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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, by 


In the ofiSce of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 





Oakland cAUfiiRMA 

Publisher's Introductory. 

The publishers herewith present to their patrons and the public the Illustrated 
History of Nevada, with the satisfaction of a great labor completed, with pride in 
its appearance and with confidence in its approval. The publication has been delayed 
throuo-h the great difficulty of obtaining, compiling, writing and revu^ing the matter 
requisite for an authentic and complete History. For this purpose every source of in- 
formation has been sought — the archives of the State, counties and towns; the newspapere 
of Nevada and California; directories, diaries, lettei-s and scrap-books, wherever obtain- 
able, have been searched; the old pioneers have been interviewed and their stories re- 
corded ; the Indians have been visited and their version of incidents related ; the historic 
oTounds have been examined with great care in order that statements might be made to 
accord with physical features; extensive conespondence has been carried on in pui-suit of 
historical events and corrections of data, and the skill and memory of the best writers 
convei-sant with the history of the State and the various subjects connected therewith 
have been employed to perfect the work. All of this has taken much more time and 
labor than was contemplated at the outset, and the gieat mass of material gathered has 
swelled the book beyond the dimensions designed when the work was undertaken. 

Nevada, the " Battle Bom," young as she L*;, has made more hi.-.tory than usual for 
States of many times her age, and for communities many times her numbei-, and, bulky 
as our book has giown, much of interest and instruction could be added. The period 
since the discovery of silver in the Territory has been tilled with most stining events, 
crowdin"- within the short space of time the occuiTences of a century in the older and 
quieter countries of the East. Revolutions in finance, society and jwhtics have followed 
her development and connect her intimately with the great progress of the age. Her 
second decade has passed; her pioneei-s are rapidly passing away; many records are 
fadin" and in danger of destruction; old landmarks are becoming obliterated; great 
changes are constantly going on, and no longer should be delayed tlie writing of the tirst 
installment of her history. This labor we have undertaken, and although imperfections, 
undoubtedly many, exist, we are confident, with the unwearying care taken, that the 
main facts related aie substantial and incontrovertable, that we have herein pi-eserved 
from obUviou nmch important and essential matter, and that for all time our History of 
Nevada will be the stanilard and basis of all succeeding works. 

We have attempted, in addition to the History, to give a review of the resources of tiie 
State, which appear far grander to the careful investigator than seems possible to be 
entertained by the reader of newspaper reports, or from the ob-servation of the country 
in rapidly and carelessly passing over it. The broad desert plains are often found rich 
in many of the most valuable elements of commerce, arts, manufactures and the neces- 
saries of life; and the bare and sombre hills are veined with precious and useful ores to 


a degree that in the densely peopled countries of the old world would make nearly every 
mountain range now neglected another Comwa!! or Devonshire. The reviews of the 
mining districts are necessaril}' brief, but the information given has been obtained in most 
cases from actual visits, close insynction and careful inquir}-. The aggregate and con- 
clusion shows a very substantial basis for future prosperity. The agricultural resources, 
so generally condemned as ml, are shown by statements of existing facts, from which 
corapaiTSons may be drawn for possibilities. 

Of the railroad monopolies, their operations, avoidance of public duties and disregard 
of public interests, their corruption of public officers and oppression and ruin of those 
who dLsobey their mandates, we have written for what we deemed the public good, be- 
lieving in the justice of our course and having faith in the appro\'al of the public. 

We have endeavored in all things to be just, and while recording the past as fully and 
accurately as possible, to report upon the present condition and to advance the interests of 
the future as far as lay in our power. 

The design of the work has been to group events and subjects under appropriate head- 
ings, thereby abbreviating the matter as much as possible, and by index and full table of 
contents enable the reader to at once find the subject desired. In this we have followed 
the chronological sociuence of events as far as their prop;r treatment would permit, be- 
ginning with the eailiest known history, when the trappers, voyageurs and explorers fiist 
penetrated the "Great Ba.sin;" following with the trials of the early emigi-ants who 
cro.«sed it on their way to the Pacific Coast ; the early efforts to organize governments 
and the administration thereof; the discovery of silver and its eflects ; the Indians and 
their wars; the creation of the Territory and the establishing of a substantial govern- 
ment ; the contests with corporations and moneyed powei-s ; the rise and progress of society 
as exemplifii.'d in its churches and schools, and events of interest, all of which are com- 
prised in a general history anto'ior to, or independent of, the organization of the counties. 
In the histories of counties we have, in addition to the record of events, given succinct 
description^ of their geography and topogi'aphA^ with a slight reference to their geological 
formation, though without pretense to scientific accuracy; and such an account of the 
mining districts and valleys as will give an insight into theu- resources and capabili- 
ties to such as wish to invest in or study them. 

Our illustrations, which number arc from photographs and sketches by compe- 
tent artists, approved by those intrusted and convei'sant with the subject, and engraved 
in the most skillful manner known to the art, constituting a valuable and most interest- 
ing feature of the book. With the portraits and biographical sketches we have preserved 
the features and the histories of many of the principal citizens and worthy persons and 
business men of the State who have labored for its advancement, maintained its honor 
and stability, and have taken a laudable pride in the preservation and publication of its 

Much encouragement and assistance have been rendered us, for which we are ex- 
tremely grateful ; but on the other hand some capitalists and monopolists, having only 
their selfish ends in view, have either placed obstacles in our way or expressed disapproba- 
tion of our enterprise. To the latter class we are indifferent. 

While engaged in compilation and gathering together of the material for this work we 
have employed many assistants. Some have proved themselves true to the trust reposed 
in them. Such, we, as publishers, and thegeni.'ral public, as readei's, will hold in kindiy 
remembrance. Of those of our employees who proved themselves incompetent or recre- 
ant to the trust, and whose work required entire revision and rewriting, the less said 
the better. The arduous task of revision, compiling and writing the History 
has been under the editorial charge of Mr. Myron Angel, assisted by Mr. J. D. Mason, 
Mr. M. D. Fairchild, Mr. C. K. Robin.son and other writers. Special articles have been 
furnislied by William Wright (" Dan De Quille"), on Early Journalism in Virginia City; 


Col. H. G. Shaw, on the Churches; Hon. D. R. Sessions, on the Schools, and Judge C. N. 
Harris on the Bar of Nevada. We cannot at this time mention all who have kindly 
furnished information and rendered assistance in this work. Tlie State onicei-s liave 
shown a deep interest in our enterprise, and kindly placed at our disposal the public doc- 
uments in their possession and rendered such assistance as was in their power; the Stat« 
Library has furnished much from its valuable stores; the county otticei-s and mining re- 
cordei-s have responded with alacrity and great to every request, and the 
journalists of the State have universally given their aid; and to all we express 
our unqualifieil thanks. Of the many citizens of the State we desire to thank 
for information given, we may mention Jackson Ferguson, of Churchill; S. A. 
Kinsey, Judge J. S. Child and Walter Cosser, of Douglas; Hon. John S. Mayhugh, 
Leonard Wines and Col. J. B. Moore, of Elko; T. B. Smith, of Esmeralda; W. W. 
Hobart, E. U Dodge and Lambert Molinelli, of Eureka; S. B. P. Pierce andE. D. Kelly, 
of Humboldt ; Hon. M. J. Farrell, Joseph F. Triplett and A. A. Curtis, of Lander; Judge 
Mortimer Fuller and D. Bonelli, of Lincoln; S. S. Buckland, John Lothrop and C. W. 
Davis, of Lyon; Hon. J. T. Williams, of Nye; Col. Warren Wasson, Judge William M. 
Cary and C. N. Noteware, of Ormsby; Dr. E. B. Harris and Mi-s. C. M. Ditten- 
rider, of Storey; Hon. H. A. Comins, of White Pine; and to Capt. Robert 
Lyon, of San Buenaventura, Capt. R. G. Watkins, of Humboldt, and Mr. J. 
M. Hunter, of Montecito, California. The publishers of Nevada have extended 
many courtesies, furnishing files of their papers and promptly responding to our 
inquiries, and we hope they will approve the sketches we have given of their papers and 
themselves. The files of the Territorial Enterprise, Virginia Union, Car.-<on Ajypeal, 
Tiihune and Index, Reno State Journal, Reno Gazette, Esmeralda Star, Jieese River 
Reveille, Silver Bend Repwter, and Recjiater, have aided us in our history, and particularly 
are we under obligations to Daniel W, Gelwicks, Esq., of Oakland, for tiles of the Mount- 
ain Democrat, of Placerville, through many years of the publication of that journal, 
when Placerville was the entrepot of the overland immigration, and his paper and the 
Semi-Weeldy Observer, of which Myron Angel was editor, and has preserved files, 
recorded all the events tran.spiring on the route, and of the early settlement of the Terri- 
tory. old papers are a diary of events, recording them as they occur, and remain 
uncolored by changes of sentiments, politics, interests, or opinions to which the memory 
is subject, and by which men are often influenced. 

Of the authorities consulted we may mention the " Life of Kit Ca:"son," by De Witt 
C. Peters; the " Rivers of the West," by Mi-s. F. F. Victor; " Bonneville in the Rocky 
Mountains," by Washington Irving; " p]xplorations," by Fremont, in various yeai-s; J. 
Wells Kelly's Directories of Nevada; J. Ross Browne; R. W. Raymond's "Mineral Re- 
sources " ; John A. Church, on the Corastock Lode ; the various statutes, and Reports of 
State ofHrers, directories, gazeteers, and other publications, many of which are referred to 
when used in the book. 

With these authorities and the assistance given u.s, and from the memoi-y and study of 
our writers, we have made the HiSTOUY OF Nevada, and submit it to the world. There 
is in it much to instruct, and something, we hope much, to please. We have related 
facts as we ha\ e obtained them ; animadverted on men and measures as conscience dic- 
tated, and extolled where merit approved. 

To our patrons we owe a double acknowledgment, as without their aid no such history 
could have been written, and without their patronage no such book could have been 
p\iblished. Their liberality and their desire to advance and perfect so important a 
publication, is an evidence of tlieir enlightenment and refined taste. Nevada, c]as.sed as 
she is among the frontier States, where the rough and semi-civilized elements are supposed 
most to congregate, contains comparatively few of the characteristic features imputed, 
but instead is noted for the high civilization ami refinement of the inhabitants. Beinix a 
mining State, the nature of her business necessitates an intimate relationship with the 
world, introducing the purest culture into the most secluded and remote places, forming 


a metropolitan and cosmopolitan society of the highest order. Instead of being settled 
by a rabble it was men of enterprise, energy, education, honor, law and order, who first oc- 
cupied her mines and farms; who created a State in the wilderness; established substan- 
tial and just govei-nment, and carried on the work of development as never before 
witnessed f)r equaled on the globe. Such a people rank among the foremost in the social 
fabric of the Union. The many illustrations given, the portraits of her prominent citi- 
zens, the elegant homes and tasteful sun-oundings, the public buildings and pubUc works, 
substantiate the claim we have made. 

In conclusion we wish to refer with gi-atitude to the excellent artistic and mechanical 
work displayed in this publication, and which has been contributed to by the business firms 
of Louis Evarts, of Philadelphia; Pacific Press, of Oakland, and D. Hicks & Co., of 
San Francisco. Among the many di.stingui.shed engravers whose skill is shown in these 
pages, will be found the names of Samuel Sartain, of Philadelphia; A. H. Ritchie and 
R. B. Hall & Sons, of New York, and Britton & Rey, of San Francisco. 

Without further comment, we leave it in your hands. 

Thompson & West, Publishers. 



Its Condition — Strange Freaka of Nature — Valley of Death — 
Gnome Lake — A Mountain Lake — Bottomless Fountains — 
A Fish Story — Caves — Rivers — Hot Springs — Salt Mount- 
ain and Plains — Foot-prints of a Pre-Historic Kace — Evi- 
dence of Ancient Inhabitants 17-20 


Wm. H. Ashley — Jcdediah S. Smith's Expedition in 18-5-2G-27 — 
Peter S. Ogden's Expedition in 1831 — Milton Sublette's Ex- 
pedition in 183'2 — Bonneville and Walker's Expedition in 
183.T — Kit Carson's First Visit to Nevada, 1833 — Emigra- 
tion under Captain .1. B. Bartleson in 1841 — ,1. C. Fremont's 
Expedition in 1844 — The Emigrants of 18-t4 — Fremont's 
Expedition in 1845 — Edwin Bryant and other Emigrants in 
1846— Stephen Cooper in 184G — The Conner Party Tragedy. 



The Great Basin Ceded by Mexico to the United States in 1848 
— State of Deseret Organized — Utah Territory Organized — 
Discovery of Gold and Early Settlement of Western 
Utah— Transient Settlement— Letter of Robert Lyoa. .29-30 



1 851. 

rhe First Settlement — Reese and Kinsey — Stockade Built — 
Garden Planted — Eagle Ranch Located — The Squatter Gov- 
ernment of 1851 — First Meeting of Citizens — Second Meet- 
ing of Citizens — Third Meeting of Citizens — Civil Govern- 
ment — A Clerk and Constable— Fourth Meeting of Citizens — 
The Present of Some of Those— The Fate of Others 31-33 




First County Organization — First Land Claim — First Toll-Road 
Grant — Deep Snow and P'loods in Carson Valley — 1853 — 
A Mail Route Established — First Lawsuit — Fifth Meeting of 
Citizens — What Mrs. Dittenrieder Remembers of 1853 — 
First Marriage and Divorce — The First Dance — IS54 — Per- 
manent Overland Stations on the Carson River — An Indian 
Killed by a Boy — Sundry Events — Marriage Contract — 
Sixth Meeting of Citizens — Land Claims Recorded in 1854 
— Carson County Created 33-37 




Entries Closing Pioneer Record Book - Carson County Organ- 
ized — First Officers of Carson County — First County Court 
Records — Mrs. Sandy Bowers, the Washoe Sccrcss — 1850 — 
Naming of Genoa — Division of the County into School 
Districts — Orson Hyde's Curse 38-41 




Exodus of the Monnons — Second Attempt at Territorial Organ- 
ization — Public Meeting in Carson Valley — Resolutions — 
Memorial — Exaggerated Statements — A Letter from -Judge 

Crane to his tJonstituents — Mountain Meadow Massacre, 
September 15, 1857 — Western Utah at the close of 1857. 



Carson County Election October 30, ISoS — Hanging of "Lucky 
Bill" June 19, 1858 — Preludes to the Silver Discovery — 
Searchings in Nevada for Silver — The Grosh Brothers — 
The Father's Account of Their Discoveries — The Lost Shaft 
Explained by J. M. Hunter — The Black Rock Prospectors. 


The Comstock Lode Discovered, .June, '59 — An Article of Agree- 
ment — Sierra Nevada Mine Located — First Notice — Ijould ft 
Curry Located — Bill of Sale — California Mine — Union Con- 
solidated Mine — Names of First Ijocatorson the Comstock — 
Virginia City Laid off in Lots — Carson \'alley Quartz — Rich 
Discovery — The First Quartz Mill— Silver Found in the Com- 
stock Ores — Rush from California 55-(51 



Resume of Political History — Rules and Regulations — A 
Conviction and Ear-Cropping — The Third Unsuc- 
cessful Attempt at Territori;il Organization — Declara- 
tion of Cause for Separation — Election and Adoption 
of Constitution, September 7, 1859 — Musser certifies to 
Results of the Election — Another Attempt to Re-organize 
Carson County by Judge J. S. Child — Carson County Elec- 
tion Uctums of October, 1859 — Attempt at Provisional 
Government — Provisional Legislature Meet and Adjourn — 
Governor Roop's Message — After the Adjournment . . .Gl-«)6 




Passenger Communication with California — Stock-raising in 
Carson Valley — The Weather — Building — General Appear- 
ance — Business, Etc. — The Mines — First Efforts to Reduce 
the Ores — A Facsimile of '■ Territorial Enterprise,'' July 
30, 1859 — Political History C<mtinued — Carson County 
Oliicera in 18(i0 — County Court and Repudiation of Debts — 
Rates of Licenses— Stock Brokers — Toll-road and Bridge 
Rates — First Railroad Franchise — First Court House — Ne- 
vada Invoiced in 1860 — -Business Statistics for 1860 — Popu- 
lation of Nevada, 1860 — Nativity of Population 66-75 



Political Events— Stock and Agriculture in 1860 — Deaths in 
1860 — Appointments by Governor Nye — Organization and 
Elections — Executive Proclamation — .ludicial Organiza- 
tion — Legislative Organization — Census and Election Dis- 
tricts — First Territorial Election — Meml>crs of the Ter 
ritorial Council — Members of Hounc of liepre.ientatives — 
Territory Divided into Counties — Special Election of Janu 
ary 14, 1862 — Election of September 3, 1862 — Election of 
September 2, 1 863 — Efforts to Become a State — \'otc For 
and Aiiainst a State Government — Homographic (.'hart — 
Third House — The Constitution IXjfeateil — Vote for Oflicer* 
Under the Constitiiti m — Second Attempt to Beeonie a 
State— Constitutional Convention Elected June 6th, ami 
Assembled .luly 14, 1861 — Votes for Congressional D>;lc.;ato 
— Constitutional Vote 75-86 





State Politics and Elections— I' Election of November 
8, 18(>t — Contest for United States Senate in 18G1 — Removal 
of Capital Attempted— Reply of Mr. Waitz— Congressional 
Election of I8l>5 — State Election, November 6. 1866 — Elec- 
tions in lSli8-6'J — Presidential Election of 1868 — State Elec- 
tion of November 3, 1870— Politics of the Legisl.iture — 
Presidential Election of 1872- Contest for Uniteil States 
Senate — State Election of 1874 — Contest for United States 
Senate — Presidential Election of 1876— Result of the Elec- 
tion — Politics of the Legislature of 1876 — State Election of 
1S7S — Choice of Senator — Republican Ticket — Democratic 
Ticket — Politics of Legislature of 1S7S — Vote for United 
States Senator — Presidential Election of November 2, 1880 — 
Politics of the Legislature of 1880 — Election Returns — 
Amendment J to Constitution — Chinese Immigration — Sutro's 
Net for Fair- ColonelJumes (i. Fair — Salary Reduction by 
Hob-irt'sBill— ludioiary Elections, 1861 to 1878— The S_tate 
Re-districted — Districts as they are 87-99 


The Boundary Line War— Meeting— Message of Governor 

V Clemens — Line .\greed Upon — Square Miles in Nevada — 

A County of Two States lOft-102 



Miiil and Passenger Transportation — Snow-shoe Thompson — 
Pioneer Stage Line— Overland Mail— Pony Express — Over- 
land Mail Stage Company— Overland Stage Farm— Tele- 
graph Lines — Present Mail Routes — Wells, Fargo 

ife Co. 's 



The Humboblt River— The South Fork— The Truckee River- 
Walker River— Carson River— The .■\margosa— The Vegas— 
The Rio Virgen — Quiii Kiver — The Lakes of Nev.-ida — 
Humboldt— Carson— Walker— Pyi'.imid —Washoe— Tahoe 
—Rubv— Franklin— Donner—Hoiley— Mono— Owens— Mar- 

lettc... 109-113 


Baron Ricbthofen on the Comstock— General Structure of Corn- 
stock Veins— Inclosing Rock— Outeroppings— Vein Matter— 
Cl.iy .ind Clayey Matters— Quartz, Character of— Variety of 
Ores— Remarks on General Geology, taken ffrom Oarence 
King's Ueport-s— The Glacial Epoch— Living Glaciers— Local 
Characteristics- The Mountain System — Origin of Mineral 
Veins — Future Mining Prospects 1 13-122 


Mining Influence Upon Politics— Why and How the Law Was 
Changctl- Why the Law Changed in 1871 — Bullion 
Increase in 1871 Over 1870— Table Showing Change in 
Assessments and Taxation, etc.— The Law of 187o. Its 
Pecuniary and Political Eli'eels — The Members Ignore Their 
Pledges— An Outside Pressure Brought to Bear— The Two 
Horns of the Dilemma— The Result— .Senators Voting For 
and Against— The Veto and Its Effects— Bonanza Move 
Number Three- Attempt to Conii)r(nni8e — Compromise Ef- 
fflcted- Efforts to Avoid Paying the Penalties 122-I.30 


E^arly Cultiv.ation of Carson Valley— Cultivation in Humboldt 
—Reports of Large Crops— The Climate of Nevada— Monthly 
and Annual .McteoroloLjieal Record for 1880— Table Showing 
Number of Trees and Vines in the State— Rain-fall— Cloud 
BursU— Irrigating Ditches and Acres Irrigated— WaU'r 
Catchment— Agricultural Products in 187.1 -74— Progress of 
Fruit Culture-Stock- Washoe Valley— Prospects in 1S81 
—Tabulated Statement of the Increase of Stock from 1866 

to 1881— Tabulated Statement Showing Area Cultivated 
and Grain Raised From 1865 to 1881— Table of Leading 
ProducU for 1880— Cattle Raising- The Rodeo— The Stam- 
peJe — The Cricket — Rocky Mountain Locust — Washoe Val- 
ley-Prospects in 18S1 130-145 



First Expedition of Whites— Washoe Raids— Murder of Peter 
Lassen — Gov. Roup and the Indians — The War of 1860 — 
Num.aga's Effort for Peace — Burning of Williams St.-ition — 
Demand for Vengeance — Volunteers for the Expedition — 
The Battle Field— .\n Aimless Charge and Wild Retreat — 
Death of Major Ormsby — A Nameless Hero — Closing Scenes 
—Effects of the Defeat 145-158 



Washoe Regiment Organization— The March to Pyramid L.ake— 
Just Before the Battle— The Battle-Ground— The Battle- 
After the Battle— Other Events About Pyramiil Lake- 
End of the Campaign— Death of Win. Allen— Expeditiiui of 
Colonel Lander — Indians alter the War — Indian War 
Threatcne<l 158-165 


Conference with the r.ab-Utes- Indian Scaiv at Como in 1863 — 
A Chief Murdered— Troubles in 1864 in Huinlwldt County 
—Indian Troubles in 1865- Hostilities in Paradise Val- 
ley—A Ride for Life— Fate of Collins and Fearbournt — 
Eighteen Indiiins Scalped- Events iu Other Parts in 1865— 
Hostilities in Paradise Valley in 1865— Death of Col. Charles 
McDeimitt— Events in Humboldt County— Black Rock Tom 
—Closing Action and Act of the Year- Paradise V^alley 
Trouble in 1S()7 — Hon. James A. Banks Killed — The Winter 
of 1867 and Spring of 1868 166-177 


The Dry Creek Fight— Gravelly Ford Massacre in 1861— Eastern 
Nevada Troubles in 1862 — GoshUte War in 1863 — Attack on 
Cailon St.ition in 1863— ilassacre at CafMn Station— End of 
the Gosh-Ute War— Eastern Nevada War Panic in 1875— 
Anecdotes and Incidents 177-188 


E.arly Methods in Californi.i — Uitlioulties of Inventors — The 
V Flume— Capacity of the V Flume- Flume Companies iu 
Nevada 188-191 



[by col. henry G. SHAW.] 

Mormonism in the Advance— The First .M .arriage- Early Chris- 
tian Missionary Work— The Pioneer Pre.athers— Lontempt 
for the Fourth Commandment— Tribulations of a Young 
Scotch Divine at Elko— A Funeral Sermon Over the Wrong 
Man— An Anecdote of the Lightning Express— Practical 
Praying in the Legislature — Floating Deuomiuations in 
Nevada 191-136 


First Service— Value of Church Property— Defection of a Min 
iatfr- Work Amoim the Chinese— The Diocesan School- 
Gift of Miss C. L. Wolfe— Bishi>p Whitaker's School- 
Damage by Fire— Church at Gold Hill— Silver City— Car- 
son City— Dayton— Austin— Hamilton— Pioche— Eureka— 
Reno-Belmont 196-204 



Panal Scheme — Disenvery of Mineral — Principal Mining 
Districts— rriiicipal Towns and Cities— Hon. .M. S. Tlionip- 
son— Hon. T. J. BraiUliaw — Joel Bradahaw — .lames Byrnes 
—Charles Kemler— C. A. Nichols— W. A. Sperry— William 
Stock— E. Blcnnerhassett 443-4tK) 


Discovery of and Kush to the .Mines— Organization and Bound- 
aries—County Seat and Court House— County Debt and 
Court House^Iudicial District and .Schools- Oliieers Ap- 
uoinUiland Klected— The Leading Industries— Bonds, Prop- 
erty and Population- I'rincipal Towns— Austin the County 
Seat— Incorporated as a City— \S'ater Company and Stock 
H„;,r,l— Iteaction and Varying Fortunes- Destructive Uain 
.Storms -Changes and Present Appearance— Allen A. Curtis 
—Andrew Nichols— Hon. M. .J. Farrell— The Man with the 
Axe— Battle Mountain— J. A. Blossom— Desertfitl Towns 
anil Cities--Prineipal Mining Districts 4G1-17G 


Earliest Explorations— First Discovery of Mines— Organization 
and BoHiidaries— Appointments and Elections— Payment of 
Taxes Kef used— Court House and County Jail— Collector's 
Fees Swindle— Sundry Itailroad Subsidies— Meetings to Op 
pose the Schemes— The Govenior \etoo3 the Bill— Proinot- 
ersof the .Scheme— Causes of Pro.stration— I'rincipal .Mount- 
ain Itanges— Valleys ot the County— Most Kemarkal)le 
e'ave- Mining Districts— Pioehe, the County Seat 
-Destructive Fires and Floods— Rapid Decline after KS70— 
Other Towns and Cities— The Salt Mountain 470-492 


Characterof the Surface- S.amuel S. Bucklaiul— (!. W. Burrier— 
John Carling— Org.anization and Boundaries— Appointments 
and Elections— Creation of a County Debt— Internal Im- 
prov.jinents- Court House and County Jail— Investigation 
anil Economy- Prospecting for Coal— Principal Mining 
Districts— Principal Towns and Cities — Kimber Cleaver— 
J. L. CamplwU— John L .throp— G.P. Kaudall — J. D.Sims— Quartz Mdls— History of theSutro Tunnel- Col. 
C.C.Thomas 492-512 

C H A P T E R L. 

Early Explorations— Petition and Kemonstrance— Organization 
and Boundaries — Appointments and Elections — Economy 
ami Healthy ( irowth- Debt and County Buildings— Grazing 
and Agriculture— Valleys of the County— Principal Mining 
Districts— Principal Towns and Cities— Hon. Benj. Curler 
Hon. George Ernst— Hon. J. T. Williams 512-527 


Emigrants and Early Settlers— Organization of Ormsby County 
—Appointments and Elections— Topography of County- 
Early .Settlers- Advent of .\brain Curry— Samuel A. Nevers 
Aaron D. Treadway — Warren W.isson — Uesources- Wil- 
liam D. Torreyson- H. H. Benee— .Mines and Mining — 
Quartz Mills— Saw mills — Toll-roads — I'ourt House — M. A. 
Dricsbach — Hon. Trenmor Coffin- -County Divided into 
Townships— State Prison— I iame -Carson City— Carson Mint 
— Hon. Cha.s. F. BicUnell— George C. Tliaxter— Hon- W. M. 
e.,ry— J. H. Marshall— J. M. Benton— M. D. Hatch— 
Mathias Itinckel — Duncan McRae — Harrison Shrievcs — Em- 
pire City 527-563 


Creation and Boundaries— Appointments and Elections— At- 
tempted Organization— Topographical Features— The Prin- 
cipal Valleys 563-565 



Commingling of .Ml Classes — Discovery of the Coinstock Lode- 
Supplies from t'alifornia — Teamsters Association — Uaa<i 
Agents — Organization of the County — Capt. Edward F 
Storey — James F. Lewis — Mark Strouse — M. N. Stone- 
Scenery of Virginia City — First Buildings in (iold Hill- 
First Events Keeounted — 1-Jirly Legislatiie Acts — The Char 
ter .Anieiiiled — Philipp Deidesheimer — Pliilo Kiiiipp— Willian. 
(iarhart — Willi im. son — Charter of Virginia City- 
Events of the year ISO.'i — lUval and Ambitiims Towns — 
Col. H. H. Taylor— .loseph E. .McDonald- Political Excit. 
meut — Private and Public Extravagance — Thos. Moses — 
Charles Fonnan — Amusements in Early Days — How gi 
Arastra is Made — Kichard Rising — Henry Uolfe — BcncliceM 
Institutiims — First Quartz Mills — Col. A. M. Edgington- 
W. E. F. Deal — Greater Prosperity Imlicated — I. E. .lain 
— Virginia City when Five Years Old — Military Coinpani 
— Leading Industrial Enterprises — The Fire Dej)artment 
The Newsp.aper Department — tJold Hill in the 'i ear 1865 
The Bonanza Period — The .Sutro Tunnel — James (i. Fair 
John W. Mack.ay — The Virginia & Truekee Railroad — Jam - 
C. Flood — William C. Ralston — William Sharon — John )" 
Jones — Depression of Mining — Ralston to the Front — Opf ■- 
sition to .Sutro Tunnel — The New King of the Comstock 
(ireat Panic of 1875 — What the Mines have Accomplished 
D.Crosby — R. V. Dey — Finances During the Bonanza Peri- 
— Taxing the X'irginia and Truekee Railroad — Princiiml 
Fires in Virginia City — Fires at GoUl Hill — Virginia City 
Fire Department — The Water Supply — .Substantial Im- 
provements — The Foundries of Virginia City — lohn Mc 
Cone — The Manufacture of Ice — The(; Outlook Hojw 
ful—L. T. Fox— Joseph B. .Mallon— William Woodburn — 
Fiu.anee and Resources — .\ppointments and Elections — W . 
N. Mercer Otey— John F. Egan — F- H. Packer — Method of 
Working the Mines — Compressor Drills — Temperature ul 
the Mines — J. .Minor T.aylor— W. H. Patton — Some of ilii 
Leading Mines — The Comstock (Jroupof Mines — Statisti.9 
of Proceeds — List of Bonanzas — The Utah Mine — .Sierra 
Nevada — Union Consolidated — The Mexican Mine — 1 i- 
California — Ccmsolidated Virginia — Best k Belcher— Go iM 
& Curry — The Savage Mine — The Hale & Norcross — T!;. 
Chollar-Norcross-Savagc Sluifts — Cholhir-Pntosi — Bull. on 
Mine — The Exchequer — The Alpha Mine — Consolidated li.i 
perial— Gold Hill Group — The Challenge — Confidence— T :<■.■ 
Yellow Jiicket — Kentuek — Crown Point and Belcher — .Sej 
gated Belcher — Overman — Caledonia — American Flat (Jn 
— Outside Mines — Mining — Fluctuatii>n of .Stock 
Wm. Mooney — Accidents in the Mines — The Yellow lac 
Disaster — Charles Zeigler — "Sandy " Bowers 507- 


Explorations and Settlements — Petition to the County Conii- 
John Twaddle — Aiulrew .S.auer — Abandoned by the Mt.r 
mons — Miners Take Possession — Organization and Cou"' 
Seat— Court House, .lail and Hospital — l.umber and t,tu. 
Mills — Removal of the C.mnty .Seat — Location and Eiee 
of Buildings — Poor Farm ami Hospital — Free Bridge ( ■■ 
structed — Financial and Political Condition — Granvdle W 
Huflfakcr — Appointmentsand Elections- W. A. Walker- ! 
S. Osburn — Death Penalty Inllieted — Lt 
and Products — Ervin Crane — W. I). Harden — A. A. Iv 
ley — George .Smith, Sr. — George .S. .Smith — Is.iiie H. 
— Principal Irrigating Canals — Reno in its Early Da; 
W. R. ChamlxTlain — Henry Lyman Fish — Protec' 
against Fire— Property Destroye<l by Fire — Infested by • 
Characters — The Association of "(iOl " — Efforts to Iiico 
rate— L. W. Lee — Episcojul Seminary — .Mount St. Ma 
Academy — Hebrew Benev.ilent Society — Principal To 
and Cities — .Steamboat Springs — .loseph Frey — James .Si 
van — T. (i. Heruiiin '>-- 

The Mountains and Valleys— Timber, Mills and Lumber — ^' 
Game and Fish — The Indian Tribes — Discovery of and 1 
to the .Mines — Organization and B lumlaries— First Coi 
Commissioners — Court House and Defalcation — Appi 
meiits and Elections — Resonroas of the County — .^l !■ 
Hopeful Prospects — Principal Mining Districts — Pan. 
Coal Mines — Principal Towns and Cities — O. H- Gray — ' ■■ ■. 
F. Parker— He. ry A. Comins— (Jeo. G. Blair 648 <H)4 




Adams. Juliii Q. 
Allen, J. W 

Alle7i, Lciii 
Angel. Alvioii 

Babcock, Jasper 
Baker, (i. W 
Ball. I. H 
Barrett, A. .( 
Hence. H.ll 
Beulon. J. M 




r. 80 



Bicknell, Chas. F . 558 

Blair. Geo. G 6G2 

Blcnnerhas-sett, E 460 

BIo.s3om. .I..\ . . 471 

Bond. .T. \V 307 

Bradshaw. Joel .456 

Bradshaw, T. J 456 

Brown. .lohn P 367 

Huckland. ."^anniel S 493 

Burriir. Cieorge W 493 

Bvriies. Jaine-i 4.50 


Campbell, J. L 

Canfield, Fred, i: 
Carling. .loliM 
C'ary, W. :\I 

Cassidy. Geo. W 

Child, John y 382 

Chamberlin. W. IX 636 

Cleaver, Kinibcr 499 

Cleveland. .V.C Facing. 184 

Coflin. T 544 





Facing. 76 



Coniins, H. A 

Craig; J. S. . 
Crane. Krviu 
Crane. W. T 
Croikett. L. L 
Cro.'^by, U... 

Curler, Benj 

Curtis, Allen A Facing. 468 

Cusliiiian. .1. .1 . -308 

Daggett. Holliu M , 

Daniel, ,Ia!-pcr 

Davis, Sam. 1' 

Day, .Sylvester H 

Deal, W. E. V 

Dian. W. K Facing 

Deidesheinier, I'hilipp 

Dennis, Maj. ,Iolin II 

Dey. H. V 

Dodge, Krlmund U 
Donald, .Samuel . 
Dormer, J. M . . . 
Doten. AlC. . 
Dre.H.sler, A. !•' 
Driesbaeli. M. ,\ 

Kdgingtou, .V. M . . 

Kgan J. F 

Ellis, A. C. Facing 

Ernst, Geo 

Krwav, .\. II 


















. 88 



Faireliild. .1. D 

Fuircbild, .M. D... 
Fairchild. <). L. C 

Fair. .lames G 

Farrell, M. J 

Fergu.son, Jackson. 

Fish. H. L 

Flood. James C .. . 
Forbes, William J 
Forman, Chas . 
Fo.v, J.J. 
Fo.x, L. T. 
Fulton Foundry . . 
Frey, Joseph 





Facing. 48 










Gallaglier, J. B. 
Garhart, \Vm 
Glenn, M. M 
Grant, H. Jf . 
Grant, John . . . 
Goodwin, CO.. 
Gray, O. H 

Hagcrmau, J. C. . . . 

Haines, J. \V 

Hall, Warren .S 
Halloek, .1. F . 
Harden. W. D. . . 

Harri.s. E. B 

Harris, C. N 

Harmon. A. K. P . . 

Hatch, A. J 

Hatch, jr. D 

Hawley, Thomas P 
Herbold, Adam. 
Herman, T. G . 
Hernleben, C. 
Hinds, J. C. 
Hobart. W. W 
Honeyman, F. 
Huffiiker. G.W 

- 92 

Facing. 212 



Facing. 64 


Facing- 100 

. •• 340 

. . ■• 110 

• 220 


Facing. 3.32 
.. 387 

.lames, I. E. 
Joues, John 1' 
Jones, David H . 


Kaiser, Chas. . 
Kelley, E.D... 

Kemler, Chas 

Kenyon, A. L . 

Kenyon. Frank .V 
Kiiikcad. .loliii II 
Knapp. I'lilld 

Lee, L. W . 
Lee, S. Lent 

Lec,W. K 


Leonard, O. R 

Lewis, J. F 

Littletield, K. A 






. P''acing. 24 


. (>40 
Facing. 284 


.Facing. 276 
. . •• 336 


. 294 

lionglcy. .V. .\ 
Lorigley, Sani'l 
Lothrop. John 



llackay, John W - - Facing. 56 

Mallett, Chas 408 

Mallon. J. B 605 

Manogue. Kev. P 207 

Marshall. J. H 560 

.Marye, Geo. T . Facing- 108 

Masin. X. H. A •■ 148 

Maute. .\ndre\v 312 

Mayhugh, John 8 223 

McCarthy. D. E 326 

McCone. John 603 

.McDonald, Joseph E 579 

McEwcn, Arthur B 327 

MiLeod, .Vngus. . . . 




Merrill, Geo. W 


Mighels, Henry It 

Facing. 312 

Mooney, Wm 


Moore, Col. J. B. . . . 


,Moses, Thos . 


Jlurphy, M. A 

. . Facing. 84 

Murphy, AVilliaiii . _ 


Myers, Wni 


Xevers, Samuel A 533 

Nicholls, Andrew 469 

Nichols, Charles A 467 

Niles, Edward 315 

O-sburn, R. S 
Otev. W. N. M,rf. r 


Packer, F. H 009 

Parker, George F 658 

Parkinson, il. R 315 

Patton. W. H 611 

Pieott. T. E 308 

I'ike. W. H. A .371 

Powning, C. C 329 

Ralston, W. C 591 

Randall, G. P 501 

Rising, Richard 583 

Reymcrs. B. H 411 

Richardson. Abner S 411 

Richards. J. W 370 

Rinckel, Mathias 561 

Rives, Henry 443 

Rolfe. Henry 584 

Sanders, W. B 411 

Sanford, J. M 371 

San Pedro. M Facing. 140 

Sauer. A 624 

School for Girls at Reno 198 

Se.s.sions, D. R — 226 

Sharon, William 691 

Shepherd, G.H.... -.399 




Shrieves, Harrison ... 5t>2 

Simpson, U. C. . . .41.3 

Simpson, K. W 331 

Sims, J. I) 501 

Skillman, Abraham 299 

Smitii. G. S C33 

Smith, (i., Sr ^ 633 

Smith, T. B 413 

Sperry, W. A 457 

Sprag!?, \V. H 418 

Steamboat Springs 644 

Stfxk, Win 458 

Stone, M. N 670 

Adam.s, Jdhn Q 

Allen, J. \V 

Allen, C. and Lem 

Ball. I. H 

Banta, A 

Barrett, A. J 

Bennett, E. W 

Benton. .J. M 

Best ami Belcher Office.. 

Bickm'Il. t'ha.s. F 

noii.I. .1. W .loel 

Bradshaw, T.J 

Brown, .John P 

Biickland. .S. S 

Burrier. G. W 

Bvrnes. .Jamc^ 

t'dlilurnia .Shaft 

Campbell, J. L 

Capitol Building 

Carling. .rohii 

C.&C. Shaft 

Carroll, (feo. H 

Chamberlain, \V. R. 


Church at Austin. . . 
Comji.stoii, .lame.-*... 
Com. Virginia Shaft 

Craig, .John S 

Crane, Krvin 

Cushman, .1. .T....'., 

. Facing -2G»f 


- •• 152- 

•• G28 

•• 648- 

•• 208+ 

■ 388- 









4!lG - 

456 f 

308 + 


52 - 
6:52 - 

Daniel, .la.sper 

HeidcslicinuT. I'liilipp. 

J )epot Hotel, Keno 

Dillard, U. H • 

Itormitory to State University ' 
DrcAsler, A. F 

E.\change Hotel 

Fair. .lames (i 

424 -(- 
572 f 
380 f 



Adam.-<..Iolin Q.and wife. Facing. 268- 

Allen. Lem. and wife " 152 1 

Angel, Myron 304 

Stone, Thos. X 224 

Storey, Edward F 569 

Strause, Mark 570 

Sullivan, .Tames 642 

Torreyson, W. 1) . 

Taylor, J. Minor . . . 

Taylor, Robt. H 

Tha.\ter, Geo. C 

Theelen, Henry 

Thomas, CoI.C. C 

Thompson, M. S-- 

Tollev, .T. B . 










Ferguson, .Jackson 

Fitch, A. B 

Forgnone, .Vngelc. 
Foreman Shaft .. . 

Fo.x, J. J 

Frey, Joseph 

Fulton Foundry... 

(Jazette Building, Reno. 
Gould & Curry Office. . . 

Haines, J.W 

Hale ct Xorcross Shaft . 

Hall and Simpson 

Harden, W. 1) 

Herbold, Adam 

Herman, T. G 

Hernleben, C 

Hinds, J. C 

Hinds" Hot Springs 

Joint Shaft 

Jones. David R. 

Kemler, Chas 

Kenyon. Afrs. C 

Knapj). I'liilo & Co. 

Lake Tahoc Stage (Jffice 
Lee, L. W 

Lee, W. U 


r.,ongley, A. A 

Mallet. Chas 

.Manhattan S. M. Co 

Mexican Shaft. . 

McLeod, Angus. 

McRae. D 

Moeller and Schoeneman. 
Mooney, \Vm 

" New Shaft " 

Nichols, C. A 

Noel. Sol 


Babcock. Jasper Facing. 80- 

Baker. (i. \V. (steel) . •• 228- 

Harutl. .\. J. and wife 208- 

. Facing. 360- 

■ 392 - 

•• 344-f 


• 292- 

• 644- 


• 330+ 

• 196+ 



• 384+ 

• 652- 
•• 168f 
•' 640- 

• 416f 

• 176 ' 
■ 176 

■• 120 
•' 376^ 

•• 4.52 - 

• 240-f 

'• 104 J 


•• 420-1- 

" 576 •<- 


•• 208 

• 316^ 
160 • 



Treadway, X. I) 633 

Twaddle, John 624 

Walk.r. W. A . ..6»1 

WiUison. Warren .533 

Wightinan, I). M 371 

Will iamson, Chas 675 

Woodburn. Wil liain 605 

Wood. .1. C 387 

Williams. J. T 524 

Wren. Thos Facing. 236 

Wright, \Vm 31.8 

Ziegler, Chas ...621 

Pierce, Saml. B. P 

Pike. W. H. A 

Potosi Shaft . . . 

Ragtown Station . . 
Recanzone, Battisti. 

Reymers, B. H 

Rinckel. Mrs. .M. Iv 

-Facing. 40- 
244 ' 

■ 120 

■ 240 _- 

■• 400- 

St. George's Episcopal Church " 

Sanders, W. B 

Sandford, J. M 

Saner, A 

Savage Shaft •• 

School for Girls at Reno. . 
Shrieves, Mrs. Harry 
Sierra Xevada Shaft ... 

Simpson. D. C 

Smith. Geo. S 

Smith, G. Sr 

Smith, T. B 

Snyder, Chas 

Sperry, W. A 

Spragg, W. H 

State Capitol Building. 

State University. 

Steamboat Springs . 

Stock, Wra 

Sullivan, James 

Thaxter, Geo. C 

Tlieelen. Henry 

Timbering .Mines 

Treadway, .\. 1). . . . 

"Union Shaft" 

Whittaker's ( ). W. School 

Wightman. 1). M 

Wood Camp. 

Yellow Jacket Mine . 

Ziegler. Cha.s 


432 — 




198 + 


392 1 
412 -^ 
428 -f 

440 + 


tiO - 

316 -\ 



Bence. H.H 

Bicknell, Chas. F 
Blair Geo. G 

.569 -t- 
.662 -f 



PORTR A ITS— Conti n ued 

Blennerhassett, E 46O4 

Blossom, J. A 471-* 

Bradshaw, Joel and wife. Facing. 448 Ij. 
Bradshaw. T. J. and wife. " 444-;^ 
Bufkland. 8. S. and wife. . " 500— 
Burrier. G. W. and dauirhter " 496+ 

Campbell, J. L. and wife 

Cary, W. M... 

Child. John S. and wife. 
Cleveland, A. C. (steel). 

Cleaver, Kimber. 

Coffin, T - 

Cooper, James B. (steel). 

Collins, Daniel R 

Comins, H. A 

Craig. John S. and wife.. 

Crane, Ervin 

Crane, W.T.. 
Crockett, L. L . 

Crosby, D 

Curler, Benj ... 

Curtis. Allen A 

Cushman. J. J. and wife. 

• 308- 


Facing. 372- 

•■ 18^- 

■ 404+ 


Facing. 132- 


Facing. 164- 

•• 6324 


Facing. 76- 

597 + 

521 + 

Facing. 46&~ 

'• 368t 

Hagerman, J. C. (steel). Facing. 

Hallock, J. F. (steel) 

Harris, E. B. (steel) 

Harris. C. N. (steel) 

Harmon. A. K. V. (steel) 
Hatch. -Vndrew J. (steel). 

Hatch. M. 1) 

Hawley. Thos. P. (steel). Facing 
Herbold. Adam and wife. 
Heruleben. C. and wife. . . 

Hobart. \V. W 

Hogle. L. I 

Honeyman, F 

Hutfaker, G. W Facing 

Daniel. Jasper and wife. " 424~- 

Davis. Sam. P 3144 

Deal. \V. E.F 585+ 

Dean. W. E. (steel). Facing. 124>- 

Deidesheimer, Philipp. 573-t 

Dey, R.V .5974 

Dodge, E. R .442^ 

Dormer, J. M Facing. 330~- 

Doten, Alf 324t 

Dressier, A. F. and wife .Facing. 380 — 
Driesbach, M. A .544+- 

Edgington. A. M .585f 

Egan. J. F 608t 

Ellis. A. C. (steel) Facing. 88- 

Ernst. Geo 522f 

Erway, A. H Facing. 408- 

Faircliild, M. 1) - 304 >^ 

Fair, James G. (steel) " 48- 

Farrell, M.J 470 <- 

Fish, H. L 6364 

Eorgnone. Angelo& wife. Facing-344+ 

Forman, Chas. . .582i: 

Fox,J.J Facing. 292- 

Fox, L. T 604 '\ 

Frey, Joseph and wife. . . Facing. 644 --w 

Gallagher, J. B 409-/ 

Garhart, Wm 575^ 

Grant, H. M 397t^ 

Grant, John (steel) Facing. 92^ 

Gray. O.H 658 + 


James, I. E. 
Ja^jua. J. H . 
















587 J- 


Kaiser. C' 368 f 

Kinkead, John H. (steel) Facing. 24- 

Lee, S. Lem. (steel). . . 
Lee. W. R. and wife 
Leete, B. F. (steel ) . . . 
Leonard. O. R. (steel) 


Lewis, James F 56i)-t 

Longley, 8am'l 433*- 

Lothrop, John Facing. 492 f 

Mackay, John W. (steel). Facing. 56- 

.Mallon, J. B 605^ 

Manogue, Uev. P . . . 207 * 

JIarshall, J. H 56(H- 

Marye. Geo. T. (steel) Facing. 108— 

jra.son, N. H. A. (steel) 148-- 

Mayhugh, John S .223*- 

McCarthy, D. E 326 + 

McCone. John . 603 Y I 

McDonald, J. E .")80^ 

McKae, 1 > Facing. 316— 

Merrill. Geo. W 44^ 

Mighels. Henry R. (steel). Facing. 312-^ 

Mooney, William 330< 

Moore. Col. J. B 390* 

Moses, Thos 581 r 

.Murphy, >L A Facing. 84- 

Murphy, William 365K. 

Myers, Wm 390"^ 

Xa-Ma-CJa ( Young Winncmucca; . 

Facing. 144 ■* 

Nevers. 8am'l .\. and wife. " 532 ♦■ 

Nicholls, Andrew 469*- 

Nichols, C. A. and wife.. Facing. 352f- 
Nu-Ma-Na (Captain Dave) " 144 -^ 


Otey, W. X. .Mercer 608-- 

Osburu. R. S. . 630-t^ 

Packer, F.H 609-^ 

Parker, Geo. F 608^ 

Patton, W. H 6lW 

Pfeirtcr. Birdie Facing. 416 + 

Pierce, fcjam'l B. P. and wife 40^ 

Po-i-To (Old Winnemucca) Fac'g.l44— 
Powning. C. C. (steeli " 328 — 

Randall. G. P • 408 + 

Recanzone, Battisti " 344f- 

Rising. Richard. 583+ 

Reymers. B. H. and wife. Facing. 400 — 

Richardson. Abner S 404— 

Richards. J. W 370-t 

Rives. Henry 443 t 

Rolfe, Henry 584+ 

Sanders, W. B. and wife. .Facing. 432 — 

Sanford, J. M. and wife " 356 ^ 

San Pedro, M. (steel) " 140^- 

Sessions, D. R 226 

Shepherd. G.H 39»r 

Simpson. R. W . 331-+ 

Sims. J. D Facing. 492— 

ijmith, W. H 566 - 

Snyder, Chas. and wife. . Facing. 412- 
Spragg, W. H. and wife . . " 428— 

Stone. M.N... 570 

Stone, Thos. N 224, 

Strause, Mark 570-^ 

Torreyson, Wm. D. 535+ 

Taylor. J. Minor 611 1 

Taylor, Robt. H 579+ 

Tha.\ter, Geo. C 559- 

Thomas, Col. C. C 5124- 

Thouipson, M. S . . .455t— 

Tolley. J. B .398^ 

Treadway, A. D Facing. 136+ 

Twaddle, .John " 532 + 

Walker. W. A 630^ 

Wasson, Warren ... . . .534 / 

Wightmaii. D.M. and wife Facing. 260 

William.-on. (.'has 576+ 

Woo<lburn, William 605 V 

Wood, J. C 387 

Williams. J. T 524> 

Wren, Thos. (steel) Facing. 236 

Wright, Wm. ("Dan De Quille")-318 

Ziegler, Chas 621" 

Editor's Introductory. 

By the courteous invitation of the publishers, I address the readers as editor of the 
Illustrated History of Nevada. The duties of an editor comprise those of an author 
as well as compiler, reviser and critic, all of which, in this vfork, have been brought into 
service. A mass of material had been gathered by different parties from many sources, 
often conflicting, contradictory and irrelevant, and to mould this into authentic and 
consistent history has been ni}' conscientious aim and purpose. In this work I had re- 
course to many documents, books, manuscripts and papers in my possession, and to my 
own intimate acquaintance with the subject. Long anterior to the di.scovery of silver, 
and while Nevada was a part of Utah, I had visited the Eastern Slope and written of 
its people and its physical features for the California press, and upon the development of 
its mineral wealth })ecame a citizen of the embryo Ten-itory. For many years, as editor 
and newspaper writer, and as author of several publications and reports, I have labored 
as.siduously in making known her resources to the world, and thus have grown familiar 
with her history, while her fame and prosperity have become dear to mo. Thus, in pre- 
paring this work, I have enjoyed a ph-asure where most other writers would have en- 
countered painful toil. 

Those who have rendered assistance have received the acknowledgments of the pub- 
lishers, and 1 also add my thanks. To Thompson & West, I express my 
obligations for their generous courtesy and kind indulgence. Through their enlightened 
enterprise this great work has been accomplished, and to them the people of Nevada should 
be ever grateful. The elegant appearance of this volume, the completeness and arrangement 
of the matter, and the able and liberal business management which has earrieil the work 
to a triumphal conclu-sion, is due to their excellent taste and sound judgment. 

With pride in the work and apologies fur all imperfections, I submit the History of 
Nevada to its readers. Myron Angel, Editor. 




Compiled and Written by a Corps of Experienced Writers under tlie Direction of 



Its Condition — Strange Freaks of Nature — Valley of Poath — 
Clnonie Laki: — A Monnt:'iii I,ako — Hi>ttiiinUss F 'Uiitaina — 
A Kiali Mory — Cavca— Rivers — llwt .S|iriiis;s — Salt M'Unt- 
aiii anil Plains — Footpiints of a rre-llistorio Itace — Evi- 
dcucc of Aneient lnlial>iCant3. 

In Iho convulsions tli:it caused nature to thrust 
from beneath the oeean tlie Koeky and Sierra 
Nevada .Mountains, there was left between them an 
immense basin, hundreds of miles in width from east 
to west, and of mui-h jjreater lenj^lli U'l^ixw north to 
south. This ba>-in was elevated at the same lime a 
little at the south, liareiy comin-^ out of the ocean at 
the mouth of the t'olorado {{iver, while at the mouth. 
of the J{io Viri;en it has reached 800 feet above the 
sea, at St.Thiimas 1,115, at Iliko 8,7li0. at Dayton 
3,850; the elevation increai-inf; as the north is 
approached, the averaj^e altitude bein<i; about 4.000 
feet. The section is not, however, an unliroken 
plateau; but on the contrary-, over one-half of ils 
surface is covered by rock-rilibed mountains whose 
lofty p(;aks, j;rand slo])es, and immense dimension of 
fool- hills seem, to the casual observer, to occiijiy 
most of the face of the couiilr}-. The general trend 
of the mountains is from north to south. 


Ill our time — it may not have l)een always thus — 
nature deals out with a sparino; hand her cloud t;ifts 
of water over this vast country, and the little that 
comes, gathered into streams, flows towartls the 
interior where it forms lakes and then evaporates 
or sinks away into the earth. The surface of the 

valleys is largely corn]iosed of sand, some of them 
having an alluvial deposit and all rcipiiring a largo 
quantity of water to make them produce vegetation. 
The loftj- Sierra Nevada, bordering the biisin on the 
west, intercepts and exhausts the moisture of the air 
currents ever flowing eastward, consequently they 
])as8 comparalivelj- rainless over this broad region, 
notwithstanding manj' of ils mountain ranges and 
lofty peaks attain an altitude of 10.000 and 12,000 
feet above the sea. Hecausc of this, mountains are 
generall}' treeless and the valleys barren and deso- 
late to look u|)on. It is not a natural home for the 
husbandman or a grazier's ])ara(liso, but the miner 
who seeks an Kl Dorado will fnni it here. Yet there 
arc manj' valleys and mountain nooks rendered 
exceedingly fei'lile by iriigalion, and large herds of 
cattle i-ange over the hills and ]ilains of ihe north 
and east. 


Nature was in her eccentric mood when forming 
this region, and turned out some strange results 
from the, store bouse of time. There is one valley 
thirty miles long, just without its borders, lying near 
the line se])araling C.difornia from Nevada north of 
the ;iGth° of latitude, ihal is 175 feet below the level 
of the sea. The Amargosa River, rising in Nevada, 
flows uselessly into it, where the burning rays of the 
sun licks its volume up in vapors until it becomes a 
creek and then loses itself upon the parched sands of 
a waterless river bed. It is a vast, treeless, water- 
less, alkaline field of Tartarus, where heat, and 
drought, an<l desolation have combine*! to di'ive the 
traveler mad with thirst and despair. Over its 



white, crested, inhoepiuble boiom &re now bleach- 
ing the bones of animals and men on wittingly loivd 
there to perish with the horrors of tantalos. and the 
place is known as the - Valley of Death." 

There is a subterranean lake in Baby Mountain 
that is the soar -vhich fl-' - " v 

of that name, tc. -:reamki. i. 

The entrance to this hidden sea of the Mountain 
Gnome, b ' a natural tonnel about mx feet 

long, that :- oogh to admit onlv one person 

at a time. The entrance leads to the margin of a 
beaatifal >heet of clear, c-old water one hundred feet 
long by &t\j feet wide At its ftirther extremity fe 
a sand-bar fifty feet acmes, beyond which is a rock 
partition that comes down within two feet of the 
waters surface. Beyond this partition lies another, 
smaller lake, from the farther side of which lea<ls off 
a narrow cave with perpendicular sides, through 
which the water flows into the lake. This cave has 
been explored for ?ome ; ntil an abrupt turn 

was reached, when the _ _ , . ... - fearing to proceed 
fiother, returned, and lett the mysteries of what lay 
beyond a secret still. The tor -"-g 

over these subterranean waters - a 

scene of w^rd and enchanting beauty. From the 
caremons. over-hanging wa'"- 
white, gem-decked, stalac: 

towards the unrevealed depths of that beantifuL 
sUent. sQvery sheet of water t'r ' " ' . 
visitor the remains of one who - 

while seeking to learn these hidden mysteries. 
Should it not be called - Gnome Lake " ? 

On the summit of a high mountain in this Ruby 
range is another beautiful lake, higher than Lake 
Tahoe. probably the highest in the world, th-- - ' 
" up in the region of storms," ofltimes ren. 
froxen over until July. An outlet fieoax it towaris 
the east feeds a stream that, leaping down from the 
rocky heights, flows oat into Ruby Valley, and is 
known as ' Creek. 

Of the c. . , ..y of this lake, and the dread in 
whi'^h it is held by the Indians. Charles Stebbins, of 
Austin, relates that in 1><2 he :'a 

pool of water that the Indiac- . ^ ae 

summit of a high, bald mountain in the Ruby range 
aboat thirty-five miles north from tf 
station. To the red men it was a ni_ 
which an evil spirit ruled, whose home was in tho«e 
water*. This dread spirit was i. * 

the form of a large fish, and wL 
went away to linger for a time and die. Hlko-kub, a 

pf.: . .,- .L ,cL..u . '^d of con- ■ - •' •^- 

{ J po*t kt: 
a: -:e to the latter con- 
Ct-Liii vu..~ i^-,. ./I •A-.,.L.i .11 i.^v r'.'->nn'ain« Sho- 
kub warned his white friend n.- ■ - ing the 
spot, claiming that be K -h that no per- 
son had ever looked a (.•... - The cari<><>ity 

of Stebbins having been excited by the strange 
atoriM coDceming the locality related to him by the 

chief, determined to see the spot so dreaded by the 
aborigines. Accordingly, in company with the 
famous pioneer and frontieranan, Wm. IL Rogeis, 
'• Uncle Billy," he went in search of it; — 

As we approached the spot — said Stebbins — 

the rocks began to give out a strange, hollow 

«.iir ,i Si though we were passing over a cavern, and 

I .re would break through, we got down upon 

! uui Li^ii-is and knees and crawled along. At length 

I we came to the mouth of a yawning chasm, and 

I ' rim saw about twenty feet beneath 

-f of eiistenine water. The open- 

-- - alar 

_ into 

! the SfifcjUi cii*i vi :& liiiiEici. AilcT la&iUx ^ ;^*>LMi look 

I we went f^i-^rr: to where oar horses were, and 

[ camped : zht. The next day we went back 

■stA to''r; ;■ look, but we saw no fish. In the 

:e vicinity we found large numbers of final 

"I csBMt tell Vnr &e tntk muj be; 
I aj the tafe a* 'twas aaad to me." 

At the northea-n end of this same range o€ mount- 
aiii!», in the valley near the railroad town of Wells, 
are app. miess fountains of water miles 

&om any - : ^.im. It is but a few fe«t across 

the largest of them, the smaller could be croesed at 

'■". swarms of little 

~ in length. One 

hundred and seventy miles to the southwest are 

"ar qteomens 
.ere else upoa 
the continent. From what age, and condition of the 
past are they the relics ? 

In the northwestern part of Nevada is a mill- 
stream of water, in which are numeroas fish. A hot 
---'.- -ear its banks boils out of the rocks and flows 
: . the two eventually mingle together. The 
angler standing where the water from the hot spring 
first reaches the stream and flows out over it, has 
but to drop his bated hook down through the hot 
into the cold current, catch a fish, raise it into the 
upper stratum, and eventually 'Iraw it forth ready 
cooked for eating. 

<' ~±rioas places; action^ the 

mo-- , . peculiar and ac-cessible. is 

one in the Star range of mountains, east, a few miles 
from Humboldt Station on the Central Pacific Rail- 
road. In those mountains, on the summit between 
Star and Santa Clara Cafions, stands a high. b<>ld, 
limestone diff. Its south front presc-r ' - rpen- 

dieolar face 200 feet high, and fift- :'rom 

Its base is the entrance to the cave, through an 
opening six f • *- ■ .-h and six feet wide. This cave 
has been c . for a distance of 2.5*)0 feet 

in a northeriy direction, but the end has never been 
reached. It is represented, by those who have 
visited it, as being of strange and wondrous 
form, of numerous galleries and chambers, where 
one could easily imagine that he had entered the 
realms of the Olympian kings, whose castle walls 
were decked with amethyst and crystal spar. There 



are numerous :;!illcricR carpelod wiili iIku »\i..iiui oi 
salt, of soda, of borax and alkaliiio subslaneos, so 
often mot with in this re{;ion. 

