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Full text of "The natural history of plants"

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^ali^'t^nia So/cactemu o/ ^yccence^ 



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"l^a^^^WWIf 



Anonaceae I 
BalanphoracGae VI 
Begoniaceas VIII 
Berberidacsas II 
BixacesG IV 
Campanulaceae VIII 
Capparldaoeae II 
Castanaceae VI 
Cslastraceae VI 
Chlaenacsae IV 
Clstacoae IV 
Clusiaoeae VI 
CombretacQaG VI 
Conpo^itaG VIII 
Connaraceae II 
Cornaceae VII 
CrassulacGae II 
CrucifGrae II 
Cu'curbitaceae VIII 
DilleniacoaG I 
DdptGrocarpaceae IV 
DipsaceaG VII 
Elaegnaceae II 
Euphorbiaceae V 
GeraniacGaG V 
LauraceaG II 
LeguminosaG II 
LinacacG V 
LoasacGae VIII 
LythraricGae 



MagnoilacGaG 1 
MalvacGae IV 
Malpighiaceaa 
Melastomaceae VII 
MeliaceaG V 
Menlspermaoeae II 
MonimiaOGae I 
MyristaceaG II 
Myrtacoae VI 
Nymphaeoeae II 
Nyotaginaceae IV 
Ochnaceae IV 
Onaf^raceae VI 
Papavoracoao II 
Pa£5sif --oraceae VIII 
PonaGcacece VI 
Phylolaccaceae IV 
PiDGracGae II 
PolygalaCGaG V 
Proteaooae II 
Ranunculaceao I 
ResedaceaG II 
HhaiimaceaQ II 
RhizophoracoaG II 
Hosaceaa I 
RubiacGao '''II 
Rutaceae TV 
Saplndaceae V 
SaxifragacGaG II 
TGrGblnthcceae V 



,i'- 






THE 



NATURAL HISTORY 



PLANTS. 



VOL. I. 



THE 



NATURAL HISTORY 



PLANTS. 



BY 



H. BAILLON, 



PRESIDENT OF THE LINN^EAN SOCIETY OF PARIS, 

•ROFESSOR OF MEDICAL NATCJRAL HISTORY AND DIRECTOR OF THE BOTANICAL GARDEN 

OF THE FACULTY OF MEDICINE OF PARIS. 



TRANSLATED BY 

MARCUS M. HARTOG, 

TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



VOL. I. 



RANUNCULACE^, DILLENIACEiE, MAGNOLIACE^, ANONACE^, 
MONIMIACB./E, ROSACEiE. 



LONDON : 
L. REEVK & CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREKT, CO VENT GARDEN. 

187L 



$.^ 



(1)k 



LONDON : 

SAVILL, EDWARDS AND CO., PRINTERS, CHANDOS STREET, 

COVENT GARDEN. 



TO THE MEMORY 



J. B. PAYEE, 

MEMB£U OF THE INSTITUTE (ACAD^MIE DES SCIENCES), 

'UOEESSOR OP BOTANY IN THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE OF I'.UilS AND THE 

UPPER NORMAL SCHOOL 



(1818-1860). 



INTRODUCTION. 



11 n'y a qu'une maniere d'avancer les sciences, c'est de les Biniplifier ou d'y 

ajoutcr quelque chose de nouveau." — Poinsot. 
' We must not, like children, receive the opinions of our fathers, only because 

our fathers held them." — Mabcus Aurelius. 



For the first idea of this book we are indebted to the much- 
regretted philosopher, to whose memory it is dedicated. In the 
Introduction to his Traite d' Organogenie Comparee de la Fleur, Payer 
says : " In a kind of illustrated Genera Plantar am, undertaken 
about ten years ago, and which I hope will be published before 
long, I shall show, by numerous applications, the great importance 
of organogenic studies in demonstrating the true affinities of plants 
to each other." For this purpose he had prepared a large number 
of cuts, which he left to us. Of the text of the work and the plan 
the Author proposed to follow, we unfortunately know nothing. 
All that we have to guide us is the essay published under the 
modest title of Lec^ons sur les Families Naturelles des Planies, a 
work interrupted in 1860 by his premature decease, and continued 
by us till the present time. It is, however, probable that the very 
rich organogenic lore of the author would have entered very largely 
into the composition of the book. 

That Payer himself should not have been able to execute his 
stupendous project is no doubt a cruel injury to science. But from 
the severe lessons of death we learn at least this much, that to 
raise such a monument to science it is important to begin its exe- 
cution early. He who does not shrink from such an enterprise 
may from the commencement hope, either that he himself will be 
able to crown his work, or that, if few be the days allotted to him, 
he wdll leave a firm foundation upon which those who succeed him 
may build. In this case the plan will be traced out, and those 
who continue the work will be able to conform to it, the key 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

at least having been laid before them. This is the chief consideration 
which has led us to begin tlius early the publication of this Natural 
History of Plants. It needed no doubt a fuller maturity ; and the 
task is one that a botanist well inured to all the difficulties of the 
science would be fit to accomplish only at the end of a long career. 
Accordingly, to remedy our incompetence, the existence of which we 
have never concealed from ourselves, we have tried during eight years 
of assiduous labour to become familiar with the numerous works pub- 
lished on the different parts of the Vegetable Kingdom ; we have 
analyzed most of the genera of plants found in the large collections 
of Europe, prepared numerous drawings, and have quintupled the 
number of cuts left by Payer. Only when materials have been 
wanting for the direct observation of the types have we confined 
ourselves to reproducing the characters given by other authors, leaving 
them all the merit and all the responsibility. But whenever facts 
are given without indicating any source from which they are drawn, 
we have made out from nature what we have described. Before 
beginning this exposition we must explain the general plan followed 
in the work. 

The orders of plants are described successively, each being nearly 
always divided into a certain number of series, which often, though, 
as will be seen, not invariabl}^, correspond with what most authors 
call tribes. Each series begins by the detailed study of a leading 
type, whose characters are described and figured as completely as 
possible, but only with reference to the more important features. 
This description, precise, though summarized, and sufficient, despite 
its very elementary form, for the beginner or the reader who does not 
care to go deeper into the subject or to verify all its details, is 
printed in large type in the text. The more special details, the 
characters of secondary importance, the historical and bibliographical 
references which enable the professional botanist to check our 
observations and start afresh on further inquiries I'rom the point 
at which we stop, — all these are found in small text in notes at the 
bottom of each page, which, of course, no one is obliged to read. 

After describing the genera in series, we give a sumnuuy of the 
history oi' the order, its ulliiiitics and i^eogiapliical distribution ; 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

and discuss its value with that of the characters on which are based 
the series into whicli the whole group is divided. Finally, the 
properties of tlie useful plants it contains are enumerated. After 
the text comes a Genera, in which, omitting the characters common 
to the whole series and defined in the first type described, only 
the important points which mark off each genus sharply from its 
neighbours are given. These generic descriptions will of course 
be more detailed in those very natural orders which were formerly 
considered as great single genera, or as collections of a few very 
large genera. In such cases it will be unnecessary to lay any 
stress on minute shades of distinction in the text ; we shall thus 
avoid useless repetitions in certain groups made up of nearly 
similar elements, such as Legiiminoii(B, CrncifcrcB, Compos? fee, Graminece, 
and the like. 

As with the text so with the figures. The genera whose organi- 
zation is either most important or least known, and especially 
those which head our series, will have most of their parts figui-ed : 
habit, inflorescence, flower (entire and in longitudinal section), sexual 
organs, floral diagram, fruit, seed (entire and in section), &c. But 
of the genera derived from these only the chief differentiating cha- 
racters will be figured, while there will be no need to draw those of their 
organs which are similar to the same organs in the typical genus. 

The reasons for the succession in which the diflferent families will 
be described it appears illogical to consider here, or to discuss the 
classification of objects before we have studied them, and while their 
exact characters are supposed to be still unknown. As, with each 
order, until we have analyzed and described its genera and compared 
them with one another, we are unable to decide on the value of 
the characters which allow us to arrange them in series ; so, only 
after scrutinizing the organization of the whole of the Vegetable 
Kingdom, shall we be in a position reasonably to inquire into the 
principles which may govern its classification. What profit, indeed, 
can result from discussing the value of facts and characters that 
we have as yet not investigated ? 

Suffice it, then, at the commencement of this work, to say merely 
that in the first instance we shall follow the generally received 



X INTBOBUCTION. 

practice of dividinc: the Vegetable Kingdom into three great hranchoa 
{embrnnchcmenfs), founded on the presence or absence, and the number 
of cotyledons, and shall successively examine Dicotyledons, Mono- 
cotyledons, and AcoTYLEDONs. Seeing that v/e begin the study of 
Dicotyledons with the orders called Pol 1/ carpi ca — i.e., those in 
which the carpels of the flower, and later on of the fruit, are free 
from each other, and recall as nearly as possible by their arrange- 
ment on the floral axis that of the leaves on the stem — the reader 
will at once perceive the importance we assign to the female repro- 
ductive organ in classification. But as even from the very beginning 
he will here and there find types which are exceptional in that their 
carpels are united to a variable extent, while most authors have still 
put them in the same natural group, he will also understand that 
we cannot admit either "absolute characters" or "immutable sub- 
ordination," the foundations of what is at present called the natural 
system. We have said enough to indicate what principles we 
shall follow in the classification of the Vegetable Kingdom. 

Botanic Gardens of the Society of Medicine of Paris, 
Febrtjabt, 1869. 



TO THE ENGLISH READER. 

I WISH to take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to the 
authorities of the Linnsean Society and of the Cambridge University 
Library for their courtesy to me ; also to my brother, Mr. Numa 
Edward Hartog, for his kind assistance in the wearisome task of 
revising the proofs, which has materially increased whatever value 
this translation may possess. 

M. M. H. 

Trinity College, Camukiuge, 
March, 1871. 



FIRST BRANCH OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 



DICOTYLEDONS 



{Exoc]en(B V>C,.—AnthophytcE Ok. — Carpophytce Ok. — Exorhizea L. C. Rich. — Synorhizea L. C. 
Rich. — Phyllollastcp. Reichb. — Acramphibrya Endl. — SyyiPchophyta Schleid ). 



Plants whose embryo has, with some rare exceptions, two 
cotyledons, and whose stem generally consists of a distinct bark 
and wood of concentric zones surrounding a central pith. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



I. RANUNCULACEiE. 



I. COLUMBINE SERIES— EEGULAR FORM. 

We shall commence the study of this group by the analysis of the 
common Columbine {J qui- ,.-. , 

leffia} vulgaris L.), a herb 
found growing pretty fre- 
quently in certain hilly -I ' 
woods, under hedges, and 
on the borders of forests, in 
marshy fields, and also culti- 
vated in all gardens, where 
it flowers in the spring and 
part of the summer (fig. 1). 
Its flowers are of the kind 
termed hermaphrodite, that 
is, containing both male and 
female reproductive organs. 
They are regular, bearing 
around their axis or floral 
receptacle, a certain number 
of appendages, arranged 
with great regularity from 
below upwards, as will be 
seen at a glance on examin- 
ing the theoretical diagram 
of the flower — i.e., its plan, 
or the projection of all its 
component organs on a ho- 
rizontal plane (fig. 2). 




Fig. 1. 
Aquilegia vulgaris. 



1 Aqtdlegia TorEN., Inslit., 428; CoroIL, 30, 
t. 242.— L., Gen., n. 684.— Jrss., Gen., 234.— 
DC, Prodr., i. 50. — Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 



329— ExDL., Gen., n. 4795. — Payer, Organo. 
genie, 245, t. Hv.— B. H., Gen., 8, n. 23.— H. Bn., 
Adansonia, iv. 43. 

B 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 




We first notice the outer envelope, a circle, or whorl of five 
leaves, which form the ca/^x ; these are the sepals {s). Two of 
them are in front by the bract {h), which is 
below the flower; two others are lateral, 
and the fifth behind. They overlap in the 
bud in a quincuncial arrangement or cesti- 
vation ; the posterior sepal (No. 2) over- 
lapping its two neighbours, the lateral sepals 
(Nos. 4, 5) which are each overlapped 
on both sides, and of the anterior sepals 
one is quite uncovered (No. 1,) while the 
Fig. 2. other No. (8) is overlapped on one side and 

AqniUgia vulgaris. Diagram, ovcrlaps ou the othcr. Next, formiug the 
second envelope, or corolla, come five other leaves alternate with the 
sepals — i.e., corresponding with the intervals between them. These 
leaves ov petals (p) overlap in the bud so as to be imbricated, as shown 
in the diagram. They have no adhesion whatever with one another, 
and fall separately. 

Within and above the corolla is the androceum, composed of a 
large number of stamens, or male fecundating organs. If we sup- 
pose that, as is often the case, and as is represented in the diagram, 
these are fifty in number, we shall easily perceive that there are first 
five opposite the sepals, forming the first whorl or verticil. Within, 
and a little above these, come five others opposite the petals. Next 
comes a third whorl of stamens opposite the first ; then a fourth 
alternate with these, and so on, so that we may count ten whorls of 
stamens, arranged in ten radiating rows, of which five answer to 
the sepals and five to the petals. 

Each of these stamens, perfectly independent of the others, is 
formed of a filament, flattened and dilated below, tapering to a point 
above, where it supports the base of an oval flattened anther, with 
two lateral cells containing the pollen, or fertilizing dust. Each cell 
opens, after the expansion of the flower, by a longitudinal cleft near 
the margin, but often a little nearer the outer than the inner face, so 
that the anther is slightly extrorsc (figs. 3, 4)'. These fifty 



' After tlie anthers have opened, the cells open 
out (as seen in fig. 4) so as to become plane, and 
are placed edgewise ; they then touch along the 
whole of their outer surfaces, while the inner 
•urfaces, covered with grains of jjollen, which 



soon fall, look laterally and outwards. The 
pollen-grains are elongated, with three equidistant 
longitudinal grooves. The anthers of the superior 
stamens are the first to dehisce, shed their pollen, 
and then turn black. 



RANUNGULAGE2E. 




stamens are fertile ; but within and above them are ten others which 
are sterile and reduced to flattened scales, of which five are opposite 
to the sepals, and five to the petals. 
These sfaminodes are inserted imme- 
diately below the (jyuaccum or pistil. 
This is composed of five' carpels (c), 
which are opposite the petals, as sliown 
in the diagram' (fig. 2). The whole 
of the lower portion of each carpel 
is hollow, and the cavity contains a 
large number of little whitish bodies 
— the ovules or future seeds of the 
plant. The carpels do not cohere at 
all, and as they are also placed above 
all the other floral organs we have 
studied, we describe them as free 
and superior. 

As yet we have only considered 
the number of appendages thus stationed in ranks on the floral 
receptacle of the Columbine, and the relative positions of the 
various organs one to another. But we have, and not without 
good reason, hardly taken into account either form, size, or colour ; 
for external circumstances, such as the aspect of the ground, the 
chemical composition and moisture of the soil, the use of manure, 
the style of cultivation, and many other causes often unperceived, 
may bring about indefinite variations in these characters, which are 
of quite secondary importance. 

Thus the sepals are sometimes greenish, but far more often 
coloured. The petals assume at times the form of small, expanded, 
flattened blades, like the sepals ; but they often have near the base 
a decurrent spur, lined towards its apex with a glandular tissue 
which secretes a sweet juice or nectar. The petal has then the 
general appearance of a cornet.^ The stamen generally possesses, as 





Aquilegia vulgaris 




Fig. 3. 


Fig. 4. 


Fig. 5. 


Stamen 


Stamen 


Gynaeceura & 


dehiscing. 


completely 
opened. 


staminodes. 



' The normal number; but in cultivated 
plants we often find more numerous carpels, 
sometimes arranged in a single w horl, sometimes 
in an inner and an outer division. A. pyrenaica 
DC. has sometimes ten carpels, five outside and 
five inside exactly alternate with these. 

2 RcEPEB considers that the position of the 
carpels depends on the number of staminal ver- 



ticils, so that if these be odd, the carpels are 
opposite the petal; if even, opposite the sepals. 

3 There are, among others, spurred Colum- 
bines and starred Columbines, and in these last 
the petals are flattened, coloured leaves. As 
the metamorphosed stamens may equally pre- 
sent these modificiitions, we may have double 
spurred or double starred Columbines. Tocese- 

B 2 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 




Aquilegia vulgans. 
Fig. 6. Fig. 7. 

Flower. Longitudinal section 

of flower. 



stated above, an oval flattened anther, whose cells are attached to 
the two sides of a vertical linear connective ; but this connective is 

sometimes laterally expanded into 
a hooked spur, resembling the 
spurs of the petals : and still more 
frequently each anther assumes 
the appearance of a small green 
leaf, or coloured petal. In many 
flowers, too, the stamens are me- 
tamorphosed into spurred petals 
fitting one within another. The 
carpels are equally susceptible of 
all these modifications. 

These carpels are normally 
closed (fig. 5).' Each consists of 
an elongated unilocular ovari/, surmounted by a narrow sti/Ic, bearing 
along the whole length of the inner angle a longitudinal groove. 
At the slightly dilated summit of the style, the thickened edges of 
this groove are covered with a large number of projecting stigmaiic 

papilla3. On opening the back of 
the ovary, we find in the inner 
angle of the cavity a double pro- 
jecting cord, or placenta, which 
supports on each half a vertical 
row of nearly horizontal ovules, 
those of one row touching those 
of the other by their inner 
borders. Here each ovule has a 
projecting ridge, or raphe. The 
micropyle or hole, through which it is impregnated is placed near 




Aquilegia vulgaris. 
Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

Transverse section Fruit, 

of ovary. 



FORT {Insiit., 428) has enumerated as so 
many species all these varieties, due almost con- 
stantly to the influence of cultivation, and which, 
besides, may be seen in flowers of every tint — 
pink, white, or bluish. He further describes 
Columbines that are variegated, punctated, with 
pendulous flowers, with erect flowers. 1)e Can- 
DOLLE has studied the structure of many of these 
monstrous forms {Mem. de la Soc. d'Arcueil, 
iii. 393-396). ISIany other anomalies have been 
noted, amon^ others by (^los (Bull. Soc. Bot., 
iv. 160), A. Tassi (ibid. viii. 394), and by 
ourtielves (Adnnsonia, iv. 17-lR;, &c. 



' It may happen accidentally, especially in 
gardens, that the carpels remain 
open, and spread out like leaves. 
We tlien usually see bodies on each 
margin that represent ovules, some- 
times nornial,8ometimes transformed 
into tongues, or leaflets, of very 
variable size and form (fig. 8). This 
anomaly has often been pointed 
out in Aconite, Lariispiir, and 
many otlier genera, especially in 
those which have multiovulate 
carpels. j,^^_ g 




BANUNCULACE^. 6 

the placenta, so that it is lateral, exterior to the raphe. These 
ovules are therefore ancdropous. 

After flowering, all the parts of the flower fall off, except the 
carpels, which become as mm\y follicles (fig. 10), or dry fruits with 
numerous seeds, opening longitu- 
dinally along the inner angle. The 

anatropous seed has on one side /// i - ' 

a marked projecting raphe, which m ^' 

ends in a whitish mark, or J/il//m, [I 

by which it is attached, and whicli S^r — < 

looks as if it were torn. Near it ^^QA^ \ \ \ 

is the micropyle, whicli appears J^^ ^^^ 
like a minute depression. This j^^te^H 
seed has a triple integument, com- ^E^^^P '^ / 

posed of a superficial cellular en- ^^'^'^P^ -. / y 

velope, or epidermis, a thick, dry, 

brittle testa of very dark colour ; A.^uUegia vulgaris. 

and within a thin, white mem- ^^f- n- i'i&. 12. 

1 T J 1 • Seed. Lonsiitudinal section 

brane, surroundmg the copious of seed. 

fleshy albumen, which contains near its apex a very small embryo, 

with an acute base and obtuse cotvledons. 

The Columbines are perennials, found in the north temperate 
zone, in both the Old and New Worlds. The species, which 
have been much multiplied, may be reduced to one or two for 
France and Europe.' Several are found in Asia" and North 
America.^ The stem, which is at first simple, springs from a tap- 
root, and bears alternate ternately compound leaves, with petioles 
dilated at the base, the lower leaves much simpHfied, or often reduced 
to scales. The stem ends in a flower, below which are bracts from the 
axil of each of which may spring another axis also endino- in 
a flower, and so on. Alter flowering, the upper part of the 
stem falls ofl", while the base enlarges (chiefly in the medullary 
region) to form a reservoir for the accumulation of nutritive 
juices destined to supply the hitherto dormant axillary buds 
of the reduced leaves. These buds enlarge the faster as they 



' Gken. & GoDR., Fl. Fr., i. 44. — Reichb., Zrcc, Flor. Jap. Fam., 76.— Boiss , Biaan. PL 

Icon., i V. t. 114-119.— Walp., Rep., i. 50 ; v. 6 ; Orient. 
Ann., i. 13; ii. 12 ; iv 25. 3 a. Gray, ///., t. 14. 

* Hook. & Tu., Flor.Ind., i. 43; Sieb. & 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



are higher up on this basilar portion of the stem, each becoming 
in turn a leafy aerial branch ending in an inflorescence ; later 
on, swelling at the base, and then giving up its juices to supply 
the evolution of the buds axillary to its first leaves. Thus the 
rhizome of the Columbine gradually ramifies, while the primitive 
root, after having at first formed a tolerably large tap-root, gradually 
becomes hollow and withers, till it has entirely disappeared, and the 
plant is wholly nourished by the adventitious roots, which appear 
at each period of vegetation at the base of the ascending axes. 
Many perennial Banunculacece resemble this, and belong to the group 
of plants with definite axes evolved successively. 

Xanthorhiza apiifolia Lher.,' though of very different habit, and with 
very small flowers which at first sight hardly recall those of the 
Columbine,- presents nearly the same floral 
organization, and may be considered a 
smaller type of this,^ from which the only 
essential point of diff'erence is the smaller 
number of staminal whorls in the former. 
The perianth (fig. 13) is formed of five 
caducous sepals, as a rule quincuncially 
imbricated in the bud, and of five smaller, 
fleshy, glandular petals, contracted at the 
and dilated above into a cordate somewhat 




Xanthorhiza apiifolia. 
Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

Flower. Petal. 



base into a narrow claw, 
concave limb (tig. 14). 

The stamens are often ten in number, arranged in two whorls, so 
that five are opposite the sepals and five opposite the petals ; but 
we often find the parts of one whorl more or less abortive. Each 
stamen consists of a hypogynous filament, and a basifixed flattened 
bilocular anther, dehiscing by two longitudinal lateral clefts, rather 
turned inwards than outwards. The gynajceum is often formed of 
five free carpels opposite the petals, each composed of a unilocular 



' Xanthorhiza Maesu, ex SCHEEB., Oen., 727, 
11.1851.-LAMK., III., I. 854; DC, P/orfr., i. G5. 
— Si'ACli, Suit, a Buff., vii. 407. — Endl., Gen., 
n. 4803.— A. Gray, ///., t. 17.— H. H., Gtn.,9, 
n. 29, — H. I5n. Adamoiiia., iv. 44. — Xanthorhiza 
apiifolia, Luva., Stirp. Nov.,'7i),t. 38. — Duham., 
Arbr., last ed., iii. t. 37. 

- This has been generally placed near Acicea 
or Faonia. A. -L. de Jussiku {Gen. 234) says 
on this plant — " CimicifugcB njinis." 



' Pateb {Organog., 247). " There are," says 
he, " only very minute diil'orenccs between tlio 
flowers of Aqtiilegia and Xanthorhiza, con- 
sisting, as they do, in the dill'erent ninnber of 
whorls in the androceuni on the one liand, and 
in the form of the jietals on the other; and I 
can with difficulty understand why botanists have 
placed these two genera in different sections. 



RANUNGULACE/H. 



ovary, tapering above into a style whicli bears the stigma at its sum- 
mit. Into tlie inner angle of the ovary are inserted a number of 
anatropous ovules, placed back to back m two vertical rows. 
The fruit is formed of several follicles, which may either be 
sterile,' or dehisce at the inner angle to free one or several seeds 
containing a fleshy albumen. 

X(nithorh}::a is a small shrub or undershrub which grows in damp 
localities in N. America. Its branches bear alternate complete leaves, 
with petioles sheathing at the base, and bearing a blade that is tri- 
foliolate, or else has a terminal leaflet so deeply lobed as to appear 
like three leaflets, thus making the leaf pinnately compound. The 
indefinite branches bear at their summit a bud destined to leno^then 
out in the following year, covered by scales which represent the 
sheaths of the leaves.- The inflorescences which arise in spring from 
the axils of the scales or first-formed leaves, or which may really be 
terminal," are racemose cymes with slender pendulous axes. The 
foliage of this plant resembles that of certain Actc(e, but its habit 
and woody stem appear to remove it from most Banunctilaccce. The 
Nigell(B, on the contrary, return in this matter to the general cha- 
racters of the order. 

The first species we shall study of the genus Nicjella is one that 
we shall term N. GarideUa, which Tournefort considered as the type 



A^ 





Fig. j5. 
Flower. 



Nigella GarideUa. 



Fig. 16. 
Longitudinal section of flowi 



of a separate genus, and which Linn^us named GarideUa Ni(jellastrum. 
Its receptacle is conical and bears successively a regular poly 



' This usually occurs in cultivation. There 
may be ten carpels in two whorls, and even twelve 
or thirteen, but a certain number disappear more 
or less completely. The plant may thus become 
polygamous. 

^ Some are surmounted by a rudimentary 
blade. 



^ When the inflorescence is terminal, below it 
we find one or two leaf-buds, axillary to scales. 
If later on one of these developes vigorously, it 
thrusts aside the raceme, making it appear lateral. 

■* Isicjella creticafulio Foejiiculi Kauh.. Pinax., 
\m.— GarideUa T., Tnst., 655, t. 430. — (., Gen., 
233.— G. Figclhtstrum L., Spec, 608.— DC, 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PL.1NTS. 




sepalous calyx and polypetalous corolla, an indefinite number of 
stamens, and a di- or tri-carpellary pistil. There are five sepals 
qnincuncially imbricated in the bud, and as man}^ petals' ofTering the 
exceptional character of opposition to the sepals. The stamens are 
hypogynous and unequal, with the filament free and dilated at the 
tip below the insertion of the basifixed anther into two small lateral 
projections. The anther is bilocular, introrse, 
dehiscing by two longitudinal clefts, of which 
the outer lips turn sharply backwards after dehis- 
cence. The stamens are arranged in eight radiating 
rows, each row containing but a very small number.' 
Each carpel is composed of a unilocular ovary sur- 
mounted by a short style, grooved longitudinally 
on the inside, while at the summit the margins of 
the groove turn somewhat outwards and are covered 
with stigmatic papillae. 

We notice within each ovary, which is united below to its neigh- 
bours, a parietal placenta, ventrally 
placed over a variable extent of the inner 
angle,^ and bearing two rows of nearly 
horizontal anatropous ovules, with the 
raphes of those of each row adjacent to 
those of the other.^ The pistils become 
as many follicles (figs. 18, 19), co- 
hering for a variable height, and opening 
at the inner angle to free the seeds, 
which contain a small embryo near the 



Nigella Oaridella. 
Fig. 17. 
Diagram. 




Nigella 


Garidella. 


Fig. 18. 


Fig. 19. 


Fruit. 


Fruit opening. 



Prodr., i. 48.— Spaoh, Stiit. a Bvff., vii, 300 — 
Endl., Gen., n. 4793.— B. H., Gen., 8, n. 22. 

* Tliese petals have a singular form. The 
claw is surmounted by a bifid fork-like limb, the 
inner surface of which is covered with clavate 
papilla); and where this joins the claw is a necta- 
riferous depression, the bottom of which is lined 
by a yellowish glandular tissue, and which is 
partly closed at its entry by a vertical acute scale, 
also bearing on its inner surface pedicellate pa- 
pilla). The singular form of these petals, aiul 
especially their position in front of the sepals, lead 
us to consider that j)erhaps they do not represent 
the elements of a corolla, but the outer stamens 
transformed into staminodes {Adansonla, iv. 
20). — We have observed stamens in Garidella, 
which had on one side a fertile anther cell, and 
on the other a petaloid blade covered with papilla;. 



2 There may be even only one or two in each 
row. But their arrangement is exactly the same 
as in the other Nicjellce. Payer has also re- 
m:\r\ied{Orffanog., 249) that the order of appear- 
ance of the eight inferior stamens of Garidella is 
the same as that of the eight petals of the 
Nigellae. 

^ To be more exact we must, no donbt, say, 
that the carpels of Garidella are free, but that 
tiieir bases are much extended obliquely, and are 
inserted on the three upper faces of a fairly 
elevated tetrahedron when they are three in 
number, and on the faces of a sort of acute pro- 
jecting wedge when there are only two. The 
same observation applies to the other Nigella, as 
we have already indicated {Adansonia, iv. 21). 

■• They have two envelopes. 



EANJJNCULACEM. 9 

apex of the abundant flesliy albumen. The receptacle swells into a 
hypogynous disk of little thickness on a level with the insertion of the 
stamens, and also forms a projecting pad below the base of the calyx. 
N. GarideUa is found in the countries of the Mediterranean ; it is a 
herbaceous annual, with erect, angular stem and branches, leaves 
alternate, pinnately compound, much divided ; flowers solitary, 
terminal. 

The other Nif/ellce only differ from N. GarideUa in characters of 
but little importance, such as the larger number of parts in the 
corolla, androceum, and gynceceum. In fact, if we look at the flower 
of N. arvensis L. (figs. 20, 21), we see that the perianth is com- 
posed of five sepals and eight petals — a difference between the number 
in each whorl which is at first surprising. But on examining the 
relative positions of the sepals and petals, we see that while the 
lateral sepals have each a petal opposite them, as in N. GarideUa, the 
three other sepals have each two petals before them. We must 
therefore consider that the yigeUce have a corolla of five petals 
opposite the sepals, of which three undergo reduplication.' The 
stamens are formed and spirally arranged as in N. GarideUa ; 





Fig. 20. 
Flower. 



Niyella arvensis. 

Fig. 21. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



but the secondary spirals, eight in number, which end opposite the 
base of the petals, are distinct and very marked; and hence the 



' It even happens that in the Nigella culti- 
vated in our gardens, all the petals may be 
doubled, and replaced by as many pairs, each 
opposite a sepal (see AdanJtonia, iv. 10). But as at 
the same time the petals have the same singular 
form as in GarideUa, and are produced, not simul- 
taneously, but successively in a spiral order like 
the parts of an androco-um (Payee, Organog., 



248) ; as each of these begins a row of stamens, 
as in Jiraulhis, &c. ; taking also into considera- 
tion the opposition of the parts of the so-called 
corolla to those of the c;ilyx, we are led to think 
that the nectaries of Sigella, as the older bo- 
tanists termed them, represent staminodes, not 
petals — an interpretation that, moreover, in no 
way aftccts the symmetry of the flower. 



10 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



stamens assume tlie appearance of organs superposed in vertical rows,* 
while each row is composed of a far larger number of stamens" than 
in N. Garidella. The gynseceum is composed of from four to five carpels, 
which do not correspond exactly to either the sepals or their intervals. 
They are inserted very obliquely by their bases on the tapering 
receptacle, so as to give them the appearance of being united into a 
many-celled ovary up to a certain height. Free above, they each 
taper upwards into a style, furnished towards the tip with stigmatic 
papilla?. Along the inner angle of each ovary is a multiovulate 
placenta as in N. Garidella, and the fruit consists of five follicles 
united below and dehiscing by the inner angle. 

While all the other Wgella have blue or whitish flowers, N. 
orientalis L., which has been made the type of a small separate 

group, ^ has them yellowish, 
with stamens closer together, 
retaining the appearance of a 
spiral arrangement, though 
not divided into groups. The 
carpels are very variable in 
number (figs. 22 and 23), and 
are only united by the lower 
portion of their ovaries. The 
seeds are flattened, orbicular, 
and bordered by a narrow 
membrane. 
N'. damasccena L., which is cultivated in our gardens, has been 
considered the type of a special genus under the name of Erohaios," 




N. orientalis. 


iV'. hispanic 


Fig. 22. 


Fig. 23. 


Fruit. 


Fruit. 



' " After the expansion of the flower," says 
Payee (Orjrano^., 248), "the ataminal radii seem 
alternate with the petals ; but this is only in ap- 
pearance, as tliey are truly superposed when 
young." These stamens arise successively in a 
spiral order, the same as the petals or nectaries, 
which only contirnis us in our opinion that they 
are organs of the same nature. 'I'he anthers arc 
introrse, and open like tliose of the Columbines. 
But the line of dehiscence is not in tlie middle of 
the cell, and the exterior wall, which is turned 
back outwards is much broader than the interior. 
This is the only ditrerence. 

^ In our gardens the flowers often become 
more or less double ; all the stamens, or a limited 
number of them beginning below, are trans- 
formed into petaloid scales, as appears to be 
normal with the eight or ten lowest stamens. 



•■* NigeUastrmn McEXcn, Meth., 311, 313. — 
SPAcn, Suit, a Buff., vii. 310. The number of 
carpels varies from five to ten and even more in 
N. orientalis. The ovaries are narrow, com- 
pressed against one another, and each surmounted 
by a tapering, erect, straight style. In N. 
cornictilata DC, which belongs to the same 
section, they are bent outwards. The carpels 
may be oidy two or three in number in this 
species, as in Garidella. 

* See SPAcn, Suit, a Buff., vii. 301. Ero- 
hntos is there considered as a distinct genus, 
while Df. Candoi.lk only makes it a section of 
the genus NigeUa. N. coarctata Omkl., 
which we have seen cultivated, does not appear 
to us to dirt'er specifically fnun N. damas- 
C(vna. 



BANUNCULACE2E. 



11 



on account of the organization of its ovary and the structure of its 
fruit (figs. 24-20). The cells of the ovary, usually five in number, 




Fig. 24. 
Diagram. 



Nigella damascana. 
Fig. 25. 
Fruit. 



Fig. 26. 
Transverse section cf fruit. 



are united for nearly their whole length,' and are surmounted by as 
many free, acute, persistent styles.' The fruit is a capsule, dehiscing 
when ripe by five longitudinal clefts which pass through the middle 
of the summit of each cell and the base of the style. Moreover the 
convex walls of these cells separate into two layers, of which the 
outer retains its normal position, while the inner enwi-aps the seeds.^ 
Hence results outside of each cell a false cell formed in the thickness 
of the pericarp itself The ovules are numerous, in two vertical rows.^ 
They become seeds with a wrinkled or rugose surface, containing a 
small embryo near the apex of the abundant fleshy albumen.' 

All these plants, which we unite into the one genus Niyclla^ are 
annual herbs, indigenous in the temperate regions of Europe and 



* De Schlechtendal (Bot. Zeit., No. 51, 
Dec. 1857), has found plants with abnormal 
carpels, cohering but little at their base, as in 
fig. 21. 

- Along the inner border of tlie style runs a 
longitudinal groove with stigmatiferous lips. 
These at a certain age are twisted on themselves 
near the tip. 

^ This layer consists only of pretty irregular 
cells, with well marked outlines. In cultivation 
the Nigella often bear proliferous fruits. The 
axis, after producing normal carpels, elongates a 
little to produce others interior to these. 



* The coats of these ovules are impregnated 
with an orange yellow colouring matter, wliich 
disappears in the ripe seeds. 

* These seeds have a pungent taste like those 
of most Nigella ; especially N. saliva, which is 
used instead of pepper. 

6 Nigella T., Imt., 258, t. 134.— L., Gen., 
n.68o.— Juss., Gen., 233.— DC, Prodr., i. 48.— 
SPACn, Suit, ci Buff., vii. 304.— E>dl., Gen.,n. 
4794. — Payer, Organog., 247, t. liv. — B. 
H., Gen. 8, n. 22.— H. B>'., Adansonia, iv. 
44. 



12 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Western Asia.' They have alternate pinnatifid leaves, much dis- 
sected, with narrow segments ; in X. damuHccena they are transformed 
into bracts, and form an involucre below the calyx (figs. 25, 26). 
The flowers are solitary, terminal. 

The Ni(/ell(e, therefore, differ chiefly from the Columbines in the 
more or less complete union of their carpels, in the peculiar arrange- 
ment of their stamens, and in the opposition of the petals or 
nectaries to the sepals. The Hellebores* differ still less from the 

NigcllfP, for if we ex- 
cept the difference of 
habit and growth, we 
find that the only 
want of resemblance 
between the two types 
is in the form of the 
petals or nectaries, the 
degree of cohesion of 
the carpels, and the 
organization of the 
ovules. We may con- 
vince ourselves of this 
by analysing first the 
common Bear's-foot 
{HeUeborusfcetidus; Fr. 
Pied de Griffon). 

Ilelleboriif! /'wfidits L.* 
has hermaphrodite, re- 
gular flowers, with a 
conical receptacle, 
which bears succes- 
sively from below up- 
wards tlie calyx, the 
corolla, the andro- 
ceum, and the gyna?- 

Organog., 258. t. Ivii.— 11. H.. (rVn. 7. n. 18. — 
H. Hn., Adansoniii, iv. -t-l. — llelleborcuter 
MtKNOil, Mrth., 2:M>. 

» Spec. 781. — Sect. Griphopu* SrACii. loc. 
cit.- See Is. Di'Mah. Quelque* mot* »vr la Struc- 
ture de I'll, /elide {Th^se* de Montpellier, 
\H\V). 




Fig. -n. 
JleUeborutffttidus, 



' (iKE.v. & GoDH., Fl. Fr., i. 43. — Walp., 
Rep., i. 49; ii. 7U; Ann., \. 12; ii. 11; 
vii., 28. — Ukicuu., Iron., iv. t. 120. 

3 Hellehorus T., Jn/it., 271, t. 14-k — Adans . 
Fam. Pl.,\\. \W.—h..Oen., n. 702.— JL-ss.,ry^,i., 
ji. 233. — DC, Prodr., i. ifi.— Sj-ach, Suit, a 
n,>jj'., viu 312. — Hm.i ., f''"., n. .J7H'J.— Pavku. 



EANUNCULACEJl^l. 



13 




ceum. The calyx is composed of five sepals, green, or tinged witli 
purple, of quincuncial aestivation (fig. 28). The corolla is some- 
times formed of five petals' alternate with the 
sepals. They have the shape of a horn, with 
a dentate opening sloping downwards and in- 
wards. The base of the tube is dilated into 
a rounded pouch, of which the glandular 
lining secretes nectar. The very numerous 
stamens arranged in a continuous spiral have 
free filaments, and basifixed, two-celled, ex- 
trorse anthers dehiscing longitudinally. The 
gynasceum is formed of three" free^ carpels, 
opposite the anterior petal and the two posterior ones, each 
composed of a unilocular ovary tapering above into a style, whose 
somewhat dilated apex is covered with stigmatic papillse." Along 
the whole length of the inner angle of the carpel is a vertical groove, 
and within the cell of the ovary is a placenta occupying its inner 
angle, and supporting two rows of horizontal ovules placed back to 
back.* The fruit is composed of as many follicles^ as there were 



Jlellehorus foetidun. 
Fig. 28. Fia. 29. 

Flower-bud. Petal. 



1 This equality of number with the sepals 
is not most usually observed. The number 
varies, not only in this species, but also, as 
we shall see, in the other species of this genus. 
As to the name of ' petal' which we have applied 
to these organs, we have used it here only with 
great hesitation, and we have grounds for think- 
ing that, by analogy with Nigella, Trollius, and 
especially Eranthis, these nectaries, as they used 
to be called, represent the lower or outermost 
stamens, transformed into staminodcs of a form 
not more surprising than that observed in the 
same organs of the genera above described. The 
arrangement, too, of these staminodes answers to 
that of the fertile stamens, of which they begin 
the series The symmetry of all these parts has 
been studied very exactly by Pater {Organog., 
258), whose observations on this subject we here 
sum up. The nectaries of certain Hellebores, as 
H. niger, are arranged in twenty-one rays, e.\- 
tending from the circumference towards the 
centre, whose angular divergence is -^j. Tlie 
fertile stamens continue this spiral as also the 
carpels. In some other species there are 
usually only five nectaries, beginning five rows 
of stamens alternate with the sepals, and this 
number, we used to say, might be observed in 
H.foetidus. But here, eight may be more often 
counted, one corresponding as in Nigella to sepal 1. 
and one to sepal 5, while two are opposite to each 
of the other sepals. When only seven, six. or 



five are seen, it is simply owing to the fi\ct that 
the transformation into staminodes has not been 
effected on the first stamen of one, two, or three 
of the rays. Besides, the number of staminodes 
only very rarely indicates the number of fertile 
stamens, for in H.fatidtis, which has often only 
from five to eight nectaries, and rarely more, 
there are six rows of stamens before sepals 4 and 5, 
five before sepal 3, and two before sepals 1 and 2. 

- There are rarely more than three, four, or five 
opposite the sepals ; but two are pretty often seen, 
one posterior, and the other nearly anterior. 

^ //. vesicarius ArrcH. — Boiss. has the ear- 
pels united half way up when ripe, as in certain 
NigellcB. 

* The styles have their tips at first reflexed, 
and covered with whitish stigmatic papillae. 
Later the style becomes erect and blackish. 

* These ovules have but one envelope. They 
are remarkable for the conical form of the very 
thick raphe, projecting and fleshy towards its base. 

^ The dehiscence of these follicles is not that 
usually seen, when the placenta separates into 
two bands, which adhere to the borders of the 
opened out carpellary leaf. Here both borders of 
this separate from the placenta from above down- 
wards. The placenta then remains free, as a 
whitish fleshy column supporting the two rows 
of seeds. These are black and smooth, with a 
thick projection formed by the white fleshy 
raphe. 



u 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 




Eellehorus fatidus. 
Fig. 30. Fig. 31. 

Longitudinal section Calyx and gynacccum 

of flower. 



carpels, surrounded by the persistent calyx, and containing seeds with 
minute embryos, and abundant fleshy albumen. 

ll.foetidm is a perennial with 
erect branches arising from 
a fleshy stock, covered with 
alternate dissected leaves with 
their petioles dilated at the 
base." The flowers are grouped 
in few-flowered cymes at the 
top of the upper branches, 
the whole forming a kind of 
thyrsus. The lowest leaves 
of the branches and the bracts 
are reduced to dilated flattened petioles. Large bracts are seen 
also in an intermediate stage, having a very much reduced blade at 
the summit. 

Other Hellebores cultivated in our gardens, as //. odorus W. & 
K., viridis L., onenialis Gars., have erect branches bearing soli- 
tary terminal flowers, or few flowered cymes, with some dis- 
sected leafy bracts. Another species, often cultivated under the 
name of " Christmas Eose" (//. niyer L.), is distinguished by its 
quite peculiar habit and the absence of any leaves but bracts on its 
floriferous branches. It has a petaloid calyx, and about thirteen 
horn-shaped nectaries, with irregularly crenulate mouths, supported 
on slender claws.- The anthers open by two longitudinal sub- 
lateral clefts.^ There are from Ave to ten carpels. The flowers may 
be solitary at the end of the peduncle, which bears two alternate 
bracts ; one of these, however, is often fertile, a secondary axis s])ring- 
ing from its axil, also with two bracts below its terminal flower.* 

The subterranean part of the Christmas Rose is a ramifled stem 
bearing alternate scales or their scars, near which the branches 
develope adventitious roots. Each of the branches ends in an 



' All tliCBC parts exhale a fetid odour, owing to 
the liijuid Bcrreted hy little glands spread over 
the leaven, tliu calyces and the axes. 

• The lx)ttoin of this nectary, thickened and 
glandular, secretes a sweet liquid in ahumlanc-e. 
Its ojiening is truncated obliquely downwards 
and inwards. 

* These clefts are rather interior than exterior, 



and the connective is seen only on the out«ido of 
the anther. The pollen is elongated, as in all 
these plants, with three e(|uidistant (rarely two 
or one) longitudinal grooves. 

^ Sonietinie-t to«j, under each flower wo have 
three alternate bracts, two of whicli may be 
fertile. 



BANUNCULACE^. 



15 



inflorescence, ceasing to grow after the death of the flowers ; it 
remains truncated ; its evolution is finished. But in the axils of the 
leaves or bracts of this axis are developed shoots, which are larger 
according as they rise higher up the stem. These shoots are in turn 
destined in following years to end in inflorescences, and their axes 
will then develope adventitious roots to nourish them. So, too, 
it is in the axils of the appendices of these axes that will appear the 
shoots of a subsequent generation. Thus, on examining a plant 
which has flowered for several years, we find the floral peduncles 
grouped on a small branch which serves as a common support. This 
bears at its base alternate imbricate scales 
which represent sheathing petioles, with 
sometimes a rudimentary blade, or else more 
rarely near the base we may find a true leaf 
with its sheath and petiole, and its blade 
formed of free leaflets, as often occurs in this 
species.' 

Near HeUehorus are placed Eranthis and 
Copiis, which, it appears to us, should not 
be generically separated from it, as the de- 
tailed analysis of their flowers will show. 

HeUehorus hyemalis L." (figs. 32, ^33), 
which has been taken as the type of the 



genus Eranthis,^ 
consisting of two 
trimerous whorls, 
the leaves of 
which are alter- 
nate, or more 
rarely, twisted in 
aestivation. The 
androceum is 
composed of a 



has a petaloid perianth 





Jlellehorus hyemalis. 
Fig. 33. Fig. 32. 

Longitudinal section of flower. Flower. 



' The development of the leaves of the Hellebores 
has been studied by M. TRfcuL {Ann. Sc. Nat., 
ser. 3, xs. 260, 268, t. 23), who considers them as 
palmiveined leaves, very deeply lobed, and passing 
into palmate leaves properly so called ; their evolu- 
tion is basipetal or centrifugal. Clos comparing 
the sepals with the bracts (Bull. Soc. Bot., 



iii. 682), considers them as the sheaths of 
leaves. 

■ Spec, 783.— DC, Syst., i. 314.— JT. niger 
tuberosus Ranunculi folio flore luteo T., List., 
272. — H. monanthus McENCH. — Koellea hyemalis 
BiR. — Rohertia hyemalis Mer. 

3 Eranthis Salisb., Trans. Linn. Soc, viii. 



16 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



large number of stamens spirally arranged,' but forming twelve 
secondary radiating rows in tlie following positions* — 1st, three rows 
opposite each of the outer sepals ; 2ndly, one row opposite each 
interior sepal. All the stamens of the rows opposite the interior sepals 
are fertile, each consisting of a free filament, somewhat dilated at the 
tip, supporting a basifixed bilocular introrse anther dehiscing longi- 
tudinally.' But in six of the other rows the outermost stamen is trans- 
formed into a little spuror nectary like that of other Hellebores'(fig.29). 
The gyna?ceum is composed of six carpels'^ opposite these staminodes, 
and formed like those of the true Hellebores. The fruits are follicles 
dehiscing early" to free the numerous seeds.' Each follicle is raised on 
a narrow pedicel, in contact with, but not cohering to the pedicels of 
its neighbours. The whole is surrounded by a persistent calyciform 
involucre,' the three leaves of which alternate with the outer pieces 
of the perianth. The organs of vegetation of //. hiiemaJix consist of 
a shortened rhizome' like that of other Hellebores bearing adventi- 
tious roots, and shoots with leaves and flowers. The flowers arise 
from the ground in winter, supported on a peduncle which it termi- 
nates, and closely surrounded by the involucre of three compound 
leaves, alternate with the outer sepals referred to above. The radical 
leaves, few in number, and withering very early, are alternate, palmi- 
veined, and dissected. We know but very few species of Eranthix 



(1807) 303. — DC, Trodr., i, 46. — SPACir, 
Suil. a Bvff., vii. 321.— Endl., Qen., n. 4788. 
— Payek, Orgatiog., 2oC). — H. Bn., Adamonia, 
ii. 203, iv. 47.— B. U., Oen., 7, n. 19.— 
Helleboroides Adans., Fam. PL, ii. 458. 

' This order is very evident in the yoiin;; 
flower-bud. 

* Payer, Organorj., loc. c'xt. 

•■• Tlie anther ojjens by two internal somewhat 
oblique clefts, aft<!r which each cell spreads out 
edgewise as in Columbine. It usually even hap- 
pens that the inner margin of tlie oi)cned cell 
becomes more or less involute, and the outer 
margin rcvolute. 

* In form like a stalked cornet, with its orifice 
truncated ohrKpuly downwards and inwards, and 
the lower and inner margin enuirginate. The 
inside contains nectar. The origin of these bodies, 
shown for the first time by 1'aykk (/. c»<.), who 
did not consider them as jjetiilK, and was hence led 
to regard as such the outer pieces of the perianth, 
this, we say, well shows the niittire of the so- 
called petal's in the Hellem.res theinselvcH and 



in many other Hanunculacetp (See Adanwnia, 
iv., 19). 

* The usual number ; rarely five, oftener from 
seven to ten in cultivated j)lants. 

" Often nearly a month after flowering, that 
is to say, at the end of the winter. 

^ These seeds are at first soft, with very thin 
coats, and very abundant fleshy albumen. They 
often attain maturity without the embryo be- 
coming developed ; it remains very small and 
deformed, probably through not havinjr been 
fecundated. Often, too, Eranthis like Ficnria 
jinxluces no fruit. 

** Payeu (/. cil.) considers that this verticil 
rejiresents a calyx. In this resjHvt Eranlhis is 
very analogous to llepalica, showing that in 7^1- 
)iuiu-ulace<e there is an insensible tnuisition from 
involucre to calyx, from calyx to corolla, and from 
corolla to androceum ; which indicati>i<, as we 
hiive staled, a sort of organic inferiority (See our 
article on Aiitmuuf below, and Adansonia, 

iv. r,). 

» Payku, Hist, de la vfij.de /'Kranthis (//.<//. 
S„r. Phil., April 27. \Hvi, a.-'i). 



RANUNOULAGE^. 



17 




all indigenous in hilly, cold, or temperate regions of Europe and 
Asia." 

Finally, the Eranthids are 
Hellebores, whose perianth con- 
sists of two trimerous whorls, in- 
stead of five pieces quincuncially 
arranged. We also shall observe 
this in certain species of Itariuncu- 
lus, Anemone, and Fceonia, without 
being able to put the species 
possessing a hexamerous perianth 
into separate genera. 

In the flowers of Hellehonis 
trifolius L. (fig. 34),' which has 
served to found a separate genus 
under the name of Coptis^ frlfolia,^ 
we still note the general features 
of the Hellebores; the perianth is composed of five, six, or, 
more rarely, four petaloid leaves, imbricated in the bud. Within 
are a variable number of petals or staminodes, represented by 
small stipitate cups of a fleshy and somewhat glandular con- 
sistency/ The stamens are indefinite, wdth unequal filaments 
supporting basifixed anthers which dehisce laterally. The car- 
pels, which vary m number,^ are stipitate, multiovulate, and sur- 
mounted by a style reflexed and dilated at the summit. The fruits 
are follicles. We must therefore consider Coptis as a Hellebore with 
stipitate carpels, often few in number. They are perennial herbs, 
found in the northern regions of both hemispheres. Their stem is 
a rhizome of little thickness, creeping below ground, from which 
arise buds here and there, which expand at the surface. They have 



Sellehorus trifolius. 
Fig. 34. 
Flower. 



' Gren. & GoDH., Fl. Fr., i. 40.— Reichb., 
Icon., iv. 301. — Walp., Rep., i. 47 ; Ann., 
iv. 29. 

2 Amoen. Acad., ii. 355, t. 4, f. 18 ; Spec, 784, 
— DC, i. 322. — Anemone groenlandica L., Fl. 
Dan., t. 566. 

3 Coptis Salisb., in Trans. Linn. Soc, \\u. 
305.— DC, Prodr., i. 47.— Spacu, Stat, a Buff., 
vii. 324.— F.NDL., Gen., n. 4792.— Walp., Sep., 
i. 49— B. H., Oen., 8, n. 20.— H. Bn. Adan- 
ifonia, iv. 47. 

* Salisb., I. «7.— Bigkl, Bot. Med., i. 60, 

VOL. I. 



t. 5.— SiEB. & Zttcc, Fl. Jap. Fam., 71. — A. 
Geat, 111., t. 13. — Chrysa, Raf. {Neiv York 
Med. Repos., ii. hex. v. 350.) 

* In other species these organs assume the form 
of linear scales : e.g., C. occidentalis Tore. & 
Ge., of which Nuttall (Jotirn. Ac. Philad., 
viii. 9, t. 1) has made his genus Chrysocoptis. 
Others, as C. asplenifolia Salisb. have them 
dilated about half way up. These belong to a 
group called PferopJu/llum Nutt. 

* Sometimes there is but one ; while as many 
as ten have been counted. 

c; 




18 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAIN'S. 

a few alternate leaves with the blade trifoliolate, or even more divided, 
and often one or several united one- or few-tlowered floral peduncles. 
hopijrum^ which most authors consider as a distinct genus, should 
strictly be replaced in the genus HelhhoruH, in which it was formerly 
included. Its habit (which, however, is very near to that of Coptis),^ 
with some characters of slight importance offered by the flower, may, 
it is true, be enough to separate them. We have retained it pro- 
visionally only,^as a " transition genus between Nu/cIIa and UeUvhorus, 
ill-defined, and without good natural limits." 
The analysis of the commonest species will show 
if this way of regarding it is justified. 

hopijrum ftimarioidcK L.' (fig. 35), has regular 

hermaphrodite flowers. The calyx is formed of 

five coloured sepals, of quincuncial a?stivation, 

^^ ^-^ The corolla is composed of five tubular petals, 

isopyrumfumarioides. of whicli the basc tapcrs iuto a kind of pedicel. 

Fig. 35. while the limb divides into two lips, of which 

Flower. • 

the inner is the shorter, and indented in the 
centre or emarginate. The stamens, of a fair number, are free and 
hypogynous. Each consists of a filament somewhat dilated at 
the tip, and a basifixed anther with two cells dehiscing by lateral 
clefts, hardly more interior than exterior. The gyna^ceum consists 
of a large number of carpels, the ovaries of whicli are grooved ver- 
tically for tlie whole length. On a level with the tapering summit of 
the ovary, the lips of this groove thicken slightly, and become covered 
with papilla3 to form a small stigma. In the inner angle of the 
single cell of the ovary is a parietal placenta, bearing a large 
number of anatropous ovules in two vertical rows. The fruit is 
formed of numerous small follicles, and the seeds enclose in their 
integuments a small embryo surrounded by, and at the apex of, the 
very abundant fleshy albumen. It is a herbaceous annual, a native 
of Siberia. It has a tap-root, and the base of the stem gives ofl* 
numerous alternate leaves, witli the petiole dilated at the base, and 



' Iiopyrum L. Oen., n. 701, — .lUBS., On., 233. CoptiR " Oenua forte melius pro sectionr ls()]ivri 

—DC, I'rodr., i. 18.— Si'acii, Huit. a Biifl'., habendum." 

vii. 326. — Eyui.., Oen., ii. 171)0.— ». H., Oen'., H, ' Adansonia, iv. tfi. 

n. 21.— Walp., Rep., i. .l«, ii. 7tl; Ann., i. •♦51. * Spec, 7H3.— DC. Prodr., i. 4«, n. X—Lep. 

ii. 11. iv. 2n. — \l. \\H., Adatmonia, \\.'2,G,M\. topyrtim. Hkk ill).. Fl. Oerm., 747. — SpaOH, 

' Bentham a llooKEK go HO fiir an to wiy of Suil. li Ruff., vii. 327. 



TxANUNCULAGEJE. 19 

the blade trifoliolate, with radiating pinnately compound leaflets. The 
stem then ascends to terminate in a flower, below which we find one 
or several leaves, from the axils of which spring branches, each also 
ending in a flower, and so on. These floral leaves have a very short 
petiole, with two lateral membranous appendages at the base, which 
undoubtedly represent stipules ; and these in the cauline leaves, which 
have a well-developed sheath, are reduced to two lateral teeth on 
the borders of the upper part of this sheath. 

Isopyrim thalidroides L.,' has regular hermaphrodite flowers, with 
a calyx of five coloured sepals imbricated in the bud, and a corolla of 
five petals alternate with and much smaller than the sepals, cornet- 
shaped, with the opening obliquely truncated at the expense of the 
inner border, glandular and nectariferous at the bottom. The stamens 
are very numerous, hypogynous, unequal, with free filaments and 
basifixed two-celled anthers, dehiscing by longitudinal and lateral 
clefts, rather extrorse than introrse. The gynajceum is composed 
of two or three free carpels, and in the inner angle of each ovary 
is a vertical placenta bearing the ovules, few in number, and 
with their raphes flicing one another in two vertical rows, each usually 
of only two ovules. It is a small plant, with a horizontal rhizome, 
from which spring young herbaceous branches bearing a ^^^^ 
few alternate compound leaves, accompanied by two lateral 
stipules. The leaves at the top of the young branch dege- 
nerate into bracts, from the axil of each of which springs 
a solitary pedicellate flower ; thus is formed a small raceme. 

The petals or nectaries, already little developed in the 
species we have just studied may disappear entirely, as in 
many other genera of Baiiuncidacece — the only character 
of any value which distinguishes Etiemion Utematum' from 
the other species of Isopi/rum, with which we class it. The \^ J 
number of ovules in each carpel is very variable, there 
being sometimes but one or two (fig. 36) horizontal, with 
the raphe superior; or the number may be indefinite. 
Enemion inhabits North America. 



» /Spec, 783.— DC.,P/-ocZr.,i.48,n.l.— Gren. ^ R^pijf_^ .ro„,.,j. p],ys. (1820), 91, 70.— 

& GoDR., Ft. Fr., i. 42.— 0//a Adans., Fam. DC, Prodr., i. 48.— Enul., Gen., n. 4791.— 

PL, ii. 458. — Thalictrella A. Richardson, Walp., Ann., ii. 11. — A. Gray, IlL, t. 12.— B. 

Bid. Hid. Nat., ix., 34. Sect. Evisopyrum H. H., Gen. 8, n. 21. H. Bn., Adansonia, iv. 

Bn., Adansonia, iv., 47. 25, 46. 

c 2 



20 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Trollius,^ again, is a genus admitted by all, but very little marked, 
and without any good distinction from the Hellebores. If, in fact, 
we examine the flower of 7\ asiaficun L., often cultivated in our 
gardens, we shall see that it has often a petaloid calyx of five imbri- 
cated sepals," and five short thickened petals' or nectaries, grooved 
on the inner face, at the base of which is a glandular projection 
which secretes nectar. The stamens, very numerous and spirally 
arranged, have a free filament and a basifixed anther, rather extrorse 
than introrse/ The indefinite carpels are multiovulate, and the 
anatropous ovules' are in two vertical rows, and touch by their 
raphes. 

Therefore, the only difference between these flowers and the 
Hellebores is that the nectaries are not tubular or cup-shaped. 
We find specimens of Trollius, in which the sepals become very 
numerous, and others in which the nectaries, are also indefinite 
in number (fig. 37). The sepals are more or less caducous, but 
persist longer in Hegemone^ which cannot on that account be generi- 
cally separated from Trollius. In all of them the fruits are follicles.^ 
They are perennial herbs with subterranean rhizomes, and palmi- 
veined, lobed, or dissected alternate leaves ; flowers solitary terminal, 
or few in number and arranged like those of Aquilcgia or Nigella. 
They inhabit the northern hemisphere in both Worlds, and are espe- 
cially common in northern Asia.** 

Like nearly all the preceding genera, this may present flowers 



* TroUim L., Qen., n. 700. — Juss. Oen., 233. cnnus becomes nflerwards concnve externally, 
Lamk., ///., t. WJ. — DC, Prodr., i. 15. — h^iwcn, niul in tlie same way tl"? two cells of T.evropau*, 
Suit, a Buff", vii. 29G. — Endl., Gen., n. 4787. in the end project towarda the ju'rianth. 

— B. H., Gen., 7, n. 17. — H. IJn. Adansonin, * Tliey have two coats. 

iv. 48. — Hellebori spec, T., /. cit. — Geisenia •> Jleyemune lilacina HuNGE, LCDEB., Fl. 

Ra¥., New York Med. Hep. (v.), \\.i50. Ross., i. 51.— T. Hlacinus Bu.noe, Fl. Alt.- 

^ More usually there is a larger number of siippl., 44. 
these organs, especially in cultivated plants. 7 'ii,e follicles, united into a more or less coui- 

' This number is relatively rare. iMoro often pressed head, aro cither smooth or wrinkled 

we find five gronpsoftwo, three, or more of these transversely, and surmounted by the remains of 

8(Milcs. In T. nmericanus, europreits, asi/iliru-ii, the style, which is placed on the side opposite 

they have the shajje of a racket, but with the tlie line of deliiscence. The seeds are smooth, 

handle narrower and tlie body longer in proportion, shining, and dark in colour. The outer envelope 

grooved hy a canal above. The top is trunc:ited is reticulate and minutely jiunctate ; the inner, 

horizontally or ol)li(piely, rounded or emarginate. white and cellular. The rapiie project* but 

In Jlei/emone they arc nearly fiat, spathulate little. Tho albmnen is llcshy and copious, with a 

blades, very small embryo near tlio npox. 

* In T. americanuji and many others tho inner * (Jken. & (ionu., Fl. Fr., i. 40. — Rkichb., 
stamens are the shorter; tho line of dehiscence Icon., iv. t. 102. — A. Uuay, ///., 11.— Hook. 
is a little turneil outwards. In T. aniaticus i\\\» &, Tn., Fl. hut., i. 41. — WalI'., Krp., \. 47, 
line is (pnto on the margin. 'I'iio connective is ii, 740, Ann,, iv. 21). 

at first broad and llatteiu'd. 'I'lmt of T. amrri- 



RANUNCULACE^. 



21 



without the petals or nectaries (fig. 38) ; this is the only distinouish- 
ing feature of Calathodes^ a perennial herb of the eastern Himalayas. 



.1, 



Trollius chinensis. 
Fig. 37. 
Flower. 



m^ 




Calathodes palmala. 
Fig. 38. 
Flower. 



Caltha; too, has the apetalous flowers of Calathodes. Its perianth 
consists of only five' petaloid sepals of quincuncial aestivation 
(fig. 39). It has very numerous stamens with basifixed two-celled 



?%)>ii,/. 





Caltha palustris. FiG. 40. 

Longitudinal sectiou of Hower. 

extrorse anthers, and indefinite multiovulate carpels. It is therefore 
simply a Trollius without the corolla or whorl of nectaries. The 
organs of vegetation alone are affected by the medium the plants 
inhabit, for they are aquatic, sometimes floating,' perennial herbs. 



1 C. palmata (Hook. & Th., Fl. Ind., i. 40. — 
Walp., Ann., iv. 29.— B. & H., Gen., 7, n. 14.— 
H. By., Adansonia, iv. 48) has the habit of a 
Trollius, with the flowers of a Caltha. The flowers 
have four or five imbricated sepals, unequal sta- 
mens with anthers dehiscing laterally (a little 
extrorse), and a very variable number of carpels. 

- Caltha L., Gen., n. 703.— Jrss., Gen., 234. 

— Pees., i:nc/(i>., ii. 107. — DC, Prorfr., i. 44 

Endi., Gen., n. 4786. — Spach, Suit, a Bttff., 
vii. 293. — B. H., Gen., 6, n. 13. — H. Ex., Adan- 
sonia, iv. 48. 

' Their number is often greater, rarely re- 



duced to four. They persist in certain species, 
but are caducous in Psycrophila. When there 
are five, their activation is usually quin- 
cuncial, but they may be otherwise imbricated. 
The flower often becomes double in C. pa- 
lustris (T,, Inst., 273, t. 24). The stamens 
are then converted into small imbricated petals, 
while the receptacle is often deformed (Adan- 
sonia, iv. 5), and becomes concave, as in the 
Paionies. 

•* C. natans Pall., Toy., ed. min., iii. 248. — 
DC, Prodr., i. 45, n. 11.— Thacla ficarioides 
Spacu, Suit, a Bvff., vii. 295. 



XATUKAL n I STORY OF PLANTS. 



From the rhizome arise hranches bearing alternate leaves. In C. 
palusfris L.,' these are petiolate and have at the base a sort of sheath 
like a membranous frill. The blade is cordate, suborbicular, or 
reniform, feather veined, crenulate, plane ; while in other species 
which have been made the type of the genus Psi/crophila,- this blade 
has lobes projecting in the form of internal auricles. The rest of 
tlie organization is entirely the same. The flowers are solitary 
and terminal, or grouped on the a.xes as in the species belong- 
ing to Troll'iKS proper. The fruits are 
follicles, which dehisce by the inner bor- 
der to set free numerous seeds covered 
externally by a well-developed arilloid 
production (figs. 41, 42) arising from the 
great thickening of their external in- 
teguments.^ 

Thus constituted,^ our genus Trol/in.s 
also comprises Indian Alpine plants like 
Calathodcs and aquatic plants — the true 
Calfha which inhabit the cold or temperate 
regions of both Worlds,* and P si/ crop /til a 
found in the cold Antarctic Zone.^ 

On account of the multiovulate carpels, botanists 




Caltlta paht.'.tris. 
Fio. U. Fig. 42. 

J^eed. Longitudinal 

section of seed. 



have agreed 



m 



> Spec, 784.— DC, Prodr., i. 44, n. 3.— Po- 
pulago T., 7ns/., 273, t. 14, t. 115. The stylo 
has two lateral stigtnatiferous lips. The ovules 
have two envelopes. 

» DC, Syst., i. 307.— C Gat, Fl. Chil., i. 47, 
t. 2. 

' Contrary to what is seen in many arillato 
seeds where thf aril consists of a cellular thick- 
ening of the outer coat, limited to the upjjcr part 
(as is the case especially in tlie formation of 
curunculaj in the JCuphorbiacce), in Callha it is 
at the dialazal end that this hypcrtro])hy gra- 
dually takes i)lacc ; so that tlie rest of the integu- 
ment remains very thin in ])roportion towards 
the hiluni and niicropyle. Figs. 41, 42 will illus- 
trate tliis better than any possible description. 
* fl. Eulrollius. Leaves much dis- 

sected. Flowers with a corolla, 
I calyx caducous. 

TroUius. I 2. Jleqemone (Uunoe). The same, 
Soctiona 5. \ but calyx persistent. 

Calathodea (HooK. & Tn.). 
Flowers apetalous. Leaves 
dissected. 



/4. Caltlia (L.). Aquatic plants. 
I Flowers apetalous. Leaves little 

TroUius. ) cut up. Calyx persistent. 

Sections 5. 1 5 P»i/crophilia (DC). Same, but 

cunt. leaves with lobes projecting 

' inwards. Calyx caducous. 

* Grkn. & GoDit., Fl. Fr., i. 39.— Keichb., 
Icon., iv. 101.— Hook. & Tir.. Fl. Ind., i. 39.— 
A. GuAY, III., t. 10.— Bkntu. & MuKix., Ft. 
Aust. i. 15. 

« C Gay, Fl. Chil., i. 47-51. -Hook. P., Fl. 
Antarct., ii. 228, t. 84.— Wkdd., Chlor.And., ii. 
301), t. 82. 

It is only with great hesitation that we have 
placed (Adansonin, iv. r>7) the genus Anrmo- 
nopsis S. & Zici'. {Fl. J<ip. Fain., 73, t. 1. — 
A'averia Endl., Orn., su])\)\. iv. 30), altogether 
unknown to us, near the dichlamydeous sirtions 
of Trolliu.i. Its characters are as follows : Uegular 
flowers in lax racemes, recalling those of a dmible 
Anemone. They jh)ssc8.'< a calyx of sevend leaves, 
the three outer sepiiloid, the inner oni"* j)etaloid ; 
alK)ut twelve short Hcssile petals, having a msta- 
riferous hollow in the thickened btue: indetinite 



RANUNCULAGEJS. 23 

including in this group Glmcidinm pabiiatinn S. & Zccc.,' the single 
species of a genus which, as we shall afterwards see, evidently links 
RanuncidacecB to Berberidacece and Papaveracea. Its flowers are her- 
maphrodite, and on the convex receptacle are successively inserted a 
calyx, an androceum, and a gyna^ceum. The calyx consists of four 
free petaloid imbricated sepals, very caducous, as are also the very 
numerous stamens, each of which consists of a free filament, and a 
basifixed two-celled anther dehiscing by lateral clefts. The gynse- 
ceum is formed of one or few carpels' inserted obliquely on the upper 
tapering portion of the receptacle, and containing a large number of 
anatropous ovules inseiied along the inner angle. The ovary is 
traversed by a longitudinal groove and surmounted by a depressed 
emarginate papillose stigma. The fruit is formed of one or several 
follicles dehiscing dorsally, with numerous flattened seeds surrounded 
by a marginal wing. It is a perennial herb found in Japan, with 
few alternate palmatilobed leaves, and pedunculate flowers recalling 
those of Podopliyllum? 

IRREGULAR FORM. 

If we examine an Aconite,'' as, for instance, A. Napcllu^ L., we see 
that its flowers (figs. 43-47) are irregular and hermaphrodite. The 
calyx is formed of five unlike coloured sepals, quincuncially imbri- 
cated in the bud. The posterior sepal is like a hood covering the 
two lateral sepals, which are symmetrical with respect to each other, 
hardly irregular, and much broader than the two anterior ones, by 
which they are also covered in the bud. These anterior sepals are 
narrower and lonsrer than the lateral ones, but are not altosrether 
similar to one anotlier,' for sepal 3 is both broader and less 
regular than sepal 1, which overlaps it on one side. There 



stamens with linear compressed filaments, and flowers we have been able to observe, there were 

mucronate anthers quadrilocular (?) in front. two inserted obliquely opposite one another on a 

The carpels, few in nnniher, are multiovulate ; receptacle bevelled to form a dihedral angle, 
and the fruits are, it is said, capsular. Only one '^ It is to the Fodophyllea, we have said {Adan- 

species is known, native in Japan ; A. macrophylla sonia, iv. 57), that this plant presents a striking 

S. & Zucc, which is a herb with broad ternately likeness when its gynteceum is of one carpel, 
compound radical leaves. See H.By. on the Genus * Aconitum T., Inst., 424, t. 23J), 240. — 

Anemonopsis, its Position and Affinities, Adan- L., Gen., n, 682. — J., Gen., 234. — DC, Frodr., 

sonia, viii. 14. i. 56.— Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 360.— Endl., 

' Fl. Jap. Fam.^'af. ,\.76,t.l.—Eyvt., Gen., Gen., n. 4797.— B. H., Gen., 9, n. 26.— H. 

n. AS04:K—Waj.v., Ann., i. 955.— B. H., Gen., By. Adansonia, iv. 50; Bict. Enc. Sc. Med., 

7, n. 15. i. 574. — JS'irbisia Dox, Gen. St/st., i. 203 - 

- SiEBOLD and ZrcCARiNi have represented Endi., Gen., n. 4786 a. 
the plant with a single carpel. In the few * See Adansonia, iv. 9, 50. 



24 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



are eight' petals originally disposed like those of NigoUa, but the two 
opposite the posterior sepal alone receive any mai'ked development. 




Fio. 43. 
Flower. 



Aconitum Napelhts. 
Fig. 44. 
Flower, the sepals detacLed. 



Fig. 45. 
Diagram. 



Each has the form of a conical tube swollen at the tip, where it is 
lined by a glandular nectariferous tissue, the inner border forming a 
projecting lip, and the outer border supported by a long inflexed 
claw, whose margins are turned inwards to form a kind of gutter 
(fig. 46). The six other petals are reduced to short filaments, 
unequal and but slightly coloured. The stamens are very numerous, 
and inserted spirally as in Ni(j(jllay but the secondary spirals are not 





Arotii/iim Napellus. 
Fig. 46. 
Longitndinnl section of flower. 



Fio. 47. 
Fruit. 



SO marked. The filaments are dilated, and, as it were, peialoid 



' Patku, Organo/j., 252, t. Iv. 



BANUNCULACE^. 



25 



at the base, and taper at tlie tip to support a basifixed two- 
celled introrse anther, dehiscing by two longitudinal clefts.' The 
gynaeceum consists of from three to five' free carpels, inserted 
on a spira? near the apex of the receptacle, each composed of an 
ovary tapering above into an acute style, whicli is stigmatiferous 
only at the top and on the margins of the vertical groove, which 
runs the whole length of the inner angle of the carpel. The ovary 
contains two vertical rows of anatropous ovules, inserted along the 
inner angle. The fruit is usually formed of three follicles dehiscing 
along the inner angle (fig. 47) to set free the seeds, whicli have a 
spongy, more or less rugose surface, being covered by wrinkles and 
membranous projecting folds. The embryo is surrounded by the 
abundant fleshy albumen. 

J. Napellus is a herbaceous plant with alternate palmatisect 
exstipulate leaves, and blue or white flowers in terminal racemes. 
Each flower is axillary to a bract which becomes smaller and less 
dissected as it is higher up on the principal axis. The top of the 
pedicel is slightly swollen, and at this point we notice, applied to 
the calyx itself, the two lateral sterile bracts 
which accompany the flower and have been 
carried up with it. 

We know about a score of other Aconites 
properly so called. But all these species 
have not sepals formed exactly as in A. Na- 
pellus* Thus, J. hehegynum DC, and A. 
variegatum L., have the posterior sepal like 
a conical compressed helmet. A. Aniliora L.^ 
has this same sepal conical and semicircular, 
while in A. Li/coctonum L.," it assumes the 
form of a true narrow elongated spur (fig. 
48), obtuse only at the tip. But there 
is every possible transition between these 




Aconitum Lyeoctonum. 
Fig. 48. 
Flower. 



' Each cell when open forms, as in the Colum- 
bines, a plate spread out edgewise. The cleft 
being far more interior than exterior, this 
plate is attached to the connective, not at the 
middle of its breadth, but nearer the inner 
border. 

2 The number three is by far the commonest, 
though we see in gardens flowers with five, six, 
eight, and even more carpels. 

' Which we must understand does not preclude 



the existence of secondary radiating rows analo- 
gous to those observed in Nigella. 

* Sect. iv. Napellus DC, Syst., i. 371, (incl. 
Cammarum [DC, /. ciL, 374, sect, iii.], Cory- 
thceba Reichb., Enchylodes Reichb., ex SPACH, 
Stdt. a Buff., vii. 367). 

* Sect. i. Anthora DC, Syst., i. 364, Prodr., 
i. 56. 

^ Sect, ii., Lycoctoiium DC, Syst., i. 367, 
Prodr., i. 57. 



26 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

forms of sepal 2 ; so that no one has ever been able to ignore 
on this account the very close affinities vvhicli bind togetlier the 
different species of Aconite ; or has ever separated them from one 
another on seeing notable modifications presented by the characters 
of the gyna'ceum or corolla : the first having four or five carpels 
in J. variegatum, hebegynum, &c. ; the latter losing its lateral and 
anterior petals ; this occurs in^. Lycodonum and the related species. 
The flowers of these last are usually yellowish, and more rarely wine 
red or dark purple.' 

AVe see from all this that an Aconite may be defined as a N'lyella 
with irregular flowers ; and that the irregularity depends on the 
deformity of the posterior sepals, and the great inequality of the 
petals which become larger as they are nearer the axis — i.e., the 
posterior side of the flower. Besides, the androceum and gynajceum 
are the same in their essential characters ; and in the same way 
sepals 4 and 5 have only one petal opposite each of them, while 
sepals 1, 2, and 3 have each a pair of petals before them, at least 
in A. Napellus The same irregularity, more or less marked, is 
observed in the Larkspurs. 

The genus Delphi nium , or Larkspur,^ includes a very large number 
of species, which do not all present exactly the same organization, 
and which it has been proposed on this account to split up into 
several genera.^ The variations observed depend on the greater or 
lesser development of the parts of the corolla and the gyna^ceum. 
These parts, then, are more or less irregular in the different types 
which we shall review. 

If we examine, for example, B. pereyrinum Lamk.,* which grows 
in the south of France, we see that its calyx is composed of five 
sepals, of which the posterior one is prolonged into a spur analogous 
to that of Aconitum Lycocfonum. These sepals are further quin- 
cuncially imbricated in the bud (fig. 50) and within them we find a 
corolla of three petals opposite the three posterior sepals. AVhile 
each lateral sepal has before it only one petal, the posterior sepal has 



> A. Beptenlrionale KOBLL., Splc, 22, uml A. M. Delphinastntm SrAtii. Suit, a Buff., vii. 

rubicundum Fiscn., ex SeB., I. cit. 135, 13C., 330 ; 11. rhhdinium Si'ach, /. ii7.,351(Co»»o/i</o 

* Dtli>lnnium'V.,Inst.,\'lG,i.2M. — h., Uen., LiNDL., Journ. llorlic. Sue, vi. 35); 111. Sta- 

II. G81.— Ji'SH., (len., n. 231. — SVKCW, Suit, a jihysagria Si-ACll, /. cit., 347; W . Aconilella 

Huff., vii. 355.— Kndl., (Im., n. IV'.M).— Paykh, Si'acii, /. cit., 35H. 

Oroanoff., 2li», t. Iv. H. 11., dfii., U, n. 25. — * Dirt., ii. 261. — D. c<inlloj>etiilum DC, 

JI. li.v., Ada>uonia, iv. S, 11, 4«, IW. f^i/st., i. 3l7. 



BAiniNCULACEM 



27 




mm peregnnam. 

Fig. 50. 
Diagram. 



two, each prolonged as a spur into its cavity. But it is easy to see 
that these two petals arise from the deduplication of a single one, 
and that its two parts are 
symmetrical with each 
other, and represent each 
the half of a single organ. 
In other words, the pos- 
terior petal behaves here 
like that of most Nigellas ; 
and the corolla becomes 
irregular because, on the 
one hand, the petal is 
spurred like the corre- 
sponding sepal ; and on the 
other hand, the anterior 
petals are not normally developed. 

The structure of the corolla' is the same in certain other species 
cultivated in our gardens, such as I), revolutum Desf., cheilanthum 
FiscH., dictyocarpum ~DQ.,(/randiJIon()ii L., friste Fisch., &c., which have 
usually only three carpels in the gynaeceum. D. poitafjijnum Lamk. 
derives its name from its possessing often five carpels with the same 
corolla. It is only by accident that we find the anterior petals 
in these plants; cultivation will sometimes determine their ap- 
pearance, 

D. Consolida L. (figs. 51 and 52) and Jjacis L., have the corolla 
and gynseceum far more imperfect. The two lateral petals disappear 
as well as the anterior ones, only the posterior petal remaining, 
divided above alone into two half petals, but single near its insertion 
and for the whole length of the spur, while the gyna}ceum is reduced 
to a single carpel. 

In all these species the androceum remains as in NigeJla; with 

' On the organization of this corolla of the 
Larkspurs, and especially that of the posterior 
petal, see Adansonia, iv. 11. 

- Hence it follows that when the flower of a 
Delpfiinium becomes double, and its stamens are 
transformed into petals, this flower is altogether 
thilt of a similarly transformed Niffellu, especially 
when the spur disappears entirely (which is rare) 
or nearly so; the flowers are then double and 
regular in both types, which it is in this case im- 
possible to distinguish (see Adansonia iv. 149). 
Instances of monstrosities in Larkspurs and 



Aconites are very numerous. See Broxgniakt, 
Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, ii. 24.— Weddell, Surune 
Chloranthie de Pied d' Alonette Vivace (Bull. 
Soc. Bot., iii. 316). — Hochstettee, Fl.Anonn. 
d'A. tauricum (Bull. Soc. Bot., ii. 120).— Df- 
ciiahtre, Monst. de D. Ajacis (Bull. Soc. Bot., 
vii. 483). Clos, Hj/p. des Carp, d'un Delphinium 
(Bull. Soc. Bot., ix. 127) and others. — A. 
BuAUN (Verh. d. sect. f. Bot., Vienna, Sept. 
20, 1856) and J. Rossmann (Bot. Zeit., 1862, 
n. 24, 188), have also each given their interpreta- 
tion of the flower of Delphinium. 



28 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

the stamens in curved rows, ei^^lit in number (fig. 52), each stamen 
with its filament dilated below, and its anther two-celled, introrse, 





Delphinium Comolida. 
Fig. 51. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 

with the cells spreading out into flat plates after dehiscence. In 

all the inflorescence consists 
of terminal racemes, each 
flower being solitary in the 
axil of a bract, and bearing 
two sterile bracts at a va- 
riable height on its pedicel. 
These species, characterized 
by their single carpel, con- 
stitute the genus Phlvdinium 
{Consolidd)} 




Delphinium Staphisagria. 

Fig. 53. Fig. 54. 

Flower with four Flower with eight 

petals. petals. 



' Flowers sometimes occur with two or three 
carpels; Imt a higher number is tolerably rare, 
oven in cultivatiil plants. However, Kiuscii- 
LKcKn (Aolir. Buliin., (i) has seen flowers of D. 
Ajacis with from five to eight carpels. In mn 
parterres, when the curpi'ls are thus iiunierous, 
some of them may be sterile. In double (lowers 
we further observe tliat the jMisterior petals (the 
two halves of u single organ) are either entirely 
Bejuirate or else united for marly tlie whole 



length of the limb. This is then Hat, and tra- 
versed by two large greenish ribs, whieh sejia- 
rate decidedly towards the tij), the petal l)e- 
coniing bideutate or bilobate. The sj)urs become 
snniUer like that of the sepal which encloses 
them, but they are separate, each forming a dis- 
tinct tube. As in />. CunsvUda, the spur very 
rarely disappears entirely iu both calyx and 
corolla. The flower is then also the same as 
that (if a double M./,lhi. 



RANUNCULAGE^. 



29 



Stavesacre* (figs. 53-58) has nearly all the characters of the 
preceding plants ; but the spur of the posterior sepal is relatively 
shorter and broader, and slightly bifid at the tip. The petal 
opposite this is sessile, and is prolonged downwards and into the 
spur to form a thick hollow glandular double spur (fig. 55), while 
its limb is deeply divided into two erect halves, nearly symmetrical 
with one another, and united in front by a short cross-piece, so that 
the division of this organ into two half petals is not quite complete. 
The lateral petals are represented by little wings of two kinds ; 
while the anterior petals are quite wanting in some flowers (fig. 53) 
and exist in others," 
which have then 
eight petals arran- 
ged like those of 
Aconitmu JVape/i/fs, 
four of them being 
in pairs opposed to 
sepals 1 and 3 (fig. 
56). 

The androceum 
is that of the pre- 
ceding plants (figs. 
55 and 56) and 
the gynseceum is 
usually formed of 
three carpels,^ of 

which one is nearly ^^''''' ^"^^^'^"'^ ''' ^^^y^- 

posterior. The follicles are thick, and each encloses seeds closely 
pressed together, so as to be more or less deformed. The 
copious albumen contains the minute embryo near its apex ; and the 




Delphinium Stapldsagria. 
Fig. 55. 



Fig. 56. 
Diagram. 



' D. Staphisagria L., Spec, 750. S. macro- 
earpa Spach, I. cit. 

■ On the same plant we may find flowers with 
eight petals, and others with less. When there 
are eight we see, as in the Aconites, a single 
one opposite sepal 4 and sepal 5, and a pair op- 
posite sepal 1, sepal 2, and sepal 3. The two petals 
which are opposite sepals 4 and 5 forvn at the 
base a sort of flattened spur, glandular and nec- 
tariferous within. The anterior petals, when 
present, are reduced to small flattened unequal 
scales, the anterior one of each pair remaining 



much less developed than the other. See Beoxg- 
NIART, Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, v. 300, and 
Pater, loc. cit., 261, note. 

•'' From two to four carpels may he counted, 
rarely more. Their position has not yet been 
accurately decided (sec Adansonia iv. 21), any 
more than in most sections of this genus. The 
ovules of Stavesacre are few in number, and in 
the typical species there are only four in two 
vertical rows. They are placed back to back, 
and are somewhat ascending. 



30 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Delphinium Staphisagria. 
Fig. 57. Fio. 58. 

Seed. Longitudinal section 
of same. 



external integument is unequally thickened, so that its surface 
presents a mesh of anastomosing ridges (figs. 57 and 58). Stavesacre 
is usually a biennial. 

There is, then, no essential difference 

€^^^^ between Delphinium and Aconitum. It is 
Mf ^E true that the form of one sepal and of 
^H g the petals differs usually.' The large 
H 1 posterior petals of an Aconite have a 

^^^j^^^ hood-like limb on a long claw, while the 
^'^'^^^ Larkspurs have the limb sessile, or nearly 
so, and cornet-shaped. The lateral petals, 
when present, are membranous and flat- 
tened in the Larkspurs, while they are 
represented by short linear rods in the Aconites. But these are 
differences of form which do not affect the general structure of the 
flower. It is further true that the posterior sepal is broad, shallow, 
and helmet-shaped in J. Najje//us, while it is much narrower and 
more elongated in BvlpUnium, where we call it a spur. But this 
same sepal becomes very long and narrow in Aconites like Lycoc- 
ionuw, while the anterior sepals at the same time disappear, as in most 
Larkspurs. The floral symmetry, the gynseceum, the I'ruit, the seeds, 
the inflorescence, and the habit are the same in both types; and 
hence we have proposed," and still propose, to unite them into one 
genus under the name of Belphiniiuu? 

All these plants have, too, except in a few particular cases,' the 



' And we must even add that this ditrercncc 
of form disappears entirely in the Larkspurs 
which Si'ACH (?. ct7.) has separated uiider the 
name of Aconilella. In this small group the 
8j)ur of the posterior sepal has exactly the same 
conformation as that of Aconitum Lt/coclonum, 
and the allied species. Sometimes the petal op- 
jiosite this i)ostcrior sepal has itself an acute 
spur, as in JJ.JIarum DC ; or, as in JJ. AroniH 
L. and anthuroides Boiss, the spur may be 
twisted into a long spiral towards its extremity 
as in A. Li/coctonum. Besides, we must re- 
mark that in all thc-e plants there is only a 
single carjKl as in I). Consulida, and Ajaci^s, and 
that the jxwtfrior sepal sometimes do»'s not pro- 
Bcnt in limb or claw the least sign of dedupli- 
cation. On the oihir hmid, certain large flow- 
ered Larkspurs from India have exactly the 
habit of certain Aconites, and it is impossible to 
sec why the rounded and somewhat concave pos- 
terior si'ltnl deserves the name of spur, rather 



than hood. As for the foliage, which is not ex- 
actly the same in our common species of Aconite 
and Larkspur, to show how unimportant a cha- 
racter that is, it will suffice to recal to mind the 
existence of ^. delphinifolium (Skk., /. ciL, 159). 
'^ Adansonia iv. 12, 18. 

1. Kiulelphinium. 
(Delphi nnsf mm, Delphi nellum.) 

2. Consolidti (Phledinium, 
Delphinium } Aconilella.) 

Sections 5. ) 3. Slnphi.sngria. 

A. Lycoctonum. 

5. Aconitum. 

(yaptllun.Ciimmarum.Anthora.) 
* Certain species are annuals. Others have 
sarmentose sleiuler stems, and alternate leavi-s 
distant from one another, on a level with which 
the tlowers are grouped into short nicemes. 
Such are A. roltitdle V\\.\.., and the ChincM) 
climber with palmivcined thn-e-loU?*! loavrs 
which may he called 1>. (A.) huiiniliHvw. 



BANUNCULACE2E. 31 

same plan of growth as Aconilum Napclli(s ; that is, they have a tap- 
root at first surmounted by a single stem, giving off from the axils 
of its leaves branches, which are, like itself, terminated by an inflo- 
rescence. Afterwards, when the aerial part of the plant has thus 
accomplished its evolution it is destroyed, and the plant branches at 
the base of the stem, developing successively, from above downwards, 
the buds axillary to the lowest leaves or scales of the ascending axis. 
Each of these secondary axes behaves the same way in the end, and 
also ramifies at the base, while the main tap-root, more or less 
hypertrophied and succulent, or else grown woody, gradually becomes 
hollow in the centre, and persists for a variable number of years at 
the base of the subterranean part of the plant.' The flowers are 
grouped in simple or compound racemes, each being axillary to a 
bract or leaf but little modified, with two lateral sterile bracts at a 
variable height on each pedicel. In some species, as D. axillifonan 
DC, the inflorescence simulates a spike, owing to the shortness of 
the pedicels ; the flower being, however, still accompanied by two 
lateral bracteolse, sometimes simple, sometimes compound like the 
leaves. These are constantly alternate and exstipulate, with the 
blade entire, but slightly lobed, palmatifid, or dissected." 

The species, about sixty in number, chiefly inhabit the colder, and 
especially the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere in both 
Worlds.^ 



' This is on the whole the mode of vegetation of In the annual species their evolution is earlv 

many perennial Ranunculads with successive ter- arrested, or is accomplished in a single season, 

minatedaxes. Inmost of the cultivated perennial ^ Some species have the leaves dissimilar to 

Larkspurs and Aconites (e.g., D.formosum and one another {A. heteropJiyUum, Wall.). 

its varieties), after removing the numerous ad- ^ Sekixge, Esq. d'tme Mon. du g. Aconitum 

ventitious roots that the subterranean portion {inMiis. Relvet.,i.{\S22,)\\b,i.\b.) — Reichb., 

produces annually, we see at the base of the Icon., iv. t. 66-100; III. spec. Aconiti (1823- 

flowering stem a swelling which bears small, 27) ; Mon. gen. Aconiti, Leips. (1820.) — Koch, 

half-withered leaves, arranged in an evident Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 2, iii. 371. — Grex. & 

spiral, and rows of axillary buds (also spirally Gode., Fl. Fr., i. 14, 45. — Reoel, Consp. gen. 

arranged), which are smaller as they are lower Aconiti Flor. Soss. {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, 

down. The somewhat tumid bases of the second xvi. 144). — Hook. & Th., Fl. Ind., i. 47, 54. 

generation of axes bear in the same spiral order Boiss, Biagn. PI. Orient. — A. Gray, III., t. 15, 

axillary buds, which become axes of a third 16. — Walp., Sep., i. 51, 57 • ii. 743, 745 • 

generation, and so on. This recurrence in the v. 6, 7; Ann., i. 13, 14 j ii. 12, 13; iv. 

evolution of buds is very general in Ranunculacece. 22, 23. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



II. RANUNCULUS SERIES. 

If we analyse the flower of one of our indigenous UnnuncuJi ,^ known 
under the vulgar names of Crowfoot, Spearwort, Kingcups, Butter- 
cups, &c. (Fr. Bassinets, GrenouiUdtes, Boutons cVor, dnrgonl, &c.), for 

example, the Great Spearwoi*t 
{Itmiunculus Lingua L., Fr. 
Grande Bouve) (fig. 59), we 
find that it is regular and 
hermaphrodite, with a slightly 
convex receptacle. The calyx 
is formed of five free, some- 
what unequal, sepals, which 
are the more membranous and 
coloured as they are the more 
internal in the bud, where 
they are quincuncially imbri- 
cated (fig. GO). They are 
caducous, as are also the five 
petals which alternate with 
thcTii, and which are also free 
and imbricated in a}stivation.- 
The claw, which is almost 
obsolete, is surmounted by a 
glandular depression on the 
inner surface of the limb. 
Above the perianth, the re- 
ceptacle is produced into a 
short cone, very regular in 
some species, as R. rrprns L. (figs. 61, 02), and supports an 
indefinite number first of stamens and then of carpels, inserted 
in a spiral.' The stamens are free, and each is composed of a 




Ranunculus Lingua. 
Fio. 59. 



> Ranunculus Hallek, Helvet., ii. 08. — T., 
Inst., 285, t. 149. — L., Qen., n. 699.— Juss., 
Qen., n. 233.— DC, Prodr., i. 26.— Spacii, 
Suit, h Buff., vii. 203.— Knui,., Oen., n. 4783. 
— Payer, (Jr/janot/., ii.'.'., t. Ivii. — 11. H., 
Oen., 5, 6, n. 9-12. — II. Hn., .iilnnsoiila, 
iv. 50. 

" Tlic iinlir'u'utioii of tin- live ])ftiils is viniHhlo, 



being sometimes qtiinciiiK-inl like that of tlio 
calyx, while often there is hut one petal that in 
wholly outside, and only one entirely covered in. 
' According to Paykk {Jiull. Soc. Philom., 
May 17, 18W>, 59), the fraction indicating the 
spiral arrangement of the petals and stamens 



BANUNCULACE.TJ. 



filament expanding above into an erect basifixed connective, 
which supports the two adnate vertical cells of an extrorse anther 




E. Lingua. 
Fig. 60. 
Diagram. 



Fig. 61. 
Flower. 



Ranunculus repens. 



Fig. 62. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



dehiscing by two longitudinal clefts.' The carpels are each com- 
posed of a transversely compressed ovary tapering into a beaked 
style, recurved outwards. Along the whole length of the inner 
angle runs a vertical groove, whose margins, thickened and somewhat 
everted, are covered above with stigmatic papilla?. In the inner 
angle, at a variable distance from the base of the single- celled ovary, 
is inserted an ascending ovule, whose micropyle looks outwards and 
downwards.- After flowering, the perianth and androceum usually 
fall and discover a multiple fruit, formed of a variable number of 
achenes, each of which encloses a seed containing a minute embryo 
towards the apex of abundant fleshy albumen. The surface of the 
achene is sometimes smooth and sometimes covered with ribs, 
wrinkles, or even well-developed prickles, as occurs in R. arveusis 
(figs. 63, 64), muricatm, PJiilonofis, and a certain number of allied 
species.^ The form and height of the beak or persistent style which 



* The lines of dehiscence are very decidedly 
exterior in R. Seguieri, and the anther is cer- 
tainly extrorse, though less markedly so, in R. 
Lingua, Flamnmla, acris, arvensis, angulatus, 
gramineus, parvijiorus, &c. ; the dehiscence is 
exactly lateral in R. platuni/olius and aconiti- 
folius. R. sceleratus and aquatiUs are interme- 
diate between these two groups, their dehiscence 
being but slightly extrorse ; but in no case is it 
introrse. 

" The ovule is always inserted into the inner 
angle of the carpel, near its organic base. Hence 
the ovule becomes horizontal, or even slightly 
drooping, whenever the ovary is much developed 
in its dorsal and posterior part. Here, as every- 
where else, a drooping ovule with the raphe 
dorsal corresponds to an ascending ovule witli 
the raphe venti-al. Moreover, as Hentiiam & 
Hooker {Gen., 6) remark, on the subject of 

VOL. I. 



CyrtorJiyncha Nuttall (Toek. & Ge., Fl. JV. 
Am., i. 26. — Endl., Gen., n. 4771), which they 
refer to the genus Ranunculus, an ovule which 
is absolutely drooping in space, is really ascend- 
ing in relation to a carpel wiiich, pressed on by 
its neighbours, has its tip turned tirst outw irJs 
and then downwards. 

' In grouping the genus Ranunculus into 
sections, some use has been made of the nature 
of the surfoce of the carpels. Thus 1)e Cajn'dolle 
distinguishes Ranunculastrum (soct. ii. Prodr., i. 
27), Thora (sect.iii. 30), and Recatonia (sect. iv. 
30), by their smooth carpels, while his Ratrachium 
(sect. i. 26), admitted as a distinct genus by 
several authors (Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 199), 
has the pericarp transversely striated and rugose, 
and his i^cAJ«e?/tf (sect. v. 41. — Gen. Pachyloma 
SpAcn, Suit, a Buff., vii. Idi.—Fhilonotis 
Reichb., Consp., 191) has the carpels covered 



34 



NATURAL HISTOEY OF PLjINTS. 



surmounts tlie carpels, also vary much.' The RanuncvU are herbs 

with alternate leaves which may- 
be simple or compound, com- 
plete or incomplete ; - their 
flowers are solitary or in ter- 
minal cymes.' 

There are HauunciiH in which 
the petals disappear almost en- 
tirely, being only represented 
by minute scales, glandular at 
the base, identical with the 
organs which in other families 
we have above termed nec- 
taries/ In some, indeed, tlie 

petals disappear entirely, and these have been erected into a quite 




Ranunculus arvensis. 

Fig. 63. Fio. 64. 

Complete fruit. Carpel opened. 



with prickles or projecting tubercles. If we 
examine the origin of these carpels in Eamtncuhts 
arvensis, trilohus, Pldlonotis, SiX., we see that 
they depend only on the outer layers of the 
pericarp, that they do not develope till late, 
that they differ in number and size in different 
carpels of the Siime species, and that hence 
their importance can only be slight. Cam- 
BASSEDES has already remarked (Flor. Ealear., 
32) that the number of tubercles did not give 
an absolute distinction between lianuncidiis 
Philonotis and trilohus. 

' For this reason Bentiiam & Hooker 
have not admitted the genera Xiphocoma 
and Gampsoceras Stea". {Bull. Mosc, 1852, 
t. 7), or ' Cypnanthus Si'ACii, {Suit, a Buff., 
vii. 220), established for 11. Orienlalis h. R. 
Cornutus is remarkable for the small number 
of cjirpels; some llowcrs have only three or 
four. 

•^ In R. Lingua (fig. 5'J), Flammula,(jraminrus, 
(ilismoi'les, &c., we have simple leaves dilated at 
the base into an imperfect slieath, the blade 
entire or nearly so, and narrow and elongated, 
recjilliug that of a Monocotyledon. In our com- 
uioneHt Ranunculi the leaves have a distinct blade 
more or less lobed, or even divided into distinct 
hniHets. R. scilrratus offers every transition 
betwL-en simple, even entire, leaves, and those 
most dissected. R. Thora has on its |)edunclo 
two K|iei'iul leavfs ditlV-riiig from one anolhcr and 
from the cjiuline leaves. Finally, in the section 
Itatrncttiuni there have always been rennirkcd 
leaves provided with basilar niembranous stijiuli- 
form expansions, varying nnich according as they 
are aerial or entirely submerged, when they are 



reduced to capillary ramified thongs. (Sec GuEX. 
& GODR., Flor. Fr., i. 18. t. A.) 

^ Some Ranunculi have solitary terminal 
flowers. In others the leaves or bracts below 
the flower bear in their axils younger flowers, 
the immber of these floral generations varying 
with the species. In R. Thora, which has often 
two flowers, these Ibrm a uniparous cyme, the 
lateral flower being the younger. In our com- 
monest terrestrial Ranunculi the cymes thus 
formed are always uniparous and many flowered. 
So, too, because the flower always termiuat^s 
the axis, we get leaf-opposed flowers in eertjiin 
species, as in R. Flammula (see, also, on this 
subject Gi iLLARi), Bull. Hoc. Bot. Fr., iv. 32, 
36. 121). 

* The petals become very small and even dis- 
appear in certain flowers ot some of our common 
Ranunculi, as R. Auricomus {IIocwvmuv^k, Bull. 
Sue. Bot. Fr., ix. 280). In R. apiifolius Poiu., 
which has to A. Sr. IIilaiki: l)eeonie the tyjMJ 
of a separate genus, under the name of Aphano- 
slemma {Flor. Bra.i. Mcrid., i. 12. — Kndl., 
Gen., n. ITHl), the sepals are jietaloiil, but on 
the other himd the petals are (juite small anil 
reduced to little rods, each with a glandular head 
cup-slmped at the summit. The renuiining ehn- 
nicters are those of other Ranunculi. The in- 
deflnite stamens have l>asitixe<l extrorse anthera, 
and each of the numerous carpels ct)ntains an 
ascending ovule with the micropylo downwards 
and inwards. The bracts near the (lowers are 
])rovided at the base with lateral membranous 
stii>uliform expansions. Following Hk.ntha.M & 
IlooKKli {Gen., 6), we only make Aphanoslemma 
a section of tlie genus Ranunculus. 



RANUNCULACE2E. 



35 



distinct genus under the name of Tranfvelteria} Jkit we cannot 
logically preserve this genus, as we have not made one for the 
apetalous species of Isopi/nim. 

There are, on the other hand, Banunculi whose petals assume a 
great development, and where the 
glandular pit at the base is provided 
internally with a more or less project- 
ing scale of varying form," or is itself 
prolonged at its outer border to form a 
nectariferous, more or less prominent 
tube (fig. 65). In other species there 
is a strong tendency to increase in the 
number of petals. Sometimes one or 
more of them are deduplicated, the 
corolla still forming a single verticil. 
Again, the spiral line along which the 
petals are inserted may be prolonged so 
as to produce a second corolla^ within 
the other, whose elements may also undergo deduplication. Thi 




Ranunculus amplexicaulls. 

Fig. 65. 

Petal. 



1 Trautveiteria palmata Fiscn. & Mey, 
{Ind. Sem. (1835), 22); Anim. Bot. {Ann. 
Sc. Nat., ser. 2, iv. 335) ; Cimicifuga palmata 
MiCHX {Fl. Am. Bor., i. 316). — Actaa palmata 
DC, Prodr., i. 64, which we consider an ape- 
talous Eanunctdus, is a perennial growing in 
Japan and North America. Its palinatifid 
leaves recal strongly those of B. aconitifolius 
and the allied species ; and its numerous flowers, 
whose cjTiies are united into a kind of panicle at 
the top of a long peduncle, give it nearly the 
aspect of certain white-flowered RanunmU (Fr. 
Boutons d'argent), or several species of Actcea 
and ThaUctrum. But its fruit and seeds are 
quite those of a Ranunculus. Its Ave sepals are 
quincuncially imbricated in the bud. The very 
numerous stamens are the shorter as they are 
the more exterior. The filament is folded in the 
bud, but at the expansion of the flower becomes 
much exserted ; it is dilated somewhat below the 
attachment of a basifixed anther, which dehisces 
laterally or somewhat externally. The very 
numerous carpels are arranged spirally on the 
superior dilated part of the receptacle; each 
tapers above into a recurved style. 

^ The characters presented by the nectariferous 
pit and its prolongations, or the sort of scales 
which accompany it, have served to establish 
several sections in the genus Ranunculus. In 
Batrachium the pit is surmounted by what is 



termed an aglet, tliat is, as in fig. 65, it is the 
exterior border which is prolonged into a more or 
less concave, elongated, spoon-like body. In 
Euranunculus GiiEN. & Gode. {Ft. Fr., i. li)), 
there is on the other hand a more or less marked 
projection of variable form occupying the inner 
border of the depression ; we then say that the 
pit is lined with a scale. Finally in R. sceleraitis 
L. {Spec, 776,) by several authors made the 
type of a special genus under the name of ITe- 
catonia palustris (Loureiro, Fl. Cochin-Chin., 
371. — SPAcn, Suit, a Buff., vii. 198), the 
petal has neither aglet nor scale. The claw is 
short, and above it, on the inner surface of the 
limb, is an oval nectariferous j it with a small 
upturned extremity. This pit is bounded by a 
projecting rim, wanting at the upper extremity, 
so as to resemble a horse-shoe, with the conc;\vity 
upwards. Adanson was the first to make a 
curious comparison between the nectariferous 
depressions of the Ranunculi and the nectaries 
of the Hellebores, &c. 

3 Or it may be that the outer stamens become 
petaloid ; which comes to the same thing, since 
after the facts established by Pater the pieces 
of the corolla and androceum are here on one 
continuous spiral. Hence when the trans- 
formation goes further we have the numerous 
species with double flowers, of which so many 
examples have been quoted since the time of 

D 2 



36 



NATUR.iL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



besides the case of double flowers which are frequent in Ranuncvlnn, 
we may find corollas which normally possess a score of petals. We 
may note B. jlintdm Lamk., miUcfoUatuH Vahl., mhuginomis Pall., 
cj/mhalancB Puiisii, pmmomiH H. B. K., sibbnldioides H. B. K., 
chihnms J)0., filamcntosiis Wedd., «&c. 

The form of the floral receptacle is itself very variable in the 
genus Ranunculus. Thus, in R. Hcehratua (figs. 66, 67) this recep- 





Ranunculus scehralus. 



Fig. 66. 
Flower. 



Fio. 67. 
Longitudinal section of Hower. 



tacle, after bearing but a small number of short stamens, swells into 
a nearly globular head covered with numerous carpels. On the 
other hand, the receptacle may elongate above the stamens so as to 
resemble at a distance the cylindro-conoidal form of that of Mi/oxtin/.s. 
Ceratocephalifs, which cannot be generically separated from the 
Ranunculi, gives a manifest example of this. This name ^Mcench' 
has given to a species" of Ranunculus cliaracterized only by this form 
of the axis, by its somewhat fewer stamens, and by the lateral pro- 
jections on its carpels.^ 



ToDKNEFOUT {Insl., 285-293) especially by De 
Candolle {Mem. de la Soc. d'Arnieil, iii. 385). 
Nothing is more frequent than Ranunculi with 
monstrous Howers. (See also Bull. Soc. But. 
Fr., V. 2yG ; viii. 348 ; ix. 280, and Adansonia, 
iv. 15G, &.C. &c.) 

' Oraiocephalas, 'M(Kt;cH,M,'tL,2lS.— C.fal- 
catui I'KUB., Ench., \. 341.-1)0., Prodr.,\. 2G.— 
Endl., Gen., n.478l. — Cralcpot/onum hiipaniciim 
Hauu., Icon., 376,2. — ItanunculusCeratophifllus 
Mou., Jlisl. (Jjron., ii. 1-U), ex T., /«*/., 289.—/^, 
falcatuH L., Spec, 781. — I ACQ., Fl. Auslr.,i. 48. 

* Since tlien, botaniHls hiive distinguished 
seven or eight Kpecies — perlmps only various 
forms of a single one. The numerous carpels 
have a beut or straight slyle. It has the latter 
direction in It. fenUcululus HiEU., of which De 
Canoolle (Si/st., i. 23! ; Prudr., i. 2(5, n. 2; 



Icon. Deless., vi. t. xxiii.) ha.s made his sj)ccies 
C. orthoceras. 

"• The ovary of Ceratocephalux contains but 
one ascending ovule with a single coat, like that 
of a Ranunculus. Some have taken as a generic 
chariicteristic the existence of these bigibbous 
C4irpels with two empty cells at the b:ise (tJUEN. 
& (Joi)K.. Fl. Fr., i. 18). If we seek for the 
origin of these two lateral horns at the base of 
the fruit, we see that they are t)wing to a sepa- 
ration of the pericarp into two layers, and to 
the increased growth of the outer layer. Hence 
arises within the thickness of each projection a 
cavity recalling that obs<rved in the pericarp of 
A'/(/^//(l damancitna. Hut the seed remains tjuite 
shut in by the endoi-ar]i; it has two very thin 
coats and abundant albumen. 



BANUNCULACE/E. 



'61 




Cascdea} is the name given to some American Jla/n/ncxli in which 
the number of pieces of the perianth may be reduced to three in 
each wliorl. But this reduction is not constant,'- and besides, all the 
other characters are those of Banunculm, so that we can hardly erect 
Casalea into a separate section. 

Ranunculus Ficaria L. (fig. 68) has been equally considered as 
the type of a distinct genus,^ be- 
cause its flowers are trimerous, and 
its corolla is double, the pieces of 
the inner whorl being altogether 
or in part deduplicated.' But these 
characters, which may have for- 
merly appeared sufficient to con- 
stitute a genus,' are remarked, the 
one in Casalea, and the other in the Banunculi strictly so called 
mentioned above, without our being able now-a-days to give them 
a generic value. 

We have stronger reasons for not separating Oxi/(/raphi.f generi- 
cally from the BammcuU, for if we observe the same multiplication 
of organs in its corolla, yet the flower is still on a quinary tj^^e, and 
we cannot attribute much importance to the usual persistence of one 
part of the perianth. 



Manunculus Ficaria. 

Fig. 68. 

Longitudinal section of flowj 



1 Casalea A. S. H., FIoi: Bras. Mer., i. 6, 1. 1. 
— Endl., Gen., n. 4782. 

» Messrs. Triaxa & Plai.-chos (Aim. Sc. 
Nat., ser. 4, xvii. 12, note) already recognised 
the variability of this character. 

3 Ficaria DiLL., Nov. Gen., 108, t. 5.— DC. 
Prodr., i. 44.— Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 196.— 
EXDL., Gen., n. 4785. — F. ranunculoides 
McEXCH, Meth., 215. — Ranunculus Ficaria L., 
Spec, 774. — Clos, Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, xvii. 
129. The whole of this work, which is of quite 
a special character, should be read. 

■• M, Clos (/. cit., 138) counts from five to 
eleven. Usually there are three petals in the 
outer corolla, and the inner petals are in three 
alternating groups, one of three, one of two, and 
the third of a sinjzle piece. (See Pater, Orga- 
nog., 254. — H. Bx., Adansonia, ii. 202.) 

^ DiLLEN established the genus especially on 
account of the trimerous character of the co- 
rolla. Adanson preserved it, says M. Clos 
(?. cit., 140)under the name ofScotanum (C^salp. 
ex Akans., Fam. 459), borrowed from Beun- 
FKLS. Payer and ourselves maintained it 
(I. cit., 210) on account of its trimerous type, 
the deduplicatiou of the corolla, and the position 



of the sepals with regard to the axis. The facts 
we have since observed in Casalea, the Pajonies, 
&c., have necessarily modified our original view. 

fi Oxygraphis Buxge, Fl. Altaic, suppl., 46. 
— ExDL., Gen., n. 4785i, suppl., i. 141 9. — Hook. & 
Tn., Fl. Ltd., i. 27.— Walp., Ann., iv. 31.— B. 
H., Gen., 6, n. 12. In the flowers of O. 
glacialis Bge. {Ficaria glacialis Fiscir.), there 
are five sepals in a quincunx and often ten petals 
forming a corolla of two alternating whorls, and 
bearing a thickening in which is a glandular 
depression at their base. The stamens are in- 
definite with extrorse anthers ; the carpels each 
enclose a single ascending ovule with the micro- 
pyle external. In 0. polypetala Hook. & Th. 
{Ranunetdus polypetalus Rotle, III., t. xi. fig. 2. 
— CallianthemumFndlickeri Walp.) the flowers 
are similar, but have from fifteen to twenty petals, 
each of the inner ones being replaced by a group 
of two, three, or four. Hence we may consider 
the Oxygraphids as Ficarice, whose flowers are 
formed on a quinary type ; and just as we cannot 
separate the two above-mentioned species of 
Oxygraphis generically from one another, so we 
cannot remove them from the Ranunculi. (See 
Clos, Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, xiii. 141.) 



38 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Nearly all the Brniiiuculi have hermaphrodite flowers. They are 
nevertheless accidentally polygamous in some ; and dicecia is nearly 
constant in some American species native in the regions near the 
Antarctic Pole, which have been designated Ilamadri/nfi ;' we only 
admit them as a section. " 

The Ttcuunictdi are a numerous family ; some have described three 
hundred species ; their number may probably be reduced by one- 




Ranunculus repens. 

Fig. 69. 

Stem. 

half. We find them all over the world from one pole to tlie other — 
common in the temperate-' and cold' regions of both hemispheres, 
much rarer in the warm countries.* Many are annuals, and sometimes 
are of very short duration.® Some are aquatic plants with the leaves 
submerged, at least in great part. The perennials only survive by 
developing in some of their organs (always near the young shoots) 
reservoirs of nutritive juice, of varying situation, but possessing 
always the same function — that of nourishing the young plants, 
whether they remain in connexion with the parent stock or become 



' Jlnmadrtfas CovM., licrb., ex Jrss., Oen.y 
232.— DC, Pruilr., i. 2.'>.— Si'ach, Suit, a Buff., 
vii.— Endu, Gf'n.,\\. 1770. — Walp., Ann., i. 7. 
—Hook. F., FL Ant., ii. 227, t. 85— H. Bn., 
AdatiKonia, iv. 51. 

* In the feiiiule (lowers of II. mageUanica, 
tlie cjirpelrt are indcHnito, ciicli Hunnoiinted by u 
HUiull hooked style, and containing an ascending 
ovule with the micropyle external. In the uialo 
flowers are numerous unequal xtaniens, with 
ba«ilixed anthers dehiscing by lateral clefts. 
The calyx consists of live seimls, entire, or deei>ly 
divided into two or more lobes. The j)etals are 
numerous, as in Oxygra))hiH, but arc long and 
narrow with a contracted claw, at the summit of 
which is a glandular ))it. The habit of this 
)>lant is that of certain litniutiruli, especially 
J{. T/iiijwid. We «'annot separate these plants 
ironi the lianunculi on account of their dicli- 



nism, for that is observed in Clematis, Tha- 
lictnini, Aetna, &c. ; nor for their innnerous 
petals, which may be as many in the lianunculi 
strictly so called. 

» Ohkn. a. Uoun.. Fl. Fr., \. 18.— Reicub., 
Icon., iii. 1-23.— Wai.1'., Rrp., i. 33 ; ii. 738 ; 
V. 4; Ann., i. 8, 954; ii. G; iv. 6. — Fiecu., 
Anim. Bot. {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 2, iv. 332, 
335). — Stev., Ann. Sc. Not., ser. 3, xii. 368. 
— S. & Zocc, Fl. J(i]>. Fam., 71. — A. CiHav, 
III., t. 9.— Wedd., Chlor. Anil., ii. ;U)0.— Tui. 
& 1*L., Fl. N.-Oranat. {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 1, 
xvii. 11.) 

* IIooK., Fl. Antarcl., i. 3, t. 1, 2; ii. 223. 
t. 81-83. 

* IIooK. & Til., Fl. Iml.. i. 28.— A. S. H., /7. 
Bras. Mer., i. 6.— M aut., Fl. lints.. Kcnonc, 151. 

* KspcciuUy Ceratocrjihalus (p. 36). 



BANUNCULACEJE. 



39 



detached. In some species with prostrate stems, such 7?. rrpem 
(fig. 69), adventitious roots 
are developed at the base 
of the buds borne by these 
runners ; and it is on a level 
with these roots that the 
base of the bud swells into 
a reservoir of nutritive 
juices. In other species 
the subterranean organs 
are developed much in 
the same way as the roots 
(Fr. paffes) of the Ane- 
mones} Others, again, have 
the bases of the stem and 
the branches swoUen into 
bulbs as in B. hdbosus^ 
which takes its name from 
this peculiarity. In the 
Ficar'm it is the buds axil- 
lary to certain aerial leaves which swell at the base, and are after- 
wards detached like bulbels.^ Finally, in other species, like E. asiaticm 




Ranunctdus asiaticus. 
Fia. 70. 
Rootstock. 



^ In R. acris, for example, the principal axis 
ends in a flower, as do its ramifications. Quite 
at the base of tbis stem are leaves whicb are 
destroyed early, and which have buds in their 
axils. These buds in turn develope aerial 
branches which are to bear later on, iu the axils 
of their lower leaves, the third generation of 
axes. Thus the base of the stem ramifies and 
becomes a rhizome like that of an Anemone, 
possessing none but adventitious roots. It is hi 
the basilar portion of each bud, before the time 
for its elongatiou, that the nutritive juices accu- 
mulate, which are afterwards to aid in its de- 
velopment. The basilar portions of the divisions 
of the rhizome are more or less woody and dry, 
and they may even separate from the mother 
stock by destruction of tissue, so as to form new 
individuals beside it. 

- In these species we only have an exaggera- 
tion of the phenomenon of the accumulation of 
nutritive juices in the base of the stem, and then 
in the base of the branches axillary to the lower 
leaves. If then we consider this swelling as a 
bulb, it belongs to the category of solid bulbs. 
Clos attributes this swelling to the collar 
{Ann. Sc. Nat., ser, 3, xiii. 1). GEENiiiK 



(Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr., ii. 369, 721), whose opinion 
we have said (Adansonia, iv. 33, note), should be 
wholly adopted, refers it to the base of the 
stem. 

^ In Ficaria, of which the different modes of 
vegetation and the discussions to which their in- 
terpretation has given rise, have been reported by 
Clos in the work above referred to {Ann. Sc, 
Kat., ser. 3, xiii. 131), these axillary buds 
become bulbels, the tumid portion of which 
answers to the equally swollen succulent base of 
the subterranean buds of other Ramniculi. Most 
botanists arc at variance as to the true nature of 
these swellings. What has proved to us that 
they are of the nature of axes is that they may 
possess two buds instead of one, and that in other 
cases they may bear a normal leaf with a bud 
in its axil. When these buds are detached from 
the mother plant, like those of other species, 
they are nourished by adventitious roots. 
Ikmiscii has shown that we should not confound 
these bulbels with tumid axillary roots. Bel- 
noMME has described {Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr., ix. 
241) in Ji. Lingua a fact quite analogous to 
what is seen in Ficaria. He says that the 
axillary buds of the submerged part of the 



40 



NATUJIAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



u 




(fig. 70), the chief reservoir of juice is formed by the adventitious 
roots, whose cortical portion becomes thick and fleshy, emptying 

itself later on to supply ma- 
terials for the development of 
the buds situated a little above 
the roots near the collar of the 
plant.' 

Close to Ranunculus comes 
the genus Mji(miru>? (figs. 71, 
72), which differs from it in 
but very few characters.^ The 
most marked is the great elon- 
gation of the receptacle, which 
resembles a small cylindro- 
conoidal branch, bearing suc- 
cessively one above the other, 
tlie perianth, the androceum, and the gynseceum, whose pieces are 
spirally inserted.^ The calyx consists of from five to six sessile, free 
sepals, imbricated in the bud, and having the base pro- 
duced beyond the point of insertion into a little tongue- 
shaped spur closely applied to the peduncle. The petals 
nearly equal in number to the sepals, and alternating with 
them, have a quite peculiar form (fig. 73). A very narrow 
claw supports a limb hollowed out to form a glandular 
cavity, which has its border much prolonged (but only ex- 
ternally) likethe bowl of a spoon. The stamens are lew in 
number, and the basifixed anther has two adnate extrorse cells 



Myosur 



Fro. 71. 

Flower. 



Fio. 72. 
Longitudinal section. 




stems may be detaclied in winter, and put forth 
adventitious roots in the spring, so as to form 
an many distinct plants. (See further on 
tlie vegetation of F'uaria, tlic researches of 
(iKUMAiN i>E Saint-I'ikukk, Bull. Soc. Phil., 
Jan. 18fJ2, and JJull. Soc. Bot. Fr., iii. 11.) 

' In B. oritnlaim (Genus Cyprianlhe Sl'ACll, 
8uil. a Buff., vii. 220), the tul)er contains the 
nutritive malti-r in the cortical portion of its 
adventitious roots. Wo liave described (Adan- 
tonin, iv. 32) tiiis tuber as analogous to the 
subterranean jiortion of JJa/ilia, with a small 
central axis bearing above a crown of buds, 
and lower down cjnical adventitious roots tieshy 
on the outside. 

We think it right to again call the attention 
of the reader to the utility of consulting all 
that luMiBCU haa written on the organs of 



vegetation of the Ranunculacea in general, and 
the Eanunculi in particular. (See note 3, 
p. 44.) 

^ Myosurua DiLL., Not. Oen., 106. — T., 
Inst., 293.— L., Oe».. n. 394.— Jrss., 0«»., 233. 
— DC, Piodr., i. 25.— Spach, SuH. a Buff., 
vii. 192.— Endl., Oen.. n. 4780.— H. H., Gtn., 
5, n. 8. 

* So that several authors have called the 
typical species of this gemis Ranunculus mini, 
muit (Afz.. Liljdb. .Sr. /7.. 230, ex DC, /. cit.). 

* According to 1'ayi:u {Hull. iSW. I'Mlomat., 
May 17, 1815, 59), the arrangeuient of the 
flond ai)j)endic«8 is rcpresente<l by the fraction 
j", as in the Ranunculi ; litnco the variable 
luimber of stumens, and their constant jmsition 
with regard to the sepals. 



BANUNCULACE/E. 




Myosurus minimus. 
Fig. 74. Fia. 75. 

Carpel. Longitudinal 
section. 



dehiscing longitudinally by two nearly lateral clefts. Tlie carpels, 
numerous and independent, have each a unilocular ovary tapering 
above into a little horn, covered at the tip 
with stigmatic papillae. In the inner angle of 
the ovary is a solitary pendulous ovule, whose 
micropyle looks inwards and upwards (figs. 74, 
75). During anthesis and after fecundation 
the receptacle continues to grow in length and 
thickness, and finally remains covered with 
numerous achenes, each containing a pendulous 
seed. M. miuimiis L., a very common plant 
in our country, is a small herbaceous annual, 
bearing a certain number of alternate simple leaves on a short stem' 
ending in a floral peduncle. Later other flowers are developed 
below the terminal one in the axils of the upper leaves. Another 
species is distinguished from that of our country by the absence 
or the slight development of the corolla." This is not constant, 
and is of no more importance here than in Banunculus. We 
may therefore define the genus Mi/osurus as Banunculus with an elon- 
gated receptacle and descending ovules. They are small 
annual plants, of which only two species exist; one 
a native of Western America and New Zealand ; the 
other spread over the cold and temperate regions of 
nearly the whole world. ^ 

The Anemones,"^ too, are also plants closely related in 
their floral organization to the RanuncuU, from which we 
may say that they difl*er essentially in two characters only; 
their perianth, instead of consisting of both calyx and 
corolla, is a petaloid calyx ; and (the more important one) 
the adult carpels contain a single suspended ovule, with Anemone 
the micropyle turned upwards and inwards. But above ''^^^^"^^q • 
it we observe (fig. 76) four rudimentary ovules in two Carpei opened. 




1 Cassini {Opusc. 'phytoL, ii. 390) described 
the caudex of Myosurus, an organ which ]VI. 
Clos {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, xiii. 10) refers to 
the collar. 

- M. apetalus C. Gat, Fl. Chil., i. 31, t. 1, 
fig. 1. The absence of petals is not constant in 
this species. 

3 GuEN. & GoDE., Fl. Fr., i. 17.— Reiciib., 
7co«.,iii. 1. — A.Gbay, //Z., Gen., i. 8. — Benth., 



Fl. Austral., i. 8.— J. HoOK., Fl. Ant., i. t. 1, 2 ; 
N. Zeal., 8; Tasm., 5. — Weddell, Chlor.And., 
ii. 306. — Walp., Ann., i. 7. 

•« Anemone Hall., Uelcet., ii. 60.— T., Tnstit., 
275 (part.).— Juss., Gen., 232.— DC, Prodr., i. 
16.— Spacu, Suit, a Buff., vii. 242.— Endl., 
Gen., n. 4773. — Pater, Organoq., 254. — B. H., 
Gen., 4, n. 4. — Oriha Adans., Fam. PL, ii. 45U. 



42 



KATUIiAL mSTOBY OF PLANTS. 



vertical rows, v;hich always remain in the state of cellular tubercles. 
Besides this tlie receptacle is convex ; the stamens are numerous, as 
well as the cai*pels. All the other cliaracters are variable. Take, 
for instance, the flower of J. alba Juss. (figs. 77, 78), or of any 



■^^A 





Anemone alba. 



Fig. 77. 
Flower. 



Fig. 78. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



of the many allied species f we see that the calyx is formed of five 
petaloid sepals quincuncially imbricated in the bud, and that the 
stamens are all fertile, each havinj]^ a basifixed two-celled anther 
dehiscing by two nearly lateral clefts.^ The ovaries are surmounted 
by a horn-shaped style of variable length, glabrous or hairy.' The 
flowers are terminal, and accompanied by a leafy involucre placed on 
tlie axis at a variable distance from the perianth. The other 
species of this genus have their flowers exactly similar in all 
fundamental points ; but the number of pieces in the perianth 
is often increased, so that we sometimes find six, three outside, 
and three interior to these, alternate with them, and tliinner 



* See Ols. sur hs Ovules des Anemones et de 
qwlques attires Eenonculaa'es (Adansonia, i. 
331), and ilnn. sur la Fam. des Jlenonculacees 
(^Adansonia, iv. 52). It is only in exceptional 
cases that we see two, three, tivc, or six cellular 
prominences answering to abortive ovules. 

- Which all belong to sections iv. {Anemo- 
nanthea) and v. (Anemoiiopsis) admitted by De 
Candolle {I'rodr., i. 18, 21), in the genus 
Anemone. 

' The cleft is often turned mtlier inwards than 
outwards. This occurs in A. alha, pennxiflrunica 
(Adansonia, iv. 1<>), uarcimijloru, m-murosa, iVc. 
The contrary is little marked in A. Japunicu 
(all/a), ranunculoidts, &c. The lilainenUi are 



usually unequal, the lower being usually the 
shorter. We have also pointed out (Adansonia, 
i, 337) the two glandular jjroji'ctions found on 
each side of the top of the filament in a hirgo 
number of species. 

■• Several authors following I)k C'axdoi.LK'9 
example have made use of this character to esta- 
blish sections of the genus. Thus, Pulsatilla 
(Prodr., i. IG,) and Preunanlhiis (17) Imve curpt'la 
surmounted by long bcardctl styles like thoau 
of certain 8|)ecie8 of Clrmatis. The sections 
Anemonanlhea, Anfm<niusf)ernius, and Omalo- 
carpus (21) are, on the contrary, marked by 
styles that project but little. 



EANUNCULAGE^. 



43 



and more coloured ; so that we have a double verticil. Elsewhere 
the number of petaloid leaves becomes much larger, either on 
account of the deduplication of the 
interior ones, and their replacement by 
pairs of appendages, or owing to the 
j]fradual transformation of the outer 
stamens into coloured blades, so that 
the flower tends to become double.' 
In A. nemorosa L., the Wood Anemone 
(Fr. Si/lvie, figs. 79, 80), the normal 
number is six sepals in two whorls, so 
that this and all the allied species'- are 
to the other Anemones what the Ficaria 
are to the Rammculi, properly so called. 
The other parts of the flower present 
variations of only secondary importance 
in the numerous species of this genus. 
Thus the stamens are usuall}'" all fertile ; 
but in Pulsatilla^ the outer stamens, 
shorter than the rest, become quite 
sterile, and are represented by more or 
less glan- 
dular sta- 
minodes. 
The car- 
pels, in- 
stead of 
being sur- 
mounted by 
into a lono 





Anemone nemorosa. 
Fig. so. 
LouKituJinal section of flower. 



Fig. 1i 



a slightly projecting horn, may be produced above 
bearded tail ; and many authors have used these 



1 See on the subject of Anemones with double 
flowers the now classical work of De Caxdolle 
{I. ciL, 388) which contains the names given by 
florists to the different parts of the double flowers 
of Anemones. Besides modifications in form and 
size, all the parts of the flower may become 
chloranthous. In the monstrous Wood Anemones 
often cultivated in our gardens, the stamens 
usually become sterile, still retaining, however, 
somewhat of the normal form and tint. The 
largest, spathulate j>etaloid blades, which are 
found towards the centre of the flower, and arc 



the better developed as they approach it, are due 
to the metamorphosis of the carpels. 

- Prudr., i. 20. In some years and localities 
the Wood Anemones have always six sepals ; 
those with eight sepals have been common this 
year [1867 ? Tea>'s.] at Meudon. In this species, 
as in many others, the flower droops as it fructifies. 
Adansox calls the Wood Anemone "Oriba" 
{Joe. ciL, 459). 

3 Anemone PuhatiUa L., Sjiec, 759. — DC, 
Prodi:, i. n.— PuhatiUa T., Insfit., 284-, 1. 148. 
— Spacii, Suit, a Buff., vii. 253. 



44 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 




?^ 



distinctions in forming a certain number of sections in the genus 
Anemone.' The achene itself may be either glabrous, or covered 

with a thick down, which, as 
in J. virf/iuiaua (figs. 81 and 
82), envelopes aU the carpels 
with a kind of fleece, whicli 
assists in their dispersion.' 

All the Anemones are herbs 
with perennial subterranean 
stems, much branched, and 
known in commerce as 
"roots" (Fr. jy«//^'*).' These 
rhizomes give rise to aerial 
branches, which bear usually 
alternate leaves, often perfect, 
the petiole dilated into a 
sheath below, the blade simple, lobed, or even deeply dissected and 
compound, which difference may be noticed in passing from one 
leaf to another on the same plant. The flowers are usually terminal, 
and often solitary ; but otherwise younger flowers spring from the 
axils of the upper leaves, forming a sort of cyme with a recurrent 
inflorescence. Most usually one or several of the uppermost leaves 
form under the flower an involucre, which may simulate a calycine 
whorl. Sometimes its elements are independent of one another, and 
the leaves may even retain their petioles, as in the Wood Anemone, 
(fig. 79). Sometimes, on the contrary, they become connate, so that 
the involucre appears single below, while above it is variably divided. 
Its leaves are sometimes sterile, and sometimes provided witli axillary 
buds, which expand after the terminal flower.' Usually the involucre 



Anemone virginiana. 
Fio. 82. 
Longitudinal section of fruit. 



Fig. 81. 
Fruit. 



' See p. 42, note 4. 

* De Canuolle makes this the chief chiirac- 
tcristic of liis section rulmtilloidi's,\\hich includes 
only species from the Cupc. 

^ On the subterriineiui organs'of most Banun- 
culaceer (as we have already said), and espi ciiiUy 
on thoxe of the Anemones, the whole of the 
remarkahle works of IitMiPCii should he read. 
What refers to the Anemones was published in 
the Bolan'mche Ztituni/ (4, .Ian. 11, IHSfi) and 
translated in the Ann. Sc. Aat. (si'r. l, vi. 
211). In this work, the author refers to other 
publications of himself and others on the same 
subject; he describes the mode of formation of 



the more or less ramified rhizomes of the Ane- 
mones, e8])eciidly A. coronaria, I'uhatilla, and 
Jlcpafica. He further shows that the plan of 
evolution of the subterranean jmrts mi^ht be 
used to characterise cerUiin cections in the genus 
Animone ; and hence, refusing to leave A. nemo- 
roxti and ranunculoidfs in the same group with 
A. si/lvf\\lrh and baldmxi.s, ho proposes to esta- 
hlisli a distinct section for these lust, which ho 
terms J/i/tilectri/on. 

* This is constant in each of the leaves of tho 
involucre of A. n(irri.\xiflin-a L., which Dk C'an- 
DOM.K nuikes the type of his section Omatoctirpii*, 
und of the neighbouring sinrivs, A. fibirira. 



BANUNCULAGE^. 



45 



is at some distance from the flower ; but in Repafica^ and Bar- 
neoiidia^ the sessile leaves are normally so near the coloured peri- 
anth as to play the part of a true foliaceous calyx. Finally, in 
some species, it is said, the involucre is completely wanting.^ 

Adonis' has been considered by all botanists as a distinct genus 
from Anemone, because the inner leaves of the perianth are more 
distinctly petaloid than the outer ones, which their more greenish 
tint has alone led to be considered as sepals. But we shall not admit 
this separation, because this difference in the coloration and texture 
of the two whorls of the perianth exists also, though to a less degree 



umbellata. The principal axis ends in a flower, 
and the younger flowers axilhiry to the leaves of 
the involucre grow quickly enough to simulate a 
sort of umbel with the central flower. This is 
in appearance only, however, for the inflorescence 
is really a centrifugal cyme with only secondary 
flowers. In other species, as A. virginiana, 
ranunculoides, we usually only observe two 
flowers — one terminal, the other in the axils of 
one of the bracts of the involucre. JrssiEU 
long ago remarked [Mem. Acad. Ann. 73, p. 229) 
that one of these flowers may have only male 
organs. In A. nemorosa, the existence of the 
lateral flower is quite exceptional (See Bull, Soc. 
Bot. Fr., vi. 290). 

