined by the Board of 
Directors under certain legal restrictions. These boards are elected annually, 
except in the independent districts, in Avhich the board may be entirely changed 
every three yeiu"^. The only exception to this mode of levying taxes for support 


of schools is the county school tax, which is determined by the County Board 
of Supervisors. The tax is from one to three mills on the dollar ; usually, 
however, but one. Mr. Abernethy, who was Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion from 1872 to 1877, said in one of his reports: 

There is but little opposition to the levy of taxes for the support of schools, and there 
would be still less if the funds were alwavs properly guarded and judiciously expended. How- 
ever much our people disagree upon other subjects, they are practically united upon this. 
The opposition of wealth has long since ceased to exist, and our wealthy men are usually the 
most liberal in their views and the most active friends of popular education. They are often 
found upon our school boards, and usually make the best of school officers. It is not uncommon 
for Biards of Directors, especially in the larger towns and cities, to be composed wholly of men 
who represent the enterprise, wealth and business of their cities. 

At the close of 1877, there were 1,086 township districts, 3,138 indepen- 
dent disti-icts and 7,015 sub-districts. There were 9,948 ungraded and 47G 
graded schools, with an average annual session of seven months and five days. 
There wore 7,348 male teachers employed, whose average compensation was 
334.88 per month, and 1 "2.018 female teachers, Avith an average compensation 
of §"28.G9 per month. 

The number of persons between the ages 5 and 21 years, in 1877, was 
567.859; number enrolled in public schools, 421,163 ; total average attendance. 
251.372 ; average cost of tuition per month, §1.62. There are 9.279 frame. 
671 brick, 257 stone and 89 log school houses, making a grand total of 10,296. 
valued at §9,044,973. The public school libraries number 17.329 volumes. 
Ninetv-nine teachers' institutes were held during 1877. Teachei"s' salaries 
amounted to §2,953,645. There was expended for school houses, grounds, 
libraries and apparatus, §1.106,788, and for fuel and other contingencies, 
§1,136.995, making the grand total of §5,197,428 expended by the generous 
people of Iowa for the support of their magnificent public schools in a single 
year. The amount of the permanent school fund, at the close of 1877, was 
§3,462,000. Annual interest, 8276,960. 

In 1857, there were 3.265 independent districts. 2.708 ungraded schools, 
and 1,572 male and 1.424 female teachei*s. Teachers" salaries amounted to 
§198.142, and the total expenditures for schools was only §364.515. Six hun- 
dred and twenty-three volume> were the extent of the public school libraries 
twenty years ago, and there wore only 1,686 school houses, valued at §571.064. 

In twenty yeai-s, teachers' salaries have increased from §198.142, in 1857, 
to §2,953,645* in 1877. Total school expenditures, from §364,515 to 

The significance of such facts as these is unmistakable. Such lavish expen- 
ditures can only be accounted for by the liberality and public spirit of the 
people, all of whom manifest tlieir love of popular education and their faith in 
the public schools by the annual dedication to their support of more than one 
per cent, of their entire taxable property ; this, too. uninterruptedly through a 
series of years, commencing in the midst of a war which taxed their energies and 
resources to the extreme, and continuing through yeai*s of general depression in 
business — years of moderate yield of produce, of discouragingly low prices, and 
even amid the scanty surroundings and privations of pioneer life. Few human 
enterprises have a grander significance or give evidence of a more noble purpose 
than the generous contributions from the scanty resources of the pioneer for the 
purposes of public education. 




Governors — Robert Lucas, 1838-41 ; John Chambers, 1841-45 ; James 
Clarke, 1845. 

Secretaries— \N\\\\tiU\ B. Conway, 1838, died 1839 ; James Clarke, 1839 ; 
0. II. W. Stall, 1841 ; Samuel J. Burr, 1843 ; Jesse AVilliams, 1845. 

Auditors— 5QBm Williams, 1840; Wm. L. Gilbert, 1843- Robert M. 
Secrest, 1845. 

Treasurers — Thornton Bayliss, 1839 ; Morgan Reno, 1840. 

Judges — Charles Mason, Chief Justice, 1838 ; Joseph Williams, 1838 ; 
Thomas S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council — Jesse B. Browne, 1838-9 ; Stephen Hempstead, 
1839-40; M. Bainridiro, 1840-1; Jonatlian ^X. Parker, 1841-2; John D. 
Elbert, 1842-3; Thomas Cox, 1843-4; S. Clinton Hastings, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1845-6. 

Speakers of the House — William II. W^illace, 1838-9 ; Edward Jolinston, 
1839-40; Thomas Cox, 1840-1; W^arner Lewis, 1841-2; James M. Morgan, 
1842-3 ; James P. Carleton, 1843-4 ; James M. Morgan, 1845 ; George W. 
McCleary, 1845-G. 

First Constitutional Convention, 1S44 — Shepherd Leffler, President ; Geo. 
S. Hampton, Secretary. 

Second Constitutional Convention, 184^6 — Enos Lowe, President ; William 
Thompson, Secretary. 


Governors — Ansel Briggs, 1846 to 1850 ; Stephen Hempstead, 1850 to 
1854; James W. Grimes, 1854 to 1858; Ralph P. Lowe, 185S to 1860; Sam- 
uel J. Kirkwood, 1860 to 1864 ; William M. Stone, 1864 to 1868 ; Samuel 
Morrill, 1868 to 1872 ; Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1872 to 1876 ; Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, 1876 to 1877; Joshua G. Newbold, Acting, 1877 to 1878; John II. 
Gear, 1878 to . 

Lieutenant Governor — Office created by the new Constitution September 3, 
1857 — Oran Faville, 1858-9 ; Nicholas J.* Rusch, 1860-1 ; John R. Needham, 
1862-3; Enoch W. Eastman, 1864-5; Benjamin F. Gue, 1866-7; John 
Scott, 1868-9; M. M. W^ilden, 1870-1; H. C. Bulis, 1872-3; Joseph Dy- 
sart, 1874-5 ; Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-7 ; Frank T. Campbell, 1878-9. 

Secretaries of State — Elisha Cutler, Jr., Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 4, 1848 ; 
Josiah II. Bonney, Dec. 4, 1848, to Dec. 2, 1850; George W. McCleary, Dec. 
2, 1850, to Dec. 1, 1856 ; Elijah Sells, Dec. 1, 1856, to Jan. 5, 1863 ; James 
Wright, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867 ; Ed. Wright, Jan. 7, 1867, to Jan. 6, 
1873; Josiah T. Young, Jan. 6, 1873, to . 

Auditors of State— JoseY>\\ T. Fales, Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850 ; W^ill- 
iam Pattee, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1854; Andrew J. Stevens, Dec. 4, 1854, 
resigned in 1855; John Pattee, Sept. 22, 1855, to Jan. 3, 1859; Jonathan 
AV. Cattell, 1859 to 1865; John A. Elliot, 1865 to 1871; John Russell, 1871 
to 1875; Buren R. Sherman, 1875 to . 

Treasurers of Statc—MoYirnxi Reno, Dec. 18, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850 ; 
Israel Kister, Dec. 2, 1850, to^Dec. 4, 1852 ; Martin L. Morris, Dec. 4, 1852, 
to Jan. 2, 1859 ; John W. Jones. 1859 to 1863 ; William II. Holmes, 1863 to 


1867 ; Samuel E. Rankin, 1807 to 1873 ; William Christy, 1873 to 1877 ; 

George AV. Bern is, 1877 to . 

Superintendents of Public Instruction— O^ce created in 1847— James Harlan, 
June 5, 1845 (Supreme Court decided election void) ; Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
May 23, 1844, to June 7, 1854 ; James D. Eads, 1854-7 ; Joseph C. Stone, 
March to June, 1857 ; Maturin L. Fisher, 1857 to Dec, 1858, when the office 
was abolished and the duties of the office devolved upon the Secretary of the 
Board of Education. 

Secretaries of Board of Education — Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 1859-1863 ; 
Oran Faville, Jan. 1, 1864. Board abolished March 23, 1864. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Office re-created March 23, 1864 — 
Oran Faville, March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867 ; D. Franklin Wells, 
March 4, 1867, to Jan., 1870 ; A. S. Kissell, 1870 to 1872 ; Alonzo Abernethy, 
1872 to 1877 ; Carl W. Von Coelln, 1877 to . 

State Binders — Office created February 21, 1855 — William M. Coles, May 
1, 1855, to May 1, 1859; Frank M. Mills, 1859 to 1867; James S. Carter, 
1867 to 1870; J. J. Smart, 1870 to 1874; H. A. Perkins, 1874 to 1875; 
James J. Smart, 1875 to 1876 ; H. A. Perkins, 1876 to . 

Registers of the State Land Office — Anson Hart, May 5, 1855, to May 
13, 1857 ; Theodore S. Parvin, May 13, 1857, to Jan. 3, 1859 ; Amos B. 
Miller, Jan. 3, 1859, to October, 1862; Edwin Mitchell, Oct. 31, 1862, to 
Jan 5, 1863 ; Josiah A. Harvey, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867 ; Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, Jan. 7, 1867, to January, 1871 ; Aaron Brown, January, 1871, to 
to January, 1875 ; David Secor, January, 1875, to . 

State Printers — Office created Jan. 3, 1840 — Garrett D. Palmer and 
George Paul, 1849; William H. Merritt, 1851 to 1853; William A. Hornish, 
1853 (resigned May 16, 1853); Mahoney & Dorr, 1853 to 1855; Peter 
Moriarty, 1855 to 1857; John Teesdale, 1857 to 1861; Francis W. Palmer, 
1861 to 1869 ; Frank M. Mills, 1869 to 1870 ; G. W. Edwards, 1870 to 
1872 ; R. P. Clarkson, 1872 to . 

Adjutants General — Daniel S. Lee, 1851-5 ; Geo. W. McCleary, 1855-7 ; 
Elijah Sells, 1857 ; Jesse Bowen, 1857-61 ; Nathaniel Baker, 1861 to 1877 ; 
John H. Looby, 1877 to . 

Attorneys (renera?— David C. Cloud, 1853-56 ; Samuel A. Rice, 1856-60 ; 
Charles C. Nourse, 1861-4; Isaac L. Allen, 1865 (resigned January, 1866); 
Frederick E. Bissell, 1866 (died June 12, 1867); Henry O'Connor, 1867-72; 
Marsena E. Cutts, 1872-6 ; John F. McJunkin, 1877. 

Presidents of the Senate — Thomas Baker, 1846-7 ; Thomas Hughes, 
1848 ; John J. Selman, 1848-9 ; Enos Lowe, 1850-1 ; William E. Leffing- 
well, 1852-3; Maturin L. Fisher, 1854-5; William W. Hamilton, 1856-7. 
Under the new Constitution, the Lieutenant Governor is President of the 

Speakers of the House— Jesse B. Brown, 1847-8; Smiley H. Bonhan, 
1849-50 ; George Temple, 1851-2 ; James Grant, 1853-4 ; Reuben Noble, 
1855-6 ; Samuel McFarland, 1856-7 ; Stephen B. Sheledy, 1858-9 ; John 
Edwards, 1860-1 ; Rush Clark, 1862-3 ; Jacob Butler, 1864-5 ; Ed. Wright, 
1866-7 ; John Russell, 1868-9 ; Aylett R. Cotton, 1870-1 ; James Wilson, 
1872-3 ; John H. Gear, 1874-7 ; John Y. Stone, 1878. 

New Constitutional Convention, 1859 — Francis Springer, President ; Thos. 
J. Saunders, Secretary. 



John H. Gear, Governor ; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant Governor ; Josiah 
T. Young, Secretary of State; Buren R. Sherman, Auditor of State; George 
W. Bemis, Treasurer of State; David Secor, Register of State Land Office; 
John H. Looby, Adjutant General; John F. McJunken, Attorney General; 
Mrs. Ada North, State Librarian ; Edward J. Holmes, Clerk Supreme Court ; 
John S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme Court; Carl W. Von Coelln, Superintend- 
ent Public Instruction; Richard P. Clarkson, State Printer; Henry A. Perkins, 
State Binder; Prof. Nathan R. Leonard, Superintendent of Weights and 
Measures; William H. Fleming, Governor's Private Secretary; Fletcher W. 
Young, Deputy Secretary of State; John C. Parish, Deputy Auditor of State; 
Erastus G. Morgan, Deputy Treasurer of State; John M. Davis, Deputy Reg- 
ister Land Office; Ira C. Kling, Deputy Superintendent Public Instruction. 



Ohief Justices. — Charles Mason, resigned in June, 1847 ; Joseph Williams, 
Jan., 1847, to Jan., 1848; S. Clinton Hastings, Jan., 1848, to Jan., 1849; Joseph 
Williams, Jan., 1849, to Jan. 11, 1855; Geo. G. Wright, Jan. 11, 1855, to Jan., 
1860 ; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan., 1860, to Jan. 1, 1862 ; Caleb Baldwin, Jan., 1862, to 
Jan., 1864; Geo. G. Wright, Jan., 1864, to Jan., 1866; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan., 1866, 
to Jan., 1868; John F. Dillon, Jan., 1868, to Jan., 1870; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 
1, 1870, to Jan. 1, 1871; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871, to Jan. 1, 1872; Joseph 
M. Beck, Jan. 1, 1872, to Jan. 1, 1874; W. E. Miller, Jan. 1, 1874, to Jan. 1, 
1876; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 1, 1876, to Jan. 1, 1877; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 
1877, to Jan. 1, 1878; James H. Rothrock, Jan. 1, 1878. 

Associate Judges. — Joseph Williams; Thomas S. Wilson, resigned Oct., 
1847; John F. Kinney, June 12, 1847, resigned Feb. 15, 1854; George 
Greene, Nov. 1, 1847, to Jan. 9, 1855; Jonathan C. Hall, Feb. 15, 1854, to 
succeed Kinney, resigned, to Jan., 1855; William G. WoodAvard, Jan. 9, 1855; 
Norman W. Isbell, Jan. 16, 1855, resigned 1856 ; Lacen D. Stockton, June 3, 
1856, to succeed Isbell, resigned, died June 9, 1860; Caleb Baldwin, Jan. 11, 
1860, to 1864; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan. 12, 1860; George G. Wright, June 26, 
1860, to succeed Stockton, deceased; elected U. S. Senator, 1870; John F. Dil- 
lon, Jan. 1, 1864, to succeed Baldwin, resigned, 1870; Chester C. Cole. March 
1, 1864, to 1877 ; Joseph M. Beck, Jan. 1, 1868 ; W. E. Miller, October 11, 
1864, to succeed Dillon, resigned; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871, to succeed 


James H. Rothrock, Cedar County, Chief Justice; Joseph M. Beck, Lee 
County, Associate Justice ; Austin Adams, Dubuque County, Associate Justice ; 
William H. Seevers, Oskaloosa County, Associate Justice; James G. Day, Fre- 
mont County, Associate Justice. 



(The first General Assembly failed to elect Senators.) 

George W. Jones, Dubuque, Dec. 7, 1848-1858 ; Augustus C. Dodge, Bur- 
lington, Dec. 7, 1848-1855; James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, Jan. 6, 1855-1865; 
James W. Grimes, Burlington, Jan. 26, 1858-died 1870 ; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 
Iowa City, elected Jan. 18, 1866, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of James 


Harlan ; James llai'lan, Mt. Pleasant, March 4, 18GG-1872 ; James B. Howell, 
Keokuk, elected Jan. 20, 1870, to fill vacancy caused by the death of J. W. 
Grimes — term expired March 3d ; George G. "Wright, Des Moines, March 4, 
1871-1877; William B. Allison, Dubuque, March 4, 1872; Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, ]March 4, 1877. 


Twenty-ninth Congress — IS^-G to 1S4.7- — S. Clinton Hastings ; Shepherd 

Thirtieth Congress — 1S47 to 1S49. — First District, "William Thompson : 
Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirtg-first Congress — 18^9 to ISol. — First District, First Session, "Wm. 
Thompson; unseated by the House of Representatives on a contest, and election 
remanded to the people. First District, Second Session, Daniel F. Miller. 
Second District, Shepherd Leflier. 

Thirti/sccond Congress — 1851 to 1853. — First District, Bernhart Henn. 
Second District, Lincoln Clark. 

Thirtg-third Congress — 1853 to 1855. — First District, Bernhart Henn. 
Second District, John P. Cook. 

Thirtg-fourth Congress — 1855 to 1857. — First District, Augustus Hall. 
Second District, James Thorington. 

Thirtg-fifth Congress — 1857 to 1859. — First District, Samuel R. Curtis. 
Second District, Timothy Davis. 

Thirtg-sixth Congress — 1859 to 1861. — First District, Samuel R. Curtis. 
Second District, William A^indevcr. 

Thirtg-seventh Congress — 1861 to 1863. — First District, First Session, 
Samuel R. Curtis.* First District, Second and Third Sessions, James F. Wil- 
son. Second District, William Yandever. 

Thirtg-eighth Congress— 1863 to 1865.— Yw&i District, James F. Wilson. 
Second District, Hiram Price. Third District, William B. Allison. Fourth 
District, Josiah B. Grinnell. Fifth District, John A. Kasson. Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thirtg-ninth Congress — 1865 to 1867. — First District, James F. Wilson ; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District, Josiah B. Grinnell ; Fifth District, John A. Kasson ; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Congress — 1867 to 1869. — First District, James F. Wilson ; Sec- 
ond District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison, Fourth District, 
William Loughridge; Fifth District, Grenville M. Dodge; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortg-first Congress— 1869 to 1871.— Txrst District, George W. McCrary ; 
Second District, William Smyth ; Third District, William B. Allison ; Fourth 
District, William Loughridge^ Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth Dis- 
trict. Charles Pomeroy. 

Fortg-second Congress — 1871 to 1873. — First District, George W. ISIc- 
Crary ; Second District, Aylett R. Cotton ; Third District, W. G. Donnan ; 
Fourth District, Madison M. Waldon; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer; Sixth 
District, Jackson Orr. 

Fortg-third Congress— 1873 to 7<97J.— First District, George W. McCrary; 
Second District, Aylett R. Cotton; Third District, William Y. Donnan ; Fourth 
District, Henry 0. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson; Sixth District, 

* V&:;ated seat by accept -incs of commission as Brigadier General, and J. F. Wilson chosvn hi3 successor. 


William Lougliridge; Seventh District, John A, Kasson ; Eighth District, 
James W. McDill ; Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-fourth Concjress — 1S75 to 1S77. — First District, George W. Mc- 
Crary ; Second District, John Q. Tufts ; Third District, L. L. Ainsworth ; 
Fourth District, Henry 0. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson ; Sixth District, 
Ezekiel S. Sampson ; Seventh District, John A. Kasson ; Eighth District, 
James W. ]McDill ; Fifth District, Addison Oliver. 

Fortii-Jifth Congress — 1S77 to 1S79. — First District, J. C. Stone; Second 
District,'^niram Price; Third District, T. W. Burdick ; Fourth District, 11. C. 
Deering ; Fifth District, Rush Clark ; Sixth District, E. S. Sampson ; 
Seventh District, H. J. B. Cummings ; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp ; Ninth 
District, Addison Oliver. 


The State of loAva may Avell be proud of her record during the War of the 
Rebellion, from 18G1 to 18G5. The following brief but comprehensive sketch of 
the history she made during that trying period is largely from the pen of Col. A. 
P. Wood, of Dubuque, the author of "The History of Iowa and the War," one 
of the best works of the kind yet written. 

" Whether in the promptitude of her responses to the calls made on her by 
the General Government, in the courage and constancy of her soldiery in the 
field, or in the wisdom and efficiency with w^hich her civil administration was 
conducted during the trying period covered by the War of the Rebellion, Iowa 
proved herself the peer of any loyal State. The proclamation of her Governor, 
responsive to that of the President, calling for volunteers to compose her First 
Regiment, was issued on the fourth day after the f\ill of Sumter. At the end 
of only a single week, men enough were reported to be in quarters (mostly in 
the vicinity of their own homes) to fill the regiment. These, however, were 
hardly more than a tithe of the number who had been oifered by company com- 
manders for acceptance under the President's call. So urgent were these offers 
that the Governor requested {o\\ the 24th of April) permission to organize an 
additional regiment. While awaiting an answer to this request, he conditionally 
accepted a sufficient number of companies to compose two additional regiments. 
In a short time, he was notified that both of these would be accepted. Soon 
after the completion of the Second and Third Regiments (which was near the 
close of May), the Adjutant General of the State reported that upward of one 
huntlred and seventy companies had been tendered to the Governor to serve 
aiiainst the enemies of the Union. 

" Much difficulty and considerable delay occured in fitting these regiments 
for the field. For the First Infantry a complete outfit (not uniform) of clothino- 
was extemporized — principally by the volunteered labor of loyal women in the 
different towns — from material of various colors and qualities, obtained within 
the limits of the State. The same was done in part for the Second Infantry. 
Meantime, an extra session of the General xVsscmblv had been called by the 
Governor, to convene on the 15th of ]\lay. With but little delay, that body 
authorized a loan of $800,000, to meet the extraordinary expenses incurred, and 
to be incurred, by the Executive Department, in consequence of the new emer- 
gency. A wealthy merchant of the State (Ex-Governor Merrill, then a resident 
of McGregor) immediately took from the Governor a conti-act to supply a com- 
plete outfit of clothing for the three regiments organized, agreeing to receive, 
should the Governor so elect, his pay therefor in State bonds at par. This con- 


tract lie executed to the letter, and a portion of the clothing (which was manu- 
factured in l>oston, to his order) was delivered at Keokuk, the place at which 
the troops had rendezvoused, in exactly one month from the day on which the 
contract had been entered into. The remainder arrived only a few days later. 
This clothiniT was delivered to the regiment, but was subsecjuently condemned 
by the Government, for the reason that its color was gi'ay, and blue had been 
adopted as the color to be worn by the national troops." 

Other States also clothed their troops, sent forwai'd under the first call of 
President Lincoln, with gray uniforms, but it was soon found that the con- 
federate forces were also clothed in gray, and that color was at once abandoned 
by the Union troops. If both armies were clothed alike, annoying if not fatal 
mistakes were liable to be made. 

But while engaged in these efforts to discharge her whole duty in common with 
all the other Union-loving States in the great emergency, Iowa was compelled 
to make immediate and ample provision for the protection of her own borders, 
from threatened invasion on the south by the Secessionists o1' Missouri, and 
from danger of incursions from the west and northwest by bands of hostile 
Indians, who were freed from the usual restraint imposed upon them by the 
presence of regular troops stationed at the frontier posts. These troops were 
withdrawn to meet the greater and more pressing danger threatening the life of 
the nation at its very heart. 

To provide for the adeijuate defense of her borders from the ravages of both 
rebels in arms against the Government and of the more irresistible foes from 
the Western plains, the Governor of the State was authorized to raise and eijuip 
two regiments of infsintry, a squadron of cavalry (not less than five companies) 
and a "battalion of artillery (not less than three companies.) Only cavalry were 
enlisted for home defense, however, ''but," says Col. Wood, "in times of special 
danger, or when calls were made by the Unionists of Northern jNIissouri tor 
assistance against their disloyal enemies, large numbers of militia on foot often 
turned out, and remained in the field until the necessity for their services had 

" The first order for the Iowa volunteers to move to the field was received 
on the l-)th of June. It was issued by Gen. Lyon, then commanding the 
United States forces in Missouri. The First and Second Infantry immediately 
embarked in steamboats, and moved to Hannibal. Some two weeks later, the 
Third Infimtry was ordered to the same point. These three, together with 
many other of the earlier organized Iowa regiments, rendered their first field 
service in Missouri. The First Infiintry formed a part of the little army with 
which Gen. Lyon moved on Sjiringfiold, and fought the bloody battle of Wilson's 
Creek. It received uncjualitied praise for its gallant bearing on the field. In 
the following month (September), tlie Third Iowa, with but very slight support, 
fought with honor the sanguinary engagement of Bhie jNIills Landing; and in 
November, the Seventh Iowa, as a part of a force commanded by Gen. Grant, 
greatly distinguished itself in the battle of Belmont, where it poured out its 
blood "like water — losing more than half of the men it took into action. 

" Tiie initial operations in wiiich the battles referred to took place were fol- 
lowed by the more important movements led by Gen. Grant, Gen. Curtis, of 
this State, and other commanders, which resulted in defeating the armies 
defending the chief strategic lines held by the Confederates in Kentucky, Tenn- 
nessee, Missouri and Arkansas, and compelling their withdrawal from much of 
the territory previously controlled by them in those States. In these and other 
movements, down to the grand culminating campaign by which A'icksburg was 


captured and the Confederacy permanently severed on the line of the Mississippi 
River, Iowa troops took part in steadily increasing numbers. In the investment 
and siege of Vicksburg, the IState was represented by thirty regiments and two 
batteries, in addition to which, eight regiments and one battery were employed 
on the outposts of the besieging army. The brilliancy of their exploits on the 
many fields where they served won for them the highest meed of praise, both 
in military and civil circles. Multiplied were the terms in which expression 
Avas given to this sentiment, but these words of one of the journals of a neigh- 
boring State, 'The Iowa troops have been heroes among heroes,' embody the 
spirit of all. 

" In the veteran re-enlistments that distinguished the closing months of 1863 
above all other periods in the history of re-enlistments for the national armies, 
the Iowa three years' men (wlio were relatively more numerous than those of any 
other State) Avere prompt to set the example of volunteering for another term of 
equal length, thereby adding many thousands to the great army of those who 
gave this renewed and practical assurance that the cause of the Union should 
not be left without defenders. 

" In all the im))ortant movements of 1864-65, by which the Confederacy 
was penetrated in every quarter, and its military power finally overthrown, the 
Iowa troops took part. Their drum-beat Avas heard on the banks of every great 
river of the South, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, and everywhere they 
rendered the same faithful and devoted service, maintaining on all occasions their 
wonted reputation for valor in the field and endurance on the march. 

" Tavo loAva three-year cavalry regiments Avere employed during their Avhole 
term of service in the operations that were in progress from 1863 to 1866 
against the hostile Indians of the Avestern plains. A portion of these men Avere 
among the last of the volunteer troops to bo mustered out of service. The State 
also supplied a considerable number of men to the navy, who took part in most 
of the naval operations prosecuted against the Confederate poAver on the Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts, and the rivers of tiie West. 

" The people of Iowa Avere early and constant Avorkcrs in the sanitary field, 
and by their liberal gifts and personal eftbrts for the benefit of the soldiery, 
placed their State in the front rank of those who became distinguished for their 
exhibitions of patriotic benevolence during the period covered by the Avar. 
Agents appointed by the Governor were stationed at points convenient for ren- 
dering assistance to the sick and needy soldiers of the State, Avhile others Avere 
employed in visiting, from time to time, hospitals, camps and armies in the field, 
and doing Avhatever the circumstances rendered possible for the health and 
comfort of such of the Iowa soldiery as might be found there. 

" Some of the benevolent people of the State early conceived the idea of 
establishing a Home for such of the children of deceased soldiers as mi<fht be 
left in destitute circumstances. This idea first took form in 1863, and in the 
following year a Home Avas opened at Farmington, Van Buren County, in a 
building leased for that purpose, and Avhich soon became filled to its utmost 
capacity. The institution received liberal donations from the general public, 
and also from the soldiers in the field. In 1865, it became necessary to pro- 
vide increased accommodations for the large number of children who Avere 
seeking the benefits of its care. This was done by establishing a branch 
at Cedar Falls, in Black Ilawk County, and by securing, during the same 
year, for the use of the parent Home, Camp Kinsman near the City of 
Davenport. This property Avas soon afterAvard donated to the institution, by 
act of Congress. 


" In 18G6, in pursuance of a law enacted for that purpose, the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home (which then contained about four hundred and fifty inmates) 
became a State institution, and thereafter the sums necessary for its support were 
appropriated from the State treasury. A second branch was establislie<l at 
Glenwood, Mills County. Convenient tracts were secured, and valuable improve- 
ments made at all the different points. Schools were also established, and em- 
ployments provided for such of the children as were of suitable age. In all 
ways the provision made for these wards of the State has been such as to chal- 
lenge the approval of every benevolent mind. The number of children who 
have been inmates of the Home from its foundation to the present time is 
considerably more than two thousand. 

" At tl;e beginning of the war, the population of Iowa included about one 
hundred and fifty thousand men presumably liable to render military service. 
The State raised, for general service, thirty-nine regiments of infaiitry, nine 
regiments of cavalry, and four companies of artillery, composed of three years' 
men ; one regiment of infantry, composed of three months' men; and four regi- 
ments and one battalion of infantry, composed of one hundred days' men. The 
ori'nnal enlistments in these various organizations, including seventeen hundred 
and twenty-seven men raised by draft, numbered a little more than sixty-nine 
thousand. The re-enlistments, including upward of seven thousand veterans, 
numbered very nearly eight thousand. The enlistments in the regular army 
and navy, and organizations of other States, Avill, if added, raise the total to 
upward of eighty tliousand. Thenumber of men who, under special enlistments, 
and as militia, took part at ditterent times in the operations on the exposed 
borders of the State, was probably as many as five thousand. 

'• Iowa paid no bounty on account of the men she placed in the field. In 
some instances, toward the close of the war, bounty to a comparatively small 
amount Avas paid by cities and towns. On only one occasion — that of the call 
of July IS, 1864 — was a draft made in Iowa. This did not occur on account of 
her proper liability, as established by previous rulings of the War Department, 
to supply men under that call, but grew out of the great necessity that there 
existed for raising men. The Government insisted on temporarily setting aside, 
in part, the former rule of settlements, and enforcing a draft in all cases where 
subdistricts in any of the States should be found delicient in their supply of 
men. In no instance was Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebte«l to the General 
Government for men, on a settlement of her quo'a accounts." 

It is to be said to the honor and credit of Iowa that while many of the loyal 
States, older and larger in population and wealth, incurred heavy State debts 
for the purpose of fulfilling their obligations to the General Government, Iowa, 
while she was foremost in duty, while she promptly discharged all her obligations 
to her sister States and the Union, found herself at the close of the war without 
any material addition to her pecuniary liabilities incurred before the war com- 
menced. Upon final settlement after the restoration of peace, her claims upon 
the Federal Government were found to be fully equal to the amount of her bonds 
issued and sold during the war to provide the means for raising and eijuipping 
her troops sent into the field, and to meet the inevitable demands upon her 
treasury in consequence of the war. 




was organized under tlie President's first proclamation for volunteers for three 
months, Vith John Francis Bates, of Dubuque, as Colonel ; William II. Mer- 
ritt, of Cedar Rapids, as Lieutenant Colonel, and A. R. Porter, of Mt. J'lcas- 
ant, a"^ Major. Companies A and C were from Muscatine County ; Company 
I), from Johnson County ; Companies D and E, from Des Moines County ; 
Company F, from Henry County; Company G, from Davenport; Companies 
H and I, from Dubucpie, and Company K, from Linn County, and A\ere mus- 
tered into United States service May 14, 1861, at Keokuk. The above com- 
panies were independent military or<^anizations before the war, and tendered 
their services before breaking-out of hostilities. The First was engaged at the 
battle of Wilson's Creek, under Gen. Lyon, where it lost ten killed and fifty 
wounded. Was mustered out at St. Louis Aug. 25, 1861. 


was organized, with Samuel R. Curtis, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; Jas. M. Tuttle, 
of Keosaucpia, as Lieutenant Colonel, and M. M. Crocker, of Des Moines, as 
Major, and was mustered into the United States service at Keokuk in May, 
1861. Company A was from Keokuk; Company R, from Scott County; Com- 
pany C, from Scott County ; Company D, from Des Moines ; Company E, from 
Fairfield, Jefferson Co. ; Company F, fi'om Van Buren County ; Company G, 
from Davis County; Company II, from Washington County ; Company I, from 
Clinton County ; and Comj)any K, fnmi Wapello County. It participated in tlie 
following engagements : Fort Donelson, Shiloh, advance on Corinth, Corinth, 
Little Rear Creek, Ala.; Tunnel Creek, Ala.; Resaca, Ga.; Rome Cross Roads, 
Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a-Jack Creek, in front of Atlanta, January 22, 
1864; siege of Atlanta, Jonesboro, Eden Station, Little Ogeechee, Savannah, 
Columbia, S. C ; Lynch's Creek, and Rentonsville. Was on Sherman's march 
to the sea, and through the Carolinas home. The Second Regiment of Iowa 
Infantry Veteran Volunteers was formed by the consolidation of the battalions 
of the Second and Third Veteran Infantry, and was mustered out at Louisville, 
Ky., July 12, 1865. 


was organized with N. G. Williams, of Dubuque County, as Colonel ; John 
Scott, of Story County, Lieutenant Colonel ; Wm. N. Stone, of Marion County, 
Major, and was mustered into the United States service in May, 1861, at 
Keokuk. Company A was from Dubuque County; Company R, from Marion 
County; Company C, from Clayton County ; Company D, from Winneshiek 
('ounty ; Company E, from Boone, Story, Marshall and Jasper Counties ; Com- 
pany F, from Fayette County ; Company G, from Warren County ; Company II, 
from Mahaska County; Company I, ftom Floyd, Butler Black Hawk and 
Mitchell Counties, and Company K from Cedar Falls. It was engaged atlilu* 
Mills, Mo. ; Shiloh, Tenn. ; IIn,tchie River, Matamoras, Vicksburg, Johnson, 
Miss., Meridian expedition, and Atlanta, Atlanta campaign and Sherman's 
march to Savannah, and through the Carolinas to Richmond and Wasliington. 
The veterans of the Third Iowa Infimtry were consolidated with the Second, 
and mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 12, 18()4. 