The streams partake of the iieneral eliaracteristies 
of the region. The Humboldt, risiiiji iti the mount- 
ains of the northeast, winds its way amonj^ the 
mountains in a tjeneral eourse to the southwest, 
over 300 miles, and pours its waters into an inland 
lake, where they sink away in the sands, or evapo- 
rate under the sun's hot ra3-s. The Truckee, 
made from the overflow of Lake Tahoe up in the 
Sierra Nevada in California, rushes awaj' down the 
mountain to the northeast and beeomes feeder to 
Pyramid Lake. The Car.son River, also risinj; in Cal- 
ifornia, coui-ses down in a rushing, turbulent stream 
through the canons in the eastern slope of that chain 
of mountains, and stretching away through the 
vallej-s and foot-hills to the northwest, forms a lake 
and disajijiears near the llunibohlt. The Walker 
River, also starting from California, flows b}' a cir- 
cuitous route into Nevada, and forms a lake bearing 
the name of the river. Reese River — that should 
have been called a creek — flows north, begins and 
ends in the interior. The Great Salt Lake of Utah 
is fed by many streams flowing from the mountains in 
the east; and all those lakes, taken in connection 
with the numerous other reservoirs, are but the 
inland depositories for the groat water-shed of this 
immense basin, among which are Utah, Sevier. Mono, 
Owens, Hone}', Kagle, Lower, Middle, U]>per, Abort, 
Summer, and Silver Lakes. But one stream rising in 
all this region north of the Colorado Basin, seeks 
the ocean as an outlet, and that is theOwj-hoe, which, 
flowing through the channels of Snake River, even- 
tually mingles its waters with the Pacific. 

Hot springs arc found in many ])arts of the State, 
some of which are very singular in their character, 
and many exceedingly valuable as resorts for invalids. 
Of the best known of these, are the Steamboat 
Springs, eleven miles south of JJeno, in Washoe 
County, on the road leading from Reno to Virginia 
City. These cover a space of a mile or more in 
length, and a third of a mile in bi-oadth. This area 
is alwa^'s covered with a cloud of steam, s])ringing in 
jet« from apertujes in the rock, resembling the 
escape from a liigh-jiressure engine — he!ice the name. 

In the valley of Walker ]{iver, ten miles from 
Wellington Station, are the singular and valuable 
Hind's ]lot Springs, discovered by the present ])ro- 
prielor in IStid, and bearing his name. Tlieso have 
become a popular resort for invalids and tourists, 
who enjoy the luxury as well as the medicinal ipial- 
ities of the baths. 

The great hot si)ririg of Smoky Valley, in Nye 
County, is wonderful for the high tem|)erature and 
abundant flow of its waters, more than from any 
medicinal quality they contain. The spring is 
situated in the midst of a broad ])lain, its column of 
steam giving to the passing traveler the only inti- 
mation of its presence. A great shaft in the earth. 

tifty feet in diameter at the surface, out of which 
rises a stream of boiling water, bubbling at the 
center like a cauldron over a furnace, and flowing 
but a few hundred yards in the jjlain, at first a con- 
siderable stream, then disappearing — ever a mysterj'. 
The water is fresh and jiotable when cooled, or is 
used in tea or coff'ee, which beverages are readily 
prepared bj' it use. Here is a favorite camping 
place for travelers and jjrospectors, the boiling ])0t 
being perpetually in for culinary purposes, 
cooking potatoes, or other comestibles immersed or 
sus]iendcd in the water. i'laslward, in the same 
county, is Hot Creek, flowing, as its name implies, a 
stream of hot water from several springs of that 
character. Near Iiliko are a number of hot s])rings, 
which are regarded as great curiosities, and much 
resorted to by invalids. Near the line of the Central 
Pacific Railroad, about twent}- miles east of Wads- 
worth, is a group of hot springs that have attracted 
the attention of many travelers, and were the 
wonder of the early emigrants crossing the desert 
to California. Others, throughout the State, are too 
numerous to name in detail. 

The evidences left of nature's strangest freak in 
this singular land, consists of a mountain of salt 
that is found twenty-five miles north of the C'olo- 
rado River, and a little w-est from the Rio Virgen, 
much of it is chemically pure, transparent as water, 
and so hard, that to remove it re<[uires blasting. 
The mountain is nearly two miles long, a half mile 
wide, and its summit reaching about five hundred 
feet above the level of the surrounding country. 
The surface is covered by a coating of earth, the 
salt lying in a vast stratum, nearlj- one hundred feet 
in thickness through the entire mass. Blocks of 
this salt have been used as windows by the Mormon 
settlers in the neighborhood. 

Extensive beds of the same material are found in 
every <|Harter of the State, sometimes the salt form- 
ing as an efllorescence on the surface of the ground, 
and at others, found in large crystallized blocks by 
excavation. Beds of bi-carbonate of soda, boracie 
acid, sulphur, alum, and kindred substances, best 
known to the chemist and druggist, are found in 
many localities. 


Evidences of the existence of a race of people, not 
there now, is found in various jilaces between the 
Ilocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains. A few obser- 
vations will be given, leaving the future archieolog- 
ist to explain their occurrence. There is a place on 
the Carson River where that stream cuts oil' the 
|)oint of a fool-hill around which it sweej)« at the 
lower terminus of what is known as the Big Bend, 
possibly one mile up the river from where once 
stood the Williams, or Hoiiey Lake Smith's, Station. 
The ]>lace where the hill is cut by the stream gives 
a facing to the west that overlooks the dosort and 
the country to the south. Up along the face of that 



cut, there are figures, or cbaraciers, chiseled into the 
hard rocks, that can be seen by the hundreds. 
Spiral forms, rings, and snakes, are the predominat- 
ing characters; several triangles, one well-lbrmed 
square and compass, and the I'orm of a woman with 
out-stretched arms holding in one band a branch, 
was noted among the number. Similar characters 
are found in Arizona, New Mexico, Old Mexico, and 
Central America. The Indians of the vicinity have 
no kiiowlcdire concernin;' them, not even a leicend. 

Since seeing this art gallery, that speaks from 
a time unknown and of a lost race, futher inquiry 
has disclosed the fact, that the same class of rock 
imagcrj' was to be seen by the earl^- prospectors, in 
Star Canon on a bluff below the Shcba Mine, in what 
is now Humboldt County. 

Dr. S. L. Lee of Carson City reports that in Con- 
dor Canon, ten miles a little east of south from 
Pioche, there are about fifiy figures cut in the i-ocks. 
many of them designed to represent the wild mount- 
ain sheep. Still farther south, possibly eighty miles 
from Pioche, in the Meadow Vailej' wash near Kane 
Sj)rings, this class of pre-historic art is most numer- 
ous and perfect in design. Men on horseback en- 
gaged in the pursuit of animals are among the most 
perfect and probably modern of the designs at that 
place. The Indians in that part of the country hav- 
ing some superstitious belief concerning them, or 
having no theory of their meaning, refuse to talk 
upon that subject with the whites. The following is 
an extract from the KurcUa Leader of February 14, 


Mr. Walker who has been working in the newly- 
opened stone quarry, near the mouth of New York 
Canon, brought a singular and interesting specimen 
to the Lender office this morning, the same being a 
slab of sandstone about twenty inches long, fourteen 
wide, and some three inches thick. The ])eculiarity 
of the rock is in the imjirint upon its surface of a 
gigantic foot, perfect in shape and contour with the 
exception of one toe, the little one. which is missing. 
By measurement it is fourteen and one-half inches 
from the outer rim of the heel to the end of the great 
toe, and six inches wide on the ball of the foot. The 
print is sunk into the rock one-half inch. Mr. 
Walker claims to have taken it from the top of the 
sandstone formation at a ])oint where about two feet 
of sand rested upon it. The rock is firm and hard 
in texture and forbids the idea of its being artificial 

The reader's attention has already been called to 
the existence of a salt mountain in southern Nevada. 
The following concerning the pre-historic evidence 
of that locality is from the pen of Daniel Bonelli: — 

The salt mines are solid ledges of rock salt of 
great extent, and containing salt enough to run one 
liutiilred rpiartz mills for one thousand veai"s. Some 
of the ledges on which I have had work performed 
for m^'self and the Southwestern Mining Company 
of Philadelphia, who are part owners, have an open- 
ing showing below the cap rock, some ton to twenty 
feet below the surface, charcoal, corncobs, bones, 

arrows and ced:ir-bark matting woven into blankets, 
giving un<lis|iutable evidence that long ages ago 
tlie pre-historic man dwelt in the caves here, which 
the dust of lime has since covered and indurated. 

Large trees, petrified and scattered over the face 
of the country, show that more moi-ture existed 
upon this land long ago than there is now, and what 
may once have been a fertile country is now desert 
and an ap])ailin;^ desolation. A few small margins 
of fertile 8(jil alon:^ creeks or springs are all that 
even now makes human or animal life po-ssible, and 
even the great Colorado of the We^t, which sweeps 
along the line of the Slate, bringing its waters tVotn 
the snowy summits of the conlinent to the world's 
greatest ocean, d(}es not redeem the desert character 
of the land, for it has carved its pathway through 
huije mountain chains in miiiht}- gorges, and shows 
so few margins of arable land that no settlements of 
importance are sustained at present on its banks. 

Evidences of a less remote occu))ation of this 
country is found in the pottery discovered, and ru le 
fortifications yet traceable in the region l^'ing north 
of the Colorado River, and along the streams empty- 
ing into it. The potter}' is of a dull white ground, 
with black stripes running up and di>wn, the Moqui 
Tribe of Arizona having in use at the present lime 
the same kind of earthern jars. Another exists in 
the remains of an old irrigating dilch along the 
Virgen River that shows an advanced knowledge of 
husbandry'. The ruins of adobe houses still exist at 
a spring on the cast side of Ash Crei-k, in the same 
section of country. The remnants of an old well, 
and blocks of hewn granite at Pah-Tuck Springs 
also speak of a civilization there that has ceased to 



\Vm. H. Ashley — .IcJeili.ih .S. .Smitli's Kxpeilitioii iu l>S'J,j-iG-27 — 
I'eter S. O^jiluii's Expeilitioa in \Ki\ — .Milton .'sublcttc's Ex- 
pinlitiou ill 183:2 — Boiiiieville an<l Walker's Expedition in 
IS;J,'J — Kit Carson's First Visit to Nevada, 1S3;1 — Emijjra- 
tion under Captain J. B. Bartleson in 1841 — .T. C. Kreniont's 
Expedition in 1S44 — The Emi^'ranta of 1844 — Fremont's 
Expedition in 1S45 — Edwin Bryant and other Emigrants in 
1S4G — Tlie Donner Party Tragedy. 

W.M. H. Ashley, of St. Louis, Missouri, a celebrated 
mountaineer, discovered the Great Salt Lake of 
Utah in 1824, and a smaller lake near by that 
received his name, where he erected a fort, and 
established his headijnarters for the remaining years 
of his adventurous career as a' Rocky Mountain 
trapper. Mr. Ashley had a partner named Jedediah 
S. Smith, a native of New York, whose m<nintain 
life was a chapter of thrilling adventure, until it was 
ended in 1831, by the arrow of an ambushed Indian 
assassin on the Cimarron River. 

jEnEDi.\n s. smith's expedition in 1825-26. 

The first white man to see any portion of what is 
now Nevada was a comj)any of some forty trappers 
under the charge, or leadership, of this noted mount 
aineer Smith, who crossed the country to California 
from his rendezvous on the Yellowstone River in 



1825. His route was through a portion of what is 
now westurn \V3"oiniiiii. down the Iliiinboldl, that 
was named Mary's Kivur b}- iiiin, at'lor his Indian wife; 
thence to the Walker River coiintrj-, and out ihrouijii 
what lias been since known as Walkei 's Pass into 
Tulare Valley, California, where he arrived in Jul}- 
with two companions. In October he recrossed the 
country', leavinij his party trappini; in the Sacra- 
mento Vaiky. The only infonniition in our posses- 
sion in regard to the direction taken by Stnilh on his 
return tri|) across the ciiuntry is contained in the 
followinic extract from a Idler to us M])on that sub- 
ject from Captain R.jbert Lyon, of San Hueuaven- 
tura, California: — 

* * * His, Smith's, notes mention the discover}- 
of Jlono Lake (or dead sea) on his return trip in 182.'). 
The upper end of Mono Gulch was very rich and 
shallow; and when the ijuich was first jiro-ipected 
by Cord (the di-coverei) in 1S.")1), i!;ol<i could be seen 
l^ini^ on the irranite rock. where it bad been wa-'hc<l in 
siij;lil by the rains; an^l there is not a placer between 
Sacramento and Salt Lake wIum-c gobl-dust could be 
80 easily obtained by inexperienced miners, with 
only a pan anil knife, as in the up]ier end of Mono 
Gulch. iJock}- .Mountain .J:ick, or Uncle Jack, as he 
was called, ami Hill lieed both spent the summer of 
18G0 in Mono, and were well known at iliat lime, 
and both of tliesc old trappers declared they were 
with Smith in 1825, and that they spent a week 
prosiiecting and ))icking U]) gold in those foot-hills in 
1825. The gold in Mono was not coarse, but 1 have 
often found ])ieces that would weigh from Iwentj'- 
five cents to two dollars. (.See Cross of N'irginia 
City, he was our ditch collector in ISttO); and he- 
sides there were old stumps which had been 
cut long years before 1858, for the s])routs had 
grown to be large trees in 1859. JJill Byrnes, 
well known in Carson Cit}', always claimed that 
Jed Smith discovered the Mono mines in 1825, 
although he (Byrnes) was not of thepartj*. * * * 

Upon Mr. Smith's return to the companj-'s head- 
quarters, on Green River, near Salt Lake, Mr. Ashley 
withdrew from the firm, and the business fell into 
the hands of Smith, M. Sublette, and David Jackson, 
who were known as the Rocky Mountain Fur Com- 
pany. This firm was so well jileascd with the suc- 
cess of the California expedition that it was thought 
best for Smith to lead another trapping party to the 
Pacific Coast, lie accordingly set out with a larger 
party than had accompanied him before, but passed 
south to the Colorado River, where his party were 
all killed, but two, in a battle with the Indians. 
Smith and two companions, named Turner and Gal- 
braith, made their escape, and reaching the missions 
of California, were arrested. 

Among the legacies inherited from the old Spanish 
authorities, and now preserved in the archives of 
California are the following relating to Captain 
Smith, his detention and release. lie first a])pears to 
have arrived in the inhabited regions of California, 
in 1820, and to have been recpiired Ijy the (Joverii- 
ment, always suspicious of strangers, particularly 
Americans, to give an account of himself, his actions. 

and purpose. Fortunately he found vouchers whom 
those in power felt their interest to respect. 

We, the undersigned, having been requested by 
Ca|)tain Jedediah S. Smith, to state our opinion 
regarding his entering the province of California, do 
not lioilate tc) say that we have no doubt in our 
minds but that he was compelled to for want of pro- 
visions and water, having entered so far into the 
barren country that lies between the latitudes of 
torty-two and forij-'three west that he found it 
im])ossible to return by the route he came, as his 
horses hail most of them jierished for want of food 
and Wilier, lie was, therefore, under the necessity 
of push in tr forward to C.difornia, it being the nearest 
])lace where he could procure supplies to enable him 
to return. 

We further state as our oi)inions that the account 
given by bitii is circumstantially correct, and that 
his sole object was the hunting and trapping of 
beaver and other furs. 

We have also examined the ]>assporls prtiduced 
by him from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for 
the Government of the United States of America, and 
do not hesitate to say we believe them to be perfectly 

We also state, that in our opinion, his motive for 
wishin^c to pass by a different route to the head of 
the Columbia River on his return, is solely because 
he feels convinced that he and his companions run 
great risk of perishing if they return by the route 
they came. 

In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our 
hands and seals this twentieth daj- of December, 182(!. 
W.M. G. Dana, [i-. s.] 

Citpldin of Sihooiier Wacei/;/. 

Wm. II. CUN.\INIiIlA.M, [l. S.] 

C'lipfiim of Shi}) Courier. 

W.M. IIe.ndeiison, [i-. s.] 

Ctipfiiin of Bri(j Olive Branch. 

James Scott, [l. s.] 

Tiios. M. PoiiHiNs, [i.. 8.] 

Mate of ScliooJier Wnverly. 
Tiios. Shaw, [i-. s.] 

Sui>ercarijo of Ship Courier. 

The following refers to his second expedition. The 
locality of his camp is not given but it must have 
been somewhere near the Mission of San Jose, as 
there was the residence of Father Duran, to whom 

the letter is addressed. 


Reverend Father: 1 understand, through the 
meilium of one of your Christian Indians, that you 
are anxious to know who we are, as some of the 
Indians have been at the .Mission and informed j'ou 
that there were certain white ])eo))le in the country. 
We are Americans, on our journey to the river Colum- 
bia; we were in at the .Slission San Gabriel in Jan- 
uary last. I went to San |)iego and saw theCieneral, 
and got a passport from him to i)ass on to that 
place. I have made several efforts to cross the 
mountains, but the snows being so deep 1 could not 
succeed in getting over. I returned to this place (it 
being the only point to kill meat) to wait a few weeks 
until the snow melts, so that I can go on; the Indians 
here also being friendly, 1 consider it the most safe 
point for me to remain until such time as 1 can cross 
the mountains with my horses, having lost a great 



- ten ort:* 

->. and at: 
..? I ho i.j,;ure ot" the 
- 'IMite uvv'.easant. l> 


v-5 Since. 

~ to set 


- I ate of 

lite, wild 

1 am. reverend I'ather. vour strange, but real 
friend and Christian bn>ther. J. S. Ssiith. 

May 19. 1S27. 

This pioneer wanderer through what is now 
Nevada, had taken his last look upon her mountains 
and villages. He was released by the Spanish 
authorities, and reaching his Sacramento rendexvous. 
fitted out an expedition for the purpose of visiting 
the C'olumbia River in Oregon. Arriving with his 
ivirty at the Umpqua River, it was surprised by the ; 
Indians, and he again saw his companions all mur- 
dered but two. who escaped with him and made their 
way to Fort Vancouver. From then.\ Smith crossed 
to the Rocky Mountains by a more northern route, 
accompanied by Peter Ogvlen. a native of New York, 
at the head of a brigade of the Hudson Bar Com- j 
pany s trappers. 


The Hudson Bay Company claimed the region 
Iviween the E " Sierra Nevada Mountains as 

their exclusive _ - for trapping. Their right, ; 

however, was not conceded by the Rocky Mountain 

Far C but. because of the friendly manner 

in w. - :h in his adversity had been treated 

at Fort Vancouver, he decided to abandon the dis- | 
puted territory, and sejxarated from Ogden's party ' 
at the head-waters of Lewis River, in 1S2V>. for the 
purpose of finding his associate partners, and carry- , 
ing out the design. Ogden commenced his trapping ' 
through the region lying west of the Rocky Mount- i 
ains. and gradually moved to the south, eventually 
arriving at what had been known as Mary"s River, 
probably in the spring of 1S31; traveled down it, 
taking the same rx>ute to " that Smith had 

followed in lS:i5. From '. - . forward until 

Fr«mont foisted the name of Humboldt upon that 
stream, it was called by some Mary's, and others 
Ogden's River. 


The nest expedition into the i-ountry was led by 
Milton Sublette, accompanied by Nathan Wyeth, 
who let\ Peerass Hole in the Ro«.-fcy Mountains, on 
the twenty-third of July. Its!:?, t'or the purpose of 
trapping the waters of the Mary's River* This party 
reached the head-waters of that stream in August. 
" ' - en. 

„ 1 . : ~, _- , - jav- 

infr the latter with about thirty men. Sublette con- 
i' " " '- " - " ' r. until 

1 - - _ _ y were 

forced to eat the flesh of the beavers they caught. 
"' - for these little ani- 

r hunger to subsist 

'Mowtaia and Froatier," bj Mza. F. F. Vietar, page 119l 

upon wild parsi - ' ' ' - i-d their flesh and 

made them un for the trappers, 

many of whom were made ill from eating them. 
Because of this it became necessarj- to at once aban- 
don the river, anvl strike across the I'ountry towards 
the north, where. at\er being four days with almost 
no food, and several weeks in a state of famine, they 
reached the Snake River abont fitly miles above the 
fishing falls. They were forced, as they passed over 
the country, to subsist upon ants, crickets, parched 
moccasins, and puddings made t'rom blood, taking 
a pint at a time t'rom their almost famished animals, 


Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville, who died June 12, 1S7S, 
at the advanced age of eighty-fiveyears, in FortSmith, 
Arkansas, and who was so fortuiu.' - ■ have his 
Rocky Mountain adventures imni . ty Wash- 

ington Irving — being an oflicer of the I'nited States 
army on furiough — fitted out an exploring expedi- 
tion of forty men. in 1S33, under the guidance of the 
since celebrated Joseph Walker, for the purpose of 
seeking beaver regions between the Great Salt 
Lake and the Pacific Ocean. This party, leaving 
the general rendezvous in the Green River Valley, 
reached the head-waters of Mary's River ^^Irving calls 
it Ogden's River>. and trapped slowly down its course 
until they rvached its sink, from where they crossed 
the country west to Pyramid Lake, thence up Truckee 
River into the Sierra Nevada, and across those 
mountains into Calit'ornia. 

These were the first explorers, the ommipresent 
Smith family in the lead, to open the way across the 
continent, and t ' - .ins. and lakes. 

as lasting memu: - us lives. Trap- 

pers and hunters continued to traverse the basin, 
and these were followed by " _ ts who sought 
the western coast as their h- . who have lett 

a greater impress upon the country. 


In 1S33, Thomas McCoy, who was in the employ 
of the Hudson Bay Company, organized a trapping 
party, and Chri>topher i Kit'i Carson with five com- 
panions became members of it. Reports havinj 
become generally circulated that Mary's River was 
'sed with beaver. McCoy's party 
- - ;^ht its waters in search of them. 
They must have arrived upon the river after it had 
been tr. ''"■'" - •• they 

met wi: -- _ -- _ V II iho 

stream to its sink returned without going farther 
and crossed the country- to the Snake River in the 
north. After this date Kit Carson did not visit any 
portion of what is now Nevada until with Fremont 
in 1S44. 


The Great Basin of Nevada has been the field of but 
the Indian and the trapper until the summer of 1S4I 
The first explorers have reptorted of its lakes, its 

THE trapp?:rs and early emigration. 

2 3 

rivers, " sinks," and deserts, and of the ffreat snowy 
rid^e that separates them I'nmi the sunny valleys ol' 
the I'aeific Coast. People seekinu; that lair land had 
made the toilsome journey by Orejjon, or the storm}- 
voj-ajje by Cape Horn. At Independence, Missouri, 
a party of younji;, educated, and enerj^etic adven- 
turers had feathered from different parts of the 
United States, destined fi>r that land of the far West, 
and on the eiiflith of .May, IHH, started on their 
lonii journey-. .Many of these pioneers have become 
eons])icuou8 in the history of the West, and their 
names arc here a]ipe!i<led: — 

Col. J. B. Harlleson, Ca|)tain of the jiarty, re- 
turned to Missouri; is now dead. 

John Bidwell. resides in Chico. 

Col. Joseph H. Chiles, resides in Xapa Countj'. 

Josiah Beldcn, resides at San Jose and San Fran- 

Charles M. Weber, founder of Stockton, now dead. 

Charles Hopper, resides in Napa County. 

Henry Huber, resides in San Francisco. 

Michael C. Nj'e, resides in Oregon. 

Green Mc.Muhon, resides in Solano County. 

Nelson Mc.Mahon, returned to Missouri. 

Talbot H. Green, resides in Pennsylvania. 

Ambrose Walton, returned to Missouri. 

John McDowell, returned to Missouri and died. 

George Henshaw, returned to Missouri. 

Col. Robert Ryckman, returned to Missouri ami 

William Belty. 

Charles Fliitrge. returned to Missouri. 

Crwinii Patlon, returned to Missouri and died. 

Benjamin Kclsey, wife and child, resided within a 
few years in Santa Barbara County. 

Andrew Kelsey, killed by Indians at Clear Lake. 

James John, went to Oregon. 

Henry Brolaski, went to Callao, and thence to 

James Dawson, drowned in Columbia Hiver. 

Major Walton, drowned in Sacramento I{iver. 

George Shortwell.accidentallj- shot on the journey. 

John Swartz, died in Ciilifornia. 

Grove C. Cook, died at San Jose, California. 

1). W. Chandler, died at San Francisco. 

Nicholas Dawson. <lcad. 

Thomas Jones, (lead. 

Robert II. T homes, died March 2(;, 1S78, at 

JOlias Barnelt, live<l in Napa County. 

J. P. Springer, died at or near Santa Cruz. 

This was the first ]»arty of emigrants to cross the 
basin of Nevada en mufti to California Their jour- 
ney was made on horseback and with pack-animals. 
They followed the then known trail rin the South 
Pass to Salt Lake, thence to the Humboldt and to 
the Carson and Walker Rivers, following the latter to 
near its source, when they crossed the Sierra, 
descending its western slojje between the Stiiiiislaus 
and Tuolumne Rivers, to the San Joaquin Valley, end- 

ing their journey at the ranch of Dr. Marsh, near 
the base of Mount Diablo, on the fourth of Novem- 
ber, 184L At this point the company disbanded, 
making their future homes in different part- nf tin- 


Fremont, in his second e.\|>edition of explorations, 
visited the (ireat Basin for the object of ascer- 
taining certain geographical features respecting 
which there was a <liscrepaiic3' between the maps of 
the country and the reports of the trajjpers. The 
first was the position of the Tlavialh, which he says 
is often called Klamel — now written Klamath. He 
writes: — 

From this lake our course was intended to be 
about southeast, to a re])orled lake called Mary's, at 
some days' journey in the Great Basin, and thence 
still on southeast, to the reputed Buenaventura River, 
which has a place on so man}- maps, and counte- 
nanced the belief of the existence of a great river 
flowing from the Rocky Mountains to the Bay of San 

Thence he would go eastward and home. The 
land was a terru incoijiuta, as he says: — 

A great part of it absolutely new to geographi- 
cal, botanical, and geological science, and the subject 
of reports in relation to lakes, rivers, deserts and 
savages hardly above the condition of mere wild 

He enters the Great Basin December IG, 1843, 
passing and naming Lake Abert, in honor of the 
chief of Topographical Engineers to which F'remont 
belonged. On the third of January, 1844, he 

Reached and run over the position where, accord- 
ing to the best maps in my po.s,session, we should 
have found ilary's Lake o r River. We were evidently 
on the verge of the desert which had been reported 
to us; and the a])]>earance of the country was so for- 
bidding, that I was afraid to enter it, and determined 
to bear away to the sc>utbward, keejiing close along 
the mountains, in the full expectation of reaching 
Buenaventura Hiver. Latitude, by observation, 40° 
48' 1.-,'. 

From a high mountain he espied a column of steam 
sixteen miles distant, indicating the presence of hot 
springs, and ho determined to go to them. Of these 
he writes as follows: — 

This is the most extraordinary locality of hot 
springs wo had met on our journey. The basin of 
the largest one lias a circumference of several hun- 
dred feet; but there is at one extremity a circular 
space of about tittcen feet in diameter, entirely occu- 
pied by the boiling water. It boils up at irregular 
intervals, and with much noise. The water is clear, 
and the spring deep; a pole about sixteen feet long 
was easily imnierseil in the center, but we had no 
means of forming a good idea of the depth. It was 
surrounded on the margin with a border of ynin 
grass, and near the shore the temperature of the 
water was 2(lii'^. We bail no means of ascerl. •lining 
that r>f till' crnler, win lo liie In at \v;is gre;it« .-t ; but 
by disper.-ing the water with a pole, the tempera- 



ture at the margin was increased to 20S°. and in the 
center it was doubtless higher. Bj- driving the pole 
towards the bottom, the water was made to boil up 
with increased force and noise. There are several 
Other interesting jilaces. where water and smoke, or 
gas escape, but tiiey would require a long description. 
The water is impregnated with common salt, but not 
so much as to render it unfit lor general cooking; 
and a mi.xlure of snow made it pleasant to drink. 
The latitude of the springs is 40° 39' 46". 

On the tenth of the month he first came in sight 
of Pyramid Lake, lie writes: — 

Beyond, a defile between the mountains de- 
scended rapidly about 2,000 feet; and filling up all 
the lower space, was a sheet of green water, some 
twenty miles broad. It broke upon our eyes like 
the ocean. 

Continuing his narrative, Fremont writes, Janu- 
arj- 14th:— 

Part of the morning was occupied in bringing up 
the gun; and making only nine miles, \ve cam])ed on 
the shore, o))posite a very remarkable rock in the 
lake, which had attracted our attention for many 
miles. It rose, according to our estimate about 600 
feet above the water, and from the jjoint we 
viewed it, presented a pretty exact outline of the 
great pyramid of Uheops. Like other rocks along 
the shore, it seemed to be incrusted with calcareous 
cement. This striking feature suggested a name for 
the lake, and I called it I'yramid Luke. 

On the night of the ISih, the whites camped at 
the point where the Truckce flows into Pyramid 
Lake, and the next day pursued their way up that 
stream, which Fremont named " Salmon Trout 
River," having obtained many trout of the Indians 
who caught them in the river. At the point where 
Wadsworlh now stands, on the Central Pacific Rail- 
road, they left the river, still looking for the Buena- 
ventura, and followed an Indian trail to the south- 
cast, until what is now called Car.son River was 
reached, at the point where it comes out from the 
foot-hills near Rtigtown into the great plains where 
it sinks, in Churchill County. The expedition moved 
down the stream about three hours and camped. Jan- 
uary ISth, because of the apparent impossibility of 
reaching the Rocky Mountains by continuing in that 
direction, in the worn and exhausted condition to 
which the journey thus far had reduced them. 
Fremont determined to give up the attempt and push 
across the Sierra west to California. The next day 
they moved up Carson ]{iver, in ])ursuance of this 
design, and in two more the place where now stands 
the ruins of Fort Churchill was reached. Here he 
ascended a mountain, took a look at the Carson 
Valley to the southeast, and along its western 
limits, then at the white snowcapped Sierra beyond, 
and descending the mountain, again concluded to go 
farther south, before attempting to cross this for- 
midable border of storm, of snow, and of ice. 
January 21st. the expedition left the Carson at the 
point designated, and moved south to the stream 

now known as Walker River, and moving along the 
east fork of that stream left it on the 23rd, to pass 
to the west. The thirty days of struggle for life 
in the passage over the Nevada Mountains is more 
properlj- a part of California history, and we leave 
the "man of destiny" moving toward the north- 
west with Indian guides, to attempt and succeed in 
making the perilous crossing. The mountain how- 
itzer that now is in the possession of Captain A. W. 
Prey, at Glenbrook, on the eastern shore of Lake 
Tahoc, was abandoned by Fremont on the twenty- 
ninth of January. It was afterwards found by Wm. 
Wright, known to the literary world as '■ Dan De 
Quille." He gave the point of its locality to a party 
who was to'get the gun and bring it to Virginia City. 
It had become a question of some importance, at the 
time, as to whether it should pass into the possession 
of the Union or secession element in Nevada, and 
upon its arrival, in June, 1861. at the Nevada min- 
ing metropolis, Captain A. W. Prey paid for it, to 
the party who packed it in, 8200, and thus secured 
its influence on the side of the maintenance of the 
Union. The gun was of the kind invented for the 
mountain part of the French campaign against 


[From Thompson & West's History o( Nevada County, California, ISSO.] 

The next winter after Fremont made his perilous 
crossing of the Sierra, another party, a band of- 
hard}- ))ionecrs, worked their laborious waj- through 
the drifting snow of the mountains, and entered the 
beautiful valley, one of them remaining in his snow- 
bound camp at ])onncr Lake until returning spring 
made his rescue possible. The party consisted of 
twenty-three men, John Flomboj-, Captain Stevens, 
now a resident of Kern County, California, Joseph 
Foster, Dr. Townsend, Allen Montgomery, Moses 
Schallenberger, now living in San Jose, California; 
G. (ireenwood, and his two sons, John and Briit; 
James Miller, now of San Kafael, ('alifornia; Mr. 
Calvin, William Martin, Patrick Martin, Dennis 
Martin. Martin Murphj- and his five sons; Mr. Hitch- 
cock and son. They left Council Blurt's May 2'!, 
18-14, en route to Calil'ornia, of the fertilil}' of whoso 
soil and the mildness of whose climate glowing 
accounts had been given. The dangers of the j>lains 
and mountains were passed, and the parlj- reiiched 
the Humboldt River, when an Indian named Truckeo 
presented himself and ottered to guide them to Cali- 
fornia. After <iuestioiiing him closely ihej' einp|i«yed 
him as their guide, and as they progressed, found 
that the statements he had made about the route 
were fully verified. He soon became a great favorite 
among tiiem, and when they reached the lower 
crossing of the Truckee River, now Wadsworlh, 
they gave his name to the beautiful stream, so 
pleased where they by the pure water and abundance 
of fish to which he had directed them. The stream 
will ever live in history as the Truckee Piver, and 

. ^^^^^t-^^-^y 

Gov. John Henry Kinkead 

Was born at Smithfield, Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania, on the tenth of December, 182ti. Three years 
after his parents removeii to Zaiiesvillo, Muskingum 
County, Ohio. Some years later the family made 
their home at Lancaster, Fairfield County, in the 
same State, where the eldest living member of the 
family now resides. 

The Governor's fiither, J. Kinkead, was a native of 
Chester ("ountj-, Pennsylvania, of Scotch ])arenlage; 
was married in Baltimore, JIarj-land, to a lady of 
German descent, where the elder members of the fam- 
ily were born. He was also an enlisted soldier and 
officer in the army of 1S12, though not called into 
active service. Among the public works of those 
early da3'8 was the construction of a highway by the 
Government, known as the National Turnpike Eoad, 
that extended from Baltimore, Maryland, west, 
through the populous portions of the country, to 
Columbus, Ohio. It was projected to terminate at 
St. Louis, but never reached that point. The Gov- 
ernor's father was a contractor in the building of 
that road, and moved along its line froni Baltimore 
westward, first to Smithfield, then to Zanesville, 
as before mentioned, where his connection with 
that enterprise ceased. The scholastic training 
to fit the subject of this sketch for the pur- 
suits of life was not pursued into fields higher 
than were attainable in the Lancaster High School, 
an in.stitute in that day under charge of the brothers 
Mark and John Howe, bearing a deservedly high 
reputation. His graduating educational degrees 
have been obtained under that ])ractical and finished 
instructor onlj- found in aciiuiring a knowledge of 
business and of men. At eighteen years of age he 
entered a wholesale dry goods establishment in St. 
Louis as a clerk, whore ho remained until his 
twenty-third j'car, when he crossed the plains in 
1849, and established, in connection with J. M. Liv- 
ingston, the pioneer mercantile house at Salt Lake 
City, known as fjivingston & Kinkead. 

In 1854 he removed to California, where, with his 
partners, a business was continued that consisted 
chiefly of buying, selling, and gra/.ing stock. On 
the first of January,, 185(5, ho was married at Marys- 
ville, California, to Miss Ijiz/.ie Fall, a daughter of 
John C. Fall, who now resides at Wilcox, Arizona. 
After his marriage, with the exception of one year 
spent in New York City in commercial business, he 
was interested in a mercantile establishment at 
Marysville, in connection with Mr. Fall, until 18(11. 

In the fall of 1859 his firm established a branch 
house at Carson City, Nevada; and in February of 
18G0, moved there to take charge of the new enter- 
prisCf since when he has considered the Silver State 
his home, though occasionallj' absent, and at one 
time for over three yeai's. His absence, just men- 
tioned, was from 1,S(!7 to 1871, when he visited 
Alaska, and was one of the ])arties who went there 
to witness the act of transfer by the liussian (iovern- 
ment of the home of the Esquimaux, the icebergs, 
and seals, to our Government. He was the first 
ofHcial appointed by the I'nited States to any (lov- 
ernmental position in that country. It was ten- 
dered him, with a commission not <iuitc as large as a 
bedspread, dulj' stamped with the national seal, on 
which could have been, but was not, written the ten 
commandments; his pay was to be twelve dollars 
per year; his occupation and title that of "P. M." 
(which is Postmaster). 

As a business man. Governor Kinkead has been 
one of the most active in the country. In con- 
nection with his associates he built, in early times, 
the widely-known Mexican (Quartz Mill, located at 
Empire City; located the pioneer town of Washoe 
City, and improved the water-power there; was one 
of the original projectors of the now Virginia and 
Truckee Railroad; built smelting works at Pleasant 
Vallej', a mill in the canon below Washoe City, and 
another at Austin; has been engaged in milling or 
mining in Ormsbj-, Washoe, Storey, Lander, Hum- 
boldt, and Esmeralda counties, in this State, in addi- 
tion to his mercantile pursuits. 

The Governor was Territorial Treasurer under 
Governor Nye, during the existence of the Terri- 
torial (Tovcrnment; was a member of both Constitu- 
tional Conventions convened for the pur])ose of 
creating a State Organization. Declining any fur- 
ther political advancement, he devoted himself to 
business ])ursuits, only emerging therefrom upon his 
nomination and election as (iovernor of his State in 
1878. He is agontleman in many respects of superior 
attainments, with a fair scholastic education: has 
read law, and traveled extensively in the United 
States and Territories. Officially he has shown him- 
self to be industrious, honest, and capable. Socially 
he is suave and aft'able in his manner. He would 
address a prince with dignity, or treat a tramp 
courteously, and greets all with a kind word and 
gonial pleasant smile, making every one whom he 
meets glad that Nevada's (iovernor is a gentleman. 



tho fish, tbo famous Tniekee trout, will continue to 
d(.-lii;iit the palate of tiiu epicure for years to come. 

Fri)m this point the iiurly puslieil on lo the beautiful 
mountain lake, whose shores but two 3-ears later 
witnessed a scene of suftoring and death unequaled 
in the annals of Americ'a's ]>ioneers. Here, at Don- 
ner Lake, it was decided to build a cab n and store 
their jjoods until spring, as tho cattle were too 
exhausted to drag them further. The cabin was 
built by Allen Jlonlgomery, Joseph Foster, and Moses 
Schallenberger, all young men used to pioneer life, 
and who felt I'ully able to maintain themselves b}' 
their rifles upon the bears and deer that seemed so 
plentiful in the mountains. The cabin was built of 
pino sapMngs, with a roof of brush and rawhides; 
was twelve by fourteen feet and about eii^ht feet 
high, with a rule chimney and but one aperture for 
both a window and door. It was about a quarter of 
a mile below the foot of the lake, and is of peculiar 
interest, as it was the first habitation built by white 
men within tho limits of Nevada County, California. 

The cabin was completed in two days, and the 
parl3' moved on across the summit, leaving but a 
few provisions and a half-starved and emaciated cow 
for the support of tho young men, who had under- 
taken a task, the magnitude of which they little 
dreamed. It was about the middle of November 
when tho party left Conner l^ake. and they arrived 
at Sutter's Fort on the fifteenth of Decembei-, 1844, 
the journej- down the mountains consumini; a month 
of toil and privation. The day after the cabin was 
comjileted a heavy fall of snow commenced and con- 
tinued for several days, and while the journeying 
party were plunging and toiling through the storm 
and drifts, the three young men found themselves 
surrounded bj- a bed of snow from ten to fifteen feet 
deep. Tho game had fled down the mountains to 
escape the storm, and when tho poor cow was half 
consumed the three snow-bound prisoners began to 
realize the danger of their situation. Alarmed by 
the prospect of starvation they determined to force 
thoir way across the barrier of snow. In one day's 
journey thej- reached the summit, but poor Schallen- 
berger was here taken with severe cramps, and was 
unable to proceed tho following day. Every few 
feet that ho advanced in his atteni]it to struggle 
along, he fell to the ground. What could they do? 
To remain was death, and yet they could not aban- 
don their sick comrade among the drifting snows on 
the summit of the Sierra. Foster and Montgomery 
were )ilaccd in a trying situation. Schallenberger 
told them that he would remain alone if Ihey would 
conduct him back to tho cabin. They did so, and 
providing everything they could for his comfort, 
took their di^parture, leaving him, sick and feeble, in 
the heart of the snow-locked mountains. 

A strong will can accom]ilish wonders, and a 
determination to live is sometimes stronger than 
death, and young Schallenberger by an exertion of 
theso was soon able lo rise from his bed and seek for 

food. Among the goods stored in tbo cabin he found 
some steel traps, with which he caught enough foxes 
to sustain himsulf in liis little mountain cabin, until 
tho doors of his prison were unlocked by the melting 
rays of the vernal sun, and a party of friends came 
to his relief On the first of March, 1845, he, too, 
arrived at Sutter's Tort, having spent three months 
in the drifting snows of tbo "Snowy Mountains," 
the Sierra Nevada. 


In October, 1845, tho " Path-Finder" started from 
Salt Lake m ilh his i)arty, among whom were Kit Car- 
son and Joseph Walker, to cross tho country to the 
west. Alter passing over tho desert lying immedi- 
ately be^-ond that lake, the party was divided, a 
portion under Theodore Talbot who had accom- 
panied General Fremont from Washington, with 
Walker as a guide, going to Maiy's liiver <lown which 
it was to pass to the rendezvous near where now is 
liagtown, in Churchill Count}'. The balance, under 
Fremont, consisting of fifteen men, among wnom 
was Kit Carson, passed to the west lliroiigh the coun- 
try' to tho south of that river, and all finall}- met in 
November at the point designated, liemaining but 
one night in comiiaii}' at ihe rendezvous the}- sepa- 
rated, Talbot going lo tho south by way of Walker's 
River and Lake, theso waters having been named by 
Fremont in honor of the famed mounlaineer who 
accompanied Talbot as a guide. Fremont moved up 
the stream to which he had given the name of his 
favorite scout, Carson, and passing through the val- 
ley anil canon that have since received their name 
from the river, reached the shores of Lake Tahoe and 
from thenco passed over into the Sacramento Valle3\ 
In this connection the following letters are of impor- 
tance; — 

PuEscOTT, Arizona Terrilorj-, ) 
February 2!t, 1S81. | 

Mv Deaii Sirs: What is now called Tahoe Lake 1 
n:inuMl Lake Bonpland upon my first crossing of tho 
Sierra in 1843-44. 1 gave to the basin river its 
name of Humboldt and to the mountain lake the 
name of liis companion traveler, Bonpland, and so 
put it in the map of that expedition. Tahoe 1 sup- 
pose is the Indian name and the lake the same 
though 1 have not visited the head of tho American 
since I first crossed tho Nevada in '44. . 

Yours truly, J. C. Fue.mont. 

[Aniadc Bonpland, referred to by (Jeneral Fremont, 
was a native of France, was born at Hochelle, in 
177;:{, graduated as a |)hysician, and became an emi- 
nent botanist. lie accompanied Humboldt to Amer- 
ica, and subse(iuently became a joint author with 
that celebrated traveler and scientist, of several 
volumes of valuable works on botany, natural his- 
tory, and monuments oj' the New World. He was 
I'or nearly ten years tlelained in Paraguay as u 
prisoner by the Dictator, I)r. l-'rancia, lo prevent 
him fi-oni, or to punish him for, allemi)ting to cuiti- 



vato the iliite, or raragu:iy, tea in that country. In 
1858, he died at Montevideo, the capital of Uraguay, 
in South America.] 

Prescott, Arizona Territory, 
March 8, 

Fcrritory, ) 

8, 1881. ) 

Dear Siks: Yours of the 3d reached me this 
morning. Carson iJivcr. as well as the others in that 
region, Humboldt, Walker, and Owens, with the 
P3ramid and other lakes, were named by me in the 
winter journey of 1843-44, to which you refer. The 
only volume which I have had the time to publish 
since this one, is a "Geographical Memoir and Map," 
])ublished under an order of the United States 
Senate, in 1848. I would send j'ou a co])y if I had 
one at hand. Thanking you for the interest you 
show in the subject, and for your disposition to 
arrive at facts, T am j'ours trul}-, 

J. C. Fremont. 


Among the overland emigrants of 1841), was 
Edwin Bryant, who later jiubii^hcd a book entitled 
"What I Saw in California." ile traveled a portion 
of the way, from Independence, Missouri, in com- 
pany with the ill-fated "Doniier party;" and he 
states that — 

The number of emigrants on the road for Oregon 
and California, I estimate at 3,000. 

lie further records, under date of June l.")lh, that 
eighteen persons returning to the Slates were met, | 
who reported that in advance thej- had met on tl.e 
road 430 teams. Add to this those acconijianying 
Brj'ant, and it makes 470 vehicles bound for the 
Pacific Coast, one-half of which he states were 
destined for California. 

July 15th Brj-ant arrived at Fort Bridger, where 
he found L. W. Hastings, and Hudspeth of Cali- 
fornia, awaiting emigrants for that country, to pilot 
them by a new route just survej-ed, that since has 
become known as Hastings Cut oft'. On the 20th 
Brj'ant and nine companions left that fort on horse- 
back, with jiack-animals, as the first to pass over the 
new route. He left letters to his friends advising 
them not to follow him with wagons, but to keep 
the old way by Fort Hall. The same daj- that 
Brj-ant's party left Fort Bridger, to reach the Hum- 
boldt by Hastings Cut-off, that passed to the south 
of Salt Lake, thej- were followed by some fortj- 
wagons, guided by Hastings, to bi'cak tlio new i-oad. 
TheBO reached California throiigii i lie Great Basin, 
safe as did Bryant, his comjianions, and all who went 
by the way of Fort Hall, but such was not the case, 
however, with the last California emigrants of 
season who followed, contrary to advice, the trail of 


In the spring of 184C, Maj. Stephen Coo]ier, who 
now lives in Colusa County, California, started from 
Missouri for the Pacific Coast accom])anii'd by Ins 

family. The Major was a frontiersman of note, hav- 
ing been an associate of Daniel Boone, and had, the 
year before, accompanied Fremont as far as the Rocky 
Mountains on his way to California, i'rom where he 
had returned through Texas to his home in Missouri. 
Besides his familj- the Major was also accompanied 
by a train, of which he had charge, consisting of 
twenty-eight ox-teams transporting emigrants to 
California. Thej- also passed down the Humboldt 
Eiver and over the mountains by the Donner Ijake 
route to their destination, arriving in October of that 
year in the Sacramento 'N'alley. 


In April of the above year an emigrant party set 
out from S])ringfield, Sangamon County, Illinois, for 
California, among whom were two brothers George, 
and Jacob Donner, and families numbering sixteen, 
James F. Reed and family of seven persons, and 
Franklin W. Graves with a family of twelve. At 
Indei)endence, Jlissouri, they were joined by Patrick 
Breen and familj- of nine. Later Mrs. Lavina 
Murphy, a widow lady with whom was her familj-, 
joined them one hundred miles west of Fort Bridger, 
and these were the jirincipal members of the Donner 
party proper that numbered ninety souls. Inde- 
pendence was reached in the first week of May, and 
the train finallj- was increased to between two and 
three hundred wagons. At this ])oint jirovisions 
were purchased and the overland journey commenced. 
On the si.xtcenlli of June Mrs. tieorge Donner in 
a letter re])orted very favorablj' of the expedition 
u]) to that time and jdace, 450 miles fi-(mi Inde- 
))entlence. At Fort Laramie some of them joined in 
celebrating the Fonrtli of July, and on the 20th of 
that month at Little Sandy River, George Donner 
was elected Ca])tain of the train. At Fort Bridger a 
portion of the emigrants decided to try a new route 
to California by the waj- of Salt Lake, known as the 
Hastings Cut-otf; the remaining members of the 
l)arty jjreferring to take the longer, but belter known 
route by wiiich thej- eventually reached in safety- the 
point of their destination. Those choosing the Salt 
Lake route were the ones whose tragic fate, leading _ 
them to Starvation Camj), has handed their history 
down to ])Osterity as the darkest page shadowing 
the history of Pacific Coast pioneer life. With the 
change of route their trials began. Salt l>ake being 
reached in over thirty instead of seven days as antic- 
ipated. Then the great desert beyond that lake was 
to be crossed, trackless, barren, anil desolate and 
foreboding. From that time forward misfortune's 
hand lay heavy upon them, hope's outlines fading 
grew less distinct in the shadows of each departing 
day, while in every succeeding event seemed lurking 
some dark tragedy. At the western margin of the 
desert it was determined that some one must go for- 
ward to Sutter's Fort, 700 miles, and come back to 
meet them on the way with jirovisions. Volunteers 
were called for to do this when Wm. McCutchcn of 
Missouri, and C. T. Stanton of Chicago, Illinois, 



rcs]ioiuli'(l. and started on hoi-sol)at'l< alone iipon the 
forlorn Lopo mission ol' lil'o or deatli to all wlio wore 
left behind. 

(travellj- Kord. on the Ilumliolilt. was reaelied, with 
wornoiit cattle, by the eniacialed travelers, who 
were subsisting upon short rations. At this jilace 
oeeurred the saddest event that misfortune east h}' 
the wayside for those vietims Irailini^ their course 
from haiipy homes in the East to the court of death 
bj- the hank of liake l)onner. There was a youni^ 
man some twenty-three years of aj^e, named Joim 
Snyder, who was driving one of the teams for Mr. 
Graves. lie was a person of unusually fine apjicar- 
ance. rather tall, well develo])ed, jireposscssitij;, and 
lookeil a kinjj amonj; men. In disposition liappy, 
mirthful, jubilant, with a smile and kind word for 
every one; he had become the favorite of the party. 
He had one misfortune, that of a fierce, uni;overn- 
able tenijier when the lion of anger W'as stirred 
within him. Jlary Graves, a tall, graceful, ilark- 
e^-ed beauty, also one of the emigrants, was to 
become his bride upon tlieir arrival in California. At 
this fatal ford an altercation occui'red between him 
and James F. I?eed. Mrs. J?eed, in rushing be- 
tween tlie combatants, received a cruel blow from 
the butt .end of a whip intended for her lH^^band, 
dealt by Sn}'der, who the next instant staggered 
back with his life blood flowing from a mortal wound 
received in the side from a knife in the hand of the 
enraged husband. Mr. Reed was banished from the 
traiTi without food, or gun to get it witli, to make 
his way as best he could to California; but after" he 
had gone affection overtook him. A friend stole out of 
camp with his gun. accom]ianied by Mr. Heed's little 
twelve-j-ear-old girl Virginia, who had secreted 
some crackers about her ]ierson, and following the 
wretched traveler, came up with him. But for this 
he must have perished on the desert, from which 
cruel fate he was saved through the constancj' of a 
friend and the affections of his child. The remains 
of young Snyder were buried near tlie jilace where 
he had fallen. The next day the train moved on 
with the heart-broken girl, who li;iil looked for the 
last time u]ion the one that she had loved, and tlie 
little mound that forever covered his form from her 

On the ninth of October while moving down the 
Humboldt, an old man named llardcoo]) in comjiany 
with Keseberg, fell behind the train. That night 
Keseberg came into camp but the old man did not; 
he had traveled until his feet hurst 0|)en, and then 
laid down and died. At Humboldt sink twenty- 
eight of their cattle were run otf by Indians, and the 
party was near the verge of des))air. They continued 
however to struggle on, all of them on foot now 
except the children and disabled. They were liter- 
ally starving, some of them being forced to go with- 
out food for a daj^ or more at a time. On the four- 
teenth of October, between Humboldt sink and 
Wadswortb, Keseberg and a wealthy member of the 

party named Wolfinger. fell l)ehin<l and the latter was 
never seen afterwards; Keseberg came into camp 
without his companion, and later on^ Joseph Hein- 
hart, when dying, confesse<l to having had something 
to do with the murder of the missing man. The 
further trials and terrible horrors that beset the 
])ath of this ill-starre<l jiart}- is taken from the his- 
tory before mentioned of Nevada ('ounty, California, 
by Thompson & West, and wo quote the following 
from that work: — 

On the nineteenth of October, near the present 
site of Wadswortb, Nevada, the destitute company 
was happily reprovisioned by C. T. Stanton; fur- 
nished with food and mules, together with two 
Indian vaqueros, by Captain Sutter, without com- 
pensation. ' 

At the present site of Iteno it was concluded to 
rest. Three or four daj's' time was lost. This was 
the fatal act. The storm-clouds were already brew- 
ing upon the mountains, only a few miles distant. 
The ascent was ominous. Thick and thicker grew 
the clouds, outsvri))ping in threatening battalions the 
now eagar feet of the alarmed emigrants, until, at 
Prosser Creek, three miles below Truckee, October 
28, IS-tG, a month earlier than usual, the storm set 
in. and they found themselves in six inches of ncwly- 
fallcn snow. On the summit it was already from 
two to five feet deep. The party, in much confusion, 
finally reached DonnerLakein disordered fragments. 
Fre(jucnt and desperate attempts were made to cross 
the mountain tops, but at last, liaHied and des])airing, 
they returned to camp at the lake. The storm now 
descended in all its ])itiles8 furj- upon the ill-fated 
emigrants. Its dreadful import was well undei-stood, 
as laden with omens of suffering and death. With 
slight interru))tions, the storm continued for several 
days. The animals were litorallj* buried alive and 
frozen in the drifts. Meat was hastilj' ]irepared 
from their frozen carcasses, and cabins rudely built. 
One, the Schalleni>ergor cabin, erected November, 
1844, was already standing, about a quarter of a mile 
below the lake. This the Hreen family appro])riated. 
The Murphys erected one three hundred j^ards from 
the lake, marked by a largo stone twelve feet high. 
The tiraves family built theirs near Donner Creek, 
three-quarters of a mile farther down the stream, 
the three forming the apexes of a triangle; the Rreen 
and .Murphj' cabins were distant from each other 
about one hundred and fifty yards. The Donner 
brothers, with their families, hastily constructed a 
brush shed in Alder Creek Valley, six or seven miles 
from the lake. Their jirovisions were speedily con- 
sumed, and starvation, with all its grim attendant 
horrors, stared the poor emigrants in the face. Day 
by day, with aching hearts and paralyzed energies, 
they awaited, amid the beating storms of the Sierra, 
the dread revelation of the morrow, " hoping against 
hope " for some welcome sign. 

On the sixteenth day of December, 184(5, a party 
of seventeen were enrolled to attempt the hazardous 



journey over the mountains, to press into the valley 
beyond for relief. Two returned, and the remaining 
fifteen pressed on, including Mary Graves and her 
sister, Mrs. Sarah l''osdick, and several other women, 
the heoric C. T. Stanton and the noble K. W. Graves 
(who left his wife and seven children at the lake to 
await in vain his relurn) being the leader.s. This 
was the " Forlon Hope Party," over whose dreadful 
sufferings and disaster we must throw a veil. A 
detailed account of this party is given from the 
graphic i)en of C. F. .McGlashan, and lately published 
in book form from the press of MctJIashan, proprietor 
of the Tiurkee Republican, to which we take pleasure 
in referring the reader. Death in its most awful 
form reduced the wretched company to seven — two 
men and five women — when suddenly tracks were 
discovered im|>rinted in the snow. "Can any one 
imagine," says Mary Graves in her recital, '^ the 
joy these foot-])rints gave us ?" We ran as fast as our 
strength would "carry us." Turning a sharj) point 
the)- suddenlj- came upon an Indian ranclicria. The 
acorn-bread offered them by the kind and awe- 
stricken savages was eager!}' devoured. Bui on thiy 
pressed with their Indian guides, only to rejicat their 
dreadful sutlerings, until at last, one evening about 
the last of January, Mr. Eddj-. with his Indian guide, 
precediiig the ]iarly fifteen miles, reached Johnson's 
IJanch, on Bear IJiver, the firstscttlement on the west- 
ern slope of the Sierra, when relief was sent back as 
soon as possible, and the remaining si.x survivors 
were brought in next daj'. It had been thirty-two 
daj^s since they left Donncr Lake. No tongue can 
tell, no pen portray, the awful suft'ering, the terrible 
and appalling straits, as well as the noble deeds of 
heroism that characterized this march of death. The 
eternal mountains, whose granite faces bore witness 
to their sufferings, are fit monuments to mark the 
last resting i)lace of Charles T. Stanton, that cultured, 
heroic soul, who groped his way through the blind- 
ing snow of the Sierra to immortality. The divinest 
encomium — "lie gave his life as a ransom for 
many" — is his epita)ih, foreshadowed in his own 
noble words, " I will bring aid to these famishing 
people f)r l(iy tlomt my life." 

Nothing could be done, in tlii^ meantime, for the 
relief of the suftercrs at Donncr Lake, without secur- 
ing hel]i from Fort Sutter, which was s])eedily accom- 
plished by John lihodcs. In a week, si.\ men, fully 
provisioned, with ('aptain Reasin P. Tucker at their 
head, reached Johnson's Eanch, and in ten or twelve 
days' time, with jirovisions, mules, eic, the first 
relief ])arty started for the scene of Donncr Lake. It 
was a fearful undertaking, but on the morning of the 
nineteenth of Februarj-, 1847, the above parly began 
the descent of the gorge leading to Donncr Lake. 

We have iiurposel^' ihi-own a veil over the dread- 
ful sufferings ol' the stricken band left in their 
wretched hovels at Donner Lake. Iie<Iuced to the 
verge of starvation, many died (inchnling numerous 
children, seven of whom were nursing babes) who, 

in this dreadful state of necessity-, were summarily 
disposed of. Rawhides, moccasins, strings, etc., 
were eaten. IJut relief was now close at hand for 
the poor stricken sufferers. On the evening of the 
nineteenth of February, 1847, the stillness of death 
that had settled upon the scene was broken by pro- 
longed shouts. In an instant the ])ainfnllj- sensitive 
ears of the despairing watchers caught the welcome 
sound. Captain Tucker, with his relief party, had 
at last arrived upon the scene. Every face was 
bathed in tears, and the strongest men of the relief 
party, melted at the appalling sight, sat down and 
wept with the rest. But time was precious, as 
storms were imminent. The return party was 
quickly gathered. Twenty-three members started, 
among them several women and children. Of 
this number two were compelled to return, and three 
perished on the journej-. Many iiardships and pri- 
vations were exjjerienced, and their provisions were 
soon entirely exhausted. Death once more stared 
them in the face, and despair settled u])on them. 
But assistance was near at hand, .lames F. Reed, 
who had precLMled the Donner parly bj' some months, 
suildcnly apj>eared with the second relief ]>arty, on 
the twenly-firih of Febi'uary, 1847. The joy of the 
meeting was indescribable, especially between the 
family and the long-absent father. Rejirovisioned, 
the jiarty pressed on, and gained their destination 
after severe suffering, with eighteen members, only 
three having ])erished. Reed continued his journey 
to the c.ibins at Donner Lake. There the scoiie was 
simi)ly indescribable, starvation and disease wore fast 
claiming their victims. JLirch 1st (according to 
Breen's diary), Reed and his parly arrived at the 
camp. Priiceeding dii'eculy to his cabin, he was 
espied by his liule daughter (who, with her sister 
was carried back by the previous parly), and imme- 
diately recognized with a cry of joy. Provisions 
were carefully deal I out to the famishing [leoijle, and 
immediate steps were talien for the i-eturn. Seven- 
teen comprised this ]iarly. Half starved and com- 
pletely exhausted, they were compelled to cam)) in 
the midsl of a furious storm, m which Mr. Reed 
barely escaiied with his life. This was "Starved 
Camp," and from this ))oint Mr. Ri-ed, with his two 
little children and another person, struggled ahead 
to obtain hasty relief if possible. 

On the second daj' alter leaving Starved Camp, 
Mr. Reed and the three companions were overtaken 
by Cady and Stone, and on the night of the third 
day reached Woodwoiths Camp, at Bear Valley, in 
safet}-. The horrors of Starved Camp beggar all 
description, indeed, require none. The third relief 
parly, composed of John Stark, Howard Oakley, 
and Charles Stone, were nearing the rescue, while 
W, n. Foster and W. 11. Kddy (rescued by a former 
party) were bent on the same mission. These, with 
Iliiam .Miller set out from Woodworth's Camp in the 
following morning after Reed's arrival. The eleven 
were tluly reached, but were in a starving condition, 



anil nine of the eleven were un:il>lo to walk. ]?}• the 
noble resolution and herculean etlbrtH of John Stark, 
a j)art of the number were borne and urjijcd onward 
to their destination, while the other ))ortion \s'as 
com])elled to remain and await another relief part}-. 
When the third relief parly, under Foster and Eddy, 
arrived at Donner I.iake, the sole survivors at Alder 
Creek were (ieorije Donner, the Cai)tain of the com- 
]iany. and his heroic and faithful wife, whose devo- 
tion to her dyin<; husband caused her own death 
dui'ini; the last and fearful days of waiting i'or the 
fourth relief (Jeorgo Donner knew he was dying, 
and urged his wife to save her lil'e, and go with her 
little ones, with the third relief, but she refused. 
Nothing was more heart-rending than her sad part- 
ing with her beloved little ones, who wound their 
childish arms lovingly around her neck, and besought 
her with mingled tears and kisses to join them. But 
duly prevailed over affection, and she retraced the 
weary distance to die with him whom she had prom- 
ised to love and honor to the end. Such scenes of 
anguish arc seldom witnessed on this sorrowing 
earth, and such acts of triumjjhant devotion are 
among her most golden deeds. The snowy cere- 
ments of Donner i>ake enshrouded in its stilly white- 
ness no purer life, no nobler heart than Mrs. (Jcorge 
Onnner's. The terrible recitals that close this awlul 
tragedy we williiiglj' omit. 