' Hepatica Dili., Nov. Gen. Giess., 108. — 
DC, Prodr., i. 22.— Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 
240. — H. triloba Chaix. ap. Vill., Daupli., i. 
336. — H. nohiUs Eeichb., Ic. Ran., 47. — 
Anemone Hepatica L., Spec, 758. — Geen. & 
Goi)E., Fl. Fr., i. 15. The petaloid perianth of 
Hepatica is double and trimerous, the outer 
whorl alternating with the involucre, and the 
inner whorl with the outer ; but this inner whorl 
has far more often four, five, or more leaves, owing 
to the occurrence of the deduplication. The 
lateral anther cells have a nearly marginal 
dehiscence, rather introrse than extrorse. Each 
carpel contains five ovules, the development of 
the four highest of which (arranged in two pairs) 
is early arrested [Adansonia, ii. 206). Another 
very remarkable peculiarity of Hepatica is that 
of its mode of growth, very clearly explained by 
Beaux in his work, I)as Individuum der 
Pjlanze (63, 73, t. 1, fig. 3). We have seen 
{Adansonia, ii. 204) that the rhizomes of Hepatica 
bear buds destined to become true branches in 
the following Spring, bearing leaves and flowers. 
" These branches with very short axes at first bear 
alternate whitish scales. These are enlarged pe- 
tiolary sheaths, and may bear a small rudimentary- 
blade at the tip. The lowest are sterile, hut 
higher up each bears a flower in its axil. Still 
higher the scales become perfect three-lobed 
leaves. This explains how it is that the flowers 



of this plant appear above ground before the 
leaves. The parts expand in order of formation : 
first the flowers, answering to the scales or lower 
leaves, and afterwards the leaves at the top of 
the branch." Finally, the flowers of Hepatica 
are axillary, and the axis of vegetation not 
terminated. See here, as elsewhere, the works 
of Iemisch (p. 41, note 3). 

It is only exceptionally that the involucre of 
Hepatica is at a distance from the flower. It is 
normally so near it as to play the part of a calyx 
to the petaloid pieces of the perianth. We may, 
indeed, even consider it as such, following Patek 
{Organog., 254), who regards it as analogous to 
that of Ficaria (see Adansonia, ii. 204). It is 
difficult to pronounce decisively what absolute 
value we must assign to the involucres and calx ces 
in a family of plants which instead of being, as 
is usually held, a type of organic perfection, is 
probably a collection of degenerate types in which 
there is no precise boundary-line between the 
floral organs and those of vegetation. (See, on this 
subject, M. Cuatin's work entitled F.ssai sur 
la Mesiire d'Flevation, on de Perfection Or- 
ganiqv.e, &c.) We have seen the involucre of ^. 
pavonina entirely formed of red petaloid blades 
like those which usually form a perianth, and at 
a variable distance from the rest of the flower. 

" Barneoiidia chilensis C. Gay, Fl. Chil., \. 
29, t. 1, fig. 2. — Anemone B. H., Gen., 4. — 
The leaves of the involucre, five or six in number, 
closely applied to the flower are considered by 
Bextham & Hooker as only three leaves, 
bipartite and lobed. 

3 «• In A. integrifolia Spe., Peitz., Zinneea, 
XV. 694 (Hamadryade andicola Hook., Icon. PL 
ii., t. 137), involucrum omnino deest. Ccetera 
omnia cum Anemone conveniunt" (B. H., Gen., 4). 

* Adonis Dill., Nov. Gen. Giess., 109.— L., 
Gen.,n.6Q8.—J.,Gen.,232.—DC.,Prodr.,\.23.— 
Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 222.— Exdl., Gen., n. 
4778.— SxEV., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, xii. 370. 
— B. H., Gen., 5, n. 6.— H. Bx. Adan- 
sonia, iv. 52. — Ranunculi spec. T., 291. — Sar- 
pedonia Adaxs., Fam. PL, ii, 601. 



46 



NATURAL HISTORY OF I'LANTS. 



in many Anemones, and because the species of Adonin have also the 
singular character, that of their ovules, at first five in number, the 
inferior one alone is corajjletely developed and usually becomes pen- 
dulous,' with the raphe dorsal and the micropyle turned upwards 
and inwards. The I'ruits of the Adonids are more fleshy than those 
of the Anemones before tliey are perfectly matured ; indeed, at one 
stage they form true drupes.* The total number of pieces in the 
perianth varies as in the Anemones. They are annual herbs, like, 
for examj)lo, A. antnmnalis L., vulgarly knoAvn as " Pheasant's Eye" 
(Fr. GuuNc-dc-aanfj, fig. 83), or perennials, whose subterranean part 
grows in the same way as in the Anemones. This is especially the 





Adonis aulumnalis. 
Fig. 83. 
Flower. 



Adonis vernalis. 
Fig. 8t. 
Flower. 



case with A. venialis'L. (fig. 84), and in the closely allied species which 



' We have shown {Adansonia, ii. 209) that 
in the section Consiligo the ovules are some- 
times j)eiidul()us with the ovule upwards 
and inwHrds, and sometimes ascending with the 
micropyle downwards and inwards ; but all this 
amounts to the same, as it only depends on the 
great relative increase of the back of the caqicl 
in its lower or upinr jmrt. As to the existence 
of five ovules in the first stage of the carpels, it 
is easy to show in the young flowers of A. 
aulumnalis and rrsliralis L., and in the riiie 
Btate we find tlic four superior ovules as snudl, 
cellular projections (^Adansonia, i. IJHf}). 

* The fruits of A. vernal in are arranged on 
the accrescent receptacle in a spiral order, of 
which nuiy he clearly seen the tliree secondary 
spinils in one direction, and live in the other. 
The fruits dry uji rajddly on falling off the axis. 



Bat if we examine them hefore their fall, we see 
that each is a true drupe, with the style {lersisting 
as a little recurved horn. The mesot-.irp is fleshy ; 
the endocarp represents a dark, fovet)late, tes- 
taceous, brittle shell. The seed is usually as- 
cending, even when it succeeds a descending 
ovule; this is owing to the unet|ual growth of 
the different parts of the fruit as it rij)ens. The 
hilum is turned dowjiwanls and inwards ; but 
not (piite inferior, as the seed is now only hemi- 
troj)ous, and the nncrojjvle is much lower and 
more exterior. The sivd has two very distinct 
coats; the outer of loosely packed cells the other 
of more compacted elements. In A. irstinilit, 
too, the seed is covered with a fovcolate, tliick, 
very iiard shell, and by a mesocarp which is 
at first (leshy and greenish. In both species the 
ovule has two coats. 



BANUNGULAGEJS. 



47 



witli it constitute the group Con-si/if/o,^ plants witli yellow flowers, 
petals usually very numerous,'- and an involucre completely surround- 
ing the floriferous axis as in most Anemones. 

Knowltoma^ is a group of plants from the Cape, which have all the 
floral characteristics of Consi/if/o, and therefore of Adoiih, from which 
they only differ in the truly fleshy consistency of the pericarp, and 
the habit and foliage which recal those of some of tlie Umbellifers 
and of certain species of the genus Anemone, to which we must 
equally unite KnoioJtonia. 

Thus constituted,"* our genus Anemone includes about eighty 



' Adonis, sect. ii. Consiligo DC, Prodr., i. 21'. 
— Gen. Adamanthe Spach, Suit. aBuff.,\\\. ^77. 
Its type is A. vernalis L. {Spec, 771) whose 
organization we have specially studied {Adanso- 
Ilia, i. 335; ii. 209; iii. 53). The most striking 
character of plants of this group is that their 
subterranean stems are perennial as in the true 
Anemones. If we study one of these rhizomes 
before the winter we see that it bears adven- 
titious roots and large shoots, some only leafy, 
others terminated by a flower. Each first bears 
scales and then imbricated leaves. These scales 
represent the petiolary sheaths as they are often 
seen surmounted by a rudimentary blade. Like 
the leaves they have often axillary buds, which 
by their development cause the great ramitication 
of the rhizome. The already formed flowers show 
that the petals continue the spiral series of sta- 
mens externally without its being possible to tix 
the boundaries between them ; so we ought, in 
all probability, to consider them as staminodes 
like the nectaries of the Hellebores, &c. 

2 A. cEstivalis may have flowers with only five 
interior leaves or petals to the perianth. More 
usually a certain number of them are dedupli- 
cated ; then occupying the intervals between the 
sepals in groups of two, three, or more, as in the 
Hepaticas and the Wood Anemone. In Consiligo 
there are often as many as fifteen, twenty, or 
more of these inner leaves. 

3 Knowlionia Salisb., Prodr., 372. — DC, 
Prodr., i. 23. — Spacu, Suit, a Buff., vli. 231. — 
Endl., Gen., n. 4775. — B. H., Gen. 4, n. 5. 
— Harv. & SoND., Fl. Cap., i. 4.— if. rigida 
Salisb. {K. hirsuta DC. — Anamenia corlacea 
Vent., Malmais., i. t. 22. — Adonis capensis 
Thunb. — L., Spec, 772) is often cultivated in 
our botanical gardens. As we have stated (Jlor- 
ticul. Franq., xv. 2, t. vi. and Adansonia, iv. 
52), the perianth is formed of a score of some- 
what greenish-yellow leaves, without any distinc- 
tion of colour between calyx and corolla. In this 
respect it resembles exactly an Anemone like A. 
japonica, whose inner sepals may be numerous, 
imbricated, and narrow, but are otherwise similar 



to the outer ones. The habit, foliage, and inflo- 
rescence are the same in both, only the flower of 
Knowlionia is somewhat smaller. The only diffe- 
rentiating character is that the fruit of the 
latter becomes fleshy when fully mature. In 
this respect Adonis, with its fruits that remain 
drupaceous for some time, stands intermediate 
between the true Anemones and Knowlionia. 
But here, as with the other Ranunctdaceae, 
we lay but little stress on the consistency of 
the perianth. The stamens are indefinite, the 
outer ones shortest; the anther dehisces laterally, 
and the filament forms a small projection beneath 
it on each side as in the Anemones. The carpels 
are on short stalks, and the style is horn-shaped, 
with a groove on the inner surface, whose lips are 
charged with stigmatic papilla. 

•• According to our views {Adansonia, iv. 52) 
this genus consists of the following sections — 
I. Outer stamens sterile : 

1. Pulsaiilla (T.). 

II. Stamens all fertile : 

2. Euanemone. Involucre at a distance from 
the perianth which is either simple quincuncial 
and pentamerous, or provided in addition with a 
variable number of internal imbricated leaves. 
De Candolle's sections, with two exceptions, 
are included in this group as secondary divisions. 

3. Repatica (Dill.). Involucre near the pe- 
rianth, which is trimerous, with frecpient dedu- 
plication in the iinicr whorl. 

4. Adonis (Dill.). Perianth double or triple, 
with the inner leaves j)etaloid and the outer 
leaves more or less green (sepuloid). Flowers 
primary. Fruit drupaceous, at least for a certain 
time. Involucre very imperfect. 

5. Knowlionia (Salisb.). Perianth with mul- 
tiple leaves, the outer little if at all distinct from 
the inner in either consistency or coloration. 
FVuit bacciform. 

G. Consiligo (DC). Perianth with multiple 
leaves, the inner a little more distinct from the 
outer than in section 5, and less so than in sec- 
tion 4. Fruit half fiesliy at maturity. Involucre 
more complete than in section 4. 



48 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



species of plants, often cultivated for the beauty of tlieir flowers, and 
found chiefly growing in the temperate regions and cold and hilly 
countries all over the world. K/ioirlfo/iia and Jdo/iix belong only to 
the Old Continent ; but the true Anemones, though more abundant 
in Europe and Asia,' are also met with in America.- 

Banuncidus rutafoHus L.,' which has become the type of a small 
genus under the name CaUiantliemiun,^ presents, with the habit of a 
Ranuneult(.s, flowers which are externally exactly like those of an 
Adonis. The perianth consists of a herbaceous quincuncial perianth 
and a double corolla with membranous leaves, variable in number 
and subject to deduph cation.' The base of each petal (fig. 85) has 






CaUianlhemxim rutcefoUum. 
Fig. 85. Fio. 86. Fio. 87. 

Petal. Carpels opened at difierent ages. 

a small nectariferous depression with the inner border nearly hori- 
zontal ; the stamens are indefinite,' But the chief characteristic of 



' Walp., Rep., i. 14; ii. 738; v. 4; Ann., 
i. 6 ; ii. 5; iv. KJ. — Hook. & Tii., Fl. Ltd., 
i. ID.— llAitv. & SoM)., Fl. Cf?;)., i. f).— Hf.ntii., 
Fl. Amir., \. 8.— S. & Zl'CC, Fl.Jap. Fain., 70. 

" C. Gav, Fl. C/iil., i. 19.— A. Gkay, Oen. 
III., t. 3-5. — Weddell, ChlorU andina, ii. 21)8. 

A. S. H., Fl. finui. Mer, i. 4.— Maul, Fl. 

Brazil., Kcnonc, 15(i. 

' Spec. PI.. 777.-.IACQ., Coll.. i. ISC. t. 0. 7. 

DC., I'rodr., i. 30. — Ranunculus Bellardi 

\U.U, iJauph., 4, t. 4<>. 

* C. A. Mey.. in Leukh., Fl. Alt., ii. 336. - 
Endu, Oen., u. 477t).— H. H., Gm. 5. ii. 7.— 
Wali'., Rn>' •• •*•'; ^'•'•" '^' 16.— II. Hn., 
Adannunia, iv. 23, 53. 



' The corolla of C. rutafolium C. A. Mky. is 
double. The outer whorl is fonncd of live petals 
Hltoniatiiip: with tlie caducous sepals. The inner 
one is formed of one, two, or as many as to (ive 
petals, which alternate with the former, and of 
which several may nnderpi de<luplication. The 
flowers then have from six or seven to fifloen 
petals, and when these are numerous the inner 
ones are relatively narrow. 

" In C. aciiule ('AJin. the anthers have a mar- 
ginal dehiscence. In C. nihifolium ('. A. AIkv., 
it is jtist a little more interior than exterior. In 
hoth the liliiments arc lluttcncHl and the untheni 
hasitlxcd. 



BANUNCULACE^. 



49 



the order is that each carpel originally contains two ovules, of which 
one alone attains its full development, and appears suspended beside 
its aborted fellow, with the raphe internal and the micropyle turned 
upwards and outwards.' Cal/imi/Iicmiot/ has, therefore, but one seed 
in each achene. The plants are herbaceous perennials, with alternate 
compound leaves and terminal flowers. As yet but two species are 
known; one European- and the other Asiatic' 

The Canadian plant Hi/drasii.s,^ which we refer with some doubt 
to this group,' has regular flowers, usually' hermaphrodite; the 
perianth, simple and very caducous,^ consists of only three petaloid 
leaves. Above this the receptacle, of the same form as 
in Banuncidns, bears numerous stamens and then carpels. 
The stamens are free, each consisting of a filament 
dilated above, and a basifixed anther with two cells de- 
hiscing by nearly lateral clefts.* Each carpel is composed 
of a unilocular ovary, tapering above into a style, whose 
apex is dilated into two lateral papillose and fringed lips. 
Half-way up the inner angle of the ovary (fig. 88) the 
placenta forms two vertical projections, each supporting 
an ovule. These ovules are at first horizontal and placed 
back to back ; but as they grow, one becomes ascending 
with the micropyle usually downwards and outwards, 
the other descending with the micropyle upwards and 
inwards. The fruit consists of a variable number of 
berries united into a head, and buried in the mass we 
find seeds with thick coats containing a small embryo 
at the apex of abundant fleshy albumen. This plant, the only one 




Fia. 88. 

Carpel. 

Longitudinal 

section. 



' We explained for the first time in our 
Memoire sur la Famille des Senonculacees 
(Adansonia, iv. 23) how in C. rutesfolium there 
are first of all two ascending ovules ; then how 
the one of them, which has become superior, 
compresses the other and forces it down, in- 
creasing gradually at its chalazal end, so that its 
micropyle remains above and turned outwards. 
Figs. 86 and 87 represent two phases of the evo- 
lution of these ovules. That which becomes fertile 
has two coats. In C. acauls the carpels are 
stipitate, and the stigmatic papillae are borne on 
the summit of the ovary. In C. rutafolium the 
ovary tapers above into a style papillose at the 
summit. 

■^ Reichb., Icon., iii. 25. — Gren. & Godh., 
Fl.Fr.,\. 17. 

' Camb., in .Taoqcem., Voy., 5. t. 3. — Don., 

VOL. I. 



in RoYL., Eimal., iii. 45, 53. — Hook. & Th., 
Fl. Ind., i. 26. 

' Hydrastis canadensis L., Spec, 784. — J., 
Gen., 232.— MiCHX., Am. Bor., i. 317.— DC, 
Prodr., i. 23.— Spacii, Suit, a Buff., vii. 383.— 
Endl., Gen., n. 4777.— Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 
3019, 3232.— A. Gkat, Gen. HI, t. 18.- -B. H., 
Gen., 7, u. 16. — H. Bn., Adansonia, iv. 25, 
53. — Warneria canadensis Mill., Icon., ii. 190, 
t. 285. 

» Its habit and flowers bring it somewhat near 
Acteea. Most authors make it a Hellebore. 

^ Sometimes there are flowers without a gynaj- 
ceum. 

■ Hence we are ignorant of its estivation, which 
cm hardly be observed except on a living plant. 

* Nearer, however, the internal than the ex- 
ternal face. 

E 



50 NATUIiAL mSTOJlY OF I'LAXT,^. 

of its genus, grows in Caniida and the United States. From its stock 
a stem arises in the spring, which bears only a small number of 
alternate petiolate palmatifid leaves,' and is terminated by a solitary 
flower. 



III. CLEMATIS SERIES. 

The genus CIcmnfir has regular, usually hermaphrodite, liowers. 
In a large number of the species cultivated by us as ornamental 
plants — as, for instance, C. luoiita/ia, Bkntii. (tig. 8'J) — we tind at the 
base of the convex floral receptacle (tigs. 90, 91) a single petaloid 
perianth consisting of a calyx of four free sepals,' valvate of in- 




FiG. 89. 
Flower. 



Clematis montana. 
Fig. 90. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



Fig. 91. 
Diagram. 



duplicative^ prsefloration. The numerous hypogynous stamens eacli 
consist of a free filament, and a basiflxed anther with two lateral 



* The superior leaf is usually sessile. The in- 
ferior has often two small glands at the base of 
its petiole. 

» Clemalu L., Gen., n. G96.— .Tuss., Oen., 
232.— DC, Prodr., i. 2.— Knul., Oen., n. 4768. 
— Spacii, Suit, a Buff., vii. 257. — K. II., Gen., 
8.— Walp., Rep., i. 3; ii. 737; v. 3; Ann., \. 
3, 953; ii. 3, 5; iv. 3, \).— Clematilis T., Instit., 
293, t. 150; Cor. 20.— Triffula NoiiONir. — 
Stylurun ]{ AVIV.— Cletnalopsi.1 Ho.i. 

^ Two of these sepals are lateral ; the two 
others are anterior and ixwterior. Pater 
(Organoff., 252) has seen tliat Ihcj arise in twos; 
the former ])air after the latter. 

* Tlic sepals therefore touch, not hy their 
edges, hut hy the lateral jKirtions of their outer 
Burface. The jK<rtion thus iiitlectetl in tiie hud 
varies in extent in different species ; and wlieii it 
is very large tlie sepal is here tiiinner, and usually 



of a paler tint. Later on, after tiie exjwnsion of 
the flower, the sepals which were valvate may even 
overlap one another by the thin ex])anded 
margins, as we have ascertained {Athnisunia, 
iv. 53). We have also shown (/. cif., 55) that 
then the flower of a ClfiiialiK Ik-coiucs exactly 
that of an Anemone, and so the two series are 
closely hound together, and might even !« ctin- 
founded when we add that "the outer staniens of 
Clematis become staminmles in Atrai/ene and 
Naravelia, as happens in the section J'ttUalilla 
of the genus Anemone ; that the fruit of this sjinie 
Pulsatilla is exactly that of Flummula ; and 
Anally, that in Chdropx'rs the flower has an in- 
vohicre wanting in the other sections of the genus 
Clematis, hut recidling that t>f the true Ane- 
mones." The habit, too, of, ^Mf^moM*" ya/>OHic<i is 
met with in C. tubulosa and some others. 



EANUNGULAGE^. 51 

adnate cells, dehiscing longitudinally by nearly marginal clefts.' The 
carpels, also very numerous, are each composed of a unilocular ovary, 
surmounted by a style grooved vertically along the whole of its inner 
border, and slightly dilated at the tip. The whole of the upper part 
of its lips is covered with stigmatic papillae. In the inner angle 
of the ovary is a placenta which bears a fertile descending ovule 
with its micropyle upwards and inwards ; and above it, in two ver- 
tical rows, are a few- sterile ovules reduced to minute cellular nuclei. 
The fruit is multiple, consisting of as many achenes as there were 
carpels ; the fleshy albumen-^ of the seed surrounds a minute embryo. 
In other species of this genus, such as Traveller's Joy ( C. Vitalba 
L., Fr. Herhe mix Gucux) the 
flower may equally consist of 
four sepals, or it may have 
five, six, or more. From six 
to eight or ten are almost 
constantly found in the beau- 
tiful large-flowered species 
cultivated in our conserva- 
tories, as C. Jcuinginosa, patens, 
fiorida, &c. The aestivation 
is on the whole the same as 
in C. Vitalba, but the thin 

inflexed portion of the sepal is here much broader.' We find 
the same condition in C. Viticella L., and the other species which 
have been united with it into a special section.'^ They are also dis- 
tinguished by another feature ; the achene is only surmounted by a 
short point (fig. 92) formed by the persistent base of the style. In 
the other species, such as C. Vitaltja, the style persists on the summit 




Clemaiis Vificella. 


Clemaiis Vitalba. 


Fig. 92. 


Fig. 93. 


Fruit. 


Fruit. 



' In C. Viticella the lines of dehiscence 
are slightly internal; so too in C. Vitalba. 
They are decidedly lateral in C. cirrhosa ; iu- 
trorse in Atragene and Naravelia. Messrs. 
Bentham & Hooker say (GeM. i.): " Antherce 
introrsum dekiscant in Clematidihus 2 in- 
dicis." 

2 The number varies; there are usually four 
in two vertical rows ; more rarely two only, or 
si.\ or eight. The superior ovules are always the 
least developed. M. Rcepek saw, in 184'J (Bot. 
Zeit., 1852, col. 187), four ovules in C.infegrifolia. 
Payee was the first to show, in C. calycina, the 
order of the evolution of the five ovules {Organog., 



253, t. 58). The existence of these abortive ovules 
is another mark of the resemblance between Cle- 
matis and Anemone. 

^ Its consistency varies; it may even become 
quite horny. 

■• It is especially in these that we have imbri- 
cation after the opening of the flower. (See note 1, 
p. 50.) 

* Viticella DiLL., Nov. Gen. Giess. 165. — 



Spach, Suit, a Buff. vii. 



-Sect. 



DC, 



Sgsf. i. 160, Prodr. i. 8. Viticella, admitted as a 
genus by Seki>'GE [Fl. des Jard. &c., iii. 80), 
includes Clematis Viticella, Viorna florida, 
cceridea and cylindrica. 

e2 



52 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



of the fruit as a long plume covered with hairs which render it quite 

feathery (fig. 93). Other species form a transition between these,' 
as these hairs are only developed on the lower part of the 
^tyle, leaving the stigmatic portion naked ; such, for 
example, is C.fuilhla Raoul (fig. 94). 

C. curliom L. and some nearly allied species have 
been grouped by De Candglle' into a separate section, 
as the flower possesses an involucre formed of two lateral 
bracts, cohering for a great part of their length, and 
entirely enclosing the bud when young. The calyx has 
here also four sepals. Above this the receptacle becomes 
ovoidal, bearing numerous stamens, each with a fila- 
ment flattened below, and an anther whose lateral cells 
dehisce by somewhat introrse clefts. The surface of the 
style is almost entirely covered with long villi. 

Finally there are species of this genus where the 
flowers become polygamous or monoecious by the abor- 
tion of one set of sexual organs, and other species where 

the flowers of different sexes grow on different plants, as in C. diceca 

L. which grows at the Antilles.^ 

LiNN^us separated Jtrarjoie' from the genus Clonaf)!^ (in which 

De Candolle again replaced it)," because its flowers possess corollas. 






Clematis alpliia. 



Via. 95. 



Via. 90. 



Flower. Longitudinal section of flower. 

But the petaloid tongues, from twelve to twenty in number, found 
within the calyx of yl. alpina (figs. 95, 90) or .sibirica'' are not true 



' Sect. Flammula DC, Prodr., i. 2 (incl. 
Viorna Sl'ACli. .S'«(7. h Buff., vii. 2(i8). 

2 After lUori,, Chuix de PI. N. Z,-l., {. xxii. 

» Clieiropsij,\K'.,S;iHt.,\.\G2, Prodr.. \.{l~ 
Cahbess., Fl. Baleiir. {in Mom. Muii., vii. 2U1). 

^ To mo this specicH ii|>|)e:irH iwilygnnious, rather 
tlmn <lio«"'nM« as the deserijitioiiH iinsert. 



• Atragene'L.,Oen., n. 695.— Juss.. Oen., 232. 
— Endl., Oe^n., n. •17()9. — Spach, *'«(/. a Buff., 
vii. 257 (A. (JUAS (in Bull. Soc. Bol. Fr., vii. 
907) proposes to write Alhraflene). 

* Sy»l., i. 1(55. -/V<></r., i. 9 {wc\. >v). 

7 Clrmatin iilpiiui .md sibirica MlLL., Did., n. 
9, \-^.— <'h,n„li/is ,ilf>l»'i T, hisf 29 ». 



BANUNCULACE^. 63 

petals. Not one of these appendages is truly alternate with any 
of the four valvate sepals of the calyx. As we approach the centre 
of the fiovver, we find the kind of spathulate expansion at their summit 
gradually transformed into a connective, bearing on its inner face 
two anther cells dehiscing longitudinally. At the same time the 
basilar portion becomes contracted to form a true filament. The 
" petals" of Atrageiie are therefore only staminodes.' Besides, the 
numerous carpels of Atragene have this in common with those of 
Clematis, that the ovule observed on the inner angle of the ovary 
has above it four small ovules in two vertical rows, which never 
become developed.^ 

The genus Naravelia? was estabHshed for certain Indian species of 
Airagene, whose leaves, instead of being three-lobed, have the middle 
segment abortive, or transformed into a tendril. If we analyse 
N. zeylanica' we find a pubescent calyx of four, five, or six valvate 
sepals, and within this a large number of imbricated stamens, with 
flattened filaments, and two-celled introrse anthers,' dehiscing 
longitudinally, each surmounted by a small prolongation of the 
connective. The carpels are numerous, covered with stiff", erect 
hairs ; and each encloses a suspended ovule with the micropyle 
turned upwards and inwards. This is the only one completely 
developed; but above it, when young, are four others in pairs on 
each side of the suture of the carpel, of which traces are with 
difficulty found when the fertile one is adult. This is another rela- 
tion with Atragene, of which Naravelia also possesses the corolla 
formed of very long petals dilated at the summit and varying in 
number.^ But these are only sterile stamens. For a long time 
they are very small, shaped like the outer stamens, and presenting 
above an anther- like sweUing, which never becomes fertile. Hence 
we cannot separate Atragene and Naravelia generically from each 
other, and therefore not from Clematis. 



' We must unite these types into one genus, existence of these small sterile ovules. Even 

for the same reason as we include Pulsatilla five or six may be found, 
in Anemone, and because, as we shall soon ' Xaravael Heem., Zeylan., 26. 

find, we cannot separate from the true Hib- * N. zeylanica DC, Prodr., i. 10. — Hook. & 

berfias those species in which the outer sta- Th., Fl. Ind., i. 3. — B. H., Gen., 4,.— Atragene 

mens are transformed into staminodes, &c. zeylanica L., Amfen., i. 405. 
In several cultivated species of Clematis the " Endlicheb {Gen., n. 4470) believed these 

flower becomes double, like that of the Ane- stamens to be extrorse, which would have re- 

mones. moved these plants further from Atragene. But 

"■* Here also it is the study of organogeny in N. zeylanica they are distinctly introrse. 
which revealed to us (Adansonia, i. 33 i) the '' From five to fifteen. 



rA KATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Thus constituted' the genus Clematis includes wood}', usually 
climbing plants, rarely sufl'rutescent or herbaceous, with the leaves 
always opposite and exstipulate, simple or compound, ternate or 
pinnate, the petiole of variable length and sometimes twining.' In 
Naravelia it bears two leaflets, and is then prolonged into a tendril 
which supports the branches. We shall see later on that the 
structure of these and of the stem presents very peculiar characters. 
The flowers may be terminal or axillary, solitary as in C. Viticella 
L., or, as in C. Vitalba L., in cymes which are themselves united 
into a raceme with opposite ramifications. In certain species with 
precocious flowering (as C. montana Benth.) the flowers are axillary, 
not to the leaves themselves, but to the bracts which represent them 
in the lower part of the bud ; above the flowers the branch afterwards 
bears true leaves, with leaf-buds axillary to them. This genus 
includes about a hundred genera, inhabitants of all the temperate 
regions of both hemispheres, or even of the warmest countries, as 
South America,' the borders of the Indian ocean, Eastern Asia,' 
Australia,* and as far south as New Zealand* and Tasmania.' 

ThalictruM^ is easy to characterize when we know Clematis ; it is 
Clematis, but with an imbricate aestivation and alternate leaves. If 
we examine, for example, T. aquilegifolium L. (figs. 97, 98), we see 
that the flower is hermaphrodite, and that the pedicel, a little swollen 
above, is continued into a conical depressed receptacle which bears 
the coloured perianth, the androceum and the gynajceum, one after 
another. The calyx is formed of four' decussate free sepals of 
alternative-imbricate aestivation.'" These leaves have an articula- 
tion as it were at the base, and fall early from the receptacle. The 



Clematit. , 
Sections 7< 



1. Atragene (L.). •• RoxBTJBGH, PI. Coromand., t. 188.— Hook. 

2. Naravelia (L.). & Thoms., Fl. Ltd., i. 4.— SlEB. & Zrcc. Fl. 

3. C/ieinps-is (DC). Jap. Fam., G8. 

4. Midatis (Spacu). * Hesth. & F. Mcell., Fl. Austral., i. 1. 

5. Viorna (I'khs.). — Muralfa « Hook. F., Fl. N. Zealand, 6. 
(Adans., ex E.NUL.). ^ Hook. F., Fl. Taxman., 2. 

6. Fi/u-cZ/a (MucNcu). * Thaliclntm T., Inst., 270, t. 1K3 ; Cor., 

7. Flammula (DC). 20.— L., QeH.,n. 6U7.— Jrs9., Gen. 232.— DC, 
Valvaria is a genua admitted by Sebinge Prodr., i. 11. — Spacu, Suit, a Bujf'., vii. 237. — 

(op. cit., iii. 93) for CUmatis inlegrifolia, Enul., 0«i., n. 4772. — Payek, Organoij., 253, 

ochroleuca, and uvala. t. Iviii. — B. H., Ofn., 4, n. 3. — H. Bn., Adam- 

' It has been noticed that the petioles mny $onia, iv. 5i. 

twine in either direction ; and tliut in the species ' There are tlowers with five sepals inibrieated 

with persistent leaves the tendrils formed by (sometimes quineuncially), or more rurtly with 

their petioles persist also. six, seven, and upwards. 

' A. S. H., Fl. Jiras. iner., i. 1. — Maut., Fl. '" The imbrication may bo dilfiTent even with 

Bras., Ranunc., 1 IC. four sejuils. 



BANUNCULACEjE. 



55 



stamens are very numerous, free, and liypogynous ; each consists of 
a filament with a club-shaped swelling below its summit, which 





Thalictrum aquilegifoliiim. 
Fig. 97. Fig. 98. 

Flower. Longitudinal section of flower. 

tapers to a point' to support the two-celled basifixed anther that 
dehisces marginally or somewhat internally by two longitudinal 
clefts.' The gyna3ceum is formed of an indefinite number of free 
carpels,^ each borne on a slender sialk,^ 
and composed of an ovary which tapers 
above into a beak grooved longitudinally 
alongtheinner angle. Thethickened and 
everted edges of this groove are covered 
with stigmatic papillae. In the inner 
angle of the cell of the ovary is a single 
ovule, suspended, with its raphe dorsal, 
and tlie micropyle looking upwards and 
inwards.* The fruit consists of several 
achenes (fig. 99), whose form varies ac- 
cording to the species;' and in the suspended seed (fig. 100) we 
find copious albumen, with a small embryo near the summit. 




Thalictrum elatiim. 
Fig. 99. Fig. 100. 

Fruit. Longitudinal section 

of flower. 



1 The filaments are here erect and divergent. 
In many species they are slender and capillary, 
and yet very long ; so that after the flower has 
opened they hang down the pedicel. 

^ The anthers are sometimes apiculate, as in 
T. sylvaticum Kocii. When the dehiscence is 
quite marginal, as in C. exaltatiim C. A. Met., 
maju.i Mure., &c., each cell opens out into two 
equal panels, which spread out and become plane, 
so as to touch the walls of the neighbouring cell. 
Each anther has then the form of a double flat 
plate placed edgewise, and,as it were, in a line with 
a radius of the flower ; and all that is seen of it 
is the inside of its cells, from which all the pollen 



falls off. Sometimes cultivation transforms some 
of the outer stamens into petals, as in Clematis. 

3 When the carpels are four in number, like 
the sepals, it may happen that the former seem 
to alternate exactly with the latter. But this 
relation is certainly not constant. 

■» This stalk is wanting in all the species of 
which De Canuoile makes his section iii., 
EuthaUctrum {Syst., i. 172 ; Prodr., i. 12). 

'" This ovule has two coats. Above it may be 
seen a slight swelling of the placental lobes, but 
not sterile ovules in two vertical rows. 

6 The form of these achenes is the chief founda- 
tion of the division of the genus into sections as 



56 .V. 1 Till A L HIS TOR Y OF FLA XTS. 

The genus Thaiidruiu consists of herbaceous perennials found in the 
cold or temperate regions of Europe,' Eastern India/ the Cape/ and 
America/ Tlie leaves are alternate and several times compound.* 
The petiole, dilated at its base into a kind of sheath with mem- 
branous edges, is usually very short and sometimes disappears. In 
certain cases, as in T. (ifjuilpgifulium L , we observe small foliaceous 
expansions or stipels at the base of each of the divisions of the 
blade. The inflorescence is usually terminal, and consists of a 
raceme or corymb, with many-tlowered cymes for branches. The 
Howers become here, far more often than in Clamatis, polygamous 
or monoecious, or dia-cious by abortion, especially in EuthaUrtrum 
and P/ij/siocnrjji/in. 

Si/ndesmou, which was made by De Candolle a separate section* of 
the genus ThaUctrum, and which has been also referred to the genus 
Anemone, is distinguished from the preceding group by the enlarge- 
ment of its subterranean portion, its few-llowered inflorescence, and 
the sort of involucre formed by the bracts under the flowers. 
With De Canuolle we shall leave this plant beside T. tuberosum 
L., a closely analogous plant, which possesses the flowers of any 
other ThaUctrum, with a solitary suspended ovule and no abortive 
ones above it,^ contrary to what happens in Anemone. 

ActcBcc" has nearly all the essential characters of ThaUctrum. 
Thus Actaea Cimicifuga L. (figs. 101, 102), which has been again 
made the type of a special genus,' has the habit, the foliage, the 



estiiblished by De Candolle {Syst., i. 169; Anemone, thalictroidea L., Spec.,1Q2. — B. H., 

Prodr., i. 11). In Euthalictrum the ovules are Oen., 4. ThaUctrum anemonoides Hore pleno 

oval-oblong, with vertical, projecting edges. In (V. Houtte, Fl. des Serres, sor. 2, i. IGo). 

Phynocarpum (Physocarpidium Reicub., Con- ? On T. Tufjeroium, see J. Gav (Bull. Soc. 

sped., VM) the achenes arc stipitate and Bot. Fr., viii. 330). — Above the ovule are only 

tri(|uetrou8, with the angles winged, the two vertical, somewhat projecting lips of the 

' GuEN. L GoDK., Fl. Fr., i. 4. — Reichb., carpel. Not the less docs this plant show the 

Icon., iii. t. 26-10. — Kocii (Ann. Sc. Nat., close affinity of Thaliclrum and Aiumone, and 

8^r. 2, ix. 373).— De Massas, sur les Thalic- only confirms that of the latter with Clematis. 

trum de France (Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 2, ix. The flowers appear arranged in cymes, and may 

351). — Reg EL, Uebem. der Art. O. Thalic- be even solitary. 

trum, welc/ie im Huxgisch, &c. (in Bull. ,Soc. " Arteta L., Oen., n. 64-1. — Jrss., Oen., 235. 

Nat. Moxr. (1H()1). 11). —DC, Prodr. i. 64.— SPACH, Suit, a Buff. vii. 

« Hook. & TiioMH.. Z'/. Ind., \. 12.— Roisa., 275.— Fiscn. & Mky., Anim. Bot. (Ann. Sc. 

Diayn. PI. Or. -S. & ZiCf., Fl. Jap. Fam., 69. Nat., si'r. 2, iv. 333).— Kndl., Uen., n. 4799. — 

•' \l\]iV. &.Soy<i)., Fl. Cap., \. 'A. R. II., Gen., 9, n. 27.— Wa LI'., /?'-;)., i. 60; 

* A. (Jhay, ///., t. 6. Ann., iv. 32.— H. Rx.. Adansonia, iv. 54; 

* As many as live or six times, according to the Did. Fitc. Sc. Med., i. 665. 

species. The leaves closely recal those of most » Cimirifuya L., Am. Acad., viii. 193, t. 4; 

Umbellifers. (Jen., n. 12H2. — Jrss., Gen., 234.— R. H., Oen., 

'^ ^ yrumosa (Prodr., i. l5).—Synde»mon 9, n. 28.— Walv., Jiep., i. 60 ; --Imm., iv. 32. 

HoKFMANSO., Flora (1832), Int. Bl., 34. — —Adinospora Tuiicz, Ms.i., ex Kiscii. & Mkt., 

Anemonella SPACll, Suit, a Buff., vii. 240.— I. cit., 332.— Enul., Orn., n. 4801, 4802. 



JIANTJNGULACE^. 



57 



periantli, the androceum,' and tlie gymrceum of Tlifdicfrvm. Only 
the carpels,- instead (jf one ovule, contain an indefinite number^ in 
two vertical rows, and become follicles as in the Larkspurs and 
Columbines. The number of petaloid sepals in this plant varies 
from four to six (fig. 101), and they are imbricated in a variable 



/,,j/^^ '\ 








Actaa Cimicifuga. 
Fig. 101. Fig. 102. 

Bud. Flower without the periauth. 



Actaa racemosa. 
Fig. 103. 
Flower without the perianth, 



manner.' The seeds, like those of the Larkspurs, bristle with small 
projecting lamellae. As in ThaJidrum the carpels are sometimes 
sessile (e.g. A. Cimicifiic/a), and sometimes supported on along slender 
stalk, as happens in A. jjodocarjjci DC' Moreover, the number of 
carpels may also be reduced to one, as happens in the section Con- 
solida oi DelpJiiniiim ; this maybe seen in A. racemosa L.^ (fig. 103), 
A. BraclnjpetaJa DC.^ (fig. 104), and especially in the European 
species which Tournefort formerly called Chrisfojjhoriana,^ and which 
under the name of A. spicafa (Ang. Baneherry, Herb Christopher) 
(figs. 104-109) is often cultivated in our gardens. This has 
moreover the peculiarity that its pericarp, instead of being dry and 
dehiscent like a follicle, as it is in the other species, becomes fleshy, 
and does not open to free the seeds, which are smooth on the 



' The stamens are indefinite, and equal or un- 
equal. The filament generally tapers towards 
its base, and the anther is always two-celled and 
introrse. 

'^ The carpels are always grooved along the 
whole of the inner border. The ovary is sur- 
mounted by a style of very variable length, and 
sometimes very short. 

^ They always have two coats, and arise one 
after another, so that the youngest are always 
uppermost. There are also a few close to the base 
of the ovary which arise after the others. 

■» With four sepals we usually find two lateral 
and exterior which overlap one another. The 
posterior sepal nsually overlaps the anterior, but 
this aestivation is not constant. When, as in A. 



spicata, we have four sepals and only one carpel, 
its position is not constant, for it Is sometimes 
superposed to one sepal, and sometimes in the in- 
terval between two, which is more frequently the 
case; but even these are not always the same ones. 

* Prodi:, i. 64, n. 2. — Icon. Delesser., i. 66. — 
Cimicifuga Americana, L. C. Rich., ap. MiCHX., 
Am. Bor., i. 316. 

« Spec, 722.— DC, Prodr., 6-4, n. h.—A. 
monogyna Walt. — Cimifuga racemosa Bart, — 
Botrophis Rafix. — Macrotys Rafin., X- York 
3/frf. iZe^os., ii., hex. v. 350. — FiscH. & Met., 
I. cit., 33k— ExDi., Gen., n. 4800. 

' Prodr., i. 65, n. 9. 

^ Inst if. 299, t. 154, " Christophoriana, qiia^i 
planta S. Christophori." 



68 



NATURAL mSTOEY OF PLANTS. 



surface, and formed like those of the other Ea/iunculacca (^g. 109). 
Like Clt'inath and Thalidnnu, any of the species of Adeea may, 






Actaa hracht/peiala. 
Fig. 104. 
Flower. 



Act(ta spicnta. 



Fig. 105. 
Floriferous branch 



Fig. 106. 
Flower. 



chiefly owing to cultivation, acquire petaloid lamina} of variable size 
and position,' which represent the outer stamens transformed into 
staminodes (figs. 1 OG, 107). They are herbaceous plants found in the 





Fig. 107. 
LongitudinaV section of flower. 



Actaa »picata. 

Fig. 108. 
Fruit. 



Fig. 109. 
Transverse section of fruit . 



cold and temperate regions of Europe,' Asia,'' and North A 



ni erica. 



^ In A. spienin we may observe four or five 
pctuloid Htaininodes nearly exactly alternate with 
the Bcpalu (a» in li^fs. 100, 1U7), but this position 
18 not constant. We also hud nearly complete 
ulternation in the totrainerons flower of A. 
brfu-hi/ptliihi, represented in i'n:. 101. In Cimi. 
cifuija frill idn W.\i.l,. and Arlinoxpvrii dnhurica 
FlBfll. & Mky., are often seen the whole set of 
tnmsitional forms between entire jietals, bilid 
petals, and stamenH with bifurcated tilaments, 
each bramh of which sui)iH)rlM an ubnoriiial 
anther-cell. 



-• Okkn. & OoDR., Fl. /v.. i. 51. IvEUiin., 
Iron., iv. 121. — II. Bn., Atlnnmnia, iv. 51; 
Dirt. Eiicycl. Si: Med., i OGS.— W.vli-., Rep., i. 
1(1 ; ii. 7:J8 ; Ann., \. 5, 1)53 ; ii 5 ; iv. U. 

^ SiEU. & Zl'CC, Act. Phy». Monac, iii. 
734, t. 3.— Fiscii. k Met., LhI. Srm. Jfort. 
Petrop. (1835),i. 20.— WaI-I... Pl.Aniat. rarior., 
t. 12l>, 2(54. — Hook. F. & TuoM«.. Fl. Lid., i. 

r.H. 

* Hook., Fl. Bor.-Amer., t. 2.— Hafin., •« 
A^.- York Med. Rtpog., ii. v. 350- A <;u vv, 7//.. 
t. 1!», 20. 



IIANUNCULACE.E. 69 

Their subterranean stems are rhizomes analogous to those oi" the 
Hellebores. The aerial branches bear alternate leaves like those of 
Thalictnnn, slightly sheathing at the base, and either pluripin- 
nate,^ simply digitate, or even hardly at all lobed in certain 
Japanese species such as A. acerina- The inflorescence is termi- 
nal, consisting of more or less elongated simple or compound 
racemes ; this last character varying in the same species, and even 
on the same stem. The flowers are nearly always solitary in the 
axils of the alternate bracts, but may be here and there accompanied 
by a lateral bud. Towards the summit of the inflorescence the number 
of stamens may be greatly diminished, and the gynaeceum abort, as 
in the preceding genera; so that some plants oi Acfaa are poly- 
gamous. 

Thus constituted,' the genus Actcea, whose relations with Ranun- 
culus through Trautvefteria, and with the Columbines through 
Xanthorhiza are recognised by every one, has also been placed near the 
Pseonies by several authors, on account of its multiovulate ovaries, 
and the form of its leaves. 



IV. P^ONY SEEIES. 

While all the RanmicuJacece we have as yet studied have convex 
receptacles to their flowers, so that the leaves of the perianth and the 
stamens have a hypogynous insertion, in the Paeonies' the floral re- 
ceptacle becomes slightly concave, so as to forma kind of cup, 
the base of which supports the carpels, the calyx, corolla, and 
stamens are inserted perigynously on its sides. The flowers are 
hermaphrodite and regular. If we examine one of P. alhijtora Pall. 
(fig. 110), w^e see that the peduncle, dilated above into a faii'ly deep 
receptacular cup, bears on its rim a calyx often' formed of five free 



' As much as four or five times divided in ^. . , / or several dry carpels. Seeds 

racemosa, spicata, &c. 'I bristly, 

- PUi/rosperma SlEB. & Zccc. {Act. Math. . ' -.4. Cimicifuga L. Actinospora S. it 

Phys. Monac, iii. 743, t. 3). Here they are some- (contd 1 Ztrcc). Several dry carpels, 

times even simple. In other respects these plants '• '^ \ Seeds bristly. 

are inseparable from Alacrotys, of which they •• PtBonia T., Inst., 273, t. 145. L. Gen. ii. 

possess the perianth, the gynseceum, and usually 678. — Jrss., Gen., 234. — DC, Prodr., i. 65.— 

the unicarpellary ovary. But some flowers of Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 394. — Endl., Gen., n. 

Pityrosperma have certainly several carpels. 4804. — B. H., Gen., 10, n. 30. — H, Bn., Adan- 

3 /I. Christophoriana T. One fleshy sonia, \\\. -ib ; iv. 56. 

Act^a carpel. Seeds smooth. * It is in theory alone that we admit that there 

g^^_ ■ -j 2. Botrophis Rafix. One dry carpel. are only five sepals, and consider as bracts the 

tions 4 Seeds smooth. outer appendages, which resemble the foliage- 

■ \.3. Pityrosperma SlEB. «Sc Zucc. One leaves more or less. (See Adatisonia, iv. 3.) 



60 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



dissimilar' sepals, quincuncially imbricated in the bud. The petals, 
equally free and imbricated in the bud, have a short claw, and are 




Peeonia albijlora. Pceonia Moutan (papaveracea). 

Fig. 110. Fig. HI. Fio. 112. 

Longitudinal section of bud. Disk and gynacceum. Longitudinal section. 

often equal in number to the sepals, and alternate with them.* 
The stamens are very numerous, inserted along a spiral of many 
turns very close to one another. The anthers,^ two-celled and in- 
trorse, are narrow and elongated, each dehiscing by two longitudinal 
clefts.' The somewhat unequal filaments, attached to the bases of 
the anthers, are free, slender,'' and inserted without the projecting 
rim formed by a glandular disk which lines the concavity of the recep- 
tacle, and projects more or less from it. Here it is only a small, un- 
equally crenulate ledge, while in other species, such as T.papaveracea 
Andr." (figs. Ill, 112), this disk rises up into a coloured sac, 
whicli looks as if formed by a union of appendicular organs, and en- 
tirely surrounds the ovaries, only giving passage to the styles by the 
narrow aperture at its summit.^ The gynseceum consists of a varial)le 



' Tlie more internal tliey are the more they 
resemhle petals in fonn and consistency ; the 
more external they are the more they resemble 
bracts. 

' Except in cases of dedii])lication. 

' With Hve jx-tals the a-diviition is sometimes 
<|uincuncial ; but more often there is only one of 
tlie petals quite inside, and otily one entirely 
iverlapping. They are very caducous. 

* A transverse section of the anllier sliows that 
it is divided by fotir longitudinal j^rooves into as 
many nearly eijual lobes, two to eiuh cell. The 
;inther has really but two cells, it is very de- 



cidedly introrse in P. arietina, Wiltmanniana, 
and much less so in P, officinalis, mollis, «tc. 

* Moreover, after dehis«'ence tiie anthers be- 
come twisted on themselves or revolute from 
above d(jwnwnrds. 

* The filaments are shorter as they arc more 
external. The weight of the anthers makes 
them droop after the eximnsion of the flower. 

' This is rather a more variety of J'. Moutan, 
SiM8, willi white ])etnl8 spotted with purple, ami a 
much develo]icd disk(A.M)K.,ex l)C.,yVo</r.,i.65). 

* Whatever be its »i/.e, this organ is like ii 
disk, late to develope. When it nearly surrounds 



BANUNGULACEJ3. 



61 




number of free cai'pels,' each composed of a unilocular ovary tapering 
above into a style ; tlie inner face of this is traversed by a longitudinal 
groove, with thick everted margins covered with stigmatic papilla). 
In the inner angle of the ovary is a vertical placenta, supporting 
two rows of nearly horizontal anatropous ovules," placed back to 
back. The fruit is formed of 
as many foUicles, surrounded 
by the persistent calyx, and 
dehiscing along the inner angle 
(fig. 113) to free the large seeds 
(fig. 114), each of which contains 
an embryo surrounded by fleshy 
albumen, and has its funicle di- 
lated around the hilum to form 
a fleshy aril of no great size.^ 

Instead of a pentamerous 
quincuncial coroUa, the Pseonies 
have sometimes two corollas each formed of three petals, of which the 
outer ones alternate with the three inner petals, and the inner ones 
alternate with the outer. This is constant in P. Wittmanniana Stev.,^ 
a species in which the corolla is yellow, instead of being white 
or red, like that of the other Pseonies, and which may be made 
the type, not of a distinct genus, but of a section^ which is to 
the true Pseonies what Hepatica is to Anemone, or Ficaria to 
Ranunculus. The organization is in other respects similar ; and in 
this species, as in all the others, the number of petals may become 
much greater still, owing to deduplication, which afiects the inner 
petals in preference to the outer ones, or to the metamorphosis of 
the outer stamens, as happens in double flowers. 



Pceonia Moutan. 

Fig. 113. 

Fruit opened. 



Pesonia peregrina. 

Fia. 114. 

Seed. 



the gynseceuni the carpels, which were at first 
near one another, diverge from the centre of the 
flower before dehiscing separately, and tear this 
disk more or less irregularly from abovedown wards. 

1 When there are five or six they are usually 
opposite the five or six innermost leaves of the 
calyx. The number three is equally common, 
and in P.Wittmanniana, where it is the rule, the 
three carpels are opposite the three innermost 
sepals. In the cultivated varieties of P. Moutan, 
we see as many as fifteen or twenty carpels, often 
sterile, grouped into a head like those of a 
Ranunculus. There are two carpels pretty often, 
but very rarely only one. 

^ These ovules have two coats. The outer 



one forms at first a sort of hood with a large 
opening externally. The short, thick, conical 
funicle swells early to begin the formation of the 
aril. At first the youngest ovules are on the 
upper part of the placenta, and often (but not 
always) right down at its base also. Hence the 
evolution of the ovules commences towards the 
base of the ovary, or at least below its middle. 

^ But the existence of which is, however, in- 
contestible and constant, although the Sanuncu- 
lacece have been usually considered to want arils 
entirely. 

^ Steven {Ann. Sc. Nat, ser. 3, xii. 37i). 
— Walp., Ann., ii. 14. 

•' Tripceonia H. Bx., Adansonia, 1. cif. 



62 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Tlie Paeonies are most usually lierbaceous perennials, with a thick 
stock giving off aerial branches, bearing dissected or pluripinnate 
leaves, and ending in large flowers, under which are seen a number 
of bracts, arranged in one continuous spiral with the leaves and 
sepals, and intermediate between them in form.' P. Mont an Sims,' 
a Chinese species, forms of which have been multiplied by cultivation, 
and which has been made the type of a distinct section' and even 
genus,^ diflfers from the others by its shrubby stems. It is in this 
species, too, that the disk, becoming greatly developed, surrounds 
the gyna^ceum almost entirely. The herbaceous Pajonies' grow in 
the northern hemisphere, in Europe, Asia,* and America.' 

We have replaced near the Pa^onies/ not without doubt, Crosfso-wnifr 
which some authors rank among the Dilleniacece ;^" and this 
we have done because we la}' more stress on their perigynous 
insertion than on the persistence of the calyx" and the presence of 
an aril.'- The receptacle'^ is a deep cup-shaped cavit}' which bears on 
its margins Ave sepals and five petals alternate with them (both 
imbricated in the bud), with a large number of free perigynous 
stamens. The filament is slender and filiform ; the oblong anther 
has two cells which dehisce marginally by two longitudinal clefts.'^ 
In the bottom of the receptacle are inserted the free carpels, varying 



* All these leaves which surround the perianth iii., 371). — Boiss., Diagn. PL Orient. — Hook. 
have an angular divergence of | ; and, as we & Th., Fl. Ltd., i. 60. — S. & Zrcc, Fl. Jay. 
have said, it is really impossible to decide where Fam., 76. — Walp., Rep., i. 61 ; ii. 745 ; v. 7 ; 
the sopal-s end and the bracts begin, just as we Ann., i. It; ii. 1; iv. 30. 

have no sharp demarcation between these latter ^ C. Gay, Fl. Chil., i. 56. 

and the true leaves. Thus in P. lobaia Desf., * Adamonla, iii. 17; iv. 57. 

there are five concave quite entire orbicular ' Nutt., PI. Gamb. {Journ. Ac. Philnd., 

sepals. To these the carpels are suiMjrposed when scr. 2, i. 150). — Toukey, Fxp. Jl'ipple. Bot., 

of the same number. More externally are two t. 1. — H. H., Gen., 15, n. 17. 

narrow lanceolate h'avcs, while bi-twcen these and '" IJentham & Hooker say of this genus 

the five rounded sepals is a leaf which is inter- (/. cil.), comparing it to the I'aKinies, " Diff'erf 

nuHliiitc alike in ixwition and in form, for it is .s-cpalit persist enCihtis et sfminibiis arillAith 

acutely oval. In the fiowers of /'. tenui/olia L., Dilleiiiacearum." Now it so happens that both 

the bnicts, like the leaves, are more or less laci- thene dmracters exist in both genera, thoagb 

niate, and so is still sepal 1 ; while sepals 4 and in different degrees. 

5 are entire and rounded. Analogous facts are " Tlio calyx persists in Crotsosonta and most 

seen in /'. officinalis, lurallina, Moulan, &c. PtDOnies. 

^ Jiot. Mai]., t. 1151. — I)t'., Proilr., i. 65, " The I'ajonies have a short aril, no matter by 

n. 1. whiit name we cull it. 

' Sect. i. Moutan DC, /. <-il. '3 y[^■,^^ mithors consider this riK-optacle as a 

* LiNDLET, ex H. H., /. vil. Tlie srime tulw formed by the base of the sepals ; but the 
author h:i8 made a aection Onttpia {Veg. Kim/d., insertion of the stamens provw that we have 
128). bore to do with the winie organ as that which 

* i>cxA.'\\.,P(ron.,\iC.,l.dt.{Evpctonia H.Hn., o<'cupH's the base of the flower in liosacnr. 

I. cit.). '* Mori'ovor, after di-liiscencc the anthers bo- 

* (JuKN. k (lOi)B., Fl. Fr., i. 52.— Ueiciiu., ccrtne spindly rolled on themselves, us in some of 
Icon., 122-128. — Kocii (Ann. Sr. Hal., ser. 2, the IV'onies. 



ByiNUNCULACE^. 63 

in number' like those of the Psconies. Each consists of a one-celled 
ovary, tapering into a short style, which swells at the tip into an 
oblique discoid stigmatiferous head. In the inner angle of the ovary 
is a double placentary cord, bearing in two parallel rows the 
indefinite, horizontal, anatropous ovules, each having a little cihated 
frill round its hilum. This becomes an aril with long filaments 
around the reniform seed," which contains within its thick coats a 
curved, fieshy albumen surrounding the embryo. The fruit is dry 
and dehiscent.' C. californica, the only known species, is a small 
branching shrub," with alternate, simple, obovate-oblong leaves 
tapering at the base, with a short petiole and a penniveined blade. 
The flowers are solitary and terminal. 

Now alone, after all the genera of this family are known to us, 
are we qualified to study its general characters. Some are constant : 
in all the genera studied, we have observed that albumen is always 
present surrounding the embryo ; that the ovule is entirely or 
incompletely anatropous ; that the pieces of the perianth and of the 
androceum are free from all adhesion ; and that the number of 
stamens is never strictly defined.* 

. Other characters, not absolutely constant, are very frequently 
observed, and have therefore great value. Such are : the alternation 
of the leaves ^^ the absence of stipules -^ the spiral arrangement of 
the parts of the flower f the independence of the carpels ; the convex 
form of the floral receptacle ; and hence the hyjDogynous insertion of 
the exterior whorls.® 

Others, finally, are essentially variable, and hence can only serve 
to distinguish altogether secondary groups. These are : the per- 
sistence of the pieces of the perianth around the fruit,'" and the 



' There are said to be from three to five. by their lateral wings, come very near to true 

- These seeds recal iu their conformation stipules. Generally the Ranunculacea; are with- 

those of several Menispermacece — among others out stipules, but it is dilficult to refuse the name 

the Indian Berry (Fr. Coque du Levant). to the lamella3 seen at the bases of the leaves of 

^ Separating, it is said, into two valves. Thalictrum, Isopymm, &c., and especially of the 

* The bark of the branches is said to be very floral leaves of the latter. 

bitter ; and the dry leaves are slightly so,— a s j^ the Columbines there appear to be true 

character which, joined to some others, suggests verticils; but the rays of stamens are perhaps 

affinities between it and the Slmarubacece. only very conspicuous secondary spirals, vertical 

Multis notis Simarubaceis conrcnit, sed recedit or nearly so. 

staminibus oo , ovulo, et arillo (Bentii. & » The Pajonies and Crossosoma are alone peri- 

HooK., I. eit.). gynous. 

* Characters which by themselves have no 'o Considerable value has been attached to this 
taxonomic value, being found in many families. character, which it has been said distinguishes 

* The genus Clematis is the only exception. this order from BiUetiiacece. We give it hardly 
' There are petioles with dilated bases which, any, as we have said several times. We know> 



64 NATUIiAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

regularity or irregularity of their form ;' the absolute number of 
them in each verticil, or pseudo- verticil, and the number of these 
verticils themselves ;- the aspect of the anther ;* the number of 
carpels, and the number of ovules in each ; the direction of these 
ovules* and of the seeds ; the consistency of the pericarp.* 

To LiNN.EUs is due the first foundation of this family. Bernard 
UE JussiED, in his arrangement of the garden of tlie Trianon," only 
borrowed from the author of the " Frnynirntd Bofanica'' and A. L. 
DE Jdssieu' simply reproduced the work of his uncle, adding to his 
Ranunculi the genus Podophijllum, whose right to a place in this group 
has been much disputed, besides four small genera of little im- 
portance.^ Adanson has been accused of having destroyed the homo- 
geneity of this group in his great work," by adding the greater number 
of the Alismacece. We have said elsewhere,'" and we repeat it, that this 
course appears to us thoroughly rational. As arranged in Jussieu's 
" Genera Planiarum' the BaunnculacecB include" twenty-three genera, 
studied by A. L. de Jussieu himself in several detached memoirs,'- 
and after him by most of his successors, with peculiar predilection 
and attention, as representing on the whole a group of vegetables 
fittest to afibrd types for the most important principles of taxonomy." 



for example, that in the two sections established terior. We shall see that if the DiUeniacea hud 

in the genus Caltha, the one has persistent, the a descending ovule it would be like that of Oi/- 

other caducous sepals, &c. (See ^rfrtH*o»j«, iv. 36). lianthemum ; but when the ovules are few in 

' Describers have usually confused the irregu- number, they arc ascending, 
larity of the corolla, and that of the individual ^ We have not attachetl much importance to 

sepals or petals. Sepals of very strange form, this character. Can a thoroughly ripe Almond 

helmet-shaped or spurred, may be very regular. with its pericarp quite dry, be separated gene- 

On the other hand spurless sepals may be truly rically from a Teach with its mesocarp succulent ? 

irregular, their halves being unsymmetrical {op. We think not, and we would here recal the in- 

cit., iv. 9). stance of the Adonids where the fruit, to-day a 

^ The proof that the number of verticils has dru])e, will bo to-morrow an achene. We have 

no importance is the facility with which in the been unable to found generic divisions on this 

Paoniu, Aiumoiie, &.C., we pass from one quin- character. 

cuncial verticil to two alternately trimerous vcr- " In A. L. de JrssiEr, Oe»., Ixviii. 

ticils (see pp. 37, 42, 61). ' Genera Planlarum, sec. ord. nat. diitpot. 

'" Till the time of I)F. (Jandolle it was be- (178!»), 231. 
lievcd tliat the Ilnnunciilacffr had their anthers '* Jli/dra.tfi.f. llaniadnfiis, Xanthorh'ua, Cimi- 

generally extrorse, and the Dilleniacece had them eifiiqti. 

introrse. A. UK St. Hii.aiuk was the first to * Ftimilles des Plantes {\7(i'Ji), u. \^\. 

rectify this eiTor (see Adaiis„ni't, iv. 14, note). '" Adansonin, iv. U>. 

There are far more Hanunciilarefp with introrso " Not counting Pohtphyllum, with which we 

anthers than has been generally allowed. Nii/elln, are not now concerned. 

Delphinium, Eranlhix, &c., described as ii.iving " Chielly in that which he points out himself 

extrorse anthers, have them decidedly introrse. (op. r;7., 235) : "Apia flrnenim flifnis ttume- 

* Callianthemum is the oidy Uanunculad with rosi.i affinium conjunHio at' disitusitio jam in 

a pendulous ovule and the micropyle exterior. Art. Acad. Paris. 1773, slaluta." 
Otherwise every ascending ovule has itnmicroi)ylo " We have seen that on tlic other hand sevc- 

cxterior, and every descending ovule has it in- nil authors consider this family as being of a low 



BAmiNOULACEJE. 65 

Of the genera admittecl by Jussteu, Salisbury separated K/ioivl- 
tonia (p. 47), Eranf/iis (p. 15), and Copfis (p. 17) as distinct generic 
types. So the autliors of the " Flora Altaica" established the genera 
CalUanthcmum (p. 48) and Oxygraphis (p. 37). De Candolle had 
already referred Atraqene to Clematis and Cimicifuga to Actcp.a ; but 
he admitted as distinct genera the families letracfis of Sprengel, IIc- 
patka, and probably too, the Enemlon of Rafixesque (p. 19). Hence 
tlie "Prodromus' enumerates twenty-eight genera of BanunculacecB. 
Siebold & ZuccARiNi added the two Japanese genera, Anemonopsis 
(p. 22), and Glaucidium (p. 23) ; Hooker & Thompson inserted the 
Indian Calafhodes (p. 21) ; and to Nuttall is due the genus Cro-s-so- 
soma (p. 62), whose claims to a place in Ranimcidacea are somewhat 
doubtful. In fine, as many as sixty distinct genera have been 
admitted into this order; we have reduced their number to nineteen.' 
Thus established by so many labours following one after another 
for the last century, this family of plants is one of those which B. de 
Mirbel so happily termed ''families par enchainement" The genera 
follow one another, and that closely; but they are not closely 
grouped round a common centre. Accordingly the variability of the 
characters has allowed various authors to establish secondary divi- 
sions in the group. In the first place Adanson" distinguishes two 
sections; the first with many-seeded, the second with one-seeded 
capsules. A. L. de Jussieu^ established four sections ; his first 
answers to Adanson's first; Adanson's second section is divided 
into two, according as the petals (not the corolla) are regular or 
irregular ; the Actece with a single polyspermous carpel constitute 
the fourth section. De Candolle^ divides the Ranunculacese into 
five tribes ; the first {Clemafidea) is marked chiefly by its valvate 
induplicate sestivation and opposite leaves ; the second {AaemonecB) is 



organization (see p. 45, note 1), and that organs hesitate to regard as entirely identical what have 

elsewhere distinct are here often assimilated, been regarded by every one since Linnaeus as dis- 

degenerated, and passing easily into one an- tinct generic terms ; but in the present state of 

other. confusion of our science it seems to us advau- 

' It must be borne in mind that we do not tageous to diminish the number of generic 

pretend to impose either these genera that we divisions as far as possible, 

admit, or the limits we assign for them, as ^ Op. cit., 457, 459. 

absolute. In short when once the common ^ Op. cit. ; \,Capsul(B monosptrni(B nondeliis- 

and the differential characteristics of two centes ; 2, Capsula polyspermce — Petala irre- 

groups of plants are known, it matters but gularia ; 3, CapsulcB polyspermcs — Petala regu- 

little whether we separate them as distinct laria ; 4, Gennen unicum. Bacca unilocularis 

genera, or unite them as sections of a single polyspenna. 

family. Here custom is all-powerful. People ■• Syst.,\.vn ; Procfr. (1824), i. 2-66. 

VOL. I. F 



66 NATURAL niSTOBY OF PLANTS. 

especially remarkable for its imbricated aestivation — a character met 
with in the rest of the order; but in the third tribe (Jifuff/ncuhceee) 
the seed is erect, not pendulous, and the petals are bilabiate, or 
provided with a small basilar scale ; the llcllchorcrB, which constitute 
the fourth tribe, have polyspermous carpels ; and the fifth {Paoniea) 
especially characterized by the introrse anthers, is considered as, 
perhaps more properly, a distinct order, Endlichkr,' and Bkntham 
& Hooker- accept De Candolle's tribes without alteration. 
LiNDLEY^ slightly modified them by uniting the Pa?onies to the 
Helleborc<B and putting Xnnthorhiza into a special section with the 
AcfecB. These diff'erent classifications are of more or less service 
practically; but we have not retained them, as they rest on the 
absolute value of characters which are not constant. The opposition 
of the leaves in Clematis is a character easily observed, but of no 
great absolute worth, as many other genera exist of which some 
species may have alternate and others opposite leaves. 

The a3stivation would appear a completely satisfactory character 
if it were not that at a certain stage in the life of Clematis the 
perianth may become imbricated like that of a Bajuinailus.* The 
absolute number of the ovules would have some value if we were not 
now aware that Clematis, Anemone, Adonis, have all really five ovules 
instead of one ;* while in Isopyrum we may have some carpels with 
several, and others with only one.® The direction of the ovule, 
whether ascending or descending, is not more absolute as a distinc- 
tion, for in Adonis alone we may observe instances of both.^ As to 
the introrse or extrorse aspect of the anther, it has long lost much 
of its value ; and if the Actete, which we put near the Pieonies, like 
them have their anthers generally introrse, in some they are ex- 
trorse -^ and so they are undoubtedly in many Ranmiciilaccce with 
multiovulate carpels, as the Larkspurs, Aconites, Nigella, tV'C. Hence 
in our essay to group the JlanunculacccB, we have been unable to 
recognise the ahmlutc worth or the subordination of characters. We 
have been comj)elled to admit and to combine the greatest possible 



> Qfmmi PUtntarum, aer. ord. nuf. dhpox. » Sco p. 41, fig. 76. p. MJ i^ p. &1. 

(1886-40), 848, Ordo clxxviii. « Sec p. la, nolo 3. 

' Genera Phinlarum, nd Ksfinpl. imjir. in ' Soc Adaiuunia, ii. 209. 

Herb. Keveng. />/.. i. (1K(;2J, l-lo. h i„ g^^^g flowers of Citnicifuga frigida 

» Vegetahle Kingdom (18 Wi), 425, Ord. cliv. Wall., the mitliors are dearly iiitronje. 

* 8«e p. 50, note 4, and AdaMonin, iv. Tif). 



BANUNCULACEJE. 67 

number of very different characters, and to group those genera tliat 
we retain around a few well-marked centres which tliey approach 
more or less closely. Hence certain genera happen to be on the 
peripheral limits of two or more groups at once, and indicate by 
what features these groups are bound together. Or, indeed, if we 
draw up each of these groups in a line, with the typical species at 
the head, we obtain a certain number of series which are parallel or 
nearly so for some part of their course, but afterwards diverge 
in various directions, and hence must intersect, their intersec- 
tions indicating the characters common to the different sections.' 
The prototypes that we have chosen provisionally" are Jqf//7f'pa, 
Ranunculus, Clematis, and PcBonia, from which we afterwards derive 
the other genera by the modifications found in the number and 
direction of the ovules, the number of pieces and whorls in the 
perianth, the symmetry and a)stivation of the flower, the position of 
the leaves, &c. 

The Banimcnlacece are almost alsvays herbs, far more rarely 
annuals than perennials. In the latter case we have seen how they 
are propagated in the different genera by buds, nourished while 
developing by the accumulation of juices, either in their own bases, 
or in those of the neighbouring organs.^ The herbaceous stems 
usually possess a normal or nearly normal organization. The pith 
of branches which grow fast sometimes contracts so as to render 
them more or less fistular." In several of these same species the 
fibro-vascular bundles, dispersed with little apparent order through 
the cellular mass, have the same distribution as in the stems of 
Monocotyledons, and the medullary rays may lose their usual recti- 
linear course so as to render doubtful their existence.* These fibro- 
vascular bundles (often numerous in herbaceous stems that have 



' Thus we have shown (Adansonia, iv. 41), how the pra?floration of the calyx ; and so purely pro- 

Ficaria, by its close analogy to Caltha, connects visional is the grouping we propose, that we have 

Trollius and Manuncndus ; how the Hellebores, already s\id {Adansonia, iv. 55) that instead of 

closely allied to Trollius, lead back to the keeping the Clematis series distinct, we should 

Nigella which are Columbines with deduphcated perhaps do better in joining it to that of the 

nectaries. Trautvetteria is allied by its habit to Anemones. In fact we have seen (pp. 50, 51) that 

Actaa and Thalictrum, by its flower to Eanun- at a given moment the estivation of a Clematis 

cuius. Thalictrum, only separated from Actcea may become that of Anemone. 

by the lesser number of its ovules, is at the •* See pp. 5, 31, 38. 

same time closely allied to the Anemones by * In several aquatic species of Hanunndus 

Syndesmon, and Xanthorhiza, formerly left un- Delphinium, Aconitum, Anemone, Thalictrum 

separated from . 4c/ff a and Pffowia is, says Payeb, (on these last, see T)e G^-rvy-t:, Xylologische 

merely Aquilec/ia with but few staminal whorls. IStudien, Bull. Soc. Mosc, 1861, 423). 

2 From what we have stated before it will be » Haetig, Beitr.z. Vergl. Anat. der Eolzpfl. 

seen that Clematis and Anemone only differ in {Bot. Zeit. (1859), 93, 96). 

V 



68 NATURAL mSTOriY OF I'LAXTS. 

lived but a few months)' are usually better developed as they 
aj)proach the centre of the stem. In the Hellebores" and Anemones,' 
the bundles, though of different ages, may form an apparently single 
circle round a voluminous pith. In several herbaceous species has 
been especially described the layer of cells called "protective sheath."* 
The axes of Hanuncuhicece are often, too, remarkable for the poverty 
of their tracheal system. Moreover, a certain number of plants have 
always been pointed out in this order as exceptional in the consistency 
of the stem and branches being woody to a certain extent ; these are 
chiefly the so-called " Tree-Pa?onies," Xanf/torhiza, and Clematis. The 
woody portion of the stem of Pceonia Moutan presents hardly any- 
thing peculiar in its anatomy. The thick pith is surrounded by a 
fresh ring of wood each season. The liber is, on the contrary, very 
scanty, and the outer cellular layers of the bark are the seat of slow 
and ill-marked exfoliation, much better seen in Xauthorliiza, and still 
better in Clematis. In the former, beneath many layers covering one 
another with great regularity, and in old brandies alternately white 
and brownish — that is, dead and ready to peel off — may be seen a 
layer of moniliform appearance, made up of cells, and gorged with a 
limpid yellow colouring matter." This structure, which is essentially 
constant, assumes a high degree of distinctness and regularity in 
Clematis, because the leaves are opposed, or verticillate ; and it has 
here attracted the attention of very many observers.* In the 
hexagonal stem of Clematis may be seen a pith of no great thickness, 
surrounded first by six, and then by ten, fibro-vascular woody 



' In the luTbaccous shoots of Larkspurs a '' Caspaht, in Priii//.<iliciin's Jahrhuch. (ISGl), 

month old we may find them of three, four, or iv. 101. 
five successive ages. * Tliis yellow liquid is found in the young 

' Link, Icon. Bol. Anal. (1857), ii. xi. 1, 5. wood, thougli of a paler tint. The lil)er of little 

— \. Dumas, op. cit., 5-23, t. 1, 2. — In 11. thickness, is incompletely divided into as many 

fi£liduii the pith is enormous, formed of cells closely j)atked segments, as there are sectors of 

arranged in rows in every direction, so as to the wood (whose eoiripact libres are minutely 

form a network of beaded fibres separated by jiunctate), separatcnl l)y the me<lullary rays, 

irregidar jiassages. The tibro-vascular bundles The cells of the pith are also punctate, 
in a bhiKit of a single season are numerous ; they • UuNUKSllAOEX, ex Mdiu. (Ann. Sc. Nat., 

are remarkable for having the whitish woody ser. 2, ix. 2'jr>).— Dl'TUOCHET, AtiToUs. drs. 

fibres surrounding the vessels on tlie sides as well 7V//c7. (Mt'm. iliis. (1S21), vii. 3U7, t. 16, f. 

as external to them. Tin- peduncle of 7/. int/er 4-7). — (Jikoit dk lii'ZAUElNOUES (Ann. Si: 

lias the same fundamental organi/.ation. The iVVi/., st'r. 1, xxx. t. 7, tigs. 3, 4; st'-r. 2, 1, l.'l>, 

Hub-epidermic corticid cells arc often gorged with t. 5, tig. 1).- Schi.kidkn, (irun<lzu<ir if. If'i.ss. 

pink colouring matU-r. J]o(. ii. lOtt, tig. 1 15. — CircKKTT, Jlitlol. Hi. — 

» VAT'l'liLI., 6'. iib. d. piriph. Wavlmlhum d. CakI'KNTKU, Mirntm: (lH5(i). 131. t-Ut (? ev 

(hfiUhund. (1855), 21, t. 1. — The arrangement Oi.lV.). — (SuiKFiTii & Hknfuky, J/iVro'/r. Uirl. 

of the buudieH in the Anemoueg is funda- (185(5), 75, 387, (Wli. — A. OuiLLAKD (Ahh. 

menUiUy the same as in tlie aiuiual Larkspurs. Sc. A'al., »or. 3, viii. t. xvi.). 



ItANJJNCULACEJE. 69 

bundles, separated from one anotlier by as many medullary rays, 
which are continued into the cortical parenchyma. When adult, only 
a single layer of liber envelopes this wood, all the rest of the bark 
having fallen, or else there are a certain number of plates of liber, 
crescent-shaped in transverse section, more or less ready to fall, 
owing to the development of a layer of cells on the inner side. 
Hence it is only when young that tliere are outside the bark an 
epidermis and a parenchyma, whose cells have green contents. Later 
on, the exfoliated branches of most of the genus only present bundles 
of fibres on the surface, separated from one another by the peripheral 
edges of the medullary rays.' 



* The evolution of these steins should be 
studied closely and in detail from a histological 
point of view. In a young hexagonal axis (the 
sides may increase in number when the leaves 
become verticillate) we only see a neai-ly homo- 
geneous tissue witliin a hairy epidermis. Later 
on appear six equidistant fibro-vascular bundles, 
each in two parts ; the one, fibro-vascular, be- 
longs to the wood ; the other, which represents 
the cortical fibres, is at some distance from the 
former, from which it is separated by a thick 
zone of formative cells. The six medullary rays 
are also very large, and in the thickness of each 
of these we see formed a little later a younger 
fibro-vascular bundle. This set of buntUes alter- 
nate with the first and afterwards grow so as to 
have equal, or nearly equal dimensions, with them. 
When the twelve bundles have come into contact 
with, and compressed one another, and are all 
triangular in horizontal section, the wood pre- 
sents twelve linear medullary rays, separating 
them from one another. The twelve bundles of 
cortical fibres increase so that the transverse 
section of each of them soon becomes a crescent 
with its convexity outwards. The formative zone 
is then represented, not by a ring, but by twelve 
cellular crescents, moulded in the concavity of 
the fibrous crescents. Still later, fibres appear 
within this cellular crescent, also arranged in 
an arc concentric with the preceding (besides 
the fact well established by Giuou de Bu- 
ZAEEINGUES, of deduplication from without in- 
wards, two fibrous crescents forming within each 
of those of the first gener:ition, two again within 
each of the second generation, and so on). Thus 
we have in each segment of the transverse sec- 
tion two fibrous concentric arcs, separated by a 
cellular crescent. It is here tluit the separation 
takes place ; the cells wither and leave the inner 
crescent, while still adhering to the outer crescent 
which thej' bring with them. Sucli is the cause 
of the exfoliation. We should add that under the 
epidermis, along the projecting angles of the 



stem, the cortical cellular tissue undergoes a 
difl'erent transformation into elongated elements 
with whitish thickened walls. These outer 
bundles also fall later on, with the detached 
fibres of the bark. The same exfoliation occurs 
in Pmonia and Xanihoriza, but it is less evi- 
dent because of the number and small size of 
the bundles, which appear to have a less regular 
arrangement in transverse section, on account of 
tlie leaves being alternate. In the Kii/ellce with 
sulcate stems (and especially in Garklella), in 
ThaUctrum, in certain Aconites (especially the 
sarmeutosc species), the fibro-vascular bundles of 
the wood itnd bark are similarly organized, and 
in Garklella are distinctly seen the projecting 
angles under the epidermis where the outer tissue 
of the bark also becomes thickened, elongated, 
and fibroid. Often in these plants the cortical 
fibrous portion of each bimdle begins to separate 
from the deep parts ; the death of the branch 
stops the exfoliation. In several species of 
Clematis also, with herbaceous annual branches, 
like C. iubulosa, the exfoliation has not time to 
appear. In the young branches of C. montana, 
which die in our country after tlieir season of 
vegetation, there is no exfoliation of the bark, 
and the bundles touch and are united into a sort 
of ring in the cortical portion, so that the liber 
on the whole, nearly assumes the tubular form 
it presents in most woody plants. In some 
species (in this respect intermediate), t'le fibrous 
crescents of the bark are much multiplied before 
the occurrence of desquamation, as are the cel- 
lular crescents which line them ; we then see at 
the same time very many of these little arches 
differing greatly in age, of which the outer ones 
alone (which are very old) commence to separate 
from the younger ones. H. Mohl called at- 
tention to the fact that the cells of the pro- 
scnchyma in Clematis are shorter than is usually 
thought, being only from -f^" to ^"' (^Ann. Sc. 
^'at., ser. 4, v. 144.) 



70 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Affinities. — B. de Jussieu placed Banuncidi between Capparklea, 
and Lai/ri. Adanson put them between his group "Annn' and that 
of the Cistuses, which included Curatella, Sarracenia, and Nit/ella. 
A. L. DE Jussieu makes them the first order of his Polypetalous 
Hypogynous Dicotyledons, and puts Papaveracea next. De 
Candolle, whose example has been followed by very many authors, 
begins his enumeration of Thalamifloral Polypetalous plants by 
Jtanunculacea, before Dillcniacca and MagnoVmcece. Endlicher 
intercalates them between Dilh'niacca and Bcrfjcridacra in his class 
Pol year piv(B. Lindlev' gives their name to his thirty-second Alliance 
" Manalea" where they are placed between DiUeniacea and Sar- 
raceniacecB. Brongniart* gave them exactly the same position : in 
the Botanical School of the Museum they are actually interposed 
between BillcniacecB and NijniplKsacecB. J. G. Agardh" divides them 
into three families {HelleborccB, Nigellacea, and Banunculea), which 
he puts between PodophyUece and Adoxcce. We cannot, indeed, doubt 
their close relationship to the Polycarjnca {i.e., Magnoliacea, 
SchizandrecE, AiionacccB, Mcuispennacea, &c.). Finally, except for the 
centripetal evolution of the stamens (invisible when the flower is 
full grown), no absolute character separates them from the Billeniacca, 
which may be considered as the Banuncidacca of hot climates, 
usually with woody stems. The herbaceous genus Acrofrona is the 
only exception, and approaches Banunculus as nearly as possible. We 
have attempted to show* that Banunculacea and DilleniacccB do not 
difler absolutely in any of the characters previously used to distinguish 
them — the persistence of the calyx ; the aspect of the anthers ; the 
direction of the ovules and of their parts ; the existence of an aril — 
only that the stem is more frequently herbaceous in Banuncuhicvce 
than in DdlenincecBy while these rarely want an aril, the existence of 
which is, on the contrary, exceptional and not well marked in the 
former. The calyx is said to persist always in DiUcii'uiwcv ; it is 
oftener caducous in BanunculacecB. As to the direction of the ovules, 
" there is but one Uanunculad with a suspended ovule and the micro- 
pyle external when adult, and this situation of the niicropyle would 
be seen in Dd/c/iiaccic, if the ovule were suspended, since it is 



' Op. cit.. 410. 77, 78, t. v., fig«. 11-13. " RnnunculawM . . . 

2 Enumtratiou des rjenrra de plant, eult. au exhihui, ut relationem cum Ailoxn evideniiorem 

Mtu.. (IH^m), !)fi, Faiii. 1 '.»:«. r,,UI,rrm." 

» Theoria Syalemalu I'lanlarum (1h5H), 70, * Adansonia, iv. 36. 



BANUNCULACEJ^. 71 

internal in the ascending ovule. However, no Dilleniad has yet been 
observed in which the ovule, if solitary, is not ascending." 

The BcumnculacccB are also closely allied to Berberidacem, through 
Podopkylhm and Jeffersonia. This last being also related to Papa- 
veracece by Scuu/idnaria, the Rannnciilacea come very near the Papa- 
veracecB, of which the organization of the pistil is alone different. 
But we have shown' that, in spite of this difference, which is not 
really great, we ought not logically to put Papaveracece and Ramin- 
cidacea in distinct orders, while we do not separate Monodora from the 
Anonacea, or Berberidopsis from Lardizabalacece. We have also said* 
that the AUsmaccce approach the Panuncidacea in every way, for 
certain species of Alisma differ from some of the aquatic Ranun- 
cidacece in only one respect — the number of cotyledons in the embryo. 
In our opinion, the conjunction of these two types, due to A.danson's 
sagacity, " is most consonant with natural methods." 

Finally, the Rosacece, chiefly through PotcntUla, come far nearer 
the Ranunculacece than is usually admitted. The insertion, a cha- 
racter the value of which has been exaggerated, no longer separates 
the two groups so clearly, since some of the Ranuiicidacece have been 
demonstrated to be perigynous.^ The absence of albumen in the 
Rosacem appears, on the contrary, to be a constant difierentiating 
character up till the present date. 

In fine, the relations of the Rcmimcidacea are multiple ; and if we 
tried to represent them by arranging the different families allied to 
this on a sort of map, we should have to put the Ranunculacece in 
the centre, so that its frontiers would touch the Ddleniacece by Aero- 
trema, the Berberidacca by Podojdij/llum, the MagnoliacecB hy Myosurus, 
the IllidecB by Knowltonia, the Rosacea by Pmonia and Crossosoma, 
the PapaveracecR by Glaucidium, and Alismacea by the aquatic 
Rammcidi. 

We have to some extent indicated the geographical distribution^ 



* Adansonia, iv. 39. soma, whose place it is true is somewhat con- 

2 See p. 61. A. L. be JussiEtr (oj7. cit., testible, is very clearly perigynous. 

235), also recalled these relations. •* See generally for all concerning geographi- 

•* It is quite certain that the perigyny of the cal distribution de Candolle's Qeographie Sot. 

Pajonies is not well marked ; else it would have Rais. (1855) ; and for European species, espe- 

been recognised long ago. But the concavity cially those ^ of the central plateau of France, 

of the receptable is not more marked in several see Lecoq, lit. sur la Geog. Bat., iv. 402-525 

Rosacea. (See Adansonia, iii. 46.) Crosso- (1855). 



72 KATUIiAL HISTOllY OF PLANTS. 

of the Tlanunculacoa after eacli genus we have studied. Turning 
now to general considerations, we shall first state these two great 
facts : there is hardly any country in the world in which at least a 
few of these plants are not to be found ; they are the less abundant 
in any country in proportion to other orders as the temperature of 
that country is higher. Hence the nearer a country is to the tropical 
zone, the worse are the Ra/iu/icidacra usually represented there ; 
unless indeed where the elevation of the ground above the sea-level 
makes up to a certain extent for the geographical position of the 
country. Tims the warmer parts of South America and India are 
almost wanting in plants of this order, the number of which increases 
as soon as we ascend the mountains in the north of India, or the 
chain of the Andes in the west of America. In Senegal there are 
only a few species of Cleninfis, and we must go to the Cape to find 
some Anemones and the known species of Knoirltonia. In all very 
hot countries the sum of the species of BanuncidacecB does not form 
one-hundredth part of the flora ; while as we approach temperate 
countries the proportion gradually increases. In South Carolina 
(Elliott), as on Chimborazo (Jameson), the Banuncidaccte represent 
two and a half per cent, of the whole number of species known. The 
proportion is the same too in Japan (Zuccarini).' There are from 
three to five per cent, in most temperate countries of the Northern 
hemisphere ;- and the proportion increases to six per cent, in Pata- 
gonia towards the Antarctic Pole (J. Hooker), and to from five to 
seven and a half per cent, in the Arctic Eegions.^ The countries 
richest in llanunculacea extend round Lake Baikal, from Kam- 
schutka to Daouria, since it is admitted that the family here forms 
from one-nineteenth to one-fifteenth of the whole flora ; and in the 
Tschuki country it represents as much as one-sixteenth.* It must 



' In China, according to DE BuNOE, the pro- Petersburg, 3-5 (Fisciieu-Oosteu) ; Silesia, 4 

iwrtion is as liigli at* 3-5 per cent. (Wimmkk); Duchy of I'oson, 4 (Hitsciil); 

* .See the numbers pveu by A. DE Can- Lithuania, 3 (CJonsKi) ; (Jhirus, 5-5 (Hkku); 

uoi.le {op. c/V. 111(1-1200), with the names of Morbihan, 2, (I)i:i,ai.ani)1:) ; Sit-rra-Nevada, l-S 

tl)0 authors froui whicli he lias taken them; (HuiHt^iKlt); Ihiiearic Is., 'lo (CAMUKSt^iUKs) ; 

Russia in Europe, Wo (Kri-KKcur); Faro Is., tSreeee, 25 (Cmaiiiakk). According to A. UK 

•1 (TKKVKi-yAN) ; N. W. America, G (IIoOKKB Canuom.k (o/>. ci7., 1258), the projKirtion is the 

& Aunott) ; United States, 2-5 (Kidoeli., same — 3-2 per cent, for the tiinperate ret'ions of 

Ur.cK); S. Carolina. 2-5 (Ei.uott) ; Chimbo- the Old World, and the centre of North Auie- 

riizo, 25 (Jamj^on); Labrador, 4 (E. Mkyeu, ri(«. 

H(juKi:u); I. of Sitcha, 35 (Honoaud); Daou- ^ At Hermit I., near C. Horn, (J. Hookku); 

ria, (Leueuouu); AlUii, 5 (LKDKnuirii) ; and at Spitzbergt-n, 5 to «• jk-t cent. 

Kamschalku, 7 (Hookeu A AuNori); St. * LKCuy, o/<. ci7., 4o5. 



RANUNCULACEJE. 73 

be borne in mind that the cold season should not become too long 
in each year as the altitude increases, for then the number of species 
would undergo some diminution. Thus of one hundred and thirty 
species' found in France, we have not more than half a hundred on 
the hiirh table lands of the south-east.^ The mineral character of the 
soil usually appears to make less difference to these plants than to 
many others. We see in our country Clematis Vitalha growing on 
limestone or sandstone soils ; so will PukatiUa, the Wood and other 
Anemones, the Columbine, Ficaria, many of the Crowfoots, and the 
Aconites. However A. Anfhora prefers a calcareous soil, as do 
Banunculus Thora, liybridus, Villarsii^ arvemis,^ Deljohinhim AjaciSy 
Thalictrum aquilegifoUum, Adonis vernalis, &c. ; Callianthemum grows 
on primitive soils,^ and Myosiirus minimus, Caltha ^jcdustris, TroUius 
europceus, Adaa spicata, &c., seem to agree best with siliceous volcanic 
soils. Some genera and species have a very large area, especially 
(as always) the aquatic plants — Batrachium^ Caltha, Ranunculus 
repens, arvensis, &c. The genus Ranunculus is represented in almost 
every country of the globe. Almost all the genera belong to both 
Worlds, viz. — Clematis, Thalictrum, Anemone, Ranunculus, Mi/osurus, 
Caltha, Isopyrum, Aquileyia, Belphinium, Actcea, Paojiia. Only three 
small genera are limited to America : Xantliorhiza, Hydrastis, and 
Crossosoma. TroUius, Niyella, and Callianthemum grow in the Old 
World ; while Glaucidium and Anemonopsis have only been found in 
Japan. As many as a thousand distinct species have been admitted -^ 
but fortunately the tendency now is to keep down the number, 
which appears to have been far too much multiplied, many forms 
having been raised into distinct species by monographists.^ 

To man the RanunculacecB are sometimes useful, often dan^rerous. 
The foliage of many species has that dark green tint by which the 
peasant instinctively recognises a dangerous herb. Then they are 
often acrid, caustic, and poisonous. The Aconites, Hellebores, and 
Crowfoots have been in all times celebrated for these qualities. 



* The number of species admitted by Geeniee Thalictrum alpinium, Myosurus aristaius re- 
& GoDROX, op. cit., i. 3-53. present what are termed the disjoined species. 

- Lecoq, I. cit. 7 De Candolle in 1824 only knew 541. 

3 H. MoHL, ex A. DC, op. cit., 436. ^ Several of the species admitted by de CjlN- 

■* Lecoq, op. cit., iv. 483. dolle have been split up. Many entirely new 

* H. MoHL, ex A. DC, op. cit., 432. species have been since discovered, especially in 
fi Ranunculus aquatilis is said to extend over America, China, and the Antarctic Zone. Never- 

at least a third of the earth's surfsice; so does thelcss Bentham & Hookee now-a-days only 

Caltha palustris. In this order R. anualilis, admit about 510 species. 



74 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

The Ancients knew that Aconite was a very energetic poison, 
and potent remedy.' The name Lijaodoniim {ir<jlf.sba/i(') is enouj^li 
to show that it was used to kill wild beasts. Formerly criminals 
were put to death by administering Napdhus. In the East, and 
chiefly in India, the Bikh,^ considered by Wallich to be his A. 
fero.r'' is thought to be one of the most terrible poisons known. As 
drugs,* the Aconites — chiefly Napelli/.s ; more rarely Anthora, panicu- 
latum, Lycoctonum, ferox — have been used in the treatment of 
neuralgia, deafness, rheumatism, gout, heart-disease, dyspnoea, 
dysentery, fever, purulent diathesis, chronic diseases of the skin, 
and also against erysipelas, glanders, farcy, syphilis, dropsy, metror- 
rhagia, intermittent fevers, &c. Their activity, whether as poisons 
or as remedies, appears to be entirely due to the presence of Aconi- 
tine, a principle discovered by Brandes, and often administered in 
medicine instead of the plant itself." 

The Hellebores — especially //. officinalis^ nit/er, foefidus, hyevialis, 
oricnfalis, and viridi,s-J were also known to the Ancients as poisons 
and as medicaments. In comparatively small doses, they act as 
energetic evacuants and parasiticides. Their use was formerly 
abused, especially in nervous affections ; and we know that at least 
one species, conjectured to be H. orient alis,^ was formerly supposed 
by phj^sicians to cure madness. Now-a-days the Hellebores have 
nearly fallen into disuse, and are considered too dangerous to be 
administered. 

The Crowfoots" are generally very acrid. The names B. acris, 
scckrafus, are enough to indicate their properties. Ji. aco////i/o///<s, 
bulbosm, (jramineus, repens, tripartitus, Flammula, Lingua, Thora, &c.. 



• " Accordiiip to Pliny," says FucHS {Sutt. dangerous EanunctilacecB employed in mcili- 

den rUtntes, (iH), it is quite certain that Aco- cine. 

nilum IH tlie suddenest of all jwisons and venoms. "^ Or Bisli, Vish, Visha, Alivisha, &c. (Seo 

Neverthuless lialli it been turned to the usjige of Koyle, Illustr., 40.) 

liumaii iH'ulth, as exiierinient teaclieth that it is ^ PL As. liar., i. 33, t. 41. — DC, Prodr., i. 

a sovereign remedy Aconilum hath such 64. — A. tnro.tiim Don, Prodr. Fl. yep., H*C>. 

u nature tliat it will kill a man if there bo not * See I'kukiha, Mat. Mid., ed. 4, ii. ii. 684. 

in him comotliing which it may kill; for then —Diet. Enc. Si: Mid., i. 577. 

doth it wreMtleandfightwilli the said jmison, find- ^ See Did. Enc. Sr. Mid., \. 598. 

ing sometliing of its own kind in the Ixnly. And " Lini)m:v, Ihd. Rt'if. (1812), t. 34, 68. 

tliis wrcHtling and fightin;; is only when the said ^ (Jriuorur, Droii. SimpL, 4th e<l., iii. 61)0. — 

Aconilum iialh found otlier venom or poison Pkueiua, 3/rt/. Jl/r</., 4th ed. ii. ii. 680, I'aYKR 

in the inside. And it is a wondrous thing recognised wliat is sold in j)luirmncy as Black 

when two deadly jioisons are in a man tliey kill llellehori', as being tlie rhizome of Jl. viridiji. 

and undo one another, and the man remaineth " See Hkatn, J'l. Jlort. Berul. {Ann. Sc. 

safe and sound." If wo cite this passage, it is Art/., scr. 4, i.367.) 

because it will equally apply to all the other * Pkukiua, /. ciV., 678.— (Jiin., /. r«/., 68U. 



BANUNCULAGEJE. 75 

are virulent, irritant, and epispastic, and are on tliis account 
employed in certain countries. Many are, it is said, energetic 
sudorifics like R. glacialis. In former times physicians used to 
consider that all the Crowfoots possessed *' eminently caustic 
virtues." 

In many other Ranunculacece the irritating principle is weaker, or 
•else resides only in restricted parts of the plant. The Larkspurs 
are often only simple astringents, like B. CoMolida, Ajacia ; while 
the seeds of the Stavesacre' are sufficiently acrid to be used in 
powder as a drastic vermifuge, and especially as an insecticide. The 
seeds of tlie Nigelloi have only a pungent taste, like pepper, for 
which those of N. safivd' were formerly substituted (in France) 
under the name of " Poivrette" or " Toide-Ejnce" [i.e.. Allspice]. The 
ancients employed various Nigellce as emmenagogues, and as remedies 
for catarrhs. 

The species of Clematis have also been long known to possess the 
power of ulcerating the skin when applied to it. C. Flammida, 
recta, and especially C. Vitalba, the common Traveller's Joy (Fr., 
Herhe-aux-Gueux — Beggars' Herb),^ were said to be used by beggars 
to produce more or less intense vesications on the body. They are 
in fact epispastics, purgatives, and hydragogues. They were 
formerly considered remedies against itch, leprosy, scrofula, and even 
syphilis. The feathery elongated styles of certain species bave been 
used to prepare a particular kind of paper. 

Different species of the genus Actcea,* as we bave limited it, bave 
also been employed in medicine, especially in N. America. A. 
brachi/jjetala, racemosa, and Ciniiciftiga are considered botli astringent 
and irritant ; they no doubt possess nearly tbe same properties as our 
A. spicata [Baneherrij), whicli has been prescribed for its astringent, 
antispasmodic, evacuant, insecticidal and virulent qualities, probably 

1 Pereiea, I. cit., 682. — GriB., I. cit., 698. is used. C. erecta, Vitalba, Viorna, formerly 

2 GuiBOURT, I. cit., 694. much used in chronic diseases of tbe skin, only 
^ The " Viburnum, Black Vine or Black cured them by setting up a counter-inflammation 

Bryony" (Viornes, Vignes noires, Couhuvrees of its own, which was often too violent and pro- 

noires) of the older botanists (Guib., I. cit., 686). duced ulceration. Thalictrum has nearly the 

The " Arabian Liana" of the Isle of Bourbon irritant properties of Clematis, but in a less 

(C. maritima Lamk.), according to M. Vinson degree. Accordingly the various species are 

[Thhs. Ec. Pharm., 1855), possesses energetic sometimes used as purgatives in the country, 

vesicating properties, and may be advantageously T. flavum in particular, known in England as 

substituted for cantharides. C. diceca L., ac- " Meadow Rue," in several provinces goes by 

cording to Macfatden {Fl. Jam.\.2),\s em- iX^ewAmeoV' Rhuharhedes pauvres" {Xn^., Poor 

ployed in Jamaica as an energetic hydragogue Man's Rhubarb). 

purgative; a decoction of the roots in sea water ^ Diet. Enc. iSc. Med., i.665. 



76 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

resembliiif^ tlie Hellebores in every respect, with whose rhizomes 
those of the Baneberry have often been mixed.' 

The various species of Adotiir have also been substituted for the 
Hellebores, according to Clusius. They seem to have the same 
general properties as the Crowfoots. Pallas relates that the root- 
stocks of the perennial species act as emmenagogues ; and the Cape 
Knouoltonim are irritating enough to give one of the species the name 
of K. vesicatoriay and it is in fact used in that country as a vesicant.* 

The Anemones of this country are acrid,^ containing a neutral, 
very virulent principle called a/icmoHuie, discovered by Heyeu and 
Brunswick. They irritate and vesicate the skin, are employed as 
antipsorics in veterinary medicine, and are said to kill certain 
animals if they feed on them. Pi/Imtilla is much used by the 
homa'opathists, who allege that it is an excellent antidote to 
mercury, and that taken as snuff it is sovereign against cepha- 
lalgia and neuralgia, and also against colic, constipation, and 
diarrhoea, certain forms of haemorrhage, rheumatism, convulsions, 
&c. AUopathists' know that it is irritant and vesicant, like most 
of the Raiumculocecs. They ascribe to its revulsive action the 
remedial powers which country folks assert to be produced in certain 
fevers, if the leaves are applied continuously to the wrists. It 
sometimes induces healthy action in herpetic surfaces, but it may 
also ulcerate ; it has been vaunted as efficacious against gout, itch, 
syphilis, amaurosis, hooping-cough, amenorrhoea, and calculus. 
OiiFiLA showed that it should be ranked among the most dangerous 
irritant poisons. It is used to prepare a distilled water sometimes 
employed as a cosmetic. There is no virtue that has not been 
attributed to llcpatica ; its very name shows that it was thought to 
cure liver complaints ; it was also thought efficacious against affec- 
tions of the lungs, skin, and bladder, in hernias and wounds ; now- 
a-days it has fallen into disuse. 

Several of the Raiinncnlaccoi are bitter, and are hence esteemed as 



» MrnuAY, Ap-p. Med., iii. 48. — Bentlet, - Diet. Fnc. Sc. Med ., ii. 40. 

Phnnti. Juiirn., iii. lO'J. [A. raremoxa nnd Cimi- * Hauv. & SOND., /"/. Cap., i. 4. 

cj/i///rt Imve bftii UHitl witli f^riat BiicceHS in Kng- * I'livnicians formerly confouiKloil most of 

liiiid in iiint'iiorrliaNi, (lysiiienorihtDii, nicnor- tlifni witii tho C'lowftxits, iukKt tlio common 

rli:ij;ia, and to rei)lacc iT^ot ; it liiis also bci-n name of Ccc/M^rp/.v, attributing nearly tiiu aamo 

found UHfful in variouH forms of rheumatic gout, jiroperties to tlicm. 

rlieumatiHU), lumbago, &t!. See Uinoku, llandb. * Stouck, LUwUm df m.vk nudico PultHilillu' 

of J'ract. Tlicrup. pp. 28G-U. Tuamj.] nijric, 177L— CJl'iuoi'UT, up. vU., (>8«. 



UANVNGULACEJE. 77 

tonics. The various species of Copfis,^ and especially C. Tec fa and 
C. Infolin, the " Mis/niiec BUIcr' and " Goldcu-f/ircad" of tlie 
Americans, are considered as such in the United States, and used 
against the aphthai and stomatitis of children. The root-stock of the 
Canadian Jlijdrastls- is very odoriferous and extremely bitter ; it is 
recommended as a powerful tonic, and it has been remarked that it 
contains herherhic, a principle found also in Xcuifhorhiza apiJfoHa^WxOi 
" Yellow-root'' which contains a very bitter resin, and is also a 
good tonic, and which might be substituted for Quassia amara ; 
moreover, its wood is used to dye yellow.' 

The Columbines are now-a-daj^s by some authors considered 
to be only slightly tonic, and are nearly disused. The ancients were 
much divided as to their true remedial value.* So are the moderns ; 
for if some consider the common Columbine diuretic, aperient, 
diaphoretic, antiscorbutic, pectoral, and allege that it keeps off gravel 
and stone, and cures icterus and the sweating in phthisis, and that its 
seeds favour the eruption in small-pox, scarlet-fever, and rot, others 
regard it as only slightly detergent and depurative, or else incline 
to fear it as being likely to produce the same effects as aconite. Its 
flowers are used, says Murray, to make a syrup resembling that 
made from violets. Fourcroy pointed out the presence of a very 
sweet perfume in its seeds. In this respect it resembles an Indian 
Nigclla, which is, according to Eoyle, employed in spicing certain 
dishes in Afghanistan, which is known in that country under the 
name of Siah-Daua, and might very well be the Black Cumin of the 
Scriptures. 

Few flowers of this order possess a sweeter scent than that of 
certain species of Clematis, which might be used in perfumery. Most 
Banunculacea are inodorous ; the Anemones, and among others the 
Wood Anemone, sometimes prized by the perfumer, have a slight 



* BiGELOW, Med. JBot., i. t. 5. — Peeeiba, red colour. Adonis appenina, CaUha pahisfris, 
Mat. Med., 4th ed., ii. ii. 698. Coptis trifoUa, and llydrastis, all dye yellow ; 

- Barton, Jf«<. Med.,\\. t. 26. — Bentley, the 'Aowevs oi P(Eoniafceminave(!i, oi Delphinium 

Fharm. Journ., iv. (1862), 540. Consolida, green; and the petals of tlie Colum- 

^ Barton, ibid. — Bentley, /. cit., 12. bine blue. The leaves of PuhaliUa are used to 

* See p. 68. IMany Raniinculaceee contain prepare a green ink, and its flowers are used to 
colouring matters, but are little used as dyes. A stain eggs in Wurtemberg (Duchesne, Repert., 
large quantity of yellow pigment is found in the 169-175). 

cellular tissue of the bark and medullary rays of ^ " It is not probable that a herb in no way 

several species of Ma iiV^rMw; T. aquileffifoliiim, acrid shoidd have so great a virtue to resolve 

angusiifolium, flavum, &c., are used as dyes. and to digest." (Frcns, op. cit., 78.) 
The fruits of Actcea spicata furnish an ink and a 



78 NATURAL mSTORY OF PLAXTS. 

scent. The yellow colouring matter of the perianth of certain 
Crowfoots, and of the Marsh-marigold, are said to be used to colour 
butter. Many of tlie Hanuncidacece, especially those with double 
flowers,' serve to deck our gardens. Ranunculus and Anemone 
were among the six flowers which the botanists of last century 
deemed alone worthy of cultivation in the parterre. The species 
of C/<-niatls are prized as climbers to cover arbours and walls. 

Not less are the Pa?onies appreciated in our gardens for the size 
and splendour of their petals, the sweet perfume they often give out, 
and the beauty of the fruits when half open. The male and female 
Pa?onies {P. coraUina and nflicinnlis) were formerly higlily valued 
medicines.- Stone, colic, icterus, the severest neuroses, epilepsy, con- 
vulsions, mania, the bite of venomous animals, abscesses — in short, 
nearly every known disease was thought to be cured by them. Now 
they are hardly used at all. The rootstock is somewhat astringent ; 
the petals serve for making a distilled water and syrup of slightly 
sedative action; the seeds are emetic and cathartic. It is not 
known why necklaces made of them possess in certain districts the 
reputation of facilitating the dentition of children. 

Since the time of Kuapfen, it has been remarked that the irritant 
principle in the RanuncuIacecB has so little stability as to be usually dis- 
sipated by heat.boiling, or drying. The vegetable acids,and sometimes 
water alone, will destroy it ; while its action is said to be increased 
by wine, alcohol, honey, and sugar. It does not exist in organs not 
fully developed, which explains how, in some countries, people have 
been able to use the young shoots of Clematis, Ficaria, and several 
Baniniculi properly so called, as aliments.' It would be prudent to 
exclude every plant of this order from our articles of food. It has 
often been remarked how strange it is that the RanunculacecB,so closely 
analogous to the Fapaveracca in most features of their organization, 
are yet almost all unprovided with the abundant milky juice, pos- 
sessing quite peculiar properties, found in a large number of the 
latter. However, the existence of laticil'erous vessels has been pointed 
out in several of the RannnculacecB* 



• In Seemann'b Journal of Botany (1864), aqualUis nre used aa fodder in Eiiglnnd nnd 

(177), will be found an enumeration of uU the culti- Alaacc. It apimars tliiit the seeiU of m'verHl 

vuted HiKJcies of this order with double ttowern. I'moniiMi aie ulito cooked and eat«»n. (Duciiesnk, 

- (juiBOUUT, op. cil., 7Ul. /. cit.) 

' Ranunculwi nuricomun and ianut/!nosti.t * Scihi.tz (C. II.), AJmi. Cin: (1S31)), 35, 

are boiled and eaton. The dry leaves of li. 11, '.iii. 



EANTJNCULACEJE. 79 



GENERA. 



I. AQUILEGEiE. 

a. Flowers regular. 

1. Aquilegia T. — Flowers 5-meroiis. Calyx petaloid imbricate 
deciduous. Petals 5, alternate with the sepals, usually calcarate. 
Stamens 8—10 alternating 5-merous verticils ; anthers extrorse, 
dehiscing by 2 clefts. Staminodes within these 10, in 2 alternating 
verticils. Carpels 5, sessile free multiovulate. Follicles 5, poly- 
spermous. Seeds albuminous, embryo minute. — Perennial herbs ; 
leaves compound alternate ; flowers solitary terminal, or in cymes 
{Europe, Asia, N. America). See p. 1. 

2. Xanthorhiza Lher. — Flowers 5-merous. Calyx petaloid im- 
bricate deciduous. Petals 5, alternate with the sepals, unguiculate 
gland-like dilated at the apex. Stamens in 1 — 3 alternating 5-merous 
or in complete verticils. Anthers sublateral, dehiscing by 2 clefts. 
Carpels 5 — 15 sessile free pauciovulate. Follicles often 1 -seeded by 
abortion. — A shrub, leaves alternate pinnatisect ; flowers in few- 
flowered racemose cymes (iV. America). See p. C. 

3. Nigella T. — Flowers 5-merous. Calyx petaloid imbricate 
deciduous. Petals (staminodes ?) opposite the sepals (often in pairs), 
bifid at the apex. Stamens spirally inserted ; anthers introrse, 
dehiscing by 2 clefts. Carpels 2 — 1 5 (usually 5) connate at the base 
(obliquely inserted) many ovuled, dehiscing internally at the apex 
when ripe. — Annual herbs ; leaves alternate dissected, often forming 
an involucre to the terminal flowers [Eurojje, JFest Asia). See p. 7. 

4. Helleborus T. — Calyx 5-or 6-merous imbricate persistent or 
deciduous. Petals (staminodes ?) varying in number and position, 
gland-like, rarely 0. Stamens spirally arranged ; anthers extrorse 
or introrse, dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels 2-oo , free or cohering 
at the base, sessile or stipitate, multiovulate, dehiscing as follicles 
when ripe. — Perennial herbs, with palmate or pedate leaves. 



80 NATURAL HIS TORY OF rL.lNTS. 

Flowers solitary, or few in cymes, naked or involucrate [Eitrope, 
W. Ami, N. America). See p. 12. 

5. Isopyrum L. — Calyx 4 — G-merous, petaloid imbricate deci- 
duous. Petals (staminodes ?) of variable number gland-like, more 
rarely 0. Stamens spirally inserted, often few ; anthers sublateral, 
dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels 2- oo , free, sessile, l-co ovulate, 
dehiscing as follicles when ripe. — Annual or perennial herbs, with 
alternate or sub-opposite ternate leaves. Scapes 1- or many- 
flowered {Europe, Asia, N. America). See p. 18. 

C. Trollius L. — Calyx petaloid 4-a)-merous deciduous, or more 
rarely persistent. Petals (staminodes ?) of variable number, or 
more rarely 0. Stamens numerous, spirally inserted ; anthers 
extrorse or lateral, dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels 5-x), free, 
sessile, dehiscing when ripe as many-seeded follicles. Seeds smooth 
or arillate. — Perennial herbs, with palmiveined leaves, entire, lobed, 
or compound ; blade more rarely with inflexed auricles at the base. 
Scape one- or few- flowered {Europe, Asia, N. ^ S. America, Australia). 
See p. 20. 

7? Anemonopsis Sieb. & Zucc.—" Calyx oo-merous petaloid 
deciduous. Petals cc, sessile shorter than calyx, with a nectariferous 
pit at the base. Stamens oc, free. Carpels few free sessile multi- 
ovulate. Fruit ? — Herbs with ternately compound radical leaves. 
Flowers in lax racemes?" [Japan). See p. 22. 

(S? Glaucidium Sieb. & Zucc. — Calyx 4-merous imbricate 
petaloid deciduous. Corolla 0. Stamens oo, free, inserted in a 
spiral ; anthers basifixed ; cells lateral, dehiscing longitudinally. 
Carpels solitary or few (usually 2), obliquely inserted on the recep- 
tacles, like follicles when ripe but dehiscing dorsally. Seeds 
compressed, with winged margins. — A Perennial herb ; leaves lew 
alternate palmatifid ; flower solitary pedunculate [Japa/i). See 
p. 23. 

b. Flowers irregular. 

9. Delphinium T. — Calyx o-mcrous irregular imbricate; the 
posterior sepal more or less galeate or calcarate. Petals (staminodes ?) 



BANUNGULACEJE. 81 

unequal, in pairs opposite the sepals (posterior 2 calcarate, or 
cucullate and unguiculate ; lateral and anterior, either wanting, or 
6 of variable form, often reduced to minute scales). Stamens cc, 
free inserted in a spiral ; anthers introrse, dehiscing longitudinally. 
Carpels 1 — 5, sessile free multiovulate, when ripe dehiscing as 
follicles. — Annual or perennial herbs; leaves alternate, palmatifid or 
compound; flowers racemose '1-hrsLcieola.te {Europe, Asia, N. America). 
Seep. 23. 

II. RANUNCULE.E. 

10. Ranunculus Hall. — Calyx 5-, more rarely 3-merous, imbri- 
cate usually deciduous. Petals 3 — 20, with a nectariferous pit at 
the base furnished with a scale of variable form or 0, impressed 
imbricate forming a single or double corolla, more rarely wanting 
entirely. Stamen? go free, spirally inserted on a convex receptacle of 
variable form ; anthers basifixed, lateral or extrorse, dehiscing longi- 
tudinally. Carpels oo uniovulate ; ovule usually ascending ; raphe 
introrse ; micropyle extrorse inferior. Achenes as many as the 
carpels, capitate, coriaceous or membranous. Flowers often poly- 
gamous or dioecious. — Annual, or often perennial herbs ; leaves 
alternate, entire or dissected, more rarely palmatifid. Flowers 
solitarj^ terminal, or cymose pseudo-cor3'mbose or umbellate {co/d 
and tenqjcrate regions of nearly the whole loorld, morerareli/ the Tropics). 
See p. 32. 

11 . Myosurus Dill. — Calyx 5 — S-merous : sepals with descending 
spurs, Petals (?) as many, small linear-tubulate nectariferous, or 0. 
Stamens and carpels of JtanuncuJns spirally inserted on an elongated 
branch-like receptacle ; ovules solitary, pendulous in each ovary ; 
micropyle introrse superior ; raphe dorsal. Achenes go spicate. — 
Annual herbs with entire leaves. Flowers pedunculate, solitary, 
terminal {tenqjeraie regions nearly all over the world). See page 40. 

12. Anemone Hall. — Perianth 4 — cc-merous ; leaves petaloid, or 
the outer ones more or less herbaceous, imbricated in one or more 
whorls. Stamens and carpels of Ranioicnliis spirally inserted on a 
conoidal or globose receptacle ; outer stamens sterile and antherless, 
or more usually all fertile ; anthers with lateral cells subintrorse or 

VOL. I. G 



82 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

subextrorse. Ovaries 5-ovulate ; four superior ovules in two vertical 
pairs, abortive, minute ; one inferior fertile usually descending ; 
micropyle superior introrse. Fruit baccate or drupaceous, or more 
usually of capitate aclienia, surmounted by the short, or caudate, 
naked or bearded styles. Seed ascending, or more usually de- 
scending, micropyle introrse. — Perennial herbs, with a subteiTanean 
stock, and alternate compound or lobed leaves. Flowers axillary, 
or more usually terminal, solitary, or in pseudo-umbellate c}Tnes ; 
involucre 1 — 3 leaved, at a variable distance from the flower; leaves 
entire or compound {Europe, Aaia, S. Africa, Australia, N. and S. 
America). See p. 41. 

13. Callianthemum C. A. Mey.— Perianth of Ran un cuius, petals 
with a nectariferous pit at the base. Stamens oo , free, spirally ar- 
ranged ; anthers dehiscing by lateral or subintrorse clefts. Carpels 
oo, 2-ovulate ; one ovule abortive, the other finally pendulous ; micro- 
pyle superior extrorse, raphe introrse, achenes capitate naked. — 
Perennial herbs with alternate compound or incised leaves. Flowers 
terminal pedunculate {Europe, temperate parts of Asia). See p. 48. 

14? Hydrastis L. — Calyx 3-merous petaloid very caducous. 
Stamens oo, spirally arranged ; anthers basifixed ; cells dehiscing by 
lateral clefts. Carpels go sessile 2-ovulate; one ovule usually 
ascending with the micropyle extrorse inferior. Fruit baccate 
capitulate ; seeds crustaceous embedded in pulp. — Erect herbs with 
few alternate palmatifid leaves. Flowers solitary terminal {N. 
America). See p. 49. 

III. CLEMATIDE.^. 

15. Clematis L. — Calyx 4-, more rarely 'j — 10-merous, petaloid 
valvate or induplicate, after expansion often imbricate. Stami nodes 
external petaloid co, or more often 0. Fertile stamens oo, free, spirally 
inserted on the convex receptacle, anthers dehiscing by lateral, more 
rarely introrse, clefts. Carpels oo, free, ovaries 5-ovulate ; ovules 
4-suporior in 2-vertical pairs, abortive minute; inferior fertile de- 
scending ; micropyle superior introrse. Achenes capitate, surmounted 
by the short or caudate, naked or bearded style. Seeds descending. 
Flowers often j)olygainous or diu'ciinis. — Most usually climbing 



E.iNUNCULACEjU. 83 

shrubs, or more rarely under-slirubs or herbs, with opposite leaves 
simple, or more often ternate or pinnate ; petiole twining or produced 
into a tendril. Flowers in racemose cymes, more rarely solitary, 
naked or 2-bracteolate {tempcralc rcf/iotis nearly all over the loorld, more 
rarely in the Troj)?'cs). See p. 50. 

16. Thalictrum T. — Calyx 4-, more rarely 5 — 10-merous, peta- 
loid, imbricate, deciduous. Stamens go, all fertile, or more rarely 
the outermost sterile and petaloid. Anthers dehiscing by sub- 
lateral clefts, ovaries uniovulate; ovule pendulous, micropyle 
introrse, superior. Achenes sessile or stipitate, triquetrous or 
membranous and inflated. Flowers often polygamous by abortion. 
— Perennial herbs, with alternate ternately compound leaves, often 
stipellate. Flowers in racemes, or more often racemose cymes 
{N. Hemisphere of both Worlds, Tropical India, the Cape, S. America). 
See p. 54. 

17. Actaea L. — Calyx 3 — 6-merous, petaloid, imbricate, deci- 
duous. Stamens oo, all fertile, or more rarely the outermost sterile 
and petaloid, Anthers dehiscing by introrse or extrorse clefts. 
Carpels 1 — gc, multiovulate^ when ripe baccate, or more often dry and 
dehiscing as follicles. Seeds in two rows, smooth or scaly. Flowers 
more rarely polygamous by abortion. — Perennial herbs with alter- 
nate leaves, simple, or more usually ternately compound or decom- 
pound. Flowers in simple or compound racemes, usually terminal 
{Fia'ope, Asia, N. America). See p. 56. 

IV. P^ONIE^. 

18. Paeonia T. — Calyx 5 — 6-merous, single or double herbaceous, 
imbricate, persistent, inserted round the plano-concave receptacle. 
Petals 5 — 10, forming a single or double corolla, efoveolate, imbri. 
cate, deciduous. Stamens cc, free, perigynous ; anthers dehiscing 
by introrse clefts. Disk within the androceum, perigynous, eithei 
minute and gland-like, or less frequently much more developed 
sacciform and petaloid covering in the ovaries. Carpels 2 — 6, free, 
inserted in the bottom of the receptacle multiovulate, when ripe 
dehiscing as follicles. Seeds furnished with a minute funicular 
aril at the base. — Perennial herbs, more rarely shrubs or under- 



84 NATURAL HISTOIiY OF PLANTS. 

shrubs, with alternate pinnately dissected or decompound leaves. 
Flowers terminal {Europr, Asia, N. America). See p. 59. 

19. Crossosoma Nutt. — Calyx 5-merous, imbricate, inserted 
round tlie very concave receptacle. Petals 5, perigynous. Stamens 
00 , perigynous, free ; anthers attached by the back above the base, 
dehiscing by longitudinal lateral clefts. Carpels 2 — o, inserted in 
the bottom of the receptacle, multiovulatc, separating into two valves 
when ripe. Seeds reniform, provided at the base with a conspicuous 
multifid aril ; embryo curved. — A small shrub, with alternate, 
simple, quite entire leaves. Flowers solitary terminal {California). 
See p. 62. 



II. DILLENIACE^, 



1. CANDOLLEA SERIES. 

We sliall commence the study of the DilleniacecB by analysing a 
CandoUea} C.ciincifonins Labill. (figs. 115-123), often cultivated in 
our conservatories, has regular hermaphrodite flowers. On the 



.-y^^^ 




CandoUea cuneiformis. 
Fig. 118. 
Longltudiual section of flower. 



Fig. 119. 
Flower without its periantb. 



diglitly convex receptacle are successively inserted from below 



1 CandoUea Labill., Fl. Sov.-HoUand., ii. Pateh, Organog. comp., 233, t. 51, f. 18-30. 

33, t. 176 (uec Baumg., nee Mirb., nee Radd.). — B. H., Gen., 14, n. 14.— Benth.& F. MUKLt., 

—DC. Prodr., i. 73.— Exdl., Gen., n. 4755. Fl. Austral, i. 41.— H. Bjt., Adan^onia, vi. 

— Walp., Rej). i. 64; v. 11; Ann., u. 15.— 279. 



86 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



upwards the calyx and corolla (each with its leaves free), a hypo- 
gynous androceum, and a pluricarpellary pistil. The sepals are 
five in number, unlike,' and quincuncially imbricated in the bud. 
The petals, also five in number, alternate with the sepals and are 
imbricated in aestivation.- The stamens are grouped in as many 

bundles as there are sepals, 
to which they are superposed. 
Each bundle consists of a 
flattened tongue-like stalk, 
single below, and divided near 
its apex into three'' short 
branches, each bearing a basi- 
fixed, two-celled, introrse an- 
ther, dehiscinglongitudinally.' 
Internally is a fourth stamen, 
whose filament adheres to 
that common to the three 
outer stamens, and only be- 
comes free on a level with its 
anther, which resembles the 
others. The gynaeceum con- 
sists of five carpels opposite 
the petals, each composed 
of a unilocular ovary, tapering above into a style with a 
stigmatiferous tip.* The placenta occupies the inner angle of 
the ovary, and supports two ascending anatropous ovules, of 
which the raphe is in the first instance outward while the 
micropyle looks downwards and inwards." The fruit, sur- 
rounded by the persistent calyx (fig. 121) consists of five follicles, 
which dcliisce along the inner angle to free one or two seeds, 




Fig. 120. 
Stamen. 



Candollea cuneiformis. 

Fig. 122. Fig. 123. Seed. 

Seed. Longitudinal section. 



' Tlie more external they are, the more closely 
they retjcmble the upjter leaves (with the spiral 
arrangemeiit of which llieirs is continuous) both 
in form and colour ; but the more internal they 
are in the bud, the shortor, the broader, and the 
j)aler they bcconie. 

- Tlie nKxh; ot this imbrication varies ; it may 
become «|uincun(ial, petals I and 3 then alter- 
nating witli sc'))al 2. 

' It ollen hiiiipens in this s|M>cic8 that this 
tongue bears four antliers. Counting thf inner 
Kt^imen, wc sc-e tliat each bundle in {tcntandruu*. 



* The anthers have here the form of a flattened 
vertical bandlet, on the back of which the con- 
nective alone is seen. The cells, which are ap- 
plied along the lengtli of the inner surface, 
dehisce first above (fig. 120). 

* This tiji, scarcely dilatetl, becomes rapidly soft 
and, as it were, pulpy, Iwundwl by the more con- 
sistent tissue of the subjacent portion of tiie style. 

' Each has two very distinct coatti, and the 
circumference of tlicnmbilicus becomes thickem'd 
before tlowering time into a small circular rim, 
the rudiment of the aril. 



BILLENIACEJE. 



87 



eacli with a membranous aril,' and containing within its coats 
the copious flesliy albumen, near the apex of which is a 
minute dicotyledonous embryo with its radicle inferior (figs. 
122, 123). 

C. cnneiforniis, like several allied species, is a small Australian 
shrub bearing simple, alternate, subsessile, exstipuUite leaves, with 
a gutter-like dilatation above the base. The flowers are solitary 
and terminate the branches (fig. 115). In some other species the 
flowers are solitary and imbedded in the centre of a bud, whose 
leaves pass gradually into the sepals. Sometimes, again, these 
plants are villous, with narrow leaves and slender branches, and 
assume the appearance of certain Chenopods or Cistinea." About 
fifteen species have been counted in Australia;^ all have yellow 
flowers. There may be tolerably nu- 
merous variations in the number of 
stamens,^ carpels,^ and ovules.^ 

The genus Adrastaa^ of which but 
one species^ is as yet known, a native 
of New Holland, presents nearly all the 
external characters of Candollea and 
Hibbertia, with which genus it has 
been proposed to unite it.' But on 
examining its androceum we see (figs. 
124, 125) that it consists of two whorls of five stamens each ; and what 




Adrastaa salicifoUa. 

Fig. 124. 
Floriferous branch. 



^ Here tbe aril is a large yellowish sac covering 
the seed entirely, its margins meeting, or even 
overlapping. In many species it is smaller ; it 
does not cover the seed, and is divided near the 
opening into more or less lacerated lobes. 

" This is especially the case with C. hellanthe- 
moides TuECZ. (Bull. Soc. Natur. Mosc, xxii. 
ii. 8). The linear leaves, covered with whitish 
down, are collected around the flowers to form a 
sort of involucre. The staminal bundles only 
bear two or three anthers. The carpels are 
three in number, each usually containing but one 
ovule. 

3 Steudei, pi. Preiss., i. 273 ; ii. 236. — 
F. MuELL., Fragm. Phyt. Austr., ii. 2; iv. IIG ; 
Plants of Victoria, i. 13.— Bentu., op. cit., 
41-46. 

•* In each bundle the number of anthers varies 
from two or three to an indefinite number. The 
alternipetalous bundles may even be replaced by 
single stamens. Besides this, single stamens are 



sometimes observed opposite the petals. (B. H., 
luc. cit.). The pollen grains have three longi- 
tudinal grooves. 

•'' The two lateral carpels are often wanting. 
The surface of each is usually glabrous and 
traversed by a vertical groove along the internal 
angle. 

® Many species, like C. helianthemoides, 
C. pachyrldza Benth. {Hibbertia pachi/rhiza 
Steud.), &c., have but one ascending ovule. 
More rarely three are observed, of which one is 
superior and nearly median. 

7 DC, Si/st., i. 424 : Prodr., i. 73.— Endl., 
Gen., n. 4752.— B. H., Gen., 15, n. 15.— A. 
Gray, in Amer. Explor. Exped., i. 18. — Benth. 
& F. Muell., Fl. Austr., i. 46.— H. B>., 
Adansonia, vi. 279. 

8 A. salicifoUa DC, loc. cit. 

3 Hibbertia salicifoUa F. Muell., Fragm., 
5. 161. 



as 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PL.iNTS. 



is most remarkable in the arrangement of these is, that those super- 
posed to the five petals are external to those superposed to the sepals, 
enfolding and hiding thcin entirely in the bud.' ^Moreover, the sepals 
are unequal and quincuncial.the petals imbricated, the anthers introrse, 
dehiscing by two longitudinal" clefts, as in Candollea. The carpels, 
two in number, are free. The ovary contains one or two anatropous 
ascending ovules ; the micropyle is originally^ turned inwards, and 
even in the flower the umbilicus is surrounded by a rudiment of 
the arillary collar. The style, grooved the whole length of its internal 

angle, tapers upwards to a point. 
A. salicifolla is a small suffrutescent 
l^lant growingin marshy soils, wherein 
its woody stock burrows, covered 
with numerous adventitious roots. 
The slender branches bear alternate, 
very unequal leaves, placed close 
together on the axis of a short branch 
which ends in a nearly sessile flower, 
resemble the last leaves, the spiral of which they 




Adrastaa salicifulia. 

Fig. 125. 

Longitudiiuil section of flower. 



The sepals 
continue. 

Pachynema* of the same country as Adrastaa, has its flowers (figs. 
1 2G, 127) similarly organized. But of the stamens only seven or eight 
are fertile. Their small anthers are two-celled and introrse ; the 
filaments supporting them are dilated from above downwards to 
form a kind of pyramid. The two innermost stamens are reduced 
to these filaments, each bearing at the tip a sterile gland instead of 



' On this account we have not chosen Adrastcea 
as tlie first type of the DiUeniacpcc, and also hc- 
utUHcthe exiiet alteniiition of these stamens with 
one anotlier, and their exact superposition to the 
pieces of the calyx and corolhi do not always 
exist. Hence we may conclude, as we have else- 
where Niid {Adiiimonia, vi. 2(;5), "that here wo 
have not to deal with the usual androceal whorls 
found in re|,'ularly di|)l()stemonou8 flowers." The 
study of the evolution o( the andnncum will alone 
reveal its true symmetry. Hut there is no doulit 
that the stamens are not, as Kkntham i^ 
IIOUKKR assert, aymplui m-rie niiunlilfr jieri- 
phcr'wa." Some are so much internal to the 
others, that in the hud they are not seen on re- 
movinif the corolla. 

• These clefts ht'yin near the tup of the 



anthers ; those of the two cells approach closely 
at the summit, hut without coalescinjj. The 
filament, flattened and hroad, is almost peta- 
loid; the connective is continuous «ilh it, 
and the anther cells arc so applie<l on the inner 
face that nothing of them is seen on the 
dorsum. 

* When there is hut one, as it develojies it 
undergoes a more or less decided twisting, so as 
to turn the uiicrop^lo sideways, or even out- 
wards. 

* K. IlKOWN, in DC, S;,st., i. 412; Prodr.. I. 
7U. — Dklkss , /com. Stl., i. t. 73. - Km>i.., Oen., 
n. 1750. -H. H., Oen., 15, n. It?.— Hi nth. k 
V. MiTKi.L., Fl. Austral., i. 47.— II. H.n., 
Adanxunia, vi. 27U. 



BILLBNIACEM. 



89 



an anther.' The carpels, two in number, are analogous to those of 
Adrasicea. Near the base of the inner angle are inserted two 
ascending ovules, of which the micropyle is at first introrse. The 
dry fruits often contain a single arillate seed. 

Ilidtia,- which has been raised to the rank of a distinct fjenus, is 
merely a Pachi/tiema with flattened staminal filaments not dilated 





Pachynema complanatu 



Fig. 126. 
Floriferous branch. 



Fig. 127. 
Longltudiuul section of flower. 



below ; but one species is known, which has been rightly replaced 
in the genus Fachynema? The small shrubs or undershrubs consti- 
tuting this genus have no true leaves. Tliey have only small scales 
or bracts arranged alternately on the axes, which may be nearly round 
or deformed — flattened like those of Xylophjlla, and sometimes even 
very broad and quite leaf-like.^ The flowers are axillary to these 
scales, solitary or in few-flowered cymes, and supported on short, 
often recurved, styles, with the dilated summit of which they are 
articulated. 



' The symmetry of the androceum with 
respect to the perianth is not easy to make out 
in dried flowers. It seems that there is but one 
whorl of sterile stamens of whicli some are de- 
duplicated. The fertile stamens are internal to 
these and alternate with the two carpels. (See 
Adansonia, vi. 266.) There are sometimes nine 
fertile stamens in Pachynema, and more usually 
seven, of which one appears to be exactly opposite 
a petal. 

2 DuTJiiM. & Hart., Hook. Journ., vii. 
51.— Walp., Ann., iv. 37.— B. H., Gen., loc. 
cit. 

•' P. conspicuum Bextu., FL Auslr., loc. 



n. 1. — Huttia consplctta J. Decmm;., loc. 



* There is hardly any natural order in which 
this sort of deformity of the axes which is 
usually correlated with the reduced appendicular 
system does not occur ; we may cite in this place 
(besides the EuphorhiacecE) the Polygonacece, 
UmhelUfera, Legiuninosce, &c. P. complanatum 
K. Br., derives its specific name from the form of 
its branches, which are like little flattened 
bandlets, with nearly parallel edges, as in Car- 
mickalia, Possiaa, &c. The cladodia of P. 
dilalatum Bexth., have e.xmtly the form of 
those of certain Xylophyllas from the Antilles. 