^vas organized Avith G. M. Dodge, of Council Bluffs, as Colonel ; Jolin 
Galligan, of Davenport, as Lieutenant Colonel; Wm. R. English, Glenwood, 
as Major. Company A, from Mills County, -was mustered in at Jefi'erson Bar- 
racks, Missouri, x\ugust L"), 1861 ; Company B, Pottawattamie County, was 
mustered in at Council Blutfs, August 8, 1861 ; Company C, Guthrie County, 
mustered in at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., May 3, 1861 ; Company D, Decatur 
County, at St. Louis, August 16th; Company E, Polk County, at Council 
Blufls, iVugust Stli ; Company F, Madison County, Jefi'erson Barracks, August 
15th ; Company G, Ringgold County, at Jefferson Barracks, August loth ; 
Company H, Adams County, Jefi'erson Barracks, August loth ; Company I, 
Wayne County, at St. Louis, August 31st; Company K, Taylor and Page 
Counties, at St. Louis, August 31st. Was engaged at Pea Ritlge, Chickasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Post, Yicksburg, Jackson, Lookout Mountain, Missionary 
Ridjie. Ringixold, Resaca, Taylor's Ridjxe; came home on veteran furlouc^h 
February 26, 1864. Returned in April, and was in the campaign against 
Atlanta, and Sherman's march to the sea, and thence through the Carolinas 
to Washington and home. Was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 
24, 1865. 


was organized with Wm. II. Worthington, of Keokuk, as Colonel; C Z. Mat- 
thias, of Burlington, as Lieutenant Colonel; W. S. Robertson, of Columbus City, 
as Major, and was mustered into the United States service, at Burlington, July 
15, 1861. Company A was from Cedar County; Company B. from Jasper 
County ; Company C, from Louisa County ; Company D, from Marshall County ; 
Company E, from Buchanan County ; Company F, from Keokuk County ; Com- 
pany G, from Benton County : Company H, from Van Buren County ; Company 
I, from Jackson County ; Company K, from Allamakee County ; was engaged at 
New Madrid, siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Champion Hills, siege of Vicks- 
buriT, Chickamausa : went home on veteran furloujih. Aiu-il, 1864. The non- 
veterans went home July, 1864, leaving 180 veterans who were transferred to 
the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. The Fifth Cavalry was mustered out at Nashville, 
Tennessee, Aug. 11, 1865. 


was mustered into the service July 6, 1861, at Burlington, with John A. 
McDowell, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; Markoe Cummins, of Muscatine, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel ; John M. Corse, of Burlington, Major. Company A was from 
Linn County ; Com})any B, from Lucas and Clarke Counties; Company C. 
from Hardin County ; Company D, from Appanoose County ; Company E, 
from Monroe County ; Company F, from Clarke County ; Company G, from 
Johnson County ; Company II, from Lee County ; Company I, from Des 
Moines County ; Company K, fnnn Henry County. It Avas engaged at Shiloh. 
Mission Ridjre, Resaca, Dallas, Bioj Shantv, Kenesaw ^Mountain. Jackson, Black 
River Bridge, Jones' Ford, etc., etc. The Sixth lost 7 officers killed in action. 18 
wounded ; of enlisted men 102 were killed in action, 30 died of wounds, 124 of 
disease, 211 w^ere discharged for disability and 301 were wounded in action, 
which was the largest list of casualties, of both officers and men, of any reg- 
iment from Iowa. Was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 21, 1865. 



was mustered into the United States service at Burlington, July 24, 1861, 
with J. G. Lauman, of Burlington, as Colonel ; Augustus Wentz, of Daven- 
port, as Lieutenant Colonel, and E. W. Rice, of Oskaloosa, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Muscatine County ; Company B, from Chickasaw and Floyd 
Counties ; Company C, from Mahaska County ; Companies D and E, from Lee 
County ; Company F, from Wapello County ; Company G, from Iowa County ; 
Company H, from Washington County ; Company I, from Wapello County ; 
Company K, from Keokuk. Was engaged at the battles of Belmont (in which 
it lost in killed, wounded and missing 237 men), Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, Corinth, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, New Hope 
Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a-Jack Creek, siege of Atlanta, 
battle on 22d of July in front of Atlanta, Sherman's campaign to the ocean, 
through the Carolinas to Richmond, and thence to Louisville. Was mustered 
out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 12, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service Sept. 12, 1861, at Davenport, 
Iowa, with Frederick Steele, of the regular army, as Colonel ; James L. Geddes, 
of Vinton, as Lieutenant Colonel, and J. C. Ferguson, of Knoxville, as Major. 
Company A was from Clinton County ; Company B, from Scott County ; 
Company C, from Washington County ; Company D, from Benton and Linn 
Counties ; Company E, from Marion County ; Company F, from Keokuk 
County; Company G, from Iowa and Johnson Counties; Company H. from 
Mahaska County ; Company I, from Monroe County ; Company K, from Lou- 
isa County. Was engaged at the following battles : Shiloh (where most of the 
regiment were taken prisoners of war), Corinth, Vicksburg, Jackson and Span- 
ish Fort. Was mustered out of the United States service at Selma, Alabama, 
April 20, 1866. 


was mustered into the United States service September 24, 1861, at Dubuque, 
with Wm. Yandever, of Dubuque, Colonel ; Frank G. Herron, of Dubuque, 
Lieutenant Colonel : Wm. H. Coyle, of Decorah, Major. Company A was 
from Jackson County ; Company B, from Jones County ; Company C, from Bu- 
chanan County ; Company D, from Jones County ; Company E, from Clayton 
County ; Company F, from Fayette County ; Company G, from Black Hawk 
County ; Company H, from Winneshiek County ; Company I, from Howard 
County and Company K, from Linn County. Was in the following engage- 
ments : Pea Ridge, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, siege of Vicksburg, 
Ringgold, Dallas, Lookout Mountain, Atlanta campaign, Sherman's march to 
the sea, and through North and South Carolina to Richmond. Was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 18, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service at Iowa City September 6, 1861, 
with Nicholas Perczel, of Davenport, as Colonel ; W. E. Small, of Iowa City, 
as Lieutenant Colonel ; and John C. Bennett, of Polk County, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Polk County ; Company B, from Warren County ; Company 
C, from Tama County ; Company D, from Boone County ; Company E, from 
Washington County ; Company F, from Poweshiek County ; Company G, from 


Warren County ; Company II, from Greene County ; Company I, from Jasper 
County ; Company K, from Polk and Madison Counties. Tarticipa'^ed in the 
following engagements : Siege of Corinth, luka. Corinth, Port Gibson, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hills, Vicksburg and Mission Ridge. In Septem- 
ber, 1804. the non-veterans being mustered out, the veterans were transferred 
to the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, where will be found their future operations, 


was mustered into the United States service at Davenport, Iowa, in September 
and October, 1861, with A. M. Hare, of Muscatine, as Colonel ; Jno. C. Aber- 
crombie. as Lieutenant Colonel ; Wm. Hall, of Davenport, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Muscatine ; Company B, from Marshall and Hardin Counties ; 
Company C, from Louisa County ; Company 1), from Muscatine County ; Com- 
pany E,*from Cedar County ; Company F, from Washington County ; Company 
G, from Henry County ; Company II, from Muscatine County ; Company I 
from Muscatine County ; Company Iv, from Linn County. Was engaged in the 
battle of Shiloh, siege of Corinth, battles of Corinth, Vicksburg, Atlanta cam- 
paign, battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. Was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., 
July 15. 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service November 25, 1861, at Dubuque, 
with J. J. Wood, of Maquoketa, as Colonel ; John P. Coulter, of Cedar Rapids. 
Lieutenant Colonel: Samuel D. Brodtbeck. of Dubu(jue, as Major. Company 
A was from Hardin County ; Company B, from Allamakee County ; Company C, 
from Fayette County ; Company D. from Linn County ; Company E. from Black 
Hawk County ; Company F, from Delaware County ; Company G, from AVinne- 
shiek County ; Company II, from Dubuqife and Delaware Counties ; Company 
I, from Dubuque and Jackson Counties ; Company K, from Delaware County. 
It was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Avhere most of the regiment was 
captured, and those not captured were organized in what was called the Union 
Brigade, and were in the battle of Corinth ; the prisoners were exchanged 
November 10, 1862, and the regiment re-organized, and then participating in 
the siege of Vicksburg, battle of Tupelo, Miss.; White River, Nashville and 
Spanish Fort. The regiment was mustered out at Memphis, January 20, 1866. 


was mustered in November 1, 1861, at Davenport, with M. M. Crocker, of Des 
Moines, as Colonel ; M. M. Price, of Davenport, Lieutenant Colonel ; John 
Shane, A^inton, Major. Company A Avas from Mt. Vernon ; Company B, from 
Jasper County : Company C, from Lucas County ; Company D, from Keokuk 
County ; Company E, from Scott County; Company F, from Scott and Linn 
Counties ; Company G, from Benton County : Company II. from Marshall County : 
Company I, from Washington County ; Company K, from Washington County. 
It participated in the following engagements : Shiloh, siege of Corinth, Corinth, 
Kenesaw Mountain, siege of Vicksburg, Campaign against Atlanta. Was on 
Sherman's march to the sea, and through North and South Carolina. Was 
mustered out at Louisville July 21. 1865. 


was mustered in the United States service October, 1861, at Davenport, with 
Wm. T. Shaw, of Anamosa. as Colonel; Edward W. Lucas, of Iowa City, as 


Lieutenant Colonel ; Hiram Leonard, of Des Moines County, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Scott County ; Company B, from Bremer County ; Company 
D, from Henry and Van Buren Counties ; Company E, from Jasper County ; 
Company F, from Van Buren and Henry Counties ; Company G, from Tama and 
Scott Counties ; Company H, from Linn County ; Company I, from Henry 
County ; Company K, from Des Moines County. Participated in the follow- 
ing engagements : Ft. Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (where most of the regiment 
were taken prisoners of Avar), Pleasant Hill, Meridian, Ft. De Russey, Tupelo, 
Town Creek, Tallahatchie, Pilot Knob, Old Town, Yellow Bayou, etc., etc., 
and was mustered out, except veterans and recruits, at Davenport, Iowa, No- 
vember 16, 1864. 


was mustered into the United States service March 19, 1862, at Keokuk, with 
Hugh T. Reid, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; Wm. Dewey, of Fremont County, as 
Lieuten mt Colonel ; W. W. Belknap, of Keokuk, as Major. Company A was 
from Linn County; Company B, from Polk County; Company C. from Mahaska 
County ; Company D, from Wapello County ; Company E, from Van Buren 
County ; Company F, from Fremont and Mills Counties ; Company G, from 
Marion and Warren Counties ; Company H, from Pottawattamie and Harrison 
Counties; Company I, from Lee, Van Buren and Clark Counties; Company K, 
from Wapello, Van Buren and Warren Counties. Participated in the battle of 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, battles of Corinth, Vicksburg, campaign against At- 
lanta, battle in front of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, and was under fire during 
the siege of Atlanta eighty-one days; was on Sherman's march to the sea, and 
through the Carolinas to Richmond, Washington and Louisville, where it was 
mustered out, August 1, 1864. 


was mustered into the United States service at Davenport, Iowa, December 10, 

1861, with Alexander Chambers, of the regular army, as Colonel; A. H. 
Sanders, of Davenport, Lieutenant Colonel ; Wm. Purcell, of Muscatine, 
Major. Company A was from Clinton County ; Company B, from Scott 
County; Company C, from Muscatine County ; Company D, from Boone County; 
Company E, from Muscatine County ; Company F, from Muscatine, Clinton and 
Scott Counties ; Company G, from Dubuque County ; Company H, from Du- 
buque and Clayton Counties; Company I, from Black Hawk and Linn Counties; 
Company K, from Lee atsd Muscatine Counties. Was in the battles of Shiloh, 
siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a- Jack Creek, battles 
around Atlanta; was in Sherman's campaigns, and the Carolina campaigns. 
Was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July lU, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service at Keokuk, in March and April, 

1862, with Jno. W. Rankin, of Keokuk, Colonel; D. B. Hillis, of Keokuk, 
as Lientenant Colonel; Samuel M. Wise, of Mt. Pleasant, Major. Company 
A was from Decatur County; Company B, from Lee County; Company C, 
from Van Buren, Wapello and Lee Counties; Company D, from Des Moines, 
Van Buren and Jefferson Counties; Cgmpany E, from Wapello County; Co'm- 
pany F, from Appanoose County; Company G, from Marion County; Com- 
pany H, from Marion and Pottnwattamie Counties; Company I, from Jefferson 
and Lee Counties; Company K, from Lee and Polk Counties. They were in 


the following engagements: Siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Jackson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Fort Hill, siege of Vicksburg, Mission Kiflge, and at Tilton, Ga., 
Oct. 13, 1864, most of the regiment were taken prisoners of war. Was mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Ky., July 25, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service August 5, 6 and 7, 1862, at Clin- 
ton, with John Edwards, of Chariton, Colonel ; T. Z. Cook, of Cedar Rapids, 
Lieutenant Colonel ; Hugh J. Campbell, of Muscatine, as Major. Company 
A, was from Linn and various other counties ; Company B, from Clark County ; 
Company C, from Lucas County ; Company D, from Keokuk and Wapello 
Counties; Company E, from Muscatine County; Company F, from Appanoose 
County; Company G, from Marion and Warren Counties; Company H, from 
Fayette and Benton Counties; Company I, from Washington County; Com- 
pany K, from Wapello, Muscatine and Henry Counties, and was engaged in 
the battles of Springfield, Moscow, Poison Spring, Ark., and was musto'ed out 
at Little Rock, Ark., July 20, 1865. ' 


was mustered into the United States service August 17, 1862, at Keokuk, with 
Benjamin Crabb, of Washington, as Colonel ; Samuel McFarland, of Mt. Pleas- 
ant, Lieutenant Colonel, and Daniel Kent, of Ohio, Major. Company A was 
from Lee and Van Buren Counties; Company B, from Jefferson County; Com- 
pany C, from Washington County; Company D, from Jefferson County; Com- 
pany E, from Lee County; Company F, from Louisa County; Company G, 
from Louisa County; Company H, from Van Buren County; Company I, from 
Van Buren County; Company K, from Henry County. Was engaged a Prairie 
Grove, Vicksburg, Yazoo River expedition. Sterling Farm, September 29, 1863, 
at which place they surrendered ; three officers and eight enlisted men were 
killed, sixteen enlisted men were wounded, and eleven officers and two hundred 
and three enlisted men taken prisoners out of five hundred engaged; they 
were exchanged July 22d, and joined their regiment August 7th, at New Or- 
leans. Was engaged at Spanish Fort. Was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., July 
10, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service August 25, 1862, at Clinton, with 
Wm. McE. Dye, of Marion, Linn Co., as Colonel ; J.B. Leek, of Davenport, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, and Wm. G. Thompson, of Marion, Linn Co., as Major. 
Companies A, B, F, H and I were from Linn County ; Companies C, D, E, G 
and K, from Scott County, and was engaged in the following battles: Prairie 
Grove, and assault on Fort Blakely. Was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., July 
8, 1865. 


■was mustered into the service at Clinton in June and August, 1862, with 
Samuel Merrill (late Governor of Iowa) as Colonel ; Charles W. Dunlap, of 
Mitchell, as Lieutenant Colonel ; S. G. VanAnda, of Delhi, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Mitchell and Black Hawk Counties ; Company B, from 
Clayton County ; Company C. from Dubucjue County ; Company D, from 
Clayton County ; Company E, from Dubuque County ; Company F, from Du- 
buque County ; Company G, from Clayton County; Company .H, from Dela- 


ware County ; Company I, from Dubuque County ; Company K, from Delaware 
County, and was in the following engagements : Hartsville, Mo. ; Black River 
Bridge, Fort Beauregard, was at the siege of Vicksburg, Mobile, Fort Blakely, 
and was mustered out at Baton Rouge, La., July 15, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service Sept. 10, 1862, at Iowa City, with 
Wm. M. Stone, of Kuoxviile (since Governor of Iowa), as Colonel ; Jno. A. 
Garrett, of Newton, Lieutenant Colonel ; and Harvey Graham, of Iowa City, 
as Major. Company A was from Johnson County ; Company B, Johnson 
County ; Company C, Jasper County; Company D, Monroe County ; Company 
E, Wapello County ; Company F, Johnson County ; Company G, Johnson 
County ; Company H, Johnson County ; Company I, Johnson County ; Com- 
pany K, Johnson County. Was engaged at Vicksburg, Thompson's Hill, Cham- 
pion Hills, Sherman's campaign to Jackson, at Winchester, in Shenandoah Val- 
ley, losing 109 men, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. Mustered out at Savannah, 
Ga., July 25, 1865. 


was mustered into United States service at Des Moines, Sept. 19, 1862, with 
William Dewey, of Sidney, as Colonel ; W. H. Kinsman, of Council Bluffs, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, and S. L. Glasgow, of Corydon, as Major. Companies 
A, B and C, were fronr Polk County; Company D, from Wayne County ; Com- 
pany E, from Pottawattamie County ; Company F, from Montgomery County ; 
Company G, from Jasper County; Company H, from Madison County; Com- 
pany I, from Cass County, and Company K, from Marshall County. Was in 
Vicksburg, and engaged at Port Gibson, Black River, Champion Hills, Vicks- 
burg, Jackson, Milliken's Bend, Fort Blakely, and was mustered out at Harris- 
burg, Texas, July 26, 1865 


was mustered into United States service at Muscatine, September 18, 1862, 
with Eber C. Byam, of Mount Vernon, as Colonel; John Q. W^ilds, of Mount 
Vernon, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Ed. Wright, of Springdale, as Major. 
Company A was from Jackson and Clinton Counties; Companies B and (J, 
from Cedar County; Company D, from Washington, Johnson and Cedar 
Counties; Company E, from Tama County; Companies F, G and H, from 
Linn County ; Company I, from Jackson County, and Company K, from Jones 
County. Was engaged at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Gen. Banks' Red 
River expedition, Winchester and Cedar Creek. Was mustered out at Savan- 
nah, Ga., July 17, 1865. 


was organized with George A. Stone, of Mount Pleasant, as Colonel ; Fabian 
Brydolf as Lieutenant Colonel, and Calom Taylor, of Bloomfield, as Major, 
and was mustered into United States service at Mount Pleasant, September 27, 
1862. Companies A and I were from Washington County; Companies B and 
H, from Henry County ; Company C, irom Henry and Lee Counties ; Com- 
panies D, E and G, from Des Moines County ; Company F, from Louisa 
County, and Company K, from Des Moines and Lee Counties. Was engaged 
at Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Walnut Bluft", Chattanooga, Campain, Ring- 


gold, Ga., Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, battles around Atlanta, Love- 
joy Station, Jonesboro, Ship's Gap, Bentonville, and on Sherman's march 
through Georgia and the Carol inas, to Richmond and Washington. Was 
mustered out at Washington, D. C, June 6, 1865. 


was organized and muster:d in at Clinton, in August, 1862, with Milo Smith, 
of Clinton, as Colonel ; S. G. Magill, of Lyons, as Lieutenant Colonel, and 
Samuel Clark, of De Witt, as Major. Company A was from Clinton and 
Jackson Counties; Company B, from Jackson County; Companies C, D, E, 
F, G, H, I and K, from Clinton County. Was engaged at Arkansas Post, 
Vicksburg, Snake Creek Gap, Ga., Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, De- 
catur, siege of Atlanta, Ezra Church, Jonesboro, Lovcjoy Station, Ship's Gap, 
Sherman's campaign to Savannah, went through the Carolinas, and was mus- 
tered out of service at Washington, D. C, June 6, 1865. 


was mustered into United States service at Dubuque, Oct. 3, 1862, with James 
L Gilbert, of Lansing, as Colonel ; Jed Lake, of Independence, as Lieutenant 
Colonel ; and G. W. Howard, of Bradford, as Major. Companies A, B and I 
were from Allamakee County; Companies C and H, from Buchanan County; 
Companies D and E, from Clayton County ; Company F, from Delaware 
County ; Company G, from Floyd and Chickasaw Counties, and Company K, 
from Mitchell County. Engaged at Little Rock, Ark., was on Red River ex- 
pedition, Fort De Russey, Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Old Town 
Creek and Fort Blakely. Was mustered out at Clinton, Iowa, Aug. 8, 1865. 


was organized at Iowa City, and mustered in Nov. 10, 1862, with William E. 
Miller, of Iowa City, as Colonel; John Connell, of Toledo, as Lieutenant Colonel, 
and II. B. Lynch, of Millersburg, as Major. Companies A and D were 
from Benton County ; Companies B and G, from Iowa County ; Companies 
C, H and I, from Poweshiek County; Company E, from Johnson County; 
Company F, from Tama County, and Company K, from Jasper County. Was 
engaged at Port Gibson, Jackson and siege of Vicksburg ; was on Banks' Red 
River expedition, and engaged at Sabine Cross Roads ; was engaged in Shen- 
andoah Valley, Va., and engaged at Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. 
Was mustered out of service at Savannah, Ga., July 31, 1865. 


was organized at Council Bluffs, and mustered into the United States service 
December 1, 1862, with Thomas II. Benton, Jr., of Council Bluffs, as Colonel; 
R. F. Patterson, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel; and Charles B. Shoe- 
maker, of Clarinda, as Major. Company A was from Pottawattamie County; 
Company B, from Pottawattamie and Mills Counties; Company C, from Harrison 
County ;'^ Company D, from Adair and Adams Counties, Company E, from 
Fremont County; Company F, from Taylor County; Company G, from Ring- 
gold County. Was engaged at Helena, Arkansas and Spanish Fort. Was 
mustered out at New Orleans August 15, 1865. 



was organized at Keokuk, and mustered into the United States service September 
23, 1862, with Charles B. Abbott, of Louisa County, as Colonel ; Wm. M. G. Tor- 
rence, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and Lauren Dewey, of Mt. Pleasant, as 
Major. Companies A and I were from Lee County ; Company B, from Davis 
County ; Company C, from Des Moines County ; Company D, from Van Buren 
County ; Companies E and K from Washington County ; Company F, from 
Davis County ; and Companies G and H, from Jefferson County. Was 
engaged at Arkansas Post, Yazoo City, Vicksburg, Cherokee, Ala., Ringgold, 
Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station, Jonesboro, Taylor's 
Ridge; was in Sherman's campaigns to Savannah and through the Carolinas to 
Richmond ; was in the grand review at Washington, D. C, where it was mus- 
tered out June 5, 1865. 


was mustered into the service at Davenport October 13, 1862, with William 
Smyth, of Marion, as Colonel ; J. W. Jenkins, of Maquoketa, as Lieutenant 
Colonel ; and Ezekiel Cutler, of Anamosa, as Major. Company A was from 
Linn County; Companies B, C and D, from Black Hawk County; Companies 
E, G and H, from Jones County; Companies F, I and K, from Jackson County. 
Was engaged at Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Raymond, Jackson, Black 
River, Vicksburg, Cherokee, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, 
Taylor's Hills, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Jonesboro; was in Sherman's campaign 
through Georgia and the Carolinas, and was mustered out at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, June 27, 1865 


was organized at Dubuque, with John Scott, of Nevada, as Colonel ; E. H. 
Mix, of Shell Rock, as Lieutenant Colonel, and G. A. Eberhart, of Waterloo, 
as Major. Company A was from Hamilton, Hardin and Wright Counties ; 
Company B, from Cerro Gordo County ; Company C, from Black Hawk 
County ; Company D, from Boone County; Company E, from Butler County; 
Company F, from Hardin County; Company G, from Butler and Floyd Coun-, 
ties ; Company H, from Franklin County; Company I, from Webster County, 
and Company K, from Marshall and Polk Counties, and was mustered into 
the United States service October 5, 1862. Was engaged at Fort De Russey, 
Pleasant Hill, Tupelo, Old Town Creek, Nashville, etc., and was mustered out 
of the United States service at Clinton, Iowa, Aug. 24, 1865. 


was organized at Oskaloosa, with Samuel A. Rice, of Oskaloosa, as Colonel ; 
Cyrus H. Maskey, of Sigourney, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Hiram D. Gibson, 
of Knoxville, as Major. Companies A and I were from Marion County; Com- 
panies B, F and H, from Keokuk County; Companies C, D, E and K, from 
Makaska County, and Company G, from Marion, Makaska and Polk Counties, 
and mustered in October 1, 1862. Was engaged at Little Rock, Helena, Sa- 
line River, Spanish Fort and Yazoo Pass. Was mustered out at New Orleans, 
July 17, 1865. 



was organized with George W. Clark, of Indianola, as Colonel ; W. S. Dungan, 
of Chariton, as Lieutenant Colonel, and R. D. Kellogg, of Decatur County, as 
Major, and mustered in at Burlington, October 15, 18G2. Companies A and I 
were from Decatur County ; Companies B, C and D, from Warren County ; Com- 
pany E, from Lucas County; Company F, fnmi Wayne County; Company G, 
from Lucas and Clark Counties ; Company II, from Madison and Warren 
Counties, and Company K, from Lucas County. Was engaged at Arkansas 
Post, Ft. Gaines, etc., etc. Was consolidated with the Thirty-eighth Infantry, 
January 1, 1865, and mustered out at Houston, Texas, August 15, 1805. 


was organized at Muscatine, and mustered in the United States service Sep- 
tember 18, 1862, with S. G. Hill, of Muscatine, as Colonel; James H. Roth- 
rock, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Henry OConner, of Muscatine, as Major. 
Companies A, B, C, D and E, were from Muscatine County; Company F, 
from Muscatine and Louisa Counties ; Companies G, II and I, from Muscatine 
and Cedar Counties, and Company K, from Cedar County. Participated in 
the battles of Jackson, siege of Vicksburg, Bayou Rapids, Bayou de Glaze, 
Pleasant Hill, Old River Lake, Tupelo, Nashville, etc. Was mustered out at 
Davenport, August 10, 1865. 


was organized at Keokuk, with Charles W. Kittredge, of Ottumwa, as Colonel ; 
F M. Drake, of Unionville, Appanoose Count3^ as Lieutenant Colonel, and T. 

C. Woodward, of Ottumwa, as Major, and mustered in October 4, 1862 ; Com- 
pany A was from Monroe County ; Companies B, D, E, H and K, from 
Wapello County, and Companies C, F, G and I, from Appanoose County. 
Was engaged in the following battles : Mark's Mills, Ark. ; Elkins' Ford, 
Camden, Helena, Jenkins' Ferry, etc. At Mark's Mills, April 25, 1864, out 
of 500 engaged, lost 200 killed and wounded, the balance being taken prisoners 
of war ; was exchanged October 6, 1864. Was mustered out at Duvall's Bluff, 
Ark., August 24, 1865. 


was organized with Geo. W. Kincaid, of Muscatine, as Colonel; Geo. R. West, 
of Dubu(|ue, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Lyman Allen, of Iowa City, as Major, 
and was mustered into United States service at Muscatine December 15, 1862. 
Company A was from Black Hawk and Linn Counties ; Company B, from 
Muscatine County ; Company C, from Van Buren and Lee Counties ; Company 

D, from Johnson and Iowa Counties ; Company E, from Wapello and Mahaska 
Counties ; Company F, from I)ubu(}ue County ; Com})any G, from Appanoose, 
Des Moines, Henry and Washington Counties; Company H, from Henry and 
Jefferson Counties ; Company I, from Jasper, Linn and other counties, and 
Company K, from Scott and Fayette Counties. The object of the Thirty- 
seventh was to do garrison duty and let the young men go to the front. It was 
mustered out at Davenport on expiration of three years' service. 



was organized at Dubuque, and mustered in November 4, 1862, witli D. II. 
Hughes, of Decorah, as Colonel ; J. 0. Hudnutt, of Waverly, as Lieutenan, 
Colonel, and Charles Chadwick, of West Union, as Major. Companies A, Ft 
G and II were from Fayette County ; Company B, from Bremer County ; Com- 
pany C, from Chickasaw County ; Companies D, E and K, from Winneshiek 
County, and Company I, from Howard County. Participated in the siege of 
Vicksburg, Banks' Red River expedition, and on December }2, 1864, was 
consolidated with the Thirty-fourth Infantry. Mustered out at Houston, Texas. 
August 15, 1865. 


was organized with H. J. B. Cummings, of Winterset, as Colonel; James Red- 
fiehl, of Redfield, Dallas County, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and J. M. Griffiths, 
of Des Moines, as Major. Companies A and F were from Madison County ; 
Companies B and I, from Polk County ; Companies C and H, from Dallas 
County ; Company D, from Clark County; Company E, from Greene County ; 
Company G, from Des Moines and Henry Counties ; and Company K, from 
Clark and Decatur Counties. Was engaged at Parker's Cross Roads, Tenn.; 
Corinth, Allatoona, Ga.; Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Sherman's march 
to Savannah and through the Carolinas to Richmond, and was mustered out at 
Washington June 5, 1865. 


was organized at Iowa City November 15, 1862, with John A. Garrett, of 
Newton, as Colonel; S. F. Cooper, of Grinnell, as Lieutenant Colonel; and 
S. G. Smith, of Newton, as Major. Companies A and H were from Marion 
County; Company B, from Poweshiek County; Company C, from Mahaska 
County; Companies D and E, from Jasper County; Company F, from Ma- 
haska and Marion Counties ; Company G, from Marion County ; Company I, 
from Keokuk County ; and Company K, from Benton and other counties. Par- 
ticipated in the siege of Vicksburg, Steele's expedition, Banks' Red River 
expedition. Jenkins' Ferry, etc. Was mustered out at Port Gibson August 2. 


formerly Companies A, B and C of the Fourteenth Infantry, became Compa- 
nies K, L and M of the Seventh Cavalry, under authority of the War Depart- 
ment. Its infantry organization was under command of John Pattee, of Iowa 
City, Company A was from Black Hawk, Johnson and other counties; Com- 
pany B, from Johnson County ; and Company C, from Des Moines and various 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered in June 1, 1864. Company A was 
from Dubuque County; Company B, Muscatine County; Company C, Jones, 
Linn and Dubuque Counties; Company D, Johnson and Linn Counties; Com- 
pany E, Bremer and Butler Counties ; Company F, Clinton and Jackson 
Counties; Company G, Marshall and Hardin Counties; Company II, Boone 
and Polk Counties; Compiinie.s I and K, Scott County. The Forty-fourth 
did garrison duty at Memphis and La Grange, Tenn. Mustered out at Daven- 
port, September 15, 1864. 



was mustered in at Keokuk, May 25, 1864, with A. H. Bereman, of Mount 
Pleasant, as Colonel ; S. A. Moore, of Bloomfield, as Lieutenant Colonel, and 
J. B. Hope, of Washington, as Major. The companies were from the following 
counties: A, Henry; B, Washington; C, Lee; D, Davis; E, Henry and 
Lee ; F, Des Moines ; G, Des Moines and Henry ; H, Henry ; I, Jefferson, 
and K, Van Buren. Was mustered out at Keokuk, September 16, 1864. 