The tliiiil relief party rescued four of the five last 
survivors; the fourth anil last relief Jiarty rescued 
the last survivor, Lewis Keseberg, on the seventh of 
April, 1847. Ninety names are given as members of 
the Dormer part}'. Of these, fort3'-two perished, 
six did not live to reach the mountains, and foi-tj-- 
eight survived. Tvvent^'-six, and possib.y twent}-- 
eight, out of the fortj'-eight survivors, are living to- 
day, several residing in San Jose, Calistoga, Los 
Galos, JIarysville. and in Oregon. 

Thus ends this narrative of horrors, without a ]iar- 
allel in the annals of American hisiory, of appallinir 
disasters, fearful sufferings. Iieruic fortituile, self- 
denial and heroism. 

The emigration increased in ISIT, and then the 
gold discovered in 1848 induced a steady stream of 
treasure-seekers to come from the States, over the 
])lains, and down the IluinlmUll liiver in 1S40, en 
route for California. Their number precludes the 
possibility of a furthiM- detail of ihe aiivent of those 
who were but passing through Nevada. 

CU A I'T HI! 111. 
CHANGE OF FLAG IN 1846. Risiii Ceded by Mexieo ti) the United States in lS4i> 
— St.ite of J)e.ser<t Organized— Utah Titrritiiry Or^^anized — 
Diacovery of (Jiild anil Karly SettUineiit of Western 
Utali — Transient Settlement — Letter of Itobert Lyon. 

TiiF. ]5ear Flag War in California was inaugtirated 
at Sonoma on the fourteenth of June, in 184(1, and 
while the Donuor party was striving to roach that 

coutitrj-, unbeknown to them a struggle was going 
on there between tlie Mexican authorities and the 
foreign or American ])o])ulation tor ])osscssion of 
that country, which terminated in favor of the 
Americans. At the same time war was r.aging 
between the United States and Alexico, that finally 
resulted in the trium]di of our armies, and a treaty 
which was signed February '1. 1848, ceded to our 
Government a large tract of countr}', dating the ces- 
sion from the seventh of July, 1840, when Commodore 
Sloat raised the American Hag at Monterey. The 
territory thus obtained included all of Mexieo lying 
between the Pacific Ocean and the Jtocky Mount- 
ain.s that was bounded on the north by the 42° 
of north latitude, which is the line between Oregon 
and California; and on the south by the Uila IJiver, 
and what is the present south lino of California. 
Conseiiuently. what now is known as Nevada, Utah, 
and Arizona, was, until the conquest in 184(i, a part 
of Mexico and of the Mexican Territory of Alta 


On the eighteenth of March, 18 lit, the Mormons 
assenililed in convention at Salt Jjake and organized 
a Territorial (iovernment over what the}' designated 
as the "Slate of Desoret." The boundaries named 
for this new Territory included what is now Utah, 
Nevada, Arizona, a ])ortion of Colorado, a slice from 
Uregon, and thai portion of Wyoming lying south of 
the Wind liiver Mountains. It also included of what 
is now California. San Diego and Los Angeles Coun- 
ties, as far up the coast as Santa Monica. From 
there the line ran directly north to the ridge of the 
Sierra Nevada, and took in half of Kern C'ounty, a 
])art of Tulare, all of ln\o and Mono, u part of 
Alpine, all of Lassen, a |)art of Shasta and Siskiyou 



On the nitith of September, IS.'jO, the da}* on 
which California was admitted as a State, Congress, 
by Act, established the Territory of Utah with the 
following boundaries: '■ Bounded on the west by the 
Slate of California; on the north by the Territory of 
Oregon; on the east by the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains; and on the south by the thirty-seventh 
parallel of north latitude." 


In the earlj' spring of 1850, a number of parties 
set out from Salt Lake District for California. Tliey 
reached the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada in the 
Carson Valley before the melting of snow had ren- 
dered those mountains traversable, and were forced 
to pass the consequent tedious houi-s and daj's of 
waiting as they best could. Some members of the 
train having mined before, a prosjiecting party was 
suggested, that started for this juirpose to soarcli for 
gold along the various streams flowing into the 
Carson Kiver. They finally reached, by ])assing 
down that stream, the present site of Dayton, where 



a little creek was found flowinij out from a canon, 
where they tried for gold and found it. The dis- 
covery \VM made, but failed to develop suflScient 
richness to warrant those finding it in changing their 
original design ol' going over the mountains, and 
thus the news of placers found in the Great Basin, 
was carried to California early in 1850. 


lion. C. N. Noteware, of Carson City, late Secre- 
tary of State for iS'evada, in mentioning this sub- 
ject, saj^s: "The writer passed the mouth of Gold 
Canon on the third daj- of July, 1850, and on the 
divide between there and Empire, met a party of 
miners from California on their way with a mining 
outfit to work in the canon, where thej- said gold 
had been discovered the year before by a party of 

Capt. Robert L}'on, who passed the same ])lace 
about fifteen days later, writes from San Buena- 
ventura, California, that, "In July. lsr)0, there was 
some placer mining carried on in the canon at the 
mouth of whicli Dayton now stands; and during that 
year, the canons leading into the mountains from the 
Carson, Washoe, and Steamboat Valleys, were 
thoroughly explored and prospected for gold. I 
camped at the old Mormon Station (Genoa) about the 
twentieth of July that year, (I know I arrived at 
Placerville the twenty-seventh of Jul}-), and at that 
time there was a party of Mormon miners from Cali- 
fornia prosj)ecting in Gold Canon. They brought 
some gold-dust to the station while 1 was there, but 
said there was richer diggings near ilanglown, 
(Placerville), and unless they Ibund better pay in a 
few days, they would return to California." 

The writer conversed upon this subject with manj', 
and the evidence of all the belter informed corrob- 
orated the fact of the discovery of gold in 1850; but 
additional fact was obtained from Walter Cosser, 
who first came to Nevada in 1852, and has remained 
here since. Said ho: " In the fall of 1852 I was 
mining in Gold Canon, when two young men came to 
the gulch IVom California, on their way to visit their 

parents at Salt Lake. Their names were" he 

hesitated here, and it was sevi'ral hours before the 
names were remembci'cd as being that of Cole and 
EobinsoD. " They remained in tlie cafion until 'the 
spring of 1853, and then continued their journej*. 
While there, in the mines, Ilobinson told me that he 
was one of a party from Salt Lake in the spring of 
1850, who came to Carson Valley on their way to Cal- 
ifornia, arriving lietbre the snow had'melted from the 
road over the mountains, Ac." Mr. Cosser ])roceeded to 
relate substantially the same account alreadj- given of 
the gold discovery, and his language is repeated here 
only because it rescues from oblivion a portion of 
the name of one of the gold discoverers in Nevada. 


The ipicstion of who were the first settlers in 
Nevada is a disputed one, and because of this fact 
the following letter is inserte<i; — 

San Buenaventura, Cal., ) 
November 10, 1880. | 
Dear Sirs : Yours of the sixth in regard to first 
settlement of whites in Nevada, is at hand. The 
following facts 1 know to be true. I crossed the 
plains in 1850, in what was known as the Wilmington 
train, from Illniois, that was well fitted up for the 
trip with good horses and mules that outtraveled 
most of the trains. We did not lead the emigration 
of that 3'ear, but were in the foremost ranks of it. 
After passing Salt Lake wo frequentlj' met saddle 
and pack-trains from California on their way to 
meet friends on the plains. We were alwa^'s anxious 
to see these Californians, to learn the news from 
California, inquire the best road to travel, and tho 
best place to purchase such provisions as we were in 
need of. And all of these Californians spoke of the Mor- 
mon Station as the principal trading-post east of tho 
Sierra. There were several ])laces on the Humboldt 
and Carson Kivors where whisky and flour were 
sold from a canvas tent or cloth house, but these 
traders packed their house on a mule and left when 
the emigration for that season was over. The Mor- 
mon Station (the present Genoa) was founded in 
June, 1850, by Salt Lake Mormons. I arrived at 
that station about July 20, 1850. and sta3-e<l there to 
rest one day. I sold a good American horse to tho 
man who kept tho trading-post for thirty pounds of 
flour and fifteen dollars. Flour wa-* SI. 50 per pound, 
and he allowed me sixty dollars for niy horse. There 
were two or three women and some children at the 
|(laee, and I understood that they had settled there 
with the intention of remaining permanently. They 
claimed a section of land, including the grass plat 
where S. A. Kinsey's orchard and house now stand. 
We had to go a distance above to picket our horses. 
They had quite a band of fat cattle and cows which 
they brought from Salt Lake; some of the fattest 
beef 1 ever saw hung su^^pended from the limbs of 
a big pino tree. Beneath the tree was a butchers' 
block, cleaver, and steak knife. They retailed the 
meat to hungry emigrants at six bits ])er pound. I 
have never since eaten beef that tasted so sweet as did 
that. In regard to improvements there was one 
store where they kept for sale flour, boans, tea, 
coffee, sugar, dried peaches, sardines, tobacco, miners' 
clothing, overalls, shirts, etc., etc. There was also a 
grocery whore they sold whiskj*, broad, cigars and 
tobacco. Thej- had a good-sized log-house com- 
pleted all but the roof. I was inlbrmed that it was 
intended for a family dwelling and eating-house. So 
j-oii seethe Morinoii Station was well established and 
widely known in July, 1S50, and the traders at that 
post were getting rich trading with the emigrants. 
* * * * Respectfully yours, 

Robert Lvon. 






riic First Settlemeat — The .Squatter Government of 1851 — 
First Meeting o{ Citizens— Seeonil .Meeting of Citizens^ 
Tliirtl Meeting of Citizens — Civil (iovernnient — A Clerk and 
ConstaWe — Fourth Meeting of Citizens — The Present of .Some 
of Those — The Fate of Others— Iteese ami Kiusey— Stock.iile 
Built — (Jarilen Planted — hjigle Uaiieh Located. 

From Sto])lioii A. Kiii.<ey, now liviii<; at Genoa, 
and tlie records of the Mormon Church at Salt Lake, j 
obtained throui^h the courteny of Orson I'ralt and i 
J. Jaqucs, the fact is ascertained that in tlie sjirini^ 
of 1851, John Reese, with ten wajjons loaded with 
flour, butter, egfjs, etc., etc., left Salt Lake for the 
])ur|)oso of establishint; a tradiiiiijiost somewhere 
on the overland road east of the Sierra. lie was 
accompanied by Stephen A. Kinsey, some teamster.s, j 
and a few passensjers for California, makint; sixteen 
pei-sons in all. The train arrived at IJagtown, on 
the Carson River, in .May, where it stopped for a 
while, until heariiiic of a more favorable locality in 
Carson Valley, through j»arties arrivini; from Cali- 
fornia to meet friends or trade with emigrants, Mr. 
Kinsej- started on horseback to "s]))' out the land" 
in advance of the Reese expedition. He visited the 
head of that vallcj-, and then returned along the 
base of the Sierra, until arriving at the place known 
in 1850 as "Mormon Station," ho concluded that it 
was the most favorable point for a trading-post in 
that section of country; and campiiig, remained 
there until Mr. Reese arrived with the train. At 
this time there was no one living there, no house, 
no ruins of a house, or the vestige of one to be 
found. Those who had occupied the place in 1849-50, 
had folded their tents like the Arab, in the fall of the 
last year, and silently stolen awaj-, leaving the 
torch of the Indian to efface any indication of their 
ever having been there. On the fourth of Julj-, 
1851, Mr. Kinsey selected and took possession of the 
ground known as Mormon Station, that name being 
retained until 1855, when the site being surveyed, 
"Genoa" was substituted. When the Reese parly 
reached western Utah, not over six miners were at 
work in Gold Caiion; but some twelve of those 
accom])anj-ing him joined the six, among whom 
were two of the teamsters, named Joseph Webb 
and James Kenimore, the latter known as "Old 
Virginia." During that Summer, the Gold Canon 
settlement was increased to about one hundred 

Immediately upon their arrival at .Mormon Station 
the building of a log caljiri was commenced that, 
when completed, was the only house in what is now 
Nevada. That pioneer of the numberless structures 
erected through the Silver State in the years that 
followed still stands where it was built in Genoa, the 
one relic left of the almost forgotten past. A stock- 
ade corral was also jiut uji at a cost of two thousand 
dollars, that enclosed something over an acre of 
ground. It was made strong as a prote<-lion against 

Indians in case of need, being built of fifteen-foot 
logs, set on end three feel in the ground, touching 
each other so as to make a solid wall. Thus was 
commenced in 1851 the first permanent settlement 
in western Utah. 

That season (1851) a garden was fenced in bj- Mr. 
Reese, which was plowed and sowed to turnips, and 
a generous crop demonstrated the productiveness of 
the soil. 

Late that year emigrants arrived en route to Cal- 
ifornia, and, I'earing to attempt the mountain roads, 
wintered in Carson Valley. A few .Mormons arrived 
at different times iluring the year in that section of 
country and joined the increasing number of popu- 
lation, among whom were three persons named J^ee, 
one named Condie, and another named Gibson, all 
of whom are at i)resent residents of Utah. 

Early in November of that year a party, consist- 
ing of Joe and Frank Barnard, George Follensbee, 
A. J. Rollins, Frank Hall, and VV.L. Hall, came from 
Bents Bar, I'lacer County. California, for the purpose 
of mining in western Utah, but finding the jiay was 
not sufficient to warrant them in doing so, they took 
up, in December, the celebrated Eagle Ranch, where 
now stands the State (!a|iitol. They built a log 
house there for a station close to what is now the 
Clayton residence, and, after completing it, rented 
the same to a couple of emigrants, named Doctor 

Daggett and Gay. An eagle soaring over the 

heads of the builders was shot and killed by K'rank 
Hall, and the skin stripped from the bird was stuffed 
and nailed upon the station. This incident furnished 
a name for the station that was transferred to the 
ranch, and eventually to the valley that surrounded 

There had so many people concentrated in the 
fall of 1851 along the eastern base of the Sierra that 
it became neeessar}' for them to have some recog- 
nized rules governing their rights to acfjuire and 
hold property, that could b}' common consent bo 
enforced. In response to this ])revailing sentiment, 
meetings were called, the' records of which were 
kept in a little book of sixty leaves, in size six inches 
by seven inches, that has fortunately been |>reserved 
by Mart <>aige, of Carson (."il^-, and the following 
details of the first eflbrts at government in what is 
now Nevada, is obtained from it. 


The citi/.ens of western Utah assembled on the 
twelfth of November, 1851, at Mormon Station fur 
the purpose of organizing a Squatter Government. 
At the time, they were largely subject to the laws of 
Utah Territor}-, but jirobably wen' not aware of that 
fact, and if so, considered them iTiadefpiale to the 
necessities of their surroundings. Iti their declara- 
tion of intentif)ns it was laid down that the object 
was to adopt a system by which the settlers could 
subdivide " the valley so as to secure each individual 



in their rights to land taken up and impi-oved by 
them." — •' To agree upon a pelilion to Coiijjreiis for 
a distinct Territorial Government: the creation of 
public offices for the valley, and the adoption of 
by-laws and fixed roifuhitions to govern the com- 
munity." At this meeting Col. A. Woodward 
acted as Chairman and T. G. Barnard as Secretary. 
Six resolutions were adopted. 

No. 1. provided for the survey of land claims and 
the employment of a competent Surveyor for that 
purpose, and James H. Haynes was the party who 
seems to have received the appointment, as his name 
appears later in that capacity. 

No. 2, created the' offices of Recorder and Treas- 
urer, both to be held by the same party, who was to 
record and issue certificates of claims, receive a fee 
of twenty-five dollars for doing it. and account to the 
committee for the use of the same. 

No. 3. limited claims to quarter-sections. 

No. 4, made the Recorder and Treasurer acc-ount- 
able for his acts to the committee who had the 
power of appointing to that office or making 
removals in case of dereliction of doty. 

No. 5. required the Recorder to collect fees before 
performing duties. 

No. ti. provided for the election at that meeting of 
seven persons to act as the head of the organization, 
who were to have " the arrangement of all business 
touching claims." also the power to appoint a 
Recorder and to be responsible for his acts. In 
other words, this committee was to be the executive 
or governing department, the following persons 
being chosen for that position: Wm. Byrnes. John 
Reese, E. L. Barnard, A. Woodward, H. II. Jameson, 
T. A. Ilylton. and N. R. Haskill. A committee of 
five was then selecte,! to prepare and present at the 
next meeting other resolutions to perfect this system 
of government, the following gentlemen being 
named: — 

Committee on Resolutions, John Reese, J. P. Bar- 
nard. Wm. Byrnes, Wash. Loomis, H. H. Jameson. 

" A petition to Congress " was then read and 
approved, after which the meeting adjourned until 
the nineteenth of the same month. 


November 19, 18.>1, the meeting a.ssembled in 
accord with adjournment, this lime with John Reed 
acting a.s Chairman, and T. A. Ilylton as Secretary. | 
Five additional resolutions were adopted and added I 
to the six passed at the former meeting: — ! 

No. 7, gave parties a right to take up a new claim 
after they disposed of one in possession. i 

No. 8, required prepayment of the twenty-five- 
dollar fees to Recorder. 

No. !>. required claimants to put five dollars in ] 
improvL-ments on their land within one hundred and 
eighty daj's after receiving certificate. 

No. 10, permitted a companj- to take claims for 
eal-h individual of the company, and improve one 
location enough to cover expense on all. 

No. 11, timber to be common property, except 
that parties who would erect saw-mills were to have 
number of acres. 

The petition to Congress was then read, and then 
another committee of five were appointed to draft 
by-laws for the civil government of the community, 
when they adjourned until the twentieth instant. 


November 2u. IS.jl. the settlers assembled as per 
adjournment, with the same otficers pre-iding as at 
the .last meeting, when T. A. Ilylton, U. U. Jame- 
son, J. P. Barnard. Wash. Loomis, and W. Byrnes, 
the committee appointed at that time, reported a 
preamble and resolutions as follows, that were 
adopted: — 

Fre tiiibU. 

WiiEaEAS, it has been deemed neces«arj- to the 
welfare and advancement of our community, that 
there should be some fixed rules of right agreed 
upon and established for its government and the pro- 
tection of citizens in all their privileges, which each 
and all justly regard as their allodial due; and 
whereas, it is always requisite to ap])'>int officers 
whose duty it is to enforce law and maintain order, 
it is agreed that there be certain officers elected fnmi 
among our comnninity, to- wit: A Justice of the 
Peace, a Clerk of the Cnurt, and a Sheritt": and 
these functionaries shall be required to exercise and 
enforce law according to the acknowledged rules of 
equity which govern all civilize! communities. 

There shall be four individuals associated with 
the Justice — himself making the fif\h — in forming a 
court, and he shall be empowered to summon any 
four whenever occa.sion shall require it, to take cog- 
nizance and wlju'licate suminari/i/ in all cases of 
controversy, debts or offenses against the public 
weal; and to enforce fines or other sufficient penal- 
ties upon offenders; to issue warrants and authorize 
arrests. But to provide against the abuse of these 
powers, citizens and others shall have the riij/i/ of 
uppealtoa court o/tireU-e citizen.i. summoned promiscu- 
ously, who shall constitute a court of inquirj- from 
whose decision there shall be no appenl; scrutinize 
and reverse if necessarj* the decrees of the Magis- 
trate's Court; and who shall have power to remove 
the magistrate or impose upon him any other Just 
penalty, in the event of the abusive exercise of his 
authority. To strengthen them and provide for the 
execution of their verdicts, etc., there shall be a Clerk 
and Con.'table appointed to aid and execute the 
decrees of these courts. 

After these resolutions had been adopted 
the following-named parties were elected to the 
offices thus created: E. L. Barnard. Magistrate; Wm. 
Byrnes, SheriflT; Dr. T. A. Ilylton. Clerk. A com- 
mittee was then appointed to bring further matters 
upon the same subject before a meeting ordered to 
a.s-semble on the twenty-ninth instant, when they 
adjourned; but the meeting never convened as 

KOCRTII MEETI.Mi "K i ill/.EXS M.VY 22, 18.l2. 

Another meeting assembled with J. C. F'ain in the 
chair, ami that authorized any one who would build 
a saw-mill to take up a section of timber land. 

(Signed) E. L. Babn.vrd, Recorder. 




Ol'thosc already menlioiieil as sottlors, John Reoso 
is now a comparatively poor man in Salt Lake City. 
Frank Hall in a resilient of Carson City and his 
brother, W. L. Hall, lives at Wellington, Esmeralda 
County; S. A. Kinsey at Genoa, tho last three men- 
tioned all in Nevaila. Frank Harnard was killed bj- 
an emigrant in the winter ol' 1S.')2, at a station on 
Clear Creek, that divides Douglas from Ormsby 
County. A. J. Rollins is now living at Antioch, Cali- 
fornia. Col. A. Woodward was killed at Rocky 
Point on the Humboldt in the latter part of Novem- 
ber, 18.")1, bj- Indians. E. L. Barnard, one of the 
firm of Reese & Co., lotl Nevada in the fall of 1852 
with a largo drove of cattle, purchased mainlj- on the 
compan}-",s credit, and up to date has not returned. 
Barnard ))ocketed the jiroeeeds from tho sale of that 
stock; the com]):in_v were under tho necessity of pay- 
ing for so much of it as was purchased on credit, 
which bankrupted them. Wash. Loomis was hung 
in Los Angeles for stealing. N. R. ILiskill, one day 
in tho 8|>ring of 1852. while Wash. Loomis was his 
partner in keeping the tr.iding-post at the mouth of 
Gold Caiion, invited Hyniesout to shoot with 
a revolver at a ni:irk, and alter Byrnes had emptied 
his weapon, tho treacherous llaskill made a target 
of him and left tho Te.\as R mgi-r perfor.iled with ball 
holes, as ho supposed to ilio. The miners took the 
matter in hand, and both tho station keepers had to 
flee tho country to avoid being hung. Byrnes hav- 
ing an iron coii-*titation recovered, and made several 
lengthy trip-i in search of the man who had 
attetnptod his assassination. After one of these, he 
remarked to Frank Il.iil that ho was even now, and 
should hunt no more for llaskill, which jiroved noth- 
ing, but left the impression that tho latter had met 
his death at tho hands of tho Te.Kan. Byrnos is 
now an inmate of tho insane asylum at Stockton, 
California, lie was a mm that a desperado could 
got into a combat with on slight provocation; but an 
ordinary ])erson. who did not travel on his figiiting 
c|iialities or parade them osientatiousl}', might insult 
with little fear of getting harmed. 

C II A P T E R V. 



First County Orisaniz.ition — First Laml Claim — First 
(Jraiit— Deep Simw .iii.l Fl<i<>il.i in Carson Valloy — I8.");t — 
First Lawsuit— Fifth Mt-etini; .'f Citizi-ii> — \Vli..t Mrs. Uit- 
teiiriudfr ItiinfiiilR-rs of l,S."):t — First .Marriage ami hivorcc- — 
Tile First D.iiice — l.S."i4 — IVrniaiieiit ••verhiiul .Stations on 
the Carson Itiver — An Imlian Killeil liy a Boj — Sunday 
Kvcnts — Marriage Contract — .Sixth .Meetinj; of Citizens — 
LamKCIaiins Hecordeil in l.S.")4 — Carson County Create<l — A 
Mail Koute Estalilishe*! . 


On the third of March, lS.-)2, Utah, by an Act of 
the Legislature, created several new counties and 
defined their boundaries. In what is now Nevada 

there wore seven in number, their wost lino being 
California, thoir oast limits all terminating in what 
Still remains Utah, while their north and south 
boundaries were parallel lines running oast and west. 
The farthermost division north was named Weber 
County, then came Deseret, next to which, on tho 
south, lay Tooele, the three including about luli miles 
of tho north end of Nevada. The south lino of 
Tooele was not far from the present north line of 
Washoe County. The next division was about thirty- 
six miles wide, and included the mo.stof what is now 
Washoe, all of Storey- Count}', and was given tho 
name of Juab. Tho next strip south was named 
Millard. It was about fifty milos wide, and included 
most of Walker's Lake and the ])resont counties of 
Orm-i'iiy and 1) mglas. 

Tho balance of the Torritorj* was divided into 
abiut two opial parts, and named Iron and Wash- 
ington Ciiunties, tho latter bounded on the south by 
tho thirt^'-seventh parallel of north latitude, which 
was also tho south line of Utah at that time.* 

On the seventh of February of that year tho Terri- 
torial Li'gislature elected for counties as above, the 
following-named persons as Judges for a four years' 
term : — 

For U^cbor and Doscrct Counties, Isaac Clark. 

For Tooele County, Alfred Loo. 

For Juab County, George Bradley. 

For Millard County, Anson Call. 

For Iron and Washington Counties, Chapman 

This early book of records, alrcadj- mentioned, was 
not only used to preserve the annals of that which 
was done during tho several mootings of tho settlers, 
but was also utilized for the entry of land claims, 
court proceedings. Sheriffs minutes, in fact, for the 
noting of all transactions of a public nature. In it 
is found the 


On the first of December. 1852, John Rcoso 
rjcorde I a one-fourth section claim extending from 
Murmon Station south to a lone tree, including all 
between the mountain base and Carson Rivor — 
and on the same day E. L. Barnard, S. A. Kinsey, 
James C. Fain, J. Brown, and W. B^Tncs recorded 
locations, claiming in succession as their names 
appear, a one-fourth section each, to tho north of 
Reese, J. II. Scott & Bro. recording on tho same day 
a one-half ticclion on the south of Reese, and no other 
claims Wen' entered upon tho records in 1852. 


The same day, however, John IJecse and Israel 
Mott applied for the ])rivilege of putting a toll- 
bridge on the Carson Kiver, and to repair the road 
u]i tho mountain as a part of the enterprise, and to 
have the franchise for Jice i/i'arM, which was gi-anted 
on condition that they cx|)end 81,(1(111 on the same 
before tho first of July, and collect tho following tolls: 

*.Soc compilatiun nf 185,5, pages S'Jd, 2'J(i, of Utah laws. 



Waj^jon, one dollar; liurncd cattk- j)er head, ten cents; 
Bheep per head, two and one- half cents; horses or 
mules per head, twenty-five cents. In May, 1852, 
Israel Mott, the founder of Mottsville, with his wife, 
left Salt Lake for Mormon Station with a train that 
was bound for California. Upon their first arrival in 
Carson Vallej-, Mr. Mott located four miles up from 
the station, and later in the fall built a house out of 
wa>;on-bcds one-half mile farther up the overland 
road. He made a window-sash with a jack-knife, 
and paid seventy-five cents a light for seven-by-nine 
inch glass to jnit into it. Mrs. Mott was the first 
pemianent ladj- settler in Carson Valley, and as the 
wife of Mr. A. M. TajHor, is still living there. 

On the tweiily-fourth of December, 1852, it com- 
menced to snow in Carson Valley; in tw^o days three 
feet of it was lying over the whole face of the coun- 
try, and six daj-s later the ground was bare. The 
sudden melting of this field of snow caused a 
greater flood in the Carson River to usher in the 
year 1853 than has since occurred. 

In 1852, the Halls and partners ran the Eagle 
Station, mined a little, and became, to a limited 
extent, packers of goods from California, traders 
with overland emigrants, and helped to grade a road 
up Kings Canon, with a view of inducing the over- 
land travel to pass that way. During that year 
a number of emigrants went that way, but it was 
a bad road, and was soon abandoned, except by 
pack-trains. At the place where James Woods now 
lives in Eagle Valley, a family located that summer, 
named Boweii, w4io raised a crop and lelt in the 
fall. Jacob H. Rose located near where Samuel 
Nevers now resides, and Dr. 15. L. King at the 
mouth of the canon, which received his name, 
both of these parties came in 1852, and were the 
only residents remaining in Eagle Valley in 1854. 
In the south end of Washoe Vallej-, a ranch was 
taken up that year by one Clark, who was forced 
to abandon it because of the killing of a Washoe 
Indian near there by Gaines, in the following win- 


In 1852, a mail route was established bj' the Gov- 
ernment between Salt Lake City, Utah, and San 
Bernardino, in southern California. The contract 
for carrj'ing the mail over it was awarded to the 
Mormons, for whose benefit it had been called into 
existence. For the purpose of facilitating the carry- 
ing upon this route and to gain a supply station 
near the Potosi lead mine, that they proposed to 
work, a post was established by Rrigliam Young 
at the Los Vegas S])riiig, in the south end of what 
is now Nevada, on what vvas known as the Old 
Spanish trail between San 15ernardino and the Rocky 
Mountain country. The .Mormons continued to 
occupy this post until after the Mountain Meadow 
massacre, in September, 1857, when it was aban- 


From the events making up the history of 1853 
but little has been saved from the wreck of forget- 
fulness, which at best presents but here and there a 
foot-print that the drifting sands of time have left 
uncovered. Uf these the earliest — as appears from 
that ancient little book of records — was the first law- 
suit in western Utah, which was commenced at 
Mormon Station on the fourteenth of March that 
year. John Reese was plaintiff; George Chorpenning, 
the surviving partner of the firm of Woodward & Co., 
was defendant. The claim was for SG75, for sup- 
plies furnished Woodward & Co., while carrying the 
mails from Salt Lake to California, and E. L. Bar- 
nard was the Magistrate before whom the suit was 
brought. filed his bonds, an attachment issued, 
and J. P. Barnard as Constable made the following 
entry upon the returns: " I have levied upon four 
mules, one anvil, two pair of tongs, one broken vise, 
two hammers, one cold chisel, one bellows, one 
sledge, one compass, chain and surveyor's instru- 
ments, ft/no all their claim to the ohl Mormon •Station, 
and one revolver." From the entiy it appears that 
Woodward & Co. had become part owners in Mor- 
mon Station. On the sixteenth of the same month 
Judgment was entered against defendant for the 
amount claimed, and twenty-five dollars in costs 
being added, made the demand an even $700. 
Eleven daj-s later the Constable sold the defendant's 
effects, and made the following entry in regard 
thereto: — 

One mule to J. IJecse - 8 91 

One mule to J . Reese 61 

One mule to J . Reese - 61 

One mule to J. Reese 86 

Compass and chain to J. Reese 40 

Blacksmith tools to J . Reese 30 

Mormon Station to J. Reese 130 

Total S499 


On March 21st occurred another meeting of the 
citizens, on wliiili occasion J. H. Scott presided, and 
F. (i. Barnard acted as Secretary, when the laws or 
rules previously published were amended in the fol- 
lowing particulars: "No one to have a right to hold 
land unless they first file a notice of claim with the 
Recorder; and then put, within sixty da^-s, 810(1 in 
improvements on the same. Occupancy by principal 
or agent necessary to title. Absence of thirtj- days 
vitiated it. A man of family might claim 640 
acres, and a single person one-half that amount. 
All differences regarding land to be settled by arbi- 
tration or a jury of actual settlers. Fees to Recorder 
reduced to five dollars. 

The following land entries wore made in 18.53: — 
April 11th— J. H. Scott and Charles Ferguson; 
J. n. Haynes and David Barry; Thomas and K. II. 



Mi»y 12tli— Chiirles A. l)a>;.<rett. 

Muy 17th— R. T. Hawkins, in Jack's Valloy. 

July 22d — li. M. Young and James Greono. 

September 30(h — L. Olds and John Olds. 

October atli — John L. Car}- and Thos. Knott sell a 
farm to W. H. Thorrington for SOOO. 

October (ith — Foiir-sixtlis of the F'^agle Ranch 
sold by F. and W. L. Hall to E. L. Barnard; two- 
sixths having been ])urchased by them from A. J. 
Rollins and George Follensbee. 

October 2Sth— J. W. Murphy and \V. Smith. 


On the ninth oT .hiue James B. Kills ami his wile, 
Laura AL, arrived at the mouth of Gold C'anon. 
The)- took up a ranch that fall about one and ono- 
half miles below where Daj'ton now stands, and 
built a substantial log-hotise. On the fourth of Octo- 
ber, lSr)4, .Mr. HIlis was killed b}' the accidental dis- 
charge of his gun; and his wife, later married to 
George Dittenrieder, now lives a widow at Virginia 
City. She ke]>t a journal during all those early 
years, and to her the historian is under obligations 
for many important facts. When she arrived at 
Gold Caiion, Spaft'ord Hall, of Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
was keeping the station and trading-post, being 
assisted by James McMarlin and wife as employees, 
the latter receiving sixty dollars per month as house- 
keeper. The station was standing on what is now 
Mine Street, and across the road opposite to it was a 
blacksmith sho]). built from wagon-bods. The only 
women in western Utah at the time out of Car.son 
Valley were Mrs. McMarlin, Mrs. Cosser, her little 
twelve-j'ear old girl, and the wife of the blacksmith 
who worked in the shop just mentioned until fall, 
and then returned to California. There were a 
number of miners in the cation, none of them work- 
ing at the time as far up as whore Johiitown was 
afterwards stalled. Later that fall another family 
moved in there, among whom were several ladies. 
One of them was eventually mai-ried to liUte Olds, 
another to Al. Sijuires, and both of those gentlemen 
now live in Car.son Valley. 

Heesc & Co., who raised ten acres of turnips and 
about seven of small grain in lSr)2, at Mormon Sta- 
tion, had increased the quantity in 1853, and were 
making their effort at farming a financial success, 
because of the ready sale of produfts to emigrants, 
who would pay a dollar for a small bunch of turnips. 
In the fall, i{eese & Co. purchased Eagle Ranch from 
the Halls, October (ith, who returned to California; 
and Frederick Bishop took charge of the station for 
the company-. 

In the fall or winter of 1853 Walter Cosser started 
in the mercantile lino at the place which later be- 
came known as Johnlown, and it was the first estab- 
lishment of any kind at that point. Thomas Knott 
commenced, on the twenty-seventh of March, to 
build for John Cary a saw-mill at the head of t!arson 
Valley; that was completed, and the first ]ilank 

sawed by it on the twenlj-sixth of July. The lum- 
ber from this, the first saw-mill in western Utah, 
sold for 8100 per thousand. 


That summer, an emigrant stopped for a time at 
Gold Canon whose name was I'owell. Ho was 
seeking a homo for his motherless family, among 
whom was a girl about fourteen years of age named 
Mary. Mr. I'owell left his children at the diggings, 
and went up the valleys in search of a favorable 
point to locate, and, while he was gone, a young 
man named Benjaiiiin Cole, a native of Missouri, 
induced this child to marry him. Captain Parker, 
now living on the Humboldt, being a Justice of the 
Peace, performed the ceremony. The bride imme- 
diately thereafter was taken to the cabin of Mother 
Cosser, to remain until a habitation could be built 
by the husband. The kir.d heart of this Scottish 
lady warmed towards the child-wife, and she advised 
her not to go with the husband until the father's 
return, and the advice was accepted. A consider- 
able feeling was awakened because of this, and the 
miners took sides, some declaring for Cole, while the 
more sober-minded and reflective sustained the 
Cossor's and the girl, whom the husband would have 
taken possession of by force, but for the certainty 
of swift vengeance from the hands of the sturdy son 
of this mother in Israel. 

Mr. Powell soon returned, and finding what had 
transpired in his absence, with tearful eyes thanked 
this pioneer mother for her watchful care of his 
little brood, and immediately started with them for 
California. The husband soon followed in pursuit, 
with the avowed purpose of abduction, accompanied 
by a number of friends, and hot upon their trail, 
Walter Cosser rode, with several others, on such 
horses as could be hastily gathered, to prevent, by a 
jiitched battle if necessary, the declared object of 
the hnshand. Mr. Powell was overtaken, and the 
matter was finally compromised by all parties agree- 
ing to lei the girl decide whether to go on or return 
with Cole, and she concluded to remain with her 
father. iMr. Powell moved on towards California, 
and the husband returned to Gold Cafion, while 
Walter Cosser and friends lingered on the road to jjre- 
vcnt the consummation of an ulterior design, if any 
was contemplated by Cole. They met no more, that 
bride and groom of an hour, and thus was accom- 
])lished the first ceremony of marriage in Nevada, 
followed by a swift-wingod and effectual divorce. 


On the night of the last day of the year 1853, 
there was a dance in the log building over Spafford 
Hall's store, at the mouth of (iold Canon. There 
were nine females, including little girls, that attemled 
the party, and this number constituted throe-fourths 
of all the fair sex in western Utah at the time, 
Mrs. Cosser, old Mrs. Mott, now deceased, and 
a lady in Gold Cafion, remaining at home. The 



miners, ranchers, aiul stiition-kccpers, from all over 
the country, numbering possibly one liundred and 
fifty men, were there, in or about the station; and 
while everybody was enjoying themselves, the 
Washoe Indians came and drove off their horses. 
The next day the stolen stock was all recovered by 
the owners e.xcejit two, that had been killed by the 
Indians for eating, at a general barbecue at Chalk 
Hill, near where now is located Mound Station, on 
the Virginia and Truckee Railroad. 


Early in 1854, Spafford Hall, while hunting, was 
severely wounded by the accidental discharge of 
his gun. which caused him to sell the station to 
James .Mc.Marlin. who up to this time had been in 
his employ, and he started for his Indiana home as 
soon as the mountains could be crossed in the spring. 
Mc.Marlin sent for his brother John to join in the 
enterprise, who did so, and was killed by Indians 
at Slipperj' Ford, in the mountains, a few years later. 

Asa Kenyon permanently located at Ragtown that 
year, where the overland I'oad lirst reached the Car- 
son River, and started a station there. Previous to 
this, traders had been in the habit of going to that 
point, ))utting up a tent, trafficking with emigrants 
through the summer, and then leaving in the fall for 

About four miles up the stream from Ragtown, 
at the place known as The Willows, Thomas Pitt, 
who had been the blacksmith at Hall's Station in 
1853, started a station. 

Two brothers, named James and Harvey Hughes, 
from Missouri, established one on the river about 
four miles up from where the massacre by Indians 
occurred in 1 Still, at the place known as Williams, 
or Honey Lake Smith's, Station. 

In the fall of the year, John Smith purchased the 
post on the Carson at the western terminus of the 
twenty-six-mile desert, from a California trader. 
The ])laco is now known as Coonie's Ranch. 

The same year (ieorge Brown established a station 
on the river about three miles u]i from where now 
stands the ruins of Fort Churchill. All of 
these parties were considered and became settlers of 
the country. Other stations along the route were 
mere summer ones, being abandoned as the fall 
approacheil by their California keejiei's. S. A. 
Kinsey recollects that the famous Ren. llolliday, 
joined by one Warner, opened a store and station on 
the road about three miles down the river from 
Mormon Station in 1854, and Cosser, who was the 
jiioncer merchant at Johnlown, remembei's that in 
1854 opposition was established there bj- J. S. Child 
and by Moses Job. The latter started a store in 
1854 at the ]ilace now known as Sheridan, in Carson 
Vallej', near the base of the mountain named in honor 
of him. Mr. Child afterwards became one of the 
most prominent characters in the early history of 


It has been previouj^l^- noted that CUvrk, who had 
taken up a ranch in the south end of W^ashoe Valley 
in 1852, had been I'orced to leave it because an Indian 
had been killed there. In the latter ))art of 1853 a 
young man coming from over the plains, where his 
moihir had been buried, settled upon the deserted 
ranch, wiih a liule sister and brother, but three of 
them in all. The little boj- was about thirteen 3-ear8 
of age, and the sister still j-oungcr. One daj- in the 
absence of the elder brother a Washoe Indian came 
to the cabin and demanded food, and finding them 
alone told the children that unless thcj* turned over 
to him whatever he wanted about the place he would 
kill both of them. The scared little ones ran into 
the house, the hny seized his brother's rifle and as 
the pursuing Washoe was crossing the threshold a 
ball through the heart from that trusty weapon 
stretched him lifeless in the door, where the return- 
ing brother found him several hours later, stiff and 
cold. Again that ranch became tenantless, for the 
young man sold the claim to J. II. Rose, of Eagle 
Valley, and started without delay to place his brother 
and sister beyond the possibility of another such 
thi'illing peril. 

In 1854, on the first of May, the white child 
was born in western Utah of ])arcnts living in the 
Territorv. It was named James Riimmel Ellis, and 
died in Virginia City in January. 1SG9. 

On the first of July, 1854, Charles II. Albrecht 
and family, of St. Louis, 'Missouri, en route for Cali- 
f(jrnia, was camped at the Ellis Ranch below Gold 
Canon, and his unmarried sister. Rachel F., was a 
member of his household. One of the miners named 
James Dover became fascinated by the namesake of 
that ancient gleaner, and desired to marrj' her. 
Rachel was willing, but there was neither magis- 
trate nor minister in that country to tie the Gordian 
knot, atid the lovers-at-sight were in a sad dilemma. 
It was finallj' decided to call u]ion Mrs. Laura M. 
KIlis — now J)ittenriedcr — for advice, and she solved 
the ])roblem by drawing up a triplicate contract of 
marriage on the fourth of July, which each signed, 
the ])ai)ers being duly witnessed, the two were pro- 
nounced to have to all intents and purposes con- 
summated a matrimonial alliance, and they were 
declared man and wife without further ceremony. 
The following is a copy of that 


Carson Hivkr. July 4, 1854. 

Bj- these jircsents wo hereby certify, in the ])res- 
ence of witnesses, that we will from this time hence- 
forth, to the end of our lives, live together as man and 
wife, obeying all the laws of the United States as 
married persons. In witness, we set our hands and 
seals, this fourth daj- of July, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and til'ty-four. 

(Signed) Jamks "Dover, 

Kaciiei. F. Al.BRECnT. 

Witnesses: James B. Ellis, Charles H. Albrecht, 
Augustus C. Albrecht. 



Ftiblishod ill the Afounfuln Denion-at July 20, 1854. 

For eight years they lived together, wlien .she left 
him :md joined her brother at Placervillc, California. 
Hventualij-, Mr.s. Bowers, the •' Washoe Seeress," 
gave her the money to ilel'ray the expense of gelling 
a divorce, which she procured in the courts of Cali- 
fornia, and has since marrie<l again. 

Thomas Knott built at Mormrin Station, for the 
Reese Compan}-, a grist and saw-mill in IS,") t, that was 
not paid for because of the failure of IJarnard to 
return with the money received from the sale of the 
comjiany's cattle in California. A stationary thresh- 
ing-machine was added lo the mill, that was run with 
little salisfaclion that fall, and then di>niantled. 
Henry Van Sickle, now living in Carson Valley, made 
the cjMinder. To have warranled them in building 
that mill, there niu>l have been considerable grain 
raised bv ihe various fii-mers along the ea^lern base 
of the Sierra Nevaila .Mmintains. A number of new 
farm locations were made during that jear, as 
exhibited b}' the following transcript from the 
Pioneer Record Book. 


February 2Sth— J. C. Fain. 

February 2Sth— E. L. Baniard. 

March 28lh Post and the II. Van Sickle 


April 2d— R. De Frost. 

April 2d — Fred. Bishop. 

A]>ril (ith^John Stephens. 

A|iril 21st — Suit b}' llenr}' McL'alla cs. Thus. 
Knott. Judgment SI 13.4:$. 

Maj' 18th — Jose])h Williams. 

Way 27th— A. C. Stewart k, A. Clurk. 

May 27lh— C. D. Daggett. 


May 27, 1S54, the residents had another meeting 
with J. L. Carj- as Chairman, and M. G. Lewis, Sec- 
retary, when thej' resolved that in the use of water 
no settler should be deprived of sufficient for house- 
hold purposes; that it should not be diverted from 
its original channels, and when two or more lived on 
the same stream they should share water according 
lo the number of acres cultivated, each using for 
alternate days when it vvas scarce. 


October 30th — George Lambe. 

November 29th — Julius Peltier soils one-half of 
ranch in Jack's Valley to George Fogle for 8300, 
same formerly owned b}' Sam. Hlackford. 

December 4th — Nicholas Johnson. 

December 13th — Sale of Brown's farm bj' Con- 
stable for 8787.32 to plaintiff, S. Blackford. 

December 7th — G. B. Parker sells to !{. Sides and 
Rolland Abernathey the Clear Creek Hanch, first 
taken up by George Mires and C. Phillip|)s, who 
kept the trading-i)ost where iiarnard was killed. 

December 2Uth — R. Sides, B. Abernathey, and J. 
M. Baldwin. 

December 2<)th — Josejih Brown records deed of 
land sale to IJufus Adams made in 1853. 

In the winter of 1854, Walter Cossor paid George 
Pierce one dollar jier pound for packing over from 
Placervillc to Gold ('anon on snow-shoes some rubber 
goods. Rubber boots sold at the time for twenty- 
fivo dollars per pair. Prices for merchandise that 
winter in western L'lah were — 

For Satinet Pants $5 00 to S (J 00 

Cassimere Pants 7 00 " 10 00 

Woolen Shirts 3 00 " 4 00 

Boots 5 00 " 14 00 

Bacon (per pound) 40 " 50 

Tea " " 1 25 " 1 50 

Tobacco " " 1 50 

Coffee " '• 45 

Sugar " " 45 

A Panama hat 5 00 

The first school in western Utah was kept by 
Mrs. Allen, at the residence of Israel Mott, during 
the winter of 1854-55. 


The following Act was passed by the Territorial 
Legislature of Utah, on the seventeenth of January, 

Section 1. ]}e it enacted by the Governor and 
Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah; That 
all that portion of country bounded north b^* Deseret 
County; east by the parallel of longitude 1 18''; south 
by the boundary line of the Territoiy; and west by 
California, is hereby included within the limits of 
Carson County, and until organized is attached to 
Millard County for Election, Revenue and Judicial 

Sec. 2. The Governor is hereby authorized to 
ap|joint a Probate Judge for said county, when he 
shall deem it ex))edient; and said Probate Judge, 
when appointed, shall proceed to organize said 
county, by dividing the county into ])recincts, and 
causing an election to be held according to law, to 
fill the various county and precinct offices, and locate 
the county seat thereof. 

Occasionally citizens from Carson Valley visited 
Placerville, in California, in those early j'cars, for the 
purpose of trade, and the editor ol' the .Uoiin/nin 
Democrat, Daniel W. Gelwicks, would interview them 
and publish the results. From the files of that paper 
it ajipoars that in 1854 Colonel Reese, accompanied 
by a Sergeant and three men, pioneered a new, 
farther south, and shorter route, from Salt Lake to 
Carson Valley, than had heretofore been traveled, 
ami the Sergeant proposed to recommend the passage 
of the United States troops over it that proposed to 
pass through under Colonel Ste|iloe. 

In April the mail carrier. Drift, reported that some 
one had fuund a jwuml gold nugget at Gold Canon, 
and that nuggets were not unfrequently met with 
there valued at from ten to twenty dollai-s; also, that 
George Smith was keeping a station at Lake Vallej-. 

James B. Ellis, of Gold Canon, took notes in 
1854, up to Jul}- 1st, of the arrivals at that point 
of California-bound emigrants, with the following 
results: 213 wagons, 300 horses and mules, 7,528 cat- 
tle, and 7,150 sheep. 






Entries Closing Pioneer Kecorcl Book— Carson County Organ- 
ized — First Officers of Carson County — >I'"irst County Court 
Records — Mrs. Samly liowers, tlic Washoe Seeress — 1856 — 
Namin<! of (ieuoa — Division of the County into School 
Districts — Orson Hyde's Curse. 

In the little book of pioneer records appears the 
following entries of land claims and other transac- 
tions, the last in the book, which was superseded by 
the organization of Carson County. 


January 3d — W. P. Cozard — should be Cosser. 

January 12th — A. L. Kenyon. 

January 20th -I. N. Hix. 

January 23d — Reese & Co., turn over to Thomas 
Knott a large amount of property to pay him 84,000, 
for services in making lor the firm a saw-mill, i/risi- 
mill, threnlihiy-machine, etc. 

January 23d — J. and E. ReeseA Co., sold to William 
B. Thorrington S23,0U0 worth of property to |iay 
him for that amount of money previous!}- loaned to 
them. The Eagle Ranch in Eagle Vallej^ was 
included in this property sold to him. 

February 10th — J. and E. Reese convey balance of 
pro])orty to pay their creditors. 

March 12th— W. P. Allen and E. A. Parkeivson. 

March 24th — Nicholas Ambrosia. 

August oOth — Julius I'oltier, sells to R. D. Sides, J. 
M. Baldwin and L. B. Abernathej'. 

[This 18 the last entry in the book]. 


The territory embraced within Carson County 
according to the Act of Januaiy 17, 1854, inciuilcd all 
of what is now Washoe, Douglas, Ormsbj-, Storey, 
and Lyon Counties; over half of Esmeralda, three- 
fourths of Ctuirehill and a little of southwestern Hum- 
boldt. The Legislature, on the second daj' after cre- 
ating the county, divided Utah into three Judicial 
Districts, Carson being the third, and lion. George 
P. Styles, United States Judge for Utah Territory, 
was named to preside over it. The new county was 
also declared to be entitled to a representation in the 
Legislature, in consciincnce of which Weber County 
lost a member in that body. *The Act creating the 
county having authorized the Governor to appoint a 
Probate Judge, whose duty would be to organize it, 
Orson Ilyde, a Mormon Elder, was selected for that 
position, who left Salt Lake with such design on the 
seventeenth of Maj-, 1855. Judge Styles, Joseph L. 
Haywood, llnitod States Marshal for Utah Territory, 
and Enoch Reese, of the firm of J. and E. Reese & Co., 
with an escort of thirty-five men, accompanied Orson 
Hyde. They arrived at Mormon Station on the 
fifteenth of June, and were followed by other Mor- 
mons who moved into Carson County during the 

•See compilation of Utah Statutes 1855, pa^cs 258 and 31)8. 

The first move by Judge Hyde towards an organi- 
zation of the county was to call an election for Sep- 
tember 20, 1855, to fill the various county offices, 
that resulted in the choice of the following parties : — 


(1) James C. Fain, Sheriff. 

(2) Heniy W. Nilcs, Surveyor. 

(3) Chas. D. Daggett, Prosecuting Attorney. 

(4) Chas. D. Daggett, Assessor and Collector. 
Richard D. Sides, Treasurer. 

(5) Henry W. Nilcs was appointed Clerk, Oct. 2d. 

(6) H. M. Hodges, Constable. 

(7) James A. Williams, Constable. Bonds, SCOO. 
Nicholas Ambrosia, Justice of the Peace. Not 

being able to write, signed his bonds with his mark. 

HL^nry Van Sickle, Justice of the Peace. Bonds, 

James McMarlin, Justice of the Peace. Appointed 
December 3, 1855, for Gold Canon. 

(8) Henry D. Sears, Wm. P. Allen, James McMar- 
lin, Selectmen ; §1,000 bonds given by each. 


The entry upon any of the old Carson court 
books, was upon the County Court Records, which 
bears date October 2, 1855, and states that Orson 
Hyde had apiK)inted II. W. Niles Clerk of the Pro- 
bate Court and e.r oj/icio of the County Court. 
This is followed by a note to the effect that J. C. 
Fain had purchased in California the county books 
of record at a cost of thirty-five dollars, and was 
allowed three ]ier cent, a month for use of the 
money advanced for them. His bill of ten dollars 
charged for packing them over the mountains was 
audited after deducting four dollars for taxes. This 
is the only case on record of the recei]it of any county 
revenue in those days ; but legend hath it, that some 
one paid a bushel of potatoes into the treasury-, and 
then re])enting him for so doing demanded their 
return. October 3d, is entered the proceedings in the 
first lawsuit, in which James McLit3-re sued Asa A. 
Knouse in an action '■ of debit and damages " for 
8187.75, that resulted in a judgment against the 
plaintiff for 838.50. On the twenty-seventh of the 
same month, at a special term of the court hold for 
that purpose at the house of John iJecse, there was 
granted, " The sole and exclusive right to take out 
any portion of the waters of Carson River which 

(1) May 12, 1856, Russell KcUey appointed in place of Fain, 

(2) May 12, 1850, Orson Hyde appointed in place of Niles, 

(:<) Novemlwr 24. 1855, likd his bonds for §1,000. 

(4) December 3, 1855, appointed. 

(5) March:), 1850,.**. A. Kinsey appointed, in place of Niles, 
resigned. l)cccnil>cr 27, 1855, .ludge Hyde having acted .is his 
own clerk during the interval. 

(6) May 12, l8o(>, Daniel Woudfiird aiipointed in his pUice. 

(7) — Woodf.ird killed at .Slippery Ford by Indians in the 
summer of 1857. 

(8) Selectmen duties were, to act iw Associate with the Probate 
J udge, moke provisiou for the poor, orphans and iusaua 



they ninj' desiro, in a. ditch or caiiul, lur mining iiiid 
other |)ur|iose8, in tho vicinity of Gold Canon," to J. 
C. Fain, John Roose, Stejiiion A. Kinsc}', John .\Ie- 
Marlin, James MeMarlin, ChrLstojiher Merjjley, Mor- 
ris Fitzf^ibbon, and Orson Ilydo. 

November 2d, occurred a criminal i)roscciition. 
more parlicularly noted in the chapter on the l?ar of 
Nevada, and on the same day was admitted to prac- 
tice before the courts of Utah as attorney and coun- 
selor at law, l)r. Charles I). l)aj^!j;ett, and Sol. C. 
Perren. At that time the laws of Utah ]iri>vided 
that the onlj- <|ualitication necessary to enable per- 
sons to ju'aclice law, was the possession of a '■ j.;ood 
moral character," but the client could not be I'orced 
to pay for such services officially. The only trans- 
actions that followed within 18o") was the establish- 
ment of five dollars per day as the amount that the 
Judge and each Selectman was to be entitled to for 
their services. 

With a glance at po])ulation and condition of the 
county at the close of 1855, we will pass on to the 
more important events of the ensuing year. With 
Orson Hyde had come Alexander Cowan, his wife? 
Mrs. Ellery, and a ne|)hew named IJoberl Henderson, 
a lad about eleven j-ears of age. It is believed that 
Mrs. Hannah Reese and the fourth wife of Judge 
Hyde, came to Carson Valley at the same time. The 
advent of a female in 1855, was an event of impor- 
tance, because of the few of them that had settled in 
the country. There were but two at Mormon Sta- 
tion, where a population of .about 200 resided. There 
were but two at Gold Canon, where about the same 
number of people were engaged in mining and trade, 
and ])robably but fifteen females in all who lived in 
what is now Nevada in the fall of 1855, and five of 
them are still residing in the county. The lives of 
some of those women would make a thrilling page in 
history, which would prove that truth is stranger 
than fiction, and we regret the necessity of passing 
them all with a mere mention, excejit one at which 
onl}- a glance is taken. The one at present is known 
as tho " Washoe Seeross;" a woman now fifty-two 
years of age, down whose cheeks a tribute in sadness 
trickled as the writer's (juestions uncovei'cd tho 
memorial ashes of jjast hopes dead, revealing the 
wreck of a long and eventful life, verging njion its 
close. Her maiden name was Killc3- Orrum; she was 
born in the Scottish Highlands, and was married at 
fifteen to Stephen Hunter, who took her to Salt Lake, 
Utah, in 1850, where he became a polygamist, and 
she left him. Three years later she was married to 
Alexander Cowan, with whom she moved, as before 
stated, in 1855, to Carson County. The first winter 
after her arrival was spent by her in (iold Canon, 
keejiing a boarding-house; the next summer in 
Washoe Valley, where a ranch was taken up, and in 
1857, when the Mormons were recalle<l, she refused 
to return to Salt Lake and ])olygamy with her hus- 
band. She continued to reside in summer at Washoe 
Valley, and kept boarders in winter at Gold (^afion, 

until in 1858, when she married Lemuel S. Bowers, bet- 
ter known as "Sandy IJowers." At the time of her 
last marriage she was the owner of ten feet on tho 
Comslock lode, adjoining ten feet owned b^- Bowers, 
that later developed such wealth, and was known as 
the "Sandy Bowers claim." This rich development 
was in IHiiO, an<l in the following season they visited 
Euro])e, remaining away for three years, traveling 
through the Old World, from where they returned to 
live in the Bowers mansion, in Washoe \'alley. that 
had been nearly completed during their absence, at a 
cost when furnished, of 8407.000. In 1808 Mr. Bow- 
ers died, and bis estate was ap]iraised at 8ti;!8,00O. 
Tho full charge of her mine and mill was lefl to a 
superintendent after the death of Mr. Howei-s, and in a 
short time that pro])erly had run her SoO.OOO in debt, 
and the balance of her possessions soon faded away 
-before the onslaught of dishonesty, and now she is 
an old lady and de])endent upon her earnings as 
Seeress, for a living. This is a brief outline, reader, 
let your imagination fill up the intervals. 

Tho following entries appear in Book A of Deeds, 
pages 7 and 96: — 

S<piire Mott, son of Iliram Mott. was married at 
his father's house b}' Hon. Orson Hv'le, on Siindaj', 
the tweiityeighth day of October, 1855, to Mrs. 
Mary W. Wheeler, at li o'clock p. .m., on that daj-. 

Henry Van Sickle, Ksq., was married h^- Hon. 
Orson llj'de at the house of Niles and Sears, on 
Tuesdaj' evening, November 6, 1855, to Miss Mary 

In Wassaw Vallej- (Washoe), on the second day 
of October, 1856, at tho house of Judge Oi-son Hj-de, 
Stephen A. Kinsej- to Miss Sarah Jane Thompson, 
by the Hon. Orson Hyde. 

185 6. 
In tho spring of 1856, Orson Ilydo turveyed Mor- 
mon Station, making a town plat, and named the 
place (ienoa. Tho countj- having been organiy.ed, 
a general move was inaugurated in 1856. with tho 
design, evidentlj', to settle upon the agricultural ])art 
of tho county by Jlormons. A companj- lei't Salt 
Lake for Carson County, ..May 7th, of that year, and 
others came from time to time, until thej' were in 
a majority before election, that occurred on the 
fourth of August, resulting in a choice of the lollow- 
irig county officers: — 

Richard Bentley (a Mormon). Recorder. 
Russell Kelly (became a Mormon), Sheriff. 

(1) Chas. D. Daggett, Assessor, Collector, and 

(2) Richard Bentley ( .Mormon), Surveyor. 

(1) 'I'lio ]n)8iti(>n of Assessor ami CoUootor was received l>y 
.niiiioiiitiMirit, IKremlKT I, lS.">(i, iiiiil on the tliiril of tlie eiisiilii)^ 
Maicli, tliu rate of taxation fc.r l.S.'i? wius'tlied at one- 
foiirtli of one per cent, for eonnty purposes, and one-half of one 
per cent, for Territorial purpose-s, tile same as it had l)een in 
IS.jO. If any tax was collected the records do not show it; and 
the old settlers say there was none. 

(■J) Kieliard Hentley uppi'inteil Surveyor on tho eighteenth of 
Novemlier, IhoG, to serve during the absence of Orson Hyde, who 
retnrneil to 8alt Luke. 



(1) William Nixson and Permens Jackman (Mor- 
mons), Sek'ftnu-ii. 

(2) Chester Loveland (Mormon) Justice of the 

Nelson Mcrkley (Mormon). Constable. 

Seth I>ustiti (Mormon), Constable. 

With the Mormon train that left Suit Lake in 1850, 
Justice DrummonfJ came as United States J ud<^e of 
the Tiiird District of Utah, and held a court in Mr. 
Motts barn, four miles up Carson Valley from Mor- 
mon Station. A Grand Jury was summoned that 
received his charge instructing them to bring in bills 
of indictment for misdemeanors, against all citizens 
of the county who had been guiltj- of gambling, 
concubinage, or other minor frontier offenses. The 
jury, after being left to themselves, took a good look 
at each other and becoming satisfied that lo follow 
instructions would necessitate a wholesale commit- 
ment of those present, forthwith notified Judge 
J)rummond that they had adjourned without date. 