90 NATURAL HI STORY OF PLANTS. 

11. HIBBERTIA SERIES. 

In all the genera we have as yet examined, tlie number of stamens 
or bundles of stamens is definite. In liihhcrtia,^ on the contrary, 
we observe at maturity an indefinite number of stamens free, or 
nearly so, for almost their whole length. In other respects all the 
characters of the tiower are those of Candolk-a. Thus, in the liower 




Hibberiia volubttis. 
Fio. 128. 



of J/. voIubUia Andr." (figs. 128, 130), we see, on the slightly convex 
receptacle, a calyx of five' unequal, unlike sepals quincuncially 
imbricated in the bud (fig. 129) ; a corolla of five petals alternate 



• Uihherlia Andu., Bot. Repos., t. 120, >72. 

Sai.ISU., Par. bond., t. 73. — DC, Si/xt., i. 

425 ; Prudr., i. 73.— Spach, Suit, a Huff., vii. 
420.— Kndi., Oen.,\\. 47r,:».— Payku, (>r<f,inog., 
283. t. 51, fij,'H. 1-17.— H. II., (i'-n., 14, n. 13.— 
H. Hn., Adimsonifi, vi. 27'.'. 

' £oi. Rep., t. 120. — Dillenia humilU Don., 



Cat. h. Canlabr. (ex Vknt., Ch. d« plant., 11). — 
D. scaiidfiis W., Spec, ii. 1251. — 1). tpeciosa 
CrRT., Hot. ifiitf., t. 4-t9, nccTno.—JJ. immera- 
Jloru 0.1WL.. Bot. Jirp.. 27. 

' In cuUiviition, wf iimy finil exceptional 
tt'tr.inicronM flowtrs. 



DILLENIACE2E. 



91 



with the sepals, and of a somewhat variably imbricated aestivation ; 
an aiidroceum of a large number of stamens arranged, when at 
maturity/ without any apparent order below the gynseceum, and 
each formed of a filament free for almost its whole length, and a 




Fig. j29. 
Diagram. 



C'^^S.^.V 




Hihberiia volubilis. 

Fig, 130. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



basifixed, two-celled, introrse anther dehiscing by two longitudinal 
clefts.^ These stamens are shorter, as they are more external ; and 
some of them, quite outside the rest, are even reduced to short sterile 
rods. The gynseceum most usually consists of five^ free carpels super- 
posed to the petals, each consisting of a one-celled ovary, surmounted 
by a style, dilated and stigmatiferous at the tip. In the internal 
angle of the ovary is seen the placenta, which bears about half-a- 
dozen^ anatropous, ascending ovules, of which the raphes tend 
to be adjacent. The thickened funicle is early dilated around the 
hilum to form the commencement of an aril.^ The fruit is multiple, 
consisting of dry carpels, like those of CandoUca, each containing one 
or more seeds, possessing a membranous aril more or less laciniate 
at the margin. H. volubilis is a sarmentose shrub, with alternate 



^ We shall see that at an earlier period they 
are united into five bundles, of variable form, 
alternate with the petals. The anthers may be 
of the same form as in Candollea (fig. 120). 

' The whitish pollen grains have each three 
equidistant longitudinal grooves. 

^ This species is one of those in which two 
whorls of carpels are pretty often found, of which 
the internal one consists of alternipetalous ele- 
ments, and may be complete or incomplete. 
More rarely the carpels exceed ten in number. 
TuEPiN has given a very exact figure of a plant 
with a gynseceum of eight carpels {Did. des 
Set. Nat., t. 116); we rarely meet with less than 
five. 



•* This number varies; but most usually we 
find five or six ovules 'in two vertical rows; they 
are ascending, but at the same time turn towards 
one another, so that the raphes nearly touch. 
They have two coats, and the youngest are 
highest up on the placenta. 

* It is a fair time before anthesis that the 
aril appears as a small ring, and afterwards as a 
cup with an entire rim. By the unequal de- 
velopment, this rim is more or less raised at 
various points— the origin of the deep lobiug 
observed iu the aril at a later period. The cells 
composing it are elongated and translucent, with 
thin, brittle walls. 



92 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

exstipulate leaves articulated at the base. The flowers are solitar}', 
and terminate the short branches' which bear below them a few 
alternate, more or less sepaloid, bracts. 

Many other lUhbcrtiaK, which, like the one we have just studied, 
grow in Australia, present the same general organi- 
zation, but with some diff'erences in habit and 
flower. The stems do not climb, being suffrutescent," 
or herbaceous.' The leaves may be narrow, like 
those of cei-tain Heaths,^ or dilated below into an ' 
imperfect sheath. The carpels contain a variable 
number of ovules,* and are themselves sometimes ten 
in number (five superposed to the sepals), or even 
indefinite. In some species the gyna?ceum consists of a 
single carpel.® But in all the stamens and the external 
staminodes, if present, are arranged in a circle round 
the carpels, an arrangement which calls to mind 
the name " Cyclandra"'' given to all this section of 
the genus llihbert'ia. 
The genus Trimorphandrcf has been proposed for a cyclandrous 
llihljcrtia, of which the outer stamens are short and sterile, as 
in most of the preceding plants ; but some of the inner fertile 
stamens are longer than the others — a fact which exists in a 




» n. perfoliata, HuG., in PL Prtiss., i. 266 
{Candullea perfoliata Leum.), often cultivated 
in our conservatories, has a Hower of the same 
construction as //. volubilis, with the outer sta- 
mens sterile, and with live carpels, each contain- 
iug from two to four ascending ovules. The 
raphe is at first exterior, but as the ovules grow 
the raphes of the adjacent ovules turn towards 
each other. Besides the fact that the leaves 
should be noted for their sessile auriculatc blades, 
we must especially notice that in this species the 
solitary terminal flowers are on long peduncles, 
but what has been termed usurpation takes 
place ; tlie axillary branch being rapidly developed 
to form a pscudo stem, while the llower becomes 
very distinctly k'af-opi>oscd. This occurs in several 
other species, though not w> decidedly. When 
there are four ovules in two vertical rows the 
lower pair are much the older. Long before an- 
thesis they have each an arillury ring round the 
umbilicus, while the others show no trace of it. 

•' This is the ca'^e in most of our cultivated 
Hj)ecies except 11. volidiilix. 

" Like (jur culliv.iltd //. t/rosauhirittfoliti, its 
habit haji been compared to that of J'utentUla. 



* Especially in certain species of Pleurandra 
cultivated in our conservatories. Sevenil liave 
the aspect of certain Salsolaceif, while others 
possess a whitish down recalling that of the Sun- 
flowers. 

* As in Trisema from a couple to half a score 
may be counted, but rarely more than this. Their 
raphes are more or less turned towards one 
another. 

" For instance, JI. monogyna H. Hr. (ex. DC, 
Prodr., i. 74) which, with the androceum and 
perianth of the preceding s|)ecie8, )>08se8scs but 
one carj)el with one or two ascending ovules in 
its ovary. This we at one time considered the 
type of a spt^cial section, very near Trisema, under 
the name "Jlaplot/t/ne" (Adaiisonia, vi. 280). 
Hut this cannot Iw maintained as a distinct sec- 
tion if, following Hkntham (/7. Austr., i. 37), we 
make //. monogyna only a variety of 11. diffusa 
R. Hk. (ex. DC. Syst. \. 129). 

7 F. .Mi'Ki.LEK, ex. H. H., Gen. 11, n. 13 (4). 
— Oihroliusia TvKtz., Hull. Mouc, xxii. (1849), 
ii. 3. 

" T.pulchella Wii. Si V,\i., luliull. f>uc. Hot. 
xi. 190; Aiiu. 6c. A'al.. sor. 5, ii. IW. 



DILLENIACEJE. 



greater or less degree in many other species of lUbhcrUa, and 
hence does not appear of any great importance. In the species 
already known, a native of New Caledonia, whose flowers are 
in short, few-flowered axillary spikes, the large stamens near 
the centre are from two to four in number.' In another species, 
from Van Diem en's Land, which we have called //. tasmanica- 
(fig. 132), there are still 
more of these large stamens, 
of which upwards of six 
may often be noted. The 
flowers are also axillary, and 
pedunculate and solitary. 
Most of the organs, espe- 
cially the branches, sepals, 
and ovaries, are covered with 
scale-like hairs. ^ The two 
carpels each contain a va- 
riable number^ of ascending 
ovules in two vertical rows. 

Hibbertia grossdaricBfolia Salisb. 
New Holland, sometimes cultivated in our conservatories, has been 
made by some authors the type of a distinct genus, Burtonia,^ on 
account of several noteworthy characters. Before bearing the 
floral organs, the receptacle swells into a head, the upper surface 
of which is nearly flat. The perianth, consisting of five imbricate 
sepals, and five imbricate petals, is inserted with the androceum on the 




Hibhertia (Trimorphandra) tasmanica. 

Fig. 132. 

Longitudinal section of flower. 



(figs. 133-184), a native of 



1 We have observed [Adansonia, vi. 264) that 
if the large stamens when two in number alter- 
nate with the carpels, yet we can no longer find 
any such relations with the gynseceum when there 
are three or four of them ; and further, on 
the strength of certain flowers " another genus 
Teiramorphandra might be founded ; for in them 
we see several stamens intermediate between the 
long internal stamens and the outermost of the 
fertile stamens, both in position and in the length 
and form of the anthers." 

- Adamonia, loc. cit. note 1. The internal 
stamens differ mainly in size, not form, from the 
middle ones. 

^ Several Oceanian species of Hibhertia also 
possess squamiform hairs on the calyx and gyna;- 
ceum. From this peculiarity H. lepidota R. Br. 
(DC. Syst. Veg. i. 432) derives its name. In this 



the stamens are also remarkable, forming larger 
bundles with more stamens to each on the one 
side of the flower than on the other. 

'' In the New Caledonia species the number of 
ovules (six, according to the authors of the 
genus) may, as we have observed {loc. cit., 263, 
note 2) be reduced to three. In the Tasmanian 
plant are three or four ascending ovules in each 
carpel. 

^ Par. Lond., t. 73. — SiMS, in Bot. Mag., 
t. 1218.— DC, Prodr., i. 73.— IT. crenata 
Ande., Bot. Rep., t. 472. — H. latifoJia 
Steud., from Spach, Suit, a Buff., vii. 419. 

^ Salisb., from DC, Syst., i. 425. — B. gros- 
sularicefolia Spach, loc. cit. — Warlurtonia 
potentillina F. MuELL., Fragm., i. 230, t. 9; 
ii. 182. 



94 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



circumference of this cup ; the g}mscceum is nearly central.' This 
last often consists of ten carpels,- five superposed to the sepals, and 
five alternate with them. The ovary contains two ascending ovules, 
whose micropyle is at first introrse : the style is bent outwards, and 
swells at the tip into a small stigraatiferous head, emarginate on the 




Fig. 133. 
Flower. 



Hihhertia (Burtonia) (jrossular'iafol'ui. 
Flo. 134. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



inside. The stamens, whose anthers are distinctly introrse,' are 
shorter, as they are the more external ; usually some of these are 
even sterile, as in J[. vohibUis. The peculiar form of the receptacle 
produces a somewhat perigynous insertion of the outer whorls, and 
so gives the flower quite the appearance of several Rosacea', such as 
Pofentilla or Gemn. The branches of //. f/rossularicpfolia are slender 
and sarraentose. The petioles of the alternate leaves are dilated 
at the base. The flowers, really terminal, in time become lateral 
and leaf-opposed.* 

In these species, and in all those analogous to them,* the stamens 
occupy the centre of the flower, as we have said above. In those 



' The younger tlie (lower is, the larger is that 
dome-8haj)ed Bumniit of the receptacle around 
which the carpels are inserted to fonn a sort of 
crown, but leaving the very centre quite free. 

- '!"lieru may be more or less than ten. In 
the latter ca^se the position of the two or three 
supernumerary carj)els is not constant. 

•* Later the microjiylc is more or less bent 
outwards. Long before the llowcr expands 
the hiluni is surrounded by a snnill arillary 
ring, 

* Hesides the leaf opj^mito the intlorescencc 
separated from it by a " usurping" buil rapidly 
developed into a pscudostcni, the tloral |)eduncle 



may bo accouipanied by another leaf ojijxisitc 
the first, often but little developwl and reiluceil 
to a bract. This arises not from the bninch but 
from the peduncle, which mny bciir it either 
close to its biise as described, or at a variable 
height, and which sometimes bears several other 
alternate bracts. 

* These alone form the getuis Hihhertia of 
I)k Canoolle & Knulu'Hkk, maintaine<l n« a 
distinct genus by Hhomjmaut, who thinks that 
" these motlitications in the organization of the 
nndroreum supply good generic distinctions" 
(/op. cit.). 



DILLENIACE2E. 



95 



united under the name of " P/c/n-anr/ra,"^ which have been considered 
by some authors as a distinct genus, but which, despite their opinion, 
cannot easily be distinguished from Hibbcrtia^- the androceum is 
restricted to one side of the receptacle, and the gynajceum, 
which at first occupied its top, is hence thrown to one side. The 
perianth is as in the cyclandrous Jlibbcrfia. Thus, in the flower of 
P. Readii Hort. (figs. 135-138), cultivated in our conservatories. 





Fig. 136. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 





Hihbertia [Fleurandra) Readii. 
Fig. 137. Fig. 138. 

Diagram. Flower without its perianth. 

we find a calyx of five quincuncially imbricated sepals, a corolla of 
five petals alternate with these, imbricated, or more rarely contorted 
in the bud. The stamens are united near their bases into an oppo- 
sitipetalous bundle.^ The basifixed introrse two-celled anthers 
dehisce longitudinally. The gyna^ceum consists of two excentric 



' Labill., Nov.-Holland., ii. 5, t. 143, 144. 
— DC, Prodrom., i. 71. — Delessert, Icon., i. 
t. 78-81.— Endl., Gen., n. 4754.— Payer, 
Organog., 234. — H.Bn., Adansonia, iii. 129; vi. 
262. — Cislomorpha Cal. (from LiXDL., loc. cit.). 

2 Accordingly Bextham: & Hookee have 
reunited these genera {Gen., 14). 



3 We have observed {Op. cit., 130) that the 
formation of this bundle begins by a single 
nipple-shaped swelling, nearly central, but 
somewhat nearer petal No. 5, than the others. 
This single sepal is later on deduplicated centri- 
fugally. 



06 



NATURAL niSTORY OF PLAKTf^. 



carpels, each superposed to a petal,' which appear to cohere for a certain 
distance along the inner angle, where each ovary contains a vertical 
placenta bearing two parallel rows of ascending anatropous ovules ; 
the micropyle looks downwards and inwards. 
The plant is frutescent, and gives off linear 
exstipulate leaves. The flowers are terminal, 
and usually solitary. 

In certain species of P/cnra/K/rn, the sta- 
mens nearest the perianth are reduced to 
staminodes ;" and in others, which ofler a 
good transition between these and the cy- 
clandrous 1 libber t'lce, there are not only 
staminodes intermixed with the fertile sta- 
mens,^ but on the other side of the gy- 
na^ceum, whose organization remains unaltered are some of these 
sterile filaments which never become fertile.* Now so nu- 
merous are the transitions between the species of Hibbcrfia which 
possess a circular and perfect androceum, and those which possess 
unilateral stamens, either all fertile or all sterile, that after 
studying all the species it appears impossible to split them up into 
sufficiently distinct generic groups.' 




Hihbertia anguslifolia. 
Fig. 139. 
Diagram. 



1 We have observed {loc. cit.) how the 
gynseceum first appears as two carpellary leaves 
sapcrposed to the petals which alternate with sepal 
5, and how the a])parcntly alternipetalous dis- 
sepiment is formed merely hy the floral axis 
drawn out into a wedge and receiving the inser- 
tion of the bases of the carpellary leaves on its 
very oblifjuc fiiccs. 

- This occurs not only in Pleurandra pro- 
perly so called, but also in UevuMemma (ex. 
DC, Syxt.. i. 412; Prodr. i. 71; Deless.. 
Icon., t. 71-77 ; — Km)I-., (Jen., n. 4757;— 
Walp., Ann., i. 16, some of which are Ocea- 
nian, while others come from Madagascar — 
the latter often i)os!;essinp oi)posite or nearly 
opi)Osite leavi-s. They were collected and stiidied 
for the first time" by Commkksov and by 
NoROMiA, who, according to DurKTiT-TnouARS 
(den. Madat/tmc, IS), gave them the nunio 
Anidjn. In 11. Cuntmernonil DC, there are 
flowers without Htcrilo stamens. Kach carpel 
contains two ov«iK-s. Tlie gynareum is the 
game in IT. deallmlu H. \Ui., when' tlie insertion 
of the styles is much bent outwanls. Tlie fertile 
stamens have long erect linear ititrorsc anthers, 
the external staminodes ore much shorter. On 



Hemistemma, see also Hook. F., ITooJc. Journ. x. 
48 ; and F. Mttelleb, F/nqm. i. 151. This last 
observer has also clearly shown that species like 
//. spicafa serve as a passage between Pleurandra 
and llemixtemmn {Fraijtn. ii. 1). 

^ Hemijdeurandra HKNTn.& HoOK. {loc. cit.). 
" Stamina unilateralia ; staminodia ad utrttmque 
latus staminnm sita r. in tota peripheria. In 
Hemistepho Ducmm. & Harv. (Hook. Joum., 
vii. 51) peduncvli vnilateraliler (X-Jlori et 
staminodia nonnuUa eliam .fiib niaminihus oh- 
servantvr." Ilemistephus limaris Drimm. & 
Harv. was to F. Mueller Hemistemma linen re 
{Fraffm.,\. 162). The sjime author has projxised 
a section Diphurandrn for his //. a.<tperifulia. 

* In Jl. angu.st>foHa Hextu. (Fl. Auatr., i. 
21), the diagram of which is given in fig. 139, 
we often see two bundles of fertile stamens, with 
a bundle of staminodes between them — one on 
each side, and a fourth the other side of the 
gynieceum. 

* " Gtnus e stnmininn indole commode in 
nectiows \ diriditiir, fjuarum nonnuUtt ab aur- 
toribut pro (jeneribux hahentur. yimit tamen 
artijicialet tunt, ♦•«• habitu contonant." (H. H., 
loc. cit.) 



DILLENIAGE2E. 



97 



For the same reasons, Trisenia Hook. F.,' vvliicli Father Mont- 
rouzier' names Vanieria, should also be included in the ^Qnu^JIi/j/jcrtln. 
The single carpel/ whose ovary contains as many as a dozen anatro- 
pous ascending ovules, is surrounded by a large number of unequal 
fertile stamens, with narrow two-celled anthers dehiscing laterally, and 
bj a calyx of five imbricate sepals, alternating witli which we often 
see but three or four petals. The flowers grow in terminal unilate- 
ral spikes, like those other 
Oceanian species of llihhertia, 
called Hemipleuravdra, or those 
Hemistemmas which grow in 
Australia and Madagascar. 

These last have opposite, or 
nearly opposite leaves, un- 
like all the other species of the 
genus Ilibberfln, as we limit 
it,'' which are shrubs, or under- 
shrubs, with exstipulate leaves, 
whose petioles are articulated 
at the base. About eighty 
species are known,* without 
counting those described as 
such, but which should only ^ 
be retained as varieties. 

The genus SchumacJierid 
consists of plants whose ses- 
sile or sub- sessile flowers are 
grouped in unilateral inflorescences (fig. 140), like those of the 
sections Henustemma, Trisewa, &c., of Hihbcrtia, from which, on the 




Fig. 140. 
ScJiumacheria castanecefoUa. 



• Hook. Joiirn., ix. 47, t. 51.— Be. «& Gr., 
Ann, Sc. Nat., sci*. 5, ii. 150; Bull. Soc. 
Bot. de Fr., xl. 191. — H. Bn., Adansonia, vi. 
259. 

2 Mem. Acad. Lyon, x. (18G0), 176. 

^ Owing to this single carpel, Trisema is to 
the other Jlibberfias with unilateral inflores- 
cences, what M. monoc/t/na R. Br. is to the other 
pleiogynous species of Australia whose inflores- 
cence resembles its own. But it appears to us 
impossible to retain this as a distinct genus (see 
Adansonia, vi. 269). 

VOL. I. 



Hihbertia. 
Sections 7. 



1. Cyclandra. 

2. Burtonia. 

3. Trimorphandra. 

4. Trisema. 

5. Hemistemma. 

6. Ilemij^leurandra. 

7. neurandra. 

'" DC. Prodr., i. 71, 73.— Walp., Rep., i. 64 j 
ii. 716 ; V. 8 ; Ann., i. 15 ; ii. 14 ; iv. 35. — 
Bentham, Fl. Austral, i. 17. — F. MxTEti., 
Fragm., i. 161, 217 ; ii. 1 ; iii. 1 ; iv. 115, 151. 
—Hook. F., Fl. Tasman., 13.— A. Gray, 
Amer. Explor. Fxped., i. 20. 

^ Vahl., Kiiibenh. Sehkab. Skrift., vi. 122.— 

H 



98 



XATCIRAL niSTOBY OF PLANTS. 




Schiimacheria cattaneeefolia. 
Fig. 141. 
Flower. 



whole, it differs only in a very limited number of characters. The 
calyx consists of five imbricated sepals (fig. 141), the corolla of 
as many petals, also imbricated. The 
numerous stamens are all situated as in 
Pleurandra, on one side of the receptacle, 
opposite one of the sepals ; the filaments, 
free above, are united below into a blade 
concave internally.' The anthers are 
erect,' consisting of two cells adnate for 
their whole length to the borders of the 
connective, and dehiscing by two short 
clefts, or elongated pores, one on each 
side of the top of the connective. The 
gynaeceum is excentric, consisting of two free carpels placed face to 

face, one side of each being turned 
towards the concavity of the 
androceum. There is often also 
a third carpel placed between the 
two others and the androceum 
to which it turns its back. 
Each of these carpels consists of a 
uniovulate ovary, tapering into a 
slender style, whose tip is covered 
internally by stigmatic pai)illa}. 
The ovule, inserted near the base 
of the ovary, is ascending, with 
the micropyle downwards and in- 
wards. Tlie fruit consists of two 
or three dry indehiscent one- 
seeded carpels ; and the arillate 
seed* contains a minute embryo 
near the apex of the fieshy albu- 
men. The genus Sc/ttdiiacheria 




Telracera lioiriniana.' 

Via. 112. 

Fructiferous branch. 



AuNOTT, Juliiili.New P/iilos. Journ., xvi. 315. 
— WioiiT, Illtuitr., t. 4. — Kndl., (Jen., u. 1751. 
— Hook. & Thomh., Ft. Ind., i. Go. — Wai.i'., 
Kep.,\.(A; ^h;/., iv. 35.— B. H., den., 13, n. 
8 — II. H.V., Ailamunia, vi. 2m.— J'letirudetmiu 
Grahamii Au.n., loc. fit. 

' The base of the lUKlroceuiii foriim a Hort of 
imperfect tube, or bliell, rcciiUinfj that oi Lictfth'm. 



" That is, when adult ; but at a certain stago 
the liliiniunts are bont tlowii on the jjvnaieuin. 

^ Its Hiirfuce in punctato; the aril is but little 
develoi)e«l. 

•• See Adaiisonia, vii. 300, t.vii. This siKvie*. 
a native of Montba/o and Zanzibar, in, so to 
speiik, interineiliato between Ttlracent and 
Jlihbirlla. 



BILLENIAGEJE. 



99 



of wliicli but few species are known, natives of Ceylon,' consists of 
climbinr^ shrubs, whose curved branches bear alternate leaves, the 
petioles of which are channelled and dilated at the base to ensheath 
the branch to a variable extent. The secondary nerves of the blade 
are parallel and very near one another.- The spikes of flowers are 
grouped into terminal or axillary ramified bunches, each flower is 
accompanied by two unequal lateral bracts.^ 

The genus Tefracera^ has the perianth oiliihhertia or Schumacheria — 
i.e, usually Ave imbricated sepals,* and as many imbricated petals." The 
indefinite stamens, arranged all round the receptacle as in CycJandra, 
have a peculiarity, which, of no great importance in itself,' is yet useful 
in practical determinations. The filament, corrugated in the bud, is 
gradually dilated towards the tip, and bears an anther whose cells 






Tetracera obovata. 
Figs. 143, 144. 
Stamens. 



Tetracera {Delima) sarmentoxa. 
Fig. 145. 
Flower. 



are small and more or less separated, and parallel or diverging below. 



' Thwaites, Enum. PI. Zet/L, 4. 

- All these parts are rich in a blackish colour- 
ins: matter. 

^ These flowers are (as we have stated) uni- 
lateral, like those of many species of certain 
sections of Hibhertia ; it is very difficult to find 
characters of any value by which to distinguish 
clearly Schumacheria from those. 

* L., Gen., n. 683.— Juss., Gen., 339.— DC, 
Prodr., i. fiT.— Spach, Suit, a Stiff., vii. 414. — 
Endl., Gen., n. 4765, 4766.— B. H. Gen., 12, 
n. 6.— H. Bn., Adansonia, vi. 259-280 (inch 
Delima L., Trachytella LoUB., Assa HOUTT., 
Doliocarpus RoL., Ricaurtea Tria>'., Soramia 



AuBL., Tigarea AuBX., Rhinium Schreb., 
Calinea AUBl., JEuryandra FoEST., Wlial- 
bomia Thg., RJialingia Dennst., Delitnopsis 

MlQ.). 

* The imbrication varies, but is often quin- 
cuncial. We often observe six, or more fre- 
quently four, sepals, of which the outermost is 
broader and thicker than the rest. 

® One or two petals may be wanting, as is 
very frequently the case in Delima. 

^ We shall see that too absolute a value has 
been assigned it, and that in the groups Rib- 
bertiecB and Dillenieiv are plants whose anthers 
have similar dilated connectives. 

H 2 



100 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

They are either lateral, suhextrorse, or subintrorse,' and dehisce by 
longitudinal clefts (figs. 143, lU). The gymeceum consists of free 
carpels superposed to the petals, and of equal number, fewer, or solitary 
(fig. 145). In some species the flowers may even be polygamous, 
owing to the complete abortion of the gynajceum." Of the same 
form as in Uihhcrtia, these caq^els each contain at least two, often 
more, ascending ovules in their ovaries.' The fruit is dry, and 
dehisces either by one internal cleft or by two longitudinal clefts. 
It contains one or several seeds, each of which has an aril of variable 
size,' and contains a small embryo at the apex of the abundant fleshy 
albumen. 

The name Ddund" has been given to a Tctraccra' with unicarpel- 
lary flowers (fig. 145), the ovary of which contains a fairly large 
number of ascending ovules ;" that of BicanrtecC to some American 
THraccras, in which the single carpel becomes a fruit with a some- 
what fleshy pericarp dehiscing in two lateral valves ; that of JJolio- 
carpuH^ to other species in which the more or less succulent pericarp 
does not dehisce when ripe. But in other respects all these plants 
present all the characters of Tctraccra in organization and habit, 
so that it seems to us they cannot be separated generally. 



' These variations may, as we shall see, occur in ascending, in each vertical row. Tlie single 

different stamens of the snme flower, the direction carpel tapers up into a style, whose tip is crownetl 

of tlie cells seeming to bo partly owing to the by a small stigmatiferous enlargement. Tlio 

deformity undergone by the coniuictive from the placenta is superposed to one of the sepals. These 

pressure of the surrounding stamens. are very unequal, the outer ones being much 

'■' There are whole branches in T. vohibili.i aud smaller in proportion than the two innermost, 

some oilier species which bear only staminate This difference is the first stage towards the 

flowers. arrangement in Davilla. The comlla often 

' T. Ansa has iis many as a dozen ; T. Sar- consists of only three petals, of wbieh cue is 

mentosa has np to ten. anterior. The anther-cells arc usually extrorse, 

■• The aril is usually seen in unexpanded and open by somewhat oblicpie clefts. The fruit 
flowers as a little collar round the base of each is dry, and opens like a jiod from above down- 
ovule, wards, both internally and exteriudly. Most of the 

* L., Oen., n. fi83; Ammn., i. 403. — Jtrss., ovules abort, so tliat oidy one or two a-scending 

0«»., 33y. — DC, I'rodr., i. (J9. — Enul., Gen., seeds remain, each surrounded by a yellow aril, split 

n. 4704-4700. — B. II., Gen., 12, n. 5. — Wam'., up inio narrow teeth longer than the seed. The 

Rp.,'\. 07; Ann.,'\\. 17; iv. 30. — Trachyti-lla outer integument is i)olislie«l blackish thick 

DC, St/xl., i. VIU. —Leon lot/ losxum Hanck, and testaceous; the inner one is thin mem- 

Diaifn. Chin., ex \\\tP., Ann., W.IH; iii. 812. — branous and whitish. The albumen is fleshy, 

Koromsel IIkum., ex Adanh., Fam., ii. 442. and the embryo very minute. The habit of this 

' T. Karnientona Vahi.., Symb., iii. 70; plant is very fairly represented in the flo/nwVrt/ 

Hoxu., Fl. Ind., ii. 045. — Arlna impern Loru., Miii/azine, t. lUt.'iM. 

Fl. Cochinch,, i. V^H.— Delima sarminluui L., " Tiuana, ^^/ih. .S'c. i\'«/., ser. 4, ix. 46. 

tipec, 730; DC. Pfodr.,\.i.\\i.— D. hehevarpu, » Koland., t-j DC, *>*'•»>• K*5; /'nxlr., \. 

1>C, Sygl., i. AOl.— Tmvhytella Ar/aa DC. 01).— Wau-., i^7>.. i. fir,;'ii. 7-«5; v. 13; -<«*., 

J'.ijilr.,i.70. — Lt-otitof/loxsiiiimcubnnn H\t<cv.. i. 15; ii. 17.- I'l.. & TuiANA, Ann. ifc. iV'ci/., 

A. Hfinnevlomm IIanck. kit. 4, xvii. 11).- H. II., GeM.,1'2, a. 4.— II. Hs.. 

'" l'"ron» four to live, hurizuntul, or somewhat AJumonia, vi. 2&y-2S0. 



BILLENIACEJE. 



101 



Thus defined,' the genus Tctraccra consists of half a hundred 
species of small trees or shrubs (often climbers) found in warm 
countries all over the world; in equinoctial America," Senegal,^ 
Mcidagascar, tropical Asia,' North Australia,' and New Caledonia/' 
Some species of Belima come from tropical Asia, and the Indian 
Archipelago/ Bicaurfeai^ from Columbia; Doliocarpus horn Guiana, 
Brazil, and some other parts of South America. 

The American genus Davilla'' (figs. 146-14S) may be considered 
as Tetracera^ in which, on the commencement of anthesis, the two 





Davilla toormidfolia. 



Fro. 146. 
Flower. 



Fig. 147. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



interior sepals became greatly developed, approaching one another 
to form two hollow hemispheres which persist around the fruit. The 
petals, stamens, and carpels, constructed like those of Tetracera, present 
the same modifications in form as in that genus."* 



Tetracera. j 
Sections 4. ' 



EuryandraiWahlbomid). Several 

carpels. 
Delima (JDelimopsis ?). Carpel 
single; dehiscence univalvular. 
Bicaitrtea. Carpel single; de- 
hiscence bivalviilar. 
Doliocarpus {Othlis, Soramia, 
Calinea, Tigarea ?). Carpel 
single, fleshy, iudebiscent. 
» Attbi., ■ Guian., ii. 920, t. 350, 351.— 
A. S. H., Flor. Bras. Merid., i. 11.— Pkesl., 
Rel. UmnJc, ii. 71.— Pl. & Teian., Ann. c. 
Nat., ser. 4, xvii. 20. — Eiciil., in Maet., FL 
Bras., Dilleniac, 83, t. 21-23. 

^ GuiLLEM. & Peee., Tentam, FL Senegamh., 
i. 2, t. i. 

* HooKEE & Tnosis., Fl. Ind., i.62.— Miquel, 
FL Ind. Bat., i. pars alt, 8. — Tuwait., Enum. 
PL ZeyL, 1. 

s F. MuEiL., Fragm., v. 1, 191. 
« Labill., Sert. Caled., 55, t. 55. — MoNT- 
EOrz., FL Ins. Art (Mem. Acad. Lt/on, x. 175). 
—Be. & Ge., Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr., xi. 190; 
Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 5, ii. 150. 



^ Bexth., FL Songh., 7. — Miqttel, Fl. Ind. 
Bat., i. pars alt., 7. Delimopsis, a Javanese plant, 
described in the same work (9) all the organs of 
which are covered with hairs and whose flowers 
have hut one carpel should not, it seems to us, 
be separated from the Tetraceras, of the section 
Delima. 

8 Vasdell., ex DC, Syst., i. 404 ; Prodr., \. 
R9.— SPACn, Suit, a Buff., vii. 415. — Endl., 
Gen., n. 4763. — Walp., Rep., i. 66 ; ii. 746 ; 
V. 13; Ann., i. 15; ii. 17; iv. 36.— B. H., Gen., 
12, n. 2. — H. Ex., Adansonia, vi. 269, 271, 
272.— Hieronia Velloz., FL Flum., v. t. 116. 

9 A. S. H., PL Us. Bra.siL, t. xxii. xxiii. ; 
Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 2, xvii. 130. — Eichi., Op. 
eit., 91. t. 24-27.— Peest.., lic-l. Ilank., ii. 72. 
Seem., Bot. Her. t. 13. — Pl. tt Tkiaxa, Ann. 
Sc. Nat., ser. 4, xvii. 18. — H. Bx., Adansonia, 
vi. 272. 

'" There is sometimes a single carpel, as in 
D. muUijlora A. S. H., sometimes two, as 
in D. elliptica A. S. H., and sometimes even 
more. In the flowers of certain species, such 
as D. rttgosa PoiE., the gynocccum is pretty 



102 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



CiirateUa^ (figs. 149, 150) is also very near Tetracrra; the herma- 
phrodite flowers are more usually tetra- than pentamerous, and 
consist of imbricate sepals ; petals also imbricated, and longer than 
the sepals ; numerous hypogynous stamens whose filaments are bent 
in the bud, and dilate towards the tip into a connective whicli bears 
the two adnate anther cells, whose dehiscence is nearly lateral ;' and 
two carpels which appear united along the lower part of their inner 
angles — an appearance due to the very oblique insertion of their 
bases on the faces of the dihedral angle formed by the central pro- 
jection of the receptacle. Each ovary contains two collateral 
ascending ovules, whose micropyles originally^ look downwards and 
inwards. The styles are distinct, and, traversed by an internal 
longitudinal groove, they are somewhat dilated in the stigmatiferous 
portion. The fruit consists of two dry dehiscent* or indehiscent' 
carpels, each containing one or two arillate seeds. This genus 




Davilla Kunthii. 
Fig. 148. 
Fruit in its indusium. 





Curatella americana. 
Fig. ll'J. Fig. 150. 

Flower. Longitudinal section of flower. 



)nsists of climbing shrubs from Guiana," Brazil,^ and the neigli- 



frcqucntly wanting or reduced to iin insignificant 
rudiment, so that tlie plant becouios polygamous. 
There are usually two collateral n-scending ovules 
in each ovary, with their micropyles downwards 
and inwards. The umbilicus early bears a ru- 
dimentary aril, which is afterwards well deve- 
loped. 

' L. ficn., n. 67'J.— LtEFL., ex AD.iNS., i'«m., 
ii. -ITjO — .li'HS., den., 28^.— DC, Frodr., i. 7(». 
— Si'ACU, Suit, a Jhiff., vii. 417.— A. S. H., 
J*l. U». Bnuil., t, xxiv.— Knul., (Jen., n. 4759. 
— Wali'., Hep., i. 65. — I'l. 4. Tkian., Ann. 
Sc. Nat., KIT. 4, xvii. 15, 23.— IJ. II., Gen., 
12, M. 3.— II. H.N., Adaniionia, vi. 2H(). - 
Pinzona, Maut. A. Zrcc, Flora (1H32), ii. 
Heibl.. 77. 

^ The clefts are Honiewliat nearer the inner 
than the outer luce : the connertivo is flattened, 



rectangular ; atul the filament is dilated below 
the anther. 

^ Later the ovule under^m-s a slight twisting on 
its vertical axis, turning the micropyle sideways 
and oiitward.s, while the raphe apprmuhes that 
of its neighbour. At the base of the ovulo 
aj)pearsa small coUar-sh^iju'd thickening, the first 
trace of the aril. 

^ The true Curatelln.i, of which C, anitricana 
L. is the type, are marked by the very distinct 
dorstd dehiscence of the carpels. 

' The incompleteness of the dehiscenco or ita 
entire absence characterizes Pinzona, whicli 
cannot be separated generically from Curatella 
for this reason alone. 

« At 11I.KT, Gtiiau., i. 571), t. 232. 

" A. S. II., /'/. r*. Ifnisil., loc. rit. — Nktto, 
Hill, not., Iti.-- Klilll.. op. rit., r.7, t. 15. 



BILLENIACEJE. 103 

bouring regions of tropical America.' The flowers are grouped in 
short many-flowered clusters of cymes, arising either from young 
shoots or from the wood of the old branches. 

As for the leaves, they are the same in all the genera we have just 
studied, presenting the same appearance in Tetraccra, Damlla, and 
Cnratc/Ia. They are simple and alternate ; the petiole is sometimes 
dilated, and channelled, or with a double stipuliform marginal wing ; 
the blade is simple, entire or slightly crenate or dentate, with numerous 
parallel secondary ribs at short distances from one another, extending 
obliquely or nearly transversely from the midrib to the margin of 
the leaf (fig. 142). These leaves are often scabrous or rugose, 
especially on the under surface. The arrangement of the flowers 
too is the same in all these genera ; the inflorescence is rarely reduced 
to a single flower ; more usually they consist of simple or ramified 
panicles of cymes springing from the old wood, the axils of the 
leaves, or even the axils of slightly developed bracts at the summit 
of the branches, so that the approximation of several partial inflo- 
rescences constitutes what is termed a terminal panicle. - 

With the same habit and foliage, Enipedockcc' has a single carpel 
like Bdima and Doliocarpus, containing a placenta on which are 
six ascending ovules in two vertical rows, and an elongated style 
stigmatiferous at the tip ; indefinite unequal free stamens, of which 
the dilated connective supports an extrorse anther of two oblique 
cells, diverging below and dehiscing by longitudinal clefts, and a 
corolla of three or four petals. But the calyx consists not of five, 
but of from ten to fifteen sepals, smaller as they are lower down 
on the elongated cylindrical receptacle on which they are regularly 
imbricated. Only one species^ is known, which comes from the 
south of Brazil. 

While in all the species we have just been studying, the (often 
climbing) stems are woody, and sometimes very much developed, 
the genus Acrotrema,' from tropical Asia,* consists of small herbs 



» DC, Prodr., i. 70.— Pl. & Teiana, in Ann. ElCHi., op. ciL, 82, t. £0. — Exdl., Gen., ii. 

Sc. Nat., ser. 4, xvii. 15, 23.— Seem., Bot. 4762.— B. H., Gen., 11, n. 1 (nee Rafix.). 

Herald, 75, 268.— W alp., Rep., i. 65. ■• U. ahiifoUa A. S. H., loc. cit. 

- In this case they are really racemes whose ^ Jack, Mai. MiscelL, ex Hook., Bot. Misc., 

branches are cymos, usually biparous; but the ii. 81. — Wight & Arn., Prodr., i. 6. — Exdl., 

exhaustion of the vegetation niakts them often Gen., n. 4758. — B. H., Gen., 13, n. 7.— H. Hx., 

become uniparous towards the end of the last Adansonia, vi. 277, 280. 

divisions of the general inHorescence. ^ WiuuT, Illmtr., t. 3. — Hook., Icon., 1. 157 ; 

3 A. S. H., Flor. BrasiL Mend.,\. 20, t.Vv.— Kew Journ., viii. t. 4j Bof. Mag., t. 5373. — 



104 



NATURAL mSTORY OF PLANTS. 




f^.f\ 



with runninf^ rhizomes, from wliich short hranches rise to the 

surface, bearing a rosette of leaves and 
axillary peduncles, which bear a single 
flower, or several grouped into a simple 
or compound raceme. I'he calyx con- 
sists of five equal or unequal sepals of 
imbricated, usually quincuncial icstiva- 
tion. The stamens are indefinite, hy- 
pogynous, and become smaller as they 
are more external. The filaments are 
free, sometimes collected in three or 
four distinct groups ; they are dilated 
above into an elongated flattened con- 
nective bearing an anther with two 
linear cells dehiscing laterally or nearly 
so ;' or else the filament swells into a 
short head, which, as in Jcwtirniri, bears 
the oblique distinctl}^ introrse anther- 
cells^ diverging below ; or, again, each 
of the elongated anther-cells opens 
by a round pore near its tip/ The carpels are two in number, free, 
or slightly coherent towards the base. The ovary contains on its 
inner angle a placenta which bears either ascending ovules, or two 
vertical rows of nearly horizontal ovules. The style, often elongated 
and bent on itself in the bud, ends in a more or less swollen stigma- 
tiferous head. The fruit consists of two or three capsules dehiscing 
irregularly to free the curved seeds, which possess a membranous 




Acrotrema 


Acrotrema 


Thimitesii. 


costalum. 


Fig. 151. 


Fio. 152. 


Stamen. 


Stamen. 



Walp., R,p., i. (55 ; Ann. iv. 36.— Hook. & 
TiiOMS., /'/. JmL, i. Gl. — 'I'ii\vAiTi:3, Enum. 
in. Z>-yl., 2.— MiQ., Fl. Ind. Bat., i., pars 
alt., 10. 

' This is CBpecially seen in A. lyratum Hook. 
F. (Til WAIT., op. cit., :{). in wl.idi tlio filament, 
not swollen at the Huinmit, m directly eoiitinuouH 
with tlie connective, ami hears two atiiiate narrow 
cells of lateral or sli^jhtly exlrorse dcliisccnce. 
The outer Htamens are sliorter than the others, 
but all are fertile. The carpels, u\'Wn tiiree in 
numher, contain numerous ovules, anil possess a 
style (lihited at tiie tip. 

' Ah in -4. Tliir.utixii Hook. F. (./. pimui/i. 
Jidum TilW.), the top of the filament swells iulo 
u connective bearing two oblique ellipsoidal cells 



diverging at the base and dohiscinf; mnrginally 
or nearly so. In form these anthers (see tig. 151) 
recall those of most Titrarerax. There are usually 
three carpels, with half a score of ovules in the 
ovary, and a subulate style not dilaletl at tho 
tip. 

^ This occurs in the typicid 8i)ecie3 A. co»la- 
lum Jack. Tho stamens, somewhat une(]ual, 
bear an elongated anther which at first apjKiini 
introrhC, but the cells of which only open at tho 
tip by pores with tiiickeued edges (tig. 152) — n 
eliaractiir of little value (see p. 1 1 1). I he sepaU 
are lanceolate, covered with stiflKh hairs. Tlio 
carpels are often two in nuudn'r; tiie style is not 
diluted at the tip. The ovary contitiua two 
ascending ovules. 



DILLENIACEJE. 105 

aril, and contain a small embryo witliin the fleshy albumen.' The 
leaves are nearly entire or dentate, or often pinnatilobed or dissected, 
recalling forcibly those of some of the Crowfoots or Potcntillaii. 
The venation is pinnate, with transverse or slightly oblique veins, 
all parallel. By their flowers the Acrotremas are hardly distin- 
guishable from the Tetraceras, of which they possess all the essential 
characters. 



' The fruit of A. Walkeri Wionx is siir- provided with an aril consisting of a fragile and 

rounded hy the calyx and some dried up stamens. translucent tissue and cliicfly contained in the 

It consists of three carpels surmounted by the notch corresponding to the hilum. The testa is 

persistent styles. The seeds are numerous, curved, covered with little pittings. 



lot) 



NATUllAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



III. DILLENIA SERIES. 



We must first study tlie Indian plant D. speciom^ Tnuvno (fi 
o3, lo4), wliicli serves as the tvne of the ,-T(^nn« /)///.,.;,.» 



ers. 



type of the genus BiUcma.^ Its 

L.llenia speciosa. 




I'lr.. l,';}. — KlorifiTotis briimli 



VilMUflU. l(i<: rif.I). inilirii I.., S/iec, 715.- 
.Si/nlila KiiKK]>, Ilorl. Mnfit/i., (, 38,3!). 



L., r/rn., n. 088.— TiirNBo. LIhh. Tioh, 
'. :i(»l>. t. 18. 11).— DC. ProUr.. i. 75.— Spac 
>•«//. ,', /y,//r. vii. H'2.-K.Ni.i... r/*.,,. „. 47111.- 



BILLENIACEJE. 



107 



broad hermaphrodite llowers possess a convex receptacle on which 
are successively inserted a calyx of five sepals quincmicially 
imbricated in the bud, a corolla of five alternate petals of imbricate 
a3stivation, an indefinite number of hypogynous stamens, and a 
gynieceum composed of numerous carpels. Eacli stamen consists 
of a free filament, and a bilocular anther, the linear cells of which, 




Dillenia speciosa. 

Fig. 154. 

Longitudinal section of flower. 

adnate for their whole length to the borders of the elongated con- 
nective, open near the summit by a cleft which extends downwards 
to a variable extent.' The gynseceum consists of an ovary witb a 
thick central column, surrounded by from twenty to thirty cells 
which are free only for a very short distance from the summit at 
the inner angle, each tapering above into a narrowly lanceolate, 
flattened style reflexed on the summit of the ovary, aud stigma- 
tiferous on its inner surface. In the internal angle of eacli cell is 
seen a longitudinal placenta supporting an indefinite number of 
auatropous ovules. The fruit is a large indehiscent berry, with a 



B. H., Oen., 13, n. 10. — H. Bn., in Adansonia, 
vi. iiSl ; vii. 93, t. iii. — Songium KuMPU., Herb. 
Amh., ii. t. 45, 46. — Syalita H. M., ex Adans , 
Fam., ii. 364. 

' We have seen in Dillenia the anthers open- 
ing by two clelts near the summit which after- 
wards spread downwards. In Wormia, on the 
contrary, it is generally stated that the dehiscence 
of the anther is biporricidal. This is too absolute 



an assertion for several reasons : first, because 
there are species of Wormia in which the de- 
hiscence is by an opening at the summit common 
to botli cells (tig. 157) ; and secondly, because 
the openings calk'd pores are short clefts in the 
species fi-om Jladagascar, and may be pro- 
longed for a variable distance downwards to- 
wards the base of the anther, as in DilleuM 
proper. 



108 



NATUUAL niSTOBY OF PL^iNTS. 



pericarp of no great tliickness, surrounded by the persistent calyx, 
wliich becomes fleshy. Witliin, imbedded in a soft pulp, are 
numerous seeds, whose integuments are covered with hairs at the 
margin, and contain a small embryo near the apex of the lleshy 
albumen. I), spcciosa is a fine tree with alternate, oval-acute 
dentate, penninerved leaves, the secondary nerves oblique, pro- 
jecting, parallel. The llowers are solitary terminal. 

As a separate genus near Dillenia was formerly placed Colbcrtia,' 
which only differs from it in two unimportant points. The flowers, 
smaller than those of I), spccio.m, either soUtary or in bunches, have 
yellow, instead of white petals. The seeds, either imbedded in a 
soft pulp or surrounded by a thin pericarp, have no hairs on the 




Fig. 155. 
Flower. 




Wurmia hracteata. 



Fig. 156. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



surface. The number of cells in the ovary may be reduced to five, 
as in the species hence named I), pentayyna:- The ovules horizontal, 
or more or less ascending, arc arranged in two or more rows in 
each cell. Thus limited,'* the genus DiUeida includes eight or ten 
species which grow in India, and the neighbouring portions of the 
Indian archipelago.^ 

The genus Wormid' is also very near Dillmia, from which it has 



' Salisu., cx DC, SyKi, i. 4.35. — Spacii, 
Suit, a Buff., vii. 425.— "Knul., Oen., n. 4747. 

•■' Uoxii., /•/. Coromand., i. 21, t. 20. — 
CMt-rlia ritromaiultl'uimt UC, St/st., i. 435; 
Prodr., i. 75. 

8 (1. EudiUeiila. Corolla white ; 

Dillenia, 1 nmrj^iiiH of wedi* Imiry. 

Sections 2. j 2. CuUnrliu. (.'oruUu jellow ; 
' sc'ccIh KliihrniiH. 

F. MUELLEU liUS lutuly iliwriliLil {Fnnnn.. v. 



175) a D. (Sifnarrhena f) Andreana, an .\ustra- 
lian upccies with a pale blue corolla. 

* Wam'., Jifp., i. 63; ii. 716; Ann., i. 14; 
iv. 33.— \Vai,i.., J'l. Asial. liar., t. 22, 23.— 
Hook. & TnoMS.. Ft. 1ml., i. 69. - Hl.. Itijdraj., 
6.— Miy., Fl. Ind. H<iL, i. jMirs alt.. 11.— 
'rii\\\yv.,Fnum. I'l. Z<i/I., 4. — Wionr, llluslr., 
ii. t. 358. 

' Uonii., Nov. Art. llajn., ii. 522. t. 3, 
(x DC, Sij.sl., i \:v.\: I'l-udr.. i. 75.— Sl'ACll. 



DILLENIACEJE. 



109 



been separated, and to which some day, perhaps, it will have to be 
restored. The calyx consists of five imbricated sepals which persist 
and grow thick around the fruit. The petals' are imbri- 
cated, and the stamens free and equal, or smaller as 
they are more external. The anther cells, marginal or 
slightly introrse, dehisce near the summit by pores 
or ver}'- short clefts. The number of carpels varies. 
When there are but five, as in W. hradeata. Hook. F. 
& Thoms., they are opposite the petals. The central 
axis uniting them touches each only along a narrow, 
nearly vertical, line;^ whence the cells of the ovary, 
multiovulate as in Billenia, are separated by a double 
wall and a deep sinus (fig. 158). The carpels, the 
walls of which are membranous, or thick and coriaceous 
when ripe, remain indehiscent, or dehisce along the 
inner angle to free the seeds which possess thick coats 
covered by the fleshy aril, and copious fleshy albumen 
with a small embryo near its apex.^ 

In certain species of Wormia the 
innermost stamens, much longer than 
the others, are reflexed and bent down 
under the styles; these have been 
erected into a genus under the name of 
Capellia.^ In others, which there is no 
need to separate further genericallj^ 
the outermost stamens become sterile 
staminodes.' 

This genus consists of trees, natives of tropical Asia, Oceania^ 




Wormia ferrvginea. 

Fig. 158. 

Transverse section of 

gynceceum. 



i 

Wormia return. 

Fig. 157. 

Stamen after 

dehiscence. 



Suit, a Buff., vli. 113.— Endl., Gen., n. 4750. 
— B. H., Qen., 13, n. 9. — H. Bx., Adansonia, 
vi. 281. — Lenidia Dup.-Tii., Gen. Madag., n. 57. 
GArciCHATTD bas described {^Uranie, 476, t. 
99), a Wormia apetala, the flowers of which he 
describes as absolutely apetalous. We have seen 
authentic specimens of this species, but in such a 
condition that we were unable to say whether 
the petals were absent before the expansion of 
the flowers. 

^ Perhaps this line really answei-s, not to the 
internal angle, but to the organic base of the 
Ciirpel. In this respect, tlie gyna;ceum of Wormia 
is no doubt comparable to that of Nigella or 
Magnolia, in which the line of insertion of the 
carpels is also much extended vertically. 



3 Ghiffith (Icon, posth., t. dcxUx.) hasrepre- 
scnted the seed of his W. niffruticosa with its 
albumen and coats slightly curved towards the 
apex. 

* BlTjME, Bijdraj., 5. — Endi., Gen., n. 4746. 
— Walp., Ann., iv. 34. — A. Gbat, Amer. 
Explor. Exped., 15, t. i. 

* This occurs, but not constantly, in a new 
species from Madagascar, which we have named 
W.ferruginea (see Adansonia, vi. 268, vii. 343), 
which may be distinguished at first sight by its 
unilateral inflorescence, and the rust-coloured 
hairs with which every part is coloured. 

« MiQ., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat., i. 315, t. 9. 
— Seem., Fl. Vitiens., 12.— BEyiii.,FL Austral., 
i. IG. 



110 



NATUIiAL mSTOUY OF PLANTS. 



and Madagascar. Their leaves are alternate, usually glabrous, 
more rarely covered with hairs ; the blade is entire or slightly 
incised on the margin, with the secondary ribs obliquely parallel, 
very marked ; the petiole is dilated laterally into a pair of mem- 
branous caducous wings which have been considered as stipules.' 
The large flowers are solitary, or grouped in terminal pseudo- 
racemes. 

Reifferscheidia,- from the Philippine Islands, has all the characters 
of vegetation and inflorescence of IFormia ; but the calyx consists 
of more than five sepals ; as many as twelve or fifteen may be 
counted, imbricated, becoming smaller as they are more external. 
This unimportant character leads us to consider the single species 
only a section .of the genus Wormiaj' 

We cannot consent to remove any further from the genus Dillenia 
that of Aciinidia* which has by some been referred to the lern- 







Actinidia slriqosa. 




Fig. 159. 




Fig. IGO. 


Flower. 




Diagrnni. 



f(tr(S)?nacca,' hut which possesses a floral organization so nearly that 
of DiUenia that we may say it only differs in the form of the anthers. 
Thus in the flower of ^. stri(/osa (figs. 159-1C4) we find a calyx of 
five quincuncially imbricated sepals, free, or cohering slightly 



• We liavo shown (Adantionia, vi. 271) how 
it iH Imnlly jKjssiblc Ut give ilin'eicnt luiines in 
Wormia and Mn;jnnli(i to the l)ioud lateral ex- 
panhiuiiM of the petiole, which full after a certain 
time, and whieh extend to the hnindi, and 
HO leave on itH Hurfuee, above the innertion of the 
petiole, an oblique scar, exactly like those which 
umjully indicate the previous existence of Hupni- 
axillary Htii)ulefl. 

- I'KKHI,.. Rf-lil. Hank., ii. (lK3r,).7l. t. (lU.- 
Enul., Gen., n. 4748.— B. 11., Uen., IJ, n. II. 



' Wormia luzonenna H. Un. (see Adansonia 
vi. 270). — R. speciuna PkksI-. — I'alali Lu«)> 
nensibus, ex 1'ukhl., loc. cil. 

* LiNDL., Introd. Nat. Si/st., 2nd ed., 439.— 
Knul., Gen., p. 811,— WaU>., Rep., v. 131 ; 
Ann., i. 15. — Trochosli(/ma StEii, & ZfCC, 
Ahhandl. Akad. d. Wissettsch. Munch., iii. 726, 
t. ii. f. 2. 

* IJknth., Journ. Linn. .S'oc., v. 55. — II. II., 
Gen., 184, n. 14, 



DILLENIACEjE. 



Ill 



towards the base. The five petals alternating with these, are also 
imbricated in the bud. The indefinite hypogynous stamens each 
consist of a free filament, and an extrorse 2 -celled anther, more or 
less versatile on the summit of the filament, and dehiscing longi- 
tudinally.' The gynajceum is free ; it consists of a thick central 
axis surrounded by from twenty to thirty cells, each surmounted 
by a spreading style reflexed on the top of the ovarj'-, and stigma- 
tiferous on the upper and inner surface. In the internal angle of 
each cell is a placenta bearing numerous anatropous ovules. The 
fruit, which is surrounded by the persistent calyx, becomes a multi- 
locular berry, the pulp of which contains numerous seeds with 
thick coats- and abundant fleshy albumen, surrounding a central 
elongated embryo with small cotyledons.^ In other Actinidia.s the 
flowers often become polygamous, by abortion of the gynseceum. 




y 






Fig. 161. 
Fruit. 



Actinidia strigosa. 
Fig. 162. Fig. 163. 

Longitudinal section Seed, 

of fruit. 



Fig. 164. 
Longitudinal 
section of seed. 



They are shrubs, often creepers, twining, with alternate simple 
penninerved leaves. The flowers are axillary to the leaves, solitary, 



' The anther is extrorse after anthesis j it is 
also distinctly so in the young buds of A. rugosa. 
The difference between the stamen, as enclosed in 
the bud, and that of the expanded flower, is that 
the top of the filament is quite straight before 
expansion, while afterwards it is bent twice on 
itself before giving attachment to the connective. 
In the flowers of A. strigosa, the anthers are also 
extrorse. The connective is narrow and entire 
above, but bifurcated towards the base of the 
anther ; and as its branches diverge below, so do 
the cells of tlie anther. 

- These seeds have no aril ; a character cited 
by several authors (Bentham & Hookee among 



others) to justify the separation of ^c^inid/a from 
DilleniacecB ; but we have elsewhere (loc. cit. 
258) called attention to the fact that in 
Dillenia itself the seeds may want an aril. 

^ This embryo is straight, and more developed 
than that of most Dillemacecv, wliich is at the 
apex of the albumen. This is another of the 
characters which removes Actinidia from these ; 
" ob emhryonem magis evohitum," say Bextham 
& Hooker (o;>. cit. 1 1). We do not ascribe much 
importance to this character. But the affinities 
of Actinidia with Sauraiija, of the order Tern- 
stroemiacefe, are incontestible. 



112 NATURAL niSTORY OF PLANTS. 

or more frequently in pseudo-corymbs. Seven or eight species are 
known, from China' and Japan/ India, and the neighbouring 
countries. We may define them as Dillenias with small flowers and 
versatile, not adnate, anthers. 

All the BillcniacecB we have enumerated, like the Rantmculaceay 
possess but few absolutely constant cliaracters in common, and 
in this order even the number of stamens is not always large and 
strictly indefinite. But they possess a certain number of other 
characters, to which their very frequent occurrence imparts a 
value ; the alternation of the leaves,' the polypetaly of the corolla,' 
the independence of the elements of the gyna^ceum,* the hy- 
pogynous insertion of the stamens and perianth," the persistence 
of the calyx around the fruit/ and the presence of an aril at 
the base of the seeds.* We should also add that the flower 
is nearly always quite regular, and that the exceptional irregu- 
larities observed are usually not constant even throughout the 
genus, and are limited to a single verticil,' the regularity of the 
general plan of the flower not being otherwise affected. 

The most striking characters among those which are variable, 
and are chiefly used to establish the great subdivisions of the Order, 
are as follows : the independence, or greater or less union of the 
elements of the gyna^ceum ; the situation, and definite or indefinite 
number of those of the androceum. The direction of the anthers 
and consistency of the pericarp are characters so variable that 
they can only serve to found the ultimate divisions of genera, or 
even species. 

We learn from R. Brown,'" that the first idea of making a 



' nENTHAM, Fl. IIongTcong., 2G.— Pt., in " Tims the DeHtnas Imvc a single exccntric 

nook. Journ., vi. 3(i3. — Walp., Ann., i. 15. carpel ; but the rest of tiic flower is regular. 

■■' SlEiioi.i) it Zrcf., in AhhandLdn- Akad.d. CerUiin 8i)ocies of Tetracera, Uarilla, &c., have 

Wissensch. Munch., iii. 727, t. ii., f. 2. an irrejjuliir corolla, owing to tlie snppression of 

' In the Jlcmisli-mmas of Madagascar, the some of the j)etals, but the other whorls remain 

leaves tire often opjwsitc. regular. I'leurundra and Schumiuheria, |)0(tt)ti88 

* One /rormia alone is, as it appears, apctalous an irregular androceum, the flower being othcr- 
(soe p. 109, note 1). wise that of Jlilif/frtia or Tetracera. Never is 

* Dillenin, Wormia, and Actinldia, would bo the irregularity sufticiently deeidinl or extended 
the only excej)tionH. over a sudicient number of j)arts to give it a 

* Perigjny is slightly indicated in llilherlia generic value. In tin- c^ilyx of 7>(/ri7/rt the irre- 
(jrosmlariafulia (see p. U t, fig. 131). gularity does not even apjK-ar Ix-fore a certain 

7 Some Aclinid'uu seem to be the only ex- ]>eriud, while the calyx Ntill remains gymnietrical 

ceptions. with regard to a single plane. 

" Actinidia and several Dillcnias have seeds '" (Jen. litmurks on (he liotan. of Trrra 

without any true Jiril. Aualr., 'J. 



BILLENIAGEJE. 113 

distinct order for BilleniacecB is due to Salisbury," who proposed to 
separate them from the MagnoliacciB of Jussieu. Of this family 
LiNN/EUs only knew Tdraceray Belima, Ci/rafdla, and Billcnia ; 
in his time tlie Australian species had not been studied. Adanson/ 
who was only able to observe the Linna^an genera, was, as we have 
already shown,' the first to discover the true affinities of the 
Dillemacets, those now recognised by all botanists ; putting them 
at the same time near Ranuncdacece, Magnoliacea and Cistinca. 
A. L. DE Jussieu' knew a larger number of genera which he scat- 
tered more, putting Billenia and Curatella with Magnoliacece, Belima 
Tetracera and Tig area among Rosacea, and leaving Soramia of 
AuBLET and Boliocarpus of Eolander among his " Genera incertm 
sedis." To the genera then known Eottbcel added Wormia in 
1783; Vahl added Sc/mmac/ieria, and Vandell, 7)«y«7/(2. Labu.- 
LARDi:^RE and R. Brown first studied the Australian types, and 
created, the former Rackynema, the latter Candollea and Rleurandra. 
De Candolle added another Australian genus, Adrasfcea, while 
A. DE Saint-Hilaire discovered the genus EmpedocJea in Brazil. 
Finally, to the English botanists Jack, Andrews, and Lindley, 
we owe the foundation of the genera Acrotrema, Hibbertia, and 
Actinidia, which raised to thirteen the number of genera we now 
admit in the order BiUeniacece. 

This is another order "par enchainement" De Candolle' divided 
it into two tribes, putting in the first, Belimea, most of those 
species which Jussieu had made Rosacea, and uniting Billenia, 
Wormia, and those Australian genera which were just then being 
studied, into the second tribe, BilleiiiccB. This subdivision of the 
family was adopted by most botanists, especially Lindley,® who 
placed among the Billeniece his genus Actinidia, and also Sauraja,^ 
now referred by most botanists to the Ternstrcemicea, besides 
Teiracarpaa^ one of the Saxifragece. J. Gr. Agardh^ distinguished 
among the BiUeniacece the types analogous to Wormia, whose close 
analogies to Magnoliacece he recognised ; and the Hibbertiacea, of 
which he confirmed the relations with Cistinece, Tremandea, and 



' Faradis. Land., 73. « Veg. Kingd., 42-i. Endlicheb, Gen., 8-10, 

- Fam. des Plant es, W. 364, 412, 450. subdivides tliis order in the same way. 

3 Adansonia, vi. 272. 7 W., Neue Schr. Gex. Nat. BerL, iii. 40G. 

■• Genera Plantarum, 282, 339, 433. » Hook. F., Hook. Icon., t. 26 1. 

* Syst. Veg., \. 359 ; Prodr., i. 67. ' Theor. System. Plantar., 20(1. 

VOL. I. 1 



114 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Pitfo8porra>. Finally, Bentham & Hooker' have recently divided 
the order into three tribes, DcVimea, Dillenina, and Hihbcrtiea^ 
based on the form of the anthers. We have elsewhere attempted 
to show^ how this classification, often serviceable in practice, is 
yet by no means exact, and how the same form of stamen may be 
observed in genera of any of the three tribes indifferently. Hence 
we have tried to establish a certain number of series, of which the 
respective genera have been described above, and which are founded 
first on the general structure of the gyna?ceum, and then on that 
of the androceum. DUlenia is in our eyes the prime centre around 
which are grouped the genera in which the carpels are more or less 
united into a plurilocular ovary, while at the same time the stamens 
are indefinite. In all the other Dilloiiacca the carpels are inde- 
pendent of one another, and the unilocular ovaries have a parietal 
placenta in the inner angle. But among these the stamens 
may be indefinite as in Hihhertia, or twice as numerous as 
the petals, or grouped in exactly as many bundles as there are 
pieces in the perianth, as occurs in CandoUea. Thus Hihhertia 
and CandoUea become two other centres or heads of series, usually 
easy to separate in practice, but between which we should be the first 
to recognise that there are inevitable points of contact, such as are 
always found in orders like the one under consideration.^ 



' Oenera, 10, 11. club-shaped head (fig. 144); the outermost 

- Plaxcuon Las reproduced (see de Linden, stamens, vcrj- short, may be quite sterile. In T. 

3, 4) the opinions of the English authors, and sarmeniosa, the tiluments are free, or slightly 

admitted their three principal groups; but he coherent at the base. In Lavilla nigosa we 

makes a fourth for the genera Wurmia, Aero- have seen introrse and extrorse anthers in the 

<re»ia, and Schumaclteria, which, he says, "are bud. Acrotrema, which is said to have " 5/a- 

more or less abnormal, and do not tit well in any minumfilamenta hand dilafa," may have parallel 

ot the divisions," We have shown (.^rfaMwnia, vi. marginal anther cells, or a connective swollen 

276) in what this assertion is too absolute, and into a head like Tetracera (tig. 151), or the 

how closely analogous are Wormia and Uillenia, anther cells may be porricidnl and close together 

Schunuulieria and Jlemislemma, Acrotrema and for their whole length (fig. 152). The Hibbertiat, 

Tetrncera, at least in fiower and fruit. in which the cells are long, narrow, pandlel, and 

' Adansoniu, vi. 209, 278. In several 2Hra- close together (fig. 130), nniy have anthers with 

ceras and iJaviUoji the same Hower contains one- short, dilated connectives, and short colls, like 

and two-celled extrorse and introrse anthers. We those of Tetracera (see fig. 131). Such occurrencea 

have been shown several flowers of T. sene- have been jwinted out by F. MVEU.KK (^nyw., 

^a/«wi*, which had introrse anthers to the inferior ii. 2), especially in 11. fiellaris, of which the 

stamens, while all the superior or innermost anthers are broader than they are long, 
stamens had extrorse antlieni. In T. obovata, * Thus we have shown how the liibb<rtie(t 

the summit of the filament swills into a connec and the Delimen; come tlm)ugh Trisema and 

tive of variable form, wjuietimes entire, sometimes iJilimti respectively to i)resent tlie same perianth, 

bifid to a variable extent; the cells are then home the same ajidroceum with indefinite elenieutii, 

on distinct branches (fig. IKJ). In T. volubilis, mid the same gyna-ceum. We have also re- 

the stjimens are all unlike. Th.- connective swells cognised the common hnks Mwecn -i<-ro/rri»(i 

gradually, or suddenly, into an obpyramidal, or uwXSchumucheria,&\\Ai\\i: DiU<rnU,r,Tetritcrrr<r, 



BILLENTACEJE. 115 

Few of the DiUeniacecB are lierbaceous ; none but a few of the 
Ilibbcrtias, especially //. (j/rossulariafolin, and also the Aci-otrcmas, 
which in habit and by their simple leaves, entire, pinnatisect, or 
lyrate, resemble certain Ranuncidacece or Fragariece. Nearly always 
the branches are woody, at least towards the base ; they are often 
also trailing and twining. Crijger' has studied the anatomy 
of several of these lianas, especially of Doliocarpiis Eolandri and 
Curatella. But the only character made out in these plants has been 
an abnormal arrangement of the vascular bundles, which seems 
simply to depend on their sarmentose nature, and is found in the 
lianas of many other orders ; namely, the very clear marking out 
of the different concentric zones of wood, and the frequent occur- 
rence of supplementary woody bundles, quite isolated in distinct 
parts of the cellular matrix which constitutes the medullary rays 
and cortical parenchyma. No one, hardly, had investigated the 
anatomical characters common to all those Dilleniacea which have 
not a climbing stem ; and we think it right to reproduce here the 
facts we have recently published^ on the subject. 

"All the BiUcniaceoi are rich in bundles of raphides. In the 
cultivated Candolleas and Hibbertias we find them abundantly in 
the cortical cells, the pith, and the parenchyma of the leaves. In 
the pith of JDillenia speciosa, Thunbg., are found cells containing 
enormous packets of these crystalline needles. All the other cells, 
and often the woody fibres also, are at certain seasons gorged with 
starch granules, which here, as in Candollea, Hibbertia, and so 
many other woody plants, are secreted and re-absorbed to subserve 
nutrition — a fact too general, and known too long to be worth dwelling 
long upon here. In all the Australian species we have examined 



and PlettrandrefP. We know well, too, that each. It is nevertheless true that there is really 

Candullea and Hihleriia are closely related, in practice no hesitation in distinguishing a Hih- 

for there are 7/ii6eWw.9 with oligandrous bundles fteWiafroma Candollea. If there were doubtful 

when adult, like II. lepidota K. Hr., that cases, it would prove that our classifications 

form a transition between them; and C. J. de are perfectible, and are always wrong in putting 

CoRDEMor has shown {Bull. Soc. Bot.Fr., vi. forth an absolute claim to the title "natural;" 

450) how likely it is that the two types will but so far as we know, none avoids this incon- 

some day be fused into one. It is further very venience. 

well known that organogenic researches have i j^..^ Beitrdge z. Kenntnks von soge- 

shown in both genera the existence of distnict ^^^^^^^ anomalen HolzhM ngea des Dicotylen- 

altern.petalous bundles and that the clear d,s. ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^.^^ ^gg^ ^^ .^^_ 

tmction nito these bundles is no longer visible in ^ 

the adult Hower of Hibbertia, simply because ^ Compfes Eeiidus de I' Academic des Sciences, 

of the immeuse multiplicatiou of the elements of btiv. 297; Adansonia, vii. 88. 

i2 



116 NATURAL mSTOBT OF PLAINS. 

the starch f^ranulcs are irreguhirly rounded, and of very unequal 
size. In most species of H'onnia the pith becomes hollowed when at 
a certain age, forming nearly parallel septa or leaving a cavity of 
irregular form. The pith, though much flattened, is not wanting 
in the species with cladodia analogous to those of Xijhphylla, and 
especially in those of the genus Pachynema ; here the fibro- vascular 
woody bundles are naturally nearly parallel, diverging towards the 
pulvinus so as to simulate the lateral ribs of a leaf 

" The most remarkable feature in the structure of the Di/Zc/n'acea 
is the frequent occurrence of fibres with areolate punctations,* 
the areolae surrounding the perforations being found in every 
degree of development, according to the age and species of the 
specimen. Thus in a very young herbaceous branch of Ddlcma 
speciosa, we only find common woody fibres, accompanied in every 
bundle by vessels of all kinds, especially cylindrical vessels with 
very thin walls, strengthened by pretty thick parallel rings at 
loufT intervals, and also true or false trachea), in which we often see 
the spiral thread become single for a variable distance, although 
there are most usually two distinct parallel cords. At this period the 
cortical parenchyma is very rich in tubular cells of the herbaceous 
layer, full of enormous chlorophyll granules, and the liber fibres 
show minute punctations. The suber is formed of a fine compact 
cellular tissue ; the epidermis is covered with simple haii*s, swollen, 
and, as it were, geniculate at the base. On a distinctly woody 
branch of the thickness of the finger all the punctations of the cells 
and fibres have assumed quite another character. The cells of the 
medullary rays, full of starch inside, communicate with one another 
extensively by cylindrical canals, punched, so to speak, in their very 
thick walls. On the walls of the woody fibres the canals have the 
form of a truncated cone with the small end outside ; two of these 
truncated cones, at exactly the same level on two adjacent fibres 
touch by these small ends ; and it is at the junction on a level with 
the contracted part of the sort of hourglass thus formed that the 
lenticular cavity is placed, easily seen on making a longitudinal 
section. IJut when seen in front, it appears as it does in the Conifers, 
as a very dark, circular or elliptical spot, surrounded by the con- 



* [Or io-ca1It>d " glsndnlHr woody fibre."— Trans.] 



DILLENIACEJE. 117 

centric areola due to the presence of the canal which abuts on this 
perforation. In Candollea and lUbbertia, we find the same general 
arrangement of the pores, but the areola is more or less distinct 
according to the species, so that we find every intermediate stage 
between ordinary non-areolate pores, and pores with large areolae. 
This also occurs in Curafella, Sc/itimacheria, and as is rather re- 
markable, in Ad'midia, whose affinities to the Billeniacece are not 
recognised by all botanists ; in A. callosa especially, the pores are 
very distinctly areolate. Most usually these pores are arranged in 
two opposite vertical rows in each fibre. "When the punctations 
and areola) are quite circular, we can superpose those of one row on 
those of the other, so exactly that only one set of punctations is 
seen. But when they are elliptical, as frequently occurs in 
Dillenia and Candollea cuneiformis, the black elongated spots formed 
by those of one row may slant in a different direction to those of 
the other ; so that seen by transmitted light the two spots form a 
little St. Andrew's cross, with four nearly equal branches very 
regularly arranged. 

" In the young branches of some of the CandoUeas the liber 
fibres are relatively very large, separate from one another, and few 
in number. In several Hibbertias, another element of the bark, 
the cellular tissue, is greatly developed. But this sort of hyper- 
trophy only occurs on two sides of the stem, which thus becomes 
flattened, with two projecting angles ; the wood is not affected by 
this deformity, which has no relation to that which produces the 
cladodia described above. 

"The leaves have usually a heteromorphous parenchj^ma; the 
cells beneath the superior epidermis are rod-shaped, and of nearly 
equal size ; but they become irregular next the inferior epidermis, 
which consists of cells of very irregular contour, and bears storaates, 
which are elliptical in Dillenia^ Candollea, &c. We have said that 
the parenchyma often contains bundles of raphides; these, projecting 
from the organs, give the leaves of most Billeniacece the property 
of becoming rough to the touch when dry. This roughness, not 
without its practical utility, is due in several species to a somewhat 
different cause. Some Billeniacece, especially the Ciiratellas, are 
known to possess leaves so rough and rasping, as to be used in 
several countries of tropical America for pohshing even metals. 
This is due to the accumulation in the leaves of a large number of 



118 NATURAL HISTOBT OF PLANTS. 

concretions of peculiar form and siliceous nature, which are not 
attacked by any but fluorhydric acid. We will study them in 
C. americana, which is rough on both surfaces. Above, this is 
entirely due to the projection of these numerous projections seated 
under the superficial layer of epidermis; they are globular, of 
unequal size, studded with minute tubercles like a cauliflower. 
They may be compared to the cystoliths of Urticacea and 
certain Eifphorbiacece ; they are probably less prominent in fresh 
leaves. The inequalities of the lower surface are due to several 
causes. First, the nerves project and form here a very rich net- 
work, making it goffred as it were. Secondly, these nerves bear 
two kinds of projections on their surface : stellate hairs, and con- 
cretions like those of the upper surface, but smaller and more 
distinctly tuberculate. The hairs consist of rays without septa, 
tolerably acute and soft ; only at the base is there sometimes a 
certain degree of rigidity. The concretions are very hard all over, 
but often their lobes, more acute and projecting than usual, are less 
ri'^id and more transparent, so that we find a sort of transition 
between the superficial stellate hairs and the stony deposits of the 
inferior epidermis. These concretions are found abundantly, though 
of yet smaller size, in the areola? or meshes of the veins ; here, too, 
the epidermis also presents a few small stomates. Here and there 
are quite simple hairs. In certain Tetraceras these are very nume- 
rous and quite simple ; in the leaves of Delima sarmentosa we find 
some very flexible at the apex, but whose thickened base has 
become hard through the deposition of the stony substance we so 
often meet \vitli in Dilleniacea" 

Affinities. — We have seen' that Adanson first recognised the 
complex affinities of the Dil/c/iiaccce with Ciati/iece, Magnoliacvfe, 
and lianunculacea ; it is beside the last two that most modern 
botanists have agreed to place them. We have elsewhere stated* 
that the D'lUoniacca: represent Ranuncfdacca with the stem usually 
woody, the calyx almost constantly persistent round the fruit, and 
the seeds usually arillate. When the ovules are of limited number 
and ascending in Ditlciiiaccfc, the micropyle is at first turned down- 



S.c J), n;}. ' Hitf. tiff Plantfg. 70; Adamonia, iv. 3G; vi. 273. 



BILLENIACEJE. 119 

wards and inwards, wliile it looks outwards in all Ranunculacea with 
ascending ovules as yet known. Nevertheless, by making use of these 
characters we can only distinguish BanunculacecB and DilleniacecB 
approximatively. But one fundamental difference, difficult however 
to make out in the adult flower, has been established by the study of 
their organogeny. The evolution of the androceum is centripetal in 
BanunculacecB, but centrifugal in all Dilleniacea as yet observed.' 
The DilleniacecB have, moreover, incontestible affinities with numerous 
orders of plants with unilocular or plurilocular ovaries. The 
Australian types analogous to Hihhertia and Candollea are evidently 
allied to Cistinea" and the neighbouring orders, especially to Bixacece.^ 
On this matter we have expressed our opinion^ that "the floral 
organization of certain Bixacecs, as Mayna, Caiyotroche, &c., leads us 
to think that the order DilleniacecB might well have representatives 
scattered through several groups with one- celled ovaries and parietal 
placentation, and that in these will perhaps some day be found types 
bearing the same relation to Hihhertia or Tetracera that Monodora 
bears to Anonacece, Berheridopsis and Erytlirospermum to Menisper- 
macecs and Berheridecs, or Papaveracece to BanunculacecB." As the 
right of Monodora to a place among Anonacece is no longer contested, 
it is probable that the opinion of Miers,' who ranks Canellacece among 
Winteracece, will, sustained as it is by such good arguments, be also 
unreservedly accepted before long. Then it will not be forgotten 
that, on the one hand, Bentham & Hooker'' have recently put 
forth clearly the close affinities of Canella and Samyda. And as these 
last are actually placed by the same authors in the same order with 
the Banarece, formerly considered as inseparable from Bixacece, it 
will be seen that to take into account all the affinities of a large 
order consisting of Bixacea and Samydacece both,^ we should place 
it at the same time near to the Canellacece (a part of Maynoliacece), 
and to those types with parietal placentation that recall the 
DilleniacecB in most of their characters. This would explain how it 
is that Carpotroche, confounded with the true Maynas, has in many 



' Payeil, Traite d' Organogenie cwnparee de la ' Contributions, i. 122. 

Fleur, 233, t. U. ; Adansonia, iii. 129 ; vi. 266. « Gen., 795, 797. 

* Adanson., loc. cit. — Agaedh, Tlieor. Sys- ' This would be an order in which are united 

tern. Plant., 200. hypogynous and perigynous genera, as the form 

3 Planchon, Voy. de Linden, 3. of the receptacle may be indifferently convex or 

^ Adansonia, vi. 274. concave in very many natural orders. 



120 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

classifications' been placed among Maffnoliacp^ or Dilleniacets. The 
difficulty is here the same as with Erythroapermum, sometimes 
referred to the Bixacece, sometimes to Berberidacea, according as 
more stress has been laid on the position and form of the placenta, 
or on the other whorls of the flower and their symmetry. In this 
respect, again, the DilleNiacece touch the Cancllacece, which we include 
in MagnoUacea. Dillenia, Wormia, and other analogous genera come 
very near Magnolia by their leaves with dilated petioles, membranous 
and stipuliform on the edges," while by the arrangement of their 
gynjcceum, they recall that of Illicium and Drinip. The number of 
parts of the flower excepted, Billema and Wormia are, we may say, 
far more like Magiwlia than like most Dillcniacea of the CandoUea 
group. The way the indefinite stamens are inserted on the 
receptacle of the flower, the very position of the flower at the end of 
the branch, and even the absence of a sacciform membranous ari? to 
the seeds of true Dillenias, are features which would have rendered 
it impossible to place these in a different order from that of Lirio- 
dendron or Talauma, if the structure of the gyna^ceum, apparently 
so different, had not been taken into account. But we have shown* 
that the carpels of Wormia and the analogous genera are really free 
like those of Magnolia^ not united into an ovary whose cells are 
separated from one another by simple dissepiments ; while the styles 
are distinct from one another towards the base, and are joined only 
from a certain point, to diverge afresh in the stigmatiferous portion. 
Thus Wormia and Davilla serve as a passage towards Acti?iidia, which 
we cannot remove from them, and which also resembles Sauraja so 
much as to have been placed with it and Stachgurus in a separate 
tribe of the order Ternstroimiacea.^ It has been shown, too, how 
through this last order the Dilleniacece are indirectly allied to Ericinca, 
Ehetiacca' and Pillosporacea. We might also point out some more 
distant relations between Schumacheria and certain Dipterocarpcte,^ 



' E«peciully in tl.osc of Jcssikc {Gen., 2R1), * Sur I'Organimtion Floraff d'un W.imiin 

DE CAMiOLLK(iVo</r., i. 7'J), K.NDUCUKU((;en., dea Sei/cMltn, Adansouia. vii. 343. In thw 

n. 4734), au;. nicnioir it is pmvcd that tliiro is at every iige u 

' Seo Adansouia, vi. 271. considcnible cavity in the intervals between tlio 

* A cliunuUr of so iiiuch iniporUmce in the ovurien, and tliut the styles unite ubovc this xpuce. 

eyes of severui authorn, that it \x, for inHtunce, » Sec p 10J», note 2. 

one of the reiiwjnH which lin» determined the in- " ]{. H., (;,„., is J. 

tnxluctionof Cronsutuma into the order JJillmi- 1 KH|)f('i:iily in the venation of the leaves «u>d 

acea rather tlmu JiaHuuculacea:. the unilateral arrnngeuient of the flowers. 



DILLENIACEJE. 



121 



between HibbeHia and Papaveracea,^ and between Tetracerd- and the 
tribe Cunoniea of the Saxifragaceai. 

The geographical distribution of the Dilleniacea is little compli- 
cated. The score of species belonging to our Candollca series are of 
Australian origin/ as are nearly all the Hibbertias, about eighty in 
number ■* two species alone, belonging to the section Hemidemma^ 
have been observed in Madagascar/ BiUenia^ Schumacher ia^ Acro- 
trema^ and nearly all the Wormias^ are natives of tropical Asia ; two 
species of Worniia alone grow in the eastern islands of Africa/" and 
only one in Australia." Actinidia has only been observed in China, 
Japan, and the north of India.'" Bavilla^^ Empedoclea^^ and CurafeUa}' 
are three exclusively American genera. Tetracera, also very abundant 
in tropical America,"^ is the genus most widely spread over the globe ; 
it is found in Senegal and Guinea,'' Madagascar and the east coast of 
Africa,'^ tropical and eastern Asia,'^ the Indian Archipelago,'" New 
Caledonia,"' and Australia." Tetracera {Delima) sarvientosa is found 
over a large extent of tropical and eastern Asia."^ The number of 



' " It is very singular," we have observed 
{Adansonia, vi. 275), " that certain Hibbertias, 
like R. voluMlis, have the foutid smell of Poppies. 
If we suppose their carpels opened out, and put 
edge to edge, we have the flower of Fapaver at 
once." 

2 We need only recall the fact that Tetra- 
carpeea has been classed among the Dilleniacece 
(see p. 113), and that Ilea and Stachyunis re- 
call forcibly Clethra, Saurauja, and Actinidia. 

3 Benth., Fl. Austral., i. 41. 
^ Benth., op. cit., i. 17. 

6 Dup.-Th., Gen. Mad., n. 18.— DC, Prodr., 
i. 71, § 1. They might well both be only forms 
of a single species, H. coriacea {^Helianthemum 
coriacexim Pees., Etw/iir., ii. 76). 

6 Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 69.— MiQ., 
FL Ind. Bat., i., pars alt., 11. 

7 Hook. & Thoms., Fl. r«rf.,i,65.— Thwaites, 
Fnum. PL Zeyl., 4. 

8 Thv^aites, Fnum. PL Zeyl., 2.— MiQ., FL 
Ind. Bat., i. pars alt., 10. — Hook. & Thoms., FL 
Ind., i. 64. 

9 Bl., Bijdr., 5.— Hook. & Thoms., FL Ind. 
i. 66.— MiQ., FL Ind. Bat., i. pars alt., 10; 
Ann. Mits. Lugd.-Bat., i. 315, t. ix. — A. Gbay, 
BoL Exp. Wilk., t. i.— Walp., Rep., i. 63; 
Ann., iv. 34. 

1" PoiE., SuppL, iii. 330. — DC, Icon. 
Deless., i., t. 82. — H. Bn., Adansonia, vi. 



" Benth. & P. Mueli., Fl. Austral., i. 16. 

''■^ Sieb. & ZxTCC, in Abh. Akad. Wiss. Mun., 
iii. 726. — Benth., in Journ. Linn. Sac, v. 55. — 
Walp., Rep., v. 131; Ann., i. 15. 

'3 Velloz., fl Flum., v. t. 116.— A. S. H., 
PL Us. Bras., xxii. xxiii. — Peesl, Rel. Hcenk., 
ii. 72. — Seemann, Herald, 74, t. xiii. — Pl. & 
Tkiana, Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, xvii. 18. — 
Walp., J2e^., i. 66; ii. 746 j v. 13; Ann., i. 15; 
ii. 17 ; iv. 36. 

" A. S. H., Fl. Bras. Mer., i. 20, t. 3. 

'5 A.S. H., PL Us.Bras.,xxiv.—S^E^.,Herald, 
75, 268.— Pl. & Teiana, Ann. Sc. Nat., se'r. 
4, xvii. 15, 23. — Netto, Itin. BoL, 16. — Walp., 
Rep., i. 65. 

i« See p. 101, note 2. 

'-■ GuiLLEM & Peer., Tent. Fl. Seneg., 2, 
t. 1. — H. Bn., Adansonia, v. 362. 

'8 H. Bn., Adansonia, vii. 300, t. vii. 

'3 Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 61. 

'-" Blume, Bijdr., 3.— MiQ., Fl. Ind. Bat., i. 
pars alt., 8. 

21 Labill., Sert. Anstro-Caled., 55, t. 55.— 
FOEST., Prodr., 228; Oen., 41. 

2- P. MuELL., Fragm., v. 1. 

23 DC, Icon. Deless., i. t. 72.— Hook. & 
Thoms., Fl. Ltd., i. 61.— Peesl, Rel. Hcenk., ii. 
73.— MiQ., FL Ind. Bat., i. pars alt., 7. — 
Thwait., Enurn. Pl. Zeyl., 1.— Seem., Herald, 
361.— BEy-in., FL Hongk., 7.— Walp., Ann., ii, 
18; iii. 812; iv. 36. 



122 NATURAL EI8T0B7 OF PLANTS. 

DiUeniacea known is in all about two hundred species. Their uses 
are but few. Most are rich in tannin, and strike an intense black 
in contact with iron. This is very marked in Schumacheria, which 
might be used in dyeing ; it is also found, though in a less degree, 
in Tetraccra, Davilla, Curatrl/a, &c. Hence it is not strange that 
Curatdla americana and C. caimhakiha} should be successfully used in 
tanning hides, and that astringent lotions are made from their bark 
in Brazil. The decoction of the leaves is used as a topical appli- 
cation to wounds. Dai-iUa is used for similar purposes ; thus 
D. ellij)tica, the Caimhaiblnha of the province of Miuas-Novas, serves 
to prepare a vulnerary of the same name, much prized by the 
Brazilians." B. riif/om is their Cipo dc Caboclo, or dc Carijo, of which a 
decoction is made, which cures swelling of the legs, thighs, &c., 
afl'ectious very common in the warm regions of South America. It 
is probably also an astringent action that is exerted by Colfjcrtia 
ohovata Bl. (which is a BUlenid), when the juice is mixed with 
water and used to wash the head to arrest baldness. Rheede relates 
that the acidulous juice of the fruit of I), speciom mixed with syrup 
is a remedy for coughs, Tetracera Rhcedii, infused in rice-water, is 
much used in Malabar as a gargle for aphthae. A decoction of T. 
Tiyarea is prescribed in Cayenne, under the name of " Liane Bon^e" 
(Angl. Red Liana), 2iS an antisyphilitic.^ T. Brn//iiaua and oblongata 
have the same properties as Davilla rugom, and fumigations of these 
plants are used in swellings of certain organs. The juice of Tetraccra 
ahiifoUa serves, it is said, as a beverage in Africa. BiUenia scabrc/Ia 
and speciom are used for domestic purposes in ^Malabar. The thick- 
ened calyxes, gorged with an acidulous juice, are preserved, and enter 
into the preparation of acid beverages and stews, almost like the 
lemon in Europe. With the ley of the leaves plate is cleaned. The 
Tetraceras have often rugose leaves ; those of T. sarmentosa are used 
in the Indo-Chinese Peninsula to polish wood, and tin vessels. 
Curatella americana possesses this property in a higher degree, owing 
to the siliceous concretions found abundantly in its leaves.^ The 



' A. S. H., Plus. Us. Jir<t.iil., t. xxiv. — Netto, Caimbahiha is pri'ferablc u a popular name, it 

//, But., 1(5. BCi'ins to ine; for it gives iwrfoctly tlie ickti of 

» A. S. H., /'/. Vs. Brasil., t. xxxiii. tlio incut mniirkiihlo property of this vcpitiiWi". 

» AriiLKT, Gitian., ii. yzl, t. 351. In fact, Caimbahiha iiicniii.i in tlie ulH)riginiil liin- 

< According; to NktT(» {he. vil .) tliJK tree is yinix^u ' Slmj;rifn (or fjlinw jmiijct) Tpih.-,' ' riun- 

callwl Cajueiro bmro in tlit- ciiniiMw of Ni.rtli in^; 'IVco,' ' Prickly Trw," \c., wliidi tallii-a 

Untzil. " Hut," wiyH tliin mitlior, " tlie naun' of wiili tlic' hm' tin- imiivis foruR-rly niailc nml alill 



DILLENIACEJE. 123 

Galibis use them to polish their arms, bows, arrows, clubs, &c. The 
wood of the Indian Dillenias is solid and durable; it is used in 
building, and according to Wight, who also dwells on the beauty of 
their foliage, and the size of their flowers, they are highly prized as 
ornamental plants. D. speciosa is a magnificent decoration for our 
conservatories, when, by suitable proceedings,' we can induce it to 
flower. Several pretty Ccmdolleas and Hibbertias with yellow 
flowers are also cultivated in conservatories of moderate heat. 



make of it. They use it like glass paper to polish the means employed in large towns, use it in their 

their wooden utensils ; and in the northern pro- work." 

vinces of Brazil, even the carpenters, unused to ' See Adansonia, vii. 94'. 



124 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



GENERA. 



I. CANDOLLEiE. 

1. CandoUea Labill. — Flowers 5-merous. Sepals imbricated, 
persistent. Petals usually 5, alternate witli the sepals, variably 
imbricated deciduous. Stamens united to a variable height into 
5 alternipetalous l-co -androus bundles (besides single free oppo- 
sitipetalous stamens, in a few species) ; filaments free at the apex. 
Anthers introrse, dehiscing by 2 clefts. Carpels 5, more rarely 
3, 4, opposite the petals, 1-, 2-, very rarely 3-ovulate ; ovules ascend- 
ing ; micropyle introrse inferior ; styles sulcate internally, bearing 
capitate stigmas. Ripe carpels subcamose, or more usually dry, and 
dehiscing as follicles. Seeds 1 or 2, arillate ; albumen fleshy ; 
embryo minute. — Shrubs or undersbrubs ; leaves alternate simple 
articulated at the base exstipulate ; flowers solitary terminal {S. E. 
Australia). — See p. 85. 

2. Adrastaea DC. — Flowers 5-merous. Sepals imbricated per- 
sistent. Petals 5, more rarely 3, 4, alternate with the sepals, 
imbricated deciduous. Stamens 10, in two whorls, the inner 
subalternipetalous ; filaments flattened cohering at the base ; 
anthers basiti.xed introrse dehiscing by 2 clefts. Carpels 2 ; ovules 2, 
ascending; styles subulate; fruit 2-follicular. — An undershrub; leaves 
alternate, sessile, articulate; flowers sessile terminal (/r. Jux/ra/ia). 
See p. 87. 

3. Pachynema K. Bu. — Flowers 5-merous. Sepals and petals 
free imbricated. Stamens U-ll, variably arranged, 2 sterile interior 
club-shaped, usually alternate with the carpels, 7-9 fertile ; filaments 
flattened or club-sha])ed or conoidal ; anthers introrse, dehiscing 
by 2 clel'ts. Carpels 2, 2-ovulatc ; when ripe dry 1 -seeded ; 
seed arillate. — Herbs or shrubs ; branches rush-like or flattened 
(cladodia) ; leaves minute scale-like deciduous ; more rarely few, 
3-fid ; flowers axillary, solitary or few ; jjcdicel recurved {Australia). 
See p. 88. 



DILLENIAGEJS. 125 



II. HIBBEETIEiE. 



4. Hibbertia Andr. — Flowers 5-merous. Sepals imbricated 
persistent. Petals 5, more rarely 2-4, alternate with the sepals, 
variably imbricated deciduous. Stamens cc, liypogynous or more 
rarely slightly perigynous, all fertile or some sterile ; in some {Cy- 
dandrece) peripheral, in others {Pletcrajidrea) unilateral ; staminodes 
external, peripheral or unilateral, or more rarely on each side 
of the fertile stamens, intermixed with them, or internal ; anther- 
cells 2, oblong introrse or lateral adnate to a linear connective, more 
rarely rotundate, shorter than the connective which is dilated at 
the apex ; dehiscence longitudinal. Carpels l-oo (usually 6-10), all 
free, or more or less adnate at the base to the conical receptacle, 
1-00 - ovulate ; ovules in 2 rows, ascending or subhorizontal. Fruits 
dry, usually dehiscing as follicles, or in 2 valves. Seeds 1-8, arillate. 
— Shrubs, more rarely undershrubs or herbs, sometimes trailing 
or twining ; leaves petiolate or sessile ; flowers soHtary terminal, or 
leaf-opposed, or often in unilateral false spikes or racemes {Oceania, 
Madagascar). See p. 90. 

5. Schumacheria Vahl. — Flowers 5-merous. Sepals imbricated, 
persistent. Petals usually 5, imbricated. Stamens oo , unilateral ; 
filaments cohering at the base ; anthers erect, spuriously porricidal 
dehiscing by two short apical clefts. Carpels 2, 3, excentric, 
1 -ovulate, when ripe dry and indehiscent; seed arillate. — Climbing 
shrubs ; branches flexuous ; leaves parallelly penniveined ; flowers in 
one-sided subspicate racemes, with (usually 2) lateral bracts ; racemes 
axillary or terminal, branching {Ceylon). See p. 97. 

6. Tetracera L. — Flowers hermaphrodite, more rarety poly- 
gamous. Sepals 3-6 (usually 5) imbricated. Petals 1-6 (usually 5) 
imbricated. Stamens go , peripheral ; filaments all free, or aggregated 
into a few bundles for a variable height ; anthers sterile abortive, 
or more usually 2-celled ; cells lateral extrorse or introrse, sub- 
parallel or more or less diverging at the base ; filaments dilated 
entire or 2-fid at the apex. Carpels 1-6, free ; ovaries 2-3o - ovulate ; 
ovules ascending or subhorizontal. Fruit dry or more or less 
fleshy, dehiscing as a follicle or in two valves, more rarely inde- 



126 NATURAL HTSTOBT OF PLANTS. 

hiscent, l-ao - seeded ; seeds arillate. — Trees or (usually olimhin^O 
shrubs ; leaves parallelly penniveined ; flowers solitary terminal, or 
in lateral axillary or terminal cyraose panicles {tropical America, 
Oceania, and Africa). See p. 99. 

7. Davilla Vandell. — Fowers 5-merous. Sepals 5 imbricated, 
very unequal ; the 2 innermost by far the most accrescent, very con- 
cave, finally coria(;eous, with valvate edges, surrounding the fruit ; 
the other tliree smaller. Petals 1-5, membranous, imbricated. Sta- 
mens 00 (of Tctracvra). Carpels 1-3 (more rarely 4, 5), 2-ovulate ; 
when ripe indehiscent or bursting irregularly; seeds arillate. — 
Shrubs, usually climbing; leaves and inflorescence of Tefracera ; 
petioles rarely dilated and winged ; flowers in cymose panicles, more 
rarely solitary {Jropical America). See p. 101. 

8. Curatella L. — Flowers 4-, 5-merous. Sepals and petals imbri- 
cated. Stamens oo (of Tetracerd) ; dehiscence longitudinal, almost 
marginal. Carpels 2, obliquely connate at the base ; styles distinct, 
dilated into stigmas at the apex ; ovules 2, ascending. Fruit either 
subcarnose indehiscent, or dry dehiscing dorsally. Seeds arillate. — 
Trees or climbing shrubs ; leaves (of Tetracera) thick ; venation 
parallel pinnate reticulate ; flowers numerous in axillary or lateral 
cymose panicles {tropical America). See p. 102. 

9. Empedoclea A. S. H. — Sepals co (10-15), unequal much im- 
bricated in ctj rows on the elongated receptacle. Petals 2-4, imbri- 
cated. Stamens co (of Tetracera), unequal ; anthers extrorse ; cells 
inserted obliquely on the dilated connective, dehiscing longitudinally. 
Carpel 1, pseudo-terminal; ovary 1 -celled; ovules not more than 
6 in 2 rows, ascending; style capitate. Fruit dry. — Shrub with 
the habit of Tctracvra ; venation of leaves parallel, pinnate ; flowers 
ill bracteate racemose cymes axillary to the leaves or terminating 
the twigs {Brazil). See p. 103. 

10. Acrotrema ,I.\( k. — Flowers 5-merous. Sepals 5, imbricated. 
Petals usually as many, imbricated. Stamens co , either symmetri- 
cally perij)heral all free, or more rarely more or less aggregated in 
3, 4 bundles. Antlior-cells either linear adnate introrse or extrorso 
dehiscing longitudinally, or by terminal pores; or more raixdy 



DILLENIACEJE. 127 

inserted obliquely (as in Telracerd) on a dilated connective. Carpels 
2, 3, free or cohering at the base ; styles free more or less thickened 
and stigmatiferous at the tip. Ovules 2, 3 ascending, or oo in 2 
rows. Fruit dry, indehiscent or bursting irregularly. Seeds 2-a) , 
arillate.— Perennial, subcaulescent herbs ; leaves alternate close to- 
gether, penniveined with transverse venules, entire, or pinnately 
lobed or dissected ; petioles often winged ; flowers, axillary pedun- 
culate, soUtary or racemose (?) {India, Ceylon.) See p. 103. 

III. DILLENIE^. 

11. DilleniaL. — Flowers 5-merous, Sepals imbricated, spreading, 
persistent, becoming fleshy around the fr'uit. Petals much longer, 
imbricated. Stamens ':f:> , nearly free ; anthers linear ; cells adnate, 
dehiscing by submarginal clefts. Carpels 5-ao , adhering to the 
axis, united to each other only by the ventral margin, otherwise 
free; styles as many, stellately reflexed, stigmatiferous internally. 
Ovules 00 , in 2 rows, subhorizontal. Fruit indehiscent, subbaccate 
5-Go - celled ; seeds imbedded in pulp or pulpless, glabrous or hairy 
at the margin, exarillate. — Trees ; leaves large, of parallel penni- 
venation ; flowers solitary or fascicled, lateral or terminal {tropical 
Jsia, Australia). See p. 106. 

12. Wormia Eottb. — Sepals 4-6, more rarely 10-15, unequal, 
imbricated. Petals 5 imbricated, or 0. Stamens go , either aU fertile 
with erect linear anthers dehiscing by terminal pores or short 
clefts ; or the outermost sterile very short ; filaments all slightly 
unequal, or the 5 innermost much the longest, spreading recurved. 
Carpels 5-go (of Dillenia), cohering only on the inside, oo - ovulate ; 
when ripe dehiscing internally or indehiscent ; styles as many, free 
spreading. Seeds ariUate. — Trees or shrubs ; leaves broad, of parallel 
pennivenation ; petioles dilated, wings deciduous ; flowers large, 
solitary, or more frequently grouped in often unilateral terminal 
spurious racemes {trojncal Asia, Oceania, Madagascar). See 
p. lOS. 

13. Actinidia Lindl. — Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous, 
5-merous. Sepals imbricated, persistent. Petals imbricated or con- 
torted. Stamens oo ; filaments free ; anthers introrse, finally versa- 



128 NATUIiAL nTSTORT OF PLANTS. 

tile, 2-colled dehiscing longitudinally ; cells parallel on a linear more 
or less apiculate connective. Carpels cc united into a tj - celled 
ovary ; cells sometimes scarcely reaching the axis in the centre, free 
in that part ; styles as many, diverging stellately at the base, or 
sometimes thickening on the nearly distinct apices of the carpels. 
Ovules GO , subtransverse inserted in 2 rows in the internal angle of 
each cell. Fruit baccate go - celled ; seeds go , imbedded in pulp ; 
albumen copious ; embryo straight, central, with an elongated cylin- 
drical radicle ; cotyledons short. — Shrubs often twining ; leaves 
penniveined ; flowers axillary, solitary or few, or often numerous in 
corymbose cymes [tropical and subtropical A-^ia). See p. 110. 



III. MAGNOLIACEJi:, 



I. MAGNOLIA SERIES. 

Among the species of the genus Mar/nolia,^ whicli li.as given 




Magnolia (jrandijlora. 

Fig. 165. 

Flowering brancli. 



the name to tliis order, the best known are J/, f/randiforrr 



' Magnoliali., Gen., n. 690. — Gms.T's. ,Fiucf., 
i. 343, t. 70.— Juss-.G^B., 281.— DC., Syst. Veg., 
i. 449 ; Prodr., i. 79. — Endl., Gen., n.' 4737.— 
A. Gray, Oen. Ill, t. 23, 24.— Walp., Eep., i. 
70; Ann., i. 956; iv. 41.—?.. H., Gen., IS, 
u. 4. — H. Bn., Adansonia, vii. 3, 5, 66. 

VOL. 1. 



^ L., 5pcc., 755.— Lamk., TZZ., t. 490.— DC, 
Prodr.,!. 80, n. 1 (i5ect. Magnoliasirum) ; Syst., 
1.450. — MiCHX.,^/-Z»re9Fore«/.,iii.71. — Duhaji., 
Arhre.1, ed. 2, ii. t. 65. — Andr., Bot. Rep., 
t. 518.— Snrs, Bot. Mag., t. 1952.— Spach, 
Suit, a Buffon, vii. 470 (sect. Theorhodcn). 

K 



130 



NATURAL mSTORY OF PLANTS. 



(figs. 165, 166, 168, 169), and Yu/rtn' (figs. 167, 171) cultivated 
everywhere, of wliicli tlie former has persistent leaves, the latter leaves 
which fall every year, and magnificent flowers produced at the end 
of the winter before the leaves. On 
examining these flowers we first notice 
that the axis or receptacle has the form 
of a cylindro-conoidal hranch, bearing 
successively from below upwards a pe- 
rianth, a large number of stamens, and 
carpels inserted on a spiral." In the flower 
of M . (jraudijhra the perianth first presents 
three more or less greenish' free leaves, 
imbricated in the bud (fig. 166), so that 
most usually one is quite outside and one 
quite inside, while the third is overlapped 
by the former on one side, and overlaps 
the latter on the other. These leaves, 
usually described as sepals, fall early. Within are two corolline 
whorls, the one consisting of .three petals alternate with the 
sepals, the other of three interior to these and alternate with 




Magnolia grand'tjlora. 
Fig. 166. 
Diagram. 



» Desf., Arhres, ii. 6.— DC, Prodr., n. 10 
(sect. Gwillimia Rottl.). — M.confpicuaSi.LiaB., 
Par. Lond., t. 38. — Yulania conspicua SPACn, 
Suil. a Suffun, vii. 464. 

- The fraction of tlie phyllotaxy of the Magno- 
liacere is usually -|. Accordingly, in the arrange- 
ment of the floral appendages we meet with the 
fractions derived from this up to ^'.^ and t/j. 

^ Their colour varies with the individual leaf 
and with the ape of the flower. Very often the 
sepals when adult are as white as the petals, or 
nearly so. When young they are usually of a de- 
licate preen. These facts show how characters of 
coloration and consistency may he sometimes un- 
rcliahle ami insufhcient to distinguish a calyx from 
R corolla. It would no doubt be more correct to say 
that in M. gramlijlont 1,., the perianth is triple, 
and that the leaves of tlie two inner whorls are 
usually iworvpetaloid when adult than those of the 
outer one. Inother species the diflerence of colora- 
tion between the sei)als and petals is no longer 
appreciable when adult. Thus, in many ])lant8 of 
M. Yilan I)i:.sf. and «S'M//"n7/V/mi (hybrid), all the 
leaves of the perianth are so himilar that one may 
wellsjjy that these flowers jMwsess a triple corolla 
and nocidyx. It is sometimeH the hamo with the 
nine yellowish green primrose leaves of the peri- 
antli of 3/. (icumiiitila L. In M. glauca L. they 



are sometimes all white and similar, sometimes the 
two or three outermost leaves are green. M. macro- 
phylla Miciix.has usually three preen or grL-enish 
sepals and six white petals. In the flowers of .1/. 
purpurea CrBT., we almost invariably tind a 
great diflerence between the six petals, which are 
broad, erect, and wine-red on the outside, and the 
three sepals, which are small, and are early re- 
flexed on the peduncle and become brownish. 
The total number of j)ii'ces in the ])erianth is also 
very variable in cultivated sjK'cies ; as many as 
twenty and upwards may sometimes becounteil, as if 
the flower showed signs of becoming double. Wo 
have demonstrated (Adaiuouia, vii. ;}) that these 
variations have no real imiwrtance ; that in cer- 
tain species those very leaves have In-en called 
sepals, which in others have l)een named petjds ; 
while the sejjals of authors are often only bnicta 
preceding the flower, representing the sheaths or 
dilated petioles of leaves, and continuing the 
spiral series of the leaves properly so-calUnl. The 
seimls too are inserted along the same spiral. 
Hence it is that, as shown in fig. 1R(). there is 
no sepal exactly opjwsite or alternate with the 
bract which iunncdiately surrounds the flower. 
Moreover, the nature of the jmi-ccs of the ]H>rianth 
is shown by these facts; they are leaves re*luci-d 
to the basilar portion. 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 



131 



them. These six leaves are imbricated, or more rarely contorted 
in the bud, and also fall very shortly after the expansion of the 
flower. Above them commences the spiral of the pieces of the andro- 





MagnoUa Yulan. 

Fig. 167. 

Longitudinal section of flower. 



Magnolia grandiflora. 

Fig. 168. 

Fruit. 



ceum and gynseceum. The stamens are indefinite, each con- 
sisting of a subsessile anther, with an apiculate connective. 



' The stamens of J/, grandiflora L., have a short 
filament quite continuous at its summit with tlie 
apiculate connective. The cells of the anther are 
distinctly introrse, the somewhat bulging back of 
the connective being left quite uncovered. Each 
cell is divided longitudinally into two smaller cells, 
very distinctly seen in a transverse section of the 
anther. Tlie cells have nearly the same position 
in M. glauca L. ; they are not seen at all on the 
back of the anther, lu M. macrophylla Micnx. 
the anthers long remain sessile ; it is only a few 
days before anthesis that we can distinguish the 
short flattened filament. The connective ends in 
a pyramidal point with three faces. The two 
cells occupy the inner face only, and in certain 
stamens nearly touch on the middle line; in 



others, a broader vertical strip separates them. 
The stamens of M. Yulan Desf. are unequal, 
the inferior being by far the shorter. Their 
anthers are less introrse than in the preceding 
species, as are those of M. purpurea Curt. 
{Yulania Japonica Spach), where the cells are 
nearly marginal. Still they are inserted on 
planes bevelled ofl'the inner surface, and are hence 
rather introrse than extrorse. Tliis position of 
the cells does not appear sufficient to characterize 
a genus. The filament is thick and fleshy in M. 
Yulan Desf., and remains so for some time after 
the withering of the empty anthers. Nearly all 
the species have very caducous stamens. Cultiva- 
tion often transforms a certain number of these 
into petals, then very evidently arranged in a spiral. 

K 2 



132 



NATUIiAL mSTORY OF PLANTS. 



bearing on its inner face the two cells, adnate for their whole 
length, and each dehiscing by a longitudinal cleft.' The carpels, 
also indefinite, consist each of a one-celled ovary, 
surmounted by a horn-shaped style, bent outwards at 
the tip." The whole of the inner face of the ovary 
and style is traversed by a longitudinal groove, of 
which the everted edges are covered above with 
numerous stigmatic papilla?. In the inner angle of 
the ovary is seen a parietal placenta bearing two de- 
scending anatropous ovules, witli the micropyle looking 
upwards and outwards.^ The fruit consists of a large 
number of finally dry carpels' inserted on the now woody 
axis. Each opens when ripe along the dorsal suture (fig. 168),* 
to free one or two seeds which remain for a variable time sus- 
pended to a slender filament (fig. 109)." Each seed has three 
coats ■/ the outermost is quite fieshy ; the middle hard and testa- 




' The pollen of M. gran<liJlora L. consists of 
grains of the shape of a grain of corn, somewhat 
acute at each end, and with a large longitndinal 
fold due to the inflexion of the outer coat. H. 
^loiiL has already pointed out that it has the same 
form as in most Monocotyledons {Ann. Sc. Nat., 
S('r. 2, iii. 221). In contact with water the form 
changes, so that the fold disa])pcar8, the length 
is diminished, and the ends are rounded. The 
exterior is covered with projecting granulations of 
a fatty consistency, and the superficial and deep 
parts of the grain present a marked contrast in 
colour. The centre is darkest, and finely granular. 
M. macrophylla Miciix., has similar jwUen 
grains, hut more elongated and fusiform. 

- The style varies greatly in form and size 
from the short somewhat dilated horn of M. 
grandijlora L., or the slightly hooked suhulatc 
point of M. Yulan Desk., to the revolute and 
almost plumose style of M. glauca L., in which 
last the j)apilla- of the margins of the internal 
groove are not simple, but branched. 

* When adult, tliey become more or less oblique, 
and sometimes even horizontal. At the same 
time, the micropyle inclines somewhat to the 
lattrul walls of the cell, and the rai)hos approach 
one another on the middle line. They have two 
coats. There are sometimes three ovides in the 
ovary of M. Yultin 1)i:sf. and vtacrophylla 
MlCllX. ; the third is then suiM.rior and nearly 
median. 

* In several sitecics they long imisschs a lleshy 
consistency, and a pinkish or yellowinli tint, re- 
culling that of certain surculent |)ericar|iH. In 
■onio, tlio wmxly endocarp separates from tin- 



thicker and less consistent mesocarp after de- 
hiscence. 

•'' Dehiscence in most species takes place simply 
by a longitudhial cleft, of which the borders 
separate to form two lateral panels. In some 
others, as M. macrophifUa Micnx., besides the 
two panels, we perceive the dorsal rib, womly, and 
like a long subulate filament, only attached to 
the receptacle by its base, and free from all ad- 
hesion to the lateral walls. 

^ This filament consists of trachea*, which are 
continued into the raphe of the seed; the turns 
of their spirals separate as the seed di-scends. 

^ The curious organization of these seeds, with 
an outer fleshy coat, which Linn.kus called an aril, 
has been a source of long discussions to the bota- 
nists ofour times (Mii:KS,Co«/ri6.,i.U>2, 17 1,211 ; 
IIooKKU F. k TnoMs., Fl. IihJ., i. 77; A. Okay, 
in Jlook. Jouni., vii. 2 13). Tiio origin of the 
outer coat has been attributed to various organs, 
some making it a special sac emanating from the 
placenta, and finally enveloping the whole seed ; 
while others consider it one of the pnijwr seed 
coats, singularly modified al\er a certain age. 
This la.st interpret^ilion alone appears stitisfactory 
to ns, as will bo seen in the following extnut 
fnnn the special article we recently devototl to 
this subject {Complin Jtrndit.t, Ixvi. 7lH); Adiin- 
Konia, viii. Ifill) — " Tlie so nmch dis|)uted origin 
of the fleshy coat of the seeil of Mugnulia is de- 
monstrated both l>y Wm develtipmcnt and by iUt 
histologicid structure. It in formed by theliyinr- 
trophied cells of the priinine, ricli firitl in starch 
an(l afterwanls in oily matter. MoriMVer, its 
thickness is traversed by the tracheal bundles of 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 



133 



ceous, the inner one membranous. This last is immediately sur- 
rounding the fleshy albumen, which contains a small dicoty- 





Magnolia purpurea. 

Fig. 170. 

Longitudinal section of seed. 



Magnolia Yulan. 

Fig. 171. 

Flower without its perianth. 



ledonous embryo towards its apex (fig. 170). In the flower of 
Magnolia Yulan, of which it has been proposed to make a special 
genus under the name of Yulania,^ the lower portion of the recep- 
tacle forms a dome-shaped swelling (figs. 167, 1j1), into the base 
of which is inserted the perianth. This, instead of consisting of six 
petaloid leaves, and three others, green like those of an ordinary 
calyx, usually presents nine leaves in three whorls, all similar, 



the raphe and its branches. As these vessels 
contain little but gas when mature, we have 
found a means of disclosing the path of the vas- 
cular network, by leaving the seed for some time 
in tincture of iodine. All the cells then become 
violet, and almost black, while the tracheae remain 
only of a clear brown tint. We can now follow 
and dissect out all the tracheal network in the 
thickness of the parenchyma, much as we isolate 
the injected vessels of an animal. The bundle in 
the raphe, while giving forth branches on either 
side, proceeds to the chalaza, where it bends up 
to enter the interior of the seed. We must here 
describe a peculiar orifice intlie testaceous middle 
coat, diametrically opposite the micropyle, and 
never encroached upon by the incrustations of the 
deep coat. Tiie physiological importance of this 
new organ will be realized — a canal, of definite out- 
line, which can be traversed by a very fine metallic 
style without any destruction of tissue, and which 



we call the ' heteropyle.' The testaceous coat, 
which retains its primitive orthotropy, is thus 
furnished with two polar apertures. As to the 
superficial fleshy envelope, the older botanists 
termed it an aril, an appellation which recent 
authors have not adopted; and yet it forms a 
sort of generalized aril, far more worthy of the 
name than those partial hypertrophies of the 
outer seed coat to which it is now-a-days usually 
applied." 

' SPAcn, Suit, a Buffon, vii. 462. In this genus 
the author includes three species : 1-^ I', con- 
spicua (Magnolia conspieua Salisb. — M. Yulan 
Desf.) ; 2° Y. japonica, (M. ohovata Thg. ; — 
M. denudata Lamk.; — M. discolor Vext.; — 
M. purpurea Curt.) ; of this M. Sonlangiana 
Sweet and liliiflora Lamk., are considered 
simply forms; 3° F. Cohus {M. iomentosa 
Thg.; — M. gracilis Salisb.; — M. Kobui 
DC). 



134 



NATURAL HIS TORY OF PLAINTS. 



of the consistency and colour usually presented by petals. More- 
over, the fruit, instead of having all its elements close together 

in an ovoid mass, as in 3/. 
grandifora (fig. 16S) has a more 
elongated axis, more or less bent 
on itself (fig. 172), so that its 
carpels are further apart ; some 
of these do not attain their full 
development.' It is however in- 
contestible that on reviewing the 
fruits of all the Magnolias kno\\Ti, 
we find every possible transition 
between the form in M. Yulan, 
and that of ^[. grandiflora: In 
many species, too, the number 
of pieces in the perianth is in- 
creased to a variable extent, 
either normally or through cul- 
tivation, while the form and 
colour of these parts vary 
greatly, without any value being 
assignable to these characters. 
But the flowers always termi- 
nate the branches, and there is 
of the stamens and that of the 




Magnolia Yulan. 

Fio. 172. 

Fruit. 

no interval between the insertion 
carpels on the receptacle. 

Kot so in the small flowers of 



Magnolia Figo^ (f'gs. 173, 174), 



' Tlic form ami length of tlie receptacle in the 
ripe fruit are very variable. It is sometimes so 
short an only to bear one fertile carpel ; at other 
timea nearly Htrai;,'ht, or slightly bent, or like a 
book, as in fig. 172 ; or even bent twice on itself 
into un S, like the stock of a llistort. In the 
fniiUi of this group, some carpels oj>en along the 
whole length of the baek, others only open lialf- 
way down ; othern, again, arc partly iletaehed 
from the receptacle along the inner angle, down 
which tlie cleR extends from the back. We 
find here, in tine, every jxisHible transition between 
the dehiscence of .1/. i/randijiorn and that of 
Talauma, in which the car|R>lH Ke))amte from the 
axis, and otdy open along a variable extent of the 
internal angle. It also happens, in certain species, 
that several neiglibouring carpels are united 



laterally, and come off together in irregular 
flakes. This is very well shown in T. fragrant ia- 
sima, in plates ccix., ccx. of Hookek's Ivviifs. 

" Thus the fruit of M. CamphtUii Hook. F. 
A- TiioMS. {Fl.Iml.,\. 77), represented in the///. 
/'/. Himal. (t. 4), and reproducetl in the Flore 
dm iSerres (t. 1282-12S5), has also the coniad 
fruit of M. graiulijlora, but much elonpitwl, and 
apjiroaching the cylindrical form foinid in Yulan 
and the allied species, from which it further 
differs in being nearly straight. 

* M.faxciafa Vknt., Malmaui., n. 24, not. — 
M. fu»cala Andr., Bof. Hep., t. 229.— Zirio- 
dendron Figo Loitk., /7. Cochinrh., ed. W., i. 
424. — LiriopKl.ifii.ira fa Sl'ACIl, A'miV. <J Jinjf'oit ; 
vii. 4(31. - Michelia Hanck, Ann. Sc. ^'at., 
her. 5. V. 2li5. We have elsewhere reiuurkvil 



MAGN0LIAGE2E. 



135 



often cultivated in our conservatories. The receptacle is conical 
at its base, and then elongates into a column of which the lower 
part is contracted and bears no appendages; above this part the 





Magnolia (^Liriopsis) Figo. 
Fig. 173. 
Flower, corolla removed. 



Fig. 174. 
Diagram.' 



carpels are inserted in a spiral as in other Magnolias, and also con- 
tain a placenta bearing two descending ovules in the internal angle 
of the ovary. On the lower part of the receptacle are seen the 
indefinite stamens with introrse anthers ; and a little lower still the 
perianth, formed of six imbricated coloured similar leaves, in two 
trimerous whorls. We must no doubt consider these as petals.- 
Outside of, or rather below these, there are only two membranous 
leaves, which in the bud form two sacs fitting one within the other. 
Each represents the base of a leaf. We may regard it either as 
a sepal or a bract analogous to that which accompanies the flower 
of M. grandijlora. The flowers of M. Figo are usually solitary and 
axillary. However, when we cultivate them, it pretty often hap- 
pens that the peduncle elongates and bears either several al- 



(Adamonia, vii. 7) that Bentham & Hooker, 
while retaining Michelia as a distinct genus, yet 
consider {Gen., 19) the Liriopsls of Spacu as re- 
ferrible to the genus Magnolia, its characters 
being " levioris momenti" to entitle it to auto- 
nomy. 

' In this diagram, the two appendages usually 
described as forming a calyx, are theoretically 
represented by the shaded curves outside. They 
are either two leaf sheaths, or two pairs of stipules 
uiuted by the petiole ; and it is one of these 
leaves, most usually reduced to the basilar portion, 



which, in fig. 173, is provided with an abnormal 
blade. The true perianth, which is a corolla, is 
represented by the black curves. 

- The less petaloid, external leaves, usually 
considered as sepals, appear to be those which are 
wanting here. Hut this absence is of no great 
value, for they reappear in many Michelias with 
biovulate carpels, which are, moreover, quite in- 
separable from this plant in the rest of their 
organization. Usually the hairy bracts referred 
to above, and represented in fig. 173, are described 
as the calyx in M. Figo. 



136 NATUltAL mSTOUY OF PLANTS. 

ternate bracts or leaves beneath the flower which termmates it. 
The inflorescence then becomes exactly that of M. grandi- 
flora.' 

Michelia^ considered by nearly all authors as a separate genus 
from Magnolia, has exactly the flower of M. Figo, and the receptacle 
also presents a naked interval between the stamens and the })istil. 
But in cei-fain species the carpels, instead of always containing 
two ovules each,' contain a larger number^ in two vertical rows. 
The fruit and inflorescence, too, are those of M. Figo, and hence we 
do not put all these plants in different genera. Magnolia acinni- 
natd' L. has flowers like those of the preceding species, but the 
colour of the petals is yellowish green, covered with a glaucous 
waxy bloom. There is no bare interval on the receptacle between 
the androceum and gyntcceum, and each carpel is biovulate. The 
stamens, inserted on the conical portion of the floral axis, are 
unequal, with anthers rather longer and broader than the filaments ; 
their two cells, which as in M. Yulan, approach the edges of the 
connective, are still introrse, as in all Magnolias ; so that we also 
include in this genus Tuli past rum, of which M. acuminata is the 
type, and of which the characters are not sufficiently marked to 
justify its autonomy. 



' So that now tliis cliaracter cannot be called present another section, in wliich tlie ovaries con- 
in as constituting a peneric difl'erence between tain either numerous ovules in two vertical rows. 

Magnolia and Michella. This fact we have or only three ovules. In this last case, the carpels 

already established (Adansonia, vii. 8). More- are those of the biovulate Michelias, which also 

over, UooKEH & Thomson {Fl. Lid., i. 79) accidentally jjrescnt three ovules, 
admit a special section marked by terminal flowers * Spec, ed. 2, 75G. — MicHX. F., Arhr. Amer., 

(or the\r ^f. Cal/irar/ii. iii. 82, t. 3.— DC, J'rudr., n. 5. — Tttlipajttrum 

' L., den., n. 691. — G^ETN., Fruct., ii. 263, americaiium, a, vulffure Spacii, Suit, a BiiJJ'on, 

t. 137.— Lamk, Did., i. I'JO; III, t. 493. — vii. 483. M. cordala Micux., Fl. Bor. Amer., 

Juss., Oen., 280. — DC., Si/sf., i. 447 ; Prodr., i. 328, is referred by the same author to the 

i. 79. — 15l., Fl. Jav., Magnoliac, 6, t. 1-5. — Liinia.'an species, as var. /3 nubcordata. The 

Spach, Suit, a Buffon, vii. 455. — ExDL., Oen., sepals are green, and of variable length, some- 

n. 4739. — Wai.I'., Ann., iv. 38. — B. H., Gen., times very short. The united carpels form an 

19, II. fi. — II. \\^., Adannonia, vii. 66. — Sam- obovate mass. The styles are bowed, like horns, 

para UuMrii., Jlirh. Amhoin., ii. 199, t. 67,68. with two lips bearing stigmatic papiliie. 
— Champaca UiiKUDi;, Jlort. Malab., i. 31, t. Wo also retain in the genus Magnolia, Li- 

19, — Adanh., Fain. J'l., ii. 3f)5. rianthe grandijlora Sl'AC'ii, Suit, a Buffon, 

' The biovulate species sometimes present a vii. '186 (Liriodemlrun grandijlora K»>xu., Fl. 

third ovule, superior and median. Ind., ii. 6b3.—AJagitolia pterocarpa Uoxu., J'l. 

* MugnoUa punduana W MA.. (.Mlc/ielia pun- Cw/'o/Hrt/x/., iii. 266; — Sphenocarpus W'xLl.., Cat., 

duana llooK. iV TlloMR.), has l)ii>vulate carpels, 236), of which UkntiiaM & llooKEU also sjiy, 

in which the ovules are at first phiccil buck to back, " iharartirilius lirioria moment i a Mugnoliu 

and then one nearly above till' other. With .1/. sepaialur" (den., \i)). The carpels, it is Miid, 

ohlongn and nilagirica, it forms, for the authors possess long terminal wings, owing to the f\- 

oi' i\\ii Flora //!</*>« (i. Kl), a special section with punsion of the style; so that by its fruit this 

axilUiry flowers and biovuinle carinsls, while M. plant affords a transition Ix'twceu i\\i: Magnolias 

Champaca, excelsa, lanuginosa, and A'isopa, re- and the Tiflip-trees. 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 137 

The Talau7nas^ are Magnolias, in which the carpels, instead of 
dehiscing longitudinally along the back, separate by the base from 
the common axis of the fruit, or only open for a short extent above 
and internally, or else become woody and quite indehiscent, or 
fleshy and pulpy, only freeing the seeds by their putrefaction. 
This last condition is especially found in Aromadendron^- indigenous to 
Java, The Buergerias^ which come from Japan have also a 
similar fruit ; but the leaves of the perianth become more nume- 
rous, as also occurs sometimes in the true MagnoUas. All these 
differences have seemed to us of little importance^ and insufficient 
to warrant the removal of these plants from Magnolia, othermse 
than as sections of the genus. If we analyse the magnificent 
flowers of M. insignis Wall.,* we see that they terminate the 
branches, as in M. grandijiora, and are constructed exactly the same 
way. But on opening the carpels we find in the internal angle 
from two to ten carpels and upwards. Hence in the fruit the 
carpels which dehisce dorsally often set free upwards of two seeds. 
This character is also found in four or five allied species, which 
have been collected into a special genus under the name of j\[an- 
glietia^ but we do not retain this genus, for the same reasons which 
have led us to leave Magnolia Figo with biovulate cells, and 
Michdia Champaca whose carpels are multiovulate, in the same 
generic group.^ 



1 Juss., Gen., 281 . — DC, Syst., i. 460 ; us {loc. cii.), in T. mutabilis ; we may also see it 
Prodr., i. 81. — Bl., Fl. Jav., xix. 29, t. 9-12. — sometimes in the fruit otM. liliifera {M.pumila 
Spach, Suit, a Biijf., vii. 447. — Endl., Gen.,n. Ande. ; 3L Coco DC. , Syst. Fey., i. 459; Hance, 
4735. — Waxp, -Sep., i. 69; ^«n., iv. 41. — B. H., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 5, v. 205; — Linodendron 
Gen., 18, n. 3. — H. Bn., Adansonia, vii. 669. — liliifera L. ; — L. Coco Lotte., FL Cochinch. 

Gwillimia Rottl., ex Spach, loc. cit. — Blumea 1790), 347 ; Gwillimia indica Eottl. ; Ta- 

Nees, Flora (1825), 152. lauma pumila Bl., Fl. Jav., loc. cit., t. 12, C). 

2 Bl., Bijdraj., 8 ; Fl. Jav., xix. 25, t. 7, 8. — We know that the Magnolias strictly so-called 
Sfacu, Suit, a Biiffon, vii. 451. — E>DL., Gen., of the section Yulan present nearly all these 
n. 4736. The calyx is here sometimes tetra- variations in the way some of their carpels dehisce, 
merous, and the number of petals may be raised though in these the dorsal cleft is usually more 
to thirty. The fruit is often characterized by its marked. But we cannot see generic distinctions 
dehiscence: " carpel lis non nisi putredine ah axi in all this. 

secedentibiis" (B. R,,loc. cit.). Seep. 134, note 1. ^ Tentam. Fl. Nepal., t. 1; Plant. Asiat. 

3 SiEB. & Zucc, Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat., i. 78, Earior., ii. t. 182. 

t. 2. — Endl., Gen., supp. v., n. 4736 '. — B. H., ® Blttme, Bijdraj., 8 ; Fl. Jav., xiv. 20, t. 6. 

Gen., 183. — Miq.,^»«. Mus. Lugd. Bat.,\\. 257. — Endl., Gen., n. 4738. — Hook. F. & Thoms., 

■' See Adansonia, vii. 6. When the carpels Fl. Ltd., i. 76. — Miq., Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. post., 

of a species like M. Plumieri (Talaitma Plumieri 15. — B. H., Gen., 19, n. 5. — Walp., Ann., iv. 40. 
Sw.) separate in masses from the common axis, ' See Adansonia, vii. 5, where we formulate 

we see each carpel opens more or less widely into our conclusion thus ; — " The MangUetias are to 

two lateral halves, beginning at the internal the Magnolias as the multiovulate Michclias are 

angle. The same fact occurs, as observed by to the biovulate Michelias." 



138 



NATURAL mSTOItY OF PLANTS. 



Thus constituted,' the genus Magnolia contains half a hundred 
species, which are trees or shrubs, usually as remarkable for the 
beauty of their foliage as for that of their flowers, which are white, 
red, or greenish, and almost always scented. The leaves are 
alternate, persistent or deciduous, with the sides of the petiole dilated 
near the base into a sort of membranous sac, which according to 
most authors, represents the stipules, and which envelopes all the 
parts of the branch superior to it when young. If, for example, 
we examine the top of a branch of M. grandifora, above the last 
developed leaf we see a membranous sac like an elongated cone 
inserted by its base all round the axis above the petiole. This 
sac certainly represents two lateral, somewhat supra-axillary stipules, 
for on the side next the petiole they become entirely separate 
from one another. Later on, the sort of leaf-opposed gutter 
thus formed again splits on the opposite side of the branch into 
two halves. These two organs then become detached at the base 
from the branch also, discovering the young parts at its summit, 
which were at first enveloped by these membranous caducous 
stipules. In this species the}'- are free from the petiole. !More 
frequently they adhere to it for one third, one half, or as much as at 
least two-thirds of its height. For their fall it is necessary that 
they should be detached from the petiole itself, and in this case we 
find on its inner face a scar like a narrow elongated hollow, indi- 
cating where they adhered to it.* The flowers are solitary, usually 



1. Eumagtwlia (incl. Yulania, 
Lirianthe, Tutipastrum). 

2. Talatima (incl. Btumea, Buer- 
MagnoUa. / g^in, Aromadendron). 
Sections 5. 3. Manglietia. 

4. Liriopsis (incl. MIcJieliopsis 
H. Hk.). 

5. Micfielia. 

A sammary of the distinctive characters of 
theiM? five sections, ns cstahhslicd above, will be 
found in Adanxonia, vii. GO. 