was organized with D. B. Henderson, of Clermont, as Colonel ; L. D. Durbin, 
of Tipton, as Lieutenant Colonel, and G. L. Tarbet, as Major, and was mus- 
tered in at Dubuque, June 10, 1864. Company A was from Dubuque; Com- 
pany B, from Poweshiek ; C, from Dallas and Guthrie ; D, from Taylor and 
Fayette; E, from Ringgold and Linn ; F, from Winneshiek and Delaware ; G, 
from Appanoose and Delaware ; H, from Wayne ; I, from Cedar, and K, from 
Lucas. Was mustered out at Davenport, iSeptember 2o, 1864. 


was mustered into United States service at Davenport, June 4, 1864, with 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, as Colonel ; John Williams, of Iowa City, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, and G. J. Wrigiit, of Des Moines, as Major. Company 
A was from Marion and Clayton Counties; Company B, from Appanoose 
County ; Company C, from Waj)ello and Benton Counties ; Company B, from 
Buchanan and Linn Counties; Company E, from Madison County; Company 
F, from Polk County ; Company G, from Johnson County ; Company H, from 
Keokuk County; Company I, from Mahaska County, and Company K, from 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered in July 13, 1864, with 0. H. P. 
Scott, of Farmington, as Lieutenant Colonel. Company A was from Warren 
County; Company B, from Jasper County; Company C, from Decatur County, 
and Company D, from Des Moines and Lee Counties, and was mustered out at 
Rock Island 'Barracks Oct. 21, 1864. 



was organized at Burlington, and mustered into the United States service May 
3, IStn, Avith Fitz Henry Warren, of Burlington, as Colonel; Chas. E. Moss, 
of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and E. W. Chamberlain, of Burlington, 
James 0. Gower, of Iowa City, and W. M. G. Torrence, of Keokuk, as Majors. 
Company A was from Lee, Van Buren and Wapello Counties ; Company B, 
from Clinton County ; Company C, from Des Moines and Lee Counties ; Com- 
pany D, from Madison and Warren Counties; Company E, from Henry 
County ; Company F, from Johnson and Linn Counties ; Company G, from 
Dubuque and Black Hawk Counties; Company II, from Lucas and Morrison 
Counties ; Company I, from Wapello and Des Moines Counties ; Company K, 
from Allamakee and Clayton Counties ; Company L, from Dubuqjae and other 


counties; Company M, from Clinton County. It was engaged at Pleasant 
Hill, Mo.; Rolla, New Lexington, Elkins' Ford, Little Rock, Bayou Metoe, 
Warrcnsburg, Big Creek Bluffs, Antwineville, Clear Creek, etc. Was mustered 
out at Austin, Texas, February 15, 1866. 


was organized with W. L. Elliott, of the regular army, as Colonel ; Edward 
Hatch, of Muscatine, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and N. P. Hepburn, of Marshall- 
town, D. E. Coon, of Mason City, and H. W. Love, of Iowa City, as Majors, 
and was mustered into the United States service at Davenport September 1, 
1861. Company A was from Muscatine County ; Company B, from Marshall 
County ; Company C, from Scott County ; Company D, from Polk County ; 
Company E, from Scott County; Company F, from Llamilton and Franklin 
Counties; Company G, from Muscatine County; Company H, from Johnson 
County ; Company I, from Cerro Gordo, Delaware and other counties ; Com- 
pany K, from Des Moines County ; Company L, from Jackson County, and 
Company M, from Jackson County. The Second Cavalry participated in the 
following military movements : Siege of Corinth, battles of Farmington, Boone- 
ville, Rienzi, luka, Corinth, Coffeeville, Palo Alto, Birmingham, Jackson, 
Grenada, Collierville, Moscow, Pontotoc, Tupelo, Old Town, Oxford, and en- 
gagements against Hood's march on Nashville, battle of Nashville, etc. Was 
mustered out at Selma, Ala., September 19, 1865. 


was organized and mustered into the United States service at Keokuk, in Au- 
gust and September, 1861, with Cyrus Bussey, of Bloomfield, as Colonel; H. 
H. Bussey, of Bloomfield, as Lieutenant Colonel, and C. H. Perry, H. C. Cald- 
well and W. C. Drake, of Corydon, as Majors. Companies A and E were from 
Davis County; Company B, from Van Buren and Lee Counties; Company C, 
from Lee and Keokuk Counties; Company D, from Davis and Van Buren 
Counties; Company F, from Jefferson County; Company G, from Van Buren 
County; Company II, from Van Buren and Jefferson Counties; Company I, 
from Appanoose County; Company K, from Wapello and Marion Counties; 
Company L, from Decatur County, and Company M, from Appanoose and De- 
catur Counties. It was engaged in the following battles and skirmishes : 
Pea Ridge, La Grange, Sycamore, near Little Rock, Columbus, Pope's Farm, 
Big Blue, Ripley, Coldwater, Osage, Tallahatchie, Moore's Mill, near Monte- 
vallo, near Independence, Pine Bluff", Botts' Farm, Gun Town, White's Station, 
Tupelo, Village Creek. Was mustered out of United States service at Atlanta, 
Ga., August 9, 1865. 


was organized with Asbury B. Porter, of Mount Pleasant, as Colonel ; Thomas 
Drummond, of Vinton, as Lieutenant Colonel ; S. D. Swan, of Mount Pleas- 
ant, J. E. Jewett, of Des Moines, and G. A. Stone, of Motsnt Pleasant, as 
Majors, and mustered into United States service at Mount Pleasant November 
21, 1861. Company A was from Delaware County; Company C, from Jef- 
ferson and Henry Counties ; Company D, from Henry County ; Company E, 


from Jasper and Poweshiek Counties ; Company F, from Wapello County ; 
Company G, from Lee and Henry Counties ; Company H, from Chickasaw 
County ; Company I, from Madison County ; Company K, from Henry 
County ; Company L, from Des Moines and other counties ; and Company M, 
from Jefferson County. The Fourth Cavalry lost-men in the following engage- 
ments : Guntown, Miss.; Helena, Ark.; near Bear Creek, Miss.; near Mem- 
|)his, Tenn.; Town Creek, Miss.; Columbus, Ga.; Mechanicsburg, Miss.; Little 
Blue River, Ark.; Brownsville, Miss.; Ripley, Miss.; Black River Bridge, 
Miss.; Grenada, Miss.; Little Red River, Ark.; Tupelo, Miss.; Yazoo River, 
Miss.; White River, Ark.; Osage, Kan.; Lick Creek, Ark.; Okalona, Miss.; 
St. Francis River, Ark. Was mustered out at Atlanta, Ga., August 10, 1865. 


Avas organized at Omaha with Wm. W. Lowe, of the regular army, as Colo- 
nel ; M. T. Patrick, of Omaha, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and C. S. Bernstein, 
of Dubuque, as Major, and mustered in September 21, 1861. Companies A, 
B, C and D were mostly from Nebraska ; Company E, from Dubuque County ; 
Company F, from Des Moines, Dubuque and Lee Counties , Company G, from 
Minnesota; Company II, from Jackson and other counties; Companies I and 
K were from Minnesota; Company L, from Minnesota and Missouri; Com- 
pany M, from Missouri ; Companies G, I and K were transferred to Minnesota 
Volunteers Feb. 25, 1864. The new Company G was organized from veterans 
and recruits and Companies C, E, F and I of Fifth Iowa Infontry, and trans- 
ferred to Fifth Cavalry August 8, 1864. The second Company 1 was organ- 
ized from veterans and recruits and Companies A, B, D, G, H and K of the 
Fifth Iowa Infantry, and transferred to Fifth Iowa Cavalry August 18, 1864. 
Was engaged at second battle of Fort Donelson, Wartrace, Duck River Bridge, 
Sugar Creek, Newnan, Camp Creek, Cumberland Works, Tenn.; Jonesboro, 
Ebenezer Church, Lockbridge's Mills, Pulaski, Cheraw, and mustered out at 
Nashville, Tenn., August 11, 1865. 


was organized with D. S. Wilson, of Dubuque, as Colonel ; S. M. Pollock, of 
Dubuque, as Lieutenant Colonel ; T. H. Shephard, of Iowa City, E. P. Ten- 
Broeck, of Clinton, and A. E. House, of Delhi, as Majors, and was mustered 
in at Davenport, January 31, 1863. Company A was from Scott and other 
counties; Company B, from Dubuque and other counties; Company C, from 
Fayette County; Company D, from Winneshiek County; Company E, from 
Southwest counties of the State ; Company F, from Allamakee and other 
counties ; Company G, from Delaware and Buchanan Counties ; Company H, 
from Linn County ; Company I, from Johnson and other counties ; Company 
K, from Linn County; Company L, from Clayton County; Company M, from 
•Johnson and Dubuque Counties. The Sixth Cavalry operated on the frontier 
against the Indians. Was mustered out at Sioux City, October 17, 1865. 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered into the United States service April 
27, 1863, with S. W. Summers, of Ottumwa, as Colonel ; John Pattee, of Iowa 
City, as Lieutenant Colonel ; H. 11. Heath and G. M. O'Brien, of Dubuque, 


and John S. "Wood, of Ottumwa, as Majors. Companies A, B, C and D, were 
from Wapello and other counties in immediate vicinity; Companies E, F, G 
and H, were from all parts of the State ; Company I, from Sioux City and 
known as Sioux City Cavalry; Company K was originally Company A of the 
Fourteenth Infantry and afterward Company A of the Forty-first Infantry, was 
from Johnson and other counties ; Company L was originally Company B, of 

the Forty-first Infantry and afterward Comjjany B, of tlie Forty , and 

wa^ from Johnson County; Company M was originally Company C, of the 
Fourteenth Infantry, and afterward Company C, of the Forty-first and from Des 
Moines and other counties. The Seventh Cavalry operated against the Indi- 
ans. Excepting the Lieutenant Colonel and Companies K, L and M, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 17, 18GG. Companies. 
K, L, and M were mustered out at Sioux City, June 22, 1800. 


was organized with J. B. Dorr, of Dubuque, as Colonel ; II. G. Barner, of 
Sidney, as Lieutenant Colonel ; John J. Bovven, of Ilopkinton, J. D. Thompson, 
of Eldora, and A. J. Price, of Guttenburg, as Majors, and were mustered in at 
Davenport September 30, 1803. The companies were mostly from the follow- 
ing counties: Company A, Page ; B, Wapello; C, Van Buren; D, Ring- 
gold; E, Henry; F, Appanoose; G, Clayton ; II, Appanoose; I, Marshall; 
K, Muscatine; L, Wapello; M, Polk. The Eighth did a large amount of duty 
guarding Sherman's communications, in which it had many small engagements. 
It was in the battles of Lost Mountain, Lovejoy's Station, Newnan, Nashville, 
etc. Was on Stoneman's cavalry raid around Atlanta, and Wilson's raid 
through Alabama. Was mustered out at Macon, Ga., August 13, 1805. 


was mustered in at Davenport, November 30, 1803, with M. M. Trumbull, of 
Cedar Falls, as Colonel ; J. P. Knight, of Mitchell, as Lieutenant Colonel ; E. 
T. Ensign, of Des Moines, Willis Drummond, of McGregor, and William Had- 
dock, of Waterloo, as Majors. Company A was from Muscatine County ; 
Company B, Linn County; Company C, Wapello and Decatur Counties ; Com- 
pany D, Washington County ; Company E, Fayette County ; Company F, 
Clayton County ; Companies G and II, various counties ; Company I, Wapello 
and Jefferson Counties; Company K, Keokuk County; Company L, Jasper 
and Marion Counties ; Company M, Wapello and Lee Counties. Was mustered 
out at Little Rock, Ark., February 28, 1806. 



was enrolled in the counties of Wapello, Des Moines, Dubuque, Jefferson, 
Black Hawk, etc., and was mustered in at Burlington, Aug. 17, 1801, with C. H. 
Fletcher, of Burlington, as Captain. Was engaged at Pea Ridge, Port (iibson, 
in Atlanta campaign, Chickasaw Bayou, Lookout Mountain, etc. Was mus- 
tered out at Davenport July 5, 1805. 



was enrolled in the counties of Dallas, Polk, Harrison, Fremont and Pottawat- 
tamie, and mustered into United States service at Council Blufls and St. Louis, 
Mo , Aug. 8 and 31, 1861, with Nelson T. Spear, of Council Bluffs, as 
Captain. Was engaged at Farmington, Corinth, etc. Was mustered out at 
Davenport, Aug. 7, 1865. 


was enrolled in the counties of Dubuque, Black Hawk, Butler and Floyd, and 
mustered into United States service at Dubuque, September, 1861, with M. 
M. Hayden, of Dubuque, as Captain. Was at battle of Pea Ridge, etc., etc. 
Was mustered out at Davenport, Oct. 23, 1865. 


was enrolled in Mahaska, Henry, Mills and Fremont Counties, and was mus- 
tered in at Davenport, Nov. 23, 1863, with P. H. Goode, of Glenwood, Cap- 
tain. Was mustered out at Davenport, July 14, 1865. 



Company A, from Fremont County, W. Hoyt, Captain; Company B, from 
Taylor County, John Flick, Captain; Company C, from Page County, J. 
Whitcomb, Captain. 


was organized by the State of Iowa to protect the Northwestern frontier, 
James A. Sawyer, of Sioux City, was elected Colonel. It had Companies A, 
B, C, D and E, all enlisted from the Northwestern counties. 


was organized by the State for the purpose of protecting the Southern border 
of the State, and was organized in counties on the border of Missouri. Com- 
pany A, First Battalion, was from Lee County, Wm. Sole, Captain; Company B, 
First Battalion, Joseph Dickey, Captain, from Van Buren County; Company 
A, Second Battalion, from Davis County. Capt. H. B. Horn ; Company B, Sec- 
ond Battalion, from Appanoose County, E. B. Skinner, Captain; Company A, 
Third Battalion, from Decatur County, J. H. Simmons, Captain; Company B, 
Third Battalion, from Wayne County, E. F. Estel, Captain; Company C, 
Third Battalion, from Ringgold County, N. Miller, Captain. 


was organized with John G. Hudson, Captain Company B, Thirty-third Mis- 
souri, as Colonel; M. F. Collins, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel, and J. L. 
Murphy, of Keokuk, as Major. Had ten companies, and were mustered in at 
various places in the Fall of 1863. The men were from all parts of the State 
and some from Missouri, 


During the war, the following promotions were made by the United States 
Government from Iowa regiments:* 


Samuel R. Curtis, Brigadier General, from March 21, 1863. 
Frederick Steele, Brigadier (ieneral, from November 29, 18G2. 
Frank J. Herron, Brigadier General, from ISTovember 29, 1863. 
Grenville M. Dodge, Brigadier General, from June 7, 1864. 


Samuel R. Curtis, Colonel 2d Infantry, from May 17, 1861. 

Frederick Steele, Colonel 8th Infantry, from February 6, 1863. 

Jacob G. Lauman, Colonel 7th Infantry, from March 21, 1863. 

Grenville M. Dodge, Colonel 4th Infantry, from March 31, 1862. 

James M. Tuttle, Colonel 3d Infantry, from June 9, 1863. 

Washington L. Elliott, Colonel 3d Cavalry, from June 11, 1863. 

Fitz Henry Warren, Colonel 1st Cavalry , from July 6, 1862. 

Frank J. Herron, Lieutenant Colonel 9tii Infantry, from July 30, 1863. 

Charles L. Matthies, Colonel 5th Infantry, from November 39, 1863. 

William Yandever, Colonel 9tli Infantry, from November 39, 1863. 

Marcellus M. Crocker, Colonel 13th Infantry, from Nov. 39, 1863. (Since died.) 

Hugh T. Reid, Colonel 15th Infantry from March 13, 1863. 

Samuel A. Rice, Colonel 33d Infantry, from August 4, 1863. 

John M. Corse, Colonel 6th Infantry, from August 11, 1863. 

Cyrus Bussey, Colonel 3d Cavalry, from January 5, 1864. 

Edward Hatch, Colonel 3d Cavalry, from April 37, 1864. . 

Elliott W. Rice, Colonel 7th Infantry, from June 30, 1864. 

Wm. W. Belknap, Colonel 15th Infantry, from July 30, 1864. 

Jolm Edwards, Colonel 18tli Infantry, from September 36, 1864. 

James A. Williamson, Colonel 4th Infantry, from January 13, 1864. 

James I. Gilbert, Colonel 37th Infantry, from February 9, 1865. 


John M. Corse, Brigadier General from October 5, 1864. 
Edward Hatch, Brigadier General, from December 15, 1864. 
Wm. W. Belknap, Brigadier General, from March 13, 1865. 
W. L. Elliott, Brigadier General, from March 13, 1865. 
Wm. Vandever, Brigadier General, from June 7, 1865. 


Wm. T. Clark, A. A. G., late of 13th Infantry, from July 23, 1864. 

Edward F. Winslow, Colonel 4th Cavalry, from December 13, 1864. 

S. G. Hill, Colonel 35th Infantry, from December 15, 1864. (Since died.) 

Thos. II. Benton, Colonel 39th Infantry, from December 15, 1864. 

Samuel L. Glasgow, Colonel 33d Infantry, from December 19, 1864. 

Clark R. AVever, Colonel 17th Infantry, from February 9, 1805. 

Francis M. Drake, Lieutenant Colonel 36th Infantry, from February 33, 1865. 

George A. Stone, Colonel 35th Infantiy, from March 13, 1865. 

Datus E. Coon, Colonel 3(1 Cavalry, from Marcli 8, 1865. 

George W. Clark, Colonel 34th Infantry, from March 13, 1865. 

Herman H. Heath, Colonel 7th Cavalry, from March 13, 1865. 

J. M. Hedrick, Colonel 15th Infantry, from Marcli 13, 1865. 

W. W. Lowe, Colonel 5th Cavalry, from March 13, 1865. 

♦Thomas J. McKean was appointed Paymaster in U. S. A. from Iowa, and subsequently promoted Brigadier General, 
to date fiom Nov. 21, ISfil. 




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TO JANUARY 1, 1865. 

No. Regiment. 

1st Iowa 









Infantry . 

No. of 







































No. Regiment. 

39th Iowa Infantry 

40th " " 

41st Battalion Iowa Infantry 

44th Infantry (100-days men) 

45th " " " 

4Cth " " " 

47th " " " 

48th Battalion '= " 

1st Iowa Cavalry 

2d " " 

3d " " 

4th " " 

5th " " 

6th " " 

7th " " 

8th " " 

9th " " 

Sioux City Cavalry* 

Co. A, llth Tenn. Cavalry 

1st Battery Artillery 

2d " " 

3d • " " 

4th " " 

1st Iowa African Infantry, 60th U. Sf .. 

Dodge's Brigade Band 

Band of 2d Iowa Infantry 

Enlistments as far as reported to Jan. 1, 

1864, for the older Iowa regiments 

Enlistments of Iowa men in regiments 
of other States, over 

No. of 


Re-enlisted Veterans for different Regi- 

Additional enlistments 

Grand total as far as reported up to Jan. 
1, 1865 












1 ,227 




















This does not include those Iowa men who veteranized in the regiments of other States, nor 
the names of men who enlisted during 1864, in regiments of other Slates. 
* Afterward consolidated with Seventh Cavalry, 
f Only a portion of this regiment was credited to the State. 



By Counties. 











































Black Hawk 









Buena Vista 













































































































































Cerro Gordo 






























Emmet t 




































* In 1862, name changed to Lyon. 
























































































































































































Palo Alto 






























12270 61 46 




















Wright .. 






192214 43112 




Length, 380 miles, mean width about 156 miles. Area, 55,410 square 
miles, or 35,462,400 acres. Illinois, as regards its surface, constitutes a 
table-land at a varying elevation ranging between 350 and 800 feet above 
the sea level ; composed of extensive and highly fertile prairies and plains. 
Much of the south division of- the State, especially the rivei'-bottoms, are 
thickly wooded. The prairies, too, have oasis-like clumps of trees 
scattered here and there at intervals. The chief rivers irrigating the 
State are the Mississippi — dividing it from Iowa and Missouri — the Ohio 
(forming its south barrier), the Illinois, Wabash, Kaskaskia, and San- 
gamon, with their numerous affluents. The total extent of navigable 
streams is calculated at 4,000 miles. Small lakes are scattered over vari- 
ous parts of the State. Illinois is extremely prolific in minerals, chiefly 
coal, iron, copper, and zinc ores, sulphur and limestone. The coal-field 
alone is estimated to absorb a full third of the entire coal-deposit of North 
America. Climate tolerably equable and healthy ; the mean temperature 
standing at about 51'' Fahrenheit As an agricultural region, Illinois takes 
a competitive rank with neighboring States, the cereals, fruits, and root- 
crops yielding plentiful returns ; in fact, as a grain-growing State, Illinois 
may be deemed, in proportion to her size, to possess a greater area of 
lands suitable for its production than any other State in the Union. Stock- 
raising is also largely carried on, while her manufacturing interests in 
regard of woolen fabrics, etc., are on a very extensive and yearly expand- 
ing scale. The lines of railroad in the State are among the most exten- 
sive of the Union. Inland water-carriage is facilitated by a canal 
connecting the Illinois River with Lake Michigan, and thence with the 
St. Lawrence and Atlantic. Illinois is divided into 102 counties ; the 
chief towns being Chicago, Springfield (capital), Alton, Quincy, Peoria, 
Galena, Bloomington, Rock Island, Vandalia, etc. By the new Consti- 
tution, established in 1870, the State Legislature consists of 51 Senators, 
elected for four years, and 153 Representatives, for two years ; which 
numbers were to "be decennially increased thereafter to the number of 
six per every additional half-million of inhabitants. Religious and 
educational institutions are largely diffused throughout, and are in a very 
flourishing condition. Illinois has a State Lunatic and a Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum at Jacksonville ; a State Penitentiary at Joliet ; and a Home for 




Soldiers' Orphans at Normal. On November 80, 1870, the public debt of 
the State was returned at $4,870,987, with a balance of $1,808,833 
unprovided for. At the same period the value of assessed and equalized 
property presented the following totals: assessed, $840,031,703 ; equal- 
ized $480,664,058. The name of Illinois, through nearly th. whole of 
the eighteenth century, embraced most of the known regions north and 
west of Ohio. French colonists established themselves in 1678, at 
Cahokia and Kaskaskia, and the territory of which these settlements 
formed the nucleus was, in 1763, ceded to Great Britain in conjunction 
with Canada, and ultimately resigned to the United States in 1787. 
Illinois entered the Union as a State, December 3, 1818; and now sends 
19 Representatives to Congress. Population, 2,539,891, in 1870. 



Tlie profile of Indiana forms a nearly exact XJarallelogram, occupy- 
ing one of the most fertile portions of the great Mississippi Valley. The 
greater extent of the surface embraced within its limits consists of gentle 
undulations rising into hilly tracts toward the Ohio bottom. The chief 
rivers of the State are the Ohio and Wabasli, with their numerous 
affluents. The soil is highly productive of the cereals and grasses — most 
particularly so in the valleys of the Ohio, Wabash, Whitewater, and 
White Rivers. The northeast and central portions are well timbered 
with virgin forests, and the west section is notably rich in coal, constitut- 
ing an offshoot of the great Illinois carboniferous field. Iron, copper, 
marble, slate, gypsum, and various clays are also abundant. From an 
agricultural point of view, the staple products are maize and wheat, with 
the other cereals in lesser yields ; and besides these, flax, hemp, sorghum, 
hops, etc., are extensively raised. Indiana is divided into 92 counties, 
and counts among her principal cities and towns, those of Indianapolis 
(the capital). Fort Wayne, Evansville, Terre Haute, Madison, Jefferson- 
ville, Columbus, Vincennes, South Bend, etc. The public institutions of 
the State are many and various, and on a scale of magnitude and 
efficiency commensurate with her important political and industrial status. 
Upward of two thousand miles of railroads permeate the State in all 
directions, and greatly conduce to the development of her expanding 
manufacturing interests. Statistics for the fiscal year terminating 
October 31, 1870, exhibited a total of receipts, $3,896,541 as against dis- 
bursements, $3,532,406, leaving a balance, $364,135 in favor of the State 
Treasury. The entire public debt, January 5, 1871, $3,971,000. This 
State was first settled by Canadian voyageurs in 1702, who erected a fort 
at Vincennes ; in 1763 it passed into the hands of the English, and was 
by the latter ceded to the United States in 1783. From 1788 till 1791, 
an Indian warefare prevailed. In 1800, all the region west and north of 
Ohio (then formed into a distinct territory) became merged in Indiana. 
In 1809, the present limits of the State were defined, Michigan and 
Illinois having previously been withdrawn. In 1811, Indiana was the 
theater of the Indian War of Tecumseh, ending with the decisive battle 
of Tippecanoe. In 1816 (December 11), Indiana became enrolled among 
the States of the American Union. In 1834, the State passed through a 
monetary crisis owing to its having become mixed up wdth railroad, 
canal, and other speculations on a gigantic scale, which ended, for the 
time being, in a general collapse of public credit, and consequent bank- 
ruptcy. Since that time, however, the greater number of the public 


■works which had brought about that imbroglio — especially the great 
Wabasii and Erie Canal — have been completed, to the great benefit of 
the State, whose subsequent progress has year by year been marked by 
rapid strides in the paths of wealth, commerce, and general social and 
political prosperity. The constitution now in force was adopted in 1851. 
Population, 1,680,637. 


In shape, Iowa presents an almost perfect parallelogram ; has a 
length, north to south, of about 300 miles, by a pretty even width of 208 
miles, and embraces an area of 55,045 square miles, or 35,228,800 acres. 
The surface of the State is generally undulating, rising toward the 
middle into an elevated plateau which forms the " divide " of the 
Missouri and Mississippi basins. Rolling prairies, especially in the south 
section, constitute a regnant feature, and the river bottoms, belted with 
woodlands, present a soil of the richest alluvion. Iowa is well watered ; 
the principal rivers being the Mississippi and Missouri, which form 
respectively its east and west limits, and the Cedar, Iowa, and Des 
Moines, affluents of the first named. Mineralogically, Iowa is important 
as occupying a section of the great Northwest coal field, to the extent of 
an area estimated at 25,000 square miles. Lead, coj^per, zinc, and iron, 
are also mined in considerable quantities. The soil is well adapted to 
the production of wheat, maize, and the other cereals; fruits, vegetables, 
and esculent roots ; maize, wheat, and oats forming the chief staples. 
Wine, tobacco, hops, and wax, are other noticeable items of the agricul- 
tural yield. Cattle-raising, too, is a branch of rural industry largely 
engaged in. The climate is healthy, although liable to extremes of heat 
and cold. The annual gross product of the various manufactures carried 
on in this State approximate, in round numbers, a sum of $20,000,000. 
Iowa has an immense railroad system, besides over 500 miles of water- 
communication by means of its navigable rivers. The State is politically 
divided into 99 counties, with the following centers of population : Des 
Moines (capital), Iowa City (former capital), Dubuque, Davenport, Bur- 
lington, Council Bluffs, Keokuk, Muscatine, and Cedar Rapids. The 
State institutions of Iowa — religious, scholastic, and philanthropic — are 
on a par, as regards number and perfection of organization and operation, 
with those of her Northwest sister States, and education is especially 
well cared for, and largely diffused. Iowa formed a portion of the 
American territorial acquisitions from France, by the so-called Louisiana 
purchase in 1 803, and was politically identified with Louisiana till 1812, 


when it merged into the Missouri Territory; in 1834 it came under the 
jNIichigan organization, and, in 1836, under that of Wisconsin. Finally, 
after being constituted an independent Territory, it became a State of 
the Union, December 28, 1846. Population in 1860, 674,913 ; in 1870, 
1,191,792, and in 1875, 1,353,118. 


United area, 56,243 square miles, or 35,995,520 acres. Extent of the 
Upper and smaller Peninsula — length, 316 miles; breadth, fluctuating 
between 36 and 120 miles. The south division is 416 miles long, by from 
50 to 300 miles wide. Aggregate lake-shore line, 1,400 miles. The 
Upper, or North, Peninsula consists chiefly of an elevated plateau, 
expanding into the Porcupine mountain-system, attaining a maximum 
height of some 2,000 feet. Its shores along Lake Superior are eminently 
bold and picturesque, and its area is rich in minerals, its product of 
copper constituting an important source of industry. Both divisions are 
heavily wooded, and the South one, in addition, boasts of a deep, rich, 
loamy soil, throwing up excellent crops of cereals and other agricultural 
produce. The climate is generally mild and humid, though the Winter 
colds are severe. The chief staples of farm husbandry include the cereals, 
grasses, maple sugar, sorghum, tobacco, fruits, and dairy-stuffs. In 1870, 
the acres of land in farms were : improved, 5,096,939 ; unimproved 
woodland, 4,080,146 ; other unimproved land, 842,057. The cash value 
of land was $398,240,578 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$13,711,979. In 1869, there were shipped from the Lake Superior ports, 
874,582 tons of iron ore, and 45,762 of smelted pig, along with 14,188 
tons of copper (ore and ingot). Coal is another article largely mined. 
Inland communication is provided for by an admirably organized railroad 
system, and by the St. Mary's Ship Canal, connecting Lakes Huron and 
Superior. Michigan is politically divided into 78 cou.nties ; its chief 
urban centers are Detroit, Lansing (cajjital), Ann Arbor, Marquette, 
Bay City, Niles, Ypsilanti, Grand Haven, etc. The Governor of the 
State is elected biennially. On November 30, 1870, the aggregate bonded 
debt of Michigan amounted to $2,385,028, and the assessed valuation of 
land to $266,929,278, representing an estimated cash value of $800,000,000. 
Education is largely diffused and most excellently conducted and pro- 
vided for. The State University at Ann Arbor, the colleges of Detroit 
and Kalamazoo, the Albion Female College, the State Normal School at 
Ypsilanti, and the State Agricultural College at Lansing, are chief among 
the academic institutions. Michigan (a term of Chippeway origin, and 


signifying " Great Lake), was discovered and first settled by French 
Canadians, who, in IGTO, founded Detroit, the pioneer of a series of trad- 
ing-posts on the Indian frontier. During the " Conspiracy of Pontiac," 
following the French loss of Canada, Michigan became the scene of a 
sanguinary struggle between the whites and aborigines. In 1796, it 
became annexed to the United States, which incorponited this region 
with the Northwest Territory, and then with Indiana Territory, till ISOo, 
when it became territorially independent. Michigan was the theater of 
warlike operations during the war of 1S12 with Great Britain, and in 
1819 was authorized to be represented by one delegate in Congress ; in 
18-37 she was admitted into the Union as a State, and in 1869 ratified the 
loth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Population, 1,184,059. 