Practically nothing was accomplished at this first 
session of the United Stat<;s District Court in Carson 
County. A couple of men convicted of grand larceny 
were sentenced to imprisonment, but both of them 
escaped, and the Judge, disgusted, left the Territorj-, 
went to San Francisco, from where he returned to 
Washington with a report in regard to western 
Utah that was more expressive than complimentar}-. 

The Probate Court, on the first of Februarj-, tried 
one Charles Kensler for stealing twelve dollars in 
gold-dust from Mark Stebbins. The jury found him 
guilty and pronounced the sentence to be "six 
months hard labor with ball and chain." "The 
Court ordered the officer to procure a ball and chain 
and attach it to the prisoner, and hire him out to 
hard labor to the best advantage to the county for 
the term of six calendar months." It cost the county 
8110 to convict this man for stealing twelve dollars, 
and as none of the old citizens remember anj-tliing 
in regard to tlie niattei-. it is safe to presume that 
he also escaped. 

At this regular term of the County Court, held 
December 1st, at the residence of P. A. Jackman, it 
was "Ordered that the county bo divided into four 
school districts as follows: — 

1st School District — To commence at the line of 
California and ending at the Warm Springs below 
Van Sickles. 

2d District — Commencing at the Warm Springs 
and running below as far as Clear Creek (present 
north line of Douglas County), including Jack's 

3d l)i8trict — Embracing Eagle Vallej' (Ormsby 

(I) H. 1). Sears liuld over, and nn the eighteciitli of Novem- 
ber, IS.')!;, A. H. C'liceny was appointe*! to serve iluriii}; tlie 
temporary altfteiice *»f .Sears. 

(•J) Cliititer l.ovelaiiil was ajiixiiiitcd I'mliate Judge of Carson 
County, liy tlie Coveriior of Utali, on the first of Septenibi-r, 
lK,")(i. in anticipation of tlie withdrawal of Orson Hyde from 
Wi'Htern Utah. In siuning his name, he indicated his official 
title by adding the initials I', ti. 

4th District— Wassaw Valley (Washoe Valley)." 

On the third of the following March, Jack's 
Vallej- w:is named as District Xo. Five. In 1857. a 
school house was erected at Franktown, in Wassaw 
Valley, that was sold in the fall to " Lucky Bill," 
who moved it to Genoa (Mormon Station), where it 
became a horse stable, and thus ended the first 
effort to organize a school sj-stem in western Utah. 

On the fifth of Julj', 1850, appears another entry 
upon the record books of the Probate Court, after 
which is an interval of three yeai-s and two months 
before another session is held, which convened Sep- 
tember 12, 1850. with J.S. Child forjudge. That 
gentleman is still a resident of Carson Valley. 

On the sixth of November, 1856, Orson Hj-dc 
started on his return to Salt Lake. He traveled by 
a more southern route than the Humboldt, and 
reached his destination December 9th. His com- 
]>anions in the journej- were Simon Baker, James 
Kalhall, John Vance, Wm. Price. Dui-ft'e, Carter, 
Harsee, Woodland, and Butcher, tiie latter with a 
wife and two children. This ))ioneer organizer of 
Carson County died at Spring City, San Pete Count}', 
Utah, November 28, 1878, leaving behind him the 
following strange evidence of his peculiar character, 
feelings, beliefs, and ex])erience, wbile operating in 
what is now Nevada: — 

ORSON IIVDE's curse. 

G. S. L. CiTV, Ja.makv 27. 1S02. 

To THE People of Causon and Washoe Vai.levs — 
Ladien dial Genlkiiien : Not quite seven j-i-ars ai^o 1 
was sent to your district as I'robate Judge of Car- 
son County, with )>owers and instructions from the 
executive of this Territory to oriianize your district 
into a county undor the laws of Utah — those valleys 
being then the lawful and rightful field ot Utah's 
jurisdiction; but o|i|>osiiion on your ))art to the 
me;isure was uncea>iiit;ly m:i<le in almost every form, 
both trivial and iniiiorlant, o|)en and secret. Your 
allies in California were ever ready to second your 
op])osition of whatever character or in whatever 

In the 3-ear following (1850, I think,; Mr. Price 
and myself budt a valuable saw-mill in Washoe Val- 
ley, made and purchased several land claims there 
for ourselves and our friends — made considerable 
im]irovenients thereon; but being called away on 
short notice, this |property, then worth SUl.tKIO, was 
renteil to Jacob IJose for a limited term, at a stip- 
ulated jM'ice. On this rent he advanced one span of 
small, indifferent mules, an old worn-out harness, 
two yokes of oxen, and an old wagon. This is all 
that wo have ever received for the use of our ])ro|i- 
erty in that valley-, though we have sent bills for 
goods or merchandise; but no res])onse, exce|)t on 
l)a])or, and even that not of the most encouraging 

We have been patient, and have not murmured. 
We have made little or no effort to sell our property 
there, we considered that those who had it 
tiiouglit they were df>ing God and themselves a serv- 
ice by wronging the Mormons; and for me, 1 felt 
backwani to do anything in the premises until the 
Lord should tell me what to do (it being on his 
account, or on account of his religion, that we were 








^S5t.-T, , 

w. .. -- ■:«. -^-. 





^ L4, 


i'TW ff*/Tr#s 





deprived of any benefit from it.) That time has 
now come, an<l the Lord has siijnitied to me, hi.s un- 
worthj- servant, tiial as we have been under eiroHm- 
stanees liiat e()m|)elie(r us to submit to your terms, 
that lie will ]>hu'e you under eircuinstanees that will 
compel you lo submit lo (Uirs. (tr do worse. 

That mill and those land claims were worth SKI, (1(10 
when we left them; the use of that proiierty, or its 
increased value since, is S10,0(Jtl more, making our 
present demand Sl-M.dllil. 

Now if llie above sum he sent to me in Great Salt 
Lake City, in cash, j'ou shall have a clean receipt 
therefor, in the shape of honorable quit claim deeds 
to all the propert}- that Orson Hyde, William Price 
and Richaril Bentlej- owneil in Washoe Valley. The 
mill, 1 understand, is now in the hands of R. I). Sides, 
and has been for a lon-j time. Hut ifyoii shall think 
best to rejii'diate our demand or any ]iart of it. all 
riitht. We shall not make it up again in this world 
in any shapeof any ofyou ; but the said I{. I). Sides and 
Jacob Rose shall be living and dying advertisements 
of tiod'sdisjileasure. in their persons, in their families, 
and in their subst.ances; and this demand of ours, 
remaining uncanceled, shall be to the ])eo])le of Car- 
son and Washoe Valleys as was the ;irk of (xod 
among the Philistines. (Sec Sam. fifth chapter.) 
You shall be visited ol'ttie Lord of Ifosts with thun- 
der and with eartlupiakes and with floods, with 
pestilence and with famine until your names are not 
known amongst men. for you have rejected the 
authorit}- of (tod, tram])led u|ion his laws and his 
ordinances, and given yourselves up to serve the god 
of this world; to rioting in ileltauchery, in abomina- 
tions, drunkenness and cori'U])tion. You have chuck- 
led and gloiaed in taking the property of the Mor- 
mons, and withhohling from them the benefits thereof 
You have despised rule and authority, and ]nit tiod 
and man at defiance. If perchance, however, there 
should be an honest man amongst you, I would 
advise him to leave; but let him not go to California 
for safetj-, for he will not find it there. 

On hearing the contents of this letter, you maj' 
send forth volleys of your wrath with your taunts, 
jeers, and scurrilous indignation; but j'ou will oidy 
prove the more cons])icuously that you are dealing 
with an A])ostle of (Jod, or that an Apostle of tiod is 
dealing with J'ou, whom you have rejected. The 
hand ol'tiod is alreaily beginning to be upon j-ou for 
evil anil not for good. The golden treasures of the 
earth are there to call together the worshi|)ers of 
the god of this world, that j'ou may there receive a 
common fate. 

I have no sordid desire for gobi, and have mani- 
fested it by mj- long silence ami manifest indifl'ereneo; 
and should not say anything now had not the visions 
of the .Mmighty stirred u|i my mind. 

We warned and forewarned the peo])le of Missouri, 
more than twentj- ye;irs ago, of what should befall 
them for treating the .Mormons in the way they did; 
but did they believe us then? Do they believe us 
now? No! Yet what is their ]>resent condition? 
Blood and fire ma3- tell. We likewise warned the 
peo])le of the United Slates from .Maine to Missis- 
sipjii, and from Boston to San Francisco, of the wars 
and troubles that were coming upon them for allow- 
ing the .Saints and Pro|)hets to be driven, scattered 
and slain, their property- confiscated and destroyed, 
and they never raise a hand lo protect the Saints, to 
](Uiiish the crimes of our ]ierseculors, or to redress 
our wrongs in an^' way. \S'e tobl the President and 
his Cabinet, ])roclaimed it lo the Congress of the 
United Slates, and told them that desolating wars 

which should end in the death and misery of manj' 
souls should begin in South Carolina. Did they 
believe us then? Do they believe us now? No I 
Yet what is their present condition? They have 
e)-es, but theyj;ee not — ears, but they hear not. and 
hearts, but they understand not. Their l)lood (b)ws 
like water, ancl their rage like the ocean. 3-et the)' 
have not read the half of the preface of their national 

We now tell the people of Carson and Washoe 
Valleys some things that will befall them, and the 
' reason why they will befall them. But will j-ou 
believe us? "Behold ye despisers, and wonder ami 
perish! I will work a work in your da}' — a work 
which j'e shall in no wise believe, though a man 
declare it unto you." (See Isaiah, twenty-ninth 

(iod is now beginning to deal with the inhabitants 
of the earth for the wrongs which ihej* have done 
unto his peojjle, and for i-cjecting his authority and 
counsel, given forth from Heaven through the .Mor- 
mons. Ilis dealings with them will be neither light 
nor on a limited scale. But those who do repent, 
and make right their wrongs, acknowledge the 
authority of (Jod in the channel through which he 
hath sent it, may find mercy and protection in that 
channel, and nowhere else. 

1 care not what our mill an<l lan<l claims are, or 
were considered worth — whether five hundred thou- 
sand dollars, or five cents. — twenty thousand dollars 
is our demand; and you can pay it to us, as 1 have 
said, and find mercy, if you will thencel()rth do right, 
or despise the demand and ])erish. 

As usual, 1 feel quite indifferent about it, and what 
I have written 1 have written, and 1 excuse not 

Without hypocrisy, deceit or falsehood, I remain 
as heretofore, a servant of God. Okson IIvde. 

P. S. — This letter, though indited by me, was 
written and signed by the hand of ni}- clerk; j-et I 
endorse it b}' mj' own hand, and request its contents 
to be made as public as consistent. 

As above, • Orson IIvde. 

Si'uiNOTOWN, San Pete County, U. T., ) 
March 11, lS(i2. j 

11. .MoTT, lOsQ. — Dear Sir: I have planted my suit 
to recover the value of our jiropert)' in Washoe Val- 
lej' in the Chancer}- of Heaven. Your note of the 
sixteenth ultimo brought mo the satisfactory inform- 
ation that the ])apers were tlul}- served; and now, 
without further argument, I am willing to rest our 
cause, and submit it to a final decision. But one 
thing 1 wish you, for your own sake, to remember, 
and that is, the word of the Lord, and the words of 
his servants have almost invariably been regarded 
by a wicked and unbelieving race as mere "moon- 
shine," or as something of far less conse<iuence. I 
have rested my cause, and shall say no more for 
some time yet to come. 

Truly j^ours, Or-son Hyde. 






Exodus of tlie Morni'ins— .Suconil Attempt at lerritorial Organ- 
ization — Pulilic Meeting in Car3on Valley— UL'Solutions — 
Memorial — Kxaggerated .Statements — A Fyetter frim .JuJge 
Crane to liis I'onstituents — .Mountain Meadow M;i33iere, 
September 15, 1857 — Wejiteru Utah at the close of 1857. 

In 1856 an armed mob of Mormons had driven the 
United States District Judge from the bench in east- 
ern Utah, and he had fled the Territory. The relations 
between our Government and her Mormon citizens 
in Utah had become of an unequivocally hostile and 
bellifjerent character. Acts in defiance of law were 
continuous; murders were not unfrequent, and a 
reign of terror had been inaugurated wherever that 
church was in the ascendancy, which was not the case 
in Carson County. This state of things, amounting 
to a rebellion, caused President Buchanan to send a 
small arm}^ under (Jeneral A. Sydney Johnston to 
Salt Lake in 1857 for the purpose of re-establishing 
the (iovcrnmeiit"s sui)remuc}' in that localit}'. Brig- 
ham Young called in the members of his church from 
all parts to defend the City of the Saints against the 
ap])roach of what he designated as the armed mob of 

In anticipation of such a state of things the Legis- 
lature of Utah, on the fourteenth of Januarj*. 1857, 
enacted the following law:— 

* * * * "Said county is allowed to retain 
its present organization so far as County Recorder, 
Surveyor, precincts, and |)reciiict officers are con- 
cerned, and maj' continue to elect those officers in 
accordance with the existing arrangement;* and laws, 
until further directed by Great Salt Lake County 
Court or Legislative enactment. 

"Section 5.— The Record books, papers and blanks, 
and seals, both of Probate and County Courts, shall 
be delivered over to the order of the Probate Court 
of Great Salt Lake County." 

April 13lh the County Court, with Chester fjove- 
lan for Judge, adjourned until the first Monday in 
the following June; but it was September 3, 1800, 
before there was another session of this branch of the 

On the si.xteonth of July the P. G. Sessions Cali- 
fornia Mormon train, numbering thirty-one men, six- 
teen women, and eighteen children, with seventeen 
wagons, forty horses, and thirt3--two mules as a 
means of transportation, left Kagle Vallej- for Salt 

The Conover ('om|)nny Kxprcss arrived in Washoe 
Valley just after sundown on the fil'th of September, 
bearing a dispatch calling in the Mormons ?» masse 
from western Utah. On the twentj-sixlh of that 
month about 450 souls, several of whom were from 
California and Oregon, with 128 wagons, started in 
obedience to the order, and reached, on the second 
of November, the City of the Saints. This exodus 
of Mormons left the Truckeo and the Washoe Val- 
leys nearly depopulated for a lime, and Johntown 

in the same condition, not a store remaining at the 
latter place. The property left by those people in 
titles to land and improvements upon it, in Carson 
Count)-, passed for a trifle into the hands of others. 
Parties coming from California invested in this real 
estate, and the temporary vacancy created by their 
wholesale abandonment of the country, was soon 
supplied by Gentiles anil apostates from the Brigham 
Young theory of Mormonism. 


A ver}' formidable effort was m ide to procure the 
authorization by Congress of a new Territory, and 
consequent org.mization of it by the people living 
along the oast base of the Sierra Nevada, that was 
set on foot August 3, 1857. The initiatory step was 
made at a public meeting held in (renoa, of which the 
following is the report as made by the Secretary of 
the meeting. It will be observed that it occurred 
after the departure of the Mormon train under 
Sessions from Eagle Valley to Salt Lake, and about 
four weeks before the arrival of the order for all 
Mormons in western Utah to leave that section for 
the City of the Saints. It will be further observed 
that Judge Lovoland, the Mormon elder, was invited 
to address the meeting, which he failed to do. 


At a primary meeting of the citizens of Carson 
and adjacent V^alle^-s, Utah Territory, held at Gil- 
bert's saloon, on Monday evening, August 3, 1857, to 
take preliminary steps toward calling a grand mass- 
meeting of citizens for the purpose of petitioning 
Congress to organize a new Territory out of portions 
of Utah, California and New Mexico, on motion. 
Col. John Reese was called to the Chair, and William 
Nixon appointed Secretary. 

The object of the meeting was briefly stated by 
the Chair, when the following resolutions were unan- 
imously adopted : — 

BesofceJ. That a mass-meeting of the inhabitants 
of the Territory of Utah, lying oast of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, west of the (iooso Creek Mount- 
ains, and between the Colorado River on the south, 
and the Oi-egon line on the north, be held on Satiir- 
tlay, the eighth da}' of August, 1857, to take into 
consideration this subject, and to jtrovide ways and 
means for presenting this whole question to the 
earnest consideration of the President of the United 
States and both Houses of Congress. 

Jiesoloed, That a committee of nineteen be appointed 
to make arrangements for holding said mass-meet- 
ing in the town of (ienoa, Carson Valley, on Sat- 
urday, the eighth <l;»y of August, 1857. 

h'enofceil, That .luiige Crane and Judge Lovoland 
be invited, and are hereb}' requested to address the 
meeting on that occasion. 

The following gentlemen were apjiointod as a 
committee of arrangements: — 

R. I). Sides, Clear Creek; Dr. B. L. King, Kaglo 
Valley; Dr. ]:)aggett, James .McMarlin, William B. 
Thori-inglon, Orin Gray, John S. Child, Daniel 
Woodford, Major Ormsby, D. E. Gilbert, Samuel 
Singleton. II. Li. Alexander, and eight others, (Jarson 



On motion adjourned to moot en masse, on Satur- 
day, Auj^iist Stli, at one o'clock p. m. 

John IiEESE, Chairman. 

W.M. ><1X0N, Secrclary. 
Genoa, August 3, 1857. 

On the day indicated there assembled at Genoa 
a mass-moetint; that was called to order Itj- .Major 
Wni. M. Orm^by; and Colonel John lieese having 
been elected President thereof the following gentle- 
men were named as its Vice-Presidents: Isaac Jtoop, 
Cajit. F. C". Smith, Dr. B. L. King, and Solomon 
Perrin. Upon motion of Major Ormsbj- the follow- 
ing committee was appointed, to ))re.<ent business 
before the meeting: Major Ormsby, \l. 1). Sides, 
Klijah Ivnott. Thomas J. Singleton, J)r. 15. L. King, 
Daniel Woodford, S. Stephens, Warren Smith, and 
John ilcMarlin. They retired to perform the duties 
assigned them, and in their absence, Judge James 
M. Crane addressed the meeting for about one hour, 
after which, that committee presented the following, 
which were adopted as the voi_po of the meeting: — 


WiiERE.\s, The people inhabiting the territory 
commonl}- known as the Great American Basin, 
l3Mng between the eastern spurs and foot-hills of the 
Sierra Nevada, west of the Goose Creek range of 
mountains, the Oregon line on the north, and the 
Colorado and its tributaries on the south, having 
become convinced, from the rapid increase of popula- 
tion within these limits, the dangers which threaten 
us from the numerous hostile tribes of Indians, and 
from the absence of all law to restrain the vicious, 
and to ])rotect the u])right. that some kind of gov- 
ernment should be established as soon as ])ossibie for 
the better security of life and property to it, there- 

Kesolceil, That it is the sense of the inhabitants of 
the aforesaid portion of the (rreat Basin, in mass- 
meeting here assembled, that for the better security 
and protection of their lives and jiroperty, as well 
as those of the emigrants crossing the plains by the 
several routes which cross the continent and ])ass 
through this Territorj- to and from the Atlantic and 
Pacific States and Territories, tliat a Territorial Gov- 
ernment should be organized within the aforesaid 
boundaries b}' Congress within the shortest possible 

Jiesuli-eil. That to more eHectually secure this object 
a memorial lie drawn up. setting forth all the fads 
and reasons for this movement, and that the same 
be submitted to the respectful and earnest considera- 
tion of the President of the United States, and to 
both Houses of Congress; and that as a further 
means to secure the attainment of this object, a Del- 
egate be selected by the citizens of the aforesaid ])ro- 
posed Territory, in mass-meeting here assembled, to 
visit the l''e<iei-al ca](ital, to re|)resent the interests, 
wants and views of the jieojile to the President of 
the United States, and to both Houses of t'ongress. 

Resolcfil , That James M. Crane be and he is hereby 
selected, authorized, and apjtointed Ity the citizens 
of the aforesaid Territory, in mass-meeting here 
assembled, as our Delegate to represent us in Wash- 

liesolced, That from Judge Crane's long residence 
in thiii part of the Union, and his known devotions 
to its interests, from his personal explorations in. 

and general knowledge of, the condition, wants, 
and resources of the Great American Basin and the 
North Pacific, as well as from his known candor, 
fidelitj', and ability, wo feel that we can not oidy 
intrust our interests to him while in the Federal 
Capital, but that we can most cordiallj- recommend 
him to "the powers that bo" in Washington. 

KesolceJ, That for the more eft'ectual accomplish- 
ment of the great object of thjs meeting, that a com- 
I mittec be appointed, consisting of twenty-eight ])er- 
I sons, to manage and sLiperintend all matters neces- 
sary and projjcr in the jiremises. 
I kesuli-eil. That the following-named gentlemen bo 
I and they are herelij' a]iiioiiUe<l said committee, with 
power to fill all vacancies and to increase their 
number when necessary, viz.: — 

Honey Lake Valley — .Maj. Isaac Uoop. Peter Las- 
sen, Mr. Arnold, Wm. Hdl, and Mr. McMurlry. 

Eagle Valley — Dr. J}. L. King and Martin Steb- 

Carson Valley — Maj. Wm. M. Ormsby, James 
McMarlin, Dr. C. D. Daggett, Col. John Iteese, Col. 
Wm. J'odgers, Thomas J. Singleton, Moses Job, Wm. 
Thorrington, Isaac Farwell, Daniel Woodford, Orrin 
Gray, and D. Jv (Jiibert. 

Willow Town — Solomon Perrin. 

Ragtown — James (^uick. 

Twentj'-six-mile Desert — Jefferson Atchison. 

Sink of Humboldt — Samuel Blackford. 

Walker River and Valley— T. J. Hall and James 
Mc In tyre. 

Hope Vallej- — S. Stevenson. 

Lake Valley— M. Smith. 

Resolved, That the United States Senators and 
Representatives in Congress from California, and the 
Congressional Delegates from Oregon, Washington, 
Utah, and New >lexico, be and they are hereby 
invited and requested to use their personal and 
ofticial influence with their brother Senators and 
Representatives in Congress to secure the passage of 
an Act by that body for the organization of the 
aforesaid Territory. 

Jiesulced. That the newspaper press of California, 
Oregon, Washington, Utah and New Me.Kico, bo 
requested to ])ublish the aforesaid proceedings and 
memorial, and to use their editorial infiuenco in giv- 
ing aid and comfort to this undertaking. 

Resolced, That the yatioiml FnteUiyencer, Wasking- 
toii Union, New Orleans Picayune, Crescent and True 
Delta, the New York llerall, Tribune, News and Tines 
and other inlhiential pa]iers in the Atlantic States of 
the Union, be and they are, also, hereby inviteii and 
requested to publish these jjroceedings and ntemorial 
and otherwise extend to us the benefit of their pow- 
erful influence and sujiport., That the President and Secretaries bo 
appointed a committoo to attend to the publication 
of the proceedings of this meeting. 


The citizens inhabiting the valleys within the 
Great Basin of the American Continent, to be here- 
inafter described, beg leave respectfully to jjresent 
for the earnest consideration of the President of the 
United States, and the members of both Houses of 
Congress this their jietition; ])raying for the organ- 
ization of a new Territory of the I'nited States. Wo 
do not propose to come with any tlourish of trumpets 
or multiply words in this memorial, but we propose 
simply to submit a few jtlain statements as the 
inducements and reasons which actuate us in making 
this appeal to those who have the power to remedy 



the existinii; difficulties and embarrassments under 
which we now hibor and BuH'er. 

A hirjjje portion of the inhabitants who make this 
a]ij»eal to the powers tiiat be in Washington, have 
been residing within the region hereinafter described, 
for the last six or seven j'ears, withoijt any Terri- 
torial, State, or Federal jiroteclion from Indian dep- 
redations and marauding outlaws, runawa}' criminals 
and convicts, as well as other evil-doers among white 
men and Indians. 

Those who have come into this Territory since 
then have and are still suttering and encountering 
the same difficulties which the}- have ever met with, 
and we have no reason to suppose that life and j)rop- 
ertj' can ever be made secure in this jjart of the 
country until some form of government shall be 
established by which laws inaj' be jiassed and 
enforced upon the disobedient and vicious. 

We are peaceable inhabitants and law-abiding cit- 
izens, and do not wish to see anarchy, violence, 
bloodshed, and crime of every hue and grade waving 
their horrid scepter over this portion of our common 

In the winter-lime the snows that fall upon the 
summits and s]nirs of the Sierra >.'eva<ia, fre(iuentlj- 
interrui)t all intercourse and communications between 
the Great Basin and the State of Califoriiia, and the 
Territories of Oregon and Washington, for nearly 
four months everj- year. During the same time all 
intercourse and communication between us and the 
civil authorities of Utah arc likewise closed. 

Within this space of time, and indeed from our 
anomalous condition during all seasons of the year, 
no debts can be collected by law; no offenders can 
be arrested, and no crime can be ])unislied except by 
the code of Judge Lynch, and no obedience to 
government can be enforced, and for these reasons 
there is and can be no protection to either life or 
property except that which may be derived I'rom 
the j)eaceably disposed, the good sense and patriot- 
ism of the people, or from the fearful, unsatisfactory, 
and terrible defense and ])rotection which the revol- 
ver, the bowie-knife, and other deadly weapons may 
aftbrd us. 

Even in the spring, summer, and fall months, we 
are destitute of all power and means of enjoying the 
benetits ol the local Territorial liovernmenl of Utah, 
to which the most of us belong, as well as the local 
and neighboring Government of California, Oregon, 
Washington, and IS'ew iMexico. The distance be- 
tween the Great Salt Lake City and the innumerable 
fertile valleys which lie along the eastern spurs and 
foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, where the most of 
the population of this section reside, is nearly 800 
miles, and over this immense space there swee]) two 
deserts. On this account no intercourse or commu- 
nication of a legal or pcjlilical nature is or can be 
held with the civil authorities of I" tali. The only 
authority acknowledged in this part ot Utah Terri- 
tor}-, by any class of ))eo])le, is that which the Cliurcli 
of the liatter Oa^' Saints, whose members are gener- 
ally known under the sobri(juet of Mormons, exer- 
cises over its votaries and disciples. Neither they 
nor the Gentiles appear to look to the Territorial 
Government of Utah for an}- statutory laws for the 
regulation of their business, or for the government 
of their conduct. The .Mormons, in all their social 
afl'airs, conform to the general, voluntary rules and 
habits of life among the Gentiles, but they regulate 
all their business affairs, dealing and intercourse 
with each other b}- certain established rules of the 
church and not by any laws ])assed by the legisla- 
tive deijartment of the Territory. 

These are but a part of the grievancesunder which 
we labor. Xearlj- one-half of the country in which 
the most of your ])etitioners reside, has but two Jus- 
tices of the Peace and one Constable, and while no 
one even respects their authoritj-. there are not jier- 
haps fifty men in the w-hole county who know or 
care to know who thej- are or where they live. 
Should they attempt to exercise any authority, the}' 
would be regarded not only as intermeddlers but 
intruders. Nearly the whole region in which the 
most of }-our petitioners reside, was once erected 
into a count}- called 'Carson" by the Territorial l^eg- 
islature of Utah, but for some reason or reasons 
unknown to your petitioners, the same Legislature 
has abolished the county organization and has estab- 
lished in lieu of it an election jirecinct — a precinct 
too, in which nobody votes for an officer, and nobody 
cares to vote. 

The present iiuinlier of white inhabitants who 
reside within the limits of the proposed new Terri- 
tory, cannot be far from 7. (MM) to S,IKM» souls, 
and their numbers are rajiidly increasing. As the 
county has no less than 2(10 intermediate val- 
valleys, which run into one another, of the most 
fertile grazing and agricultural lands, as well as foot- 
hills, mount;iiii spurs and mountains in which are 
found gold, silver, copper, leail, iron, coal and other 
minerals, metals and precious stones, we have good 
reason to suppose that, when they are ]iro])erly 
cxplored and developed, it will be found that we 
possess, /or its e.f/ent, one of the richest ttiul most jiru- 
il active re.tjions of the ylohe. As the evidence in sup- 
port of these facts is known and can be known now 
to but a few individuals, we do not propose here to 
discuss the subject, but rather to wait until further 
explorations shall develop all the necessary evidence 
in support of the truth of our statements. For these 
and many other reasons there will soon be a rush of 
population to this new Territory like that which 
rapidly poured into- Texas and California in days 
passed ; and, unless a Territorial (iovermneiit or 
some other form of government shall be established 
during the coming -session of Congress we may 
expect to witness scenes of a tragical character so 
appalling and startling- in their nature as to make 
every man feel that no law can or should rule but 
that which is enlbrced by the iron and savage rule 
of unrestrained violence and bloodshed. 

There are some portions of the (Jreat liasin of this 
continent, claimed by the State of California, in 
which reside a considerable number of people who, 
in the winter time, can have no connection with it. 
This is the case with those who reside in iloney 
Lake Valley. That valley lies east of the Sierra 
Nevadas, and within the ttreal Jiasin, and from this 
cause the jieople living in it have no intercourse with 
other ])arls t)f the Slate during the rainy season for 
nearly lour months every year. They, therefore, 
naturally belong to the eastern side of the Sierra 
Nevadas, and on this account they desire to join us 
in this movement. If they are forced to remain 
with California they can never know anything about 
the affairs of their State during the whole time its 
Legislature may be in session. It is, therefore, 
folly, and worse than folly, to attach the |)eo])le of 
this valley to a State about which they know noth- 
ing, anil care notliing. for one-third of the year, and 
that third the most important part of it to them. 
They therefore cordially unite with us in this prayer 
and memorial to ('ongress, asking not only that they 
may be attached to the proposeil new Territory, but 
that they may add their united voice in support of 





















< ■) 
















the grout necessities for the organization of tiio 
aforesaid Territory. 

There are others residing in the southern part of 
California, on the eastern side of llio Sierra Xevadas, 
wiio are similarly situated iliiring a portion of the 
winter niontlis of each year. That part, also, of 
New Mexico, Ijing near tlte Colorado IJiver and its 
trihutaries, and witijin the tiadsdon Purchase, adja- 
cent to them, have the same dillicullics of cmnniuni- 
cating with the civil authorities of New Mexico at 
Santa Fe, or any other local and neighboring govern- 
ment, that a large jiortion of your petitioners have 
to encounter in communicating with I'tah. Califor- 
nia, and Oregon in the winter season. 

In a<ldition to the facts here presented we suhmit 
tiiat all the routes across the continent, between the 
Atlantic and Pacific States and Territories, will be, 
by the organization of this new Territory, amply 
guarded and ]irotected. The population of the 
Indian tribes within the ]iro))osed Territory- cannot 
be far from 7.').(l(l() to 1(1(1. U(l(» souls, and the most of 
them, undei- ])ro])i.'r management, could be very 
easily controlled if wc had anyiliing like an organ- 
izeil government within our limits. For these and 
many other cogent considerations, which will readily 
suggest themselves, we pray for the organization of 
the aforesaid Territory. 

Below we submit for the consideration of the 
members of both Houses of Congress, a rough sketch 
of the boundaries, which we woidil suggest as the 
most ))racticable and appropriate for the j)roposed 
new Territory-: — 

Beginning on the northwest on a line of 42° north 
latitude, and longitude 120°, thence following the 
Oregon and Utah boundary line on a direct east 
course to longitude 11(5°, thence a southeast course, 
to about north latitude 38° and longitude 114°, 
thence farther on in the same direction to north 
latitude 34° and longitude 112°, thence almost a due 
south course to the boumhuy line between the State 
of Sonora, in the Republic of Mexico, and the Terri- 
tory of New Mexico, thenco along that lino to the 
eastern boundary of California, and thence along 
the latter line to the ])lace of beginning. 

This bounilary takes in a range of valleys that 
are almost indissolubl}' connected together, and in 
the winter-time the people who inhabit them are 
almost entirely shut out from all communication 
with California, New Mexico, Utah, Oregon, and 
Washington; but in all seasons they (^an ami do 
enjoy free intercourse with one another. All the 
proposed wagon, military, stage, and rai'roatl routes, 
between the Atlantic and Pacific States and Terri- 
tories across the continent, enter and pass through 
these valleys. All the Indian tribes which are now 
the most troublesome to settlers and emigrants in 
this region, either roam in, or surround, those val- 
leys. For those, and similar urgent reasons and 
considerations, we ask that they may he united in 
ono Teri'itory, and that said Territory be organized 
by t'ongress within the shortest possible time, and 
for which ^-our petitioners will ever Jiray. 

A committee was then nominated, consisting of 
W. W. Nicols, R. I). Sides, Orrin Gray, J. K. Triimbo, 
and Col. William Rodgers, to procure signatures to 
the memorial. 

Hy the unanimous request of the meeting, .Milton 
S. llall and II. P. Duskins, were called u|)on to sing 
the Star Spangled Banner, which they did in excel- 
lent style. The meeting then adjourned, with the 
full determination of all to work in good earnest to 

accomplish the success of the undertaking. (Jreat 
harmony and enthusiasm prevailed on the occasion. 

J(UI.N, I'l-eHiilenl. 
D. E. (ill.HEKT, I c , . 

J. K. Iki Miio, I 

The valleys number from 200 to 250, and range in 
size from 10 to 1(1(1 miles in length. They are a/f 
nlliiri'il, and are the best ijrtizinij nnd lujiirultunil 
Iduil.ion thin i-outinint. ( 'omparativcly no metals or 
minerals have yet been found in them, although it is 
believed that m;iny of them contain both. The 
foot-hills lying throughout this basin, as well as the 
mountains, are known to possess gold, silver, cojjpcr, 
lead, zinc, iron, coal, and many other metals and min- 
erals, as well as precious n/ouen. Already man}^ cop- 
per, gold, silver, iron and coal mines are being 

Thus far thej' have proven to be the richest found 
on this side of the continent. 

The Indian tribes are numerous throughout the 
proposed Territory. The aggregate Indian popula- 
tion is supposed to be from 100,000 to 115,000.* 

About four weeks after this meeting was held, 
occurred that horrible massacre l)y the Moi'inonsand 
Indiansof those emigrants at the .Mountain .Meadows. 
This fact was not known to the outside world until 
long afterwards, although in October the news 
reached Los Angeles of the fate of the train. It 
was sui)posed that Indians alone had committed the 
deed, but it soon began to be believed that Mormons 
had incited them. This, with the further fact of hos- 
tilitj- to the Government by Brigham Young and his 
followers, caused the papers of California to ativo- 
cate the creation of this proposed new Territory, and 
some of the absurd exaggerations in regard to its 
importance, made by correspondents, and editoriallj-, 
in furtherance of the plan, furnishes some amusing 
reading at this time. The following is a samjile: — 

[From tlio SacramfiUo SttUi' Joiinial, October 25, 1 857.] 
We have from time to time presented to the pub- 
lic statements and facts in relation to the ]>roject of 
founding and organizing a new Territory of the 
United States within the trreat Basin of the Ameri- 
can Continent. ****** 
Now for the count r}^ /x^r se. 

Thej- are broken up into many bands. The Pah 
Yutes are much the largest in number, being about 
40,000. They are not hostile to the Americans, and 
have never favored the .Mormons. They are friendly 
to a now Territorj', and in<leed anxious for it. The}- 
desire to cultivate the arts of peace, and become 
tillers of the soil. They are the best servants in 
America; indeed, they have shown themselves to 
be excellent cooks, farmers, herdsmen, and mechanics. 
All the other tribes are war-like, insincere, treach- 
erous, and the most of them blood thirsty. Should 
a Territory be organized, the Pah Yutes would 
])romptly ui\ite witli the whites, and identity them- 
selves with the peaceful progress of the country. 

The following letter from Judge Crano, shows 
that tho creation of tho Territory of Sierra Nevada 

"As a .sainplr i>f the fx:i;;;tr;ittil atntc-inunta of tlio lu'riod to 
wliicli it n'lati-H tliis im iiitrrt'.stiii^, ami is tlio fXL'iiSf for its iiiscr- 
tiDii, liiit at that time tliere were iiii minus worthy of note in tlio 
Territory, anil it is doubtful if the uumbcr of Indiana exceeded 



was coii;<idered at Wasliinttton about the same as 
an accomplished fact at one time, but the Act was 
finally defeated: — 


Wasiiini;ton, February 18, 1858. 

Fellow-Citizens: It affords me much satisfaction 
to furnish you in advance information of great 
interest. The Comniitteo on Territories has unani- 
mously aj^reed to report a bill forthwith to establish 
a Territorial Government out of western Utah, 
under the name of Sierra Nevada. It will be 
bounded on the east b}' the Goose Creek Mountains, 
on the west by the Sierra Nevada, or the eastern 
line of California, on the north by the Oregon line, 
and on the south b}* the Colorado River. 

The bill will be pressed through both Houses of, by all parties, as having an immediate 
connection with the present militaiy movements 
against the Mormons. It has been agreed upon 
that it shall form a part of the measures designed 
to compress the limits of the Mormons in the Great 
Basin, and to defeat their efforts to corrujjt and con- 
federate with the Indian tribes who now reside in 
or roam through western Utah. For these and 
many other reasons, no time will be lost to organize 
a Territory over western Utah, that there maj' be 
concentrated there a large Gentile |)Opulation, as a 
check both upon the Indians and Mormons. * * * 
To the lion. William Smith, the able member of 
Congress from the < >range Congressional District in 
Virginia (well known in California), j'ou and I owe 
an everlasting debt of gratitude for bringing about 
this auspicious result. * * * 

In connection with this subject permit me to say 
(for I am not writing to you unadvisedly) that you 
all sow and jilant heavy crops of grain and vegeta- 
bles this spring, for they will briiu/ rewhj sale at good 
cash prices to supply the army and the Iwlians on their 
reser cations. * * * * As soon as I shall get my 
seat I think I can secure mail routes between Car- 
son Valley, via Gold Caiion. Raglown, .Sink of the 
Humboldt, to the Great Salt Lake, and from llonej- 
Lake to the Humboldt, where the two lines form a 
junction. As to the establishment of other neces- 
sary mail routes in the Territory I have no fears. 
in connect'on with this subject also, I have great 
hopes of having a bill passed to bridge the deep 
snow region on the Sierra Nevada, over the Honey 
Lake and I'lacerville routes, so as to keep open com- 
munication between our Territory and California all 
the year around. The deep snow region on the 
I'lacerville route is, 1 think, about eight miles in ex- 
tent, and on the Honey Lake route, ela Shasta, 
about the same. Neither will cost over 85(1,(100 or 
gGO,0U0. * * * In conclusion, I hope the Legis- 
lature of California will be as liberal and as gener- 
ous to you as Virginia was to Kentucky in her days 
of infancy and trial, and as Georgia was to Alabama 
in her days of infancy; and like them, withdraw 
her jurisdiction over valleys lying oast of the Sierra 
Nevada, that they maj' all come under our Terri- 
torial Government. 

Ever your faithful friend, James M, Crane. 

The foregoing will give the reader a fair idea of 
the state of mind that the settlers of western Utah 
were in, and the inducements that urged them to a 
8e))aration. It further presents the pecuniary out- 
look that floated before the mental vision of the 

rancher whose products from the soil was to 
feed 115,(100 Indians on reservations, and the sol- 
diers that were to keep them and the Mormons in 
cheek. Western Utah was a miners' and farmers' 
paradise, where the roads to wealth were to be 
paved by the U. S. Treasury, with coin, over fields 
of precious stones, and the richest silver and gold 
mines on the continent. These exaggerations had 
their efTTect, and the public was being slowly pre- 
pared for an excitement such as followed the eventual 
discovery of the Comstock Lode. 


In advance of the arrival of General Johnston's 
army, an emigrant train from the .States on its way 
overland to California, stopped at Salt Lake for a 
time to procure provisions. It was a compan}' of 
superior intelligence, refinement, and wealth, that 
numbered 150 souls all told. Thej- had an outfit 
unusually fine and complete, their live-stock and 
transportation alone being valued at §300,000. It 
was an assemblage of farmers, ministers, doctors, 
mechanics and artisans, who had been lured by the 
sheeny hues of the "golded fleece" from pleasant, 
happy homes in Arkansas, Missouri and Illinois to 
seek other ones, on the Pacific Coast; that far-off 
land where distance lent enchantment to the view. 
It was as much a transcontinental l)arty of pleasure 
as aught else, and recorded among its numbers the 
infant, the happy youth, the joyous maid, the fond 
parent, and white-haired doting grandam and 
sire; the j-oung, the middle-aged and old, a grand 
patriarchal family moving with the star of empire 
west. Their supply of provisions had been ]irovided 
in quantity sutticieiit only to last them to Salt Lake 
where it was supposed that whatever would bo 
required to complete the journey could be obtained. 
They knew nothing of the impending war, and were 
first startled into a comprehension of the peril that 
menaced them when it was found that their money 
would not buy food. The .Mormons would neither 
sell nor give it them, and starvation in a land of plenty 
stared them in the face. They were ordered to 
leave Salt Lake City, and the journey was resumed 
along the southern route b}' the way of San Bernar- 
dino for the coast. Settlement after settlement was 
passed and not a thing could be procured for love or 
mone}- to eat except eight bushels of corn obtained 
from the Indians. Cave S])rings was finally reached 
September Gth, in the Mountain Meadows near the 
southeast line of what is now Nevada. At this point 
while resting to give their stock a chance to graze 
and recruit, they were attacked suddenly on tho 
morning of the seventh, by a combined f'oi'co of 
Indians, and Mormons disguiseil as Indians, under 
the leadership of John D. Leo. Seven of the emi- 
grants were killed at the first fire, some of these 
being awakened by the leaden messenger of death 
from their morning slumberings into the realms of 
the dark unknown. Fifteen more were wounded 



and the closing act of the darkest drama blistering a 
page in history had begun. The tMnii;r'aiits rallying 
like brave men as thej' were, beat otV their assailants 
and threw up temporary tbrtifiealions. In the 
resistance two of the attacking Jiarty were mortally 
wounded and Hishop lligbee, the Monnon represent- 
ative of God's mercj', love, justice and truth, got 
down on his knees and blessed the assassins, calling 
upon the Su|)roine IJuler to them, and Gotl 
neglected to do it. 

The Mormons withdrew to procure reinforcements, 
and two brave men among the emigrants undertook 
to break through and procure assistance from where, 
God oidy knew, for California was hundreds of miles 
away. One of them was named William A. Aden, a 
Tonnessocan, young, chivalrous and bravo, but they 
met the notorious Hill Stewart and a boy at Pinto 
Creek, who killed young Aden while his wounded 
companion escaped. A few years later Stewart 
went with a i'riend to ])oint out where he too had 
slain a Gentile, and while there amused himself by 
contemptuouslj- kicking about the bleaching bones of 
his unburied victim, and yet that soulless, unhung 
miscreant still lives near the scene of his atrocity. 
Jlondaj- passed, Tuesday came and was gone, and 
Wednesday brought with it neither sign, or hope of 
relief. From the surrounding overlooking hills 
came the constant report of the merciless rifle as the 
besiegers continued to fire upon the e.xposed stock 
or any living thing shnwed itself from within 
that human slaughter house. The situation had 
become desperate, they were without water, the 
spring being a little ways from the fortification, and 
commanded b}' the enem^-'s rifles. A heroine, hoping 
that her se.\ might pi)ssii)ly ])rotect her, stei)|)ed out- 
side the inclosure to milk a cow, when her life paid 
the penalty of the act. Two children, like stray 
doves from the ark, dressed in pure white, hand in 
hand with a small ]>ail, started for the si)ring to pro- 
cure water for the famishing garrison. Half the way 
had been passed when these little martyr innocents 
sank by the trail, ))ierced with merciless bullets, as a 
cry of horror from the besieged, drowning the 
despairing shriek of the childless mothers, wont up 
towards heaven and brought no answering vengeance 
upon the murderers. It was tluMi decided to make 
one last, desperate, and almost hopeless effort to 
communicate with the outside woi-ld. A manuscript 
was jireparetl, stating the conilition of the |>arty and 
giving the history of the wIkiIc all'air, I'pon it was 
written the names of all the jiersons constituting the 
party; their residence before starling upon the ex])e- 
dition, to which was added the names and number 
of each Masonic or Odd Fellows' lodge, the denomi- 
nation of every church orsociety in the East thathad 
a rejiresontativc among that part}', doomed to be 
annihilated. The}- did not expect to get this record 
through the lines to tell humanity of the ghoulish 
infam}- that was striving to make a common gi-ave 
blot out and hide this fiendish tragedy and its victims 

from the world, yet something might transpire to place 
it before the world. At length three men, ''the bravest 
of the brave," volunteered to attempt that night the 
jiassago of the line with the record, and strive while 
life lasted to reach California, hundreds of miles away 
over the mountains, through the deserts, on foot, 
guideloss and without tood. It was a hopeless task, 
the offspring of dcs])air, anti as the night closed in 
around them and the stars came out to look down 
upon the world, they saw this doomed garrison 
gather around a white-haired old minister, whoso 
outstretched hands and upturned face was calling 
upon the throne of Omni])otence to help this forlorn 
hope of three to reach — beyond the encircling coil of 
savages — the honi's of humanity. At miilniglit the 
throe stole forth, they passed the line of the besiegers, 
but the next da}' their trail was discovered and Indi- 
ans in charge of Ira Hatch were sent in jiui'suit. 
They were surprised while asleep on the Santa 
Clara Mountains, where two were killed and one 
escaped, wounded in the wrist, who struggled 
on until he reached the Las Vegas in southern 
Nevada, close to the California line. The writer of 
this in 1873 stood in the place where he fell, and lis- 
tened to a detail of the manner in which the last of 
those three was murdered. As ho was staggering 
along the road, two men, one of them John .M. 
Young, on their waj- to Salt Lake, met and cjtfored 
him assistance; offered to smuggle him back to Salt 
Lake, ami as he was journej^ing with them on his 
return, was met near Cottonwood by the jtursuing 
part}', to whom he was unwillingly ilelivered up. 
At a signal from the white miscreant, Ira Hatch, the 
Indians rained a shower of slow arrows u|)on the 
wretched victim, that, entering the flesh, served only 
as torture shafts, hanging to'goad the prisoner to his 
death. He turned and ran with a feeble dragging 
step, away from the road, leisurely pursued by the 
assailants, who continued their target practice upon 
him. But it could not last always, and when despair 
and pain had driven away his life, the coyotes came 
and feasted on what was left of the last of the three 
dead heroes. The ])apers that they had striven so 
nobl}' to place in friendly hands, were retained by a 
Mormon for several years, but finally were destroyed 
by John I). Lee, one of their bishops and the leader in 
the massacre. 

lii the mcuTitinic the eniii^rant |>:irly had met its 
fate. When the assailants foiunl that to attack and 
overpower the besieged uoiiM cost too many of 
their own lives, it was dciided to treacherously lure 
them to their fleath. 

In carr^'ing out this plan messengers were sent to 
confer with them under a flag of tru<'e, to say that 
the Mormons had come to save them from the 
Indians who were their assailants, and that if the 
garrison would surrender to them all should be held 
as prisoners an<l protected, Kclying upon this 
assurance the surrender was made, and the emi- 
grants, in com])lianco with instructions from the 



Mormons, moved out from their defenses unarmed, 
with the wounded and children in wa<<ons, followed 
by the women in single file, the men bringing up 
the rear. The}- were suddenly assailed while moving 
in this form by both xaiutu and Indians, and in five 
minutes the only living members of that ill-starred 
party, that had numbered over 150 souls, were 
eighteen children, who were supposed to be so 
young that their memories could not rise up in judg- 
ment against the murderers in after years. 

The tragedies that were enacted in that hecatomb 
of blood is beyond the power of any language to 
express. A faint conception of its fiendish detail 
might possibly dawn upon the imagination of the 
one that can picture a scene where the last quiver 
of death is moving the already- senseless form of a 
husband, on whose bosom rested the little form of an 
infant i)laced there by the young mother who is 
standing over them dagger in hand defending her- 
self, her young and her dead, like a tigress at bay, 
while standing there holding in chock with her 
blade a miscreant in front, she is stealthily ap- 
proached from behind by one who sends a knife to 
its hilt through her heart, that stretches her lifeless 
form across the feet of the dead husband. The 
murderer then taking from her nerveless hand the 
dagger, thrusts it through the infant's body, pinning 
its tiny form to the breast of its father, and then 
laughs at its shrieks of agonj' and writhings in 
death. Such was one incident; over one hundred 
others, varying in their details of horror and 
degrees of atrocity, were enacted, which left not a 
single one unperformed that could have added to the 
infamous monument built that day b}' the Mormons 
to make the world execrate their name forever. 

The pirates upon the sea under the black flag, wag- 
in" war upon all mankind, make their prisoners walk 
the plank to blot out evidence of their transactions. 
The Church of I.,atter Day Saints, with the same 
motion, urged on by revenge and sustained by a 
religious lanalicism; had, through the teachings of 
years, arrived upon the same plan of revenge, rob- 
bery and murder, under the pirates war-cry of "Dead 
men tell no tales." 

W hen they were done there was no one left to tell of 
the massacre but those who had committed it, and for 
a time the fate of that emigrant i)arty was to the 
worlil a mystery- Conscience had driven one par- 
ticipant to a suicide's grave, and reason from its 
throne in another, but still the secret was kept. 
At length whisperings of what had been done crept 
out into the world, and soon it was found that an 
overland i)arty was missing. Finally, in IS.jil, John 
t'radlebaugh was sent to Utah as a United States 
District Judge, and being a brave man and just, 
sought, regardless of ])eril to himself, to unravel the 
mystery that surrounded the affair. Those children 
were recovered, but could tell no tale of Mormon 
participation in this outrage upon humanity, and 
butHed upon every hand, the Judge abandoned the 

attempt, published to the world the evidence he had 
obtained, and was sent to western Utah to preside 
over what is now Nevada. Twenty years passed 
after the massacre before weak-handed human jus- 
tice overtook any of all those murderers, when at 
last John D. Lee was shot on the twenty-third of 
March, 1877, by order of the Court, as a penalty for 
his leadership and participation in the crime. Many 
of the other criminals still curse the earth with their 
execrated ])resence, and going unwhippcd of justice, 
arc a living reproach to our Government and justifi- 
cation foi- mob law and vigilance committees. 


With all the j-ears of opportunity that had pre- 
ceeded the advent of 1858 western Utah remained a 
sparselj--settled country-. All forces influencing mat- 
ter in the impels it towards an improve- 
ment of its condition with inanimate things by the 
blind im))ulse of alHnity with animate life, possessed 
of vitality by the ceaseless desire to be less unhappy. 
The power that causes a man to voluntarily change 
his position or occupation in life is a belief in con- 
sequent improved condition. But few of the human 
family of the many who in passing through had 
seen ]>ortions of western Utah had observed any- 
thing in it that if appropriated would be of advan- 
tage to the possessor. The' opportunity of utilizing 
anj'thing therein to better one's condition outside 
seemed meager, and confined to a limited area; there- 
fore, the natural result was a population numbering 
but 200 or 300 in an extensive eounfrj- that had 
been more or less known for thirty-two years. The 
inducements that had localized the few that lived there 
with temporary designs of residence, was, traffic with 
emigrants, who yearly grew less in numl)er, jjassing 
through the country en route to California, work in 
the poorlj'-j)aying placer mines in Gold Canon, and 
grazing of stock for the California markets in the 
vallej's along the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, between the Truckee River and the 
head of Carson Valley. 

The miner came to prospect through the mount- 
ains for mineral, hoping to paj- his expenses by work- 
ing a portion of the year in Gold Canon. The trad- 
ers followed the miners to furnish supplies in ex- 
change for gold-dust, and scattered along the over- 
land road to trafldc with the emigrant. The ranch- 
ers sought the fertile eastern base of the Sierra, 
along the mountain streams, where stock was fat- 
tened to drive across the mountains to California; 
and all the ])0|)ulation of western Utah were mem- 
bers of one or the other of those three branches of 
industry. The troubles of 1857, existing between 
the Government and Mormon Church, had served to 
withdraw all the adherents of Hrigham Young from 
the section now called Nevada, leaving only Gen- 
tiles, and those who repudiated J5righam's authoi-ity 
and jiolygamy, as residents of Carson County. 

The section was practically without political organ- 

Wl^pl^^ ^ ^^^^^'^^ 

Hon. James G. Fair. 

United States Senator from Nevada, was born at 
Cloiii^licr. County Tj'roiic, Irelaiid, December 3, 1831, 
and twelve j-ears later came with his parents to the 
United States, settling in Illinois. Though but 
eighteen years of age when the discovery of gold 
was announced, he was ripe for action, and in 1850 
we find him tugging as hard as older men among the 
boulders at Long's Bar, in Butte County, California, 
on Feather River, called by the Californians El Rio 
de his Phiiiiais — the river of feathers. This kind 
of scrambling, however, did not suit his turn of 
mind. Placer mining, as then carried on, was a 
haphazard kind of business, in hunauza one day, 
the next in horasca, the latter daj-s having the pre- 
ponderance. The peculiarity of mind which char- 
a<'terizcd his later years, of looking for the source 
of minerals, or, as a miner would say, of following 
croppings or indications, soon asserted itself, and we 
find him earl}- pounding awaj- at the (luartz veins, 
with the full belief that his fortune was to be made 
out of quartz. He early acquired all the knowledge 
attainable in regard to quartz mining, and added 
considerable to the general stock by his own exi)e- 
rience while mining at Angel's Camp, in Calaveras 
County, and acting as Superintendent of quartz mines 
in other parts of the State. On the discovery of the 
Comstock he removed thither, and found a field 
worthy of his best powers, llis California experi- 
ence soon proved of value, and in a few years he was 
made Superintendent of the Ophir Mine, and in 1807 
of the llale & Norcross. In the llale it Norcross, 
he first became associated with John \V. Mackay, and 
the}' subseiiuently induced .Messrs. .lames C. Flood 
and William S. O'Brien, capitalists of San Francisco, 
to join them in that and other mining enterprises. 
With his judgment, knowledge of mines and oppor- 
tunity he coidd hardly fail to acfjuii-e money, and 
when the firm, afterwards so famous as the owners 
of the richest silver mine the world ever saw, was 
formed, lie brought into it not only a share of the 
funds necessary to carry on the expensive work of 
exi>loration, but a knowledge of mining and mines 
that was second to no one on the I'acific Coast. 
Messrs. Fair, Mackay, Flood, O'Brien and Walker 
constituted the firm, Mr. Walker selling to Mackay, 
and -Mr. Fair became the Mining Superintendent of 
the mines of the company. 

The long and persistent search for the lode after- 
ward developed in the Consolidated Virginia Mine, 

as well as the fortunate finding of it, are related in 
the historyof the Comstock Mines, and need not be re- 
peated here. It is well known to all the world, and 
will be a subject for historical writers as long as men 
search for precious metals and silver remains money. 

Mr. Fair, as well as Mi-. Mackaj', is an operator out- 
side of the mines, has large blocks of land and 
buildings in San Francisco, knows as well as any 
one when the market is iti bonanza and horasca, and 
knows when to go in or go out. In June. 1S81. 
he commenced the construction of a grand building 
on the southwest corner of Sansome and Pino Streets, 
San Francisco, which will be one of the most costly 
and imposing structures of that city. Aside from the 
power which the possession of enormous wealth 
gives him, he is a power himself, cool when others 
lose their heads, consequently coming out with the 
balances on the right side of the ledger. 

He has made various other ventures in mining; 
owns mines in Panamint, in Arizona, (rcorgia, and it 
is said in the Lake Superior District. He hass|>read 
his net into many out-of-the-way places, and it is 
quite likely that if a discovery of rich silver mines 
were announced as having occurred in Patagonia, 
or along the Straits of Magellan, with the same in- 
formation would come the statement that the most 
promising ])laces were owned by James (J. Fair, of 
Nevada. When the great diamond swindle was per- 
petrated he had his trusty agents in advance of the 
Kalston crowd, and knew before tlioni that the mat- 
ter was a " first-class sell." 

For many years Mr. Fair spent a great deal of bis 
time in the depths of his mines, visiting the ditt'erent 
workings at all times of the day or night, and thus 
became thoroughly conversant with every |)art of 
the vast labyrinth of drifts, cross-cuts, winzes, slo])e8, 
shafts, and inclines, as well as with the army of men 
under his charge. There are few bodies so robust as 
to bear the strain, and few minds so clear as to re- 
tain all the great works and workmen in memory, 
giving directions with perfect confidence, managing 
the- greatest work of the age with utiparalleled sue- 
'cess,and milking re])orts with the remarkable accuracy 
and clearness shown by Superintendent Fair. 

Ho did not appear to know he was getting rich, or 
that ho was a rich man. He had been i)laced in 
charge of a great property, and there he faitbfully 
remained, toiling as when years before necessity 
required him to carefully husband bis daily salaiy. 

He was not making money in any ordinary way, but 
a thousand men, deep in the sweltering mine were 
picking, shoveling, tearing the precious ore away, 
heaving into his coft'ers gold and silver in countless 
dollars more rajiidly than one could think the figures; 
and was worth his millions before he was reconciled 
to the fact. Still he kept faithfully at his post, as in 
truth the property was too valuable and the respon- 
sibility too great to entrust to any ordinary man. 

Fair had proved his ability, and with most laudable 
courage saca-ificed his comfort to his duties. But the 
best work being done he concluded to have a little 
recreation, and proposed a journey with his family 
in the circumnavigation of the globe. The tour of 
the world is now easily made, the steamer and the 
rail car taking the traveler in comfort to all the great 
cities and points of interest through the various 
countries and climes in the circuit. Mr. Fair made 
the journey in triumph, visiting all the places of note, 
and enlarging his mind in the studies and associa- 
tions of the different countries, men and govern- 
ments he met, and returning the enlarged and culti- 
vated gentleman, he was prepared to enter upon 
the higher walks of life. His countrymen welcomed 
his return bj- an invitation to stand for the office of 
Ignited States Senator, as successor to the position 
held by W'm. Sharon. The State of Nevada had 
always been represented in the Senate by Eepubli- 

cans and it seemed impossible for a Democrat to win 
the high prize. The course had been made easier by 
the neglect of Mr. Sharon to attend to his duties, and 
the people of Nevada desired a change. To Mr. Fair, 
one who had been so faithful to the trusts reposed in 
him in a private capacity, one who had labored and 
dwelt among them from the earliest Territorial days, 
they turned for a Senator. His colleague was a 
miner, and had proven the ablest of the Senators, 
80 try another, was the cry, and James G. Fair, on 
the eighteenth of January, 1881, was triumphantly 
elected United States Senator from Nevada, to hold 
office from March 4, 1881, until March 4, 1887. 

He has the hearty, whole-souled expression that 
comes from a healthy- body and well-balanced mind, 
and makes friends instantly. His social qualities and 
financial abilities are likely to make him an honor 
to Nevada and a useful member for the country at 
large. He is a Democrat in politics, but so broad in 
his views, so independent in character, that the party 
shackles will fail to hold him to any rigid line of 
party action. 

He is a family man, having a wife and four inter- 
esting children, who, it is hoped, will perpettiate the 
name of a deserving and successful man, and inherit 
the forty or fifty millions he has taken from the 
depths of the earth and added to the wealth of the 




ization, there being no officere to execute or enforce 
either civil or criminal law, if such had hovn recog- 
nized as existing in the countr}-; and the only 
influence, except the innate principle of justice, that 
controlled the actions an<l dcalin<^s of men with each 
other at this time was the fear of sununary treat- 
ment of a nature euch as the next year was dealt 
out to the unfortunate -'Luckj- Bill." 

Such was the condition of the country as the year 
1857 passed into historj-, anil a now era dawned 
upon Nevada with the events that marked the prog- 
ress of the ensuing yonv. 

CIl A PTF, 1! V 1 1 I. 

Carson t'nunty Klectiim DctoluT .lO, LsTS — Jlaiigiiig of " Kueky 
Bill" .luiiu 111, 1S5S — I'ruluilcs to the .Silver Discovery — 
Se;ircliiiigs in Nev;ul,i for .Silver — The (Irosh Brothers — 
The Father's Account of Their Discoveries — The Lost .Shaft 
Explained by J. M. Hunter — The Black Koek Prospectors. 

The year 1858 was a prcparatoiy one in which 
events shaped themselves with an apparent view of 
placing a silver lining to the cluud that had over- 
hung the fortunes of those living just over the bor- 
ders east from ('alifornia. 