* The chief arrangements aflVcted by the 
stipule of Magnolia have been studied Vjy TnicUL 
in his " Mt'inuire »ur la formation drx ftrtiillea" 
{Ann. Sc. Nut., si'-r. 3, xx. 'i:V>). This savant 
ol«crves th.it "in M. Uinbrilhi, SouUingiiina, 
fee., the stijjules arc united to one another and 
partly to the petiuli-. This union gives rise to a 
niileworthj jiliiiioinenon. The stipules jH.T»isting 
lunger tlian the leaf, the hlaile falls oil' above the 
part united to the stipules, while this part only falls 
later with them, lu il.grandijhra the stipules 



are free from the petiole and from one another." 
In the same work (296, figs. 175, 176) we find 
that the stipules of M. grandiflora have been 
studied in their development ; a phenomenon de- 
scribed as follows : — " A protuberance arises on 
the summit of the axis, swollen at the base on 
the inner side. If we examine it in front, we 
see that the slender superior part and the swollen 
base are marked by a longitudinal groove which 
foreshadows the formation of the blade above and 
the stipules below. These I have always seen 
with their margins close together from their 
origin, concealing the summit of the axis. Here 
I speak of M. grandijtura only. The same 
thing occurs in Liriodemiron TuHpift^a." We 
further read in a note : " The vernation is in- 
duplicative in Liriodendron and .Ungnolitt ; the 
leaf is folded along the midrib. In M. gramli- 
Jlura there arc often hairs at the top of the leaf 
l)efore any have yet ajijH-ared at the Ume, to 
which they gradually exteiul along the midrib." 
In nearly all of the MagnoltM there arc mem- 



MAGNOLIAGE/E. 139 

terminal. We have seen, however, that in most of the species of 
the group comprising Mlchelia and Liriopsis the axillary hranch 
bearing the flower is very short, and does not usually bear well- 
developed leaves beneath it. Magnolias are only found in the 
tropical regions of Asia,' Oceania,'^ and America ;' and in the north 
of India,* in China,* Japan," Mexico, the Antilles,' and the United 
States.** 

The Tulip-trees {Tjiriodendron^) are closely analogous to the 
Magnolias, from whicli they are chiefly distinguished by two cha- 
racters : the aspect of the anthers in the flower (figs. 175, 170) ; 
and the conversion of the carpels in the fruit into samaras which fall 
from the common axis when ripe (figs. 177, 178). T'he recep- 
tacle is of cylindro-conoidal form, bearing successively from below 
upwards, a calyx of three imbricated sepals ; a double corolla with 
three imbricated petals in each whorl, the outer ones alternate with 
the sepals, the inner superposed to them ; a large number of stamens 
and then of carpels, inserted in one continuous spiral. The stamens 
consist each of a free filament, and a two-celled distinctly extrorse 
anther, dehiscing longitudinally."* The carpels are free, consisting 
each of a unilocular ovary and a style, whose dilated summit is 
covered with stigmatic papilla?. In the internal angle of the 
ovaries may be seen two pendulous ovules, analogous to those of 



branous spathelike scales at the base of the leaf- ■* Hook. & Thoms., op. cit., 74-82. 

bud, replacing the leaves. On the middle line we 5 Thunbg., Flor. Jap. (1784), 236. — Benth.. 

perceive a vertical projocting rib rising to a FL Hongkong., 8. 

variable height on the scale, and then terminating e ^yj jq_^ ^„„^ j/jj^_ Lugd. Bat., ii. 257. 

ill a minute apiculus or scarcely visible scar. This ; g^__ _p;_ j^-^ q^^-^^^ jj_ 997._Geiseb., FL 

rib represents the petiole, and tlie apiculus is a £,•;(_ W.-Ind. 8 



rudimentary blade. We must remark that the 
petiole here usually falls with the stipuliform ap- 



M.ic\i.:s..,Fl.Bor.-Amer., i. 327. — J. Beowne, 
Trees ofAmer., 1.— A.Grat, Man. of Bot.North. 



pendages which do not separate from it as m f^^-^,.^.^^^ jg e,„_ jrn 59 t. 23, 23 his.- 

the adult eaves. These scales, consisting alto- Cuapman, Fl. S. UniL-Stat., 13. 

gether of the lower part of the leaf, anord a good n t ^ 

explanation of the envelopes which have been J ^■' ^^«-' °- 689.— J.. Gen., 281.— Lamk, 

called sepals. We shall again meet with a pre- -^'^^•' ^■'"- 137.— G.ertnee, Fmct., ii. 475, t. 

cisely similar organization in the Tulip-tree. 158.— DC, Prodr., i. 82.— Spach, Suit, a Buff., 

1 KoYB., Fl. Lid., ii. 653-655.- Wight & vu. 486.— Endl., (?e»., n. 4740.— A. GEAT,(?e«. 

Arn., Frodr. Fl. Fen. Ltd., i. 6.— Hook. & -f^^- ^3, t. 25.— B. H., Gen., 19, n. 7.— H. Bn., 

TiiOMS., Fl. Lid., i. 74-82.— TnWAlT., Fmm. ^dansonm, vi. m.—Tulipifera Herm.. Lugd.- 

Plant. Zeyl., 5. -^'^^■' ^12, tc — Adans., Fam. PI., ii. 365. 

" Bl., Bijdraj., 7-10 ; Fl. Jav., MagnoUac, '" The filament is short, dilated into a long 

29-40, t. ix.-xii. — Miqtjel, Fl. Lid.-Bat., i., connective, which is naked on the inner surface 

pars 2, 13-16. — Blanco, Flor. FiUp., 327. and slightly concave outside. The auther cells 

^ A. S. H., Flor. Bras. Mer., i. 26, t. 4. — are only seen from without, and often eveu touch 

EiCHL., Mart. Flor. Bras., MagnoUac, 123, one another on the inner edge. The tip of the 

t. 28, 29. — Hook., Icon., t. ccviii-ccxii. anther is usually apiculate. 



140 



NATURAL mSTORY OF PLANTS. 



MnfjrKjlia} The fruit consists of an indefinite number of achenes, 
which when ripe fall oft" the common axis, and are dispersed by 




Fig. 176. 
Flower opened. 



Liriodetidron Tulljiifera. 
Fio. 177. 
Fruit. 




Fig. 178. 
Longitudinal sei-tion of fruit. 



aid of the woody wing flattened from within outwards which sur- 
mounts them.^ Each of these samaras contains one or two seeds, 
which are constructed like those of Magnolia, but whose outer coat 
is much thinner and membranous.'' Of this genus but one species 
is known, L. Talijnfera,'' a native of North America, of which several 
varieties are cultivated in Europe. It is a large tree, with alter- 



* Tlie Btylo is flnttened like a lanceolate leaf; 
it is already a n-prcsL-ntaliou of the wing which 
later on stirniountH the fruit on a small scale. 
The dilated Mtignnitifcrous tij) is hut little hilid. 
The ovides have two coats, and are susi)endcd by 
narrow funicles. The raphe is internal, hut at 
the same time the ovules are more or less back 
to back, as in MnfjnoHa. 

' The wing is formed by the persistent com- 
pressed style, whiih rest'ndiles a dry hardened 
leaf. The basilar part is pr(»vide<l with a vertical 
cruiit projecting slightly on Inilh surfaces. Down 
the centre of these crcsUt is a line, but little 



visible, along which wo can determine the arti- 
ficial separation of the fruit into two lateral halves 
by using a thin blade. 

^ The raphe jiasses through the thickness of 
this outer coat, which is not swollen and succulent 
as in Miiifnolia, but whose fundamental structure 
is just the same. The albumen is tieshy, and the 
small embryo it contains towards its ajM'x is some- 
what constricted at the junction of the radicle and 
the cotyledons. 

* 1 ICKW, Icon. Selrct., t. 10.— L., S,>fr.. 
7r>r.. Lamk.. Oivt.. loc. rit. : IllHstr., t. liU.— 
DniAM., Arbr.,vil. 2, iii., 1. 18.— Micux., -ir4r. 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 



141 



nate, petiolate leaves, whose blade is lyre -shaped, truncated at the 
apex,' and divided on each side into four more or less marked lobes. 
At the base of the petiole we observe two lateral stipules inserted 
a little above it, and which, when the leaf is young, cohere by 
their margins so as to form a completely closed sac, in which is 
enveloped all the young branch above this leaf itself At this age 
the petiole is bent down at its middle, and the blade has its apex 
towards the axil, and the superior surface turned outwards. The 
flowers are solitary and terminate the branches, surrounded in the 
bud by bracts continuous with the series of leaves borne by the 
branch.- The Tulip-trees may on the whole be defined as Mr/j/- 
nolias with extrorse anthers, and samaroid carpels which separate 
from the common receptacle. 



II. SCHIZANDEA SEEIES. 
MiCHAUX was the first to make known in Europe a North 





ScJiizandra coccinea. 



Fig. 179. 
Male flower. 



Fig. 180. 
Female flower. 



American liana with regular monoecious flowers (figs. 179-181), 



iii. 202.— DC, Frodr., i. 82. — Spach, op. cit., 
488. — De Cubieres, 3Iem. mr le Tulipier(}.SOS). 
—Sims, But. Mag., t. 275. 

' This summit presents a small apiculus, which 
is merely the end of the midrib, produced here be- 
yond the parenchyma. Ciodkon [Ohsofvations siir 
les Bourrjeons et sur les Feuilles dii L. Tulipifera, 
Bull. Soc. Bot. de Fr., viii. 33, t. 1) attributes 
the truncation of the apex of the blade to the 
compression it undergoes during vernation while 
" retained in a groove formed by the base of one 
of the stipules and the axis." , Already, in 1815, 
MiRBEii had given, in his Flementsde Fhysi- 
olog'iB Ttijitale et de Botanique, a very exact 
figure of the prajfohation of the Tulip-tree (t. 20). 
Te£cul {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 3, xx. 296) has 



always seen the stipules joined together, howsoever 
young be the leaves, which are folded along the 
midrib, and arise before the stipules themselves. 
This botanist has also described and represented 
(t. 21, figs. 45-52) all the phases of the develop, 
raent of the leaves and their stipules. 

2 If we examine the position of the sepals re- 
lative to the five leaves below it on the branch, 
the uppermost of these being, indeed, the bract 
inserted immediately below the calyx, we see that 
these five are quincuncially imbricated, and that 
sepals 1, 2, and 3 are directly above leaves 1, 2, 
and 3 respectively. This relation shows how it 
is that here, as in cert tin Magnolias, there is no 
sepal exactly opposite the bract below the flower. 
The nature of the bract is not doubtful. It pre- 



142 



NATURAL mSTORY OF PLAXT.^. 




Schizandra coccinea. 

FlO. 181. 

Ijongitudinal section of female flower. 



under the name o^ Sc/Nznndrn.^ The male flower (fig. 179) bears a 
perianth of about nine unequal imbricated leaves on the convex 

receptacle, which often appear to 
form trimerous verticils/ but 
present no distinction of calyx 
and corolla. The stamens, few 
in number (usually from four to 
six), are inserted in a spiral. 
The filaments are short and 
thick, assuming the form of a 
broad fleshy scale, triangular, 
but with the angles rounded off. 
One of these angles is inferior, and gives insertion to the stamen ; 
the two others, superior, bear the two widely-separated anther-cells. 
These cells dehisce by longitudinal clefts,^ and are introrse, being 
almost entirely applied to the inner face of the triangular filament, so 
that in their normal position only a small part of their summit is seen. 
In the female flower (figs. 180, 181), the perianth and receptacle are 
as in the male flower, and the gyna3ceum consists of a large number 
of free carpels, inserted spirally on the somewhat swollen head of 
the receptacle, and crowded into a globular head. Each of these 
consists of a unilocular ovary, tapering above into a style scarcely 
dilated at the tip.^ Externally corresponding to the ventral angle of 
the ovary, is a projection or crest, varying in size according to the 



gents a marked einargination at the summit, at 
the bottom of which is a small subulate process — 
the sole remnant of the summit of the petiole and 
blade, 'lliis bract then is wholly formed by the 
stipules which do not separate from the petiole. 
The sepals are probably of the same nature. 

' Flur. lior.-Amer., ii. 218, t. 47 (1803).— 
Hook., liot. Ma;f., t. 1113.— DC, rrodr., i. 
lOi.— Kndi,., Gen., n. 4733.— 11. II., Gen., 19, 
n. 8. — A. CfiJAY, Mem. Amer. Acad., vi. 380; 
Gen., 57. — H. 15n., Adansonia, iii. 42; vii. 
10, 66. 

■'' There are from seven to ten leaves, but 
it is a mistake to consider that tlu-y are ar- 
ranged in ternary whorls. With nine leaves it often 
BO hajipens llial tlie tlirt-i- innirmost are opposite 
to, and the three niiddlc (tncs alternate with, the 
three oiitermoHt. Hut often, again, this superposi- 
tion and alternation arc not exact. We Imvo 
here to do with one continuuns spiral. 

' These clefls often appear transverse or oblinue 
owing to the direction of the antlier cell, but are 
really longitudinal. If we follow out the de- 



velopment of the androceum in S.japonica, wo 
see that the two cells are at first nearer the 
vertical and closer together. It is only by degrees 
that the connective and the top of the filament 
are simultaneously thickened to assume the form 
of a fleshy wetlge 8ei)aniting the anther cells from 
cno another. The pollen is nearly similar in S. 
propinqua and japonica. The grains appear 
discoidal at first sight, at least when dry ; for 
moisture renders them spheroidal. The disc is 
much depressed in the centre on both faces, and 
the edge presents six notches alternately sludlow 
and deep. The three latter notches etirivsjvind 
with the ends of as many clear Ixinds radiating 
from the central dejjression, while the other three 
indicate thepointswhere theixdlen tubi-s protrude. 
The analogy of this |K)llen with that of Urimt/* in- 
clines us to admit that wo have here to do with 
an aggregation «)f three elementary |)»>llen grains. 
(See Complra Rendun </<■ I'Acud. det .Vc, Ixvi. 
700; Adansotti(i,\i\\. 157.) 

* Sue figs. IKO, IHl. In S. japomica, on the 
contrary, tho summit of tho short style ia tome. 



MAGNOLIACEM. 



143 



species ;' while inside is a placenta supporting two descending 
anatropous ovules, with the micropyle upwards and out- 
wards." The fruit consists of a large number of berries, 
which, instead of remaining close together as the carpels 
were in the flower, are echelonned on the floral axis (which 
is drawn out into a cylindroidal branch as represented 
in fig. 182), and each contains two pendulous seeds, within 
the coats of which is the curved, copious, fleshy albumen, 
with a small inverted dicotyledonous embryo towards 
its apex (fig. 190). 

8. coccinea Michx.,^ the only American species as yet 
known, is a sarmentose shrub, with alternate petiolate 
exstipulate simple leaves, and solitary pedunculate 
flowers^ which arise from the axils of the first leaves or 
bracts of the young branches of the year's growth. 

There are half a dozen species of the same group be- 
longing to the Old World, which have been referred to 
the genera Spharostema,^ and Maximovitzia.^ They only 
difi'er from the American plants in the rather variable 
number of their perianth leaves, and in the form and 
number of pieces in the androceum. Thus, in the flowers 
of S. ehngata^ the stamens are far more numerous than 
in S. coccinea, and form more turns of the spiral, while 

. ^ Schizand/ra 

they are more elongated into wedges, and taper more i^Sphmrostema) 
markedly at the base. But the fruit always pre- '-^^"J"^^; 
sents the remarkable character of the elongation of its Multiple fruit. 
axis after fecundation (fig. 182). In the flowers of 



what everted, and covered with numerous soft 
stigmatic papillae composed of almost confluent 
cells. 

■ The study of organogeny will alone reveal 
the origin of this projection. It is due to the 
decurrence of the base of the style, which is much 
compressed on this level by the two carpels in- 
terior to it, and gradually advances in the sort of 
angular space between them, and is, so to say, 
moulded on the concavity of this angle. The 
tissue thus deformed long remains soft and pulpy 
like the stigmatic papilla;. In S. chinensis this 
pi'ojection is continued a good way along the style 
itself in the flower ; the borders are crenulate, 
and the whole forms like a crest capping the 
carpel. 

* They are exactly collateral at first, but at a 
certain age undergo a slight torsion so as to 



bring the raphes closer together, and turn the 
micropyles towards the sides of the cell. 

3 Op. cit., 219, t. 47.— DC, Frodr., i. 104.— 
SiJis, £ot. Mag., t. 1413.— Tore. & Gray, 
Fl. N.-Amer., i. 46, 662.— A. Gray, Qen., t. 
22.— Chapm., Fl. S. Unit.-St., 13. 

^ The peduncle is slightly swollen towards the 
upper part, where it presents a transverse articu- 
lation. 

5 Blume, Bijdraj., 22 ; Fl. Jav., ScUzandr., 
xiii. t. 3-5; Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 2, ii. 91. — Jrss., 
Ann. Mus., xvi. 340. — Endl., Gen., n. 4732. — 
Griff., Icon. Posth., 651.— Hook. & Thoms., 
Fl. Ltd., i. 84.— H. Bn., Adansonia, iii. 43; 
vii. 11, 66.— Walp., Rep., i. 92; v. 15; Ann., 
iv. 79. — Kadsura Wall., Fl. Nepal., i. t. 9-13. 

« RuPR., Frimit. Fl. Amur., 31, t. 1. 

' SphcBrostema elongatum Bl., Fl. Jav. Schi- 



144 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



S. chiticnsis,' the filaments of the stamens become yet more slender, 
and are not so closely packed ; they have now the form of erect, 
somewhat flattened, rods, with narrow elongated anther-cells 
applied vertically along the borders of the connective, and looking 
outwards or inwards according to the stamen we observe. In S. 
prop'uifjita;' the filaments become very short, while their tissue 
is thickened and swells with the receptacle, so that the andro- 
ceum is only represented by sessile anthers, ^vith their introrse' 
cells close together, embedded in a sort of niche hollowed out of 




Schizandra (SphtFrosfema) propinqua. 
Fio. 184. Fig. 183. 

Male flower. Floriferous brand). 



the substance of the large, spherical, fleshy receptacle (fig. IS4). 
In this species, as in several others, the flowers are dicocious and 
solitary in the axils of the leaves of the adult branches (fig. IS.S). 



zandr., 17, t. v.; Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 
85. — .S'. grnndijlorum Wall., ex part. 

' S.japonira A. Gkay, in Mrm. Amer.Avad., 
vi. HHO.— MiQ.. Ann. Mus. Lut/d.-Iiat., iii. 91.— 
Sphftroxtema ja ponifum SiKli. & ZfCC, Ahh. 
Akiid. Munch., iv. p. ii. IHH. — Maxhmtrilzia 
rhinenKiM Kfi'U., op. fit. As wo include in 
tlii« gcnuH Kdilxtira japonica, wliose s|)ecific 
name inimt lie ri-tiiined iicconlinj; to the law of 
priority, we inunt nKnlify that of tlie8j)ecieH under 
ronitideration and call it .S". fhinctmix. 

^ Sphterustema proquiiifjuum Ul., vj>. rit.. 



11. — Hook. & Thomb., op. cit.. i. Sij.— S.piftifo- 
limn Bl., op. rit., Ifi, t. 4.— Hook., in Hot. Map., 
t. 4()14. — Kadsvra propinqua Wall., Tmt. Fl. 
XcpnI., 11, t. 15. 

^ The stamens are distinct wlien yonnp^. Later 
on the filaments are thickened with the receptacle 
into a 8j)here which connects all the anthem. Hut 
next to these the tiMue of tlie former orpans 
cainiot assume that developnu'ut, st) that a cer- 
tiiin nundjcrof pits arc formed facing tho intmrm.' 
antlier. 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 



145 



In sliort, the configuration of tlie androceum is very variable, and 
presents so many gradual changes in this genus as to render it 
impossible to found any exact subdivisions on it. 

It is exactly the same with Kadmra,' a genus of plants from the 
South and East of Asia, which have been separated from ScJiizandra 
on account of a single absolute character — the form of the carpels 
as a whole. They are here united into a ball or short head, while 
those of Schizandra proper, form a sort of more or less elongated 
spike. But we are unwilling for this one reason alone to separate 

Schizandra (Kadsu/ra) japonica? 



f\^ ,/\^ y'm 





Fig. 186. 
Longitudinal section of male flower. 



Fig. 188. 
Stamen, isolated. 





Fig. 190. 

Longitudinal section of 

carpel. 



Kadsura from Schizandra, except as a section,' because in Magnolia 



1 K^EMPF., ex Juss., in Ann. Mus., xvi. 340. 
— DuNAL, Mon. Anonac, 57. — DC, Prodr., i. 
83. — Wall., Flor. Nepal., i. 7. — Bl., Fl. Jav., 
Schizandr., 7, 1. 1, 2. — SiEB. & Zxrcc, FL Japon., 
i. 40, 1. 17.— ENDL.,Ge»., n. 4731.— Benth., FL 
Sonkff., 8.— Hook. & Tiiosis., FL Lid., i. 83.— 
H. Bx., Adansonia, iii. 43 ; vii. 11, 66. — B. H., 
Oen.,\^, n. 9.— MiQ., FL LuL-Bat., i., pars 2,18. 
— Walp., Rep., i. 92 ; v. 15 ; Ann., iv. 78. — Sar- 
cocarpon K.f.mpf.,^4»»cb?j. Exot., 476, 185, t. 477. 
— Bl., Bijdraj.,21. Although Lixxjjcs admitted 
K. japonica, it was A. L. DE JcssiEU, who in 
1810 (Ann. Mus., xvi. 340) considered the Uvaria 
japonica of Thuxbekg worthy of forming a 
special group. Of this plant, he says, " we pro- 
pose to make a separate genus under the name 

VOL. I. 



of Kadmra." Hence, in uniting Kadsura and 
Schizandra into one genus, we have had to prefer 
the latter name, which dates from 1803, and 
which we find possesses the further advantage of 
not forcing us to suppress the name of Schizan- 
drecB in order to substitute that of KadsurecB. 

' Schizatidra japonica H. By. (nee A. Gray). 
— Kadsura japonica L., Spec, 756. — DuN., 
Mon. Anonac, 57.— MiQ., Ann. Mus. Litgd. 
Bat., iii. 91. — DC, Prodr., i. m.— Uvaria 
japonica Thtjnb., Flor. Japon., 237. — Futa 
Kadsura, &c., K-i:mpf., loc cit. 

3 See Adansonia, vii. 10. Especially is it im- 
possible to distinguish Kadsura and Schizandra 
by the aspect of the anthers, and authors (such 
as Enblicheb) are wrong in attributing extrorse 



146 



NATURAL mSTOUY OF PLANTS. 



tlie receptacle of the fruit also varies greatly in form, being some- 
times ovoid or nearly globular, and sometimes long, cylindrical, and 
branch-like, without making it in the least possible on that account 
to parcel out the genus. The stamens are sometimes shaped like 
fleshy wedges (figs. 187, 188), at others like narrow rods, more or 
less free. Some of them may be reduced to staminodes of very 
unequal size.' Thus understood, the genus Schizandra includes half 
a score species, and by itself constitutes the series of Scliizandrca, 
which may be defined as follows : MacjnoUaccce with unisexual 
flowers, the perianth always imbricated, and the leaves always 
exstipulate. 



III. ILLICIUM SERIES. 

The Aniseed-trees {lUkium; Fr. Badianicr) have regular, her- 
maphrodite flowers. On the slightly convex receptacle are suc- 
cessively inserted a perianth, androceum, and gynajceum, of free 
elements, varying considerably in number, form, and colour, 
according to the species. If we examine, for example, the flower 
of I.parviformn^ (IJgs- 191-194), an American species much cultivated 
in our conservatories, we find that the perianth consists of about 
fifteen dissimilar leaves inserted on a spiral, the outer ones shorter 
and more greenish, the inner ones on the contrary larger, thinner, 
petaloid, and of a pale yellow colour ; but between them we find 
every transition in texture and tint, so that it is almost impossible 
to assign exact limits between calyx and corolla. All these parts 



anthers to all tlic species of both genera, for in 
both iV. propinqtta and K. japonica they are 
certainly introrse. 

' This fact is very marked in o species which 
lias been for some years cidtivated in our con- 
Bcrvatorii-s under the n.inie of Cosh(ea Cocrinea 
(see Adanxonia, iii. 4), nii<l wliich is Kadsura 
chinensis IIance (A', japonica HeNTH., Fl. 
Jlongkon;!., 8, nee Din.). The receptacle of 
the MiJile (lower is draw n out into a column, and 
bears stauienK at some (listiince from each otlier 
like little erect rtxls. The uppermost are sterile 
and end in a point. The lower ones bear an 
anther with two oblique cells. Tho top of tiin 



column is bare, and recalls the extremity of tho 
spadix in certain Aroidce. Wo shall call this 
species S. llanccana. 

■ L., Gni., n. Oil.— Adak.«., Fam. PL, ii. 304. 
—Jv93.,Gen., 280.— Lamk.. Dirt., i. 351.— DC^ 
S1/.1I., i. 410; ProJr., i. 77.— Si-acu, Suit. <) 
JJiiJ'., vii. -139.— En 1)1... (ini., n. 47 W.~MiEns, 
Conlrih., i. 142.— H. II., Gen., 18, n. 2.— li. Hn., 
Adansonia, vii. 8, 07, 301 ; viii. 1. — Badianifera 
L.. Mat. M,'d.. nid. 

3 Mil iix., Ftoi: lior.-Amer., i. 326. — Vknt., 
11,,,-t. r,h., t. 22.— DC. Prodr., i. 77, n. 3.— 

Ml Kits, op.cit., 1'13, n. 5. — Cymboatemon Parti- 

foliu* Si'AOU, op. fit., 4-16. 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 



147 



are imbricated in the bud, and fall early from the receptacle.' The 
stamens are also of variable number, usually from six to nine. 



Ulicium parvijlorum. 




Fig. 191. 
Floriferous branch 



They appear arranged in a single verticil,' and each consists of a 
free, thick, fleshy, boat-shaped, obliquely obovate or club-shaped 
filament, and an introrse anther with two small parallel cells, 
applied vertically close together towards the summit of the inner 
face of the filament, and dehiscing longitudinally.' There are 
from ten to fifteen carpels also apparently arranged in a circle 
round the apex of the floral axis which projects in their centre,* 



' still, some of the outermost shorter and 
greener (calycinal) leaves persist rather longer 
than the inner ones and the stamens. 

- The study of organogeny has taught us that 
they really arise in a spiral order, hut very close 
to one another {Adansonia, vii. 361). 

^ The pollen consists of whitish grains, which 
become spherical when wetted. The poles of the 
sphere are connected by three equidistant me- 
ridional bands, down the centre of each of which 
is a little dark longitudinal streak. In the inter- 
spaces of these bands the surface of the sphere is 
punctate, and almost granular. The bands 



are pale and smooth. In an unmoistened pollen- 
grain the poles are much depressed and approxi- 
mated. The form of the grain is, as it were, 
discoidal. The bands of which we have just 
spoken go from the depressed centre of the disk 
to the edges, where they end in three indenta- 
tions, which separate as many projecting blunt 
festoons. By analogy with what is observed in 
Drimt/s, Schizamlra, &c., we should here have 
to do with a compound pollen-grain made up 
of three simple ones. (See Comptes Rendus, Lxvi. 
700; Adamonia, viii. 157.) 

* This apex of the receptacle projects far more 

l2 



14S 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



eacli consisting of a unilocular ovary tapering above into a style, 
whose apex is furnished with stigmatic pai)illic.' Close to the base 
of the inner angle, the ovary presents a placenta bearing a single 
ascending anatropous ovule with its micropyle downwards and 
outwards.' The fruit is multiple, consisting of as many follicles as 
there were carpels in the flower, or nearly so. Tliese are coria 
ceous, compressed, apiculate, and united into a star (fig. 197) round 
the common axis,' a fact which has given one of the species of the 



lUicium anUalum. 




Fig. 196. 
GynaeceuuQ. 



genus, /. anisatini), its vulgar name of Sfar-mtise (Fr. yh/is ctoili). They 
open along the inner angle, and each contains one seed. This encloses 



in proportion in the very young bud, extending 
even aVK)ve the summit of the carpels au a thick 
cone with an ohtuse summit. 

• These pai)illa; are placed on both lips of a 
longitudinal groove, l)onie by the inner angle of 
the ciirixl. They dencend low down on these 
lil)g, beroming gradually more scanty, and even 



reach the level of the ov 



ary. 



' It is incompletely anatropous, and jiossesscs 
two caits. 'Ilie secundine forms a sort of tubular 
neck above the nucleus, iMuwing into the cxostome, 
or even jirotruding thr<<tn{h it. 

' The fruit of /. partijlorum coniista of about 



fifteen horizontal rays, each representing a fol- 
licle, of which the line of dehi.scenco is quite 
superior and horizontal. At the centre of the 
ujiper surface of the fruit, on n level with tlie 
lK)int of union of all the carpels, is a circular de- 
pression, forming a sort of well, at the botlon: of 
which rises a small apiculus. the remains of the 
organic apex of the receptacle. Scarcely visible 
on all the rest uf the outer surface are slight 
rugosities, which become well marke<l on the Star- 
anise of Hat4»via. The iii>ex of the follicle is 
acute, and but slightly turned up. 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 149 

within its coats an abundant fleshy albumen, liaving towards its 
apex a small embryo with its radicle superior (figs. 198, 199'). 

In another plant of this genus found in Japan, which has been 
called /. rc/lf/io-s/nii- (figs. 195-199), we observe certain tolerably 
well marked differences. The leaves of the perianth, about twenty 
in number, are all of the same colour, yellow or greenish white, 
and change insensibly in form and size as they ascend on the 
receptacle.^ Above these are a score of stamens inserted on a 
spiral with very close turns. ^ The filaments are short and fleshy, 
but not gibbous as in /. parvijlorum, and their anthers, far more 
elongated, have two adnate introrse cells,' above which the con- 
nective projects. The carpels, usually eight in number,^ form a 
sort of crown, in the centre of which the apex of the receptacle 
projects. On this the ovaries are inserted very obliquely : each 
is surmounted by a horned style, and tlie whole of the internal angle 
of ovary and style is traversed by a vertical groove, whose lips are 
covered with stigmatic papilla?/ In each carpel is an erect, incom- 
pletely anatropous ovule. ^ The fruit of this species, which when 
very aromatic constitutes the Star-anise {I. anisatum) of commerce' 



^ These figures refer to the Star-anise of com- between the corolhi and the pieces of the andro- 
merce. Mieks also has given an analysis of the ceuin. One or two of the outermost stameus may- 
seeds in his Contributions (1. t. 27). The ana- be half-petaloid. 

tropy is not complete. The umbilicus is like a ^ The cells are marginal, and at a variable 

large depressed cicatrix, to the outside of which is distance from one another in the outer stameus. 

a little micropylar beak with an obtuse tip. There In the inner ones they come to touch by the inner 

are three seed coats. The outermost is smooth and edge. 

shining. It tapers abruptly, and is, as it were, ^ This number is by far the commonest. As 

bevelled off at the base of the beak just described. it is very often found in the ripe fruit also, we 

The middle coat is thick and brownish. The see that the abortion of the carpels frequently 

innermost is whitish and membranous. At the spoken of does not occur. In this matter it is 

base of the raphe is seen a brownish elliptical probable that some American species has been 

chalazal stain. The embryo is very minute com- confounded with I. anisatum. There are often 

pared to the enormous tleshy albumen, of which six or seven carpels in the gyua;ceum, all fertile ; 

it occupies a small cavity near the micropyle. and sometimes nine or ten. 

The turbinate mass of the embryo is supported '' These papilla) are less prominent and nume- 

by a slender suspensor. The cotyledons, but little rous as we approach the insertion of the carpels, 

marked, obtuse, and separated from one another, but some are yet found on the ovary itself. 
look directly upwards. ^ The exostome is at some distance from the 

2 SiEB. & Zucc, Fl. Ja/pon., i. 5, 1. 1. — Spach, hilum, and completely surrounded by the priminc 

oj). cif., 440. — Mieks, op. cit., 143, n. 2. — Bot. giving passage to the sort of little truncated neck 

Mag., t. 3965. — /. anisatum Thg., Fl. Japan., formed by the endostome. 

235. This plant, together with /. anisatum L. ^ The only dift'erences which can be established 

(Spec, 661), the section Badiana of Spach. To between the fruit of I. anisatum of commerce and 

us (Adansonia, viii. 1), as to Miquel {Ann. Mus. that of I. reUgiosum are as follows : — 1. The sur- 

lAigd. Bat.,\i. 257), it is only another form of face; the fruits of J. reii^iosuw are often less rugose 

the /. anisatum of Linx.etts. than in I. anisatum. 2. The form of the apex of 

•* Hence there is no distinction of calyx and the carpels ; those of /. reUgiosum usually possess 

corolla. Here also we find every transition be- a more acute and somewhat curved beak. 3. The 

tween the outer and the inner leaves. scent of the ripe fruit, which is a little less aro- 

* It often happens that there are transitions matic and more resinous in I. anisatum. We have 



150 



NATURAL msrORY OF PLAINTS. 



(fig. 197), usually consists of eight follicles. /. Gnffithu,^ which 
grows in India, is a species with very little aroma, closely analogous 
to the preceding in all its characters, but with more numerous 
carpels,'' and the leaves of the perianth more dissimilar, the outer 
ones being far broader, thicker, and more rounded than the 
inner ones, whose consistency is that of petals. 

Finally, 7. Jloridanum^ which is cultivated in our conservatories, 
presents even more dissimilarity in its floral appendages. The 
outer ones are large and of a whitish green/ as sepals often are, 
while the middle ones, membranous and still broad, are of a very 
deep purple, as are also the inner leaves, which become much narrower 
and more elongated ; so that we here find three kinds of leaves in 
the perianth. The stamens have a fleshy filament and a broader 
connective, flattened like a racket or battledore. The carpels are as 
numerous as in 7. Grijlfhii, and the summit of the receptacle also 
I^rojects in the centre of the flower.^ 

Leaving aside all these unimportant difi'erences, all the members 
of the genus Illicium, whether from North America," the Antilles,' 
India, China, or Japan,® present a very large number of characters 



to decide whether these differences, especially in 
cultivated plants. are sufficient to formtwospecics; 
and, if the specific autonomy oi I.rdigios-um is not 
very contestibic, it is very strange that K.r.MPFEB 
(Aman. Exot., 880), wIkjsc minute exactitude is 
well known, bavin}? only tbe Skimi before his 
eyes, should have wrongly taken it to be the plant 
of China or Corea (Kurat), vvliich produces the 
Star-anise of commerce. At any rate, Siebold 
and ZcccAUiM (/7. Japan., i. 5, t. 1) thought 
he was wrong wlien they regarded as the only 
true /. anUalum tbe plant spoken of by LoUHEluo 
{Fl.Cochinch.{\l\){)) ,35:J)and ( J.f:i{TNKR{FKUCT., 
i. 338, t. fi'J), and not tbe jjlant which De Can- 
DOLLE referred Ui tiie same species {Pruclr., i. 
77, n. 2) after Tiilndeuo and many others. 
Hence they made of tbe Skimi a distinct species 
under tbe imme of /. religiogum. However, we 
have seen no otber species than tlicirs among all 
the 8i)ccimens contained in tbe collections from 
Japan, and esi)ecially in those preserved in tbe 
Uoyal Herbarium of Leydun, and we sbail retain 
/. anisatum and rtiii/iurum in one siH-'cies. (See 
Adujuunia, viii. U.) 

' Hook. A. Tmoms., Fl. Ind., i. 7i. — Miehs, 
Cuntrib., i. 113, n. 3. — Wau*., Ann., iv. 42. 
'Ibis si)eciei» has alx)ut twenty-tlvo leuvctt in its 
perianth. 

' From fifteen to twenty may Imj connU-d. 
When mature tlicy spread borizoutully, and also 



dehisce by clefts with sharp etlges. Tlie apex 
elongates into a small apiculus, erect or slightly 
reHexed in the ripe fruit. They appear very 
slightly aromatic. 

3 Ei.Lis, in Phil. Trans., Ix. (1779), 52-i, t. 
12.— Lamk., Jllustr., t. 493, fig. 1.— G.«ktn., 
Fnut., i. 339. — Bucnoz, PI. N(/itc. Decouv. 

(1771), t. xxviii.— ^o<. Maff., t. '439 Spacu, 

op. cit., 4-13.— A. GUAY, Gen. III., i. 56, t. 21.— 
MiKKS, toe. cit., n. 4. To Spacu tliis species 
constitutes the section Euillicium. 

* These outer leaves are also the shortest and 
broadest. Within them are others of a purple 
colour ; some broad, and the others, quite inside, 
narrow and acute. If we wished to make a dis* 
tinction, we should have to admit tbrei" stirts of 
IMjrianth in this flower. Tbe stamens have a fila- 
ment shorter than tbe anther, which is constructed 
like that of /. iinisalum. There are from twelve 
to twenty carpels. 

* This summit when adult is coveretl with fine 
papillii', while in the other species of this genus 
it is glabrous. 

•> iMi( iix., op. cit.. i. 326.— A. Guay, Ofn. III., 
55.— CiiAPM., Fl. S. Unit. -Stat., 12. 

' (JuiSEB., Cat. PL Cull., 2. 

■ Hook. & TnoMS., Fl. Ltd., loc. ciV.— Siku. 
k Ziac, loc. cit. — Walp., Rrp., i. 72 ; Ann., 
iv. 12. 



MAGNOLJACEJE. 



151 



in common. All are shrubs or small trees, with persistent, 
alternate, petiolate, exstipulate, glabrous leaves, covered with 
pellucid dots, and more or less aromatic. The flowers are pedun- 
culate and terminal in the American species with dilated filaments 
{Cynihosfemon^), but buds, at first lateral with respect to them, and 
originally axillary to the leaves or bracts below them, may in time 
receive a great development and elongate into branches which push 
aside the peduncles, making them appear axillary. /. anisatiim and 
the species analogous to it {EmlUciiuii), on the contrary, have their 
flowers axillary from the commencement." 

When we know lUiciiim, it is very easy to obtain an exact idea 




Drimt/s Winteri. 

Fig. 200. 
Floriferous branch. 



of the structure of Brimp^ which may be considered as lU'ich 



See fig. 191 and Adansonia, vii. 361. The 
floral peduncle of I. parviflornm is the continua- 
tion of a branch ; beneath the flower it bears one 
or several bracts, some eclielonned on the peduncle, 
the others close together below the flower. 

^ See Adansonia, viii. 13. Hence, for these 
species alone can we admit what Bentham & 
HoOKEE say (^Loc. cit.) of the inflorescence of 
IlUciuni : " Pedunculi l-flori, revera axillares. 



sedfoliis non evolutis intra gemmam tenninahm 
fasciculati." 

^ FoBSTEB, Char. Gen., 84, t. 42.— Jpss., Oen., 
280, 451.— Lamk., Diet., ii. 830 ; Suppl, ii. 526 ; 
111., t. 494.— DC. Prodr., i. 78.— Spach, Suit, a 
Buffon, vii. 43G. — Endl., Oen., n. 4742. — iliEES, 
Contrib., i. 132.— B. H., Gen., 17, n. 1.— H. Bn., 
Adansonia, vii. 8, 67. — Vinterana Soi,., Med. 
Ohs., V. 46. — Wintera Muke., Syst., 507.— 



152 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



with multiovulate carpels, and presenting, besides the perianth of 
numerous unequal imbricated leaves, a valvular membranous sac of 
a single piece considered by botanists as a calyx. At flowering time 
this sac is torn irregularly from above downwards into two, three, 
or four unequal caducous lobes. We then see the interior leaves, of 
very variable number, inserted in a spiral on a fairly elongated 
receptacle, the turns of which are more widely separated on a level 
with the androceum. This consists of a large number of unequal 
stamens. In the flowers of I). Wi/iteri' (tigs. 200-202), famous 
for producing the Winter bark, there are often more than fifty 
stamens, shorter as they are more inferior, and each consisting of a 
flattened filament and a two-celled extrorse anther, dehiscing longi- 





Fio. 201. 
Diagram. 



Drimys Winteri. 



Fig. 202. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



tudinally.' The sessile carpels, about five in number,' free, and 
forming a crown around the summit of the receptacle, on which 
they are articulated, consist each of a unilocular ovary and a very 



H. IJ. K., Nov. Oen. et Spec. PI. ^quin., l, t. 
58. — Magallana CoMM. — Canella DoMB. (nee 
I'. \\\i.).— Jiin<pte MoL. (ex. Endl., JJwcAr., 428). 
— Tasmannia \{. Hii., ex DC. Syst. Veg.,\.^\!b ; 
I'radr., loc. ril., n. 4. 

' FousT., /w. rj7. — Fkcill , Oi*., iii. 10, t. 
6.— not. Mag., t. 4800.— MiKKS, vp. cil., 135, n. 
B. — KiCHL., ill Maiit. Flor. Bras., Maqnoliac., 
132. t. 30-32.— i>. punctata Lamk., Did., ii. 
330; ///.. t. 494, fig. \.—D. aromaiica Dks- 
foUKT., Fl. Ant., i. t. 10. — U. poli/morpha 
Sl'ACll, op. rit., 437. — li'lnterana aromatica 
Sol., loc. cil.,\,.\. — li'intera (iromalicn Ml'uit., 
loc. cit. ; App. Med., iv. 007. — W., Sp,v. Plant., 
ii. 1231). Thin Hpecios \» the tvi»o of llio section 
Winlera (DC, Synt., i. 413) tliiiH chariicterized : 
" Calyx 2, ^■partilut aul 2, 'A-arpalus." 

' The celiii are soinetimoM close tojjetlier nil tlio 
way, unci iioinetiincri diverging towurdri the biuc. 
The pollen of Drimya liaa been dcacribcd by H. 



Mom {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. iii. 179) as formed ot 
grains aggregated into fours ; tlieir relative places 
are those which they would occupy if placed at 
the vertices of a regular tetrahedron. In the 
pollen of L. yranatensis, for niiiny authors a 
variety of 1). Winteri, we have seen a largo de- 
j)re8sed pit occupying the centre of each of these 
grains. On wetting the pollen tlie depression 
di-iappears, and in its place the walls of the cell 
form a dome shaped projection recalling those 
seen nt the angles of the pollen grain of certain 
Onayr<uie(C. F,iiiiLKU hiis also recently figured 
the pollen of D.\l'interi[Flor. Bras., Maynuliac, 
t, 30, fig. 12). 

' There are rarely more in the typical 8))oeie8. 
In D. granatenxis are as many iis eight or ten. 
In several forms from South Americu wo may 
find flowers with only three, two, or even one 
carjK'l, as in the si)ocies of the section Tag. 



mnnniii. 



MAGNOLIAGEM 



153 



sliort style covered with stigmatic papillae, situated at a variable 
height on the inner angle of the ovary. Within, on this internal 
angle is seen a parietal placenta of two vertical lips, on which are 
borne the two rows of horizontal or slightly oblique anatropous 
ovules, placed back to back.' The fruit consists of several inde- 
hiscent many-seeded berries. Contained within the seed coats* is 
the fleshy albumen with the embryo near its apex. 

B. Winferi is a shrub or small tree, with alternate exstipulate 
persistent leaves covered with pellucid dots, inhabiting the west of 
America from the south of Mexico to Cape Horn, always supposing 
that it is right to put every Brimys of this region into one species.^ 
The flowers are axillary to the upper leaves of the branch, or the 
bracts which continue their series ; they are solitary or united into 
false umbels,^ of which the pedicels, varying in number, spring from 
one common axillary peduncle. Beyond the inflorescence (whose 
axillary situation is thus demonstrated) the branch elongates into a 
shoot which rarely aborts, more frequently grows very little longer, 

and bears leaves reduced to scales or bracts, or else becomes like 

ordinary branches, and bears leaves as well developed as those observed 

below the flowers. All the parts of this plant are very aromatic. 
In one species from New Zealand, B. axillaris Forst.,' which De 

Candolle has made the type of his 

section Eudrimys,^ the flowers are poly- 
gamous and often unisexual (figs. 203, 

204) ; they present the very peculiar 

character of arising, not at the base of 

the young branches, but well on the 

wood of the older ones, usually axillary 

to the last year's leaves, and are borne 

on one-flowered pedicels, solitary or few 

in number.^ The calyx, very short. 




Brimtfs (Etcdrimt/s) axiUaris. 
Fig. 203. Fig. 204. 

Male Longitudinal section 

of young fruit. 



flower. 



^ There are usually ten, five in each row; 
some carpels contain as many as thirty. The 
inferior ones are descending; but towards the 
top of the ovary they are nearly horizontal, or 
even slightly ascending. They have two coats. 

- The outer coat is smooth, crustaceous, and 
brittle. The seed is more or less recurved and 
reniform (see Eichlee, loc. cit., fig. 24). 

3 As J. HooKiE proposes {Fl. Antarct., i. 229). 

•* In D. granaticum L. FiL., Swppl., 269), 
considered, as we have said, by several authors. 



a simple variety of D. Winter}, the study of the 
very young inflorescence has shown us that it is 
a bunch of cymes. 

5 Gen., 84, t. 42.— DC, Prodr., i. 78, n. 1.— 
Hook., Icon., 576.— Hook. F., Fl. N.-Zeland., 
1, 12. — MiEES, Contrib., 132, n. l.—B. colo- 
rata Raotjl, Ch. de PL N.-Zel, 24, t. 23 (figs. 
203 and 204 are extracted from that work). 

« Syst. Veg., i. 442.— MiERS {loc. cit.), "Div. 1. 
Pedunculi plurimi, aggregati, axillares, 1-Jlori." 

7 They then form a cyme. 



154 



NATURAL niSTOEY OF PL^iNTS. 



often dimerous or nearly entire, forms a sort of cupule at the base 
of the flower, which, even in a very young bud, does not surround 
the interior organs completely. 

In another species from New Caledonia, which we have called 
J), cramfolidy the calyx presents the same characters as in B. axillaris; 
but the flowers are grouped at the top of the branches into false 
compound umbels of cymes several times* ramified. The abortion 
of the terminal shoot seems constant in this species, which, in this 
respect, approaches certain forms of D. Winieri. 

II. Brown has made a special genus, Taamannia^ of some Australian 
and Tasmanian species of Drimj/s, with flowers often diclinous like 







■%*»■ ■: 




t 




Drimys {Tasmannia) lanceolata. 
Fio, 205. 



those of ]). axillaris, carpels few in number, and pericarp not very 
thick. In T. aruimlica' (ligs. 205-207), which has been rightly 



* Adatisonia, viii. 190. This species has very 
lar^e niid thick leaves, iirst flesliy iind aftorwurdii 
coriaceous; the midrib is covered with minuto 
pits. Tlie calyx, very thick at its how?, consists 
of two or three lohcs with variable depth. The 
carpels, usually fiair in uuinbir, bfconie thinner 
and wcil^'e-shaped at the base. We make it the 
type of a section called Sarcudr'uiii/.t. 

■ Kach of the |)eduncles is ramifietl four or 
live times. The cymoso arran^jcmcnt is sonie- 
tiines very manifest. A terminal llower on a 
very bUort uxiu in ucconii>auied by two lateral 



pedicels, far longer and more slender, whicli 
arise nearly on a level, and belong to the tlowcrs 
of the next generation. 

• Ex DC. Syst. Vrff., i. 445 ; Prodr., i. 78.— 
Endl., Gen., n. 4741. — MiKUS. Cuninh., i. 138. 

* U. Hit.. Prodr. yov.-IloU. (ined.). ex IK'., 
lor. rtf. — Wniieran'ui htnceolnla 1V)IK., Dirt., 
viii. 7ttl) (18()H). — Jh'imi/surumatira F. MlKll.., 
J'l. I'ict., i. 20; 15KNTU.. /7. Atitlr., i. lit. 
Tliete species must now take the name of I>. 
liinctulula. 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 



155 



replaced in the genus Drimp, we usually, it is true, see only two 
pluri-ovulate carpels, of which the ovules do not generally attain their 




Fig. 206. 
Male flower. 



Drimys {Tasmannia) lanceolata. 

Fig. 207. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



full development. The number of petals varies; there are some- 
times half a score. ^ But in certain flowers there are only three or even 




Zygogynum Vieillardi. 
Fig. 208. 



two ; and this latter number is by far the most frequent in the 
species thence named D. dipctala? 



1 In the cultivated plant certain flowers have 
as many as twelve. The calyx when adult 
forms a sac, and tears irregularly on anthesis. 
We have been able to follow its development, 
and have ascertained that when very young it is 
represented by two or three short free leaves. 
But soon a common membrane raises them to 
form the sort of nearly closed sac we have de- 
scribed. Thia is the usual mode of formation of 



a gamosepalous calyx. At the summit alone do 
we find two or three unequal teeth, the signs of 
the primitively distinct leaves. 

- F. MuELL., P/. Tkt., i, 21 ; Benth., m. 
Aiisir., 49, n. 2. — Tasmannia dipetala R. Bb., 
ex DC, Prodr., i. 78. — T. insipida R. Bb., ex 
DC, Syst. Veg., i. 445. — T. monticola A. Rich., 
Voy. AstroL, 50, t. 19. 



156 NATUIiAL niSTORY OF PLANTS. 

Thus constituted,' the genus Drimya extends over a vast geo- 
graphical area. About half a dozen species compose it, of which 
two are Australian ; while America, Borneo, New Caledonia, and 
New Zealand as yet possess each a peculiar species.- 

Zygogynum^ (figs. 20S-210), which we recently observed in a lier- 
barium from New Caledonia, is a singular genus, which we should 





Ztfgof)t/num Tieillardi. 
Fig. 209. t'lo. 210. 

Flower (petals removed). Diagram. 

have placed in a separate section because of the peculiar organization 
of its gyna3ceum, if its flowers did not present all the other characters 
of Driiiiys. The gyna^ceum consists of a large number of carpels with 
multiovulate ovaries on a short cylindro-conical axis ; but these are so 
united (fig. 209) that on the surface of the common gynieceum we only 
perceive a certain number of vertical grooves of no great depth, indi- 
cating the dorsal walls. The summit alone of each carpel is free as a 
small, very short style with a depressed capitate stigma. In fine, Zi/ffu- 
(/yinim is a DnmijiiVii^h syncarpous fruit. The androceum is the same 
in botli genera. The corolla consists of a few, usually only four or five, 
unequal, thick, coriaceous, concave petals, much imbricated. As for 
the calyx, it is only represented by a small circular rim at the base of 
the corolla, formed simply by an expansion of the ilural peduncle.* 



' M. Kudriwiix. 205, t. 58.— A. S. H., /'/. T.v. lirasil., t. xxvi- 

])rim;i». ) 2. Surcoilrimys. xxviii. — Hum,., \n}AkHl. Ft. Bras., Muf^nulKu:, 

Scclioim 4. \ A. Wintrrana. 133, t. 30, 31. 

(4. Tojimannia. ' H. Hn. Adansonia, vii. 2l>(), 372. 

■■' MiKRB, loe. cit., 132-14^). — J. IltK)K., < The »tuily of the orf^iu<.(fi'iiy of lhi» |>lniit 

Fl. N.-Zel., 12. — II. U., I'oi/aff., Uot. (1813), i. will iilouo reveal whether the rim i» of uinniiiU- 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 157 

This is short, thick, and terminal, articulated at the summit of the 
branch. As yet but one species of this genus is known' — a small 
tree from the mountains of New Caledonia. Its leaves are alternate, 
petiolate, exstipulate ; analogous to those of a Ma(/nolia with per- 
sistent foliage. 



IV. EUPTELEA SERIES. 

The genus Euptelea^ has been recently referred by Hooker & 
Thomson-^ to the order Magnoliacece, of which its polygamous flowers 
wanting the perianth present a much reduced type. In those 
which are hermaphrodite, the somewhat dilated summit of the recep- 
tacle' bears a variable number of stipitate free carpels, and around 
them are also an indefinite number of hypogynous stamens. Each 
of these consists of a slender filament and a basifixed linear anther, 
with two adnate cells dehiscing by lateral marginal clefts, and sur- 
mounted by an apiculate prolongation of the connective. Each 
carpel consists of a one-celled ovary supported on a slender foot, and 
surmounted by a sort of sessile crest covered with stigmatic papillae, 
and descending along the inner edge of the carpel nearly to the 
point where the ovules are attached.^ These are inserted on the 
internal angle of the cell on a parietal placenta which usually bears 
a single descending ovule, with its micropyle outwards and down- 
wards in E. polyandra Sieb. and Zucc.,^ a Japanese species ; while a 
second observed in India, E. Griffithii Hook. F. & Thoms.,^ possesses 
as many as three or four descending or slightly ascending ovules in 
each carpel. The male flowers contain only little sterile carpels.^ 
The fruit consists of a variable number of stipitate samaras, each 



cular origin like the calyx of Drimys, or whether pears to be of wholly axial nature. The study of 

it arises later by a sort of annular hypertrophy organogeny will alone show whether it is de- 

of the calyx, closely analogous in form to that veloped like a disc, 

seen around the true calyx of EschschoUzia. ^ " Stigmata sessilia, linearia, a vertice car- 

1 Z. Vieillardi H. Bn., loc. cit., t. iv. pellorum usque ad ovulorum insertionem intror- 

2 Sieb. &; Zucc, Fl. Jap., i. 133.— Ejtdl., sum decurrentia." (B. H., loc. cit.) 
Gen., n. ISSQi (Suppl. ii. 29).— MiQ., Ann. ^ Op. cit. 134, t. 72. 

Mus. Lugd. Bat., iii. 66. ' Loc. cit., t. 2. 

3 Journ. Linn. Soc, vii. 240. — B. H., Gen., ^ The ovary, however, contains a single ovule 
954. in the Japanese species, but it remains sterile. 

■• This summit often produces a small irregular Siebolu & Zuccaeini say that there are female 

circular ring around the stamens j but this ap- flowers without any rudiments of male organs (?)• 



158 NATURAL mSTORY OF PLANT!?. 

containing from one to four seeds, which possess copious fleshy 
albumen surrounding a small embryo placed near the apex. 

The Euptdem are trees differing widely in aspect from most Mag- 
noUaccce. Their scaly buds develope alternate petiolate, exstipulate, 
caducous leaves, with a rounded or heart-shaped penniveined blade 
fringed with glandular teeth when young. The flowers appear 
before the leaves, and are collected into very short catkins also in 
scaly buds. 

Next to Eifpfelea, we may provisionally station Trochodendron^ 
which might also constitute a particular section, because its receptacle 
assumes a markedly concave form, and the carpels, instead of being 
quite free, are partly imbedded by the base in the sort of axial cup 
thus formed. Hence the stamens inserted on the rim of this cup 
are slightly perigynous. They are, moreover, indefinite as in Eup- 
telea, and each consists of a free filament and a two-celled adnate 
basifixed anther dehiscing by two longitudinal, nearly marginal, 
clefts.- Around the androceum we see no true perianth, but only 
some slight projections of the receptacle.^ The carpels are of an 
indefinite but small number.'' The way their ovaries are inserted on 
the receptacle makes them appear united for a large extent on the 
outside. But on the inside they are far more deeply separated, and 
are quite free in the stylar portion, which has the shape of a horn 
recurved at the tip, and traversed down the inner edge by a longitu- 
dinal groove, whose lips are covered above with stigmatic papilhe. 
Each ovary contains on its inner angle a two-lipped placenta bearing 
a variable number* of horizontal anatropous ovules. The fruit con- 
sists of several follicles united by the common receptacle below and 
externally, free above, and deliiscing by an internal vertical cleft. 
The numerous seeds contain fleshy albumen and an embryo of small 
size. 

But one species of this genus is as yet known," a Japanese tree 



• SiEB. ami Zccc, Tl. Jap., 83, t. 39, 40. — • These are a sort of uneciuul horizontal 

Endl., (iin., 11. 1714. — MiKUS., Contrih., i. wriiiklfs, whose existence even is not consUuit. 

11-1.— Eufii.EU.in Flora (IHGl),!!'); (1HG5),12; rerhnps, imleed, they are only the effeeU of do- 

Journ. of Jiut.,\\\. 150; Flur. lirtis. Maifnuliiw,, siccation. 

131. — K. H., Gen., 17, \)'i\. ^ (JyiiDumlhua * There are often from six to eijfht. 

Ju.NoH., in IIoKV. and Dk Vuikue, 2'ijdschr., * There are olli-n six in each row. The r.i phi's 

vii., 308 (ni-c AitTT.). of those of the one row are turned towards tlioso 

^ Tlie cM\* are stMiiowhut nearer the outer of the other, 

than the inner face of the anther. The coiinet- ' 7*. ara/it)»(/M Sikh, and Zrcc, /or. ciV. The 

tivo ends in a somewliat projeclinj;, rulhcr obtuse huhit and foliage do, in fact, n«cail those of st'vcral 

tip. Aruliacea, an order to whirJt Ub.ntiuu &, 



MAGNOLIACE^. 159 

with scaly buds, and alternate, petiolate, crenulate, persistent leaves. 
The flowers, also proceeding from scaly buds, and almost always her- 
maphrodite, are arranged in bunches as in Euptelea, and appear 
at the commencement of the vegetation of the season. The scaly 
bracts, which at first protected them, fall off towards the time for 
their expansion. We can see from the foregoing that this group, 
to which the name of Trochodendrece' has been given, includes two 
quite degenerate genera of Magnoliacece, with diclinous achlamydeous 
flowers. The insertion of the stamens in IVochodendron, and the 
concave form of the receptacle, which takes away all appearance 
of independence from the basilar portion of the carpels,' might 
authorize our establishing for these a small group of perigynous 
Magnoliacece. 



V. CANELLA SEEIES. 

The Canellas^ (figs. 211-215) are plants with regular hermaphro- 
dite flowers. On the slightly convex receptacle are successively 
inserted a calyx and corolla of free pieces, an androceum and a gynse- 
ceum whose elements cohere by their edges. The calyx consists of 
three free persistent sepals,^ imbricated in the bud (fig. 213). The 



Hooker bad first referred Trochodendron as an it gives insertion to organs of such complexity as 

abnormal genus. It appears, however, that a the pistil, and that for a good way up, and even 

second species of this genus has recently been near its edges, it becomes difficult to admit that 

discovered in Japan, T. longifolium Maxiii., it is of appendicular origin. If we suppose the 

known to us only by the mention made of it by organic apex — that is, the deepest point — of the 

MiQUEL, in his work on the Origines de la Flore receptacle of Trochodendroii to be pulled upwards 

de Japon (see Adansonia, viii. 211). and raised a little above the insertion of the 

* Hook. F., loc. cit. stamens, we get a convex receptacle like that of 

' The sort of shallow sac or cup formed by the Illicium or Drimys. 
dilated receptacle is here, in our opinion, of axial •' P. Bhowne, Jamaic. (1756), 275, t. 27. — 

nature, and its organic base corresponds with the Swaetz, in Linn. Trans., i. (1791), 96, t. 8. — 

level of the insertion of the androceum. Con- Mitke., Syst. Veg., 443. — G.eetnee, Fruct., i. 

sequently this sac is not of foliar origin, and 373, t. 77. — A. L. Juss., in Mem. Miis., iii. 347.— 

hence gives insertion to the carpels. These are DC, Prodr., i. 563. — Endl., Gen., n. 5457. — 

truly free as those of most MagnoUacecB, but the A. Rich., Fl. Cub., 245. — Miees, in Ann. Nat. 

base by which they are inserted is much extended Hist., ser. 3, i. 348; Contrib., i. 112, t. 23. — 

and very oblique. Thus we have a great resem- Payee, Fam. Nat., 102. — B. H., Gen., 121, n. 

blance between the organization of the flower of 1. — H. Bn., Adansonia, vii. 12,67. — Winterania 

Trochodendroii and that of certain Eosacece, L., Gen., n. 598. — Juss., Gen., 263. 
of Eupomatia among the Anonacece, and of most * To Bextham & Hookee these three leaves 

of the Monimiacece. For it is true that strictly, represent bracteolae, forming a sort of calyculus 

one may consider the sac surrounding the flower under the flower, which would then be apetalous 

in the last named order as a calyx when it only in Canella ; for these botanists call that coloured 

supports stamens ; but when, in the female flower, perianth a calyx which most other authors call a 



160 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



corolla is formed by five petals of imbricative or contortive aestivation, 
of which four are in pairs alternate with the sepals, while the fifth 
alone (fig. 213) answers to the interval between two sepals.' The 
stamens, about twenty in number," are monadelphous ; their hy- 




pogynous filaments being united into one tube, as are the 
connectives, which are slightly separated quite close to their apex by 
more or less marked crenulations. On the outer surface of the sort 
of collar thus formed by the androceum are applied the vertical, linear, 
one-celled extrorse anthers, which dehisce by a single longitudinal 
median cleft, whose edges spread and turn outwards.' The gynaj- 



coroUa. Tlio arninpement of the parts of this 
flonil envelope in Cinnamosma rather seem to 
indicate that it represents a corolla analogous to 
that of the Klenarerr. 

' I'avek has observed (Joe. cit.) that these five 
petals are arranged with regard to the sepals as 
if of three allerniite petjds two had heconiu dcdu- 
plicated, and compares this arrangement to that 
seen in Jl<liaii(h<muin. 

'^ 1'ayku regarded them as ten hilocular 
stamens— five opi)0»itc the iMitals, and fivo alter- 



nate with them. This view he, no doubt, based 
on the fact that the dentations or crenations 
borne at the summit of the androceal c-oUar 
are usually ten in number, each corresponding 
with the a\tcx of a connective. But it is ditficult 
to admit this explanation when the whole number 
of cells is o<ld, as often hapj)ens ; sometimes fifleen 
or seventeen may Iw counU-d. 

* Tlie i)ollen is very much like that of Mii(jHulia, 
fusiform, with a longitudinal cleft. (See Cvmj)te$ 
jRendus, Lxvi. 700; AdaiuQiiia, viii. 167.) 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 



161 



ceum, whose apex alone is seen through the superior opening of the 
staminal tube, consists of a free ovary, tapering above into a style, which 
is somewhat dilated at the tip, and obscurely divided into tubercles 
covered with stigmatic papilla}. The ovary is one-celled, with two or 
three parietal placentas superposed to the sepals, each bearing several 
descending,' somewhat curved, subanatropous ovules, with the micro- 
pyle looking upwards and inwards (fig. 214). The fruit is a polysper- 





Canella alba. 



Fig. 214. 
Longitudinal section of flowi 



Fig. 215. 
Flower without the corolla. 



mous berry, and the seeds contain copious fleshy albumen, which lodges 

a tolerably long curved embryo near the apex and back of the seed.* 

Of this genus but one or two species are known, of American 

origin. Of these the chief is C. alha^ the plant which furnishes the 



' On each placenta there may he two, three, 
or four, rarely more, inserted at different 
heights. Each is suspended by a short, very 
slender funicle, which descends very obliquely 
from the edge of the placenta to be inserted into 
the middle of the concave edge of the ovule, 
where it becomes continuous with the raphe. 

" The outer seed-coat is thick, crustaceous, 
and shining ; the inner, soft and membranous. 
Around the hilum is a small, circular, whitish, 
rudimentary aril. The albumen is fleshy, very 
copious; the embryo, about half as long as the albu- 
men, is quite eccentric, placed on the opposite 

VOL. I. 



side to the raphe, with its often somewhat un- 
equal cotyledons downwards. The micropyle 
forms a short, slightly curved beak. There may 
be as many as half a dozen seeds in the berry, 
whose thin skin is lined by a pulpy layer of 
no great thickness. 

^ MUEK., Syst. Veg., 443. — C. Winter ania 
G,12ETN., loc. cit. — Winterania Canella L., 
Spec, 636.— PoiR., Bid., viii. 799; Ilhistr., t. 
399.— MiEES, op. cit., 116, n. 1, t. 23 A. The 
second species admitted by Miees {loc. cit., 118) 
under the name of C. obtusifolia, which gi-ovvs in 
Maracaibo, is perhaps only a variety of the former. 



162 NATURAL mSTOItY OF PL.IXTS. 

Candla alba bark, a native of the Antilles, cultivated in our con- 
servatories and in most hot countries. It is a small tree, all the 
parts of which are very aromatic and ij^labrous. The leaves are 
simple, alternate, exstipulate, covered with pellucid glandular dots. 
The flowers are placed at the ends of the branches in bunches 
of ramified, often dichotomous cymes. The secondary axes of the 
bunch are axillary either to the highest leaves on the branch (fig. 
211), or to more or less caducous bracts which succeed the normal 
leaves. Thus the inflorescence as a whole constitutes a sort of 
thyrse or panicle. 

C. axUlark,^ which grows in Brazil, has become the type of a 
special genus, under the name CuuKunodcndron; because its perianth 
is lined with a certain number of flattened petaloid scales,' and 
its flowers, instead of being collected at the summit of tlie branches, 
are grouped into short bunches, in the axils of the leaves themselves. 
Otherwise the flower presents nearly the same general organization. 
The corolla consists of four or five imbricated leaves. The scales 
within these are equal, or nearly equal, in number, alternate with 
them, and caducous. There are a score of stamens in the androceum, 
and the unilocular ovary contains four or five pluriovulate placentas. 
The fruit is a poly sperm ous berry, with a gelatinous pulp sur- 
rounding the seeds. Another species of the same genus, C. corticowm 
MiERS,'' grows in the Antilles. Its bunches are also lateral, or axilhiry, 
few flowered. The flowers, far larger than in the preceding species, 
are pentamerous. The corolla is doubled with five small obovate im- 
bricated scales. The androceum consists of a score of stamens, and 
the one-celled ovary contains from three to five parietal placentas, 
supporting an indefinite number of descending ovules. These two 
species are small aromatic trees, with alternate exstipulate leaves. 
The genus may be defined as CnncUa, with terminal flowers, and 
the perianth doubled with appendages of contested morphological 
significance. 

In a new genus, of similar organoleptic properties, but belonging 



> Neks & Mart., Jfov. Ad. Aead. C<rsar., » Tlicso orgnns (plnndsorgtnmiiKKU'a?) nro the 

Xii. 18, t. 3.— Si'ix & Mabt., Reiae, i, 83; ii. true potuls in the opinion of Hkmham L 

•336. IIooKKU. The mniihiT viirii'H liomewlmt : it in 

' ESDL., Oen., n. 1029. — MiEUS, Ann. of often tlio siiiiie iis that of tlie more evtornal 

Nat. y/i»/., «cr. 3, i. 3oO; Contrib., \. 118, t. leaves wiiicli wo have just ileitoribfd lu iho piccon 

21.— Ii. H., Oen., 121, n. 2. II. Ms., AdiiMonia, of a corolhi. 

vii. 14, 07. * Contrih., i. 121, n. 2, t. 21 U. 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 



163 



to the Old Continent, which we have named Cimiamosma' (figs. 216- 
219), the flowers are sessile and solitary in the axils of the leaves, 
which gives the plant a strong resemblance to certain species of 
Biospi/ros. The three sepals are accompanied by several external 
bracts, like them, but shorter as they are more external. The 




Fio. 21fi. 








Cinnamosmafragrans. 




Fig. 217. 


Fig. 218. 


Fig. 219. 


Flower. 


Longitudinal section of flower. 


Diagram. 



androceum presents about fifteen stamens, united to form a 
sort of collar, as in Canella. The ovary, too, is one-celled, with 
three or four pauciovulate placentas.- The ovules are descending, 



^ H. Bn., Adansonia, vii. 217, 377, t. v. — each placenta, one on each side ; they are not 
B. H., Oen., 970. quite on a level, and are of the same form as in 

^ There are most usually only two ovules on Canella. 

M 2 



164 NATURAL niSTORY OF PLANTS. 

with the micropyles looking downwards and inwards. Tlie fruit is 
a many-seeded berry,' but the most striking character of this genus is 
its gamopetaloLis corolla, whose tube elongates as it grows older, and 
whose limb, first spreading and afterwards reflexed, is divided either 
into five quincuncial lobes, whose position with regard to the sepals 
is the same as in Caiwlhi, or in six lobes, of which three are 
external and three internal. C. fragraiis, the only species known, is a 
small tree with alternate exstipulate aromatic leaves, which as yet has 
only been observed in the north of Madagascar. It may be defined 
as a Canella, with solitary axillary sessile flowers and a gamopetalous 
corolla. 

Having ascertained and discussed the characters of the eleven 
genera that we retain in this order, let us now see how each in suc- 
cession has come to be placed in it. B. de Jussied^ had ranked in 
his Tilia the Ma^noliacea properly so called — i.e., the genera Lirio- 
dendrum and Magnolia, lllicium alone was placed among his Anona. 
Adanson,' far more logical, included in one and the same order the 
Anona, the genera lUiciinn (under the n-^ime o{ Ski mnii). Magnolia, 
Chawpaca {Michdia), and Tulipifera. As we also find DiUenia and 
Menispermum in this family, it is evident that this genius left nothing 
of the true affinities of Magnoliacece to be discovered by modern 
botanists. A. L. de Jussieu^ had simply to divide the Anonacra of 
Adanson into two nearly equal parts : he separated Anona and several 
nearly allied genera to constitute his order Anonce, and left aa true 
Magnoliacece the genera Drimys, lllicium, Michelia, Magnolia, Talauma, 
and Liriodcndrum. Unfortunately, to these he added Euryandra 
{Tetracera) and Mayna, and also Billenia, Curat elln, Ovhna, and 
Quassia, as "genera aj/inia." Still, thenceforward four of the 
genera which we retain as distinct in Magnoliacece were united into 
one group. Canella was placed among the Melia. The genus 
Schizandra, taken by Blume' as the type of a separate order, AV///r«//- 
dracecn, retained as distinct by authors until 18()2,^ was then referred 



• Tlio Modji are Mirroiiiuled with tlio name * Fam. den Plant., ii. Sfik 

■on of'puip u« that whicli is ho uhuTuhuit in Cut- * Gen., 28l), urdo \\. 

namodendrun. 'I'hcy aro prohably of simihir * Bijdraj. (1825), 21. 

•tructiire U) thowj of Can/'/Za, but have not v.-t « KxDL., Gen., 835. — Mkibkku, 0*n., 5.- 

been Btudiod when quit** riiw. Lindl., Veget. Kingd., 305. 

' Ex A. L. JuSB., Gen., Ixviii. 



MAQN0LIACE2E. 165 

to Maf/noliacem by Bentham & Hooker. Still later, Miehs' proposed 
to put the CanellecB near the Winteracea, which included Illicium 
and Brimi/s. The old genus Canella was at the same time split up 
by him to permit the establishment of his genus Cinnamodendron. 
SiEBOLD^ had in 1S35 described Trochodendron, which he put near 
MagnoUacece. Bentham & Hooker' had made it an abnormal Araliad. 
But Hooker & Thomson' were decided by tlie arguments of 
Eichler/ and the comparison they were able to make with Euptelea,^ 
another Japanese genus, at one time referred to Ulmacece, to restore 
the two last-named genera to Magnoliace<s. Thus was raised to 
nine the number of genera, which according to us should form 
part of the order. We have added two others, Zygogynim^ a 
Drimyd with a syncarpous ovary, and Cinnamosma^ a gamopetalous 
Canellad. 

Of all the characters presented by plants of this order, there are 
only three absolutely constant, and it must be owned that even 
these possess but little value of themselves : they are, woody stem, 
alternate leaves, and albuminous seeds. We can conceive that some 
time or other a Magnoliad might be found wanting any of these 
characters, and yet such that we could not on that account exclude 
it from this order. But beside these absolute characters, we have a 
very large number of others so general tliat their extremely rare 
absence (often observed in a single genus only) is sufficient to de- 
termine an important tribe or genus. Hence it is on these almost 
constant characters that we must lay stress. Eight may be 
enumerated — 

1. The form of the floral receptacle. — This, so important on account 
of the mode of insertion which directly results from it, is more or less 
concave in the two genera Euptdea and Trochodendron only, and 
especially in the latter ; it suffices to characterize the series of Eiqjtelecs 
or Trochodendrea. 

2. Again, these two genera alone lack a true perianth ; the absence 
of calyx and corolla is an equally good characteristic of this series. 



' Contrih.,\.\\2. Flora (1864), 449 j (1865), 12 j Seem., Joum. 

- Fl. Jap. Fam., 133. of Bat., iii. (1865), 150. 

^ Gen., 17. * Established by SiEBOlD&ZrccAElNl in 1835. 

* Joum. Linn. Soc, vii. (1863), 240. ' In 1867 ; see p. 156, note 3. 

* Mart. Flor. Bras., MagnoUac, 131 ; * In the same year ; see p. 163, note 1. 



166 NATUti.lL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

3. In all the genera in which we can obtain any distinction of the 
perianth into calyx and corolla, the edges of the pieces of these floral 
envelopes overlap one another in the bud, and the calyx is imbricated. — 
In JJrimys alone does it constitute a sac more or less raised, and 
valvate in sestivation ; this has hitherto sufficed to characterize this 
genus among the IlUcetP, of which it might form a well marked sub- 
section. 

4. The corolla, when distinct, is always polypctalous. — There is 
only one genus of the CanellccEy Cinnauioama, in which it is distinctly 
gamopetalous. 

5. When the ovules are solitary, or very few in number in each 
carpel, of a descending direction, they have their micropyles turned 
upwards and outwards, which would indicate that if ascending, the 
micropyles would look downwards and inwards. — In JUicium alone 
the solitary ovules are ascending, and the micropyle looks down- 
wards and outwards ; this is sufficient to characterize a special subsec- 
tion Euilliciece among the IlliciccE. 

6. In one genus alone the carpels, each containing a single placenta 
in the internal angle, are united into a plurilocular ovary. — Every- 
where else, where the placentas are so arranged, the carpels are free. 
Thus we recognise Zycjoyynum, which might strictly be considered as 
a special syncarpous subsection of Wnifcrca, or Illiciea. 

7. In Canellece alone, on the other hand, the carpels, united edge to 
edge, form a single unilocular ovary, with several parietal placentas. — 
These plants are then to this order what Monodora is to the 
Anonacca, Berheridopm to Bcrberidacea, Lardizabcdaceay &c. (see 
p. 119). 

8. Only in the two genera forming the true Maynoliacea do we 
And stipuliform expansions at the base of the leaves ; and of these all 
the species do not possess this character ; but it is wanting in all 
the other members of the order. 

All tlie other cluiractors vary in passing from one genus to another, 
or in a single genus in passing from one species to another. Tliese 
are as follows : the consistency of the fruit, its dehiscence (if it opens 
when ripe), the number of perianth leaves and of sexual organs, the 
number of ovules in each cell, th(! aspect of the anthers, the existence 
of dots on the leaves, &c. The subdivisions of minor importance 
alone, then, may be founded on these characters. 

We have sliown how, assisted by these diflerences in structure, 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 167 

we can in practice divide the order into five series, wliich are as 
follows — 

1. Magnolie/E. — The floral axis is cylindro-conical, often much 
elongated. The spiral arrangement of its appendages is very mani- 
fest. The pieces of the periantli are imbricated. Tlie flowers are 
hermaphrodite. There are two liorizontal or descending ovules with 
the micropyle upwards and outwards. The leaves often present 
stipuliform dilatations. 

2. ScHiZANDRE^. — The floral axis, at first short, remains so, or 
becomes elongated, as in J^IagnoUece. The spiral arrangement in 
the latter case becomes evident. In each carpel are two descending 
ovules, with the micropyle downwards and outwards. Eut the fruit 
is always fleshy, and the flowers are unisexual. The stem is usually 
climbing ; the leaves are exstipulate. 

3. Illicie.e. — The floral axis is short, and the spiral insertion which 
really exists is but slightly apparent. The ovules are solitary and 
ascending, with the micropyle outwards {EidUicea), or in larger 
numbers in two vertical rows {BrhnijdecB). In the latter case the 
calyx is valvate. There are no stipules. 

4. Eupteleje. — The floral receptacle is short, and more or less 
concave. The perianth is wanting. The flowers are polygamous, 
and the leaves exstipulate. 

5. Canelle^. — The floral appendages are verticillate. The corolla 
is polypetalous, or gamopetalous. The stamens are monadel- 
phous, with extrorse anthers. The ovary is unilocular, with seve- 
ral parietal placentas. The fruit is fleshy. The leaves are exsti- 
pulate. 

All the Mag iwllacece as yet known are woody plants, but their 
dimensions are most variable. Thus in the genus Magnolia alone, 
we meet with gigantic trees, and with little shrubs not half a yard 
high. The Canellea and lUkiece are usually small trees or shrubs. 
A single species of the genus Brimys may become a very tall shrub, 
or a stunted undershrub a few inches high, according to the country 
and soil where its numerous varieties grow. The Scldzandrece are, 
on the contrary, creeping or climbing lianas. The stems of certain 
MagnoUacece have long been pointed out as presenting remarkable 
•peculiarities of structure in their wood. That of Driutgx, and of Tas- 
mannia, which was formerly considered as a distinct genus, was 



168 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

remarked by Lindley' for possessing areolate punctations like those 
of the Conifers, or rather of Jraucaria. This assertion has since been 
confirmed by several observers." Further, these plants have no 
other vessels than those few we find outside the pith in a branch one 
year old, of which only a small number are true trachea?, with a thread 
that can be unrolled. The other woody layers, produced afterwards 
at different periods of vegetation, consist only of fibres with areolate 
dots. Troi-hodcndroii, whose place among Mat/noViacea had been con- 
sidered doubtful, presents the same peculiarity.' The Magnoliem 
and lUicium, on the contrary, have vessels in concentric zones, 
alternating with those of woody fibres, and in this respect return to 
the common plan of structure in Dicotyledons ; so does the genus 
Eupldca,^ very closely allied to Trovhodvndron. Hence there is no 
absolute character common to the whole order to be found in the 
relative distribution of the vessels and the fibres. But we have 
shown in a memoir which we reproduce below,* that the stems of 
Magnoliacea, observed when young, present a character in the pith 
which is far more general than that above mentioned; that the 
existence of special cells almost always enables us to recognise them 
on seeing only a fragment of a branch or stem ; and that, finally, the 
arransrement of these cells is, moreover, often sufficient to charac- 
terize one of the series that we admit in this order, 

" One of the true Magnoliea — that is, a Magnolia or a Tulip-tree — 
is usually recognised by the following histological character : its 
whitish pith is divided into segments by a series of transverse dia- 
phragms of a more or less yellowish or greenish tint. These septa 



' Sec Veget. Kingd., 417. mwlullary rnys." A. Ghay {In/rod. to Bot., 

' GcEPrEUT, Ueher die Anat. Struct, ein. 1858, 43, fip. 47) 1ms reprcticiiti.tl these puiicU- 

Magnoliac., Linntta, xv. (1812), 1U5; Ann. Sc. tioiis in Illicium. Those of Winferett and 

Ifat., 8tT. 2, xviii. 317. — Olivf.u, Slntci. of Canellea were noticed and c<in>|)nred with one 

the Stem in Uicoli/l., 2. — Eiciilkh, Mart. another by Mi khs (-•!««. Aa/. //i.t/., ser. 3, ii. 34). 

Flor. Brat., Magnoliac, 139, t. 32. There is, Ghiffitu hiis made out {Hotul., iv. 715) the 

however, a Hliglit dillerence between the stems of existence of obrujue perfonitions in the fibres of 

a Drimyt iind Araucaria us regards the general Kadsura ; and Lindi.ky (/w/r. to Bot., i. G6, 20) 

direction of the cells of the medullary rays, which has figured those of Spfittrostrma. The NcA»- 

have their longest diameter verticid in the former, zandmr often contain large paruUelopipedal or 

radial in the latter. prismutical crystjds in their parenciiyma, espe- 

* EiciiLKU, Flora (18G4), 441); Sekm., ciuUy that of the pith. In Drimyt wo have 
Joum. of Hut., iii. (18(55;, \M. found cells with bundles of ruphids, but only 

* Olivkk, op. fit., 3. The fibres and vessels very rarely. 

here present punctaitions. Tlio parenchyma is * Compt. Rend, de VAcad. det Scieiuft, Ixvi. 

covered with longitudinal rows of perforations, 01)8 ; Adatuoniti, viii. 155. 
"at least, on the surfaces transverse to the 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 169 

are formed of peculiar cells, elongated liorizontally, and becoming 
deformed or bent where tbey come in contact with the medullaiy 
sheath. They owe their coloration to their contents; and the 
outer wall is at once distinguished by the numerous canals by 
which it is perforated, by the way it refracts light, and by its great 
thickness. Though this character varies from one species to another, 
and even in a single species, according to the conditions under which 
it grows, we may rank these peculiar cells in the category of those 
termed ' Sfeinzdlen in Germany. Brhmjs and Schhaiidra present 
similar stoni/ cells [Fr. cellules pierreiises'] in their medullary paren- 
chyma ; but their arrangement presents characteristic differences. 

" In the pith of a young branch of Brimijs TFinteri, or any of 
its varieties, especially D. grancitensis, we here and there see cells, 
near together or separated, which gradually lose the primitive thinness 
of their walls. Their form varies somewhat with age, for they may 
have all their diameters equal, or become vertically elongated and 
fusiform as they grow older. Their walls become thickened by 
internal increments only, for the numerous cylindrical openings by 
which they are perforated early cease to be of uniform calibre 
throughout. The thickening is less marked towards the two orifices 
of the canal, and especially the internal one, so that soon each canal 
has the form of a cylinder, widening out into a cone towards each 
orifice. Hence results the formation of a fusiform cavity by the 
union of two canals belonging to neighbouring cells, whose orifices 
exactly correspond ; hence also the areolate appearance of the punc- 
tations when seen from above, like that presented by Conifers. The 
contents of these stony cells are of a yellow or brown tint in 
specimens brought from their native country. These cells, then, 
are physiologically comparable to those which form granular aggre- 
gations in the cortical parenchyma. 

" The pith of Schizandra is often of a uniform green tint, due, in 
the first place, to the green matter contained in the ordinary cells of 
its parenchyma. It is further studded with stont/ cells, with deeply 
coloured contents, arranged either in vertical rows or without any 
apparent order. Some SphcBrostemas present peculiarities in these 
vesicles which demand a special description.' Often these cells. 



' In these nearly cylindrical cells we find on crystallization, formed of very unequal irregularly 
the inside of the walls a sort of nearly colourless facetted fragments of high refractive index, and 



170 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

which differ from the rest of the parenchyma in their much greater 
consistency, may be isolated from it simply by the pressure of the 
covering glass of the slide, which disengages without crushing them.' 

" It is impossible to avoid considering these scattered cells, as of 
the same nature with those which form septa in the pith of the ^fa^- 
noliea. Thus the whole order is characterized by the identity of 
the structure of these utricles, while their different modes of arrange- 
ment serve to distinguish the tribes : stony rrl/.s, disseminated in 
Svhizandrccn and lll/ifcrca, collected into diaphragms in Magnoiwa. 
In the rapidly-developed shoots of some Ma/j/iolins we have seen 
these septa reduced to a single stofiy eel/, nearly central, on which all 
the surrounding cells of the ordinary parenchyma abut by one end, 
bent, or drawn out in a quite peculiar fashion. 

"Moreover, the sarmentose stems of the Schizandrca are dis- 
tinguished from those of the Winterea by another anatomical cha- 
racter. Towards the outside of the fibrovascular zone, they present 
wide vertical tubular cavities, lined with a fine membrane and 
riddled with very minute perforations ; very often becoming detached 
from the walls of these cavities in long cylinders which at once 
collapse." 

The bark of certain Maynollacece presents peculiarities of structure 
often related to the use made of this part of the stem in several 
species we shall enumerate below." Several years ago GcEPPERr 
pointed out in the bark of Drinti/s Winfrri certain small granula- 
tions visible even to the naked eye, and remarkable for their con- 
sistency. They consist of stong celh, dotted, perforated, and often 
areolate, which correspond pretty closely in structure with the better 
developed ones which we have described in the medullary paren- 
chyma.* When adult, their contents are nearly colourless, or more 



uhnulutiiig a thick coat of polylicdral starch- pared by Oliver {op. cit., 3) to tliat observe*! 

grannlcH. I?iit these bodies, uiiattneked by in the stem of certain HamamrHihiir<t ; tliat 

water, arc not dyed blue by tincture of iodine. is — that in the interval between two fibrt>«i, we 

In the pericurjt of M. Yulitn Dksf., MiM>Aiii)KT find very large lenticular cavities, whose ci-ntrw 

ban recently ascertained that the cellu of the abut on the openings of perforations in the walls 

pericarp cont4iin in the thickness of their walls, ofeaclMibre. Here again we have the wimo fact 

" a nml network of canaliculi ramifying in every as in JJrImt/s and the (."onifers. 

direction," of wiiich sonu- cont;i'n crystals, and ' Such are the foUowin;; annnatic bark« : 

the presence of wliich would be an argument in Winter bark, Canellaalba hark, and those of 

favour of the tiiickening of these cellular walls by CiinnimodciKintn, the I'ldip-lree, and several 

internal dejKJiiit (Ann. .SV-. \iil., ser. 5, vi. ;»0!l). Miii/iiulitis used in nieilieine. 

' (iitlKFlTii (A'o/i//., iv. 7lo) has remarked in * /.<«•. (•»/.— ElCill.KK, lor. cit., IHS, t. 32. 

the |)arenchyuia of Kadsura, a htructure com- * Seep. 169. Heretheir variouHdininelers arc 



MAGNOLIACE^. 171 

frequently of a brownish or reddish tint ; while originally there are 
both starch and green colouring matter. In the same plants, the 
cells of the cortical parenchyma, which remain thin-walled, are not all 
of the same dimensions. Here and there some of them become very 
large and rounded. Their contents, at first green, afterwards yellow, 
and more or less granular, consist of an oleo-ethereal, odoriferous, 
volatile substance, to which these barks owe most of their thera- 
peutical properties.^ The bark is markedly different in the Ca?ie/lca,- 
not presenting those thick-walled cells so much developed in Drimy- 
decB. The outer cells form nearly homogeneous layers, having walls 
of nearly equal thickness ; and within the bark we see the elongated 
liber cells much developed, forming flexuous bundles, which project 
like prisms or wedges into the parenchyma. 

With such considerable variations in the structure of the funda- 
mental organs, especially the flower, it is impossible that the 
MapioUacea should not possess multiple affinities. And in the 
first place, we find that in organization they are very near most of 
the orders termed FolycarjncecB, especially AnonacecB, Dilleniacece, 
ManunculacecB, and Meuispermacea. The Anonaceae, which were, as we 
have seen, so long united with them, only differ in one character — 
their ruminated albumen. None of the other characters cited by 
authors is constant ; neither the aestivation of the jDcrianth, nor the 
presence or absence of stipules, nor the independence or union of 
the carpels, nor the union or separation of the sexes. Eiqmmatia, 
usually referred to Aiionacece, especially on account of its ruminated 
albumen, has exactly the exstipulate leaves of certain Mag- 
noliacece ; and its carpels, sunk in the cavity of the common re- 
ceptacle, are thus united together into a single mass with the styles 
alone distinct, like those of Zyyogynnm. The fruit of Anonacece is 
almost always indehiscent ; but that of Anaxayorca consists of true 
follicles, like those frequently found in Maynoliacca. These last are 
also closely analogous to Dilleniacece. It is true that till very recently 
it might be remarked that the BUleniacea are not aromatic, and that 



raore nearly equal, and they are rarely solitary, stance is produced, nearly homogeneous, and of 
more usually aggregated to form irregular whitish yellowish colour. 



masses. 



EicuLEK, Iqc. cit. Thisbotanist has foundthat 
' In time, a solid balsamic and resinous sub- in Brimijs the periderm and suber are wanting. 



172 NATURAL HISTOBY OF PLANTS. 

all Maynoliacca are more or less so, But this character, practically 
useful though it be, is certainly of no great importance in itself; 
and it has ceased to be absolute since the Eifjjfelra, which lack all 
aroma, have been classed among Maf/noliacca. Nor is the direction 
of the ovule of fundamental value in separating the two orders, 
because a descending ovule with the micropyle exterior, as in 
Magnolia, answers really to an ascending ovule with the micropyle 
interior, as seen in the uni or pauci-ovulate Billcnxncpce. But here 
again, in practice, as we as yet know no JJillcniacca with definite and 
suspended ovules, we may assert that the ovules of Magnoliacea, 
solitary and few in number, have the micropyle always external, 
whether they be descending, as in the true Magnolias and Srhizan- 
dra, or ascending, as in lUicium. In Billcniacea with pauciovulate 
carpels the micropyle, on the contrary, looks inwards. 

Moreover we must give up the attempt to distinguish Dillcniacece 
and Mar/iioliacca by the presence or absence of stipules, since the 
tSchizandrca, lUicicce, and CaiicIIcce have no stipules, while certain 
Wormias, Davillas, &c., as we have said,' possess petiolar expansions 
which behave exactly like the organs called stipules in Magnoliacea. 
Nor is the symmetry of the flower sufficient to separate the two 
orders absolutely ; for if it is true that the flower of Dillemacca is 
often on a quinary type, it is equally true that that of Magnoliacea 
is far from being constantly composed of trimerous verticils. The 
Billenian are almost Magnoliaccce, as no one can fail to see on an 
exact analysis of their flowers. The quinary symmetry of the 
perianth, the verticillate arrangement of the carpels, the spiral 
insertion of the androceum," the stipuliform dilatations of the petioles, 
are facts which are all met with in one or other of the types of the 
MagnoViaceoi? These too are very near the Cafgcaiit/icce. It is true that 
as yet we have found none of the Magiiuliaccce with a receptacle 



' Seep. 120, and Adansonia, vi. 271. tlioupli much less evidently (see Adaiisonia, vii. 

' Auinthcciweof lhe/if(i««Ho«/«<rrt', wcsliiillbo 'M'A ; viii. 12). 
able to tiiko into Hccminl tlie develoimient of the ' We slmll not hero «poak of tlio aril, wliich is 

flowers in diHtinguihliin^ Muritiuliucea; from said to be lii^jliiy developetl in Dillenincrcr and 

JJillftiiticefF, as soon as the orj;anoj;eny of the absent in Mni/iioliiurte, lonsiderinj: that tlie aril, 

former lias bin^'n more completely studied. We as seen from our stand-iKjint, is not of the same 

may now say that in all llio Murinoluwea we conformation in the two pronps, but is rcnlly 

have as yet studied, tlie andrm-eum is develojHHl, more jjeneralized in MaijintHa than in CntuiulUa, 

not eentrifugally as in JUllminciir, but in a Ilibhertia, &c., all the supertii-ial celhi of the 

spiral order and cenlrip<tally. Tbis iMjculiarity former geims entering into its forniatiuu by their 

is very marke<l in Atoi/nolid and JJrimi/» ; it also hypertrophy (see p. l'.\2, note 7). 
exists in Jllicium aninatum and parvijlorum, 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 173 

as concave as that of the Cahjcanihea, and that these last have 
always opposite leaves. But it may be said that the floral recep- 
tacle of a Mafjnolia, if pushed down so that its organic apex would 
be at tlie bottom of the cup thus formed, would become exactly that 
of a CaJijcanthiis ; and long ago the striking resemblance of the 
flowers of Chmonnnthus, those of Illicium and Schizatidra was re- 
marked. The herbaceous Banunculacece may also recall the struc- 
ture of the flower of J/r/y»o//(7, e.g., Mj/ost/rm ii\\({ the Crowfoots with 
an elongated receptacle. In the eyes of several authors the order 
MagnoliacecB have representatives among genera with unilocular 
ovaries and parietal placentation. Such was Mayna, which is 
now-a-days restored to the order Bixacece, and which presents 
numerous affinities with the CanellecB. In this last series we find 
genera with flowers closely analogous to those of some Samydece, and 
one plant whose habit, foliage, inflorescence, and gamopetalous co- 
rolla closely recall what is observed in Ehcnacea, which are moreover 
closely allied to the neighbouring group, the Anonacece. Finally, 
the EuptelecB include two genera of which it was at first possible to 
place the one, Trochodendron, among the abnormal Araliacea, while 
the other, Euptelea, presents more than one analogy, especially in its 
diclinous flowers and samaroid carpels, with some of the Xanthoxy- 
lacacece and Simarubea, like AUanihus-. 

Of about seventy-five species belonging to this order nearly three 
quarters are found in the Old World. AU the Canellacea were 
American, until the discovery of Cuniamosma. All the ScUzandrece, 
on the contrary, except the species taken as the type of the genus 
ScMzandra, are foreign to America. The only three known Euptelea 
are Japanese. The species of Illicium are equally divided between 
both Worlds. Lrimys is found in the whole of tropical and southern 
America, and from Borneo and the north of Australia to New 
Zealand. Among MagnoUece, Liriodendron is the only exclusively 
American genus. The genus Magnolia is only represented in 
America by the EumagnoUas and some Talaumas. Australia has no 
Magnoliacea, except the section Tasmannia of Brimys. No represen- 
tatives are known native in Europe and Africa.' Thus, of the 
eleven genera we admit in this work, four are common to both 



Nor the adjncent islands." (R. Bh., Congo, 465.) 



1 74 NA TUR. I L mSTOB Y OF PL^iXTS. 

Worlds ; three are proper to the New World, and four to the Old. 
The latter possesses about fifty-five species of its own ; the former 
about a score. We know of none found native in both. 

The Magnolinci'O' are almost all useful to man. They only become 
noxious in some cases by the very excess of their virtues. Thus it 
is said that the too powerful scent of the Howers of Magnolia Um- 
brella and of several other species of the same genus has sufficed to 
cause headache, nausea, and nervous attacks. But in the open air 
the lemon-like scent of M. grnnc/ijiura, that which the species of the 
section Talaunia' spread far and wide, and the yet sweeter odour 
of M. ptcrocarpa Koxk., glanca, Yulnii, &c., are very agreeable, and 
cause these superb plants to be prized as ornaments in gardens,' as 
do the evergreen polished leaves of J/, grandifora, and the white or 
pink corollas of M. Yi/lan, purpurea, ^oulaiig'iana, auriculaia, macro- 
phyUa, glauca, CampheUii^ Kobns* &c. As drugs,' the Magnolias t^yo- 
perly so-called are rich in a bitter, aromatic, tonic principle found in 
the bark of both root and stem, and especially the latter." The bark 
of M. gra/idi//ora {the Tidip-LanreJ, Big Laurel oii\\Q Americans) is con- 
sidered a tonic and slight febrifuge. That of M. glauca {Blue Magnolia, 
Marsh Magnolia, Castor-tree, Beaver-tree, Virginian Cinchona, Swamp 
Sassafras of the Americans) enjoys a fiir greater reputation.^ This 
species was for some time thought to produce the true Angostura harh, 
which will show pretty clearly what are its virtues. From it is pre- 
pared an alcoholic tincture, which is a tonic stimulant' and febrifuge, 



' It is ajBC'vnrcd that the flower of T. /ra- " Miciix., Arhr. Forest., iii. 77. — Pbreira, 

grantisgima HooK. {Icon. t. ccxi.), which we op. ri/., (575. In the south of the rnitcd States 

must reftT to T. ovata A. S. H., can be smelt this plant is also called H'/ti(e li^ii/ and Stcfef Haif. 

half a mile off. Its bark is removed in autumn and winter. When 

2 Tkkw, Iron. Select., t. 9, 23, 25, fig. 2, 62, dry it occurs in lipht, smooth, somewhat quillwl 

63. — DriiAM., Triiifi' dci Arhr. (1775), ii. 2. pieres, several inches lonp, and one or two inches 

* Hook. & Tiiomb., Illustr. PL Jlhnal., t. broad, of a silvery ash colour outside, white and 
4. — V. HoCTTE, Fl. dea Serres, t. 1282-1285. fibrous within. It has a warm, pungent, bitt«r 
This sjMJcies has a bri|;ht pink jmrianth, and a taste, and an agreeable smell. The bark of tho 
pretty regular elongated fruit. root is thought more active than that of tho 

* Ka:mi'F., /co». -SV/«7. (I7i»l), t. 42. trunk. It is suppi>s«.>d to contain the sjmie prin- 
» Endi.., Knchir., 42'.». — l*Kiti:iiiA, Elem. ciple analogous to lirimlendrine as that found in 

Hat. Mid., vA. 4, ii. ji. ii. (57 1.— (Irin., ///V. tho bark of M. ijrandijlora, by S. IMuu-TKE 

Nut. dm. Driuj. Sim/d., i-d. 4, iii.(')7H. — LiM)!,., (Jmer. Joiirn of Phann., xiv.!l5). The iirci)ani- 

Fl. ilfid., 23. — HosKNTii., Synops. Plant. tions usually used are the jwwder, the alcoholic 

JJiaphr., 595. infusion, and the decoction. 

* Blcmk thought that thews properties af- " According to IUuton it is so powerful an 
forded a clear separation Ixjtwcen Mof/noliacetr excitant, that when imi)roperly administertHi it 
and Uillfiii'tcrti, which are not aronialic, but may determine attacks of fever or rheumatism, 
simply astringent. 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 175 

and appears very efficacious in chronic rheumatism.' M. acuminata and 
auricidafa are known in the same country as Ci/cumber-trecs f and 
their bark, infused in various alcoholic liquors, is used by the people 
of the mountain districts in rheumatic affections and intermittiner 
fevers. The leaves must possess similar properties, but are very 
little used. The flowers are used to prepare perfumes of but slight 
stability. Those of M. Yidan are used in China to give an aroma 
to tea; its buds are pickled in vinegar, and the fruits are also used 
in infusion, as pectoral and demulcent, in cases of cough and other 
pulmonary affections, and in catarrhal fever. The alcoholic in- 
fusion of the green fruits of the Cucumber-tree is also thought to 
cure rheumatism. Those of M. glauca are as useful as the bark. 
The seeds of many species, such as M. (jJauca, acuminata, Yulan, are 
much used as febrifuges. It is said that those of M. f/randijlora are 
used to treat paralysis of every description, and that those of M. 
Yulan, prized in China^ for the lemon scent of their fleshy coats, cure 
chronic rheumatism ; they are also powdered in that country for a 
sternutatory. The wood of the species of this section is of no great 
value ; it is usually white, of but little hardness or durability, and 
too light and spongy. Accordingly, that of M. f/randiftora and 
auriculata is only used in America for the internal beams of houses. 
That of M. acuminata is hardly stronger, but has a fine grain, and 
easily takes a high polish, which brings out its brownish j-ellow 
colour ; and it is much used in the woodwork of houses. 

In the Magnolias of the section Talauma the aromatic properties 
are still more marked. Tlie intense scent of their flowers in con- 
servatories may bring on faintness. It is to those of J/. Flumieri* or 
Talauma Plumieri^ {Bois Pin, Bois Cachiment of the Creoles), that, ac- 
cording to L. C. Richard,^ the excellent table liqueurs of Martinique 



' BiGELOW, Med. Bot., ii. t. 27. is cultivated in pots, and forced so as to flower 

2 In the United States the bark of M. grandi- "" winter.— K.?;jipf., Ic. Sel, t. 43. 

flora is often mixed with that of these species in . ^^- fei'^cens L. C. Rich, ex DC, Prodr., 

commerce. It possesses the same properties. '• 82.— ^«o«a dodecapeiala Lamk. 

It has been analysed by Peoctee {Uc. cit.) : it ^'^•' P>-odr., 87; Ft. Lid. Occid., ii. 997.— 

contains an acid which gives a green precipitate T.candea Xaum., ex DrcH., Rep., 177. 

with salts of iron; salts; volatile oil; a green A. Rich., Elem. d'Rist. Sat. Med., ed. 4, 

resin ; and the same crystallizable principle analo- ■^'^^■> "• '^^'*. The leaves and roots are pre- 

■gous to Unodendrhie, as exists in M. glauca scribed as astringent and stomachic, and the leaf 

(Pebeiea, op. cit., 676). ^"'^* "^ antiscorbutic. The Indians make various 

' 3 T4. • 4.1 • I' 7 /TT • T^ 11 domestic utensils of the wood ; and a resin 

^ It 18 their lu-lan, or Txin-y. Its emble- a^.■i■^..MoA f <-i, i .. • i . 

,. , a ' , . /,, ^ ., . extracted trom the plant is supposed to cure 

matical flowers are so much prized that the tree catarrh and leucorrhcca. 



176 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAXTS. 

owe their peculiar delicate aroma. They have also been supposed 
to owe this to other species of Magnolia, and, as we shall see, to 
Liriodondron Tulipifrm. Jromadcndron clcr/a/is Bl., also belongs to this 
section. Bluml' has told us of the great reputation this species enjoys 
in Java. It is a magnificent ornamental plant, whose wood is used 
for industrial purposes, and whose bark, flowers, fruit, and seeds are 
considered stomachic, carminative, and antispasmodic, and are pre- 
scribed ajrainst colic and other intestinal affections ; the flowers 
have an exquisite perfume. 

Manglietia ghiHca Bl.,- which is, as we have said, only a Magnolia 
with many-seeded carpels, has exactly the same bitter aromatic 
properties. Moreover, its wood, whitish and tough, is in Java sup- 
posed to prevent the decomposition of the dead, and is therefore 
used for the coffins of the wealthier classes. Its foliage and large 
yellowish flowers also make it a very ornamental plant. 

Of the section Michelia, the species most used is J/. Champaca L./ 
a very fine tree, cultivated in all gardens in tropical Asia for the 
sake of its beautiful, sweet-scented flowers. The Hindoos have made 
it a sacred plant, and it plays a certain part in their civil and re- 
ligious ceremonies. It was formerly used in Java to deck the temple 
and the nuptial chamber. The essential oil extracted from flowers, 
said to be as much esteemed as the essence of roses, atfects the head, 
and may, we are told, induce giddiness. The wood is used in building 
and for domestic furniture. The bark is considered a tonic, stimulant, 
diaphoretic, diuretic, and febrifuge. The leaf-buds bear an odo- 
riferous resin, much lauded in gonorrhoea. The leaves mixed with 
those of the aromatic Atnomcce. are used for anti-arthritic powders ; 
their decoction is used in lotions, in astringent gargles, and in baths 
for rheumatism. The fruit is used in abdominal complaints. The 
acrid bitter seeds are prescribed as a febrifuge. The root is a 
stimulant and emmenagogue. There is, in short, no part of this 
plant that is not considered useful/ Other species of the same group, 

' Fl.J(ir.Matfnoliac.,2f),i.y'\\.,\i\\. — II. Hv., ixn action, that not only is it an emmenagogue. 

Did. Enctfcl. den Sc. Medic, vi. 161. l)iit tliat an overdose may induce al>ortion. (targlcs 

' Op. cH., 2'1, t. vi. prepared from it arc usetl in fretid breath and 

• Spec, 75<). — I>AMK., Illuxlr., i. 193.— DC, asthenic anj^iniis. Tlie setnls are usetl in jwwiler 
Siftt. Veg., i. U7 ; Prodr., i. 79, n. 1. to rub in on the chest of fever jmtientjj, esiHJcially 

♦ Tlie uniell of the frehh llowerH is perfunietl, chiUlren (KxDi... A'/ic/uV., 421t). LoiUEiKO (/7. 
but that of the dry c<jrollaH in (hsngreeable. The Cochinch., 17tH), 317) iiUo Biteaks of thin pUnt aa 
Malay* wear wreatlw of them- (lowcrH after cultivateil under the name of lloa tu mum .• 
bathing, and mix thorn with their ooiimcticii. It " Cul/a oh odorem Jlorit mj-* rehementia et 
iH said tliat the powdered bark hiui so stimulating romtantia major eit quatn tnatitat." 



MAGN0LIACE2E. 177 

namely, AI. Bohtopa Bqcii.,' montana Bl.," excdsa Wall./ Klsopa 
BucH., Tsjampaca L., longifolia Bl., (fee," enjoy the same reputation, 
but are much less used. 

The Tulip tree is, like the Magnolia, a very fine ornamental tree, 
often planted in our gardens and parks. Its wood is by no means 
useless. " White, and very light, it is well suited for turning ; it is 
easily cut without being soft, woody without being stringy ; it has 
a very agreeable colour, and takes a fine polish. In America it is 
used for making battens, planks, beams, tables, Venetian blinds,"* 
and other articles.^ The savages hollow out the trunk into 
pirogues and canoes of a single piece. This tree is also prized for 
shipbuilding, as it is said that its wood is incorruptible, and that 
ship worms and sea weeds do not attach themselves to it. The bark 
of the stem is of lax fibrous texture, bitter, and aromatic,^ con- 
sidered a tonic antiperiodic in the United States ; all the virtues 
of Cincliona have been attributed to it in the treatment of inter- 
mittent fever.^ Gout, rheumatism, dysentery, phthisis, hysteria,^ and 
certain diseases of the hair'" have, it is said, been successfully treated 
by the bark. The root, vulgarly called y?//ow woocKYy., boisjaifne), 
has nearly the same properties. From it is prepared an agreeable 
liquor ; and the Canadians use it to correct the bitterness of spruce- 
beer, and to give it a lemon flavour. It has been affirmed that the 



' This species is ehiefly prized for its scented non-alkaline, non-nitrogenized bitter substance 

wood, used for building houses in Nepaul. that appi-ars to bear some relations to Salicine. 

- The Tsjanvpacca Chiinnung, or Qelatrang of Dr. Emmet was the first to obtain this substance 

the Japanese. Its aromatic bark has been com- {Journ. of Phil. Co?. o/"P^«r;», iii. 5), inodorous 

pared to Casca/rilla for its properties, hut is less at 40° F., fusible at 180°, and volatile at 290° 

bitter. which he considers analogous to camphor. 

^ Or Champa of Nepaul, a very aromatic Pekeiea states {op. cit., 677) that the abuse of 

species. Tulip- tree Bark may injure the alimentary canal, 

■* RoSENTH., op. cit., 596. According to several authors, what has been 

* CiTBiERES, Mem. sur le Tulipier (1803). termed liriodeiidriue is simply piperine (see 

This tree was introduced into France in 1732 by Kosentii., op. cit., 597). 

Admiral de ia GalissonniJiee. Lirioden- ^ Micrat & de Lens [Diet. Mat. Med., iv. 

dron acutilobum MiCHX., ohtnsilobum Micux., 130) relate the diflerent cures observed by several 

integrifolium Hort., are only forms of L. celebrated physicians. The memoir of Hildex- 

Tulipifera L., or procernm Salisb. brand on the Tulip-tree is entitled " Essai sur 

® DuCH., Hepert., 177: "Shingles, coach «» nouveau snccedane dii Quinquina" {Ann. 

panels, trunks .... wooden basins, horse- Chim., Ixxvi. 201). 
troughs, bars for fences." » Barton says : — " In the whole Materia 

' Its odour recalls that of the citron. Ac- Medica there is no better cure for hysteria than 

cording to Teomsdorff & Caeminati {Ann. Tulip-tree Bark, together with a little lauda- 

Chim., Ixxx. 215), it contains tannin and bitter num." Bigelow (3Ied. Hot., ii. t. 31) also 

gummy principles. From it, says Gfibouet points out the medicinal virtues of the Tulip-tree. 
(Hist. Nat. des Drag. Simpl., e'd. 4, iii. 678), >» Called the lots iu Virginia. 

has been extracted liriodendrine, a crystalline, 

VOL. I. N 



178 NATUJiAL mSTOIiY OF PLANTS. 

peculiar perfume of tlie table liquors of ^Martinique is due to the 
presence of a liquid distilled from the bark of the Tulip tree.' The 
bruised leaves applied to the forehead are supposed to cure headache. 
The seeds form an aperient medicine.' Finally, the Tulip tree is 
one of the finest trees known; it is often more than 120 feet in 
height, and its trunk may be as large as twenty-one feet round at the 
base. It is not used in medicine in our country. " But," in the words 
of a classical writer'' on this subject, " as it is naturalized there, and 
very common, new attempts might be made to verify its efficacy." 

The Schizandrpip are very little used. The only species quoted is 
Schhandra jajjo/iirn* which, according to K.empfkr' & Thunberg," 
develops a large quantity of mucilage in presence of a liquid. On 
chewing the bark, the mouth becomes full of gummy matter. The 
leaves infused in water give a sort of glue, used for gluing the paper 
made from Brottssonncfia papi/rifcra. The Japanese women cover 
their hair with this mucilage, either before shaving it, or to remove 
the fatty cosmetics which they use to excess. The seeds are viscid, 
of a disagreeable taste. Several Asiatic species of ^pharostema 
are said to have edible berries." Of the IJi/pfclea, Trochodc/idron 
aralioidc's Sieb. & Zucc. is alone cited as an odoriferous plant. " The 
aroma of the leaves and fruits," says Siebold," " would lead us to 
expect medicinal virtues." 

No product of this family is more used than the Sfar-a/iisc [Fr. 
Anis eloilc, Badianc,Y the name given to the fruit of various species 



' Tlie opinion of CubieBES {loc. cit., 6). Pin., 159. — L., Oen., 611; Spec, 661; Maf. 

Others think that the trees used for this purpose Med., 510. — Thunb., I'oyag., iv. 77. — Adans., 

are Talaumnji. Fam., ii. 364. — Jrss., Oen., 280. — Gjcktn., 

» Anc. Journ. de Med., Ixx. 350. Fntct., i. 368, t. 69, f. 6.— Ellis, Act. Anql. 

' A. UiCH., El^m. d'Hist. ^^at. Medic., ed. 4, (1770), 524, t. 12.— Been., PI. your. (1779), 

Pol., ii. 453. 30, t. xxviii.— Heoxai'lt, Bot. Tab., 396. — 

* Kadsura japonica DuN., Monogr. Anonac, LoUK., Fl. Cochiiich., ed. Ulvssip. (I79t»), 353. — 
25, 28. Lamk., Dili., i. 351 ; IlUiitr., t. 493, f. 2.— 

* Aimen. Exot., 476, t. 477. Pout., Suppl., i. 558.— Vkxt.. Jard. Celt., t. 
« /'/. Jap., 237. 22.— Miciix., Fl. Por.-Amer., i. 326.— Mkh. & 
7 RoHKXTii., o/j. ri7., 591. DK Lkns, Uirt. Mat. Mrd., i. 592. — DvcH., 

* " Funiu Kurumii, i.e., rota montann (Sieb., Rtpert., 176. — Nkks, PI. Med., iii. t. 371. — 
loc.cit.,^\)nrbor\\\\c\iik'l\\M\\M\\\\wnJpnis . . . ., iSIiKKS, Contrib., i. 142. — Sikh. & Ziic, FL 

fuliorum el fructuum (juali/ale aromntira ajpni- J<ii>., i. 5, t. 1. — A. Ricil., Eli'm. d'llist. Aa/. 

fatem ronjirmante." (Endl., Kiuhir., 4;}0.) Med., oil. 4, ii. 156. — CillHOlUT, l>rti<j. Simp!., 

» Till' best collection of inforniiition, hiHtorical ed. 4, iii. 619, f. 4:<(>. — rKUKiUA. Firm. Mat. 

and bil)lio(^nij)hicnl, relatintr to these prixlucts j1/e</., ed. 4, ii. p. ii. 677. — I.iXi>L, Flor. Mrd., 

will be found in the work we have recently pub- 25. — Ro.'<KSTll., Sqn. PI. Diaphor., 598.- Rt- 

lighed under till- title, " //rrArrrAr#ffMr/'Or»V//n» VKIL, Fl. Med. du xix' .Vi«7<f, i. 143. — Mig., 

Potani(juedc» Padianexou Anif Fluilrji" (Adan- Ann. Mtis. Luijd.. Bat., ii. 257. — H. \\y.,l)ir(. 

nonia, viii. 1). See aUi K.kmi'FKK, .4mu;n. Kxut., Enctfcl. dea Sc., MMic., viii. 81. 
880, t. 881.— CLU8IU8, Ilitl., ii. 202.— Baiiiin, 



MAGNOLTACEyE. 179 

of IIHcinm ; one from Asia, /. anisatim It., and two from America, 
/. parvijloruni MiCRX., and ^oridan urn Ei>l. At least, it is said that 
in America these two last species are used as aromatic plants, the 
leaves in stimulating stomachic infusions, and the fruits for the same 
purposes as the Chinese Star-anise — ^that is, /. anisatim L., theP«-co 
of the Chinese. It is further asserted that these fruits are mixed 
with those of the true Star-anise, or substituted for them in European 
commerce ; but this assertion is hardly confirmed by examining the 
fruits sold in this country, which generally possess eight branches or 
carpels ; while those of the American species have usually more. 
This is no proof that the substitution would be at all injurious. 
The three plants above mentioned have fruits of very agreeable 
perfume, and are rich in a stimulating, stomachic, digestive, carmi- 
native essential oil. We also find these properties in the powder 
and infusion of Star-anise, as well as in the alcoholic liqueurs pre- 
pared from it, especially the anise cordials (Fr. anhrttes) of Bordeaux 
and Holland. The Orientals have very long used these ZhifjU seeds, 
as they call them, as digestives, whether alone, or mixed with tea, 
coffee, ginseng, sherbet, &c. We, with some other contemporary 
writers, believe that it is the same species, introduced into Japan 
and cultivated, which has there been called " Badiane sacree" {I. re- 
ligiosum Sieb. & Zucc.) There its fruits become sickly and nauseous 
to the taste ; they are even considered venomous, though it is 
admitted that they may be in certain cases used as antidotes. But 
the aroma exists in the leaves and branches, which are used in per- 
fumed infusions, and which, planted in cemeteries and around temples, 
under the name of Ski mi, or Skomo, are used to deck tombs and 
sanctuaries ; while the powdered fruit, burnt slowly in a sort of tube, 
serves to measure time like a sand-glass. The bark is also very 
odoriferous when burnt ; it is therefore used in the temples in China 
and Japan, under the name oif Lavola bark} 

The various species oi Brimijs enjoy similar properties, "chiefly 
residing in their bark. The most celebrated is the Winter bark, 
or Magdlaii Canellai^ which John AVinter was the first to make 



* The Star-anise from the Philippines has been GuiB., Rist. Nat. des, Drog. SimpL, ed. 4, iii. 

attributed to /. Sunki Pere., which is unknown 679. — A. Rich., Slem. d'llist. Nat. Med., ed. 

to us, and is perhaps only a form of /. anisaium 4, Bot., ii. 454. — Pereira, Elem. Mat. Med. 

L. (see RoSENTii., op. cit., 509). ed. 4, ii. pars ii. G73.— Lindl., Fl. Med., 26 — 

- Cortex Tfi liter anus verus, , Cimmmomum RfcvEiL, Bot. ,3Ied. du xix" ISiecle, i. 478.— 

magellanicmn, Costus dcre of the druggist. — Rosenth., d^. «Y., 597. 

Ii '2 



180 NATURAL EISTOBY OF PLANTS. 

known in Europe in 1579, having discovered it in the neighbourhood 
of Magellan's Straits, in Sir F. Drake's circumnavigation of the 
world. The use of this bark during the passage had, it appears, 
cured or preserved the crew from scurvy. Clusius gave it the name 
of Winter bark, and described it' as aromatic, acrid, burning, and 
pungent.^ It is probably the same plant, or one of its varieties, that 
FoRSTER names Drinii/s Jrinfrri, and of which Solander & Murray 
made their IFinfcrnitia, or Wintera nromatica. Drimi/s chilpiisis DC. 
(the Ca/icio oi Ch'iW), pinicfata Lamk., and //ra/iafc/f-sis L. fil., which 
are for many authors only forms of D. Winleri, all have aromatic, 
pungent, very stimulating barks, that might be employed like the 
true Winter hark^ now-a-days extremely rare, so that the bark of 
species of Canella and Cinnamodendron is almost always substituted 
for it. As to the acrid, pungent, astringent, aromatic bark from 
Mexico, called Chachaca, or Palo piquante, if produced, as conjectured, 
by D. mexicana DC, it only owes whatever difference it may have 
in taste or aroma from B. granatcniiis to the difl'erent conditions 
under which it is developed, for the two plants are identical. All 
the American and Oceanian species of Briniys indifferently might, 
no doubt, serve the same ends. The Australian and Tasmanian 
species, which constitute the section Ta-swannia, have very similar 
properties.'' 

All the Cancllca are very aromatic, pungent, stimulating plants. 
These properties have been long recognised in the type of this group, 
Canetta atba, or Wintrranin Canella, which produces the Canella Alba 
Bark of druggists, often substituted for Winter Bark,' from which it 
is easily enough distinguished by its agreeable scent of cloves and 
nutmeg, by its perfumed, pungent taste, and by its characteristic 



Exotic, lib. iv. cup. i. 75, fig. * D. axillaris FoHST., from New Zealand, is 

' Winter Hark, a« analysed by E. Henbt also aromatic, stimulant, and stomachic. Tlio 

{Journ. Phnrm., v. 'IK'J), contains volatile oil fruits of D. lanceolata, or Tasimiiinia aroiiMf ica 

{oleum corlicix Winleri), a nearly inodorous very U. 15k., arc powdered by the colonist* and used as 

acrid rcddinh-browii resin, a colouring matter, a condiment instead of pepper, 

tannin, chlorate, sulphate, and acetate of potass, ' Accordingly it is sometimes called FaUe 

oxalate of lime and oxide (if iron. Winter liark [cortex Winieranua /tpuriut), and 

' D. (jrannlemin in called in New (iranada also Caniu-lle poirr^e, or butard Costu-t iloux. 

Arbol de Af/i, an<l in llrazil Palo de Malamho, It is not only a stimulating tonic drug, but it is 

Canela de Paramo, I'aura d'Anta, or Ttipir's also used as a condiment in tlie Fn-nch colonies of 

Bark, because it is allcgi-d that this animal eats the Antilles. ThcfrniU enter into iH-rfunu-d pre- 

the plant to cure its iliseases, and that from tlio serves, and the bark is candied. A nwivt sub- 

aniinalman karncdtoknow its virtui>M. The Hra- stance extracteil from it has been culled rttMH^-/- 

zilians oft^jii cnii)loy this aromatic, very stimulating line (E.VUL., Enchir., 536). 
bark (A. S. H., PI. U». Prasit, t. xxvi.-xxviii.). 



MAGNOLIAGEJE. 181 

form and colour. It comes from the Antilles and the neighbouring 
countries of South America in long, rather large rolls of a pale 
orange yellow colour, somewhat ash-coloured outside, and of a uni- 
form whitish tint within ; it is thin, brittle, and rich in volatile oil. 
It is still pretty often used in medicine.' The genus Cinnamodendron 
furnishes two practically useful barks : 1st, that of C. axUlare 
Endl. {Canella axillaris. Mart.), called in Brazil i^ttm/z/^/o (^/rowrt/fco, 
which has in this country enjoyed a considerable reputation in the 
treatment of a large number of diseases." It is thick, of a peppery, 
fatty odour, and an extremely bitter, acrid, burning taste. 2ndly, 
that of C. corticosum Miers. This is very thick and solid, too ; 
smooth, yellowish brown, pale, and somewhat pinky on the outside, 
of a more or less blackish tint within ; of aromatic odour and very 
acrid pungent taste. It also comes over from the Antilles and 
the neighbouring countries of the mainland.^ The genus from 
Madagascar belonging to the same group, that we have termed Cin- 
namosma, must have properties very similar to the preceding plants. 
Its bark, too, is pungent and stimulant. Its scent is aromatic, but 
less peppery, and less like nutmeg, coming nearer cinnamon and 
citron. We have pointed out' how it may some day be used in 
therapeutics. 



' It enters into the " vin diuretiqne amer de ' It is this same bark that GuiBorET {op. cif., 

la Charite"). E. Henet {Journ. de Pharmae., iii. 682) describes as Commercial Winter Baric 

V. 482) gives its analysis compared with that of {ecorce de Winter du commerce), and to which 

Winter hark (Gfibofet, Sist. Nat. des Drag. he also refers E. caryocosline of LfiiiEET. It is 

Simph, ed. 4, iii. 565). nearly a third of an inch in thickness. Its odour 

2 " The name of Paratudo or Casca per tudo, is like pepper and basil mixed. Its taste is some- 

which means fit for everything, has been given times very strong and quite unbearable. It often 

in Brazil to several substances to which great enters into the composition of the " vin diiiretique 

medical virtues are ascribed." (Guibouet, op. cit., amer de la Charite" instead of the true Winter 

iii. 567.) Its taste is so strong that "pepper," hark, which is hardly sold now-a-days. 
says the same author, " axiA feverfew do not come * Adansonia, vii. 3. 

near it." 



182 XATL'UAL HISTOIlY OF PLANTS. 



GENERA. 



1. MAGNOLIE^E. 

1. Magnolia L. — Flowers hermaphrodite; receptacle conoidal more 
or less elun^'uted. Sepals 2-4, petals G-X) , in 2-co whorls ; pnutlora- 
tion imbricate. Stamens and carpels oo arranged in a spiral ; bare 
part of gynophore between androceum and gyiueceuni more or 
less elongate very short, or 0. Stamens free, anthers 2-celled adnata 
dehiscing by introrse or lateral clefts. Carpels capitate or spicate ; 
ovary 1 -celled ; placenta ventral 2-qo - ovulate ; ovules either de- 
scending, micropyle exterior superior, or sub-horizontal, micropyle 
exterior lateral ; style of variable form grooved longitudinally and 
internally ; apex papillose stigmatiferous. Fruit multiple ; carpels 
subsucculent, finally dry, either capitate on a rather short receptacle, 
or finally arranged like a spike or cone on a more or less elongated 
receptacle, all fertile, or a fair number sterile and abortive; in- 
dehiscent and persistent until putrefaction, dehiscing dorsally, or 
falling off by the base separately or in irregular masses. Seeds drupe- 
like, finally pendulous from a filiform funicle ; inner coat woody ; 
albumen copious fleshy ; embryo minute subapical. — Trees or shrubs ; 
leaves alternate stipulate evergreen or deciduous; stipules supra- 
axillary, in turn shutting in the leaves in vernation, and finally dis- 
closing them, caducous ; flowers terminal or axillary (A'', tropical 
America, tropical, mhtropical and eastern Asia). See p. 129. 

2. Liriodendron L. — Perianth i)-partite, inserted on an oblong 
receptacle. Leaves 3 outer sepaloid reflexed ; inner petaloid 
connivent in 2 whorls, imbricate. Stamens and car})els x) , inserted 
along one continuous spirid. Anthers linear adnatc extrorse. 
Carpels spicate ; ovaries 2-ovulate ; ovules obliquely descending ; 
style compressed leafy, apex stigmatiferous. Fruit multiple stro- 
biliform ; carjjcls indehiscent 1 or 2-seeded, samaruid through the 
styles persisting into membranous-woody imbricated wings, samaras 
linally deciduous. Seeds pendulous ; albumen fleshy copious ; embryo 
superior minute. — A tree ; leaves alternate sinuately 4-lobed, truncate 



MAGNOLIAOEJ^. 183 



minutely apiculate, vernation reclinate ; stipules lateral valvate 
flowers solitary terminal [North America). See p. 139. 



II. SCHIZANDREiE. 

3. Schizandra Michx. — Flowers unisexual. — Male flower. Pe- 
rianth oo-partite; leaves dissimilar, gradually changing from the 
outermost very small to the inner ones larger petaloid, inserted in a 
spiral, imbricate, caducous. Stamens oo in a spiral ; filaments free or 
monadelphous only at the very base, linear or variably thickened and 
dilated at the apex; anther cells introrse or lateral, more rarely 
subextrorse, adnate, parallel or more or less diverging and oblique, 
dehiscing longitudinally. — Female flower. Perianth of male flower. 
Carpels oc, free in a spiral ; ovary 2-, more rarely 3 -ovulate ; ovules 
pendulous, micropyle extrorse superior ; inner angle of ovary pro- 
duced into a style winged and decurrent at the base ; apex dilated 
stigmatiferous. Fruit multiple ; common receptacle finally shortly 
capitate {Kacktira) or much elongated, spike-like, {Emchizandrd) ; 
carpels baccate, pulpy within, 1, 2-seeded. Seeds reniform albu- 
minous; embryo minute subapical. — Shrubs, usually climbing or 
sarmentose ; leaves alternate exstipulate, often with pellucid dots. 
Flowers axillary, solitar}^ or few cymose {North America, trojAcal 
and eastern Asia). See p. 141. 

III. ILLICIEiE. 

4. Illlcium L. — Perianth oo-nierous, leaves imbricate in a 
spiral of oo turns, all subsimilar or the outermost broader and shorter 
discoloured. Stamens go, pseudo-verticillate ; filaments rather 
thick strapshaped, or [Cymhostemon) much thickened at apex, sub- 
cymbiform; anthers introrse 2-celled. Carpels co free pseudo- 
verticillate around apex of receptacle, tapering upwards into a 
recurved style stigmatiferous internally at apex ; ovule solitary 
ascending inserted at base of ventral angle; micropyle extrorse 
inferior. Fruit 6- oo -follicular ; follicles pseudo-verticillate thick 
woody dehiscing by inner edge, 1 -seeded. Seed glabrous. — Small 
evergreen trees or shrubs ; leaves alternate exstipulate, with 
pellucid dots ; flowers terminal {Ci/mbostemon) ov axillary near the 



184 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

apex of a twig {EuiUicii(m) solitary or few cymose {North America, 
eastern Asia). See p. 140. 

5. Drimys Forst. — Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. Calyx 
gamopliyllous sacciform or cupuliform membranous valvate, at 
anthesis irregularly cleft or breaking open. Petals 2 -co spirally 
imbricated in oo whorls. Stamens cx) in a spiral on a cylindrical 
receptacle ; filaments free rather thick ; anther-cells extrorse parallel 
or diverging dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels l-c3o (usually few) 
pseudo-verticillate free, ovaries with oo oblique or transverse ovules 
in two vertical rows; style short, apex dilated stigmatiferous. 
Fruit simple or more frequently multiple ; carpels indehiscent many- 
seeded. — Evergreen trees or shrubs; leaves alternate exstipulate 
with pellucid dots. Flowers cymose, either axillary or lateral to 
branches a year old or older {Eudrimp), or in the axils of leaves or 
bracts on younger twigs ; cymes simple or branched, more rarely 
] -flowered {Sout/i America, New Zealand, Australia, Borneo). See 
p. 151. 

6. Zygogynum H. I3n. — Flowers hermaphrodite ; peduncle 
dilated around base of receptacle into a short orbicular subentire 
cupule (calyx ?). Petals (?) few unequal concave thick iml)ricate 
deciduous. Stamens oo {oi Drimp). Carpels oo arranged in a spiral, 
cohering into a single oo-celled ovary ; ovaries oc-ovulate ; ovules 
oblique in two vertical rows on inner angle ; styles short distinct, 
apex capitate stigmatiferous. Fruit syncarpous. . . . — Small ever- 
green tree ; leaves alternate exstipulate dotted ; flowers solitary 
terminal; peduncle thick articulated at base {New- Caledonia). See 
p. 150. 

IV. EUPTELEE^. 

7. Euptelea Sieb. & Zucc — Flowers polygamous. Receptacle 
somewhat concave. Perianth 0. Stamens x) slightly perigynous. 
Filaments free, shortly filiform, anthers basifixed, apiculate ; cells 
adnate, lateral dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels co stipitate, inserted 
in a nearly simple verticil in the bottom of the receptacle ; ovary 
1-celled; ovules 1—4 inserted on the ventral angle, obliquely 
descending, micropyle extrorse suj)erior, or horizontal or sub- 



MAGNOLIACEJE. 185 

ascending ; stigma sessile linccar extending downwards and inwards 
from apex of the ovary to insertion of the ovules. Fruit 
multiple ; carpels stipitate samai'oid with membranous wings in- 
dehiscent 1 — 4 seeded. Seed albuminous, embryo minutely sub- 
apical. — Trees ; buds scaly : leaves alternate deciduous exstipulate ; 
flowers fascicled emerging from scaly buds {East Indies, Japan). 
Seep. 157. 

8. Trochodendron Sieb. & Zucc. — Flowers hermaphrodite or 
polygamous. Receptacle concave, cup-shaped. Perianth 0. Stamens 
GO perigynous, filaments free filiform, anthers truncate basifixed ; 
cells subextrorse dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels oo (not more 
than 8), inserted in a nearly simple verticil on lower part of con- 
cavity of the receptacle, free internally; ovary 1 -celled; ovules cd 
anatropous inserted in 2 rows on the ventral angle ; styles short 
grooved internally, stigmatiferous towards the apex, finally recurved. 
Fruit multiple ; carpels subdrupaceous, finally dry, adnate on the 
outside to the concave receptacle, dehiscing on the inside (as follicles ?) 
longitudinally. Seeds pendulous, albuminous ; embryo minute 
apical. — Trees ; buds scaly, leaves alternate evergreen exstipulate ; 
flowers in racemes emerging from scaly buds {Jajjan). See p. loS. 

V. CANELLE.E. 

9. Canella P. Br.— Flower hermaphrodite, regular. Calyx of 
3 imbricate leaves. Corolla of 5 free deciduous petals ; aestivation 
imbricate or contorted. Stamens not more than 20 ; filaments 
monadelphous cohering into a tube. Anthers 1 -celled linear adnate 
to the outside of the tube, dehiscing longitudinally, connectives 
united above the anthers into a short tube crenate at the top. Ovary 
superior unilocular ; placentas 2 or 3, parietal pauciovulate ; ovules 
mostly 2 or 3 on each placenta, pendulous, reniform arcuate; micropyle 
introrse superior. Style short thick ; at the apex shortly 2-3-lobed 
stigmatose. Fruit baccate, slightly pulpy within ]-6-seeded. 
Seeds pendulous albumen copious, fleshy-oleaginous; embryo 
eccentric arcuate : radicle short, superior ; cotyledons oblong. — Small 
glabrous trees ; leaves alternate exstipulate, with pellucid dots ; 
flowers numerous on branched subcorymbose terminal cymes 
{Tropical America). Seep. 159. 



186 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

10. Cinnamodendron Endl. — Flowers of Canella ; corolla 4- or 
5-merous, within provided at tlie base with short thin nearly equal 
petaloid scales of variable number (most usually 4 or 5). Stamens 
15-20 (of CancUd). Ovary 1 -celled; placentas 3-5, oo-ovulate; 
style short thick; stigma capitate 3-5-lobed. Ovules berries and 
seeds of Cam-lln ; pulp copious around the seeds. — Small trees ; 
leaves alternate exstipulate, with pellucid dots ; cymes few-flowered, 
axillary, or lateral to the year old branches [Tropica/ Jtncrica). 
See p. lG-2. 

11. Cinnamosma H.Bn. — Flowers of CancUn ; petals 5, quincun- 
cially imbricated, or G, imbricated in 2 whorls (the inner 3 alternating 
with the outer ones), united at the base into a long gamopetalous 
tubular corolla ; lobes of Hmb patent, finally reflexed. Stamens not 
more than 15 (of Canella) connectives produced above the cells into 
a short tube, straight and truncate at apex. Ovary 1 -celled ; pla- 
centas 3- or 4 pauci (often 2)-ovulate. Style short conoidal. Ovules 
and berry of Cinnamodendron. — A shrub ; leaves alternate, exstipulate 
with pellucid dots ; flowers solitary axillary, provided with a few 
imbricate bracts like the sepals, but shorter {Madaf^aacar). See 
p. 162. 



IV. ANONACEiE, 



I. ANONA SERIES. 

A. UvARiE/E.— There is but one of the Aiionacca that can be 
thoroughly studied in the open air in France. It has been referred 




Uvaria (Asimina) triloba. 

Fig. 220. 

Floriferous branch. 



to the srenus Asimina,^ under the name of A. frilohar It is cultivated 
in our gardens. The flowers, which expand in spring, a little before the 



' AdaKS., Fam. des PL, ii. (1763), .365. — 
Dtjn., Mon. Anonac. (1817), 83.— DC, Vrodr., 
i. 87. — Spach, Suit, a Buffon, vii. 526.— 
Walp., Rep., i. 79— A. Geay, Qen. III., i. 67, 



t. 25, 26.— B. H., Gen., 24, n. 14.— H. Bx., in 
Adntisonia, vi. 253; vii. 377; viii. 301. — Or- 
chidocarpum MiCHX., J-V. Bor.-Avier., i. 329. 
- Di-N., op. cit., 83.— DC, loc. cit., n. 2.— A. 