It has a mean length of 260 miles, and a maximum breadth of 215. 
Laud area, 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 acres. Wisconsin lies at a 
considerable altitude above sea-level, and consists for the most part of an 
upland plateau, the surface of \rhich is undulating and very generally 
divei"sified. Numerous local eminences called mounds are interspersed 
over the State, and the Lake Michigan coast-line is in many parts char- 
acterized by lofty escarped cliffs, even as on the west side the banks of 
the Mississippi form a series of high and picturesque bluffs. A group of 
islands known as The Apostles lie off the extreme north point of the 
State in Lake Superior, and the great estuary of Green Bay, running far 
inland, gives formation to a long, narrow peninsula between its waters 
and those of Lake Michigan. The river-system of Wisconsin has three 
outlets — those of Lake Superior, Green Bay, and the Mississippi, which 
latter stream forms the entire southwest frontier, widening at one point 
into the lai-ge watery expanse called Lake Pepin. Lake Superior receives 
the St. Louis, Burnt Wood, and Montreal Rivci-s ; Green Bay, the 
Menomonee, Peshtigo, Oconto, and Fox ; while into the Mississippi 
emptv the St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, Wisconsin, and Rock Rivers. 
The chief interior lakes are those of Winnebago, Horicon, and Court 
Oreilles, and smaller sheets of water stud a great part of the surface. 
The climate is healthful, with cold Winters and brief but very warm 
Summers. Mean annual rainfall 31 inches. The geological system 
represented by the State, embraces those rocks included between the 
primarv and the Devonian series, the former containing extensive 
deposits of copper and iron ore. Besides these minerals, lead and zinc 
are found in great quantities, together with kaolin, plumbago, gypsum. 


and various cliiyy. Mining, conscHiuently, I'ornis a prominent indnstry, 
and one of yearly increasing dimensions. The soil of Wisconsin is of 
varying quality, but fertile on the whole, and in the north parts of the 
State heavily timbered. The agricultural yield comprises the cereals, 
together with flax, hemp, tobacco, pulse, sorguni, and all kinds of vege- 
tables, and of the hardier fruits. In 1870, the State had a total number 
of 102,904 farms, occupying 11,715,821 acres, of which 5,899,843 con- 
sisted of improv(ul land, and 8,487,442 were timbered. Cash value of 
farms, $300,414,064 ; of farm implements and machinery, $14,239,864. 
Total estimated value of all farm products, including betterments and 
additions to stock, $78,027,082 ; of orchard and dairy stuffs, $1,045,988 ;• 
of lumber, $1,327,618 ; of home manufactures, $338,423 ; of all live-stock, 
$45,310,882. Number of manufacturing esta])lishments, 7,18(5, employ- 
ing 39,055 hands, and turning out productions valued at $85,024,91)0. 
The political divisions of the State form 61 counties, and the (diief places 
of wealth, trade, and population, are Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, 
Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Prairie du Chien, Janesville, Portage City, 
Racine, Kenosha, and J^a Crosse, hi 1870, the total assessed valuation 
reached $333,209,838, as against a true valuation of both real and personal 
estate aggregating $002,207,329. Treasury receipts during 1870, $886,- 
696 ; disbursements, $906,829. Value of church |)r()perty, $4,749,988. 
Education is amply provided for. Independentl}^ of the State University 
at Madison, and those of Galesville and of Lawrence at Applcton, and 
the colleges of Beloit, Racine, and Milton, there are Normal Schools at 
Platteville and Whitewater. The State is divided into 4,802 common 
school districts, maintained at a cost, in 1870, of $2,09-1,160. The chari- 
table institutions of Wisconsin include a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, an 
Institute for the Education of the Blind, and a Soldiers' Orphans' School. 
In January, 1870, the railroad system ramified throughout the State 
totalized 2,779 miles of track, including several lines far advanced toward 
completion. Immigration is successfully encouraged by the State author- 
ities, the larger number of yearly new-comers being of Scandinavian and 
German origin. The territory now occupied within the limits of the 
State of Wisconsin was explored by French missionaries and traders in 
163i), and it remained under French jurisdiction unlil 1708, Avhcn it 
became annexed to the British North AnKjrican possessions. In 1796, it 
reverted to the United States, the government of which latter admitted 
it within the limits of the Northwest Territory, and in 1809, attached it 
to that of Illinois, and to Michigan in 1818. Wisconsin became independ- 
ently territorially organized in 1886, and became a State of the Union, 
March 3, 1847. Population in 1870, 1,064,985, of which 2,118 were of 
the colored race, and 11,521 Indians, 1,206 of the latter being out of 
tribal relations. 



Its length, north to south, embraces an extent of 380 miles ; its 
oreadth one of 250 miles at a maximum. Area, 84,000 square miles, or 
54,760,000 acres. The surface of Minnesota, generally speaking, con- 
sists of a succession of gently undulating plains and prairies, drained by 
an admirable water-system, and with here and there heavily- timbered 
bottoms and belts of virgin forest. The soil, corresponding with such a 
superfices, is exceptionally rich, consisting for the most part of a dark, 
calcareous sandy drift intermixed with loam. A distinguishing physical 
feature of this State is its riverine ramifications, expanding in nearly 
every part of it into almost innumerable lakes — the whole presenting an 
aggregate of water-power having hardly a rival in the Union. Besides 
the Mississippi — which here has its rise, and drains a basin of 800 miles 
of country — the principal streams are the Minnesota (334 miles long), 
the Red River of the North, the St. Croix, St. Louis, and many others of 
lesser importance ; the chief lakes are those called Red, Cass, Leech, 
Mille Lacs, Vermillion, and Wiuibigosh. Quite a concatenation of sheets 
of water fringe the frontier line where Minnesota joins British America, 
culminating in the Lake of the Woods. It has been estimated, that of 
an area of 1,200,000 acres of surface between the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, not less than 73,000 acres are of lacustrine formation. In 
point of minerals, the resources of Minnesota have as yet been very 
imperfectly developed; iron, copj)er, coal, lead — all these are known to 
exist in considerable deposits ; together Avith salt, limestone, and potter's 
clay. The agricultural outlook of the State is in a high degree satis- 
factory ; wheat constitutes the leading cereal in cultivation, .with Indian 
corn and oats in next order. Fruits and vegetables are grown in great 
plenty and of excellent quality. The lumber resources of Minnesota are 
important ; the pine forests in the north region alone occupying an area 
of some 21,000 square miles, which in 1870 produced a return of scaled 
logs amounting to 313,116,416 feet. The natural industrial advantages 
possessed by ]Minnesota are largely improved upon by a railroad system. 
The political divisions of this State number 78 counties; of which the 
chief cities and towns are : St. Paul (the capital), Stillwater, Red Wing, 
St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, Minneapolis, and Mankato. Minnesota has 
already assumed an attitude of liigh importance as a manufacturing State ; 
this is mainly due to the wonderful command of water-power she pos- 
sesses, as before spoken of. Besides her timber-trade, the milling of 
flour, the distillation of whisky, and the tanning of leather, are prominent 
interests, which iu 1860, gave returns to the amount of 814,831,043. 


Education is notal)ly provided for on a broad and catholic scale, the 
entire amount expended scholastically during the year 1870 being $857,- 
816 ; while on November 30 of the preceding year the permanent school 
fund stood at f 2,476,222. Besides a University and Agricultural College, 
Normal and Reform Schools flourish, and with these may be mentioned 
such various philanthropic and religious institutions as befit the needs of 
an intelligent and prosperous community. The finances of the State for 
the fiscal year terminating December 1, 1870, exhibited a balance on the 
right side to the amount of $136,164, being a gain of $44,000 over the 
previous year's figures. The earliest exploration of INIinnesota by the 
whites was made in 1680 by a French Franciscan, Father Hennepin, who 
gave the name of St. Antony to the Great Falls on the Upper Missisippi. 
Ill 1763, the Treatv of Versailles ceded this region to England. 
Twenty years later, Minnesota formed part of the Northwest Territory 
transferred to the United States, and became herself territorialized inde- 
pendently in 1849. Indian cessions in 1851 enlarged her boundaries, and. 
May 11, 1857, Minnesota became a unit of the great American federation 
of States. Population, 430,706. 


Maximum length, 412 miles ; extreme breadth, 208 miles. Area, 
75,905 square miles, or 48,636,800 acres. The surface of this State is 
almost entirely undulating prairie, and forms part of the west slope of 
the great central basin of the North American Continent. In its west 
division, near the base of the Rock}^ Mountains, is a sandy belt of 
country, irregularly defined. In this part, too, are the " dunes," resem- 
bling a wavy sea of sandy billows, as well as the Mauvaises Terres. a tract 
of singular formation, produced by eccentric disintegrations and denuda- 
tions of the land. The chief rivers are the Missouri, constituting its en- 
tire east line of demarcation; the Nebraska or Platte, the Niobrara, the 
Republican Fork of the Kansas, ^the Elkhorn, and the Loup Fork of the 
Platte. The soil is very various, but consisting chiefly of rich, bottomy 
loam, admirably adapted to the raising of heavy crops of cereals. All 
the vegetables and fruits of the temperate zone are produced in great 
size and plenty. For grazing purposes Nebraska is a State exceptionally 
well fitted, a region of not less than 23,000,000 acres being adaptable to 
this branch of husbandry. It is believed that the, as yet, comparatively 
infertile tracts of land found in various parts of the State are susceptible 
of productivity by means of a properly conducted system of irrigation- 
Few minerals of moment have so far been found within the limits of" 



Nebraska, if we may except important saline deposits at the head of Salt' 
Creek in its southeast section. The State is divided into 57 counties, 
independent of the Pawnee and Winnebago Indians, and of unorganized 
territory in the northwest part. The principal towns are Omaha, Lincoln 
(State capital), Nebraska City, Columbus, Grand Island, etc. In 1870, 
the total assessed value of property amounted to 853,000,000, being an 
increase of 811.000,000 over the previous j'ear's returns. Tlie total 
amount received from the school-fund during the year 1869-70 was 
877,999. Education is making great onward strides, the State University 
and an Agricultural College being far advanced toward completion. In 
the matter of railroad communication, Nebraska bids fair to soon place 
herself on a par with her neighbors to the east. Besides being inter- 
sected by the Union Pacific line, with its off-shoot, the Fremont and Blair, 
other tracks are in course of rapid construction. Organized by Con- 
gressional Act" into a Territory, May 30, 1854, Nebraska entered the 
Union as a full State, March 1, 1867. Population, 122,993. 

tit:xtin(; Pu^uKiK wolves ix ax uakly day, 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish jzistice, insure domestic tranqaillity, jyrovide for the common 
defense, promote the general tvelfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
lectors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous l)ranch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven j-ears a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which ma}- be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three j^ears after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five. New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, aud 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of th 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro 
tempore^ \n the absence of the Vice-President, or when he sLall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States;, but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4, The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof; but the Congress ma}' at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, exce[)ting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representarives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in ail cases, except treason. 


felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of tlie United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by } eas and nays, 
and the names of tlie persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
Jtates ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
^trtes, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for n longer term than two years; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislatron in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places' purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To" make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohiLited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless Avhen in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of ^all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust nnder them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engao^e in war, unless actuallv invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay, 

Akticle II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[*The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; 
and if there be more than one who have such ma.iority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

* This clause between brackets has been supersedctl auii auuulleU by the Twelfth ameuUm«iit 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the day on -which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President : neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and stu^h officer i>hall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation: 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, ex<3ept in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassaaors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. o. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, with respect to the time of at\journment, he ma}? 
adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers: he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. '2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lauds under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreiun 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all tlie other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall 
have been committed ; but when not committed within any state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing w^ar against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of everv other state. Ami 


the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and llie effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdic'on of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in tlie ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. , 

Aeticle VL 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
tliis Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the L^nited States whicli shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the L'^nited States, shall be the supreme law of the 
Luul ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 


"bers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratitying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 

President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
RuFus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jk., 
Richard Bassett. 

James jSL Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

Neiv York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

iVgw Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
JoNA. Dayton. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
RoBT. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons. 
James Wilson, 
Thos. ^Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
j. rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney. 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
A BR. Baldwin. 




Articles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
OP THE United States op America. 

Proposed by Congress and ratified by the Legislatures of the several statei,, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment cf religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom ol 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 

and effects against uureasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising iu the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 


tried by a jury shall be otlicrwise re-cxaminod in any court of the United 
States than accordiug to the rules of the coniniou law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain riglits, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

AuriCLE X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in tlieir respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ;' they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of tliose voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose innnediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any j)erson of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, liaviug previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 



Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote sliall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of 
race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 





Allamakee ... 
Appanoose .... 



Black Hawk.. 




Buena Vista.. 




Cedar , 

Cerro Gordo., 


Chickasaw ... 










Des Moines .. 






Franklin , 





Hamilton .... 


Hardin , 




Humboldt — 







Rep. Dem. Gr. Pro. 





























































Kep. Dem. 





























80 1 

















































































Palo Alto 















Vivn Buren 













Total vote, 1877, 245,766, 1876(including2949 Greenback), 292,943. 


Rep. Dem. Gr. Pro 


































































































1885] 1353 
2059 218 








64 J 




































Rep. Dem 




2246: 1538 





3056 1189 
















4321 2382 
2565 2414- 
2509! IOS3. 







2:537 j 






2113 1061 

2582' 2412 

24391 1315 

2467 150S 





921 U 


161 T 





R. Maj. 


.Maj. '74. 


Rep. Dem. 

R. Maj. 


J1.1J. '74. 



1 9274 




D. 1803 
R. 057 
D. 63 
R. 3824 
R. 5243 
R. 2724' 




19496 11688 
19:558 152:56 
19503 10583 



R 2300 


R 2127 


R 6849' 







Total vote, 1874, 184,640 ; aggregate Republican majority, 24,524. *Including 5,406 Greenback vot.s. 

Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

Hoiu to find the gain or loss per cent, xvlien the cost and selling price 
are given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selUng price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price ; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gold. 

How to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner'' s share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quo- 
tient will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be 
each one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net taeight^ or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is generally assumed that the gross weight of Hogs diiuiuished liy 1-5 or 20 per cent. 
of itself gives the uet weight, auU the net weight increased by X or 25 per cent, of itself equals the 
gross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multipl}^ the given number bj' .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 
6308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct 
nswer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 



by 4i ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will 
be the answer in bushels. 

Note.— In estimating corn in the ear, the quality and the time it has beeu cribbed must be taken 
Into consideration, since corn will shrink considerably during the Winter ijnd Spring. Tliis rule generally holds 
good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided It is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all 
in feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one 
decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31^ gallons. 

ITow to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length 
(all in inches) in REVERej:D order, so that its units will fall under the 
TENS ; multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point 
off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

ITozv to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

IToiv to measure scantlings, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together 
(the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

ITotv to find the mimber of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the 
product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a 
remainder) ; the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

Hoiv to find the number of square yards in a floor or loall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and 
divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

Hoiv to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22J. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
nd thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

Hoiv to find the 7iumber of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if tho 
shingles are exposed 41- inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the lenqfth of the rafters. 


To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
widtli of the building by .oG (hundredths) ; at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths) ; at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths) ; at one-half 
pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from 
the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be 
taken into consideration. 

NoTK.— By X or K pitch is meant that the apex or comb of thereof is to be J< or >» the width of the 
building Itigrher tlian the walls or base of the rafters. 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — jNIultiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, 
and remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

Sow to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain ; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 
feet ; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 
the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multipl3'ing the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find 
the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of eai 
corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, 
an ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on 
the average, with sufiicient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line ; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote ; and, in walk- 
ing, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others hg adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance, mag cdwags earrg with them the scale to cotistruct a correct gard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger oi 
the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the 
left arm, pricking in the marks Avith indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre, the width being given. 
Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 



Hotc to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of rods 
being given. . 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5» 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

Sow to find the diameter, when the circ^imference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find hoiu many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout will contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply 
by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

Geyieral rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and 
then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees zvith the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1-10 to 
1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Soward s netv rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest 
on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal 
point two places to the left ; for ten times that time, remove the point 
one place to the left ; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three 
places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note.— The rcciprorul of the rale is found by inverting the rate ; thus 3 per cent, per month, In- 
verted, becomes )i of a month, or 10 ilays. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus : 3-1, 
three ones. 

Hulefor converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, 
by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 
An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter 
of a mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 


The sections are all numbered 1 to 8G, commencing at the north-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The de- 
scription of a forty acre lot would read: The south half of the west half of 
the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, north of range T west, 
or as the case might be ; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes 
overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

The nautical mile is TOo 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 


7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

'25 links '* 1 rod. 

4 rods '• 1 chain. 

SO chains '* 1 mile. 

KoTE. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or G6 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barley- 
corn ; three of which made an inch. 

Holies are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — ci\lled a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a lei^.gth of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or ot> inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly 
speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal 
to 3.45 statute miles, but when used »>n land, three statute miles are said 
to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to li yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 20.70(3 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.2S4 inches. 

A Brabant cU is equal to 27.11i> inches. 


• Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic man- 
ner. For the benetit of those who have not had the opportunity of ac- 
quiring a primary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here 
present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, 
and well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics 
and laborers. 


•J SO 

187o. A. 11. JACKSOX. 





10 To r Inishols Wheat 

IT Rv shooiui^ span of Horses. n.25 













4To U bushols Oats 

4,To lbs. Ruttor 

S Bv now Harrow ^ .4o 
. . . at ."25 


S Bv sharponijiiX v Plows ... 



1 o Bv now Donblo-Troo . 


•2 : jTo Cow and (.\vlf 


To half ton of Hav 

OBv Cash 



Bv ropairino: Corn-Plantor 


•M To one Sow with Ro^ 


4 Bv Cash, to bahuice account 











I 21 

Bv 3 da vs' labor 

- . at #1.25 












To 2 Shoats 

To 18 bushels Corn .. . 

at 3.00 

at .45 


Bv 1 month's Labor 



To Cash 


Bv 8 da\*s' MowiuiT 

at ^1 .=50 


To 50 lbs. Flour 


To2Mbs. Moat.,,... 

Bv davs' Harvestiuij. .. 

at $ .10 

at 2.00 






Bv da vs' Labor 

at 1.50 

To Cash..-. 


To Cash to balance account 






Lkxgth ok Time. 
Multiply the prtncijvjJ (.amount of uiono.v ;»r interest ■> by the timf rttiu<fiHo iitiu^; then iliTi>le this vrixlii^f 
by the i7!iort/-iif oUtiUneU by lUviaiiisrSfiOvthe number of days in the Interest vear^ bv the }>«t cent ofiiitorest, 
auilt'i^ quotUnt thus .>hf<iin<\l will bo llie r<Hiuired Interest, 


Requlretheinterestof S-t63.50for one month anil eighteendays at 6 ix-^r cent. An $4t>-0.50 

Interest month is SO d;»vs ; one month and oichtee'.i davs e<\UAl 4S days. S4h0.50 mnlti- ,-IS 

Plieilbv ,4S civos <\iC-.} l\X>0; StiOvlivided bv 6 dho i>or oont, of interest ^ Hives 60. and 

S->2-J.lXX>0>lividi\ll<v 60 w.ll ^ivi> von tt\ee\..iiT interest, \vlue"\ is $3.70. If the rati' of SVOtXW 

intert\<!t in the a'.>ove e\;»mpl'> were 10 per cent., we would divide the S3a'.1.0000 bv SO 6'»3tiO \ 1"^5^100 

ibecauseSfiOdividettby l-J jtives S0\ if 4 per ivnt,. wo would divide by 90; If S' per \ 

cent., by 4.t: and In like manner for anv other per cent. t;(i /SS'"''"' 0000i*3 TO 





13 units, orthlnjTS, 1 Doen. | 196 iKnmds. 1 R«rrel of Flour. 1 24 sheets of p.^per. 1 Qnire. 

13 doxen. 1 Gross, 300 pounds. 1 li;«ri-el of Tork. 30 quires paper 1 Ream. 

30 things, 1 Score. | 56 pounds, 1 Firkin of Butter. | 4 ft, wide. 4 r. hCsth. and S ft, long, 1 Conl Wood,. 



Virginia. — The oldest of the States, was so called in lienor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunda}^ and called the country in commemoration of the day, which was 
the l^isqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for "smoky water." Its 
prefix was really arc, the French word for " bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana," 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

Georgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the "River of the Bend," i.e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky/ is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means " beautiful -, " Iowa, " drowsy ones ; " Minnesota, " cloudy 
water," and Wisconsin, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-iveir, which was 
80 styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," whicli more properly 
■applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortes named California, 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " The country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of 

New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penu's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its orignal owner. 



Delaware after Lord De La Ware. 

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of tlie Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

3Iaine was called after the province of Maine in France, in oompli- 
inent of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont, from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 

Neiv Hampshire, from Hampshire county in England. It was 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to gi-eatly 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name Ijy which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


States and Territories. 


Alaljama. . 

California ' 

Con 11 octlcut 



tleorgia 1 

Illinois 2 

Indiana 1 

Iowa I 1 













New Ilainpslilre. 

New. Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina .. 


Pennsylvania 3, 

Rhode Island i 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 1 


Vermont I 

Virginia 1 

West Virginia, 

Total States., 




District of Columbia. 



New Mexico 




Total Territories 

Total United States 38,555,983 









442, 730" 


Now York, N. Y 

]'liiladcl|)hia, Pa.... 

IJrooklyn, N. Y 

St. Loiii.s, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, JMass 

(Cincinnati, Ohio 

New Orleans, La. .., 
San Francisco, Cal.. 

Bulfalo, N. Y 

Washington, IJ. C... 

Newark. N. .J 

Louisville, Ky 

(Cleveland, f)liio 

Pittsburg, Pa 

.Jersey City, N.J 

Detroit, Mich .'., 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Albany. N. Y 

Providence, K. I 

Rochester. N. Y 

Allegheny, Pa , 

Kiciunond, Va 

New Haven, Conn.. 

(Charleston. H. C 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Troy, N. Y, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis, Tenii 

(Cambridge, Mass 

Hartford, Conn 

Scranton, Pa 

Heading, Pa 

Paterson, N. .1 

Kansas (City, Mo 

Mobile, Ala 

Toledo, Ohio 

Portland, Me 

Columbii.s, Ohio 

Wilmington. Del.... 

Dayton, Oliio 

Lawrence, Mass 

Utica. N. Y 

(Charlestown, Mass. 

Savannah, Ga 

Lynn. Mass 

Fall River, Mass.... 
























































Area in 
States and scmare 
Teruitouiks. Miles. 




















.Mississippi .. . 




New Hampshire, 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina. 
















1,. 321, Oil 









J 23. 993 




4.382. 7."i9 

1,071, 301 



R. R 

1875. 1872. 







1,026, .502 





' Last Census of Michigan taken in 1874. 

States and 



Rhode Island 

Soiitli Carolina... 





West Virginia 


Total States 





Dist. of Columbia. 



New Mexico 




Total Territories. 

Area in 



























K. R. 










Aggregate of U. S.. 12.915,203 38,555,983 I 60,852 

• Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland. 





Date of 


IJritish Kmpire 


United States with Alaska. 


Austriaand Hungary 


Great Britain and Ireland. 

German Kmpire 






Sweden and Norway 






> e w Grenada 





Argentine Republic 











San Salvador 


Nicaragua , 


Honduras , 

San Domingo 

Costa Rica 




























1,818, .500 



























Area in 














































to Square 

















St. Petersburg.. 









Rio Janeiro 

Constantinople . 







Hague , 


Santiago , 




r.iienos Ayres.. 











Sal Salvador . . . 
I'ort an Prince 


Monie Vi<leo... 


San Domingo... 

San Jose 

















































Upon negotiable bills, and notes payable in this State, grace shall be allowed 
according; to the law merchant. All the above mentioned paper falling due on 
Sunday, New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any day appointed 
or recommended by the President of the United States or tiie Governor of the 
State, as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as due on the day pre- 
vious. No defense can be made against a negotiable instrument (assigned before 
due) in the hands of the assignee without notice, except fraud was used in 
obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, due diligence must be used by suit 
against the maker or his representative. Notes payable to person named or to 
order, in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. 
Notes payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so payable, 
every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment, unless otherwise 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month shall 
be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for loss than a month, 
a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes only bear interest 
when so expressed; but after due, they draw the legal interest, even if not 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree, in writing, 
on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater than ten 
per cent, is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of ten per cent, to the school 
fund, and only the principal sum can be recovered. 


The personal property of the deceased (except (1) that necessary for pay- 
ment of debts and expenses of administration ; (2) property set apart to widow, 
as exempt from execution ; (-3) allowance by court, if necessary, of twelve 
months' support to widow, and to children under fifteen years of age), including 
life insurance, descends as does real estate. 

One-third in value (absolutely) of all estates in real property, possessed by 
husband at any time during marriage, which have not been sold on execution 
or other judicial sale, and to which the wife has made no relinquishment of her 
right, shall be set apart as her property, in fee simple, if she survive him. 



The same share shall be set apart to the surviving husband of a deceased 

The widow's share cannot be affected by any will of her husband's, unless 
slic consents, in writing thereto, within six months after notice to her of pro- 
visions of the will. 

The provisions of the statutes of descent apply alike to surviving husband 
or surviving wife. 

Subject to the above^ the remaining estate of which the decedent died 
siezed, shall in absence of other arrangements by will, descend 

First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts ; the 
descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of their 
deceased parents in equal shares among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and no 
widow or surviving husband, then to the j)arents of the deceased in e(jual parts; 
the surviving parent, if either be dead, taking the whole; and if there is no 
parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their descend- 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no child or chil- 
dren, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the estate shall descend to 
such widow or surviving husband, absolutely ; and the other half of the estate 
shall descend as in other cases where there is no Avidow or surviving husband, 
or child or children, or descendants of the same. 

Fourth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, then to wife of intestate, or to her heirs, if dead, according to 
like rules. 

Fifth. If any intestate leaves no child, parent, brother or sister, or de- 
scendants of either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, and no child, 
parent, brother or sister (or descendant of either of them) of such widow or 
surviving husband, it shall escheat to the State. 


No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at law. 
Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, and every female of the age 
of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid will ; it must 
be in writing, signed by the testator, or by some one in his or her presence, and 
by his or her express direction, and attested by two or more competent wit- 
nesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not interested in the will. 
Inventory to be made by executor or administrator within fifteen days from 
date of letters testamentary or of administration. Executors' and administra- 
tors' compensaticm on amount of personal estate distributed, and for proceeds of 
sale of real estate, five per cent, for first one thousand dollars, two and one-half 
])er cent, on ovcr|»lus u]) to five thousand dollars, and one per cent, on overplus 
above five thousand dollars, with such adtlitional allowance as shall be reasona- 
ble for extra services. 

Within ten days after the receipt of letters of administration, the executor 
or administrator shall give such notice of appointment as the court or clerk shall 

Claims (other than preferred) must be filed within one year thereafter, are 
forever barred, ntilcss the claim is pendimi in the District or Supreme Court, or 
unless pecidiar circumstances entitle the claimant to equitable relief. 


Claims are classed and payable in the following order: 

1. Expenses of administration. 

2. Expenses of last sickness and funeral. 

3. Allowance to widow and children, if made by the court. 

4. Debts preferred under laws of the United States. 

5. Public rates and taxes. 

6. Claims filed within six months after the first publication of the notice 
given by the executors of their appointment. 

7. All other debts. 

8. Legacies. 

The award, or property which must be set apart to the widow, in her own 
right, by the executor, includes all personal property which, in the hands of tho 
deceased, as head of a family, would have been exempt from execution. 


The owners of personal property, on the first day of January of each year, 
and the owners of real property on the first day of November of each year, are 
liable for the taxes thereon. 

The following property is exempt from taxation, viz. ; 

1. The property of the United States and of this State, including univer- 
sity, agricultural, college and school lands and all property leased to the State ; 
property of a county, township, city, incorporated town or school district when 
devoted entirely to the public use and not held for pecuniary profit ; public 
grounds, including all places for the burial of the dead; fire engines and all 
implements for extinguishing fires, with the grounds used exclusively for their 
buildings and for the meetings of the fire companies ; all public libraries, 
grounds and buildings of literary, scientific, benevolent, agricultural and reli- 
gious institutions, and societies devoted solely to the appropriate objects of these 
institutions, not exceeding 040 acres in extent, and not leased or otherwise used 
wiih a view of pecuniary profit; and all property leased to agricultural, charit- 
able institutions and benevolent .societies, and so devoted during the term of such 
lease ; provided, that all deeds, by which such property is held, shall be duly 
filed for record before the property therein described shall be omitted from the 

2. The books, papers and apparatus belonging to the above institutions; 
used solely for the purposes above contemplated, and the like property of stu- 
dents in any such institution, used for their education. 

3. Money and credits belonging exclusively to such institutions and devoted 
solely to sustaining them, but not exceeding in amount or income the sum pre- 
scribed by their charter. 

4. Animals not hereafter specified, the wool shorn from sheep, belonging ta 
the person giving the list, his farm produce harvested within one year previous 
to the listing; p)'ivatc libraries not exceeding three hundred dollars in value; 
f'jiiniiy pictures, kitchen furniture, beds and bedding recjuisite for each family, 
idl wearing apparel in actual use, and all food j)rovidcd for the family ; but no 
person from whom a compensation for board or lodging is received or expected, 
is to be considered a member of the; family within the intent of this clause. 

5. The polls or estates or both of persons who, by reason of age or infirm- 
ity, may, in the opinion of the Assessor, be unable to contribute to the public 


revenue ; such opinion and the fact upon which it is based being in all cases 
reported to the Board of Equalization by the Assessor or any other person, and 
subject to reversal by them. 

6. The farming utensils of anv person who makes his livelihood by farming, 
and the tools of any mechanic, not in either case to exceed three hundred dollars 
in value. 

7. Government lands entered or located or lands purchased from this State, 
should not be taxed for the year in which the entry, location or purchase is 

There is also a suitable exemption, in amount, for planting fruit trees or 
forest trees or hedges. 

Where buildings are destroyed by fire, tornado or other unavoidable casu- 
alty, after being assessed for the year, the Board of Supervisors may rebate 
taxes for that year on the property destroyed, if same has not been sold for 
taxes, and if said taxes have not been delinquent for thirty days at the time of 
destruction of the property, and the rebate shall be allowed for such loss only 
as is not covered by insurance. 

All other property is subject to taxation. Every inhabitant of full age and 
sound mind shall assist the Assessor in listing all taxable property of which 
he is the owner, or which he controls or manages, either as agent, guardian, 
iather, husband, trustee, executor, accounting officer, partner, mortgagor or 
lessor, mortgagee or lessee. ^ 

Road beds of railway corporations shall not be assessed to owners of adja- 
cent property, but shall be considered the property of the companies for pur- 
poses of taxation ; nor shall real estate used as a public highway be assessed 
and taxed as part of adjacent lands whence the same was taken for such public 

The property of railway, telegraph and express companies shall be listed 
and assessed for taxation as the property of an individual would be listed and 
assessed for taxation. Collection of taxes made as in the case of an individual. 

The Township Board of Equalization shall meet first Monday in April of 
each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

The County Board of E(|alization (the Board of Supervisors) meet at their 
regular session in June of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

Taxes become delin([uent P'ebruary 1st of each year, payable, without 
interest or penalty, at any time before March 1st of each year. 

Tax sale is held on first Monday in October of each year. 

Redemption may be made at any time within three years after date of sale, 
bv paving to the County Auditor the amount of sale, and twenty j^er centum of 
siich amount immediately added as iJenalty, ivith ten j^er cent, interest per 
annum on the whole amount thus made from the day of sale, and also all sub- 
sequent taxes, interest and costs paid by purchaser after March 1st of each 
year, and a similar penalty of twenty per centum added as before, with ten per 
cent, interest as before. 

If notice has been given, by purchaser, of the date at which the redemption 
is limited, the cost of same is added to the redemption money. Ninety days' 
notice is required, by the statute, to be published by the purchaser or holder of 
certificate, to terminate the right of redemption. 




have jurisdiction, general and original, both civil and criminal, except in such 
cases where Circuit Courts have exclusive jurisdiction. District Courts have 
exclusive supervision over courts of Justices of the Peace and Magistrates, in 
criminal matters, on appeal and writs of error. 


have jurisdiction, general and original, with the District Courts, in all civil 
actions and special proceedings, and exclusive jurisdiction in all appeals and 
^\■rits of error from inferior courts, in civil matters. And exclusive jurisdiction 
in matters of estates and general probate business. 


have jurisdiction in civil matters where $100 or less is involved. By consent 
of parties, the jurisdiction may be extended to an amount not exceeding $300. 
They have jurisdiction to try and determine all public oifense less than felony, 
committed within their respective counties, in which the fine, by law, does not 
exceed $100 or the imprisonment thirty days. 


Action for injuries to the person or I'eputation ; for .a stutute penalty ; and 
to enforce a mechanics' lien, must be brought in two (2) years. 

Those against a public officer within three (3) years. 

Those founded on unwritten contracts; for injuries to property ; for relief 
on the ground of fraud ; and all other actions not otherwise provided for, within 
live (5) years. 

Those founded on written contracts; on judgments of any court (except 
those provided for in next section), and for the recovery of real property, within 
ten (10) years. 

Those founded on judgment of any court of record in the United States, 
within twenty (20) years. 

All above limits, except those for penalties and forfeitures, are extended in 
favor of minors and insane persons, until one year after the disability is removed 
— time during which defendant is a non-resident of the State shall not be 
included in computing any of the above periods. 

Actions for the recovery of real property, sold for non-payment of taxes, 
must be brought within five years after the Treasurer's Deed is executed 
and recorded, except where a minor or convict or insane person is the owner, 
and they shall be allowed five years after disability is removed, in which to 
bring action. 


All qualified electors of the State, of good moral character, sound judgment, 
and in full possession of the senses of hearing and seeing, are competent jurors 
in their respective counties. 

United States officers, practicing attorneys, physicians and clergymen, 
acting professors or teachers in institutions of learning, and persons disabled by 


bodily infirmity or over sixty-five years of age, are exempt from liability to act 
as jurors. 