An attempt was made to reorganize the County of 
Carson that proved only partially successful. John 
S. Child was commissioned I'robate Judge by Ciov- 
ernor Cummings. the successor of Brigham Young, 
and he called an election for Carson ("ountj' officers 
that occurred October IjOth, of that year. There 
were six voting precincts, and two tickets in the 
field. One ticket purported to be anti-.Mormon, 
although there was but one professed Mormon in the 
valley at the time; but the anti-Mormon movement 
was ill fact the vigilant ]>art}- who had sympathized 
wilb the act or participated in the hanging of "Luck^- 
Bill." and they termed the Judge and his friends 
Mormons, or Mormon sympathizers. 

When the election returns came in, four of the six 
precincts' votes were thrown out and not counted, 
because of illegal voting, and the two counted were 
as follows: — 



11. B. ('lemons .57 .M. M. (iaige 511 

Mark Stebbins 57 II. Molt, Sr 54 


L. Abernathy 58 W. (i. Wyatt 58 

George Chedic 55 James Mc.Marlin ...57 

siTBVEvoK. '{• !>• Hi>les 57 

C. N. Noleware 58 •'"'"i L. Cary 55 

John F. Long 54 .1. U. liose 50 

RECORI.KR. W.Cosser 56 

S. A. Kinsey 5(i 

S.Taylor 53 

Townshij) No. 1. .lustico of the Peace — Benj. 
Sears 25, A. (.«. Ilammack 22. 

Constable — T. J. Atchison 31, J. M. Ucring 15. 


Township No. 2. Justice of the Peaoc — James 
Farwell 38, 11. Van Sickle 2G. 

Constable— J. A. Smith 2G, J. M. Howard 18. 

It will be seen by the above that the candidates 
for Representative received the same number of 
votes. Mr. Ivinscj-. the Clerk, saj's: "The result 
was declared in favor of Mr. ("lemons, according to 
the Utah Statutes, pages 234, Sec. 12." 

Votes not counted on account of the illegality of 
the returns: — 

Stebbins. Clemons. 

Gold Canon 3G 2 

Washoe Valley 18 1 

Eagle Valley 21 

Smith's Station 1 10 

Sink Humboldt 15 

Total 76 28 

Stebbins' majority 48 

The successful candidates were upon what was 
termed the Mormon ticket, except Sides and Aber- 

The people paid but little attention to the results 
of this election, and although those receiving the 
highest number of votes were declared elected, the 
positions became mere sinecures. 


Ill the meantime had occurred one of those acts on 
the part of a large numberol'the substantial citizens 
of the country that was, and usually is, the out- 
growth of a long continued absence of adequate 
legal justice. The act referred to was the execution 
b}' order of a citizens' self-constituted court, of one 
of the most prominent citizens of the country, who 
up to this time, with two or three noticeable excep- 
tions, had been a universal favorite. The unfortunate 
man's name was William B. Thorringlon, but ho was 
called " Lucky Bill," and was a native of Chenango 
County, New York, from where he removed in 1S4S 
with his parents to Michigan. In 1850 ho crossed 
the plains to California, and in 1853 became a resi- 
dent of Carson Vallej', in western Utah. Ills educa- 
tion was a moderate one, due to the fact that his 
excessive animal spirits and vitality would not per- 
mit a close application to stud}' when attending 
school in his boj-hood. 

In form he was large, weighing 200 pounds, and 
with broad, ample shoulders, stood six feet and one 
inch in height; his head, covered with glossy curling 
hair colored like the raven's wing, was massive, with 
a high classic forehead, and large gray mirthful ej'os, 
looking out from beneath projecting eyebrows, that 
indicated strong perceptive faculties. The country 
had nil liaiulsomer or merrier citizen in it than Lucky 
Bill, a name given to him because of the fortunate 
result that seemed to attend his every action, lie 
had become comfortably wealthy. It has already 
been noted that the Heeses turned over a largo 
amount of properly to him in January, 1855, includ- 



inw their Eai^le Valley Kaiich. lie had become the 
successor of Israel Mott in the ownership of the 
Carson Canon Toll-road, and a possessor of valuable 
ranch property in the valley. 

In character he was both generous and brave, 
and his sympathies were readily aroused in favor of 
the unfortunate; or, which in frontier parlance would 
be termed, " the under dog in a fight," regardless of 
the causes that had placed the dog in that position. 

In addition to his ftirming and toll-road pursuits, 
he was a gambler, and a very successful one, his 
specialty being the " thimble rig game." 

In 1854 a couple of California bound emigrants 
stopped at Mormon Station, and had a falling out, 
and it transpired that they were partners, one of 
them owning the wagon and cattle that hauled it, 
while the other, who had a wife, supplied the pro- 
visions. The expense of this provision supply and 
incidentals along the route had exhausted the hus- 
band's finances, and the owner of the train refused 
to take the bankru])l emigrants any further. Luckj' 
Bill passing, saw the woman weeping disconsolately 
by the wagon, and his sympathies were at once 
aroused. Upon inquiry he learned the state of 
affairs, and told the husband and wife to borrow no 
further trouble, for he would see that they reached 
the Sacramento without delay. 

That night the owner of the outfit was induced to 
bet against Lucky Bill in his ■' thimble rig game," 
and in the morning he had neither an outfit nor a dol- 
lar in money left. The winner gave him back fifteen 
dollars of the money, bought him a new pair of 
boots to travel in, told him to "lite out" for Cali- 
fornia on foot, and never after that to bet against 
any one who was playing his own game. To the 
bankrupt family he gave a cow, spent the loser's 
money in buying them provisions, etc., and then 
hired a man to drive the team with them to Cali- 
fornia. In 185U three men put up one night at 
Lucky Bill's station in Carson Canon, on their way 
home to the States. One of them was a white- 
haired old man, poverty-stricken and discouraged 
with his failures in California. In the morning his 
horse was dead, and forced to abandon his hope of 
reaching his Illinois home, he stood bj' the roadside 
with a stony look in the eye and watched the depart- 
ure of his companions for the country (hat seemed 
shut out to him forever. "Cheer up, old man," said 
Lucky Bill, in his happy, inspiring, whole-souled 
way, and snapping his fingers over his shoulder in the 
direction of the fast disa|)|)earing horsemen, added, 
" I'll show you a trick worth eight of that." A few 
days later the white-haired emigrant set out again 
on his homeward journey, with a fine roan horse 
hitched to a two-wheeled vehicle loaded with pro- 
visions for the trip that had been given to him by 
Lucky Bill. Numerous incidents of generosity like 
these are rcnK'nibercd by the early settlers of 
Nevada of this strange frontiersman, many of whoso 
impulses were such «• ennoble inen. I|. is associations 

in life, however, had been with individuals that had 
led him to look upon murder or theft as a smaller 
crime than would be the betrayal of a person who 
claimed his protection, though that man might be 
fleeing from justice after having committed either or 
both those offenses. This peculiarity of Lucky Bill 
being known to all, both good and bad citizens, 
transformed him into an obstruction, sometimes to 
the execution of justice upon criminals, and this 
characteristic eventually proved his ruin. 

In the springof 1858, Bill Edwards shot and killed 

Snelling, in Merced County, California, and fled 

to Carson Valley for safet}'. lie stopped with 
Lucky Bill for awhile, and then wont up to Honey 
Lake Valley, whore he stopped with \V. T. C. Elliott, 
John N. Gilpin, and others. While in the upper 
country, in connection with one Mullins, he mur- 
dered Harry Gordier, for the purpose of getting 
possession of the victim's personal effects, including 
a band of cattle. The body of the murdered man 
was found tied up in a sack and sunk in Susan River, 
and an innocent partj- named Snow was hung for 
doing it by citizens in the Honey Lake country, 
upon what was doomed sufficient evidence of his 
guilt. Sus])icion finally began to fall upon Bill 
Edwards, and he started between two days for Car- 
son Vallej-. where he found Lucky Bill; told of the 
peril that was upon his trail; claimed to be innocent, 
and asked to bo helped out of the country. Edwards 
owned a valuable race horso which he wished to dis- 
])ose of, and with the proceeds escape to South 
America. This friend of the "under dog in a fight" 
attempted to perform both these things, to sell the 
horso and help in the escape. Elliott and Gilpin, 
assuming the role of detectives, followed the mur- 
derer to Carson Valley, and feigning friendship for 
both Luckj- Bill and P^dwards, was admitted to their 
councils, helped in their ])lans, finally purchased the 
horse, and then caused the arrest, on the fourteenth 
of June, by an organization of citizens, of all par- 
ties connected directly or indirectly with the aft'air, 
except Edwards, who eluded them for a time, but 
was finally secured in the following manner: — 

Lucky Bill had a son named Jerome, a small lad, 
who knew the lurking place of the man they wanted. 
The boy was told that if he would secure the arrest 
of Edwards that his father would bo turned loose, 
and that if he did not, his parent would certainly 
bo hanged. To save his father the son betrayed the 
murderer into the hands of the citizens, and then 
found that instead of working his sire's deliverance, 
he was in danger of being hanged himself. 

The trial and conviction took place on the seven- 
teenth. Evorj'lhing was conducted with order, and in 
close imitation of similar cases occurring in n'gularly 
constituted courts. W. T. C. Elliott acted as Sherifl', 
John L. Cary as Judge, and eighteen jurors deter- 
mined the ([uostion of guilt. The evidence under 
oath was written down by ('. N. Xoteware, late 
Secretary of State for Nevada; and the writer of 



this has road it all. Not a thing appears there 
implicatiiii; Lucky Hill in sinyliiiri'^ exfi'])t the 
attonipt to SL-eure the murderer's escape. The 
absence ol' any knowleilijo on the part of the accused 
of the guilt of Edwards, is a noticeable feature in 
that testimony'; that parly, after having acknowl- 
edged his own guilt, swore positively that he had 
assured Lucky Bill that he was innocent, and iio one 
else lestilti.i/ to the contrary, yet the Jury believing 
that he did know, decided that ho was guilty as 
accessor}- to the murder after the fact, and con- 
demned him to be hanged. Edwards having acknowl- 
edgeil the killing of Gordior, was also condemned, 
his sentence being to be hanged at the scone of the 
murder, in Hone}' Jjake Vallej'. Of the other 
accused, two of them were fined 81,000 each, and 
ordered to leave the country; the balance being dis- 
charged. An unsuccessful attemj)! was afterwards 
made to collect that fine; and one of the parties, at 
least, still lives in Carson ^'alley. Theodore Win- 
ters, Walter Cosser, and Samuel Swager, were 
appointed a committee to go with Edwards to 
Hone}- Lake, and see that he was hanged, which 
they did, the execution taking place between six 
and seven p. .v., on June 23, 1858. 

On the nineteenth of June, at between three and 
four p. .M., Lucky Bill, whose scart'old was building 
■while the trial was going on at the C'lear Creek 
Ranch, on Clear Creek, was placed in a wagon with 
the fatal noose around his neck, when, the team 
being started, he was dragged by the tightning rope 
out from the rear of the vehicle, whore, with body 
swinging back and forth and twisting round and 
round, lie slowly choked to death. His son is now 
dead, and the widow is wearing out her life in the 
Stockton Insane Asylum, in California. 


In June, 1S58, the stage line between Piaccrville 
and (Jenoa, that had been first established in June, 
1857, was continued to Salt Lake, and at about the 
same time the excitement in regard to the Walker 
River placers began to spread. Wild stories at first 
reached California regarding them that wore soon 
tempered down to reports of returns only equal to 
ordinary day's wages. April 17, 1858, the Afountain 
Demorriit, of Placerville, California, reports prices in 
Carson Valley upon information received from Major 
Ormsby just from Genoa, as follows: — 

Flour, per hundred 88 00 

Corn, " " 4 00 

Bacon, per pound 30 

Pork, " " 20 

Beef, " " 15 

Potatoes, " " 02 

Butter, •' " G2i 

In August, the Rose Ditch, designed to take water 
from the Carson River to use in mining at the mouth 
of Gold Cafion, was completed, and the jiroprietors 
were surprised to find the jiroposed outlet higher 
than its head. This ditch was dug by ( 'hinamen 

who camped at the mouth of the canon, and from 
this fact the place becamd known as Chinatown. 

The search for gold during the year was jiroso- 
cuted further U]( the cafion above Johntown, and II. 
T. P. Comstock, after whom the groat lode was 
named, passed the season operating with ])oor suc- 
cess, working Pah-Utes in the American Flat Wash. 
To the north, in Six-milo Canon, a number of j)artie8 
worked, among whom were Fenmore, known as 
"Old V^irginia," after whose nickname Virginia Citj- 
■was christened, Peter O'Riley, Patrick McLaughlin, 
and Emanuel Ponrod. A saloon was there, and a 
restaurant, where board could be had at fourteen 
dollars per week, both institutions the property of 
Nicholas Ambrosia, known as " Dutch Nick." When 
the winter set in, and the cold weather shut down 
placer mining. Six-mile Cafion was abandoned for 
the general rendezvous at Johntown. Thus matters 
stood at the end of 1858. Just before the groat 
change caused by the discoveiy of silver, and before 
entering upon the details of that event, let us take a 
backward glance at a few important incidents that 
have been omitted from the chronology of occur- 
rences alreadj- noted. 


In an interview with Mrs. Laura M. Dettenrieder, 
who became a resident of Nevada in l.S,")3, the fol- 
lowing was elicited regarding Allen and his brother, 
Hosea B. Grosh, and tfeeir operations while in the 
country. Said she: — 

I was not acquainted with them in 18.").'i. but 
became so in 1854. in the fall of which year they 
returned to Calilbrnia. and wintered at" Volcano. 
In the early part of 1855 they came back, ]>acking 
what they had on a little jenny, and slopped at my 
house for dinner. On taking leave, Hosea said that 
they were hurrj-ing away because they had to reach 
the Sugar Loaf in Six-mile Cafion that night, where 
they proposed making a camp at a spring. From 
the Sugar Loaf camp thej- intended to prospect 
farther for silver in the vicinity of where thej- had 
found it the year before. Hosea and Allen both 
said, We will ])Ul you, Mrs. KIlis (that was her name 
at that time), in the " Pioneer claim," lo bo located 
for the "Pioneer vSilver Mining Compau}-." They 
had organized a company l)y that name at Volcano, 
in the sjiring before coming over. I don't remem- 
ber much about them that summer, and in the fall 
1 went to California mj-self In the summer of 
1857 I came back to Nevada, went up the Humboldt, 
then across to Honey l.,ake, from where I returned 
to l)ayton. In passing down the trail along the 
American Flat Wash on my waj- to Dayton, I came 
u|ion the cabin of the (Jrosh brothers, and found 
Hosea B. sitting by the door with a sore foot, that 
had been injured by driving a pick into it. The 
wound seemed to be doing well, under water tre:it- 
ment. which kept down the intlanimation. The two 
brothers had a partner, named Captain (iaiiiin; antl 
Allen returned to the cabin with the jiarlner before 
I left. He handeil me a piece of rock, and s;iid, -'it 
is from the claim you are in. a little above the 
])ioneer location, and wo have ])Ut your name down 
t'or three hundred feet." Then wo wont out upon 



some elevated trround. and ))()intin<; to Mount David- 
son, he said "It is down ut tiie base of that ])oiiit.'' 
1 had learned, while up the llumbohit Kiver, of tlie 
murder of a station-keeper at tiravellj' Kord. named 
George Brown, and told the boys about it, and they 
felt very bad, as thej- said he was their partner; 
that he had intended to eome to (Jold (-'anon in the 
fall, with what he made out of the station, where 
he had six hundred dollars buried; and all his effects 
was to become e'ommon property for the assistance 
of the firm in opening their silver mines. Thej- all 
seemed disheartened at the news 1 had brought 
them, and I told the boj's that if thej- were sure it 
was safe for me to do so, I would go back to Cali- 
fornia, sell out all my propertj', and put in S1,.J00 
to open the mines with. Then they showed me the 
book in which their locations were entered, and 
after I had agreed to furnish the money 1 went on 
down to Johnlown. In three days after that. Ilosea 
died from the effects of blood-poisoning from the 
wound in his foot. Allen started to reach Cali- 
fornia, leaving Comstock in charge of his things 
and cabin, lie was snowed in on the Sierra before 
he could get over, and when relief reached liim he 
was so badlj- frozen that they had to cut off his legs, 
from the effects of which he died. 

'• I should like to know what became of the 
record book they showed me, that was left in Corn- 
stock's possession." 

TUE father's account OF THEIR DISCOVERIES. 

The following communication was addressed to 
friends of the Grosh famil}-, who visited Nevada in 
1879, and while here went to the Silver City cemetery 
where Hosea's grave was pointed out to them by Mrs. 
Dettenrieder. The letter tells its own story: — 

Washington, July 8, 1879. 

Mrs. C. B. \Vinslow, M. I)., Present — Mv Dear 
Friend: You desire me to give you a detailed state- 
ment of my sons' labors and discoveries in Nevada 
(then Utah), as you are about to visit there, and 
would like to speak of their discoveries of silver ore 
in Carson Valley, correctly. It is a long story, and 
1 presume it will be difficult to locate the scenes of 
their actions after the many and great changes since 
1857. But 1 will give you the outlines briefl}^ as 
gathered from the letters now before me. 

K. Allen and Ilosea B. Grosh, whom you knew in 
your and their childhood and J'outh, went from 
Iteading, Pennsylvania, in a companj- in 1S40, and 
reached California, cia Tani])ico and Mazatlan. They 
soon engaged in gold mining, most of the time at or 
near '-Mud Sjjrings" (now El Uorado), Kl Dorado 
County, with varying, but never very iirosperous, 
fortunes. They visited Carson Valley in 1S.")1, but 
soon returned to California. But in IS.'):! they made 
it a longer visit, and j)retty thoroughly '• ])rospecled " 
portions of what they called •' Carson Vallej-." 
"Gold Canon," "Lake Valley" and " Washoe Val- 
ley," and many of the adjoining mountains. 

After their return to California, with specimens for 
fuller examination, they wrote many letters, giving 
details of their discoveries, and of the information 
they were gradually acipiiring respecting modes of 
testing their value. One stated that they found 
what they believed to bo " carbonate of silver," in 
"Gold Canon" — a "dark graj- mass, tarnished, 
probably, by the sulphuric acid in the water. It 
resembles thin sheet lead, broken very fine — and lead 
the miners sujiposed it to be. The ore we found at 
the forks of the cafion; a large quartz vein — at least, 

boulders from a vein dose by here shows itself. * * 
* * Other ore of silver we think we have found in 
the canon, and a rock called black rock — very abun- 
dant — we think contains silver." 

These and other discoveries of this period, led to 
many conversations with '• Old Frank," an experi- 
enced Mexican miner, and to numerous experiments 
in assaj'ing as their limited means allowed, jirepara- 
tory to a return to Carson Valley. Thej- also organ- 
ized a large company of kindred and friends in the 
middle Atlantic States, called the " Utah Enterprise 
Mining Com])an}-," of which they were part, and for 
which they were agents — which was to enable them 
to hold and work their various and numerous dis- 

But lack of means delayed their return to Carson 
Vallej- until .Maj-, 1837. when they obtained an out- 
fit by organizing the -'Frank Mining Companj'" — 
named after " Old Frank " aforenamed, constituted 
of themselves and a few wealthier friends who 
advanced the moncj*. Thej- soon rediscovered their 
former discoveries, and what thej- called •• Our Mon- 
ster Vein," they located in the name of the Frank 
Com])any, aild other veins in the name of the Utah 
Hnter|)rise Coin]iany, and located in their own name 
what they termed '• a smaller but richer vein " — " a 
much more promising vein, because more easily 
worked." Both of these arc said to be at or near 
" the forks of the canon." Thej' also mention " suits 
of veins crossing the caiion at two other points," and 
"a mammoth vein of copper — co])per ])}-rites — twen- 
tj--five or thirtj' miles north of the caiion, containing 
considerable silver," and resembling copper, then 
about being mined for its silver, some distance from 

They found great difficulties in making reliable 
assays, in the nature of the 'ires, being, '■ not, as we 
had supposed, magnetic oxide of iron, but the mag- 
netic sulphuret of iron," and other mixtures (anti- 
mony, etc.), adding difficulties in their toilsome and 
tedious labor, with deficient materials and imjjerfect 
apparatus. But all their assaysshowed the blackish, 
jjurjile and violet rock to be rich in silver. The 
greatest difficulty — one they could not surmount 
except after much time and labor — was their pov- 
erty. To procure food, they must use nearly- everj- 
hour not absolutely needed for rest in gold digging 
and washing — leaving only a few spare hours for 
roasting and smelting. 

While engaged in digging earth on Gold Hill* for 
washing, Ilosea struck his pick into the hollow of 
his foot. This was on .Vugust lllth. and mortification 
set in and caused his death on September 2d. He 
was buried res))ectahlj" by his fellow-miners, and his 
remains have since been removed to a cemetery at 
Silver City, and a memorial stone (which I had 
ordered at mj' expense) has been placed over them — 
as 1 am informed. 

Allen, as early as ho could, on the fifteenth of 
November, in companj- with his friend .Mr. Bucke 
(now Dr. R. .M. Bucke, Superintendent of the Domin- 
ion Insane Asylum, Ijondon, Canada), started for 
California. Thej- were hindered hy the loss of their 
mule and his recover}-, and caught in the great snow 
storm of that j-ear, while in the Divide of the Sierra 
Nevada, and comjtelled to kill their mule, and throw 
away their s])ecimens and other baggage, and con- 
tiriue their journey on foot through the dee]) and 
trackless snow. Their ])owder a!ul matches got wet. 
and the mule meat being consumed, they were four 
days and nights without fire or food. slee)>ing in their 

•Allan's Ifttcr says, " from a small ravine to thu ri^ht fork 
of the main cafion." 



blankets under the snow. They reached a Mexican 
miner's canii), loi^s frozen to alxive tiie knees, and 
tVorn thence were taken on sleds to Last Cliance, by 
tlie miners ol'tiie iattiT ]phice, where .Mr. Hucke had 
one leg and toot, and part of the other foot, am)>u- 
tated, and recovered. ]Jut Allen, after lingering 
most of the time unconscious, died December UUh, 
and was tenderly buried. Mr. Bucko has since 
marked the grave of his fellow-suflerer with a suit- 
able memorial stone. 

A writer from Virginia City, in the New York 
Heidlil of December HO, liSTS, in giving a description 
of the "Comstock'' Lode and oilier mines, gives an 
account of my sons, their discoveries and deaths, 
which is generally correct, and says: Krom associa- 
tion with the two brothers Cirosh, ](revious to their 
unfortunate deaths, Comstock, in some waj- or other, 
at their melancholy ending, came into ])ossession of 
what property they left. Dr. Bucke, who knew all 
the ])arties well, says there was no intimacy between 
Comstock and my sons, nor was there anj- likelihood 
of there being anj- confidence reposed in the former 
hy the latter, so widelj- different were they in char- 
acter. disi)osition and habits. And if reports may be 
relied on, Comstock himself told so manj' differing 
stories in accounting for his possession and sale of the 
lode, that it came to be believed t!iat he took posses- 
sion of books, maps, and other ])a])ers which Allen 
had boxed up for safe keeping, and thus learned of the 
existence of the mines they had discovered, and 
claimed them — sometimes as his own discovery ; 
sometimes as having been left in his charge, for 
which he was to receive one-third or one-fourth ; 
sometimes, as their ])artner ; and sometimes as being 
on the spot, and therefore nearer to them than any 
distant heirs : having the best right, that of posses- 

Thus, my friend, have I again gone over the letters 
of mj- sons, and of their friends communicating their 
sad fate, and given you briefly some of their numerous 
details of cares, labors, trials and discoveries. 1 have 
omilteil more than 1 have given ; but wliat 1 have 
given may aid j"ou to find the scenes of their toils 
and IJosea's grave — and may serve to correct any 
errors and misunderstandings which rumors and tra- 
ditions may have imjilanted in the minds of those 
who have succeeded them in the jilaces they once 
occu])ied. You can rely on their statements, for you 
knew them ; and you also know that I would not 
mis(|uote or jiervert wh:il they wrote to mo. 

Wishing you all needed health, recreation, pleasure 
and profit on your journey, J remain, 

Very resjpccttiill}-. 

Your friend, 

A. H. (Jrosh. 

"Dan Dc (juille,'' in mentioning these men in his 
"Big Bonanza," states that: — 

The Grosh brothers were well educated, and had 
considerable knowledge of mineralogy and assay- 
ing.- * * * In their cabin, which stood near the 
])resent town of Silver C'ily, about a mile above 
Johntown, they are said to have had a library con- 
sisting of a consideralile number of volumes of scien- 
tific works: also chemical apjiaratiis and assayer's 

They did not associate with the miiier.s working 
in the canon, and were very reticent in regard to 
what they were doing. They, however, informed a 
few ]iersonsthat they had discovered a vein of silver- 
bearing quartz, and it was well known among the 

miners that they had formed a company for the 

])ur|)ose of working their mine. The majority of 
the members of their comp;iny were undei'stor)d to 
be in California (about Volcano), and in one of the 
Atlantic States. * * * Li ISliO I saw their old 
furn:ices unearthed, the}' having been covered up to 
the depth of a foot or more by a deposit of mud and 
sand from Cold Canon. They were two in number, 
and but two or three feet in length, a foot in 
height, and a foot and a half in width. One had 
been used as a smelting and the other as a cupel 
furnace. The remains of melting-pots and frag- 
ments of cupels were found in and about the fur- 
naces; also a large piec^e of argentiferous galena, 
which had doubtless been procured a short distance 
west of Silver City, where there are yet to bo seen 
veins containing ore of that character, some of which 
yiehl fair assays in silver. * * * Wiih the 
brothers was lost the secret of the whereabouts of 
their silver mine, if they ever discovered anj' silver 
except that contained in the ore of the veins of 
argentiferous galena 1 have mentioned. 

After the discovery of the old furnaces of the 
Grosh brothers in LSGO, there was much search by 
miners in the neighborhooti for the mine thej- had 
been prospecting, but no mine was ever found. 

In a sort of sink, on the side of a large mountain, 
at the foot of which stood the cabin and furnaces 
of the brothers, was found an old shaft. Here was 
supposed to be the spot where they had worked, 
and the place was "located" {■•claimed " or " i)re- 
emptcd") and called the " Lost Shalt." 

About the first discovery made by the locators, 
when thej- began cleaning out the shaft, was the 
body — a sort of mummy — of a Piute squaw, who 
had been murdered some years before by members 
of her tribe, who had tumbled her remains into the 
old shaft. 

After finding this ■• dead thing," the owners of the 
claim let a contract for the further sinking and 
exploration of the old shaft. The men who took 
the contract soon gave it up. They said they could 
not work in the shaft; that Stones were falling out 
of its sides without cause. Others took the con- 
tract, and each part}' of miners that went to work 
in the shaft gave it U]), saying that their lives were 
endangered hy the stones which suddenly and at un- 
expected times, jumped out of its sides. A tunnel 
was then started to tap the ledge on which the old 
shaft was su))posed to have been sunk, but it never 
was completed. It is now well known that the old 
shaft was sunk by a pai"ty of tiold Canon miners in 
18.j1, they having taken it into their heads that from 
this curious-looking ])it, or sink, in the side of the 
mountain came all the gold found below in the 

There was also a story current among the miners 
in 18I)U, that before starting on the trij) over the 
Sierra, which resulted in his death, Allen Grosh 
boxed uj) the library and all the chemical and assay- 
ing apparatus, and rwhei/ the whole somewhere 
about Grizzly Hill, the mountain at the base of 
which stood the cabin occupied by the brothers. 
There was much search b}- curious miners in the 
neighborhood for this sujpposed deposit of valuables. 
They crawled under the edge of shelving rocks, 
jieered into crevices among the cliffs, and proheii all 
sus])iiMous- looking stone-heaps, but no lionanza of 
scientific ajpjiaratus was ever discovered. When 
Allen (irosh left to go over the mountains to Cali- 
fornia, Comstock was placed in charge of the cabin, 
and it is very probable that whatever books and 



ajjparatus there may have been were carried away 
by such visitors as took a fancy to them, and thus 
were scattered and lost. 

On the 27th of June, 1865, Schuyler Colfa.x and 
party who were eti route for California overland, and 
about two hundred others, participated in the cere- 
mony of erecting the marble slab mentioned by the 
father at the grave of llosea B. Grosh, in the ceme- 
tery at Silver City, Lyon County. Upon the slab is 
the following inscription: — 

llosea B., second son of Itev. A. B. Grosh, born 
in Marietta, Pa., April 23, 1821), died at Gold ('anon, 
Nevada, September 2, 1857. 

Such is a brief sketch of the lives, discoveries, and 
sad fate of the two men who first discovered silver in 
Nevada, and they were the undoubted first, unless 
the discovery in the Black ilock country' as here- 
after related, was a genuine find. 


The mystery and the history of the '• Lost Shaft" 
has been explained by Mr. J. M. Hunter, a responsi- 
ble citizen of Montecito Valley, Santa Barbara 
County, California, who, under date of August 8, 
1881, relates the following : — 

While in the mines at Sonora, Tuolumne County, 
in the summer of 1S50, there were continued rejjorts 
of rich diggings on the eastern slo])e of the Sierra, 
which created (piite an excitement among the inincrs 
who were, as everj'body recollects, constantly push- 
ing for new discoveries, leaving good claims in hopes 
of finding better; also for the adventure of prospect- 
ing, and to be the first explorers of a new countrj'. 

Immigrants from over the plains the preceding 
year reported having been shown by the Mormons, 
in Carson Vallc}-, large nuggets of gold iiurported 
to have been found in the neighborhood. To search 
for this 'fountain head" of gold a jiarty of fifty men 
organized, and went over the mountains, going Ijy 
the old emigrant road, through Uojie and Straw- 
berry ^'alll,■3•s to Carson Valley, jjassing the old 
Mormon Station, now Genoa. We ])ros])ected the 
country from Walker's River to Devil's Gate, spend- 
ing some eighteen or twenty days in doing so. On 
the eighth of August, 185(1, we commenced sinking 
a shaft at Devil's (iate, which was undoubledlj^ the 
first hole sunk in that region. Some gold was found 
in our jjrospecting trip, but in small (juantitics. 
That which we found at Devil's Gate was much 
lighter, in C()m))arison to its bulk, than what wo 
had mined in California, and we did not think it 
of much value. 

The company disbanded on the twenty-fifth of 
August, at the point where Kiupire City now is, some 
returning direct to California. Myself and six 
others went to Washoe liake, thence to Truckee, 
and crossed the mountains to Nevada City, where 1 
remained ten years, and then returned to Nevada. 

The reason given bj' the immigrants of 184!) for not 
8top])ing to mine in Caisson Valley, when shown the 
coarse gold and nuggets by the Mormons, who repre- 
sented it to lie in large i|uantities in the hills north of 
them, was that tiiey were short of provisions; would 
be unable to winter there, and were anxious to reach 
California, the land i>r their destination. 

While residing in Nevada City, I became acquainted 
with Henry Meredith, who was killed in the Ormsby 
massacre, near Pyramid Lake, and after mj- return 
to Nevada Teri-itory, I saw his gun in the possession 
of a Piute Indian. This 1 bouj^ht in 1808, of the 
Indian for .?10. and sent it to .Mr. John Meredith, 
brother of Henry Meredith. 1 had known the gun 
well, and recognized it at once. 

I have never claimed that our part)" was the first 
on the Comstock, as that lode was not found for 
several years alter our prospecting trip, and Devil's 
Gate was lower down the canon. We pros])eeted the 
foot-hills from Walker's Eiver to Pyramid Lake. 


In the summer of 184!>, Allen Harding and two 
other parties, whose names are not known, at day- 
light one morning, left the emigrant road to hunt 
for game, being short of provisions. They were on 
their way i'rom the States to California at the time, 
and had arrived, almost destitute, at a point between 
Black Rock and Mud Meadows, in what is now 
Humboldt County. 

The emigrant road in that county runs to the 
northwest in the direction of California, and these 
three men, in seeking game, for food, had )iassed into 
the mountains, to the northeast of it. It was a 
barren, desolate, burned region of black igneous 
rocks, and volcanic ashes, where they had gone, and 
the hunters found no game. On their return to 
cam]) about noon, they brought with them, however, 
a chunk of bright metal that weighed about twenty- 
five pounds, and pronouncing it silver, tried to get a 
man who was short of sutticient oxen to haul his own 
property, to take it to California for them. The 
party in question politely informed them that he 
would not pack it even though it were pure gold, and 
thej' were forced to leave it beside the road. Before 
going, however, thoy took a piece and melting it 
down, made a button by molding it in the sand. 

The button Allen Harding took with him to Cali- 
fornia, intending to raise a companj', and go back 
to work his mine of native, or pure silver. When 
he arrived in the country about Mount Shasta ho 
showed his s])ecimen, and related the manner in 
which he had become possessed of it, and his nar- 
ration was confirmed by the other two parties. He 
said that after becoming discouraged in their hunt 
for game they h:Td started back down the mountain 
towards camp, and in doing so passed along the 
margin of a shallow gulch that had been cut by 
water, a little to their right. As they were going 
along some bright metallic substance lying in its 
bottom, and for a short distance up the banks, 
attracted their attention, and they went down to 
take a closer look. At first they supposed it was 
lead, but finallj' concluded the substance must be 
native silver; and there it lay scattered along the 
head of the wash, and slicking out from the sides of 
the gulch in chunks, from the size of a bean to 
thirty, forty, and fifty pounds. It was there by 
the wagon-load; an Aladdin's cave uncovered; and 


" there was millions in it." The gold miners of 
Sh!i»ta informed Mr. llariHiii; it was gold they 
wanted; that tliej- would not take the liluck Rock 
country as a gift if it was all silver, and he soon 
came to think much in the same waj' himself. A 
great manj- people saw the button and jironounced 
it silver; when finally he sent it, in 1850, to San 
Francisco to bo tested, and it was lost in the great 
fire that swept over the city that j'ear. 

Eventuall}- turning his attention to farming, he 
settled in Petaluma Valley, Sonoma County, Cali- 
fornia; and a little later a man named Frederick 
Alberding, coming from the Rogue River country, 
also located there, and became Harding's neighbor. 
One day the last comer chanced to hear the storj- of 
Harding's native silver mine, and he at once ))ro- 
nounced a decided belief in its being a genuine find, 
stating that the same story had been told him in 
the Itogue River country bj- a [lai-ty who said he 
was one of the 'original discoverers. The result of 
all this was the organization of a company in Peta- 
luma to go and locate it. The members of the com- 
pany were M. S. Thompson, now a State Senator in 
>«'evada; Allen Harding, A. B. Jamison. Fred. Albur 
ding, H. Whiteside. Charles Humphries, Major James 

Pingley, Holt Fine, P. McGuire, and Oman, and 

the)- all arrived at Black Rock in quest of this 
Silverado, on the eighth of July, 1S5S. Kor three 
years Thompson, Harding and Jamison searched 
for this treasure-house of the mountain-gnomes with 
parties numl)ering sometimes as high as seventy 
members, but the invisible wand had been waved 
over the spot. Its lurking-place became an ignia- 
/(i/aiiii — tantalizing the brain, and luring the pros- 
pector to his death among the rocks at the hands 
of prowling bands of savages, that were never at 
peace with the whiles in that locality. H was never 
found, and the search was (iitile, but Mr. Thomp- 
son still believes that Harding told the triilii. lie 
believes that the mineral had recently been sluiced 
out by a water-sjiout, and thus e.\i)osed to view 
when seen in 184!1, and that the storms of the years 
that intervened, before the place was sought again, 
had caved the banks and covered up the de|)osit 
with washings from the country around. At the 
time of the battle with the Pah-Utes, when they 
defeated Major Ormsby, in 1S(!0, M. S. Thompson, 
with a Jiarly of about seventy men. was out in the 
Black I!ock country searching for the lost mine, 
when he received news by a pony express that the 
Indians were laying waste the whole country, and 
also a call for him to come in and help i)rotect the 
settlers in Honey Lake Valley. The request was 
prom]>tly comj)lieil with, and none of the original 
Black liock prospectors ever went back to that 
country again in search of the lost treasure-house of 
the gnomes. 



The Coiiistock Lode Discovvietl, .June, Till^Aii Article of A^;roe- 
ment — Sii-rra Nevada .Mine liocatiil — First Notii-e — (loidil & 
Curry l.,ocated — Bill of Sale — California .Mine — Union Con- 
solidated .Mine — Names of First I.K)cator8 on the Conintoek — 
Virginia City LaiilulKin I^ot.s — Carson N'alley (,iuart/. — Jtich 
Discovery — The Kirst Quartz .Mill — .Silver Found in the Com - 
stock Ores — Itush from California. 

As before stated, the miners all rendezvoused at 

Johntown, when the winter frost of 1858 rendered 

further placer mining im|)0ssible around Mount 

Davidson (at that time known as Sun Peak), but in 

January, 1850, there came a thaw, that started water 

in the gulches, and jiarlies went to the head of Gold 

Cafion prospecting, on the twenty-eighth of that 

month. Arriving at the point they had started for, 

at a rocky knoll on the west side, near the head of 

the Canon at the north end of what now is the town 

of Gold Hill, the)- tried for gold and found it. John 

Bisho}), one of the party, gives the following account 

of the discovery: — 

*\Vhero (Jold Hill now stands. I had noti'^ed indica- 
tions of a ledge, antl had got a little color. I spoke to 
''Old Virginia" about it. and he remembered the lo- 
cality, for he said he had often seen the place when 
hunting deer and antelo])e. He also said he had 
seen any quantitj- of quartz there, so he joined our 
party, and Comstock also followed along. When 
we got to the ground, I took a ))an and tilled it 
with dirt with my foot, for 1 hail no shovel or spade. 
The others did the same thing, though I believe that 
some of them had shovels. 1 noticed some willows 
growing on the hill-side, and started for them with 
my pan. The |)lace looked like an IndiaTi si>ring. 
which it proved to be. 

1 began washing my ])an. When 1 had tinished 
I found that I had in it about fifteen cents. None 
of the others had less than .eight cents, and none 
more than fifteen. It was very fine gold; just as 
fine as flour. Old Virginia decided that it was a 
good place to locate and work. 

The next difflculty was to obtain water. \Vc fol- 
lowed the canon along for some distance, and found 
what a])peared to be the same turmation all the way 
along. Presently ( )ld Virginia, and anothei' man who 
had been rambling awaj-, came back and said they 
found any amount of water which could be brought 
right there to the gi-ound. 

1 and my partner, meantime, hail a talk to- 
gether, and had decided to ]nit the others of the party 
right in the middle of the good ground, 

Afrer Old Virginia got back we told him this, but 
were not understood, as he said if we liati decided to 
" hog" it wo could do so, and he would look around 
further; but he I'emained, ami when the ground was 
measured off took his share with the rest. 

After we had measured the groinid. we had a con- 
sultation as to what name was to be given the jihu-e. 
It was decidcdl)' not Gold Canon, for it was a lillle 
hill ; so we concluded to call it Gold Hill. That is 
how the jilace came by il> i)i-eseiit name. 

At first the new find was lookecl u|ion with favor 
only by the owners ; but when the pay dii'l became 
richer and richer, as the miners worked in the de- 
composed quartz towards the covered u\> ledge, and 

*.Si-c " Hif{ Bonanza," liy Dan De l,luille, ]>age 4*2 and 43. 



the yield increased from five dollars per day, to 
twenty per man, the Johntown unbelievers became 
excited, and moved en musge to the new loealitj'. 
At first they camped under trees, then erected tem- 
porary huts, or shanties, that gave way eventually to 
log houses. In this way was started the town of 
Gold Hill, that is built over that portion of the Com- 
stock Lode, known as the Belcher, Crown Point, Yel- 
low Jacket. Imperial. Em])ire, Kcntuck, and numer- 
ous other mines that have since yielded to the world 
the value of a nation's ransom in gold and silver. 


On the north and south sides of Mount Davidson 
a wash comes down from the west that, reaching 
the mountain's base, passes out through the foot- 
hills eastward to the valley by the Uarson ISivcr. 
Both of these washes have cut their way through 
and over the Comstock Lode, and the waters that 
made them picked up the gold freed by the decom- 
posing quartz ledge and deposited it all along the 
waj- as far as the valley below. These washes, after 
they leave the mountain and quartz ledge, cut deep 
into the hills, and are called canons; the one to the 
south being known as Gold t/ufion. the other just 
north of it, over the ridge, the Six-mile Canon. 
The miners who had since 1850 been gradually 
approaching Mount Davidson, as the diminished sup- 
plj- of paj'-dirl in (Jold (^afion forced them to seek 
new ground further u]!, were consequentl}', without 
knowing it, nearing the quartz vein from which it 
all came. When some passed to the north, over the 
ridge, and commenced working in Six-mile Canon 
towards the main mountain, they were gathering 
gold distributed from the same general fountain of 
the royal metals, and were unconsciously trailing 
from another point to the same great treasure- 
house that nature had secreted. 

Emanuel Penrod, of Elko, under date of October. 
1880, gives the following account of the discover}^ 
of the Comstock Lode, and other incidents of eai-lj- 
history: — 

1 left Illinois in 1S.J2, bound for California, and 
stopj)ing, mined with success for one month at Gol<l 
Canon, and in November continued my journe}- to 
the Pacific Coast. In November, 1858, I went back 
to that canon, where I mined until .June, 1854. 1 
then visited Illinois, and returned again in 185U with 
my family, and have resided in this State since, fol- 
lowing in summer the occupation of farming, and 
that of mining in the winter. 

I was on the jury when William Thorrington 
(Lucky Bill) was hung. It was not, as 'Dan De 
Qnille" has it, by a ^'igilance Committee, but by a 
peoples' court. A A'igilance Committee was organ- 
ized afterwards. * * * \ w!iN in (iold Mill when 
Peter Oliiley and Patrick AlcLaughlin were ))i-os- 
pecling at what is now the Opliir mine. They had 
just found a good ])rospect of gold when Comstock 
came to tiiem, and said, •• Vou have struck it, boys." 
He tlien told tliiin that Old Virginia. .James Fin- 
ney. .Jo Curby, .James White and William Hart 
claimed this ground, and that they, O'lJiley and 
McLaughlin, had bettor buy it or the old claimants 

would drive them ott". OKiley and Mcl>aughlin 
sent for me, and wanted me to buj- the old claim- 
ants out, as Comstock and mj-self owneil nine shares 
: out of ten ol' the spring that furnished water for 
I working the mine; Comstock was to buy the other 
I share, and we foui- were to be equal owners in the 
claim. We tliought it was onlj- a continuation of 
the ])lacei"s that had been worked lower down on 
the flat, where the Ophir hoisting works now stand. 
1 got a bill of sale from I-'inney, White and Curby 
for the whole of the ground. Hart had left the 
camp. I paid fifty dollars for it. I think, and Com- 
stock gave an old blind horse for the share of water. 
There were about six inches of pay-dirt after strip- 
])ing off about three feet of surface. This streak, or 
stratum, of pay increased in thickness as we worked 
up hill. We found the gravel ail decomposed quartz, 
some of it black as soot. When it became known 
that we had good paj- — for we were taking out 
SoOO a day to the rocker, and were running three 
of them — Joseph D. Winters found we had not 
Hart's signature to the bill of sale. He, Winters, 
found Hart, and got a bill of sale of his interest, 
and to save trouble we took Winters in as a full 
partner. About this time, June 12 or 18, 1859, our 
])a3'-streak turned down into a lead about four feet 
wide, I contended it was a quartz lead, and the rest 
of the boys laughed at me. Comstock finally sided 
in with me, and we measured off our claim — 1,500 
feet as the law allowed — ."jOO feet to the man, and 
800 for the discoverer. This was a day or two before 
Winters came in. After Wiiitei-s came into the com- 
])an}' we took in a man by the name of Orsburn, in 
consideration of his building and stocking two aras- 
tras, making six men in the companj". After it was 
known to be a lead, our c()m]>any gave Comstock 
and mj-self 100 feet of it, joining our work on the 
north, for staking oft' the claim, and saving it to the 
company. This 100 feet was the original "Mexican," 
In a short time the news reached California of the 
richness of this mine, and then followed a great rush 
of excited |)eo)>le. Threats were made to cut down 
claims to two hundred feet, so we each six of our 
company selected his man, and deeded off fifty feet 
each, making 800 feet in all. This 800 feet came 
off the north end of th» Ophir. This was afterwards 
called the Atchison. Some of the company, I believe, 
got their |>art of this 800 feet back. I. from the first, 
considered it a lonn Jith sale, and still do. A major- 
ity of our comjian}- soon sold their interest in the 
Ojihir, when the buyers proposed to build a §200,000 
mill and to keep from being froze out, I sold my 
one-sixth for S5,500 to James Walsh. I sold my 
fiftj- feet in the Mexican to Meldoiiado for §3,000. 
Of the six original locators, or companj', Comstock 
died in Montana, Oliiley was taken to Stockton, 
McTjaughlin, 1 heard, died in Southern California, 
()i-sl)urn went to the States 1 believe. Jo. I). Wintei-s 
was in Califoniia when last I heartl from him, and 
all except Orsburn I believe quite poor. 

After many ups and downs I am located in Elko 
CJounty, and pro|)ose to camp. 

In 1.S58 I, with others, mined in a little gulch we 
called Cedar I'avine, just below where Virginia Cit}' 
stands, then from the head of the ravine working 
the flat where the Ophir Hoisting Works now arc, 
and to within three or four rods of the lead, where 
there was so much clay it could not be worked. 
O'Kiley and Mcliaughlin wore running a cut in this 
clay in June, 1S51), wlieii they struck the croppings 
of the lead broken over and covered three feet deep. 

Later Mr. Penrod, in answer to a letter in which 

^ ^ 

y z^*- 

John \^^. Mack ay 

Is a good sample of those men who, leaving Europe 
without capital, save that of brains and muscle, 
come to America and by dint of hard work and good 
judgment, accumulate fortunes which, even by 
princes, are considered colossal, .\stor, crossing the 
ocean with a few dozen musical instruments, his sole 
capital, commences trade in a modest way, and soon 
establishes a sj-stem of business which leads to fort- 
une. It may be said of these colossal fortunes, 
while they are often used to oppress the public, 
they serve to show the possible results of industry, 
guided by good judgment, and thus induce thousands 
to emulate the owners in devoting themselves to 
work, and in a measure atone for the evils they oth- 
erwise promote. 

Mr. Mackay was born in Dublin, Ireland, Novem- 
ber 28, 1835, and is the youngest of the " Bonanza " 
firm. He received his education in Dublin, where it 
is said the purest English in the world is spoken, 
consefjuently ho shows very little of the brogue in 
his speech. He came to America in 1850, and was 
engaged for a short time in a commercial house in 
/ Boston. The discoveries of gold in California were 
then shaking the foundations of values, and breaking 
up the old routines of business, and young Mackaj- 
thought proper to bid good-bye to that old and 
highly respectable, though somewhat fossilized speci- 
men of eastern cities, and push out for California, the 
country of boundless possibilities, where the customs, 
habits and thoughts, had not jietrified into a social 
bedrock which could not bo ])enetrated with shaft 
or tunnel, or blown up with giant powder. 

In the spring of 1852 we find him hard at work 
close up to the snow-banks of that elevated town, 
Downieville, in Sierra Count}'. It is not related of 
him that he made a fortune there in mining, or that 
he lost one, but here he met the talented and ac- 
complished lady who afterwards became his wife. 
Few made fortunes in those days at mining; the 
miner's dust, as a usual thing, came in small 
quantities, and onl}- made a bulk after it was 
gathered in by merchants and speculators, who laid 
all kinds of games and pit-falls to induce the miner 
to part with it. Mr. Mackay was not of that kind, 
80 ho delved away until the breaking out of the 
Washoe fever, when he changed his location, and also 
bis luck, though as far as that term is concerned 
nothing could bo more inapplicable to his case than 
the word luck, for if ever man achieved a fortune out 
of hard and persistent endeavor, together with good 
judgment, it was John W. Mackay; but this is antici- 
pating. He commenced a tunnel in company with 

other miners, in what is now known as the Union 
Ground, and soon exhausted all the results of his 
California mining. He did not curse Washoe and 
leave it as so many others did. but went to work on 
the Comstock at four dollars per day, which, how- 
ever, was but a small portion of the benefits ho 
derived from the labor he performed, for while 
engaged in this way he was gradually acquiring a 
knowledge of the great silver lode, and preparing the 
way for the big work of his life. 

He soon began to acquire feet, and made arespect- 
able raise out of the Kentuck Mine in Gold Hill 
This enabled him to operate still more largely, and a 
few years later he felt safe, from the condition of his 
: purse and his knowledge of the Comstock, to enter 
upon the project of original explorations. In com- 
pany with James G. Fair he undertook, by contract, 
in IStift, to develop the Hale \- Norcross Mine, which 
had previously paid large dividends. Heav)' assess- 
ments were then in order, and the stock fell in the 
market, but the contractors, having faith in the mine, 
induced Messrs. Flood & O'Brien, successful mining 
operators of San Francisco, to aid in securing control, 
when shortlj- after another "bonanza" was opened and 
dividends resumed. This laid the foundation for the 
great fortune since acquired. With the profits of 
successful mining and successful speculations the 
firm, now composed of Messrs. John W. Mackaj-, 
James G. Fair, J. M. Walker, James C. Flood, and 
William S. O'Brien, extended their possessions until 
thoy had control of some :?,(M)(I feet of the Comstock 
vein north of the Hale \- Norcross, and along that 
property they sent an exploring drift. Mr. Walker 
becoming discouraged, sold his interest to Mr. 
Mackay, giving the latter a two-fifths interest in 
the firm. 

The result of the drift was the discovery of the 
"bonanza" in the Consolidated A'irginia and California 
Mines, which paid between the years 1874 and 1879, 
$100,000,000 in dividends to its stockholders. It 
was on Mr. Mackaj-'s judgment that the terri- 
tory afterward known as the California and Con- 
solidated Virginia was purchased; that in addition 
to the money paid for the ground, ?5(I0,000 was 
spent in tunnelingandcrosscuttingbeforoasight of the 
ore body was obtained. It may be asked whj- Mr. 
Mackay believed in an ore body? Wh}- did ho 
induce others to invest also? It must be answered 
that he had studied the lode in its entiretj-. He had 
compared its formation with the great lodes of Mex- 
ico, which had been deposited in similar openings 
between the same kind of walls. Ho had calculated 

on the average value of the foot in depth and length, 
and the chances of an ore body in so many hundred 
feet long and deep. There might have been nothing. 
It was entirely possible the ore bodies should 
skip his ground both in length and depth, as much 
as it is possible for a man to go through a hundred 
battles without harm. He had, however, no right 
to expect more than the average deposit, and when 
the great body of ore was found, the largest, the 
richest the world ever saw, that much was luck or 
good fortune, just as you choose to name it. Though 
millions have come at his call, he still is studying 
among the levels. He dons the mining suit, takes 
his hammer and candle and goes prodding around 
2,000 feet under ground, observing the dip of the 
wall rocks, the stratification and character of the 
ores, and is just as keen in searching out the secrets 
of the mine as when he was pleading with Flood and 
O'Brien to test the ground. He knows from the 
shade of ore whether it is good or bad; whether to 
order it mined out for milling, or whether to let it 
remain where the great convulsion left it. With 
him it is a science. He searches out the secrets of 
the Comstock as the astronomer studies the stars, or 
the movements of a planet or a comet; as the bot- 
anist the structure of a plant, or a politician the 
secrets of political economy. Though money is a 
factor in the problem the strong motive is the love of 
knowledge, in his case the knowledge of mines. Let 
no one, because silver is in the lode, say that such 
knowledge is beneath any man's attention. When 
we look at the convulsion of the earth in which the 
Ck)mstock fissure had its origin, the wonderful circu- 
lation of subterranean currents (solfataras) which fill 

the fissure with minerals, when we look for the 
sources of the mineral, the sources of the power that 
lifted up the rocks, and set them in order, we are 
lost in wonder, as much as the star-gazer, or the 

Fortune has not spoiled Mr. Mackay as a citizen. 
When not beset with adventurers he is as plain and 
approachable as when swinging a pick in the Union 
Tunnel, or putting a set of timbers in to a Belcher 
drift. Like all wealthy men, he is annoyed with 
applications for charity and assistance, many of 
which are doubtless deserving cases, but far the 
greater part are impositions, deserving only con- 
tempt. The very circumstances compel a hedging 
about of forms for self-defense. 

Mr. Mackay married, in 1867, the daughter of Col. 
Daniel E. Hungerford, who had served with distinc- 
tion in the campaign against the Indians in 1860. This 
was before the discovery of the "bonanza," and 
must have been a union founded on mutual respect 
and esteem. He has had two children by her, a boy 
and a girl. She is a most accomplished lady, and 
resides most of the time in Paris, where she repre- 
sents well the culture and wealth of the United 
States, and is doing much to bring about a feeling of 
respect for the citizens of the wonderful Kepublic, 
whose sources of wealth and power are unfathom- 
able, and whose progress in culture and refinement 
is a marvel to the world. 

Mr. Mackay's house is a home for all worthy 
Americans, a stepping-stone to the best society of 
Europe. Our ex-Presidents, our Generals, our mill- 
ionaires, all feel honored by being entertained by the 
Queen of the Comstock. 



his attention was called to an incident mentioned by 
D:\u Do Qiiiilo in " IJIj^ IJonanza" i-o<{arding the C"om- 
8tocl< Lode discovery, wrote as follows:— 

On pane 52 of the " 15ifj Bonanza," Dan Du (^uilie 
saj's: "Comstock next dcnianded lliat 100 feet of 
the ground on the lead should lie segregaled and 
given to I'enrod and liiinself for the right lo the 
water they were using," which is incorrect. The 
loo feet of ground referred to, al'terwards called the 
Mexican, was given Comstofk and myself, as I wrote 
in my first letter, as follows: Ahciut a woek after wo 
four, i'. «., O'lxiley, McLaughlin, ( 'onislcick, and my- 
self, were all in company aiul working, following tho 
])ay up the hill, /. e., the croppings of tho lead, 
broken over when it turned to go down. I was tho 
first to claim that it was a <iuarl/, lead; the rest of 
the company laughed at mo and said it was only a 
crevice washed out h}- a current of water. 

I said it would do no harm to locate it for a quartz 
lead, and did so. I wrote out the notice claiming 
300 feet to the man and 300 foot for discovery, four 
men, 1,500 feet in the claim, as was the law, and 
signed the four names to it. Comstock then sided 
in with me and hel])ed measure off the ground. 
O'Kiloy and McLaughlin laughetl at us all the time. 
In a few daj's it was proven to be a lead, and all the 
country taken up. 

In consideration of the location in tini^, and [)Ut- 
ting their names in the location, O'Kiloy and 
McLaughlin gave us tho 100 feet, to take it at any 
place we wished. We look it on the north IVoni the 
discovery. Comstock and 1 owned tho water that 
supplied the mines. We then gave it to tho com- 

Tho following copy of a contract entered into 
within less than ten daj's after the location of the 
Comstock Lode as a quartz vein, will throw some 
light upon the condition of affairs at that time: — \ 


This indenture, made and entered into this twenty- 
second of June, 1859, between Emanuel Penrod, 
Henry Comstock, Peter O'Riley, Pat. McLaughlin, 
of tho first part, and J. A. Orsburn, J. D. Winters, 
Jr., of the second part, witnessoth. That tho first 
party above named do agree to soil and convey to the 
second part}- (J. A. Orsijurn and J. D. Winters, Jr.) 
two-sixths of fourteen hundred (14((0) foot, of a 
certain quartz and surface claim lying and being 
located on Pleasant Hill, Utah Territory, for and 
in tho following considerations to wit: Tho said 
second j)arty (J. A. Orsburn and J. I). Winters, Jr.) 
do agree to build two arastras and furnish stock to 
run tho same, worth tho sum of 875 each, and 
the number of horses or mules are to bo two. It 
is further agretid b}' the jiarties that after tho com- 
])letion of the first ai-astra, the proceeds from tho 
vein and claim shall be e(iually divided between the 
mombei-s of the company, after all debts settled 
[line worn ofl'] copartnership. It is also agreed that 
the second arastra shall be built as soon as possi- 
ble after the cr)m|ilction of the first. It is also 
agreed by the first |)arty, that the second party, J. 
A. Orsburn and J. D. Winters, Jr., shall have an 
equal interest in all the water now on the claim, for 
the use of working said claim and arastras. It is 
further agreed b}- tho members of the comiiaii}' that, 
if an}' member of this comjiaii}' jiroposo to sell, he 
is to give tho members of the company preference 

in the sale. We do further agree that if there is 
any surplus of water that is not used by the above 
claim, that it ma}* be usod by Messi-s. Comstock and 

E. Penrod, on tho . We do lurthor 

agree that no member of this company shall sell, 
convoy, or transact any business whatever for the 
comjiany, unless ho is authorized to do so by a 
majority of tho company. In testimony whereof, 
wo, tho parties heroin mentioned, do cause seal to 
bo made. 

K.MANirKi, Penuou, 
Patiuck McrjAt'dllLlN, 
J. A. OllSItllRN, 

Pktkii O'IJii.ev, 

JosKi'ii D. WiNTKUs, Jr., 

IIenrv Co.mstock. 

Attest, n. F. Little. 

llecorded this day. V. A. IIousewortii, Recorder. 

The following copies of mine locations and other 
transactions, are the first entries in Hook A of min- 
ing records at Virginia City. It will be observed 
that the miners put upon record within ton days 
after the discovery, their acknowledgment that it 
was yet a doubtful question as to there being a 
quartz vein, and the credit of discovery is given to 
Messrs. Penrod, Comstock & Co. 


(First Notice.) 

We, the undersigned claimants, have this day 
located the .svy»/«).sci/ (luarlz vn'iu, (/iscoi'ereil hi/ .\fe.sDrn. 
renrod, Comstock A- Co., commencing with the second 
ravine north of Penrod, Comstock & Co., and run- 
ning north through tho hill and with tho vein three 
thousand six hundred (3, GOO) feet, with all its doj)ths, 
angles and sjiurs. 

June 22, 1859. Henry Miller, 

C. C. (lATES, 

J. F. Stone, 

B. A. Harrison, 

B. C. I NO, 

R. Robinson, 

T. SciiAMi's, (abandoned.) 

T. Walsii, 


H. M. Tkand, 

J. Sturtevant, (abandoned.) 

M Atwooi), 

V. (i. Muui'iiv, 

Jos. WiloiiWidlTII.* 

Recorded this day. 

Fee paid §3. V. A. Hoisewoktu, Recorder. 


That wo, tho un<lorsigncd, do claim these springs 
and streams, as designated by notices and stakes. 
Juno 23, 1859. Peter OUii.ev, 

Pat. McLauoiilin. 
Recorded this day. 
Fee paid. V. A. Hoitse worth, Recorder. 


That we, tho undersigned, claim six hundred foot 
of this quartz vein, commencing with the south end 
of Finny iV Co., and running south six hundred feet 
and two claims (or chains). 

Peter C Rilev, 
Pat. McLauuHlin. 

June 23, ls5:i. Itccorded, etc. 

•Namca of L. C. Porter and Josepli GifforJ scratched off. 



erroneously been given the credit of having first dis- 
covered that the Comstock Ledge carried silver : — 

Carson Valley Quartz. — We saw a specimen 
of the Carson Valley gold quartz yesterdaj-. The 
rock is verj- different in appearance to the quartz in 
this vicinity. It has a lluish cast, and looks more like 
common blue limestone than anj-thing else. The 
sample which we examined was full of gold, however, 
and if the lode is as extensive as has been represented, 
the owners have doubtless found a good thing. 

It was the following September 28th, before the 
existence of silver in the Comstock Lode was hinted 
at in that paper, and Mr. Stewart had ceased to be 
its editor the previous August 3. The item then 
crept into the Observer, as an extract from the 
Territorial Enterprise. 

This first notice was followed by others calculated 
to create an excitement over the mountains, of which 
the following are samples. They are also taken 
from the Observer of July 6, 1859: — 


J. S. Child, of the Walker Jiiver Express, returned 
to this cit}- on Monday last. The news which he 
furnishes in relation to the new diggings at Gold 
Canon is most encouraging, and eminently calculated 
to produce an excitement. It will be remembered 
that we have before had occasion to mention the 
probable richness of these diggings. Our corre- 
spondents have constantly and uniformly predicted 
that when the mines were proi)crl3- ])rospected they 
would prove surprisinglj' rich, and it appears they 
were not mistaken. Child states that the new dig- 
gings are apparently in the debris of an old quartz 
lode, which is so effectually decomposed that the 
quartz is rotten, and crumbles like pipe-clay. Sev- 
eral of the claims which are now being worked in this 
old lode are yielding I'rom filly dollars to five hun- 
dred dollars ))er day to tlic hand. The best part of 
the matter is, that the vein has been traced a con- 
siderable distance, and there is good rea.son for 
believing that the diggings are extensive as well as 
marvelously rich. 