188 



NATURAL HISTOIiY OF PLANTS. 



leaves, are regular and hermaphrodite ; the nearly conical base 
of the convex receptacle supports a triple perianth, above which 
it swells into a sort of dome, covered with stamens, and bearing the 
carpels on its slightly depressed apex (tig. 222). The calyx consists 




Uvaria {Aaimina) triloha. 
Fio. 222. Figs. 223, 224. Fio. 228. 

Long, section of flower. Stanions, front and back vie\v(J). Long. s«H;tion of seed. 

of three' free sepals, of which two are anterior, valvate or sometimes 
slightly imbricate in the bud. The corolla is double, each whorl 
consisting of three free petals. The outer ones are alternisepalous, 



campnnijlora SrA( ii, op. cit., 628. — Anona 
trilohii Ii., Spic, 7tiH. — J'orrrlia triloha I'KUrt., 
Knchir., ii. y.'>. — Orr/iitlocarpum nrifUniini 
Mioiix., loP. cit. — Uvaria tril<il>a Toiiii. i^ A. 
Qbay, Fl. nf N.-Amer., \. (1838- li>). 1.'.. 



' The flowers are noriiiallv trinienm*, Imt wo 
liu\ obsiTVi'il b«)ino flowers acciilentally dimerouii, 
and others with three inttTior and only two ex- 
terior petals (Ailaitwnio, vii. Wtl). 



ANONAOEJE. 



189 



imbricated in the bud, and finally valvate. The inner petals are 
smaller, and alternate with these, and like them are imbricated 
when young. When the flower is fully expanded they do 
not even touch on a level with their contracted bases. • The 
stamens, very numerous and spirally arranged, are of the shape of 
an elongated wedge inserted into the receptacle by its apex, and 
swelling above into a rounded head (figs. 223, 224). The anther 
consists of two narrow cells applied vertically along this wedge, 
close to its edges, but nearer the outer face. These extrorse cells 
dehisce longitudinally.^ The gynseceum consists either of six free 
carpels superposed to the petals, or more frequently of some other 
number.^ Each consists of a unilocular ovary, bearing a short 
recurved style, covered with stigmatic papillie.^ Within the ovary 
we find a parietal placenta divided by a longitudinal groove" into two 
vertical lobes, each of which supports a row of anatropous ovules,® 
with the raphes looking towards those of the other row. The fruits 



' These petals present several peculiarities 
which we have pointed out in a note entitled Oh- 
servatiom sur des Petales a Structure Anor male, 
{Adansonia, vi. 253). The chief are the fle>hy 
glandular projections of the inner face, secreting 
a nectar which retains the pollen that falls 
into the cup of the corolla ; the fact that these 
papillae contain trachese which proceed from 
the fibrovascular bundles of the limb, forming 
short masses, ending in spirally thickened cells 
placed almost end to end. AVhen young the 
petals are quite green ; they gradually acquire a 
brownish tint, which grows deeper day by day, 
finally becoming a very dark wine purple — a 
colour often found in the corollas of Anonaceo'. 
It may be replaced by yellow or orange, or even 
by brilliant red, rarely, as in U. {Sapranthus) 
nicaraguensis, by violet, or even nearly blue 
tints. 

2 The stamens, often formed on this type in 
the order Aiioiiacece, and, especially in the genus 
Uvaria, are of the kind which Bextham & 
Hooker term " Stamina Uvariearum." The 
sort of inverted truncated pyramid formed by 
them varies greatly in length at different ages, 
as does that part of the stamen below the cells, 
which is called the filament, though not really 
distinct from the connective. The base becomes 
early detached, and they fall into the cup of the 
corolla, but still remain some time attached to 
the receptacle by bundles of trachea;, which 
gradually elongate like those supporting the 
seeds of Magnolia. The pollen in each cell forms 
like a long necklace of two or three rows of white 



grains united by the very thin debris of the 
mother-cells. Each grain consists of from two 
to four (usually three) ellipsoidal granules. These 
are glabrous, with a minutely areolate outer mem- 
brane, and are the simple grains. When three 
of these cohere they occupy the vertices of an 
equilateral triangle; when four, they form a 
regular or irregular tetrahedron, as in Brimys. 
On moistening the pollen the depressions sepa- 
rating the elementary granules tend to become 
obliterated. 

^ There are often only three, or sometimes 
even two, cirpels. 

^ The stigmatiferous part is obovate, white, 
and very soft. The rounded apex is somewhat 
refiexed and bathed in a viscid liquid at the time 
of impregnation. Later on the whole stylar por- 
tion of the ovary blackens and separates by its 
now very contracted base, from the apex of the 
ovary, which remains deep green, and is entirely 
covered with small white hairs. 

^ This groove is as well marked without as 
within the carpellary leaf, along the whole length 
of the internal angle of the ovary, and is prolonged 
on to the style, its thickened and everted borders 
forming the stigmatic surface. This also e.xtends 
a little without the apex of the style. 

® Their number varies greatly. There may be 
as many as fifteen in each row. They are in- 
completely anatropous. They have two coats, 
of which the inner is very remarkable for the 
long tube wiiich it sends through the exostome; 
the wall of the endostomic orifice is swollen into 
a ring at the end of this funnel. 



190 NATUBAL HISTORY OF PL.iXTS. 

are berries (figs. 225, 226); each ovary becomes an indehiscent 
stipitate mass, the thick pericarp projecting inwards to form short 
septa between the seeds, and dividing it into a certain number of 
one seeded compartments. The seed contains ruminated fleshy 
albumen, near the apex of which is the small embryo (fig. 228). 
On this side is a but little marked arillary thickening, beside the 
micropyle and the umbiHcal scar' (fig. 227). 

A. trUoha is a shrub with alternate simple exstipulate leaves. Its 
flowers, solitary, and usually pedunculate, arise from the axils of 
some of the lower leaves of the last year's branches.* A. parviflora 
jyM'ii,^ (jr(ui(li/loraJ)\j'S* and y>j(//;//^/'*7 Dun,* have a similar organization, 
and are natives of the same regions, i.r. the most southern part of 
North America. Accordingly, all authors are agreed in retaining 
them in the same genus as J. triloba; so rightly refusing to take 
into account the few unimportant differences presented by some of 
these species, whether in the form and relative size of the pieces of 
the two corollas/ or in the mode of aestivation, which becomes 
quite valvate, for the inner petals' when they are short have thick 
edges. 

Under the name of Fifzalanict has been described an Australian 



' M. T. CAurEL (Sfudi sulla polpa che involve nearly a year before the flowers come out we can 

t sfitni, &c., in Ann. del Mus. di Firenze, 1SG4) predict whether they will be abundant in the 

has shown ("J, t. i., figs. 1-7) that in the fruit next spring. 

of A. triloba the pericarp surrounds the seeds ^ Uvaria parvijlora ToBB. & A. GfiAT, loc. 

with a sort of pulpy Heshy sac, and thinks this cit., n. 2. 

the organ considered the aril of Asimina by * Orchidocarpum grandijlorum Micnx., loc. 

Asa Guay {Oen. Fl. N.-Amer., i. 65). Notliing cit. — Ucario ohovata ToKU. & A. Gray, n. 3. 
can be more correct, and this sac simply rejjre- ' Anona pi/gm<ta KaktIv. — Ucaria pyynuea 

sents a part of the pericarp api)lied to the seed, Tohb. & A. Gkay, n. 4^ 

80 as to come otV with it. Hut besides this there * See Adansonia, viii. 302. In the flowers of 

is at the apex of the seed, around the micropyle U. parrijlora ToRB. &. Gr. the inner petuls 

and by the hilum, an ill-defined thickening of are smaller than the outer ones, but of similar 

the outer seed coat, which represents a rudi- form. In U. triloba there is a time when both 

mciitiiry aril ; this in certain ^4«on^/«fB is much sets are of nearly equal long; h. The iiuier petals 

more develoj>ed, forming a more or less project- of U. obora/a are by far tin- shorter, and in every 

ing i)ad, or even a whitish fleshy body with two. resi)ect like those of sevend Monodoras. The 

lat4.'nil auricles or wings that are sometime-i very base tapers to a claw, and the dilateil apex is 

prominent. (See Adiiii.iunia, viii. 333.) almost the sha])e of an arrowhead. Thesf three 

' The recurved i)eduncle is covered with the petals converge to form a sort of vault witli thri<c 

same brown hairs that are found abundantly on pillars. In 17. pi/tfuxra the form and arrnnge- 

the outer surface of the cjilyx, and also on the ment of the inner ]M.'taU is the same; but the 

bracts that enveloped the (lower when young and difierencc of size between them and the outtT ones 

during the winter. Tliese brads, of variable is less decidiil. 

numlnir (there are sometimes oidy two), separate ' The inner i)etal8 of U. pifqimra and ohovata 
from the peduncle and l.iU ofl' wlien the llower only touch by their thickenwl Lorders in this 
expands. The flowers preferably occupy the axils dilated almost sagitUite part, which ex icily ro- 
of the first two or three leaves of the last year's calls the conformation of the pieces of the inner 
branch. As early as .lune we can recognine what cmdla in s*'vend Monodoras. 
axils will be occupied by flower bnds, »» thut " F. .Mukll., Fraym. Pkyt. Auilral., iv. 33. 



AN0NACE7R. 191 

Anonad, with exactly the flowers and fruit of A. triloba, except tliat 
its petals present a slight difference, the inner ones alone being 
imbricate, while the outer ones are but very slightly so, finally 
becoming valvate. Its vegetative organs are the same, and the 
flowers are also solitary axillarj^ There was not the least ground 
for distinguishing this genus from Asimna ; it has not been 
retained. It has been included in the great Linnajan genus 
TJvaria^ to which it is hence impossible to refuse to admit J-simna. 
This admission has been a matter of history for the last thirty 
years.^ 

Before this time the genus Uvaria^ was only allowed to contain 
plants from tropical Asia and Africa/ If we inquire what characters 
are common to these Uvarias properly so called, we find that their 
flowers present a triple perianth and an indefinite number of carpels 
and stamens on a convex receptacle. The calyx is composed of three 
sepals, nearly free, or more commonly united for a very variable 
extent, sometimes even joined into an entire, or scarcely dentate sac, 
valvate or more or less imbricate when young. The petals, rounded, 
oval or oblong, often all equal or nearly so, are imbricated in the 
bud. The stamens consist of a narrow elongated objDyramidal con- 
nective, with two linear adnate extrorse anther cells, dehiscing 
longitudinally. Above these the connective is prolonged into either a 
swollen truncated head, or a blade of variable size and form, sometimes 
leafy and oblong or lanceolate. The carpels, inserted near the 
rounded or flattened apex of the receptacle, are formed of an ovary 
with indefinite anatropous ovules inserted in two vertical rows, back to 
back, along the inner angle. The usually short style, dilated into 
a stigmatiferous head at its apex, surmounts the inner angle of the 
ovary, the whole length of which is traversed by a longitudinal 
groove. The fruit is multiple, composed of a variable number of 
many- or one-seeded berries, with a somewhat contracted base, almost 



• F. MtjelI;., op. ciL, iii. 1. — Benth., Fl. * Blume was the first to reduce to the Old 

Austr., i. 51. — B. H., Oen., 955. — H. Bn., in World a species of this genus, which, according 

Adansonia, viii. 303. to his predecessors, included a Inrge number of 

^ TOER.& A. Gray, op. cit. (See p. 187,note2.) Anonads from all countries, that are now referred 

3 L., Gen., n. 692. — Juss., Gen., 281-. — DC, to seven or eight difterent genera. But he had 

iS;^*^ F<?^., i. ISl ; Prod)-., i. 88. — Spacii, Suit. at first united in this one ^enus both Ucaria and 

a Buffon, vii. 519. — Endl., Gen., n. 4717. — Ununa, which he only distinguished from one 

B. H., Gen., 23, 955, n. 3. — H. IJn., Adan- another by the form of the fruit {Fl. Jav. 

«o»ia, viii. 335. — Krokeria Neck.,£'/«h., n.l097. Anonac, 11, 51). 



192 



NATUJtAL mSTORY OF PLANTS. 



always sessile or nearly so, more rarely stipitate (fig. 229). They 
vary greatly in form, bein^,' ovoidal, obovoidal, cylindroidal or club- 
shaped. The seeds, which contain a ruminated albumen and a 
small embryo near the apex, are separated from one another by false 
transverse dissepiments, to which answer circular external 
contractions, usually but little marked and sometimes 
quite wanting. The Ucarins are shrubs, often creeping 
and climbing. Their alternate leaves are usually covered 
with a more or less abundant down, as are the young 
branches, peduncles, calyces, receptacles, and fruits.' 
Tiie liowers are axillary or terminal, often leaf-opposed 
in the latter case, sometimes solitary, sometimes united 
into few-flowered cymes. About two-score species are 
admitted,- of which the number will probably have to 
be reduced. 

In the flowers of U. sphcnocarpd' (Ceylon), the petals 
are united for a certain height into a corolla, which 
falls off" in a single piece. This character, which in 
certain other groups is considered of capital importance, can have 
none in the genus Ucnria, for in it we find every intermediate stage 
between the gamopetalous U. sphenocarpa, the species where the 
union of the petals is scarcely indicated, and those which are com- 
pletely polypetalous. 

Even besides Ammina there are other Ucarian of American origin ; 
viz., the Porcelias* of Peru, which possess all the essential characters 
of this genus, the sexual organs and perianth being exactly the 
same. The petals of both corollas are imbricated, especially those 
of the inner one.* The carpels are indefinite, and occupy the centre 
of a convex receptacle. Each contains an indefinite number of 




Utaria rvfa. 

Fig. 229. 

Berry. 



' Tlic Imirs of wliicli it consists ore often 
stellate, iind iiro wliitiuli, t-.iwny, or rust-coloured. 

' Sec J). lUS, notes 1-0. 

=> Hook, k Tuoms., Fl. Ind., i. 99, n. 7. — 
Thwait., Juium. ri. Zfi/l., (5, n. 3. — Walp., 
Ann., iv. 4(J. We niiiy miikf ii section of this 
genus under tlio title of S'/inraria to iiirliido 
those species in which the corollii thus fulls otf in 
a single piece ; but wo must rec<ijfnise the fiict 
that the exact limits between this si-ction and 
th'Jsc cunUiining quite i>olypelalous species are 



often very nrlifuial ; a jinxjf of the little value 
of the jreneni Jlexahilus, Ac. 

* Kiiz & Pay., P,odr. Fl. Peruo. et CM., 
81-, t. 1(); Si/nt., i. lU.— DC. Prudr.,\.SS.— 
Dun., Mon., 85. — Knui... O***., n. 4717. «.— 
B. H., Oen., 23, 956, n.4.— II. B.v., Adtiiuomia, 
viii. 303. 

* 'J'hey grow for a long time, even iifler the 
expansion of the flower, und their bases beconio 
gradually contriiclcd, especially in the inner 
putnls. 



ANONACEJE. 193 

ovules, and becomes a shortly stipitate berry,' quite analogous to 
that of an Asimina. The Uvarias of this section are shrubs with 
alternate leaves and axillary flowers, solitary or united into few- 
flowered cymes. Their peduncles are pretty long and slender, often 
with a bract about halfway up. We may add that several Porcdia 
flowers that we have dissected were becoming male by the more or 
less complete abortion of the gynseceum. When this disappears 
entirely we find only stamens, inserted up to the very centre of the 
receptacle, which is even less convex than in the hermaphrodite 
flowers. We may then define Porcelia as consisting of American 
species^ of Uvaria with hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers. 

Nor is there any great generic difference between the Uvarias and 
Saprautln/s nicarafjuensis^ a plant whose enormous flower^ possesses 
a trimerous imbricate calyx, and six large, equal, flattened, mem- 
branous petals, forming a double imbricate corolla. The carpels 
and stamens are indefinite, and formed exactly as in Asimina and 
Porcelia ; so too are the fruits. This section of the genus Uvaria is 
as yet only represented by one small tree, whose leaves are coated 
with a velvety down, like the twigs and peduncles. The solitary, 
leaf-opposed flower' terminates a peduncle which bears a leafy bract, 
and is distinguished by its foetid odour, and its dull violet-blue colour. 

In the Uvarias properly so called, as well as in those of the section 
Asimina, the inner petals are of the same size as the outer ones, or 
a little smaller, or rarely somewhat more developed. This last rela- 
tion is that found, though but little marked, in two types referred by 
most authors to a very different group^ of this order, namely, Maren- 



' This berry, whose external configuration is R. H., Gen., 956 {Porcelia). — H. Bx., Adan- 

exactly represented in the work of Kuiz & Payon, sonia, viii. 303. 

is closely analogous to that of Uvaria. The seeds '' The petals are " from four to six inches 

are sepai'ated from each other by a thin soft Ion?." 

prolongation of the endocarp. They are flattened * They are thus represented by the author 

and oval, and the arillary thickening of the outer (Sefmann), who describes them, however, as 

coat is hardly indicated around the point of at- axillary. The foliage of this plant appears very 

tacliment, even less so than in Asimina triloba much like that of A. triloba. According to the 

Dun. description, the imbrication of the corolla appears 

2 Only with some doubt have we referred to to be more marked than in Asimina, but this 
this group, our Ucaria Hahniana (Adan.ionia, character is one that may vary greatly in one and 
viii. 347, n. 11), an American species, whose the same genus, as we shall see below. 

fruits (which have alone been examined) are very ^ That of the Milrephoreae, of which the 

ne.irly those of Porcelia and Asimina, but whose corolla, often characteristic, is thus defined by 

seeds are regularly arranged in two parallel rows. Bentiiam & Hookeu {Gen., 21) : " Petala val- 

The flowers are as yet unknown. rata, exteriora aperla, interiora circa fjenitalia 

3 Sekmann, Journ. of Bol iv. 309, t. liv. — erect o-conniveiitia v. connala." 

VOL. I. O 



1 Pi X. 1 TUHA L irrs rnn y of plaxts. 

teria} (Madagascar) and Jiiomiant/tnir (Java). In all other respects 
their flowers and fruits present so exactly the structure of Uvaria, 
that we cannot remove them into distinct genera. As a section, 
we might strictly distinguisli Marenicna by the arrangement of the 
flowers, which are borne on a long terminal peduncle ; but we have 
hardly an}^ similar character to give a clear distinction between 
Anoinianiluis and those true Uctirifhs in which the interior corolla 
is a little the longer. In both types the imbrication of the petals is 
well marked, and the calyx is gamosepalous, f(jrming a sac with three 
obtuse teeth in Marcnferia,^ and more deeply divided in Anounanihux. 
The flowers of the latter are nearly sessile, while in Mfiroitrrin they 
are, as we have said, on a long peduncle. 

Ellipeiit' is easily distinguished from the other Urnrlnx by its 
ovules being solitary instead of indefinite ; or there are more rarely 
two in each carpel. They are inserted at a variable height on the 
inner angle of the ovary, and are somewhat ascending. This 
character, which at first sight appears very significant, is, however, 
insufficient to establish a distinct genus in the order AnonacecB ; for it 
has been shown' that many other genera that are perfectly natural and 
accepted by all authors as such, include species with uni- or bi-ovulate 
ovaries, as well as species with many-seeded fruits. Everything else 
in the three species from the Indian Archipelago which have been 
described in tliis genus,'' being like the characters of Urnria — the 
imbricate corolla, the numerous stamens, with the connectives 
dilated and truncated above the anther-cells, the alternate hairy 
leaves, the sarmentose stems — we can only retain FJlipe'ia as a 
section of Uvaria,' with one-seeded fruits.'' 



' NoHoN., cx Drr.-Tii., Gen. Noo. Madaij., ractera, inUfrmediate between tlie tvpiciil J/(ir«i. 

18, n. 6t). — \^. H., Gen., 957, n. 23, a.— H. Bn., teria, and tliose snniient»ise l'v(iria» of tropical 

Adansonia, viii. 301, 32."). — Unona Maren- Asia wliich i)<»sses8 teniiimil flowore on lonp 

teria DC. Si/nt., i. 487; /VWr., i. S<>, ii. 1.— peduneles, especially V. Snnnn W a\.\.. 

I)l?s., Mon., 111]. * Hook. iV- TiroMs., Fl. hid., \. KM. !>. H.. 

» ZOM... Lhntnn, xxix. 321. 15. II., fV, «., (Se>,., 23. i)5G, n. «.— H. Un., Aihiusonio, viii. 

27, n. 2Ci. — n. lis., A(l<iii.souiii, viii. 3(JI. 30.'), 33.'i. 

» In ttroti>er Hpccics from Miidnc^ascar, wliieh * Sec AdaiiKonia, viii. 175. 177, 18C>, 183. 

wo have described untler tlie name of U. Conv- * Walp., Ann., iv. 50. — Mig., Fl. Iml.Rnl. 

mertonii [Adannouia, vu... 3 Mi), the BcpaU are i. p. ii. 27 ; Ann. iliis. Luffd. Bat., ii. St. 

nearly free, wliile tlie n«rpel« are far more nume- 7 ThiH fruit is snrniounte«l by a tiinall apiculus. 

rous than in Jifaren/frla Dii-ktitTiioiaks, for wliicli becomes more or less lateral thronnh the 

tliis biiH only Iroin three (o live in eacli (lower. ini('i|ual development of the dillerent regions of 

The Hower of U. Commerionii in leaf-opjMwed oi the pericarp. 

terminal, on a shorter peduncle than in //. ;!/«rr«- *< We have bc.n unable to study the genu 

tfrin; HO that this sjiecies is. in most of its cha- Sphrrrnthnlnnnm Hook. V. (Linn, fran*., xxiii 



ANONACE.l^. 



m 



Finally, in this genus, as in most of this order, there are species 
whose flowers are normally diclinous, such as U. Birrahol Bl.,' which 
some authors have made the type of a special section, under the 
name of StclechocnrpuH. Owing to the want of a gyna^ceum to the 
male flowers, the receptacle is covered with stamens to the very 
summit, and elongates into a cylinder with a conical end.' 

Thus marked out, consisting of nine secondary groups,'' wliich we 
consider as only subgenera whose limits are not well defined, the 
genus Vvaria contains half a hundred species, of which about four- 
fifths belong to the Old World ;' the rest come from the United 
States, Mexico,' and the north-west of South America." 

Sagercpd' consists of trees from tropical Asia, of which the herma- 
phrodite, or diclinous flowers are closely analogous to those of 
TJoaria. The calyx consists of three pieces, united for a certain 
extent, and imbricated in the bud ; and the corolla is double, with 



156, t. 20; B. H., Gen., 23, n. 5), specimens of 
which are rare in herbaviums, that at Kew being 
probably the only one as yet known. According 
to the description given by the above author, 
S. insignis is a shrub from Borneo, with enormous 
alternate sessile leaves, cordate at the base, has 
flowers of an orange colour, witli a globular re- 
ceptacle ; sepals three, large, orbicular, rigid, 
membranous ; petals six, spathulate, in two 
verticils, imbricate (?) ; stamens indefinite, cunei- 
form, connective dilated and truncated above 
the cells; carpels indefinite (3-15), ovary sur- 
mounted by a very short obtuse style, and con- 
taining two (?) ventral ovules. The frnit is as 
yet unknown. Despite tlie external difterenccs 
of size and form presented by tlio flowers and 
leaves of this plant, is it quite certain that it 
should constitute the type of a genus distinct 
from Uvaria ? It is even possible that by its 
carpels, described as containing two superposed 
ovules, it becomes intermediate between the 
pluriovulate Uvarias and ElUpeia (see Adan- 
soiiia, viii. 305, 336). 

' Fl. Jav., Anonac, 13, t. xxiii. xxv. part. — 
ZOLL., LinntBa, xxix. 303. — MiQ., Fl. Ind.- 
Bat.y i. p. ii. 22 ; Ann. Mm. Lurjd. Bat., ii. 10. 
— Walp., Ann., iv. 49. — II. B>'., Adansonia, 
viii. 329. 

^ The stamens are very numerous, formed like 
those of most Uvarias, and nearly sessile. The 
petals are glabrous and very concave. The 
gyna'ceum of the female flower is like that of 
a MajnoUa on a small scale. The carpels are 
numerous, short, covered with stift' hairs. The 
style dilates rapidly and is divided into two 
lobes, as in many true Ucatlas. The ovules are 



few in number ; there are only two or three in 
each row. The fruit is borne on a long thick 
peduncle. Miqttel also refers U. Montana Bl. 
to this group (op. cit., 21). 
( 1. EuKvaria. 

2. Synuvaria (H. Bx.). 

3. Asimina (Adans. — OrcJndo- 
carpum MiCHX.). 

4. Porcella (R. & Pat.— -Sff- 
pranthits Seem.). 



Uvaria. 
Sections 9. 



5. Narum (Hook. & Thoms.). 

6. Marenteria (Dip.-Th.). 

7. Anomianlhiis (Zoll.). 

8. EUipeia (HooK. & Thoms.). 
^ 9. Stelec/iocarpiis (Bl.). 

* Dux., 3Ion., 82, 85, 88.— DC, Prodr., i. 87, 
88.— A. DC, Mem., 25. — Ex., Fl. Jav., Anonac., 
9, 41.— Walp., Rep. i. 79; Ann., ii. 19; iv. 45, 
49 ; vii. 50, 54,— Harv. & SoxD., FL Cap., i. 8. 
— ZoLL., Linnaa, xxix. 303, 312, 324 {Ano- 
mianlhiis). — Bexth., Linn. Trans., xxiii. 464 ; 
Fl. Hon(fJcon<j.,Q ; Fl. Austral, i. 50.— H00K.& 
TiiOMS., Fl. Ind., i. 95, 104 (Fllipeia).—Miq., 
Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. ii. 22 ; Ann. Mm: Lugd. Bat., 
ii. 2, 9.— Thwait., Enum. PI. ZeiiL, 6.— Seem., 
Fl. Vitiens., 4. — V. Muell., Fragm., iii. 1 ; 
iv. 33 (Fitzalania). — H. Ex., op. cit., viii. 346. 

5 ToKK. & Ge., op. ci7.— MiCHX., Fl. Bar.- 
Amer., i. 329 {Orchidocarpum) (see p. 187). — 
II. Ex., Adansonia, viii. 347. 

« Rciz & Pav., Prodr., 84, t. 16 (Poreelia).— 
Seem., Journ. of Bot., iv. 369. t. liv [Sapran- 
thu^). 

' Dalz., Hook. Journ., iii. 207. — B. H., 
Gen., 22. 955, n. 1. — H. Bk., Adansonia, viii. 



196 



NATUBAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 




Soger (ta laurina} 

Fig. 230. 

Flower (J). 



imbricated petals. Al)ove these parts, the floral receptacle forms a 
flattened head, with broad facets correspondinf]^ to the insertions of 
the stamens and carpels. The former are few in number, being 
about as numerous as the pieces of the pe- 
rianth; they are shaped like an inverted 
pyramid, with an extrorse two-celled anther 
dehiscing longitudinally, above which the 
connective expands into a truncate plate.' 
There are the six large scales external to the 
fertile stamens,- which we should probably 
consider as sterile ones, which in S. laurina 
Dalz., for example (fig. 230), simulate a 
third corolla internal to the six normal petals. 
The carpels are either few in number, for we 
sometimes only count from two to six, or else indefinite. Their ovary 
contains along its inner angle an indefinite number of ovules in 
two vertical rows. The fruit consists of 
one or more swollen, nearly globular, 
one or many-seeded berries. The three 
or four species of this genus are In- 
dian plants,^ with alternate, glabrous 
coriaceous leaves, and axillary or lateral 
flowers, solitiny, or more frequently col- 
lected into cymes. 

Tetrapctalion (fig. 231)' may be defined 
as Uraria, with dimerous floral verticils. 
In fact, on the slightly convex receptacle, 
we find two much imbricated sepals, and 
four alternatively imbricated, rounded. 




Tetrupeialum rolnhile. 

Fio. 2:n. 

I)iii;^r!i)n. 



' Tlicsc KtainciiH Imve the jirolongation of the 
connective uhove the anther-cills tapering and 
liont in\vartln, ho as to ri't-all pretty <'lo8ely the 
form of tliehtanieni* in MiUiusire, and lienee it in, 
no doubt, tliat wmie 8i)eeies of Sai/crfta were 
oriffinally jdaced in tlie ^enu» Jlarm/ea. 

• U. !>>.. Aihnimntia, viii. [VIH. In fact, the 
form of tliene KcaleH, aH repre>iente<l in fig. 2!)(t, 
tlieir tliieiiiieHS and coniiisteney, indicate a great 
analogy to the fertile htiunenH interior to tlicni. 
Tlie tipper honh-r of eaili iH dividi'd into fonr 
Hltlo feKtoonn, eaeli of which iippearH to annwcr 
to the Huminit of a rudinn-ntary lialf-ceil ; and we 



can even see three very shalhiw fnrrows on the outer 
face, that terminate above in tlie iiotchenln'tween 
the festoons. We do not know whether i\wn.' sterile 
organs exist in other sju'cies than .V. laurina. Da i.z. ; 
if so, the descriptions make no mention of the fact. 

* (fuatteria laurifolia (iiuii.. Cat. Iioiitl>.,\. 

* Hook. & TiioMiJ., Fl. hid., i. \r,\. — tiHAli., 
Cat. liomb., lur. ci7.— Wai.I'., Jirp., i. 76, 4, 
Ann., IV. 50; vii. 50. — TllWAlT., Kntim. PI. 
Zeyl., fi.— MiQ , /7. Intl.. Bat., i. p. ii. 21 ; Ann. 
Mus. Lu;nl. Hot., ii. l(t. 

* Mlg'., Ann. M,us. J.ti,,d. Bat., ii. 8.— H.H.. 
Oen., «J56, n. 2 a. — H. Hn., Adan*onin, viii. 33»!. 



ANONACE^. 



197 



concave, caducous petals. Tlie stamens and multiovulate carpels are 
exactly those of Uvaria. The fruit is as }'et unknown. Only one 
species of this genus has as yet been described,' a shrub from Borneo, 
whose flexible twining branches are covered with alternate leaves, and 
whose flowers are arranged in dense leaf-opposed or lateral spikes. 

In Canau^a,- the flowers are constructed on the same plan as in 
Uvaria, differing only in a few characters of secondary importance. 
The receptacle is convex,"* bearing 
in succession a calyx of three sepals, 
valvate in the bud, and two corollas 
each of three equal, or nearly equal, 
petals imbricated in the bud, and 
spreading on the expansion of the 
flower. The stamens are very nu- 
merous, and closely packed in a 
spiral; their anthers are extrorse, 
with two parallel cells, surmounted 
by a truncated dilatation of the con- 
nective. Above the androceum, the 
apex of the receptacle presents a 
circular platform, often surrounded 
by a slightly projecting rim. On this 
surface are inserted the indefinite car- 
pels, each consisting of a one-celled 
ovary, surmounted by a nearly sessile swelling covered with stigmatic 
papillae. At the base of the ovary is a placenta, bearing an as- 
cending or erect ovule, with its micropyle outwards and downwards. 
The fruit is multiple (fig. 23.'2), consisting of an indefinite number 




Cananga {Giiatteria) Schomhurgkiana. 

Fig. 232. 

Fruit. 



1 T. volubile MiQ., loc. cit. Nearly all the 
organs of this plant are covered with rufous hairs, 
like those of most Ucarias. 

2 AUBL., Guiaiu, i. (1775) ml, t. 244 
(Rttmpu., Herb. Amhohi., ii. (1711) 195, t. 05; 
Hook. F. k Thoms., Fl. Imh, i. 12'J).— Gmcti!- 
teria R. & Paa'., Prodr. (179 1) 85, 1. 17 (in Auctt. 
Flor.Asiaf!c.).—l>vy., Mon., 50, t. 30-32.— DC, 
Sgst., i. 502; Prodr., i. 93. — E>VUL., Gen., n. 
4721. — B. H., Gen., 23, n. 7. We have explained 
(Adansonla, viii. 336,) why the gei'.uric name of 
AUBLET should in any cjtse retain its priority, 
though it does not apply to the same plants as the 
genus Cananga of Rimpur's. These last are, in 



our opinion, Unonas, and th(! name of Guatteria 
was only created by Ruiz & Pavon nineteen 
years after the publication of Aublet's work; 
so that the name Cananga, as applied by 
ArBLET, has still nineteen years' priority. 

"* It is often dome-shaped, except in that su- 
perior truncated part [torus apice tnincatus), 
forming a sort of platform which bears the 
gyna?ceum, and is surrounded by a small annular 
pad, of which we shall speak below. This must 
be considered nothing else than the first rudiment 
of the receptacular sac, found so greatly de- 
veloped in most species of Xylov'a. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



of stipitate one-seeded berries. The erect seed contains ruminated 
albumen, and a nearly apical embryo. This genus consists of trees 
and shrubs from the warm regions of America ; about fifty species 
have been described.' Tliey have alternate leaves ; and the flowers, 
solitar}'' or united into few-flowered cymes, are a.xillary, lateral, 
terminal, or sometimes leaf-opposed. 

In Abcrriiioa" the petals are imbricated, as in Uvaria and Cananga f 
and the carpels are multiovulate, as in the latter. The style sur- 
mounting them oiten tapers into a sort of sharp horn, liut the 
fruit does not consist of a number of stipitate berries, arranged in an 
innbel as in Cn/iaii(/a ; its structure is usually similar to that of the 
Jiio/iaa, which we shall study a little later 
on. It is an ovoid or spherical, fleshy or 
woody mass, formed b}' the union of all 
the car])els ; a union which may be so 
intimate as almost to obliterate all traces 
of the difterent styles on the surface of the 
fruit (fig. 235). In others we can dis- 
tinguish their tips as more or less promi- 
nent points * and it may happen that the 
berries, almost woody, are free to the base ; 
but in that case the common rcceptach? 
swells into a thick pyriform, or nearl} 
pyril'orm mass, to support them, the whole always presenting a 
very peculiar aspect.' The seeds are arillate, with very copious, 
fleshy, nnuinated alljumen. In one species of tliis genus, described 




Aberemoa {Fusaa) lonf/ijlli 
Fig. 231. 
iJiiigrani. 



' WalI'., Ili'p.,\. 82; ii. 7t7; Ami., iv. 72; 
vii. 52. - DC, l<jc. cil.; Icon. Delt-KS., i. 24, t. 
«J0.— A. DC. M^m., lO.— A. S. II., Fl. Bran. 
Mer., i. :5r..— Maiit., Fl. Bran., Anunai:, 25, t. 
7^12. — Sciii.TL., Llnnaa, ix. 32(1. — I'l.. k 
TuiANA, Ann. Sc. Nal., stT. 1> xvii. 31. — H. 
Bs., Adansunia, viii. 20S. 

" Ailtl.. Gulan, i. (ilO, t. 215.— II. Bn.. 
Adaimunia, viii. 33(i. — Diiguelin A. S. II., Fl. 
Bras. Mf-riJ., i. 35. t. <>, 7.— A. DC, Mrm., 
.10.— Km)I.., Ofn., 11. 1722.— n. II.. Oeti. 23. ii. 
8. -!f. Hn., AdanMiuia, viii. 320.— CV/rrfioyWfi- 
/«;« SciILTI... Liiinaii, ix. 328. 

' The reicptiic'lc Hoiiu'fiint'K present* tlio minio 
fciriii iiM ill tliiit ^'eiius; itH KUiiimit iH coiieuvo in 
iJii'/iuli'i hrniliHiiiii XIaict. TIk' |K.>tiils, dflfii 
iiisirke<l inside \ty it ilurk "xxti iit the lniNe, iniiv 



be very thick and, as it were, shagreened, like 
tliose of Asimina triloba ; this is very marked 
in Anunafurfuiacea A. S. H. {Fl. Bras. Mer.,\. 
34, t. 6). which i* nil Aberemoa 

* Some 8|)ecics, siu-ii as Anoiia cali/ctna, Sai;. 
(Ouiaim) have tlie carpels h:inlly dii^tinct in the 
j;reen fruit, but whin ripe they fall oil" from the 
conunon receptacle, tojrctlior with the »ee<l that 
each enelosen, no lonjier surrounded by the 
pericarp towards its base. 

* This is the case in Duifuet'm lancrolata A. 
S. II., the typical sj)ecies of the t;enus lJ»<;urti<i. 
It.s ciirpels are free to the b.i8e. and the ctimmon 
receptacle itujijKjrtinp them is swollen into u wirt 
of wootly pear, with one facet corre«i)onding to 
each uirpd. 



ANON ACE J']. 



199 



by Aublkt' under the luiine of Auoiia /o/if/i/o/la (fig-s. :233, 235), tlie 
outer stamens are sterile and transformed into imbricated petaloid 
blades, while the surface of the ripe fruit is also nearly smooth, features 
sufficient to characterize a special section of the ^enus Ahercmoar 
This genus consists of South American trei!s and shrubs, whose 



T 



( T 





Ahtfcmoa [Fi'sced) lon/jifolla 



Fig. 233. 
Inflorescence. 



Fi(i. 235. 
Fniit. 



alternate leaves and young- branches are usually covered with scaly 
or stellate hairs. The flowers are solitar}^ or in uniparous two- 
flowered cymes/ either terminal, leaf-opposed, or lateral.^ About 



* Ghiian., i. G15, t. 248. — Diu/netia loii(jifoUa 
H. Bn., loc, cit. 

^ We hiive called it Ftiscea {Adansonia, viii. 
326). This section is also distinguislied by its 
inflorescence, by these petaloid staniinodes ex- 
ternal to the fertile stamens, by the union of the 
styles at the top into a single mass, and by the 
structure of the fruit, which finally becomes h 
spherical woody mass, like a wooden ball hollowed 
out into monos])ermous cells and whose surf ice 
gives but little indication of the fact that this 
multiple fruit really consists of a large number of 
ovaries originally free (see fig. 235). 

3 It is in this way that they are arranged in 
A. longifolia, represented in fig. 233. Moreover 
we see that the bracts on the axes of the different 
generations may have leaf-ljiids in their axils. 



There are also two flowers of difterent generations 
in the inflorescence of Anona ? unijlora Dux. 
{Mop., 7(5; UC, Prodr., i. 8G, n. 21; Icun. 
Dcless., i. 23, t. 87), which is an Aberemoa, hut 
whose specific name must needs be changed for 
this reason. Accordingly we have proposed {Adan- 
sonia, viii. 327) to call it Duquetia Candollei. 

* The situation of the inflorescence is lateral 
in A. loiiffifolla. The uniparous cyme really arises 
from the axil of a leaf, a leaf that has already 
fallen, on a last year's branch. Beside it, and 
from the same axil, a young branch developes at 
the same time. Now the inflorescence rises 
up and remains united to a very variable extent 
by its jieduncle either to the young branch or to 
the last year's one. Something analogous may 
be observed in Monodora. 



200 



NATURAL niSTOIiY OF I'LAXTS. 



fifteen species are known, most frequently described as belonging to 
the genus Anonn ;' in fact, we may say that Ahcremoa is Aiwna with 
all the petals imbricated. 

CIriHtoch/aiiii/.r has small axillary sessile flowers of the same general 
structure as in Cananya and Abervmoa : the imbricated petals are 
inserted on a slightly convex receptacle, as are the indefinite stamens, 
whose extrorse anthers are surmounted by a truncate dilatation of the 
connective ; above the stamens are the uniovulate carpels, of variable 
number,' with narrow, slightly capitate styles, liut the calyx is a sort 
of irregular sac, at first closed, and afterwards torn irregularly into two, 
three, or four unequal parts. The fruit consists of several elongated, 
stipitate, one-seeded berries. But one species* of this genus is 
known — a small glabrous tree from the east of tropical Africa, with 
oval-oblong leaves ; its habit is that of several species of Pojjowia, a 
L'unus to which it was at first referred. 

o 

Oi'dndrci" has small flowers, like CIchtovhUunjiH ; but the calyx 
consists of three imbricate leaves, not of a valvate sac of one single 
piece. The six ])etals are imbricated, as in 
Uvaria ; and the stamens are of the form termed 
" stamina MiliiisearKm." They are indefinite, 
but not generally numerous, any more than 
the carpels. Taking, for instance, the flower 
of 0. espintana^ (fig. 236), we see that the 
androceum consists of only a couple of rows 
of stamens within the perianth. These are 
lanceolate in form, and end in a long point, 
which is simply the apex of the connective, 
and is quite continuous with the filament, 
of this body are applied two parallel linear, 
dehiscing longitudinally. The carpels are 
five or six in number, grouped into a crown on the slightly 




Oxandra espintana. 
Fio. 236. 
Flower (5)- 

To tlie outer face 
extrorse anther-cells. 



• Maut., Fl. Bras., Anonac, 22, t. 5.— 
SCIII.TL., lor. cU., 320, 32S.— Wali'., Rep., i. 
85; ii. 747; Ann., i. 17; iii. H13 ; iv. 57. 

' Omv., Journ. Linn. Sor., ix. 175 — 11. II., 
Gen., \)'M, n. (5, «. — II. IJ.n., Adanxunia, viii. 
330. 

* Tlicre lire from five to ten. The ovtilu in 
nearly buhilar witli llic niicropylu (limnw.irds anil 
outwartlji. 



* C. Kirlii Oliv., loc. cit. — Popowia ! Kxrhii 
IJentii., Linn. Trans., xxiii. 170, n. 2. The 
xpecieK wuH tounil on the bunks of the ZunibcMi by 
Dr. KiiiK ill Livinosionk'h e.\|>e(lition. 

* A. Uicii., Fl. Cub., 20, t. viii.— II. lis., 
Aditnuunitt, viii. \(\H,\i'M\.— Bocnpea B. H., Urn., 
21t. n. 3'J (.\. S. n.. Fl. Bras. Mer., i. 11). 

* H. Hn., loc. cit., IGG. — Bocat/ea rspimiaua 
Si'uic'K, ex li£MTU., Journ. LtHH. Sue., v. 71. 



ANONACEJE. 201 

flattened summit of the receptacle. The ovaries taper into a 
hooked style, with a stigmatiferous apex, and contain a nearly 
basilar ascending ovule with the micropyle downwards and outwards. 
The flower is borne on a peduncle, which, like that of Chimonanthua, 
bears imbricated bracts all over its surface ; they are analogous to 
sepals, and become shorter as they are lower down. Here they are dis- 
tichous, thick, and scarious. In other species, such as 0. lanccolala' 
and laiirifolia,- these scales do not occupy the whole length of the 
peduncle, but are massed together near its base, to which they form 
a sort of sheath or involucre. The form of the perianth is here 
somewhat modified. The flower-bud, nearly globular in 0. lanceolata, 
becomes elongated in 0. laurifolta, chiefly through the conformation 
of the petals. The stamens and carpels are numerous in the latter 
species. Four or five^ species of Oxandra'' are known — shrubs from 
the Antilles and the north of South America, with alternate entire 
leaves, and a fruit consisting of a variable number of one-seeded, 
shortly stipitate berries. 

B. Unune.e. — This secondary group is named after the genus 
TJnonay which difiers from Uvaria in one essential point only : the 
fact that its corolla is valvate, not imbricate, in aestivation. In all 
else the flowers of that section of the former genus termed Pseado- 
TJnond are perfectly similar to these latter — the trimerous calyx ; 
the nearly equal, sessile, flattened petals spreading on the expansion 
of the flower ; the indefinite stamens inserted in a spiral, and each 



' H. Bn., loc. cit., 168, n. 4. — 0. virgata A. on the same plan in 0. lanrifolia and lanceo- 

RlCH., loc. cit. — Uvaria lanceolata Sw., JBrodr. lata, 

(1788), 87. — U. virgata Sw., Fl. Lid. Occ. ii. ^ fhe latter would be the only true number if 

(1800), 999. — Cananga virgata DC. — Guatteria it were shown that Bocagea leiicodermis i>vs.vcE 

virgata, DUN., Mon., 133, t. 31; DC, Prodr., (Benth., Joitrn. Linn. Sac, v. 71; H. Bn., 

i. 9-4, n. 14. — Drimgs lancea PoiT. — Boc igea op. cit., 167) is also a species of Oxandra ; but 

virgata B. H., loc. cit. its flowers are very im^jtrfeetly known. 

- A.Rich., loc. cit.; H. Bn., loc. cit., n. * A. Rick., loc. cit. — Pi. & Tiuana, ^h«. &. 

3. — Uvaria laurifolia Sw., loc. cit. — U. excelsa i\'a<.,ser.4,xvii.36. — H. Bn.,o^.«Y.,166,167,169. 
Vest., ex Vahl. — Cananga laurifolia DC. — * L. Fil., SuppL, 270. — Juss., Gen., 283; 

Guatteria laurifolia DuN., op. cit., 132, t. 32 ; Ann. Mus., xvi. 340.— DuN., JUon., 99, t. 26. — 

DC, loc. cit., n. lo.— Bocagea laurifolia B. H., DC, Sgst., i. 485; Prodr., i. 88. — Spach, Suit, 

loc. cit. In these species there is always a single a Buff. vii. 517. — Endi.., Gen., n. 4717, J. — 

ascending nearly basilar ovule. The petals are B. H., Ge«., 24, 956, n. 13. — H. Bn., ^(/rt««o»ia, 

broad and short in O. lanceolata, far longer and viii. 175, 327 (inch Cananga Humph. ; — Melo. 

narrower in proportion in O. laurifolia. In both dorum Dun. ; — Kenlia Bl. ; — Mitrella MiQ. ; — 

plants the stamen is like a thick fleshy elongated Polyallhia Bl.; — Ancana F.Muell.; — Mtioggne 

spindle, very acute at the apex ; the cells are like MiQ. ; — Trigyntia Schltl.; — Rexalobus A. S. H. 

linear rods applied to the outer surface of the & Tul. (see A. DC) ; — Monoon MiQ. ; — Pgrami- 

stamen ; and the fllament, the body of the connec- danthe Miq. ; — Trivaloaria MiQ., pass, descr.). — 

tive, and its long apical point form one continuous Desmos Lour., Fl. Cochinch., ed. Ulyssip., 352. 
whole. The carpels and stamens arc constructed " Hook. &. TuoMS., op. cit., 135. Here the 



•JOJ XATCIiAL UlfinniY OF I'LAXTS. 

surmounted by a dilatation of the connective ; tlie carpels also oi" 
variable number ; the numerous ovules inserted on the inner angle ; 
the compound fruit consistinf^ of many-seeded berries, with the peri- 
carp but little or not at all strangulated in the intervals between 
the seeds. The species not belonging to this section are dis- 
tinguished by the strangulations being, on the contrary, very well 
marked, so that each berry looks like a chaplet with a variable 
number of seeds. Each compartment contains a single suspended 
seed, with ruminated albumen (tigs. 2'67, 23s). 

Under the generic name of Cmianga^ has been distinguished an 





Uiiona tliscolur. 
Fio. 2:57. Fig. 2.38. 

Hcrry. Long, section of berry (}). 



Unona (Caiinii'/iuiii) odoralti. 
Kio. 2.3'J. Fio. 210. 

Diiiizram. Stamen (]|). 



Indian species, U. oihrda- (figs. 239, 240), introduced into almost 



earpels have no stranpnlations between tlie seeds. 
Hut tlu-sc stranjjulations exist, on tlie contrary, 
and are Konietinies very well marked in the 
hpecies c;dlcd 7>*mo* (Orx. ex DC, St,st.:\.\\\-X) 
and Dnxtimnxchitlon (HooK. & TUdMS., \oc. cit., 
134). The whole of the siiecii-s in which these 
rnntractions are wanlinp or hut slighlly marked 
are inchidtd hy 1)k (!aM)Oi,le in his section 
Unonaria {Sj/.y't. i. 480; Prodr. i. K5)), which 
includes severnl Kj)ecicM iilien to the)?enus Unona. 
His section (Kinnin [Pi-ndi., i. DO) only included 
/', tripfl'iht \W,. (Si,h(., i. I'JO.) 

» UrMi'ii.. J/rrh.' Jmhoin., ii. 195.— Hook. & 
TiloMH., Ft. Inil., i. 12il.-H. 11., fUn., 21, n. 12 
(nee Ai;ni..). 

» DrN., Mon., 107, t, 2fi.— DC. S,/.^(., i. 492 ; 
Prodr., i. 00, n. ]H.— U. Uptopflnhi'uv., Sj/aL, 
i. 4»r>; Frodr., i. 91. n. 30; Icon. Jhlem,.. i. 23, 
t. KH.— U. I'phtllttti CiMHTV., Fnirt., ii. t. KH. f. 



2. —lih., FL Jar., Anonac, 31 (nee Drx.. nee 
Koxn.), — I'rftria odorafn \i\'SiK.,Dict., i. 595. — 
U. Cananqa Vahl, ex lIooK. &. TuoMs. — f. 
aa-Hlaris UoXH., F/. Ltd., ii. (ifi?. — tL Utrrineri 
DC, Prodr., i. 88. n. '.i.— Z^.farcIa Wall.. Cat., 
n. Oieo. — Cananga odoratn Roxn., FL Ind., ii. 
r,Gl._WALL., Cat., n. ()l.-.7.— Hlimk. Bijdr., 
14 ; Fl. Jar., Anonac, 29. t. 9. 14 H.— HooK. 
iS: TiK.MS , FL Ind., i. 129.— Walv.. Ann., iv. 
01. In this plant the petals are more or less 
elongated. The r<'cej)tiicle is convex, hut its 
sununit is slightly hoHoue*! out at the inw^rtion 
of the gynnH.-eutn, The stamens often stlik 
together by the sides of their glanduhir e<inne«'- 
tiv*")*. It may happen tlnit some of the outer- 
most contain no J)<)1U'U ; they are tlien only simple 
petaloid sculcs. The seed nniy possess an aril 
with two well-developed lateral loU-s ; hut this 
organ is aomctimcs rudinu-ntar,\. 



AXONACEJ^. 20a 

every warm climute, whose corolla is Tiiuch elongated, while the sta- 
mens are surmounted by an acute prolongation of the connective. 
The berries are slightly contracted between the seeds. 'Jlie other 
differentiating characters cited to separate this plant from Unona 
having no real existence, we have thought it right not to retain it in 
a distinct genus. 

In certain other Unonas which form tlie section Dasi/maschalon,^ 
the outer petals become far more elongated still ; the inner ones 
remain small, or are even altogether wanting. This is usually the 
case in the flowers of U. lonqijtora^- in which the corolla is as much 
as from 2^ to 3 inches [ G to 8 centimetres] in length. The number of 
ovules is often not great in tlie carpels of this species ; certain 
ovaries contain no more than two, inserted at variable heights on the 
inner angle.'' This number is constant in certain species from tropical 
Asia ; and it has been impossible to separate them generically from 
the other Unuiicn^, for there is no dissimilarity in any other character. 

It has been proposed to establish a fresh genus Meiof/i/iie,'^ for a 
Javanese Uvaria, whose flowers have rather short buds, and only 
Ave, four, or even three carpels. This generic section has not been 
adopted. It has been truly remarked with reference to this, that 
there is an African species of Uiiona^ which we cannot exclude from 
the genus, with a corolla differing in form from that of Mciofjijne, 
but, like that plant, with but few carpels. Now this species has all 
the essential characters of the American Unonas described under the 
name of Tiiyyneia.^ The perianth of the latter may have exactly 
the same conformation, and the generic name shows that the same 
reduction' in the number of carpels has been observed in the proto- 



' See p. 201, note 0. distinct guims, simply on account of tlie small 

'^ RoxB., Plant. Coromaiid., iii. 87, t. 2:^0; number of its carpels. 
Fl. Ltd., n. Gi^S.—UooK. &'VnojiS., Fl.In(L,i. ^ B. H., Gen., loc. clt.— U. Oliveriana 

134.. — Walp., Ann., iv. 67.— H. Bn., Adan- H. Bn., Adansonia, viii. 307. In this Siiecies 

sonia, viii. 176. Tlie single whorl that rejire- most of the organs are fovcred bv very fine scaly 

sents the corolla may be even reduced to two hairs. There are from three to five carpels. In 

equal or unequal pieces, free, or united for a very the former case they are superposed to the outer 

variable height. petals. In the bud the corolla has exactly the 

3 They are sometimes almost superposed. same form as that of certain species of J/eZo- 

Neverthcless each is placed on one lip of the dorum, a triangular pyramid, with somewhat 

l)hicenta. Sometimes the one is almost basilar : blunted angles. 

by this means we cannot distinguish this plant ^ Schltl., Z/»ncEo,ix. 328. Bexth., Joj<n;. 

from PoZ^a?</;/a, properly so called, Linn. Soc, \. Q\). — B, U., Gen., 25, n. 15. 

•» MlQ., Ann. Mits. Liigd. Bat., W. 12.— l\. By., Adansonia, \\n. \1S,ZM. 
IJ. H., Gen., 'J56, n. 13. — H. Bx., Adansonio, 7 'fhe number of carpels is also, as we have 

viii. 337. Anrana, too, has been pioposed as a seen, much reduced in Aiirana F. Mukll., which 



204 



NATUIiAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



t}'pe species.' Many other species liave since been observed in 
Guiana, Brazil, and Peru,' in which the carpels become as numerous 
as in the true Vnonan of the Old World. In some of the latter 
the carpels are, as we have seen, few in number. In Monocar- 
pia^ there is only a single one, and yet we cannot retain it as a distinct 
genus, for many other perfectly natural genera of the same order 
contain species with several ovaries as well as species with only 
one. 

Mdodonun' has been considered by some as a section of the genus 
Vnona, by others as a perfectly autonomous genus. It has, however, 
the indefinite multiovulate carpels and the valvate perianth of the 
true Unouuis. The corolla, it is true, may undergo very great modi- 
fications in the form and thickness of its parts. In certain species 
it is all together globular in the bud, while in others it has exactly 
the same form that is common in Xi//opia, a form even exaggerated 
in Ft/raiiiida/ifhc} Only this character cannot be considered of any 
absolute value, as there are species of Mclodorum with conical buds, 
whose petals are exactly those of some Unonas, and, on the other 
hand, we may have globular buds in the latter genus. 

The same observation applies to Kentia^ whose general iloral 



Uentham & HoOKEE {Oen., 956, n. 13) refer to 
the genus Unona (see p. 203, note 4). 

' Trit)yneia ollongifolia SciiLTL., loc. cit. — 
Uvaria trUjyna Maut., Fl. Bras., Anonac, 'U). 

- H. Hn., Adamonia, viii. 179-181. We 
liave referred to this group the following species : 
1. Anuna peduncularis Steud; 2. Uvaria 
guatlerioides A. DC; 3. Anona Perrotletii 
A. DC. In a plant that we can only consider 
as a form (lanceolata) of this last species, we 
have only found one ascending ovule in each 
carpel, just as in our Trigyneia rvfescem {loc. 
cit., 180, note 1), while in T. Mathewsii BENTir. 
and the species above enumerated, the number of 
ovules is greiitur. In the fonner case, the seed 
is eUi]>soi(lal, with a longitudinal ridge along its 
edge. When the sieds are numerous, they are 
reduced to thittened disks, piled up like a rouleau 
of cc/nis, and tlie j)rojecling circular rim is hori- 
zonttd, occupying the only jM)rtioii of the surface 
of th(! seed that is not in contact with its 
ncighlxjurs. 

i" iMig.. Ann. Mut. Lugd. Bat., ii. 12.— «. 11., 
Ocn., 9r)G. n. 13, «. — II. Bn., AdaiiJtuniu, viii. 
338. 

* Dun., Mon., 115 (sect, rnonn).— lit., Fl. 
Jrtv., Anonac., 13. t. 15 (sect. Uvaria). — DC, 
ISyal., i. 497; I'rudr., i. 91. — E>-UL., (Jen., u. 



4717, a.— B. H., Gen., 28, 958, n. 31.— Miq., 
Fl. Ind. Bat,, i. p. ii. 34 ; Ann. Mus. Lugd. 
Bat.,\\. 37.— Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 115. 
— Tiiw., Fnum. Pl.Zeyl., G. — Zoll , Linnaa, 
xxix. 317. — Bextii., Linn. Trans., xxiii. 477; 
Fl. Austral., i. 5». — Walt*., Ann., iv. 57. — 
H. Bn., Adamonia, viii. 2UG, 30«), 328. — (an 
Lour., Fl. Covhinch., ed. Ulyssip., 351 ?). — 
Cyathostemma Ukikf., Notul., 707, t. G50. 

* MlQ., Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., ii. 39.— 
H. Bn., Adausonia, viii. 329. — Several sjM^cies 
of Melodorum, properly so called, present this 
elongated form of the tlower-bud, as Bentiiam & 
HoOKEK very justly remark {Den., 958). Others 
have a conical hud, with the i)etals of a uniform, 
or nearly uniform, thiikness all over, as in certain 
species of I'nona anil J'uli/nltliia. Others again 
have a globular bud, like that of Anona globi- 

Jlora. The stamens are often surmounteti by un 
acute prolongation of the connective; but this 
character has no absolute value, being wanting in 
several species of Melodorum proper. In 
M. africanum Bentii. (Linn. Trans., xxiii. 
477), we have observed that the outer stamens are 
often tnin>fornutl into jietaloid scales, as occurs 
in sevenil species of Abtrrmoa, Xylopia, to.: 

• Bl., Fl. Jav., Anonac., 71. t. 58 (wvt. 
J'olyatlhiu-).—U. II., Oen.. 28, n. 31 (2).— 



ANONACEJE. 



205 



organization is the same as in McJodorum, but whose ovaries only 
contain one or two ovules inserted at a variable height on the inner 
angle. The corolla often forms a triangular pyramid in the bud and 
the upper halves of the petals have thick edges, while tlie lower halves 
alone are hollowed out, and as it were moulded on the sexual organs. 

The limited number of ovules has not been made use of to sepa- 
rate Kentia from Melodonm proper. Indeed, it could not be, be- 
cause this character is considered valueless in many other generic 
groups, and because there is a plant from Guiana whose ovaries only 
contain one or two ovules,' which we cannot separate from the 
multiovulate American genus Trigyneia. Between this plant and 
the pluriovulate Trigyneias we have a very good transition, as we 
have shown, in the typical species of the section TJnonmtrum^ a 
Mexican plant with from two to six ovules' in its ovaries. Its 
young seeds, few in number, are inserted either near the base or at 
a variable height on the internal angle of the ovary, according as the 
missing ones are the superior or the inferior ones. 

Among the Old World Unonas also there are species whose 
carpels are almost constantly biovulate ; they have been termed 
PolyaltUa.^ and have been erected into a distinct genus. The 
corolla is of very variable form. Wlien they have but a single 
ovule they are termed Momon / or Trivaharia^ when in addition to 



Mitrella MiQ., Ann. Mus. Lttgd. Bat., ii. 38. 
B. H., Qen., 958. In the flowers of Melodorum 
pisoearpum, for instance, the corolla is nearly 
globular in the bud. The outer petals are very 
thick, with very broad borders above, while their 
bases are, as it were, hollowed out internally to 
lodge part of the other corolla. The pieces of 
the latter are narrower, shorter, and thinner, but 
are also sessile, and their thickened apices project 
like the keystone of the hanging vault they 
form in the centre of the flower-bud. Above 
the anther-cells the stamens only present a some- 
what elongated prolongation of the connective, 
obtuse and dilated at the apex. The interior of 
the ovary cells is full of a thick, gummy juice; 
and in the inner angle we see two ovules, one 
inserted a little above the ovary, about halfway 
up the cell. They arc ascending, with the 
micropyles looking outwards and downwards, 
while, owing to a slight obliquity, their chalazal 
ends are near one another. In the prototype of 
the section Kentia, that is, Poli/alffiia Kenfii Bl. 
{Mitrella Kentii MiQ., Ann. Mm. Lugd. Bat., ii. 
39), by their apposition in the bud the pieces of the 
outer corolla form a sort of three-sided pyramid. 



1 T.Perrottetii, var. laiweolata H. Bn., Adan- 
sonia, viii. 179, note 5. 

2 T. Galleottiana H. Bn., op. cit., 181, note 1, 
268. 

3 Four is the commonest number, echelonned 
along tlie internal angle of the ovary ; but they 
are inserted nearer the top or the bottom 
according as the lower or the upper ones are 
wanting. 

* Bl., Fl. Jan., Anonac, 70, t. 33, 34 (ex 
part.).— A. DC, Mem., 39.— Endl., Gen., n. 
4713 (ex part.).— MiQ., Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. ii. 
43; Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., ii. 13. — HooK. & 
TuoMS., Fl. Ltd., i. 137. — Spach, Suit, a 
Buffon, vii. 505, 510. — Zoll., Linnaa, xxix. 
321.— Seem., Fl. Tit., 4, t. iii.— Tnw., Emim. 
PI. Zeyl, 9.— B. H., Gen., 25, 95fi, n. 17.— 
Walp., Ann., iv. 68 ; vii. 55. — Bexth., Linn. 
Trans., xxiii. 170 ; Fl. Austral , i. 51.— H. By., 
Adansonia, viii. 175, 348. 

* MlQ., Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., ii. 15. — B. H., 
Gen. 956, u. 17. — H. By., Adansonia, viii. 
337. 

" MlQ., Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., ii. 19. — 
B. H., Gen., loc. cit.—U. Bu., loc. cit. 



206 



XATrilAL JflSTOUY OF PLAXT^ 



tliis tlie petals, shorter, tliickcr and more ani^'ular, p^ive the hud a 
pyramidal form. Finally, there is in this <>:enus a plant wliich, with 
the same general floral ori^anization as in I'. Olireriana, has a gamo- 
petalous corolla which falls in a single piece. It was called llcxa- 
lobits brasilieiifiis,^ and was afterwards brought near Trif/t/iwia properly 
so called. It is certainly to Unona what those species of Uvaria, 
whose petals are united at the base, are to that genus. 

Thus formed by the union of a hirge number of genera kept 
separate by the most recent authors, the genus Unona contains 
about eighty species from tropical regions of both hemispheres, of 
which only about one-tenth belong to America.^ They are trees 
or shrubs, sometimes creepers, almost always glabrous, with alternate 
exstipulate leaves, and flowers solitary or grouped into few-flowered 
cymes, axillary, extra-axillary, leaf-opposed or terminal. From the 
preceding description we see that we may very well describe Unona 
as Uvaria with a valvate corolla, and hence those species of Uraria, 
Jsimina, and Ancana, in which three petals are valvate at a certain 
period, form a passage between the two genera, which could not be 
placed in tribes separated by impassable limits.' 

Ana.ragorea'' is the name given to certain plants with the flowers 
of certain Poli/alfltias or Kentias, but whose fruit is a one- or two- 
seeded follicle. The calyx consists of three membranous or valvate 
sepals, free, or cohering below, spreading or retlexed on the expan- 
sion of the flower. The petals are valvate, of very variable thickness 
according to the species, and the inner ones are as large as the outer 
ones, or smaller.® The receptacle, more or less convex, then bears a 



' A. S. H.it Tri... Aun. Sc. Kat., s.'r. 2, 
xvii. i:i3, t. G. — Tiir/i/neia li. H., G('n.,2l, ii. 
11 ; 25, n. 15. Except for its iiiiiti'd petals this 
Hpeeies conies very near our ('nana Oliveriana, 
((WO p. 2u:j, note 5). 

" .1. Unonaria (DC.) (Pseudo- 

Unona HuoK. &T110MS.). 

2. iJetmoM (l.ovH.). 

3. Jhmi^maM'halon (HooK. L 

TllDMts.). 

I. Anrana (K. MUELL.), 
i'notin. ' 5. Mriof/t/iie (M\ii.). 
Sections 15. (>. Triialraria {M\q.). 

7. C'tintiiii/lum {('anaiii/ti iJlM- 
I'li., n«i- At iil). 

8. Pyrnmidanllif (,Mly.). 
J). Alrlodunim (IJl..). 

1(». Unonimtruni (H. I5\.). 



?7/io;irt,contd 
Sections 15. 



rll. Tr'uftfni'ia (Schlti..). 

12. Keliiia (lii..){ MUrelh MiQ.). 

13. I'olyalthin (Ul.). 

14. Munoon (.Mig.). 

15. Motiocarpia (MlQ.). 

' The seitiona 2'rii/ifneia and I'noiuistrum 
(see pp. 203,205). 

* Un this subject, see Adaimonla, viii. 309. 

* A. S. n.. Bull. Soc. Philomat. (lS2o), 
91.— Hi.., Fl. Jav., Anonac, 61. t. 32.— A. 
DC, Mrm., 35.— Kndl., (Sen., n JTltJ.— A. 
GuAV, Amer. Kx}d. A'xy^rc/., i. 27.— H. II., den., 
25, U57, n. IH.— H. li.N'., Adanwnia, viii. 328, 
338. — Hhupaloctii-pua Tkihm. & Hi.NXKNV., cx 
Mlg., Ann. Mtis. Luqd. liat., ii. 22, t. 2 (nee 

n...i.). 

" The outer petals are soniotinioH ujcnihrunous 
hke the HepaK us is ston in A.prinuidet A, S. H. 



ANONACE.T.. 



207 



variable number of stamens inserted in a spiral, either all fertile, con- 
sisting of an elonp^ated or lanceolate blade, to the outer face of which 
are applied the two parallel anther-cells, or else the innermost 
sterile and reduced to imbricated petaloid staminodes (fig. 241).' 
The carpels are indefinite : each ovary, surmounted by a style of 





Anaxarjorea acuminala. 



Fig. 2-tl. 
Diagram. 



Fig. 242. 
Fruit deliiscing {\ 



variable length,- encloses two ovules inserted on the inner angle at 
a variable distance from its base ;■■* they are ascending, with the 
micropyle external. The fruit consists of a variable number of 
follicles that open along the inner edge (fig. 242). They often end 
in a point and taper into a long foot at the base ; and contain one 
or two smooth seeds,^ in which the embryo occupies the apex of 



(^Xylopia prhioides Diry., Mon., 122, t. 15) and 
javanica ]}l. But tlie inner petals of the for- 
mer species are thicker and more fleshy, with 
valvate, slightly bevelled edges. In some Ame- 
rican species the thickness of the corolla be- 
comes considerable. That of A. acuminata A. 
S. H. {A. brevipes Speuce) especially has the 
inner petals very much developed, coriaceous, and 
as thick as they are broad towards the summit. 
Towards the base of each is a deep hollow on the 
inner face which contributes to form a chamber 
for the sexual organs, thus assuming nearly the 
shape of a sabot ; but this face is flat above, where 
the transverse section of the petal is nearly an 
equilateral triangle. In Rhodocarpiis on the 
contrary the inner petals are thinner and nar- 
rower than the outer ones ; but these points of 
dissimilarity are not of generic importance. 

' It is just on the presence or absence of these 
that are founded the subgenera AnaxantJius and 



Afjoranthus, the former having all its stamens 
fertile, and the latter " Stamina intima elongata, 
apice torla, antheris parvis effoetis." But those 
are wrong who with ExDLiCiiEit (Joe. cit.) would 
limit this latter section to the Asiatic species ; for 
A. acuminata A. S. H. has well developoil petaloid 
staminodes within the fertile st imens ; they are 
oblong flattened imbricated blades. 

- It is sometimes narrow and elongated, some- 
times swollen, or bent like a plume, and covered 
with stigmatic papilla? over the whole of the 
convex surface. 

•* Those of A. prinoides are nearly collateral 
and basilar ; those of A. acuminata are placed 
one above the other, nearly half way up the inner 
angle. 

•• When there are two they are closely ap- 
plied to each other over a large plane surface. 
When there is but one seed, both its faces are 
convex. 



208 NATURAL mSTOBY OF PLAINTS. 

the slightly ruminated albumen. The genus Annxagorcn consists 
of trees or shrubs, of which half a dozen species are known, 
divided between tropical Asia' and tropical America.^ The leaves 
are of very variable consistency ;' and in their axils are the flowers, 
solitary, or in two- or few-flowered cymes.' We may define Jnaxa- 
gorea as Unona with dehiscent fruits. 

Dixopnhimy possesses a perianth with dimerous verticils, with the 
sexual organs of a Unona of the section Pol^alt/iia, to which it 
bears the same relation as Tetrnpetalum does to Ucaria. The 
calyx consists of two valvate sepals. The four petals are narrow, 
linear-spathulate, bent, and inclining inwards at the apex, while the 
bases are joined by a sort of common ring ; the only known species of 
this genus is D. anomalam^ a shrub from Borneo with alternate thick 
feather- veined leaves, and solitary terminal flowers on long peduncles. 

Bocnr/rri' may be considered as Unona, with small flowers, but with 
the stamens of the Mi/iusra. Its characters are, on the whole, those 
of Unona : a gamosepalous calyx" of three divisions, and a corolla of 
six valvate petals, which are sometimes those of a true Unona, 
sometimes those of certain species of Poli/alt/iia, McIoJorum, or 
Trigyncia.^ Sometimes the contraction seen at the base of the 
inner petals becomes so marked that this corolla, though less 
elevated, becomes very like that of several Mitrcphorea. In about 
half the Indian species of this genus, which have been termed 
AJjjhonHi'a, the carpels and stamens are very numerous.'" The former 



• Walp., J{pp. i. 80; Ann. iv. 72; vii. 55. — with blunted angles and witliout any dopression on 
MlQ.. ri Ind.-Bat., i., p. ii. 19; Ann. Mum. the cdpes. That of B. alha A. S. M. {loc.cit.) 
Lvgd. Bat., ii. 22, t. 2. is a cii])uliforni sjic with only three short teeth on 

'^ Benth., Hook. Juurn., v. 8; Jotirn. Linn. the edge. In B. riri(li.<i A. S. H., it is an equi- 

Soc.,v. 71.— Maiit.. Fl. Bras. Anonac, 40, t. 5. lutcnd triangle with the vertiees not blunt. In 

* Those of most American species, except A. B. heterantha H. Bn. (Adantonia, viii. 173), 
prinoidex, become very thick and coriaceous. and lutca, Hi>OK. <t Tn. (Ft. Jnd.,\. 153), the 

* They may l)e slightly extra-axillary. Those sepals, united at tlie base, are separated from 
of A. ncuminntd sonietinies form a uniparous two- one anotlier by tliree deep cleftj*. 

flowered cyme, the two (lowers which are close ' In B. allia A. S. II., those of the outer cn- 

together, being of different generations. rolhi are oval-acute, and the inner ones are similar 

' Hook. F., Linn. Trans., xxiii. 156. — II. II., at tlie apex, but hollowed out on each side near 

Oen., 25, n. 16. the base. In Ii. riridis A. S. II. they are all 

• Hook. F., Inc. cit., t. 20. MUiiiar, concave and oval, as they are in B. vm-- 
7 A. S. H., Fl»r. Bran. j1/^r., i. l-l, t. !). — A. ruroxa auil cftne.tren.f. In B. tnutliftorn iUc c\a^b 

IK.'., .Mi'in.. :U». — SPACM, Suit, i) Ihijf., vii. 511. of the inner jK-t^ls are hanlly indicaltHl. 
— Maut., Ft. Brax. , Anoiifir., \l,i. H. — Kmh.., '" Their nundier is indetinito in Atphomea 

Oen., n. l/OU.— H. H., (}tn., 21). n. 3'J (ex jwirt.). lutea and vrnlricoxa, antl in Uraria Badn/amba 

— \l. l^V.,Adatuionia, \\\\. Kul.'.i'.iH. — Aljihonxra Uuxn. (which appwirs identical with //. rr»»- 

HooK. F. & TiloMH., Fl. Ind.,\.\b'i. — H. H., /ri>tt*<i), plants all of which we refer to the genus 

(irn. 2'.>, n. 37. Bocai/Ki. Hut we Nhall see that in other «iHTii'4 

" That of B. remicona {Alphunifa rrrrurota of AI/>/ioii.'i)ii the number of eairi>els in but unml' 

IIuoK. &. TlloMS., ex Thw.) \h like a triimgle (hough the stauu-us may Ih' very lunnerous. 



ANONAGE/E. 



209 



have multiovulate ovaries ; the latter are in a variable number of 
rows, and tlie connective is prolonged above the extrorse anther 
into an obtuse projection of variable length, narrower than the anther 
itself (fig. 250). The stamens are shorter as they are more external. 
But this genus presents remarkable examples of reduction in the 
numbers of all the parts of the flower, and we shall see how we 
gradually arrive at certain species in which all the floral whorls are 

^iW^] - Bocagea heieranlha. 




Fig. 243. 
Flower-bud (f). 






Fig. 211. 

Flower, the outer petals 

removed. 




Fig. 245. 

Longitudinal section of flr 



Fig, 246. 

Triaiidrous flower, perianth 

removed. 

only trimerous, while each ovary contains but one ovule ; and that, 
without its being possible to found distinct generic sections in this 
small group, because the transitions between the species are all so 
perfectly gradual. 

Thus B. verrucosa,^ with numerous stamens, has no more than 
three or four pluriovulate carpels. B. midtijlora,- a BraziHan 
species, has indefinite carpels ; but each contains only three or four 



' Tlie stamens are usually from twelve to 
fifteen in number. The petals are nearly all 
equal, and the calyx is like a small equilateral 
triangle with blunt vertices. The inner sta- 
mens are much the long(>r, and stick to the feet 
of the carpels. These are free, but their dilated 

VOL. I. 



stigmatiferous heads are glued together to form 
a thick mass. There are usually eight ovules in 
each carpel. The floral rec^^ptacle is liardly 
convex. 

2 Mart., lac. cif., t. 14. — H. Rn., Adan- 
sonia, viii. 16 k — Gvatleria muUiflora PfFPP. 



210 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

ascending ovules. In the two first-known species of tins genus, 
B. alha'' and riridix; both from the same country, the carpels are 
pluriovulate, but there are only three of them, while there are no 
more than six stamens. Finally, of the small flowers of B. hctcrauiha^ 
(figs. 243-247), which grows in the islands to the east of Africa, 
some have also six stamens, of which three, the shorter ones, are 
superposed to the interior petals. But in other flowers these three 
are completely lost. Thus they only possess a calyx of three divi- 
sions, three outer petals, three inner ones contracted at the base, the 
three stamens answering to the outer petals, at the same time that 
the gynfcceum is reduced to three carpels, usually uniovulate ; so 
that the.se flowers present us with the greatest degree of simplifica- 
tion as yet met with among Ano/iacece. 

Moreover, in this group, as in many others of the same order, 
without any diminution of the number of pieces of the androceum, 
those of the gyna'ceum may be reduced to a single one. This does 
not appear constant in B. canescem t for the single biovulate ovary 
observed in some of them is inserted laterally, on one side of the 
receptacle, while the place for the other carpels remains unoccupied. 
In B. G(iiidichand'uin(C (figs. 248-250), which we have made the type 
of a particular section," the ovary of the single carpel forming the 
gynaeceura is apparently terminal, which would seem to indicate 
that it has been solitary the whole of its existence. Its ovules are 



llerh., n. 2G6S. In this species we have demon- the Mitrephorecr. Xevertheless, it is inseparahle 

«trat<?d that there are often more than twelve from the Old World -^?;>Aon«ea*. 

stamens, and from ten to twelve or fifteen car- ■• Si-nrcE, exs., n. 3519. — H. Bn., Adan. 

pels. There are some carpels with two ovules, son'ta, viii. 171. — Trigyneia ! canescens Hksth., 

and others containing as many as four. The Joiini. Linn. Soc, v. 70. In this species the 

aestivation of the corolla is certainly valvate. petals are all similar, short and concave. The 

The inflores<-ence usually springs from a sort of calyx is gamosepalous, with its three angles not 

excrescence on the wood of an old branch, whence prominent. The stamens may he as many as 

arise flowers of many successive generations. fifteen in number, and are pretty regularly ar- 

' A.S.H., l(M\ ril. The stamens are here six ranged on the receptacle. Tlie short hlamcnt 

in number, as in the following species. The is surmounted by a large fleshy lv)dy like an 

aiithtr-cells arc linear adnate, and almost mar- ehnigated cone, to the sides of which are a|>i)lied 

ginul. the two anthcr-ccUs close to the base. The 

- A.S H., lor. ril., t. 0. Here the carpels are ovary is surmounteil by a short refltxed style, 

sujierposetl to the outer petals. The inflorescence On tiie sides of the receptacle we see the placea 

of this s)(ecies pnticnUi remarkable {icculiaritiefi for the aborted carpels, 

(•ee Adanii(mia,\\\'\. lOi). * 11. Hn., Adansonia, viii. 183. 

■ H. Hn., Adiinnoiiui, viii. 17.3. The very • Sect. Krrmodrlphix (Sec Adansonin, lor. 

small flowers of this species are borne on rit.). Hkntham A. 11o<ikkii (Urn., 21), had 

very long capillary j)ednncles. Tlie carjiels, sup- already pointed out an Alp/ioiisra with n uni- 

j)orted on litlie slender feet, rarely contain two carpcll.iry gynnn-eum. There is no re.ison 

ovules. We have seen tliut the inner corolla of to S4>parate gejierically the species in which lliis 

this spec i en i* nlre;idy in »4)ine re-pects timl of (X-rnrs ; for in other I'.n.-ric L'r.«U|<H tlicn' an» 



ANON ACE JE. 



211 



numerous, in two vertical rows ; and the receptacle wliicli it termi- 
nates gives insertion below to a large number of stamens, which are 
shorter as they are more external, and to two thick valvate corollas, 
forming in the bud the sort of three- sided pyramid of certain species 
of Mchdorinu and Kenila. 

Thus constituted,' the genus Bocagea includes half a score species 
from the tropical regions of both hemispheres. We already know 



Bocofiea {EremodelpJiis) Gaudichaudiana. 






y^ 



Fig. 2i9. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 

five species from Brazil' and one from Ambongo.' The others are 
Indian plants, hitherto described under the name of Alphonsea.* 
They are trees or shrubs, with alternate, often glabrous, leaves. The 
flowers are either solitary or grouped into few-flowered cymes, often 
supported on slender peduncles ; sometimes axillary, sometimes ter- 
minal, but more often leaf-opposed or extra- axillary, springing from 
tlie branches at very variable heights on the internodes; and this 
variation may occur in one and the same species. 



at the same time pluri- and uni-carpellary plants. 
Here the gynseceum i.s inserted near the summit 
of a rather elongated floral receptacle. The ovules 
are numerous, arranged in two vertical rows; 
and the style is somewhat swollen at its apex 
into a depressed stigmatiferous head. The struc- 
ture of the very numerous stamens, which are 
shorter as they are more external, is the same 
as in B. verrucosa. 

' Namely, first of the Indian Alphonseas, 
which might become a section if we only re- 
tained the species that are pluri-carpellary, and 
have many stamens. A second section might be 
formed for the Old World species with only a 
limited number of stamens, especially B. heler- 
nniha, which has but three or six. In a third 
section, which would bear the same relation to 



the rest of the genus as Monocarjna bears to 
Unona proper, the gyniEceum would be reduced 
to a single carpel {Eremodelphis). Finally the 
true Bocageas, all American, would have the 
stamens and carpels definite or nearly so ; but 
the latter would be multiovulate as in the 
species for which A. de Saixt-Hilaiee esta- 
blished the genus; or else, as in B. canesceiis, 
a single excentric carpel with a bio\-ulate ovary 
would exist in the centre of the flower. 

- A. S. H., loc. cit. (see p. 210. notes I, 2).— 
Mart., Fl. Bras., 11, t. 11.— H. By., Adan- 
sonia, viii. 164, 169, 170. 

^ H. Bn., Adansonia, viii. 173. 

* Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 152.— Thw., 
Fnum. PI. Zeyl., 11. 



jlj NATVUAl. IHSTOJIY OF PLANTS. 

While we may define Boca//fa as i>nof/a with the stamens of 
Milium, Pojjowia} (figs. 251-*2()0), closely analogous by the small 
size of its flowers and by its corolla and gynajceum, has most 
peculiar stamens, very dissimilar in the fairly numerous species now 
included in the genus, and which, presenting in some species forms 
like those ascribed to the Ucarircp and the Milimea, offer, on the 
contrary, in others, very strange forms, which would necessitate 
the loundation of a special tribo, if it were always right to set a 






Popowia {Clnlhrospermiim) Mnnnli. 
Fig. 252. 



Popowia fomical a. 

Fig. 253. 

Stamen (\»). 



capital value on the appearance of the pieces of the androceum. But 
this will only be seen after a somewhat detailed study of certain 
African species of Popoiria. 

P. caffra; for instance, has a small tluwer, of which the bud 
is depressed, with a short calyx of three divisions, and six 
valvate petals, nearly as broad as they are long. The outer ones 
are sessile, nearly triangular. The inner taper considerably at 
the base, where they leave large openings between one another, 
through which the stamens are seen. These are rather numerous. 
Tiie inner ones are the longer, and touch by their very thick 
edges, to form a continuous circular belt round the gymcccum. 
The outer ones are the shorter, but all present the same conforma- 
tion, oasifr to rcpn'scnf (fig. :25l) than to describe. Imagine an 



' Knul., (}tn., 11. J71n. - M. 1|.. <;,,,.. 2.'). n. xpeciei n. 2 of thU autlior is n (•Ifis(ochlamyt). 

\9. — U. Us., AdaMo,ii„,v\u.-A]i.XiU. 1I(.,,K. —GuaKeria caff'ra SojiU., Fl. Cap., i. U.— 

& Tn.)MW., /'/. /«</.. i. 114. ir„„„a cnffrn K. Mkv., PI. Dreg. 

• liENIII., /,<-iH. Tionii.,\\\\\. tTn, 1, 1 (1),. 



ANON ACE. 1':. 'ji:! 

inverted truncated pyramid, whose larger base slants very obliquely 
downwards and inwards, and is terminated above and internally by a 
sort of beak, here still short and obtuse, but which we shall see 
becomes far more marked in several of its congeners. The surface 
of part of the connective is covered with warty, glandular, finely- 
mammillated projections ; on the sides, and somewhat externally, are 
the two anther-cells, which dehisce longitudinally. The gymeceum 
consists of a variable number of carpels. Each ovary contains one 
or two nearly basilar ascending ovules, whose micropyle looks down- 
wards and outwards. The style is club-shaped, slightly bent, and 
obtuse at the tip. The fruit is multiple, composed of a variable 
number of stipitate one-seeded berries. 

Several other species from the same country are now known,' 
of the same general structure, and only distinguished from the 
last by the somewhat variable number of stamens. The outermost 
may disappear, when the androceum will appear to consist of a 
single whorl, or in others the outer stamens are not quite absent, 
but become sterile (fig. :252). The gyna^ceum does not always con- 
tain the same number of ovules. Certain species have only one in 
each ovary, while others contain a variable number inserted along 
the inner angle in two vertical rows. Hence the fruits are not 
always one-seeded, sometimes forming chaplets like those of U/iona 
proper. As for the perianth, its form is very variable. The bud 
may be elongated and ovoidal, and the inner petals, more contracted 
at the base, form a corolla like that of several MUrephorcce, except 
that the claws are less elongated. But the character which varies 
most from one species to another is the form of the stamens. The 
projection of the connective, the size and direction of the sort of 
oblique beak surmounting it internally, the thickness of its upper 
part, the glandular mammillated state of its surface, and finally, the 
lengthened obliquity of the anther cells — these are the features that 
are almost always clearly changed in passing from one species to 
another, and that often become peculiarly marked in the plants we 
are now about to consicler. 

Uvaria ? Vogelii Hook. F.- has become the type of a genus. Chilli ro- 
spermuiii^ which might have appeared perfectly distinct when but 



1 See Adamonia, viii. 31G-326. » Pi^NCH. & Hook. F., loc. df.—M. H., Gen., 

- Niger, 208, t. xvii. 29, 958, n. 38. — Bbnth., Lhm. Trans., xxiii. 



214 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



\ 



very few African J/io/inrcie were known, but which is now linked to 
Popoicia cnffra and its nei<,'hbours by a larn;e number of intermediate 
species. The flowers of C. Vof/elii, in form and size analogous to 
those of certain species of Bocagoa, or of the sections Polj/alihia and 
Kcntia of Ufiona, have a slightly convex receptacle, a short gamo- 
sepalous calyx, scarcely marked by three crenulations, three outer 
petals, triangular sessile and valvate ; three inner ones somewhat 
shorter, valvate above, and not touching one another by their con- 
tracted bases. The stamens, from six to ten in number, are collected 
into a sort of crown around the gynieceum. Their form is singular 
(tig. 254) ; each, as in Pojwiria raffrn, is a truncated py- 
ramid with the large base upwards, very oblique, con- 
tinuous with the connective, and like it covered with a 
soi-t of irregular glandular tissue On its sides, which in 
• he bud touch those of the two neighbouring stamens, 
iiid as it were stick to them, we see the two anther-cells, 
l^ \ somewhat oblique, each dehiscing by a longitudinal 
cleft between the two half-cells, one of which is placed a 
little higher than the other. The gyna^ceuni, consisting 
of about half a dozen carpels, is similar to that of P. 
caffra, each ovary containing several ascending ovules. 
Here, as in Popow'ia proper, the stamen gra- 
dually alters in form from one species to another. The si/e and 
obliquity of the anther vary ; either its cells are quite thrown l)ack 
to each side,or they approach each other towards the 
outer face of the anther. This is continuous, without 
any appreciable line of demarcation, with the lilament, 
which, short and thick in certain species, such as 
P. cfiffra Qx fornicatcC (tigs. 251, 253), becomes elon- 
gated and tapers towards the base in others, especially 
/■*. I'of/c/ii (fig. 254). The su})erior base of the sort of 
]>yramid to which we have compared the connective 
becoming less and less oblicpie convex, finally, in 
/-*. Jlcin/r/ofi' (fig. 255), has a nearly horizontal direc- 
tion and is slightly concave. In P. Hditcri,'' the sort 



Popowia 

(Clathrospermum) 

Voyelii. 

Fig. 254. 

Stamen ('y"). 




I'opouia 

( Clalh rotpi-nn urn ) 

J/eudeloli. 

FlO. 255, 

Stamen (7). 



479.— H. Bn., Adantonia, viii, 315. 
Trap. Afric, 24. 

' 11. IJ.v., ryy». <i7., 318. 



-Oliv., /v. - H. nN.,o;j.ri7.,32tt,uote 2 (ecc tlie text for th 

foinplicati'il (lcUil» of the fornt* of the ttaiucn*) 
■• 11. I5.V.. op. cU., 324. 



ANONAGEJE. 



215 



of internal horn, which remained obtuse in the other species, is 
flattened out and elongates inwards so much (fig. 260) that the union 
of all the stamens forms a sort of chamber around the gyna^ceura, 
covered in by a nearly Hat roof, only perforated in the centre to give 
passage to tlie tops of the styles (tig. 258). The number of stamens 
is not the same in all the species, and the apparently verticillate 
arrangement of the fertile stamens does not prevent the presence of 




Fopowia {Clathrospermum) Barten 



Fio. 256. 
Flower-bud {^^). 





Fig. 259. 
Loiigitudiiuxl section of Howe 



Fig. 258. 
Flower, perianth removed. 





a certain number of external staminodes arranged with some degree 
of symmetry (fig. 252), and representing the shortest stamens 
observed in P. caffra. As for the gynseceum and fruit, they present 
every possible variation in the number and position of the ovules and 
seeds, from a solitary erect ovule to a pretty large number in two 
parallel rows, from the one-seeded berries of P. caffra and P. Vogelii 
to the chaplet-like fruits of P. Heiideloti and the allied species.' 
As known to us, this genus at present consists of about fifteen 



' In an African plant ascribed to this genus by 
BENTII.4M & Hooker {Qen., 958) the flowers are 
dioecious, and the carpels are about sixty in 
number. If this is really the species of Mr. 
Mann's collection (which we have analysed, and 
for which a new genus should perhaps be esta- 



blished), its outer petals are alone well developed, 
the inner ones being represented by very minute 
obtuse scales, and the ovaries are each surmounted 
by an ovoidal stigma, and contain at least six 
ovules. (See Oliver, loc. cif., n. 2.) 



216 



NATURAL HISTOBY OF PLANTS. 



species. Ten come from tropical and southern Africa' and Mada- 
gascar or the neic^hbouring islands.* The rest come from India and 
the Indian Archipehij^^o,^ except one observed in Austraha.' They 
are small trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves, and flowers solitary 
or collected into cymes or clusters of cymes, sometimes axillary or 
lateral, sometimes terminal or leaf-opposed. 

C. Xyloimk.e. — \n Xi/lopia^ (figs. 2G1-:?GG) the flowers are rej^ular 
and hermaphrodite. The calyx is very short, gamosepalous, tritid to 




Xylopia (fthiopica. 
Fio. 261. 



a variable depth, and valvate in lestivation. The corolla consists of 
SIX petals, whose conrorination is olten so peculiar that they, and 



' IluoK., Siijer, 20S.— Henth., Ioc cit., 170- 
47i>. 

» H. Hn., Ioc. eil. (»ec p. 211, nott-n 1-3). 

•' ll()(iK. A TiioMH., op. cit., 1()5. — Hi,., f/. 
Jar., Anoiuic, t. lo. — Mig., Fl. Iiiil., i. p. ij. 'Zl ; 
Ann. MiM. Luiid. Bat., ii. 20.— Wai.i-., .•/,)«.' 
iv. 51 ; vii. r>.'). 

' Hk.mii., H. Auatitil., i. :,•>. 



* L., Oen., n. 1027. — J Css., ««•»., 281.- 
G^RTN., Fi-vcL, i. 399, t. fi«J.— DvN.. Mon., 
121.— DC, S}ist.,\. 45»i»; Pro,ir.. i.l)2.-.\. IH'.. 
Mihn., 33.— Si'ACll. Suit, ti liuffon, vii. WK).— 
Kndl.. Otn., n. 471 1.— H. H.. U'-n., 28. J»58. 
n. 32.— 11. Hn.. AdanMinia. iv. 1 Ml; viii. 202. 
330. 3 M).- Emhira IMs., Iii;isil.,l\.- I'indaihn 
1*18.. Ioc. cit.—ll.im Mai»o.. lira-ril., JH». 



ANONAGEJE. 



217 



petals resembling them, have been termed " petals of tlie Xi/lopiea"' 
The outer ones, alternate with the divisions of the calyx, are a little 
larger than the inner ones, and are narrow and elongated, concave only 
near the base, where each is marked internally by a little pit ; above 
this they are thick, tapering, often connivent into an acute cone or 
pyramid, or more rarely spreading after the expansion of the flower 
(tigs. 2G2, 263). The interior petals, of nearly the same form, have tlie 

Xylopia grandijlura. 




—-J 



Fig. 262. 
Expanded flower. 





Pig. 263. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



Fig. 264. 
Flower, perianth removed. 





Fig. 266. 
Longitudinal section of seed. 



basilar pit moulded on the convexity of the androceum, above which 
they become triquetrous, and are united to one another by a large 



BuUiarda Neck., mem., n. 1103 (nee DC.).— 
Xylopicron P. Bk., Jam., 250. — JVaria Aubl., 
G.ian., 60-4, t. 2\Z.—IIahzeUa A. DC, Mem., 
31.— ExDL., Gen., n. 4715.— C«/oc/(«e A. DC, 
op. cif., 32. — Endl., Ge7i. n. 4716. — Fatonia 
Wight, III. i. 18.— Habzelia Hook. & Tuoms., 
FL IniL, i. 123.— B. H., Gen., 28, n. 33 (nee 
A. DC). — Parartabotrys B. H., Gen., loc. cit. 
(nee MiQ.). 

^ " Petala exteriora crassa, conniventia v. rix 
aperta ; interiora hiclusa minora." B. H., 
Gen., 22. 



^ In most flowers the petals, cohering into a 
three-sided pyramid, fall altogether when they 
become detached at the base. But it is cer- 
tain that this is not always the case, and that 
they may expand spontaneously when the flower 
opens, as occurs in JT. (tthiopica, where their 
summits alone diverge (fig. 261), and in certain 
other species where they become free to the base. 
In some species the form of the corolla is far nearer 
that of the Unonece. We shall see below that in 
the species of the section Vaeudaiioiia there is 
also an abnormality in the structure of the corolla. 



218 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

surface to form a three-sided pyramid. Above the perianth the recep- 
tacle usually undergoes a singular deformation. Its centre is in most 
species much depressed into a sort of conical sac, while its borders 
rise up considerably, projecting above this sac to form a sort of roof 
or dome, leaving only a very narrow aperture at the summit 
(fig. 2G3). Tliis is traversed by the styles, which project from it, 
while the ovaries are lodged within the receptacular sac, the 
whole of whose convex surface gives insertion to the pieces of the 
androceum, which are arranged in a spiral (tig. 264). The stamens, 
articulated at the base and very caducous, consist of a flattened 
connective, swollen at the apex into a truncate or rounded glandular 
head, and bearinj; on its outer lace two adnate cells of lonij:itudinal 
dehiscence. The carpels, of variable number,' consist each of an ovary 
tapering into a style, which is dilated^ after passing through the 
orifice of the receptacular dome (fig. 2C3), and then tapers again into 
a stigraatiferous apex- In the interior angle of the ovary is seen a 
placenta bearing an indefinite number of ovules, originally arranged 
in two vertical rows, with their micropyles turned outwards and 
downwards ; more rarely their number is reduced to two or three, 
inserted at variable heights on the interior angle of the ovary. The 
compound fruit consists of a variable number of sessile or slightly 
stipitate berries, more or less elongated, or short and thick, with or 
without more or less marked strangulations between the individual 
seeds.^ They sometimes open more or less irregularly ; the seeds 
contain a ruminated albumen and a minute embryo. The aril is 
often well developed on both sides of the umbilicus (figs. 2f)5, 266). 
In some species, the very peculiar form of the receptacle disappears 
more or less completely ; the terminal part supporting tlie carpels 



' Certain nr)\ver8 of A', malai/ana oi,ly con- tions; t hoy are more or less marked, sometimes 

tain tl.rti-. -\. L<uilelli„n,in. \iy.{Ad(,m<,uia, even very deep in X. Rkhardi Hoiv. (ex 

iv. \V\) lins UMuilly six, eacli Kuperposeil to ii H. Hn., Adansunia, v. 1 15, n. 1), a species foimd 

petal. In many oilier ttpecies, especially A'. in HonrlKMi, but wliicli.acordinij U) A. Huhaku 

a-l/iiopica A. 1<I« ii., there are very nuiny, as there (.I/A*'.), is a nativ.- of America.' In tlie s|H.Hies 

are in tin njHcich of the Htetion J'smdunoiia. of the section /'.vrHf/anowrt the berries are thick 

Here and there are (lowers with a single carpel. and nearly continuous, recallinp those of Asimlna 

- This swelling is rarely wanting. It is long in form and size. In A". (Jf.ihzrlui) /erru<;i„f,i, 

and fusiform in most H|)eeieH, ilavifonn in A'. on the contrary, they are deeply stningiilatetl, so 

vialaifana Hook. &. Tiiomh. (fV. /«,/., i. 125). In deeply and regularly as to recall onthe wholethe 

I'Htudaiwim the style is only a long narrow stra)). nioniliform nnisses of Khvt'nomis, such as V. di»- 



more or I),-m revolulo at the afM-x. ,„/„,. (H^jh. 2:»7. a3H). The In-rries of XAiriUanii 

^ In A'. W/«io/^/V(» the berries are nearly n.n- (see p. 2111, note 1) are short and irregularly 
ti.iuoiis, presenting but very slight strinvinhi- olH.vate, oltvn monospernious. 



ANONACE^. 219 

becomes only a shallow pit, or even a horizontal platform. These 
species have been made into a genus, Hahzelia,^ which, as all its other 
characters are the same, can merely be considered as a section of the 
genus Xijlopia, containing only Old World species. 

Again, in other species of this genus, such as X. yr audi flora 
A. S. H.,== hicida H. Bn.,^ &c., it happens that, as in many other 
genera of this order, the outer stamens, instead of being fertile, are 
converted into small petaloid scales (fig. 2C4). 

Even the usual character of the corolla may to a great extent be 
wanting. In several species from tropical Asia, or the north of 
Oceania, the petals, all nearly similar to one another, lose much of 
their length and thickness. Each corolla forms only an obtuse cone ; 
the petals are sessile, nearly triangular, and of about the same thick- 
ness from base to apex. The inner ones alone have slight lateral 
notches at the base, through which, as in the typical Xylopias, we 
see the pieces of the androceum. The small flowers of X. Vle/llardi* 
from New Caledonia, possess this conformation of the flower-bud in 
the highest degree — evidently a step towards the form of the corolla 
in certain Unonea. 

Finally, two remarkable plants from the east of Africa, formerly 
ascribed to the genus Anona, must also be referred to Xylopia as 
forming a particular section to which we shall give the name of 
Pseudanona. Tliese are X. auijjhwicauUs" and Lamarckii.^ Their 



1 Hook. & TnoJis., Fl. hid., i. 123.— B. H., '" H. Bn., Adamonia, v. 112, n. 1.— Anona 
Gen., 28, n. 33. — Walp., Ann., iv., 61. — Wall., amplexicaulis Laiik., Diet., ii. 127. — DC, 
Cat., n. 6478.— MiQ., FL Ind.-Bat., i. p. ii. 37. Prodr., i. 86, n. 22.— Dun., Alon., 76, t. 7. In 
— H. Bn., Adaiixonia, viii. 330, 340 (nee A. DC, this species, not only are the carpels and the 
Mem., 31). X malayana HooK. F. & Thoms., ovules in each ovary numerous, and the styles 
and some analogous species, have an acutely conical linear, but the petals have also a quite peculiar 
receptacle, whose apex alone is slightly hollowed configuration. The inner set form a small acute 
to receive the base of the gyna;ceum ; so that triquetrous corolla. The outer ones, far broader 
these species are intermediate between Habzeiia and longer, and quite difterent in form, are 
and those species of Xylopia in which the recep- oblong-lanceolate, subspathulate, with the inner 
taculiir sac envelopes the ovaries up to the faces very narrow and acute, moulded on the con- 
summit, vexity of the inner corolla, and corresponding 

^ Flor. Bras. Mer., i. 39, t. 8. exactly with its form ; their edges are very thick, 

^ Adansunia, viii. 182. — X. longlfolia A. DC, and are in contact for a breadth of nearly *a centi- 

Mem. 34, n. 1 (1832).— X cuhen-ns A. EiCH., metre, 
Fl. Cub., 16, t. 6. — X (/randijlora Benth., * H. Bn., loc. cit., n. 2. — Amna grandiflom 

Sulph., 64 (nee A.S. H.). — X Diinaliana Pl. & Lamk., loc. cit. — DC, loc. cit., n. 21. DxTN. 

LiNU., Fl. Columb., 15. — Unona lucida DC, op. cit., 7o, t. 6. Here the buds are much more 

Si/st., i. 498; Prodr., i. 92, n. 34. — DuN., Mon. rounded and obtuse at the apex than in the pre- 

(1817), 116, t. 23. — U. xylopioides Dun., op. ceding species. The outer petals are of nearly 

cit., 117, t. 24. — Coelocline ? lucida A. DC, u^. the same form as the inner ones, but a little 

cit., 33, n. 5. broader and longer. They increase in size towards 

•• U. Bn., Adansonia, viii. 202. the upper extremity, where they arc spoon- 



220 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



corollas are in fact similar to those of several American Anonax in 
the breadth of the petals and the thickness of their ed^es ; while 
their ripe carpels are, as we have seen, as thick as in several species 
of Unona ; their number is considerable in the Hower, and much 
reduced in the fruit. 

Thus constituted, the genus Xylopia contains about thirty species 
from the warm regions of Africa,' Asia," and Oceania,' while about 
fifteen come from tropical America/ They are trees or shrubs, with 
flowers solitary or cymose, axillary or lateral, rarely terminal. 

The genus Anona (figs. "l^l-llXf, which has given its name to 
the whole order, and to which nearly all its species were at first 







Anona sqtuimoxa. 


Fig. 2G7. 


Fig. 208. 


Fruit (i). 


Transverse section of fruit. 



referred, may be defined in few words, now that we know the pre- 
ceding genus : Anona is Xylopia with a convex receptacle whose pauci- 
ovulate ovaries become a fleshy multiple fruit with connate carpels 
(figs. 267, 2 OS, 271) ; or, again, Anona is to Xylopia what Duguetia 
is, on the whole, to Uraria. The calyx consists of three sepals, 



BhaiH.'(l, concave witliin and bowed at the apex, 
and win-re they (»iily touch hy a rather thin cdpe. 
n<it hy a very bnmd surfiice. In fact, as in A'. 
f'ifi/'ardi, tlu-y are nearly the petals of I'nonn. 

' Hook., iNV<7pr, 2(>i — Hknth., Linn. Traiui., 
xxiii. 47H.— A. DC, Mrm., -M-'-W. — \\\c\l ., 
(il'ILL., I'KKK., Tent. Ft. SenetJ., i. 9.— H. Hn., 
Adntmonifi, iv. 140; v. 3G2. 

" Hook, k Thoms.. Fl. Ind., i. 123.— Tiiw.. 
Knum. I'l. Zeyt., 'J. 

> Zoi.i.., Linnaa, xxix. 318.— MiQ., FL Ind.. 
Ila>., i. p. ii. 37 ; Ann. Mux. Liii/d. /int., ii. 43. 

♦ A. S. H.. /'/. Itnij, .1//r.. i. 31», t H. A. 
Kuii.. Fl. Cut,., ir., t. vi. vii.— Maut., Fl. Urax., 
,</iofiac., 41,t. 13.— (iKi;-Kii., FL lint. U\ Ind., 



6.— ScHLTL., Lintuta, ix. 326.— I'l. A. Thiana, 
Ann. Sc. Nat., st^r. 4, xvii. 37. Also, for the 
8|)ecie8 of dillerenl countries, Wam'., Jirp., i. 75; 
Ann., iv. fil ; vii. 59. 

* Anona L., (Jen., n. 093 {AuHona). — J res., 
Gen., 2K3.— r.,i:i(TNKK, FmcL, ii. 193, t. 138.— 
DrN.. .l/««., 28, r.H, t. 2 7.— DC, Sy»f., i. U\G; 
J'roilr., i. 83 ; ap. Dki.Kss.. Iron. Sri., i. t. 8<;. — 
Si'ACH, .S'«.7. a Jiiijlon, vii. 497.— Kndi.., (/en., 
n. 4723.— Walp.. Rep., i. Hf. ; ii. 7 IK ; v. 15; 
Ann.,\\.20; iv. 5(5 ; vii 58.— flo^ lirff., t.U2H. 
— Hut. Mn<j.,X. 2011. 2911, 2912. 3095. 422(5. 
H. H., tlen., 27, 958. n. 3(».— H. My.. Adan- 
xiinin, viii. 2(55, 29(>, 3 In, 389. — (rHOHabanut 
IM.l M., Sor. iie„. Amrr., 43. 



ANON AGE JR. 221 

free or cohering to a variable extent, valvate in aestivation. The 
corolla consists of six petals, that may be narrow, acute, and thick, 
as in most species of Xi/lopia ; a character found in the highest degree 
in some American species, as A. Lichmamiicuia,^ qalndiieimH'; &c. In 
others, such as A. Cherijiiolia, cherimolioide.s, refic/data, .squamom, &c., 
the corolla, less elongated and acute in the bud, comes nearer that 




Auona muricata. 



Fig. 269. 
Flower. 



Fig. 271. 
Longitudinal section of fruit [\). 



of several species of Melodonnu. In others, again, the bud is ovoidal 
and more or less trigonous, as in A. ^ericca, Plsonis, cornifolia, coriacca, 
&LQ,., or globular, as in different forms of A. soie^alensis, or even de- 
pressed and of greater breadth than height, as in A. tenuifolia {fcifji- 
folicL)? In several species the inner petals become much shorter than 
the outer ones, and are only represented by very short spoon-shaped 
scales ; and in some others they finally disappear entirely.^ But despite 



' H. Bn., Aclansonia, viii. 266, n. 4. 

- H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Spec, v. 47, ii. 12. 

•• Sec Adan.sonia, viii. 296, where the inter- 
mediate forms observed in many other species of 
this genus :ire reviewed more in detail. 



•• On these chnracters De Maetius {Fl. Bras., 
Anunac, 3, 46) has founded a division of the 
genus Anona into two sections : 1st, G-uanahani, 
in which the flowers have six well-developed 
petals; 2nd, Afla, where the inner petals are 



XATUHAL UJfiTOUY OF PLANTS. 




all these differences of lorni, the petals are still very thick and valvatc 
in the hud. In y/. muricaicC (figs. 2G0-271), while the outer petals 
retain these characters, the inner ones are thinner towards the edges, 
and are strongly imbricated in aestivation. 
The same occurs in A. inculucrata,' in which, 
moreover, the flower is enveloped by two 
bracts, that form a complete sac for the 
young bud. In all these species the stamens, 
inserted in a spiral on a hemispherical re- 
ceptacle, are surmounted by a thick, truncate, 
(>])long or oval dilatation of the connective, 
and are, in a word, analogous to those of 
IJraria. Each carpel contains one or two^ 
nearly basilar ascending ovules, with the 
micropyles outwards and downwards ; and 
the multiple fruit is a fleshy berry in which the seeds are scattered, 
and whose surface is nearly smooth, reticulate, or covered with 
obtuse projections or recurved prickles. 

In one small-flowered species from Mexico, the characters of the 
female organs and the fruit are the same ; but the flowers, few in 
number, have in the bud the globular form found in most Hocageaa ; 
hence the name of the species, J. glohifora ;* the stamens are exactly 
those of several species of the same genus Bocagca, the anther-cells 
being surmounted by a narrow conical projection of the connective 
(fig. 274). The inner petals are quite wanting in this species 
(fig. 273). It is, however, impossible to separate this plant from 
the genus Anovn, of which it constitutes a distinct section under the 
name of AnoncUa. 

Half a hundred species of Anonn are admitted ; but this number 



wanting or reduced to smnll Hcales. These iniglit 
be further subdivided Bccording to the pre- 
flonition of tlic c'r)rolln, and the very different 
ino«lilic«liong of form tliut it affects in the bud, 
of wliicli we huve just spoken, 

' L., .Vyjfr., 7r»(;.--JArQ., l)h»., i. 10, t. 5. — 
Din., 3fcn., G2.— DC. .S>W.. i. 467; Prodr.,\. 
84, n. 1. — A. anintica L., Spec. ii. 7r)8, ex U. 
Uli., Confio, (3. 

' H. Hn., Ailftimonia, viii. '2(>r>, n. 2. 

' We hiwe tifu-n seen lw<i yiunK si-etls in encli 
cnrpel in soini' newly-forUHHl fruits of A. tqun. 
innitn, sent from Hourl>oii. Tlicy were .»( the 



same size, or else the one had already greatly 
surpassed the other in size, whose development 
seemed destined to cease at that stape. This 
fact pcrhajis indiiiites that two is the oripiniil 
number of tlio ovules in the young carpels of 
Anovd. Those we have seen in jjuirs were in- 
serted at nearly the siune heiglit. The circum- 
ference of the umbilicus fornuHl a circular pro- 
jection around the insertion of the very short 
and relatively narrow fumde. 

* Scili.TL., Linntra, \x. 235. — II. IJn.. Adan- 
nonin, viii. 2()(>, 'M'.i. 



anonage.t:. 



•223 



will probably have to be reduced. Nearly all are of American origin,' 
but some are found in tropical Asia' and Africa.' Tliey are trees or 



Anona (Anonella) qlobijlora. 






shrubs with alternate exstipulate leaves. The flowers are almost 
always solitary, usually terminal, or leaf-opposed, or lateral. 



EoUinin mucosa. 




Fig. 276. 
Flower, perianth removed. Longitudinal section of flower. 

I). KoLLiNiE^. — In BoU'uiia' (figs. 275-277), the flowers are, as 



1 Attbl., Chdan. i. 611. — Plum., Nov. Gen. 
Amer., 43.— H. B. K., Nor. Gen. et Spec, v. 
43.— .Iacq., Ohserv., i. t. 6, figs. 1, 2. — Trss., Fl. 
Antill., i. 194, t. 29.— A. S. H., PI. Us. Brasil., 
29, 30; Fl. Sras. Mer., i. 30. — Schltl., Llnncea, 
ix. 319.— Makt., Fl. Bras. Anonac, 3, t. 4G. — 
A. S. H. & TuL., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 2, xvii. 131. 
—A. Rich., Fl. Cnb., i. 12, t. v.— Griseb., Fl. 
Brit. W. Lid., 4.— Fl. & Tr., Ann. Sc. Nat., 
ser 4, xvii. 25. — H. By., Adansonia, viii. 265. 

'^ Where they are probably introduced. See 
Rheede, Hori. Malab., iii. t. 30, 31. — Bl. Fl. 
Jan., Anonac, 108, t. ')3.— ZoLL., Linnrpa, xxix. 



316. — Wight & Arx., Prodr., i. 7. — Roxb., 
Fl. Lid., ii. 657.— Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 
115.— MiQ., Fl. Lid.-Bat., i. p. ii. 33. 

3 Scrum. & Thonn., Beskr., 257.— Pers., 
Si/n., ii. 95.— Rich., Guill. & Perh., Tent. Fl. 
Seneff., 1.4.-^03., Ann. Sc Nat., ser. 2, xx. 53. — 
Hook. F., Ni(jer, 204. — Besih., Linn. Trans.. 
xxiii. 476.— H. Bx., Adansonia, v. 362; viii. 380. 
— Olit., Fl. Trop. Afric, 15- 

* A. S. H., Flor. Bras. 3fer., i. 28, t. 5.— 
Spach, Suit, a Buffon, vii. 503. — Esdl., Gen., 
n. 4724.— B. H. Gen., 27, n. 29.— H. Bn., 
Adansonia, viii. 310, 332, 340. 



224 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAXTS. 

regards the gynaeceum, androceum, and receptacle, formed exactly as 
in /inoita, and the fleshy fruit is usually the same. They are, how- 
ever, distinguished at a glance by a character, no doubt of little im- 
portance in itself, but very easy to recognise ; the gamopetalous co- 
rolla has three laterally flattened horn-shaped projections. These solid 
spurs belong to the outer petals, which, united from the base into a 
short cylindrical or bulging tube, have the organic apex curtailed and 
incurved, so that altogether they form a vault closely applied to the 
reproductive organs. But lower down, the median dorsal part of 
each is swollen into the sort of wing of which we have spoken, and 
which, more or less obtuse at the apex, rises obliquely or vertically 
like the leg of a tripod.' The inner petals want this appendage ; 
they are like the bodies of the outer petals, or much smaller, reduced 
to small scales, or even quite absent. The receptacle is like a 
depressed cone ; the stamens are surmounted by a truncate dilatation 
of the apex of the connective ; each ovary contains an ascending 
nearly basilar ovule ; and the fruit is either nearly smooth or covered 
with recurved points, as in A. muricata or several species oi J/jcronoa.- 
Tlxe genus RoUinia consists of about twenty trees or shrubs found 
in America, from Mexico to the south of Brazil.' Their habit and 
foliage are those oi Anoiia, and their flowers are terminal, leaf-opposed, 
or extra-axillary, solitary or grouped in few- flowered cymes. 

The general arrangement of the flowers of BoUinia is also found in a 
Sumatran plant which has been named Parartabotn/s ;* except that the 
ovaries of the latter contain numerous ovules instead of a single one, 
and the ascending horns on the backs of the petals are nearly cylin- 
drical, and of the same thickness in every direction. In the latter 
character, /''('/r/'/r//'//yrVy7/.s' justifies the name given to express its analogy 



• Followiiij,' the development of these organs in sists of free carpels ; but does not point out in 

the bud, we huve seen (Adannonia, viil. 310) which species is observed this peculiurity, whirli 

that in the youn^; buds the outer corolla is at we have not been in a position to verify, 
first glubular, and with the convex surface per- ^ A. S. H., loc. cit. — A. !)(.'., .l/r'm., 23. — 



fectly sni<K)t!i. Later, a slij;ht ^^ibbosity arises Maht., FI. Bras., Anoiiac, 17, 47, t. (i.' 

on the jiiidiUe of the dorsiil median line of each ScHLTl.., Liniura, i\. 31 1. — Wai.p , Ri-p., i. l«U ; 

petal. This it is, wiiich becoming? more marked ii. 7 IH ; Ann.,\\.'10; iii. 813; iv. r)7 ; vii. 5S. — 

day by d.iy, fnially pnKluces the solid curved 1*L. & Th.. Ann. Sc. yii(., ser. 1, xvii. 30. — 

horn, obtuse at the a|)ex, whicli all authors have (tiuSEn., Fl. liiit, W. Iml., 5. — U. Hn., Adan- 

remarked. It is easy to hhow that the true soma, viii. 268. 

organic ajK'x of the jK-tal is seated far lower * Miy., Fl. Jiid.'Iin/., suppl. i. \'>i; Ann. 

down than that of this soliil Hjiur. ,!/«*. Liii/d. Hat., ii. 43. — H. IiN., AdannuHui, 

» HkmiiaM says (Journ. Linn. Sur., v. 07) viii. 3U),3:;i», 311. -.A>/«/f«(i H. H.,OV».. 2H, yftS, 

that the fruit of C4'rtain species of RoUinia con- n. 32 (neo Auctt,). 



ANONACEJE. 



225 



to certain Javanese species of Artahofrys,^ such as A. fivaveoJc.n^ Bl.* 
and the species near it. In fact, we see tluit tlic flowers of these 
are similar in all respects to those of Pararfabofri/s, except that 
instead of numerous ovules we only Knd two in each ovary, inserted 
near the base of the inner angle, ascending, with their micropyles out- 
wards and downwards. A. suavcolens has also a thick deeply three- 
lobed calyx, indefinite stamens, and a small number of carpels inserted 




Artahotrys svareohiis. 

Fro. 278. 

Inflorescence. 

on a sort of receptacular platform, surrounded by an annular pro- 
jection. The fruit consists of several one- or two-seeded berries. The 
general structure of the flower and fruit is the same, too, in the first 
species of this genus that were known, such as A. uncata? But there 



1 R. Bb., Bot. Reg., t, 423 j Misc. Worlcs, ed. 
Benn., ii. 685. — Spach, Suit.a Bufon, vii. 508. 
— ExDL., Gen., n. 4720.— B. H., aen., 24, 956, 
n. 10.— H. Bn., Adansonia, viii. 311, 341. — 
Ropalopetalum Gkiff., Notul., iv. 716. 

^ Fl. Jav., Anonac, 62, t. 30, 31, I). 

^ A. odoratixshnus R. Bk., loc. cU. — Uvaria 
uncata LoUK., Fl. Cochiuch., cd. Ulyssip. (17'J0), 
349.-1^. odoratissima RoXB., Fl. Lid., ii. 666. 
U. esculenta Rottl., Nov. Act. Soc. Nat. Cur. 

VOL. I. 



Berol., iv. 201. — Unona uncinafa Dtrx., 3Ian., 
105, t. 12. — U. hamata DxTN., op. cit., 107. — 
Anona hexapetala L., Stippl., 270. — A. uncinafa 
Lamk., Diet., ii. (1790), 127. The name kexa- 
petala cannot be retained, as it would refer to 
all the species of Artabotrys indiscriminately. 
The names nncala and uncinafa are of the same 
year ; but we know that two yeai-s elapsed after 
LouEEiEO had communicated his memoir to the 
Academy of Lisbon before the first edition of it 

Q 



22<; NATURAL niSTORY OF PLANTS. 

the projections from the petals (wliieh also cover in the sexual organs 
like a dome) are flattened in the radial direction of the flower, instead 
of being of the same breadth in every direction as in J. miaveolctis, 
or laterally compressed as in most species of lioUima. The genus 
Artabotrj/.s contains about fifteen species, of which three or four come 
from Africa,' and the rest from tropical and eastern Asia,' or the 
Indian Archipelago.' They are shrubs, often climbers, with alternate 
usually smooth leaves, and flowers grouped into clusters of often 
few-flowered cymes. The chief axis of each cluster is flattened and 
dilated into a sort of recurved fasciated hook, which bears, chiefly on 
its convexity, groups of pedicellate flowers, whose development is 
often partly arrested (fig. 278). 

The tree from Ceylon called Ci/afhocalyx* has a corolla like that of 
A. uncaia, with erect blades of even more membranous texture, and 
only touching by the edges in the bud. But the calyx is like a deep 
cup, whose edges alone are incised into three teeth, and the flattened 
summit of the receptacle only supports a single carpel. The uni- 
locular ovary only supports one parietal placenta, on which are 
inserted two rows of anatropous ovules,* and the style rapidly dilates 
into a large flattened stigmatiferous head. The fruit is a many-seeded 
berry. The leaves are glabrous alternate, and the flowers are solitary 
or grouped into few-flowered cymes, terminal or leaf-opposed." 

In Jfcxalobm' (figs. 279, 2S0), the perianth is like that of a 
(.'i/athocali/x, or any of the species o'i Artahoin/s analogous to A. imcafn ; 
but the six petals are united into a tubular corolla in the whole oi' 
the part enveloping the sexual organs. The membranous flat- 



came out. We mny therefore accord priority to a unicarpellary Artabotrys; and as wo have 

the gi^ecific name which he proposed. said, there would he no douht no reason for 

' Hook. F., Nir/er, 207. — Benth., Linn. hesitating to suppress the genus Ci/athoc<ili/x if 

TVan*., xxiii. 4150. — Miq., Anu. Mux. Lugd. Bat., its flowers were home on fasciate hooke<l axes, 

ii. W. — Oi.iv. F/. (f Trop. Afr., 27. since unicarpellary sjH-cies are admitted in the 

* Hook. F. A: 'I'iikms., /'/. /«</., i. 127. — genera Boratjea, Unoiui, &c. As for the cha- 
Tiiw., Enum. PL Zeyl., !). — I5i:NTit., FI. Hon;!- racter derived from the depth of the calyx, which 
kunij., 10. has given its name to the genns, it is of no gnat 

' IJu, op. fit., 59, t. 28-31. — Miij., Fl. Ind.- value, since it may vary as much in sevend genera 

Bat., i. p. ii. 3H ; Nupjil., i. 151; .inn. Mux. otherwise perfectly natund, such as I'nonn, tie. 

lAti/d. Hat., ii. .'JH, 13. — Wai.i-., Hi p., i. K(»; Moreover, we should not forget that in certain 

Ann., ii. I'J; iv. (\'A ; vii. 53. species of Artabotrys i\\ti axis of the inllorestvnce 

* C. zeylanicun CiiAMi'., ox IIooK. F. & is not, or at least is not ctmstantly, hooke<i and 
riioMB., Ft. Ind., i. 12(!.— H. H.. (it-n., 2t, n. Hattenwl. 

y. — WaM'., .l«»i., iv. (!3. — II. Hn.. Ad»n*nnin, ? A. DC, Mi'm., 30, t. 5, A. — Kndl.. Och., 

viii. 312, Z\\. n. 4718.— n. H., Gen.,'lV, l»5(!, n. 11.— H. Hx.. 

^ There are usually five or six in ouch row. Adanxonia, viii. 312, 332, 311 (niv A. S. II. &. 

'• Tlie flower is on the wlio'f ipiite tliut of li'U, Attn. St\ Nut., sit. 2, xvii. 133). 



ANON AGE 2E. 



227 



tened blades that surmount the sort of cap thus formed, are broad, 
tapering towards the apex, and corrugated in the bud,' where they 
only touch by their edges. The whole corolla falls off in a single 
piece. The calyx consists of tliree valvate leaves.^ The stamens are 
indefinite, surmounted by a truncate prolongation of the connective. 

Jlexalobus rjrandijlonis. 





The number of carpels is also indefinite, but small.* Each ovary con- 
tains an indefinite number of ovules in two parallel rows,' and is 
surmounted by a style with two lateral papillate lobes, with the 
edges rolled up.' The fruit consists of a small number of many- 
seeded berries. Two or three species" of Jle.vahhus are known, 
natives of tropical Africa ; trees or shrubs with alternate leaves and 



^ They are especially covered with parallel 
horizontal plaits, so that in tlie young l3uds of 
K. senegalensis A. DC. (Uvaria monopetala 
Rich., Gtjill. & Pere., Tent. Fl. Seneg., 8), 
the apex of the petal comes very near the ba-se. 

^ The edge is often slightly reduplicate. 

^ There are often six ; in this case each seems 
to be superposed to a corolla lobe. 

■» Bexthaji & Hooker state that they are 
sometimes in one row, sometimes in two {Gen. 
950). But we have shown {Adansonia, viii. 332) 
that in the species that are undoubtedly of tliis 
genus there ai'e always two vertical rows of 
ovules placed back to back. 

* Each of these two lobes is a large triangular 
blade with its upper edge lobed and papillate, and 
it looks as if it had been twisted up into a cornet, 



like a sheet of paper. There is, moreover, as 
shown in fig. 280, a terminal median lobe, 
relatively very short and obtuse. The floral 
receptacle is nearly plane in H. grandiflonts, 
and depressed and surrounded by a projecting 
ring in H. senegalensis (see Adansonia, viii, 
329). 

6 Rich., Guill. & Peee., Tent. Fl. Sen/gamh., 
loc. cit., t. 2. — Benth., Trans. Linn. Soc, xxiii. 
467, t. 49.— Walp., Eep., i. 80.— Oliv. Ft. 
of Trop.Afr., 26. We have described {Adansonia, 
viii. 3 18) a doubtful species of this genus. H. 
brasiliensis A. S. H. & TUL. belongs to Trigyneia 
(see p. 206) ; and perhaps, too, II. madagasca- 
riensis A. DC. (Mem., 37, n. 2), should, we have 
said, be referred to the genus Monodora {Adan- 
sonia, viii. 301). 



228 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

sessile or pedunculate solitary axillary flowers, below each of which 
are two lateral bracts with their edges in contact to form a sac, at 
first completely closed, surroundini,' the young llower-bud. 

E. OxYMiTiiE.E. — The generic name O.n/initra' refers to an inner 
corolla in which the three pieces approach by their very thick upper 
parts, so as to form a sort of vault on three pillars above the sexual 




(Jxi/mi/ra {Gonlolhalamus) Gardner!. 

Fio. 281. 

I'lowcr. 

organs (fig. 281). The summit forms an erect, more or less acute 
cone ; while the bases of the petals represent the pillars, and are more 
or less taper,- so that between them are three openings through 
which the stamens and gynajceum are seen. The outer ])etals 
correspond to these spaces, and are quite different to the inner 
ones, their edges being in contact with one another only in a very 
young bud ; later on they spread more or less as blades of very 
variable size, thickness, and consistency. The calyx is much shorter 
still, and consists of three sepals, free or united at the l)ase, also valvate 
in JL'stivation The indclinite stamens are inserted in a spiral on a 



' Hi,., F/«/-../«r., .-/««;('«•., 71, t. ;{.'>, ;u;, 1), 37. iiiul nri' soimnit 111 fnim Olio uiiotlior itt tlio buws 

- Kndl., Hen., n. 1713 1>. — H. H., Geii., 2(5, liy narrow t'liniiralid trianjruliir sjmuvm. XwUuuio- 

1)57, n. 21. - H. IJn., Adatmonia. viii. 'Ml. Ihalamuii, UkNtham A n»><)KKii (lov. cif.)my of 

- In O. jKitetM Hkntii. tlic pi'taU iire nliort, the inner |M.'tuU " Ixui in unyurm hitain angu*. 

I'onwivo, anil w'tMtile; in ht'venil A»'mtieitpi'ciiH they tain." Now this biiaihir el«\v i* usually even 

Ibrni :» Viinlt njore or Icmh nc-iite iit its siininiit. hmmiiT hiill in tlif trnc (Kri/mihax. 



ANONAGEJS. 



229 



more or less convex receptacle. They are of the same form as in 
UnoHci and Ucaria, the connective bearing a dilatation of very 
variable form' above the extrorse anther-cells. The carpels are 
indefinite, and each ovary contains one or two ovules inserted on the 
inner angle near its base or a little higher up." The fruit consists 
of a variable number of stipitate one-seeded berries. The seeds 
differ greatly in form according to the species. Thus they are 
smooth and globular or ovoidal in most of the Indian and Javanese" 
species of 0,v^iiiltra, as well as in Goniothalamus^ (fig. 281), which we 
cannot separate from this genus, for the only difference that can be 
pointed out in its flowers is that at the base the outer petals are a 
little thicker, and the inner ones are a little broader.* But in certain 
African species, as O.j^tatens,^ the seeds become spheres bristling with 
conical projections (figs. 2S2, 283), and some of the carpels contain 



Oxymitra patens. 





Via. 283. 
Longitudinal section of seed. 



two seeds. In some other Oxi/hiitras from Oceania, which have been 
made the type of a genus Richella- (figs. 284-286), the seeds are 



1 It is sometimes depressed and capitate, some- 
times ovoidal, or more or less elongated and 
conical ; these characters vary with the species, 
all the other characters of the flower remaining 
the same. 

* Never have they appeared to us exactly 
basilar — that is, erect. They are often incom- 
pletely anatropous. • The micropyle looks down- 
wards and outwards, but it is often at some dis- 
tance from the umbilicus. The style of O. paiens 
is short and depressed in the stigmatiferous part, 
while it is like a very long oblique cone in several 
Asiatic species. It is sometimes simple, some- 
times bifid at the apex. 

3 Bl., loc. ciL— Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ltd., 
i. 145. — MlQ., Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. ii. 50 ; Ann. 
Mus. Liigd. Bat., ii. 29. — ZoLL., Linncea, xxix. 
324.— Thwait., Enum. PI. Zeyl, 29.— Walp. 
Ann., iv. 72; vii. 5G. 

* Bl., Fl. Jar., Anonac, 71, t, 39, 52, B.— 
MlQ., Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. ii. 58; Ann. Mm: 



Lugd. Bat., ii. 33. — Walp., Ann., iv. 51 ; vii. 
56.— Thwait., Enum. PI. Zeyl, 33.— B. H., 
Gen., 26, n. 22. 

° These diflerences are, moreover, far from 
constant, and in Goniothalamus some flowers may 
have their inner petals simply sticking to one 
iiuother, so that slight traction will separate 
them. The same thing may occur in Oxymitra 
proper. 

^ Bexth., Linn. Tram., xxiii. 472, n. 4, t. Ii. 
— H. Bx., Adamonia, v. 363.— Oliv. Fl. Trop. 
Afr., 34. The ovules are described and figured in 
Bextham's work as parallel, and separated by a 
vertical septum ; in the flowers wc have been able 
to dissect it has appeared to us horizontal. In 
the fruit one seed is above the other, and they are 
separated by a well marked horizontal septum. 

' A. Gray, Amer. Explor. Exped., i. 28, t. 2, 
— B. H., Gen., 26, n. 20. — II. Bn., Adansonia, 
viii. 177. — Seem., jP/. riiMr>w., 5. — Walp., Ann.. 
vii. 56. 



230 



NATUItAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



sometimes triquetrous with the edges (especially the two lateral ones) 
prolonged into thin wings. However, these wings may be thickened 
and project but little as in a species from New Caledonia that we 
have hence named 0. ohiusata^ which thus affords a transition 
between the typical JluheUm and the Javanese Oa\i/imfra.s. Besides, 
in Richella there may be more than two ovules in each cai-pel, for we 
have seen specimens whose pyriform berries contained three or 
four seeds- when ripe (fig. 284).' 

The smaller flowers of Mitrephora' are of the same general 
structure. But they are easily distinguished by a very striking 

Usymllm {Richella) Grayatia. 






Fig. 284. 
Four- seeded berry. 



Fio. 286. 
Longitudinal sotrtion of seid. 



character, though one of little importance in itself: the tapering 
basilar part of the petals is very long ; so that three very long and 
slender pillars support the vault that they form high above the 



' Adansonia, viii. 178. 

' Hence we have been unable to retain the 
apccific name of monosperma, for which we have 
had to Biilwlitute Hint of (irayana, 

•* We liavL- not buuii able to observe, and only 
know by dcHcription, a genus which uppcnrH very 
nearly allied to Oxymitra and Ooninlhalauuis, 
and that has bten niiined Atnitnyia (Meddomk, 
Madr. Juurn. JAIL Sc. sor. '.), "i. :)7, tii,'. 1, ex 
B. H., Grii., \i')7, n. 22 a). Its calyx consists of 
four (?) small Kfj)als, and its corolla of six valvate 
coriaceous iMftiils. The three outer are oval 
ucumiiiate, an<l cohere around the sexual organs. 
The indefinite stamens are hurmouiitod hy an ob- 
tusely acuminate ]iroji'ction of the CDnmrtive. 
The subglobuhir recf|itacle also supjMirls mi iu- 
dednitc nmiiher of curials with uniovtiliilf ovarit> 



(ovules erect) surmounted by an elongated style 
tapering into a two-branched terminul stigma. 
It is a small tree from Peninsular India, with 
the leaves glabrous, acuminate, and the flowers 
either solitary axillary, or springing from nodcM 
which have lost their leaves. The whole 
surface of the outer jK'tals and the outer faces of 
the ijiner ones are covered with haii-s. 

■• Hl.. FI. Jar., Anonnc, 13, 1. 10, 11. 12. U, 
C, I), (sect. Ucariii). -Kvm.., Gen., n. 1717 a 
( rrarirt).— Miy., /•'/. Intl.- Rat., i. y. ii. ai» ; Ahh. 
Mu». Luqd. Jiat., ii. 27.— H. H.. (Vr;i.. 2(1, 957, 
„. 2:i.— H. Hn., Athinxotiiu, viii. 32'J, 312.— 
/'.sriuliivaria Mig., ^7. Ind.-Hal., i. p. ii. 32.— 
Orophiia Mig., Aint. Miia. LuyJ. J9u/., ii. 22, ex 
j»art. (nee Ml.). 



ANONACEJE. 281 

sexual organs (fig. 287). The outer petals seem to be so much the 
shorter in consequence, coming very near sepals in size, form, and 
consistency.' The stamens and carpels are arranged, as in Oxymitra, 
on a slightly convex receptacle ; but eacli ovary contains an indefinite 
number of ovules in two vertical rows.' The stipitate berries each 
contain one or several seeds. The genus Mitrepliora consists of trees 
and shrubs from tropical Asia and the neighbouring parts of the 
Indian Archipelago.^ Their leaves are rather thick, with the 




Orophaa cor 




secondary veins often parallel and prominent. The flowers are 
axillary, terminal or lateral, solitary or in cymes, which may them- 
selves be isolated or grouped into a cluster on a common axis. They 
are sometimes diclinous.^ 

The genus OroplKBot consists of natives of the same countries as 



^ Hence there are species that in the stnicture 
of the corolla come very near the Phceanthece, 
as do several species of Mitrepliora, and certain 
Asiatic Popoivias. The outer petals are usually 
obtuse and spreading j the inner ones cohere by 
the edges of their broad limbs, and often the 
vault formed by their union falls on one side 
owing to the bending of the long slender claws. 
But often, too, their limbs finally separate from 
one another, and the interior corolla presents a 
true expansion. 