Any person may be excused from serving on a jury when his own interests 
or the public's will be materially injured by his attendance, or when the state of 
his health or the death, or sickness of his family requires his absence. 


was restored by the Seventeenth General Assembly, making it optional with 
the jury to inflict it or not. 


may convey or incumber real estate, or interest therein, belonging to her ; may 
control the same or contract with reference thereto, as other persons may con- 
vey, encumber, control or contract. 

She may own, acquire, hold, convey and devise property, as her husband 

Her husband is not liable for civil injuries committed by her. 

She may convey property to her husband, and he may convey to her. 

She may constitute her husband her attorney in fact. 


A resident of the State and head of a family may hold the following prop- 
erty exempt from execution : All wearing apparel of himself and family kept for 
actual use and suitable to the condition, and the trunks or other receptacles nec- 
essary to contain the same ; one musket or rifle and shot-gun ; all private 
libraries, family Bibles, portraits, pictures, musical instruments, and paintings 
not kept for the purpose of sale ; a seat or pew occupied by the debtor or his 
family in any house of public worship ; an interest in a public or private burying 
ground not exceeding one acre ; two cows and a calf; one horse, unless a horse 
is exempt as hereinafter provided ; fifty sheep and the wool therefrom, and the 
materials manufactured from said wool ; six stands of bees ; five hogs and all 
pigs under six months ; the necessary food for exempted animals for six months ; 
all flax raised from one acre of ground, and manufactures therefrom ; one bed- 
stead and necessary bedding for every two in the family ; all cloth manufactured 
by the defendant not exceeding one hundred yards ; household and kitchen fur- 
niture not exceeding two hundred dollars in value ; all spinning wheels and 
looms ; one sewing machine and other instruments of domestic hiber kept for 
actual use ; the necessary provisions and fuel for the use of the family for six 
months ; the proper tools, instruments, or books of the debtor, if a farmer, 
mechanic, surveyor, clergyman, lawyer, physician, teacher or professor; the 
horse or the team, consisting of not more than two horses or mules, or two yokes 
of cattle, and the wagon or other vehicle, with the proper harness or tackle, by 
the use of which the debtor, if a physician, public officer, farmer, teamster or 
other laborer, habitually earns his living ; and to the debtor, if a printtr, there 
shall also be exempt a printing press and the types, furniture and material nec- 
essary for the use of such printing press, and a newspaper office to the value of 
twelve hundred dollars ; the earnings of such debtor, or those of his family, at 
any time within ninety days next preceding the levy. 

Persons unmarried and not the head of a family, and non-residents, have 
exempt their own ordinary wearing apparel and trunks to contain the same. 


There is also exempt, to a head of a family, a homestead, not exceeding forty 
acres ; or, if inside city limits, one-half acre with improvements, value not 
limited. The homestead is liable for all debts contracted prior to its acquisition as 
such, and is subject to mechanics' liens for work or material furnished for the same. 

An article, otherwise exempt, is liable, on execution, for the purchase 
money thereof. 

AVhere a debtor, if a head of a family, has started to leave the State, he shall 
have exempt only the ordinary wearing apparel of himself and family, and 
other property in addition, as he may select, in all not exceeding seventy-five 
dollars in value. 

A policy of life insurance shall inure to the separate use of the husband or 
wife and children, entirely independent of his or her creditors. 


An unbroken animal shall not be taken up as an estray between May 1st 
and November 1st, of each year, unless the same be found within the lawful 
enclosure of a householder, Avho alone can take up such animal, unless some 
other person gives him notice of the fact of such animal coming on his place ; 
and if he fails, within five days thereafter, to take up such estray, any other 
householder of the township may take up such estray and proceed with it as if 
taken on his own premises, provided he shall prove to the Justice of the Peace 
such notice, and shall make affidavit where such estray was taken up. 

Any swine, sheep, goat, horse, neat cattle or other animal distrained (for 
damage done to one's enclosure), when the owner is not known, shall be treated 
as an estray. 

Within five days after taking up an estray, notice, containing a full descrip- 
tion thereof, shall be posted up in three of the most public places in the town- 
ship ; and in ten days, the person taking up such estray shall go before a Justice 
of the Peace in the township and make oath as to where such estray was taken 
up, and that the marks or brands have not been altered, to his knowledge. 1 he 
estray shall then be appraised, by order of the Justice, and the appraisement, 
description of the size, age, color, sex, marks and brands of the estray shall be 
entered by the Justice in a book kept for that purpose, and he shall, within ten 
days thereafter, send a certified copy thereof to the County Auditor. 

When the appraised value of an estray does not exceed five dollars, the 
Justice need not proceed further than to enter the description of the estray on 
his book, and if no owner appears within six months, the property shall vest in 
the finder, if he has complied with the law and paid all costs. 

Where appraised value of estray exceeds five and is less than ten dollars, if 
no owner appears in nine months, the finder has the property, if he has com- 
plied with the law and paid costs. 

An estray, legally taken up, may be used or worked with care and 

If any person unlawfully take up an estray, or take up an estray and fail to 
comply with the law regarding estrays, or use or work it contrary to above, or 
work it before halving it appraised, or keep such estray out of the county more 
than five days at one time, before acquiring ownership, such offender shall foifeit 
to the county twenty dollars, and the owner may recover double damages with 

If the owner of any estray fail to claim and prove his title for one year after 
the taking up, and the finder shall have complied with the law, a comolete title 
rests in the finder. 


But if the owner appear within eighteen months from the taking up, prove 
his ownership and pay all costs and expenses, the finder shall pay him the 
appraised value of such estray, or may, at his option, deliver up the estray. 

A bounty of one dollar is paid for wolf scalps. 


Any person may adopt his own mark or brand for his domestic animals, and 
have a description thereof recorded by the Township Clerk. 

No person shall adopt the recorded mark or brand of any other person 
residing in his township. 


AVhen any person's lands are enclosed by a lawful fence, the owner of any 
domestic animal injuring said lands is liable for the damages, and the damages 
may be recovered by suit against the owner, or may be made by distraining the 
animals doing the damage; and if the party injured elects to recover by action 
ao-ainst the owner, no appraisement need be made by the Trustees, as in case of 

When trespassing animals are distrained within twenty-four hours, Sunday 
not included, the party injured shall notify the owner of said animals, if known; 
and if the owner fails to satisfy the party within twenty-four hours thereafter, 
the party shall have the township Trustees assess the damage, and notice shall 
be posted up in three conspicuous places in the township, that the stock, or part 
thereof, shall, on the tenth day after postiiig the notice, between the hours of 1 
and 3 P. M,, be sold to the highest bidder, to satisfy said damages, with costs. 

Appeal lies, within twenty days, from the action of the Trustees to the Cir- 
cuit Court. 

Where stock is restrained, by police regulation or by law, from running at 
large, any person injured in his improved or cultivated lands by any domestic 
animal, may, by action against the owner of such animal, or by distraining such 
animal, recover his damages, whether the lands whereon the injury was done 
were inclosed by a lawful fence or not. 


A lawful fence is fifty-four inches high, made of rails, wire or boards, with 
posts not more than ten feet apart where rails are used, and eight feet where 
boards are used, substantially built and kept in good repair ; or any other fence 
which, in the opinion of the Fence Viewers, shall be declared a lawful fence — 
provided the lower rail, wire or board be not more that twenty nor less than six- 
teen inches from the ground. 

The respective owners of lands enclosed with fences shall maintain partition 
fences between their own and next adjoining enclosure so long as they improve 
them in equal shares, unless otherwise agreed between them. 

If any party neglect to maintain such partition fence as he should maintain, 
the Fence Viewers (the township Trustees), upon coinplaint of aggrieved party, 
may, upon due notice to both parties, examine the fence, and, if. found insuf- 


ficient, notify the delinquent party, in writing, to repair or re-build the same 
within such time as they judge reasonable. 

If the fence be not repaired or rebuilt accordingly, the complainant may do 
so, and the same being adjudged sufficient by the Fence Viewers, and the 
value thereof, with their fees, being ascertained and certified under their hands, 
the complainant may demand of the delinquent the sum so ascertained, and if 
the same be not paid in one month after demand, may recover it with one per 
cent a month interest, by action. 

In case of disputes, the Fence Viewers may decide as to who shall erect or 
maintain partition fences, and in what time the same shall be done ; and in case 
any party neglect to maintain or erect such part as may be assigned to him, 
the aggrieved party may erect and maintain the same, and recover double 

No person, not wishing his land inclosed, and not using it otherwise than in 
common, shall be compelled to maintain any partition fence ; but when he uses 
or incloses his land otherwise than in common, he shall contribute to the parti- 
tion fences. 

Where parties have had their lands inclosed in common, and one of the 
owners desires to occupy his separate and apart from the other, and the other 
refuses to divide the line or build a sufficient fence on the line when divided, 
the Fence Viewers may divide and assign, and upon neglect of the other to 
build as ordered by the Viewers, the one may build the other's part and 
recover as above. 

And when one incloses land which has lain uninclosed, he must pay for 
one-half of each partition fence between himself and his neighbors. 

Where one desires to lay not less than twenty feet of his lands, adjoining 
his neighbor, out to the public to be used in common, he must give his neighbor 
SIX months' notice thereof. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mistake, the 
owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and material withn 
six months after the division line has been ascertained. Where the material to 
build such a fence has been taken from the land on which it was built, then, 
before it can be removed, the person claiming must first pay for such material 
to the owner of the land from which it was taken, nor shall such a fence be 
removed at a time when the removal will throw open or expose the crops of the 
other party ; a reasonable time must be given beyond the six months to remove 


Every mechanic, or other person who shall do any labor upon, or furnish 
any materials, machinery or fixtures for any building, erection or other improve- 
ment upon land, including those engaged in the construction or repair of any 
work of internal improvement, by virtue of any contract with the OAvner. his 
agent, trustee, contractor, or sub-contractor, shall have a lien, on complying 
with the forms of law, upon the building or other improvement for his laboi- 
done or materials furnished. 

It would take too large a space to detail the manner in which a sub- 
contractor secures his lien. He should file, within thirty days after the last of 
the labor was performed, or the last of the material shall have been furnished. 
with the Clerk of the District Court a true account of the amount due him, after 
allowing all credits, setting forth the time Avhon such material was furnished or 
labor performed, and when com])leted, and containing a correct description of 


the property sought to be charged Avith the lien, and the whole verified by 

A principal contractor must file such an affidavit within ninety days, as 

Ordinarily, there are so many points to be examined in order to secure a 
mechanics' lien, that it is much better, unless one is accustomed to managing 
such liens, to consult at once with an attorney. 

Remember that the proper time to file the claim is ninety days for a princi- 
pal contractor, thirty days for a sub-contractor, as above; and that actions to 
enforce these liens must be commenced within two years, and the rest can much 
better be done with an attorney. 


Persons meeting each other on the public highways, shall give one half of 
the same by turning to the right. All persons failing to observe this rule shall 
bo liable to pay all damages resulting therefrom, together with a fine, not exceed- 
ing five dollars. 

The prosecution must be instituted on the complaint of the person wronged. 

Any person guilty of racing horses, or driving upon the public highway, in 
a manner likely to endanger the persons or the lives of others, shall, on convic- 
tion, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisoned not exceeding 
thirty days. 

It is a misdemeanor, without authority from the proper Road Supervisor, to 
break upon, plow or dig within the boundary lines of any public highway. 

The money tax levied upon the property in each road district in each town- 
sliip (except the general Township Fund, set apart for purchasing tools, machin- 
ery and guide boards), whether collected by the Road Supervisor or County 
Treasurer, shall be expended for highway purposes in that district, and no part 
thereof shall be paid out or expended for the benefit of another district. 

The Road Supervisor of each district, is bound to keep the roads and bridges 
therein, in as good condition as the funds at his disposal will permit ; to put 
guide boards at cross roads and forks of highways in his district; and when noti- 
fied in writing that any portion of the public highway, or any bridge is unsafe, 
must in a reasonable time repair the same, and for this purpose may call out 
any or all the able bodied men in the district, but not more than two days at 
(»ne time, without their consent. 

Also, when notified in writing, of the growth of any Canada thistles upon 
vacant or non-resident lands or lots, within his district, the owner, lessee or 
agent thereof being unknown, shall cause the same to be destroyed. 

Bridges when erected or maintained by the public, are parts of the highway, 
and must not be less than sixteen feet wide. 

A penalty is imposed upon any one Avho rides or drives faster than a walk 
across any such bridge. 

The manner of establishing, vacating or altering roads, etc., is so well known 
to all township officers, that it is sufficient here to say that the first step is by 
petition, filed in the Auditor's office, addressed in substance as follows : 

The Board of Supervisors of County : The undersigned asks that 

a highway, commencing at and running thence and terminating 

at , be established, vacated or altered (as the case may be.) 

When the petition is filed, s\\ necessary and succeeding steps will be shown 
and explained to the petitioners by the Auditor. 



Any person competent to make a will can adopt as his own the minor child 
of another. The consent of both parents, if living and not divorced or separ- 
ated, and if divorced or separated, or if unmarried, the consent of the parent 
lawfully having the custody of the child ; or if either parent is dead, then the 
consent of the survivor, or if both parents be dead, or the child have been and 
remain abandoned by them, then the consent of the Mayor of the city where 
the child is living, or' if not in the city, then of the Clerk of the Circuit Court 
of the county shall be given to such adoption by an instrument in writing, 
signed by party or parties consenting, and stating the names of the parties, if 
known, the name of the child, if known, the name of the person adopting such 
child, and the residence of all, if known, and declaring the name by which the 
child is thereafter to be called and known, and stating, also, that such child is 
given to the person adopting, for the purpose of adoption as his own child. 

The person adopting shall also sign said instrument, and all the parties shall 
acknowledge the same in the manner that deeds conveying lands shall be 

The instrument shall be recorded in the office of the County Recorder. 


There is in every county elected a Surveyor known as County Surveyor, 
who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is responsible. It 
is the duty of the County Surveyor, either by himself or his Duputy, to make 
all surveys that he may be called upon to make within his county as soon as 
may be after application is made. The necessary chainmen and other assist- 
ance must be employed by the person requiring the same to be done, and to be 
by him paid, unless otherwise agreed ; but the chainmen must be disinterested 
persons and approved by the Surveyor and sworn by him to measure justly and 
impartially. Previous to any survey, he shall furnish himself with a copy of 
the field notes of the original survey of the same land, if there be any in the 
office of the County Auditor, and his survey shall be made in accordance there- 

Their fees are three dollars per day. For certified copies of field notes, 
twenty -five cents. 


The father, mother and children of any poor person who has applied for aid, 
and who is unable to maintain himself by work, shall, jointly or severally, 
maintain such poor person in such manner as may be approved by the Town- 
ship Trustees. 

In the absence or inability of nearer relatives, the same liability shall extend 
to the grandparents, if of ability without personal labor, and to the male grand- 
children who are of ability, by personal labor or otherwise. 

The Township Trustees may, upon the failure of such relatives to maintain 
a poor person, who has made application for relief, apply to the Circuit Court 
for an order to compel the same. 

Upon ten days' notice, in writing, to the parties sought to be charged, a 
hearing may be had, and an order made for entire or partial support of the poor 


Appeal may be taken from such judgment as from other judgments of the 
Circuit Court. 

When any person, having any estate, abandons either children, wife or hus- 
band, leaving them chargeable, or likely to become chargeable, upon the public for 
support, upon proof of above fact, an order may be had from tlie Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, or Judge, authorizing the Trustees or the Sheriff to take into 
possession such estate. 

The Court may direct such personal estate to be sold, to be applied, as well 
as the rents and profits of the real estate, if any, to the support of children, 
wife or husband. 

If the party against whom the order is issued return and support tlie per- 
son abandoned, or give security for the same, the order shall be discharged, and 
the property taken returned. 

The mode of relief for the poor, through the action of the Township 
Trustees, or the action of the Board of Supervisors, is so well known to every 
township officer, and the circumstances attending applications for relief are so 
varied, that it need now only be said that it is the duty of each county to pro- 
vide for its poor, no matter at what place they may be. 


A tenant giving notice to quit demised premises at a time named, and after- 
ward holding over, and a tenant or his assignee willfully holding over the prem- 
ises after the term, and after notice to quit, shall pay double rent. 

Any person in possession of real property, Avith the assent of the owner, is 
presumed to be a tenant at will until the contrary is shown. 

Thirty days' notice, in writing, is necessary to be given by either party 
before he can terminate a tenancy at will ; but when, in any case, a rent is 
reserved payable at intervals of less than thirty days, the length of notice need 
not be greater than such interval between the days of payment. In case of 
tenants occupying and cultivating farms, the notice must fix the termination of 
the tenancy to take place on the 1st day of March, except in cases of field 
tenants or croppers, whose leases shall be held to expire when the crop is har- 
vested ; provided, that in case of a crop of corn, it shall not be later than the 
1st day of December, unless otherwise agreed upon. But when an express 
agreement is made, whether the same has been reduced to writing or not, 
the tenancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

But where an express agreement is made, whether reduced to Avriting or 
not, the tenancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

If such tenant cannot be found in the county, the notices above required 
may be given to any sub-tenant or other person in possession of the premises ; 
or, if the premises be vacant, by affixing the notice to the principal door of the 
building or in some conspicuous position on the land, if there be no building. 

The landlord shall have a lien for his rent upon all the crops grown on the 
premises, and upon any otlier personal property of the tenant used on the 
premises during the term, and not exempt from execution, for the period of one 
year after a year's rent or the rent of a shorter period claimed falls due ; but 
such lien shall not continue more than six months after the expiration of the 

The lien may be effected by the commencement of an action, within the 
period above prescribed, for the rent alone ; and the landlord is entitled to a w-rit 



of attachment, upon filing an affidavit that the action is commenced to rcover 
rent accrued within one year previous thereto upon the premises described in the 


Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or sold or 
delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to the contrary, 
the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to-wit : 

Apples, Peaches or Quinces, 48 

Cherries, Grapes, Currants or Gooseberries, 40 
Strawberries, Raspberries or Blackberries, 32 

Osage Orange Seed 32 

Millet Seed 45 

Stone Coal 80 

Lime 80 

Corn in the ear 70 

Wheat 60 

Potatoes 60 

Beans 60 

Clover Seed 60 

Onions 57 

Shelled Corn 56 

Rye 56 

Flax Seed 56 

Sweet Potatoes , 46 

Sand 130 

Sorghum Seed 30 

Broom Corn Seed 30 

Buckwheat 52 

Salt 50- 

Barley 48 

Corn Meal 48 

Castor Beans 46 

Timothy Seed 45 

Hemp Seed 44 

Dried Peaches 33 

Oats 33 

Dried Apples 24 

Bran 20 

Blue Grass Seed 14 

Hungarian Grass Seed 45 

Penalty for giving less than the above standard is treble damages and costs 
and five dollars addition thereto as a fine. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly placed 

before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now. United States 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to; Bb for pounds, and bbl. for barrels ; '^ for per or by 
the. Thus, Butter sells at 20(«;30c f ft), and Flour at $8^!$12 ^ bbl. 

% for per cent., and Jf for number. 

May 1. Wheat sells at $1.20@|1. 25, " seller June." Seller June me^im 
that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering it at any 
time durinor the month of June. 

Sellino; sliort, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or stock, 
at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller has not the 
stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling "short" to depress 
the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and fill his contract 
at a profit. 11 en ce the "shorts" are termed "bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or shares 
of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, expecting to make 
a profit by the rise in prices. The "longs" are termed "bulls," as it is for 
their interest to "operate" so as to "toss" the prices upward as much as 



Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the amount and 
^ue of payment are mentioned : 

$100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown or order, one hun- 
dred dollars, for value received. L. D. Lowry. 

A note to be payable in anything else than money needs only the facts sub- 
stituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be w^orded simply, thus : 
Mr. F. H. Coats : Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 


Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus : 

$100. Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, one hundred dollars, for services 
rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account, 

Thomas Brady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 


W. N. Mason, Salem, Illinois, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bouglit of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.50 $6 00 

2 Seamless Sacks " 30 60 

Received payment, $6 60 

A. A. Graham. 


-, Iowa, , 18 — . 

after date — promises to pay to the order of , dollars, 

at , for value received, with interest at ten per cent, per annum after 

until paid. Interest payable , and on interest not paid when due, 

interest at same rate and conditions. 

a failure to pay said interest, or any part thereof, within 20 days after due, shall cause the 
whole note to become due and collectable at once. 

If this note is sued, or judgment is confessed hereon, $ shall be allowed as attorney fees. 

No. — . ' P. 0. , . 

VS. — . In Court of County, Iowa, , of 

County, Iowa, do hereby confess that justly indebted to — ; , in the 


sum of — dollars, and the further sum of $ as attorney fees, with 

interest thereon at ten per cent, from , and — hereby confess judgment 

against as defendant in favor of said , for said sum of f , 

and $ as attorney fees, hereby authorizing the Clerk of the Court of 

said county to enter up judgment for said sum against with costs, and 

interest at 10 per cent, from , the interest to be paid . 

Said debt and judgment being for . 

It is especially agreed, however. That if this judgment is paid within twenty 

days after due, no attorney fees need be paid. And hereby sell, convey 

and release all right of homestead we now occupy in favor of said so 

far as this judgment is concerned, and agree that it shall be liable on execution 
for this judgment. 

Dated , 18—. . 

The State of Iowa, \ 

County. J 

being duly sworn according to law, depose and say that the forego- 
ing statement and Confession of Judgment was read over to , and that — 

understood the contents thereof, and that the statements contained therein are 

true, and that the sums therein mentioned are justly to become due said 

as aforesaid. 

Sworn to and subscribed before rae and in my presence by the said 

this day of , 18 — . , Notary Public. 


An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain thing 
in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always reduce an 
agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunderstandings and trouble. 
No particular form is necessary, but the facts must be clearly and explicitly 
stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a reasonable consideration. 


This Agreement, made the Second day of June, 1878, between John 
Jones, of Keokuk, County of Lee, State of Iowa, of the first part, and Thomas 
Whiteside, of the same place, of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that the said John Jones, in consideration of the agreement 
of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and agrees to 
and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good and market- 
able condition, at the Village of Melrose, Iowa, during the month of November, 
of this year. One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in the following lots, and at 
the following specified times ; namely, twenty-five tons by the seventh of Nov- 
ember, twenty-five tons additional by the fourteenth of the month, twenty-five 
tons more by the twenty-first, and the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered 
by the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt fulfillment 
of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts to and agrees 
with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per ton, for each ton 
as soon as delivered. 


In case of f\iiluro of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is hereb;y 
stipuhitcd and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the other, One Hun- 
dred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, Ave have hereunto set our hands the day and year first 
above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 


This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight hundred 
and seventy-eight, between Reuben Stone, of Dubuque, County of Dubuque, 
State of Iowa, party of tiie first part, and George Barclay, of McGregor, 
County of Clayton, State of Iowa, party of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that Said George Barclay agrees faithfully and diligently to 
work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for and during the space 
of one year from the date hereof, should both live such length of time, without 
absenting himself from his occupation ; during which time he, the said Barclay, in 
the store of said Stone, of Dubuque, will carefully and honestly attend, doing 
and performing all duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance and in 
all respects as directed and desired by the said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said Barclay, the 
said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one thousand dol- 
lars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon the last day of each 
month ; provided that all dues for days of absence from business by said Barclay, 
shall be deducted from the sum otherwise by the agreement due and payable by 
the said Stone to the said Barclay. 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 


A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consideration to 
convey his right and interest in the personal property. The purchaser must 
take- actual possession of the property^ or the bill of sale must be acknowledged 
and recorded. 


Know all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of Burlington^ 
Iowa, of the first part, for and in consideration of Five Hundred and Ten 
Dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, of the second part, the 
receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and by this instrument do 
convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second part, his executors, administra- 
tors and assigns, my undivided half of ten acres of corn, now growing on the 
arm of Thomas Tyrell, in the town above mentioned ; one pair of horses, 
sixteen sheep, and five cows, belonging to me and in my possession at the farm 
aforesaid ; to have and to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his 
ex"ecutor8 and assigns forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, 
agree with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned property and chattels unto 
the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, against all and 
every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day of 
October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Clay. 



To John Wontpay : 

You are hereby notified to quit the possession of the premises you now 
occupy to wit : 

[^Insert Description.^ 
on or before thirty days from the date of this notice. ' 

Dated January 1, lb78. Landlord. 

l_Iieverse for Notice to Landlord.^ 



I, Charles Mansfield, of the Town of Bellevue, County of Jackson, State 
of Iowa, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing health, but of 
sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be my last will and tes- 
tament, in manner following, to-wit : 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto my eldest son, Sidney H. Mans- 
field, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, of bank stock, now in the Third 
National Bank, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself, in the 
Township of Iowa, consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, with all the 
houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging ; to have and to hold 
unto my said son, his heirs and assigns, forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand Dollars in bank 
stock in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio ; and also, each one 
quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in theTownship of Fairfield, 
and recorded in my name in the Recorder's office,. in the county where such land 
is located. The north one hundred and sixty acres of said half section is 
devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 

Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mansfield, five 
shares of railroad stock in the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and my one hundred 
and sixty acres of land, and saw-mill thereon, situated in Manistee, Michigan, 
with all the improvements and appurtenances thereunto belonging, which said 
real estate is recorded in my name, in the county where situated. 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my household 
furniture, goods, chattels and personal property, about my home, not hitherto 
disposed of, including Eight Thousand Dollars of bank stock in the Third 
National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and benefit of the home 
farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower, to which she is entitled by law 
— said farm being my present place of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the income 
from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson street, Chicago, Illinois, during 
the term of his natural life. Said building and land therewith to revert to 
my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon the demise of my said 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, Victoria 
Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to relinquish her 


life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may revert to my 
above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as the executors of this, my last will 
and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest son, Sidney 
H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be paid 
from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Bcllevue, the residue of 
such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, for her use for- 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and testament, 
have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two. 

Charles Mansfield. 
Signed, and declared by Charles Mansfield, as and for his last will and tes- 
ment, in the presence of us, who, at his request, and in his presence, and in 
the presence of each other, have subscribed our names hereunto as witnesses 
thereof. Peter A. Schenck, Dubuque, Iowa, 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 


Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testament, I do now, by 
this writing, add this codicil to my said will, to be taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna Louise, 
has deceased, November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three ; and whereas, 
a son has been born to me, which son is now christened Richard Albert Mans- 
field, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all right, interest and 
title in lands and bank stock and chattels bequeathed to my deceased daughter, 
Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, T hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth day of 
March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. Charles Mansfield. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, Charles ]\Ians- 
field, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testament. And 
we, at iiis request, and in his presence, and in the presence of each other, have 
subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa, 
John C. Shay, Bellevue, Iowa. 

{Form No. 1.) 



State of Iowa, 


I, , of 'the County of , State of Iowa, do hereby acknowledge 

that a certain Indenture of , bearing date the day of , A. D. 

18 — , made and executed by and , his wife, to said on 

the following described Real Estate, in the County of , and State of 

Iowa, to-wit : (here insert description) and filed for record in the office of the 
Recorder of the County of , and State of Iowa, on the ^-day of , 


A. D. 18 — , at o'clock . M. ; and recorded in Book of Mortgage 

Records, on page , is redeemed, paid off, satisfied and discharged in full. 

. [seal.] 

State of Iowa, 1 

County, j 

Be it Rememl)ered, That on this day of , A. D. 18 — , before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared , 

to me personally known to be the identical person who executed the above 

(satisfaction of mortgage) as grantor, and acknowledged signature 

thereto to be voluntary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and seal, the day and year last above 

written. . 


Know all Men by these Presents : That , of County, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by of 

County, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

the following described premises, situated in the County , and State of 

, to wit : (here insert description,) and do hereby covenant with the 

said that lawfully seized of said premises, that they are free from 

incumbrance, that have good right and lawful authority to sell and convey 

the same ; and do hereby covenant to warrant and defend the same against 

the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. To be void upon condition that 

the said shall pay the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory note for the sum of dollars. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said Mortgagor agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied upon the 
above described premises. It is also agreed by the Mortgagor that if it becomes 
necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a reasonable amount shall be allowed as an 

attorney's fise for foreclosing. And the said hereby relinquishes all her 

right of dower and homestead in and to the above described premises. 
Signed to day of , A. D. 18 — . 

[Acknowledge as in Form No. 1.] 


This Indenture, made and executed by and between of the 

county of ■ and State of , part of the first part, and of the 

county of and State of party of the second part, Witnesseth, that the 

said part of the first part, for and in consideration of the sum of dollars, 

paid by the said party of the second part, the receipt of which is hereby 
acknowledged, have granted and sold, and do by these presents, grant, bargain, 
sell, convey and confirm, unto the said l)arty of tlie second part, heirs and 


assigns forever, the certain tract or parcel of real estate situated in the county 
of and State of , described as follows, to-wit: 

[Ilere insert description.) 

The said part of the first part represent to and covenant with the part of 
the second part, that he have good right to sell and convey said premises, 
that they are free from encumbrance and that he will warrant and defend 
them against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever, and do expressly 
hereby release all rights of dower in and to said premises, and relinquish and 
convey all rights of homestead therein. 

This Instrument is made, executed and delivered upon the following con- 
ditions, to-wit : 

First. Said first part agree to pay said or order 

Second. Said first part further agree as is stipulated in said note, that if 
he shall fail to pay any of said interest when due, it shall bear interest at the 
rate often per cent, per annum, from the time the same becomes due, and this 
mortgage shall stand as security for the same. 

Third. Said first part further agree that he will pay all taxes and 
assessments levied upon said real estate before the same become delinquent, and 
if not paid the holder of this mortgage may declare the whole sum of money 
herein secured due and collectable at once, or he may elect to pay such taxes or 
assessments, and be entitled to interest on the same at the rate of ten per cent, 
per annum, and this mortgage shall stand as security for the amount so paid. 
Fourth. Said first part further agree that if he fail to pay any of said 

money, either principal or interest, within days after the same becomes 

due ; or fail to conform or comply with any of the foregoing conditions or agree- 
ments, tlie Avhole sum herein secured shall become due and payable at once, and 
this mortgage may thereupon be foreclosed immediately for the whole of said 
money, interest and costs. 

Fifth. Said part further agree that in the event of the non-payment of either 
principal, interest or taxes when due, and upon the filing of a bill of foreclosure 
of this mortgage, an attorney's fee of dollars shall become due and pay- 
able, and shall be by i\\Q court taxed, and this mortgage shall stand as security 
therefor, and the same shall be included in the decree of foreclosure and shall 
be made by the Sheriff on general or special execution with the other money, 
interest and costs, and the contract embodied in this mortgage and the note 
described herein, shall in all respects be governed, constructed and adjudged 

by the laws of , where the same is made. The foregoing conditions 

being performed, this conveyance to be void, otherwise of full force and virtue. 

[Acknowledge as in form No. 1.] 


This Article of Agreement, Made and entered into on this day of 

-, A. D. 187-, by and between , of the county of , and 

State of Iowa, of the first part, and , of the county of 

and State of Iowa, of the second part, witnesseth that the said party of the first 


part has this day leased unto the party of the second part the following described 
premises, to wit : 

[//ere insert description.'] 

for the term of from and after the — day of , A. D. 187-, aq: 

the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows, to wit : 

\_Here insert Terms.'] 

And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due and unpaid, or if 
default be made in any of the covenants herein contained, it shall then be law- 
ful for the said party of the first part to re-enter the said premises, or to dcstrain 
for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of forcible entry 
and detainer, notwithstanding the provision of Section 3,612 of the Code of 
1873 ; or he may use any or all of said remedies. 

And the said party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the first 
part the rent as above stated, except when said premises are untenantable by 
reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party of the 

second part, or persons family, or in employ, or by superior force 

and inevitable necessity. And the said party of the second part covenants 

that will use the said premises as a , and for no other purposes 

whatever ; and that especially will not use said premises, or permit the 

same to be used, for any unlawful business or purpose whatever; that will 

not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said premises without the written consent 

of the lessor, under penalty of a forfeiture of all rights under this lease, at 

the election of the party of the first part ; and that will use all due care 

and diligence in guarding said property, with the buildings, gates, fences, trees, 
vines, shrubbery, etc., from damage by fire, and the depredations of animals ; 

that will keep buildings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now 

are, or may at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, 
inevitable necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of 

the lessee, or persons of family, or in employ, excepted ; and that 

at the expiration of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said. 

covenants herein contained, will, without further notice of any kind, quit 

and surrender the possession and occupancy of said premises in as good condi- 
tion as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, damages by 
fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, only excepted. 