Some idea may be formed of the richness of these 
mines b}' the following: — 

Comstock & Co. are working two common gold 
rockers, and are averaging 850(1 per daj- with each 

liishop ct Co. have struck dirt in their claim which 
will ])ay forty dollars per day to the hand, but uii- 
fortutiately lliey have now no water to work with. 

The Calitorriia Compaii}', a party of miners who 
recently left I'lacerville, have a claim which aver- 
ages §25(1 ])cr da}' to the hand with a rocker. 

W. Knight iV Co. are crushing the hardest of the 
quartz with arastras. At jn-esent thej- are running 
two, which j'ield an average of §4(1(1 per day each. 

At Walker IJiver the miners are all doing well, 
the only drawback to their ])rospcrily being a scarc- 
ity of j)rovisions. It is strange that our business 
men do not keep them better su])])lie(i. 

And again from the same paper of the ensuing 
August 13th: — 

More (toLn. — The excitement about the Washoe 
and Cold Hill mines continues unabate<i. Comstock 
& Co., at the latter place, are literal!}' digging gold 

by the panful. Another company known as the 
California Companj-, have an extremely rich claim 
at the same place. It is stated that this claim 
yields as high as .?30(J ])er daj- with a rocker. 

Gold has also been found in considerable <|uanti- 
ties in Honey Lake Valley, and there is every reason 
to believe that the eastern slope of the Sierra will 
shortly rival the golden foot-hills of the West. 

THE first quartz .MILL. 

The news of the valuable discovery of gold-fields 
in western Utah spread rapidly, and reaching Cali- 
fornia, Hugh Logan and John P. Holmes came over 
from Nevada County, in that State, to see what 
foundation existed for the rumors. Becoming satis- 
fied that a mine had been discovered, these gen- 
tlemen purchased an interest in the Gold Hill loca- 
tion, south of the divide, on the thirteenth of July, 
just one month after Penrod had written out the 
first notice claiming the Ophir property as a 'quartz 

Mr. Logan immediately started for Sacramento, 
where he purchased of the Union Foundry, a small 
mill, with mortar, and four stamps of 400 pounds 
I each, with a horse-power to run it. In three daj^s 
it was ready, and shipped on wagons drawn by 
twelve yoke of oxen and eight horses, under charge 
I of John Black. The machinery arrived at Gold 
Hill the last of August; but as the water had all 
dried up at that ])lace it was taken to the Carson 
River, at the mouth of the canon where Dayton 
now is. The batterj- blocks and posts for it were 
cut just over the ridge east of Gold Hill. Early 
in October the mill was started by horse-power, 
and continued to crush quartz until closed down 
by the winter storms, because there was no lumber 
in the countrj- to cover it. 

Castings for a water-wheel, to run the machinery 
had been ordered from t'alifornia, but coming too 
late were snowed in on the mountains and did not 
amve until the next summer. 

This was the first quartz mill jmt up or running 
between the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
and consisted of a four-stamp battery with blanket 


None of the parties having an interest in the lode 
knew of its containing anj'thing of value except gold 
until sometime in Jul}-, the knowledge being finally 
obtained in the following manner: — 

A rancher named W. P. Morrison, living on the 
Truckee Meadows, visited the new discovery and 
carried away through curiosity some of the suljihur- 
ets that having bothered the miners in washing for 
gold they had thrown away as worthless material. 
Morrison's former residence had been Nevada City, 
California, and in ros])on.i?e to a business call he went 
dii'cctly to that i>lace, where in company with J. F. 
Stone, ho visited the Journal office on the twenty- 
fourth of June, giving an account of where it had 
















been obtained. It all resulted in turning llie gnmplc 
over to an assaj'cr, named J. J. Ott. for a test, who 
demonstrated that it contained SI, 505 in gold and 
S3,19G in silver, making a total value of 84,701 per 
ton. Another test was made with similar results by 
an assayer named Melville Atwood, in Grass Valley, 
California, and there could bo no longer a doubt as 
to the value of the material that was being cursed as 
an obstruction and east away as worthless by the 
Utah miners. As to the immediate result upon the 
imagination and consequent influence upon the 
actions of making the discovery. Ban i)e Quille 
writes: — 

The excitement by no means abated when they 
were informed bj^ Jlr. Morrison that there were tons 
and tons of the same stutt" in sight in the 0])ening 
that the Ophir Company had already made in the 
lead. It was agreed among the few who knew the 
result of the assay that the matter should for the 
time being be kept a profound secret; meantime 
the}' would arrange to cross the Sierra and secure 
as much ground as possible on the line of the newly 
discovered silver lode. 

But each man had intimate friends in whom he 
had the utmost confidence in every respect, and 
these bosom friends soon knew that a silver mine 
of wonderful richness had been discovered over in 
the Washoe country. These again had their friends, 
and although the result of the assay made by Jlr. 
Atwood was not ascertained until late at night, by 
nine o'clock the next morning half the town of Grass 
Valley knew the wonderful news. 

Judge Walsh and Joe Woodworth packed a mule 
with provisions, and mounting horses were off for 
the eastern sl()])e of the Sierra at a very early hour 
in the morning. This was soon known, and the 
news of the discovery and their departure ran like 
wildfire through Nevada County. In a few days 
hundreds of miners had left their diggings in Cali- 
fornia and were flocking over tlie mountains on 
horseback, on foot, with teams, and in any way that 
offered. Many men packed donkej's with tools and 
provisions, and going on foot themselves trudged 
over the Sierra at the best speed they were able to 

When news began to be received in various parts 
of California from the first |)arties of these adven- 
turers U])on their arrival in Washoe, their reports 
were confirmatory of all that had before been said 
and imagined of the new mines, and an almost 
unparalleleil excitement followed. Jliners, Ijusiness 
men and cajiitalists fiocked to the wonderful land of 
silver that had been found in the wilderness of 
Washoe, be^-ond the snow}- peaks ol' the Sierra. 

The few hardy, first prospectors soon counted 
their neighbors b}' thousands, and found eager and 
excited new-comers jostling them on every hand, 
))lanting stakes under their very noses, and running 
lines round oi- through their brush shanties as regard- 
less of tlieii' presence as though they were Pah-l'tes. 
The handful of old settlers found tluMuselves 
strangers almost in a single day in llicir own land 
ai\d their own dwellings. 

There were numerous sales of mining claims almost 
daily, at what then were thought hiicli |iri<'es, and 
the huridi'eds who were UM|irovided willi money with 
which to ])urchase mining ground, swarmed the hills 
in search of ledges that were still undiscovered and 
unclaimed. The whole country was supposed to bo 

full of silver lodes as rich as tbo Comstock, and the 
man who was so fortunate as to find a large, unoccu- 
jiied vein, containing rock of a color similar to that of 
the Ophir, considered his fortune made. 

Many who came from California know nothing of, 
and cared less, for any mine except i)lacers, and 
when it was found that all such had been worked 
before, or were already in the possession of others, 
they returned in the fall disgusted to the gulches 
thej' had abandoned in the rusli to Washoe. 

Others who deemed themselves more fortunate, 
having located something or purchased an interest of 
those who had, remained; prodigal in what means 
they possessed and happy in what thej- believed the 
coming summer would reveal to them, when capital 
should come with the spring from over the mount- 
ain for investment. They lived in tents, brush 
houses covered with dirt, burrowed into the rocks 
and tunnels by twos, half-dozen or twenty together 
as congeniality, interest, or necessity assorted them, 
and passed the most dreary, comfortless, severely 
cold winter ever known in Nevada, warmed by scant 
wood and cheered only by a golden hope in the 

Snow commenced falling on the twenty-second of 
November. It continued through the daj' and 
repeated itself with slight intermission until from 
five to six feet of the white fleece carpeted the 
ground, effectually closing out for a time communica- 
tion with the outside world. 

Many cattle and animals of various kinds perished 
in the country during the winter; and though no 
instance was known of a white man starving, Dan Do 
Quille affirms that the stomachs of man}- had fre- 
quent holidays. 

Having followed in 1859 the development of min- 
ing interests in western Utah, and camped upon the 
" honest miner's" trail until they are securely cor- 
raled in snow, perhaps it will be safe to leave them 
there for awhile and return to the ])olitical history 
of Carson County. 



Resume of Political History — IJulos .tiiil Regulations — A 
Conviction ami Enr-C'ropping — Tliu Tliinl Unsuc- 
cessful Attempt at Territorial ()ri;anizatit>n — Kac-sim- 
ile of '• Torritorial Kiit riirise," .Inly .'10, I8">".t — IXvlara- 
tion of Cause for .Separation — Kleetion anil .Ailoption 
of Constitution, Septi'mlier 7, 1 S.V.I— .Miisser certilies to 
Results of the Klei-tiou — .\uotlier Attempt to KeorKanize 
Carson County l>y •'"'•ne ■'• S. CliiUl — Carson County KI«o- 
tion Returns of Oetoher, l.S.V.I — .\tteuipt at Provisional 
(Jovernnient — Provisional l,eKislat«re Mwt ami Ailjourn — 
(iovenior Itoop'.s Messa;;e — .M'ter the Ailjinirnnient. 

It has alreaily ln'cn noted that in l.S.")S an attempt 
to reorganize civil government in Cai-son County 
had been made by the appointment ol' John S. 
Child, Probate Judge, who had called a special elec- 
tion, tiiat was held on the thirtieth of October, 
that year. The next loot-print of an attempt at 


government is found in Gold Hill, made one or two 
days before the Comstock Lode was discovered. 
The miners, because of the rapidly-increasing pop- 
ulation centering about the place where the rich 
placer gold deposits had recently been found, be- 
came impressed with the importance of having some 
well-defined, recognized rules of action for guidance, 
in the absence of anj- operative, regularly consti- 
tuted civil government to rely upon in case of 
extreme emergencies. Consequently, they assem- 
bled on the eleventh of June, 1859, at Gold Hill, 
and adopted laws, of which the following are some 
of the most important: — 

Whereas, The isolated position we occupy, far 
from all legal tribunals, and cut off from those 
fountains of justice which every American citizen 
should enjoy, renders it necessary that we organize in 
body politic for our mutual ]irotection against the law- 
less, and for meeting out justice between man and 
man; therefore, we, citizens of Gold Hill, do hereby 
agree to adopt the following rules and laws lor our 
government: — 


Section 1. Anj' person who shall willfully and 
with malice aforethought take the life of any person 
shall, upon being dulj' convicted thereof, sutier the 
penalty of death by hanging. 

Sec. 2. Any person who shall willfully wound 
another shall, u])on conviction thereof, suffer such 
penalty as the juiy may determine. 

Sec. 3. Any ])erson found guilty of robbery or 
theft shall, upon conviction, be ]iui)ished with stripes 
or banishment as the jury may determine. 

Sec. 4. Anj- ])erson found guilty of assault and 
battery, or exhibiting deadlj- weapons, shall, upon 
conviction, be fined or banished as the jury may 

Sec 5. No banking game under any considera- 
tion shall be allowed in this district, under the pen- 
alty of final banishment from the district. 

The rules thus adopted were recognized but a 
short time, the rush from California in August and 
September having swept them, with all else that 
partook of the past, into chaos and obscurity. But 
one incident seems to have been remembered of anj- 
attempt that year to punish for an offense, and this 
occurred in August, when a couple of thieves were 
caught in Washoe Valley with a yoke of stolen 
oxen. Their names wore given as George liuspas 
and David Heisc; and a jurj' of citizens ordered an 
ear of each cut off, which being done, they were 
recommended to travel west for their health, and 
they traveled. 


The movement set on foot in 1857, previouslj- 
detailed in this work, failed of achieving the desired 
result. The desire for a separate government, how- 
ever, had not failed with the |)lan. It is evident 
that the feeling of hostility existing between Mor- 
mons and other citizens of the United States had 
not been allayed in 1859, and that it was proposed 
to U80 that feeling of unfriendliness as a leverage 

by which to yet procure a Territorial organization 
for the western portion of Utah that would not in- 
clude Salt Lake ('ity. There were men cast of the 
mountains in 1S59 who were politically ambitious, 
and they gave direction to the popular feeling by call- 
ing a mass meeting for the sixth of June, that year, 
at Carson City, to take such action as would be 
best calculated to open the Territorial question 
again. That meeting apportioned Carson County 
into voting precincts, called an election for July 14th 
to choose a Delegate to visit Washington, and pro- 
vided for a convention to convene at Genoa, on the 
eighteen of July, to count the votes for Delegates, 
give the successful candidate his credentials, and 
take such other, not well-defined, action as the 
emergency demanded. They also called a Nominat- 
ing Convention of regularly-appointed Delegates from 
the various precincts, to meet at Carson City on the 
twentieth of June, whose only duly was to place in 
the field candidates to be elected, at the same time 
with the Congressional representative, as Delegates 
to the (ienoa Convention. 

The miners of Gold Hill, at the first meeting over 
held on the Comstock, by the following action 
joined in this movement: — 

At a meeting of the miners of Gold Hill, held on 
Saturday, June 11, 1859, A. G. Hammack was 
ap))ointud Chairman, and V. A. Houseworth, Secre- 
tary. The Chainuan briefi}' ex])lained the object of 
the meeting, after which. Judge t'rano in a brief and 
cogent speech, gave an account of his labors and 
exertions as Delegate of Nevada to Congress. 

On motion of V. A. Houseworth, it was unanimously 
resolved that we fullj- indorse the citizen's proceed- 
ings of Carson City, on June Olh. 

On motion of B. F. Little, it was unanimously re- 
solved that the Chair ajipoint five Delegates to meet 
atCarson City, Kagle Valley, on June 2ilth. to appoint 
Delegates of this distriet to be elected by the people, 
to the Convention to be hold at Genoa, Carson Val- 
lej-, on the eighteenth day of July ensuing, to consider 
the public good. 

The Chair a|)pointed V. A. Houseworth, J. A. Ors- 
burn, James K. Rogers, L. S. Bowers, and Captain 
A. 11. Parker, said Delegates. 

It was unanimously resolved that we, the miners 
of Gold Hill, in demonstration of resjjcct to Judge 
Crane, hold that his manly and distinguished services 
as Delegate to Congress, entitles him to our highest 

The mass meeting having boon held six or seven 
ihiys before the Comstock Lode was discovered, and 
the election following on the fourteenth of July, 
thirty days after the discovery, and before it was 
generally known that silver was a part of its wealth, 
full}- establishes the fact that this was a political 
move by the settlers of the country, and not by an 
irresponsible transient population without fixed or 
well-defined purpose. On the contrary, it was the 
influx of such a class that later swept away this half- 
com))leted governmental fabric. 

The Convention, elected on the fourteenth, met at 
Genoa, on the eighteenth, and after a nine days' 



session inljouniod on the twoiUy-oit^hth, its proceed- 
ings being ])rintod in tlio Territorial Enterprise of the 
tliirtioth. all in July, 1859. 

i'\)rluniitely a copy of this j)iiper has been pro- 
served, brown with age, and wrinkled and worn by 
handling. Desiring to preserve a sample of a paper, 
b}' lajise of time so valuable to history, a pholograph 
of the original was taken, producing a fae-simile, in 
dimensions fitted to the size of the book, and is pre- 
sented on pages (')!)-72, a memento of the past. The 
original was on jiaper twentj' bj' twenty-eight inches, 
of poor quality, and the press work was carelessly 
done, all of which the 8ample"shows. Besides giving 
in detail the proceedings of the Convention, it con- 
tains many names of the pioneers, and the leading 
men of that time. 


The following adilress by the C'onvention is in some 
respect an exaggerated statement of the condition of 
affairs at that time, and causes leading the people to 
ask for a separated government: — 

Wheue.vs, wo, the citizens of the proposed Terri- 
tory of Nevada, considering that we have sutfered 
from a scries of internal and external evils of so 
grave a nature, as to remlor forbearance a virtue no 
longer, and believing -that the time has now arrived 
for us to take some permanent action upon our future 
well-being as a people, and believing further that a 
plain statement of the causes which have impelled 
us to take this course, will convince a candid and un- 
prejudiced public, we would therefore state: — 

That a long train of abuses and usurpations on the 
part of the Mormons of eastern Utah, towards the 
people of Western Utah, evinces a desire on their 
pari to reduce us under an absolute sj)iritual des- 
potism. Such has been our ])atient sufferings, and 
such is now the necessity for dissolving all political 
relations which maj' have connected us together, 
and we deem it not onl^- our right, but also our duty, 
to disown such a government, and such a people, and 
to form new guards for our future security. 

We would charge upon the Mormons a gross viola- 
tion of the organic Act creating the Territory of 

They have declared themselves hostile to the Con- 
stitution, Government and Institutions of'ourcouiitr3\ 

They have refused to submit to its laws, while 
they have, whenever it suited tliem. claimed protec- 
tion under these laws. 

They iiave denied to the judges of the United 
States a right to try in their court the violators of 
the law, when such violations were numerous. 

They have so managed lij- their legislation, as to 
defeat justice, protect criminals, and render the laws 
and the authority of the United States, in Utah 
Territory p.void and of no effect. 

They have conferred powers on their Territorial 
Marshals, so extensive as to render void ihc au- 
thority of the Marshals of the United States, in all 

They have conferred U|)on Probate . Judges the sole 
right to select juries in civil and criminal cases, in 
violation of all law and all ])rccedeiit. 'I'hey have 
also given to said .Judges, and .Justices of the I'eace, 
absolute jurisdiction in all civil and criminal cases. 

They have made all laws existing under the em- 

bryo State of Deseret, binding upon the people of 
this Territory, and in defiance of the laws of the 
United States. 

They have, by an Act of the Legislature, declared 
all unmarried men ineligible as jurymen, unless they 
have resided in the Territory two years. 

The}- have imbued their hands in the blood of our 
citizens, while the}' were peacefullj' ])Ursuing their 
way across the continent, and have deprived them 
of their property without due course of law. 

They have jjoisoned the minds of the Indians 
against us, forced us frequently to open war with 

We have ])etiti<jned them to redress and protect us 
in our right, but our ajijjcals have ever been treated 
with disdain and neglect. To continue the connec- 
tion with Utah longer we fear would involve us in 
treason and rebellion to our country. 

We further consider that the danger, difficulty of 
transit and ex])ense of communication with the seat 
of the Territorial Government of eastern Utah, of 
themselves valid reasons to induce us to form a sep- 
arate Territorial organization. 

We have appealed for assistance to California, but 
she has declined to aid and protect us, because we 
were without the jurisdiction of the Slate. 

We have for the last two ye;»rs invoked Congress 
to erect for us a Territorial Government, and that 
body has been deaf to our appeals. 

Therefore, believing in the rectitude of our inten- 
tions and believing the time has arrived, we make 
known and declare our entire and unconditional 
sejiaration from eastern Utah. 

To provide for and secure our future protection, 
we pledge to each other our sacred obligations, to 
erect for ourselves a Ten-ilorial (iovei-nment, founded 
upon the Re])ublican iJriMciples of the Constitution of 
the United Slates, and that we will maintain and 
defend it to the best of our ability. And we look to 
the support and protection of the Federal Govern- 
ment, and our fellow-citizens in every part of the 

TEMBER, 1859. 

Having decided to assume tho rcs])onsibility of 
taking the preliminary steps incident to the organ- 
ization of a provisional government, and trust to tho 
future for a recognition by Congress, the Conven- 
tion framed a Conslitulion to be submitted on the 
seventh of the ensuing September, to a vote of the 
people, and an election was ordered at tho same time 
to fill the various offices created by it. 

The election returns wore not preserved, and a 
consequent obscuritj- surrounds tho result, but an 
indication may be obtained from the following: A 
resident of Genoa, in writing to tho Semi- Week/;/ 
Oti(cryer of Placcrvillo, California, gives tho vote of 
Genoa and Carson, as follows: — 

Genoa. t'lirsoii City. 

For Constitution 38 121! 

Against Constitution 12 5 

For Governor, Isaac Hoop 46 121 

For Governor, John A. Slater. . 1 4 

Soc. of State, A. S. Dorsey 47 121 

Auditor, .John I). Winters 43 115 

Treasurer, 1$. L. Kiujj 47 124 



The above, with (lie exception of Dr. Slater, were 
probably clecti'd; but none of tbein were ever called 
upon to servo except Governor Hoop. From a news- 
paper clip, found in the Governor's scrap book, it 
appears that the majority for the Constitution was 
about four hundred votes. The following election 
certificate tells its own tale: — 


I, J. J. Musscr, President of the Constitutional 
Convention held in Genoa, in July, a. d. 1S.")0, and 
Chairman of the Hoard of Canvassers aiijiointed bj- 
that Convention to canvass the votes cast at the elec- 
tion for otticers under the said Constitution of Nevada 
Territory, held throui;hout said Territory, on the 
seventh day of Se]Ucmber, a. p. 1S.")0, do hereby 
certify, that the said Board of Canvassers failed to 
meet at the a|)pointed time and place to discharjie 
the duties assij^ncd to them. 1 further certity that 
the votes cast at said election were received by me, 
and that I have examined and cast up the vote of 
said election returns that came to me unsealed, from 
which 1 do hereby certify that a hirye imijority of the 
votes cast on that occasion were in favor of the Con- 
stitution, and also that Isaac Koop was elected Gov- 
ernor of the said Territory by a large majority. 

J. J. MussER, 
Pres. Con's Convention, 

Carson Cit}', December 12, 1859. 


Immediately after the foregoing election, John S. 
Child held a session of Court at Genoa on the twelfth 
of September, with P. II. Lovel acting as Clerk. 
This was the first legal Court held in Carson County, 
after April 13, 1857, when Charles Loveland presided, 
just before the Mormons left for Salt Lake. Judge 
Child found no business before the Court, and 
adjourned until the next day. Pursuant to the 
adjournment the Court convened, and still no busi- 
ness; but the third day's session was rescued from 
monotony by the appointment of \V. P. Morrison as 
Coroner, authorizing him to officiate in an inquest to 
bo held upon the body of John Buckley, who had 
been killed at Virginia Citj*. On the fifteenth, six- 
teenth, and seventeenth, the Court adjourned for 
want of business, and none seems to have presented 
itself until the nineteenth of October, when Mrs. 
Rebecca A. Bristol filed an application for divorce 
from Kssic C. Bristol, that resulted in her getting it, 
and this was the only case tried in 1S59. A Coro- 
ner appointed and a divorce granted was the sum 
total of Court ]irocedure that j'ear. 

Judge Child had become anxious to restore the 
organization of Carson County, and give to it a legal 
existence in all its functions. The necessity for 
this was becoming daily greater, because of the i 
rajiidly augmenting population, as well as the < 
increasing value of mines and other property. In [ 
pursuance of this design, the Judge, after dividing 
the count}- into ten precincts, called a special elec- 
tion to be held on tho eighth of October to till the j 
various county offices. Out of tho ton precincts but 
threo, Carson, No. 2, Gold Hill, No. 5, and Walker 

River, No. S, opcjned any polls. The following are 
the returns fi-om those j)reciiicts: — 


OCTOBER, 1859. 



No. i 

No. 5. 


No. S. 

Total for 

C. II. Fountain 




J. C. Jones 



S. \V. Sullivan 

R. M. Anderson 



Total Precinct Vote. 

t!8 1 100 1 18 



W. C. Armstrong... 




L. Drixley 

K. Lambe 

J. M. Luther 




E. C. Moi-se 




J. Farewell . . . 



R. Abernathy 


Total Precinct Vote. 






II. Van Sickle. .. . 


"is " 


L. A. Smith... 

J. M. Ilenry 






J. F. Long.. 
P. C. Rector. 





William Justice, elected Justice of the Peace, Gold 
Hill; Alexander White, elected Constable, Gold Hill; 
Thomas Knott, elected Justice of the Peace, Carson 
City; Gocrge Wilder, elected Constable, Carson City, 

The returns were certified to as above on tho 
twenty-fourth of September, by P. H. Lovel, County 

Upon receipt by the Utah (iovernor, A. Cummings, 
of the election returns, ho forwarded commissions 
dated November 15, 1859, for tho successful candi- 
dates, with the following expressions, to the t'ounty 
Clerk, P. II. Lovel. He presumed the matter would 
eventuall}' have to submit to a legal investigation, as 
there was no authoritj- for calling the election; but 
as he was anxious to aid in organizing, he had for- 
warded the commissions. 

On tho ensuing fourth of Juno, Judge Child ad- 
dressed the following communication to Armstrong 
and Drixley, who had been elected Selectmen : — 

" I urge upon you the necessity of appearing 
immediately and taking the oath of office, from tho 
fact that with the po])ulalion now within the limits 
of Carson Countj- it is indispensably necessary that 
we shoii!tl hat'e some law." 

None of the parties elected accep'ed the ]iositions 
they were selected to fill, consequently the only 
legally authorized county officials in what is now 
Nevada, in 1859, and up to August 6, 1860, were J. 


'. V^ , t 

y:j^yA / e ir r^ { 


Hon. James F. Hallock 

Is the present Con trollcrol" Novada, the fiiumeial tri- 
bune of the State roveniios and expenditures. Chanc- 
inj? at his office, in the fall of 188(1, the writer obf^orved 
a book, of something over 40(1 pages, that boru the 
title of a "Brief Sketch of the Ilallock Ancestry in 
the Ignited States." Turning the leaves we asked 
the genial State official if tien. U. W. Ilalleck, who 
for some years during the Ivebetlion commanded the 
Union armies, was not a relation of his, and he 
replied that such was not the case. Continuing to 
turn the leaves, however, we came directly upon the 
name of that distinguished General, and asked our 
friend his reason for denying his kin. He replied 
that it was the first time he had liecome aware of the 
relationship and that he bothered himself but little 
about either his ancestry or distant kinsman. We 
continued to turn the leaves and found that the sub- 
ject of this sketch was the direct descendant on his 
mother's side — whose name was Mary Fanning — 
from Dominicus Fanning, who was Mayor of a city 
in Ireland under 'the reign of Charles the, and 
was taken prisoner at the battle of Drogheda in 1640, 
all the balance of the garrison being put to the 
sword. Finally this old Irish hero was beheaded by 
order of Cromwell; his head being put upon a pole at 
the entrance of the principal gate to the city, and his 
property' confiscated, because when Charles I. made 
a proclamation of peace, Dominicus advised the Irish 
council not to accept it unless the British Govern- 
ment would first secure to his people their religion, 
their ])roiierty and their lives. 

Turning to the lather's side, we noticed that I'eter 
Ilallock, the ancestor of those of that name in 
America, was one of the thirteen pilgrim fathers, 
who in l(j40 fled from civil and religious oppression 
in England, and landed in New Haven. All along 
down the lino are the names of those who have 
fought and fallen for the IJopublic, among the most 
conspicuous of whom appears the name of Gen. II. 
W. Halieck, who went from California to the tented 
field (luring the late llebollioii, and eventuall}- became 
the commander of all the Union armies. Hut as our 
friend remarked that he cared but little for all this, 
we skip much of it that would he interesting, and 
pick up the thread of his own checkered destiny at 
its dawn. 

Born of humble parentage, his father being a small 
farmer at Moriches, on Long Island, New York, his 
life datOB from that place and the twenty-fourth of 

.March, is:!."!. His earl)- years were spent in attend- 
ance at school and helj)ing his father, until seized 
with an uncontrollal)le desire to see the world, he 
went to sea when but eighteen years of age, and was 
absent for three years, when returning to his homo 
he was induced to abandon an ocean life and become 
a dry goods clerk in Brooklyn, I^ew York. 

In 1855 he sailed for San Francisco, where, upon 
his arrival, a couple of months were spent in coasting 
in a brig belonging to a friend, who oflcred him the 
l)Osition of Captain of it, or to furnish monej^ to start 
in mercantile business with; both generous ofl'ei-s, 
however, were refused. The mining mania had 
taken full possession of him, and nothing short of 
"a cot in some vast wilderness" would do. The 
next three years were devoted to an unsuccessful 
search, along the eastern bank of the river for Alad- 
din's treasures. During that time, one of his most 
extensive operations was to shift the course of the 
middle fork of the Feather River, with a dam, and to 
this day, when reminded of the fact, ho is enthusiastic 
in continuing to damn that place and enterprise. 

In Jlay, 1858, he joined the throng that left in 
pursuit of the Frazer River ujnisfntuus, and came 
back in the fall to Camptonville, Y'uba County, Cal- 
ifornia, with a purse that looked like the seven lean 
kine spoken of by the Evangelist. 

In May, 18()0, he first visited Nevada, his com- 
panion l)eing the since notorious Azberj' Harpon- 
ding, who was arrested on the eve of an attem|)t to 
sail from San Francisco, with a letter of nuinim from 
the Southern Confederacy, to prey upon the Amer- 
ican shipping on the Pacific Ocean. At the time 
they arrived in Nevada, in ISIKI, the rahrte \Var 
was in progress; but they continued, without inter- 
ruption, their prospecting in the hills, now known 
as Peavine District, in Washoe Count)'. The same 
year he returned to California, and engaged in mer- 
cantile business at Ih'andy City, in Sierra County, 
where he remained until 1868. This latter year ho 
again tried his fortunes with a mining excitement 
that lead him, this time, to the Owyhee country, from 
where he returned with the usual results. 

On the twelfth of February, 1S(!4. ho arrived in 
Austin, Lander (bounty, and ibrming a copartner- 
ship with two other persons, commoncod work upon 
a mining prospect. An unsophisticated capitalist 
came along one day atid )>aid the three men 81,000 
each for their hole in the ground. When the verdant 

purchaser had pasBcd beyond hearing distance, and 
the partners came fully to realize the singular freak 
of fortune that had dumped this money at their 
door, one of them expressed the astonishment and 
feelings of them all at the strange, unexpected, 
unaccountable transaction by remarking, -'Let us 

Mr. Hallock invested his proportion of the funds 
obtained from the sale of the prospect in a grocery 
business at Austin, where he remained until August 
1, 18G8, when he located at Treasure City, in White 
Pine Countj-. For :i year — in connection with 
Charles V. Meyers — a successful mercantile business 
was transacted, after which tlie}^ were overtaken 
by business misfortunes. Their failure was caused 
h}- having a large stock of merchandise on hand 
when the railroad commenced bringing goods at 
reduced freight rates into eastern Mevada, com- 
bined with the sudden collapse of the mining excite- 
ment in that part of the countrj-. 

While everything was prosperous with Mr. Hal- 
lock he was married to Miss Sarah L. Currie, of 
Virginia City, on the thirtieth of November, 18G8; 
and the young bride went to her new home with a 
heart filled with fond hopes of passing her future 
years over a life path covered with the rose tints of 
happiness. Yet three of them had not come and 
gone before the young mother, summoned by the 
dark messenger, with a parting prayer for her hus- 
band, and kiss for the infant boy, passed out into 
the shadows of the mysterious unknown. Hundreds 
of miles lay between the dead mother and her girl- 
hood's home: but Mr. Hallock determined to take 
her to that place for burial. No stage company 
would take the pale sleeper as a passenger, and he 
was forced to charter a stage for that purpose. 

With the cold, inanimate form of the once beautiful 
and loving wife, lying in her coffin, fastened to the 
seat beside him; with the little child calling for its 
dead mother, and sobbing in his arms; with the 
long lonesome miles of dreary deserts that lay 
between bim and the grave that awaited his dead, 
he started, with no companion but the driver, the 
little motherless babe, and his grief, to carry the 
dead wife to her father's home. It's all a sad picture, 
sadder than tears, but from out the background 
appears the fact, that such acts as these come only 
from promptings of a kind heart, true in its affec- 
tion, constant in its allegiance, generous in its 
motives; and from such we would choose our friends. 

Mr. Hallock, after the death of his wife, visited 
his home in New York, and taking his little bo)- — 
whose name is James C. — left him there with his 
grandparents. After an absence in the East of 
about one year he returned to Nevada, and, in Octo- 
ber, 1872, settled in Pioche, where he became book- 
keeper and collector for the Water Companj- of that 
place, and Secretary of the Alps Mining Company. 

In 1878 he was placed by acclamation upon the 
Republican ticket as a candidate for State Controller 
of Nevada, and was elected to that position for a 
term of four years. 

As a State guardian of public receipts and expend- 
itures he has had no superior in those who have 
filled that position in this State. 

His Controller's report of 1881 is an exhibit of 
the subjects treated that showed the skillful work of 
a master mind, a fact acknowledged by those com- 
petent to judge; but it carried within it the seeds of 
his political death, for the railroad will never for- 
give his expose, in the interests of the people, of their 
short-comings in this State. 



S. Child, Probate J uil.,'0 ; P. II. Lovul,* Clerk ; S. A. 
Kinsey, Recorder ; P. C. Rector, appointed Survoj-or, 
Jlarcli 1, 1800; D. G. (iioyd, Road Coinmissioiu'r, 
appointed in February, ISlit) ; A. Kiniie, ai)pi)iiited 
Road Commissioner, February, 18C0 ; James White, 
appointe<l Road Commissioner. April, ISOO. 

The attom]it to ori^anizo under existini^ laws hav- 
ing jiroved a failure, let us return and follow the 
eft'orl beinj; made to institute a government unauthor- 
ized b}- law. 


The organization of a separate Territori;il fiovern- 
ment had been so far perfected as tin' adoptiDii of a 
constitution and the election of otKcers and a Legis- 
lative body authorized bj' the instrument could 
accomplish such a result, as alreadj' narrated, when 
Judge Crane, the Congressional Delegate, died sud- 
denly, at Gold Hill, of heart disease, on the twenty- 
seventh of September, and was buried at Carson City 
on the following day. Another election was called 
for November 12, 1859, to fill the vacancj', when, 
according to the Sacramento Union, J. J. Miisser re- 
ceived for the position O/Ja votes, the balance being 
cast for different parties. Who those different par- 
tics were, or how man j- votes they received does not 
appear, but as Governor Roop in his message de- 
clared that Musser was " umanimously elected," it is 
safe to assume that no oiu' attempted to run in o]i])0- 
sition to him. Immediately alter a convention of 
citizens counted the vote and declared the peoples' 
choice for Representative at Washington. Mr. Musser 
started on his mission to the National Cajiital. A 
few days after his departure Isaac Roop, having been 
declared elected Governor, subscribed to the follow- 
ing oath of office : — 

Teriutorv of Nevada. J-ss. 

I do solemnlj- swear that I will support the Con- 
stitution of the United States, atid the Constitution 
of the Territory of Nevada, and that I will to the 
best of mj' ability ]ierform all the duties of Gov- 
ernor of said Territory' during my continuance in 
office. Isaac Roop. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this thirteenth 
day of December, a. d. One thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-nine. F. M. Presto.n, 

U. S. Commissioner Second Judicial District, U. T. 


The Sacramento Union contains the following in 
regard to the session of that first Legislative Assem- 
bly in Nevada:— 

[By Telegrai>li to the Sncramcnto DaHi/ Uiiinn.] 

(Jenoa, December K!, IS.')!). 
The first Legislature of the new Ti'rritory of 
Nevada met and organized last evening at the house 
o,f J. B. HIake, of (ienoa. O. II. I'iersoTi, of t'arson 
City, was elected Speaker; II. S. Thompson, Clerk; 
and J. II. McDougal, Sergeantat-Arms. 

The proceedings met with a great deal of en- 
thusiasm, (iovernor Roop <lelivered his message, 

•Succeeded iu March, 1800, (Jeorgc McXvir. 

which will be published in the 't'erri/orln/ A'"lfr/>rige 
of to-morrow. Several s|)iriti'd resolutions were 
passed, and a committee of three was appointed to 
draft a memorial to Congress to e.\|iedite the for- 
mation of the new Territorj*. The Legislature then 
adjourned until the first Monday in July, IBliK. 


To ttw, jvojilfi of icesleni Ulitli inrlitilfd w lliin the bound- 
arieg of itie pntpDsed Terrilury of iVevwl i: — 

Having been duly elected by you as Executive 
of the Provisional Territorial Government of 
Nevada Territorj-, and deeming it my duty to 
address j'ou upon the subject of our separation from 
the curse of Mormon legislation, 1 present to you 
ni}' reasons why an organization of the Pi-fivisional 
Government would at the jiresent time be impolitic. 
At the time we were compelled to assemble in our 
sovereign cai)acity to endeavor to rid ourselves of 
the theocratic rule of .Mormoiiism, we had no pro- 
tection for life, limb, or ])roperty. We had in vain 
]>etitioned Congress for relief against the unjust and 
illegal attempts of Mormons to force upon us laws 
and customs obno.xious to every American. We had 
no courts nor count}' organization, save those con- 
trolled by the sworil and satellites of the Salt J^ako 
oligarchy; our pf)litical rights were entirely at the 
will of a certain cli(iuo composed of those who were 
O])posed to the first jirinciples of our Constitution 
and the freedom of the ballot-box. Under these 
circumstances, we endeavored to relieve ourselves 
from these impositions, and believing that a Pro- 
visional Territorial Government would best assure 
us protection to life, limb, and propert}', we held our 
election, and made all necessarj' arrangements for 
the formation of a tem])orary government until 
Congress should give us justice and ])rotection. 
Since our election we have been deprived, by dispen- 
sation of Providence, of our estimable Delegate to 
Congress. James M. Crane, whose whole energies 
were devoted to the best interests of our people, and 
who carried with him to the grave the kindest wishes 
of us all, and who should have inscribed upon his 
tombstone: " An honest man, the noblest work of 

Within the ]iast few months an attempt has been 
made by .ludge Cradlebaugh to establish the Ihiited 
States I)islrict < 'ourt in this district. Coming among 
us as he did with the prestige of his noble stand 
against Salt Lake legislation, we at once yielded to 
him and his court all the respect accorded in any 
community. Rut notwithstanding all his endeavors, 
Icicked by the gooil wishes of the peojile, the so- 
called laws of Utah Territory have proved to him 
an insnrinountatile barrier. We have now en route 
to Washington as Delegate to Congress, to represent 
us and our wishes, John ,1. Musser, unanimouslj' 
elected hy the ]K'o|)le to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the derease of the lamented Crane, and in whom 
we all jilace the most implicit I'onfidence. The 
recent discoveries of goM. silver, copper, and lead 
mines have caused an influx of ])opulation totally 
unexpected at the lime of oui" late convention. 

The new imniigration is composed of the bone and 
sinew of California — of men who are disjxjsed to pay 
all due obedience to laws which extend to them a 
reasonable ])roteclion. Under the circumstances, 
but few members of the Council and House of Dele- 
gates have assembled in accordance with the call 
for their election. Now, therefore, 1, Isaac Roop, 
Governor of the Provisional Territorial Government 




of Nevada Territory, believing it to be the wish of 
the peoi)le still to relj" upon the sense of justice of 
Congress, and that it will this session relieve us 
from the numerous evils to which we have been sub- 
jected, do proclaim the session of the Legislature 
adjourned until the fii-st Monday of July, ISfiO, and 
call upon all good citizens to suj)port, with all their 
energies, the laws and Government ol' the United 

Done at Genoa, December 15, a. d. 1859. 

Isaac lioop, Governor. 


Mr. Eoop continued to assume the duties of Gov- 
ernor after the adjournment. Most of his official 
acts being noted in this work under the head of 
''The Indians, and their Wars in Xevada." The only 
other instance known of his exercising such author- 
ity being in the issuance of the following military 
commission to M. S. Thompson, now a State Senator 
from Humboldt Countj": — 

Nevada Territory, ) 

Susanville, February 1, 1860. ) 

I, Isaac Roop, Provisional Governor of Xevada 
Territory, do herebj' appoint M.S. Thom])son as my 
Aid-de camp, to rank as Colonel of Cavalry-, with pay 
and rations as such; this appointment to take effect 
from date. In testimony whereof, 1 have thi.s daj' 
and date affixed my private seal, there being no pub- 
lic seal provided. Isaac Roop, Governor. 

[L. S.] 

The efforts of Mr. Masser, at Washington, fell 
short of obtaining immediate legislation favorable 
to his constituents, and he returned to Carson Count}'. 

His influence, however, had left its impression, and 
served to give form and direction to a growing sen- 
timent in Congress inimical to leaving other citizens 
of the United States under the unfriendly juris- 
diction that had already, by the Mountain Meadow 
massacre, been demonstrated to exist in Utah under 
Mormon control. The subsequent development of 
Comstock mines, causing a large increase of popula- 
tion, but served to increase that feeling at Washing- 
ton, and the breaking out of the southern rebellion 
culminated it in the Congres.sionai Act of March 2, 
18G1, creating the Territory of Xevada. With the 
discovery of Gold Hill; with the discovery of quartz 
gold and silver mines; with the infant Virginia City 
born and named; with the consequent rush of pop- 
ulation to the new El Dorado; with the first steps 
towards reorganization of Carson County; with the 
unsuccessl'ul attempt to create a Trovisional Govern- 
ment; with a largo population struggling against 
the rigor of the severest winter ever known in the 
Great Basin; with western Utah shaking loose the 
old and putting on the habiliments of a new era, wo 
close the narrative of 1859 to introduce that of 18G0. 




Passenger Communicition »itli Californi.i — Stock-raising in 
C'arsun Valley— The Weather — Building — General Appear- 
ance — Business, Etc. — The Mines — P'irst Efforts to lieduce 
the Ores — I'olitical History Continued — Carson County 
Otficers in ISOO— County Court and Kepudtation of Debts — 
Hates of Licenses — Stock Brokers — Toll-road and Briilge 
I{;ites — First Railroad Franchise — First Court House — Ne- 
vada Invoiced in 1S60 — Business .Statistics for ISOO — Popu- 
lation of Nevada, ISUO — Nativity of Population — Deaths — 
Stock and Agriculture in 1860. 

The excitement in California had been increasing 
through the winter, and a large population waited 
on the Pacific Coast side in the spring for the melt- 
ing snows on the mountains to admit of a passage 
ovor them. Goods were shipped in the spring of 
1860 on mules that traveled for miles upon blankets 
s]>read on the snow to prevent their sinking into it. 
T!ie first goods shipped into Xevada bj' its present 
Governor, John H. Kinkead, reached the Territory 
by passing the snow barriers in this way. The 
hiirh price that the severe winter had created in 
C:ii'8on County was a leverage that caused mer- 
chants to make the most strenuous exertions to 
reach that locality at the earliest po.ssible day in 
spring; and those having no goods, lured by hopes 
of sudden wealth awaiting them, were just as eager 
to reach the "promised land." Of this latter class, 
Dan Dc Quille, in his " Big Bonanza" says: — 

At first they came on foot, driving donkeys, or 
other pack-animals, bel'ore them, or on horseback, 
rilling when they could, and leading their horses 
where the snow was soft; but soon sleighs and stages 
were started, and in some shape floundered through 
with their passengers. Saddle trains for passen- 
gers were started, however, before vehicles of any 
kind began to run, and the snow passed over was 
in man}' places from thirty to sixty feet in de])th. 

At first there was not sufficient shelter for the 
new-comers, and the}' crowded to overflowing every 
building of whatever kind in all the towns along 
the Comstock range. But houses were rapidly 
being built in all directions, and the weather soon 
became warm enough to allow of camping out in 
comfort almost anywhere. 

One of those parties who was so eager to reach 
the Comstock was not so favorably impressed with 
the country and its surroundings as wore manj- who 
vi>ited it; and the consideration of his evidence is 
important in arriving at a verdict as to the condition 
of western Utah at that time. He writes from 
Virginia City to the Jfoim/ain Democrdf, under dale 
ol' April 5, 18G0, as follows, after having passed over 
the road to that place from Placervillo in March: — 

There aro but few houses in the Valley (Carson), 
aixl at each house a few acres have been fenced in with 
sawed lumber, and these seem to have been designi?d 
for grazing purposes. 1 have not seen an agricul- 
tural imjilement since I have been in the Territory, 
and only about one acre of land plowed, or bearing 
any appearance of having been placed in a prelim- 
inary state of preparation for cultivation. I am told, 



however, that there are several good farms in tlie 
smaller valleys, back in the canons anionjj the fool- 
hills, but the ureatest portion of the valley 1 have 
seen, is entirelj- destitute of soil, beini; a loose, dry, 
coarse sand, which, with all the irrij^ation and cul- 
tivation that could be bestowed upon it, could 
not possibly be made to " s])rout a pea." Taken 
altogether, the whole country jjresents an uninvitiiii^ 
appearance, and 1 am satisfied that so far as aijricul- 
turc is conceriH'd, (.'arson Valley is an unmitii;aU'd 
hunibui^. 1 ho])e, however, that a more IhorouLfh 
investiiralion will i)rove that the sniall valleys before 
alluded to, will, when ])ul under cultivation, produce 
sufficient to meet the wants of the ])eople of western 


It is estimated that there are 10,000 head of hoi^s, 
horses and cattle in Carson and neinhl)orini^ val- 
lej's ; horses and cows are very poor, and thousands 
are to be seen iyin;^ dead all over tlie valley. They 
evidenti}' died from starvation. All the hogs I have 
seen are in good order, as thej- have ])rofited much 
b}- the numerous dead carcasses of other animals, 
but to think of a fat ]K)rk steak under such circum- 
stances, is by no means refreshing or consoling to 
my mind, and yet we have them served up at our 
restaurants, without knowing from whence they 


Ever since I have been here, the wind has been 
blowing continuall}', day and night, with double the 
intensity of the afternoon winds which ])revail most 
part of the year on Telegraph Hill and North Beach, 
at San Francisco ; and I am told that these winds 
prevail here nearly- three-fourths of the year. Snow 
has been falling here lor the past fifteen hours, and 
there is about one foot of snow on the ground, and 
still snowing. All out-door business is stopped. 


A few daj-s ago there was some little stir here, in 
the way of preparation for building. J have noticed 
some eight or ten small buildings in the course of 
construction, but some of them have been stopped 
for the want of lumber. Mearly all of the " build- 
ings " here are canvas : a few are of rough stone, and 
some of them are merely- Iwks dug in the hill-side, 
and covered over with brush and dried hides, present- 
ing moretiie ap])earance of an Indian wigwam, than 
that of a Cili/. The three fanioug cities, Genoa, 
Carson and Virginia, all put together, would not 
make a town half so large as Placerville. The ))riii- 
cipal business going on at jiresent, is eating, drink- 
ing and gambling. There are hundreds of men here 
hanging around the gambling saloons from day to 
day, not doing anything at all. Some are working 
in the mines for wages, at five dollars per day ; so 
j-ou will see that after paying four dollars a day lor 
board and lodging, they will have one dollar a day 
left. There is no demand for mechanics. Carpen- 
ters get seven dollars ))er day, when they can get 
work, but there is veiy little doing in that line, 
owing to the scarcity and high ))rice of lumber. 
Everything here sells for enormous jirices, not so 
much on account of the ready return for labor, or 
investment, as the cost of getting the articles here. 
Lumber can be bought at the mills for fifty dollars 
per thou^and and the same cnstx/oar /iiiw/ie'l i/ol/ms 
per thousand. Flour is selling to-daj- for sixty dollars 
]ier hundred^it has raised twcntj'-five dollars within 
the i)ast three days. Beef, from sixteen to twenty-five 

cents per pound; potatoes, twenty-five cents ; hay. 
I'our hundred dollars per ton. These extravagant 
]>rices cannot last long, but thej' are a great draw- 
back to the prosperity of the country at present. 


As to the extent and character of the mines, 1 am 
not a whit better iiifornie<l than before coming here, 
bift I sup])ose I must fall in with the current of |>ul)lic 
opinion here and admit that they are exceedingly 
rich, as I have not heard any one here deny that 
such is the case; meantime 1 will investigate 
for m3-8elf, and inform j-ou at the earliest o]ipor- 
tunity. I will venture the following remarks, upon 
information obtained from reliable ])arties here and 
from jjcrsonal observation. That there have been 
false statements and exaggerated accounts sent forth 
to the world in regard to the mines, there can be no 
doubt. The reports that have apjieared in the papers, 
that there have been heavy operations guiiig on here 
in the way of griiuling and smelting ore, are utterly 
false. No smelting has been done here except small 
parcels for the ])urpose of making assays. It has 
often been stated by writers from this place, that 
such and such men who have been here but a short 
time are now worth §10,000, 820,000, 850.000. and 
that a man may be poor one day, and a millionaire 
the next. But when these statements are sifted down 
to the bottom, they turn out about as follows: Mr. 

A. goes out and stakes oft" 200 feet of ground, and 
returns to a drinking saloon; he approaches Mr. 

B. and remarks. "1 have been oft'ered 8150 \)ct 
foot for my claim, but do not care to sell." 
"Ah I" saj-s B. " how much do you value j-our claim 
at?" A. replies without hesitation, ••82.")0 i)er foot !" 
B. in return makes similar statements to A. They 
drink and depart, and straightwaj' it is reported that 
A. and B. are each worth 850. OOO, when, in reality-, 
it is not known that either of their claims are worth 
fifty cents. But perhaps I have alreafly extended 
this letter much too long for your columns. I must 
close, and as soon as I have informed mj'self so as to 
write un<lorstandingly, I will give j-ou a full histoiy 
of the mines and mining operations here." 


As the miners worked into Gold Hill and ap- 
proached the main ledge, the quart/, became firm and 
required pulverizing before the gold could be taken 
from it, and it was necessary to treat the sulphurels 
in the same way. This change of condition in the 
material containing gold necessitated a preliminary 
work ujjon it that was jjertbrmed hj- an ancient 
Mexican contrivance called an arastra, which was 
used to grind the rock and sulphurets to a ]iowder, 
thus setting the gold free. Messrs. Hastings and 
Woodworth had two of these running by water- 
power on the Carson River at Dayton, in the fall of 
1859, that pulverized three tons of rock each perilay. 
The contract by which J. D. Winters, Jr., became an 
owner in the Comstock Lode, already given, shows 
that an arastra was one of the first appliances for 
reducing ore on that lode. The building of this, and 
the one constructed at the spring in Gold Hill, both 
antedated those run by water-power at Dayton. 
Then came the Logan and Holmes horso-power four- 
stamp battery ;it Dayton, and these comprised the 
reduction capacity ol' works in Nevada in 1S50. 



The following from Dr. K. B. Harris of Virginia 
City, who is now one of the prominent citizens of 
Nevada and who, prior to his arrival, had owned and 
■worked several quartz-mills in California, concisely 
states the progress made in reduction works in 

In companj' with five others in the winter of 1859, 
I fitted out an expedition for Washoe, and ]Mtched 
my tent in Gold ilill, on the s]>ot now occupied by 
the Bank of California. My visit to Gold Hill was 
not with the view of remaining, at first, but tlie 
excitement was too great to give up the new El 
Dorado, and there being no physician, 1 concluded 
to stop, test the progress of events, and, aside from 
my professional duties, canvassed well the mineral 
resources of the surrounding countrj'. I soon 
became convinced that Gold ilill (which took its 
name from the peculiar mound from which projected 
a steep bluff of rock) was rich in mineral from the 
" grass roots." 

Very little ore had been taken out, and that was 
being sent to San Francisco for reduction at gre:it 
cost, paying as high as tweiitj-five and thirty cents 
per pound, conveyed over the mountains on pack- 

The last shipment by Sandy Bowers and wife of 
2,000 pounds paid §2.200. 

The general opinion prevailing was that the ore 
could not be worked here. This was not my opin- 
ion, however, for 1 believed and maintained the theory 
that ores could be worked here in the same way as 
in California. The question of amabjuiiinliou was 
the only difficulty, owing to the silver ])revailing. 
Many contended that it required a ])rocess j-ct 
unknown to any exce|)t Mexicans, whose theories 
were a(loi)ted, but alwaj-s proved in the end too slow 
an order for go-ahead Americans. 

The "dry crushing" process was settled U])on, and 
no one would listen to the " wet crushing " theory. 
Having surveyed the whole matter of the future of 
the Comstock. and being convinced of the vast rich- 
ness of Gold Hill, I entered into an understanding 
with S.iikI}' Bowers and wife (taking as silent |)art- 
ner J. 11. Mill^) to erect a mill in connection with 
his mine (twenty feel in the richest |iart of the Gold 
Ilill (rulcli) each party to be eipial owners. 

Ever\Mliiiig was completed, ready for the signa- 
ture of Bowers to the coniract, when that was re- 
fu<ed, becau-e his at torney advised him not to give 
his mine up to a '• Yankee Dictor." The o-tensib'e 
reason tor refu-al wa< to get his own (attorney's) 
fingers into the ))ie. which lie did idtimalely, and a 
fortune, for a time, was taken from that mine. Then 
1 turneil my attention to a*'- custom mill." bein;; 
guiranteed all the rock 1 could work at SlOO per 

1 looked about me for a thorough tiu-'incss ami 
moneyed man, and luuiid both in C. II. Coover. of 
Sacramento, who b. iiiir then in (iold Hill and seeing 
"millions in it," readily Joined me. The first thing 
was to select a ■' mill--ile." I located a small stream 
of water runniiig <lown '• Crown Point Pound," and 
secured a site for the mill on the east side ol' the 
road, nearly opposite to the present Leviathan hoist- 
ing works, formerly located bj- Overman for ara.-'tras. 
On the twenty-seventh day of June, l.^tJO, we lell 
for San Francisco. We secured one of "Howland's 
nine-stamp, jxirtable, rotary batteries;'' the engine 
and boilers to run it being procured from Goss & 
Lambert, of Sacramento, all of wh'cli was ordered 

We left for (Iold Hill July 2d, arrived there at 
night on the fourth, and on the fifth, I commenced 
operations for the erection of the works. 

The machinery was freighted by ox and mule 
teams, at four and five cents per ]>ound, and many of 
the light and necessar}' articles by pack-mules at 
twenty-five cents jjer pound, A great strife was 
gf)ing on to blow the first steam whistle in the then 
Teri-itory of Utah, 

On the twentieth of July the machinery began to 
arrive, and as fast as it came I was ready to put it 
in position, and on the eleventh of August, a, .m., 1 
started the machinerj- and crushed about a half ton, 
the operation being witnessed bj* several hundred 
peo])le, anxious to see the " old pioneer mill start." 
Most of the crushed ore was carried off as souvenirs 
of the great era of a Washoe cnterjirise. 

The rock was donated by Bowers, and valued at 
about 8400 per ton. 

I procured my battery block from two j-ellow- 
pine trees, cut near Fort llamsteed in Gold Hill. 
There were three of those j-ellow-pine trees that 
were about seventj'-five feet high. Thej* measured 
in diameter nearlj- four feet at the stump, and were 
the onlj' ones to be found among the hills. 

Nearl}^ a thousand cord3 of nut-])inc wood were 
cut in the ravine where the new Yellow Jacket 
shaft is located, for which 1 ])aid for about 500 
cords of it SI. 71 for cutting and cording, and 82.50 
for i)acking; making it cost 84.25 per cord, delivered 
at the mill. T>umber was worth 8100 jjer thou- 
sand, and 1 ran my mill ncarl}- a month before it 
was covered. On the thirteenth of August I started 
the mill again, and ran continuouslj- until the follow- 
ing October on ore from the Bowers' claim (and the 
Gould & Curry, then managed by Charley Strong), 
working about one ton per twentj^-four hours. 

Finding this a losing business, and the dry dust 
destro^-ing the machinery, I resolved on the "wet 
|irocess," against the protest of many who believed 
that the mineral could be saved only by dry crush- 
ing. I soon made the change, and 1 not only in- 
creased from one ton to ten per twent3'-four hours, 
but saved thirteen dollars ])er ton more; thus set- 
tling the )iroblem to a certainty. The advantage 
was soon followed l>v Paul and others. 

As my facilities increased and other mills began 
to start, my prices fell to seventy-five dollars jier 
ton. ami in the s|>ring of 1801 fell to fift}- dollars 
per ton; then ;;iving-me a hamlsome |)rofit. The 
co-^t of working the ore was a little less than six 
dollars jier ton. 

I hired my amalgamaters for fift}' dollars and 
sixiy dollars ])er nnnith. 

Eii<;ineers lor one hundred dollars per month, work- 
ing twelve- hour shilts. 

The retorted bullion ran from fen dollars to four- 
teen dollars per ounce; but as the mine increased in 
depth, it fell, owinii to an increase in silver. 

A. B. Paul commenced to erect a mill near Devil's 
Gate some time in the spring of 1800, and I thiidc 
he started to crush ore on the afternoon of the 
eleventh or twellth of August. There was a great 
strife between Mr. Paul and mj-self to blow the first 
whistle, and crush the first ore. As the milling 
business had become ))rofilable, Coover came over in 
the winter to assist me. 

The third tnill of eight Howland Batteries (sev- 
enty-two slam s) was erected by A. 15. Paul below 
lower Golil Hill, but was not made a very great 
success. The fourth mill was liy the Ophir ("om- 
paiiy in Virginia, The fifth by Staples, in (iold 

VOL. 1. 


«if .f.T. t>nff. tlitf Hialr. 

Ctrritoriitl f nftrpcisf. 

JERNEGAN & JAMES, "'^' "i;; *;,;''•' "-L, Kh..rc;'x.Nw 

Ia j. r.itiraii, ( .iniiiiiitce uu Knolul Oii« 
ma O/.Irr t.r BkJuiw*.- 

Ti tne, CiriTjiiy or mi: .Ci^^rty- 

Ttfiv:— sj-r: U'lUCouD.iillrv nil |Vriii!i- 
i<«t.l Offici-t* <'t ,tli-j- 0.iisrei.ii.,u U-x 
t'lT" la rrwrt ai rti!l.i»..: IVvi'lent 
"r:Citit>'iii:oii, J. J, Mij*>tr, Viw I'n-v 

Un-^li A-d .!.. I,. C irr; SwMary. Ji.o.F. 

1^'"*:; A-5L«I«niSi-cfvtnrr.M. .M. Q.i:cri 

Svr^-.«..l nl-Ar..,-. A 0.' n^.niu.avl-.- . 

C. N. .\OTi;\VAKE. CJ.'.u Cvak'7 

omriidtco r;iq;l;,tivc.|. All. I inofnl itial 
\hQ n'Kir,- iijiik-lsciiiJcilJcirUj tlctU'd 
l«y oallm.nioii, 
O.Lh.. ■ ,, \rrM-. t;;.|ron.| \XV«nf, 

'* ='' lie lr» Cun'lllCl 

C"l. .'■ ,- kIio nfivr ta- 

' - 1 Ifittoi.ictillyii 

:tf' vxiiljiti- 

<v;nti"n utjdtlifir 

i>.-.icio* iiif;i,.j,'r>ur ilic same. 
Tiic rjirjiPc.vTi-. jKMirjrj. 


Ob« Vr-r .^-.„.,.™^..«,SS M 

i"« «-ti..... ,-.,*_^ ^4 ca 

T»rM ^'■■el''«......,....-.._.«.H J VJ 

airt:t Ct>nt» — — ..„ -.._^„«.,>. i>. . 


One PqWl*. 10 li-in. fir,! [sifTltM. SJ- 

Mcb ici'i-'^i.rql laoriion, $1 C'l. Du'iaPd 
C»r4t of [»« I.-i'i cr.lrit. oo^-TCifiSlS 

^"t o:c f;u»rCr 


•l;ca'j r»r lbs Ea:cr^rllr l' 
.Vnov^s imv.T ^K^-TkiYfrfTf 

A. B VDI. \ VI J. C U riAV(l>.H>.f Stc««i4[iTo 

B. M »'■ t ,.., M.R^.r.itB. 

J^C. Ki:..!.F:i' PiMinvair 

X M. « ..M.K - „.C..i'»*». 

"•C- M P\V Dl.l(««P Sf.i.r.c 

JOHN w un»;\r. (>«*■. umie. 

Constiliitional fuuviulion 

^OCCrdln?^ of ilic rtmt*cnt!on. 
^t Grnaa. Caw-Q Valley, L'..T., 

J'driuinl lo A notice Rirci ami Ju:'. 
liilKtl bj * Mak. Mctlirijr. licM ai fu; 
mn CitT. Jnne 6th, ISjD. t)ie D^le^Jl^. 
licet net ill CoiircntlO'i, anil wu caHol 
toonicrlj A. Q. H4ti)iu.ii,I;: atiiL ^n 
taoiir>n. Cul. J. J. Mii'<cr wnx clio<en 
IfiMjKtrary CUa!rijiait, auij Jno.,F. Long 
S*crctiry, I 

M.>Tr(l antl carrlnl lliat u f 
of fireU; ctcCfnl M a CoTr 
Cmlcntial*. Mf»=«rii. "Njv nf 
lti*fr, "nifo. Wii-.tcrt cf Wj ' 

AiMkT.".ioMIiii.ilK.lJt. nmi U 
l/on^ Vitll(-y, weTc ]ilacpil iiinoinnul.- 
Oi mtti.,1 of G. W. ir-i'Tv^lf'. ■ 

Vft« r-f... I f.% r .... f .- . . I .' . 