- The tloral receptacle is usually convex ; it 
is however slightly hollowed out at the insertion 
of the carpels, which it surrounds by a small 
annular projection in certain Javanese species. 

3 lIooK. &TnoMs., Fl. Ind., i. 112.— Hassk., 
Eetzia, i. 116.— Thwait., Enuvi. PI. Zeyl., 8.— 



ZoLL., Linncea, xxix. 315. — Walp., Ann., iv. 
55 ; vii. 57. 

■* This occurs in Pseiiduvaria MiQ., rightly 
referred by Bextuam & Hooker to the genus 
Milrephora, of which it has the stamens, but by 
MlQUEL finally included in Orophcea (Ann. Mas. 
Luffd. Bat., ii. 22). But the stamens of Pseud- 
uvaria are quite those of Ucaria, and the 
synonomy of the typical species must be thus 
re-established : Mitrephora reticulata B. H. — 
Uvaria reticulata Bl. {op. cit., t. 24). — Pseud- 
uvaria reticulata MiQ. — Orophaa reticulata 
MiQ. 

5 Bl., Bijdr., 18.— Endl., Gen., n. 4711.— 
B. H., Gen., 29, 958, n. 36.— H. Bn., Adan- 
sonia, viii. 342. — Bocagea Bi.., Fl. Jav., Ana- 
nac, t. 40, 45 (nee Auctt.). 



232 NATURAL UISTOBY OF PLANTS. 

Mitrephora^ of wliich they have the fiowers. The three petals 
forming the inner corolla are in fact more or less taper towards the 
base,- and are united ed«;e to edge by their expanded limbs to form 
a sort of vault, three-pillared, above the reproductive organs. 
But these last differ in the following points; the number of 
stamens is smaller,' often definite, sometimes reduced to six' or 
nine ;' the connective is not prolonged above the anther-cells into a 
thick fleshy body ; if extending at all beyond them it only forms a 
narrow, slightly prominent blade ; each of the carpels, whose number 
may be reduced to three, contains only a single ovule, or else from 
two to four. A dozen true species of Orophcca are known, shrubs 
^vith alternate leaves, often ill-developed. Their flowers are axillary 
and grouped into clusters of variable length, often bare at the base. 
The pedicels are articulated, and often fall early ; the bracts to 
which they are axillary are often very close to each other, and 
imbricated. 

The flowers of Ci/mbopetalnm'' are large, closely analogous to those 
of Mitrep/iora. In fact, in the plant that has served as the prototype 
to this genus,'' we find that the inner petals have very broad limbs 
and narrow claws, and shelter the reproductive organs with the 
expanded part. But the large petals do not cohere together by 
their limbs, and are thick, coriaceous, and dilated like a sort of 
enormous spoon, with involute edges and an infiected mucronate 
apex. The outer petals are short and broad at the base, and 
even more than in Milrcp/iora approach the sepals in form and 



' Hi,., /w. (17. ; Fl. Jar., Anonac, t. 40-41. ' There are, bowcvcr, sjiocics in which the 

— A. DC, .Wm., 3H, t. 4. — Hook. & Tuoms., nunihi-r of stamens rises Id lilloeii or eighteen. 
Fl. Intl., I. 11(1. — ZoLL,, Linnctd, xxix. 21(7. •• The (lowers of O. cuii/mbosa (Bocagra cu- 

— 'I'liw., Fnum. PI. Zei//., 8. — MiQ., Fl. Ind.- rt/mhosa Hi..) usnully have this nuniher (tig. 

/?a/., i. J), ii. 2'.) ; Ann. Mus. I.ii</(1. Jial., ii. 22. 2H8). 'I'he tliree largest stamens are sujH.'r- 

(Sevcnilof this author's species are . )////•< ;j//(/ra*.) jK)sed to the sepals. In O. vhliqua, the tlirei' 

— \',v.\)i).. Trans. Linn. Soc, xxv. 21(), t. 21. — large stamens are quite internal to the three 

Wai.I'., ^4««. iv. 54; vii. 59. small ones. In O. coriacea Tiiw., the an«ln>- 

' They usually taper ahruptly in this hasilar leuni also forms two very tlistiiiet trimerous 

jKirtion, which is much elongated. Without 8ei)a- verticils, as it does too in O. zciflanica. 
rating from one another they may ail lean to one * This numlK>r is olwi'rved in llowers of (i. 

side and leave the rt'prtxhictive organs uncovered. jioli/carpa A. DC (.lA'ffi., 31)). The six outer 

Hutin O.f uhli'/un llooK. A Tuomh. (/V. Ind., stamens are in this cnso the shorter and seem 

i. 112), thf inner jnlals are shorter than the arrangetl in jiairs. 

outer ones, and hardly tajwr towanls the base. " UiiNTU., Journ. Linn, Soc, v. G\). — H. H.. 

In O. zeijlaniea, HooK. &. Thumh. {loc. cil.). Gen., 27 n. 28.— H. 1<N., Adantoma, viii. 2G8, 

the summit of liie imu-r corolla is much 21)8, 342. 

more elongiite<l than in the other sjK-cics, in ? c. hriuidenae Hkxth.. loc. cU. — I'varia 

which it otlen represtmU a nearly horiitontid hnmilimjti* Vki.U)/., Fl. Flnm., v. t. 122. — 

tiihlo. .Maht., Fl. Unm., .inoHiii:, Hit, t. 13, tig. 2. 



ANON ACE JE. 



233 



colour. They are, moreover, valvate in the bud, like the sepals, 
which become more or less rctlexed on the peduncle. The recep- 
tacle is dome-shaped, and bears a large number of stamens (of 
Uvaria), inserted in a very regular spiral. The indefinite carpels' 
consist of a pluriovulate ovary, with a short style dilated at the 
summit into a thick stigmatiferous head. The fruit is formed of 
a variable number of carpels, somewhat like little pods divided 
incompletely by oblique inflections of the pericarp into as many 
compartments as there are seeds. These are arillate, and in other 




Cifmhopetaium penduliflorum? 
Fig. 289. 
Flower. 

respects like those of most Jjionacea. It is said that the carpels 
dehisce more or less completely when ripe.^ 

The characters presented by the petals, so well marked in this plant, 
become somewhat less decided in other species which we have 
referred to the same genus, such as U/iona obtusifora DC.^ Plere 
there is much less difference in size and form between the outer 
petals and the inner ones, the former being much larger and oval 



' In some flowers they appear absent ; these 
plants may then becoiue polygamous like some 
species of Mitrephora. 

" H. Bn., Adamonia, viii. 268. — Uvaria pen- 
dulijlora Moc. & Sess., Fl. Mex., ined., ex Dun., 
Mon., 100, t. 28 ; DC, Sysl., i. 487 ; Prvdr., 
i. 89, n. 3. 



' " Baccee stipitatce ollongcp, sith pressione 
sape apertce" (B. H., Ge)>., luc cif.}. We have 
in fact seen the fruits open towards the apex for 
a certain distance along the ventral angle ; but 
it is possible that this rupture only occurs in tiic 
herbarium. 

■» Si/it. Veff., i. 487 ; Prodi:, i. 89, n. 7. 



234 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



acute, while the claws of the latter are much shorter and narrower.' 
The petals only approach the form of those of C. drasi/icme towards 
the time of the complete expansion of the flower, remaining until 
then very much like those of several true UnounH. But the sexual 
orLj^ans and fruit (fig. 290)' are exactly those of Ct/mbopetalum. We 
already know nine species of this genus,^ small American trees 
found between Mexico and Brazil, with subsessile mem- 
branous leaves, often somewhat unsymmetrical at the 
base. The flowers are solitary and terminal, leaf-opposed 
or extra-axillary, usually on very long peduncles,* 

Beside Cymbopctalum has been placed Enantia; in 
which there are only six leaves to the perianth : three 
sepals and three petals superposed to them. The former 
are lanceolate and valvate ; the latter are much longer, 
erect or slightly spreading, thick and coriaceous, flat, or 
with slightly reflexed edges, and with a concave con- 
tracted base. The convex receptacle bears an indefinite 
number of linear-oblong stamens, whose dilated con- 
nective is but little dilated above the anther-cells- 
The carpels are also indefinite ; each ovary contains 
a single erect ovule, and is surmounted by a short linear oblong 
style, traversed by an internal longitudinal groove. E. chlorantha 
Oliv., the only species known, is a tree from the west of tropical 
Africa, with alternate membranous leaves, and solitary extra- 
axillary flowers on short peduncles. 




Cymbopetalum 

oHusiJluyutn. 

Fio. 290. 

Fruit. 



' The calyx also becomes very different from 
the inner petals, especially in thickness. It is nt 
firut a membranous globular kic, completely sur- 
roundini^ the corolla in the bud. 

- Here tiie fruit, though of quite the same 
ii|)])earanrc as in C braxilietise apjjears tho- 
roughly indehiscent. We see also from lig. 21M) 
that the lo\verun)^t segment remains empty and 
of Ninall size, hut is se)mrated from the rest of the 
car|)el by n well-marked, nearly tnuisverso 
furrow. 



^ To which we have referred (Adangonia, viii. 
2U8) I'nona pemlulijlora Din. (tig. 28l>), riri- 
dijlora Si-lito., ubtusijlora DC, and w ith some 
doubt, IJ.ftuicata DC. Sect. Brachyci/mhium. 

* 1 hey may be either erect, or pendulous, as 
in C. pendulijlonnn, and are sometimes even 
thicker than the brunch from which they spring. 

* Olivku, Joiini. Linn. Sue, ix. 171. li. H., 
Gen., y58, n. 2S(i. — H. H.n., Adansunia, viii. 
313. 



AN0NACE2E. 



23.' 



II. MILIUSA SERIES. 

The flowers oi MiliKsa' (figs. 291-294) are regular, hermaphrodite 
or polygamous. On the receptacle are inserted in order a triple 
perianth, and the indefinite pieces of the androceum and gynajceum. 
Tlie calyx consists of three narrow sepals, valvate in aestivation. The 



Miliusa indica. 




Fig. 291. 
Flower. 




Fig. 292. 
Longitudinal section of Hower. 




Fig. 293. 
Flower, corolla removed. 




Fig. 294. 
Diagram. 



petals of the inner whorl, superposed to the sepals, are broad and 



1 Leschen., ex. A. DC, Mem. 37, t. 3. — Cat., n. 6134. — Lindl., Litrod. io Bo(., ed. 

Wight & Aen., Prodr. i. 10. — Endl., Gen., 439. — Endl., Gen., n. 4729. — Uvarice spec, 

n. 4712.— H. II., Gm., 28, 958, n. 34.— H. Hn., Roxb., Fl. Ind., ii. 664. 
Adansuuia, viii. 343. — Hyalostemma Wall., 



23H NATURAL HISTOliY OF PLANTS. 

membranous, free, or cohering slightly below, and together have 
exactly the appearance of an ordinary corolla (figs. 291, 292) ; while 
the outer petals, of the same size, ibrni, and consistency as the sepals, 
seem to form a second calyx, whose pieces alternate with those of 
the first. True, analogy tells us that the three tongues which form 
the second whorl of the perianth answer exactly to the outer corolla 
of other Anonncccp. But at the same time all the external characters 
of these leaves again show us how it is often impossible, nut to say 
useless, to fix an}' absolute distinction between sepals and petals.' 
But though this character possesses but little value in itself, it allows 
us to distinguish the Millusca easily from other Aiionacece ; we may 
in practice say of them that, instead of a single calyx and two 
corollas, they have a double calyx and a single corolla. The 
indefinite stamens, inserted in a spiral on the convex receptacle, 
and shorter as they are lower down on it, have been long 
known to us by the conformation of the anther ;- for this genus 
has, as we have seen, given its name to the stamens CiiUed stamina 
MUimearinii. The filament, short and narrow, is surmounted by 
two extrorse cells dehiscing longitudinally, and above them by a 
slightly conical projection of the connective (fig. 293). The carpels, 
also inserted in a spiral, consist each of a unilocular ovary sur- 
mounted by a conical papillose style, and containing either one or 
two ascending ovules, whose micropyles look outwards and down- 
wards, or more rarely an indefinite number in two vertical rows. The 
multiple fruit consists of a variable number of umbellate, stipitate, 
one-seeded, or, more rarely, many-seeded berries. Within the seed 
coats is contained a fleshy ruminated albumen, with a small embryo 
close to its apex. The genus Mi/i//.sa consists of small trees or 
shrubs, with alternate leaves and solitary or cymose, axillary or 
extra-axillary flowers, borne on peduncles of variable length. In 
some spL'(;ics there are whole branches bearing none but male flowers. 
We know half a score species from India,* Malaysia,' and even 
Madagascar. 

In Miliii-sii [>roper the bases of the broadest })etals are llat. as in 



' Sec Adniiminia, viii. :»<•:». — Tiiw., Eiiitm. PI. Zri/l., li). — WalI'., Ahh. 

2 Sec j.p. 2U(), 201). iv. 74. 

» A. DC, he. eil—Hoxu., Fl. /..</.. ii. (W;^ * Mi,.., A'/, hul.- IS,il.,\. p. ii. 51 ; Anm. Mm*. 

(fr,„-ii,). lliM)k. tl TiK.MK., /•/. ;»./.. i. HT. Lv,id. l{ul.,\\.My \Vai.1'.../»iii.. iv. .VJ; iii. 5lt 



ANONACE.'E. 237 

most Anonacea. However, in certain species, especially the one 
which served to found the genus, at the lower part of each of the 
inner petals is a sort of sac or obtuse spur projecting below the 
insertion of the petal (fig. 292). The designation SaccopeUi/nw^ has 
been applied to plants in whicli this gibbosity is more marked, so 
as to form a sort of purse or boat-shaped hollow. But as there is 
every transition between those species of SaccopefaJ//m in which this 
is well developed, and those of Milium in which it hardly exists, it 
has appeared impossible to us to retain the two genera as absolutely 
distinct. Moreover, all other characters are the same in both, and 
Saccopetahmi has the gyna3ceum of the multiovulate Miliums. In the 
former the leaves are caducous, and the flowers spring from the axils 
of the last year's leaves ; they are solitary, or in small clusters, often 
supported on long slender peduncles. The young leaves of their 
year appear with them, and are covered with rather copious down. 
These characters allow us to make of the six or seven known 
Oceanian and Asiatic'- species a special section in the genus Milima 
as we understand it. 

The flower of Pheaufhm' is, as regards its perianth, exactly that 
of Milima, but the form of its stamens is different ; they are formed 
like those of Unoiia and Uimria, with a short dilatation of the con- 
nective, more or less depressed or rounded at the summit.^ The 
ovaries and fruit are those of the uni- or biovulate Miliums ; but the 
ovules of Fl/aanf/ius, instead of being near the base of the ovary, are 
inserted a little higher up on the inner angle, and are slightly 
ascending, with the micropyle downwards and outwards. Only five 
species of F/neanf/ms proper are known, natives of India and the 
Indian Archipelago.' To this genus we think we may add Hdero- 
jjetalum hrasilieuse Benth.'' (fig. 295) as the type of a separate section 



' Benn., Tl. Jav. Rarior., 165, t. 35. — Endl., extrorse, or nearly marginal. The filament is 

Gen., Suppl. i. n. 47l2i. — B. H., Oen. 28, 958, articulated at the base, and falls very early, 

n. 35. — H. Bn., Adansonia, vii. 343. * VValp., Ann., iv. 73; vii. Ti?. — ZoLL., L'nt- 

- Walp., Rep., i. 74; Ann.y'w.lCy; vii. 59. w«a, xxix. 324. — ^llQ,., Fl. Ind.-Bat.,\. ^.W.hl; 

—Hook. & Tiioms., Fl. Lid., i. 151.— AIiq., Fl. Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat., ii. 40. 

Ind.-Bat., i. p. ii. 52. — ZoLL., LinncBa, xxxi. * Journ. Linn. Soe., v. 69 — B, H., Gen.. 

325. — Benth., Fl. Austral., i. 53. 27, n. 27.— H. Hn., Adansonia, viii. 343.— 

' Hook. &Tuoms., Fl. Lid., i. 146. — B. H., Guaiteria heieropetala Benth., IIool'. Journ., 

GeH., 27, 957, n.25. — H.BN.,.'frfa«*o«/rt, viii. 343. ii. 360. If this species is referred to the genus 

■• This summit is like a long lozenge, with a Phaanthus it must take the name of P. hetero- 

large transverse axis in P. nutans Hook. & petalus. The large petals are not so thick as in 

Thoms., and its superior surface more or less the Asiatic species, and the thick connective is ho- 

concavc. The anther-cells are either markedly rizontally truncated above the anther-cells. The 



•238 



NATURAL mSTORY OF PL.l.VTS' 



belonging to South America. In tliis the flower and fruit are exactly 
those of the Indian species, except that the six small outer leaves of 
the perianth, all similar to one another, are a little broader at the 
base, and that the sini:^le ovule in each ovary is inserted quite at the 
base of the internal angle. 

As anotlier section of this genus PhcpanihuH, we also class those 

African plants which have been termed Pipfof^figma,^ for their flowers 

possess a convex receptacle," three large inner sepals 

veined like those of the Asiatic species of Phaan- 

fhiiH, and three outer petals that are much shorter, 

acute, and quite analogous to sepals, like those of 

lleteropetalum hrmilic/ise. The stamens, indefinite 

in number, have wedge-shaped anthers surmounted 

Ijy a truncate prolongation of the connective. 

The carpels, few in number, have styles that, 

as in Heteropdalum, swell into thick irregular 

stigmatiferous heads which all stick together. The 

Phn'anthmiieteropetaiu.. ^^^y diA'crencc of any valuc that we can state here 

Flower-bud. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ovulcs are uumcrous, and arranged in two 

vertical rows."* In this respect PiptoxfU/ma is to the 

American and Asiatic species of Phaantluis exactly what the pluri- 

ovulate species of Milima are to the uni- or biovulate species of the 

same group, and can no more be considered a distinct genus.' The 

two known species of this section have been observed in the western 

regions of tropical Africa. 

Thus constituted,* the genus Pliccanthiif< contains half a dozen 
trees with alternate leaves, and flowers either lateral, or axillary to 
leaves or bracts, solitary, or grouped into small cymes. 




Htyles are terminated by thick dilatations, 
wiiich Jill Htifk tojjethtr to forma coiiunon head, 
as in J'iptotliifma. The only species yet known 
has been oWrved in lira/.il and (Suiana. 

' Ol.tV., Journ. J. inn. Soc, viii. 158, t. 2 ; 
Ft. Trap. Aft., IH.— H. H., Gin., 'JG7, n. 25 a.— 
II. 15>., Addii.wnin, viii. 3IH. 

' In /'. .^/'lArf-itrenjr Oliv., the part of the re- 
reptacle th;it bean* the ear|)elH is slightly Ci)n- 
cuvc. 

' This urranijenKnt is constant in the two 



known species. There are from three to five in 
each row. 

* It is said (Oliv.. FI. Troy. Afr., 19) that 
in the fruit of /'. pilusum Oi.iv., the oiriH-'is 
cohuri! into n sinf^lo mass eontnining the seeds 
surrounded by scanty pulp. 

* 1 1. Euphftiinthus. Ovules 1, 2 ven- 
1 tr.d. 

2. lli'leropeliil m. ()vulol,sub- 

basilar. 
\'6. Piptostignut. Uvules oo ,veutrml. 



PluranthuK 
Sections 3. 



ANON ACE. T:. 239 

III. MONODOEA SEEIES. 
G.ERTNE11 gave the name Anona Myristica} to a plant wliicli ])unai< 

Monodura Myrlslicn. 




Fig. 296. 
Floriferous branch (| 




later made the type of his genus Monodora: This plant (figs. 



' Frnct.,\\. 194, t. 125, fig. 1. — Lux., Ilort. Journ. Linn. Soc, v. 72; lAnn. Trans., xxiii. 

Jam., 10. 473, t. 52. 53.— B. H., Gen., 26, 957, ii. 2 k— 

2 1/oH., 79.— DC, Syst., i. 477; ProtZr., i. H. Tiv., Adamonia, viii. 299, 34-1.— Oliv., Z'/. 

87.— R. Bkown, Congo, 56 ; Misc. Works, cd. Tro/?. .4/>-., 37. 
Benn., i. 162. — Endl., Oen., n. 4725. — Benth., 



240 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



29G-299) has regular hcrmapliroditc flowers, and the receptacle is 
like a small sphere at the top of the peduncle. The calyx consists 



Monodora Myrislica. 



dj^^^ff^lfeo^ 





Fio. 298. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 




111.. I'M. 
Longitudinal section of fruit {\). 



of three sepals valvate in the hud. The corolla is ganiopetahms, its 
six i)etals boiii^^ united near the base into a ^h()rt broad tube,' and 



' TliiH tulu', UHimlly jiiowi-il ovrr in diMiip- and then tlie iietiilii rise in the i>j>|»ohito diree- 
tions unnoticed, i« fintt rt-liexed on tlu- |ii-dunth\ tioii. 



AN0NACE2E. 241 

then free, valvate in a3stivation. Tlie three outer ones, long and 
narrow, alternating with the sepals, and, like them, with undulate 
edges, are reflexed in the completely expanded flower, while the 
three inner ones, far shorter and contracted at the base, approach 
one anotber above by their broadened, almost sagittate limbs. The 
stamens, inserted in a spiral on the sides of the spherical dilatation 
of the receptacle, are indefinite, free, each composed of a nearly sessile 
anther, with two linear adnate extrorse cells dehiscing longitudinally 
and surmounted by a truncate dilatation of the top of the con- 
nective. The ovary, which occupies the summit of the receptacle, is 
surmounted by a style that dilates rapidly, like that of a Poppy, into 
a large circular stigmatiferous plate with lacerated edges. The ovary 
contains only one cell, with numerous parietal placentas, bearing 
indefinite horizontal or ascending anatropous ovules on rather long 
funicles.* The fruit is an enormous berry, which finally becomes 
spherical and woody. It contains an indefinite number of seeds 
embedded in the thick pulp. The seed-coats, ruminated albumen, 
and small embryo here present the same characters as in most other 



M. Mt/risfica is a tree from tropical Africa, transported to the 
Antilles by negroes.^ Its leaves are alternate, exstipulate ; and the 
long peduncles of the large flowers spring from the side of the 
young branches of the season, opposite, or nearly opposite, the leaves. 
In an alHed species, M. temtifolia^ the flower also springs from a 
branch of its year, but it stands alone, far below the first of the leaves 
on this young branch. Later on the peduncle elongates and grows 
thick, and " it is the young branch which, pushed aside and small in 
proportion, appears to spring from the side of the peduncle." In 
this species the sepals cohere at the base, and the outer petals are 
ovate-lanceolate. The corolla has a similar form in a Zanzibar 
species which we have described^ under the name of M. Graudidieri . 
Its outer petals are undulate, and the inner ones are much shorter, 
with a nearty sagittate limb and a contracted base. But this species 
is not glabrous like those from Western Africa. The difl'erences of 



' These ovules at first appear placed back to servations of travellers who have met with the 

back hi two parallel rows on each placenta. plant native in the forests of Guinea. 

2 It is known that Rouebt Bkown was the ^ Benth., JoMm. ijn». iSoc, ?oc. ct7. — H. Bn., 

first to give this opinion, whitjh long appeared op. cif., 300. 
very improbable, but is now justified by the ob- * Adansonia, loc. cit., 301, note 1. 

VOL. 1. R 



242 NATURAL mSTOBY OF PLANTS. 

size and form between the inner and outer petals begin to ^ow less 
in Jll. brcvipes.^ Here the inner petals are not so narrow as the outer 
ones, but attain to about two-thirds of their length. In these two 
latter species also, the branch accompanying the Hower is much less 
developed at the season of its expansion. 

Thus we gradually arrive at a stage which puts it out of our power 
to make another genus for the curious species that we have named 
M. madafjnHcnrienxix; whose small Howers have a campanulate corolla, 
with six nearly equal lobes, which even appear arranged in a single 
whorl when adult. The calyx is here short and gamosepalous, and 
the corolla, instead of being reflexed from its base, is erect like a bell, 
with thick walls, and ends in six acute vertical teeth. Its valvate 
prailioration is very well marked. As to the androceum and ovary, 
they are exactly those of the other species of this genus. The style 
is much broader than the ovary itself, forming a large, fleshy, 
papillose, depressed head, surrounded at tlie base by a sort of annular 
cup. This species is frutescent and climbing. The leaves are alter- 
nate and simple. The flower is borne on an erect slender peduncle, 
accompanied by a young branch or leaf-bud, and is axillary to the 
leaf. 

Only six species of Monodora are known, of which one-half belong 
to the west of tropical Africa.^ The others grow on the east coast, or 
in ^ladagascar.* We may define these plants as Aiionncccp, ^vith the 
gyna^ceum of a Poppy — i. e., with the ovary and fruit unilocular and 
of parietal placentation. 



IV. EUPOMATIA SERIES. 

In Eupomnt'ut the flower is regular, hermaphrodite, without a 
])L'riantli. The receptacle is concave like a funnel, whose edges give 



' IJextii., /,«ii/i. Tran*., /of. rt/., n. 4. {^yst., i. 478), or Anona mierorarpa Jacq. 

' Op. <-it., :i'.»<J, note 1. {Fratjm., 40, t. 4-V. 1. 7). 

» pAL.-HEAt'V., Fl. Owar., i. 27, t. xvi. (excl. * K. Hii., .^pp. Voy. Flind./ii. 697, t. 2; Mite. 

fruct.). — Hentii., I<jc. cit. — Wklw., Joum. Works.cCi. Hk.nn., i.'73.— Jrss., ^trm. .Mhs., v. 

Linn. Soc., iii. \'>l.— Hut. Mni;., t, 305'J. — 236. — Endi,., Oen., n. 4730. — F. .MiEi.i.., 

Wai-P., .4i»»., vii. 57. Fratfrn. Phtft. AHstr.,\. -«.— 11. M., Om., :Jl», 

* II. Hn., op. cit., 2m, 3(11. U. Hhown 1)118 II. 44>.— Hentii., ^V. Austr., i. 53.— .Viim/i... 

n,'f<Tru(l l(» till! j,'fiiii!« CinjiUiii u mipposi-d Aiis- Icon., t. 171. II. nx.,.^(/<jH*o/ii'<i,viii. 3Vt,ix.l7; 

tralian iiMicic* of i/oBOt/ora, M. microcarpa DC. Comptet&endusdf l'Acad.desScifi»ee*,\x\ii.2bO. 



ANONACEJE. 



243 



insertion to a large number of fertile and sterile stamens inserted in 
a spiral, and whoso concavity bears the carpels, also arranged in a 



Eupomatia Bennetlii. 




Fis. 300. 
Floriferous brancli 




Fig. 301. 
Diagram. 



spiral over its whole surface. If we examine the flower on 



r2 



244 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

anthesis, that is at the moment of tlie detachment of a sort of 
conical roof or cap which covered it in the bud (fig. 300), we shall 
see the male organs, of very variable form, rising up and spreading 
to throw olT this operculum, under which they Jiad been bent up and 
very closely imbricated. Following up their spiral from with- 
out inwards, we find successively as follows : — the fertile stamens, 
consisting of a filament that becomes more dilated and petaloid as 
we iro further inwards, and an anther with two conti<^uous cells of 
longitudinal dehiscence, placed on the inner face of a ribbon-like 
connective, is prolonged into an apiculus above them ; sterile 
stamens, or membranous petaloid blades, with the surfiice quite 
glabrous, gradually increasing in size ; and finally, other staminodes 
like thicker, fieshier scales, dotted over with projecting capitate glands, 
much imbricated, and growing smaller as we approach the gynseceum. 
These glands first appear on the inner face, on which they are always 
more numerous than on the outer face and the crenulate edges. The 
whole concavity of the receptacle is filled by the wedge-shaped ovaries,' 
which are crowded together below, and free above, where they terminate 
internally by a short stylar horn, stigmatiferous at the tip." In the 
inner angle of each is a placenta bearing a variable number of ascend- 
ing anatropous ovules in two parallel rows, their raphes a little towards 
one another.^ The fruit is multiple, consisting of a large number of 
many-seeded carpels crowded together within the top-shaped cavity 
of the receptacle, now grown fieshy, whose rim enframes the styles and 
projects a little above them ; the traces of these last are still found on 
a sort of circular nearly horizontal platform, formed by the upper 
surfaces of the individual fruits. The seed contains ruminate albumen 
and a small embryo near its apex. As yet only two species of this 
genus are known, Australian shrubs with alternate e.vstipulate leaves.* 



' They, Um>, uic Htrunged in a spirul whose nrcolas ns there are carpels." Now there is no 

turns arc close together. A little more than welding of the styles ; the free stiginus are ct]unl 

half way up the buck of each is an angular pro- in numlwr to the carjK'ls, and tlie areola- in 

jcction, a little hnuip which fits exactly into question certainly represent thone j><)rtion8of the 

the interval lietwecn two of the carjMiLs outside backs of the ovaries tliat are above the external 

of it. Tlie carpels thus nioiilikd on one another projections of which we have siniken. 

donot.howfvi-r, colare, but are only compressed ' Later on the ovules are displacetl, so that 

and crowiled together. one of them is as it were enfninied in a ring by 

= This tip is a sort of little papillose button, that the others. In IC. llmneKii, tlure are from 

has nothing in common witli what most authors three to m\ ovules in each row. 'Ibey have two 

have described as tlie stigma, for they say that coats, and the top of the si>cundine is tlask- 

" the styles are welded together into a mnsN, Kha|>e<l, and projects through the exostonie. 

terminiilfd by a flat stigmii jiitlrd by an many * \\v.s\\\., Fl. Autttiil., '\. WA. 



ANON ACE 3^. 



245 



E. Icmrina' (figs. 302-305), the taller of the two, has a thicker woodier 
trunk and axillary flowers. The other, E. BenncUU' (figs. 300, 301), 
developes like a perennial herb ; it has a running stock from which 
arise almost herbaceous aerial branches, each ending in a pedun- 
culate more or less drooping flower. Beneath this are several 

Eupomatia laurina. 




Fio. 302, 
Expanded flower. 



I'iG. 303. 
Longitudinal section of Howlt. 





Fig. 305. 
Longitudinal section of fruit. 

bracts, which gradually become smaller as they are higher up, and the 
arrangement of which is continuous with that of the leaves. The last 
one is inserted on the very edge of the receptacular cup, and is 
reduced to a sheath which covers in the sexual organs in the bud like 
a hood, and on the expansion of the flower falls ofi" by its circular 



1 R. Be., loc. cit. — F. Muell., loc. cit., n. 1 
(nee Hook.). In a single axil there arc two 
(more rarely three) flowers placed one above the 
other, or as many leaf-buds with superposed 
leaves. The peduncle of each flower bears one 
or several alternate bracts below the one that is 
so much developed to surround the whole flower. 
E. laurina is a rather large shrub with urceolate 
fruits, and coniiivent petaloid staminodes shorter 
than the fertile stamens. 



- F. MuELL., loc. eit., n. 2. — E. laurina Hook., 
Bot. Mag., t. -1848 (nee K. Bn.). In this the 
staminodes are richly provided with glands, and 
longer and broader than in the preceding species, 
and on anthesis spread more or less over and 
beyond the fertile stamens. The fruit is turbi- 
nate. The roots with which the stock is pro- 
vided swell here and there into reservoirs of nutri- 
tive juices owing to the development of their 
cortical parenchyma. 



246 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

base so as to free the fertile and sterile stamens that push it off.' 
We may, then, define the genus Eupomafia as Anonacea with naked 
flowers, in which the perianth is replaced by a single modified leaf, 
and the carpels are inserted on a concave receptacle. It is in this 
order analogous to Tiochodendron amongst the Magnoliacea. 

AnoiKB form Family XL VI. of Ad an son's great work ; this, as 
we have seen, includes not only those Anonacece that were then 
known, but also MagnoUacea, MeniapermacecB, several Dilleniacece and 
B(inuncuJacea>, Ochna, and Fagara. Of this group the genera wliich 
really belong to Anonncea are four in number — viz., Anona, Xi/Iopia 
{Xglopicron), IJvaria {Nanim), and A-simuia. Adanson was the first 
to recognise the analogies between Xylopia and Aiiona ; and his genus 
Narum includes both Uvaria proper and also the Asiatic Unonas of 
the group Cananya. The Anonce of A. L. de Jussieu only include 
the five genera Anona, Unona, Uuaria, Cananga, and Xglopia. Most 
of the other genera united to these by Adanson, he reserved for his 
order Magnoiuicece. L. C. Richard gave the collection the name of 
Aiionacece, and this order was only really established in the work pub- 
lished by Dunal in 1817, so wonderful considering its date. To the 
genera above enumerated are there added the following : — Kadsi/ra, 
which belongs to Schizandrea ; Monodora, whose type is the Anona 
MijriHlica of G.ertner ; Porcdia, which Ruiz & Pavon had made 
known in 1794, and Giiatter'ui of the same authors, corresponding to 
Aublet's Cananga. Dcsmos and Mdodorum, proposed as distinct 
genera by Loureiro in 1790, are by us incorporated with the great 
genus Unona. A. P. de Candolle, in 18:24, fully adopted the 
arrangement o{ Anonacece proposed by Dunal. Soon after, Blu.me 
compU'tely revised most of the Old World genera, assigned more 
exact limits to the existing genera C^/?o«aand Uvaria, and established, 
either as distinct generic types or as sections of other larger genera, 
the groups O.rgitiitra, jMUrrp/iora, and Orophaut, whose autonomy we 
maintain. About the same period, A. de Saint-Hilaire was doing 
the same work for the American Anunacco', and successively created 
the genera Anavagorea, Duguetia {Abcrcmoa of AuBLET, 1775), 



' Tlie flowor* only IiimI. n dnv. afttr wliiih tlio into ii sort of rinj: inserted near the «lgo of 
whole net of Hiiiinenn, Hterilo iin<i ffrtiie.eoiiio off the receijtaculur cup, 
in a 8in(;le ciicular piece, their hiutoHhcing united 



ANONACE^. 247 

BolUnia, and Bocar/ca. E. Brown had in 1820 establislied the genus 
Artabofri/s, for those Ohl World species of Uvaria and IJnoiia in which 
the principal axis of the inflorescence is like a flattened fasciated 
hook ; and the genus which he had made known six years earlier, 
under the name oi Eupomatia, though long held of doubtful affinities, 
and unfortunately pointed out by A. L. ue Jussieu, as the type of 
a new order near Osp-idea, was already accepted by several botanists 
as nearly alUed to the Anonacem. In 1832, A. de Candolle was led, 
in a special work on this order, to break up the genus Xyhpia, which 
is now reconstituted, and to propose two new generic types — 
Miliusa of Leschenault and the monopetalous genus Hexalohus. So 
there existed at that time sixteen of the genera retained by us in the 
order Anonacea. The twelve others are of quite recent creation. 
Between 1832 and 1866, Enghsh botanists made known the genera 
Sagercea, Cyathocalyx, PltcBaathus, Sph(Brothalami(S, Bisepahim, Cym- 
bopetalum, Cleistochlamys, Enantia, Atrutregia. Endlicher had named 
PopoiciaYn 1838; A. Richard, Oxandra in 1850. Miquel is the 
latest author who has studied the Anonacea of tropical Asia in situ, ; 
he established the genus Tetrapetalim in 1866, thus raising the 
number of genera received by us to twenty-eight. But of these 
it is probable that some will be suppressed when transition terms 
shall be better known, that wdll allow us to admit them as sec- 
tions into several of the older genera. We have fortunately not 
been compelled to establish any fresh generic type in this order. 

On seeking out the characters constant in all these groups we 
find that there is no Anonad that is thoroughly herbaceous; 
that all have alternate exstipulate leaves, and in the seed contain 
fleshy ruminated albumen. 

Other important characters are so common in this order that 
their absence has only been made out in one single genus thus dis- 
tinguished from the rest. These are as follows : — 

I. The form of the floral receptacle and the resulting insertion 
of the androceum. — Only in one type, Enpomaila, has the flower a 
totally concave receptacle, with its stamens all inserted above the 
gynseceum. 

II. The presence of petals and sepals. — In Eupomatia alone are the 
sexual organs surrounded by a simple bract, which falls off'by its base, 
and plays the protecting part of a perianth, this being really absent. 

III. The independence of the carpels.— In Monodora alone are 



248 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

they united edge to edge to form a one-celled ovary with parietal 
placentas. All other AnonacecB are what have been termed poli/- 
carpicccp. 

IV. The aspect of the anthers. — These are introrse in Eupomatia 
only, lateral or extrorse in all the other genera. 

In the third rank come characters that are undoubtedly of less 
importance than the preceding, as different ones are absent in 
several genera more or less closely allied. They can only serve 
to distinguish these genera, or at most to separate them into sub- 
series, such as we have had to establish in the immense series 
Anonea. We will especially call attention to the following : — 

The type of the verticils of the perianth. — These are almost 
always trimerous. But the binary type is found in and characterizes 
Tet r ripe f alum among the Uvariea, and Disepaliim among the Unoneee. 

The presence of dor.sal appendages on the petals. — These only 
exist in the secondary group, RoUinea, and their form may serve to 
distinguish its four genera. 

The absence of the outer corolla has only been ascertained in the 
genus Enantia. 

The consistency and dehiscence of the pericarp. — In Anaxar/orca 
alone does the fruit consist of true follicles. This one point cha- 
racterizes the genus. The fruits of Xylopia and Cymhopetalum, if they 
open at all, do not open in so marked and complete a way. In 
all other AnonacecB the pericarp is indehiscent, and the fruit con- 
sists of more or less fleshy berries. 

There are, finally, characters which, though we cannot refuse them 
a great value in particular cases, must be relegated to the last place ; 
for, as shown above, they never possess that absolute significance 
which was often accorded to them at a time when the Anonact'ie 
studied were relatively few in number. On enumerating these 
characters in succession, we shall see under what exceptional 
circumstances they may acquire sufficient importance to become 
tiie stamp of a genus, or even a sub-tribe of the order.' 

1. The prajlloration. — It has no value as regards tlie calyx, lor 
in one single genus we may Ihid the sepals imbricate, valvate, and 



' M(wt of tlic'HC have l)wii iilrr-mly iliMtisM-d liy wo must refer the reader for n ilwiloinuent of 
lis in tlic Hiieciiil memoir mi the Aminiu-ra \\f. tlie Diihject uiisuited to tho present work. 
imliliHlied m AJattsonin (viii. 1«'(2, 2110), to whicli 



ANONACEJE. 249 

even with their edges not at all in contact. In the corolla the 
aestivation has served to distinguish considerable groups, such, for 
example, as the U/ionc/s and Uvariea. But on this point we must 
insist less than most authors ; for in the genus Ucaria some species 
have both corollas imbricated, others the one imbricated the other 
valvate ; Anona, whose petals are usually valvate, may have them 
most markedly imbricated,' as is the case too in certain Unonas of 
the group PoI^aHhia.- 

2. The conformation of the pieces of the perianth, their form and 
relative size. — This character is another which has been placed in 
the first rank, having been used by Bentham & Hooker to estab- 
lish all their tribes except one ; and these botanists have, as we have 
seen, distinguished the three corollas which they term of the Unonece, 
Xi/lopiecB, and Mitrophorece. That these forms are well marked 
towards the culminating points of these groups is incontestible, 
and hence we have avoided neglecting such a character in the sub- 
division of the great group Anoncm into minor sections. But we 
have not founded true series on it, because there is one common type 
of structure towards which all these forms gradually converge, so 
that we get stages in which we cannot surely distinguish the Uno- 
nean type of corolla from the Mitrophorean or Xylopiean. Of 
this we have cited numberless proofs ; here it will be sufiicient to 
recall the fact that in the Melodoram group alone (including Pyra- 
midanthe) there are at the same time corollas of JJiiona and Xylopia, 
and that we find the same thing in Jnona, Boccif/ea, &c. ; while 
the conformation of the perianth of Pojjowia has caused it to 
be classed by some among the Unonece,^ by others among Mitre- 
phorece.* Thus, again, it is because structural characters derived 
from the relations of form and size stated to occur in the different 
pieces of the perianth are by no means absolute, that we have 
proposed as of practical utility and convenience, though in no 



^ See especially what we have said relative to genera, and will no doubt lead to a fresh reduc- 

the corolla of A. muricata (p. 222). tion in their total number. 

3 B. H., Gen., 25, n. 19. It is true that the 

2 We know, and shall at some future time de- authors add to their description : " Genus vixrile 

scribe several Old World plants that can hardly limifa/i/m." 

be referred elsewhere than to Poh/allhia, though ■* Hook. F. & Thoms., Fl. Ind., i. 105. Cer- 

their petals are distinctly imbricated. It may tainly tho corolla of the Asiatic species is in most 

be easily divined how they are also closely allied cases rather that of the Fhaantheiv than that 

to the genus Cananfja (Guatferia). Perhaps, of the J/<7rf/>//ore<E proper or the I'lioneiv; but 

then, the future will compel us to recast certain they cainiot be separated from the African species. 



250 NATURAL HISTOIiY OF PLANTS. 

way essentially natural, the establishment of a group Militusccp, 
where the outer petals are, as we have seen, far more similar to 
sepals than to the pieces of the inner corolla. We knew in fact 
that there were genera foreign to this group, such as Popovin, 
Mifrrjj/iora, and Ornphaa, in certain species of which the outer 
petals were already becoming in form and size less like the inner 
petals, and so were tending to approach the calycine leaves. 

3. The absence of the inner petals is of itself insufficient to cha- 
racterize a genus, for there are genera, recognised as perfectly 
natural, where the outer petals gradually become much smaller 
than the inner ones, and before finally disappearing are even reduced 
to very small spoon-like bodies. We may cite certain species ol' 
Aiioiia, Bolli/iia, and one abnormal lioUinia of the section Clut/iro- 
Hpennui/i. Most species of Ununu liave a well-developed corolla ; but 
in some it is quite absent. 

4. The independence or union of the pieces of the perianth has 
never appeared to us sufficient to characterize a genus. Hexahhu^ 
for instance is not merely Unona with a gamopetalous corolla ; other 
features mark it out, and we have sketched them.' But it is 
impossible to make a generic distinction between those species of 
Uvaria, Unona, and Bollinia, in which the corolla comes off in a single 
piece, and those other species of these genera whose structure is 
otherwise quite the same.^ The corollas of the Monodoras, varying^ 
fzreatly in form, are all gamopetalous ; but this feature alone would 
not be thought worthy to put them in a group apart, if the peculiar 
organization of their gyna?ceum did not give them so marked a dis- 
tinction.^ Nor is the union or freedom of the calyx-leaves a cha- 
racter of more value ; for it may happen that of two species of the 
same genus, as closely allied as possible, the one may have free 
sepals, the other an urceolate calyx, v;ith three teeth hardly i)ro- 
jecting on the edge. 

5. The number and arrangement of the stamens. — We have 



' Sec p. 226. It might not, however, he ini- dmled in Tii()tineia hy Hkntuam k HooKKB, 

poKsiblc to moot with Homc H|KK-ic8 wliich HhouUl thougli itii coruliii is (U>cidi>(lly ^unoiwtiilotii*. 

conncol tliis pcmm witli one of the hections ol * Wo shouhl liiithor imtiio llio tt)UsiH|uoncc 

Artabutrya. For tho jiroMiit llio iinion ol" tlio of gamopotaly in this gonus; it is that the throo 

potulH is ut once Huflieicnt to dintingniith the diviitionH of tlie corolla !injK.'riK)«o«l to tho Hoiwlii 

gcnom. nniy linully ajipcar to stand on tho same verticil 

■•I It is no doubt forlhemimcrciuKn that //fj-H- as the three outer ones. Probably this is not 

lobun brasHiennis A. S. H. A Iri.. Iins hren in- the casf when they are young. 



ANONACE^. 251 

shown that this character is at most only sufficient to justify sub- 
divisions within a genus. The stamens are ahnost always inde- 
finite in the Anonacece, and it is only since the time of A. de Saint- 
HiLAiRE that it has been known that Bocatjea may have an andro- 
ceum of subdefinite elements. The study of B. heterantha has 
proved to us that the number of stamens may be even quite definite, 
limited to three or six ; as is also the case with some species of 
Oro2)haa. But at the same time we have had to unite the American 
Bocageas and the Asiatic AJphonseas into a single genus. Now the 
latter often have indefinite stamens. Moreover, when the stamens 
of the Anonacea are very numerous, they appear, when adult, 
arranged in a spiral, while in the species of three, six, or nine 
stamens the existence of triraerous or hexamerous verticils appears 
quite incontestible. In this res])ect the AnonacecB would resemble 
the BamuiculacecBy having the pieces of the androceum sometimes 
arranged in whorls, sometimes in spirals.' 

6. The form of the stamens, the relative size, direction, and position 
of the anther-cells and connective, especially with regard to the pro- 
longation of the latter, are of great, though not quite absolute, value 
in separating genera." There is no reason for hesitating very much 
before placing a species in one genus rather than in the neighbouring 
one because its stamens are those of the UoariecB, not of the MiliuseiS, 
or the reverse. We have seen how Bentham & Hooker go much 
further, at the very outset relegating all the AmnacecB with stamens 
of the MiJ'msece to a separate tribe, though the other characters of 
the fiower are extremely variable in the difierent genera of this tribe. 
Adopting their standpoint, we should perhaps need to adopt a third 
type of staminal organization — that so well marked in the group 
Clathrospermiim of the genus Popoicia. Here the stamens present 
certain characters of the Uoarica ; for it is impossible to class 
Popowia in the same division as the Miliusce ; but yet Clathro- 
spermiim proper has been put in the latter category.'' 



■ The study of development will alone finally ^ We have seen, for instance, that certain 

settle this question. The numerous stamens of Anonas may be considered to possess stamens of 

the Anonacem like those of the Dilleniacea, Bocagea (p. 222), and that in Anaxagorea tne 

might well be originally arranged in bundles. connective often recalls that of several species of 

(For the chief details concerning tlie arrangement Miliusa by its elongated form, and by being flat- 

and the varying number of the pieces of the andro- tened and tajjcring at the apex (p. 207). 

ceuni, see Adansonia, viii, 312-32U.) ^ See Adansonia, viii. 314. 



252 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

7. The transformation of certain stamens into sterile petaloid blades,' 
— This transformation is not of generic value, for there is no genus 
in which all the species present it. In Jbcremoa, in U/wna, it occurs 
in a single species ; as well as in a few American species of Xi/lojjia. 
It takes place, as we have seen, sometimes with the outer stamens, 
sometimes, but far more rarely, with the inner ones." But in this 
order it does not seem to be due to cultivation. 

S. The conformation of the upper part of the receptacle. — We 
may distinguish the form of complete concavity, with epigyuous 
insertion of all the floral appendages exterior to the pistil, from that 
in which the concavity is restricted to the summit of the receptacle, 
or to a region not involving the insertion of the perianth, which in 
this case is always hypogynous and inserted below the androceum. 
Accordingly, while complete concavity has sufficed to mark out one 
particular series, the Eupomatlcte, the partial deformity may vary 
from species to species in one and the same genus. The deep sac 
on whose outer surface the stamens are inserted in most species 
of Xylopia may become a slight pit, or even a plane surface in 
some.* The same diversity is found in Artabofrp," Ihwalohi/s, &c., 
though in these genera the cavity is never so marked as in certain 
Xi/lojjias. 

9. The ascending or descending direction of the ovules. — It will 
be seen that this has no more importance here than in any other 
group, when we have to deal with numerous ovules arranged along the 
whole length of the ventral angle of the ovary. In the same species, 
in the same ovary, here as elsewhere we find ovules nearly horizontal 
at the centre of the placenta, while they are more or less oblique, 
ascending or descending, as they approach the top or bottom of the 
cell. But when the ovules are solitary or few in nuiubiT wo do not 



' See Ailtinsoniii, viii. 32G. (p. 21i>) ; mid -V. malai/iuKi lIooK. K. i TnoMS., 

^ Tliirt ])ec-uliurity Iiuh been obRervcil in (lie in tliis respect atVurds n transit iun between tlivso 

gcnuH Anusti<iorea alone (p. 207). anil the other species of Xyloput, its receptacle 

^ Prof. Oi.iVKU, in his enuwierMtion of the being like an elongafed cone solid for alM)ut 

Anonmiti hi ihis Flont of Tiojiiidl Afrir(i{\.'M), two-thirds of its hcij;ht, with the upper thinl 

an nn|)ubli>lK'd work, of w hiih he Inis kindW fa- alone hollowed into a shallow pit to receive the 

voured nie with the ]proof sheets [this work insertion of the carjH'ls. 

was |)ublislitil ill iKCiNj, hiis had no hesitation ' Ksjiecially in the sjiecies of the sit'tion /'urar- 

in referring Mtludumm ajricimutn lJi;NTn., to (ttbutiyv, sucli as J', hixaffytut MlQ. The snr- 

Xylopia, despite it4i convex receptacle. This face on which the cnrjK-ls are in«erte<l is Hut, 

has nearly the wune form in most species of but it rises in a circle all round, projecting to a 

J/iifjziliti, which we have included in \i/lnj)i<, fnir height in proportion. 



ANONAGEJE. 253 

SO mnch expect to find such diflerences of direction. Tlie ovules of 
Phceanthus and EUipeia are horizontal or slightly ascending, though 
inserted some way up the placenta. That ovules should be ascend- 
ing or nearly erect when there are one or two nearly basilar, is yet 
more inteUigible. The micropyle in this case looks outwards and 
downwards ; this we find in Anona, Polj/althia, certain species of 
Trigyncia, &c. But a good proof that a solitary ovule has not neces- 
sarily the same ascending direction in all the species of a genus, is 
afforded by the plant we formerly called Tngyneia ri/fescens' which 
has a slightly descending ovule, with the micropyle looking upwards 
and inwards, though possessing all the other floral characteristics 
of its congener, the form lanceolata of Anona Perrottetii A. DC.,' 
whose ovule is ascending. We intend at some future time to make 
known a third species very near these two, in which the ovule is 
even more markedly pendulous. 

10. The arrangement of the ovules, w^hether in one or in two 
rows. — This character can have no great importance, being only 
determined at a rather advanced age of the gynteceum. At their 
origin, all the ovules, w^hen numerous, are probabl}' arranged in two 
parallel rows. It is only later on that those of the one row become 
interposed to those of the other, both sets gradually approachino- 
the ventral median line. On splitting up the carpel through the 
longitudinal internal groove, we usually effect a separation of the 
ovules into two equal sets, one each side of the cleft, though they had 
appeared ranged in a single vertical row. In certain genera quoted 
as having sometimes one, sometimes two rows, we have always found 
two.^ We shall never use this character to separate two genera. It 
has no more value in the fruit than in the flower ; for ovules that 
were in the flower arranged in two rows may correspond to seeds 
superposed in a single row in the fruit, and ovules so close together 
as to appear in a single vertical row, may develope into seeds 
arranged in two very distinct ranks.' 

11. The presence or absence of contractions in the fruit answer- 



^ Adansonia, viii. 180, n. 1. * " The fact of the arrangement (of the 

' Adansonia, viii. 179, note 5. ovules) in two rows, probably exists in all cases, 

3 In Rexalobus for instance, of which all the but is not always quite so clearly shown ; and it 

species are alike in this respect, except H. mada- is only worth while to base o-enera on this cha- 

gascariensis A. DC, which is unknown to us racter when the two rows are very far apart 

(see p. 227, note 6), and should possibly be re- instead of close together. But that does not 

ferredtothe genus Monodora. occur in Anonacece." (A. DC, Mru/.. 7.) 



254 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

\i\^ to false interseminal septa. — This character was formerly used 
to separate genera ; it can be so used no longer. We have passed 
the day when the Unofias were all supposed to present these con- 
tractions, then thought to be always absent in Uvaria ; for in certain 
of the latter there are more evident marks of dissepiments than in 
some of the former, and these again may have their fruit with 
the surface quite smooth and "continuous." The genua J la /j::f'h'n 
(A. DC), that was said to be distinguished' by its fruits, " here and 
there irregularly swollen," like those Unonas that have irregularly 
moniliform berries, is at present by all included in Xylopia ; and 
hardly is this cliaracter thought sufficient to characterize sub-genera 
in certain genera. 

12. The aril. — As we know the origin of the true aril in A/ionacrtp, 
we can conceive a priori how this organ, formerly thought so very 
important, can have no real taxonomic value. The soft layer sur- 
rounding the coriaceous seed-coat, which is thickened throughout 
in Mat/noIiacccB, in Anonacea only undergoes this thickening around 
or over the hilum or micropyle, in their interval, or on the sides of 
the seed. This sort of hypertrophy may even escape notice on a 
superficial observation, especially in the dry seed, and when it is 
limited to a small cord bounding the two former regions. The seed 
has then been described as wanting an aril, though this organ is 
still represented, for its form and size can have no absolute value. 
Never have we thought it possible to give a generic value to the 
character of the presence of the aril." 

13. The glandular dots scattered over the surface of the leaves 
and some other organs. — This fact and its results, as regards the 
aromatic properties of the JnonacefC, appear to possess some im- 
portance in certain genera ; for some consist wholly of inodorous 
species without dots. But here again we have nothing absolute, for 
in so natural a genus as Anona some species arc dotted and others 
are n<jt. 

14. Tlie inflorescence. — It is, I think, no longer possible to found 
genera in Anonacofp on the situation and grouping of the flowers. 



' A. DC, Mim., 9. ollcii wwd hy iimn." Ht-rc it would •ocm he 

' TliiH wiu» not the opinion of A. de Can- cdnfusiH tho aril and tlio jHTit-nrp it«olf. Ac- 

l)OLl.E (Mem., 8), who moreover ntated that llio eorilinh' t<i the wnue author (1. a), at the time 

aril, " when prcMent, •ocreten iin apparently reHi- ho wrote, no Aniatie AnonuU with u clearly arilbto 

iiouH urouiatic Huhblaiice at the hiwe of the M-ed*. (teed wan known. 



AN0NACEJ3. 255 

Each genus formerly described as possessing axillary flowers only, 
now includes species whose flowers are terminal.' The flowers are 
probably always solitary or cymose in this order, and we do not 
find true racemes. Even the singular fosciated arrangement of the 
primary peduncles in Artahotrijs does not appear absolutely constant. 
In many species of other genera we find both axillary and terminal 
flowers. Often, again, they are lateral, either owing to the phe- 
nomenon of displacement, above called " usurpation,'"' making them 
leaf-opposed, or because the floral axes are carried to a very variable 
height with the branch that bears them. 

It is by the application of the preceding data on the relative value 
of the variable characters, that we have been led to modify the 
classifications as yet proposed for the order Jjionacea, and to trace 
the following, of which we shall here sum up the main points. 

The features which, though quite exceptional, are of primary im- 
portance according to most botanists — namely, the general conca\4ty 
of the whole receptacle, and the union of the carpels into a single 
ovary — will first of all serve to establish the two following series, 
which should be placed as far as possible apart from the culminating 
point of the order, and towards the end of a linear series if this alone 
can be employed. 

Series of the Eupomatie^. — Carpels inserted within a receptacular 
sac, like the inflorescence of the Fig. Stamens perigynous (or rather 
epigynous, in the sense commonly given to the word). True perianth 
replaced by a bract protecting the flower. Outer stamens alone 
fertile. 

Series of the Monodore.e. — Receptacle convex. Ovary superior 
unilocular, with numerous j^luriovulate parietal placentas. Fruit 
with woody walls, like the ovary, polyspermous. Perianth triple. 
Corolla of variable form, gamopetalous. 

Opposite these aberrant series we place the true AnonacecB, with 
the floral receptacle at least in part convex, a hypogynous perianth, 
and a polycarpous gyna3ceum, the ovaries being really free, no 
matter whether the pieces of the fruit be so or not at a later period. 



1 With reference to this we may especially whose flowers are terminal. This position of the 

cite the genus Eupomatia, which only includes flowers is very exactly figured in Schnitzlein's 

two species. The first that was known has axil- Iconographia (t. I7i) ; while in the text, the 

lary flowers j but this character does not belong axillary insertion of the flowers is given as a 

to the genus since the discovery of J7. Bennettii, generic characteristic. 



256 NATURAL niSTORY OF PLANTS. 

From this group we shall first, simply from practical considerations, 
and not losing sight of the artificial character of the proceeding,' take 
those Anouacccp which appear to possess two calyces and one corolla. 
The other series, on the contrary, contains those with two corollas 
and one calyx.' 

Series of the M1LIUSE.E. — G3ma3ceum polycarpous. Perianth triple 
hypogynous. Middle perianth more like the outer than the inner. 

Serien of (he Anonk.e. — Uyna^ceum and receptacle of the precediug ; 
middle perianth (outer corolla) more like the inner than the outer 
(calyx). We have seen that this series is then subdivided according 
to the conformation of the corolla into five sub-series, as follows : — 
1. UvariecB ; 2. Unoneee ; 2t. Xijlopiea ; ^. Rolliniea ; 5. OripultrcfP.^ 

The AnonacecB present great uniformity in the general characters 
of their vegetative organs. We always find non-herbaceous plants 
with alternate exstipulate leaves, varying greatly, it is true, in 
the size, consistency, and duration of the parts. The stem is 
almost always aerial ; in Eupomatia Bennettii alone there is a rhizome 
creeping nearly horizontally below ground, and bearing the aerial 
branches. The arborescent Anonacea are nowhere stated to attain to 
any great size. The largest trunks in any collection are al)out as thick 
as a man's thigh. There are in this order a large number of shrubs 
or little bushes which divide into fascicled branches from the level 
of the ground ; and in very many exotic species we find this arrange- 
ment so well shown in our cultivated A-simina triloba. Often, aijain, 
the stems or slender branches of the Anonacea twine round neijrh- 
bouring objects, and many species are described as creepers or 
climbers. Has this peculiarity any influence on the anatomical 
structure of the stem? We must answer in the negative, but only 
as regards those species Ave have had the opportunity of studying. 
Except a rarefication of the cortical parenchyma, to form spaces in 
the centre of the masses of cellular tissue between the rows of liber 
bundles, we have found the same structure in the branches of the 
climbing and in the nun-sarmentose species oi A/ioiki, U/tono, and 



' Sec Adavnonin, viii. .3(1'.). botwd nro, with otio cxrpptioii, those uwhI by 

* Kxci-pl wlicii Olio corolla tliwippcarH. It w Bkntiiam A IIoukkk, the only ililVorfiico Wm^ 
nnually the inner one; in Enuntia jilone ih the the rehitivo iinportHnee iissi^jne*! to these jfrouj)* ; 
outer corolhi iihtienl. Unl in nil tliCHu pluntB there for we term tubtei-iei what they have culled 
are only three nepiiloid leavcB. tribtt. 

* The ihaructent on which theso divihionK are 



ANONACE^. 



257 



TJvaria} It is especially in Asimina triloha, a species of this last <^enus, 
that we have been able to study the tissue of the stem and brandies 
in the recent state, and this tissue we shall describe, remarking that, 
generally speaking, it is that of the other genera we have examined. 
The pith consists of two kinds of cells ; first, we have those of the 
common parenchyma of Dicotyledons, all nearly similar, irregularly 
polyhedral, the cell walls riddled with holes -^ secondly, we have 
stony or sclerous cells, analogous to those of the pith of MafjuoUpoi, 
forming incomplete transverse diaphragms here and there. Their 
walls are very thick, traversed by numerous canals slightly dilated at 
each end ; they refract light strongly, and are white or yellowisli in 
colour/ The wood, rather light and soft," consists of narrow fibres 
with very minute perforations and vessels of every kind. Certain 
cylindrical thin-walled vessels, much larger than the rest, are 
remarkable for tlieir very numerous perforations, placed close together 
so as to form many rows, covering the whole surface of the vessel, 
and almost touching by their areola?.* These are circular or elliptical 



' We should point out one exception, a Melo- 
doi-um which Griffith (Xoinl., iv. 707, t. 650) 
has described under the name of Ct/athosfemma. 
In this plant, says the author, " the wood is 
remarkable, the pith very small. The ligneous 
system white, subcruciately -4-lobed, with con- 
cave sinuses, and a secondary brown zone surround- 
ing this, filling up the, concave sinuses, but very 
thin opposite the angles. The vessels of the 
white lobes are large, and frequently the me- 
dullary rays are pronounced, complete, and white 
in both systems, very large towards the circum- 
ference, and generally containing one or two linear 
bundles of white wood. These rays are distinct, 
continuous from bark to pith ; the spaces be- 
tween them {i.e., the wood) consist of fine dense 
fibres, with a nearly simple zone of (scalariform) 
vessels. The brown part consists of transverse 
subundulate lines of woody fibre, and transverse 
oblong spaces tilled with brown matter. These 
brown spaces are divided by septa ; and pro- 
bably the chief dift'erence between the brown 
wood and the white is that in the brown the 
vessels predominate so much as to subdivide or 
break up the continuity of the fibrous part." 
[In transcribing this passage from the original, I 
have been compelled to make some alteration, 
especially in the punctuation, in order to make 
it intelligible.— Tkaxs.] 

Geiffith has described in the same work 
three other genera of Anonaeece under the 
names of PeUicaft/x, Fissistiffma (706), and 
Nephrosligma (7l7) ; but from his very imperfect 

VOL. 1. 



description of these genera it is almost impos- 
sible to discover if they would be included in any 
of those we have studied above. Perhaps 
PtUicah/x should be referred to Uvaria, and 
Fiss}.^(u/ma to Mtlodorum. 

" Their contents are very variable. Here, as 
in so many other plants, they are at certain 
seasons gorged with starch-granules. We also 
find crystals, either globular and studded with 
little pyramidal points, or distinctly and regularly- 
octahedral. 

^ Their contents are often yellow, oily-looking. 
We have seen these thick-walled cells forming 
diaphragms in the young branches of all the 
AnoiHicece cultivated in our conservatories, ^«o»o 
mto-icata and Cherimolia, Artalotrys uncata and 
intermedia, and especially Xi/lopia athiopica, 
where they presented very numerous distinct per- 
forations with everted orifices. 

* De ilAKTirs has given the specific gravity 
of the wood of several Brazilian Anouaceee (Fl. 
Bra.s., Anonac, 61). He gives the following 
figures: — Findaiha pveiafii ■^■j.mt Paul {Giiatte- 
riajlava /), -839 (wood dense, yellowish, flexible) ; 
Araticu do Mato {Eullinia syhatica) -530 (paler 
and softer); Pindaiha branca.of Saint Paul (Xi/lo- 
pia sericeaoT frutescens), '626 (colour browner); 
Anona crassijiura, •571 (wood spongy, whitish). 

* We have met with these vessels in all the 
species enumerated above, in many of which the 
wall looks exactly like a sieve very regulaily per- 
forated, and with the areolse touching by their 
circumferences. 



258 NATURAL HISTOIiY OF PLANTS. 

according as the openings of the pores are rounded or more or less 
elongated. The medullary rays are numerous, forming very distinct 
se])ta, and consist of muriform rectangular cells, much elongated in the 
radial direction of the stem.' Their walls are very thick, regularly 
studded with narrowly areolate perforations. These rays pass dis- 
tinctly from the wood into the bark, and in transverse section they 
are seen isolating the divisions of the liber, which is of a characteristic 
nature in Anonacae. In each of the divisions referred to are several 
concentric sheets of liber fibres produced in the same year. Each 
sheet is wholly separated from the two respectively internal and 
external to it, by a band of cellular tissue.* After several years 
these alternating bands of prosenchyma are very numerous, becoming 
narrower as they are more external, so that in transverse section 
the segments of liber are nearly rectangular, but later on they 
elongate in the radial direction, and assume the form of a trapezium 
with the external base very short. Hence results also a defor- 
mation of the cortical cellular masses continuing the medullary 
rays of the wood, which become also trapeziums, but with the 
larger base outside.'' As these external masses enlarge, the cells 
composing them elongate transversely, but grow very little in 
the radial direction ; each finally becoming a long curved paral- 
lelopiped, with its convexity outwards. Their contents are for the 
most part colourless, but those of several cells bounding the liber 
bundles on each side usually contain a little chlorophyll. This is 
very abundant in the true herbaceous layer; the suber, on the 
contrary, early becomes brown, and its flattened cells are rapidly 
pushed out towards the periphery of the bark. Those covering the 
liber bundles project more at the surface than those answering to 
the parenchyma between them, thus producing alternate ridges on 
the surface of the bark, indicatii^.g the arrangement of the bundles 



' 1)E .Mautu'h Hnyn (/or. cil.) that the mcdul- ])artitioim directly continuous with the jMiron- 

Ury rays of the hIl-iu of Amnm craxnijlura kou- chynia of the herbaceous hiyer. This irreguhirity 

Hiitt of thick cells, ami that the wood is in part is very well marked in the stems of Munvdora, 

made up of largo iiellucid cells, perfomtcd by otherwise coiihtructetl as in t>ther AnoHacr(T. 
linear rows of jwres. 3 ]„ ,i,^. twininjr stem of / ivi,-,*! „n/rn(^a Hi.. 

* Internally the bands of lii)cr formed by the these surfaces even coHie exactly U. form triangles 

transverse section of their fibres are nearly rect- placed with their vertices in alternate dire.tion*. 

angular and continuous. Tuwardu the outside and Jilting into one another uU round the stem, 

they become more irregular, and more or less It is those consisting of pnrcncbyniu onlv that 

round.ul exUrnally, while they are often seg- are pliiccHl vertex inwardu. 
mcnted into two or three part* Iiy little lellular 



ANONACEJE. 259 

of liber within, though not quite so distinctly marked out. In a 
lonmtudinal and tanc^ential section of the bark we find each bundle 
forming a broken line, whose segments are pretty nearly equal and 
inclined to one another at very obtuse angles, also nearly equal. 
On examining one of these bundles we find that it touches the two 
bundles at its sides alternately. The vertex of one of its angles 
meets the vertex of an angle on the bundle to its right ; that 
of its next angle meets that of an angle on the left-hand one. 
The vertex of the third angle touches one on the right again, and so 
on. Thus is formed a network with vertically-elongated, lozenge- 
shaped meshes, something like a trellis, whose rhomboidal openings 
are hounded by liber bundles, and are filled up with those transversely 
elongated cells described above. This arrangement is represented 
on the surface by an unbroken network with little vertical clefts, the 
peculiar arrangement of which is often useful as indicating the bark 
of an Anon ad at a glance. 

All this, however, only refers to the true Anonacea, to plants 
belonging to our three first series. But in Eupomatia, which is on 
other grounds an aberrant type, there are also great differences in 
the histological structure of the axis. In the bark of a j'oung branch 
of E. Bennettii F. Mdell., we have found a thick parenchyma,' whose 
cells are fuU of chlorophyll granules, or here and there contain a 
homogeneous pink liquid; while there are numerous independent 
liber bundles, crescent-shaped in transverse section. But we no 
longer find the liber forming lozenge-shaped meshes, nor its bundles 
projecting ; the outer surface of the bark is smooth, except for the 
two decurrent parenchymatous crests, continuing the angular edges of 
each petiole down the stem. The pith consists of a single sort of cells, 
thin-walled and riddled with pores.' The wood alone retains the cha- 
racter observed in certain Poli/carjjicce, especially Brimydece. The fibres 
are thick-walled, and bear longitudinal rows of areolate pores, which 
are circular, or more frequently elongated and oblique. At the point 
of contact of two adjoining fibres we find enormous biconvex, lens- 
shaped cavities, each resulting from the apposition of two areolae ; 



^ Adansonia, ix. 21. similarity in the organization of the flower, and 

- These considerable diflferences in the stem confirm the view that ITw^o/rta^/ea are indubitably 

structure between the true Anonacece and the more closely allied to the Monimiacece than 

EupomatiecB correspond, as we know, to great dis- to the Anonacect themselves. 

s 2 



260 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

one might fancy them the pores of a Conifer. Tlie woody fibres of 
the roots present the same appearance. These roots are tuberculate 
cylinders, like the subterranean swellings of a BnhVin. Their thick- 
ness results from the great development of the cortical parenchyma. 
The cells are all similar, and gorged with starch-granules, which we 
also find in the pith and the numerous medullary rays that connect it 
with the cells of the herbaceous layer. 

The chief characters of this order once known, we can inquire into 
its affinities, which are numerous. In the first place, it is more or 
less closely allied to the whole of Endlichkk's class Folijcarpiccp, 
especially to Mag noli ace a and Mompermaceoi ; and generally to those 
orders which possess ternary flowers. As we have seen, the sole diffe- 
rence between the true Magnoliaceoe and Anonacea is in the seed pro- 
vided with an arillary thickening, generalized in the former, localized 
or absent in the latter ;' while the albumen is not truly ruminate 
in Magnoliacea^ as it is in Anotiaccce. This character is no longer 
sufficient to completely differentiate these from Mcnispermacca, for 
the albumen is deeply partitioned in plants of the latter order.^ But 
the habit, the size of the flower, the inflorescence, the structure of 
the stamens and fruit supply, as Bentiiam & Hooker' have shown, 
sufficient means to separate the two groups in practice. The Lardi- 
zabalacea, now placed near Berhcridacea, have by this very fact 
closer relations with Papavcracea than with Anonacea. BUk'niacete 
have not the trimerous or dimerous flowers of the Anotiaccce. The 
Nutmeg order has always been considered nearly allied to Aiionacca 
on account of the aril and ruminated albumen. These resemblances 
must now-a-days be considered as only very specious. The apetalous 
flowers, the mode of diclinism, the monadelphous stamens, are the 
chief reasons for removing the much-reduced type of the J/yr/>- 
ticacf'ci; from Aiionaccd'. Together with Maf/iioliaccd' the order most 



' Tlic nril tlisniipcurii in Schizamlrea, which ' Espeeiully in Burasaia, wliono albtnnen i« 

liuve ul»o been coinjmnd with Anomicefp on lie- deeply rumiimtcd, iind wliiih wo wore tiio tirnt 

count of the type of the (lower, iitid the hiibit of to refer to Mrnispennncfa {Adanionin, ii. 310). 

Sagercra, StiUrhucarpun, kx'. The known Schi- * " Bfnr limitaiitur hahitii, injlomicentia, 

zandrrre huve nil unihexuiil tlowcrn. Jtoribtm parvia, stiiminif/iis, rf pnraertim irmine 

' Spacu (Suit. (I Riiffon, vii. 49.3) does not (etinm in illis quibus iilbumrn rertum et rumi- 

•dmit thitf ditrerentiiil fhiiriioter in all its rigour, mitum) circa enduvarpiiim inli-usum peliaio- 

for, nay* he, the periKpcnn "in imfracluuue or curvalow Muleato, H einbi'ifotui elvni^atu." {Gem., 

riiuoiie in *cvoral Mniinnhcu" 80.) 



ANON ACE ^. 261 

nearly allied to uinonacecB is, in our opinion, Monimiacece, including 
therein the Cah/canfhecB. Eiipomatla is a type which very closely links 
together the alternate-leaved Monimiacea, and the Anonacece with 
a more or less concave floral receptacle.' Of Monopcfala, Ehenacece 
have been always noted as presenting close analogies with AnonacccB f 
but this conjunction seems to us hardly warranted by an exact 
analysis of their structure ; it is based on superficial characters only. 

The Anonacea are almost exclusively inhabitants of hot climates. 
They extend over the whole world for about 40° on each side of the 
equator ; but in Africa they hardly pass 20° N. Europe is the only 
quarter of the world in which none are indigenous ; the few species 
cultivated in the open air being those from North America. The 
sections Forcelia and Asimina of Uvaria belong to the United States, 
Mexico, and the western regions of South America as far as Peru. 
The south-east of this American zone, as far as the south of Brazil, 
is the country of Abcremon, Bollinia, C>/mbopetah/m, Oxandra, and 
most species of Anona ; indeed it is not long since only one 
Anona was known to be truly indigenous in the Old World.'' Now, 
it is true, we know of several;'* but their number is, on the whole, 
very limited, compared to that of the species from tropical America. 

De Martius has written some remarkable pages^ on the history of 
the Aiionas cultivated in South America. He asserts that Anona Cheri- 
molia, muricata, obtusiflora,^ reticulata, and squamosa have been imported 
into Brazil, first cultivated near dwellings, and so gradually modi- 
fied. Moreover, this author proves by historical and philological 
reasoning that none of these plants is native in the East Indies, but 
that all have equally been introduced into the Old World after the 
discovery of America, and that the Antilles are their true cradle. 
Thus A. DE Saint-Hilaire is mistaken in saying that the Anonas with 
edible fruits,' especially A. squamosa, come from the East Indies, and 



^ See Adansonia. ix. 17, other new indigenous species — namely, ^. ^ar^i?,-/ 

- See especially Aoaedii, Theor. Si/sf., 128 : Benth. {Linn. Transact., xxiii. 477), and A. 

" EbenacesB sunt Aiionacex> gamopeialea, car- Mannii Oliv. (Hook., Icon., t. 1010). 
pellisque in pistillum uniciim conjtuentibus." * Fl. Bras., Anonac, 51. 

^ See Adansonia, viii. 380. We consider A. ^ It must be borne in mind that this speci&s 

senegalensis Pees., glauca Schum. & TiioXN., really belongs to the genus Rollinia (see p. 224). 

chrysopeiala Boj. as simple varieties of a single It is, therefore, of American origin, like all tha 

species. A. palustris L. is a maritime species, plants of the same genus, 
probably from America. 7 PI. Us. des Brasil., n. 29, p. 5. 

* The Flora of Tropical Africa includes two 



262 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

that the Portuguese introduced them from thence into their American 
colonies ; for that species is found in Asia with all the appearance 
rather of a naturalized plant.' Now-a-days, more than ever, does R. 
Brown's opinion,' as to the American origin of the A/iotias cultivated 
for their fruits, seem to prevail. 

Cananga belongs to both the east and the west of America, 
from the south of ^lexico to the south of Brazil ; it is very abundant 
in Guiana, the Antilles, and Peru. The sections of Uiiona, Tri(/i/ncia 
and Unonastniniy also belong to this region. 

Besides Uvaria, Unona, and Anona, four other genera are common 
to both hemispheres : — Xi/Iopia, Bocagea, Anaxagorea, and Phaanthus. 
Xglopifi is distributed over the largest geographical area ; it has 
representatives in tropical Africa, Madagascar, India and the Indian 
Archipelago, Polynesia, the Antilles, Guiana, and as far as the south 
of Brazil, The genus Bocagca consists of several Brazilian species 
and all the AJphonseaa of tropical Asia ; a single species inhabits the 
Comoro Isles. Phaanihus is disseminated over a wide area, one 
species coming from Brazil, two from tropical Africa, and as many 
from the Indian Archipelago. Anaxagorea is about equally divided 
between the tropical regions of Asia and America. 

All the other A/iouaccce belong to the Old World. Ei/pomalia is 
essentially Australian. We only find Monodora and Heralohus proper 
in Madagascar and tropical Africa ; Enantia and Cleistorhlamgx are 
exclusively African. The following genera have as yet only been 
observed in tropical Asia or the neighbouring parts of Oceania : — 
Sagcrcea, Sphcerot/ialamm, Cgalhocalg.v, Disepalum, Atrutregia, Mttre- 
pliora, Owp/iaa ; while in both tropical Asia and tropical Africa we 
lind Popuu-ia, M'diusa, O.rgiiiitrn, Arta/jotrgs, besides two genera that 
are, as we have seen, represented in America, U/ioiia and Uran'a. 

Tiie two last-named genera extend over the largest area from 
north to south, both approaching the extreme limits of the zone 
80° broad that the Ano/iacece occupy. Both commence in the 
North of India and fniish in Australia with the last representatives 
of the order. The genus Uoaria goes as lar north as China and, b}- 
Aniiiiitia, as the United States ; and as iar south as the boun- 
dary line of tlie A/ioikiccw at the southernmost point ol' Australia. 



A. \)C.,(Jiojr. n»t.,mO. » Conao.ti: Miac. Wurk.s, i,l. 1U:nn. 



ANONACEJi]. 263 

Artahofrys also extends to China ; and BoUinia in the opposite 
direction towards the river Plata. 

In fine, of the twenty-eight genera retained by us, sixteen belong 
exclusively to the Old World and five to the New ; the former 
comprising one hundred and twenty species, and the latter ninety. 

The seven common genera contain 230 species, of which 140 
belong to the Old World; which consequently has altogether 260 
out of about 400 species oi Anonacece at present known.' 

The uses of the plants of this order are numerous, especially in 
the warm regions, where they grow abundantly. They are often 
aromatic, and consequently stimulant, stomachic, sometimes bitter, 
tonic, febrifuge, and antiputrescent. But the exaggeration of these 
properties may also sometimes render their employment dangerous ; 
their delicious perfume may be replaced by acrid, irritating, nay, 
sometimes even foetid odours.- We shall review the chief useful and 
noxious species. 

The fruit of the American Uvarias is edible but little esteemed. 
That of U. trihola, the Assmhiier, Monin, or Papaw of the United 
States (figs. 225, 226) is not of a very agreeable savour. Nevertheless 
an alcoholic drink can be obtained from it, and is manufactured at 
Pittsburg. The pulp and bruised leaves are applied to ulcers to 
induce cicatrization, and to abscesses, whose maturation it is supposed 
to hasten. The seeds are acrid, like those of many Anonacece ; re- 
duced to powder they are used as an emetic, or to destroy vermin in 
children's heads. 

Several Asiatic Unonas and Uvarias are used as stimulant drugs. 
Prom their bark and pulp are prepared decoctions, applied locally 
for bruises and rheimiatic pains, and administered as stomachics to 
facilitate digestion. Sometimes these barks are acrid and nauseous, 
and their use may be dangerous. Blume has shown that as di'ugs 



1 Towards the end of 1862, Bentu. & Hook. yet unpublished species, and the Flora of Tro- 

(Gen., 20) estimated their number at about iOO. pical Africa describes about as many more. 

Calculations have been made (Schltl., Linnaa, There are then at least 470 species of Anonacece 

ix. 331) respecting the successive increments to in the regions of the earth at present explored, 
the Anonacece, of which LiNNJiUS only knew - See Blusie, Fl. Jav., Anonac. — Esdl., 

12 species. In 1817 Pebsoon enumerated 17. EnchiriiL, 423. — Lindl., Veg. Kingd., 421. — 

De CAXDOLLK'sP/orfrowM* (1824) included 122, GtfiB., Drog. Simpl., ed. 4, iii. 675. — Kosen- 

and A. de Candolle enumerated 204, eighteen that., Sgnops. Plant. Diaphor., 589, 1140. 
years later. We know of a dozen and a half as 



2fA NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

tliese barks are especially efficacious in affections primarily arising 
from obstruction of the portal vein, but that they require to be used 
with caution, for in excess they will produce vertif^o, haemorrhage, 
and even abortion. The root of i'liona macrop/ii/l/a is very aromatic, 
and is used by the Javanese mountaineers in infusion, prescribed in 
variola maligna and typhoid fever. The same people consider that 
the fruit of U. mfjcordata will cure colic. Unona {VolyaUhia) ma- 
crojj/ii/lla, U. Ke/i/ii, U. latifoiia Bi^., Uvaria argenlea Bl., moluccana 
KosTL. [Unona Musaria Dun.), Naruni Bl. {U. zeijlanica Lamk., — 
Unona Nnriim Dln.) and zeylanica L. {U. Ileyneana W. & Arn., nee 
Wall., — Guatteria malabarica Dun.), are aromatic species, used 
as drugs or cosmetics. In tropical Asia the perfumed fruits of 
Ucaria BuraholJih., dtilcla DuN., and hetcrojj/iyl/a Bl., are eaten, as are 
those of Unona {Polyalthid) cerasoides, Corinthi, sempervirens, species 
with stimulant tonic aromatic barks, sometimes prescribed in rheu- 
matic affections. 

Cananga cetan, or Ucaria fripetala Lamk., has very aromatic seeds, 
used by the women of Amboyna to perfume their bodies. The 
trunk is incised to extract a juice which, when concreted, forms a 
white scented gum. 

The flowers of Artabotrys also are very aromatic,' as indicated 
by the specific names of odoratissima, suavcolens, &c. The latter 
species is known in the Indian Archipelago as Burie carban? Its 
leaves are used to prepare an aromatic infusion, whose good effects 
in cholera have been related by Blume. Several species of this 
genus, especially A. intermedia Hassk., afford a scented oil, much 
used as a perfume in Java, under the name of Minjakkenangan. The 
Arhor nigra maculosa, of which IvUMriiius has described the various 
properties, is probal)ly our A. uncata^ Many species of the same 
genus have edible fruits. 

The Canang of the Moluccas, now cultivated in all warm countries, 
is Unona odorala ;* it owes tliis name to the sweet scent of its 



' .See H. Us., Did. Encycl. dea 8e. Midie., * Duir., Mon., 107, t. 2»> {U. vtlutina 

vi. 2fil . Ojehtv. ; — U. l^iopetala Dt". ; — Cananga oHo- 

' Hi.., op. riV., 1. 30, 31 D. rata ItoXB. ; — Uvaria Cananpa Vahl. ; — I'. 

s See II. 2-.ir>. A. odora/lnximut R. Rn. odorafa Lamk. ;— I '. Ga^rtnrri l)V. ; — I'. axU- 

Aiionii hexojiftala L. ; — A. uiirinata Lamk.; laris Uo\i\. ; I'./arrtu U'ai.i.. ; — Cananqa sf/t- 

— Cnona hamala Dr.v.; — V. uiirinata Din.; ventrit Irifolia prima Rr Ji I'll. , //rr*. Amlioin., 
Ucaria unralu Loi K. ; U. rnrulrnla RoTTi,.; ii. ]<J7, t. GG; — Arhor S,i>/iiis,iH RaY. Sitpp. 

— U. odortilisnimii RoXli. ; — Modiri U'alli Luz.,8'3; — A/antjuilan of bU'xnn i'^osy.). (St-o 
Rheed., Hort. M.ihih., vii.Mf), l.8i;). LxMk., Dirt., i. 6%, 5U7 ; ///.. t. Ill, fig. 2.) 



AN0NACE2E. 265 

flowers, said to resemble that of Narcissuft. Borhori, or Borrihorri, 
is a semifluid very aromatic pomatum prepared from these flowers, 
those of the Champac, turmeric, and cocoa-nut oil. This is used to 
rub the hair and the whole surface of the body, to bring back the 
heat of the skin, as a cure and prophylactic for fever, especially 
during the cold and rainy season. Guibourt asserts that it is no 
doubt this oil which is known or imitated in Europe, and sold under 
the name of Macassar oil. In Malaysia this plant is cultivated around 
dwellings ; the flowers are used by the natives to deck their hair, 
clothes, and beds, and triumphal arches in their marriage ceremonies. 

The Anonas, usually elegant shrubs, cultivated in nearly all the 
warm countries of the earth, have fruits that are often prized as 
aliments or drugs,' under the general name of Corossoh and Cachi- 
mans. One of the best known is the Pomme Cannelle, Atte, or Sweet-sop, 
the fruit of A. squamosa,^ a native of the Antilles, cultivated for its 
fruit in all the tropical regions of both worlds. This is a large 
ovoidal or nearly globular berry, with a soft white flesh and a 
greenish, yellowish, or greyish coat, tougher than the flesh and 
divided into a certain number of obtuse, irregularly lozenge-shaped, 
scaly projections (figs. 267, 268). Its perfume is sweet and its 
taste very agreeable. It has been compared to that of a very ripe 
but somewhat watery pear, and possesses a more or less decided 
aroma of cinnamon. With the expressed juice may be prepared an 
agreeable fermented drink like cider. The young fruit is astrin- 
gent, and the seeds are acrid ; for Egyle reports that they are used, 
powdered and mixed with chick peas, to destroy vermin ; they are 
employed by the Brazilians for the same purpose, as are those of 
several Anonas and Itollinias. 

The berry of A. Cherimolia^ {Cherimoller dii Per oil), a large 



• Mabt., D. Anonac. vsu, \\\ Fl. Bras., is really the fruit of A. reticulata). Accordino- 

Anonac, 59. — GuiB., Brog. Simpl., ed. 4, iii. to Oviedo it is called Anon. " Hence," says A. 

675. — DrcH., Repert., 178. — H. Bn., Bid. de Candoile {Geogr. Sot., 861), the generic 

Encyl. des Sc. Medic, v. 223. — Kosenth., Si/n. name Anona, which Linn.eus changed into 

PI. Biapkor., 592. Anjiona (victuals), objecting to any name from 

" L. -S^ec, 757.— .Tacq., Ohs., i. 13, t. 6. — barbarous languages, and having no dread of 

Dun., Mon., 69. — DC, Syst., i. 472 ; Frodr., i. puns." 

85, n. 14. The fruit is variably named Cachi. ^ Mill., Bict., n. 5. — DC, Syst., i. 474 ; 

man or Atocire, Marie-baise, Sweel-sop or Frodr., n. 17. — A. tripetala AlT., Hort. Keic., 

Sugar-apple oi the English colonists, Atn, Ali ii. 252. — Siiis. Bot. Mag., t. 2011. — Quatia- 

of the Indians, Ate, Ahatede panncho in ^Icxico, bantts Trew, Fl. Scl., t. 49. 
and in India it is misnamed Custard-apple (which 



266 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

globular or ovoidal syncarpium as h\g as the fist, with a mammillatcd 
surface like the preceding, greenish witliout, and with a whitish 
flesh within, is, according to some travellers, the most exquisite of 
fruits ; its gelatinous pulp possesses a delicate flavour of strawberry 
and pineapple. Like most of the edible Anon as this species is 
cultivated in all warm climates ; and might be grown, it is asserted, 
in the South of Europe. Nevertheless, Father Feuilki/s opinion 
of the best Custard-apples applies to this fruit also, viz., that none is 
equal to our exquisite European pears. They are all much prized 
in tropical regions, but must be eaten when just ripe. They are 
already overripe when they fall off the tree ; gathered too soon they 
are astringent, and the tougher outer layers are then too rich in re- 
sinous matters and essences, giving the fruit an after-flavour of tur- 
pentine. They are no doubt refreshing, but are often injurious to 
invalids, especially the feverish, who find them " too raw" and in- 
digestible. Before they are ripe they are only eaten with the addition 
of a certain quantity of sugar ; they are then more tonic, owing to 
their astringency. Usually they are far less nutritious for their 
bulk than our indigenous fruits, containing a larger proportion of 
water. The expressed juice is sweet and mucilaginous ; fermented 
it produces a sort of sweet wine called " vin tie CurossoV in the 
Antilles. This drink does not usually keep well, turning sour 
very readily. As stated above, the fruit when incompletely ripe 
is slightly astringent ; it is then better tolerated by the alimentary 
canal ; otherwise it may arrest digestion, and aggravate instead of 
alleviating the disordered functions. In Peru the young fruit is 
prized as an astringent drug; its decoction and powder are pre- 
scribed in cases of diarrhoea and dysentery. 

The fruit of Anona rdicidata' is the Ci/shtrd-applc,' otherwise 
known as Coroasol rMicnU or muvagc, petit Corossol, Cach'unan, Coeitr- 
dc-/j(£nf, or MamUicr, a large globular or oval berry, whose surlace, 
covered by a network with more or less distinct irregular pen- 
tagonal meshes, is of a reddish yellow or tawny colour. This 
fruit is edible, but, it is said, not much esteemed.' Tlie leaves 



• L., .S/jcr., Trj?.— Sloane, Jiim., t. 22G. — Iiidios, luul Hra/.il. Hoxiivitoii Fnys that it is 

J ACQ., Ohs.,\. t. G, tig. 2. — DC, <S|y«/., 1, 474; called ]S'uona in Iiiiliu, uiid U'lieves it to bo 

Prodr.,n. IH, idi-nticid witli A. (isiaticu Luru. (iiec L ). 

-• TliiH i» tlic true Cunt ard -apple of KiiKliHh =• It i» very lieatiii^ uceonling to Tl'BSii; 

colonints; ii is ciilliv.ili(l ill Mminliiis, ll,.- |.;,„i { h'lor. Anlill., v. l,t. 211). 



ANON ACE 2E. 267 

have a strong narcotic odour; and the juice that flows from the 
cut branches is acrid, and inflames the conjunctiva if dropped into 
the eye/ As a drug the green fruit is employed just like that of A. 
viuricata.'^ 

The fruit of Anona murkatd' is the Soi/r-sop, Corossol or Cachiman 
epineux, grand Corossol or Sappadille ; a large ovoidal, or more rarely 
nearly globular berry, often unequally grown, with straight or hooked 
points more or less thickly distributed over its surface (fig. 271). 
Its weight may reach 4i lbs. (two kilogrammes). The greenish or 
yellowish surface forms a sort of peel, with a smell of turpentine and 
a disagreeable taste; this is easily removed to disclose a whitish 
pulp of buttery consistency and pleasant subacid flavour, recalling 
at once strawberry, pineapple, and cinnamon. Its smell has been 
compared to both apples and pears. It has been found to contain 
tartaric acid. The ripe fruit is eaten with or without sugar ■' or it is 
fried or boiled as a vegetable when not more than a quarter of its 
full size. From the expressed juice, mixed with sugar, is prepared 
a fermented drink in two days ; this does not keep well, but when it 
turns sour becomes excellent vinegar. The fruit is also used in me- 
dicine ; when ripe it is supposed to be an antiscorbutic and febrifuge ; 
besides, picked before maturity, dried and powdered, it is administered 
in cases of intestinal flux or dysentery, when the inflammatory 
symptoms have been removed by appropriate treatment." A decoction 
of the green fruit is used topically to the aphthae of children. From 
the leaves are prepared poultices, as from those oi A. reticulata. The 
flowers, leaf-buds, and leaves, are also, it is said, pectoral and de- 
mulcent. The seeds are astringent. 

De Martius also points out A. Pisonii and Marcgraviv as Anonas 
with edible fruit. The decoction of the green fruit of the latter 
is also used in Brazil in the treatment of aphthous stomatitis. 



* This is reliered by lemon-juice. there called Kischta, i.e., cream. The Pignon 

^ It is used as an astringent in Saint Do- of Senegal spoken of by Adanson ( Fb^., 47) ap- 

uiingo. In tropical Asia it is cooked, when pears to be A. mnricata. 

green, like a head of artichoke, for which it is •'' iVf. de Mahtius (Flor. 61) says that it is 

substituted in sauces. The root is used in India administered in a dose of about two drachms, in 

in the treatment of epilepsy. a mucilaginous enema, to which a small amount 

3 Spec, 756. — Jacq., Obs., i. 10, t. 5. — Drx., of opium is added, and that this treatment was 

Mon., 62. — DC, Si/st., i. 467; Prodr., n. 1. — recommended to him by La Ciieda, a clever 

Trss., Fl. Antiil., t. 24. physician of P.ira. DESCorETlLS {Fl. Med. des 

' It is used to prepare creams and other deli- Antilles, ii. 63) also recommends this drug, 

cacies. According to Fokskhal & yoNXEEAT ^ Fl. Bras., Anonac, 5, n. 3. 

(see ii. 3), A. mui-icata, cultivated in ^Viabia, is ' Op. cit., \\. 2. 



268 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

A. fcpfida and .^pincscens are considered good for curing cutaneous ulcers 
and for maturing abscesses, by the Indians of tlie provinces of Rio 
Negro ;' the bruised pulp of the fruit is applied topically. In these 
climates a chill of any part of the body is followed by a painful 
swelling that prevents the use of that part ; the Indians remedy this 
by baths and warm affusions prepared with the bark oi A.fcetida. 
The leaves of //. ninricatn, reticulata, squamosa, Marcgravii contain a 
volatile oil of disagreeable odour, but infused in water or bruised 
with oil they bring abscesses to a head. The leaves of A. palustris^ 
have, according to Wright, the same odour as those of the Savin, 
and possess the same vermicidal properties. The fruit of this 
species, called Corossol cles marals, de la mcr, Pomme dc serpent, is con- 
sidered as venomous, or at least injurious to the stomach.^ Its odour 
is repulsive, and, says Pi son, like that of rotten cheese ; and the 
Topinambous think that the sea crabs that eat this fruit become 
poisonous as an article of food.'' However the negroes eat this 
Pomme de serpent for want of better, and it appears that in Senegal 
too the fruit of A. chri/socarpa, really the same plant as A. palustris,^ 
is sometimes eaten. 

The seeds of Monodora J/f/n'stica'^' have nearly all the properties of 
the nutmeg ; hence they are called Gn'uiea or Cala/jash Ant megs {Mus- 
cades de Calabash). They are, indeed, more pungent, but they serve 
exactly for the same culinary purposes ; and hence it has been con- 
jectured that the negroes of Guinea transported this plant to Jamaica, 
that they might be able to use the seeds as a condiment as in their 
native country. The negroes of Guiana also use the fruit and seeds 



* Mabt., Reise in Bras., ii. 555. to malignant ulcers. His A. hngifolia (615, t. 
' Ij., Spec, 757. — Dun., Hon., 65. — DC, 218), which is an. -f/xremo**, has, he says, an edible 

%»<., i. 4(59 ; Prodr.,x\.Q.—\. S. H., PI. Us. fruit cuUeil P/»rto««rt by theUalibis. A. DK Saint- 

Braxil., n. 2'J (Araticu do brejo). — A. uliginosa Hilaikk also describes in his Plantes Usuellft 

\j. — A. ausfrti I is A.H.ll. — A.chrysocarpn llicH., des lirasilittis (n. 29), his A. sylvatica (Araticu 

(ji'lLL. & Vv.iiH. — A. Pisonis Maut. (see Adan- de nialo). 

aonia, viii. 290, :)80). « 1)U.\., Mon., 80.— DC, Si/sl., i. 477 ; Prodr., 

^ Si.oANK, Jam., ii. 109. — Makcok., lirns., i. 87. — 3/. (jiandijlura Hkniii., Linn. Trans., 

ed. a (10 IK), OH.— Pi80, Bras., 48.— SoAlus dk xxiii. 471, t. 52, Zli.—Anoiia Mi/risfica G.krtn., 

SoUZA, iS'o/. do Bras., 194 (ex Makt., Ft., 61). Fruct., ii. 191, t. 125, f. 1. — Xylopia undulata 

* De Mauthh remarks that at tlie same V\\.. \\r.\V\.. Fl.Owar.et Bri>.,'\.'2.1,\,.\&(e\c\. 
season they eat the friiit of the Maiichinool, and fruct.) Tlie niultiplo fruit repra-enteil in this 
uf Sapiiim aucupuriinn. ]>late is no doubt that of a Xiflopia (I*L., Ann. 

* AuBLET {(iiiian.) also points out several Sc. Nat., si'r. 4, ii. 202). The true fruit of 
Jnona* with o<lible fruit. His .-I. />MMr/«/rt (Oil, Monodora .Mt/rislifa ha* only a sinjfle coll (seo 
t. 247) is, ho says, the Corossol sniiragp, goiKl fit;. 299, p. 2U)). For everything relative to the 
to eat. His A. Ambolay (010, t. 2 19) is usi-d Miniodoras in general seo ultove, pp. 2;i9-242, 
for its pu::pcnt hitler bark, applied in decction ami Adaii\oiii<i, viii. 299, ;U4. 



ANONACEJU. 269 

of Xijhpia aromat'ica in the same way, and we shall see that in Brazil 
other species of the same genus supply culinary condiments. 

The fruits of many Xylopias are used as aromatics. The one 
longest known for this is the Guinea Pepper {Poicrc de Guinee), the 
berry of A^ cethiorjka.^ The fruit of this plant (fig. 261) consists of a 
woody peduncle swollen into a head, on which are inserted a number 
of shortly stipitate, nearly cylindrical berries, about as thick as a 
goosequill, tapering a little at the base, slightly acute or obtuse at 
the apex, probably smooth on the surface when fresh, but slightly 
wrinkled by desiccation, and presenting ill-marked, unequal con- 
tractions between the seeds. Of these there are from three or four 
to twelve or fifteen, uniseriate, ovoidal, blackish, and arillate. The 
pericarp, blackish when dry, and adherent to the seeds by its deep 
layer, consists of a sort of dried up pulp, with a faint smell of ginger 
or turmeric, and is of a pungent, slightly musky taste. The seeds 
possess these properties in a less degree. Guinea Pejjper has been 
used as a drug, and the negroes have employed it as a condiment 
from time immemorial, and prize several other species of the same 
genus from the Antilles and Brazil for the same purpose. Such are 
X. frutescens- and aromatic^ in Guiana, the Xylojncron" of the Antilles, 
and X. prandijtora and sericea of Brazil. 

In the pharmacies of Brazil we find the fruits of three of these 
species of Xt/lojna — viz., X. grandiflor a, sericea, ^\A frutescens. In 
these are large globular cells, full of an aromatic volatile oil, of a 
pungent flavour like pepper, but more delicate and agreeable to the 
taste. De Martius' considers these remedies worthy of introduction 
into our pharmacopoeias ; they are energetic tonics for the stomach 
and intestines, on which they have a binding, carminative, and 
stimulant action. In decoction, combined with Quassia amara, they 
have often appeared a sovereign cure in weakness and atony of the 



* A. Rich., Fl. Cub., 53, not. — Unona athi- 2 Aubl., op. cit., 602, t. 212. It is the 

opica Dun., Mon., WZ.—HahzeUa athiopica Jerecou or Cour/uerecou. The capsule lias an 

A. DC, Mini., 31, n. 1. — Uvaria ^Ihiopica acrid taste and a smell of turpentine. The chewed 

Rich., Guill. & Peke., Tent. Fl. Seneg.,\.'d. — seeds and the bark are pungent and aromatic. 

Piper (pthiopicum Matth., Comiii., i. 434. — and are used as spices by the negroes. 

Piper nidroi-um Serapioni C. Bavh. — Hahzelia ^ t^ j- ^ 

Ratttt.. Pin.. 41 2.-X.undulata Pat. Rp.Arv.. VI. ^ In^nac'romaUca Drx., Man., 112.-DC.. 



Prodr., i. 91, n. 27. 



Bauh., Pin., 412. — X. undulata Pal. Beauv., JP/. 

Oioar. et Ben., i. t. 16 (quoad fruct., 5). Accord 

iug to his synonymy, AUBLET(G«/rt«., 60o,t. 243) ■* !*• Beowne, Jamaic, 250, 

calls this plant Waria zeylanica, Bois d'icorce, '" Fl. Bras., Anonac, 62. 

Poivre d'Ethiopie, des nhgres, Manig-iiette. 



270 NATURAL HTSTOIiY OF PLAXTS. 

larg^e intestine. If, as is thouf^ht by tliis author, the Uvaria febri/tn/a 
of Humboldt is really identical with Xiflopia Incida, this plant not 
only arrests fever, but cures inflammations of the intestine, and is 
especially useful in pyrexia arising from debility of the alimentary 
canal. Dk Marti us' has also informed us that these fruits are 
gathered before maturity for medicinal use, and that their action is 
exactly comparable to the Myrtaceous plant known as Piper jamnicensc 
[Allspice or Pimetifo]. The I'ruit of X. sericea is the best to preserve 
in the pharmacy, retaining its aromatic virtues the longest. That 
of X. frutesce/in has a stronger, but less acrid perfume than pepper ; it 
is supposed to act especially on the nervous system and as a diapho- 
retic* Moreover, a decoction of its fruits with those of the Galanc/a 
is used to cure I'oitid breath and to arrest caries of the teeth. The 
Brazilians also use it as a condiment to season meat, lish, and many 
of their common dishes. 

The aborigines of that country give the name Emhira or Third 
to certain species of Xylopia with textile liber, especially A^. fniiescens? 
European industry might perhaps render this very useful to manu- 
facture certain tissues. Perhaps, too, the liber bundles of several 
species of Canaucja {Guatteria) might serve the same purpose. Their 
wood is not very solid, but is nevertheless used for several articles of 
domestic furniture. That of the Brazilian species is called Pindaiba* 
Vases are made from that of Guatteria australis, Jlava, }ii(/rc.scciis, 
villoaissima. The flexible branches of several species are used in 
fishing.* De Martius has given the name G. venejicori(iit to a 
species that enters into the composition of one of the curare [or 
wourali] poisons of equinoctial America. Many species of Guatteria 
and Xijlopia have a soft spongy wood ; that of the roots especially 
might serve the same purpose as that of Anona palunfris, which in 
that country plays the part of cork, and is chiefly collected for 
making stoppers. Moreover, in certain departments of carpentry 



' Reige in Bras., ii. 55(». briuiclies of Aberemoa {Duffuetia) qui/arensis 

' Tlieso fruits should only ho used after being are niiide into whij) handles (SciioMnriuiK). 

dried in the shade. The doso is from six to " Ojj. cit., 3-1-. n. 31 ; Keise, iii. 327, and in 

twenty grains of the powder itself, and twice as BuciiN. Htp. d. Pharm., xxxvi. iii. 314. "Crracit 

much if in infusion. /» Kiflcm sec. Jl. JapurA, «/*«</ Iiidos qui Juri 

' Maht., up. cil., 03. tlirun/iir, quihus ad veneficium Uniri adhibriur." 

* /'«(n/(/(7.(/,a(cordingtoA. dk Saint-II ii.aiuk, Auiu.i:T((j''M;rtH., Gi)8, t. 'lU) says that the fruit 
means a prop for liiu-x. In IJra/.il are distin- and leaves of C. Onreqou have a pungent aro- 
guished /'.hranra n\u\ /'. prt-ta (wliito and lilaek). matic flavour. 

* It is also for their flexibility that the 



ANON ACE JE. 271 

miglit be used the wood of several Pindaibas, whose wood is, 
according to De Mautius,' rather heavy, as stated above. The same 
author calls attention to a certain Aheremoa {Buguetia Spixiana), as 
having a tolerably dense wood ('70), and asserts that that of the 
Pindaiba branca, of the Province of St. Paul (which is really X 
fruiescens or sericea), has a density of "626, and a somewhat brownish 
colour. Many species of this genus, such as X. emarginata, frutescena, 
are remarkable for the rapidity with which the branches take root 
when fixed in the ground ; and hence are very fit for making quick- 
set hedges.- 

The Aiionacece are rarely ornamental plants. Their flowers, not 
usually very striking, have corollas that long remain green, and only 
grow larger slowly, in some species long after the expansion of the 
flower. The petals then gradually assume a white, pink, or yellow 
tint, more rarely chamois colour or orange, or sometimes again, a 
more decided red, flame-coloured, crimson or carmine. Many are 
mahogany or chocolate brown ; sometimes we find a purple or violet 
shade, and Uvaria {Sajjranthus) nicaragitensis is said to be of a bluish 
violet. Here the odour of the corolla is foetid, but in the yellow and 
brown ones it often recalls the perfume of certain fleshy fruits, or 
the aroma of the nutmeg, clove, or cinnamon. 



1 See p. 257, note 4. In Jamaica the wood of to Attblet {op. cif., 610), the wood of his Abe- 
Oxandra lanceolata (p. 201, note 1) serves for remoa rfnlanensis is used for similar purposes, 
axletrees and other parts of carriages. According - See JF/. -Broj., ui»JO«ac., 6-i. 



272 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



GENERA. 



I. ANONEtE. 

^ I. UVARIK-E. 

1. Uvaria L. — Flowers hermaphrodite more rarely polygamous 
or dicBcious ; receptacle convex, more or less elongated. Sepals 3, 
free or connate to a variable height, usually valvate. Petals G, free 
or connate at the base, equal or unequal, 2-seriate, imbricated ; 
sometimes the inner or outer set finally valvate. Stamens oc, linear 
or flattened ; connective dilated above the linear extrorse longi- 
tudinally dehiscing cells, truncate or ovate, more rarely subfoliaceous. 
Carpels oo, more rarely few, grooved internally ; style continuous 
truncate, apex stigmatiferous entire or 2-fid ; ovules cc, more rarely 1, 
2, ventral, in two rows, horizontal or subascending ; micropyle lateral 
or extrorse and inferior. Berries of variable form, entire or more or 
less constricted between the seeds, sessile or stipitate, oo- or, by 
abortion, 1 -seeded. Seeds subhorizontal ; aril scanty or ; albumen 
ruminate. — Small trees or shrubs, often aromatic, usually sarmen- 
tose, glabrous, or more frequently covered with simple or stellate 
down ; leaves alternate simple exstipulate ; flowers arising before 
or after the leaves, axillary or lateral, more frequently terminal or 
leaf-opposed, solitary or cymose {Asia, Africa, tropica} Australia, 
North and Central America). See p. Ib7. 

2. Sphaerothalamus Hook. F. — " Sepals 3, imbricated. Petals 6 
(imbricated?) spathulate. Stamens co ; connective dilated and truncate 
above the cells. Torus globose. Carpels cc ; style very short obtuse ; 
ovules (2?) ventral. — A shrub; leaves subsessile (1.] ft. long), cor- 
date at the l)ase ; llowers large (like orange-blossom)" {Borneo). 
Seep. 194. 

3. Sagersea I).\i,z.— Sepals 3, imbricated. Petals G, orbicular con- 
cave subequal, imbricated. Stamens few; fertile, subdefinite (6-15) 
short fleshy laterally comj)ressed ; connective with an expanded and 



ANON ACE JE. 273 

truncate or contracted part projecting inwards above the cells ; 
sterile subdefinite, scale-like thick exterior to the fertile ones. 
Carpels go, or often subdefinite (3-G) inserted on the scarcely convex 
pitted receptacle ; ovules oc, ventral 2-seriate. Fruit of a few 
subglobose few-seeded berries. — Trees ; leaves very glabrous shining 
(laurel-like) ; flowers few small axillary cymose and hermaphrodite, 
more rarely unisexual {India). See p. 195. 

4. Tetrapetalum Mtq. — Sepals 2, imbricated. Petals 4, imbri- 
cated, 2-seriate. Stamens co, imbricated on a convex receptacle ; 
connective truncately dilated above the anther-cells. Carpels oo, pris- 
matic ; ovules oc, ventral 2-seriate ; style short glabrous, grooved 
longitudinally. Fruit... — A climbing twining tomentose shrub; 
flowers in dense lateral or leaf-opposed spikes {Borneo). See p. 196. 

5. Cananga Aubl. — Sepals 3, free or cohering at base, valvate. 
Petals 6, 2-seriate. inner ones nearly equal to or larger than outer, 
all imbricated or outer set subvalvate. Stamens oo ; connective 
truncately dilated above anther-cells ; receptacle convex, often sub- 
globose, pistilliferous apex truncate flat or slightly concave and sub- 
cupuliform. Carpels oo ; ovule subbasilar ascending ; micropyle 
inferior extrorse. Berries oc, stipitate, 1-seeded. — Trees or shrubs ; 
leaves penniveined ; flowers pedunculate, usually solitary, more 
rarely in small cymes, axillary or lateral, rarely terminal {N. and 
subtropical America). Seep. 197. 

6. Aberemoa Aubl. — Sepals 3, free, more rarely connate at the 
base, valvate. Petals 6, imbricated 2-seriate Stamens oc, aU 
fertile, or the outermost sterile petaloid imbricate. Carpels oo ; 
ovule solitary subbasilar. Berries fleshy or woody, often beaked, 
free or connate for a variable height. — Trees or shrubs, scurfy or 
stellately tomentose ; flowers solitary or in small cymes, terminal or 
leaf-opposed, more rarely lateral {S. America). See p. 198. 

7. Cleistochlamys Oliv. — Calyx globose gamophyllous valvate, 
closed in the bud, finally breaking into a few unequal segments 
at anthesis. Petals 6, 2-seriate, sessile, imbricated. Stamens oo, 
obpyramidal, inserted on a rather convex receptacle ; connective 
truncately dilated above anther-cells. Carpels few, tapering into 

VOL. I. T 



274 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

minutely capitate linear-oblong styles ; ovule solitary subbasilar 
ascending. Berries oblong stipitate. — A shrub ; leaves glabrous very 
shortly petiolate ; flowers small solitary terminal {Trojj. and south- 
eastern Africa). See p. 200. 

8. Oxandra A. Rich. — Calyx short, imbricated. Petals ovate 
or rotundate, imbricated 2-seriate. Stamens cc (of the Milimea:) ; 
connective produced high above dorsal anther-cells. Carpels oo ; 
ovule solitary. Berries stipitate. — Trees or shrubs ; leaves glabrous 
shortly petiolate ; flowers axillary or lateral ; bracts oo, like the 
sepals but smaller, imbricated in 2 rows, inserted either from the 
base to the apex of the peduncle or only in an involucre at the base 
{Tropical America). See p. 200. 

§ II. llNONEiE. 

9. Unona L. fil. — Flowers of Uvaria ; petals generally 3, 
rarely 2, valvate, 2-seriate ; the inner subequal or smaller, rarely 
wanting, very rarely imbricated. Stamens oo (of the Uvariea) ; 
connective globosely or truncately dilated above anther-ceUs, more 
rarely elongated subulate. Carpels oo, more rarely few or 1, on the 
convex or flat or more rarely subconcave apex of a slightly raised 
receptacle; ovules cc, more rarely 1, 2, ventral or subbasilar. Berries 
stipitate or subsessile, entire or moniliform constricted between the 
seeds. — Trees or shrubs ; often sarmentose, aromatic ; flowers solitary 
or cymose, lateral or terminal {Asia, Africa, Australia, warm regions 
of America). See p. 201. 

10. Anaxagorea A. S. H.— Flowers of Vnona ; stamens oc, all 
fertile ; connective produced above anther-cells, or the innermost 
sterile petaloid. Carpels oo, more rarely few ; ovules 2, height of 
insertion variable ; follicles clavately stipitate, dehiscing by an in- 
ternal cleft. Seeds 1, 2, glabrous exarillate. — Trees ; flowers axillary 
solitary or cymose {Asia, tropical America). See p. 200. 

11. Disepalum Hook. f. — Flowers of Unona, 2-merous. Sepals 2, 
large. Petals 4, narrowly linear-spathulate incurved towards the 
apex, standing apart, connected by a hyj)ogynous ring. Stamens 
and carpels a>, inserted on subconcave apex of the broad torus; 



AN0NACE2E. 275 

ovule (1 ?) basilar erect. — A shrub ; leaves penniveined ; flowers 
solitary terminal {Bor/ieo). See p. 208. 

12. Bocagea A. S. H. — Flowers usually small ; sepals short, free 
or connate for a variable height. Petals 6, valvate, 2-seriate, 
outer sessile, inner sessile or more or less contracted at the base. 
Stamens (of the Mlliaspcs), definite (3, 6, 9) subdefinite, or co, outer 
ones shorter. Carpels 3-6, or oo, more rarely 1 ; ovules either 1, 2, 
subbasilar, or oo, ventral 2-seriate. Berries 1-co, 1-oo-seeded, 
usually stipitate. — Trees or shrubs ; leaves often with pellucid dots ; 
flowers solitary or cymose, terminal or axillary {Trop. Ada, Islands 
east of Africa, S. America). See p. 20^. 

13. Popowia Endl. — Flowers small hermaphrodite, more rarely 
dicecious. Calyx 3-merous. Petals 6, valvate, the outer sessile, 
the inner nearly equal or longer, usually tapering at the base, 
finally spreading or connivent. Stamens, subdefinite, or oo, the 
inner coherent side to side in a verticil ; outer ones shorter, fertile, 
or sterile cylindrical capitate or truncate ; fertile stamens, unequally 
obconical or obpyramidal, terete for a short distance at base, or 
elongated, tapering or flattened ; towards the apex thickened rugose 
or glandular ; apex flat or obliquely truncate, more rarely concave ; 
produced inwards into wedges of variable obtusity, more rarely 
much elongated, more or less oblique ; cells sublateral or extrorse, 
dehiscmg longitudinally ; locelli 2, oblique or collateral. Carpels 
subdefinite or co ; ovules 1-2, subbasilar, or co, 2-seriate : style of 
variable fonn. Fruit of free 1- or 2- cc -seeded berries, constricted 
between the seeds. — Shrubs often climbing; leaves usually gla- 
brescent, below glaucescent ; flowers axillary or lateral, solitary or 
cymose {Tropical Asia, tropical and southern Africa, Islands of Mada- 
gascar, tropical Australia). See p. 212. 

§ III. Xylopie^. 

14. Xylopia L. — Flowers hermaphrodite ; receptacle conical ex- 
ternally staminiferous, apex flattened or slightly concave, more fre- 
quently much excavated, lodging the ovaries. Petals 6, 2-seriate, 
valvate ; outer narrowly elongated concave connivent or open, more 
rarely flattened sessile 3-angular ; inner usually included, above tri- 

T 2 



276 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

quetrous, more rarely flattened. Stamens oc (of the Uvariecp) ; con- 
nective tnincately dilated or tapering above anther-cells. Carpels oo, 
or 1-6 ; styles exserted ; ovules oo, or subdefinite. Berries of variable 
form, continuous, or sometimes contracted between the seeds, often 
opening on pressure, oo- or more rarely 1 -seeded. — Trees or shrubs ; 
leaves often distichous ; flowers axillary solitary or cymose, usually 
shortly pedicellate {/Isia, J frier/, Ocnnnia, tropical America). See 
p. 216. 

15. Anona L. — Flowers usually hermaphrodite; receptacle more 
or less convex. Sepals 3, free or connate, valvate. Petals 3 or 6, 2- 
seriate ; the outer sessile broad and concave at the base or altogether 
connivent or spreading ; the inner equal to these or smaller, more 
rarely 0, valvate or imbricated. Stamens (x; connective dilated 
truncate or ovate, more rarely tapering above anther-cells. Carpels 
o) on a hemispherical or flattened torus ; ovules 1, 2, subbasilar, 
styles of variable form often cohering at the apex. Berries usually 
truncate, more rarely rostrate, cohering into a multilocular fruit, 
more rarely separating. — Trees or shrubs ; flowers solitary or in 
small cymes, terminal or leaf-opposed {America, Asia, tropical and 
subtropical Africa). See p. 220. 

^ IV. EOLLINIEiE. 

16. Rollinia A. S. H.— Flowers of y/w;//7 ; petals usually connate 
at base into a short cylindrical or globose tube ; apex short valvate 
covering the sexual organs, finally spreading ; on outer petals a thick 
coriaceous spur-shaped laterally compressed dorsal process, apex 
obtuse; the inner much smaller or 0, exappendiculate. Berries 
sessile distinct or more usually coherent into a single fruit. — Trees 
or shrubs; leaves membranous or coriaceous; flowers solitary or 
cymose, lateral or leaf-opposed, rarely terminal {warm parts of 
America). Sec ]). 2:28. 

17. Artabotrys R. Bii.— Sepals 3, free, or more or less coherent 
at base, valvate. Petals 6, subequal 2-seriate valvate orbicular 
concave surrounding sexual organs, each with a cylindrical or 
flattened erect dorsal process. Stamens oo, connective truncately 
dilated above anther-cells. Carpels op, on the convex or horizontal 



ANONACEJE. 277 

more rarely shortly cupuliform summit of the receptacle ; ovules 2 
subbasilar ascending, or oo ventral 2-seriate {PararlahotrijH) ; style 
ovate or linear oblong-. Berries 1 -co -seeded. — Climbing or sar- 
mentose shrubs; leaves shining; flowers solitary or cyniose; pe- 
duncles often hard fascicled bent into a hook {Asia, tropical and 
subtropical Africa). See p. 224. 

18. Cyathocalyx Champ.— Calyx cup-shaped 3-dentate valvate. 
Petals 6 valvate connivent into a globose hood over the sexual 
organs ; dorsal processes broad petaloid. Stamens go on a convex 
receptacle ; connective conical truncate above anther-cells. Carpel 1 
on concave summit of receptacle. Ovules oo in 2 rows, apex of style 
peltate. Berries 1 -oo -seeded — A tree ; leaves glabrous, flowers 
solitary or in small cymes, terminal or leaf-opposed {Tropical Asia). 
See p. 226. 

19. Hexalobus A. DC. — Calyx 3-sepalous valvate or subre- 
duplicate. Petals G (of CyathocaJijx), 2-seriate valvate corrugated 
into folds in the bud, dorsal laminae membranous reflexed and rather 
acute at apex. Stamens oo (of the TJvariea). Carpels subdefinite 
(usually 3, 6) on the convex or flattened summit of the receptacle ; 
ovules oo in 2 rows. Berries oblong subentire oc -seeded. — Trees 
or shrubs, flowers solitary axillary sessile or pedunculate, bracts 2, 
lateral valvate in volucrant {^Tropical Africa, Madagascar ?). See p . 2 2 6 . 



§ V. OXYMITRE^E. 

20. Oxymitra Bl.- — Sepals 3 free or cohering at base valvate. 
Petals 6, 2-seriate valvate, the outer flat, ovate or elongated, the 
inner smaller, at base more or less narrowed and unguiculate, at apex 
connivent and coherent into a mitre above the sexual organs. Sta- 
mens and carpels oo ; ovules 1, 2 (more rarely 3-5) inserted at a 
variable height. Berries 1- more rarely 2- co-seeded. Seeds globose 
glabrous or bristly ; more rarely triquetrous- winged. — Trees or shrubs 
often climbing ; leaves obliquely penniveined ; flowers axillary or 
extra-axillary usually solitary {Asia, Africa, tropical Oceania). See 
p. 228. 

21 ? Atrutregia Bedd.—" Sepals 4, small. Petals 6, 2.seriate, 



278 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

valvate coriaceous, outer ovate acumiuate pubescent on both sides ; 
inner much smaller obovate-acuminate coherent around sexual organs. 
Stamens cc ; connective obtusely acuminate beyond the cells. Torus 
subglobose. Carpels cc ; style long tapering ; stigma terniinal 2- 
lobed ; ovules solitary erect. — A shrub or small tree. Leaves acumi- 
nate glabrous Flowers solitary axillary or springing from nodes of 
fallen leaves" {Errsf of IiuVici). See p. 230. 

22. Mitrephora Bl. — Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Se- 
pals 3, usually free valvate. Petals 0, outer short ovate, inner 
unguiculate cohering into an erect mitre. Stamens ex, more rarely 
definite (of the Uvaricm). Carpels oo (more rarely subdetinite), 
ovules oc. — Trees, leaves coriaceous; flowers solitary or more fre- 
quently cymose, lateral or terminal {Tropical Asia, Indian Archi- 
pelago.) See p. 230. 

23. Orophaea Bl.— Flowers hermaphrodite (of MUrrpIiora.) Sta- 
mens oo, more frequently definite (0-12), short fleshy (of the Mi- 
Uusccb). Carpels 3-oo-ovulate usually few ventral 2-seriate. Berries 
] — cc -seeded; trees or shrubs; leaves small; flowers small cymose 
axillary or terminal {Tropical Asia, Indian Arcliipclago). See p. 231. 

24. Cymbopetalum Benth. — Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. 
Sepals 3 short valvate. Petals G, 2-seriate, valvate ; the outer 
sessile, short ; the inner much larger very thick involute c3nnbiform, 
apex with an inflexed or obsolete point ; base tapering into a short 
or elongated claw. Stamens (of the Miliusiece) on a convex recep- 
tacle. Carpels oo; ovules oo ventral. Berries stipitate oblong 
obliquely constricted between the seeds, often opening under pressure. 
— Small trees ; leaves membranous, often oblique at base ; flowers 
on long peduncles, often pendulous lateral or terminal {Tropical 
America). I:!;ee p. 232. 

25. Enantia Oli v.— Sepals 3, valvate. Petals outer 0, inner 3, 
opposite the sepals and much longer, thick coriaceous flat or with 
slightly refle.xed margins, narrower and concave at base, erect or 
subpatulous. Stamens cr, linear oblong ; connective scarcely 
dilated above short very obtuse anther-cells. Carpels oc, free, 
closely packed on a convex pilose receptacle ; style short linear- 



ANONACE^. 279 

oblong grooved internally ; ovules solitary, erect. — A tree ; leaves 
membranous; flowers solitary shortly pedunculate extra-axillary 
{West of tropical Africa). See p. 234. 

II. MILIUSE^. 

26. Miliusa Lesch. — Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous by 
abortion of gynaiceum. Sepals 3, small, valvate. Petals 6, 2- 
seriate valvate, the outer minute sepaloid ; the inner much larger 
erect connivent often slightly coherent or very sacciform at base, 
more rarely cymbiform. Stamens oc, anthers ovate (of the MiliusecB), 
extrorse ; connective more or less apiculate above the cells. Car- 
pels oc ; ovules 1, 2 or go, ventral. Berries globose or oblong l-oo- 
seeded. — Trees usually low ; leaves usually deciduous ; flowers 
solitary or cymose, axillary or lateral, often arising with the young 
leaves {Asia, Indian Archipelago, N. Australia?) See p. 235. 

27. Phseanthus Hook. & Thoms. — Flowers (of Miliusa) herma- 
phrodite. Petals 6, 2-seriate valvate, the outer minute subsepaloid ; 
the inner much larger thick coriaceous flat, or scarcely concave 
just at the base, erect, connivent around the sexual organs. Stamens 

oo (of the Uvariea). Carpels oo, on flat summit of a convex recep- 
tacle; ovules 1, 2, inserted at a variable height or oc, ventral; 
styles dilated at apex, cohering into an obscurely lobed capitate mass. 
Berries 1-oo-seeded. — Leaves with well marked veins or coriaceous. 
Flowers lateral or axillary, solitary or cymose {Asia, Africa, tropical 
America). See p. 237. 

III. MONODOREiE. 

28. Monodora Dun. — Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 3, free 
or coherent at base, valvate, finally reflexed. Petals (5, valvate, 
coherent at base only or else for some way into a campanulate 
corolla ; equal or dissimilar, the outer spreading more or less undu- 
late, the inner shorter, contracted at base, erect, connivent. Sta- 
mens oo (of the Ucariece), on a subglobose receptacle. Ovary 
superior 1 -celled; placentas oo parietal oc -ovulate ; style erect, 
scarcely dilated into a peltate radiating subentire or crenate often 
marginate stigma. Fruit globose woody oc-seeded ; seeds (of Unona) 



280 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

imbedded in resinous pulp. — Trees or shrubs often climbing ; 
flowers terminal or suboppositifolious on a gemmiferous twig 
{JF. and E. of Tropical Africa, Madagascar). See p. 239. 

IV. EUPOMATIE^. 

29. Eupomatia R. Br. — Flowers hermaphrodite. Perianth 0. 
Stamens oo, perigynous, and carpels oc, in a spiral within the con- 
cavity of the turbinate receptacle. Outer stamens fertile ; anthers 
2-celled extrorse, dehiscing longitudinally ; connective acuminate 
above the cells ; inner sterile petaloid, glandular or not glandular, 
imbricated ; all connate at base, finally deciduous together. Car- 
pels immersed in the torus, free except the very base ; ovary 
<x-ovulate, the back produced into a horizontal areola; style short, 
rather prominent internally, apex stigmatiferous capitate. Fruit 
baccate within the urceolate turbinate receptacle, marginate above ; 
berries oc, included l-cc-seeded. Seeds [oi \l\e J/i07iacea) ; albumen 
slightly ruminated. — Shrubs ; stem erect or chiefly subterranean ; 
leaves alternate glabrous; flowers solitary terminal or 1, 2, axillary, 
superposed, accompanied by a leaf bud [Australia). See p. 242. 



V. MONIMIACE^ 



I. CALYCANTHUS SERIES. 

lu Cali/canthiis^ (figs. 306-313) the flowers are regular and her- 
maphrodite. For example, let us analyse that of the first species 

Cali/canthus floriclus. 




Fig. 306. 
Floriferous shoot {\). 



Fig. 308. 
Carpel opened (y). 



Fig. 307. 
Longitudinal section of flower (A). 



introduced into our gardens {C. foridus L." (figs. 306-308), whose 



^ Calycanthus L., Gen., n. 639, ex part. — 
LiNDL., Bot. Reg., t. 404.— DC, Prodr., ii. 2.— 
Nees, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., xi. 107.— Spach, 
Suit, a Buffon, iv. 281.— ExDL., Gen., n. 6356. 
— B. H., 'Geii., 16, n. 1.— H. B\., Adansonia, 
ix. 113. — Basteria Mill., ex Adans., Fam. des 



PL, ii. 294. — Bevrreria Ehret, Pict., t, 13. — 
Pompadottra BtrCH., Mem. stir le Calyc, ex Milt., 
Handb., n. 1805. — Buettneria Duham., Arbr., 
i. 114 (nee L.). 

- Spec., 718.— Lamk., in., t. 445, fig. 1,— 
DuHAJi., Arbr,, i. t. 45. — Ait., Hort. Kew., ed. 



282 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



receptacle is hollow like a purse, and only open at the top. At a 
certain height on the outer surface of this sac, we find two opposite 
bracts, then, higher up, two others also opposite or nearly so, and 
finally near the margins of the aperture an indefinite number of 
alternate leaves arranged in a continuous spiral,' crowded closer 




Calycanthvs IcBvigatvs. 



'mm 






Fig. 311. 
Longitudinal section of fruit. 



together, better developed, and more imbricated as their insertion 
is higher up. The lower ones are greenish, like the above-mentioned 
opposite bracts, and the uppermost are brownish purple, fleshy, 
velvety, and scented like petals, without its being possible to draw 
any exact line of demarcation between them. The edge of the 
receptacle then becomes thickened to form a platform covering 
in its cavity, only presenting a small central orifice for the 
styles to pass through. On the out^^ide of this lid are inserted 



2. iii. 282.— CrRT., Bot. Marf., t. 503. — Nutt., 
Gen. Amer., i. 312.— GtriMP.,\466. IIolz.,t. 4.— 
DC, loc. cit., n. l.—C. laviyatus W., Ilori. 
BeroL, t. 80. — C. oblonqlfolius NUTT., loc. cit.— 
C. inodorus Ei.l-., Hkelch, i. ^Id.—C. fertUis , 
Walt., Carol, Vo\.— C.ferax .MiCHX.,ff. Bor.- 
Amer,, i. 305. — C. steritia Walt., loc. cit. — C. 
glaucus W., loc. r(7,;— NuTT., loc. cit.; — 
Ott. & Hayn., J[olz.,t. 5 (most authors consider 
C. jloridus, glaucus, and lavigatus as distinct 
species). 

' The index of tlieir angular divergence is ^.^, 
so tliut the fourteenth is exactly Hui)Prposod to 
the first ; of course it is the same with the 



stamens, two of which inside the rest are super- 
posed to two others, whin there are 15 of them. 
Hut their number varies slightly, cspmally from 
12 to 15. So, too, with the otlier floral appen- 
dages. Witiiin the decussate bracts we find from 
It to 18 coloured loaves, and from 5 to 7 large 
staminodcs exteriuil to the fertile stamens. L. V. 
llUAVAls has pointed out {( uiigr. Scl. de Fr., 
1811, 115) that in C. Jloridus and /eras there 
are several of the decussate braits, and that 
" from the last of these starts the floral spind, 
which is sometimes simple, sometinies bijugate. 
In the diflercnt pieces of the flower we meet 
witli tlie spirals 5, 8, ami 13." 



M0NIMIAGE2E. 283 

some leaves still of the colour of petals. But, besides being smaller 
in every direction, their summit is provided wiih two little whitish 
glandular bodies, which in colour and position recall the anthers of 
the fertile stamens. These come next, internal to the last, but are still 
arranged on the same spiral as the perianth-leaves : they are not nume- 
rous, the usual number being about a dozen or fifteen. Each consists 
of a short filament and an extrorse anther with two adnate cells, 
each dehiscing by a longitudinal cleft.' Beyond these is prolonged 
the connective, which ends in a little whitish glandular swelling. 
Descending towards the interior of the receptacle we find again a 
certain number of sterile stamens, becoming gradually shorter and 
shorter, and reduced to coloured tongues surmounted by a little 
whitish fleshy mass. The indefinite carpels are inserted towards 
the bottom of the sac. Each consists of a free 1-celled ovary, sur- 
mounted by a long slender style dilated at the stigmatiferous apex, 
passing out of the receptacle, and finally reaching the height of 
the anthers. In the inner angle of the ovary-cell we observe a 
parietal placenta bearing two ascending anatropous ovules, of w^hich 
the one is almost directly above the other when adult ;^ the micro- 
pyle looks downwards and outwards. The fruit is multiple. The 
receptacular sac forms an indusium, at first slightly fleshy, and 
finally dry.^ This sac, whose superior aperture is pretty widely 
open when ripe, contains an indefinite number of ascending achenes." 



' The form of the pollen is peculiar. Each finally representing a little sterile hood, capping 

grain is like a flattened rectangular cushion with the chalaza of the fertile ovule like an obturator 

rather blunt angles j the two longer sides are (tig. 308). 

thickened and obtuse, recurved towards the centre, ^ On the surface are seen transverse scars cor- 

so as to approach each other on the middle line of responding to the outermost leaves of the flowers 

one of the faces of the cushion ; but there is arranged at regular cUstances on a spiral. Each 

alwajs a broad cleft-like interval between them. scar is placed on the top of a sort of projecting 

On moistening the pollen these projections disap- cushion. 

pear entirely ; the pollen swells ; its angles be- ■• The pericarp is membranous and slightly 

come obliterated, and the grain soon becomes a fleshy for some time, finally becoming quite dry, 

smooth sphere or ellipsoid. H. Mohl {Ann. Sc. as in the Koses. In C. Icevigatv.s the surface 

iVrt^., ser. 2, iii. 332) gives a very different ac- only bears scattered hairs, and there is a very 

count of this pollen : "ovoidal, three-grooved; in slight, scarcely rugose, longitudinal projection, 

water, ellipsoidal, with three bauds vertically and easily visible on the dorsal and ventral median 

longitudinally compressed." lines of the pericarp, but almost obsolete towards 

- They are at first collateral, and possess two each extremity. In C. occidentalis Hook. & Aex. 

coats. It usually happens that one ovule after- the whole height of the pericarp is bordered bv a 

wards rises considerably and places itself above longitudinal suberous, rugose projection, covered 

the other. The latter then increases greatly in with hairs which are here short, but, as we shall 

the chalazal region (which is superior), and com- find, become enormous in the Atherospermece. 

presses the micropylar region of the former ovule, The rest of the surface of the pericarp is also 

which becomes deformed and hollowed out below, sprinkled with down. 



28 1 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Within each is found an ascending seed, whose coats, closely 
applied to the inside of the pericarp, inclose a very large lieshy 
embryo with its radicle inferior, and with broad foliaceous coty- 
ledons, spirally rolled on each other round a vertical axis. The 
albumen is absent or represented by a few rudiments in the Iblds of 
the embryo.' 

The genus CalycanthnH consists of aromatic shrubs with opposite 
simple exstipukte leaves." Three species' are known, all natives of 
North America. ('. Jhridus, the one we have just analysed, includes 
several varieties cultivated in this country. Its flowers occupy the 

Califcanthus occideiiUilis. 





Fig. :U3. 
Longitudinal section of fruit. 

axils of the fallen leaves. Each peduncle is provided with two 
lateral leaves or bracts decussating with the two first bracts borne on 
the receptacle ; and the same axil usual!}" contains, besides the 
peduncle, a leafy branch, which later on becomes greatly developed, 
and may even be terminated by a fiower.^ In C. occidctitalis,'' the 
species with the largest flowers, the inflorescence is sometimes axil- 
lary, sometimes terminal. 