In witness whereof, the said parties have subscribed their names on the date 
first above written. 

In presence of 


I , 18—. 

On or before the — day of , 18 — , for value received, I promise to 

pay or order, dollars, with interest from date until paid, 

at ten per cent, per annum, payable annually, at . Unpaid interest 

shall bear interest at ten per cent, per annum. On failure to pay interest 

within days after due, the whole sum, principal and interest, shall become 

due at once. 



Know all Men by these Presents : That of County, and 

State of in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , of 

County and State of do hereby sell and convey unto the said the 

following described personal property, now in the possession of in the 

county and State of , to Avit : 

[Here insert Description. '\ 

And do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 

any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
and to said property being the right of redemption as herein provided. This 
conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, for 

the sum of dollars. 

One note for ^ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , duo , 18 — , W'itli interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any time any part 
or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said grantee may proceed by 
sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said notes, 
whether due or not, the grantor to pay all necessary expense of such foreclosure, 

including $ Attorney's fees, and whatever remains after paying off said 

notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of , 18 — . . 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] . 


Know all Men by these Presents : That of County and 

State of , in consideration of the sum of — Dollars, in hand paid by 

of , County and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto 

the said and to heirs and assigns, the following described premises, 

situated in the County of , State of Iowa, to-wit : 

[Here insert descriptio7i.'] 

And I do hereby covenant with the said that — lawfully seized in fee 

simple, of said jn'emises, that they are free from incumbrance ; that — ha good 
right and lawful authoritv to sell the same, and — do hereby covenant to war- 
rant and defend tiie said premises and appurtenances thereto belonging, against 
the lawful claims of all persons Avhomsoever ; and the said hereby re- 
linquishes all her right of dower and of homestead in and to the above described 

Signed the day of , A. D. 18—. 

in presence of 

[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 



Know all Men by these Presents: That , of County, 

State of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, to — in hand 

paid by , of County, State of , the receipt whereof — do 

hereby acknowledge,have bargained, sold and quit-claimed, and by these presents 

do bargain, sell and quit-claim unto the said and to — heirs and assigns 

forever, all — right, title, interest, estate, claim and demand, both at law and 
in equity, and as well in possession as in expectancy, of, in and to the following 
described premises, to wit : [here insert description] with all and singular the 
hereditaments and appurtenances thereto belonging. 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18 — . 

Signed in Presence of 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 


Know all Men by these Presents: That of County, 

and State of am held and firmly bound unto of County, and 

State of , in the sum of Dollars, to be paid to the said , his 

executors or assigns, for which payment well and truly to be made, I bind myself 
firmly by these presents. Signed the day of A. D. 18 — . 

The condition of this obligation is such, that if the said obligee shall pay to 
said obligor, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 
therein specified, of — certain promissory note of even date herewith, for the 
sum of Dollars, 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for | , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for | , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

and pay all taxes accruing upon the lands herein described, then said obligor 
shall convey to the said obligee, or his assigns, that certain tract or parcel of 

real estate, situated in the County of and State of Iowa, described as fol- 

loAvs, to wit: [here insert description,] by a Warranty Deed, with the usual 
covenants, duly executed and acknowledged. 

If said obligee should fail to make the payments as above stipulated, or any 
part thereof, as the same becomes due, said obligor may at his option, by notice 
to the obligee terminate his liability under the bond and resume the posses- 
sion and absolute control of said premises, time being the essence of this 

On the fulfillment of the above conditions this obligation to become void, 
otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; unless terminated by the obligor 
as above stipulated. 

[Acknowledge as in form No. 1.] 



Any three or more persons of full age, citizens of the United States, 
a majority of whom shall be citizens of this State, who desire to associate 
themselves for benevolent, charitable, scientific, religious or missionary pur- 
poses, may make, sign and acknowledge, before any officer authorized to take 
the acknowledgments of deeds in this State, and have recorded in the office of 
the Recorder of the county in which the 'business of such society is to be con- 
ducted, a certificate in writing, in which shall be stated the name or title by 
which such society shall be known, the particular business and objects of such 
society, tlie number of Trustees, Directors or Managers to conduct the same, and 
the names of the Trustees, Directors or Managers of such society for the first 
year of its existence. 

Upon filing for record the certificate, as aforesaid, the persons who shall 
have signed and acknowledged such certificate, and- their associates and success- 
ors, sliall, by virtue hereof, be a body politic and corporate by the name 
stated in such certificate, and by that they and their successors shall and may 
have succession, and shall be persons capable of suing and being sued, and may 
have and use a common seal, which they may alter or change at pleasure ; and 
they and their successors, by their corporate name, shall be capable of taking, 
receiving, purchasing and holding real and personal estate, and of making by- 
laws for the management of its affairs, not inconsistent with law. 

The society so incorporated may, annually or oftener, elect from its members 
its Trustees, Directors or Managers at such time and place, and in such manner 
as may be specified in its by-laws, who shall have the control and management 
of the affairs and funds of the society, a majority of whom shall be a quorum 
for the transaction of business, and whenever any vacancy shall happen among 
such Trustees, Directors or Managers, by death, resignation or neglect to serve, 
such vacancy shall be filled in such manner as shall be provided by the by-laws 
of such society. When the body corporate consists of the Trustees, Directors or 
Managers of any benevolent, charitable, literary, scientific, religious or mis- 
sionary institution, which is or may be established in the State, and which is or 
may be under the patronage, control, direction or supervision of any synod, con- 
ference, association or other ecclesiastical body in such State, established 
agreeably to the laws thereof, such ecclesiastical body may nominate and 
appoint such Trustees, Directors or Managers, according to usages of the appoint- 
ing body, and may fill any vacancy which may occur among such Trustees, 
Directors or Managers ; and when any such institution may be under the 
patronage, control, direction or supervision of two or mOre of such synods, con- 
ferences, associations or other ecclesiastical bodies, such bodies may severally 
nominate and appoint such proportion of such Trustees, Directors or Managers 
as shall be agreed upon by those bodies immediately concerned. And any 
vacancy occurring among such appointees last named, shall be filled by the 
synod, conference, association or body having appointed the last incumbent. 

In case any election of Trustees, Directors or Managers shall not be made 
on the day designated by the by-laws, said society for that cause shall not be 
dissolved, but such election may take place on any other day directed by such 

Any corporation formed under this chapter shall be capable of taking, hold- 
ing or receiving property by virtue of any devise or bequest contained in any 
last will or testament of any person whatsoever ; but no person leaving a wife, 


■child or parent, shall devise or bequeath to such institution or corporation more 
than one-fourth of his estate after tlie payment of his debts, and such device or 
bequest shall be valid only to the extent of such one-fourth. 

Any corporation in this State of an academical character, the memberships 
of which shall consist of lay members and pastors of churches, delegates to any 
synod, conference or council holding its annual meetings alternately in this and 
one or more adjoining States, may hold its annual meetings for the election of 
officers and the transaction of business in any adjoining State to this, at such 
place therein as the said synod, conference or council shall hold its annual meet- 
ings ; and the elections so held and business so transacted shall be as legal and 
binding as if held and transacted at the place of business of the corporation in 
this State. 

The provisions of this chapter shall not extend or apply to any association 
or individual who shall, in the certificate filed Avith the Kecorder, use or specify 
a name or style the same as that of any previously existing incorporated society 
in the county. 

The Trustees, Directors or stockholders of any existing benevolent, char- 
itable, scientific, missionary or religious corporation, may, by conforming to the 
requirements of Section 1095 of this chapter, re-incorporate themselves or con- 
tinue their existing corporate powers, and all the property and effects of such 
existing corporation shall vest in and belong to the corporation so re-incorporated 
or continued. 


No intoxicating liquors (alcohol, spirituous and vinous liquors), except wine 
manufactured from grapes, currants or other fruit grown in the State, shall be 
manufactured or sold, except for mechanical, medicinal, culinary or sacramental 
purposes ; and even such sale is limited as follows : 

Any citizen of the State, except hotel keepers, keepers of saloons, eating 
houses, grocery keepers and confectioners, is permitted to buy and sell, within 
the county of his residence, such liquors for such mechanical, etc., purposes 
only, provided he shall obtain the consent of the Board of Supervisors. In 
order to get that consent, he must get a certificate from a majority of the elec- 
tors of the town or township or ward in which he desires to sell, that he is of 
good moral character, ami a proper person to sell such liquors. 

If the Board of Supervisors grant him permission to sell such liquors, he 
must give bonds, and shall not sell such liquors at a greater profit than thirty- 
three per cent, on the cost of the same. Any person having a permit to sell, 
shall make, on the last Saturday of every month, a return in writing to the 
Auditor of the county, showing the kind and quantity of the liquors purchased 
by him since the date of his last report, the price paid, and the amount of 
freights paid on the same ; also the kind and quantity of li(juors sold by him 
since the date of his last report ; to whom sold ; for what purpose and at what 
price; also the kind and quantity of liquors on hand; which report shall be 
sworn to by the person having the permit, and shall be kept by the Auditor, 
subject at all times to the inspection of the public. 

No person shall sell or give away any intoxicating li(juors, including wine or 
beer, to any minor, for any purpose Avhatever, except upon written order of 
parent, guardian or family physician ; or sell the same to an intoxicated person 
or a person in the habit of becoming intoxicated. 


Any person Avho shall mix any intoxicating liquor with any beer, wine or 
cider, by him sold, and shall sell or keep for sale, as a beverage, such mixture, 
shall be punished as for sale of intoxicating liquor. 

But nothing in the chapter containing the laws governing the sale or pro- 
hibiting the sale of intoxicating li([uors, shall be construed to forbid the sale by 
the im})orter then. of of foreign intoxicating licpior, imported under the author- 
ity of the laws of the United States, regarding the importation of such liquors, 
and in accordance with such laws ; provided that such liquor, at the time of the 
sale by the importer, remains in the original casks or packages in which it was 
by him imported, and in quantities not less than the quantities in which the 
laws of the United States require such Ii([uors to be imported, and is sold by 
him in sucli original casks or packages, and in said quantities only. 

All payment or compensation for intoxicating li(juor sold in violation of the 
laws of this State, Avhether such payments or compensation be in money, goods, 
lands, labor, or any thing else whatsoever, shall be held to have been received in viola- 
tion of law and ecjuity and good conscience, and to have been received upon a 
valid promise and agreement of the receiver, in consideration of the receipt 
thereof, to pay on demand, to the person furnishing such consideration, the 
amount of the money on the just value of the goodaor other things. 

All sales, transfers, conveyances, mortgages, liens, attachments, pledges and 
securities of every kind, which, either in whole or in part, shall have been made 
on account of intoxicating liquors sold contrary to law, shall be utterly null and 

Negotiable paper in the hands of holders thereof, in good faith, fi)r valuable 
consideration, without notice of any illegality in its inception or transfer, how- 
ever, shall not be affected by the above provisions. Neither slmll the holder of 
land or other property who may have taken the same in good faith, without 
notice of any defect in the title of the person from whom the same was 
taken, growing out of a violation of the liquor law, be affected by the above 

Every wife, child, parent, guardian, employer, or other person, who shall be 
injured in person or property or means of support, by an intoxicated person, or 
in conse({uence of the intoxication, has a right of action against any person who 
shall, by selling intoxicating liquors, cause the intoxication of such person, for 
all damages actually sustained as well as exemplary damages. 

For any damages recovered, the personal and real property (except home- 
stead, as now provided) of tlie person against whom the damages are recovered, 
as well as the premises or property, personal or real, occupied and used by him, 
Avith consent and knowledge of owner, either for manufacturing or selling intox- 
icating li(iuors contrary to law, shall be liable. 

The oi)ly other exemption, besides the homestead, from this sweeping liability, 
is that the defendant may have enough for the support of his family for six 
months, to be determined by the Township Trustee. 

No ale, wine, beer or other malt or vinous li(iuors shall be sold within two 
miles of the corporate limits of any municipal corporation, except at wholesale, 
for the purpose of shipment to places outside of such corporation and such two- 
mile limits. The power of the corporation to prohibit or license sale of liquors 
not proliibited by law is extended over the two miles. 

No ale, wine, beer or other malt or vinous li((uors shall be sold on the day 
on which any election is held under the laws of this State, within two miles of 
the place where said election is held ; except only that any person holding a 
permit may sell upon the prescription of a practicing physician. - 




The business of publishing books by subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations not 
authorized by the publisher, in order to prevent that as much as possible, and 
that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such agents bear to 
their principal, and the law governing such cases, the following statement is 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by which 
the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; the consid- 
eration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the hook named, and 
deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price named. The 
nature and character of the work is described by the prospectus and sample 
shoivn. These should be carefully examined before subscribing, as they are 
the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, and not the too often exag- 
gerated statements of the agent, who is merely employed to solicit subscriptions, 
for which he is usually paid a commission for each subscriber, and has no 
authority to change or alter the conditions upon which the subscriptions are 
authorized to be made by the publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to 
make the subscription conditional or modify or change the agreement of the 
publisher, as set out by the prospectus and sample, in order to biyid the princi- 
pal, the subscriber should see that such condition or changes are stated over or 
in connection with his signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as written is, that they can not be 
altered, varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be done in writing. 
It is therefore important that all perso7is contemplating subscribing should 
distinctly understand that all talk before or after the subscription is 7nade, is not 
admissible as evidence, and is no part of the co7itract. 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as can- 
vassers. They are agents appointed to do a piarticular business in a prescribed 
mode, and have no authority to do it any other way to the prejudice of their 
principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other matter. They can not 
collect money, or agree that payment may be made in anythiiig else but moiiey. 
They can 7iot exte7id the time of payment beyond the thne of delivery, nor bind 
their principal for the payme7ii of expe7ises incurred in their business. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instrument, 
would examine carefully what it is ; if they can not read themselves call on 
some one disinterested who can. 


Xo. of , Xo. of 

Acres Acres 

COUXTIES. I of I 111- Uiiiiu- 

I proved proved 

Laud. Laud. 






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Montgomorv.. . 




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Palo Alto 










Van Buren 



■Wiiinesheik .... 



■Wasliington ... 






Xo. of 
in 18T4. 

Spring "Wheat, i "Winter "Wheat. 

Xo. of 

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Xo. of 

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Value of 
of Farm 

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1351 76 



•29144S52 tlS153S74T 

-. 'r 



The following paper upon the physical geography, the geologic formation 
and the conchology of Muscatine County, and also the evidences of pre- 
historic man in this region, was prepared expressly for this History by Prof. 
F. M. Witter, member of the Academy of Science, and Superintendent of 
Public Schools of Muscatine. 


The Mississippi River forms the southern boundary of the county for about 
fourteen miles, beginning on the east, and the eastern boundary for about six 
miles, making almost a right angle at the city of Muscatine. The Cedar 
River enters the county near the center on the north, and runs southwest, 
leaving the county two miles east of the southwest corner. 

About two-thirds of the county is between these two rivers. The general 
drainage, therefore, is south and southwest. Pine Creek, Sweetland Creek, 
Geneva Creek, Mad Creek, Pappoose Creek, Lowe's Run, and several other 
small creeks, drain the south and east side of this region into the Mississippi. 
Sugar Creek and its chief branch. Mud Creek, Musquito and Little Musquito 
Creeks, with others unnamed, carry the water from northwest of the divide 
between the rivers, into the Cedar. The third of the county northwest of the 
Cedar is drained into that stream by the Wapsinonoc. 

From the east along the Mississippi to Muscatine, the bluff is about one- 
fourth of a mile from the limit of high water, and rises rather abruptly, gen- 
erally in steep ridges pointing toward the river, to the average height above 
high water of about one hundred and fifty feet. 

Below Muscatine, the bluff continues nearly west, bending slightly to the 
south some four miles before it leaves the county, while the river runs almost 
south from Muscatine, forming a bottom in this county between the river and 
the bluff, about six miles square. The greater part of this tract is known as 
Muscatine Island, once correctly so-called, because Muscatine Slough branches 
from the river in the southwestern part of the city and runs generally in this 
county, within a mile of the bluff and reaches the river again some ten or 
twelve miles below our southern boundary. This slough is closed now in the 
city by artificial works. 

Some two or three miles back from the bluff of the Mississippi, the surface 
is moderately rolling. A considerable portion, indeed, of the divide, especially 
in the northern and eastern part, is quite level. The bluffs along the Cedar 
are not so high and bold as along the Mississippi. 

The bottoms of the Cedar are from two to three miles wide from bluff to 
bluff. Muscatine Island and a large part of the bottoms along the Cedar, are 



scarcely above high water. The former is protected by a levee. But little 
land is covered by ponds, lakes or swamps. 

Muscatine Slough is generally about eighty feet wide and ten feet deep, 
supplied largely by springs. It expands near the southern border of the 
county into Keokuk Lake, a sheet of water some two miles long, one-half mile 
wide, and four to six feet deep. Some low land, along the Cedar, is being 
reclaijned by a system of ditching. 

Soil. — The whole county, with the exception of the river bottoms and 
Muscatine Island, may be said to be covered with unconsolidated material of 
uncertain thickness, perhaps from fifty to one hundred feet^ called Drift. It 
consists of clay, sand, gravel, and granitic bowlders. The gravel and bowlders 
do not come to the surface anywhere in any considerable quantity, and but a 
small region is injured by sand. This is along the east bluft' of the Cedar, 
from the northern border a few miles into the county. The surface of all the 
higher portions is a rich black loam. The bottoms are river deposits, and in 
some instances, contain rather too much sand and gravel for the ordinary crops. 
Muscatine Island has become famous outside of Iowa for its sweet potatoes and 
watermelons. The light, sandy and gravelly soil so near the level of the 
river, makes it well suited for early vegetables, and the products named above. 

The blufis along the Mississippi are generally covered with timber, which 
extends up the little streams, and the valley of the Cedar is well supplied. 
Perhaps three-fourths of the county may be regarded as prairie. 

Water. — Springs are quite common along the bluffs, especially on the Mis- 
sissippi, and good wells are easily made almost anywhere. Muscatine Slough 
and Keokuk Lake, together with the Mississippi, afford an abundanceof excellent 
fish, and the low grounds throughout the county are the resort in fall and spring 
of innumerable water-fowl. 

Good opportunities offer for pisciculture, and experiments in this direction 
are now being made about four miles west of Muscatine, by Mr. John Miller. 

Water-power is not very feasible. A good turbine is operated on Pine 
Creek, about one mile from the Mississippi, and a dam is thrown across the 
Cedar at Moscow. The Cedar is the chief, if not the only, stream that could 
afford any considerable water-power. 

Along this stream, except at Moscow where there might be a vast power 
employed, the banks are generally low and insecure, and no good foundations 
for dams or mills are apparent. 

Building Materials. — Comparatively little of the native timber is now U;^ed 
for building or, with the exception of posts, for fencing. Pine, either as logs 
or lumber, is so easily brought from the north that it is cheaper than oak, elm, 
maple, cotton-wood, etc. 

Brick of good quality can be made from the clays almost anywhere in the 
county. A deposit under the city of Muscatine, known as Loess, makes the 
best of beautiful red brick. Wood being abundant, brick are cheap. 

Limestone is quarried at several points on Pine Creek, about six miles from 
the Mississippi ; near Moscow, on the Cedar, and on Geneva Creek and vicinity, 
and sandstone at Wyoming Hills, on the Mississippi, about seven miles east of 
Muscatine ; at Geneva Creek ; Muscatine ; two miles west of Muscatine along the 
bluff and three miles west on Lowe's Run. Rock/from all these places make 
good foundations and some sandstones have been cut into sills, caps, keys, 
coping, etc. 

Fuel. — From the eastern border along the Mississippi to Muscatine, with 
little interruption, there seems to be considerable coal. It is net generally of 


the best quality, and does not appear to reach back more than one or tAvo miles 
from the river. The bed is on an average about twenty feet above high water, 
and is therefore very easy of access and cheap to work. The inexhaustible 
coal of Keokuk and Mahaska Counties near us on the west, and the timber in 
the county and on the islands in the Mississippi, aftbrd an abundance of cheap 

Ores and Ochres. — Iron in the form of an oxide with sand, an impure car- 
bonate and a sulphide, may be found where our sandstones are exposed, but it 
is in such small quantities that it can be of no practical utility. A small 
amount of sulphide of zinc has been taken from near the coal in Muscatine. 
Fragments of sulphide of lead are occasionally found in the Drift. Some beds 
of red ochre exist near Muscatine, but no use has yet been made of it. 


Little or no disturbance has occurred in this county since the oldest rocks 
to be seen within its borders were laid down. For this reason the study of the 
order and history of the successive groups is comparatively simple. 

The streams, with the exception of the Mississippi, Pine Creek, Mad Creek, 
Lowe's Run and the Cedar at Moscow, have not cut through the Drift which 
thickly covers almost the entire county. Along the Mississippi east of Pine 
Creek, between high and low water, a rock is exposed consisting apparently of 
clay, fine sand and limestone. It is of little or no economic value, somewhat 
fossiliferous, casts of Spirifer Oapax, being the chief fossil. This argillaceous 
limestone, or a little more of the nature of sandstone with few or no fossils, is 
seen at the mouth of Pine Creek just above high water in the Mississippi. 
Passing up Pine Creek one mile, to the mill, a limestone appears in the bank 
of the creek, containing several species of fossils, among them good specimens 
of S. capax not casts, a species of Orthoceras, Favosites, etc. 

About one mile still farther up is a bold bluff of sandstone, the base of which 
must be some thirty feet or more above the highest limestone at the mill. A 
talus covers everything near the creek, so that the junction between the sand- 
stone above and limestone below, cannot be seen. This bluff rises vertically 
perhaps seventy-five feet, and bears on the top a number of fine old pines from 
which the creek takes its name. 

Following the west branch of Pine Creek some three or four miles further, 
it cuts into the limestone twenty-five feet or more, and the sandstone is seen as 
a thin bed on top. Here the corals and brachiopods must have had a sort 
of metropolis. In half a day I found over twenty-five species of fossils in these 

*S'. capax. Strop Jiodonta, Atrypa reticularis and aspera, Athi/ris, Acervularia 
davidsoni, Favosites {hayniltonensis ?) the same as found at the mill five miles 
below and at Moscow about ten miles northwest, a fine species of what is prob- 
ably a Phillipsastrea, a fragment of a fish tooth, and many other fossils. 

The PhiUipsastrea grew in a layer, hardly two inches thick, spreading over 
the uneven surface, sometimes a foot or more in'extent. It is exceedingly com- 
pact, presenting the color and appearance of ivory when polished. There are 
dark, radiating centers, about one-fourth of an inch in diameter, and from 
three-fourths of an inch to an inch apart. The spaces between these centers 
are nearly white, and dimly show waving rays joining the rays in the dark 
centers. No boundary line can be traced betAveen the calicles or corallets. It 
appears to me to be a new species. Passing about ten miles northwest, to Mos- 
cow, or some two miles beyond, where the Chicago, Rock Island k Pacific 


Railroad has opened a quarry, many of the same fossils abound. I have taken, 
at this place, Acervularia davidsoni, Favosites — named above, Spirifer pen- 
natus, Platyceras — a fragment of a large tooth of a fish, etc. This fragment 
is one and three-fourths inches long, and seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
being nearly cylindrical. 

At the mouth of Pine Creek, the limestone beneath tlie sandstone is 
hardly above high water in the Mississippi : at the mill, it is about ten feet 
above the creek ; and near Melpine, the sandstone has disappeared, or nearly 
80 ; and at Moscow probably lower beds of the limestone appear. The lime- 
stone at Moscow is not less than seventy-five feet higher than at the mouth of 
Pine Creek, making no note of what is very probable, that the upper rocks, 
near Moscow, are of a lower horizon than those at the mouth of Pine Creek. 
This is the best, in fact, the only, section of rock-exposure across the county, 
nearly at right angles to the Mississippi. 

From this, it appears the surface of the limestone on which the sandstone, 
seen at short intervals along the entire Mississippi bluff in this county, rests, 
must dip toward the river. The sandstone, therefore, thins out and disappears 
three or four miles back from the river. The limestone, at Moscow and on 
Pine Creek, is of the Hamilton Group of the Devonian Age. At the mouth 
of Geneva Creek, three miles above Muscatine, between high and low water, a 
limestone is exposed, rich in Stromatopora, and containing Euompholus, Ter- 
ebratula, Orthoeeras expansum {?), Ohoetites, etc. This rock is an impure 
limestone, indicating a changeable state of the water — sometimes muddy, when 
much of the life was destroyed, and then it became clear, when the corals and 
other forms of marine life flourished. Here the sandstone is seen some eighty 
rods back in the bluff. It must rest on this impure, argillaceous limestone. 

About one mile above Muscatine, in Burdett's slough, and a little below, 
just above low water, a very sandy rock of the limestone order is exposed. It 
contains casts of S. eapax and some corals. About two miles from the mouth 
of Mad Creek, this rock has been quarried. This is the last seen of limestones 
in this county. They appear to dip to the southwest a little more rapidly than 
the river, and disappear. The surface of limestone along the river, was 
depressed at Wyoming Hills, as would appear from some bituminous shale 
nearly at low water, the remainder of the steep bluff rising about two hundred 
feet in two great steps of sandstone. This shale may be of the same horizon 
as the coal-beds — some three or four miles above the hills, and about the same 
distance below. This sinking must have occurred after the coal and before. 
the sandstone was deposited, since the latter does not appear to have been 

The coal just below Pine Creek and Geneva Creek, is from twenty-five to 
thirty feet above high water; but the bituminous shale, at Wyoming, about 
midway between these two points, is scarcely above low water, and as no 
indication of coal is seen above the shale at this point, the coal-bed here must 
bend down some twenty-five or thirty feet. Throughout a part, at least, of the 
rock exposure along the Mississippi, the limestone is succeeded by a soft, non- 
fossiliferous, bluish shale, best seen at the foot of the blufi", in East Muscatine. 
At this place it is ten feet or more in thickness. It is probable the bed of coal 
just above rests on this shale. The coal Avhich succeeds the shale is of fair 
quality, and some twenty inches to two feet in thickness. This bed is now 
worked just below the mouth of Pine Creek, and just below the mouth of 
Geneva Creek. Several years ago, large quantities were mined under the city 
of Muscatine, but these drifts are now abandoned. 


West and southwest of Muscatine no coal has been found, nor at any point 
in this county more than a mile or two back from the Mississippi. This leads 
to the conclusion, that the coal of this county is a part of the great coal-fields 
of Illinois, and that the bed thins out and disappears a mile or two from the 
river. It is certain, that whatever coal is found in this county must lie above 
the limestone, of tHe age of that quarried on Pine Creek, near Melpine. In 
the northwestern part of the city of Muscatine, about one and one-half miles 
from the river, near Pappoose Creek, perhaps twenty -five feet above its Fed, and 
on a gentle hillside, in leveling for a brick-yard, a bed of coal was discovered. 

The bed has, for a considerable distance, no roofing other than the Drift. 
The floor of the bed is very uneven, rising, in different directions, quite rapidly. 
The coal is believed to be of better quality than from the apparently lower beds 
along the river. Whether this is really a higher bed of coal, or whether some 
disturbance of the nature of a fault has occurred here, is not yet certain. This 
bed may extend back a mile or more ; but from a study of the rocks exposed 
on Mad Creek and Lowe's Run, it must be a small field. Over the coal, with 
the exception of that last named, is some thirty-five to forty feet of sandstone. 
In some parts this is heavily bedded, nearly pure sand, hardens on exposure, 
and is a good stone above ground. In other parts it is argillaceous, laminated, 
and contains numerous globular or cylindrical concretions, not generally more 
than two inches in diameter, or ten inches long, of sulphide of iron. In the 
city of Muscatine, more than twenty years ago, some most remarkable cases of 
concretions were brought to view. They were spheres, from five to six feet in 
diameter, impregnated with iron sulphide, and laminated or stratified the same 
as the containing rock. A good figure of one of these is given on page 276, 
Part I, Volume I, of Hall's Geology of Iowa, and on page lOG of Owen's 
Geological Survey of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota. The cylindrical con- 
cretions generally commenced around what is thought to be a cone from some 
cone-bearing tree of that age. In this sandstone, which is exposed on Pine 
Creek, about two miles above its mouth ; at Wyoming Hills ; near the mouth 
!)f Geneva Creek ; in the city of Muscatine ; two miles west of the city, along 
the bluff"; four miles north of Muscatine, on Mad Creek, and thi^ee miles west, 
on Lowe's Run, are two or three species of Lepidodendrons ; at least three 
species of fossil ferns, two Pec'opteris, and one Neuropteris ; one or two species 
of Calamites : probably two species of Sigillaria ; an Aster ophyllites, and sev- 
eral other species of fossil plants. There can be no doubt, that the coal and 
overlying sandstone belong to the Coal-Measure Period, but are not connected 
with the coal-fields along the Des Moines west and southwest. No rocks are 
known to exist in this county, above or newer than the sandstone just described. 
Drift. — It has already been stated that, with little exception, the surface of 
this county is covered with a deposit called Drift. This must rest on the sand- 
stone as far as it extends, and then on the limestone next below. It is mainly 
to this Drift that we owe the wealth and continued prosperity of our people. It 
determines the character of the soil, and consequently the kind and quantity of 
products. Drift consists of clay, sand, quartz and granitic pebbles and 
bowlders. We have seen that no rocks in beds are in sight in this county, 
except soft sandstones and but little harder limestones, and these are more or 
less filled with fossils. What, then, shall we say of those hard rocks, in some 
cases weighing tons, more or less globular, with no fossils, in and on this loose 
material which makes our soil ? A very slight inspection leads to the con- 
clusion that they are strangers here, which have strayed from their homes. 
Many of these bowlders are flattened, and have scratches or grooves running 


across these flattened surfaces. Good specimens of such may be found a mile 
or two from Muscatine, up either branch of Mad Creek. In probably every 
State in the latitude of Iowa, and north, where the Drift has been moved from 
a firm stratified rock beneath, scratches and grooves are seen in the rock similar 
to those on the bowlders. So flir as I know, nothing of this kind has been 
seen in this county ; but in other parts of Iowa they occur. Our sandstones 
would not retain such marks. If the Drift were removed from the limestones. I 
have no doubt such marks would be found. From the fiict that, beneath the 
Drift, hard rocks i)i situ are often grooved, and bowlders in the Drift are like- 
wise grooved, it is plain that the bowlder must have been pushed of dragged, 
under considerable weight, over the rock below. How far these bowlders have 
b(>en moved is not always easy to determine ; yet we know it must have been 
from the rey;iou where ledges of such rock as that of which the bowlder is com- 
posed exist at the surface. No such ledges exist in Iowa ; in fact, none 
nearer than Northern Wisconsin and Minnesota. That these bowlders came 
from the North is certain, from the fact that a degree or two south of us, no 
bowlders occur, except under special circumstances ; but they extend north 
almost without limit. If we ask how this transportation has taken place, we 
can find no other agency capable of doing such work except ice. It must have 
been ice that pushed these bowlders over the country from Lake Superior to 
Muscatine. The ice must have covered the whole of Iowa and Illinois, Indiana 
and Ohio as far south as 38 or 39 degrees of north latitude, and, at the same 
time, all the region north. There is reason to believe it was not floating ice, 
but rather of the nature of one great glacier, extending from the arctic regions- 
over the whole of North America to the limit mentioned above. This mass of 
moving ice, earth and rocks was, most likely, several hundred feet thick. We 
can easily understand how not only the bowlders and the rocks over which they 
passed were grooved, but all the softer rocks were crushed to sand, clay or fine 
mud. By this means, no doubt, many of the upper layers have been entirely 
ground up and removed. The time in the history of the world when this took 
place has been called the Glacial Epoch. The unconsolidated material of our 
fertile hills and rolling prairies is the product of the glacier. In many instances, 
in digging wells in nearly all parts of the county, at from eight to fifty feet 
below the surface, limbs, and even trunks of trees, often in a good state of 
preservation, have been found. Two instances in the city of Muscatine, one at 
Mr. Benjamin Hershy's creamery, one near the Summit, one in Wilton, two 
near Durant, and three or four in the vicinity of Sweetland Centre, have 
come to my notice. I have seen a few instances of what appeared to be an old 
surface, black, rich-looking soil, from twenty to thirty feet below the present 
surface. One or two cases have occurred where the water in wells has had a 
very disagreeable odor, as if it came from some old swamp or other decaying 
material in the Drift. I have in my possession a limb, about one inch in diam- 
eter, cut through by a beaver. This limb, with several others, was taken from 
a well about fifteen feet deej), in the northern part of Sweetland Township. It 
seems most probable that, after glaciers had spread over this region, and driven 
away or destroyed all life, a milder climate ensued, during- which time forests 
grew, a rich vegetable mold accumulated, and beavers flourished. The trees, so 
far as I iiave been able to ascertain, were pines, willow and magnolia. The 
climate must have been much as it is now. This was followed by a second 
period of cold, quite similar to the first in action and effect, burying the forests, in 
some instances, fifty feet deep. The river-channels that had been formed through 
the long ages from the Coal-Measure Period to the Glacial Epocli, during which 


time this region was above the sea, were filled with the crushed rocks along 
their shores, and transported material from the north. When the last Glacier 
began to recede, our present hills were outlined, and the courses of our rivers 
and ci'eeks determined. At the southern end of the Glacier, great floods of 
water were seeking the lowest line to the sea. The loose and very soft earth 
under and in the glacier may have been nearly level, but the waters would 
quickly find the lowest places, and thus ravines would begin, down which 
occasionally great masses of ice would float. Tn this way the sloAvly-retreating 
and sometimes advancing glacier aided in forming our main channels. The 
sculpturing of the landscape into its multitude of hills was left to the rains and 

Fossils in the Drift. — Plant life has already been mentioned, but it should 
be stated that almost nothing has been done toward a full study of this subject. 
It will require much time and patience to bring the whole into its proper place. 
If gentlemen who are so fortunate as to bring to light some good specimen or 
fact would have the kindness to inform some person interested in such subjects, 
so that it could receive a careful examination and be made a matter of record 
before it is too late, real service would be rendered to science. 