»on» •' 

knil U-.L .,:.. 

Mov.>l iii,.| o.trriwl lli«t' tlio ^ConV n 
J^ioii Mk(t A* to ^'iro tltyu (\te cui ; 
Initlci' ti» r< 

; C-Jurci-;iuj conrcoeJ pjrmnt w n - 

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W^. I I 

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TtViP*T, July lOtli. tllQf. 
C'tnrention lui-t (I'jr.ujut tu ■.IJtfcri: 


- Cc.mittcc on CrcJcntisU rrponcd a 

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■t.i;..';4 .lut (-uf^uiittto ailjiiam- 

lauive wuiil,! >3)rtf,-.t u .it (Im CVurcu- 

Nu Ti> M<oi> A calf for. • CmstltO' 
ti'Miar C<"trfiii,on. 

2'1-t T.» irraiii fjJ' jSntTpr* tu aa;.t 
C.ifitttttloii to crraiu OHJcw mi- 
•Irrtlio C^nttitmivti, »«.()le;i IIh? WhT 

Sn|. Tin^ 11.3 iif4»;/<- Crtnrtn'.; 
Wlaliii-IuiJil.rtjn.i... i^wrt* Ilirmi 

C"*u.itIUiti.ii.u| Conrt-htloii. 

4tlt. Tu nt'pou.i tl/. .Oirjcrn of ticc- 
Itnii Ift 'Iio rori'>i|« im.;iiitti 

6ilr. r-iiiit-ko l.jwt (prcrulrig lU 

rrturns of i-lK-riniif. 

Cili. T** c.ul^ltsli fl'C qnal.Ccat:oii cf 

2mI. Of.lT of Di^;(u~Ciiii-i«4 III 

Cfirmiiltcc f-r Ifivnlji'tf tlitf Tor.uUJ rc* 
lun.H r.r IMa'vtf" Iu". 

Mr, C'liiiinmn— .V^diiii-intr of TOnr 
co;iii->inw iip-i O'.Un of l;.i-Ii.p.i iu 
rtKS vt tlic u-iiUxtr-tD^ tia<uru of li.e 
call ni..|.-r wl.-rli vv grj ffl.vinl.Ii.-I, cm- 
^Mtr lliiit it i/- Ijut JiiVWmt this C'ti- 
ttiiti'iii t.ik.' lilt .tr|( ui^lrurict uf |>u'»- 
l.tni.i.,;,.,,, f.-rlvBudsIiigit (tm.M h.^ 
It ciiitliii;,'!! »t.r.utfl . Blndi w.>ciM 
ot l«j I'liriratl ;iml I^Tcnia a rteafl [.t* 
UTaiiinin; L«. ul-ollipt |!h* Cniiru'tioii 
Iiai rin r;j:I.t fi irflti'-"*T any Iiu'inc-s iif't 

drhVltp-IIyltlll JJH^ifii: tlTIJUl.y Illr 

cull, fur III no dctltt;; it i'oatJ Jir' on uii* 
w:ifniiitiil.Io ni<»;*ll of iLc tlgUta vt 
ilie T'-ojiIcnt lor^v, 

■ Wtf imilwt rno-r'dOTlnity nji'n^t 
litis Coiir^nrinn H.,|f into n 
C.if!-titoiirt.,:il C'livimiuii, 1(1.1 M(W iti 
view of llif a1.ovcjt(..'.ttori wfliOTc ti'ik.-n 
iiriil wliivli np ciiiffita to, In; torrx-it 
jiriiii nil.-«. li,i nl.,) iu^ii-w of lie fuit 
ilintfli;!! i-uc tl.J 1,11 nitir i'do i!,e 
Caiirj«», lori.ffiurji 
iu orin-r wonl*, weo« 
liail U0]tulil(i.-ia^>rp«4' 
utidiiiir* that wuuM oLlIioriip ii. In m- 
[;i"jr.llt')i't'-n; oa * >l!irr.)i.i,.| wr 
W.tlyl/i-l(irpll..iMrr wouM not U- 
rifli.Tlinj; tlie ociion r.r our immidiatc 
rvimitd.iil*. Ill cl.nnzu);: wlint we rot), 
ct-ii-c t-i t/c (lie Ii-gitimalo coaric of tlii* 

Wu Wi.uM a\to fnrriMiIy rcrco^imfiitl 
"'■■ iMLiiiutirtri of ilcr»,.. to I« 
li.til ft< »|*cilioI III otir 2..1I. tf.Icr of 
' 'i-iiicM; w« ore t.MiiiiiJul t.i t],|*. f..r 
ilii; rullitwiti- r«L»on«. wu iNliiTc it (< 

■ te a ciirn-tt i-rintijilo 10 c'ur.l in rvrtr 
|.o.Sill,'D3inicr tlic r^ulit i<t niiTfaii-, 
wc Woul^l tilr toil t.iil,^ fxrriiriw inu- 
Iiini. nitil »jir,(ni«r.U lltrowii nfrn::..! ihf 
l'«II..l Ihix ill If iiFitKc* t' l.y Inw 
oml we would BlMititi* yftii l.i ihi- na- 
Jii'foui iiLitjawK of rnui.l ollr.!.''*'! to 
liHVf U-cPi (Minnilrtitl i| » wdl rrjti- inmiiiiiiil»;i-<<Trr,-.^We nru iit<.i 
","i"'-n| |» HiMJiii-j itaPO.C"iiIHniIlro 111 
• jiitiK* III,-*,, n-iorii*. .Wiiii*e wi-Ulii »!■ 
' It iviiy mutiUr ►li"a!Jclrp n *lr\r 

■u-1'il Iol.i«co,„iiri:ft.l< uii.l he Ii.|.l 

|..f.nii,IIjr r.-f(».i..,i,iL. |,> il,i-iii f,)r dip 

: ■ 'i! ^'mt.l»(T..ii(.t of |l.i<rnlii.-i.«, 

■\ lintlienllnwn|ln.I,[.M |,iin. 

t the Bcti-.n of n rom niilpp; 

'TithBtMilinmlprpry iMyntc 

•'i.iuM U- |.|,iTvil in iKM.«rMiotn.r nil il,o 

fjcl* rcljliii;: (o the lnkiti;rof the T<.Ip« 

in PSv-li anj pf^rr prrriiipf. nil of Bbich 

ii laoet rc-jitrlfoMr »n!.iiiitlr.l. 

r. N. NOTKWAnr. 

Oi mrtlioii or \Tc. PrtKlor, the re. 

|iort« n.TC rrrritcil. 
U. ^V• Chic if.f>r«] lliat |t.o tnlii.vr 

itv r.,„.rl tw n.Ini,I...|. 

rector ni'.vrtl xn amrriil. hy 
It ihfl «or.l tiojiurily" onl 
a of " msjontj." 
n iI.f-iKtion on iho 
t, h» MniN. Nolririrf. W,I|. 
■ttl. Il»"r-nirlr. |'f,>i lor. (.'■.T. 

J Aiawir, ii,r 

ATr« — MfW. Eii;ott, JI^»(Ior.p, 

C!'C(.i.jn (3 To:f«.)'\Vi::.jt,i'. J. ll..i.ii.- 

Jcn (2 rotp*.) r-B.;;in (3. tot,*.) Ury. 
B'lt.J. Q. lt..r»rt^.>n. Ntltthtry. Il,x»| 
NVilp, A. A. Siaitli, nu-eJ'»7c WiHttr 
Lot.c. Ji.o. [}. \\ Jiitrr, Srtilc, KiyiT, 
P'Tw-y, IKij*p»orlh. StarlpTatit. Curry, 
Cboni. llamma^lt. A'n!pr-on. TpoPt-.r, 
St>"'virrJirM. Jpp.rciii. Orui'liT, llfli- 
!» rly Kt,ri .Mart <;,f„ti,,_3|. 
XdP*— M(-*'r«. Wj<»oi ( J TotM.) J. A 
■.iiiitt, Nulpwarc Farwrir. CwIJu-itt-i., 

T ni***!". Ai"-nNtl.7, Ql-aiMtlrr, t'*rt. 

WiiJr. O.Igp. CIicJk-. aiid Njp. (|'; 

TofP*)— 8,1. ' ' ^ 

^^IV^1 l,f lltrtiniftrl: ■ comraH- 
trtof IIv«l,cow-iiutn| (,| thtt C!i«:n 
inanloJf.rta Co.Miiuti'.n— poi.p,!. 

Mi-i-rn. lUmmaclc. N-jtrwarr, Kariti!', 
Si-tiltf aiitl .N'l-alc tprrr tyi-o'.iiU'd o-i ^<l 
lotnmittec. On tnnliod ..f Mr liry.nt 
Viv Cliairmaii var odilnl to tl:ecvu:ait- 
'r. ., . . 

On motltiit, Xoterarp' trnfc rel-ntcd 
rroinllitfcoiiiniltfrif 0. IV«)ltitioiii» ami 
Pa hi nit ion oitdMr. i'r.n.tor Bulisliluiid 

ill llil^jIuLV, 

Oil iimtiPii of >rr. yolfVttrr, i^t 
CIiB rniaii o|.po;i,tcj Me^r*, DT'ct, 
C'HiiliiiKloii, lCli;otr, It^^iit itTi<] Oral** 
hy, a coiniiiiiipr to draft a MtmoriaJ t 
Irt lahIT|ilt^I inCoti^'rr*f. 

On limlioii uf IjOti;;, C-it. J. J. McilCr 
wa* ftiMnl to til.' C^iJi'iiittCf." 

Ai!j"i!riif.l till tyiuorrow flWminff.B 
o«Iut.k, o..nt. 

Wc&scs-iav. Jo'jsoift., is:?.^ 

ConTeniioii lotliiarcoaat to nJlyoru' 

Ti.e CommittPf on Kcfolutlgiu r«K)H«l 
HI niT'arution. 

Oil in.'ii..n of Mr. Carrr tho trporl 

Oil m..tii.ii of J. F. Lftn-. Ihe fiTxvrl 
tf<i* rifi-rrc^l luik lo the C'riiiinftce 
u.ih injiructinn* fiora the Cunrei,!liti, 

C.Mliiiiltrp* Ott the Ci:i>tlmitnri nt:-l r.-j.rrtcU l'if>;rcu, and OjItiI 
f.prf.irlhrf tiiiif: 

Mr. IVottorrffiTr.Ilhf f-iITnirin?; 

rrnfro*. Thai :h* TrwiiT..M,L Tv- 
TrnrnuB l<a n-fiip^tHl to pulilts'i rh.- 
lirwiilii.?«i.r llii« CoiiTciitlcu In full, 
wliitit »*a« nafcfi 10. 

On in'.t:-»ti ..f Mr Cirrf. Mr. Janw. 
of the T.-ftrr[T(»R;.M. rMm't'itKr, ff3« In- 
T.tpil to takca xatiollio Coureiitioii. 
Vhirli t.r .!. t-Iinisl. 

On ini.iioii of A. 0. TTammnel. t^.p 

Ch.iir nj-i-ilnftl a puitimlrtpo of irvcn t.» 
tli'lrh-i iho 'iVrntniy into lyiii.kltPi; 
di.lflitK. cooMUiii; ..f .VM.r.. W. S 
hr^iif, IViPP Nt^ Jl. M. G*ls- 
MMrt.Sn'lh. Tpo'Itc Winter, A. U. 

IlrtlHrnnik ni.1l W. \\*4V0tt. 

Ailj.iurticvl lit liair ).ul or.6 oVIork 
p. la. I 

■^ AntRvftot itiiiiy. I 

Cmtpj.tiim net»oiiil to o'' 

nn-lif. C iiiltir« liol liriii^ >■ I 

ri|->rl. o<i m'i|i..u Ihc Coiitrttt, 
j-umtj lilt {\} taMTTtiw uiumiii^ 6 ■ 

to rcpor, i:>cy-wm)r;'rtttoSoc:o(K 
a. m. lo-aomr Bunilug to OAk* t^ 

Or. :cotioa C«irtfl::on tfljAroffl ty^ 
to-do.'ioif Doruiiiir 9 o'clodi a. ta* 

SiTtMAT, J0I7 5W. 1SS9. 

Conrpn(TOi) npt r^aant to e^fcfltt* 
racfit MiTjtpi of T:.:r*I«f iu:] friiAf 
rrfij. t•^Jbf^n5 19 C'-'cclItiUS to X'jf fz&ti 
'I'V*! Kt Aft. 

n-i-or( of Co'ara:t!(v or l^f Cw»l!l» 
ton U.'f U vriKT. A. 0. JU-zr^tK^ 
^'''." ySi"^- P^^^ra^H ^-e fPpOft,,r''-B.rM V^i^jTrvwoi 
ou m'jtl.ii ..f Mr Cai^. ■»■« rcrrfftft, 
. Ml iittr!eTtfct irotrl that l'j» rv 
port I- h-ad 110.1 tii'-pt^ tr r^Jprtw! If 
Aft..l-«nr.aS«livL» C:.Irf • L'T Irlt* o 
t;rrM.ri*r. ' 

Mr tlryanl Ciorptl that to Birfflt*f 
l<*'i..Tctta »i.«k c:-jrc tfita t»tc», 
nor l;'^rr thtn Cfc (r.tuatrt Bpoo tbv 
Kii'c wt;o I or rjo'.rcfi. orrlfO. 

TIipCy.*nfn;:tpe 01. CunitJtoiioo litft 
iTi«.r:.-!. V.',-,', ■»:- *,.•, t 

„.*^^'.-- ■ ■ ' Of«, 

•!«.' "^ " tbfl 

;:■- ^..^, 

^ Fi. «o Ajifr^ 

J t.-.i.. lu U, t« 

Trrnor irn.t Lift tttkls* 

•"■: '•.» r.r r..-., «e<) 




UJJ*. Wi, 

Viii<— E;.,- 1;. t^»,;.,i,., Chni-tt* 

(3 Tolo-,) nMli.m., J„o. n(| 

.1. O. KoljtrlM)!.. \Vm. h"i!|[l,lfr, V.acp, 
N'jlc. A. A. S.;,iih, Lo„j. J.-.r,. 6" 
W jt.ifr*. S"-!:!", K''/. p->».^T !;.-.«, 

f^Ji.. l;r..a., 
ll.c "Uce of G 
1.1 1';. or" cf 


0. w. c 

iJ.,-', .i-!l ;.">.; .u w 


■irr. T' " : - . _ ; ( 


. r- .-J ^.r t&t 

Via.— Kii Oil, l)o»i!onf. OnMnii, 

(J totr..) \V.ili>n 
'■'Ir'.) V«njl.ii c 
lt"l« rt«in, Nsil. r 

J. :r 1-. 



;'J. Slurtt. 

~irk, Son' 

(J lOtM.) 

I. CoUific- 
C«rr. Mart 
1 .\'o IIX 

TiiriuniT. JalffiUr., 19"?. 

C'nTf'i'iiii liii t i^Miiatit lo r 
mciii.,-, .,,f y,.i,„l„, „„ 
tt|'|.roTiil. TI.c or>I,-r iif luj-inf.. I 

iImI, Hti.1 tioDi* ftf tlirC'.iininiili*e W\ ,; 
rrii-ly 1.1 rijHfl, nil tii.iilu,! il.,jr wer,- 
'r-ti fiirir-r tiiiipln mill;, njxnt*. 

(1.1 i..'.!...iiil.oi:irtirii»iioii ft.Jj.tomeil 

Iu 1 dVI.kV I', ni. 
jinrr.Nftrtir iriiroT. 1 lA WV ji n. ' 

Oniti-iitOii 111. I ■ 
'i.l. Mr. N..T. . 
lillirwi 11. 

warco'i'l Aliaiiall.y,— 5 

^•. i: .<.-.-!T -o., -,:„. ,ivj^ 

' r. 

: lb* 
111 i.guna 
r-J to rtil- 

I.J„I i>-..-l. V. A. 11..,,.,^ 

"•'— 1 I. A U, lljuiTii.a I ' 
-W. «•,..«„ 2 
■• M. Ofuub; 1 

tCtc, . 

JXO l: 


Oo oglMo, comollln dlKbar^od. 

KOfUHl, Tl.-ii il.i. C..iit»il<n tfMt. 

If. .■•7.1 c..,.! ; ,, oi,alCoi.rr;iti.i(i. 
'.init all fmio 
'.inj thircto. 


|W. U JtBNKGAy. 

O.N. Xote».iro lS.n pffl.ntJ'l th. 

followlr; u t laUiUmU Ijc Itg ;i]'aIoiJ- 

T ealln), Ihf 

', n ilr.lrtn.. 
' '.J. I!..l... 

' (» TOIK.I 

' , . Abcr'.ath.. 

t 1,.-. C,.-;-. .\U,i Sc.rl.. Wadf. 
0»l:««i..l >;o{13.IJIcai_;i. 
Tl'O tnotloii aa ain.ii..',^l iI...) f^uMl 

M u (ollo'ii ' 

rl. . 


0.1 nii>ti..ii iif 
n-irfirt. «»r« rtw. ... 
ili«clij%'rd, I 

It n-i« Mj.l nrrtn] Iho »■ 
r<|...-l Lo .,.l.,|.l,..| t., iln. o...'|."i. 

II r.- 1I..I C.iri,i|i.||rc c.ii n..irr.' -' 

iI.iTiirlii.rjr Rjivtinl. &« Cot. . 

O.i molfrtfl cf sir. Curry, ttia rr- 

. rmlinl tuil UMouifliiiltlw (^H'u.^l• 


rf Mr 


'*>ri »-j« I 

Mr. X ; 

ffjvi'I K- 

' J J, 


■ trriMii 
. .1 t.'i/cnti (• 

.- (/ 

.« u> 


-« re*. 


I0.11iv.'i'w« l«.>iu.a/. iii^wca, •, o. 

r»i?ir. Jul/ su lut 

^*oot of Ibo CoiaiultlowbdDgrtad/ 


■^ (I *w 
'.1 - ■ -. . .M-'jon fi* 

llll.iu lu li>« aalar7 uf rarr.l^rlal Aqj> 

Gfrritorial "fntrrpvisfr.J 

■■ !■ ' ■ r n ir ■'•'- 

lii:>0.\.CAH-<»N VAI.I.KV. •,'. 

SJ<tir.1aT. .1 u M 3om. 185'.>. "^ "^ 

€oD!»tilntioniil (buuutioD. !; 

^ro^erdinRs of tite CnnTrnllon. , 
lit i;rii->;t I'ursoa \'allrf, t'. T., 

■ f 1 

.:n«s ai (Say be iirtttnlcJ by |tir.ii, sn-l no ptrtoo ►l-ill l-c r-.-jtwrlrd 
i:. T..L i;u»cmt.r. ScatUry. TrfO- 

I Uie>rtctitQac 

■1 fto'l ii<:f ;«rr ' 
.1 tr]Kritiuu fr. 



were ■-■. 

T. 'ijlaP^ U'»ti«cTrOTlli, 

II.. i ■■". Jernpfraii, Kirijr. 

TL ^. ;■! .-. t.-. .\..U''.I'T. Ny^ [12 roll'] 
Ff;»I.'. .O.l>'UJi. Oemjliy.j. UoIhiiMI", [3 

&ttlf, A* A . Scn'.li. ti-Ji-.m-Tlu-IiJ, Slun- 

iVjuuVi, j. j) iwi>i y\':h. Wudt. 

£>-«>*j3-0 tLitJic. 

T.t«"Cjiuii Hill oil .w.u.itlicn < dccLrcd 


tMpi^.'O'irtrrnNVy'rif Nir^.Ia, o.i.M.Icr- 
Joe I'ji'i *<i l'!>''c'>oITinSi frntii a Mrii-> 
«f )t,t-ri!ul a^H ixltjnal, /tiU .of m 
^Srt- Ti' Tiflturr-o^ tVr rf iidor f.trlh-jnincr 
€'»iftijf'"'' lorijrt f J'arnl Wit-Tiii;* tlmt 

fc;-* "" uar foiiiri 

*■ ■ \ WUt,..^ 

ev" ,., ..t.^ I'lif^"' 

ilftTbiVjjli ihci^mrlnr :iIiL- MuTit 

.■VV'-* ' '* ■' .p; k'ilc-i.'c'w"! Ili<-ir 
fi> ■ ui,ili:r'aii.ini*oIuic 

-♦■: ■ -r-.''.fit >;u!rrri [';:•, 

If,. ' 'V fijr'dU»<jl 

»i- • ' vrliiclr'niar 

liu-, , ii;Ml»eO.-i'i(i 

iTijfit .>:■;_.■ Ki'-.T -t,.;' t, I .jt tiUti iiur iluij 





ii|<j>orl eiiit |)foln-liiiti of t>i^ l-'itUral . »>« 
iwVi-.-itio-*i*t H'lJ nnr fi-lloMT-vitizciiS inl ^ ' 

ui; i^rtof lliuUir.u... ff-^'-'".' 


ri,or«liall-l>fdfier-t\V • lv.,->.'. ^u ■. 

Nu 4, ute • oiinc'lttofcn ••■ ■ '--' •■■"' 
,1 I., lli* \,^^ \,r,-, i;.-^»ln. l>i>Uiti No 6, 

..I* ^ kii^ut^: :i.i riiiLTfi Si»i-». ■ j,,.;.i,.t \-j ' our '\tiix-iitaji. ftna t"u 

■r iwii y.-«ni iii*i;l i-rrrt-Jirij- l'**l Ix-u-piU-*, Ui*io.l No 6. IKU Luuuc. 
" Ihvbral rU-ctiOn «l. 

■Af it ..ffir*, tot 
'* rXUtid 

r (Tuf- 
» Atl 


Vrriiorr ri ,n^.„ ft„o f„uf ;.rl.vatc?; Uuina No. ». K'V"''<""' 

ilrtBt-auur ■» oflice. -n F^-l. ni 
:l.c »»c.«rra. At«-iLUir rm» j-r.. 

*.ne Trnwur* li'jt m r(iii<<tj u'i»' 
|frM|ini;i<jit< tame liy Ik* ai"! 

■'•n^ti'tlit Mormotu, 
t'lv "irS'i'iic uvi. cr»;- 
'! ttimi^tlTM lio<llle 
.1 iroft-rtitiitjijt .ami 
,'uiitrj; ^ . 

- i.VBr BCftiiwt * jlic 
United St:ac.' ■' 
1 .\l/ '►ut.tiiit'to' It* 
1 Mo wl.itr t-T.-r )[ 
J liruU'L-li^:i Budt-r 

_ . i;:l.i lu rry in Oiclr 

cUiVUi'llit ti<)Iatur«'of lite law wliirii 
Ai'Ji riv1d!-ir<Vt:r« MuniioiM; 

T."-y liort- fu luatiB-ii) l.y Uicir Ifgis- 
UUiAi »«Pio tlAil jo*llw', jiroiixt crimi- 
nal', liinl iC'i'l'T tliv latfa ai>tl tht;' Qd- 
iWfify ^)T'lflf U''-:(vd Simc iu Cia!,' 
tirr'iii'Ty Xi':i\ of no vC-ct; 

TliiV lifcVtf iii.ifi-rr»sl jjfiwir* on llicU 
T<rrtu>ftul M':ni!i*ll« ••i>txiiii-!»t ci 
'r*hd^»rbl.l ttic uuUinrily of ll« MA^ 
•twIMofUc Ctiiti-d:)UU<t In oil ca.'^a. 
•JTrtr/ *^u♦3 CO ift,T>vJ ci.Oi I'roUle 
3(1.1,-e«lhp wit rijrlit tO<<rltvljuriL-«^iii 
Ciril *ii<l crirnttitl cAa-h, tiiTJnldUuti u( 
»ll Uw •ii.l" toll |.rk.>;«lciit. T'^y lia»«-' 
a1«o t^ri-ii Ul Mi'l Ju'Iq'Cs ariiJ' joitlkirt of 
Clio'I>fitL'vfab«uliitc JunUictiuii III oil civ- 
il mill rnminkl cuu-n; 

T.i.y h*vc laiilj ull Iiw* Mwtb- Jin- 
«Ier (lie ^'bi>ro OfViUTcrritury b^I Iu 
d^fiuico-cil tliu law«*ot ''tlto UuiteO 
0Ut<^t '■' ''-^ 

T'lcf liaTo by ah' bct'of Uio LfpTiU- 
{Dr*7«iiH:Iai'i-d all uiimarnnl men ii't.'K^i- 
L!ffii'1t:'Tr^'^" tri'c* tV'-y liaTB rg«cJiJ 
(:. ^' ■■ 

a". I 3nd< Id the 

ll'.y <cfc 
. ,- . . ^ . . -y oiTwii-llii; 
nC, Kiftl iiBic tjc|iri>i.-d Ihcia of 
ii,K:f-\>AjiKtlJ MItliOUt dod coQr|b''oI 

Uv !>■»-'■- 

K-i ■ - r,l7..]| oMf.c 

I : o*rn<;oml 

AllTlCLE ]—Eli<Ure I'ratiJiue, 
Slirir^s I ICvcry ffi-cw lute male |KT- 
son. .of twriii; om- yian of B;:e or ui"- 
vemd*. «lllt^)lnll liavc>l*ccti six moiitti' 
iirst prrctrtin" on clt-cliDn a rotdriit of 
llii* Ttrrtiory. Btul ilnny days a ri--iJvut 
of tlic rouniy in ivhicli h« may oCi-r to 
ciitc, noiJ Uni;; at lliv time a citizrn of 
tliv L'tiilFi] t^iuti'*. stiiill Ih' cpiitili-*! In 
VDle in oil vIi-ciIihk lnTraficr ti», U- licM. 
anil at ollfcuv-liVlfClinriotlic rnlohlialllM; baliiil; proiiilcd, chat nny citi- 
zen of lite L'nit'-O Sutt-n ami ft-»iit<-iil uf 
tiic Tcrrilnry iitjy'iole on Ilic ntlnfttiint 
•>r ttiU C»ii*lilii(i.jii.tii»luttlicrirj<t(ln.- 
tion til fill tlic uITo'x licn-in crvfiliil. 
: :;. Knry pcnnliiIiclfdorni.j«iirii«l to 
niiy t'Sci: of |>roIit or tni«t miUit Uil* Coii- 
Ktitutiun'cr laws niailo |>ur*u.iitt l!icrrIo. 
Iivfuru lie lli3ll nilrttj|Kiii tlie duli<-« cf 
ituoi oIEi,r, Ahall take uk) »>n>Mi-nbe tlir 
folluwiij^u-tlh uralliniutiuti : "I, A. U.. 
.!g»wmr tor uMrit»,-a» iliri-«»o luaylM-.J 
Hut 1 hill »Oyi>urt tlif CoiutJQEioii uf 
lliti Utiitinl SJtiiic^, a:i<I tlie Oimtilutiun 
of 'il.cT>rrii-ry uf NcrBla. n:>U tliai 1 
Will faillifJlly ixrforui all it>c du'.it-* f'l 
ttic uHiu of ■ -■ !■■ iIjo tcit of my 
ubilify." AuJ if any (itrwo rli-vtnl nr 
u|'jioiiitrd li> oSco a* aforuaiJ, -mIliII 
itt^j'kA't ur riTd^ to iskf *ai<l luih or 
aQjriiuhun williiii tb« liriu- l:i-rriiiaru-r 
l-re-tribcil, sanl vQicc lOial) La Uvi-tAnnJ 

3. Wiiciitrcr any olcc fr^-m otiTOiu* 
l>r\i'lilV iui-jiil, tuni no iiiO^Iu la fruTidaJ 
liy tUu C«u»>!iii'uji niut (»«» for lilliRi- 
tliu tVLu-, lilt) liiiTtn"^rAi'aimrc|fOK(,r 
lo fill > Viii-jmy by iiraiilin'/ » com- 
n)ife»iitii, uljicit ^liuir ikj'ire a( llm iKxt 
Awaiun ly tlic jiuj.Ic, ..r *o >«oii tlnTt- 
tif[ir B« liU(Ua»?ur aJull In tUxlctlyud 

4. Tli-ii to ))crson qIioto tlif o;x of 
lw(-iily-<iiii- yiiirn, cunTicttd of larci-nr or 

'i:Lcr iiif^uiijai ciiiu<>. unLa.^ in- rliall W 
j>ar>loiicU, iii iKTiiiialtiT iirrxiitml, kliall 
cvrr lliiTvCllcr I-: viililU-d to tote &l ony 
tlivtii'n iii ItiisTcrrilory, unrl utr (irrNOu 
UudtT f;uenli»ii*lii^ oa a iBualir. or ni a 
pQf soil lua cmpoi mt*tu, snail ba cnlillcd 
to b voir 
ARTICLE 11.— Catiuin Departmtu 

Sec. 1. 'Flic Ex:t-ulivc i»o*ir of the 
Ttrriioiy ►lall U- »t>lnJ in m Uo»fnior. 
irbOio term nf oCiro *l.till m:iiiiiciice uti 
lbi> flrot M»ii<l'iy in Umiiilnr next eri 
«tii[i;:lii« t!rt.ii".i, oil.) coii.i.iunl f.-r two 
yrar^, ami until liii •'utvotur aholl bare 

been il'-tlnl uitJ 1^1141 litii-d. 

2. Tin- Cm »l.i.ii(ni fi)r b!I oIEwraun- 
<lrr tlu« Coiisliiulibn •■Lull Ik lidd on tla- 
Cf^t \\\-dtirN<J.-«y ufiir lliD Ilfil MoiidaT 
of .Scplt-Mlnr. in tlic ytar one ttiuusm.i' 
ciiclil liuiiilri-(l anil Iilty nine, ond va t)i< 
KOiuo day ond niontli iii vftry cii-ond 
ycor tlicrt'oflcr, outil oIIiirwi*c iirucidi-d 
for by tliU Co'Htitulionurby |aW|at llic 
[■!accji of Tutingfiir DclrKoU'^tu llictiiii' 
ral Aiurmbly. Ttic clivlion ti> be lirM 
in thu fainu manner ili tlic tlcvtioii of 
l>>Ii),'atri', BiiJ till- rr1uriiilIitTtuf.nnJ<.T 
«eal, to lieodilffvSrtl tu tlic tJjuaViT ol 
iho lIouMj of |)i:Ii-|r.iti;<, and chlIikl-O 
and truiittniltftl to tlic .SitTctary uf t)ic 
iVrhlury, aiul dclirtri'd to tttg aaid 
Spi-ukcr ut ttif coRuncnccincnt of tlic 
■ctflon of ttie Central Auvfubly utxi 
ftituing MiiU'tiitiiin; jirOfidcil. ll>0 Crit 
rctunu of an ctn.-tioii DmKr tliu C 

iiliall be iniilc Ond cariTasicd u 



Iin-Bscof A>y>tfancT ^n tlie'of- 
frif^^dcnn,: lli« r»T»-« »•! 
.ViV'ibly. tlie I'rr^iduitof 
i!(c I ' • .J ''.•!u !-^ iiurce I'lC dulit«of 
•;:iij L.r.,i.v ui''Jd> '^crii'ir U t'lid-d "■■' 
licn-ju protidccT^'" .\nd in r^M-oflbc 
dciiUi or tcKi>:Tin*Jon of *aid I'rciidcnt. 
or iii« ninoval from the Tcrrilury, or of 
lii» nfiKil til f^rvc. then the diilir« of 
Kui'i ofUor^liall in like Di.inncf divnhp 
n[>on liie Sjttokcr of ilic J!ol<c of iJrli^ 
tatrs. And tlic (itiicral Aa«tii''!y may 
)>roTide by law for tlic CAM) of iui)icacli- 
incni or iTialiilily'iffttlic (loTcrntjr, ond 
i[(\!aro what \K-r*.*n ►UU prrfunii tlic 
cstvutlrc dutit-s duriag *uii.-ti t[]i|icacb- 
(uciil i>r inahilit^r. 

The -fi iivctiiOr alion bate |»o«rr lo 
cwll ont llie M'liija to rt^Rl Invasiuii*, 
»u)>jir\-H.'i iii^urrivtilna and rnfurw tlii- 
-Itvutioii of the lntr». 

a. n«- fliull t Ac care that tb« la«» 
be fjitl.fully fXtCuti-d. 

9. Jle fball ^miiiiatp, \nA ty ailil 
witb tUtf advi-TBKil OJiiwnl of the C"0'»- 
cil. aiipi'iut all citJl and luililary titti-er* 
•if ihcTrfrit'ifj Jb/Kc »i.ii.iiiitni«.t ur 
(-l>\'Iioi i* hut iilPt-rwl-c It-rriH |'rOTiditJ 
lor, U:\e*A a diQiirfiit taoile uf afi-o^nt' 
incjil l:^;!*^:!!!!!*! by tliO law rfwtin* 
the iiEive.- 

10. AllclnloCv-vrfariiomlcdby tdr 
Qoiiniurnild Cotiiicil »li«ll be i.on.itia- 
t«l to the C-iCiicd Within ten day* frma 
the ivmniriicfturLT •>! «ib rr/ular Be*- 
otoii iif th<* (jcniTtl A>*eUibly. b'») th 
i> Tin of xHi-c fclisll i-oitiuit&tx- un tltc firrl 
M'iKlaym Jsnuiry nnt rn^uin;: IFinr 
a]i)>-*iiitciiiit, BiidVoiitnne for tiro year*. 
tu.ilttiwwiivr nE'ifid In-ni nSc-,) niid 
until their autxYxdn be cletU-d and 
i|ualiScil eaMnliiifElii law 

11. Tiie OyttniPr may «u<iifnd or 
orri.i aiiy.lliilit.r*^Tiiyr of the IVrrito- 

y fur di»obDl.»i*e o( orders or ottur 
uilitary yCiriio-s and may rcnioTo liiiuin 
jior.uiiiii.-u of tiic (iiitciicv of a Court .M:|P- and may rcmuTu fur iiicouii":te«ry 

conilui-ta allcifil olora wto 

ctiftf ui'i>yiutmenl from tlic Kx«tnli»c 
fuf n li nil lit>l rxrmiii'/ t"n yearx. 

li. ii^hullbcllicdiityorilie Gorrr 
Dor Kini-aniiojllj. and olirm-r if lirdccta 
It exjivdiciit. 111 rwmiiic tlio b'wk 
oiTouiit* of the Treasurer end Auditor 
oflI.eT.rril . 

13. lie ►hair, fn^tn line to titae, inform 
the Crtitrel A^miihly cf the rondilion 
of Iht) Ttmiory ui.4 ritorominid tu tluir 
eori'idvnstinn mth iura>ori-a aa liO COar 
dccTii in-CiTuary uld rsiiidiriit, 
■ 11. lb* aiiall il:3TD (•ower tO |rai>t 
n'|incri-> and icilon-. txt^iil iu cb-'cj- of 
tniiH-achmrnt bikI III ri«*H in whiili Ii 
i« jirolnbitcd byHiiIicr oriivli-* uf Ilii« 
Courtituiitvi. and to rmiit C'lr* and for- 
f.-itur»'«f.iruiiKa-«o;.'3ii.iil till- Territory. 
Iiutrhull not r^inil ilic iiriiiiiiwl or 
tiTe*t of any di-M dnc ilio T.rritory rx- 
ef(>t ill ca*e* of f.iic» and forftiinrcf, ond 
Inlore praiitin^ i>ardi'ii IiO shall (.'i^^e 
noiR-e ill one or nuTc ocw-^ipajicni of tlir 
iij'[ilii-aiinn RiSiIefur i: mid of the d^y 
on uhieli liiiiliriil-n wi'.l hr cifeo. and in 
lauli wuc in ahivhhr ticniw* ihJ iKtw 
er, tlii« power he sli&il rcii.<rt to cither 
hninch of ilic Oeninil AiMUilily at it* 
liral wii-inn Uifrealtir; tlio |>itiliiii<. 
rniimmiiid«tion«.on<l r.-OM'u* whieli in- 
QucMoi lliD dni'ion. and in oil cu«ci of 
pjrJin, tUo Ucei»ioii of the Oi>*enior 
mint lie mvlahi.d or r.j.xuil by both 
IlijiHC!! of tUcUi^itcral Att^ciiibly i» juiut 

><iAioii. r 

. IS. Tfif Oavcmor »hall rccciro o* 
.coai]«cn«iiion fiir liiS tcrtioi* on aonujl 
'•alary of riftcC'i liuuilrpl dull-ira. 

iO. WUncitrihei'uhlc inlcrct rt- 

Ddii.-alca»h,:ib« chosen aniiaully by ""I"' "-/ P«W.c Trca^ufr. Lot .i 
,i.ulKo,.the r.rst W.^..c^-y^ar.r > r.i^^.';"';.; ^J/J 

I be clw»ct. bi lUe sualiCcd l'f»'l'l"';'-» « 

votrr- tii.Tiuf- 

3. T'lc «e**ioB of thv 
ily »hall be onnnal, r.:A 
J-t Cr»t Monday iii Uu' 
Miiiig lltc ebi'li».n of it* uiuiV.r*. 
:j. Tlie inciiiben of t!.c Mog' 

ri froa 
Pf ap. 
:i atnt- 
Kivd rx- 
.;.b11 be 
!ju« ai 
..-al At 

■tieral Awm-l^'^'VSi'^*'**'' 
.-:: commitice I ""*'',''>_, , , , „ . . 

i>-r iKXt cif '^ Tho mcBbcra of the Genera! Aa- 
lacnibiy iholl rcti-iiBfor iticir atrtjce^. a 
.rlcorai'tnuauon tixtd by law. and >:bi<1 

.'..... ..f .1 _ -..l.l. T^ .- II-. , .■ 

the Iirjt ilciiiday of SepUiaU-r, utile** 
otherwiic cnlifij by tlio Ocucral A«- 
»en:t.Iy, and tluir term of oOitA atibll be 

ic ji-ar 

4. C<Jiiiiri!rscn bud mcniben cf the 
llouicof DcU-nutcs tltall be duly qauli> 
tied eU-clor* iii the re-iiviliic counlie* 
and diS'.rie% which they rrjirtwnt. 

t. Countiluieu »liu!l l>e cnojcn for two 
y<ar«. nt tticNiiiie tnue ond plaiva as 
inuUrt uf the ll"u->c of KUv^tis. 
;id no |n r»tiu »h«U \h: B invinUr ul tlic 
Cwiii'til Of Uou*c of UJtV^lt? wlio ha* 
iKil l>i,vii aciliKii uiid itil>.i>jiijut of Itic 
IVrntwfy one J«r, atij liic d.^irul lyf 
wtiivii livvtull be enoieii thirty ddi*; 

uiiijiiio, all |i«'rM>iis whoarvciliZvKi ul 

V Ti-Tr.:ury Mfd dLtlrivl lo wLi<It thty 

i: ciioKu ouall be eligible at tliu Itrsi 


C. The namber of Coaitcilmcn ihall 
iiul Ik lev tnaii one tlnrtl nor liKiix than 
unchalf of irut ol the la^iu'.x-r* of tl.e 
ilou-e of U lr^'.e», and al llic Cr»t «■»■ 
wy.1 of llie tjeueral Ajmhi'i^ afUT Hie 
Bi.u| tiouol lhiaCoi'>tituituuUkeat?ct.i. 
tlic lVqiiciIukcj »liall tw diTidnl by 'bit 
osiitkiatiy ai may bv into IWO cla<Mt. 
Tlic AuU of the Couiiciliiicn of the flr-l 
cl*>a ahall Ga vaoitvd at t!ic eXiurj;.un 
ut tl'O tr»t year, mi ttiat onc-balf aball 
bn c!iu»en iiiii.ujUy. 

". Katli b3use ahall choose il< Cvr. 
otSicerj iiiid ju-)^« of the q'luli&^.^li'^ < 
lectiyiinBiid rvturii«of lU own iiiciubt: 
eXivi'L Ul litr.-iiil»e!orv (iroiidi^I. 

term for whicb tLa 
uicifiUrivf lIicllou»c Live b^'Cit elected. 

t'U. Ktcry law ciiactcj by the (Kner> 
al AiKiobly *ha!l nobrocc but o»c ob- 
ject, and that ahall be rx^rcurd iu ' the 
title, atid no Uw thall be teviud Or 
ami'iid<,-d by reference of iti title. - I>at 
in iueh cat*, (he act rcviird. qr ilic »rc> 
tion Biuciided, ahall be rc-cna^tcd and 
publiihtd at leti;;lh. 

SI - .No'.-llrry rMI l«e Bm^^^irrd by 
lhi:«TerrilorT, i.'ir fthall ihe oalc of Ivt- 

rt "Ual!-«e.l. 

a. Tlie tieneral Aiiembly ihall bore 
no |>i>wi;r tu |uu any BlI t:r«t,liii|; any[er lor ImitV-h-.- |.ufj..mi, but e'vx'i- 
BluiiM nijy If formrO U"<1»r mucral lawa 
Tjr drj'UMt of i:n!d ind ailier. but no 
f uvb Bt-oklatioa ktia!) tnalr. i>*ue »r )>ut 
in ciriuLuiyi'^ cny Ldl, elmk, tlikcf, 
kxriiticalc (•ronitMOrt nnte or other [lapr, 
or the \t*\KT of any Latik, to arcclato 
aa monry. 

23- K-icIi atockhoUrr ^f a cfirr.-ifi. 
iiwii. or jv\:,l ai.Rk f ' o 

i;.'ltridujllr and )>rr«>i , 

liTi;wirt:oii'of Bllitjil' ' ■ . .. 

AKTICLR IV.-AJ^,: li>j.-:.-w«r. 

Sic. 1. TliO Judicial tower of ihla 

Teiri[..ry al.a'.l bt tiMtii iti District 

Courti. m IVobatc Ciurt*. bmI ia Ju>ll< 

tvj of the rLii.-e. T'lC Gcli^bI Awcto- 

i-'y msy a'»o f«*«'j!-ih i--cJi foprtnr, 

'■'.'■ c» inay bo 

• |>0.(i:ni 

U,r lUe 

proriilid fur by ilii« Cotireiitioti. i t— . . . ,, , _ _ ,«...,. i,- 

rj^a'.e'a i>Iiail Uu-ru <>j>J'ii tlir laid rviuriu 

codiwcl who altall be .ntUlnl to auvfi 

iiiiaa iho Gi-arral Ai*rinbiy 
II rt*h caic uIliT ll'o icrrtca 

ireienra of boili llou»r".o:idlho'""'l*"'*'' 
prrMjn'bafiiiff the bij.'be.t nuiuVr of "1"^ """r ,, , .f ,„ „i 

Vote-, ai-d l*»iK co-utitolionally ehi:.b!r. Of --J. C<»ciml ha- U-vn ,,rf..^n:td^ 
.hall b« the Uofinior. aii-l ►lull uuahfy t 17. A Scrctiry ahall b« ih-cttd for 
athvrtin|.rc>*riU-d.o.itliefif»l.\loi..I-y thu T. rrnory ot thw •aiur lime c; ■ 
of Utv-ciiiU-r iirxl eii^uin/ In* eUvt.wn, l-'ace. and in il^e «nie t:itiii:cr iki \ 
ur oi avuu tlitrcHT^er u way b« urawU- xidrd bir tlKtVit.o-iof tjuurii.>r. k 
jj(,|^ . junnof oDica-UiU-ouuiei;'."*; On H.e !.' 

«. If two or wore persons bI.»II liire MomUy l» Ibcmibir iteit *u.tni.s b.« 
the liighul und on i-qoal imiubtf ul tKvtioii, oml conlmoc fornrii ymra, and 
rutc^, uiic of llittn alull be rlivicn Uor* uiitl I 

luldlemur by the Counul bm) Itouwuf IMe- >^'' ' 

. to] |CaU-«: JiudAll l|Ut>liou« in rrlaliou tO I 

:J. A Uiajviiiy ol Ctitb IloU'C ahall u( *ui.ii tvuru. Bbu ntaoiuti iticir cvu 
COUntitutv u iiitoniin tu uo burinrc<,bullp«iitation^ 

o lc»tr iiiJiaWr may aHj-Juru from day S, llic Territory thai,' >*« ditidol Into 
today, and may toii.iiel ll.c Oltnidinte j« i-otin-mtnl nuuiticr -I dLirnta, by tne 
of ubHTKt tuclulN-ra III ►uiha maniier atil Cr*! Ij'iirral AkirniUjr, iut>;rtt t>>'»urh 
utiikr nuLb inijalim aa cacb lioa»o uiay 

D. ICdeb boQW' ahall determine Ihc 
rub -1 of itioan |>roi»diii^«, atid Itiay 
ttith t*.ic cct-currancv of tao-ll.irdi of 
all lhviii<t:<l>irarli>lid,f-S|«l n Ofinbtr. 
10. l^ch Uoti^»hall kn-|t a journal uf 
it* own (»ro-.Tedi!i;;* oiid pui-Iidi the »amf, 
BuJ the yeai-Biid iifiyi if ntlur IIoum.- 
on any nuiM:n» ahul) at Il.o Ui^iie "t 
any tl'irev ii-eiuUra i>n»cut bo culcTcd'd; 
on the journal. 

II. raronrln ormr In ritlur 
lIi'UM, i!.v U"Virni>ror t!.*- j-.-r.i,n «x- 
• rtijiiiii the fiiiictiuniuf the UoVtri.or 
■hull i>-Uc viritaof ehvl-cn to fill »uili 
racande*; pro^idid, aiieli Tar-tiiiJc* Oivur 
|>r>or to till: leuiuu uf thctjibtra) Av 

I J. 'Hic iloors bf rarli Iloute khill be 
0]ieii, exo'i't on ■uch iK\'a>iviia u iu liic 
ujiiiiiou uf the l[uu>e aiuy rc'iaire ac- 
trci y. 

13. NcUlicr Ilcu'c»!:on ti^joum for 
niure than thac djj*. u.:t:<iat tneccnuiit 
of tiie utiier, nur to uny oihcr |itncc tbau 
that IU whicb liiey muy be ovitinp. 

14. Any bill may ori;,'iiiate Iu cither 
lluuMiul the Uuural Awvinbly, ond all 
li'b' [KMi-O by unc lluu*i- nay LAaiutn- 
ded I.I the utncr, and all bi!l« *^ etmiv 
Oe^l luutt bu relurnid 10 the T 
wliicli tliiy ori;;i[iaUt!, and r< 
cui'CurreiKe of K.4id llouic t < 
lent to the GjTiritor fi^f I • 

15. Enry billu: , 
led thcU«;iK:zl Av 
U-eouiel B law, be { T' 
i-riiur; if he appruvc t:, I ' ■ i l . 
ii; but If iiut, he ahall rituro . 
wiih hi c'-!c-ti'ji* 1" l'<« I!t>-i«? 

a!icrr.t.«u*, frota time to a« nc 
[I'lliiit ^x>i may I-ir cai h of 

uhicb a Ibitrivt Jud^-e •!.>:. be rl.xtcd 

by tlie joint Tote of'»nvral Awifi- 

Ut.b- ■•. <-• ■. ■ ■ - ■ ' . ' 1 
hr. i' 
ary i. . 

tirXl , t 

• hiji -...•: J-.:^^* *;..i.. u ....:.■: ij 
ilir r|ijal.rie<l thilon i-t rrtiik-..tu 
di»lr-.:v ..1 tr,i' c ^' •"'■■- ■■ ■. 4' d 

aha::, . -. 

a : 

li'hr,, : 

the Hi 1.- i. .-,.■., . *..-,.. i. .9 

Bi'prtljte ]">»(r> Ml alt raf»-* inti-'r rr* 

• inrlito rli-tnrt*, Biid tlie iln i*.> '• i'. »< r 
Pi'trirt Juilj:*-. or lhf»rrdivl o( a 
in bin rnurt. ►hall be Ciial. 

4. llie D.'iricl C'nurii ahall 1i8*fl 
ftri(:ii-r.) ' :'.-.N ;:-■■) iti l". t.t.t (LI. I 
wh.rn 1 

d^.i:- 1 

I'ruI'Btr i...uri», tlicir jyri>d,c:njn 
bcunl..i, 1..1. 

5. TlcGoirra! Ai-rrV'T -v/: 
»iJc f-ir Ihf I 
Clerki f r Pr. 
I.vf.i* t'-,r ;■ 

u lo ar*l fvt 

aTa-) Fyrrr' ■ 

II liBte l^Tti tiretcd 
jie wliry aliill U- 

■, at,, I lo t:,c 

l~ 1 

l^r atJuoRi. 

wf the T.rrilory 

not Ixe ritu 
aliall bJ*r I 

. < >.. 1 ( .- iioitfluk-« , 
lalv >ciMui.|l.vqcau<Ut 

u»io;**^iii''llwhi/iiol iiuiubcTof twtt*,*"'"""''**^'' V''*-^J L;*i.m^v[ l..«^ U>U| «i.*u..;:i;.^:ui l.-.l i --V-^c. t l i^ t.i>ii ltd 
Btiou b« iut!:ijibfi.v*W^ys*f™or.iUO:l»l"»*^^^*^'^^^^ |«rfwnoaotbkoaoalw»aLaUbeoB «ib w aflina** | Oatc Cocri. 

lioai JiUfiit • i. ,/iu'L Id t^t i'to* 

T\c JuJ-ei uf \U Diitrlct Cotru 
- rtccue for tlieirtrr- 

*il bo [MI'J Out fcf 

kll nul Oc iiicrfa*-lT.rri!afi»J tun dhill U.- tlrtic^i't.y i 
■ ii; ttio ItfBi fyr qual Levi ««ilorsor tltctuUi.ty of 'uwu 
r Uffi elcctctl. tl>r lu wWf. tNc propcrt/ Uir4 fwf Tcrrilo- 

[>rojKitf in lUi Tcrritc.y »] »:i be Ui^llj-o 
in {>ro,>ortton to m Tali.-, tu b'fcic-* • 
Uinctl Uil.rrclnl bj \»m, but tuut ■ 
'! ci> !«[»>n of tocu, cuiiQ'.f. » 

r»ri,> r'^.^'jUlP t* ■• ^■-"i?''! ef*r^in;^ir j 


• f>fvTtit afa^all lb« «i(i|«i. uj 11 

. f.)l 


I'fMMfC liiB «;tcvtiWH or I 

Im mcile to < 

cutD|)cnutiwa to ite [m'J uu! ' ' 

tj Treamry of ihtir ft>prti. 

wLittt iIjbII do*, be iiicreucil _' 

«^ durinc iKc trrui r^ ■biclt tic; t.L^ljU.>/c 

bftir brturlntrrl. iD\iit. 

H neDi^UKt JoJ;rt thM be in- I2. I t»i tMI 
IIi;iU!o to my r.thtr pSi-e during iS.r frinu oTht, uniiij uu junv 
term for Mtticb tbcj ■JisJi iia<<; . t.'.r ri^bl« of «uOrut;o. tli<*M 
«1«'»«J- haci(urb€OJufKUj"t.f '.-'.. 

IS, Jo4|rt« iltall not rhar^ Joflcs;rfy. or wilxrl. .■■. 
•llh rt^prrt to maltrr* of f«ci, brj: tntj Irgo uI Uit taZra^^ - 
tUl« th« tci'.iRloDj KuJ ili-claro (Lc U«. Iby lu«ri rc-i,i;l4U!.„' fl- 

i4. The ^•.J\c uf kll proccSsr* llttll bfi lunj; cr.drr Bilnj 
th« [xor^Io of .NftjdaTcrriicry; B.l (be ' " 
pra>rct:tiont ihal) be ccndoclcil ici the 
Ek4iM atkl b.T the Bi>t!ivri:j of tlieticc 

Aimcix y.-^xcitia.^ 

Src. 1. The Ccf.cral AittablT »K»II 

ritiUe b/ t»<r f.>r ar^'tnliiog tLe Militift 
f uct) & ouricr ft-t the/ aliall dcco ex- 
polient, not ir>c<JS pa libit with the Con- 
■tilut;< ri BnJ lav* of the Vniu-0 Sute*. 

■J: Olctn of the Miiitia ihall bo eicc- 
IM or •(>fK>iDtcJ lo iQch a tainocr o« 
Ihe GrncrB.1 AucrcMy sb^lt from time 
^ line, direct turd tbkJl becoasiuioonj 
|)j the GoTcrrOf. 

ARTICLE yi.~TtrrUofUi VtUi, 

6sc I. Tt« <iener»l AueiaWy "KaU 
toot cmt« In tnjr imirtcier dcbu or liabil- 

Jlif^otlicf tbnu 'DchAi n;s/ be &b<i 

»bjll bUo Kite jwftcr tj n%'u!atc_,lfc 
JBjioont (.rfwill loT cnartmciiU 
■J AftTKLE X— t^Bi/j-vitm. r j 
Tfie LouiiOiry line* «f (licTcrniorf ofl! 

*I C' ii.iumr.n^ At A J 

" NctaJ> MilUlitBin*. ■■ 


.N.jj — Mv^f.. AUi'io'.lj 
Cl»ndltr, CodJificloo. Ilo-t^ 

I Nof.!'U 

indufftce ihtrrwu frum i-w-tf. briucrr. 
tumult nr ol.'ier iiu^rofxr iffaclire. . 

13. Ab*iv<-c oil bii>.i t-» cf theTtfri- 
toff. or the L'uttol ^tj£c*. *:.Bil uoi 
fc\-t thoi^utittooof tht^lidtuco of any' 

11. A i'icr»:it/ »«tei)i»ll fOBitilole* 
cloice. »b(rc iioioiljeriuc ducvtid, ju 
Uii Conitilution. 

iy It (Uil be thedutfof the Oen- 
erti Aucoibly ut lu ti>t leMloii nuJ 
cvcfj (ccoiiij/ ftritiual WMioti' tlicrrnf- 
tt( (otkxtBD Attorney forthcTcrniory. 
» ho •hall br eiTlnJ Ki] Attorocy Ueiie ml. 
«hiMe duties a.-ii] coinpen«aiiau thai) be 
prr^r.txd ao<) Ult<S t-y (jir. 

10" All officers tl(\ic.l Of oppoinled 
by TKluo of Ihlt Coiixlituiion >hM nvr- 
crally bi; rc«)i.ircd to piro Ijond 

Jowly ur^w»rj'ru'r'lhc %KlM^ .exprn»« yn-idi of - N^tuJ* for' ■ the Ti^thful iliv 
©( K"icfnrBeol.^anddJr«yuifcftli ueec»-|cUrK-cof tl.c dutiw of Ihrir rc-i>.Aiit»; 
ul^it\ Ihcatu.tuiit/vf.'.Vhicfv,' bond* 

nry ci|KQ*eii vf eon- 

2. Tlio Uenrrdl A«<ii:ihly utiall can-e 
lo bclcf inland i:'illi-»;li-d na fla ri.Vff»i 
UX. Brliii-li, whrn Bdli'd 10 tt.c rvUiiur. 
from mhcr ».iurv«. nuy i'l thtirjuds'- 
tanit l>c «affi..-rijil 10 tnevt all tacb Uivo- 

AUTICLl; \'ll,~AmtnJliig CfftutUKiim. 
^tc 1. lA'iJ wsetiiliDcnt ur DncinI 
4Qent« t<\ or rcTitiuu »nd [Ij«it;;e, of til:* 
eatircCoatlitutJon laay be -{'rojioscd. in 
the Coqncil.or.Uouic of Dclrgk'.cr, ftn.l 
if the *4De ^1)BlI bi; n^'rccil tu by . tic 
iaa>iritjf ©f.-tticiacp'tewtlccu-d to each 
vi xlf two Uoiitct, Kucli iiropO'ied itnmid- 
inLii'. ur aminibuciiLi to, or rcvi^iou i.nd 
^tiall.bcrtiternl on their Joeruftl, 

rll B*a\\ iiiatU'rs'K-iruliititig'tlia.Miuu 
thgll b>' tiled, by. Uw. 
AUTICLK IX.— rrewtry I^pjrtauM. 
Src. 1. There kIiuII be a 7>i-iivury IK- 
partisriit,'CVti5l«(iii;; of oti Auditor vKo' 
•on by thcqualiScil clet-'torit nf the 'l\r- 
rttory at cntli elcilJoii of the tnntib. rj 
rtf tlio IIoii»cyf D.-I.-K'atc*. »^h')^hall re- 
■.ci»f BiiEnuciil,<jl«ry uf liflccu liuiiJred 
dolbri^: .Olid of a T.cajurvr. tu betlixli-d 
B.4 oboTc, vfbiia!ia:i tt!-io rcctiTc an nuna 
al KaUry vt one jhou'^DnJ dollart; in 
catcof uvacattcy in cither oflji-c. by dciith, 
fcai-iiatiori.ortilUtTwLsp. the Gorenioi 

bjr nml with the consent, of the Couotil, 

iliali liJIiuch vucoocicf by oppoiJiluiciit 

With iJnoiycsand n.y» . taVcn ihrreon, land eDinniiuiort, until tlic ntxL ccneral 

^uJrcfcrrgJio the G«.cp! A- • ■on and; the riualif.catioa of hi. or 

i>rit tu be cho< 
l>4ibti>)i(.tl for.llirre iii'j»lh'> i. 
in;( Ihiitjme.of ra>ikiitj{ »ucli ■ 
if ill tbc Gtncr^l Auctiibly u^xl lL^^cu, 
fW •furi.'^xid, ktR'h Kmci'dmcnt fir nmeiul- 
incut*, rcvuion and chanjfc, bhall .be 
B^jfcfd ty by ft ia.ij ifiiy of all the mem- 
ber. clLCtctl to iBcli [Iktute, then it thall 
bu tl.c duty ol Jhe GcLirntl A*seml>1y to 
Minrnt jkuc-i.>proi>o>cd auicniiiuciit or 
Hiacuftnienta, rc*i>ion and ctiar;:e, to the 
t'coy'.ti in fuch a maarer and at auvh a 
liii-.c ai the Ucurral Avembly ahaj pre- 
Mnl>c; opd if llic |)vo{»]e .fl);ill Ap|irove 
nnd ratify suc'i 'amendment' or wnieiid 
iDviit<, revision and vhan'v, by a Rinjor- 
ity of the electors qtnliCoI :tu tote for 
lucnlicri of tliu General At'temMy Tut- 
iojc th^.-rcoii. »li;h nnieridtuetit or amend- 
raeiit«, rctision and ch;in;;e, shall Ik-cOiqc 
a part f1, or Die en't-re C"ij.tiluiion, 

AttTtCLi; vni.— .Vjrt/;.i««i, 

bic 'l.-Tiie Ont acuioa of the Orn- 
eral AtM-nlily itiiJl l>e htid tt 0<-nuA, 
which \Aice ahall bo lhc|trrmanent iilau- 
of earcriurent until rcTnuvrd by law. 

S. The Gcncrj] AitcinWy »hall Mtnb. 
liib a lytlcn of co>i.>*.t and town gov- 
ernment*, irhi^ti (lir.l| be at nearly nni- 
form a« proclK'able thrun^bom the Tcr- 

3 The OenrfAl Aiwembty a'haTI hare 
po*rr to firoTtdo a ]t>,(ril of Supervii> 
on in eacJi eunnty. ani| lhe«e Soficrriior* 
ahall jointly ani in<liridn:dly perfuna 
aach (lutin ni luay t>c |jre«rribcd by low. 

4. All ol&eer4 who«o election or sp- 
pointmcnt Unot protided for by thii 
Conn I tu lion, ond allfliyjcm Hhotc nlTlcc 
nay hereafter bo created by law. *hall bo 
elected by the peopleor npitointed aa the 
Genera]! A<iembly may d.rcct, 

5. When the dura'.iun of any oftfco ii 
not provided for by this ConiiitaliOQ it 

ccc«or* Tiie Trciiurerand Audi 
■ aill kccji their oflieei nl the *cai of 
... . 1.,-iinicnt. auil enter into. hacIi bondi 
« the General AMembly mar prctcrilw 
ttlhriai;fcJd.H;Ucha.-ecof- I'htir rc*pet- 
ttvo dntics. 