' There is especially a little spit of fleshy 
tissue running up from the clmluKiil region into 
the centre of the embryo, and forinin^f, as it were, 
an axis ri)und which the cotyknlons are rolled. 

- The bliide presents the same peculiarities as 
in ClihnonanlhuM (j). 2S0, note i). 

=• DC, I'fodr., iii. 2.- Hook., liol. Afai/., t. 



li, 



fio 



Aim., vii. 45. 



4H()H. — Walv. 

(Jkay, Man., \2(;.—Toiiii. kiiii., Fl. N. A, 

475.— fiiAiM., Fl. >S. l^uil.Sl., 130. 



* Thus it is that the flowers of Cali/ranthus, 
described us axillary, may become perfectly ter- 
minal. 

* Hook. & Aun., np. Bkecu., 810, Suppl.. t. 
84. — Touii. & lilt., o]>. ell., 47(>. In this species, 
wlien the fruit is (|uite rij)e, tbe urillce of tlie n- 
ceptacnlar wic gradually enlarges without any rup- 
ture, and tlie aciienes nuiy pass (aU thnnigli tliis 
oriflce, whidi is fringeil witl> velvety riHls, (lie 
byjiertropiruil 8lamiiiodi>s (tigs. 312, 313). 



MONIMIACEJE. 



285 



Calymntlius prcBcox L.' (figs. 314-817) has a similar organization. 
Its flowers also have a receptacle formed by a little branch, whose 
swollen apex has been pushed in so as to make it like a club with 



Chimonanthns pracox. 




Fig. 314.. 
Flowering branch. 

a concave end. On the whole surface of this are echelonned in 
order, from below upwards, first of all little brownish, scarious, dry 
bracts, the lowermost decussate, the upper ones in a spiral.- Next 



1 L., Spec, 718.— Ait., Sort. Kew., ed. 1, ii. 
220, t. 10.— Curt., £ot. Maij., t. 466. — Lamk., 
Ill, t. 445, fig. 2.— TuEP., 'Did. des Sc. Nat., 
t. 235.— RoxB., Fl. Lid., ii. 672. 

^ There are more of these decussate bracts thau 
in Calycanthus proper, but they are similarly 
arranged, representing undeveloped leaves, and 
we might here consider the flowers as terminal to 
a small axillary branch with rudimentary ap- 



pendages. L. F. Beavaxs has demonstrated (loc. 
cit.) the presence of from 12 to 18 of these de- 
cussate scales, '• From the last of these," says 
he, " there starts a spiral, which includes 20 or 
22 leaves, very regularly arranged, and gradually 
increasing in depth of colour ; and tlien from 5 
to 7 stamens, of which the two first are larger 
than the rest, while the last stamen is inner- 
most." 



286 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PL.iXTS. 



come other larger, more membranous, petaloid leaves, yellowish or 
whitish, and sweet-scented ; then others again, a little smaller, but 
quite as thin and delicate, stained with violet purple.' So we reach 
the orifice of the receptacular depression, wliere severaP stamens are 
inserted, with free filaments and extrorse two-celled anthers. Below 
and within these — that is, nearer the organic apex of the receptacle — 

Chimonanthua pracox. 






Fio. 315. 
Longitudinal section of flower (*) 



Fio. 317. 
Transverse section of seed. 



we find sterile tongues, presenting a transition between the stamens 
and the carpels.^ The latter, few in number and grouped near this 
apex, towards the bottom of the receptacular cup, are free, and con- 
structed like those of C.floridns. Of the two ovules that each con- 
tains, one is more or less completely abortive. The one which alone 
becomes perfect has its micropyle looking downwards and outwards. 
If to these characters we add that the flowers of C. pracox appear 
in winter before the leaves are developed (fig. 314), it will be seen 
why tliis species and its varieties have been erected into a special 
genus under the name of ('/linioiiant/uis* The receptacular sac is 



• But it irt iiniKJKsible to say where tlie sepals 
end und the ixttaU bej^iii, for we find every triinsi- 
tion in form, consistency, luid colour between tlio 
brownish scales, Hie yellow leaves, sind those tinte<l 
with i)uri)le ; even one or two of the outer stamens 
may become jmrlly jietuloiil. 

' Five is by fur the most \isual tuimlHT. 

' There are nnuiilly from .'> to H ; their form 
is subiilat4*, ami tlicy are solid ; no (loul)t re- 
|)r(!s*.'ntiiig sterile Jllaments, not outer carpels 
wanting the ovarian cavity ; for they are inserted 
quite close to the fertile stamens, not far from the 



rim of the receptacle ; while there is a larpo space 
between their insertion and that of the car|M-!<*, 
which is close to the bottom of the rcceptjuulur 
cup. 

* LiSDL., Bo(. Rfg.,t. \f>\.—m\, Prodr., iii. 
2. — Kndi-., Gen., n. 0:155. — Si'ach, ShU. a Huff., 
iv. 285. 11. 11.. Uen., Ki, n. 1'.— 11. Hn.. Ad,ins., 
ix. 121, Vil. - Mertitla Nkks, .Vor. Act. Sat. 
Cur., \\. lt>7, t. 10. Thoujjh several s{>ccies of 
this {;enns have been deccrilMnl under the n.inies 
of C. parviflonm, (jraiuliflorus, rem*, lutetis (ste 
IliKi.AWSki, •' Siir If /;. ChimonanthuH et *<t prop. 



MONIMIACE^. 



287 



like a long-necked gourd,' enclosing the true fruits, and closed, as in 
Calycanthus proper (figs. 310-313), by a sort of star with five or six 
fleshy branches, representing the sterile stamens thickened and ap- 
proximated to the centre. Eacli achene contains within its mem- 
branous and nearly smooth pericarp an erect seed, of which the 
embryo is rolled up as in Calycanthus (figs. 31G, 317). 



II. HOETONIA SERIES. 

The flowers of Horfonia" (figs. 318-323) are hermaphrodite or 
polygamous.^ In the former case the receptacle is like a cup of 
variable depth,^ bearing on its edges the pieces of the perianth and 
androceum, inserted along a spiral with very close turns. The outer- 
most leaves of the perianth descend even some way down the outside 
of the oval receptacular cup ; they are from six to thirty in number, 
imbricated, becoming thicker, shorter, and more sepaloid as they 
are more external, while the inner ones are membranous, petaloid, 



en Anjou," Ann. de la Soc. Linn, de Maine-et- 
Loire, ix. 91), we only admit a single species, 
Chimonanthus prcBcox {C. fragrans Lindl. ; — 
Calycanthus prcecox L. ; — Meralia fragrans 
Nees), with numerous varieties due to cultiva- 
tion, wlietlier in Japan, its motlier country, or in 
the gardens of other temperate countries where it 
is abundantly cultivated. Its leaves are studded 
with glandular dots, and the upper surface is 
scabrous ; this is owing to peculiar hairs which 
possess the same characters, though less marked 
in the species of Calycanthus. The base of each 
hair is rather broad and surrounded by epidermic 
cells converging towards its circumference j the 
hair then rises like a little curved cone with its 
tip inclined towards the apex of the leaf. Hence 
the leaf feels very rough if we rub it towards the 
base, and quite smooth in the opposite direction. 
' It bears the numerous scars of the floral 
appendages; but as the chief increase in size 
while ripening takes place in the lower part, these 
scars, close together above, are on the contrary 
widely separated, linear and transverse, over all 
the rest of the surface. Within are contained 
several fertile fruits, besides some sterile achenes. 
Eacu of these is borne on a sort of projecting ob- 
pyraniidal pad, to the top of which it has a linear 
attachment. In the intervals between the fertile 
achenes the tissue of the receptacle projects to 
form a sort of incomplete dissepiments — the first 
rudiments of those large plates which divide the 



receptacular cavity into as many compartments as 
there are fruits in Siparuna and certain other 
Monimiacece. The down on the surface of the 
pericarps is much less dense, and the marginal 
projections are far less marked than in Caly- 
canthus. 

2 Wight, Icon., vi. 14, t. 1997, 1998.— Abn., 
Mag. of Zool. and Bot., ii. 545. — Endl., Gen., 
n. 4733.1— Hook. & Thoms., Fl. Ltd., i. 166.— 
TtL., Mon. Jilonimiac., Arch. Mus., viii. 425. — 
A. DC, Prodr., xvi., s. post., 642, 671.— H. Ex., 
Adamonia, ix. 122, 130. 

^ Some are altogether female (Ttjl., loc. cit.), 
possessing no fertile stamens. There are, on the 
other hand, entire branches whose flowers have 
well-developed stamens, while the gynaeceum 
is only represented by little conoidal sterile 
bodies. 

■* It is sometimes gourd-shaped, like a sac with 
a somewhat contracted orifice, just as in the Roses 
and certain species of Calycanthus. But its depth 
is especially dependent on the organs contained 
in its interior. The fewer the carpels the less 
marked is the concavity of the receptacle even in 
the female and hermaphrodite flowers. In the 
male flowers it is reduced to a cupule of very 
slight concavity, in H. acuminata, for instance. 
The flower then comes peculiarly near that of cer- 
tain Anonads, near which Hortonia was first 
placed, while the flowers with very deep receptacles 
closely recall those of Peumus and Chimonanthus. 



288 



NATURAL mSTOBY OF PLANTS. 



elongated, and strap-sliaped. The superior stamens are fertile,' each 
possessing an extrorse two-celled anther, dehiscing longitudinally, and 
supported on a filament of variable length, bearing at the base two 



Ilorton ia floribtinda. 




lateral stipitate glands." These are less numerous than the inner 
stamens, which are reduced to sterile scales placed lower down the 
inside of the receptacular cup. Towards the base of this are inserted 
the carpels, indefinite in number. Each consists of a free ovary, 
tapering above into a style, grooved along the inner angle and stig- 
matiferous at the narrow apex. Within the inner angle of the ovary 
is seen a parietal ])lacenta, bearing near its summit a suspended 



' Tliere aro f^nerally from to 10 of these * These (^lunda are vohiminoim, thick. «n»l 

(7-10, IIooK. & TliOMB. ; H.plurn r. paiiciora, flesliy, smooth ut firHt, nml ul1erwunl« flattemd 
TOL.). i«ii<I rollctl irrt'j^iilarly into cornet*. 



MONIMIACEJU. 



289 



anatropous ovule, witli the micropyle looking^ upwards and in- 
wards/ The fruit is multiple, consisting of a variable number of 
stipitate drupes. Their stalks are very short and partly hidden by 

Horfonia Jlorihunda. 




Fig. 320. 
Diairrain. 



Fig. 323. 
Longitudinal section of fruit (y). 



a sheath formed by the receptacle, which persists, covered by the 
withered pieces of the perianth and androceum, and is sufficiently 
spreading or reflexed to leave the elements of the fruit free. Each 
drupe consists of an epicarp and a mesocarp of no great thickness, 
surrounding a stone that is easily split in half lengthwaj^s. This 
encloses a descending seed containing a copious fleshy albumen, 
towards the apex of which is a small dicotyledonous embryo." 

This genus consists of trees from the East Indies ; and two or 



^ Beside this is sometimes seen another ovule, 
sterile, forming a little sterile cellular mass. 

- The axis of this embryo is oblique to that of 
the carpel (fig. 323), owing to the obliquity of 
the seed itself. The cotyledons are elliptical or 

VOL. I. 



obovate, and membranous, 3-ribbcd at the base. 
The radicle is conical, and its apex corre- 
sponds to a small perforation in the albumen, 
much more marked in Tamhourissa, Gomoriega, 
&c. 



290 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

three species have been described that grow in Ceylon.' Their leaves 
are opposite, exstipulate, and aromatic. Their flowers are arranged 
in axillary bunches of cymes, each terminated by a flower, and with 
opposite decussate divisions. When the hermaphrodite flowers are 
compared with those of the Ca/j/canf/iea, we find but few difi'erences 
between them. In the former the receptacular cup is not so deep, 
nor when ripe does it envelope the true fruits in a sort of sac. 
These fruits are drupes, not achenes. The embryo is not rolled up, 
and is accompanied by copious fleshy albumen ; and the ovules, 
instead of being ascending, are descending ; while the micropyle, 
turned outwards in the CnlycaiithecB, here looks inwards. 

In Peumm^ (fig. 324) the flowers are dioecious. The receptacle is 
like a sac,^ on whose edges are borne the perianth-leaves, which are 
imbricated, inserted in a spiral, and gradually modified from within 
outwards, so that the outermost are thicker, shorter, and covered 
with the same down as that on the receptacular sac, while the inner 
ones become more and more glabrous, broader, and more mem- 
branous, finally presenting altogether the consistency and colour of 
a corolla. In the male flowers numerous stamens are echelonned 
from the throat of the receptacular sac to its lowermost point or 
organic apex, becoming shorter as they approach it ; each consists of 
an incurved filament with two irregular lateral glands towards its base, 
surmounted by an autlier whose two cells dehiscing by longitu- 
dinal clefts, which are nearly marginal, but a little nearer the inner 
than the outer surface. There are no rudiments of female organs. 
In the female flower, on the contrary, within the perianth, which 
resembles that of the male flower, the receptacular sac bears a variable 
number of narrow acute scales representing sterile stamens. Lower 
down, near its organic apex, the receptacle gives insertion to a small 
number' of free carpels, each consisting of a one-celled ovary, sur- 



' Wai-P., R^j>., ii. 748; Ann. iv. 115.— HoOK. 410, t. xxxi., iii.— ^oWi* Fkuiu... Oh*. PI. Med., 

k TnoMs.. Fl. Lid., i. lf.6.— Thwait., Enum. 11 (cxparl.). - Boliloa Llndi... hot. Keg. (1846), 

PI. Zei/l.. 11.— A. DC, up. ciL, G72. It Ims t. 57.— C. (Iav, Fl. ChiL, v. 351. 

even been proposed to unite all ibese plants into ' This sac is like an inverteil cone or funnel; 

a single »|)ecic«. within, and especially towardn the lateral walla, 

• MoLlN., Saijrf. Sull. Slor. Nat. Chil. (1782), it is covered with stiff erect hairs, which persist 

185, 350 (ex part.).— A. DC, Prodr., xv\. s. around the frynieceum after the rest »»t the tlower 

post., 673.— H. Un., Ailantonia, ix. 123, 120. has fallen ; over the perianth they become sofl 

— Ruizin I'av., Prodr., 135, t. 2'.t. — Kndl., and scattered. 

Oen. , n. 20\\) ; Icon., t. 21 (nee C'av.). — Ho/- * Usually from three to five. 
dea Jv«»., Ann. Mus., xiv 131— Tri., )t,.„.. 



MONIMIACEJE. 291 

mounted by a style like a little papillose strap, articulated at its 
base. In the inner angle of the ovary is a placenta, bearing a single 
descending anatropous ovule, whose micropyle looks upwards and 
inwards. Scarcely has the flower expanded when the upper part of 
the receptacle falls off in a circular piece, bringing with it the 
perianth and the sterile androceura. The base of the receptacle 

Peumus Bohlus. 




Fig. 324. 
Flowering branch (male). 

alone persists, like a disk bordered with an annular scar, and 
fringing the base of the multiple fruit. This consists of several 
very shortly -stalked drupes,' containing within the rather thin flesh 
a very hard one-seeded stone." The seed contains within its 
membranous coats an abundant fleshy, oily albumen, whose apex 
is occupied by an embryo with a superior radicle and diverging 
cotyledons between which the albumen projects like a wedge. Only 



' At maturity there is very frequently only 
cue. 

2 The mesocarp is very aromatic, and the 
surface of the stone is unequally tubcrculate. 
The emhryo is not, as Lindlet thought, totally 
exterior to the albumen ; but this, as represented 
very faithfully by Tulasne, surrounds the em- 
bryo, covering it with a complete layer ; it is 
true that in the upper part tliis is very thin. 



The diverging cotyledons cover in a part of the 
albumen like a roof, the whole of their upper 
inner surface being directly applied to it. But 
this is not the true organic apex of the albu- 
men, which is just above the apex of the radicle. 
As in several other MonimiacetE, a bai.d of the 
seed coats, corresponding to the raphe, is crus- 
taceous instead of membranous, like the rest, 
from which it is easily separated. 

IT 2 



292 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

one species of this genus is known, P. Bohlus,^ from Chili, a small 
aromatic tree, with opposite exstipulate leaves. Its flowers are in 
axillary and terminal bunches of cymes, with opposite ramifications 
and pedicels. It has the vulgar names of Buldit and Boldo. Its 
structure is, as shown by the preceding description, closely analogous 
to that of Ilorlonia, from which it only difters in characters of no 
great value : — the slightly different form of its floral receptacle, the 
complete separation of the sexes, the introrse aspect of the anthers, 
the way the female perianth separates from the base of the recep- 
tacle after flowering, and the peculiar relations of the embryo to its 
albumen. 

Hcdycarya- (figs. 325-327) also constitutes a closely-allied genus, 
rather analogous to Uortonia than to Peumus, for there is no need 

ITrdvfnriia arhorea. 




^llS 





T 

Fig. 326. Fig. 325. Fio. 327. 

Female flower. Male flower (^). Carpel opened (^f). 

for its perianth to fall ofi' in a ring to free its fruit. This depends 
on the fact that the perigonium is very short, and that its eight' 
imbricate divisions, quite continuous with the receptacle, form a 
widely-open cup, which is the same in both male and female flowers. 
The males have a variable number of stamens (from ten to forty), 
inserted round the centre of the receptacle, each consisting of a short 
erect filament, and a basifixed elongated anther, with two nearly 
lateral adnate cells, each dehiscing by a nearly marginal or slightly 
extrorse longitudinal cleft. In the female flower a similar perianth 



' Mom v., lor. oil. — P. fragrant Pebs., 
Enchir., ii. 029. — Spueng., .Vy#/. l'e(j.,\\. S'tl-, 
n. \V,H\.— Ruizla friii/ranii. H. & Pay.. Prodr., 
foe. oil. ; Sygf. Fl. Per.ei Cfiil.. i. 2V>7.—Boldoa 
fragrant ('. (»av, op. cil., 3^3. — Lindl., Tcff. 
Kingd., 298, figH. ccv. rcvi. — Pulden fragrans 
Tri.., op. fit., 412. — Boldu, arhur vliriftrn 
FkUII.L., /or. cil. (exc'l. t. vi. ex A. DC,'.). 

' J. & G. FoKHT., C/inr. Gen., 127, t. fik— 
L., Siippl., G7.— Mriiit.. S>is(., cd. xiv. K'.tk— 



C.FOBST., Fl.Ins.Ausfr. Prodr., 71. — J., Orn., 
401.- -Lamk., DU'l., iii. 415 ; ///.. t. H27.— Til., 
Man., 405 (excl. tab.).— A. DC, Prodr.. xvi. «. 
I)08t., 042, 072. — H. Hn., Adtinsonia, \x. Ill), 
132, 133. — Crinonia Hanks ex Tvi... lor. cit. 

^ This is tlie commonest nuiulwr, but tbero are 
flowers witb only five or six loaves to tbc pori- 
aiitb ; wluii (liere are more tlian «'ik;bt some of 
tliiin are Hnialler Ibtui tlie rest, and ofloii very 
irrej^ular. 



MONIMIAGEJE. 293 

surrounds an indefinite number of sessile carpels, arranged like the 
stamens, and eacli consisting of an ovary surmounted by a thick 
conical style covered with large stigmatic papillae. The ovary contains, 
suspended on its inner angle, a single descending anatropous ovule, 
with its micropyle upwards and inwards. The perianth persists 
around the base of the multiple fruit, which consists of a variable 
number of shortly-stalked drupes analogous to those of Peumus and 
//. ortonia. Each contains a suspended seed, whose seed-coats enclose 
a fleshy albumen, surrounding an inverted embryo with a long cylin- 
drical radicle and oval membranous cotyledons.' This genus consists of 
trees with opposite leaves, and dioecious flowers in simple racemes, 
in bunches of cymes, or in axillary cymes. Five species are known, 
inhabitants of Australia' and the neighbouring regions. One, 
//. arhorea^ comes from New Zealand, and another, //. dorstenioides* 
from the Feejee Islands, remarkable for a long, dilated, truncate 
prolongation of the connective, recalling the arrangement seen in 
the genera of Ationacea with " stamens of the TJvariea." This form 
of anther is also met with in different degrees in the two species 
from New Caledonia,' in which the receptacle is like a very wide 
cup with its rim much everted, and the calycinal pieces become 
shorter and more obtuse, while all that is left to mark the perianth 
in the female flower is a free circular border, entire, or scarcely 
crenulate or sinuous. 

In Mollinedid' (figs. 328-336) the drupes are also naked, but only 



1 The direction of the embryo is, as in Kor- A. DC, op. cit., 673, n. 3.— Seem., Fl. Vit., 
tonia, oblique to the axis of the albumen. In a 206. 

large fruited species from New Caledonia, a large * H. l.x., Adan^onia, ix. 132. H. ctipidata 
brownish cup-shaped chalaza is observed, applied closely recalls Palmeria by the form of the re- 
over the whole base of the albumen, ceptacle aid perianth of the male Hower. In 

2 The Australian species is Jl. angnslifolia the male f.owers of II. Baudotdni especially we 
A. CuNN., Ann. of Nat. Hiiior., i. 215. — JI. see a thick-rimmed cup with a short perianth, 
Cunninghami TuL., Hon., 408, n. 2.— II. pseiido- and this is even reduced to an obtuse swelling in 
Morm F. Muell., Trans. PIdl. Inst. rict.,\\. the female flowers; and if the cup supporting 
62. — H. Australasica A. DC, op. cit., 673, the carpels is of axial nature, we may say that a 
n. 2. tendency towards the suppression of the true 

* J. & G. FOEST., Gen., 128, t. 64. — A. DC, perianth exists here; and the structure of these 

loc. cit., n. l.—H. dentata G. FoRST., Prodr., flowers also approaches that of Eupomatia and 

71.— A. Rich., Fl. N.Zel., 354.— Raottl, Ch. the peculiar Magnoliacecs of the genus Trocho- 

de PI. de la N.-Zel., 30, 50, t. 30. (Figs. 325- dendron. 

327 are taken from this work.)— Hook. V., Fl. « Iluiz & Pat., Prodr. Fl. Per. et Chil, 72, 

N.-Zeal., i. 219 ; Uandh. of the N.-Zeal. FL, t. 15 ; St/st., i. 142.— Endl., Oen., n. 2019.'— 

240. — Tttl., Mon., 406. n. 1. — H. scahra A. Tul., Mon., 375.— A. DC, Prodr., xvi. s. post., 

CUNN., Ann. ofNat.HiM.,\. 216. — Zanthoxiilum 662. — H. Bn., Adansonia, ix. 118, 123. — Tetra- 

NovcB-Zelandia A. Rich., Voj/. Astral. Fl. K.- tome Pcepp. & Endi., Nov. Gen. et Spec, ii. 46, 

Zel., 291, t. 33. t. 163. — Endl., Gen., n. 2017.' — Ceueg., 

•* A. Geay, Seem. Journ. of Sot., iv. 83. — Linncea, xx. 114. 



294 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

because the periantli of tlie female Howers comes off in a circular 
piece (figs. 335, 330) to discover the carpels, which it at first covered 
completely. In this respect Mo/Zi/wc/ia is to Peiniiits what Hedy- 
carya is to Ilorton'ia. The flowers are dioecious,' and even in the 
same species the perianth varies in form with the sex. It forms a 
globular, turbinate, or nearly campanulate sac, usually split up into 
four lobes of variable length, imbricated and decussate in tlie bud. 
The two outer lobes are not always similar to the inner pair, and 
sometimes behave quite differently on the expansion of the flower.* 
The stamens are most frequently very numerous, from twenty to 
sixty in number, inserted over the whole surface of the perigonal 
sac in vertical rows, two or three superposed to each division of the 
calyx. Each stamen consists of a short filament first inflexed and 
then erect, and a basifixed anther shaped like a horse-shoe. Its two 
cells^ surround the edges of an oval connective continuous with the 
filament, and dehisce each by a longitudinal cleft, the two clefts 
appearing single when the dehiscence is completed. The perianth 
of the female flower has also an opening whose edges are split into 
four imbricated decussate lobes. On the bottom of tlie receptacle 
formed by the dilatation of the pedicel, we find an indefinite 
number of carpels crowded together, and resembling those of licdy- 
carya, each with a suspended ovule, whose micropyle looks upwards 
and inwards (figs. 330, 330). The drupes and seeds are also the 
same as in the genus Jledycarya. 

The true Mollinedias are of American origin ; a couple of species 
come from Mexico, and the twenty-five others belong to South 



* They are said to be monoDcioiis in excep- equal, triangular, and firstercct, afterwards spread- 

tional cases (Hentii., PI. Hartiveq., 250). They ing. The periitnth is campanulate anil quadritid. 
may be incomjiletely hermaphrodite, either be- ^ Tliey are cither exactly marginal, or slightly 

cause the female flowers present rudimentary introrsc ; more rarely, nearly extrorse. There 

sterile stamens towards the throat of the peri- are really two cells to the anther ; but after de- 

nnth, or because at the very bottom of the recep- hiscence the two clefts, which were at first di«- 

tacle of the male Howers are contained ill- tinct, coalesce at the \\\»}\. In the species with 

developed carpels, with, however, a rudimentary elongated anthers, after dehiscence we see two 

ovule in each ovary. This is very marked in panels, one internal the other external, each 

most of the male flowers of M. elliplica (Af. formedof two half-cells, and separatin;; from the 

nitida TuL. Teirafome elliptica Gauun., other from above downwards ; they then take very 

Uook.Journ., 1H12, 530). difrorent forms and directions. The one remains 

' The two inside are often larger, thinner, flat or nearly so, or else its very thin wlges are 

and with the edges less entire than the two out- retluxed outwards, while the other (usually the 

side, besides iK-ing often more rellexed. In the inner one) is much more niark«tlly imhrieate. 

male flowers of M. liffimlrina Ti'l. {Ann. Sr. The opi'ii anther thus presents a conformation 

Aat., B6r. 4, iii. ft), the four divisions of the that is sometimes very peculiar, and it may up- 

culyx, deeply separateil from one another, are pear unilocular. 



MONIMIAGE^. 295 

America, and especially to Brazil.' They are trees or shrubs, with 
the leaves usually opposite, very rarely verticillate. The flowers are 
arranged in few-flowered, pedunculate biparous cymes, either 
one or several of which occupy either the axil of a leaf or the 
extremity of a little axillary branch, itself bearing several leaves at 
its base. 

There are several American species in which the male flowers 
become oligandrous. M. elcgans; for instance, has ten or twelve 
stamens, and sometimes only eight in certain flowers. The allied 
species form a passage between the American Mollinedias and several 
Old World plants that have been made the types of distinct genera. 
Their androceum presents, as we shall see, the same diminution in 
the number of its pieces, but all the other important characters of 
flower and fruit are the same as in MoUinedia, and prevent our 
keeping distinct the genera that have been named Kibara, EjjMjopi- 
andra, IFilkiea, and MatfhcEa. 

This name Kibara!^ has been used to designate plants from tropical 
Asia, in which the female flower (figs. 328-330) and the fruit are 
exactly those of the American Mollinedias. Their male flowers 
possess only from five to ten stamens, constructed exactly like those 
of MoUinedia ; and the divisions of the female perianth, somewhat 
variable in number,^ are doubled by several inflexed laciniate pieces, 
perhaps representing sterile stamens.' The leaves of these trees are 
opposite, and the dioecious flowers are collected in many- flowered 
axillary or terminal cymes. No character of any value allows us to 
consider Kibara as other than a separate section of MoUinedia, inter- 
mediate between the oligandrous American species and the Australian 



' RiTiz & Pat., Syst., 141. — Speeng., Syst. six. These leaves are thick at the base, entire 

5egr., ii. 544. — ScHLTL.,Xni«a?rt,xx. 114. — Tul., or very finely ciliate ; and reflexed in the bud. 

Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, iii. 40 ; Mu»., 375-399, The outermost are the shortest, and resemble 

402,403; Maut., Fl. Bras., Moniiniac, SIS. — the bracts situated lower down on the wall of 

Benth., pi. Harliceg., 250. — Gbiseb., Fl. Brit. the receptacle. 

W.-Ind., 9. — Gakdn., Hook. Journ. (1842) '" Their number is either that of the larger 

530; (1845), 136. — A. DC, Seem. Journ. of leaves, or more frequently greater. We should 

Bot., iii. 220 ; Prodr., loc. cit. — Walp., Ann., remark that in the American MoUlnedins there 

i. 572 ; iv. 103. are often two of the four perianth leaves which 

"^ Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat., loc. cit., 44, n. 14 ; become similarly reflexed, the upper bent por- 

Mon., 398, n. 21. — A. DC, op. cit., 668, n. 25. tion becoming nearly vertical, while they are 

3 Endl., Gen., u. 2016. — Tvl., 3Ion., 403. — narrower and less entire than the outer leaves. 

A. DC, P/-orfr., xvi. s. post., 670. — Brongniarlia M. Ugustrina Tul. (Ann. Sc. Nat., loc. cit., 

Bl., Bijdraj., ii. 435 (nee K.). — Sciadicarpus 14) stands almost alone in having all the pe- 

Hassk., Flora (1842), Beibl., ii. 20. rianth leaves nearly equal, and equally erect, and 

■• There are four or five (as in fig. 329) rarely afterwards spreading in anthesis (p. 29 1, note 2). 



296 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Wilkicas. Three species ofKibara^ have been described, but it may well 
be that they are merely varieties of one and the same species, obser\'ed 
in Java, Malacca, Sumatra, and Celebes, with leaves of variable thick- 
ness, which may be entire or serrate, acute or obtuse at the apex. 

It is worthy of note that as the stamens become fewer, so they 
tend to lose in length, and that in the oligandrous species of the 
genus MoH'uu'dia the filaments disappear, and the connectives become 



Moll tiled ia (Kibara) coriacea. 




Fig. 328. 
Female Hosver ('^). 




Fio. 32'J. 
Female flower, diagram. 




Fig. 330. 

Longitudinal section of female 

flower. 



broader than they are long (figs. 332-335). This is especially 
marked in Ephpjnandra; a plant from Madagascar, of which it has 
been proposed to make a special genus. Its female fiowers are 
exactly those of other Mollinedias, and the stamens of the male 
flowers are usually arranged two superposed to the two outer divi- 
sions of the perianth, and two to the inner, then two more to the 
outer, and so on. Owing to the slight elevation of the connective 
the two anther-cells tend to become horizontal ; but their essential 
structure is the same as in all other species oi MolUncdia. The most 
remarkable fact in this species, which allows us to make it the type 
of a special section, is that, on anthesis, not only do the four divi- 



' Hl., Mm. Luffd. Jial., ii. 87.— HooK. & = Dkcsne., Ann. Sc. Sat., tvr. 4, ix. 278, t. 

TuoMH., Fl. ImL, \. 1G5.— TfL., .Mon., \OA. 7; Traiti Ornrr. dt- Boi.,h\l. — \. Dl'., 

— Hashk., Pl.Jor. Rnr. (1818). ^Ult. u. 134. Prodr., x\\. %. poat., GG2. — 11. Hx., Adansonia, 

— StkUU., Somriirl., blO. — Wali-., Jnu., iv. ix. 124. 
111.— A. DC. h>r. ril. 



MONIMIACE.l'J 



297 



sions of the calyx separate from one another, but tlie receptacular sac 
splits very regularly down tlie intervals between the rows of stamens ; 
a phenomenon that we may compare with that observed in many 
species of Tamhoiirism. The only species of this small group as 
yet known is a shrub with the foliage and appearance of a Myrtle, 
and with axillary cymes often reduced to a single flower. The two 
sexes are on diflerent plants. 

Under the name of Wilkiea cali/pfrocali/x' has been described a 
plant with the foliage, female flowers, and fruit of the American 
MoUiuedlas and lubaras ; but 



its male flowers have at most 
eleven stamens, according to 
F. Mueller.' This plant is 
a native of Australia,^ and, 
like the last, may be con- 
sidered a type of a distinct 
section in tlie genus Molli- 
nedia. It possesses one or two 
sterile stamens. 

We have given the name 



MolUnedia {Kibaropsis) macrophylla 




Fig. 332. 
Male flower, trans- 
verse section. 



Fig. 331. 
Male flower (\o). 



Kibarojjsis^ to a section of 
this genus, of which the type is MolUnedia tnacrophijlla Tul.* Its 
vegetative organs and female flowers are those o^ 2IoUincdia, Kihara, 
Ephippiandra and Wilkiea. But its male flowers (figs. 331, 332) have 
only six stamens, of which four alone are fertile. These are saddle- 
shaped, and superposed to the sepals. The two outermost stamens 
superposed to the outer divisions of the perianth are sterile, and re- 
duced to little fleshy scales. M. macrophi/lla is an Australian tree with 
Holly-like leaves, and dia^cious flowers in small axiUary groups. 



1 F. MuELL., Trans, of the Phil. Tnstit. of 
Victor., ii. 64; Fragm., v. 3. A. de Can- 
DOLLE {Frodr., xvi., s. post., 669, n. 1) makes 
this plant synonymous with MolUnedia macro- 
phylla TuL., of which we shall speak a little later. 
But these two species, as observed on the typical 
specimens, seem quite distinct in their vegetative 
organs. (See Adansonia, ix. 123.) 

'■' " Stamina fertiUanumeravi 11 v. pandora." 
(F. MuELL., loc. cit.) This, again, is a character 
which decidedly separates this plant from M. 
macrophylla, which, as we shall see, has never 
more than four fertile stamens. 



' " Sylvas littoreas a fluvio Hastings River 
usque ad sinum Eockingham Bay seqiiitur." (F. 
AluELL., loc. cit.) 

* Adansonia, ix. 124. 

^ Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, iii. 45, n. 16 ; Man., 
401, u. 23. — Uedycarya macrophylla A. CtTNN,, 
Ann. of Nat. Hist., i. 215. — Wilkiea macro- 
phylla A. DC, Frodr., xvi. s. post., 669, n. 1. 
A. DE Candolle, as we have stated above, men- 
tions as synonymous with this plant Wilkiea 
calyptrocalyx F. Mtjell., which we regard as 
distinct (see notes 1 and 2). 



298 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Thus we gradually arrive at a species of the same genus, called 

Matlhcea sancta^ (figs. 333-33G), in which the androceum pre- 

*r II- J- /,r.,i N , sents the greatest reduction 

Molhnedia [Matf/ifpa) sancta. ^ " 

known in the number of its 

elements. This species has 
exactly the perianth of 
Wilkien or Kibarojma, but 
the sterile stamens have 
disappeared, and we only- 
find four stamens with 
nearly sessile naiTow sad- 
dle-shaped anthers, super- 
posed to the perianth- 
loljes." The female flower 

and fruit are altogether those of the plants described above. 

The only known species of this section is a shrub with shortly 

Mollinedia (Mad/itta) sancla. 




Fig. 333. 

Transverse section of 

male flower. 



Fig. 331. 

Long, section 

of male flower (Y)- 





Fig. 335. 
Female flower, dehiscing. 



Fig. 336. 
Long, auction of female flower ('j»). 



petiolate entire or serrulate leaves, and mona'cious flowers in axil- 
lary cymes. 

In the plants we are now about to study, the fruits, instead of 



' I?i.., Mut. Lugd. jB«/.,ii. Sy.t. 10.— A. DC, 
I'lodr., xvi., B. poHt., G(i'J. — 11. Hn., Adanson'ia, 
ix. 118. \U. 

2 " Nonniti dehUcenlin nntherarum a Kihara 
differre videtur." (A. 1)('., he. cit.) T\\\n do- 
liiscence is the same in lM)th types. The two 
••elln, clone tf)gether hI tiie ajK-x, each dehivce l>y 



a subinHrginnl cleft, bnt later on the two clefta 
coalesce above to form a single cnrved line with 
its concavity downwards (tigs. 332-33 J). Those 
Btumcns are exactly like those of Ephippiandra, 
except that the curve tormod by the two cell* is 
a little greater, owing to the great^jr elevation of 
the coinicctivc. 



MONIMIACE^. 



299 



being early freed by the floral sac spreading widely after anthesis, 
or falling off in a single circular piece, are only discovered much 
later, for the common envelope which concealed them does not 
divide irregularly until complete maturity is nearly attained. 

In Monimia' (figs. 337-343) the flowers are regular and dioecious. 
The male flowers consist of a perianth formed by a nearly ovoidal 
sac, and a very large number of stamens inserted in a spiral over the 
whole inner surface of this common envelope. This at first only 

Monimia citrina. 






Fig. 338. 
Lonqr. section of male flower. 



opens by a very small pore at the apex ; but on anthesis, it is split 
downwards from this pore into a variable number of unequal strips 
which become spreading or even reflexed to discover the stamens (fig. 
340). These each consist of a basifixed introrse two-celled anther, de- 
hiscing longitudinally, and a filament of variable length with two late- 
ral sessile or stipitate glands, varying in form with the age and species. 
The female flowers possess a perianth like that of the male flowers, 
but with a larger opening at the top, whose margin is divided into 
several equal or unequal teeth. Through this opening pass the long 
styles, obtuse and stigmatiferous at the apex, and continuous with 
the one-celled ovaries, which are inserted towards the bottom of the 
receptacular sac. The fruit is multiple, consisting of drupes collected 



' Monimia Dup.-Th., Hist. Veg. Afriq. Austr. H. Bn., Adansonia, ix. 117. — Ambora BoE., Toy., 

(1804), 35, t. 9.— Endl. Gen., 2015.— Ttjbp., i. 31, 1. 13 (nee J.).— 3fvr<i spec. Spekng., «ys<. 

Diet, des Sc. Nat., t. 290. — Tul., Mon., 307, Veg.,\u 487. — Eugenice spec. PoiR., Diet., Suppl., 

t. xxi.\. ii.— A. DC, Prodr.,\\\., s. post., 661.— iii. 124. 



300 



NATURAL HISTOEY OF PLANTS. 



in a fleshy sac, which, it is said, finally tears irregularly to free them ; 
they consist of a hard, thick stone, surrounded by a thin, fleshy 
mesocarp. The suspended seed contains within its coats a copious 
fleshy albumen, with a small embryo towards the apex. 

As yet three species are known of this genus,' small trees from 
the islands on the east coast of Africa. Nearly all their organs 

Monimia rotundifolia. 




Fig. 342. 
Female flower (\''). 



Fig. 343. 

Lung, section of female 

flower. 



Fig. 341. 
Stamen. 



are covered with a peculiar down :* the leaves are opposite, pe- 
tiolate, exstipulate ; the flowers are grouped in branching peduncu- 
late axillary cymes. 

'J'he flowers of Pnlinrria^ are monoecious, and nearly similar to those 
of Mo/ilmin, especially the females, which are like a sac with a 
narrow, thick-edged circular border, the aperture being only large 



' W., Si»c. /'Ifiiil., iv. 2. 647. — Hoj., Jforf. with u lonp terminal prolongation, all (he lateral 

3/rtar., 2H'J. — Til.., Ann. Sr. Nat., »vr. i, Vu.'.i.! ; rays reniitininp very short. Ti'I.asnk has ali«> 

Mon., 30'.).— Wam'.. Ann., iv. H8. M-e,, cystolithen in Monimia (see p. 3'22, note 1). 

" Con»iistiiig (irii.iirK, oft<'ii very nmrHe; some- » F. Mvkll., /'/•(/<//«.. iv. 152; v. 2. A. DC, 

timen Htellate with nearly etpiul rays, Hometimcs Prodr., xvi. h. poHt., G41, Go7.— H. Hn., Adan- 

iij)j)arently niniple, hut really k(.11i.i,. ut i|,,. l.iuii., aonia, ix. 115, 130. 



MONIMIACEyTJ. :50l 

enough to let the styles pass through. These are numerous, for the 
whole of the inner surface of the sac bears free indelinite carpels, 
each consisting of a unilocular ovary, tapering above into a long 
subulate horn, whose stigmatiferous apex is not dilated. In the 
inner angle of each ovary is seen a suspended ovule,' with its micro- 
pyle introrse and superior. The male flowers come much nearer those 
of Iledycanja in the form of their perianth ; this is broad and shallow 
like a dish ; the valvate sepals- taper towards the apex to narrow 
points, much inflexed towards the centre of the flower in the intervals 
between the innermost stamens. Each of these consists of a very 
short filament, supporting a basifixed erect anther, shaped like an 
isosceles triangle, with two cells opening by introrse or nearly lateral 
clefts. The fruit, like that of Tamhourissa, resembles a little fig, 
with only a very small pore at the apex, and contains an indefinite 
number of glabrous drupes, with thin mesocarps and very thick 
stones.^ In each stone is a suspended seed ;^ the radicle of the 
embryo is superior. The drupes are sessile, and inserted by a large 
base on the surface of the sac ; and the spaces between them are 
thickly covered with hairs.' Pcdmeria may then be defined as 
Mo/nmia, with shallow male flowers," and stamens lacking lateral 
glands. It is believed that the drupes are never freed from the sac 
forming their common envelope. As yet only one species" is known, 
a native of eastern Australia, a climbing shrub, with slender sar- 
mentose stem, opposite entire leaves, and flowers in axillary clusters 
of cymes. 



J The funicle is usually pretty long. The •' We find them on almost all the organs of 

ovule has two coats. the plant ; they are short and simple, or stellate. 

■ Of these there are most frequently four, ^ The sac enclosing tl;e androceum is of ap- 

nearly equal. More rarely we find a fifth equal pendicular nature above ; but the basilar por- 

to the others, or narrower. Only exceptionally tion on which the stamens are inserted is of axial 

do we tind six perianth-lobes, of which two are nature, for on it, borne at a variable height, we 

very small. often tind a long bract similar to those seen on 

3 In the dry state they are a little angular, tlie diflerent axes of the inflorescence, 

with a finely punctate surface. " P. racemosa A. DC, he. cit., n. 2.— P. 

■• In the descriptions given by A. DE Candolle scandens V. Muell., loc. cit. ; — A. DC, loc. cit., 

and F. Muelleu, where the seed is stated to be n. 1. — Redyearya racemosa Ttjl., ^»h. Sc. Nat., 

erect, the chalazal mark, which is inferior and ser. 4, iii. 45 ; Mon., Arch. JIus., viii. 409, u. 3 

very large, has no doubt been mistaken for the t. xxxiv. i. — Walp., Ann., iv. 113, n. 3. 
umbilical cicatrix. 



302 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAXTS. 



III. TAMBOUEISSA SERIES. 



Tambouriisa leptophyUa. 



The flowers of Tnmhoitrism^ (figs. 344-351) are irregular and 
unisexual. In the male flowers (figs. 344, 345), the peduncle is 
dilated into a hollow, globular or elongated, thin-walled sac, bare 
on its surface. This has been considered by most authors as a 
gamophyllous cal3'x, but is more probably of reeeptacular nature ;• 

the perianth in this genus 
Ijeing only represented by four' 
teeth, usually but little marked, 
surrounding the orifice at the 
top of the sac. On its inner 
walls are inserted the indefinite 
stamens, larger as they are 
higher up, and arranged without 
any apparent order when adult. 
Each consists of a filament of 
variable length, and a basifixed 
anther, whose two linear cells 
are adnate along the whole 
length of the edges of a con- 
nective continuous with the filament, and are lateral or more or 
less extrorse. Each cell dehisces by a lateral or nearly lateral cleft, 
which often coalesces with its fellow at the apex of the anther, so 
as to form a single line of dehiscence, with a very marked curve 
whose concavity is downwards. At a certain period, the little teeth 
surrounding the orifice of the floral sac separate to free the pollen 
secreted by the anthers. The body of the sac, coriaceous and very 




Fig. 3 15. 
Stamen. 



> SoNNKK., Toi/. Ind. Or. (1782), ii. 237, t. 
134; C(l. 2, iv. 105, t. 131.— Gmkl., Stjst. licit., 
ii. (17'.M). ir..— A. DC, i'/Wr., xvi. B. post., 658. 
\\. H.V., AdaixKonia, ix. Ill, 121. — Tamhoure- 
cUsa Flac. JUkI. dc Mad,,,;. (Ififil), 133, n.69. 
— Amhora .Irss., Gen , 101, ii. 4700 ; Ann. .Mu.i., 
xiv. (180!)). 130.- I'oiu., Diit.,\\\. 5(55 ; Suppl. 
V. 282; lUusti-., t. 781. — Kndi.., iivn., n. 2(ilt. 

Tl'L., Mon., 295, t. xxv-xxvii. — Mithridiitea 

CoMM., MSS., I'X StiiKi-n., a,n. (17'.>1), ii. 783. 
— W.. Spfc, \. p. 1 (17'J7), 27, 11. 21.— Si'HKNd., 
Syxl., iii. (182()) SfJG, n. 3132.— jTumfcoi// I'oiii., 
loc. cif. 



- Which sccins proved by tlio fact, of xvliieh 
\vc have observed several instances (Adansuuia, 
ix. 115), that its outer surface may bear one or 
several bracts. 

' This is the most frequent number ; but it 
may vary from three to tive or six ; and tli«*o 
teetli, wiiicli are very unequal, are to be well ob- 
served only in the very younj; bud, where they 
are thick at the base, witli the limbs iutlexod and 
hani^in^,' almost vertiodly downwards at first, tho 
obtuse apex almost reaching tho bottom of tho 
receptacle. 



MONIMIACE^. 



thick, in this case seems to remain entire ; but more frequently it 
tears vertically into four, five, or six equal or unequal strips, which 



Tamlourissa elliptica. 





Fig. 346. Fig. 347. 

Female flower (3.). Longitudinal section of female flower. 

then spread like a star, hearing on their inner surface the stamens 
dehiscing and shedding their pollen (fig. 344). 

The female flower is fig-shaped ; its walls are thicker than in the 



Tamhourissa elliptica. 



male with the apex usually more 
depressed, forming a widely 
open terminal " eye." The open- 
ing of this sac-like recep- 
tacle is cut up into projecting 
festoons, usually of very unequal 
sizes and somewhat inflexed. 
These ill-marked lobings are the 
vestiges of the divisions of the 
perianth, and are better seen 
when very young. The sac is 
lined by an indefinite number 
of carpels, extending from the 
centre to a variable height on 
its walls. Each carpel consists 
of a one-celled ovary, tapering into a short style, dilated and stig- 
matiferous at the apex. In the inner angle of the ovary is seen a 
placenta bearing a single anatropous ovule,' whose microp3'le looks 




liiilP 



Fig. 348. 
Part of the gynseceum (^j ). 



This ovule has two coats. The exostome is the orifice of the endostome projectingslightly out- 
traversed by a short tube, at the top of which is side. The sharp apex fits into the base of thu'tube. 



304 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAINTS. 



upwards and inwards, and is capped by a somewhat liood-sliaped 
protuberance from the elongated funicle. All the carpels, at first 
free, later become buried in the deep layer of the floral receptacle, 
which, thickening as it grows older, rises up in the intervals between 
the ovaries, surrounding them, and later even the styles, as high up 
as the bases of their capitate stigmas, but not contracting any 
adhesion with them ; so that the stigmas are alone visible on top 

Tnmlourissa quadrifuln . 




Fig. 350. 
Drupe (f). 



Fig. 3t9. 
Longitudinal section of fruit (i). 



Fig. 351. 

Lonf^itudinal section 

of drupe. 

of the narrow canals traversed l:»y the styles. The multiple fruit, 
in general appearance like tlie female flower, has more or less fleshy 
or woody walls.' Its receptacle is hollowed out into a number oi' 
cavities, each of which contains an ovary in its original position, but 
now transformed into a more or less compressed di'upe (figs. 350, 
351). The mesocarp and stone are not very thick, and enclose a 
suspended seed, containing within its membranous coats* a very 



' These outer forms, it must be renienibcrcd, 
only belong to the imlusium formed by the 
hypertro])hied floral recci)tacle. To free the true 
fruits, often described by older botanists as the 
BccdH, it is, however, necessary that there should be 
gome solution of contiiuiity in this indusium ; in 
fact, ft sort of dehiscence due both to the centri- 
fugal ])ressure exerted by the growing drnj) s on 
the walls of the receptaele, and to the tcndincy 
of the recejjtaeular sac to spread out and become 
less concave (Adaniiuuui, ix. 127). Its edges 
separate and even become inverted, wliile tlie 
sniterior table (representing the interior I'liidermis 



and neighbouring layers of the receptacle) be- 
comes cleft and ])iished up irregularly ; after- 
wards the uneiiual lii)8 of tiiese clefts are reflexM 
outwards. The true fruit, the drnjjcs, then ap- 
pear in large nnnd)ers on the surface, as the 
seeds of a iMMnegramite might do if it burst when 
ripe ; the whole now presenting a bright red 
colour due to the fleshy jtart of tbe pericarjK, 

^ 'J'liey bec<«ne tliicker and slightly crust a- 
ceous over the whole region of the raphe, so that 
when ripe this may easily come ofl'from the seed 
like a narrow fillet. 



MONIMIACEJE. 305 

copious oily, fleshy albumen, with an apical embryo, whose radicle 
is superior and cylindrical, and whose cotyledons are broad and 
flattened.' 

The genus Tmnhourissn consists of trees or shrubs, with oppo- 
site, or rarely alternate," exstipulate leaves. The flowers are 
dioecious, or more rarely monojcious, axillary or terminal, solitary or 
collected into simple or cymose racemes.^ A dozen species^ are 
known, from Bourbon, Mauritius, Madagascar, and the neigh- 
bouring islands of the Indian Ocean. A single species has been 
observed in Java. 

The remarkable structure of the fruit of Tamhovrissa has led most 
authors to put the genus into a special tribe* of the order Moni- 
miacece. In this order is another genus, in which we also observe 
a singular hypertrophy of the receptacular sac in the intervals 
between the true fruits — the genus S/parniia, which we shall now 
study, and which we include in the same series as the foregoing on 
account of this peculiarity. Still, it might be placed in a group 
apart, for its ovules are ascending instead of pendulous, and the 
compartments inclosing the drupes do not embrace them closely 
as in Tambourissa, but are Hke unequal irregularly pyramidal cham- 
bers, with whose walls the ovaries are not at first in contact, as we 
shall presently see. 

In this genus' (figs. 352-356) the flowers are monoecious, or more 
frequently dioecious. In both sexes the receptacle and perianth are 
blended to form a sort of sac of very variable form, sometimes 
rounded and globular, sometimes obconical or obovate, with the 



1 These are slightly auricled at the base, and BoJ., Eort. Mam:, 290. — TuL., Ann. Se. Nat., 
may touch one another over the whole of the loc. cit., 29 ; Man., 297, t. xxv-xxvii. — A. DC, 
upper surface ; but they are very frequently Frocb:, loc. cif. — Walp., Ann., iv. 84. 
directed obliquely in opposite directions, so that " Sycioidea s. Amborem TuL., op. cit., 295. — 
they do not cover each other completely, but are Tambourissece A. DC, loc. cit. 

separated towards their extremities by a large ^ Aubl., Giiian., ii. (1775), 8fi4. — Juss., Gen., 

sinus; their planes, however, are parallel, always 443. — CitUEG., Z/nna a, xx. 113 ; Ann. Sc. Kat., 

remaining unaffected by this obliquity. The ser. 3, vii. 376. — A. DC, Prodr., xvi. s. post., 

plumule already consists of several little imbri- 6)2. — H. Bn., Adansonia, ix. 121, 125,131. — 

cated leaves. Citrosma R. & Paa'., Prodr. Fl. Per. et Chil. 

2 As in T. alternifoUa A. DC, op. cit., 660.— (1794), 134, t. 29 ; Syst., i. (1798), 263.— Exdl., 
Ambora aUernifolia TVL., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, Gen., n. 2017. — Leonia Mux., ex Ttjl., Man., 
iii. 31, n. 8 ; Man., 305. — Walp., Ann., iv. 87. 312 (nee R. & Pay.). — ConuUum A. Rich., Mem. 

3 Often as many as two or three of the secon- Soc. Hist. Nat. Par., i. (1823), 391, 406, t. 25. 
dary axes may spring, one above the other, from — Sciiltl., in DC, Prodr., xiv. 6U8. — Angelina 
the axil of a single leaf or bract; thus recalling Pom, ex Tul., Mon. 363. — Cilriosma Tul., 
the arrangement of the floral axes in Calycanthus. Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, iii. (1S55), 32 ; ^f")l., 311, 

•* SoNNEB., loc. cif., 1. 134. — W., Spec, i. 27. — t. xxviii-xxx. 

VOL. I. . X 



306 



NATURAL EISTOBY OF PLANTS. 



outer surface naked or bearing certain projections whose nature we 
shall examine below. The superior opening of this sac is sometimes 
circular and simple ; sometimes double, presenting an outer rounded 
rim, entire, or cut up into crenulations, festoons, or even lobes of 



Siparuna guianensis. 



> 




Fio. 352. 
Male flower {}f). 



Fig. 353. 
Loncitudinal section of male flower. 





Fig. 354. 

Longitudinal section of female flower. 



Fig. 355, 
iOngitudinal section of fruit (^). 



variable depth, and within this rim a " velum'' or sort of conical roof, 
raised or depressed, sometimes nearly flat and horizontal. In the 
centre of this diaphragm is an opening, usually narrow, and some- 
times reduced to a simple circular pore on anthesis. This gives 
passage to the stamens or to tlie stigmatiferous summits of the 
styles, as the case may be, while the lower parts of the reproductive 
organs remain shut in by the perigonal sac, towards the bottom of 
wliich they are inserted (Hgs. 352-35 1). 

Tlie characters of the androceum are peculiarly variable in Sipa- 
runay but as we find gradual transitions between the ditVerent 
variations we are about to mention, it has been altogether impos- 
sible to split up the genus on that account. The stamens may be 
very numerous in some species, such as S. ncyU'da &c., while in 



MONnilAGEJE. 307 

others there may be only twice or tlirice as many as tliere are 
perianth-lobes; and there may be a number equal to these in S. 
limoniodora, eriocnif/w, suhinodom, mollis, plcbrja, &c. In S. moUi- 
comn, mollis, &c., the number is even less ; some flowers having only 
four, three, or even two stamens ; variations which may occur in a 
single inflorescence. Usually the stamens are free, as in S. guia- 
nonsis; or the filaments may become broad and almost petaloid, 
only touching by their edges and seeming to stick to one another 
as in S. riparia, &c. But in S. mollis they are really united into two or 
three bundles, while in 8. mollicoma they usually form a single tube, 
long enough to pass out of the opening of the perianth, becoming 
distinct only close to their summits, just by the insertion of the 
anthers. The stamens are usually constructed on one common type 
in all. Tlie filament is like a membranous fillet, flattened, or con- 
cave internally. The anther consists of two cells applied to the 
inside of this, a little below its more or less tapering apex. Each 
cell opens at first below, where we find two clefts like crescents 
with the concavity upwards. Later on the inner walls of both cells 
go on to separate from the cavities from below upwards in a single 
piece, to form a common plate that is soon quite erect and vertical, 
or even reflexed outwards ; it is still joined to the anther near its 
apex, while the free extremity, corresponding to the base of the 
anther, is more or less deeply split into two lobes, each belonging to 
one cell' (figs. 352, 353). 

In the female flowers we find a variable number of carpels inserted 
on the inner surface of the perigonal sac. There may be as many as 
thirty of these ; but usually there are not so many, and in some species 
we find only three or four. The base by which each is inserted 
becomes more extended and oblique as it is higher up. The one- 
celled ovary contains a single basilar ascending ovule with its micro- 
pyle downwards and outwards, and tapers above into a style 
stigmatiferous at the apex. Into the intervals between the carpels 
the floral envelope sends prolongations to form vertical, or more or 
less oblique partitions ; so that each ovary is contained in a little 
chamber of its own (fig. 354). 

The fruit is multiple ; outside it looks something like a small 



' The anther is, according to F. Mueller bourissa, Monimia, MoUinedia, and Aff/ero- 
{Fragm. iv. 152), like this in Siparuna, Tarn' spertna, while it is 4-valvular in Hedycarya. 



308 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

apple. Tliis fleshy outside is an indusiura formed by the now suc- 
culent receptacle ; and the partitions between the carpels are simi- 
larly altered. The fruits themselves enclosed in the cavities of this 
sac are drupes, but the pericarp varies greatly in consistency and 
thickness. In S'. (juianensis, A/)iofn/ce, &;c., it consists of a hard stone, 
bristling outside with very prominent woody points. The mem- 
branous epicarp is almost in contact with this over the lower two- 
thirds, where the mesocarp is also reduced to a thin membranous 
layer. But above, the latter swells and becomes thick and fleshy, 
so that here the pericarp is that of any ordinary drupe. The kernel 
is a single ascending seed, with membranous coats, and copious 
fleshy albumen, containing near its apex a little embryo whose coty- 
ledons are superior (fig. 355). 

In the female flower, as in the fruit, the surface of the sac is 

usually smooth, bearing no other appendages than the pieces of the 

perianth. But in several species which have been 

Siparunn muricala. i • j i • j j i n • i 

made into a section apart, the surface is covered 
with a pretty large number of more or less marked 
projections, of divers forms, which should be con- 
sidered as prickles (Fr., air/inllons — fig. 350). 

The genus Sipanina consists of small trees or 
shrubs from tropical America, especially abundant 
in Brazil, Peru, and Guiana. Some are found in 
the Antilles and Mexico. Upwards of sixty species 
Fig. 356. ^^^ already known." Their leaves are opposite, 

teniale flower ^*). Z . . i -, , • i ii • i 

rarely verticiUate, aromatic, sprinkled with pellucid 
more or less projecting glands, sometimes glabrous, sometimes 
covered, like most of the organs, with a down that may be very 
thick. The flowers are arranged in axillary cymes, sometimes very 
regularly biparous, sometimes branching symmetrically only at first, 
and afterwards becoming uniparous and unsymmetrical by the abor- 
tion of one flower in each generation. 




' AUBL., op. cit., 8G5, t. 333.— R. & Pav., Port., 146.— TuL., Ann. Sc. Xat. st?r. 4. iii. 32; 

Sytl., 264; Prodr., t. 29.— H. H. K., Nov. Oen. Mon., 314 ; in Mart., Fl. Bra*., Monimiac, 294. 

et Spec. PL ACquin., ii. 170.— I'ojri'. & Enbl., — Osi8EU.,/V. Brit. »'. /«</., 9.- Skkm., y(»«r». 

Xor. Gtn. el Spec, ii. 47, t. 164.— Si-rkno., o/ /?«>/., ii. (1864), 312.— A. DC, Sekm. Joun. 

SyMl. Ve^., ii. 545.— Bkntii., PI. Hartweg., 250. of But., iii. (1865), 219 ; Prodr., loc. cit., 643.— 

— CUCEO., Linna<i, xx. 1 13.— Hkukl., Prim. Fl. Walp., Ann., iv. 89. 



MONmiAGEJE. 



309 



IV. ATHEROSPEKMA SERIES. 

We shall begin the study of this series by examining Athcrosperma 
Sassafras,' which has been made the type of the genus Doryphora:' 

Doryphora Sassafras. 




Fig. 357. 
Three-flowered cyme (f). 




Fig. 35S. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



It possesses regular hermaphrodite flowers (figs. 357 




The 



» A. CUNN., Eerh., ex Tul., Mon., 42k 
2 Endl., Oen., n. 2022; Icon., t. x.— LiNDL. 
Veg. Klngd., 300, fig. ccviii.— Ttri., Mon., 422.— 
A. DC, Frodr., xvi. s. post., 642, G7G.— H. Bn. 



AJansonia, ix. 128.— Learosa Reichb., NomencL, 
n. 2612, ex EuDi. et Tul., locc. cift. Tliis genus 
may perhaps he rightly made only a section of 
the genus AVierosperma. Its fruit is but little 



310 natuEjUj history of plants. 

receptacle forms a rather deep pouch, and in its somewhat con- 
tracted mouth is inserted the perianth. This consists of about half 
a dozen free elongated nearly petaloid caducous leaves, imbricated in 
a3stivation. Internal to these are the indefinite stamens, aiTanged 
in a spiral, making several very close turns. The outermost of 
these stamens are fertile, their number varying ; while the inner 
ones are sterile, becoming shorter and shorter. Each fertile stamen 
consists of a flattened filament, Literally dilated into two acute 
membranous petaloid appendages, and of an anther with two slightly 
introrse adnate cells, above which the connective is continued into 
a long subulate point. Each cell opens by an oval valve, which is 
soon uplifted ; to its hinge is attached an obtuse scaly projection 
(iig. 359). The inner stamens have the same form, with a long 
ligulate connective, lateral appendages, and a dilatation answering 
to the anther ; but the deformed cells no longer contain pollen, and 
there are no valves for dehiscence. Finally, the smallest stamens 
are quite rudimentary, reduced to short fleshy scales, without lateral 
appendages or terminal processes. The indefinite carpels are inserted 
towards the bottom of the receptacular cavity. They are free, and 
each consists of a one-celled ovary, surmounted by a linear style 
inserted more or less on one side, covered with hairs and taper- 
ing towards its stigmatiferous apex. In the ovary is a basilar 
placenta supporting a nearly erect anatropous ovule, whose micro- 
pyle looks downwards and outwards. The fruit is said to resemble 
that of Jf/wrosperma. Of this genus only one species is known,' a 
tree from eastern Australia, aromatic in every part. The leaves are 
opposite, exstipulate ; and to them the flowers are axillary, in 
bunches of biparous cymes, w^ith opposite ramifications axillary to 
caducous bracts. 

The (;o\m^ JfkrosjK'njnr (figs. 3G0-370), which has given its name 



known. PerhiipB, too, its cliiinictcrs will have to link between the genus AlJierosperma, as we now 

l)u inoililiiil afler the Btudy of the (lowers of ii limit it, iind the genus JJoriiphora ; in ita vegc- 

i)limt which we have dcKcrihtd (Ailaiisonia, ix. tative organs it reenlls the section /.aiirelia of 

loi: pit., nolo 1) under the name of D.f I'ieil- the former genus, rather than the latter. 
lardi, and have only referred to this genus with ' D. Susmifras V,v\)\.., lor.rit. — Wai.I'., Ann. 

some hesitation. I'erliajjs it is thet)i>e of a new iv. 120. — LiNDL., J'e</. Kbnid., ;iUO, tig. ceviii. 
genus cliaracterized hy its canii)ylotr<i|)ous ovary. - Lauill., ^'ouv.-JJull., ii. 71, t. 22 t. — Knui.., 

KndmchkU 1ms, indeed, descrihed the insurtion Gm., n. 2(120. — Tli... Muii., -IIN, t. xxiv. — A. 

of the stylo us latt-rid aiul suhhasilar, hut has DC. I'rodr., xvi. s. jmisI , (il2, G75. — II. Hx., 

ligiiretl a rectilineal, not a ciirvi'd, ovary. Per- Adannunia, ix. 122. 
haps the new plant in <|uestion will serve us u 



M0NIMIACE2E. 



311 



to this group, is closely analogous to Don/pJiora. In fact, of the two 
species that have been hitherto alone admitted in this genus, the one 



Fjg. 362 

stain un. 



Atherosperma moschata. 




Fig. 360. 
Floriferous branch (|). 




Fig. 363. 
Female flower {\). 





Fig. 364. 

Longitudinal section 

of female flower. 



termed A. micranthum^ has hermaphrodite flowers, similarly organized 
to those of Bonjphora Sassafras^ from which their only essential 



' Tut., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, iii. 46 ; Mon., in the form of the receptacle and the organiza- 
421. — Walp., A7in., iv. 118. tion of the androceum. 

- They also recall those of Hortonia, csijccially 



312 NATURAL HISTORT OF PLANTS. 

difference is that the extrorse anthers lack the acute prolongation of 
the connective. The otlier, wliich has been longer known, has larger 
flowers, but usually with the sexes separate ; it is called J. moxrkato} 
(tigs. 360-3G5). The receptacle is like a sac, shallower in the male 
flower. Towards its edges are inserted in a spiral a variable number 
of imbricated, more or less petaloid leaves." Internally to these the 
male flowers present an indefinite number of free stamens, inserted 
nearly down to the bottom of the reccptacular cup, each consisting 
of a filament possessing two lateral appendages at the base, and sur- 
mounted by a truncate extrorse anther, each of whose two cells dehisces 
by the lifting up of a valve. In the female flower the stamens are 
only represented by some sterile imbricated scales internal to the 
perianth.^ At the bottom of the cup^ are inserted numerous carpels, 
whose unilocular ovaries are each surmounted by an acute style with 
a sharp stigmatic summit, and covered with silky hairs (fig. 3G5). 
The single cell of the ovary contains a nearly basilar ovule, whose 
micropyle looks downwards and outwards. The fruit consists of a 
large number of achcnes,* which are surrounded below by a large 
woody capsule formed by the indurated receptacle. The pericarp 
and a long point surmounting it, formed of piu't of the style that 
has grown hard, are covered with long hairs, giving them a plumose 
appearance. This pericarp is thin and membranous, closely applied 
to the seed, which contains within its very thin coat a copious oily, 
fleshy albumen, its base occupied by a small embryo with superior 
divaricating cotyledons. The two known species of Afherosperma are 
large aromatic trees from the east and south of Australia ; and A. 
moachata is also found in Tasmania. The leaves are opposite, entire 
or dentate ; the flowers are axillary, solitary or in simple or ramified 
cymes ; in A. luoHcliuia each flower is accompanied by two opposite 
bracts, whose edges are close together when young, and which form 
a sort of calyx to the flower-bud (figs. 300, 3G1, 303, 301-). 



• Lauili... /-,<•. ri/.—A. DC, Prodr., luc.ril., si)eclivcly culled sepalsi and jHJtals in the Calif- 

67r>, n. 1. — Honk, v., Fl. Tnsm., i. A'2..—A. in- cantheef. 
tegr{folium A. Cinn., ex Ti'L., loc. cil. •• ThcHc Bcalcs become fur more visible in an 

' They are urranged in two rows, not well iniiirepiated flower (as represented in (\^. 3<I3, 

marked out, it is true ; and as there are often .'<()!), after the iwrianth-leaves have fallen olV or 

eight leavt'R, the four outer ones are more like withered. 

HepuU, and the inner are better developed * This is much deeper here than in the male, 

and more peUl'id. In Hno, between these * In several sjK-cies of the jjeuus it would pro- 

we find almost the same |)rogre«sive disxiniilarity bably bo bettor to call them cjiryi>p»id», ua we 

as we do between the ll.nal appeiidaKes, re- have said in Adansonia, ix. lUG. 



M0NIMIAGE2E. 



:ji3 



From Afhcrosperma it is impossible to separate the Laurelias' 
(figs. 3G6-370) generically. Tliese possess polygamous or dioecious 



Atherosperma {Lawelia) NovceZelandice. 







Fig. 368. 



Via. 367. 

Longitudinal section of flower. 







Fig. 369, Pig. 370. 

Fruit (|). Fruit dehiscing. 

flowers. In the Lermaphrodite we find a very concave recej3tacle, 
like an elongated, narrow-necked gourd. On tlie rim of this are 



1 Juss., Ann. Mus., xiv. (1809), 134.— PoiR., Prodr., xvi. s. post., 642, 674.— H. Bn., Adan- 

Blot., StippL, iii. 313.— Spreng., S_^st. Veg., ii, sonia, ix. 116, \22.—Pavo)iia R. & Pat., Prorfr 

4:10.— K.Cv^^., Ann. of Nat. Hist., \.Zm.~ 127, t. 28; Fl., i. 253.— Endl., Gen., n' 

C. Gay, fl ChlL, v. 353.— Hook. F., Fl. N.. 2021 (nee CAX.V—Thiaa Mol., ex Ejjdl.." 

ZeiiL, i. 218.— Tui.., Man., 4M.— A. DC, loc. vit. 



314 NATUBAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

borne the perianth and androceum, while the carpels spring from 
the bottom of its concavity. The perianth consists of a variable, 
never large, number of imbricated leaves, inserted in a spiral 
(figs. 366-3G8), and becoming larger and more membranous as they 
are more internal. The stamens are also indefinite in number, 
inserted in a spiral making very close turns, and each consisting 
of an anther Avith two introrse cells, each dehiscing by the rismg up 
of a valve, and of a filament with two lateral stipitate glands at its 
base. A little lower down and more internally, the throat of the 
receptacle bears a variable number of tongue-like appendages, which 
are no doubt sterile stamens. The carpels are numerous, free, each 
consisting of a one-celled ovary tapering towards the apex into a 
slender papillose style. The ovary contains a single erect anatropous 
ovule, whose micropyle looks downwards and outwards. The fruits 
are acheues, and the seed-coats enclose an embryo surrounded by 
oily, fleshy albumen. The style persists on the top of the achene, 
covered with long silky hairs. All the achenes are enclosed in the 
persistent receptacle, whose gourd-like form becomes more and more 
marked. For some time this indusium remains entire ; but later on 
it splits from the apex downwards into a small number of segments, 
which separate to free the proper fruits (figs. SGO, 370). 

Certain flowers are wholly female through all the stamens being 
reduced to antherless tongues; this is frequently tlie case in Z. 
Hcmparvirens. Others, again, are male, since all the carpels remain 
rudimentary or are altogether absent from the base of the receptacle ; 
in this case it loses much of its depth, which is not so great as its 
breadth. 

Of this section of the genus AtheroHpcrma two species are known, 
the one from Chili, A. sempervirem,^ the other from New Zealand, 
as indicated by its specific name, A. Nova Zelandice^ They are tall 
aromatic trees, with thick coriaceous opposite leaves. The flowers 
are collected into racemes, simple, ramified, or made up of axillary 
or terminal cymes." 



• H. Bk., Adanxonla. \x. l\G.—Laurelia tern- ' A. Nova. Ze land itr Hook. F.,Haiidh.o/ the 

perrireii* TlL., Man., JIO.— C. Oav, op. cU., N.-Zel. Fl., 2U).— f^ureli i JVorrr-^r<i/<ii«</i,r 

355. — L. aromatirit Wtui., Diet., Siippl., iii. 313. A. Cl'NN., Anu. of JVm/. JIul., i. 381. — Hook. F., 

— A, nerrata Hkht.. 3lerr. CAiVc/i. (15 Jun. Fl. N.-ZrI., loc. ciL. t- ^i.—Tvi... op. cU., \17. 

1829). — L. errnala I'<KIT., /->»., iii. n. 135, ox — A. DC, luc. cit., n. 2. 

A. DC, op. cit., (i75, n. 1. — J'uvonia temper- * Lmirelia i« uiiiti'xl I))- .1. HoOKEK to .^/A«< 

virrna II. &. I'av., I'rodr., t. 2H; Sy»l., i. 253. roxperma, the only ubooluto distiiiclion for whicli 



M0NIMIAGE2E. 



'Slh 



V. GOMOETEGA SERIES. 

The flowers of Gomorlcga} are regular and polygamous. In the 
hermaphrodite (fig. 371), we find a concave sac-like receptacle, and 
on its edges a perianth and androceum, each made up of eight 
pieces, or perhaps a few more, the number being very variable. The 
perianth-leaves are in two sets ; the outermost are thicker and more 
hairy, while the inner are broader, more membranous, and more like 
petals. All are imbricated in the bud. The stamens are also in two 
whorls. There are usually about four larger external ones, always 

Gomorter/a Keale, 




Fig. 371. 
Longitudinal section of flower (|^). 




Fig. 372. 
Lont^ituclinal section of fruit. 



fertile, and each consisting of a filament bearing a basifixed introrse 
anther, dehiscing by two valves, as in Afhcrospenna. The smaller 
ones, of which there are as many or a few more, are similarly 
organized ; but the anther may be sterile, and its two valves are im- 
perfectly shown on the inner surface, and do not separate from it. 
All the stamens possess two unequal, irregular, shortly-stalked glands, 



the former is made into a distinct section 
being, that its receptiicle is deft longitudinally 
into unequal segments (iigs. 369, 370) nearly as 
in Doryphora. But, in the order Monimiacece, 
this character can have no generic value. The 
time will no doubt come when all the Athero- 
spermece as yet known will be collected into a 
sin<rle genus, whose only essential diiVerences from 
Cali/cdiithnxwiW be the lateral appendages to the 
stamens, the cujiious albumen, and the noncon- 
volnte cotyledons of the embryo. 



' R. & Pav., Prodr. Fl. Per. et Chil. (1794), 
108. — H. Bn., Adansonia, ix. 118. — Adenoste- 
mum Pers., Sj/nops., i. (1805), 467, n. 1058, — 
Nees, Si/st. Later., 651. — Meissn., ap. DC. 
Prodr., XV. s. i. 67, 507. — Adenostemon Speeno., 
Syst., 370, n. 1870.-C. Gat, Fl. Chil, v. 303, 
t. 60 (nee Bertet?.). — Keulia Mol., ex Nees 
loc. cit.—Lucumm spec. Moi... ///*/. Chil. (1782) 
202. — Cryplocaryce spec. Endl., Gen., n. 2036, c. 
(uec K. Br.). 



316 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

springing from the filament at a variable height. The gjna?ceum 
consists of two, or more rarely of three carpels, whose ovarian por- 
tions are buried in the concavity of the receptacle, almost entirely 
united to the thick walls of this sac. The edges of the latter are 
also very thick, and covered with hairs ; they form a projecting 
rim around the contracted orifice that gives passage to the two or 
three styles, closely in contact with each other, and each tapering at 
the apex to a stigraatiferous point. In the internal angle of each 
ovary may be seen a placenta, bearing towards its upper part a 
single descending anatropous ovule, whose micropyle looks upwards 
and inwards. The fruit (fig. 372) is a drupe, surmounted by a 
cicatrix ; its fleshy mesocarp is not very thick ; while the stone, 
made up of the cells of the gyna?ceum as well as of the deep layers of 
the receptacle, is alike very thick and very hard. In each of the 
two or three cells of this stone is a suspended seed, often sterile ; 
but which when fertile is formed as in Tamhourism of thin coats, 
inclosing a copious, oily, fleshy albumen, with a little embryo 
towards the apex whose radicle projects through a circular opening 
in the albumen.' 

As yet only one species of this genus is known, G. Kcaler This 
is a large tree from Chili ; all its parts are very aromatic. It has 
opposite exstipulate leaves, and shortly pedicellate opposite flowers, 
collected at the ends of the branches or in the axils of the upper 
leaves into simple or, more rarely, ramified racemes.' The genus 
Gomortega, hitherto referred to Lauracces, may be defined as Moni- 
hiiacea, in which the ovaries adhere to the receptacular sac to form 
a drupe whose sarcocarp belongs wholly to the receptacle. These 
plants, then, stand to the other members of the order in the same 



• We have incontestibly established the fact Ciyptocatya, whoso fruit is normally one-collcd 

of the j)resence of a very copious albumen in this unci one-seetleil. 

jicnus {Adans'jnia, ix. 12fi). It appears from * H. Hn., Adansonla, ix. 118.— (7. nitida U. 

MeIH!<NKH'« account (I'ludr., lot: cil., 507) that & PaV,, he. oil. — Lui-vma A'eale Moi... /<»<•. cU. — 

I'llli.ii'i'l hod suhpecti-d its existence in the seeds Adenoslemon uilidum I'khs., loc. cil. (ncc 1U:k- 

of (iomorffi/fi, but tlic author of the Prodromus Tkk.). It is the Keule, Qutule, or Jluulhual of 

rejected the fact. " Sic dictum nlhumen procul the Chilians. 

duJiio e cotrilfduniluM 2 arcle sihi inricem ad- ' The pedicel, which is axillary to a caducous 

plicaliji cotmtal." The /Vo(/»omM» is also wrong bract, usually becomes retlexed before the ex- 

in considering' 1'kusoon inexact in describinp the pansion of the flower. Later it is much thickened, 

fruit as provide<l with a stone with two or three and beconies erect and rigid. All its jiarts are 

cells. There are always one or two ab<jrtive sterile covered with brownish down. The Iwives and 

cells, though it may not bo always easy to sim; bracts arc sprinkknl with numerous glandular 

tliem. Hence the genus h;is no relation with dots. 



MONIMIACEJE. ?,\7 

relationship as do the Pomncca to those Jtosacea in which the carpels 
always remain free from the receptacle. 



The order Monimiacece was established in 1S09 by A. L. de 
JussiEU,' who included in it the genus Tamboiirissa of Sonnerat, 
which he called Amhora, and the genera Monimia, Siparuna, Bolden, 
MolUmdia, Afherosperma, and Laurelia. The two last genera were 
distinguished as possessing dry pericarps, while the rest have dru- 
paceous fruits. Tambourissa dates as a well-defined genus from 
1782 ; but Flacourt had described it imperfectly as early as 1661." 
A. L. DE JussiEU had in his Genera Planfamm^ placed it among 
TJrticecB with the genus Iledi/cari/a,^ observed in 1776 by J. & G. 
FoRSTER. Siparuna included American plants named by Aubi.et 
in 1774, and studied under the name Citrosma, by Euiz & Pavon in 
1794. These authors made known at the same epoch the genera Mol- 
linedia, Favonia {Laurelia), and Boldea {JRuizia), which is the Peumus 
of Molina (1782). In 1806 Labillardii^re discovered Aiherosperma 
in Australia, now-a-days considered a congener of Laurelia. In the 
same year Du Petit-Thouars had observed Mouimia in the Southern 
Islands of Eastern Africa, and had thoroughly described this genus, 
which gives its name to the order. 

Despite R. Brown's' attempt to divide the Monimiacece into two 
perfectly distinct groups, of which the one with its Heshy fruits would 
retain its relations with the Urticacea, while the other, completely 
differentiated by its dry fruits and valvular anthers, would come near 
Lauracecs, most recent authors, especially Endlicher, A. Richard, 
and L. R. Tulasne have maintained in its integrity the natural 
group established by A. L. de Jussieu. To this Endlicher, in 
1836, added the genera Boryphora and Kibara, the latter of which 
we include in MoUinedia. The other types that in our eyes should 
also form part of this genus are of more recent creation. MaWuea 
was proposed by Blume, in 1856 ; Wilkiea by Mueller, and Epliip- 
piandra by Decaisne in 1858. The last author also ascribes the 



• Memoire sur les Monimiees, Ann. du JIus., * Loc. cit., n. 1708. 

xiv. 116, ^ Gen. Hem. Geogr. and Syst. on the Bot. of 

- Hisloire de la Grande He de Blada/fascar, Terra Austral is (18M), 21; Alisc. Workx, i-il. 

133, II. 69. Benn., i. 25. 

2 401, n. 1706. 



318 NATURAL niSTOBY OF PLANTS. 

genus JEgoioxicon of Ruiz k Pavon' to the MommiacoiB, but liis 
opinion has not yet been adopted by tlie authors who have recently 
traced out the limits of this order." 

In 18C4 F. Mueller established the genus PaJmeria for an 
Australian Monimiad, very close indeed to Monimia. The genus 
Ilortonia was created by Wight, in 1838 ;' but, originally placed near 
the Schizamlrea and Anonacea*," it was only eventually included in 
Moninnacea!' It was also quite recently" that we restored to it the 
genera Calycanlhus of Linnaeus, and Chiiiionanthus of Lindley (1819); 
whose kinship to Monimiacece and At/iero.yjernicee, recognised for a 
short period,' was even lately contested, and finally rejected." At 
the same time we proposed' that the genus Gomortegn of Molina 
(1782), hitherto referred to Lauracea, should be considered as the 
type of a new tribe of the order under consideration. 

AVe divide the order Monimiacca thus constituted into five 
secondary groups or series : 1, Cali/cantheoi ; 2, llorionwcp ; 3, Tam- 
dourissea ; 4, Jf/ierospermea ; 5, GGuiortefjoce. By recalling the 
principal features of each of these, and pointing out their differences, 
we shall show what characters of impoi-tance are variable in this 
natural group. 

I. In all MonimiacccB of the last four sections, the embryo is small, 
and surrounded with copious albumen, and the floral receptacle bears 
few appendages, or none, below its superior orifice. In the Caly- 
CANTHE/E, on the contrary, these appendages are numerous, and 
evidently arranged in a spiral. The embryo nearly fills tlie whole 
cavity of the seed, and its broad cotyledons are rolled on each t)thcr, 
while the alljumen is absent, or only represented by a little central 
spit of cellular tissue. 

II. The HoiiTOXiE.£ have drupaceous I'ruits, free alike from each 
other and from the receptacle above which they spread freely, through 
the enlargement of its apex, through its tearing irregularly to free 
them, or through the upper part coming oil' like a lid in one circular 
piece, below the insertion (jf the perianth and androceum. 



> Ann. He. Nat., sc'r. 4, \x. 279 ; Bull. Sor. " Adanaonia, ix. (1808), 112. 

Bol. de Fr., v. 214, 1 Si-e Jibs., loc. ri(. — LiNUU, i»/>. nV., n. 

* See A. DC, J'rodr., xvi. ». {XMtt., G tl. — A. (Jkav, (Uh. III., i. 60. 
« AUN., Mar/, of Zool. and Hut., ii. 6lG. « \\. \\., Urn., 16. 

* KnI)I,„ lien., Suppl. ii. 1(17. J Op. c,l., 113, 118, 120. 

* Hook. F. ATiioMf*., /7. Ind., i. (IH.':.), ItJd. 



MONIMIACE^. 319 

III. The fruits are also drupaceous in the Tambourisse;e ; but the 
common receptacle instead of freeing them, becomes hypertrophied, 
and rises around them and in their intervals so as to enframe each 
in a sort of complete chamber, surrounding the whole in a common 
mass partitioned off' into as many compartments as there are drupes. 

IV. In the Atherosperme/e, on the contrary, the carpels finally 
become free, as in the IIortoniecB, but the pericarp is dry, and each fruit 
is an achene or caryopsis, covered with numerous accrescent hairs to 
promote dissemination. 

V. Finally, the Gomortege^ have their carpels in contact, and 
forming a thick stone with several cells, which is closely united 
with the receptacle, and finally becomes with it a single drupe, 
crowned with the scar of the perianth. 

The characters that we have not employed to distinguish these 
five series may be ranged in three categories. 

1. Some are constant, and hence cannot serve to subdivide this 
group, but only to separate it from certain other orders more or less 
closely allied. These are as follows : The concavity of the floral 
receptacle, and its direct consequence in the perigyny of the perianth 
and androceum ; the imbrication of the pieces of the perianth and an- 
droceum ; the primitive existence of two cells in the anthers ; the com- 
plete or nearly complete anatropy of the ovules ; the direction of the 
micropyle, which is always introrse when the ovule is descending, or 
what amounts to the same thing, extrorse when it is ascending; 
the absence of stipules ; and finally, the consistency of the stem, all 
known MonmiacecB being trees or shrubs, never herbaceous plants. 

2. Other characters are nearly constant ; we only find very rare 
exceptions, usually occurring in tribes or genera, all the other 
features of which are found in those species in which one of these 
nearly absolute characters is wanting. Such exceptions are — the 
alternation of the leaves, found in a single Tambourissa} and two 
other species of the order which are still doubtful or little known ;"- 



' See p. 305, note 2. ceptacle bearing on its edges a variable number 

- The one has been noticed by Asa Gbay as (6-15) of unequal imbricate leaves, and in its 

probably belonging to ^//ie/-o.v^;er»ieff (JoH>-n. q/" concavity an equally variable number (8-12) of 

Bot., iv. 83). The other is a plant from New- stamens, like those of Hedycarya, each consisting 

Caledonia, whose male flowers alone are known of a sessile erect introrse anther, dehiscing by two 

as yet, and which we provisionally name Am- longitudinal clefts. These flowers are solitary 

borella fricJiopoda. Each flower is borne on a or fascicled on the wood of the branches or in 

long pedicel, and may be described as a very the axils of the leaves, which are irregularly 

small flower of Hedycarya, with a concave re- elliptical or oval, and coarsely crenulate. 



320 STATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

the presence of an abortive ovule beside the sterile one; a clia- 
racter almost constant, it is true, in Ca/^ca/if/ius, but not invariably 
found in Ilortonia, and never observed in any of the other genera of 
Ilorfoiiictp. 

3. Last of all come tliose characters which very frequently vary, 
their absence and presence being about equally frequent; so that 
none are sufficient to do more than distinguish different genera, or 
dift'erent sections of a single genus. These are — the presence of 
glandular dots, and the resulting aroma ; the conformation of the 
hairs covering certain organs, especially the leaves ;' the dehiscence 
of the anthers in straight or curved lines, or by valves ; their aspect ; 
the presence or absence of glands at tlie base of the fihiments ; the 
wa}' the Horal receptacle opens to free the pollen in the male ilowers 
or the carpels in the fruit, whether by longitudinal clefts, by a trans- 
verse circular solution of continuity, or by the simple dilatation 
of its superior orifice ; the consistency of the different parts of 
the fruit — the indusium and the true pericarps ;" and finally, the 
absolute direction of the ovules and seeds, whether ascending or 
descending/ 

From a histological point of view, the vegetative organs in this 
order are always very uniform/ The stems and branches are cylin- 
drical or slightly quadrangular. In the aromatic species the bark is 
always the part that is richest in odoriferous matter, and is very 
often the only portion that contains any. Usually, as in Pcumiis, 
llorlu/tia, certain species of MoHuu'dln, and the At/tcruspermco', the 



' See p. 300, note 2. iind p. 322. with pendulous ovules, while the jtlunts of his 

- Following A. L. De JussiEU, TULASNE has Atherospermeee and Sipaninecr v,o\\\A have eret-t 

based two of his tribes on this character; Athe- ovules. But this last tribe is evidently hetero- 

roxptniiPfT {Aihtniophorea) with dry fruits, geneous, inchidiiig Siparuna, whose ovule is 

and Monimiacea- (JJrujjeicea) with the perlear|)3 ascending, and P(ilmrri<i,\n which it is doscend- 

jjartly flesliy. We hiivci-hown(ylf/rt/i*OH/rt, ix. 125) ing. We have wiid (.ttlansoiiin, ix. I'M) that 

that theru are numerous transitions between the Palmciia is hardly generic-ally dislinet fnnn 

drupes and the atliciu-s ; that the Calyranlhcm Munimia. I>K Maoi't & Df.CAIsnk ( r/viiVr «r'«. 

originally jHW-sess drupes with tliin pericarjjs, de Hut., 517) have asserted that the absolute 

that the fruits of Siparuna are, so to speak, half- direction of the ovule brings about a pc<-uliar in- 

drupes, and that certain AlheroxperMiecr Imvo sertion for the style. "Ovule ... sometimes 

rather caryojisids than aclieiu's. IJesides Tilasnk pendulous, and then style terniinal ; souutiujes 

has eleiirly |)ercciv(d (.I/oH., 425) tliat Uoilouia erect, and then style lateral or biuMlar." The 

affordsa transition between the true il/«(i/w/«c(fP facts arc contniry to tliis hiw ; out of three 

and the Athcronpernufp in the characters of its genera, with erect ovules, two have the style not 

fruits. lateral, hut tlumnigldy terminal, vi/., Siparuna 

'•' A. I)K Cam>()1.I.k ("//. rif., (MI) has ni.ed and Atherusperma (including Laurrlin). 
this character to distinguiMi the live tribes he * Tl'L., Mon., 282, iv.— ()l,JV., (htf Shurl. of 

admits in this order. His TnmUouri»teir, Muni- the Stem in Dicot., 30. 
mituv :iiid llftlifrari/irt- uould oidy inch.dc gcucni 



MONIMIACE^. 321 

aroma is due to an oleo-ethereal substance contained in the cortical 
parenchyma. Its colour, varying from yellow to reddish-brown, 
indicates its presence in certain cells, which are sometimes as 
thin-walled as the surrounding cells, sometimes thickened like the 
sclerous cells of the JFinterece, and riddled with large perforations. 
The wood of the Monimiacea is generally soft,' and is always 
remarkable for the number, size, and distinctness of the equidistant 
medullary rays. These all consist of nearly equal cells, which have 
always appeared to us full of starch and finely punctate. The woody 
bundles present no very peculiar character. Like some of the 
vessels, the fibres are pitted, and the perforations are either circular, 
elliptical, or even nearly linear and transverse {Peumus). Very 
often, too, their openings are surrounded by an areola of the same 
form as themselves, but this is narrow, and not nearly so well 
defined as in most Mapioliacece. These pores are, then, inter- 
mediate between the areolate pores observed in certain orders and 
the common perforations of fibres or vessels. They are found in 
great numbers in certain vessels of Peumus and Hortonia, covering 
the whole of the walls so that we can find no trace of arrangement 
into distinct vertical rows. In the same plant we may find some 
pores rounded or oval, others like more or less elongated slits. 
This fact was observed by Tulasne, who has seen the walls of 
certain vessels partly destroyed and cut up into scalariform or can- 
cellate plates. According to the same observer, the woody fibres are 
narrow and elongated, and the medullary sheath, as usual, contains 
spiral vessels. But these have often appeared to us very scanty. 
The axes of the CaJi/canthea alone present one very remarkable 
peculiarity observed for the first time by B. de Mirbel,- in 1828, 



^ We should except certain woods employed tenius {Ein. Beoh. iib. d. Bau der Bignon., 

in building, especially tbe AtherospermecB (see p. Linncea (1847), 580) has seen them appear in 

327). the young branches, as four isolated liber 

- Note surV Organisation de la Tige d'tin Irh- bundles in the cortical cellular tissue. On the 

vieux Calycanthus floridus du Potager royal de side towards the axis of the branch arise spiral 

Versailles, Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 1, xiv. 367, t. vessels, within which are developed woody fibres 

xiii. " The four bundles each present a proper and dotted vessels. At the age of five years the 

cortical envelope, woody layers, one above an- liber bundles are still unaltered, while the wood 

other, large vessels forming zones in the wood, has doubled in thickness. — See also TKEViKiNTS, 

rays prolonged from the centre to the circum- Fhys. d. G^ewrtc/w. (1835), i. t. i. 10. — Henfret, 

ference, and a medullary canal." This fact Ann. of Nat. Hist., ser. 2, i. 125. — Lindl., 

has been reproduced, re-observed, or commented Introd. to Bat., i. 209; Teg. Kingd., 541. — 

on by very many authors. Link (Fkor., iVVwe Kk^tm, But. Zeit. (1859), 109.— Oliver, op. 

Notiz., xxxiv. ; Flora (1845), 558), has studied cit., 13. 
the composition of these cortical bundles. Met- 

VOL. I. Y 



322 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

consistin:^ in the presence of four cortical fibro-vascular bundles, 
correspon(Iin<T; with the angles of the stem. These accessory bundles 
are related to the decussate leaves which spring from the branches.' 
The epidermic layer is also the seat of a certain number of inte- 
resting modifications. Both on the axes and on the appendages, 
it often bears ridges, wrinkles, hairs, or scales. Very few of the 
Monimiacca are completely glabrous. Even Ilcihjcarya arborca, in 
which the surface appears very smooth, has some simple hairs on 
the young branches and the veins of the leaves. In the Cali/canfhea 
these hairs are quite characteristic. Their bases consist of 
rough prominent epidermic cells.- The hairs themselves, conical 
and bent like a bird's claw, lie on the surface of the leaf with their 
points towards its apex ; so that the leaf only feels rough when the 
finger is passed towards the base. On the leaves of Peumus Boldus are 
similar hairs, but they are thinner and less rigid ; some are simple, 
while others are stipitate, afibrding a transition towards the stellate 
hairs of Monimia^ Palnwria, and certain species of Slparnna. In these 
three genera the hairs may consist of a large number of equal 
diverging branches ; or its upper part may simulate a simple hair, 
through the enormous development of the terminal branch, wliile the 
lateral branches are very short in proportion, only forming a slight 
swelUng near its base. Several species of Sipan/na possess only 
sessile stellate hairs ; in others, again, the part of the leaf bearing 
the hair forms a conical elevation, so that the hair radiates from the 
apex of a more or less rigid prickle. Finally, several Sipnrtnia-s, 
especially S. Conuleum, are covered with peltate, radiated, scaly hairs, 
altogether like those of the Elaaynacra. 

Affinities. — I'he Monimiacca were formerly put near the Urti- 
cacecB, especially the ArtocarpecB, by those botanists only who con- 
founded the floral receptacle of Sipartaia, Tdnihoitrissa, and otlior 
allied genera, with the similarly formed receptacle bearing the 



' TuKVlu., Ueh. ein. Arten anomal. JloUbild. " On the superior snifnco of the li'af(80c p. 286. 

tti Dicofifl., Iiul.Zrit.{\H\7),-S7i).—OAVVicn., note 4) tliew? Imirs nro far more dcvulopiHl in 

in (irii.i,KM. Aic/i. JM., ii. 4'.):}. Tliin relation i8 CAimonant/ius tliun in (alycanihut. 

:i1m) (1. inonhtruted l)^' the fiitt tlmt in thowe nh- » Tdlasne (i/on.. 27&) lulniitu the existencu 

norniul Crunchen whire the loavuM het(.n)e ulter- of thwo atony foncrctit)n», t-alled by Wkkuki.I. 

niite, and are arranged in a hjural, wI.oho an^Milar c.VKtoliths, in the leave* of Monimia onU 

divergence is J, there are five of Hu'hv uwemMiry i't-umus. 
biindk'h in the bark. (Soe Ailaimonui, ix. llKjj 



MONIMIAGEJE. 323 

whole inflorescence in tlie Fig. Thus these authors wrongly con- 
sidered the stamens or carpels, which we have described as parts 
of a single flower, as so many male or female flowers ; and in this 
respect it has been with Monimiacea as with Euphorbia} If, on the 
contrary, we look on the different carpels collected on one and the 
same receptacle as the elements of a single gynjeceum, the Moni- 
miacece become comparable to the PolycarpiccE ; and it is among these 
last that we must look for their analogues, especially among those in 
which the stamens are perigynous on a concave floral receptacle, which 
forms a common envelope or indusium to a multiple fruit. This is 
especially the case with the Mosece ;"' which however in the verticillate 
arrangement of their stamens differ sensibly from the Monimiacem ; 
while the stamens are frequently inserted in a spiral in the Poll/- 
earpiece with a convex receptacle, such as MagnoliacecB, Anonaeea, &c. 
Hence it is, no doubt, that several contemporary writers^ have placed 
Monimiaeefs near these natural groups ; while the existence of valvate 
stamens in both Monimiacece and Lauraeece has indicated a relation- 
ship between the two groups, the reality of which we shall soon try 
to demonstrate. 

According to what we have just said concerning the spiral arrange- 
ment of the stamens of the most highly organized MonimiacecB, if 
there were among the Polycarpicce a genus with a concave receptacle 
and non-verticillate perigynous stamens, it would serve as a transi- 
tion between the Monimiacea on the one hand, and the 3[af/noliacea 
and Anonacece on the other. We find two types that do this : the 
Eupomatiece' and the Cahjcantliea. Eupomatia, a true Anonad in its 
ruminated albumen and in its vegetative organs, has the concave 
receptacle of the Monimiacece, and the fruit organized like that of the 
Siparmica and Tam.bourissece, the true carpels being imbedded in a 
common indusium formed by the persistent and thickened floral 
receptacle ; and though Eupomatia has not the opposite leaves of the 
Monimiacece, a character formerly held of capital importance, yet 
it is now known that there are some Tamhourissas with alternate 
leaves," and in this respect altogether like the two known species of 



> See Adansonia, ix. 116. '' Hook. F. & Thoms., FL Ind., i. 163.— 

2 Ad. Be., Emim., ed. 2, 43.— A. Juss., Diet. B. H., Gen. 15. 

cVOrbigny, xii. 419, 422.— Endl., £hcA(>., 658. ■* See pp. 242, 261.— H. Bn., Adansonia, ix. 

— LiNDL., reg. Kingd., 299, 300, 510.— TuL., 25. 

Mon., 285, 287. ' See p. 305, note 2, and p. 319. 

Y 2 



324 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

Eupomatia. Nobody now ignores the close relation between }rn(^no- 
UacecE and Cali/cnnthea, so tliat we may call the latter Miu/noViacoa 
with a concave receptacle and perigynous stamens ; and if we sup- 
posed the organic apex of the receptacular pouch of a Calycanlhui 
drawn up till it was above the level of the insertion of the stamens, 
we should have nearly the flower of one of the MaynoUea or 
llliciea, according as the receptacle projected much or little above 
the stamens. However, most contemporary authors have after all 
rejected the apposition of the two types, thinking that they saw a 
difference in the morphological signification of the floral sac of the 
Cali/caiithi'cB and of the Muniiniaccce, considering that of the former as 
an axis, that of the latter as the basilar part of a calyx, i.e., of the 
union of several appendicular organs. Now, we have shown' that 
this sac is of axial nature in the Monimiacea as well as in the Ca/t/- 
ca/ifhea, for in both groups it bears the same appendicular organs, 
and there are several genera of Monimiacea in which it normally gives 
insertion to bracts identical with those remarked in greater numbers 
on its outer surface in the flowers of the Cali/canthea. The only real 
difference between the two groups lies in the internal structure of 
the seed ; and there are many natural orders where the same dif- 
ference is presented, without its enabling us to found any larger 
divisions than tribes, and even these are not always well 
defined. 

We now return to the Lcmracca through Gomortega {Adenostemon), 
whose vegetative organs are those of a Monimiad, but whose flower 
and fruit, until ver}' recently insufhciently studied, have misled 
botanists as to its true allinities." With the seed and androceum of 
many Monimiricece, Gomortega has a pluricarpellary gynajceum not 
found in the true Lauracece. But the diflferent carpels cohere within 
the receptacular sac into a single fruit with a plurilocular stone. In 
tlie dialycari)ous Roxaceoi we find the same thing in the secondary 
group oltlie Pgrec/', but yet no one dreams of sei)arating them from 
the rest of the order. Not tliat we would imply that there are not 
very close affinities l)etween Gomortega and the Laurarete. On the 
contrary, tliey are demonstrated by what we have just established ; 
and, as we have; said elsewhere,' "In as natural a classification as our 



Ailii,>'-un,n, ix. I i:.. - >,v |,. air,, Mild [i. :iHi, not.' l. •• Adansoni,!. \x. 120 



M0NIMIAGE2E. 325 

present information would allow, after Monimiacecc, we should have 
to describe LauracecB as types with a less marked, but still incon- 
testible, perigynous insertion, and a unicarpellary gyna3ceum, cor- 
responding with the Primecs among Rosacea. When a Laurad with 
opposite aromatic leaves, valvicidal stamens, and a receptacular sac 
surrounding the fruit completely, is observed at the season of the 
maturity of the seed, the only difference that would appear between 
it and a Monimiad in which only one carpel should become fertile is 
in the structure of this seed ; it has no albumen. And even this 
character is not absolute, if, with several authors, we include the 
group Adenostemem in the order Lauracea. The natural series which 
may some day be drawn up, when further study shall have over- 
thrown the barriers raised by habit between Folypetalm and Jpetala, 
w^ill be one whose highest type is found in Cali/canthus and the her- 
maphrodite Atherospermca, and will pass through the other Moni- 
miacece to finish in the most lowly- organized Lauracea with unisexual 
flowers." 

The Monimiacece are distributed over a not very wide zone' from 
N. to S., extending about 50° on each side of the equator; but the 
true Monimiacea stop short towards about 25° N.; the zone from 
30° to 50° being occupied by the Calycanthece only, Calycantlius in 
America, Cldmonanthus in Asia. Out of thirteen known genera, eight 
as yet belong exclusively to the northern hemisphere, and three to the 
southern. The two others, MoUinedia and Siparuua, are common to 
both ; but they have not been found at a greater distance than about 
20° from the equator. In species the Kew World is far richer than 
the Old, for out of one hundred and forty- two known distinct species 
of Monimiacece, one hundred belong to America, especially to Chili, 
Peru, Columbia, Gruiana, and Brazil. North America and the West 
Indies possess but half a score species. The two genera MoUinedia 
and Aihcrosperma, as limited by us, we have already stated to occur 
in both Worlds. The New World alone produces the four genera 
Siparuua, Peumus, Gvmortega, and Calycanthis ; while the seven genera 
Tamboiirissa, Monimia, Palmeria, Hortonia, Hedycarya, Boryphora, 
and Cliimonanthus are as yet confined to the Old. None is 



TUL., Jklon., 290, vi.— Enul., 6V«., 313; Encltir.y 1%.— LiNUL., Vefj. Khigd., 2i)\), 3CK). 



32G NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

European, and two of the Asiatic genera have a very limited range, 
Chiiiionanfhus being only found native in Japan, and llortonia only 
in Ceylon. Oceania, including Australia and the Sunda islands, 
possesses six genera, three of which are proper to it, viz., J[rch/cart/a, 
Palmeria, and Doryp/iora. Al/ieroi^pcrma, Tambourissa, and Mullincdia 
are common to it and other parts of the globe. However, only one 
Tambourhm is known in Java ; all the rest belong to the Mascarene 
Islands and the Madagascar Archipelago, the habitat of Mofiimia 
also. America, too, possesses genera with very restricted ranges, 
especially PfumuH and Gomortct/a, which only occur in Chili. Caly- 
ca/ithua is exclusively North American. Probably most of the }f(jin- 
viiaccce that still remain to be discovered will be found in Polynesia ; 
already three or four species have been found in New Caledonia.' 

The uses of the Monuinacca'- are not very numerous. Several 
species are remarkable for their aromatic odour, and are in this 
respect quite analogous to the Lauracea, to which they come so 
near in organization. This perfume, due to a volatile essential oil, 
is found especially in the leaves and bark of the AthcrospenueaJ- 
AilwroHperma Moschala LABiLii. is used as tea by certain Australian 
colonists." Its bark, fresh or dried, is used to prepare a pleasant- 
tasted, slightly aperient stimulating decoction, drunk with milk. 
Donjphora Sa-s.safras Endl. is also very odoriferous ; its wood is said 
to bmell of fennel, and has been used as a carminative in Australia. 
A. {Laurelia) seiupcrvirem is aromatic and stimulant. Its bark is 
commonly employed in Chili for cooking, and its Iruit smells some- 
thing like the nutmeg, and is used instead of it.^ The Boldu 
{PcuiiiKS Jioldus MoL.) is the species best known in America as 
an aromatic plant.' The perfume of the leaves recalls certain Ln- 
biat(By Mi/rtacea, and Lauraccce. From them is prepared an in- 
fusion which helps digestion, and is prescribed as a tonic, carmina- 
tive, and diaphoretic, while their decoction in wine cures headache 



' 8co Adanionla, ix. 128. 132. Scvorul fossil Mon., 21)1.— Hook. F., Fl. K.ZtaL, i. 218.— 

Mommiavrii- liuve \\\m been ilcHciibed (»eo II. llN., D'tvt. Em-tfcl. dra Sc. Medu\, vii. 71). 

Unoku. ill Skkm. J«iir«. <,//yo/. (lKt;5), <;4. •• H. Hn., Divt. Kmyrl. dts Ac. i/.'./.. w'r. 

- K.NDL.. JCmhir., I'JC), Or.?.— LiM.i... V,g. 2, i. 25. 

Kinjd.. 2'J'J, 3(K), &«!.— Ti'i,., Mun., 2'JO.— * Fkiiix., llial. PI. Med. Perttr. et Ckil., 

ItoBEMil., .*»>». /'I. diiijjfwr., 227, 232, 951, 11.— K. & Pa v., Si^st. Vrg. Fl. Per. rt Chil.,\. 

1111. 254, 208, 2Gy.— Ukutkuo, Merc. Chil. (1820), 

» Uack)i., IX Ijm>i.., op. cit., 3(K).— Tii., (i85. 



MONIMIAGE^. 327 

and stomach aclie. They are preferred by the Chilians to Ijay-leaves 
for seasoning dishes ; they are also powdered and used as snuff. 
The fruit is edible, and the perfumed mesocarp is highly prized by 
the natives. They also eat the fruit of the Km/e {Adenosfemum 
nitidum Pers.). Several species of Sijjaruna are also aromatic, but 
are little used. S. giiianensis, under the name of Vulneraire [Ful- 
nerary\ is used to prepare an infusion sometimes prescribed at 
Cayenne.' 8. brasiliensis and aUernlfolia from Brazil,- S. dcntafa 
and piricarpa from Peru, and 8. petiolaris from New Granada, are 
cited as aromatic species. The name S. Thea? indicates the pro- 
perties of a species found in tlie Brazilian province of St. Catherine. 

The flowers of the Ca/i/canthecB have well marked perfumes, which 
in most species of Culycantlms recall those of certain fruits, such as 
the apple, pineapple, melon, &c. The bark is also very aromatic. 
That of C. floridus L. {Carolina Allspice), is substituted for cinnamon 
in medicine as a tonic, stimulant, aperient, and stomachic. The bark 
of the root smells of camphor. This aroma we do not find in the 
flowers and leaves of CJdmonantJius pracox* where it is replaced by a 
quite peculiar j^ungent acrid taste. The sweet scent of its expanded 
flowers in winter is well known. 

The wood of several Moniuiiacece is also perfumed, and is therefore 
prized for building dwelling-houses ; especially in Chili do they use 
the brownish wood of the Boldu, and the yellow or greenish-white 
wood of Atherospcrma sempervirens. A. Novce-Zelandia and moschata 
serve the same purposes in their native countries. The trunk of the 
latter attains an enormous size. It is a fine tree, upwards of 
160 feet in height and 6 feet in diameter, branching Hke a Pine, and 
of splendid appearance. Its wood is employed in ship-building. 
That of the inodorous Monimiacea is only used by the cabinet-maker 
and for framing. Tambourissa qicadrifida is the Bois Tamhour or 
Tarnhoul of the Mascarene Islands. T. vestifa is the Bois Gilet of 
Bourbon. T. relicjiosa is used in Madagascar for making cofiins, 
w^hich are said to preserve the body from putrefaction. It appears 
that several species of this genus produce an odoriferous gum, or 
gum resin. The fruits of T. quadrifda and others bear the vulgar 



' AuBL., Gidan., ii. 865, t. 333. * K^mpfee, Jmaen. Exof., 878, t. 879. The 

^ Makt., Fl. BrasiL, Monimiac, 325. Japanese call this tree Obai or Robai. 

3 Seem., Joum. ./ Bot., ii. (1864), 343. 



328 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

names of JPomme Jacot, Pot-de-chamhre Jacot, and Fomwe de singe. 
The fleshy red mesocarp of their drupes is eaten by birds, and its 
juice might serve as a dye, like arnotto.' In Europe, we often 
receive from Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands rods of 
so-called iuuchivood (Fr., boia a allumcr) from which we can in fact 
obtain fire by rubbing them briskly together. The wood, of very 
little solidity, traversed by very regular medullary rays, and the 
large spongy pith, would seem to indicate that, despite the doubts 
that have been expressed, this touchwood is really that of a Tam- 
buurimsa. 



Flac, Ilist. de la Oiatule lie de Madagascar, 133. 



M0NIMIACE2E. 329 



GENERA. 



I. CALYCANTHE^. 

1. Calycanthus L. — Flowers hermaphrodite regular; receptacle 
thick urceolate ; perianth-leaves oo, inserted in a spiral on outer 
face and throat of receptacle ; outer leaves lowest, short bract-like 
distant; superior sepaloid; inner leaves finally larger coloured 
petaloid; aestivation imbricate. Stamens cc, inserted in a spiral 
within the throat; outermost (10-15) fertile; filaments free; 
anthers basifixed apiculate 2 -celled extrorse dehiscing longitudi- 
nally; inner sterile short. Carpels oo, free inserted within 
receptacular cavity ; ovary 1 -celled, tapering into a slender style 
stigmatiferous at apex ; ovules 2, inserted at base of ventral angle, 
finally superposed ascending; micropyle extrorse inferior; raphe 
ventral ; one ovule finally abortive. Achenes (often subdrupaceous) 

oo, included in herbaceous-subcarnose receptacle marked externally 
and at apex with scars of fallen bracts ; throat surrounded by 
thickened filaments of stamens ; apex finally open. Seeds solitary 
erect, each surrounded by its pericarp ; embryo straight, cotyledons 
broad leafy convolute ; albumen 0, or scanty central. — Aromatic 
shrubs ; leaves opposite exstipulate ; flower either axillary and solitary 
or in small cymes, or terminal {Norf/i America). See p. 281. 

2. Chimonanthus Lindl. — Flowers of Calijcanihus ; receptacle 
less concave ; perianth-leaves oo ; innermost smaller, intermediate 
larger, dissimilar in colour ; outermost very short scarious or dry 
bract-like, imbricated in a spiral. Stamens fertile few (usually 5, 6) ; 
sterile internal, after anthesis growing thick, closing the throat 
of the receptacle. Gyna^ceum, fruit and seeds of Calijcantlim. — A 
shi'ub ; leaves caducous ; flowers axillary appearing before the leaves. 
Peduncles short covered with oo decussate bracts similar to outer 
perianth-leaves {Japan). See p. 285. 

II. HORTONIE^. 

3. Hortonia Wight. — Flowers polygamous (of Cldmonanthus) ; 
receptacle more or less deeply urceolate ; perianth-leaves oc, inserted 



330 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

in a spiral on its mouth, imbricated; outer shorter sepaloid, 
inner larger petaloid accrescent. Stamens co, all abortive, or a lew 
(4-10) exterior fertile ; filaments short inserted on receptacle within 
perianth, with 2 lateral stipitate glands at base; anthers 2-celled 
extrorse dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels co, free inserted in 
bottom of receptacle, sterile or fertile ; ovary 1 -celled tapering into 
a linear style, stigmatiferous at apex ; ovule 1, descending; micropyle 
superior introrse ; raphe ventral : more rarely 2 ; the one minute 
abortive. Fruits cc, drupaceous free surrounded at base by irregu- 
larly torn dry remains of receptacle and perianth ; putamcn hard 
1 -seeded. Seed pendulous; albumen copious iieshy oily; embryo 
minute inverted oblique ; cotyledons slightly diverging ; radicle 
superior. — Aromatic shrubs ; leaves alternate exstipulate, with pel- 
lucid dots; flowers axillary cymose {Cei/Ion). See p. 287. 

4. Peumus Mol. — Flowers dia3cious (of llortonid) ; receptacle 
subcampanulate ; perianth-leaves co, imbricated ; outer few (4-G) 
sepaloid ; inner (5-8) petaloid elongated spreading. Stamens oo, in 
male flower fertile ; filaments free inserted inside concave receptacle, 
with 2 lateral flattish glands ; anthers 2-celled introrse, dehiscing 
longitudinally. Carpels in male flower 0, or minute abortive; in female 
flower few (2-5), fertile inserted at bottom of receptacle, surrounded 
by CD perigynous staminodes ; ovary 1-ovulate; ovule pendulous; 
micropyle superior introrse. Drupes 1-5, surrounded by persistent 
cupuliform internally setigerous base of receptacle ; perianth deci- 
duous after anthesis, circumcissile ; mesocarp slightly fleshy ; endo- 
carp thick very hard. Seed of Ilortu/iia ; embryo inverted cotyledons 
widely diverging. — Small aromatic trees ; leaves opposite warty 
pilose; flowers in terminal or axillary racemose cymes {Chili). Sec 
p. 290. 

5. Hedycarya FoiisT. — Flowers dia-cious ; receptacle broad cupu- 
liform or patelliform ; perianth leaves oo, more or less connate at 
base, either bract-like iml)ricated, or inconspicuous confounded in a 
shurt subentire or sinuate cupule. Stamens cr. (in female flower 0) ; 
filaments very short or almost wanting erect ; anthers 2-celled, 
dehiscing by introrse or lateral clefts; connective hardly projecting 
or apiculatc above cells, or dilated and obliciuely or transversely trun- 
cated at apex : more rari'ly subpctaloid. Carpels in male llowcr 0. 



MONIMIACEJE. 331 

in female co, free sessile crowded on the torus; style of variable 
form; ovule 1 {oi Peimii,s). Drupes oo, free inserted on a s]i<rhtly 
concave or convex receptacle, often stipitate. Seed pendulous (of 
JloHouia). — Small trees or shrubs evergreen ; leaves opposite ; flowers 
axillary cymose or racemose [Australia, Oceania). See p. 292. 

6. Mollinedia E. «& Pav. — Flowers monoecious ordioicious ; recep- 
tacle of variable form, more or less concave ; perigonium sacciform, 
externally naked or with a few bracts ; apex more or less deeply 
lobed ; lobes usually 4, 5, more rarely 0, imbricated, finally spread- 
ing ; perigonium more rarely deeply 4-fid, split down the sinuses. 
Scales 0, or more rarely few (staminodes ?) in throat of receptacle. 
Stamens 4-40, inserted in oo vertical rows inside receptacle from 
mouth to base, all fertile, or 1, 2 external scale-like ; filaments very 
short or almost wanting, erect ; anthers selliform ; cells 2, linear 
lateral dehiscing longitudinally; lines of dehiscence finally con- 
fluent. Perigonium of female flower circumcissile, coming off close 
to base of sac. Carpels oo, free, included, inserted on persistent 
finally cupuliform base of receptacle ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovule 1 (of 
Hedycarya) : style of variable form stigmatiferous towards apex 
caducous. Pruit of Hedycarya. — Trees or shrubs ; leaves opposite or 
more rarely verticillate ; flowers usually cymose ; cymes terminal or 
axillary, 2-pluriparous or more rarely 1 -parous, often few-flowered, 
very rarely 2-1 -flowered [Trojnccd and subtropical America, Australia, 
Indian Archipelago, Madagascar). See p. 293. 

7. Monimia Dup.-Th. — Flowers dioecious; receptacle of male 
sacciform ovoid, bearing on its contracted throat a very small 
4-6-merous, finally 4-6-partite perianth. Stamens co, inserted within 
the sac ; filaments free inflexed, finally erect, with 2 lateral stipitate 
glands at base ; anthers basifixed dehiscing b}' 2 lateral introrse 
or extrorse clefts. Perigonium of female flower not cleft, finally 
becoming thick and fleshy around the fruit. Ovaries few (4-G), or 

CO, free sessile in pilose bottom of receptacle ; ovule 1 {oi Mollinedia) ; 
style slender terminal, apex stigmatose exserted from narrow mouth 
of receptacle. Drupes cr, 1 -seeded, finally freed by tearing of recep- 
tacle. Seeds of Mollinedia. — Shrubs, covered with a usually stellate 
pubescence ; leaves opposite ; flowers axillary cymose {Islands S.E. 
of Africa). See p. 299. 



332 NATURAL HISTORY OF PL^iNTS. 

8. Palmeria F. Mukll. — Flowers dioecious. Perianth of male 
flower 4-8-merous, inserted on a pateriform receptacle ; leaves inflexed 
imbricated. Stamens cc, crowded on concave receptacle ; fila- 
ments very short free erect ; anthers elongated basifixed 2-ceIled 
introrse dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers, fruits, and seeds 
of 3fo/iv//ia. — A climbing shrub ; leaves opposite ; flowers axillary 
cymose {Australia). See p. 800. 

III. TAMBOURISSE^. 

0. Tambourissa Sonner. — Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Male 
flower : receptacle fig-like, with a mouth at apex bearing a very 
small 4-6-merous perianth ; finally usually cleft or partite from 
apex to base into 4-G subequal or unequal lobes, staminiferous 
within. Stamens oc, free ; filaments short, finally erect ; anthers 
basifixed with 2 lateral extrorse or more rarely subintrorse adnate 
cells dehiscing longitudinally. Female flower : receptacle a little 
thicker, mouth larger ; perianth-leaves od, very short, scarcely con- 
spicuous when adult. Carpels cc, concealed in deep pits in receptacle ; 
ovary produced at apex into style ; stigmatiferous head pro- 
jecting freely inside receptacle ; ovule pendulous in each ovary ; 
micropyle superior introrse ; funicle elongated, dilated below into a 
conoidal obturator above micropyle. Drupes cc, thickened, included 
in pits of open-mouthed receptacle, finally freed by its breaking or 
splitting unequally ; mesocarp thin ; putamen thin containing one 
jjcndulous seed ; albumen fleshy, oily, copious ; embryo subapical ; 
radicle superior. — Trees or shrubs ; leaves opposite, more rarely 
alternate. Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary or racemose, more 
rarely cymose {Isla/idfi south-east of Aj'ncu, Java). See p. 302. 

10. Siparuna Auhl. — Flowers dia-cious, or more rarely mon- 
a'cious ; rece])tacle of variable form, usually pyriform or obovoid, more 
or less constricted in the throat, bearing within this a conical velum 
of variable height, with a j)erfbrated apex, and outside it oo (usually 
4-8) minute perianth-leaves. Stamens in female flower (very 
rarely few, sterile, or in certain abnormal flowers fertile) ; in male 
flower few (3-G) or cc, inserted at a variable height inside recep- 
tacle ; filaments usually membranaceous, free or poly-, or more 
rarely Jii(»na(h'l|)h()us ; anthers under apex of lilament, introrse, 



MONIMIAGEJE. 333 

2-cellecl ; cells dehiscing by valves from below upwards; valves 2, 
finally confluent into 1. Staniinodes go exterior or 0. Carpels oo, 
more rarely few (1-5), eacli concealed in a separate cell in the re- 
ceptacle ; ovary free, inserted by more or less oblique and Ijroad base 
on the receptacle, 1 -celled, at apex sensibly tapering into a style 
exserted through canal in velum, tip stigmatiferous ; ovule 1, 
subbasilar ascending; micropyle extrorse inferior ; raphe ventral. 
Berries smooth or hairy, more rarely echinate, included in septate, 
finally nearly dry or baccate receptacle; mesocarp usually incom- 
plete, at apex thick fleshy, at base thin membranous; putamen 
bony, smooth rugose or echinate. Seed erect, albumen copious ; 
embryo straight, radicle inferior. — Aromatic trees or shrubs ; leaves 
opposite, or more rarely verticillate, glandular, covered with a simple 
or stellate, more rarely scaly pubescence ; flowers cymose ; cymes 
solitary or geminate, usually axillary, either 2-pluriparous, or 
by abortion, 1 -parous unsymmetrical, sometimes 1 -sexual, more 
rarely 2-sexual, terminal flowers male {Tropical and subtropical 
America). See p. 305. 

IV. ATHEEOSPEEME^. 

11 ?. Doryphora Endl. — Flowers polygamo-dioecious, receptacle 
infundibuliform ; perianth-leaves 6-8, sub- 2 -seriate, imbricate ; in- 
nermost petaloid. Stamens cc, perigynous inserted within and below 
perianth; interior co, sterile; exterior few (4-10) fertile; filaments 
free, short, with 2 external glands at base ; anthers basifixed 2-celled 
extrorse ; cells dehiscing b}^ uplifted valves ; connective slightly 
prominent on each side above the cells, produced at apex into a very 
long subulate tail. Staminodes interior antherless. Carpels cr, 
free inserted in bottom of receptacle, in male flowers sterile, in 
female fertile, ovary stipitate, 1- celled; style inserted at variable 
height on dorsal angle, stigmatiferous at tip ; ovule 1 subbasilar 
erect, micropyle superior extrorse. Fruits cc, dry (caryopsids) 
anatropous (or campylotropous) included in thickened woody recep- 
tacle, finally splitting irregularly longitudinally. Style more or less 
persistent basilar; pericarp thin, covered with elongated hairs, 
albumen copious fleshy; embryo straight or incurved, radicle in- 
ferior. — Aromatic trees; leaves opposite serrate or crenate; cymes 
axillary or terminal {Aiidralia). See p. 309. 



3U NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAXT:^. 

12. Atherosperma Labill. — Flowers mona?cious or dioecious; 
receptacle sacciform or laj:^eniform, more or less concave, perianth- 
leaves 00 (5-15), 2- or pluri-seriate, imbricate; innermost petaloid. 
Stamens oo free inserted on throat of receptacle, sterile linear in 
female flowers, fertile in male and hermaphrodite flowers, filaments 
with 2 lateral scales at base ; anthers basifixed adnate 2-celled 
extrorse, dehiscinf]^ by 2 uplifted valves ; connective truncate at apex. 
Carpels co, in male flowers sterile, ovary free, 1 -celled, at apex pro- 
longed into a linear style ; ovule 1 , sub-basilar anatropous, micropyle 
inferior extrorse. Achenes oo, surmounted by persistent plumose 
styles, included in indurated broadened l:i<j^eniform receptacle, marked 
by the scattered scars of fallen bracts either below the apex or from 
base to apex ; perigonium finally dilated at apex or unequally 2-4- 
cleft from apex to base, pericarp thin more or less adherent to seed. 
Albumen copious oily ; embryo minute straight ; radicle inferior. — 
Aromatic trees ; leaves opposite; flowers axillary solitary or cymose; 
bracts 2 opposite inserted below receptacle, first embracing flower, 
finally deciduous {Chili, Australia, New Zealand, Neio Caledonia ?) See 
p. 310. 

V. GOMORTEGE^. 

1;3. Gomortega R. & Pav. — Flowers hermaphrodite; receptacle 
sacciform, naked externally ; perianth-leaves 8-10, unequal imbricate 
deciduous. Stamens 8-10, inserted on throat of receptacle; all or 
part fertile ; filaments free unequal, with 2 lateral stipitate glands at 
base; anthers basifixed 2-celled introrse, dehiscing by uplifted valves ; 
connective more or less produced above the cells. Carpels 2, 3; 
disc thick, adnate to throat of receptacle above the ovaries ; 
styles free erect, apex acute stigmatiferous. Ovules solitary de- 
scending in each ovary ; micropyle introrse superior ; raphe dorsal. 
Fruit drupaceous, of 2, 3 carpels adnate to the receptacle ; mesocarj) 
fleshy thin; putamen bony, very hard and thick, 2-, 3-ceUed ; 1, 2 
cells eff'ete. Seed pendulous ; integuments membranaceous ; albumen 
co])ious fleshy oily; embryo nearly apical, radicle suj)erior; coty- 
ledons membranaceous inferior. — An aromatic tree ; leaves opposite 
exstipulate ; ilowers racemose axillary or terminal {Chili). See 
p. 315. 



VI. ROSACEJi:. 



I. ROSE SEEIES. 



The Eoses'(Er.,7?o.5vVr6' — figs.373-37S) liave regular liermaplirodite 
flowers. The floral peduncle is dilated at its summit, as in most Moni- 

Eosa pimpmeUifolia {Burnet Rose). 




Fig. 373. 
Flower. 

miacece, into a hollow receptacle, swollen and globular, or more or less 
elongated, like a purse or gourd On the edges of the narrow opening- 
representing the organic base of the receptacle are inserted the perianth 



1 Rosa T., Inst., 636, t. 408.— L. Qen., n.fi31. 
— ADiNS., Fam. des PL, ii. 294.— J., Qen., 335, 
452.— Lamk., Diet., vi. 275 ; Suppl., iv. 708 ; 
III., t. 440.— DC, Prodr., ii. 597.— Spach, 
Suit, a Buffon, ii. 8. — Endl., Gen., n. 6357. — 
B. H., Gen., 625, n. 60. 

^ Generally this is more dilated than the short 
neck just below, where the receptacle is most 



contracted. It is the receptacular pouch which, 
in many descriptions, very few of which are 
recent, is considered as the lower coherent part 
of the calyx. Its outer surface may be glabrous 
or covered with hairs, or even prickles ; some- 
times, by accident, it bears one or several bracts, 
which demonstrate its axial nature. This is 
also confirmed by the numerous examples of 



335 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



and androceum ; while towards the bottom, answering to the orp^anic 
apex, are grouped the elements of the gyna?ceum. The calyx usually 
consists of five' more or less dissimilar leaves, quincuncially imbri- 



Bwa pimpinelli/olia. 




Fig. 374. 
Lonpitudinal section of flowrr. 




Pig. 376. 
Cnrpel Inid open. 



cated in the bud.- The petals have short claws, and are as numerous 
as the sepals, alternating with them and similarly imbricated in the 



monstrous roues, dcscrilxd and figured during 
the lust two centuries, where the recept^icle re- 
verts more or less to the form of im ordiiniry 
hniiicli, prolonged beyond the normal llorul aj)- 
Iiendii;.'('s to end in iinothcr (lower, or j)r<)ducing 
lateral proliferous hranciies at dill'erent heights. 
The reader w ill understiind that the natiire ot" 
this work docs not i)ermit us to go fully into 
these matters of teratology, whieh are very in- 
teresting, and have served, since the time of 
(ioKTiiK, to explain tlie morphologieid value of 
the axial or a|)|Kiidieular a]))K-ndageii entering 
into the formation of a flower. 

' 'I'he number 5 is nnrnial in Uhadophora 



(Neck., Elem.. n. 7l«;— Kndi,., loc. ril., b). 
We rarely find 4, and still more rarely G ; the 
former nund)er eharaeteri/cs the subgenus Rlio- 
(loj).\is (Kmm.., loc. ci/., a). 

■•' It is ascertained that the ovcrlapjnd edges 
are simpler, more entire, and more nuinbranous, 
and usually less green than those uhiih overhip ; 
these are usually Iringed, inciseil, ]iinnatitid, or 
pinnatisect ; and the more they are develops*! and 
lobeil, the more they resemble the etudine leaves. 
In short, a si«pal here npremnts a leaf especially 
developwl in the lower |M)rtion (sw I'aykk, EUm. 
tU Hut., 151, fig. 2(U-2r>y). 



nnsACEJE. 



3:57 



bud. The androceum consists of a large number of stamens inserted 
in vcrticiU round the circumference of a glandular disk which lines 
the interior of the receptacle,' and ends in a more or less thickened 
rim below the insertion of the perianth. Each stamen is composed 
of a slender free filament, inflexed or crumpled in the bud, and of 
an introrse, two-celled, more or less versatile anther, dehiscing longi- 
tudinally/ The carpels, indefinite and free, present a sessile or 
stipitate one-celled ovary, surmounted by a style which is con- 
tinuous with its internal angle, and like it traversed by a longi- 
tudinal groove, while at the apex is a more or less dilated stigma. 
Sometimes the summits of these styles are separate ; but they may, 
on the contrary, adhere together at a late stage, so as to simulate 
a single column. Inside the ovary, along its internal angle, is 
observed a parietal placenta, bearing towards its upper part a de- 
scending anatropous ovule, whose raphe is turned towards the 
placenta, while its micropyle looks upwards and outwards.' Beside 
this well-developed ovule, we sometimes find one aborted, which 



' As regards arrangement, these are an indefi- 
nite number of " stamens of the Rosacea ;" we 
always use this epithet as a phrase to denote 
brieriy the verticillate arrangement of the an- 
droceum in this order, whicli we shall here 
demonstrate compendiously. The study of or- 
ganogeny can alone show clearly the exact 
positions of the ditierent stamens ; and this has 
been done for the principal generic types by 
Pater {Traite cP Organ. Comp. de la Fleur, 
49i-51R, t. c.-ciii.). There are isostemonous 
RotacecE, possessing five stamens, superposed 
either to the sepals (^Slbbaldia), or to the petals 
{Chamarhodos). Others have a diplostemonous 
androceimi, in which one whorl is superposed to 
the sepals, the other to the petals {Rurkelia, 
Quillaja, &c.). But the diplostemony may re- 
sult from another cause, and ten stamens may 
be found in a single whorl in pairs superposed 
either to the sepals or to the petals [Agrimonia) ; 
so tliat this is due to a process of dcduplication. 
Again, with five petals, we may have fifteen 
stamens, because five of the latter are superposed 
either to the sepals or petals, while the ten 
others are in pairs superposed to the petals or 
sepals; or twenty stamens, three in front of each 
sepal or petal, and one superposed to each petal 
or sepal (Pi-unus, Pyrus, &c.). Finally, when as 
in the present genus, we have a very large 
number of stamens, it is due to one of the two 
following causes : either there are originally few 
staminal whorls, and each stamen superposed to 

VOL. T. 



a sepal or petal, as the case may be, is replaced 
by a variable number of stamens ; or, as occurs 
in the Roses, the alternating verticils (whether 
of five or ten stamens each) are indefinite in 
number, and extend from the orifice of the re- 
ceptacle towards the bottom or organic apex. In 
Rosa alj)i)ia. Pater has shown {loc. cit.) that 
the stamens arise as in Geum ; first one verticil 
of ten, " grouped in pairs, one stamen on the 
right, and one on the left of each petal ;" next 
arises another verticil of ten, alternating with 
the first, then a third, and so on. 

'■^ On the surface of the tissue of this disk are 
hairs (contact with which, as we shall see, pro- 
duces a mechanical irritation of the skin) usually 
becoming more numerous as we approach the 
insertion of the ovaries, which also bear hairs of 
the same structure. They are simple and uni- 
cellular, ending in a long point, and contain at first 
a mixture of gas and liquid, and afterwards fine 
granulations of a greyish or slightly orange- 
yellow tint. At first the walls of these cells are 
thinner than the diameter of the cavity ; but in 
the fruit they persist, and the walls become much 
thicker in proportion, and the hairs far more rigid. 

3 The poUen-graius are marked by three longi- 
tudinal folds, which become narrow bands in 
contact with water (H. Mohl, Ann. Sc. Kaf., 
ser. 2, iii. 340). 

'' It possesses only one coat, with an unequal, 
more or less oblique opening, sometimes irregu- 
larly festooned or laciniate (tig. 376). 
Z 



338 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLAXTS. 



orif^nally resembled the former. The fruit (figs. 377, 378) is 
multiple, formed of a variable number of achenes, enveloped in a 
common sac or indusium, which represents the lloral receptacle, now 
become fleshy throughout,' surmounted by the withered sepals or 

their cicatrices. Each achene is 

Rosa cnnina (Dim Hosp). . . , n •, i» • 

glabrous, or part ot its surface is 
hairy." Its walls are very hard 
and thick,' and surround a de- 
scending seed with membranous 
coats, containing a fleshy embryo 
with a superior radicle and elon- 
gated cotyledons, touching by 
their flat surfaces. There is no 
albumen. 

The Eoses are shrubs, ere(;t, 
branching, or creeping and climb- 
ing. Most of them are covered with prickles of suberous nature,' 
scattered over the stems, the petioles, the veins of the leaves, and the 
peduncles. Others are glabrous ; others, again, are covered \viih 
glandular hairs. The leaves are alternate, imparipinnate, with the 
leaflets often serrate ; and are provided with two broad membranous 
stipules, adnate to the petiole for a great part of their extent, and 
forming an incomplete sheath. In 7?. herhenfoJia,'' of which it has been 
proposed to make a distinct genus under the name of Jlidtemia," the 
leaves are reduced to a single leaflet, or perhaps rather to the base 
of the petiole, on each side of which the stipules are much developed. 





Fig. 378. 
jong. section of fruit. 



' The transformation into fleshy tissue may 
even extend to tlic peduncuhir portion of tlic 
floral axis ; in certiiin forms of R. alphin, for 
instance, tlie sinnmit of tlu! pechnule is red and 
■uccuk-nt, like tlie iiuhisiuin. The outer sur- 
face of the hitter often hears the hairs or priekles 
whicli nlrtady existed in the flower, and may 
now liave increased in size. In the intervals 
between the aehenes, too, the inner Knrfaco 
bears the hi.im whi.h we h:ive already described 
on the disk (sei' p. ;j:j7, note 2). 