In general it is said there are no fossils in the Drift, except such as may 
have been torn loose from the fossiliferous rocks over which the glaciers moved. 
This, I think, in the main, is true, and yet, if limbs of trees cut by some 
species of beaver, perhaps Castoroides ohioensis, described on page 423, 
Monograph of the Rodentia, United States Geological Survey of the Territories, 
F. V. Hayden, Geologist in Charge, are found deep in the Drift on what 
appears to have been a rich, loamy surface, the remains of the animal that did 
the cutting must be of the same age and in the same formation. I should 
expect to find the remains in this county of some large rodent, the species per- 
haps extinct, could the old forest-bed, to any considerable extent, be examined, 
and this, it seems to me, is in the Drift. One mile south of Wilton, in the 
south bank of Mud Creek, about eighty rods east of the crossing of the C, R. 
I. tfc P. R. R., a large part of the skeleton of a huge pachyderm was exhumed 
in the summer of 1874. These remains were about eighteen feet below the 
surface in a sprt of sand and clay, perhaps a modified Drift or Lacustrine 
deposit. The country for some miles around is quite level. No teeth were 
found, and consequently the species and perhaps even the genus is not certain, 
but it is thought to be Mastodon amerieamis. About fifteen years ago, at the 
brick-yard on Mulberry street in Muscatine, the tusk of an elephant or a 
mastodon Avas found. It was so much decayed that it could not be preserved. 
Some two or three years ago, there was found in a ravine in the western part 
of Muscatine a well-preserved tooth of a mastodon. The tooth is now in the 
possession of Mr. P. B. Speer, of Muscatine. It is six and three-fourth inches 
long and three and seven-eightlis inches wide. There are five rows of double 
points on the upper surface, the longest being an inch and a half high. It has 
two roots. Near Wapello, on the Iowa River, about twenty miles southwest of 
Muscatine, frag-ments of bones of some large animal were found, also the tooth 
of an elephant. Mr. H. Lofland, of Muscatine, had the kindness to bring me 
an impression of the tooth on paper from which I collect the following facts : 
Length, 9.5 inches ; greatest breadth, 3.5 inches ; fifteen transverse, wave-like 
elevations on its grinding surface. It is certain that this county was the home 
of elephants and mastodons either during the warm period in the Glacial 
Epoch along with the beaver, or immediately at its close. The scarcity of the 
remains of these animals, it seems to me, strengthens the view that they became 


extinct here about the close of the Ghicial Epoch. The burying of wood and 
the mastodon at Wilton are likely to have occurred about the same time and 
from the same cause. 

Loess. — After the hills of Drift had become clothed with trees, vines and 
grasses about the same as now, and innumerable little land-mollusks found food, 
deep shade and hiding-places beneath old logs and thick leaves, and the 
American reindeer, JRani/ifer caribou, was perhaps monarch of our forests, a 
formation known in the Mississippi Valley as the Loess was deposited where 
Muscatine stands. It hardly covers more than three or four square miles coin- 
ciding closely with the limits of the city. I am not aware that it exists any- 
where else in the county except on the top of Wyoming Hills. The 
Loess at Muscatine rests on Drift, a part of which is somewhat strati- 
fied and a part may be a sort of river deposit. Bowlders nearly two 
feet in diameter, coarse gravel, sand and clay may be seen under the Loess. 
This coarse material rises about sixty feet above high water, where its junction 
with the Loess occurs. This base has been pierced in several places in the city 
to the depth of forty-five to fifty feet, with little change of material except in 
two instances to find wood at the bottom. The Loess rises nearly to the top 
of the highest hills. Its greatest thickness must be close to one hundred feet. 
It resembles ashes in texture and color except a slight shade of yellow. It 
shows little or no stratification, contain^ no gravel or bowlders. It stands in 
vertical, exposed walls almost like good rock. This property is believed to be 
diie to lime and very fine sand which on exposure to the air unite and harden. 
Scattered through the Loess in considerable numbers, apparently without regard 
to order or arrangement, are stony concretions of very irregular forms, tend- 
ing strongly, however, to be globular : from a half-inch or less in diameter to 
two inches or more. These concretions, almost without exception, are very 
much cracked on the inside, the cracks extending from a wide opening near the 
center to a sharp edge close to the surfiice. They appear as if when first 
fomned they were solid, then the outer surface hardened and became unyielding, 
and afterward the mass about the center contracted considerably and became 
too small to fill the space it formerly occupied. Because of these fractures, 
rarely visible at the surface, what appears to be as hard and firm as ordinary 
limestone, is reduced to many fragments by a gentle blow. An ordinary sample 
of the unconsolidated Loess when treated with cold muriatic acid lost ll! per cent 
of its weight. The material that would not dissolve appeared, under a lens of a 
power of over five hundred diameters, to be irregular grains of quartz sand. 
The concretions treated in the same manner lost 60 per cent in weight and no 
definite grains could be seen with the same power of lens. There is enough 
iron in the Loess to give to brick made from it a bright-red color. Vast 
numbers of land-shells are most perfectly preserved in all parts of the Loess 
unless it be near the bottom. These mollusksmust have fiourished on the hill? 
adjacent to the Loess Lake. At one point near the top, pond-shells abound. 
The following is a list of the shells found in the Loess : 

Land — Heli.r *striateUa, Anthony : *f'uh'a. Drap. : puh-hella, Mul. : 
*li)}eata. Say : Pupa muscorum. Lin. : bJaiuU. Morse : simplex, Gould ; 
Suceinea *ohUqHa, Say; "^avara. Say: Water — Limnea (humilisf). Say; 
Eelicina occulta. Say. 

Not one of the fitty-four species of mollusks now iidiabiting the rivers nor of 
the twenty-one species in the ponds of this county, is found in the Loess, and 
only five of the twenty-six species belonging to the land. H. striatella and S. 

•Thosi' iiro ftill living in or neHr the city, but some are very rare. 


avara, two speoios apparently almost extinct here now, are very abundant iu 
the Loess. Between Iowa avenue and Chestnut, north of Fifth street, in 
gradinir Lot '2. Block iH\ a bore was taken from the Loess about oio-hteen 
inches long, somewhat Hattened and about two inches wide, covered from an 
eighth to a quarter of an inch in thickness with the same material as the con- 
cretions. This was near the bottom of the Loess. Between Linn and Pine, 
north of Sixth, on Lot 4, Block 1:24, about thirteen feet below the surface, in 
the Loess, nearly the entire skeleton of a ruminant was discovered. It was so 
completely decayed that little could be preserved except fragments of the jaws 
with the teeth, the whole covered the same as the bone mentioned above. Dr. 
Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia, at first thought this was an undescribed species 
of extinct deer and proposed to call it Ce7'vus museatinensis, but afterward he 
concluded it was the American reindeer, Jiani/(fer caribou. 

Since no stratification is observed in the Loess, it could not have been dis- 
turbed by currents. It therefore must have accumulated in a lake which was 
subject to little or no change during Loess time. The bed of this lake at the 
close was almost at the top of the highest hills. The top of the bluft' along the 
river in the southern part of the city is Loess. Either a barrier existed 
between this lake and the river, which has since been entirely swept away, or 
the river was more than one hundred and fifty feet higher along the bluffs than 
it is now. Supposing the water in the river to have been on a level with the 
water in the lake, the vast valley between the blufis, from four to eight miles 
wide, must have been filled with material similar to that seen along the bluffs 
under the Loess. The Loess deposit must have extended some distance into 
this valley, for it could not have terminated as we see it in the river-blufts. 
The great river may have been more of a swamp than a river, three or four 
miles wide. Since the Loess was dejtosited, the river has carried away the 
material from bluft' to bluft', about one hundred and fifty feet deep. The hard 
Hamilton limestone, the top of which is seen about high water near Pine Creek, 
and low water a mile east of the city, dips below the river to the south and 
west. The soft blue shale, with its coal and overlying sandstone resting on this, 
oft'ered but little resistance to the river when it was twenty or thirty feet higher 
than now. and, consequently, the bluft's are generally remote from the river, 
where the latter is now confined by the limestone. The space between the 
present limit of the river and bluffs of sandstone is nearly level, and, no doubt, 
underlaid by the limestone over which the river once washed. 

Muscatine Island owes its existence to the character of the rock in the Iowa 
bluff. Whether the basin in which the Drift, under the Loess, rests was exca- 
vated in the rocks before the Glacial Epoch, during that time, or since, certain 
it is, the rocks were removed at least to the limestone which is below low water, 
the excavation filled fifty to sixty feet deep with loose material, on top of which is 
the Loess, and since then the river has returned from near the tops of the highest 
hills to its present place. It is doubtful if this could have occurred without a 
change of level. It seems to me the land must have subsided till the highest 
points were but little above the river. 

Some stream, probably the Cedar, reaching into Northwestern Iowa, carried 
the same kind of water into this Loess Lake that renders the Missouri and its 
upper tributaries so famous. Here the mud gradually settled, as it does now 
in the reservoir in St. Louis from the water of the Missouri. Patches of Loess 
are known to exist at Clinton, Iowa City and Des Moines, and from twenty to 
fifty miles of the western border of Iowa was in the great Loess Lake of 
Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. 


After the Loess was deposited, the final topographical features of the county 
began to appear. The river valleys and the picturesque blufts ai-e newer than 
the Loess. At no very distant day, the river, or a large branch of it, followed 
mainly the line of Muscatine Slough. The Sand Mound, the northern part of 
which is in the southeastern corner of the county, is, no doubt, a part of the 
debris of the sandstones crushed by the glaciers, washed away by the river, or 
both. The loose material in the river bottoms of the county is alluvium. It 
is constantly being changed along the rivers from side to side. Rivers have a 
sort of pendulum motion, and the banks yield where they strike. 

The geology of the county may be '-ummarized as follows, in regard to Ages 
and Groups : 

Devonian Age, Hamilton G-roup, seen along the Mississippi from the 
eastern border nearly to the city of Muscatine, on Pine Creek one mile above 
the mouth, and on the west branch of the same creek, about six miles from the 
mouth ; also on Cedar, near Moscow. 

Carboniferous Age, Coal-Measure Group, seen along the Mississippi 
from the eastern border to a point about two miles west of the city of Musca- 
tine, on Mad Creek about four miles from its mouth, on Pappoose Creek about 
two miles from its mouth, and on Lowe's Run. three or four miles west of Mus- 

Quaternary Age, Drift, covering all the county except the Loess, men- 
tioned above, and the alluvium along the river bottoms. 

land and fresh-water mollusks. 

The mollusks found in Muscatine County are here named : 
Helicid/E, Helix falbolabris, Say ; §alternata. Say ; §arborea. Say; fclausa, 
Say ; ||concava, Say ; ffulva, Drap. ; ||hirsuta, Say ; flabyrinthica. Say ; 
llineata. Say; ||minuscula, Binney ; *raonodon. Rackitt. ||monodon, var. leaii, 
Ward ; §multilineata, Say, multilineata, varieties |alba and |rubra ; fperspectiva. 
Say ; Anthony ; fprofunda striatella. Say ; also a white var. of profunda ; fthy- 
roides. Say ; |viridula, Menke ; Cionella ijlsubcylindrica, Linn. ; Pupa ||armifera. 
Say; ||contracta, Say ; tf^^llax. Say ; fpentodon. Say ; /S^i^ccmga Javara, Morse ; 
§obliqua, Say; §ovalis, Gould; i/maa;-campestris, Binney; Philomycid/e ; 
Tebennophorus ||carolinensis, Bosc. ; Auriculid^ ; Oarychium ||exiguum, 
Say ; Limn^id.^ ; Limnea ||desidiosa. Say ; fpallida, Adams ; t'^eflexa. Say ; 
llreflexa, var. zebra, Tryon ; Physa fgyrina. Say ; ||heterostropha, Say; virgata, 
Gould; P?nr/io/-62s Ijalbus, Mull., ||bicarinatus. Say ; ||deflectus. Say ; ||exacutus, 
Say; Hparvus, Say ; §trivolvis, Say ; Seymentina !|wheatleyi,Lea; Ancylus ffus- 
cus, Adams ; ValvatidvE ; Valvata ||tricarinata, two forms. Say; Viv'iparid^ ; 
Lioplax tsubcarinata, Say ; Melantho §subsolida, Anthony ; Vivipara §inter- 
texta. Say ; RissoiDi??, Amnicola ||cincinnatiensis. Anthony ; |porata, Say ; 
Bythinella fobtusa, Lea; Somatogyrus ||isogonus. Say; Strepomatid^e, Pleu- 
rocera ||subulare. Lea; Corbiculad^., Sphwrium Jsphajricum, Anthony; 
llstamineum. Conrad; ||transversum, Say; Pisidium leompressum. Prime; 
UnionidvE, Anodonta ||corpulenta. Cooper ; ||edentula. Say ; *ferussaciana. 
Lea; §grandis, Say; ||imbecilis. Say; fplana. Lea; ||suborbiculata, Say; Mar- 
^anYawf? Ilcomplanata, Barnes; ||confragosa. Say; *deltoidea. Lea; tmargin- 
ata, Say ; ]:rugosa, Barnes : Unio H.esopus, Green ; l|alatus and apparently a 
var., Say; ||anodontoides. Lea; ||asperrimus, Lea ; fcapax. Green ; §cornutu3 
and a nearly white var., Barnes; :{;crassidens. Lam.; |donaciformis. Lea; 
§dorfeuillianus. Lea; ijebenus. Lea; ||elegans and a white var., Lea; Hellipsis, 
Lea; §gibbosus, Barnes; ||gracilis, Barnes; ||graniferus. Lea; ||l;ovissimus, 


Lea ; ligamentinus, Lam. ; §luteolus, and varietes, Lam. §metaneorus, Raf. ; 
§mississippiensis, Conrad ; *monodontus, Say ; fmultiplicatus, Lea; ||occidens, 
Lea; ||orbiculatus and var., Hild.; |parvus, Barnes; plicatus, Barnes; |pustu- 
latus. Lea; ||pustulo3us, Lea; fpyramidatus, Lea; §rectus, Lam. ; ||seeuris, Lea; 
Jsolidus, Lea; ftenuissimus, Lea; §trigonus, Lea; ||tuberculatus, Barnes; 
jtriangularis, Barnes ; Jwardii, Lea ; zigzag, a var. of donaciformis, Lea. 

The soft parts of the Unionidae afford an abundance of bait for fishermen. 
The thick, heavy shells are capable of being made into a great variety of useful 
and ornamental objects. All our shell-bearing mollusks give lime to the 
soil. Broken shells were used by the primitive men of this county in 
making their earthen vessels, and shells held an important place with this 
people as an article of adornment. There is no evidence that our river- 
mollusks were ever used here as an essential article of food. I suppose the 
chief obstacle in the way of cultivating for the table, especially the Anodonta 
grandis, so abimdant in Keokuk Lake, is the changeable character of our 
waters. Whether a fine, fat young grandis could ever get the reputation of 
oysters from Saddle-Rock or Far-Eock;)way is a question for the " coming man " 
to solve. 


Along the bluffs of the Mississippi, in this county, generally in the most 
commanding positions, are great numbers of tumuli, or artificial mounds of earth. 
These vary from slight elevations, scarcely perceptible, to mounds ten feet high 
and fifty to one hundred feet across at the base. No particular order among 
them has yet been observed, except they are in groups of from fifteen to twenty- 
five each, or even more. The mounds in a group are, usually, not more than 
from fifty to one hundred feet apart. One group of small mounds is on Sec- 
tion 14, Township 77 north, Range 3 west, of the Fifth Principal Meridian. 
This is on the east bluff of the Cedar, and is the only group on this stream 
that has come to my notice in this county. With the exception of a few mounds 
on Section 22, Township 77 north, Range 1 east, all others, so far as I know, 
are on points of land on the Mississippi bluffs that would have been above the 
water in Loess time. 

The exceptions referred to above are in a fine state of preservation, and 
stand on a bottom about eighty rods wide, a few feet above high water, and 
about forty rods from the Mississippi River. Comparatively little has been 
done to systematically explore the mounds of this county. Some earthen 
vessels, stone axes, arrow and spear points and plummet-like implements, 
made of hematite, have been taken from the mounds. Fragments of pottery, 
stone axes, etc., are frequently found along our ravines. 

Whatever may have been the chief purpose of these mounds, it is certain 
some of their dead were buried in them. Human bones, generally almost like 
ashes, are common in the mounds. It is hardly possible that all the dead were 
put in mounds, as it is quite certain that many mounds contain each the remains 
of but two or three persons. When this ancient people flourished in this 
county, whence they came and whither they went, are questions over which the 
shadows of the past still hover. Some race or races of men lived along the 
borders of the great Missouri Lake in Loess time. Prof Samuel Aughey, of 
Lincoln, Neb., has found arrow and spear points in the Loess near Omaha, 
Sioux City, etc., along with the remains of the elephant and mastodon ; and 
Mr. F. F. Hilder, Secretary of the Archaeological Section of the St. Louis 
Academy of Science, in a recent letter to me, says : " About a year ago, I had 

*No live shells have been found in the county, f^cry rare. :j:Rare. HCommon. J^ery common. 


the good fortune to find an arrow-head of black chert, very rudely formed, in 
the undisturbed Loess of this city, about six feet below the surface." 

Twenty-two miles south of Muscatine, in and around the village of Tools- 
boro, in Louisa County, numerous mounds, larger than those of this county, 
have been carefully examined, and finely-wrought earthen vessels and pipes, 
also copper axes, awls, beads, and a sheet of that metal ; marine shells, now 
living in the Gulf, shell beads, and, probably, charred corn, have been exhumed. 
In the same vicinity, earthworks exist — in one instance, straight for over eighty 
rods, and, in another, circular, inclosing perhaps ten acres. These are nearly 
obliterated by cultivation. I call attention to these remains beyond this county 
only because that point appears to have been the center of strength and wealth 
for this region. 


Aside from its scientific phase, the study of the insect-life of this region is 
one which is of great importance. The subject possesses limitless shades of 
interest to the careful observer, and is worthy of patient research. The Misses 
Walton, of Muscatine, have made a special study of this branch of science, and 
already have preserved a fine cabinet of specimens. Miss Alice B. Walton 
contributes to this volume the following paper relative to the entomology of 
Muscatine County, and, indirectly, that of the State: 

'' The study of the entomology of Iowa has been more neglected than that 
of any other department of its natural history. Hardly any data of the 
appearance or disappearance of its destructive and beneficial insects have been 
preserved, or, of what are known to science as ' insect years ' ; that is, sea- 
sons in which insects are the most abundant. These generally follow severe 
winters, with continuous cold weather, and also dry, warm springs, while a 
mild winter, or a cold, rainy spring, is as injurious to insect-life as it is to vege- 
tation. The winter of 1875-76 was an open one, and, during the summer of 
1876, insects were, comparatively speaking, scarce. The winter of 1876-77 
was cold, and the following summer was a good one for insect collectors. The 
winter of 1877-78 was one of the mildest on record, and, during the whole of 
the season, swarms of mosquitoes could be seen, on every warm day, flying 
along the edges of timber-land. Even small Lepidoptera were occasionally 
captured during the months of December and January. The succession of a 
number of very mild days would cause insects to be wholly or partially aroused 
from their torpidity, and the sudden changes of temperature would kill them. 
The next summer proved no exception to the general rule, and cabinets received 
but few valuable additions. 

" Tke advent of new destructive species of insects, the amount of damage 
they are capable of and the present outlook as to the permanency or final 
extinction of such pests, form an interesting topic for general readers. 

" ' Destructive insects ' are usually those which live upon vegetation, and 
are, as by a law of compensation, subject to depredation from so-called ' canni- 
bal insects.' The cannibals may be distinguished from the vegetable-feeders by 
the fact that the former are swift and rapid in their movements, while the lat- 
ter move with a slow and sluggish motion. Every true insect passes through 
four stages in the course of its lifetime. First, the egg ; second, the larva, 
whicli is the grub, maggot or caterpillar state ; third, the pupa, during which 
most insects are torpid and incapable of eating, and fourth, the imago, or per- 
fect-winged state. Among the destructive insects, the chinch-bug [Rhyparo- 


chromus leucopterus, Say) first made its appearance in this county in 1844, 
when it produced in the wheat what was known among the early settlers as 
'spot.' These 'spots' were from one foot to several rods in diameter in the 
fields of standing grain. A few days before the wheat was ripe, it would turn 
white and become blighted. On examination, the cause proved to be this bug, 
the worst foe with which the Western grain-grower contends. Its ravages have 
been severe. It did the most damage from about 1850 to 1865, and, during 
these fifteen years, fully one-third of the wheat crops in this section of Iowa 
were lost. For the past few years, however, it has troubled the small grain 
but little. The corn never suffered as much from its depredations as the wheat. 
But, happily, the chinch-bug has several insect-foes, prominent among which are 
two species of a small beetle called in common parlance lady-bug or lady-bird. 
The spotted lady-bug [Hippodamia maculata, De Geer) is red, spotted with 
black, and the trim lady-bug ( Coccinella munda^ Say) is rather light yellow. 
Both of these are found in this county, and probably several smaller species 
also thrive here. All of these should be respected and protected by every one, 
as they are almost universally found among the antagonists of destructive 

" The locust borer ( Qlytus robinioe, Forrester) was first observed as causing 
damage to the locust-trees, sometime about the year 1850. It is a black beetle, 
gayly barred and marked with yellow. It is about an inch long, and may be 
found during the month of September, on the trunks of the locust or among the 
blossoms of the golden-rod. The boring of the larvte in the locust trunks has 
completely abolished the cultivation of that tree in this county. 

" In the years 1864 and 1865, there appeared a most unwelcome visitor, the 
Colorado potato-bug [Doryphora decemlineata^ Say), and immediately every 
inventive genius turned his faculties toward discovering a method for its sub- 

" Many a boy has spent the summer mornings with a tin pan in one hand 
and a stick in the other, going from hill to hill, ' bugging ' the potatoes, 
knocking the bugs into the pan, and burning or scalding them. Finally, a 
mixture of twelve parts of flour to one of Paris green, sprinkled on the vines 
in the morning, in the dew, proved the most effective manner of warfare. 

" For the first two or three years after their appearance, many of the potato- 
fields were entirely devastated. Not only the potatoes were eaten, but also 
every weed that grew among them. Now, however, man and the natural insect- 
enemies, of which more than a score can be named (among them the lady-bug), 
seem to have gained the supremacy, and the damage done at present is little or 
nothing compared to what it was ten years ago. It may entirely disappear 
from this locality, but, in all probability, there will always be a few survivors 
found here. 

"In 1875, the maple-tree louse [Lecanium acerieola) first infested the maple- 
trees at Muscatine, in numbers sufficient to injure them. Previous to that time, 
the maple had been extensively used as a shade-tree, but subsequently the insect 
has destroyed more than three-fourths of those trees in the city, and the tree is 
no longer cultivated for its shade. Elms have been generally substituted. 
The louse appeared around Davenport as early as 1868, and even now is not 
found in the country around Muscatine, but is confined to the city. This insect 
has at least one known enemy, our little friend the lady-bug. 

" A small plant-louse {Phylloxera vitifolice, Fitch) attacks several varieties of 
grapes. As yet, no practical damage has been reported from this cause, 
although it seems to be acquiring a greater range in the variety of its food. It 


is a native insect, indigenous with the wild frost grape. Among the tame 
varieties of grapes, it prefers the Clinton. Delaware and a small white hybrid. 
Last season, it was observed on the Isabel. This is the same Phi/Uoxera wliich 
causes so much trouble in Southern France. It was importetl into France from 

•* The cut-worms are the larviv of a nocturnal genus [Ai/ratis) of Lepidoptera. 
Quite a number of species of this genius are to be found in this county. A 
new species, working in the corn, was reported li\«t summer. 

•• Every seventeen years, we are visited by what are commonly miscalled 
■ locusts {^Cicdiia septendt'cini, Linn.). This insect appeared here in 1887, 
IS.")4. 1871 and will appear in 1888. Thoy are not found on the prairie, but 
are in the timber-lands. The early settlers claim that the brood of 1837 was 
larger than any subsequent one. The clearing of the timber-hind may be the 
cause of their decrease. 01 their luibits. Walsh remarks that more has prob- 
ably been written concerning them than of any other insect. 

'• The white grubs tii-st began to seriously damage meadow-lands about lS7t>. 
They are the larviv of the May beetle [Lat'/inostt'nui (jutrrina, Knochi. 

•• There are many other destructive insects found in this locality, but these 
are the principal species. A large number of useful and beneficial insects can 
be taken here, but blessings are often passed unheeded, and many of these, at 
present, remain in oblivion. They are. for the most part, small parasites, and 
the classes of insects known as cannibals. Their habits and history have not 
received the studv and attention which have been ijiven to their more unworthy 

*' Of the sub-orders of insects, the Coleoptera, or beetles, and the Lepidop- 
tera, or scale-winged insects, such as butterflies and moths, have been studied 
here more thoroughly than the remaining five. 

** It may be interesting to state a few fact^ and call attention to some of the 
common species of the winged beauties. For the sake of convenience, Lepi- 
doptera have been divided into three large group^ called Diurnal, Crepuscular 
and Nocturnal. The Diurnal are the butterflies, which belong to the daytime. 
The Crepuscular are the sphinges and twilight tliers. The Nocturnal are the 
moths which Hy at night. Part of the moths and sphinges fly in the daytime. 
So that this classification is not, strictly speaking, technical, but merely, as 
before stated, for convenience. 

*• Among the most common Diurnals we have tiie small, yellow butterfly 
[Colias philoihW. Godart) familiar to every one ; the white butterfly [Pieris pro- 
todi'ee, B. and L.K the imago of the cabbage-worm which is quite injurious to 
that crop : the Danias arc/u) >/>«*?, Harr.. that large brown and black butterfly 
which is seen in its beauty and perfection in the fall, when it migrates south- 
ward, often in great numbers. These three are the moj^t numerous. 

" The very large magnificer.t yellow, marked with black, butterfly, commonly 
called the yellow swallowtail, is Piipilio turnus, Linn. It expands from three to 
four inches, and is seen in June and July, flying through woods and orchards 
and hovering about lilacs. We have several other species of Papilio, black 
marked with diflerent coloi-s. which are not easily distinguishable on the wing. 

'• The I'tintSt-a iintiopa. Linn., is also rather common in this county. It 
expands from two and one-half to three inches. Its wings are purplish brown 
above with a yellow border, just inside of which is a row of blue spots. This 
insect has a great tjiste for rotten apples. 

" The Crepuscular — the Sphinges — are those large, narrow-winged, heavy- 
bodied. Lepidoptera that hover over flowers in the twilight, exlraoting the 


honey tlivougli their h)ni>; maxilhv or 'tonguos,' whicli are hoUow like a tuho, 
and in 80iuo species is ibiir inches hrn^'. It is couinion to hear these insects 
caUed '•eveniuii; hununing-birds," from tlie resembhmce of the motion of their 
wings to that of the humming-bird. Hut they are not birds, they are Sphinges. 
Some of the handsomest of these are the imagoes of the tobacco and tomato 

"The common or the marked Nocturnals are difficult to point out, because of 
their nocturnal habits. There are five found here which are large and hand- 
some. Ti'ha poliiplnnnuii, Linn., is a very liglit bri)wn. On each secondary or 
hind wing, is a blue, black, and yellow eyelike spot with a transparent pupil. 
On each primary or front wing, is also found anotlier transparent spot edged 
with yellow. It expands about five inches, and its larvjv feed on the oak. 
Samia cccropia, Linn., is the largest insect we liave. Two s{)ecimens in our 
collection, which were hatched from cocoons, measure six aiul three-ijuarters 
and nearly seven inches, respectively. The average expansion is about six 
inches. Its colors are gray-brown, dull red, black and white. A wavy, wiiite 
line crosses each wing, and also near the center of each is a large white spot. 
Near the tip of each primary is an eye-like spot. The body is dull red, striped 
with white. 

'' Saturnia Jo. Ilarr., and Callosaniia pronict/ica, Hrury, are both found 
here, though (juite rare. /Saturniu lo is light brown. Expands two inches 
and has a large eye-like spot on each secondary. Callosamia. pronuihea 
expands about three inches. The male is dark bluish brown. The female has 
a very light reddish brown tint. 

" The Actias luna, Tiinn., is a pale-green moth. It expamls about fi)ur 
inches. It has a transparent eye-spot in the center of each wing, and the two 
secondaries are each prolonged into a. tail, whicli gives it a peculiar api)earance. 
Perfect specimens are hard to obtain. These tive are not the most common, 
but the largest. The great majority of the Nocturnals are small, some of 
them expanding less than half an inch. 

" In giving an account of our local Entomology, only a few points can be 
dwelt upon. There are many other interesting facts that could be enumerated 
but of necessity must be omitted. In order to give some idea of the Lepidop- 
tera that can be found here, the following, though imperfect, list is given. It 
does not, in all probability, contain one-half which could be collected in this 

" liliopdhwira. — Papilio philenor Linn. ; Papilio asterias Druri/ ; 'Papilio 
troilus Linn. ; Papilio turnus Linn. ; Papilio rar. glaueus Linn. ; Papilio 
cresphontes Cram. ; Pieris protodice Boisd. jf- Ler. ; Colias cjvsonia iStoU. ; 
Colias eury theme J3oisd. : Colias kecwaydin LJdw. ; Colias plnlodicc Qodarf ; 
Terias lisa Boisd. ; Danais archippus Cram.; Argynnis idalia i)r«tr//; Argyn- 
nis cybele Fabr. ; Argynnis aphrodite Fabr. ; Argynnis myrina Cram. ; 

Argynnis , ; Phyciodes tharos Boisd.; Grapta faunus Fd/v. ; Graj)ta 

interrogationis var. Fabricii Fd/r. : Grapta intcrrogationis var. und)rosa Jjint. ; 
Grapta progne Cram.; Gra])ta comma Harris; Vanessa i\\\i\o\vA Linn. ; Pyra- 
meis cardui Linn.; Pyramcis hunteria Drarif ; Pyrameis atalanta Linn.; 
Junonia lavinia Cram.; Limenitis Ursula Fabr.; Limenitis misipus Fabr.; 
Apatura celtis Boisd. ; Euptychia eurytus Fabr. ; Chrysophanus hyllus Cram. ; 
Lycjicna neglecta Fda>. ; LycaMia pseudargiolus Boisd. ; Lyc;ena comyntas 
Godt. ; Epargyreus tityrus Fabr.; Thorybes pylades iSrudd.; llesj)eria hobo- 
mok Uarr. ; il es\)ev'iii y'niWa Fdw. ; Ilesperia numitor Fabr.; Iles})eria tessel- 
lata Scudd. ; Ilesperia . 