' Kt.i.e<ially on the two cdgen, more or less 
projec-tiMf? townnis the centre, and the walls )f 
the receptacle, like those seen in Ctilt/iunthus. 
Should one alone of these edges have hairs, it is 
usually the one on the opi)oiiito tide to the inser- 
tion of the style. 

* The nuwocarp, which is quite dried up when 



ripe, is in some species fleshy and pretty thick 
during nearly all the i)criv)d of nuituration. The 
fruit is then rather a drupe ; wo have made the 
same observation as regards Calyi'anthr<e. 

* They are formed hy a hyiKTtrophy of the 
corky liiyer, here forming a large nuuilH>r of 
projictions with lenticular bases, the growth of 
which ])roduces no rupture in the epidermis, so 
that this rises up over the whole of the prickle 
to cover it with a thin layer. 

» Tam.., .Vor. Act. Pitrop., x. 379, t. 10, flg. 
5. — DC, J'roilr., u. 25.— Kku. & TiioK., Jio*., 
i. 27. — R. simplicifolia Saiisii.. I/ort. Altrrt., 
ar.i) (ex LiNDL., Ros., 1) ; J'ar. /,<.»</. t. UH. 

" IJUMoliT., Ao/f itiir /■llidthemia. — Knm.., 
Oen., n. (5358. — Lowia I.I.ndi,., Bot. Rri;., t. 
12r)l.— Spach, S^i/. A RtiJfhH. ii. XT.— Rho. 
(liipuLi liKDKn., Fl. Alt., ii. 221 (nee Kmu.). 



BOSACEJa. 339 

The Roses have usually very beautiful flowers, white, yellow, pink, 
or red, solitary or grouped in terminal cymes.' Numerous species 
of this genus have been described,- and their number is still daily 
increasing. While some writers enumerate three liundred, others 
will only admit one tenth of that number as distinct autonomous 
specific types. Most of them are cultivated in all countries, and 
their cultivation has produced numerous varieties, and numberless 
forms that are more or less monstrous. The wild species are found 
in all the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, but are 
more numerous in the Old World than in the New. 



II. AaEIMONY SERIES. 

The Agrimonies' (Fr., Aigremoines — figs. 379-387) have regular 
hermaphrodite flowers, in general structure closely recalling those of 
the Roses, but with a great reduction in the number of most of the 
parts. Thus it often happens that on the borders of the sac which 
represents their floral receptacle^ we only find three whorls of five 
pieces each, viz., five free valvate sepals,' five alternating imbri- 



' One flower (the oldest) terminates the 
branch, and at variable distances below it are 
alternate leaves or bracts, axillary to which are 
flowers whose pedicels may again be similarly 
ramified. Usu;illy the narrow cylindrical part 
of the pedicel is continuous with the dilatation 
which forms the floral receptacle. But in some 
Asiatic species, as H. microphylla, hracteata, 
involucrata, &c., these two parts are separated 
by an articulation, near which may be inserted 
bracts to form an involucre, or rather a calycle. 

' MoNARD., de Sosa, 1561. — Andrews, 
Roses, 1805-28. — Tnou. & Red., les Hoses, 
1817-24. — De Peonville, Mon. du. (]. Easier, 
1821-.— Tkattin., Bosac. Monog., 1823, 21.— 
Desp., Roset. Gallic, 1828. — LoiSEL., Ros., 
1846. — LiNDL., Rosai: Monogr., 1820. — 
Walle., Ros. Gen. Hist. Sua:, 1828 (see Pritz., 
Thesaur., 446).— DC, Prodr., ii. 597-625 (146 
csp.).— WionT, Icon., t. 38, 324.— Wall., PI. 
As. Rat:, t. 117.— Benth., Ft. HongJc., 106.— 
ToER. & (iR., Fl. N. Amer., i. 457. — A. Gray, 
Man. of Rot., ed. 5, 158 — Chapm., Fl. of S. 
Uiut.-States, 125.— Gren.& Godr., Fl. de Fr., 
i. 551. — Desegl., Ess. sur 105 Esp. de Ros., 
]865.— Walp., Rep., ii. 11 ; v. 649; Am,., i. 



272, 971 ; ii. 465; iii. 854; iv. 654.— Seringe 
has divided the genus into four sections. The 
grouping he published in the Prodromus has since 
been more or less modified (see Mert. & Koch., 
RcEHL., Deutsch. FL, iii. — Geschwixd, Die 
Hiihrid. und Sceml. d. Rosen, 1863, 64.) 

■^ Agrimonia T., Jh?/., 301, t. 155. — L., Gen., 
607.— J., Gen., 336.— GJERTX., Fruct., i. 347, 
t. 73.— Lamk., Diet., i. 62 ; Snppl., i. 262 ; ///., 
t. 409.— Spach, Suit, a Buffon, i. 482.— DC, 
Prodr., ii. 587.— Endl., Gtn., n. 6368.— Pater, 
Organog., 504, t. ci.— B. H., Gen., 622, n. 53. 

•* Its throat is contracted, as in most of the 
Roses. Indeed, the two genera are as near to- 
gether as possible in the general organization of 
their flowers. 

* Some authors have considered as the pieces 
of a calycle five prickles, tolerably like those 
covering the superior portion of the receptacle, 
but broader and more bract-like at the base, 
which usually alternate pretty regularly with 
the pieces of the calyx. The sepals may after 
anthesis become imbricated and closely conni- 
vent; they even persist around the ripe fruit 
(figs. 383, 381). 



34«) 



NATURAL HISTOItY OF PLANTS. 



cated petals,' and as many stamens superposed to the sepals. But 
often, too, we may find a larger number of stamens, i.e., from five 




Fin. 379. 
Habit. 



Via. 38t. 
Longitudinal section of fruit. 



to fifteen.- If there be the last named number, each of the stamens 
superposed to the sepals is accomjxmied by two others, one on either 



' Their form is tlint of the pc-tals of a Hone 
on a suiiiU HCttlo. 

» I'AYFU {op. rit. WJo) huH Ki-cn that in A. 
Kupiilorift the nuuihcr of KtameiiM varieH with 
tliu vigour of the jilaiit. " (n-nerally," sajH he, 
" wc liurdly find more than tlvo in tlowen giitlioretl 
in Hie country, nnd tlu-n they are .... super- 
pOM-d to tlic NcpulM, wliile in othem ]iickcd tit the 
Museum of Natural IliHtory (of I'nriH | I have 



sometimes counted ns many us twenty. Hut in 
nil tliexe variations one hut remains constant, 
and this it is important to note: the stamens 
arc always pronped in five nlternip«'ta!ous jiha- 
langes." Further on the author shows that 
when there are nutmrous stamens there are 
first five in front of the sepals, then a whorl of 
ten more plactnl lower down, ond then another 
wliorl of tlve sui)erpo«ied t»> the Urst. 



ROSACEA. 341 

side. Sometimes the number of stamens may be still greater. Each 
consists of a free filament, inserted outside the very thick circular 
rim of a glandular disk lining the receptacular sac (figs. 3S1, 3S2), 
and of an introrse two-celled anther, dehiscing longitudinally. The 
gynoBceum consists of two or three free carpels inserted in the 
bottom of the receptacle, each composed of a one-celled ovary tapering 
above into a style, which passes through the narrow aperture in the 
disk and ends in a stigmatiferous head. In the internal angle of 
the ovary is a descending ovule, with its micropyle looking upwards 
and outwards. The fruit (figs. 383, 384) is made up of two or three 
achenes, one or two of which are usually sterile, surrounded, as in 
the Eoses, by the receptacular pouch, and crowned by the persistent 
sepals. But this indusium is dry instead of being fleshy, and the 
upper part of its outer surface is covered with rigid hooked needles, 
which existed in the flower, but have grown larger and harder 
during maturation. In each achene we find a suspended seed, whose 
coats cover a large, fleshy, exalbuminous embryo, whose radicle is 
superior." The Agrimonies are perennial herbs, inhabiting the tem- 
perate regions of the northern hemisphere ; they are also found all 
over the world, growing on the mountains of even the southern 
hemisphere.' Their aerial branches are covered with alternate im- 
paripinnate leaves, with incised serrate leaflets, and two lateral 
stipules adnate to the petiole. The flowers are grouped in usually 
elongated, terminal, simple or slightly ramified racemes, bearing 
alternate bracts. Axillary to each of these is a flower, with two 
lateral bractlets, which are rarely fertile. 

Some writers have considered a small plant' from the Mediter- 



' In A. Eupatoria the cotjledons liave au- slightly imbricated in the bud. They possess 

ricles at the base, which partly surround the membranous stipules, forming a little calycle 

radicle. of five oppositipetalous pieces. In the culti- 

2 DC, Fro(h:, loc. cit., 587, 588. — Walle., vated plant, we may often find ten stamens in- 

Beitr. z. Bot., i. 1-61, t. 1.— C. A. Mey., Bull. stead of five. As in the true Agrimonies, they 

S.-Pet., X. n. 22. — Walp., Eep., ii. 37, 914. — are inserted around the very thick rim termi- 

Geen. & GoDR., Fl. de Ft:, i. 561. — Haev. & natingthe disk. The two anther-cells are sepa- 

SoND., Fl. Cap., ii. 290.— ToEE. & Ge., FL N. rated by a pretty broad connective. The gynie- 

Amer., i. 430.— A. Geay, Man. of Bot., ed. 5, ccum consists of two, or more rarely of three 

151. — Caikvsi., Fl. S. UnU.-Sfate.s;l22. — HooK. free carpels; of these the only part that issues 

F., in Maet., Fl. Bras., Eosac, 67. from the mouth of the receptacle is the bilabiate 

■■• This was Agrimonia agrimonioides L. Sp., stigmatiferous summit. The fruit is dry and 

i. 643 ;— .4. simills Bauh., Pin., 321 ; — glabrous, closely enwrapped in the sac formed 

4r/Wmo»o/(/es Column., Ecphr., t. 144; — T., by the two bracts that were so much developed 

Instit., 301, t. 155). The sepals arc valvate or even in the flower. 



342 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



ranean as generically distinct, under tlie name of Jrcmonia} (figs. 
3S5-337). Its fiowers have often only five alternipetalous stamens, 
and are surrounded by a membranous sac, with laciniate edges, 
embracing the summit of the pedicel, closely applied to the floral 
receptacle (fig. 387), and formed of two connate bracts accompanying 

Agrimonia (Aremonia) agrimonioidea. 






Fio. 387. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 

each of the flowers. These are borne on pedicels arranged in a 
short small cluster, terminated by a fiower. Thus we see that 
authors have been justified in restoring' Aremonia to the genus 
Ar/riiiionia, of which it only constitutes a small section. From its 
rliizome arise in spring small herbaceous branches, bearing several 
trilolioliite leaves, each with two lateral stipules. The inik)rescence 
is terminal in the first instance, but from the axils of the loaves 
may spring younger and ])oorer clusters of flowers. 

Thus constituted, the genus A(jrimonia consists of only about half 
a do7.en species. These plants may be considered as closely related 
to the Hoses in the general organization of their flowers and fruits ; 



' Nkck., Elev>., n. TOK.— DC, Vrudr., 11. 
r,HH. — Kndl., Oen., n. <>:W'i!). — Si'acii, A'urV. « 
liuffitn, i. 453. — PaYKU, Orgnnog., 507, t. ci., f. 
13-20. — Amonia Nkhtl., J^ot., 17. — SjmUmt- 



zania POLI-., /'/. Sor. Hurt. J'rroii., l(t; (ilurit. 
Fu.rar. (IHIO), 187. ic 

* SiiiTH., Fl. Urac, t. 15S.— U. H.. Uen., 
Cl'3, n. :,'2. 



ROSACEA. 343 

they differ in cliaracters, which, though very easy to seize, are yet 
of no great fundamental value. The chief is the final consistency 
of the persistent receptacular sac enclosing tlie true fruits ; tliis is 
fleshy in the Eoses, dry in the Agrimonies, but in either it may 
bear rigid prickles. Nor can we allow very great value to the 
reduction in the sexual organs, or the difference in habit and mode 
of vegetation in the latter genus. 

Leucosoidea' differs very little from the Agrimonies in the charac- 
ters of its flower. Here also the receptacular sac persists around the 
achenes, enclosing them completely ; but it becomes very hard, while 
remaining smooth externally. The sepals are valvate, five or six in 
number, accompanied by as many alternating leaves of stipular 
nature,- like those we shall observe in the Alchemils. The petals 
are short, inserted around a thick ring formed by the superior 
edge of the disk ; so, too, are the stamens, from ten to twelve in 
number, whose introrse anthers bear a circle of glandular projections 
from the backs of the connectives. The gynseceum is analogous to 
that of the Agrimonies, being formed of from two to four free carpels, 
whose ovaries contain a single suspended ovule, and terminate in a 
filiform style. Only one species of this genus is known, L. cericea^ 
a shrub from the Cape of Good Hope, whose leaves are alternate, 
crowded, imparipinnate, and silky, with unequal incised leaflets, 
and two adnate petiolar stipules. The flowers are grouped into 
terminal spikes, each flower axillary to a bract, and accompanied 
by two sterile bractlets. 

The Kousso or Cousso' (figs. 3S8-392), with the floral organization 
of the preceding genera, but with the very different habit of the 
Service-trees, has polygamous or dioecious flowers, whose receptacle 
forms a pouch with a contracted mouth, furnished with a disk pro- 
jecting into a membranous rim. In the male flowers (figs. 389, 390) 
this sac is of no great depth, and only contains a rudimentary 
gyuieceum. In the female flowers (tigs. 391, 392), on the contrary. 



' ECKL. & Zeth., Enuin. PI. Cap., 265. — * Brai/era K., Buayes,, Notice (182 i) ; Did. 

Endl., Gen., n. 6375.— B. H., Gen., 622, n. 52. Class. d'Rist. Nat., i. 501, ic— DC, Prodi:, ii. 

- It is especially with respect to the Straw- 588. — Spach, Suit, a Buffon, i. 453. — Endl... 

berries and Potentils that we shall have to eu- Gen., n. 6395. — B. H., Gen., G'2'J., n. 51. — 

quire into the signification of the appendages Bankesia Bruce., Trai\ Nub. S; Ahi/ss., ed. 2, 

which unite to form what is called a calycle. vii. 181 ; trad. Castee., v. 91. — Uagetiia \\ ., 

3 EcKL. & Zetu., loc. fit. ; Herb., n. 1716.— Spec, ii. 331. 
Hakv. & SoXD., Fl. Cap., ii. 289. 



3U 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Brai/tra abi/gsinica. 



it is deeper, and in tlie bottom are inserted the ovaries, whose styles 
alone pass tlirougli its aperture. The perianth consists of three 
tetra- or pentamcrous whorls, with veined membranous imbricated 
leaves. The outermost, though larger than the rest, yet constitute 
a calycle analogous to that of Lcucoaidea. Those of the middle 
whorl are of the same consistency, but are shorter, and taper 

towards the base ; they form 
the calyx. The innermost, 
which are the petals, and may 
be entirely absent, are short 
linear caducous scales, or rarely 
petaloid blades, as long as they 
are broad, contracted at the 
base and obtuse at the apex. 
The stamens are inserted be- 
tween the perianth and the 
i)rojecting rim of the disk, 
riiey are about twenty in num- 
iier, each formed in the female 
flower of a short filament and 
a little sterile anther ; in the 
male flower of a long exserted 
fihiment, originally inflexed in 
the bud, and an introrse two- 
celled anther dehiscing longitu- 
dinall3^ The fertile gyna?ceum 
consists of two or more rarely 
three free carpels, with one- 
celled ovaries and terminal 
styles, each dilated at the apex into a broad spathulate head, 
covered witli large stigmatic pa])illie. In the internal angle of the 
ovary is a descending incompletely anatropous ovule, whose micropyle 
looks upwards and outwards.' The only species of Kousso as yet known 
is Brni/crn n/ji/.s.si/iira,' a tree from the mountainous districts of Abys- 
sinia, whose alternate downy branches are covered with the scars of 




KlG. bb«. 

JIale indortscence. 



' It liiiH not vet been iM^wtible to dtiuly llic ahiftainica Lamk., Did., Supjil., ii. •122; 11/., t. 

rii)C fruit nnd w. d. 311 — Jiiaytm anthrlmiiilica K., ioc. cit.- 

'' M(»g., liul. .]f,;iir, '2\7. — BankrKia ahi/g. Hook., J/nok: .Jouni., ii. :i ti>. f. 10. 
xinira llmci:. i,/,. ril., nil.. I. 22, 23. — J/iii/r„i„ 



ROSACEA. 



345 



the older leaves, and bear towards the extremity the young alternate 
pinnate leaves, crowded together and at a distance recalling those of 
the Service-tree, with the base of the petiole dilated into a broad 
incomplete sheath, continuous on each side with a large membranous 



Brayera ahyssin'tca. 





Fig. 390. 
Loiiyiritmlinal section of male Hower. 




Fig. 391. 
Fem:ile (lower. 



Fig. 392. 
Longitudinal section of female flower. 



stipule. The flowers are in enormous much-ramified clusters of cymes, 
axillary to the leaves, or terminating the branches. The secondary 
axes of the inflorescence arise from alternate bracts, which, in the 
lower part of what is called the panicle, become more and more 
like leaves, and may even, though smaller, be quite compound 
like them (fig. 8SS). Each flower is accompanied by two or three 
bractlets inserted below the base of its receptacle. 

Despite the controversy that has arisen from the different interpre- 
tations given to the various parts of the flower in the genera we shall 
now review, it is convenient to admit, with several contemporary 
observers, that in the Alchemils' (Fr., Alcldmilles — figs. 393-396) the 
stamens take the place hitherto occupied by the petals. These plants 
have hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers. In the former the recep- 
tacle forms a sac, widely open above, where the thickened edge of the 



> Alchemilla T., Instil., 508, t. 289.— L., 
Gen., 1«)5.— Adans., Fam. des PL, n. 294. — J., 
Gen., 337.— G.ERTN., Fruct., i. 316, t. 73.— 
Lamk., JDict., i. 277; Sni.pl., i. 2^5; IlL, t. 8G, 



87.— Spach, Suit, a Bvffon, i. 483.— DC, 
Prodr., ii. 589. — Endl., Gen., n. 6370.— Paykk, 
Oiyanoff., 509, t. ci., figs. 25-40. — B. H., Gen., 
621, n. 50. 



yi6 



NATURAL HISTOliY OF PLANTS. 



disk forms a large glandular ring. Without this are inserted the 
androceum and the perianth. The latter consists of four sepals in 
most species, especially in the Lady's-mantle (//. i-^/^w/V L. — figs. 
393, 394). These sepals are valvate in the bud ; and outside them 
we find four alternating stipular bracts forming the calycle.' In 
this species the androceum consists of four alternisepalous stamens, 
each consisting of a free filament and an introrse anther, which 



Alchemilla vulgaris. 





Fio. 39t. 
Longitudinal section of ilower. 

dehisces longitudinally by what finally becomes a single cleft. On 
the filament is a transverse articulation, a little below the anther. 
The gynajceum of this plant is represented by a single carpel in- 
serted into the bottom of the receptacle, and superposed to one of 
the stamens. It consists of a unilocular, shortly-stalked ovary, sur- 
mounted by a style which is inserted towards the bottom of its 
internal angle, and terminated, after traversing the orifice of the 
receptacle, by a stiguiatifcrous head. Within the ovary, at a point 
corresponding to the insertion of the style, is a parietal placenta, 
bearing a descending incompletely anatropous ovule, who.se micro- 
pyle looks upwards and outwards.' The fruit is an achene, sur- 
rounded by the sac formed by the dried-up receptacle. The 
exalijuminous seed contains a lleshy embryo with its radicle supe- 
rior. The other species of this genus may differ from J. viih/dri-s in 
the following respects. — The bracts of the calycle may he e(]ual in 



' L., Sprc, 17S. — 1)(.'., I'tudr , w. 2. 

- Wo caiuiot coimitler this w^wu uh it calyx, 
initl the inner envelojiu iim n comlln, im liiu been 
HUplwHed, for the leaves of tlie eulyile tlo not ap- 
pear till after tlio true iK;riantli, wliicli Ih of ciily- 
ciiial nature. 

• It liOM but one coat. It lian la-en ileHcribeil 



as Uiicciiiliiig, but its raphe, short tliou};!) it be, 
<lcAcen(ls from the point uf inM<rtion ; and that 
is the peculiarity of tleK<'endinK ovules. Tho 
Hpi)arenlly aseending direction here ob<erved is 
due to the sli^flilness of tlie aiiatiupy of tho 
ovule. Only at llri.t, while it is still orthotro- 
pous, is the ovule of Alchrmillii an-ending. 



ROSACEA. 



347 



Alvhemilla {Aphanes) arveiisis. 
(^Parsley Piert.) 





length to the sepals, and quite similar to them. The number of 
stamens may be reduced to one or two ; this is usually the case in 
Aphanes^ (figs. 395, 39C), formerly made into a distinct genus. 
Finally, there may be two, three, or four carpels in each flower. 
About thirty species of this genus- 
are known, especially common in 
the Andes", from Mexico to Chili,' 
more rare at the Cape,' in Australia® 
and Madagascar, and in Europe' and 
Asia^ in the northern hemisphere. 
They are herbs, more frequently 
perennial than annual, possessing 
alternate leaves with two cauline 
stipules forming a sheath, and digi- 
tate or palmatipartite blade. The 
flowers are small and greenish, grouped on a common peduncle into 
ramified cymes, often becoming uniparous by abortion towards their 
extremities. 

In the Burnets'(Fr., Piii/jjrenelles — figs. 397-406) there is nothing 
occupying the place of a corolla. The receptacle still forms a sac, as 
in the preceding plants ; it persists around the fruits, and is thinly 
membranous, corky, or sometimes even slightly fleshy. Its surface is 
smooth, as in the Alchemils, or is covered with prickles, which, though 
smaller, recall those of the Agrimonies ; but the number of carpels is 
much reduced, and there are normally four perianth-leaves. The num- 
ber of stamens is sometimes well defined, as in certain Alchemils ; and 
this, indeed, is the peculiar character of the species of Sanguisorha^^ 
from which genus, as we shall soon see, it is impossible to separate Po- 
terium properly so-called. If, for instance, we examine the flowers of 



Fig. 396. 
Flower opened out. 



» L., Gen., 166. 

" DC, Prodr., loc. cit.— Walp., Rep., ii. 42, 
914 ; V. 655 ; Ann., i. 280; ii. 519 ; iii. 855. 
3 Wedd., Chlor. And., ii. 244., t. 75. 

* H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Spec, vi. 223, t. 
560, 561.— C. Gat, Fl. ChiL, ii. 301.— Toee. 
& Ge., Fl. N. Am., i. 432 ; ap. Wippl., 164.— 
A. Gray, Man. ofBot., ed. 5, 151.— Chapm., Fl. 
S. Unit.- States, 122.— Seem., Herald, 282.— 
Pkesl., Epimel., 199. 

* Haev. & SosD., Fl. Cap., ii. 291. 
6 Benth., Fl. Austral., ii. 432. 

" Geex. & GoDR., Fl. de Fr., i. 564.— 
Reichb., pi. Crit., i. t. 4. 



8 Wight, Icon., t. 229. 

9 Pimpinella T., Inslit., 156, t. 68.— Adans., 
Fam. des PL, ii. 293.— G^utn., Fr^tct., i. 161, 
t.32 (nee 'L.).—Poterium L., Gen., n. 1069.— 
J., Gen., 336.— Lamk., Diet., v. 327 ; Suppl., 
iv. 415; III., t. 777.— DC, Prodr., ii. 594.— 
Spach, Suit, a Buff., i. 487. — ExDL., Gen., n. 
6374. — Pater, Organog., 512, t. ciii.— B. H., 
Gen., 624, n. 57. 

'» L., Gen., n. 148.— J., Gen., 336.— G^etn., 
Fruct., i. 161, t. 32.— Lamk., Diet., vi. 496; 
///., t. 85.— TuEP., Diet, des Sc. Xat., t. 240.- 
DC, Prodr., ii. 593.— Spach, Suit, a Buffon,\. 
486.— Endl., Gen., n. 6373. 



348 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



the Great Burnet' (Fr., Grande PimpreneUe; figs. 397-399), we shall 
see that they are hermaphrodite, regular, and apetalous, with the 
calyx and audroceuni tctranierous. The receptacle forms a sac, whose 



SanguUorha officinalis. 






Fio. 399. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 

opening is narrowed by the swollen borders of the disk, projecting 
more opposite each sepal than in the four intervals. The four 
calyx-leaves are inserted on the rim of the receptacle — one anterior, 
one posterior, and two lateral, which are overlapped by the two 
former in the bud.' The four stamens are also inserted in the throat 
of the receptacle, superposed to the sepals ; each consists of a free 

Sanguliorha Poterlum. 




Fio. 401. 
Hcrniaplirodite flower. 




Kio. \()2. 
Loiifj. Hootion of liermaphrodite (lower. 



filament, and an introrse two-celled anther, dehiscing longitudinally. 
The gynicceum consists of a sin^de carpel alternating with two of 
the sepals^ (and consequently with two stamens) inserted in tlio 
bottcjin ol" the receptacular sac. Its ovary is free, one-celled, sur- 



' Sanf/ui»orl>n officiiinliii L.. Spec, 169. — 8. overlapping edgen, and Htill more i«o tlian tlie 
»abautla Mihl., Difl., n. 'I. midribs. 

■^ I'avkk {op. cH., Dlii) BavH that it ixaltiTiiute 

- Tiic overlapped iMlgeH of the hejHiU me ninre " wiili tlie anterior cepal on the one hnnd. and 
iiieuibninouit and loloined. iind tiiinner tlmii thr ow of the lutenil nepaJH on the otliei." 



R08AGEJE. 



349 



mounted by a terminal style, wliich passes througli tlie narrow orifice 
of the receptacle to terminate in an enlarged stigmatiierous head, 
whose form has been compared to a bottle-brush. On one side the 
ovary presents a longitudinal furrow externally ; here the inner 
wall bears an ovule descending into the single cavity ; it is ana- 
tropous, with its raphe looking towards the placenta, and the 
micropyle superior and dorsal/ The fruit is an achene surrounded 
by the receptacular sac, which is now thick and hard, with a wrinkled 
surface marked by four more or less prominent ridges. Within the 
membranous seed-coats is a fleshy exalbuminous embryo with its 
radicle superior. Sanguisorha qficinahs is a perennial herb possessing 
alternate imparipinnate leaves, with petiolulate leaflets, and two 
lateral stipules adnate to the base of the petiole ; while the flowers 
are in terminal spikes," which are often themselves collected into 
cymes. Each flower is axillary to a mother-bract, and possesses two 
lateral bractlets which are normally sterile. 

Sanguisorha and Poteriim have been, and are still, considered to 
form two distinct genera, because the latter have usually unisexual 
or polygamous flowers, indefinite elongated stamens, and two or 
three carpels. When, however, we examine the numerous species of 
Poteriiim described by authors, we find that they may have all their 
flowers hermaphrodite, and 
that the number of carpels 
is very variable, and may 
be reduced to one. The 
stamens are very numerous, 
it is true, in P. Sanguisorba 
(Salad Burnet, Garden Bur- 
net— figs. 400-404) and the 
allied species, and their 
long filaments hang down 
on one side in the expanded flower. But these become shorter 
as the anthers are less developed and gradually tend towards 
complete sterility, when they may stand erect, as in Sangiiisorha . 
At the same time the number of stamens may be reduced, so that 



Sanffuisorba Poteriiim. 




Fig. 403. 
Female flower. 



Fig. 404. 

Longitudinal section of 

female flower. 



' It has only a single coat. 
- The flowers expand successively, not as is 
usually the case with spikes from base to ape.x. 



but more frequently, if not constantly, from 
above downwards, beginning either at the tip or 
in a zone at a variable distance from it (fig. 397). 



350 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Sanguisorba (^Po(erium) polygama. 




certain species have only ten or twelve, or even five or six.' Thus 
the diflerences formerly pointed out between these two genera 
gradually disappear, and they become quite inseparable. 

Thus constituted, this generic group contains about fifteen species 
found native in all the temperate and warm regions of the northern 

hemisphere,^ Nearly all are herba- 
ceous and perennial ; one alone is 
annual, and has been made the type 
of a distinct genus under the 
name of Poieridium? P. sp.inosimi* 
is frutescent, and its aborted 
branches are to some extent trans- 
formed into spines. Its floral 
receptacle becomes thicker and 
fleshier than in the other species. Hence the generic name of Sar- 
copoteriitm'' proposed for this species. 

The flowers of Polt/lepk^ have the receptacle and indefinite stamens 
of Potcrhim. The calyx has from three to five leaves, slightly im- 
bricated when young, but, as a rule, finally becoming valvate. The 
carpels are usually solitary ; but this is not constant, some flowers 
possessing two or three carpels ; they are in other respects those of 
Poterium. The receptacle Ibrms a sac around them in the fruit, and 
is marked by longitudinal projecting lines, here and there inter- 



Fio. 405. 
Hermaphrodite flower. 



Fio. 406. 
Heptandrous flower. 



' So too there are true Sanguisorhas whose 
specific name iiulicatcs the general number of 
stamens, sudi us S. dodecandra MouETT., dec- 
andra Walt,., &c. These stamens are also 
longer. In the i-p cies of the section or sub- 
genus Poterium, such as P. Sanguisoiha h., 
anculroides Dksf., &c., there are almost always 
male flowers at the base of the spike, female 
flowers at the a])ex,and between them a variable 
number of completuly or incompletely herma- 
phrodite flowers with ten or twelve stamens (fig. 
40r>) or even only half a ilo/on (fig. Un]) ; they are 
then shorter than in tlie male flowers. In the 
hermaphrodite (lowers the gyna;ceuni may have 
a ster.le «>v.iry, but the btyle and stigma are 
pretty well developed. In many species, too, 
the expauhion of the flowers la-gins as do- 
scribed in tlie text. The fruit is the organ sub- 
ject to the greatest variations in I'ulirium ; und 
SpaCII, in founding sulxlivisions in this group, 
has chiefly regarded the outer Murfucc of tlie in- 
diisium, whetlier reticuliite, rugos4', nniriciit-e. 



warty, or veined, or more or leas marginate or 
four-winged. 

■■' DC, Prodr., ii. 593-595.— Wai.p., Pep., 
ii. 41; Ann., i. 282; iii. 855; iv. 665.— Dksf., 
Fl. Athint., ii. 3K5, t. 251.— Tohh. & (Jr.. FI. 
N. Anier., i. 428. — Spach, Peris. Gen. Pote- 
rium, Ann. Sc. Nat., si^r. 3, v. 31. — tiREN. k 
Ooi)i{.,/y. t/p /'/•.,!. 562.— A. (iRAY.-VrtM. of But., 
ed. 5, 150.— CiiAPM., Fl. S. Unit. -States, 122.— 
IIarv. iV SoND., Fl. Cap., ji. 25)2.— .MiQ., Mtts. 
Luijd. Bat., iii. 38. — Tnw., Fnum. PI. Zryl., 
1112.— A. Hr., App. llort. Berol. (ISC?), lo." 

'* Si'Ai II, Ann. Sc. Sat., ser. 3, v. 43 {San- 
ijuisorbn annua ToKR. Si (iH., Fl. X. Atner., i. 
A2\);— Poterium nnnuum NllT.). 

* L., Spec, 1411.— IK'.. Prodr., n. 1 (sect. 
I^iopoterium). — SiiiTll.. Fl. (/rrrc, t. 913. 

* .^i-ACii, AiiH. Sc. Art/., loo. eit. 

« U. & I'AV., Prodr., Fl. Per. et Chil., 34, t. 
15.— DC, Prodr., ii. 691.— K.nui.., Oen, n. 
r,377.— H. H.. Urn., 623. n. 55. 



ROSACEA. 



351 



spersed with very unequal prickles. This genus Vohjlepift includes 
half a score species,' trees from the temperate regions of the Andes, 
growing in Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia. The branches are often 
denuded and twisted ; the leaves are alternate, with two adnate 
stipules, and a trifoliolate or imparipinnatc blade. The flowers are in 
lax pendulous racemes, each flower axillary to a bract, and with two 
lateral bractlets. 

JnBencomid' we find the pinnate leaves of certain species oiPolt/lepis, 
and their flowers in long pendulous spikes. But these flowers are 
dioecious. In the female alone is there a receptacular sac, lodging 
from two to four carpels in its concavity. The males lack this con- 
cavity in the receptacle ; they possess a calyx composed, as in the 
females, of from three to five imbricated leaves, and an androceuni 
like that of Poteriicm or Poli/lepis, formed of a variable number of free 
stamens. We know of two frutescent species of Bencomia,^ natives 
of Madeira and the Canary Islands. The genus is closely allied to 
the preceding, and might perhaps 
be united to it simply as a distinct 
section. The male flower at the 
same time closely recalls what we 
shall find in CUffortia. 

Accena' (figs. 407, 408) has the 
same receptacle, disk, and insertion; 
the calyx has no calycle, and 
consists of three or four, or rarely 
more leaves ; these are slightly 
imbricated in the very young 
bud, but early cease to overlap. The stamens are inserted on a level 
with the sepals and superposed to them ; but are rarely found in 
equal or larger numbers. For more frequently there are only two or 
three of the sepals which have each in front of their middle lines one 
of these organs,* formed of a slender free filament and a two-celled 



Ac(ena sericea. 




Fig. 408. 

Longitudinal section of 

flower. 



' H.B.K., Nov. Gen. et Spec. PL JEquin., vi. 
1V9.— Wkdd., Chlor. And., ii. 237, t. V8. 

» Webb, Phi/io(j.Canar.,n.t.d9. — Spach.^hw. 
Sc. Nat., scr. 3, v. 43.— B. H., Gen., 624, n. 58. 

3 Ait., Rort. Kew., iii. 354.— Coll., Jlort. 
Bipul., 112, t. 40.— DC, Prodr., ii. 594, n. 2. 
— Hook., Bot. Mag., t. 2341. — Lowe, Fl. 
Mader., 240. 

'» Vahl, Enum., i. 273.— L., Manl., 200.— 



J., Gen., 336. — Lamk., Did., i. 25; Snppl., i. 
86. — Endl., Gen., n. 6372.— Spacii, Suit, a 
Bufon, i. 453.— B. H., Gen., 623, n. 56.— ^»- 
cistrum FOEST., Char. Gen., 3, t. 2.— Cf.ERTN., 
Fruct., i. 163, t. 32.— Lamk., Diet., i. 148; 
Suppl., i. 341.; IU.,X,. 22, tig. 1. 

" We may even find monandrous flowers, and 
that too in species with as many as three or 
four stamens normally. 



362 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLASTf^. 

anther, dehiscing by two introrse or lateral clefts. In tlie bottom of 
the receptacular sac we observe one or two carpels of Snnt/uimrba. 
The fruits are achenes, surrounded by the floral receptacle, whose 
outer surface rarely remains smooth, beini; usually covered with 
prickles, furnished at the tip with ri«,Md, obliquely-reflexed hairs ; so 
that each prickle is barbed like a little harpoon. In certain species 
the prickles are unequal and scattered over the whole surface.' But 
in a lart^er number tliey are as numerous as tlie sepals, arising from 
the upper part of a rib continuous with the midrib of the sepal ; in 
this case they are far better developed, and rise up more or less 
obliquely outside the calyx. = Acana comprises about thirty species 
of herbs or undershrubs from the cold and temperate regions of 
both hemispheres,' chiefly the southern, inhabiting especially South 
America' and Oceania.' Their leaves are alternate, imparipinnate, 
with two petiolary stipules. The flowers are in continuous or inter- 
rupted heads or spikes, at the summit of a usually terminal axis, 
naked below. 

Margijricarpid (figs. 409, 410) has hermaphrodite flowers, with 
the same elongated, narrow-mouthed receptacular sac. In the 
bottom of it we find a single carpel, with one suspended ovule in 
its ovary. On the rim of the opening, which is almost completely 
closed up by the glandular layer lining the receptacle and only 
leaving a narrow orifice for the style to pass through, are inserted 
from three to five (usually four) imbricated sepals, but no calycle. 
Interior to these are from one to three stamens, with slender 
filaments and introrse two-celled anthers. The outer surface of the 
receptacle bears four prominent vertical ridges, answering to the 
midribs of the sepals. In one species of this genus, which has been 
separated under the name Tdrayhchin^ each ridge later on becomes a 



' Tlie distinctive clmrnctcr of the section Ch., i. 67, t. 103. 101.— II. H. K., ^ov. Gen. 

Ewicana (DC). et Up., vi. 182.— C. Gat, Fl. CfnI., ii. 282.— 

■■' TliiB wcurB in Ancistrum, made a distinct Wkdd., Chlor. And., ii. 238, t. 76. 
Bection by Dk C'andou.k ; hut we find every * Foubt., /oc. eit. — HooE. K., Fl. Aniarct., 

transition hetween tliesc loculizid j)ri(kle«, :iud j). ii. i), t. xciv.-xcvi. — Hk.ntii., Fl. Aiutnil., 

the Hcattered oncH of Fuaramt. Tiiese rigid recti- ii. ■133. 

linear iiricliles are often covered with very still', • H. & Pav., Prot/r., vii. t. 33; Fl. Per. et 

acute, rcHexed haim, altogether giving the Chil.,\. 28, t. 8, Hg. d. — Lamk., Diet., Stippl., 

prickles the l<K)k of a many harhed hariioon. iii. 5S1).— DC, Prudr., ii. 5t)l. — Knol., Gen., 

» Wai.I'., liip; ii. •*:' ; v. Or..'. ; Ann., i. 2S() ; n. 6378.— SjAcii, Suit. a HhJuu, i. W5.— H. H., 

ii. 511) ; iii. 855 ; iv. (>*'>i. — Vknt., Jlort. tV/*., Gen., 623, n. 51. — Empetri spec. Lamk., Diet., 

t' 6.— I>INI)I... liol- l(".l; t. 1271.— Hauv. & i. 567.— -Ydciv/ri sj>ec. I.AMk., y//, i. 77. 
SoNU., Fl. C(ip.,n. 2iMi. " I'lKi'i'., Fnii/m. Si/nop.*., 26. — Km>i.., Gen., 

* Vahu, Enum.,Ziyi.—U. k I'av., Fl. Per.ef n. 637«>.- Wkhk., Chlor. Audin., ii. 236. t. 77. 



ROSACEA. 



»53 



3farffi/ricar}ms selosus. 




wing extending the whole length of the fruit. But in Marf/yricarpus 

proper they are only developed under the base of the sepals, forming 

some little unequal obtuse prickles. All the rest of the receptacle 

gradually becomes thick and quite fleshy, 

to form a nearly globular indusium around 

the true fruit. This is an achene with a 

hard, thick pericarp, and a suspended seed 

with a fleshy exalbuminous embryo. The 

genus consists of stiff, bushy shrubs from 

the Andine regions of South America,' with 

alternate leaves dilated at the base into a 

petiole, which forms an incomplete sheath, 

and is continuous at the edges with two 

broad membranous stipules. The blade of 

the leaf is either well-developed and im- 

paripinnate, or to a great extent abortive, 

the hardened midrib being transformed into 

a spine. The flowers are inconspicuous, 

solitary, axillary, and sessile. 

Cliffortia' (figs. 411,412) represents the 
most reduced type found in the order Ro- 
sacea. The flowers are dioecious, with either 
only stamens or only a gynaeceum in a simple 
floral envelope. In the male flower (fig. 
411) the receptacle is not concave ; it is the 
unmodified apex of a short axis, bearing a 
calyx of three or four imbricate leaves. 
The stamens are indefinite. Their filaments, inserted in the 
centre of the flower, are unequal free and slender, bent on them- 
selves in the bud. The anthers are two-celled, often didymous, 
dehiscing by two introrse or marginal clefts. The female flower 
has a similar calyx, but its sepals are inserted on the edges of the 
narrow orifice of a receptacle like that of Acana, Margyricarpus, or 



Fig. 409. 
Florifcrous branch. 




1 H. B. K., l\ox). Gen. et Spec, vi. 180.— 
W., Nov. Act. Nat. Cur., iii. 437.— C. Gay, Fl. 
Cliil, ii. 278, 280. 

- Cliffortia L., Gen., n. 1133 ; Eort. Clif- 
fort., t. 30, 31.— Ada>s., Fam. des PI., ii. 293. 
—J., Gen., 337.— Lamk.. Diet., ii. 46 ; Suppl., 

VOL. I. 



ii. 299 ; ///., t. 827.— DC, Prodr., ii. 595.— 
ExDL., Gen., n. G379 — SpaCH, Suit, a Buffon, 
i. 489.— 15. H. Gen., 625, n. bd.—Morilandia 
Neck., Ekm., n. 766. — Nenax G^btk., Fnict., 
i. 165, t. 32.— Monographidinm Peesl., Epimel., 
202. 

A A 



354 



NATUUAL niSTORY OF PLANTS. 



Sangimorha. This orifice 
edi'e of a f'lamlular disk, 



CUfforlw ilicifoli,!. 




is almost entirely closed by the thickened 
and here one may often observe a variable 
number of tiny scales, re- 
, presenting rudimentary sta- 

mens. In the bottom of the 
sac are inserted either one 
or two carpels, with an ovary 
like that of Potcnunt, and a 
style, which, at first recurved 
in the bud, afterwards becomes 



Fig. 412. 
Dhigrara of female flower. 



erect to form a long, exserted, 



thick tongue, one side of 
which is thickly covered with a papillose, plumose tissue. The 
fruit consists of one or two achenes enclosed in the receptacular 
sac, which has now become thick and coriaceous or horny, or more 
rarely corky or almost fleshy, and is itself surrounded by the per- 
sistent calyx, closely applied to its outer surface. The seeds are 
pendulous, with membranous coats and an embryo with thick, fleshy 
cotyledons and a superior radicle. 

C/ijf'ortia consists of slirubs from the south of Africa,' whose leaves 
are alternate, often crowded, with two lateral adnate stipules and a 
blade of very variable form, in some species recalling that of the 
Apple or the Elm, in others resembling the leaf-like branches of 
Jimcus (Butcher's Broom), or the leaves of the Proicavcte, Draco- 
phyllum, Sfi/phelia, or even of the Braccenecp. De C.'vndolle" has 
shown how these modifications pass into one another, while using 
them to subdivide the genus into sections.' According to him all 
the species have alternate leaves ; in those described as having them 
fascicled they are really trifoliolate ; as indeed they are in those 
described as having opposite leaves, but here the lateral leaflets are 
alone developed. The flowers are sessile, or nearly so, solitary or in 
pairs in the axils of tlie leaves. 



' TnuKD., Prodr. Fl. Cop., 1)3. — W., Spec, 
iv. 838. — Si'UKNU., A'. Ent., ii. 17k IIauv., 
Tfurn. Cup., t. lis.— IIarv. <t SONI)., /7. Cap., ii. 
292 (ncc 51»7). 



* Note xur le fi^ii/laffe iles Clillortin, Ann. 
Sr. Nat., H('r. 1, i. HT. 

* 1. Mullinerrut. 2. Dichoptrnr. 3. Tmui- 
foliir. V. Latlfoliir. 5. Jil/olivhr. 



ROSACE.^;. 



355 



III. STRAAVBEKRY SERIES. 

Tlie Strawberries' (Fr., Fmisirrs — figs. 413-419) have regular 

Fracfaria vesca (^Common Stratoherry). 




Fio. 418. 
Longitudinal section of carpel. 




polygamous or hermaphrodite flowers. In the latter we observe 



1 Fragaria T., Inst., 295, t. 152.— L., Gen., 
n. G33. — Adans., Fam. des PL, ii. 294. — J., 
Gen., 338.— G^RTN., Fruct., i. 350, t. 73.— 
Lamk., Bid., ii. 527; Suppl., ii. fiW ; ///., t. 



442.— Nestl., Potent., 17.— DC, Prodr., ii. 
569. — SpAcn, Suit, a Buffon, i. 4G2. — Ekdl., 
Gen., n. 6361.— B. H., Gen., 620, n. 47. 

AA 2 



356 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

receptacle like a very Hat cup with a circular rim, and the bottom 
pushed up in the middle like that of a wine-hottle. On this central 
projection, the true organic apex of the receptacle, are borne the 
carpels, while the perianth and androceum are inserted on the edges. 
The calyx consists of five sepals, valvate and sli<j:htly reduplicate in 
the bud, or rarely a little imbricated. Outside the calyx are five 
leaves alternating with the sepals, and forming what is called the 
calycle.' The petals, alternate with the sepals, are shortly unguicu- 
late, imbricated in the bud. The stamens are usually twenty in 
number, and are in this case arranged in three whorls ; there are five, 
each in front of the median line of a sepal, then as many in front 
of the petals, and lastly, ten others, one on either side of each of the 
latter.^ Each consists of a free filament and an introrse or sublateral 
two-celled anther, dehiscing longitudinally.' A glandular disk, more 
or less marked, lines the inside of the receptacle from the insertion of 
the stamens to the central prominence, which is covered by the in- 
definite carpels. These last are free, each consisting of a one-celled 
ovary, surmounted by a st^le which is inserted at a variable height on 
the ventral angle of the ovary, and gradually widens out towards its 
truncate stigmatiferous summit. Inside the ovary, about half-way 
up the ventral angle,^ is inserted a descending subanatropous ovule, 
whose micropyle looks upwards and outwards' (fig. 41b). The fruit 
is multiple, composed of a large number of achenes,'* borne on the 
prominent part of the receptacle, now much thickened,' fleshy, and 
succulent.^ The calyx and involucre persist at the base of this 



* Tbese are of stipular nature, each being bands, sometimes smooth, sometimes ]wpiUo8e. 

formed by the fusion of two adjacent stipules. We meet witli nearly the sjune orpiniz.ition in 

Indeed, very freciuently this fusion does not take nearly all the genera of this series — t'otentilla, 

place, and the calycle consists of ten leaves, in Geum, Drt/as. 

free or cohering pairs alternate with the sepals * The insertion of the ovule is lower down 

(see rATEU, Jilrm. de But., 90, <igs. 11.3, IH). according as that of the style (the true organic 

In one yellow-tlowered species, F. indica I)t'. a|>ex of the ovary) approaches the busi-. Thus, 

{I'rodr., ii. 571), wliich Smith (Trans. Linn. in F. indica the style is attaclanl at the junction 

A'or., X. 37-; — Wali'., Ann., iv. (JfiS) proiKwetl of the suptrior and middle thirds of the ovary; 

to make the ty])c of a distinct secticm under the the ovule is here very distinctly descending, and 

name of I)uche»neit, the leaves of the calycle its anatroj)y is far more i>ertc<'t than wiiere the 

are broad and with incised edges, and are far style is insertwl lower «l»wii. 

larger than the sepals themselves. * The ovule has a single coat. 

' When there arc more than twenty stamens * I^I ore frecjuently they are true drujH's ; but 

it is due to the tx-currence <jf iimrc or h-ss nume- the mestn-arji is very thin. 

roua deduplications, so that iu several whorls ' I'sually it rises u]) in the intervals between 

two or three of these organs may occupy the the fruits, so that they are inserted in little pit*. 

j)laco of a single one. but sometimes, as iu /'. indica, this insertion is 

'' The pollen is eUi|)soidnl with thrno longi- on slight promimnces of the receptacle, 

tudinal grooves, which in water became a* ma!iy " It may be harder and almost fibrous, of a 



ROSACEA. 



3o7 



multiple fruit, and each achene encloses a seed, containing a fleshy 
exalbuminous embryo, with its radicle superior. 

The Strawberries are perennial herbs ; the stem is a short sym- 
podium,' and the leaves are alternate, trifoliolate, digitate, or rarely 
pinnate, with two lateral petiolary stipules. The branches are often 
prolonged into runners with scattered leaves, whose axillary buds 
stril^e root in contact with the soil" (fig. 413). The flowers are 
terminal, solitary, or more frequently collected into alternate, few- 
flowered, often uniparous cymes at the summit of a conmion 
peduncle. A large number of species have been described, inhabiting 
all the temperate and alpine regions of the northern hemisphere, and 
the mountains of South America and the Mascarene Islands.^ But 
most of these are only forms or varieties, and there are probably not 
half a dozen true species. 

The Potentils' (figs. 420-427) come very near to the Strawberries 
in their perianth and androceum ;' and the true species are only dis- 
tinguished by two characters, which are sometimes very ill-marked.** 
The style is usually inserted higher up on the ovary, and so the 



similar consistency to tbat of Comarum. Wlien 
it is not very fleshy the achenes may sepiirate 
from it when quite ripe, as in certain Potentils. 

1 IHM. (r.), Bot. Zvit., viii. 250.— Wyld., 
Flora, xxxiv. 364.— Gben., JBuU. Soc. Bot. de 
IV., ii. 349. — J. Gay, Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 4, viii. 
185. 

2 A. S. H., Morph. Veg., 235.— A. Juss., 
Mem., 156.— Patue, Elem., 58, fig. 93. 

3 DucH., Eist. ^\lt. des Frais., 1766.— 
Feenz., Frag., 1662. — L., Fraga resca, 1772. 
—DC, Prodr., ii. 569.— LouK., Fl. Cock., 325. 
— RoxB., Fl. Ltd., ii. 520. — Wight & Abn., 
Prodr., Fl. Pen. Ind., i. 300. — Wight, Icon., 
t. 988, 989.— MiQ., Fl. Ind. Bat., i. p. i. 371. 
— H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Spec, vi. 172.— C. 
Gat, fl Chil, ii. 315.— Tore. & Ge., Fl. N. 
Amer., i. 447. — A. Geat, Man. of Bot., ed. v. 

155 J. Gat, loc cit., 194. — W alp.. Rep., ii. 

25 ; Ann., i. 277. 

* Potentilla T., Inst., 295, t. 153.— L., Gen., 
n. 634.— J„ Geti., 338, 453.— G^etn., Frvct., 
i. 350, t. 73. — Lamk., Diet., ii. 527 ; Suppl., ii. 
667, III., t. 442.— Nestl., Mon. Potent., 1816. 
— Lehm., Mon. Potent., 1820-35. — DC, 
Prodr., ii. 571.— Spach, Suit, a BuJJon, i. 409. 
— Endl., Gen., n. 6363.— B. H., Gen., 620, n. 
48.— Quinquefolium T., Inst., 296, t. 153.— 
Pentaphylloides T., op. cit., 2l>8. — Adans., 
Fam. des PI. ii. 295.— G^etx., Fnict., i. 349, 
t. 73. — Fragariastrum SCHKUE, Fnum. Plant. 
Transyhan., 137.— Bcolia Big., Fl. Best., 351. 



* The number of stamens is here as variable 
as in Fragaria. A. Dickson, who has studied 
the arrangement of the stamens in Rosacecs 
generally very fully (^ee Journ. of Bot., iii. 
(1865), 209), and contiruied most of the results 
obtained by Patee on this subject by organogenic 
study (see p. 337, note 1), has especially deter- 
mined the number of pieces in the audroceuui 
and their arrangement in Potentillas {On the 
Staminal Arr. in some Spec, (f Potent., and in 
Nuttallia cerasiformis ; Jcurn. of Bot. iv. (1806), 
t. Iii.). He has sliown that in certain species, 
such as P.Jruiicoia, the andrcceum furnis five 
festoons, each cor.taining four or five stamens, and 
extending from petal to petal; the convexity of the 
festoons is towards the centre of the flower, and 
there are no stamens superposed to the sepal:-. 
On these grounds the author considers the andro- 
ceum as formed of five compound stamens, the 
terminal lobe of each being developed as a petal 
so called, and the lateral lobes as fertile stamens. 
In other species, where he finds a stamen exactly 
superposed to a sepal, he considers it the repre- 
sentative in the androceum of one of the caly- 
cular leaves, which are of stipular i;alure, and 
hence alternate with the sei als just as the 
opposilisepalous stamens alternate with the op- 
positipetalous staminal bundles. 

6 So ill-marked indeed that we should cer- 
tainly be consistent in refusing to retain Fra- 
garia and Potentilla as distinct genera. 



358 



NATUllAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



ovule is more distinctly pendulous and more perfectly anatropous. 
Moreover, the receptacle does not become as thick and succulent as 
in the Strawberries, generally remaining dry and covered with hairs. 
To this genus we add below, as so many sections, a certain number 
of aberrant types. 

Potentilla replant (Cinquefoit). 




A\'e may clearly see how badly the character of the consistency of 
the receptacle distinguishes the Strawberries, and that the two genera 
should strictly be united into one, for Comarum^ of which one species 
is found in marshy places over a large part of Europe, has Iruits 
with a spongy receptacle, not so dry as in most Potentils, or so 
fleshy as in most Strawberries. 

Tnchothahniu'.r is Poteiifilla in which the hairs covering the recep- 
tacle are longer and more numerous than in the other species. It 
cannot be separated from the genus any more than Torment illa,^ whose 
flower is usually tetramerous, a number only exceptionally found in 
some other species. 

The androceuin is reduced in some uf the true Potentils, as indi- 
cated by the specific name of P. pcntandra." 

Here, as in the Strawberries, the habit may vary very much. 
There are woody or sufl'rutescent species like P. (uhui^viila, fnttivom, 



» L., Qen., II. 038.— (i.KKTN., Frucl., i. 34'J, 
t. 73.--T0UK. & (iu., /'/. y. Am., i. 4-17. — 
Enul., Gen., n. r>:i(;ii. T)ie jmrplo colour of Mil- 
peUU of C. I'liliiMlre h. {Sjuc, 7\H -.—J'ulfn. 
iilla Comaium Siuv., Fl. Carniul , ed. 2, v. i. 
Sb^J ;— P. rubra Hall. F., Seu. .1/m*. Jhli\,i. 
56 J — P. palustiiii Lkiim., Put., .02), in iii»uf- 
ficifiit to <li!.liii(,'ui»li it Jroiii all tin- otluT I'tileii- 
tiU. Hut it JK noteworthy tlmt the HlmneiiH iire 
UHually twinty in iiuinlitr, and tiiut tlie five 
(iiit4.Tm<M>l, hujutjiomhI lo tlio Mp.ilK, lift' fetUxod 
to liuch an extent tlmt their antherii heiome «x- 
trorne, at least at the heawMi of ferlili/.:ili..ii. 



The five leaves of the calycle are often detlupU- 
euted. The enrpels ure very nuuierous. 

- Lehm., Aur. Act. Acad. Casar., x. 586. 
t, Wi. — Lehit.aiin'ni Tii.vTT., Ku*. Aloitogr. iv. 

in. 

' TormenlUla en da L. {Spec, 716 ; — T*. 
officinalis Sii., i'li/;/. Bot.,i. ^A ;— Potentilla 
TtiimriitUla Xkstl., Man., (55. — ScilHANCK, 
ex I.KiiM., .Uon., lUt; — DC, Prodr., n. 18;— 
P. trtrapclala IIali.. I'.. Si:i(. .!/«... Ihle., i. 51 ; 
— P. iiemonitis Nn*TL., loc. cit. ). 

* See Hknth. <.V. II(K)K., (*>«., 1121. 



B08AGEJE. 



359 



&c. In others the stems and branches are slender and spread alon<^ 
the ground (tig. 420), or form runners, just as in the Strawberries. 
The leaves are very variable in form, for besides the exceptional forms 
of the degenerated types that we shall unite to the genus Polentilla, 
there are species with imparipinnate leaves, and others with digitate 
leaves, as indicated by the generic name l)actijlophylliim> 

There are Potentils in which the androceum is reduced to fifteen, 
ten, or even five stamens. Take for instance the American plants, 
of which it has been proposed to make the genera Ilorkdicr and 

Potentilla (Ilorkelia) congesia. 




Fig. 422. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 

Ivesia^ : I. santolinoidcs^ has fifteen stamens ; TL congesia,^ cimeata^ 
trideniatd' have ten — five superposed to the sepals, five to the petals. 
H. Gordoni^ has only five, superposed to the sepals. In the llorkeUas 
and Ivesias first known, this character, not of sufficient value in 
itself, was accompanied by others which then justified the establish- 
ment of new generic divisions ; but they have been found not to be 
constant in the species more recently studied, and can only serve to 
mark out secondary divisions in the genus Potentilla. These characters 



• Spenn., Fl. Friburg., iii. 1034 (P. procuni- 
bens Clairy., ex DC, Prodr., ii. 587 ; — Sibbal- 
dia procuinbeiis L., S^jec, 406). 

- Cham, & Sciiltl., Linncea, ii. 26. — Tokr. 
&,Gvi.,Fl. N. Amer., i. 434.— Hook., Bof. Mag., 
t. 2880. — LiNDL., Bot. Reg., t. 1997.— Kndi... 
Oeii., n. 6364.— TORR. & Gr., ap. Wippl., 161, 
t. 6. — A. Gray, Proceed. Amer. Acad,, vi. 528; 
vii. 336.— B. H., Gen., 621. 

•^ ToRR., ap. Wippl., ii. t. 4. — Torr. & Gn., 
Bot. Pacif. Exp., vi. 72.— A. Gray, Proceed. 
Amer. Acad., vi. 530; vii. 337. 



■• A. Gray, loc cii., 531. — I. gracilis Tore. 
& Ge., Newb. Pep., 1. 11. — Potentilla Newberryi 
A. Gray, loc. cit. 

* Hook., Bot. Mag., loc, cit. 

* LiNBL., loc. cit. {II. califomica Cn. & 
SoHLTL., Linncea, loc. cit,, nee aliorum). — II. 
grandis Hook. & Akn. — II. capitatu Torr. ap. 
Wippl., loc. cit. (nee Lindl.). 

^ Torr., ap. Wippl., loc. cit. 

8 Hook., Hook. Journ., v. 341, t. 12.— H. 
millefoliata ToRR. — Ivesia Oordoni ToEB. & 
Ge., up. Newb., 6, 72. 



360 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

are to be seen in the conformation of the androceum and the recep- 
tacle, and in tlie number of parts in the gynieceum. The anthers 
are sometimes oval or oblong in Jforlelia, as in //. congcnta, cmirata, 
sometimes didymous, as in //. tridentata, Gordoni, as well as in 
Ivcma sanfolinoidps. The filaments are flattened, long, and triangular, 
and nearly petaloid in //. congoHta and cuneaia, but filiform, as in the 
true Potentils (a cbaracter said to be proper to !rrsia),"\n II. Gordoni 
and Iridciitdfii} Tiie Horal receptacle rises into a higher tube in H. 
congesta than in most Potentils ; but in most of the other species it 
is more spreading ; in others, ngain, it is contracted below ; in short, 
its form is by no means constant in the species which resemble each 
other most closely in all other respects. In nearly all the Ilorkelias 
the carpels are as numerous as in the true Potentils, wbile in Ivesia 
their number is usually as much reduced as in Sibbaldia, most of 
the species having only four or five ; and some, such as //. Gordoni^ 
may only have two, or even only one. This latter number is constant 
in the very remarkable plant named /. santolinoides,^ which has fifteen 
stamens with didymous anthers, a hemispherical receptacle, and a hairy 
disk at the insertion of the stamens, while the flowers are arranged 
in cymes with slender axes, like those of a small Caryopbyllad, and the 
leaves are very peculiar, as we shall see below. We have made it the 
type of a distinct section under the name of Stellariopais. Its style is 
articulated at the base; it is at first terminjil, and then becomes 
inserted on the internal angle of the ovary below the summit. Its 
insertion, and the presence of the articulation at its base are also 
variable in the different llorkeliam and IvemiH above enume- 
rated. All these plants^ are herbs, possessing alternate stipulate 
pinnate leaves, with lobed leaflets. All have cymose flowers borne on a 
common scape. The foliage sometimes recalls that of PuteiitUla or 
Geum, sometimes that of Sjjircea or Saiiguisorha. The leaves of 
J. sanloli/ioidcx appear at first sight to differ widely from these forms. 
They are little silky cylinders, which at a distance appear of a 



' Acvonliiigly Aha (! ha v, wlm considered 7/. and /'o/fH/(7/<J, a C'liliforniaii sjKrii'.*, «itli >ilk> 

Gordoni »» «i doubliiil HpcrieM of thiit ^'inuH, be- letiHoU iirenscd together to turiu ii e^liudrical 

cauKe of the form of ibt tilanieiitH, li:ul phued tliiH blade, 

pluiit in the ^reiiUH IrtMta [l<,c. cit., Mu). ' A dozen Hi)ecie» liiivo Wen as vet diwribod, 

* It iH prububly to tlii» pltt'it that licNTiiAM nil nutivei* of North America, opicially the 

& IlookKK allude in their Urnmi when they Weslern rogiuna — Cuiifornia, tlie U»tky Moun- 

tile a« intermediate between J/orkrlin, Jrrsiii, tuinx, ic. 



B0SAGE2E. 



361 



single piece ; but they are really made up of numerous little leaflets 
crowded together, and as it were piled up on one another, being kept 
in contact by the velvety down with which they are covered. 

Those Ivesias which, hke /. Ii/copodioides,' have only five stamens 
are in that respect analogous to Sibbaldia" (figs. 4:23-427), which 

Potentilla [Sibbaldia) procumbens. 





Fig. 424. 
Longitudinal section oiF flower. 




Fig. 426. 
Carpel. 





Fig. 427. 
Longitudinal section 



of carpel. 

comprises small plants from the temperate regions of Europe and 
Asia, and the arctic regions of America, possessing the androceum of 
FotentiUa pentandra, with the habit, foliage, and floral organization^ 
of very many alpine species of FofenfUla, from which it is impossible 
to separate them. Nor is Bryadanthe'^ more distinct; it is a species 



* A. Gbat, Froc. Amer. Acad., loc. cit., 531, 
n. 4. 

■ L., Qen., n. 393. — J., Gen., 337.— G^etn., 
Fruct., \. 3-38, t. 73.— DC, Prvdr., ii. 586.— 
Hung., Ledeb. Fl. Alt., i. 428 — Ledeb., Jco7i. 
Fl. Boss., t. 276.— Endl., Oen., n. 6367. — 
Boyle, lllustr. Himal., t. 40, fig. 5. — Jacquem., 
Toy. Bot.,i.&l. — Walp., Rep., ii. 37; Ann., 
i. 269. 

3 The androceum may consist of ten stnmens, 
but it is usually isostemonous. Thus in tlie 
flowers of S. cuneata KzE., there are only five 
stamens, alternipetalous, witli introrse anthers, 
and filaments inserted round the edge of a glandu- 
lar disk lining the porringer-like receptacle. Tliis 
disk has five cusps, where the petals, articulated 



at the base, are inserted ; while the stamens are 
inserted at the middle points of the concave 
edges. The filament, too, is articulated with 
the anther. The surface of the disk is covered 
with hairs between the stamens and the gyn.Tj- 
ccum. The number of carpels may be much 
reduced in Sibbaldia, but is here indefinite. The 
summit of the receptacle rises into a slender foot, 
dilated into a swelling at the apex where it bears 
the carpels, each with a little cylindrical stalk, a 
neaily gynohasic style and an ovule with a single 
coat, whose micropyie looks upwards and out- 
wards. 

■» Endl., Gen., n. &Zm.— Sibbaldia tetrandra 
Ege., Verz. Alt. PJlanz., 25. 



362 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Irom the Altiii and the Himahiyas, whose flowers are polygamous, 
but in other respects altoi^rether those of Sihhaldia. 

In the above reduced types whicli we have referred to the genus 
Polent'dia, when tlie androceum is only isostemonous, the persisting 
stamens are those superposed to the sepals. In the plants of which 
the genus C/iamcpr/iodos' has been made, the five oppositipetalous 
stamens alone persist.* The number of carpels varies ; the ovule is 
always that of Pofcntillft, and the style is inserted at a variable height 
on the internal angle. The inflorescence is often, as in Strllariopsis, 
analogous to that of the C(irt/ojj/ii///ac<'tp, and the hradeuJie forming 
the calycle are absent or reduced to very rudimentary glands, as we 
shall find is the case in certain species of Geum. Thus, Chanicerhoduis 
is no more separable from the genus Putenfil/n than Si/jbaklia, Ivesia, 
&c., and forms only a section apart. This is represented by four or 
five herbaceous plants, with the stem IVutescent at the base, and 
with alternate leaves like those of the Tormentil ; they are found in 
the centre and north of Asia, and also in America on the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Thus constituted, the genus PotcntiUa, with its eleven sections,' 
includes about two hundred and fifty species, according to most 
descriptive works ; but this number should be reduced by at least 
a third. 

The Brambles' (Fr., llonceti — figs. 4:28-431) may be very briefly de- 
fined now that we know the two preceding genera. Their flowers are 
those of the Strawberries and Potentils, but have no calycle ; and their 
Iruits consist of a variable number of drupes, not aehenes, inserted 
on the convex surface of a receptacle which is less fleshy than in 



' Hoe., Ledeh. FL All., i. 42'J.— Ledeb., 

Icun. Fl. lto»a., t. 257, 271.— Ekdl., Oen., n. 

C:«i5.— Touit. & (ju., Ft. Bor.-Amer., i. 433. 

-Wah'., Hep., ii. 37, 913.— B. H„ Oen., 621, 

n. lU. 

• Kach coiiHint,-! of :i mthcr slondfT tilimicnt 
mill ill! iiitrorHi' two-cfllL-d iiiitla-r. On tlic iniuT 
liicu th«ie cillsi uro only Hi'i»uraleU from unotla-r 
liy a hIiuIIow (groove; tlie Hiu-h of ililimiH-iiiv 
form two arcu with tlit-ir concavilii-h fm in^, and 
iinully iiltnoMt touch ul ImjIIi eniU, iiiarkin^ out a 
hort of (lii|), tlie form ofuliidi ini^lit at tir.st 
"•ijj'lit give the jiiii»ri-M*ion tliat tliu antliur \va.«< 
uniloculnr. 

» Potenlilla. 

S<H.t.onHll. ) ^ ,.„,„„„„//„ ^ 



3. Comannn, 

4. Frat/ariaalntm. 

5. TrichothaUtmua. 

6. Sihbaldia. 

7. Dryitddiiihe. 
«. Jloikelia. 
I). Jresia. 

1(1. Shliariopxii. 

11. Chamaihodos. 
liul,u.i \.; (Jen., n. r>32. — Al)AN8., Fam. de* 
-J., (int., 338. — (t.KUTN., Fmct., 
i. 350, t. 73.— Lam K., Diet., vi. 235 ; Suppl., iv. 
Gi)3; III., t. ill. fig. 1.— IK"., Prvd,:, ii. 550.— 
Si'Aiii, Suit, a HuJJ'iiH, i. 453. — K.VDL., Uen., 
n. ()3G0.— rAVKK, OniaHop., 603, t.ti. tigu. 1-12. 
— IJ. 11.. Oen., <)lt>". n. 'iy\.-Y CtiUiclU Wxv., 
Sillim. Jouni. (IHIU). 377 (ox KndV.). 



Sections 11 
(continued). 



PL, ii. 2'Ji.- 



ROSACEA. 



aos 



tlie Strawberries. This central portion of the receptacle is generally 
conical and very prominent in the flower. The broad part on 
whose edges are inserted the perianth and androceum is like a 
shallow porringer, and is lined by a layer of glandular tissue. The 
carpels' and stamens" are indefinite in number ; the sepals and petals 



Rulus fniticosus {Blackberry). 





Fig. 429. 
Lorigitudinal section of flower. 



Pig. 428. 
Floi-iferous branch. 




imbricated in the bud, the former quincuncially,' Five hundred 



species have been described in this 



but most of these are 



' They are usually very nunieious in the spe- 
cic?< of Ruhus proper. In the flower each con- 
sists of a one-celled ovary surmounted by a style 
which is terminal or inserted near the summit 
of the ventral angle of the ovary, stigmatiferous, 
and often more or less dihitid at the tip. Owing 
to the insertion of the style the ovules, which 
are inserted at the same part, are exactly de- 
scending and completely anatropous, with the 
micropyle turned upwards and outwards. They 
have only a single coat, as in the Koses, whose 
floral organization is, except as regards the 
receptacle, altogether that of the Brambles. The 
two ovules arc at first ecpial and collateral ; but 
we rarely see both reach their full developujcnt ; 



usually one of them is early reduced to a cellular 
mass, which may simulate an obturator and cnp 
the exostome of the fertile ovule. 

- The position of the stamens is, according to 
Patee, the same as in the Eoses. At a certain 
stage we see the androceum represented by only 
ten stamens placed in pairs, one stamen on either 
side of each petal {luc. cit., fig. 3). Afterwards 
the other stamens arise in the intervals between 
these in verticils from without inwards. 'J'lie first 
stamens appear on a sort of circular pad lining 
the edge of the inside of the receptacular cup. 

^ They early cease to overlap, and aj)pear val- 
vate in certain species. The flowers may be ex- 
ceptionally tetra- or hexamcrous. 



364 



NATURAL niSTOIlY OF PLANTS. 



Subut id<eut {Rtupherry). 



contested, and considered as mere forms or varieties by certain 
authors, who only admit aljout one hundred true species. They are 
found in the warm and temperate regions of all five quarters of the 
globe.' Nothing can be more variable than their vegetative organs. 
In our country they are sarmentose shrubs, prickly, glabrous, tomen- 
tose, glandular, or covered with a whitish waxy dust. Elsewhere 
they are little perennial prostrate creeping herbs. This is the 
case with Dalibnrda,^ consisting of plants from 
America and Asia, which only differ from the 
true Brambles in the thinner fleshy portion of 
their pericarp. The number of carpels is, it is 
true, sometimes smaller and nearly definite ; but 
this peculiarity is also found in several of the 
true Ilnhi. The leaves of the Brambles are often 
lobed, or compound with three or five leaflets, or 
even imparipinnate with indefinite leaflets ; they 
sometimes resemble those t)f the Rose, sometimes 
those of Gcum, Frayaria, or Spircea ; more rarely 
they are simple, as in the Pear or the Plum. 
They always possess two lateral petiolary stipules. The flowers are 
rarely solitary ; they are usually cymose, axillary or terminal, often 
collected near the tops of the branches into simple or ramified 
cymes described as panicles or thyrses. In this case the leaves to 
which the cymes are axillary become gradually smaller and simpler, 
and are finally reduced to narrow bracts. 




' TmuB., De Rubo, 1813.— Rudb., Rub. 
hum., 1716.— Paull., De Cbauiam. Norv., 
1G7G._Camkk., De Rub., id., 1721.— Schulz., 
Dt Kub. id., 1744.— AuuiiKN., Moii. Hub. t!utc., 
1810.- -Nei-s &, Wkiuk, Hub. German., 1820.— 
WalubT. & KiTAiu., ri. Ilungar. Bar., t. Ill, 
2f,K.— (iUKN., Mon.des Rub. des Enrir. de 
h'tnuii, IH13.— CJkkn. & (louii.. Fl. de Fr., i. 
&3<».— L'liAiiuiKS.. Jiull. .Soc. Jiul. de Fr. vii. 
2f;8. — Uaui.not.. .sy«. '/ Brit. Kub., 18k), 
Supi.l., 1850; The Jirilish Kubi. IWJ.— 
Ja(Q., Voif., t. 5y, f)0.— 11. 11. K., Hor. Uen. 
el Spec, vi. 172, t. 657, &68.- Touu. & (Jk., 
J'l. y.Amer., i. IIU.— A. (iUAV, J/«m. of Jiut., 
e.1. V. 150.— CllAlM.. /'/. S. Vnit.-StaleB, 121.— 
ToKU. & (iu.. up. Wii-i-i.. IGl.— Wki.i.., Cldor. 
And., ii. 231.— ('. <iAY. Fl. Chil , ii. :J07.— Hook. 
v., Fl.Antarcl.,Y.\\.tyVA: llandb.ujthe S.Zeal. 
FL, &!.— Sk»m., Herald, 2S2. y7<;.— Uinth.. 



Fl. Austral., ii. 429 ; Fl. Hongk. 104.— RoxB., 
Fl.Jnd., ii. 516.— Mig., Fl. Iml.-Bat.,\. \>.\. 
373; Mtis. Ltiyd. Bat., iii. 34.- Wujiit, Icon., 
t. 225, 231, 232. — Tjiwait., Enum. J'l. Zei/l., 
lOl.— Hauv. & SoKi)., Fl. Cap., ii. 28(5.— 
Hook., Icon., t. 46, 311), 7211, 730, 741, 742. 
LiNDL., Bol. Reg., t. 1368. 1424, l(kt7. — 
Waip., Rep., ii. 13, 912; v. 6^19; Ann., i. 972; 
ii. 167 ; iii. 855 ; iv. 057. 

• L., Spec, fd. 1, 431.— MiCHX., Fl. Bvr.- 
Am., i. 299, t. 27.— Lamk.. Did., vi. 219; 
Suppl., iv. 696; III., t. 441. tij:. 3.-N'ksii... 
I'ot., 16, t. 1.— DC, I'rodr.. ii. 568.— ToKU, ii 
CiB., Fl. N. Amrr., i. -1-19. — Ksvh., Gen., ii. 
(5359. — The ciiriK'lii uro Miiiietiiucit vitj- mniio- 
rou8 ill llu'iie pbintii. Tliiy are wiid to Ihhmiiio 
iicbi'iuH; but \Mi hiiVf M'l'ii ibiit ill st'ViTiil Kpc- 
cii'H, tlifv beciniic iii-iirly m* IIivnIiv \sbcii rijHj M 
in uur iiidigiMiuua I>riiiiibK'ii. 



ROSAGE/E. 



365 



Gnum,^ (lEng., Avcns ; Fr., Bemtte—hgs. 4:32-434) has alto- 
gether the flower of Pofenfilla, the same receptacle, the same 
calycle, the same valvate calyx, and the same organization of 
the corolla, the androceum, tlie disk, and the outer parts ; but tlie 



Geum in-banum {Herb Bennet). 




ovary of each carpel contains one erect basilar ovule, while that of the 
Potentils is descending ; yet strange to say, the micropyle of this 
ovule, though inferior, still looks outwards" (fig. 435). In Gcum 
proper the style is inserted at or very near the apex of the ovary, and 
is once or twice bent on itself before terminating in a stigmatiferous 



' Geum L., Oen., n. 636. — J., Gen., 338. — 
G^KTN., Fruct., i. 351, t. 74. — Lamk., Diet., 
i. 398; Suppl., i. 615; III, t. 443.— DC, 
Prodr., ii. 550. — SPAcn, Suit, a Buffon, i. 
479.— Endl., Gen., n. 6386. — Payer, Or- 
ganog., 501, t. c. figs. 1-22.— B. H., Gen., 
619, 11. \\: — Caryophyllata T., Inst., 294, t. 



151.— AD.iNS., Fam. des PL, ii. 295. — M(ENCH, 
Meth., 661. 

■ It has only one coat, and is at first descending 
while it still consists of only a naked nucleus. 
Pretty frequently it so happens that we lind two 
ovules in the ovary, of which one alone is fertile 
and well developed. 



mcj 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



liead, and is glabrous or nearly so ; wliile in Sicversia,^ wrongly made 
into a distinct genus, it is straight, and elongates into a slender 
rod, covered with long hairs after fertilization. The multiple fruit 
consists of numerous achenes, surmounted by the persistent styles, 
and borne on a common more or less elongated column, representing 
the top of the tloral axis. In each achene is an erect seed, whose 
membranous coats inclose an exalbuminous embryo, with its radicle 
inferior. Gcum consists of perennial herbs, whose growth recalls 
the Strawberries and Potentils. Their leaves possess two lateral 
petiolary stipules and are imparipinnate, or pinnatisect towards the 
base of the stem. The Howers are solitary, or clustered in often 
few-Howered cymes on a common peduncle. 

The Siberian plant that has been designated Culuricr is only a 
Geum, whose styles are articulated at the base and fall off the 
achenes in the fruit.^ IFaldsfcinia* (figs. 433, 434) presents the same 
peculiarity, and has, moreover, the flowers of Coluna, but the 
number of carpels is reduced ; there are often only five or six, and 
one species^ cultivated in our gardens has usually only two or 



' W., Berl. Mag., v. 398.— R. Be., Parr. 
First Voy., App., 286, t. c. — Cham. & Schltl., 
lAnncBa, ii.4. — Endl., Oen., n. G38i. — Buchavea 
llEiCH., Cowtpect., 167. — Adamsia Fiscit., cx 
E.VDL., loc. cit. — Oreogeum Seb., DC, Prodr., 
ii. 553. 

2 R. Bk., Parr. First Voy., App., 276, not. 
—hoF.., Lede/j. Fl. .4/<.,ii. 262.— Endl., Oen., 
n. 6388. — 15. II., Gen., 611), n. Mi.—Larmannia 
FiscH., cx Lkueu., loc. cit. — Geum Laxmanni 
Cl.fJUTN., Fnict., i. 132, t. 74.— DC, Prodr., ii. 
B'ji, 11. 28 (sect. Slivtogeum Seu.). — O. polen- 
tilloides Ait., J/orf. Kew., cd. 1, v. 2, 219.— 
JJrif'ui geoides I'all., It,, iii. 372, t. v. fifj. 1, 
U, C 

• The bnso of the carpels is also articulated 
with the rccei)taclc. In tlio cultivated plant 
there arc sometimes two equally developed 
ovulcM ill each carpel, even at maturity. 

* W., N. Verh. Berl. Nalur. Freuml., ii. 106. 
t. I, fii?. 1 ; Sprr., ii. I()(i7.— Wai.dht. & Kit., 
Plant. Jlungar. liar., I. 77.— S VMTL., Put ., 17, 
t. i.— DC, Prodr., ii. 555.— Si-ACn, Suit, ii 
Buffon, i. 481.— Eniil., Gen., n. 63H2.— 15. M., 
Gen., 611>, n. 45.- Comaropsiji L. C Run., 
Nkhtl., Pol., 16, t. 1. DC, Prodr., ii. 555. 
Enul., Gen., n. 6383 (cx part.). 

4 W. Gfolde.i W.. loc. cit. Koin)., Kol. 
Cah., t. Wi. Pol. M,ig.,i. 25<t5. It in ii pe- 
rciiiiiiil hcrh, whow rhi/.oiiie iHcovoriil witli nlt«'r- 
iiatc h-uvi.'H or tlieir sairH, iiiiil wilii advent itioim 



roots. In the spring this rhizome elongates by 
its superior extremity, which gradually rises ver- 
tically. This part bears new leaves, dilated and 
sheathing at the base of the petiole, but with- 
out true stipules. Axillary to these are leafy 
branches or inflorescences. The Horifcroiis 
branches bear first some leaves, which here jhw- 
ses-s distinct stiiiuK's, and then alternate bnicts. 
A single flower of tiie first generation t^-riiiiiiates 
the axis; then arises from the axil ofcachof the 
bracts below it a secomlary axis, also terminated 
by a flower, and itself bearing an axis of the third 
order. Thus the iiifloresceiue is analogous to that 
of Geum ])ro|)cr, a terminal panicle of alternate 
uniparous few-flowered cymes. In the flower wo 
have a calydo whose leaves may In? dethiplicated, 
a valvato calyx, and an imbricated oorolln. The 
petals have at the base a little glandular nectary 
bounded internally by a scale very miuh like 
tliat on the petals of several Crowfoots. There 
are from thirty to forty stamens. In the former 
Ciise five are superposed to the .sepals, and the 
rest are in five groups of five eacli in front of 
the potids. The interior of the loeeptade is 
lined by a glandular disk, first of all forming a 
festoon projecting to the foot of each of the in- 
nermost |>etiils, and tlieii Itoeomiiig thinner and 
extending to above the insertion of the corolla. 
The bottom of tiie rece]>tacle rises up into a 
slender column as in Geum ; but instead of bcini; 
smooth or pitted, it divides iit the h\h-x into two 



nOSACEJE. 



367 



three. From Grinn, however, we cannot separate Coluria, because 
of its articulated style, nor Walddeinia on account of the reduced 
number of its carpels, since we do not distinguish Ilorkelia or SiMaldia 
and luesia respectively, presenting as they do these characters, from 



Oeum Waldsteinia. 



^^ 





Fig. 434. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 



Potentilla. In this genus Geniii we must also retain Sfylipus venius,^ 
a small-flowered North American plant, in which the calycle dis- 
appears entirely, or is only represented by five very minute glands 
alternating with the sepals. The same thing occurs in some of the 
known species" of the section Waldsteinia. Thus marked out, the 
genus Geum includes about thirty-five species,' from the cold and 
temperate regions of all parts of the world, but more abundant in 
the northern hemisphere. 

The genus Dry as'' (fig. 435), which has often given the group now 
under consideration the tribal name oiBryadece,^ has altogether the 
sexual organs" and fruit of the section Sicversia of Gct/m ; but the 



or three branches, as many as there are carpels. 
Each ovary is articulated with the top of this 
branch and the style itself is articulated at its 
base, as in Coluria. The ovule is that of Geum 
proper. 

1 Rafin., Neogen. (1825), 3, ex Tobe. & Gk., 
Fl. N. Amer., i. 422. — Qeiim vernum Tore. & 
Ge., loc. cit. 

2 DC, loc. cj7.— ToEE. & Ge., Fl. N. Amer., 
i. 426.— A. Geat, Man. of Bot., ed. v. 153.— 
Chapm., Fl. S. Unit.-Slates, 123. — Walp., 
Sep., ii. 46. — Roox., Icon., t. 76; Bot. Mag., 
t. 1567, 2595. 

3 DC, Prodr., ii. 550, 555.— Geen. & Godk., 
JF7.rfei^;-.,i.519.— Doiss., Vog. JE:5/?.,t.58.— Tokk. 
& Ge., Fl. N. Amer., i. 420. — A. Gray, Man. of 
Bot., ed. V. 151 ; PI. Fendler., 40.— Chapm., 
Fl. 8. Unit.-Slales, 123.— C Gay, Fl. Chil., ii. 
276.— Wedd., Chlor. And., ii. 235.— Hook. F., 
Fl. Antaref., ii. 262; Handh. of N.-Zeal. FL, 



55.— Benth., Fl. Austral., ii. 427.— Haet., 
Thes. Cap., t. 18. — Haet. & Sond., J'Z. Cap., 
ii. 289.— Walp., Eep., ii. 46; v. 656; Ann., i. 
^T2.—Bot. Reg., t. 1088, 1348. 

^ L., Gen., n. 637.— J., Gen., 338.— G^etn., 
Fruct., i. 352, t. 74. — Lamk., Diet., ii. 329; 
Suppl., li. 525 ; III., t. 443. — Nestl., Pot., 
16.— DC, Prodr., ii. 549. — Spach, Suit, a 
Buffon, i. 477.— Endl., Gen., n. 6389.— B. H., 
Gen., 618, n. 42. — Chamadrgs Clxts., Hist., 
ii. 351, ex Adans., Fam. des PL, ii. 295. 

* Ventl., Tabl., iii. 349. — Endl., op. cit., 
12il. —FudrgadecB ToBE. &Gn.,FL N. Amer., 
i. 426. 

^ B. oclopefala L. (Spec, 717) has very 
numerous stamens, as in most species of Geum. 
The filaments, intlexed in the bud, are inserted 
on the margin of the glandular coloured disk 
lining the receptacle. The carpels arc very nume- 
rous, and like those of Sieversia (tig. 435). The 



368 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



Dryaa 
octopetala. 



calyx and corolla consist of eight or nine leaves apiece ; the achenes 
are sessile, and the solitary flowers are borne on erect terminal 
peduncles. Only two species are known, from arctic, 
alpine and temperate districts of the northern hemi- 
sphere ;' they are undershrubs, with pretty thick stems, 
which rise to no great height, but are usually prostrate 
and ramified, bearing short branches with alternate, 
simple, very polymorphous leaves, possessing two lateral 
petiolary stipules. 

Cowania and Fallugia have also the sessile achenes 
surmounted by long feathery styles of Dryax or Sieversia ; 
but have quite different vegetative organs. They are 
true erect very bushy shrubs, found in North America, 
Mexico, and California. Cowa/iia," of which three 
species have been described, has hermaphrodite or poly- 
gamous flowers with the receptacle of Jiosa, covered 
externally, like the calyx, with capitate glandular hairs ; 
five unequal quincuncially imbricated sepals, and five im- 
bricated petals alternating with these; and a large number 
of stamens inserted in the throat of the receptacle, 
above the thick edge of a glandular disk lining the inside 
of the sac. The carpels are five in number, or more 
frequently indefinite, inserted in the bottom of the 
receptacular sac, and each containing an erect ovule. 
Each fruit contains a seed with a fleshy embryo, sur- 
rounded by a thin layer of albumen. The flowers are 
solitary and sessile, terminating the short branches 
which are covered by numerous alternate leaves, each 
of which possesses two lateral petiolary stipules entire, 
or more or less deeply notched or lobed. FaUut/ia^ 
of which only one species is known, has the calyx of Cowmna, 



ovary contaiim one ovuk' which \% incompletely 
uiialrojwuH, no that its liiluiii is lii^lii-r u]) tliuii 
it« inicropyle ; it Iki.h only one coat. TlicHtipnu- 
tifonniH extremity of tliu Htylt- ih warcely diluted. 

' Hook., Kxut. Flur., t. T20 ; Jiut. Ma,/., t. 
2i)72.-(JuE.v. & (JoDU., /v. ,lf Fr., 1. ^iH.— 
Walp., Rep., ii. 49 ; Ann., i. im. 

^ Don, TranM. Linn. Sue, \\\. VI \, t. 22, 
figH. ]-(>. — Km)I.., Gen., n. (JSR?. Swkict. 



Brit. Ft. Oard., sor. 2, vii. t. 400.- Tokk. A 
Gu., ap. n'ippl. Erpi-d., l(Vt(2S). -I?. 11.. Om., 
filH. n. ^\.— Oreggia E.nqklm., Hot. H'itliz. 
Exped., 30, not. 

' Knui,., Gi-h., n. 0385.— ToKU., Emor. Sep., 
t. 2. -Touu. & (}tt.,np. nippl. Exped., 164 (2«). 
— H. H., Gen., (\\H, n. 43. — Sieversia para, 
doxa Don, Tirana. Linn. Soc., xiv. 57G, t, 22, 
fiff.7-10. 



ROSACEA. 369 

but with a calycle; the ovary and androceiim are identical, 
the disk is covered with hairs, and the carpels are seated on a 
central prominence of the receptacle. The leaves are irregularly 
lobed or pinnatifid, and the flowers are borne on long slender 
peduncles ; these are sometimes solitary, sometimes accompanied 
by lateral younger flowers, also borne on long axes, on which we 
find but a few scattered bracts. Thus the two genera Cowania and 
Fallugia are only separated by characters of very little value.' 

ChamcBhatia' may be considered as Geum or Cotvania with a uni- 
carpellary gynseceum. The floral receptacle forms a pretty deep 
cup, lined by a thin downy disk and covered externally with capitate 
glandular hairs. On its rim are inserted five valvate sepals, and 
five alternating petals, imbricated in the bud. The stamens are 
indefinite, inserted within the perianth,^ with free filaments inflexed 
in the bud, and introrse two-celled anthers. The flower is, then, 
also nearly that of the Brambles ; but the gynseceum only consists of 
one nearly central carpel. The unilocular ovary is swollen on one 
side, and is traversed on the opposite side by a vertical groove,^ con- 
tinued the whole length of the terminal style surmounting the 
ovary. The thick edges of this groove are everted for nearly the 
whole length of the style, and are covered with stigmatic tissue. 
At the base of the ovary is a short placenta bearing a single erect 
anatropous ovule, whose raphe looks towards the above-mentioned 
groove, while the micropyle is inferior and dorsal as in Genm. The 
fruit is an achene with a coriaceous pericarp, surrounded by the 
receptacular sac. The seed is ascending, and attached by a broad 
umbilicus ; it contains within its thick spongy coats a fleshy embryo, 
with its radicle inferior, and surrounded by a thin layer of albumen. 
The only known species of this genus' is a little shrub with odo- 
riferous organs covered with glandular hairs. The leaves are alter- 



^ And, were it not for the consistency of tlieir ^ They are shorter and inserted lower down 

stems, no one would have dreamed of separating the receptacular cup as they are more in- 

them from Geum, towards which Dri/as already ternal. 

afforded a passage, so to say, with its thick rlii- ' In the fresh flower I have seen that the 

zome and its smaller and simpler leaves. It would lips of this groove are in contact hut without 

be no more strange to recognise the species of any cohesion ; so that they may be separated 

Cowania and Falhiij'a as belonging to the genus without any breach of tissue. 
Geum, than to con&iAer Potent ilia fntticosa and * C.foliolosa Bentu., loc. cit. — HoOK., Bot. 

the allied woody species as members oi Paten- Mag.,t. 5171. — Heh., Hortic. Franq. (1861), 

tilla. t. ii. — Tore., Plant. Fremont., t. vi. — Tokk. & 

2 Benth., Plant. Eartweg., 308.— H. H., (iv.., ?i^. Wippl. Fxped.,\Q,4>{2S). 
Gen., 617, n. 39. 

VOL. I. B B 



370 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

nate, stipulate, glandular, tripinnatisect, with very numerous 
pinnules, glandular at their apices. The flowers, accompanied by- 
glandular bracts, are collected into little cymes terminating the 
branches. 

Pursliid} in habit and foliage nearly resembles Cowania, and not 
certain species of PolcntiUas as is the case with Chamabatia ; still the 
flowers are very like those of the last-named genus: the same 
perianth, the same external capitate hairs, the same gj-na^ceum, with 
its peculiar stigma formed of papilla? scattered over the everted 
lips of the longitudinal groove of the style, the same ovule with 
its ventral raphe and its interior dorsal micropyle. The sepals 
and petals are imbricated in the bud, and the dry fruit, partly sur- 
rounded by the hardened receptacle, contains a single seed with 
thin albumen and an erect embryo whose radicle is inferior." But 
the androceum of Purshia contains a far lower number of stamens ; 
there are usually only from twenty to thirty ; the receptacle on 
whose edges they are seated is much more elongated, like a cornet 
or a narrow funnel; and the alternate leaves are small, serrate, 
simple, and cuneiform, or tridentate, trifld, or even pinnatifid, with 
two little adnate stipules at the base of the petiole. The only known 
species,' which grows in the Eocky Mountains, has the appearance 
of a little much-branched Cotoneaster. Its flowers are sessile, axillary 
and terminal. 

Cercocarpiifi* (figs. 43G, 437) also consists of shrubs or under- 
shrubs, in habit and foliage recalling certain species of Coicnnia. 
The hermaphrodite flowers are constructed on the same general 
type as in the two preceding genera ; the gynajceum, too, is reduced 
to a single carpel whose ovary contains a single nearly basilar ovule, 
with its raphe ventral. But there are no petals, and the receptacle 
presents considerable modifications in the conformation of its 
difl'erent j)arts. It is like a narrow vase, much elongated, and 



' DC, Trans. Linn. Soc, xii. 157 ; Prodr., ii. w exceptional in the Fraqarifit, would sct-m to 

641. — Hook., /'/. Jior.-Amer., i. 170, t. 58. — bring J*urshia near certain Spireea. 

LiNDL., Jiol. Reg., t. inn. — Kndl., Oen., n. ' P. tridrutata DC, loc. cit. — Tigarta tri- 

638(».— TouK. A (Jit., Ft. N. Amer., i. 428.— dentata Vvmn. 

B. H., Ufn., r,\7, n. Vl.— Titfarea I'itksii., Fl. * \\. U. K., iSor. Orn. el Spec, vi. 183, t. 

A'. Amer.,\. SM. t. 15 (nee Arm,.). Kiinzia 551».— DC, Prodr., ii. 58*1 — Tokk. & Ok.. /'/. 

Spkkn(}., Si/tt. I'etj., ii. tTn (mc Kkicii.). A. Aiitrr., i. 427.— Hook.. Iron., t. 322-324.— 

■•' The t.>U iH thick, hliukinh, and Hhininj,'. Km. I... (ien., n. 6381.— H. H., (?ri... 018. n. 40. 

and almost Hjx.npy intcnmlly. liKMiUM & — lirrtolonia Sk88. & Mo«;., ex DC, loe. rit. 

llooKUt n-niiirk that thin .in.Miiil/ati,,i, «)iich (not SrurNQ., nee lUuu.). 



E03ACE2E. 



r,7i 



Cercocarpus fothergiUoides. 



gradually tapering into a loni^ linear neck, which near the mouth 
suddenly expands into a broad cupule, on whose edges are seated 
the sepals and stamens. Of the former there are five or six, at first 
imbricated in the bud.' The 
latter are from fifteen to thirty 
in number, an-anged in verticils, 
each stamen composed of a free 
filament and an introrse two- 
celled anther dehiscing lon- 
gitudinally. The receptacular 
cupule is lined by a very thin 
layer of glandular tissue. In 
the very bottom of the re- 
ceptacle is inserted the gynse- 
ceum, whose free ovary tapers 
above into a slender style, 
which passes out of the 
narrow mouth of the recep- 
tacle to end in a slight stigma- 
tiferous dilatation. After fer- 
tilization the gynseceum goes 
on enlarging, and the style 
goes on elongating, and then 
lifts up and carries with it the 
upper part of the receptacle 

W^hich comes Ofi" (fis^. 436) Flower after rupture 
^ of the receptacle. 

from the lower part near the 
base of the neck, and leaves it persisting like a narrow flask around 
the fruit. This is a coriaceous achene with an elongated seed, 
whose straight embryo has its radicle inferior. The persistent style 
forms a long feathery column, owing to the great development of 
the hairs which covered it. Of this genus five or six species are 
known, trees or shrubs from California and Mexico,^ with simple, 
alternate, thick, petiolate leaves, possessing an entire or dentate 
blade, with prominent, oblique, parallel ribs, so as often to re- 
call those of the Hornbeam or Alder ; their petioles have two 




Fig. 436. 



Fig. 437. 

Longitudinal section 

of flower. 



^ They early become valvate, and finally their ' Tokk. & Gr., FL, loc. cit.; Wippl. Exp. 

edges cease to touch. Bot., 164. — Walp., Rep., ii. 45 ; Ann., iv. 665. 



372 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

lateral adnate stipules. The flowers are axillary or terminal, sessile 
or shortly pediceHatc, solitary or collected into short spikes of cymes. 
With a habit and leaves analogous to those of several plants of 
the genera we have just studied, Coleogyne^ has the characters of 
TotentUla in the structure of its gynseceum and the direction of its 
ovule; so that we may say that it is to the latter genus what 
Chamcehat'ia, Piirshia, and Cercocarpus are to Geum. Its hermaphro- 
dite flowers have a tubular receptacle lined by a glandular tissue 
covered with hairs. On the rim of the tube is inserted a calyx of 
five unequal imbricated leaves.' The androceum consists of an inde- 
finite number of stamens, whose filaments are inserted, not only on the 
receptacular cup,' but also on the sheath surrounding the g}Tia?ceura ; 
the introrse two-celled anthers dehisce longitudinally. The unilocular 
ovary is inserted, as in Pt/rshin, in the bottom of the receptacle ; and 
about half-way up its ventral angle' arises a tortuous style, more or 
less bent on itself near the base. Along the ventral edge of the 
ovary and the whole length of the style, is a vertical groove ; the 
edges of its stylar portion are thickened and everted, and covered 
with stigmatic papilla?. Attached to the wall of the ovary, on a level 
with the insertion of the style, is a descending, incompletely ana- 
tropous ovule, whose micropyle looks upwards and outwards, so that 
in the seed, which is as yet unknown, the radicle must be superior. 
Around and above the ovary the disk is prolonged, nearly as in li/iodo- 
typus (p. 3S1), into a sort of sheath, whose finely laciniate or ciliate 
mouth" gives passage to the upper part of the style.' The only 
known species of this genus^ is a Californian shrub," possessing 
little alternate simple appressed petiolate hairy leaves,' with two 
lateral adnate stipules. The flowers are solitary terminal, with a few 
lolled imbricated bracts at the base. 



' Tonu., Plant. Fremont., 8, t. iv. — H. H., o-s above stated towards the base of the outer 

Oen., G17, II. 3S. surfaco of the sheath. Its inner surfaco is oo> 

* ThiB calyx is the wime as in Piirxhia. When vered with long erwt hairs. 

it has only four jjetalu their pietlorution is niter- * This also jiresents a longitudinal ventml 

native-iinliricute. groove, whose thickened everted lips bear stig- 

* Towards its lower jmrt, but still certainly iiiatic papillw. 

pcrigynous. ' C. ranwsUsima TouK., loc. cit. — WiLP., 

* The style is inserteil hero, and after first Ann., iv. 6U. 

descending a little way in tlu' bud, rist* \\y and * " Fnttex hahilu Krnineriie" (Torr.). Tlie 

becomes vertical. The surfiu-c of the ovary is habit is also near that of Purshia and some of 

somewhat uneven and tubcrculuted, and above the smiillt-r .1myfl(tiile<r, such as Kmplfctocladmt. 

the insertion of the stylf, as in Adrnostunui. litre anil there the brunches end in sjiines. 

* The tissue of this oj)ening is i>B]>ilU)s«-, like a " Some of these are what are called J/<i/- 
stigmntic iuHbcp. Sovend stamens arc insert ctl jiii/Ziiiu-rouji. 




ROSACEA. 373 

At the end of this series we put a genus which, though hitherto 
referred to /Spircea, appears to us in all important characters closely 
analogous to Purshia and Coloogyne. The flowers of AJcnoHloma} 
(fig. 438) are small and hermaphrodite ; the receptacle is like an 
elongated cornet, traversed externally by 

prominent vertical ribs, and lined by a AdenostomafascUmiatum. 
layer of glandular tissue with a festooned 
thickened edge. On the borders of the mouth 
of the receptacle are inserted the perianth 
and androceum, while the gynceceum is in- 
serted in the bottom of its cavity. There 
are five sepals, imbricated in the bud, as 
are the five petals. The stamens are from 
seven or eisrht to fifteen or twenty in 

'=' "^ Fig. 438. 

number, arranged in whorls like those of so Longitudinal section of flower. 
many other Rosacea, and each consisting of a 

free filament inflexed in the bud, and an introrse two-celled anther, 
whose connective is thickened, and which dehisces longitudinally. 
The gynseceum consists of a single free carpel, with a shortly stipitate 
one-celled ovary, containing one or two descending collateral 
anatropous ovules, whose micropyles are superior and dorsal, and 
which are inserted on a parietal placenta. The summit of the 
ovary is unequally gibbous," and covered on one side with hairs ; 
near it is inserted the style, which here first forms one bend and 
then ascends, finally terminating in a more or less oblique stig- 
matiferous dilatation. The fruit is an achene, surrounded by the 
hard persistent receptacle. Two species of Adenostoma are known, 
bushy shrubs of Heath-like habit' from California, with narrow 
coriaceous alternate leaves, solitary or fascicled, possessing two little 
lateral stipules. The Howers are collected into glomeruli in the 
axils of the leaves or the bracts which replace them towards the 
summit of the branch ; so that the whole inflorescence forms a spike 
of glomeruli. 



' Hook. & Aen., Bot. Beech. Voy., 139, 338, chiefly inserted the hairs covering its summit 

t. 30. — Ekdl., Gen., n. 6371. — B. H., Oen., 614, and persisting on the fruit. 

n. 26 (nee Bl.). 3 Walp., Rep., v. 655.— TORR., Emor. Rep., 

2 Especially in A.fasciculata. In A. sparsi- 63, t. 20. — Tokk. & Git., Wippl. Rep., 164 

folia it bears a nearly regular prominent ring (28). 
near the insertion of the style ; above this are 



374 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



IV. SPIR^A SERIES. 

Spircea} (figs. 439-441) has regular polygamo-dioecious, or more 
frequently hermaphrodite fiowers. In the woody species with per- 
fect riowers, largely cultivated in our gardens, such as S. lanccolata^ 
we find a flattened cup-shaped receptacle, lined with glandular tissue, 

Spireea lanccolata. 




and bearing on its edges the periantli and androceuni ; while the 
gynajceum is inserted right at the bottom. The calyx consists of 
five valvate sepals, and the corolla of as many alternating sessile im- 
bricated or contorted petals. The stamens are twenty in number, 
arnuiged in three whorls. Five are superposed to the sej)als, live to 



' Splrfia T.. Inxfif., 018, t. 389.— L., Oen., 
n. 63(1. -Adans., F<im. ih-n PL, ii. 21)5.— J., 
Gen., :J3{).— 0*:ktn., Frurt., i. 337, t. 09.— 
Lamk.. Dirf., vii. 318; Siiiipl., v. 221; ///., t. 
■139. — Camhkhh.. Moiioi/r. ilu (}. Spiriia, Ann. Sc. 
J\a/.,»('r.l,i.22t,t. ir> 17.2r. 27.- Sku„ in DC, 
Prodr.,\\.'A\. — S|'A( ll. Suit. a liuff'on,]. \M). — 
Endi,., </en., n. 0391. — Payek, Or/jnno//., m^, 
t. cii.— H. H., Gin., Oil. n. IH.— fr/maria T.. 
nj^.cil., 265, t. 141. — FiliyeudulaT., op. rif.. 



293, t. 150. — Barla Cnprcr T., op. rif., 205, 
t. 111. — Eriiujifnn HooK., Fl. Bor.-Amrr., i. 
255, t. 88. — Luetkea Ho.Mi., Mem. Acad. !S.- 
Pflcrsh., vi. »i'r. ii. 130, t. 2.— Endi.., Gen., n. 
.1(130. 

- PoiK., Diet., vii. 351, n. 15. — Sbh., Prodr., 
n. 7. — .S'. rantonirttjiis LofH., Fl. Corh., 322 
(ex (;amuk88., loc.cit., 360, t. 26).— A'. if«ere*» 
I.INUI.. 



ROSACEA. 375 

the petals, and the other ten are placed one on either side of each 
of the latter set. Every stamen consists of a free filament, inflexed 
in the bud, and an introrse two-celled anther, dehiscing longitudinally.' 
The edge of the disk projects internally to the androceum into ten 
more or less prominent glandular lobes, two superposed to each sepal. 
The gynseceum consists of five carpels, each superposed to a petal (fig. 
441), and composed of a free one-celled ovary tapering above into a 
style which is sHghtly dilated at the tip and covered with stigmatic 
papillae. In the internal angle of the ovary is a longitudinal placenta 
with two lips, each bearing an indefinite number of horizontal or 
obliquely descending anatropous ovules.- The multiple fruit consists 
of five many-seeded follicles, surrounded by the persistent receptacle 
and calyx. The seed contains within its membranous coats a fleshy 
exalbuminous embryo. All the species of Spircea analogous to the 
one just studied,' representing the most perfect types of the 
genus, possess alternate simple stipulate or exstipulate leaves, and 
corymbose flowers.^ But of about fifty species of this genus there 
are many, which, with the general organization of those we know, 
present in several of the floral organs various modifications which it 
is now our duty to mention. 

The flowers are sometimes tetramerous.' The form of the recep- 
tacle may vary somewhat ; it may be pouched or bell-shaped, or it 
may form a shallow cupule ; it is very rarely like a long tube or 
an inverted cone.*^ The aestivation of the sepals may be imbricate. 
There are pretty often as many as twenty-five or thirty stamens, 
and in some few cases more.' There are rarely less than fifteen.' 



• The pollen of several species of Spiraa has below the insertion of the pedicel, but some 

been described by H. Mohl {Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. way up the latter, which was at first axillary 

2, iii. 340) as consisting of ovoidal papillate to it and has carried it up; sometimes the 

grains with three grooves ; in water they are bract is even close against the base of the 

spherical, with three bands ; the species were S. flower. 

Ulmaria, S. sorhifoUa, S. oppositifoUa, and S. * Sometimes they have six sepals and six petals, 

Filipendula (without papillje). or even more, as in S. Filipendida, which has 

- They have only a single coat in this species, often seven, eight, or nine petals, 

as in several others that I have examined ; it ® " In S. parvifolia Benth., specie admodum 

would be worth while to study all the cultivated singulari, calycis tubus obconicus est, lobis 

Spiraas from this point of view. exalte valvaiis." (B. H., Gen., 612.) 

3 They form the two sections Chamadri/on ' Either because there are five in front of 

(See., op. cit., 542) and Spiraria (See., op. cit., each petal (where we only found three in ^. Ian- 

544), united by Endlichee (loc. cit,, b) into a ceolata), or because there are two or three in 

single one. front of each sepal inste:id of only one. 

^ Or they may be in usually short racemes. In * In Eriogyna, which we were the first 

S. lanceolata, as in many other species, the pe- (Adansonia, vi. 6) to place near Spircra, the 

dicel does not appear to spring from the axil of stamens have been said to cohere by the bases of 

a bract, for this is not found on the chief axis, their filaments. This is not constant, and is in 



376 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

The disk lining tlie receptacle is sometimes thin and inconspicuous ; 
again, the glands, into wliich, as we have seen, its edge is split, may 
become very prominent ; they may be quite free or united in pairs. 
This disk usually stops abruptly below the insertion of the stamens ; 
but in several herbaceous species the stamens are inserted, not only 
within its edy:es, but all over its surface, rii^ht down from the base of 
the perianth to near the insertion of the gyna3ceum.' The number 
and position of the carpels are very variable ; they may be equal in 
number to the petals and superposed to them, as above ; or double 
their number, half being superposed to the sepals.* But, strange to 
say, those in front of the petals may then disappear, leaving only 
those superposed to the sepals.' Finally, their number may be in- 
definite, or it may diminish to less than four or five, and even be 
reduced to one or two.' Rarely are the carpels not quite free from 
each other, and sometimes the organic apex of the receptacle will even 
rise up into a little cone and separate the ovaries,* But sometimes 
the latter are all united for a variable height, so that a transverse 
section of the lower part of the gyna^ceum will show a single several- 
celled ovary with axile placentation.** The ovules are not invariably 
indefinite, and horizontal or only slightly descending. There are 
sometimes only two, or even a single one," descending and completely 
or nearly anatropous, with the micro pyle upwards and outwards. 



any case so ill-nmrkcd that it is not worth while pendula. S. lobata has often eight or nine 

to take it into consideration. The floral hracts carpels, with a tetramerous perianth, 

are here carried up very high on their axillary ' In S. Lhtdlcyana, for instance, as pointed 

pedicels. out hy Kckpek. This also occurs in S. sorLi- 

' Thus, in S. lobata the stamens are inserted folia, the t\pe of the section Surbaria (Skk., 

as alwve, over the whole surface of the recep- loc. pit., 545), or iSchizunotus (Lindl., tt'all. 

tacular disk. In S. Ulmaria, Vauchek has de- Cat., n. 703). 

nied the existence of a disk, and supposed that * As in «S'. Aruncus, the type of the section 

the stamens were liypogynous. Hut they are ^4rw«c««(SEn., /or. cj7., 515), which, iiowever, has 

inserted on the periphery of the receptaculiir more frequently three or four ; also in the allied 

sac, and tliere is a yellowish disk with its frillid species, which arc most prohahly only forms of this, 

edge just internal to their insertion. In S. Fili- These jjlants have usually unisexual tlowcrs. 

fendula the stamens are placed at dillerent * This is pretty well marked in A'. i'(Vi/>fi»</«/a, 

heights on the inner surface of the receptacle. dtciimbtns, &c. 

But the outermost are inserted a good way below * The hj)ecie8 where this union takes place to 

the petals. The latter have articulated basis each its fullest extent is .V. /,(«</ /rv««(i, whose ovary 

Heated just in tiie Ixtttom of tiie sinus between in tiiis respwt recalls that of VauqutHnia, while 

two adjacent sepals. The shallow receptacle of its car|H>ls are also alternipettilous ; so that N. 

«S'. Arurn-UM is lined by a glandular disk, whoso Liinllei/ana links Vauqueliuia and Sftirna. 

edges are indistinctly lobed ; but there are none More frequently the carpels tif the latter genus are 

of the proiiiininl isolated or geminato nuirginal onl\ united for a very little way above the has*', 

glands found in most of the other species. In ^ There are usually only two in N. Filipm- 

,V.*oW/i/o/i« the margins of the iiitra-reciiitacular </(//<i, and tiny become almost sujicrjH)M-«i. >'. 

glandidiir layer are nearly entire, as they often JninrtiJt, litvii/atn, Ac, have often two pairs of 

are in Kriogijna. descending ovules. A. lobntu has tuo i,viile>. or 

■■' There are as many as liftcen in S. Fili- more rarely a single one. 



BOSACEjTJ. 377 

Again one may rise up and become obliqucl}- ascending, witli its 
micropyle downwards and inwards. The fruit consists of a variable 
number of follicles or pods,' and the seeds" contain within their 
membranous coats a fleshy embryo, either exalbuminous, or more 
rarely surrounded by a thin layer of cellular tissue.'^ In this 
genus we also find great variations in habit, vegetative organs, 
and inflorescence. It consists of shrubs, undershrubs, or herbs, 
sometimes very humble/ The leaves are alternate, simple, and entire, 
or lobed, pinnate, or even decompound. The petiole is accompanied 
by free or adnate lateral stipules, which may, as we have seen, be 
altogether absent. The flowers are axillary or terminal, in simple 
or compound racemes, spikes, or corymbs, or in clusters of pluri- 
parous or even uniparous cymes.' Species of this genus are to be 
found in nearly all the cold and temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere." 

Sjj/'raa trifollatd' (fig. 442) has become the type of the genus 
Gillenia,^ whose hermaphrodite flower possesses a tubular receptacle, 
somewhat contracted at the mouth, near which are inserted the 
calyx and androceum. The calyx consists of five quincuncial sepals,' 
and the corolla of five long alternating petals contorted in the bud. 



' Some fruits are even indehiscent. Those of producing the greatest abnormalities in the in- 

S. Ulmaria are rolled up like a campylotropous florescence. This is the case with -S'. FiUpendula 

seed. [Dropwort], a plant also remarkable for the swel- 

^ They become quite ascending in certain lings on its roots, from which it takes its name, 

species, such as .S. Lindleyana. Those of S. ^ Camee., De Ulmaria, 1717. — Wald. & 

Aruncus, though similar in other respects, are Kit., PL Ear. Hung., t. 227.— Jacq., Hort. 

pendulous. The singular form of the ripe car- Viiulob., t. 88. — Pall., Fl. Ros^., t. 27, 28. 

pels of S. Ulmaria causes the seeds to assume Cambess., op. cit., 355-385 j Jacquem., Vou. 

every possible direction. In none of these spe- £ot., t. 37. — H. B. K., Xov. Gen. et Spec, vi. 

cies is there albumen, which distinguishes S. 185, t. 5(32. — Toer. & Gk., Fl. N. Amer., i. 

^rawcK* from ,i*^i7ie, to which Teeviraists has, 413. — A. GvulY, Man. of Bot.,ed. v. 119- Fl. 

however, referred it {Bot. Zeit. (1855), 817). Wright. Tex., 54; PI. Fendl., 40. — Chap.m'., J'/. 

^ "In S. parviflora...ipmiri/OMe strata tenui S. Unit. -States, 120. — Wedd., Chlor. And. 

albnminis donato." (B. H., Gen.,G\2.) ii. 231. — Toer.& Gk., Wippl. Rep., 164 (27), t! 

■* Several have even the habit of little csespi- v. — IJenth., Fl. Hongk., Iu5. — Kosb., Fl. Ltd., 

tose Sa.\ifrages, with a rosette of little simple ii. 512. — MiQ,., Ann. 3Ius. Ltigd. Pat., iii. 32- 

entire leaves, without much distinction of blade, Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. i. 38D. — Bot. Reg., t. 1365- 

petiole, and sheath. We may cite S. {Petro- 1810, t. 17; 1841, t. 4. — Bot. Mag., t. 515l' 

phytum) ctespUosa Nutt. (ex Toee. & Gr., FL 5165, 5169. — Walp., Rep., ii. 49, 914; v. 657;' 

N. Amer., 414), possessing simple or ramified Ann., i. 287 ; ii. 521 ; v. 666. 

racemes of flowers with long e.xserted stamens ' L., Spec, 702. — Cambess., Ann. Sc. Nat. 

and an entire cupuliform disk. Eriogi/na has scr. 1, i. 387, n. 33. — Bot. Mag., t. 489. 

the laciniate trifid leaves of many herbaceous ^ McEXcn., Meth., Suppl.", 286. Nutt., 

Saxifrages. The names, S. sorbifolia, Ul- Qen.Am.,i.307. — DC, Prorfr., ii. 546. .^pach[ 

tnaria, tkalictroides, sal icifolia, &c., show ■pretty S-it. a Buffon, i. 447.— TouE. & Gr., Fl. N. 

clearly how great are the variations of habit and Amer., i. 412. — A.Geat, Man. of Bot., e'd.v.,150. 

foliage in this genus. — ENDL.,G!e;)., n. 6393.— B. H., Gtn., 613, n. 22. 

' The abortion of certain flowers of the cymes ' The edges of the sepals bear little sessile 

may be joined to the uplifting of the pedicels, glands. 



378 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



There are twenty stamens, echelonned in wliorls on the upper part of 
the inside of the receptacular tube. The highest five stamens are 
exactly superposed to the sepals ; then come five superposed to the 
petals ; and there are a<^ain below these a third whorl of ten, one on 
either side of each of the latter set. These last may be absent, when 
the androceum will consist of only ten pieces. The filament of each 

GiUenia fn folio fn. 




stamen is at first reflcxed on the wall of the tube, towards which is 
turned the face of the anther ; but when the filament rises up, the anther 
becomes introrse ; it has two cells and dehisces lon<,ntudiiially. The 
receptacular tube is lined by a layer of «,'landuhir tissue; in the 
bottom of this is inserted the gyna'ceum, consisting,' of five free 
alternipetalous carpels, each formed of a one-celled ovary, sur- 
mounted by a terminal style, sti«,nnatiferous at the apex. In the 
internal -du^rh of tlic ovary is a placenta, bearing two rows of ascend- 



110SAGE2E. 379 

ing anatropous ovules, wliose micropyles look downwards and out- 
wards.' The number of ovules in each row may be reduced to one 
or two. The fruit consists of five follicles, surrounded by the mem- 
branous receptacle ; each contains one or more seeds, with thick 
coats inclosing a fleshy embryo with its radicle inferior, surrounded 
by a thin layer of albumen. The only two known species of Gillenia 
are perennial herbs from North America." From the subterranean 
rhizome arise each year the aerial branches covered with alternate 
trifoliolate leaves, whose stipules are ill-developed in the one species,^ 
and very large in the other." Their flowers are in terminal clusters 
of few-flowered cymes. 

Neillid' also comes very near Spircea in some of its species, though 
it is very easy to distinguish and characterize the prototype of the 
genus, N. thyrsiflora.^ Here the receptacle forms a long tube, in 
whose throat is inserted a calyx of five sepals, imbricated when 
young, and a corolla of as many little alternating petals, also origi- 
nally imbricated. The stamens, of which there are twenty or 
upwards, are arranged in whorls as in Spircea ; each stamen has a 
short filament inflexed in the bud, and an introrse anther. The 
gynseceum consists of two free carpels, or more usually of a single 
one inserted in the bottom of the receptacle. These carpels resemble 
those of most species of Spircea, and the ovary contains a variable 
number of ovules inserted in two rows upon the internal angle. ^ 
The fruit consists of one or two follicles,^ and the seeds contain in 
their coats a fleshy embryo, surrounded by an equally fleshy albu- 
men. To Neillia proper botanists have added certain plants formerly 
held to constitute the section PJiysoccapKS^ of Spircea, the best known 
of which is S. opuUfoHa.'^ In its flowers the receptacular tube is 
shorter and more everted than in S. ihi/rsiflora, with sometimes only 



1 There may be as mauy as four or six in eacli * Don., Prodr. Fl. Nepal., 228. — DC, 
row. They have two coats. Prodr., ii. 546. — Endl., Gen., n. 4644'. — HooK. 

2 ToRR. & Ge., Fl. N. Amer., i. 418. — A. F. & Thoms., Journ. Linn. Soc, ii. 75. — B. H., 
Gray, Man. of Bot., ed. v. 150. — Chapm., Fl. Oen., 612, n. \Q.—Adenilema Bi., Bijdr., 1121. 
S. Unit.-States, 121. —Endl., Gen., n. 4666. 

^ G. trifoliata Mcench, loc. cit. — DC, « Don., Zoe. «7.—DC., Prodr., 547, n. 1. 

Prodr., n. 1. 7 As in GilUnid, they possess two coats. 

■* G. stipulata. — G. stvpulacea Nutt., loc. ^ They are surrounded by the persistent calyx, 

cit. — DC, Prodr., n. 2. — Spircea stipulata covered with glandular hairs. 

MiTEHL., ex W., Enum., i. 542. — PoiR., Bict., ^ Cambess., op. cit., 385. 

Suppl., V. 221.— Cambess., op. cit., 388, n. 34, "> L., Spec, 702.— DC, Prodr., ii. 542, n. 1. 

t. 28.— -S'. trifoliata var. hicisa PUESH., Fl.Am. — Spach, Suit, a Buffon, i. 431. 
Sept., ed.2,i.343. 



3S0 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

one or two carpels, sometimes three, four, or five. The fruit is here 
also a swollen follicle ; and the ovules, though less numerous than in 
A\ thyrHiJlora, are still arranged in two vertical rows. They are at 
first horizontal, but are afterwards displaced, so that as seeds some 
become ascending with the micropyle extrorse, while others are 
more or less descending.' Thus constituted, the genus Neillia in- 
cludes four or five species from India, the east and nortlr of Asia, 
and North America. These are bushy shrubs, with alternate 
simple dentate or lobed leaves, possessing two large lateral, cadu- 
cous stipules. Their flowers are in racemes or corymbs, which may 
be simple or composed of alternate cymes. 

In Kerria^ the solitary terminal floral peduncle is swollen at the 
apex, with only a shallow pit on top for the insertion of the gynie- 
ceum ; while the low edges of this pit bear five persistent quin- 
cuncially imbricated sepals, five alternating shortly-unguiculate 
petals also imbricated' in the bud, and a large number of free sta- 
mens' consisting of slender filaments, at first flexuous, bearing iii- 
trorse two-celled anthers, dehiscing longitudinally. The cup is lined 
with hairs and glandular tissue. The carpels are superposed to 
the sepals when they are of the number ;' each consists of a free 
ovary, and a slender style inserted at a variable height on the 
internal angle, and truncate and stigmatiferous at the apex. Within 
the ovary, about half-way up the ventral angle, is inserted a single 
incompletely anatropous descending ovule,' whose micropyle looks 
upwards and outwards, 'i'he fruit consists of a variable number of 
achenes," whose seeds possess an exalbuminous embryo with its 
radicle superior. Only one species of this genus is known. A'. 
j(ijj(j/iira^' a shrub, cultivated in China and Japan from time imme- 



' There in n thin layer of nlbumen around the ' " Achenia parva, sicca, carlilaginea." Wo 

embryo. have never seen them in any ooUet-tion. Till 

* MlQ., /v. //I(/.-^a^, i. p. i. 3'.I0. — Hook. F. cjuite recently the jjlunt cultivated almost ex. 
A TliOMB., «/o«r». JAnn. Soc, ii. 75. — Wali*., clusively in our gardens has been the monstrosity 
Ann., iv. (JlJit. with double sterile tlowers, and the carpels often 

' DC, Trans. Linn. Hoc, xii. ISO; I'rodr., opened out and leafy. 

ji.5H.— Si'Adi, .Su«/. « //i//^o», i. '12l».— K.MJL., f DC, /»<•. r«7.-^ Sieb. & Zrcc, Fl. Jap., 

Oen., n. nayo.— 15. II., Ont., iWA, n 23. 183, t. UR.- Miy., Mvs. I.u,/d. lint., iii. 33.— 

* They are stmietinies contorted. Ruhus japunii-us, L., Munt., '1\U. Cuickorus 

* Their arrantjenient and structure are the japunictu Thu.nuo., Fl. Jap,, 227. — W., Sprc, 
game as in the U.jses ; the inner stamens are ii. 1218. — Puiu., Diet., ii. 106. — Anuk., But. 
far shorter than the outer ones. Jirpos., t. 587. -/io^ Maff., t. 12[H'>.— Spir<ra 

* There are stjinetiine* only four, sometimes, japonica Debvx., Mr'm. Soc. Linn, Par., i. 25. 
n^'ain, six or eij^ht. Camukhh., .Inn. Sc. yat., afr. 1, i. 385).— 

? It lias only a single coat. Tiilo Jtimma litdi K.»;MrK., Anurn. 7'.'xo/., 8-H. 



E0SACE2E. 



381 



morial ; it has scaly buds, and simple alternate leaves, with lateral 
caducous stipules. 

In Japan has been found another plant, which has been made the 
type of a new genus, RhodotijpoH ;' its flower (fig. 443) is externally 
that of Kerria, but differs markedly from it in internal organiza- 
tion. It is normally constructed on the quaternary type. Its re- 
ceptacle forms a broad shallow funnel ; on this are borne in order 
from below upwards {I. c, from centre to circumference) the gyna?- 
ceum, a peculiar disk, the androceum, and the perianth. The four 

Rhodotypos Jcerrioidex. 




Fig. 443. 
Longitudinal section of flower. 

sepals are imbricated in the bud, and are accompanied by bracts 
which form a calycle, as in Fragaria or Potentilla. The alternatino- 
sepals are also imbricated in the bud, and resemble those of the 
Eose. The stamens are indefinite' in number, each formed of a free 
slender filament, and an introrse two-celled anther, dehiscing longi- 
tudinally. They are inserted over a large area, not only on the 
inner wall of the receptacle, but also on the outer surface of a disk, 
which forms a sort of roof covering in the whole of the ovarian 
portion of the gynseceum, and only allowing the larger portion of the 
styles to traverse the opening at its apex. The carpels are four in 
number/ superposed to the petals, and are lodged in the chamber 
formed below by the bottom of the receptacle, and above by the singu- 
lar disk of which we have just spoken. Each consists of a free ovary, 



1 SiEB. & Zucc, Fl. Jap., 187, t. 99. — Endl., 
Gen., n. 6393*, Suppl., ii. 95.— B. H., Gen., 613, 
n. 24. 

^ They are orijrinally arranged in four bundles, 
with the youngest elements innermost. The 
androceum may hence be considered as made up 
of four compound staminal leaves. 



^ This is the normal number, like that of the 
sepals or petals. But just as these may be in- 
creased to five or six in cultivated flowers, so we 
may find as many as seven or eight carpels col- 
lected into a sort of head, recalling the norma 
fruit of Ruhus. 



382 NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 

surmounted by a style which is stigmatiferous, but scarcely dilated, 
at the tip. In the ventral an^^^le of each ovary is a placenta bearing 
two collateral, descending, incompletely anatropous ovules, with 
their micropyles upwards and outwards. The multiple fruit con- 
sists of five drupes or fewer,' with a membranous epicarp and a thin 
mesocarp, at first fleshy, later floury and friable. The stone is 
hard and one-seeded. AVithin the membranous seed-coats is con- 
tained a large fleshy embryo with its radicle superior, surrounded 
by a scanty albumen. The only known species of this genus is B. 
kerrioidf'S','^ a shrub possessing opposite, petiolate, simple leaves, with 
two lateral stipules, just like those of Krrria. The flowers are 
solitary, terminal, and pedunculate. 

Ncviiisin^ is a shrub with apetalous hermaphrodite flowers. The 
receptacle forms a shallow cup, lined by glandular tissue, and bears 
on its edges a calyx of five large dentate leafy sepals, imbricated 
in the bud. The stamens are very numerous, inserted within the 
calyx, and analogous to those of Kerria and Bhodofypos. The gynae- 
ceum consists of four free sessile carpels,' inserted towards the 
bottom of the receptacle, and each formed of a one-celled ovary, 
surmounted by a slender incurved style, nearly terminal, and stig- 
matiferous along the whole of its internal angle. Within the ventral 
angle of the ovary is a single descending nearly anatropous ovule, 
whose micropyle looks upwards and outwards. The fruit consists 
of one or more drupes with thin mesocarps, surrounded by the 
accrescent calyx. The embryo has a superior inflexed radicle and 
flattened cotyledons, surrounded by fleshy albumen. N. nlabanicnsiii' 
is the only known species of this genus, a glabrous shrub with the 
habit of several species of Spira'a. It has alternate simple' loaves 
with two little lateral stipules. Its flowers' are on rather long 
slender pedicels, forming, as it were, few- flowered umbels terminating 
the young branches. 

Finally, the genus Slcp/iana/ulrd'' may be defined as Spiiccn with a 



' By alxirtion of one or more of the normal * More rnrcly two or tlircc. 

rarpelH. Hut in cultivated plants wo find ripo * A. (Ihav, Iuc. cit., t. xxx. 

fruits with a larger number of drupeH (nee p. 381, • " Membmnacett duplicatoserrata." 

note 3). ' Thev are wiid to be while, like those of 

■ SiRn. ii Zi'cc, lor. ri7.— Walp., RrjK, V. R/ii>d<ift/f>os. 

GBS. MlQ., .1/m*. /.«//'/• Jiiif.,V\'\.^3. " SiKli. Si Zrcc, Abhand. JUUnck. Akaii., 

» A. (lliAV, Mftn. Amer. Aeatl., n. kit., vi. iii. 7;t!l. t. 4, Hp. 2. — F.NDL., Ortt., ii. tUUt^', 

(IS5K) 'AT\.— Srvius<t IJ.II., Ihn., CtVA, ii. 2"). Snpiil. iii. 102.— M. H.. 6Vh.. 012, n. 2(1. 



nOSAGEJE. 383 

diplostemonous androceum and a unicarpellary gyncTceum. In fact, 
its flowers possess a campanulate receptacle, lined by a tliin glandular 
disk, and bearing on its edges five sepals and five alternating petals 
(both sets imbricated), and ten stamens with introrse anthers super- 
posed to the perianth-leaves ; while in the bottom of its concavity 
is inserted the single carpel, whose one-celled ovary contains two 
ovules, at first descending," placed side by side on a parietal pla- 
centa, and with their raphes towards it ; the style is terminal witli 
a capitate stigma. The fruit is a follicle, enveloped in the persistent 
receptacle, and enclosing one or two ascending or descending seeds, 
which each contain an embryo with its radicle inferior or superior, 
and with orbicular cotyledons surrounded by a variable thickness of 
fleshy albumen. The only known species- is a Japanese shrub with 
slender flexible branches, scaly leaf-buds, and alternate incised leaves, 
whose petiole has two lateral stipules at its base. The inflorescence 
consists of short racemes or simple or compound corymbs of flowers, 
very like those of Prinsepia ; while in their unicarpellary gynajceum 
they come very close to those of the Pranece generally ; so tliat Ste- 
phanandra among the Sjnreece represents a reduced type, like that of 
Purshia among the FragariecB, or Chamameles in the Pyreoi. 



V. QUILLAJA SERIES. 

QuiHaJa^ (figs. 444-447) has regular dioecious or hermaphrodite 
flowers. In the hermaphrodite ones we find a pentamerous calyx 
and coroUa inserted on the circumference of a shallow concave recep- 
tacle. The sepals are valvate in aestivation, while the petals are 
imbricated; but this can only be ascertained when young, for they 
are small and spathulate, and early cease touching. The receptacle is 
lined by a glandular disk, whose five lobes are prolonged along the 



* Later on they may become transverse, with t. 774. — DC, Prodr., ii. 547. — Spach, Suit. 

their raphes inferior; or one of them may « Buffon, i. 418. — Don, Edinl. New Fhilos. 

even become ascending in certain flowers. Jouni., xii. 110. — Lindl., Vet/. Kingd., 564. — 

■ S. flexuosa Sieb. & Zrcc, loc. ell. — :Miq., Guillem., Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xiv. 419. — 

Ann. Mhs. Lugd. Bat., iii. Z^.— Spiraa in- Endl., Gen., n. 6397. — B. H., Gen., 614, n. 

cisa TuuxoB., Ft. Jap., 213.— Cambess., loc. 28. — Smegmadermos R. & Pat., Prodr., 133, t. 

cit., 262. — Ser., in DC. Prodr., n. 9. 31. — Smegmaria W., ex Guillem., he. cit. — 

^ MoL., Chil., ed. 2, 298.— J., Gen., 444.— Fontenelka A. S. H. & Tul., Ann. Sc. Nat., ser. 

H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Spec., vi. 236, not.— 2, xvii. 141, t. 7. 
Lamk., Diet., vi. 33; Suppl., iv. 638; III., 



384 



NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS. 



inner faces of the sepals, while in the bottom of the sinuses between 
them are inserted the petals. Internal to these, a little lower down, 
are inserted five superposed stamens ; there are also five others, 
larger, placed higher up, and superposed to the sepals, inserted in 



Quillaja Saponaria. 




Fig. A-n. 
Hranch. 



Fig. 4«5. 
liongitiuliiial section of hcrininihroilitc flower 

the little notches at the apices of ihe lobes of the disk. In both 
sets each consists of a free tapering filament, inllexod in the bud, 
and bearing a versatile, introrse, two-celled anther, dehiscing longi- 
tudinally. In the centre of the flower the receptacle rises up into a 
little cone,' bearing on its convexity five carpels superposed to the 



' The ox'utenco of tliiii cono reprfaoiitiiig tlio tlmt they nppoiir united below into a ungle 
organic apex of the rocfptnde, pnMluceH a very nmny -celled ovary, nearly n* in tVpiVdra Z,iW/ry- 
oblique insertion of the biiHo <if the nirpelH, mo mia, and several allied H]M.'ciei. 



ROSACEA. 



385 



sepals. Each of these consists of a one-celled ovary, tapering into a 
style, which is grooved along the whole of its internal angle, and 
ends in a slight stigmatiferous swelling. In the ventral angle of each 
ovary is a vertical placenta, bearing on each of its two lips a row 
of horizontal nearly anatropous ovules, early flattened against one 
another. In the fruit, which consists of five pods,' spreading into 
a star, these ovules have become imbricated, ascending, compressed 
seeds, each surmounted by a long broad wing, and containing a 
fleshy embryo with convolute cotyledons. This genus consists of 
South American trees ; three species are known, from Brazil, Peru, 
and Chili." Their leaves are persistent, simple, and alternate, with 
two little lateral caducous stipules. The flowers are in axillary or 
terminal, usually few-flowered, biparous cymes. The central flower 
is nearly always hermaphrodite. 

Kageneckia ohlonga. 





Fig. 449. 
Fruit dehiscing. 



Fig. 451. 
Longitudinal 
section of seed, 



Kagenechicv" may be considered as Quillaja with an imbricate calyx 
and an androceum of more than ten stamens. The flowers are uni- 
sexual, oftentimes dioecious. In the male flower (fig. 448), the recep- 
tacalar cup bears on its edges five quinc uncial sepals, five alternate 
petals,