'■'■ Sphingidce. — Macroglossa diffinis 5mc?. ; Macroglossa thysbe Fahr. : 
Thyreus abbotii Swain; Thyreus nessus Cram.; Darapsa mvron Cram.; 
ChfBrocampa tersa Linn. ; Deilephila lineata Fabr. ; Philarapelus pandorus 
Huhn. ; Philampelus achemon Drury : Sraerinthus geminatus Say ; Macrosila 
Carolina Linn. ; Macrosila quinquemaculata Haw. ; Sphinx cinerea Harr. ; 
Sphinx gordius Cram. ; Ceratomia amyntor Huhn. 

'-'- ZygcenidcR. — Eudryus unio Z^m^w. ; Eudryus grata Fahr.; Scepsis fulvi- 
collis Huhn. 

" Bomhycidce. — Hyproprepia fucosa Huhn. ; Utethesia bella Linn. ; Calli- 
morpha lecontei Boisd. ; Arctia nais Drury; Arctia decorata Saunders; 
Arctia persephone Q-rote ; Arctia arge Brury ; Pyrrharctia issabella aS'/ji/^/; ,• 
Leucarctia acrea Drury ; Spilosoma virginica Fahr. ; Spilosoma latipennis 
Stretch. ; Euchietes egle Drury : Nerice bidentata Walk. : Telea polyphemus 
Linn. ; Actias luna Linn. ; Samia cecropia Linn. ; Clisocarapa americana 
Harr.; Xyleutes robinire Peck. 

'"'■ Noctuidce. — Aoronycta ohWuita, Smith ; Microcoelia obliterata Grrote ; Jas- 
pidea lepidula G-rote : Agrotis c-nigrum Linn. ; Agrotis subgothica Hew. ; 
Agrotis messoria Harr. ; Agrotis clandestina Harr. ; Mamestra adjuncta 
Guen. ; Mamestra subjuncta (rro^e; Mamestra renigera iS'^g'p/icws; Perigea 
xanthioides Guen. ; Dipterygia pinastri Linn. ; Hyppa xylinoides Guen. : 
Hydroecia nictitans Linn. ; Gortyna rutila Guen. ; Arzama obliquata G. <|' R. : 
Heliophila pallens Huhn. ; Heliophila pseudargyria G7-ote ; Pyrophila pyramid- 
oides Grote; Pluisa aerea Huhn.; Plusia balluca Geyer ; Plusia simplex 
Guen. ; Chamyris cerintha Treits. ; Erastria carneola Guen. ; Erastria 
nigritula (3^uew. ; Drasteria erechtea (7ram. ; Euclidia cuspidea ^?t6». ; Cato- 
cala raeskei Grote : Catocala ultronia Guen. ; Catocala neoparta Guen. ; 
Catocala innubens Guen. ; Catocala neogama Guen. ; Catocala paleogama var. 
phalanga Guen.; Homoptera lunata Drwry; Pseudoglossa lubricalis Geyer: 
Plathypena scabra Fahr. 

" Geometridoe. — Petrophora diversilineata Huhn. : Eutrapela transversata 
Drury ; Heterophelps triguttata Her. Sch. ; Hiiematopis grataria Fahr. ; Acid- 
alia enucleata Guen. : Angerona crocataria Fahr. ; Endropia effectaria Walk. ; 
Endropia marginata Pack. 

" Pyralidce. — Botys verticalis Alhin. ; Desmia maculalis West. 

" Tortricidoe. — Argyrolepia quercifoliana Fitch. 

" Pterophoridoe. — Pterophorus periscelidactylus^z^^j/i." 


The following interesting chapter upon the subject of the climate and the 
events dependent upon the condition of the weather, was compiled expressly 
for this work by Mr. J. P. Walton, now Reporter for the Smithsonian Institution, 
and the Signal Service of the War Department at Washington, D. C. 

Prior to the year 1839, the reports concerning the weather are merely tra- 
ditional. On the 1st of January, 1839, Hon. T. S. Parvin now of Iowa City, 
commenced a meteorological record at Muscatine, taking and recording three 
observations daily. This labor he continued until 1861, when Rev. John 
Uffbrd, now of Delaware, Ohio, took charge of the instruments and records for 
two years. In 1863, they passed into the hands of J. P. Walton, who stil 
retains them and continues taking observations. Thus we have a continuous 


record of three times a day, for more than forty years. This is probably the 
oldest and most authentic record in the West. 

When the early settlers reached the banks of the Mississippi, they found 
drift-wood and high-water marks Avhich indicated that the river had been high 
at a recent date, fully twelve inches higher than in 1851, or than it has been 
since. Tradition places this event in 1828. 

The autumn of 1837, was warm and pleasant. The river was high. Steam- 
boats ran all the fall and brought settlers and provisions until winter set in, 
which was about the middle of December. The winter of 1887-38 was open 
and wet during the first half. The month of February and the first ten days 
of March were quite cold. The early settlers say that ice floated in the river 
nearly two months. The river closed February 14, and good hauling lasted 
three weeks. It opened March 24. The spring of 1838, was late in coming. 
But grass grew early and sufficient for cattle to live upon by the first of April. 
Weather dry during May and the first half of June. The river was high and 
steamboats were numerous, all loaded with emigrants. The summer and 
autumn were delightful. The crops were fine but the ague, which afflicted three- 
fourths of the early settlers, interfered with their being gathered. The river 
was low in the fall. Boats scarce. Ice commenced running about the 20th of 
November, when the winter of 1838-39 commenced, which was not unusually 
severe, there being only from eight to twelve inches of snow throughout the season. 
The river closed December 4, and opened the first day of March, 1839. 

March, April and May, of 1839, were unusually pleasant with sufficient 
rain for good crops. June was warm and quite damp. July and August dry 
and not excessively warm. September dry, with an early frost on the 12th. 
October warm but quite wet. There being fourteen rainy days during the 
month. On November 23, four inches of snow fell and winter set in. Ice 
commenced running on the 24th of December, 

In the winter of 1839-40, the river closed January 15, and opened on the 
29th of February. Thirty-three inches of snow fell during the winter, but the 
weather was not excessively cold. TheMarch and April in 1840, were dry. 
river high and spring early. May was a wet month, with thirteen rainy days. 
June wet ; July, August and September cold. The thermometer did not reach 
90 degrees this season. October and November pleasant. Vegetation killed 
by a frost on the 24th of October. Winter commenced very moderate on the 
1st of December. 

The winter of 1840-41 was an average winter. The thermometer went 
below zero eleven times. River closed December 31, and opened March 1. 
March of 1841, was cool. April and May warm ; June, July and August, hot. 
Thermometer, nineteen days above 90 degrees. September, October and 
November pleasant. A light frost September 11. A killing frost October 3. 
Winter began on November 26. 

The winter of 1841-42 was light. The thermometer touched zero but seven 
times during the winter. The river closed December 27, and opened February 
28. March, April and May were moderately warm. June was cool. July 
the same, but the thermometer reached 90 degrees eight times, it being quite 
changeable, ranging from 50 to 90 degrees. August was more settled with a 
mean of 68 degrees. September and October, warm. On the 15th of Novem- 
ber, the longest winter on record, commenced. December was steadily cold 
with a mean of 21 degrees. 

The winter of 1842-43 is known as the long winter. The river closed 
November 27, and opened on April 8, 1843. Ice formed three feet thick on 


the river. Snow was thirty inches deep in the woods, during these five months. 
The thermometer was down to zero thirty-five days. Spring began on the lOtli 
of April, but •* came in earnest when it came." May was quite warm; June, 
moderate; July and August, hot, the thermometer 90 degrees twenty-two days; 
September and October, warm. November, moderate. December, warm, with 
a mean of 31 degrees. 

The winter of 1843-44 was quite open. The river closed January 24, and 
opened February 23. The spring of 1844, was early. The summer was an 
average one. The autumn months excellent. The winter set in December 8. 
but the month of December Avas very moderate. 

The winter of 1844-45 was light. The river closed December 27, 
and opened February 18. The thermometer went to zero but four times 
in the early part of December. The spring of 1845 was early. The sum- 
mer long, with July hot. September and October warm. Frost the 12th 
of October. Winter set in November 23. December cold. Down to zero ten 

" The winter of 1845-46 was cold during the first month, and moderate the 
last two. The river closed December 1, and opened January 20. The 
spring of 1846 opened early, but a light frost occurred on the loth day of May. 
June cold. July and August warm. September, October and November 
pleasant. December warm. 

The winter of 1846-47 commenced November 26, but did not end until 
the 17th of March, 1847. December was moderate. January cold, with sev- 
enteen days below zero. February rather moderate. The river closed Jan- 
uary 6, and opened March 19. March almost as cold as February. April, 
May and June cold and backward. July and August considerably below the 
average. September, October and November were warm for the season. A 
light frost on the 9th of October. December moderate, with a mean temper- 
ature of 25 degrees. 

The winter of 1847-48 commenced November 26, and ended March 6. 
The river closed December 15, and opened February 16. The winter was 
mild, with but little cold weather. March and April, of 1848, were about 
average months. May was warm. June, July, August and September cold. 
Thermometer was not above 85 degrees. Frost the 22d of September. Oc- 
tober mild. November and December were cold. 

The winter of 1848-49 commenced November 24, and ended February 
20. The river closed December 15, and opened February 12. December 
had six days below zero. January, eleven — one day 24 degrees below. 
February ten days. A cold, but not a long winter. The spring of 1849 was 
cold and backward. The thermometer down to 30 degrees on the 1st of May. 
June, July and August cold. Highest thermometer, during the year, 89 
degrees. Frost June 6. September, October and November delightful. The 
first frost October 8. December, steady cold weather. 

The winter of 1849-50 began November 27, and ended February 23. 
River closed December 17, and opened February 19. January, 1850, 
quite moderate and wet. February cold, during the first part, and warm at 
the close. Eight inches of water fell. March and April backward and 
showery. May backward and cold. June warm and pleasant. July and 
August warm and showery. September. October and November moderate, 
with early frost on September 7. December pleasant, with seven inches of 
snow on the ground. The last steamboat passed down on the 2d of the month. 
Ice running in the river on the od. 


The winter of 1850-51 commenced November 28, and ended March 9. 
River closed January oO, and opened the 21st of February. Januai'y mod- 
erate, with live inches of snow. February mild. First half of March, snowy ; 
last half. mild. April moderate, with a hard snow on the 29th, A hard frost 
on the 5th of May. Light frost on the 24th. Twenty-ono rainy days in June, 
fourteen and three-fourths inches of water fell. On the 8[h of June, the Mis- 
sissippi River was higher than it had been since 1828. July cold and wet. 
Eight inches of water fell. August cold and rainy. Fourteen inches of rain 
fell. On the night of the 10th, 10,71 inches of water fell, which washed out 
bridges generally, and carried oft' houses along the creek. Four persons were 
drowned, while trying to escape from the flood. This was the final hard rain 
of the season. September about as warm as August, with a light frost on the 
25th, and a hard frost on the 28th. Aurora borealis on the 29th. October 
pleasant and smoky. November 11, snow fell seven inches deep. The last 
boat of the season on December 12. Ice commenced running on the 13th. 
Winter began December 10, tvhich closed the wet season of 1851, The wettest 
on record up to this time. 

The winter of 1851-52 was cold, during the last half of December, and 
the whole of January. February was mild and muddy. The river closed 
December 18, and opened February 24. First boat up, March 5, Running 
ice on the 19th. The month cold. The average temperature, 36 degrees. Ice 
five inches thick on the olst. April backward. May wai-mer. Frost on the 
20th. June, July and August cold and dry. September warm and wet. The 
first frost on the 26th. October and November cold and wet. Ice commenced 
to run in the river on November 19, November and December were not excess- 
ively cold. 

The winter of 1852-53 was moderate. There were not more than eight 
days in which the thermometer went below zero. The river closed December 
19, and opened February 25. First boat March 7. March, April and May 
forward, but subject to frost ; the last on the 25th of May. June was remark- 
ably hot, its mean temperature being 71 degrees. July, cold ; mean temper- 
ature — 68 degrees. August the same as June, with a mean of 71 degrees, but 
dry. The first frost September 10. October and November cold and dry. 
December moderate, with ice running on the 2d. There was an abundant harvest 
of grain and fruit this year. 

The winter of 1853-54 had but little snow all winter. January cold; 
eleven days down to zero. February milder. River closed December 31, and 
opened March 1. First boat the 5th. March, April and May were warm and 
forward. The last frost on May 2. June, July, August and September were 
hot and dry. Thirty-nine days with the thermometer 90 degrees in the shade. 
At one time there were twelve consecutive days above 90 degrees. October 
warm, with the first frost on the 15th. November dry and pleasant. Decem- 
ber mild. Ice beoran running on the 5th. 

The winter of 1854-55. was a light winter. The latter part of February was 
cold with a deep snow. The river closed on January 22. Opened on March 7. 
March was cold. April and May warm, with a frost that killed most of the fruit 
on the 6th of May. June, July and August, moderate for the season. Septem- 
ber pleasant. The first frost on the 27th. The river very low. The river became 
high on the 12th of October, Ice commenced running in the river on December 
12, and closed the 25th. Thirteen inches of snoA\'' on the ground. 

In the winter of 1855-56, December, January, February and first half of 
March, were cold with ice two and one-half faet thick. River opened the 29th 


of March. April moderate. May warm. June and July warm. August cold 
with the river very low. A dry season, but crops were good. First frost August 
24. First half of October dry. The backward and early frost greatly damaged 
the corn crop. November unusually wet. No Indian summer. December 
was cold and changeable. River closed December (3. 

Winter of 1856-57. December cold and snowy. January very cold, the 
mean for the month was 6"^ above zero. Nineteen days below. One day 30° 
below. February more moderate with enough snow to block all the railroads. 
On the Tth, a heavy rain fell which carried out bridges and did considerable 
damage. The river opened on February 27, with a high stage of water. The first 
boat of the season on the 28th. The river above Muscatine did not open until 
the 22d of March. Spring backward. April 30, not a green thing to be 
seen. The country was destitute of hay or straw ; cattle suffered for the want 
of it. Season a month later than usual. June 5, light frost. First strawber- 
ries on the 21st of Juno. July and August moderately warm. First frost 
October 14. A great deal of corn was frost-bitten. November wet and showery. 
Ice running the 19th. A steamboat on the 2oth. The river closed the same 
day. Opened on the 30th. December was mild and muddy. No ice in the 
river. Boats running nearly all the month. 

The winter of 18o7-r>S mild. Boats ran all the month of January, and 
some of February. May was wet. and farmers unable to plow. River very 
high. June hot and wet. July rainy and cold. August and September cold 
and wet. First frost on the 12th of September. Corn ripened well. Wheat 
and oats a failure. Ice commenced running on the I'Jth of November. The 
river closed suddenly on the 2oth, and opened on the oOth. December mild. 
Boats running very late, the last one on the 28th. 

The winter of 1858-59 was open and soft. The river closed January 7, 
and opened February 21. March mild. The spring and summer about aver- 
ncre. October and November very pleasant. A hard frost on the night of 
September 1 greatly injured the corn and buckwheat. 

The winter of 1859-60 was well supplied with snow. January cold. 
February milder. The river closed December 8, and opened February 28. 
River low. First steamboat March 1. On the 20th of May. hail covered the 
orround one inch deep. June 3, the Camanche tornado passed about thirty 
miles north of here. July was hot. August and September pleasant, with a 
light frost on September 11. Severe frost October 11, which killed flowers and 
vetyetation. Winter set in November 19, with snow that lasted all winter. 
December cold. River closed December 15. 

Winter of 1860-61. January cold. February moderate. River opened 
March 2. March cold. April and May seasonable. June. July and August 
hot ; 100 degrees in the shade August 2, 4, and 7. September rainy. Frost 
on the 23d of October. Winter commenced November 30. December mild. 
Eight inches of snow on the ground the 22d. 

The winter of 1861-62, was a winter of deep snow. River closed Decem- 
ber 28, and opened March 25. January had twelve days below zero, and forty- 
four inches of snow fell. February, twenty-three inches of snow, and eleven 
davs below zero. Winter ended on March (». Ninety-four inches of snow had 
fallen during that season, and railroads were blocked up. The spring was 
not backward. June, July and August, hot and dry. September, October 
and November, warm. First frost October 10. Winter began November 25. 
December mild. River closed on the 7th, and opened on the 12th. Clear of 
ice on the 13th. 


The winter of 18d:i-0;>, -waj; an open winter. 'riierraometer down to zero 
but twice in January and February. But little snow or rain. Spring early. 
Good feed by April 7. Light frost May 18. Cherries as large as peas, but 
not damaged. June -, frost killed cucumbers in many localities. June and 
July cold and dry. August w^arm and rainy, Avith a very light frost on the 
30th. September 1, there was a frost which damaged the corn and ftill crops 
in the Northwest, but it did not damage Muscatine. September 19, frost. 
Snow October '2'2. Ice commenced running in the river November -8. Last 
boat down the i*Tth. Ferry-boat went into winter quarters December 14. River 
closed the 18th. Eight inches of heavy snow the 28th that broke in roofs of 
several buildings. 

The winter of 1863-64, was a winter of good sleighing. January cold and 
dry. February milder. The last teams crossed the ice on the river on the 
24th. Ice started on the 25th ; stopped, started and stopped again on the 26th, 
and went out the 27th. March cold and raw. Five inches of snow fell. The 
first steamer up the 7th. April cold. Frost enough May 11 to look white on 
the grass. Last half of May hot. July 1, grass crop short, but better than 
last year. Wheat excellent. Corn rather backward. Rye and barley good. 
Potatoes looked well. Apples and grapes plenty. Jnly, August, September 
and October, very excellent weather. A frost September 19. A killing frost 
October 9. A light snow October 21. November cold, stormy and unpleas- 
ant. Ice plenty on the 18th. Ferry-boat froze up on the 21st. River froze 
over the 24th. Ice broke up on the 25th. Boats commenced running on the 
26th. December 1, the last boat down ; 9th, ice stopped running ; 12th, teams 
crossed on the ice. December 31, ice fifteen inches thick on the channel. 
The year 1864 was dry. Only 32.73 inches of water fell. 

But little snow fell during the winter of 1864-65, There was not enough 
at one time to make sleighing. The weather was not excessively cold. The last 
team crossed on the ice February 21, and wild ducks were flying. The ice 
started above the city on the 22d, but did not go out until March 1. March 
cold and backward. Wheat was sown until the middle of April. Grass 
not sufficient for cattle until about the 25th. Frost did considerable damage. 
Last frost May 11. June, warm with plenty of rain, July and August cold. 
September warm, A light frost October 3. A killing frost October 29. 
Indian summer all through November. It rained but one day. Twenty-two 
days without a cloud, December cold, but not stormy. Plenty of ice m\ the 
river. Ferry-boat laid up on the 11th. Ice stopped running the 13th. The 
year 1865 was dry and favorable ; but 33.71 inches of water fell. 

The winter of 1865-66 was colder than the average. There were thirty- 
seven days of sleighing and seventy-seven days of crossing on the ice, March 
7, the ice on the river started, and ran about one hundred yards and stopped, and 
went out on the 9th, March cold and backward. The last snow disappeared 
on the 31st, Even by April 8, the ice of last winter still lay along the river- 
banks, April 26, grass enough for cattle. May 5, the river at its highest. It 
was said to be only six inches below 1851, May 29, frost damaged corn and 
fruit. June and July warm. August and September pleasant. A light frost 
October 11, Killing frost on the 31st. November 28. the first appearance of 
winter. November 30, ice floating in the river. December 1, the last boat 
down. Ferry-boat laid up on the 17th, and the ice stopped running. December 
27, teams crossed on the ice ; 31,94 inches of water fell during this year. 

The winter of 1866—67 was moderate, with snow in January and February. 
Ice froze eighteen inches thick on the river. March cold. Last team crossed 


the river on the 21st. Ice started on the 29th and stoi)ped. March 30, migra- 
tory birds made their appearance fully one month later than usual. The 
ice went out April 1. Ferry-boat "Decalion" made her first ti'ip the 6th. 
April 18, the first frog singing. This was one of the latest springs on record. 
May 1, grass plenty in the sloughs for cattle ; 17th, a light frost. June 29, the 
river as high as last season. July, August and September dry and pleasant. 
Light frost on the 10th of September. Killing frost October 20. October 
31, the first white frost of the season. November 30, ice running in the river. 
This fall was one of the best ever known. Indian summer for near three 
months. December 1, the last boat up. Ferry-boat went into winter quarters 
on the 7th. River froze over on the 18th. On the 23d, teams crossed on the 
ice. A dry year. Amount of rain-fall, 32.24 inches. 

The winter of 1867-68 was colder than the average. January and February 
had eighteen days below zero. But little snow. Ice twenty inches thick on the 
river. February 10, the thermometer was 32 degrees below zero, the lowest 
point on record. March 7, ice started out and stopped, and went out the 10th. 
First steamboat the 18th. Grass abundant by the 1st of April. May 3, 
a tornado that destroyed a number of buildings passed three miles north of the 
city. June and July hot. July had nineteen days 90 degrees above zero. It 
was the hottest July for thirty years. August moderate and dry. September 
wet, with light frost on the 16th. A killing frost October 4. The fall good 
until November 17. Winter began the 17th. November 14, a fine display of 
meteors was observed. Thirty were counted in fifteen minutes. December 
was cold. Ferry-boat laid up on- the 8th. River closed the 19th, and opened 
the next day. Closed the second time the 25th. A few teams crossed on the 
29th ; 43.14 inches water fell during this year. 

The winter of 1868-69 was moderate, with ten inches of snow in December. 
January and February mild. Ice started in the river on the 12th, and went out 
on the 15th. Migratory birds the 16th. First boat the 20th. March 7, river 
closed. Ice went out the 23d, having been closed sixteen days. Horses 
crossed for seven days. April cold and backward. May seasonable, June 
and July cold and rainy, with severe floods. August but little better. Septem- 
ber and October dry and fine. A light frost September 26. A hard one 
October 13. November cold, wet and disagreeable, and fifteen inches of snow 
fell. Winter began the 12th. Ice running the 20th. Last boat December 3. 

The winter of 1869-70, commenced in November. December was mild, with 
thermometer at zero but once. January mild. Zero but three times, although 
there was an abundance of snow. River closed on the 9th. February mild and 
dry. Ice started March 19 and stopped. March 18, teams crossed. March 
22, ice went out. March 23, first boat. April 25, the river was three inches 
higher than in 1851. Spring forward. May 14, strawberries ripe. June 
intensely hot ; 100 degrees in the shade on the 30th. Ten days with the ther- 
mometer 90 degrees above zero. July had eighteen days above 90 degrees, and 
four over 100 degrees. On the 19th, it was 102J degrees. August Avas quite 
moderate, having four and a half inches of rain-fall. September and October 
rainy. First frost October 12. November wet. December dry. Ice began 
to run on the 14th. Stopped the 21st. Teams crossed the 23d. 

The winter of 1870-71 was moderate, with considerable snow. Crossing 
the river for two months. The ice started February 24, and went out the 25th. 
First boat March 6. Plowing began March 2. A violent, steady, stiff gale on 
the 8th of April blew down and unroofed many buildings. Plenty of grass for 
cattle. The spring was forward. The last frost May 10. JuYie moderate. 


July cold. August warm. A light frost on the 31st. A killing frost Septem- 
ber 29. October and half of November pleasant. Winter set in November 
19. The river closed on the 30th. December cold, with seven stormy days, 
and ten inches of snow fell. 

The winter of 1871-72 was a cold winter. January and February, dry. Ice on 
the river thirty -three inches thick. March dry and very much like a winter month. 
Ice on the river broke up on the 26th. There was not a day between October 
18, 1871, and March 27, 1872, that it did not freeze. The longest cold term 
on record at this place. The thermometer did not reach a higher point than 
49 degrees above, or did not go lower than 14 degrees below zero. Plums 
and cherries in bloom April 30. Ten days later than last season. The sum- 
mer season warm and rainy. Light frost, September 2. Killing frost, Octo- 
ber 10. Ice beojan running and winter commenced November 13. Snow, 
November 14. River closed the 30th. The first team crossed December 9. 

The winter of 1872-73 was cold and severe, breaking up March 5. The 
ice went out on the 14th. April cold. May, June and July warm. August 
hot ; seventeen days above 90 degrees. On the 31st, 101 degrees. Septem- 
ber, pleasant. Light frost, the 8th. October, cold. Thermometer 17 degrees 
on the 31st, and a little ice floating in the river. November, cold. Six severe 
snowstorms with a fall of eight inches of snow during the month. River 
closed December 20. 

The winter of 1873-74 was long, moderately cold and plenty of snow. It 
began in October and lasted until the middle of March. Ice started March 10. 
First boat, March 11, had to break a way through the ice. April 5, good sleigh- 
ing. May 18, a slight frost. June, hot ; nine days 90 degrees or more. On the 
26th, 101 degrees. July, hot. The 3d and 4th, 99|^ degrees. The 5th, 103 
degrees (the highest known range at this place). The 25th, 100 degrees. 
August, hot; lOOJ degrees on the 11th. September, rainy ; 3.86 inches rain 
fell on the 18th. Light frost the 15th. Ice one-sixteenth inch thick Octo- 
ber 12. Fall, excellent. Winter began November 18. December, warm. 

The winter of 1874-75 was early and soft at first. January was the coldest 
one on record, there being twenty-two days the thermometer was below zero. 
One day 19 degrees below. The mean temperature was only 8.07 degrees, 
being 11.02 degrees colder than the average. February was as cold as Jan- 
uary. Fifteen days to zero. March milder. Ice went out the 29th. First 
boat appeared April 5. May 20, apples in bloom. Light frost the 21st. June, 
July and August quite cold^ but two days up to 90 degrees. There was a 
heavy frost in some parts of Iowa on the 23d of August, but none here until 
September 18. Killing frost October 16. An excellent fall. River closed 
November 30. 

In the winter of 1875-76, December was very open. Ice broke up the 5th. 
Ferry-boat started the 6th, and ran ten days. The ice closed up the second 
time the 18th, and went out the 21st. Steamboat up January 7. Ferry-boat 
laid up the second time January 10. The river closed the third time February 
3. February 10, ice broke up. Winter gone and not enough snow to start a 
sleigh. The ice-dealers had to go to Northern Iowa for ice. March muddy and 
backward. Wheat all sown by April 30, and cherries in bloom. Light frost 
May 9. Light frost June 19. July warm and wet. A flood the 15th, that 
did considerable damage ; 3.64 inches rain. August 11, a beautiful meteoric 
display. Fifty meteors in forty-five minutes. The fall a good one. Winter 
commenced November 21. Ice in the river the 30th. It closed Decem- 
ber 5. 


The winter of 1876-77 began early, and Avas cold with but little snow. 
December cold. January very cold. Eighteen days down to zero. February 
very moderate. Ice in the river went out the 19th. Considerable wheat sown 
by February 20. Corn about half planted by May 19. The spring backward. 
June 35, a storm of wind and hail visited this county, blowing down several 
buildings and completely destroying by hail one-fourth of the crops of the county. 
The summer was moderately warm. The fall very rainy and disagreeable. A 
light frost September 18. A killing frost November 1. The corn ripened 
middling well. Winter came in November 27. Ice in the river the 29th. 

The winter of 1877-78 was a remarkably soft winter. Mud all winter. 
Only two or three days of good roads. Ice not more than six inches thick and 
that in still ponds. Dealers went north for ice. The season opened with a 
good spring. A hot July, eleven days above 90 degrees. On the 12th, 100 
degrees. A light frost September 11, and not a killing frost until October 19. 
which made and ripened one of the best corn crops Iowa has ever had. 

The winter of 1878-79 commenced December 6. The river closed the 19th. 
Teams crossed on the 22d. The last team crossed March 4. Seventy days' 
crossing the ice. The ice went out the 7th. March cold and backward. Ten 
inches of snow fell during the month. Wheat sown, but no grass. 

The extreme range of thermometer at Muscatine is 135 degrees, from 32 
degrees below to 103 degrees above. 


The Indian history of this State is interesting, principally because of the 
presence here of two of the most noted characters of modern tribes. The nature 
of this work precludes the introduction of an exhaustive treatise on the rise and 
decline of the Indian races of this region, and enables us merely to gather 
from reliable sources the fragments of incident, anecdote and analysis which 
have floated loosely about for years. In fact, our province is purely that of a 
compiler ; but sufficient care has been taken with the work to make it valuable 
in the generations which are to follow. The actual historian who shall inves- 
tigate the ample field of aboriginal existence may peruse these pages with a 
feeling of security in their correctness, if the associates of Keokuk and Black 
Hawk theunselves are to be believed ; for much of the information here pre- 
served was obtained in direct line of recital, either to the writer or to the party 
duly accredited with the extract. 

There still live many persons who witnessed the strange sight of a remnant 
of a race of men departing forever from their early homes, and such will, doubt- 
less, be disposed to sneer at the pen which finds a source of melancholy in the 
contemplation of this event. But worthy hands have written lines of living 
power upon the theme ; nor can the harsh character of fact denude the subject 
of a glamour which poetry and romance have oast around the dusky victim and 
his fate. There is a grandeur in the record of the race which the stern force of 
truth is powerless to dispel. 

Human improvement, rushing through civilization, crushes in its march all 
who cannot grapple to its car. This law is as inexorable as fate. " You colo- 
nize the land of the savage Avith the Anglo-Saxon," says Stephen Montague, 
" you civilize that portion of the earth ; but is the savage civilized ? He is 
exterminated ! You accumulate machinei'y, you increase the total of wealth, 
but what becomes of the labor you displace ? One generation is sacrificed to 


the next. You diffuse knowledge, and the world seems to grow brighter : but 
Discontent at Poverty replaces Ignorance happy with its crust. Every 
improvement, every advancement of civilization, injures some to benefit others, 
and either cherishes the want of to-day or prepares the revolution of to-mor- 

This portion of Iowa was once the home of the Sac and Fox tribes of 
Indians. From a little work entitled " Sketches of Iowa," prepared in 1841 
by John B. Newhall, of Burlington, the following summary of their general 
character is taken : 

"The Saics and Foxes have been among the most powerful and warlike 
tribes of the Northwest. History finds them fighting their way from the shores 
of the northern lakes, gradually, toward the Mississippi, sometimes warring 
with the Winnebagoes. and at other times with the Chippewas, often instigated 
by the French. At an early period, they inhabited the region of country 
bordering upon the Wisconsin River, and planted large quantities of corn. 
The whole history of their wars and migrations shows them to have been a 
restless and spirited people, a people erratic in their pursuits, having a great 
contempt for agriculture and a predominant passion for war. By these ruling 
traits they have been constantly changing, suffering and diminishing. Still 
they retain their ancient chivalry, ever ready for war, regardless of the superi- 
ority of their foes. Thus, at the present time (1841), four or five hundred of 
their warriors are out to fight the Sioux of the North, with whom there exists a 
most deadly hostility, originating from old feuds, the origin of which they 
scarcely know themselves. Their numbers, of late years, have been somewhat 
augmented by the policy they have pursued of adopting their prisoners of war 
and receiving seceders from other tribes, and, at the present time, they number 
about seven thousand souls. 

" The Sacs and Foxes speak the Algonquin language. This language is 
still spoken by the Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Ottawas, and several other tribes. 
It is soft and musical in comparison with the harsh, guttural Narcoutah of the 
Sioux, which is peculiar to themselves, having but little affinity to the Algon- 
quin tongue. Their ideas of futurity are somewhat vague and indefinite. They 
believe in the existence of a Supreme Manitou, or good spirit, and a Malcha 
Manitou, or evil" spirit. They often invoke the favor of the good Manitou for 
success in war and the hunt, by various sacrifices and offerings. Storm and 
thunder they view as manifestations of His wrath ; and success in war, the hunt 
or in the deliverance from enemies, of His favor and love. Everything of great 
power or efficiency, or what is inexplicable, is a 'great medicine,' and the med- 
cine-men and prophets are next in consideration to chiefs. At the decease of 
their friends, they paint their faces