2.', Tlio Aoditor iliall hare Iho j^encr- 
b1 jopcrintcndciicc of the fijcal oijiri of 
the Territory; he stiall di;;at and |>rc- 
pare planj f<.r the i(nj.rovcr.iciit and 
luaiiQjreraent of the revenue und for (he 
itippcrt of the pubtic credit; prepare anil 
rejiort frtlimaie-tC of the rci'cime and 
tX|ieiidittiri:<vf thcTerrilory; dJ;u<1. sc'^ 
tly bnd' . {Kncriu nil poblic utconnt*; 
erant, under rejulaiioa* pre^vribed by 
lawr,- all worrunls for inoneyt to bo (laid 
«.ul nf the Treasury, in itur»u«ncc of a|i- 
prupriation* by law; the 
roriualitica«f .tha IraiL'ft-r of stock or 
other i-Tidcncw of the TirriEorial dibt; 
and ctfuolerjlyn. withoni nhiih aoch 
ctidtnie ►hall not be valid; he^hullmake 
full report (if all hN procciAlinu'^. and of 
the "ttttc of Iho Tr.-*»ury drpartmcnt 
within ten days after thu comtncncemvnt 
of iho »e»4ioji iifeo^'h General Ancnibly, 
and perfunu such olbcr duties as tiiull bv 
prr-t;ribi;d by law. 

3. Tlio Treojiurcr shall rrcrito and 
keep the money of the Territory, ail 
duburie the fame tipon warrant* dr.nvii 
hy the Auditor, and not otherwise; he 
>hai: tnke recc pts for a<l moncyi jiaid 
by lull), tml all receipts for rooueyn re- 
received by hnu »hall bo in-Iorned npon 
worrnntajigi.rd by (ho Auditor, without 
which warrant so »i|;ncd no acknowlcd;-- 
ment ofmoniy received in t)io Tr-Hury 
fchall be valid; ami upon warn-* *fnid 
by the Auditor ho aliall mak«'-ran*e- 
tuciiii fjr thf pajfocnt of fiu intercut of 
the pnSlic di'ji; every bond, cerlificnte 
r otlicr cvidL-iieo of tho diht of the 

,:-yji,i I...,- «.ij, if.u Uiu Vi.'tjiiii 1-ci.i.c 
op rani I'.to Viruin to its junction with 
.Mnddy Uitir; llivucv due Ni/rth lo the 
Oretuolinc: thenco WcA to the nlate 
of U-siM.i.c, ■* ■ 

AWVICI}: Xt — ZhtlriiU.. 

Diitrict No. 1 thnll U-k'j?^*! «• 
poiol cu the «!3ii3it of th'^Ss-er^ 
Xeraita .Mosutaioi wWr« jf\ 4- 
of tionh Latitude crosic* . -i^iQu 
init. Thence tonthcr'y witli Mid. vm 
tnit toihe htadwoien of Elyxion creek; 
thence down that croek to the big beiHl 
in laid crerk ;_ thcDVC In a atrai-hl line 
to ti.e mouth cf w^Iow crec^;. thence 
north to the Oresou line; thcpec along 
*aid line to the j«l.icc of brginning. 

Diitrict No. .2 .*hill U-Ria- at the 
momKof xillow' crnk; thrntc ahv;; 
the coitcro Khore of Honey Lake to the 
north end nf Pyramid Lake; theare ii. 
r. to Uuhbit Il<ile Spring*; thenccuofth 
to the Oregon line; thmcc olnug said 
l.ric tu Ihu coitcornT of Diitrict No, 1. 
Thcnec south to the plaeip wf^ U-ginning. 

I)i.'.iriit..No,-3, shall ccnuuelico' at the 
hi-a4 of Klyniumrtrk. ', Them-cAilloiving 
the 5U>nniit to a point npiitcitr the diei- 
linn: rid^q between. Iloimy. Y*ke, ond 
l^.i.g Viilfpy;' thctic'o down iffd rid,;c 
to Long Vulfey ItiTer; thence <n a di- 
nvt line 16 the north oliorc ut. i'yretuid 
Ltke ; thence iilnn;; tiio roiitb line of 
O.'lricLi No. 1 Olid 2 to the place u( be- 

No 4 shall begin at the wcrt eorner 
of Di.trict Nu 3; ihcncc following llic 
huminit (0 a point ojipuMte tlie dividing 
ridge and folhiwing tho iiain*.Lfne]udiiig 
Steamboat Vnlky. thence lo i.aid ridge 
Olid following the "ame. including Steam- 
boat Vallt-y, to Trui,kco Uivcr; thenic 
on Mid streani lo the oorlii siiJe of I'y- 
ramid Lake. 

No' 5 shall begin at the we^t corner 
of No. 4;'lhenc« doirn that»trcom lo 
Carson Uiter ; thence down l.iid river 
to Nicholas Ainbrnvinii' ta-jJ t thence 
fiorilterly lo tFii- divide between Wmho 
and Cjrsou river; thence alor.g ^3id 
divide to the south line of District .N'o. 4. 
Nn. <i shall comracticent N. AiiibroviiiN*. 
ranch; tlieiicc ca«t to the boundry line; 
thence v.i>t lo DiKirict No. 2; tluuce 
on thcca»t line I'f Sna. 2,3,4 audi to 
the I'lace of bi-Kinning. ' 

No. ', shall Uttui at the hccil wotirs 
of Clear Creek; thence nloni.' the caj- 
tcni or open tuntinit to a point opposite 
C.ipt. Sinitlis lUiicli; thence et't in- 
ti'iding sjiil place to tho west fork of 
Walker* River; thence up said ittreant 
to f the main summit; thcnee alnn^' the 
tuininit to the nurlb »hore ol Lake Itig- 
let'; thence cu»t to tbo place 'of begin- 

No, 8 <hii\\ crtmitiencoat the.licad wa- 
ter* of Clear Creek; thentc; on the 
ftf P.-tnct No. 7 lo the ire*t fork 
of Walk>'r« Uivcr; thence catt to the 
cwt boundry line; thcnco north (o the 
iiiio of ■ No. 6; (hence along laid line to 
the ptacc of beiritming. 

Nn. 9 shall begin at the lieatl waters 
of the nest fork of Wnlkcr'rf R ver and 
fiillnwing the junimil lo the jooth bcun- 
dary.Iiny of ihn Territory rtn ihenee 
alonjr *aid lino lo the eatt boondary; 
tlicnoc on caid bonndry to the line uf 
District No. 7 and 8; thence along aaid 
line to the place of boginniiig. 
J. J. Mut*er. I*rt«. A. G. MnfumacV. 
Jno. F. U g. S'V'y J. S. Ward, prcsy, 
M. M.Gaigr, A.S.. J A. Sl-iicr, 

may be declared by law; and If not »o Territory, aliall be signed by the Trca«urer 

declared, such ofEeeihall be held during 
Ibo plciiurc of tl»e authority making t 
^ppoifitmtfil. nor shall the duretio'. ■ 
aoy ofJce not filed by Ibis Conslttut 
ever exceed two ycara 

6. Ejch coonty. town, city ift'l \u' ■ 
^i>eatc village iballrrako p'-oriiion* ■ 
tfeo icpport of their own officeri. sal^.i 
to locn rcstrietioni and reguUtious atabt 
General A«u-rnl>ly may pre>i-rilie. 

'limned by the Anuitar. oiil] n 

■ or other cvidcuco 
another thall bo 

-5 »'-iti K: ,:r:;rr 



• (■lail iti« adioa •( ihi . 
ilivit trfiirai bad ta lb> 
fur 10 advi'lirc Uie If f^>ri 
>uk.r tctf.oiutec k;<;<4iaitit tj i t-m 

V>«' brtttv* iksl la adofil*: tL» reiclailca 

my. El. 

f ■ b«C**# 


•■<^ It 


. ::'ci.ibb 


■ ..i.ttn. 

'■M. Ny* 

• , -T. A, 


.-•j &f niock 

.fk-c Meadowa 
by tie Cj«- 

haac (loop. 

A. L. Uorsey 

,Ino. n. Ne.ile. 
J. A. O.l.gni. 
R. L. Km;;. 
J. H. S;ur:cvaMi. 

B. F Sa:lr, 
\. A- -S'fiith, 
w ^ v. ...' 

h-^f\i Stark, •• 
S-iiilhJ. Ijjll, •* 
J. .1 Cwdc-'igfoft, 
O W. Hr,ti^.rly, 
W. M Orn'Aby, 
T Anl.r-o 
3. 1> i: biu'on, 

n.c J 

.1 '■! I 

Kt ptcUU ■£>!£ 

I tie .ill. cf tliiCet 

.«!.". 1.; f., .M,. 

I.i# Ifttt'oiJ 10 lt< 

a.rj. ..r rr...i, w.-U," 

• ;i3tla; lL» it'.iIijFWt; an ni.j.orij«,tj lo 

■eqult ibta,».I'#i. ' 

irrtlij H\Si-t,e liKtlilca- 

iluu Ib rce-Mlo lb 

uiutr: Mil uf whUb Ii 

r'spedfaUj lubrtU- 

tj Bb J tbe **Br aikr J to 

'• (a«-!f • w*iitr o( n^otd 

C. N, >o-t«.T», 

3. ll(Or*»r, Jfjeptest, 

W«/(e3 \Taiiaa, 


L«^-li Vil:r-. " 

J A. .'^mlih. 

Jaert W.Kllt, •' 

J.o W .Che^le, Si^ll. " 

:<«>t rar«*ll. 

JoSDft.l! " 

luLn [.. Car;. 

L*(er Viai'f. •• 

t. A TtiecpioB, 

E:,.. L.itt. - 

H. «. 0..if, 

A. J. JJ.r^n, •• 


J, A T.l.oi:. •■ 

C.C.ilci,WaMOaprei,i>. lUttli.De. •> 

Tho nye « and nays belug colled for, re- 
lohed a* fitHours: 

Aye* — Mc«ar:i. llnwdone. Uryant. Ga- 
ry. C.'i.ipinan, (3 »otc«^ ChMni'lcr. Cod- 
ditiglon. Curry, Klllntt, G:iige, lloaie- 
worth, llaiam-iik. Ilij-p'rly. Jcniegan, 
King, Lanif, Muvht, .\'ai;:li!ry, Ncale, 
Oilwrn,.I.O Uottert-on. I'r-x'tor. Si:ttte. 
A .A.Sinith, Summcra-Id. Vnoghan,'3^.) William*. Thco. Winter*. J. U. 
Winters ond \V ode- 
Nays — Jno. Kobitiioaf3 Totes,) and 
Tho protest wax placed' on record. 
On lootiuii of Mr. DoricV, the ret 
od-.ptiii^'tlie maji.rity rrport of the co;,: 
iiiittee appointed to cjiita^* the elcctii. 
rv'turiM fur IK-Ici^-ate to Concrcsi waj ri 
coniidered and uiinulled. When, on [i<> 
tfoii of J. J. Mu'yer, the Convention re 
solved itself into a Committee of the 
WhoJo to cunvaiL* tho raid rlretioo re- 
turn«. After which tho Coiaaitteo rose, 
-and rc;io:tcdaf fullowi: 

EiircTWS hktvr'cs. 
•Vj-i/ n/ PrmrMt. I>»{gt. 

•'■It- avw.ifttd af ivjiwiled 

On Qotioo of the adjptioa of the re- 
, port of the C.<c:oii».te cf the Lbi!iv7 
Station prtTinc:. the yeas and oayi wen 
lrt:«"). *,•!. t»-fj!]^.p;-- rei-.-':- 

•--■"' * T'.'ioQf, 


.. -.-J, Jftou 

'•./ J. O Uobertiop, 
V. A. Sniitb. SoBUDCt* 
■'■•.. Vanglian {3 totet) 
\. .iLLi u i J D. Wiaier.— ST.- 
Nays— Mn.r. Chtd.r. Ney (12rotM) 
J. A. Ssi:b, Mart. Smitb, acd Watsoa 
(2 vote*.)' 
The report was declared iJcpted.*. 
Ojrr,&ton it was reioNid tbat'OO 
tc't.mony ibeu:<l be receiteJ bat legU 

The report of the prteityeti of OUift> 
town. Gold tMI. Wa^hot Valley. Lak* 
VtfUfy, Geno*. Wolker I'.uer. Uakei^ 
Camp,- .Motlsviilr, Cnrs^u C.ty. sad 
Ssiithl Stati-fi were r^^-i r- reported 
by the Commiirr- - 

On the mot - .^rt of 

the Cororoiltr' ,[ ito 

Sink of the L . .Nct»« 

ware. C^ieflic:! ■- swoni 

to te.'.ify to *' ■!) the 

legality of thj . --rinct, 

alio the followir,- it.ii .%:. . ],.r!:Jty Mr. 

llelttt'ef -Vf. Jar^t t9 Mojer D^gt.^ 
Ctsoi, Csaioa V*itiT, J«Ir, li:».' 
Ua.r. Do39l. L*. 3. laOon A|«'a:--D«ar 

— lUtinrrmoaiobnifi 

I b*fl 

Homy Lake 
Mud Spring*. _., . , 

black \Xoi\ 

L^i.g Valtry 

Truckee ilcaduwj 
LimUey's StJliOil., 

Chinjtowo , 

GoM H'll , 

Wndio Valley.... 

Lake Valley , 

Genoa ,., 

Wnlker'd Uivcr ... 

Itiker's Cioip 


Ca;,onC.ty 4 

Smuh'.Slatir.u 6 

Sink of Ilumboldliin- 

clnsiv.-,) 3 

Podjjo Volley . 41 















Total Dumber of votes B17 

Cranc'a majority.,. CI 

Maj Uortp moved that the report f' 
the Committee of. tbo Whole be rccciv : 
— Cnrrinl. 

MiiJ. Hoop moved that the report r' 
the Committee of the WhUe be r*. ■ '. 

Mr Nutcwurv iftore*! to n- 
voting on the udopliun of tho r. 
prrcineU. and the nye« and naj 
cuthil, resulted as fullims; 

Aye*— .Mi-B^ra. Abvrntiihyi Cary, Cod- 
diintlnn, Cht-r"!!.-?. Ctt-d--, Firwrll, 

Ihcvnrlotid )Uifai(BtT. 

Vt»S If jpscUut:/, jaar ob't. im'r., 


\7le Emietrd Statixin-l) 

••T.v..:; »;...:;.. i.r-t....t.iut i>- 
».ir,i. .'.liir 

cr ihr M , iits 

IEI> ., ^; 

Jeiidaj cf Jci.', 19:5. ■ r wtfcs, 

V. a lailiaa Afval." 

The Tole bring taken aad the ay«s uA 
\i»y« being eallcd, resulted as followi- 

Avcs— 30; Nayi Cfi. 

W'licreufion it was declared that tUi 
rrjinrt nf the Cooimittrf, u tn the Sioh 
of HumboMt, should be adopted. 

Oa motion the re|»ort ai to OodA 
Vulliv wai adopted as reported. 

The I'retidctit tbes declared the YoCi 
as follow*: 

For PMgr, total noicVer of votc^ 
Z'h; for Cranf, total utciVr of volea. 
43y; majority fur Crar>e CI votes; aad 
tHat Jarees M. Crane was duly declared 
elected a\ Delegate to Coogrcu froo 
Nevada Territory. 

A I. V.:-rx , tTcrrl tl.e r/Iowiojf- 

v>f th» 
- ste to 


tfc. pro* 


: 1 br 

' r tiM 




... ti 



— rarnrd 

.'1- M' 







7 Tn. 

the General A 
lory shall lions for the . < 
loaned to, cridcncc of drl 

A. C.I. 

A. J., 
J. A. T.iltw(, 
Saul. I(aici;:!>f 

, A. A. It'i 

■ v^tcs,) rriTf,' 

>nd J. P ' 

Cf . 

■court) i» 1.: . 

9. N.I c . 
WiiodQly m > 
of Cftnfnrmity i ihe ri., 
religiosi Met 

10. Tuauon iball boMoal and: atil 
fo;in throoahool I tbo i ■.Torritoij ■ all 

4. Tho Trra.orer iliall render his le- W. T. C. Elh'otl, 
''2h:\ ^^'l1f'..■t'.■;^., i',c Au litor; ond on' J. U. Winter*. 

1 of ttie'joi. 0. [WbcrUOti, T'terNye, 
' t tothaj I>4ar Furwcll, 

declared tho lootior 

'▼IS thra coIIm 


«r IB 
•a o( 
J »t« 

all other dttlica ibat ihail be pruaibvU 
by law 
&. Tbe Gcnent Anmb\j »bUt bare 

test, t 

record; " 

■i ' ' ^i^teJ u r 
. tjr D^o 3. (. 

--■ i.-^'CuJ ibat th4 rep::c i->. 

jMtc& Mji wen callt4. n-fu-- 

■.^*„k. c' lie Cc^icas 
' t^a ViM Presideat* 


' •*- I ^jti — McJirsr Aodmoo. tryiat 1 1m. M. Wt," A«iiia'ai twrmir. 

aI Td-a'iiiftT, liy iit»i.riiii;; mii- tli m ... 
• ■A.H'»!l^n^l till- .U^Qdo; .foortiinjc 8 

tT^rt-ivpii(!.ifi>rict iMir*nJiit in ••■tj'tiin.- 
Inirut, Uiar U<i<>|t in llic C'lifr; iitiiinliS 
ofS.t.i'.lrtj-fri-lAiMl nj.|.r..t-.l ] 

* Mi'Tol t>/ Mr 'Ni-..' O'inmiltPf. 
rf tline lie-ofiininlt-il '>y the t^iaini.mi to [ »•'• "tm*- r-u-r*. y»( la-'h -ro our h.i 

h.T„.i/uu. tu- . irM...M--: i.f-...i* (>,.l !-!:5:.vJ?:!.i':*.i".t.?:'.:-^';.!r!i;''.':: 

|i<t)i* M'Cr^J' Ni'iil'-,* M.irf irnitli'uiitl 
CuTjf «a* ii|>|>-Miii<'il •III.) CiiHiiitK^' 

'flH)ftl|'«)iliOil of III- C''l'*tj'lUln»'l \g- 
(f»L'"l><i ill lintrr, :>.Ttioii*^;cc<.ti'I.T.iir\l 
«n'l Fourilt ur Article Nine 1^'vn.' mloji- 

• r* hare jtm.t p«ikile<M' 
■ i^.^i |.r>iir>-U"cf •Litliio'r r.«i 
. ..*. from t<e».i>>ofiiirtor L'Uli 

^^.in Bi I erut ^^l ih* |iron; 

Ato < f [I "I..-*! Tirir MffiUJ Iron ihs'^uiei 

■ ulh.riii'i Il-vr cfftrfl BO ftllcf. rrp'tttJii 

Ir»i».« bljt-l ..f ibc |-^.««l.l» cli.Ki 
tlirrv««* BO rrlirf siteiti*! sffwcd bj Uir 
fi.t.ij fif nil ind'cnani jwnplf. 

Kto'i.* Iiive 'Ktn ilM'»n. \'X,»*Tjit W. 

rr>.n tttr hn.i'1 nf oor Trrrl'orj hdJ coinr>(l 

tr I idirvL « h'-ra* wlirts ttw an* |ircfai). 

iTC drU'trrJ fr"in tc'ltnj; aQotf|t g« hv 

.r2v'flicwarc,' J. A. Swill", 

Marl. SmUli, 
(2 lylc:-,) 

itrtfi^uYtbi pnfteo 

/- DOn^EY.ChB. 
Tlic Mcmorinl van ail0)>tol. 

TFlrdtm*ni)« till 
Hue r»)«etor Coojrr 

'^B'liSTiBT nr TMrrfffth-icn'-RRtTrtRr 
,\T»" " ■>"i'l"J' tiiiiicf iliL- T-rriof, or 
■KiTa-U "Iiall t«- fl«_-{yi!i.»«. U)-wit 
«.. C":)!!!!' ML-iiii; ■t"a |i»i>iC oil Sirrni 
2CiTii'l.* Miiiiiimtii'.yiiiTe llic 42' «■! 
^■Mlti i^itirii'li- Imiclir* llio »jmiiiLt i>l 
fiiil M'lii'itiiiii l.» tlir aV i-r t..iril. r,:il 
jlO*.li;lI"iiLO Kl-ll■ll^^ 11-'° "f \V-.t 
Lun;:iiU'i<-: lUcitiv NintliiutlirKiiil 42 
oTNnrtli I.Tiiihi'I*'; llitiive AWi^t t>t lln 
piai-tf of lH-o'"'iiii';r 

, AG. 1T.\MM.\CK. Cl.'ii. 

MrM^.'Oriii>ltr ofT-'ftil il^' r->!louii>'i n* 
• ■iil..liriilf. Ti-i- i:.><i'..l.irt liiiciif tin- 
T rr.trfr; of Nirnili almll bo v^ roltoto, 
*0<irit: l»-<..ji 

..'C-iniAriicins nt a \'t\i\\ rm \\\f Strrrn 
'^Ci'tml.i Mtiuiiliiiii', «l»n* till* 
Kortli I..<t>iiit|r. ii'iiclitK tlio :>iiiti>nit i>\ 
iji\<\ M<iiiMt.iiii*; llit'iii'u S-ulliL-rly Willi 
fciiJ Sumriiil !■> llio35' iif NoMli I.tli- 
iQilr; tlii'ii'V f^^t on raiil t-^riilli-l in 
Ctf|i>rrf<li> llirrr; tlinii-fiiji >ai<l l!>t>'i 
lU jiini'linii Willi tliu U.n Vir;;iii: tlic 
pjfji'^'Kio ViriTiti lu iu j.iii.-li.m w.tli 
^l>i.M; i;^v.'r;ll.>t>i->-il>K- .\»rlli to tli< 
Ou.^.i Iiik; tlicitiO \Vi>l l>> tliu t<Iiii'< 

,. (I., i.ioh.iti i.r.Mr. Willintns ilio *ul«- 
itiliiio wat mli'i'i'il. M'tvttl \'j llniii 
iiuik llut tli«- r-'.l< •Willi; 1)0 iit>4.-rti\t m 
tti- Ctuiritiuijioi. viz: 
,;-.T<iv ruli-«,-u>iji;:u> om) nvolaiinn*' of 
tha thiiji-ni III an; txcality williin ll>i* 
^errilury kliiill l>u llii- (jv, that fIsII 
|^i>r<i iIlo inijii-rr ur..*-iii<l l«r..!iiii>, 
^irovulnl, >'Ui)i Idnnflii iKil uMiil It Willt 
Xlie C-'ii'tiiiili.iinirtlii-Triii-ry. -'■'■' 

*•• Oil T01<- I'h- Vru* iltlll lltlTH WtTt! cbrCil 

Jprilli till- r..l!.i*ii.i; u-AiiIt;' 
u"Vfft«— ll.'Miloiir. It.ifttit, C!iaiirr.iiii 
V(3totci.) KlI-tiK, llui>i'iii;iik. Ji-rif-L'uii. 
•>'cnl. O.luTi., A: A. bmitli, Williuin. 
_ti"l W<iR*j.ii {i »oii*.» — IX 
". 'Niivd — ^"Mcjwr*. A''ji'atl>y,^ Atnl.r>oii 
Car;,' -CliA>itJIcr,- • CIkiIk-, ,- O><i-I<ii^lo<). 
C.irfV. I)..r*^y. U-i-kV, U..'i-i*..rlli. 
lI-M-rlv. Kill- Luiit'. NVjr U- f'lC-.) 
Nuuwi.r.-. Unii«l-y, It-iLn.^oii (2 i..l.-.) 
,J. O. U'i'«ruiiit, K"oj<. TcKtiT, Sriilv. 
Suii'iiiriCvM, J. A. biuilli. Murl. 6'<iitli, 
2iiuru»jul. 'ltiiLiii-c»i, . V.ia^liaii. Tiii-i>. 
\Vi(.i4:r^, J.'D. Wtiiion'.'iiiuP \V.' U. 

A»ljot>riiol to I ..yak. i». (H. i 

'•'JUr. .JlryBiil piilfo iiniiiT) llial*~|io 

SuulJ t)ii>tu oi( tu ipvrryw, Iv TLH-uitHjiivr 
Lv. I.Mf Art. {5,..M ;.»■ ■».;,.:^^.,.. 
"Mr UjhiIdiio )fftn\i liiiVj(;x9- tl^at li<' 

fM"I;l O-i l-i .Hi'/fyf..|(ltftc ly.rwVHiWiJ*' 
re. ^.if A(l. 3.rttM-.:. dj V,,.^.,. 
, J. F;i^ii;>:uKH-itiaiIiatlKl»0'iM. 
cnbiiMjrru# w r<nv i^'<Jdf ;!>.^;. 3. i>r 
Art. a. ^ ,..^,- ,., t, , ,,,r»-r : 7 
I^Otiiiotiou or C«l. MiL**cc.llto ruriliiT 
con IK Itu Ml II uf lltu Ci><i'tttul4o>i .WA« 
iaiiluriT (.11 (k> iiiurniA* iuupiiiiK--.c1 

l<o - f,.i 

mtA I 

?llr Ory iiiinTfil tlint lliu rrp»i.lctil 
fli>|.niituii Awi*Uiit St-riri-mit-at-Arui* 
Cjrfic.|, Sir, Curry »ro< ii]'(>ninic«l. 

M->vo) I'y ll.iiiini.iLk, lliiit n CmninH- 
ti-c <.f nil"-, oil.- fnnii ini'li I).»triil, Iji- 
a|i|-u tili-il \>y Itic rri-Ni<k-iit tuilrjCllJivn,<.-« mill rt'i;utiitiiiii*, r»r Ili«» Cr*! t1i\-' 
lii'ii I'V till) |ico|>ti*,' to f.iriii 'V'lfii'ti", 
:il'i».iiit Jti-Ui-i of ilivtiiiii. nii'l r>)->rt 
llii-KiMit.' tu 11(14 Coitvi-iilixiii cutTinl. 
.Mr rn-i.ii-nt tti'i'niinnl J.- II*- Nmlr. 
IM.tri.l No. I; W. S. Ilrynnl. D.-lri. l 
Nn. 2; W. T. C. j;iliutt. |l..lri.-l Nl. 3; 
W. \Vii^..iii, Il.^r.iii No, 4: A. CJrrj, 
jiiMra Ni>, 5; U. Stiioiinrlii'l I. l)»lri<'i 
.V.'. U; MirL Sill. III. l»i«lr.ct ^■... 7; C 
.N. N..TtWBrp. Di-lricl Ko. 8; uit<l IVtcr 
.\v.-. Ili.lri.l No. jy. .- 

On ni'tiioni.f J. K. I-fli'V.T.Jl. Tfrtr- 
I'tr. AIiirL Siiiilli, '\V. \Vu»j<iii uiiil..! 
U'illi.iiitS' «vro iipiMiiiilcil u Cituiiuillri- 
'■• ilrnrt lilt uiMn'k.i 10 llii* vitiUiin'iit tliu 
IViril'iry r«;|jtiru ti> llin C^.i.<t)tllti<Mi. 

M..ri,| l.y Jlr.>\'ulf, llMt.'.llid C" 
•ttlul<iiii)'u i.ilii lliv Commiltcu (T til 
U'l.'ili- 111 i-aiivj«. ido rituni* for I>..!i 
;.*tfU' III C«icri>4. >-I.oii;;>'iiiiirt'il tu 
itiiH'iHll'y llic L'linirtiiaii to ai'|H»iiit o O 

Illltli'V nr^I'Vfll lu C.1IIVIIM lllC Mill tv 

titrii\ iiixl ri-|Htrt tia- kjiuc U tliii ,C^i>' 
rviili> II r>'r tinvil uclixii^ 

Mr, JluJttiT iiiovLtl lliittlio. .wbofc 
•tii>ja-t liiiitlcr >>(.- itiitilc tliu. i>i)c<:inl or' 
iJ^r iirifu-ijiipiu to-nigrruir, i)V i ^Vlvcb, 
l». 111 , «.-»rriv-<L 

Aiijiiuniiil t;il tomotroif mvx.^-i ot 

!^ uVtyt k, 8. .Hi. 

— ■— ^ I 

-TittMnAY, July 20ili, 1B5J>. 
ConT-ntiiHi iiii.t [-af'U.iiii ly «.ijuiini- 

mtiil ; uiitlllti'rt of T. RIiril.(J n-uJ Uit'l \>\> 

(ir..v,s|. U-|Mftjii.r C'l.ti.ii'Uirt litv'wji 
111 unlvr, Uiu (iiancu Ctfiuio'ltti} itnt lir 
ik;; ri-ii>ly |.i roi^trt.. 1 .luOlimi of Mr 
M.'yiiitT (licCuuiiihltiii iitM.4 ulluvdl to 
rr|^)ri ul ituy lUuc diicin;: lIiiriiouKii ot 
till* Citiiftiii'iii.t Ciiiuiiititvoinn I'ri*- 
i:.iKtl»;:i;iu Uolr^L'lA ninl rr|iorlini;l4\f 
111 K>)frnl lliv (irrt llrvlioii n|>nTttil,4llil 

iiiutiini iif Mr. IljDitiiuck,.U>v ri-i^ri 

« ruiiv.^l, 

Mr. NuUwaro poTO not'co ifml h.* 
W'liM iri.ivc l.n,oii«.i!.rS.v. I. of Art. 
I. i.f till- C'ltoiitiitiuii tu luurruvr uiu[iiit>';: 
ut H oVKkIc. 

On iiiolioii of MrXf.tlca'C'nhiiji'tlic 

..f liv,- B.i*ai.|«,iMU'l I.; tlnj IVivoJini 

Uiijr.l i^if C.iiivavH'i''', to ail lri ci 

] >"ij-»— Aii'liTrso'n, Bryant, Giapwan, 
(2 .V"U«.) 'CiimnJliT, Curry, Durn-y, 
Klliutl, IJua'^vriirtli, llatiiliiiiik. Kii>|,'. 
ip'i^', .Mus.Ncr, Nai^lily, Ncjic, O»0urii. 
i'^iiiil'V, Jill*. iUb.n^oii ^a vuliT.) J. O. 

J^jOvrU'ii. U'loj.. rrociMr.iHiiU-.A.'A. 

C<tnil(i, blUrti'Vuiit. VdU^lioii ^3 VUtl7,) 

TiiUi'. Wii.ttr-.' Jiio. l>. \Vtut(.r< _^ ^ , 

.'i'lfi l^n^iiiul 4iKiit.uu U.-inj{ ILtU.^I' 

Ic^ It tt'.t4 IblOl'tol. 

' irr\\ok;»ar,- luitTof ioMrlktf Oill'lTiC 

woi-f "Uiima" 0- H'ltitl..! Ill .-uiiliii'f. 

mij lnwrl "Car»vu' !>• llio fk-al «f 


Mr ; I' morcd afl n Sulislilutc lo 
iitnkcilll out fnMi \a\<\ jic.tion ufur t'lv 
nurti "Liw," itiCHiiii'tiluti: wu.-<Hil'i{>tiil. 

Mr. UwuUuiitf tl>in inoTi-tl' tlii>l tlic 
wurj* '"iwu yiarit" llni tli-ptiility i>f 
Cuiiiik: Itiinj.'bij i-rj>i-<l, anil "ouo Jw 
»uU>tuut<.il, Kliiili ui>» t-urriitl.' . 
' ■'»^ijl^'"o 'it^J^t-J l*> ruH;Oii»l.KT, Stf. 
2. o.^tfu 2, t'j uiiiviiJ, t<r ri«(l'iiii''r'il 
|..w,«V,uu.!iil, lliv fir.l rcluriH of 
tUxiv.iVoniiLT tliii Cuiittitutiuii dliall Ik- 
inuo:^^uit-»'ivn*#n] U4 iiruiriiJcil fvr l<y 

tllt« CM|\(lltl«l.. 

■ Oiiiiwtiuii of Mr.' Xtali', (fio'worl 
'r.*»iili-a' Ml ilio ]<r»vi*u uf Si-c. I. t>f 
Art. F'ttiL*»lruvk iiut,-oii'l llio w 

VltHlll' WusiUMXliJ. 

•"'Mr. Niik-wurviriiinimiftt tlitj'folluw 
iii|; >w Ii'.I.ImI to llii< C»n»tiiul>on: 

AI! U.1!.vr» or ii|'i«.iiitiO l.y 
nrluc -iTtlii- Ci,ii»lituliiiit ►Imll hvitjI 
ly fk* r^iurvl loV'^u •'oinl'' to 'tin- \wn- 
I'lo of ^^:Tl^b Tirritury. f..r ifio /ailliful 
ili;tlinrt;v uf llju iliilli.* of tin ir ' ri-^in-C- 
tiVi-,Ofl:>'C«, llicnmiiuiit'nf wlii^h Un'iln, 
111 ft. II i/iullliiiltiTrtrrijuIiilii'^tlici 

■ Oil r.iittiiii ol Jiio. F. Lons, Hip Pffni' 
it'iif oiyi'ii.t^il A./A. Suiitti l.'urolliii 

Ailjo-imrJ'tlll I oVIoilcpii^, 

jincitsvo:< Busny<i 
0)fi'TtSilivu met {<ur*aJUb .(9 ^adjotira- 

0..\1( Iftpiwrly niiTcl lliit tlio Con 
Tfliticiipt iiiiu toiii'uilloi.- of l!if U'liult* 

t>i i-u:ity>4iiij) ri,lunu (or J^iUji^tu tu 

K, .M.,rri>i:U;r ruatcO as 6 xuUUtate 

tliiit tlif: CimiEDl>l'"ini tv.Cuiniaitti'c uf 
iiic t>i fiti'ViL-n MiiJ nturn« unJ nporl 
J lliix'Cui|VLiiliuii liiiftl uttif)... 
i.,Mr. Nuiewuru iliu^ojt 
fii'i*lili.ic for (!iu nlwvu.iiitfliuii^ 
!iaj\l, Tliat l[;u Cli'air oit]»ojut' 

C'ii|iiitilK« ol lliriy iniircviK-u of, ilii 

C'oivtntloii, 111 ii]»-ii oti-t oiuiit tlio fc' 

lurtM fjifil>''« t" CoiiitrrM; 

.., On v*^if<K Ki'* ><:oa >in>l ^'"XK^SI^ Cfl)- 

W wiTTiSr^'.iowfi";?, ri,»ult J 

Vua:*— AI'ariLilliT, Ciry, Dinndl-T, 

Clu-Uii*. C".Mi[i-Ioo,.'FarwilI. rUui--. 

IIilliiiIyiNyi- tl^votLf.) Non-ffun-, .1. 

A. I Smitlt, Mart.' Sinillt, TiiomiMtii. 

jucliiiii uillPllif rri*liIii<i*'or IIii«'C''ii- 
trnlmii ttt tuntu^'llif' rvluniii of llu- 
G'«l tliflioii ii.i.I.T ■ ll.i* Con*lltiilift:i. 
M.fcr^ J. II- Ni-iili-.- C. N. ^"ol. wnn-. 
IViirNy.'. It. K. SJ.-III.-. nii.M»r.' ».. L. 
Ktoj. ».Ti-iili|BiiMliiI Kii.|-*0'Ulinittiv. 
M-.r.*l I,y Mr. l'r<\tiT., lliifr'n* 
Jiori i,f it.t Coiiinnlltv 1.;^' t^i ' 
.1 ti*« il.i- nonl ■■|V.>iiliit'*fiMli-a.| 
of ill!,- wiif.l "iiHiikcT'i vf tbla ■ Co4ywii- 

M>milliyj. P |,on^'* fi'nV mrriiil. 
ll. a till- rqi-rt l)-i rtf.rnillM.k In tin- 
C«uiiiiii(iv, iiiij to tujku irji'jrb tujiior- 
row iiioniiii;^ 

Uti Moii.iiM.f .Mr. Mii««r, M..j. n-vn, 

II tilt) Cli«ii^,*'tfie firttitr t-rtinitl r.iii. 

Tide Co!i.|imti.i;i WTjiH |ii.| on llit) t:i 1 ' 

Ml' till II nVWknrifi^ | ■' 

.^Ir M,i*HT ilMVN iii'lii-c lliiil lio wrrnl 1 1 '' 

-r U .l.iy lo rvviitiAiJiT tjcvlioo I. ul 

KM t.i.liy 

'.■•. Noti-ivaf^ olijrt'lrtl.' hi ?» Iml 

iinliiv to nvoii-i'I. r llm naniu Srr. 

1 ,\Tr toiiifirniw: ii'-ivtintiJ ntcrrut. 

. iliv CUir. m .1 u)'!val luki'ii fniiti 

' !> i.y .\Ir. Cnolr. • O i foto- Ilii 

• Kt-rucalli^, with ilio ful- 


- -y. Klf'.if. Iloii-i- 

":;»i't. K'lijr. l^wf. 

^•^\^A^ itiiUit- 

\. A. S.-,;!i,. Sill- 

, 'i'litm WiHicr-', J. 

N'iiy4— .\nili r*oii, Brynrft: . Chupmart. 
(2 loir*.) Curry. pofM-y, lilli -tt, IIou-c- 
wnitli, It.iitn;ii.k.Ji:rii.-;rni. Kin?. lyinL'. 
Nil';;M.<r. Ni.iili-.U.ili|irii. Oliiiol.y.J. Muh 
iijuiii a votrA.) J. 0. Kulii rt?on, [l'io|i, 
rrnvt'T. Silili'. A.- A. Sriiitli, Suiiiiutr- 
li.M. MwtiiaiiT, V-L-lun (3 voh- ) 
W.lIm.iivTmu. VViiiUft-, J"0. i>. • Win- 
tirv._uii . 

• Tu-P-AwlIinU-fraiiKUn-.l [ost Mr 
l'r..ili.r «(r.fol ilio |..:itmiiit', oihl.Kv- lij^Mr. .Noti-i»ur«. 

* .M.if.iBlfut llniClijiroi'iiointnCirii- 
iiiiltirc olM,»i-ii, i»iii- fiiitn fdclr Ihstriii, 
iiml oil.- fruirt till.- T rnlory at ttir;;r, i<> 
vjMru.« ilirf ir-ito , pir I>.-Iit;'»'i' iw Cun- 
'^tKt^, wltfi rlwU in-rfonn iitiir' dmiiB in 

, l>rvMri<a'l>t llni lu^-utUniif IliU CotiTrrr 
,|>iim;< i;ruTiilri), ilmt llii'jrniliiiil uU Icm 
■'iioi.y Utiidtiit;: tlic l.-uiiliiy of- ihc- tv 
ir... » iriiV Irtj oilonil. au'I njiorl 
IV liYjiJy orilliiri.liiiy oft-atli |in\-;i.Li 
l'i[.iii-});alio vuig .iiiNiii vli.di, nuN 

.Mc.**nt. J. 'U'illlflinF.. Tlirn.' ^^ tntpr*. 
'ni.i.. Anil. r-.ri, \V. Wu.-ud. IVttr Nyi-. 
O. \V. IM 1-1 riy IIII.I l»r. I(. L. Kii^ 
l\i-n' u|'|il>iiit>ilon l!>e Coniniiltri*; ' l. 

U. tioii It F. Si'liltf »diolpoltitn> 

a.Cl.rfor Mill Cwii.miili'.-. 

Ailjo'lnii.l hil twiuttriuvr monitog r. 

i^t^ifird th*t A Iiir ti[Ttui3g oftttptopl' 

i*% ftol t)crn thruu^li I'tC l&llol-bol ml the 
'Ifiiion.' Aflil l<i ilrK of ilif Icnj^tb ef Usi« 
rctriiary IjrKiull «i'iBia«iioa uf |l>« »«1J 

TClCni, «D<1 lhi> ■.B-rilniQii of ftflil "'fWinft 

ut njoit anil n for drcli.ou In iLa |>rFtuU>>. 
na niiuk4 cnriiFfliy rc.(>TDii>rsd^ itiat Ibc 
w^olc *u.>jr<l n >t;rr n* in h Ildr^/ie to Ciia- 
7f»»« !•« rtfftfrj l)»tV lo til* pcfip'r, r>r ibr m 
lu .JxiJv oil tbe IrtWiOaridkr ufirribr Cm 
Uunjnj \a iri.tttuUrr Bdl. Bi.'l Bik lo b< 
ilmlj-tjtfj.^ J. MV WiLU.iir. (ji»B..Co(a. ' 
■ ^T»»V Wi,i«M, 

Trdi- Avi'iiuos. 

■II. (. Kiio."'" 
: ■ CfBoii, tr. T. J u ly 27 ifi 1 1 «»i" 

On tniilioiitliv«luti-iDciit of iho'ScC- 
nTify of lliV'(Jouiniii|fC"'ira«. biaiJtf a 
)init "f l?ic innjoniy nj-ort. , 

Mr Wiiwiii ii.k.-d I,<If on'IioIirV 
linn: to iiiiiku a minuriiy njiutt.' trLuli 
\iu9 f;ruiilL-<1.- 
' ' CouTcuiion 106k a' rrcctk iif OD^lI&lf 


mtsrtti! fl? 'ftmvtAS. 

Mlimrity- (if C«ii*«nliig ComiDiUi-t 

ntwrtcd lu fyllow.': . "^ 


Ur ririiiot«r-f-.\ loiiiuiltf of ^AvrCan 

nlte to nlioniAfxl nftrrpd llio niniUf ul 
cmiii'lirie lU-r<luriia of llii> infill (Iniion 
lur lM.t:«»». ,«0ul4 fruirtlfiillj: 

li<>- li«ic to ill**'!!! rnini llir'rf|ioft of iVp 
in.J'irii* nrjuurCumnintrr; wc tumikr lh«t firuTnmru<li>ti4n lu r. ftf lhtf■^olt mfttirr 
li i< k I'l (he |ip<i|i!r li ua«atr4i>tt-l «n<i wiin 
•ml |irr<t>lciiii iliMi li 1< tlctc^nlii'it porrr* 
il.Mi \\irj rfuiioi -inufi iliitlboToir li.islieru 
lArotii ilir ji'uj.Ie'unrttnlir l^mc •uidorli' 
I'l f.r l! 

' lo *•/ tr'Hiitip 


•l>«:i n<.( l.c rMunlnt HO-I Mill pmiOil lU. 
ui>nn bjr llili Co'iiriilMii i*C]i3lfi|[ « lel 
lino up'oi llic ■•i)nr«iy nuil ifiilum of 

ConfCbllii'i mIiIiIi il'.#l nnCAtUrti in 11 

nm iiivITci. in i-r tlinl npn'n rot ra|i.i tile i.r 
dlltiiicuiilnnj; Lriwcfii r>chl Hb-I frmnv. >■« 
iwrtii Ii.m-ij ii.i.lfr>u4 Wc.Pk oiirurny 
•■f tour C.iin>'iiiii-p, tlirnf'ife. roulil rripni. 
full J frci.rt (.lo^ti-u ■□4 aili iliat Ibonbolc 
■lil-jxt luaiicr be itUtn\ *i4(;k Ui y-mr Com- 
iiiOirr to rrpi ri In orroolatiir *«l"h ibc in- 
tlrudiimi *ii.l.«jir4 In .tin- rftolullan m. 
atiss ibii C'vmiuittrr/ O^ W. Iti rrcuT, 

Parea Nrt. 

Oit motion .tho'.mliioriiy:- ri^iort 'was 

. Mr, .NoitwoPe mnr«l ilmt tlio iniittir- 
ity n-jiort Ir- ih]o|pIci1 DinlllioCoimiiittfc 
ilrsi-lun^fd; Mr. Ncali-, inoTnl to nmrtnl 
\>y iirvcrMi;: tlic wofil "niojrtiily" in tl.c 
(i(.nc wf iiiuiionty; on Toto Hic jra* tiinl 
ni>y;i wcro called Kitli ttio (ollowin^ re 

Ycoi— Anilcrron,' Ilow{!on^" nrtnnr, 
rimiimaii (2 vote".) Cnrry, Il-rM-y' Kl- 
liiit. Mpa>i;».irt!i, ilainiiiQrk. Jiiin -.mii. 
Km,-.. Ljm- 5Iii^i.-r. Nni;;!ilv. N,-.iI.-. 
Olcrn",. Orm»l.y. Jni.,.' KuI.ii.m^ii i'l 
t'ltc'.) J. O. KnUrHon. (Votlor. SiHli-. 
A. A. Siiiiili, Sunniii-iGrM. i^Tuf|l•vlt.t, 
Vnu;.'iiuii |J voti--,] Williiiius.-' Tln.'O. 
Wintim uiiil Jno. l>. WinliT*.— SI. 
-— JirtTi* — Mr«i'r<."'Ahfrrftiliy. - C.irr, 
Clioiiilli-r, Ciiiili<% CoiJtIiii;;ioTi, *Katwnl, 
'j"i;:'*,,Ny.i (13 votiii,] Nouworr. J. A. 
S'liilli. M-iri.tiinilli, 'lliniiiiiotl;:>\Vnssuii 
(3 vni.-jij Wa-luiiiiil Ili-|-p.rly.— 21. 

'I'liu iitution ilica K-iii;; tir»i cii niiirn- ; 

.Int. iiii.l ilio yi-mnrij imyt ljciiigmlk-(J, '' ' ' ' 

fi-Miltiti I 5 Ion- ; 

.Villi— AiiiIirMiii, I>f\'nn(,-:'Clilipm .■ 
(2voti-««.] KMioti. ltjmr,ijitrJ'-rmt:.iii.. 
K.ii/. .\»i;:lilT. HofMV. O'linrii Orni^l v. j'^'' " '.*, iic-ih 

. KoI.iiiMin [i liiw*,] J. O. U'lliiri- l'P'l'"cr». •c- 
i^n, IVoi-lor, Ijvltli', A. A- .*<iiiilti. ynru- ' li"'pvr^ i f i 

rliil.', bliirUviiiii, ViiM;;liii [3 rotiv 
U'lllain.*. Citrry, lluunnoilli, Jnci. ii 
\Viiitvri timl CiU]ini<in [j roti-a,l — 'jLi 

N.iy*— Jl'i^r*. Ci>'t-hii;:lnti,- 'Cjit >^ ■'■ ■■' 
Ciuivll.r. Inrwi-ll, Cji/r.^-lli |.]. 

I No. ?, I precietM.— Itlack r.o»« - 
JEJert, Uroiaoi •''<I l'i»; I'^^fn'.'if. S II. 
L«>.(. ^• X— Jii'i|;t't, Lcibivu m{I lUt'rr i 
Uipmlor. Tbot. Ilarcry 

bi*irivi Vo S. i prctictia— >o. Xr^ir.iffft, 
WnrO Btiil L'li"ti>'»>l In^jM^lai. I.'r. Jc'.m A. 
i^uut- No. i-JjlKH,K«KtilJ«B(lWiiabi: 
lun-rclOT, W.T C. tlltotl. 

D>FitictN«. 4,3 pttiloeii.— N'e. t— 'udi;ai,' 

Uoipt!) aOd \Val«Oa ; IcfptCtOf. 0. J>. OiUatt. 

.No. t-^u'if.ft. £a>a£a AJid (i»lta; lUfit<lor, 


li.iUld .N"o S, Jfrt'lat^.— N» 1— Juflcn, 
ProttornAdUr Kib(; Ini^tttor. U.aitb'.,jt]i. 

.No, X— JuJgri, tiiuruiAttt ud Nuifroie; 
Ioii>r<tor. A. UCB»aj. . 

Liiitrtrl No. 0. 9 pirfiorli— ClHuiowii— 
JiKt^ra, W C(n«tf aid Joi, K-iltf ; Io?p<rwr, 
C*I-t I'arkrr. Guld llU-JuJKr<. Huu.e- 
ttonti aoJ J. WiBiPr: l-.riJt<lo<, J C-.irp. 
.-^S'lb'a Suilon-W%df«'i, WiliU'iiiauU Ujik* 

l«iij; \atprtlot. tt. OiUilfa. MiliuKtOMO-* 
J'.>litl.JM:>i Jontlkitl \},.1t; la.;.f<tof. II, 
Kr.o. M-k lIua.l.aM!'>JuJ«r«, 1}l,t *\A 
autlli; loip'rtivf, T, Ktllir. Uuba* i;ia;.au 
— JuJCO, ClitrrT nuil Ntia'oa ; lotj.tciur. 
Urown.' Wil^bli Eulitro— Jo-It f«, Onoril 
aad Wililil; le.pnior, H. L«}io.i. Aufrr- 

two* j>(at<OD— JujRCf. rurotrtiiwa aOJ ^ at. 

mill; luipritor. T Animwa. .■iit>«Dti>a'« 
:ii>t>ou— JuJ^ri.b'jIrriUracd Tyti; l»prc> 
lor.'J, K. l-ipfiT. 

Oiiiri. I .Vo. ;. 3 pftfiBru.— L«kt VallfT— 
Jtiili;f>, K Citoiriiia-bJ W. lturB|.t>r.y /Ir. 
»t»(ior, MuK« IVitri-. Va. l-JjIgM. I/. 
\V'oo.lfgf.| mi.l W. II. .- a.U , lu'pfvUP, S«»l. 
lylrr DArr'aC-rap— Jo e^^*. U. Uirawod 
■u.lJ. Siuiih; l.fpnior. U»k»r. 

U.iiri.t.Vw B. arrerjn.n— No I— JuJitPj, 
S Ki'ii.y-nJ W. W. 5.ailb; iT^rclor T J, 
•licLtBi. o. ■ No. !— JuJ^w, t'ar«<ll u4 Lm: 
Iu>|x-ciur. J. Ilowarj. 

^.llficl .No. 'J, : (ifff iBftr— No. 1— Jailjra, 
t.. llillfr ao'l'i U rrii; lotpti'or. K. 
Limtk .S . Z-JuJen. UilliKuiiaDjlboBip- 

(on; Liljiprlur. n,.l>L t'niorr. 

W* «iiuld aUo iF^ommrcid tTiat' iftpft t# 
■pj-oinf'l a ItOnr.l of l'i(« CaO'iNtra. «):• 
III. II >>ir(iiil<;tBi I'.r Cipi'ot oa Ibr Jl Moa 
<i«t <jf iMuliirn'xt (.iiiioii. la ronnrcli.ti 
Willi llir 1'n-i.Icrt of Ihi* Contfitiioii. ao-1 
Bholl I'rut'cd tu or»R a&<l rouol llif roita 
■•■d tt".:arc Ihr tnuit tbtrrof, aod ht-jf rtr- 

llbotlfluf (Icdiori to ill (vrrt^ra l^al rwy 

tM--lrM..|.all(i.f •ti-,fi U raaii tft;<»''^- j 
aubm.ittd, ■ \ JOIi.V n. .^t:ALt:, LI. n. 

Oil motion tfic rrjiort «o< rrrcitej, 

.^!r. Dvrtry oQlrttl lUc folio* inj;, to 
l*c niliK-.! to thr n-j-ort: 

UtMlrtti, Tiiultla- Ji«:j;Mancl Clcrki 
of llic fforiomi-IiTiioii iirttiMf :« .il.all re- 
(U/ii a Irui: i-cjiy of I lit- |<oll liif. sluo 
tlio U'ty litt. uiTomiuincil ■ilU llic b«I- 
luLi. viliivli was tdojitid. ' 

Oir ' motigu tlie vomtsittce Wu~ dti- 

A.ljiiiirrnI tiRtit' t»KOfroir butfoiitg 
at ti tiVlOLk, n. It! " 

TtirtisDAr, Jotr 23lS. ISS?. 
ConVrntion met |iur>.u.iiit lo m'jOiiro- 
mcnl; .M..j. Hj...]. j., tl.- t;j.,vr. M.uutCT 
uf yotiTOiiy n-aiX ami ciloj.titJ: 

' .Mr, Noicwdne lu-ircil • rrconialrm- 
tiuii uf ^i<.■vliOll IsC uf Article - Lsl. Dtiicii 
WU4 a^rnol to 

^'•Mr. >i(itvW4i:o llicti-mori-tl'tu rrtiaq 
till- worxl "Tcrrilyry."aiiil iimrt "Cmrrft 
:>latfK,'' ill ita •luiiJ, Ijjp cuta ic was lo 

; On iiii^ion nf Mr .I,'-J,''Miw«rr, tl;9 
fullowiritf il:iu^- vtai aiUv4 lo tl)« Ciw 

iilint ol «iiiw mill 

■•■ ■ ^- "'i'"'- " ...■■liur. Inrf- 

ili-rinv »oii' {jj uiKdiiho rv|«jrt i-f 

.\vi-. [12 voir.] J. A. Mniit., .M><rt 't'"* "'•"'"'''•'» '-"wntmilUt woa fcODi.loJ. 

'Iivniimiiii, I Wauioii [3- vutcx) 
Wiiili- Hlnl Clililii-,~-23. 
'J'oc inujuritjr ri'imil wai !bi-ii Unlurril 

U'li.Jitlll.*. j 

ll.i iiiiilit>n of J. V. l^iii;;. Ilio CviKii 

(Kill v.'.\> ll.iit l;>t;iii Ituin the Itltitc I" 
forilnr I'unMiKrjti'ni. 

Oil iiioiioii tEio CuiTcDtiuniailJonrTK' 

CiniTi-iiliuii mil fitiniuiitito.'aiijiiuni 
mill', i 

Cntnniitlfc 0!i'- prrfliutiiip. the Da- 
trii'14. ninl'iLii;; r-il>-> ^miil luwi 
r.-;;ii!fl1.iij:!tM' 1-' ,:m!. .■.. t».;KLiu- m [ 
niuko lliv full 

Air, J.,0. Roldiisoii tnofpi] thbt o rnm- 

iintiti: of ii'iio liL*ii|<;i 

Mltiy llie l*rc«- 

ft^'r^^f^*PlY, July 2"i''. 
Clint fill ion iiit't |.iir*naiit i" . 
mint; t»inutc*' of .y.-fliril,iy i 
rr.iily lu ni«l, il>ci>ii'r>lury U4i» j^u^ 
ti.-.u-'tilMClu'il<«k, |>. tu. - 
'T. CiryV Clinn.llrr, Mr >"•'•'. <''i-- Cl>i.ltii.fln iT llir Cu 
l-'iirwtll. Uriii.1' intt'-'jOi'n.v, rq-irtol Hntan i. 
'iw,) XutcWMfr, ,'t""t<'nt'iiif ono dollar Uii.I liliy 

:i.-, C .N Nmc- 
, I'lUr.Njc 00 

Jiill lU.L.IlUt.ll.'. 

Aiijunriittl 10 1 oVIoi-k p. m. 

'.iitii'n tnvi imr^uaut to adjoartt* 

i(tc«,.o.n>AriwtioT)mtnt report 

Mr C)iJiinM*x— Vour Commltlfa- oir 

^11 "i: -uii wuuiJrt»)nrituily npori 


r* -■— - 

tiiU o;:t 

lilll-T. of I 

•• • 

\. 7 

•A I 
.I''. ■ 


M<l(o»4ihl k».« b«ta ftb4 Ht^Mi\lfi9^\ 

■ \-j- -y^i •!■. u! ,1 fi-ijri: j-crioj. 
Call or Koncrj. 
■'■ TT T'.'it roofcil tp(v-coi)iiJdci',Bec 

mnrnl for on IiiJcOSiiTfo 
'.if Kic »lo«tlon.'^oii toio 
, . : ; .. 1. i ...ivt Hin- calfnl; I. 

j iV«— A'.Jiiiillif, C4ry. CIn--i;e,*CjJ- 

lOiuxtoDu i'iTwtil, yiijjiy Urj>pftl/, 

>Ttavfto.'< tMrt^r^.' 
MitJ'irliyor C-n»»**i»jt Cvaittitltflt', 
li-arc (v ri-t>orl a4fiillo«a:- 

liirovT. , j 

.iiUa DtinpiVi 'ii^ tirailrfbta of ib« pci. 


/i ilrw of ihl rt«peftilb'>IUj'r»iiIne o" 
et. tt««Ottlilrt«ptiini 1/ isbvil lb* fo:ka 
lBjl.'l*( lUUinfOL , . 

/ 'iht\ Ti hA« n;.|3td ft&A ca&rtUtil a^l t' * i.^.\^ 
votn rr*.ire»Jaa rt^icirtd to t>a*Tit lo ibiily \\ 
C9a*tAit7af m4 «•, y*v Cyuatluttf utl^^' 

... ,-.■;. Cb"ii.5 
i)t«J. and It* 

..♦^i^.l ''' "" ' ' ■^'^ Notewar*. S<etioa 

-•ltyftpd)l*t Cl Ariirli; Sil t^aa rKOniidcrid. 



llill. The sixth by Hobcrt, in Gold Hill, near the 
site of the Levialhaii works. Then followod the 
Nevada, in Six- mile (.'anon; ^iuc•eeeded by others 
too numerous to mention. Several thousand cords 
of wood was cut in and about the adjoining; hills, 
and as it disappeared ran up to fifteen dollars per 

There was no water in Gold Hill save a couple of 
small s])rini;s near the old Kmpirc mill, aside from 
that riinnini^ down Crown J'oint ravine. 

In the s|)riTm of l,S(il water was found in runnini^ 
a tunnel in the northern part of Viri;inia, and the 
bulk of it was conveyed in boxes and ditches to 
(ii)l(l Mill by Williams it (tashwiler, and sold for (1 
think) one dollar per inch to su]iply the mills. The 
tunnel supplied about lUO inches. 


The unsuccessful eftbrts in 1859 to establish or 
resurrect some form of govei-nment for Carson 
County, or western Utah, has been already noted; 
neither the Provisional Government or the county 
election of that year having had anj- lej^al base for 

Judj^e Child, with earnestness equal to that which 
had prompted the eflbrt of lS5!t, urii;ed upon the 
people the necessity of availing themselves of such 
laws as were operative in the countiy by electin<; 
officers to execute them. August 0, 18G0, was the 
time when such choice might be legally made, and 
he called an election for that day, after first divid- 
ing the counties into fourteen precincts. St. Jhuy's, 
Humboldt, and Carson Counties were jointly entitled 
to one member of the Utah Jjegislature. 

The result of that election was to fill the vacant 
offices of Selectmen, Sheriff, Treasurer, Surveyor, 
and Member of the Legislature, which gave to Car- 
son County, by election and appointment, the follow- 
ing-named persons as officers in 1860: — 


(1). J. S. Child, Probate and County- Judge, now 
in Genoa. 

(2). George McNeir, Clerk, now in San Francisco. 

(3). S. A. Kinse}', Recorder, now in Genoa. 

(4). W. M. Stewart, Prosecuting Attorney, now 
in Carson. 

(5). Thomas Condon, Assessor and Collector, now 

in Carson. 

(G). James J. Coildinglon, ') r, , , , 

0). William Alford, J Selectmen, salary 

(8). 1. Williams, ^*1,;.00 per annum 

(9). John L. HIackburn, Sheriff, killed in Carson. 
(10). S. H. Marlette, Surveyor, now in Carson. 
(11). 11. P. Bland, Treasurer. 
John C. James, Legislature. 

(1). S.ilary lixi-il ;it $2,500 i«;r year; succcudud by Juiljje I,. 
W. K.OTia, .Inly :«), ISlH. 

(•J). .Salary lixe.1 at iJl.SOO jicr year, Itcinovcil frnm iilficc 
Maroh 'JO, INliO, fur alwciitiiig liiiiiSflf, ami \V. H. Pi'ttit 
appiiirituil. .May U, KSGl, I'ettit r.!)i',nieil, ami C'li.irlcs V. Cmi- 
fjer was a].iiiMiiU,-<l the •JOtli: he was aucceiilcd July :<0, 1801, liy 
N. W. Wiiitoi,. 

(3). Hi.i eleetii)!! w,ia iinsuccc.ssfiilly coiitcsteil liy K t". Mmire, 
Decciiilier 3, ISGO. (iovenior Nye appointed .Samiiel U. Kiiiy to 
that olliee July '-"J, ISO I. 

This legislation cost Mr. Kinsey about 83,000. It 
was a profitable |)osition on account of the recording 
of mining claims, tiie jiroceedH of the oHice aver- 
aging about fifty dollars per day. Afr. Morse had 
run as a candidate at the election, although there 
was, according to the call, no vacanc}-; and failing 
to get a division in his favor from the courts, he 
opened an office, and the minora, not knowing who 
would eventually become Recorder, recorded with 
both Kinsey and Morse. Mr. Kinsey retained the 
old Record books. Governor Nyo to settle the dis- 
pute, appointed a third party. 


The first session of the County Court after an 
interval of over three years was held by Judge Child 
on the third of September succeeding the election. 
This Court under the laws of Utah, aided by the 
three Selectmen, performed the county business that 
now is transacted in Nevada by the Count}- Commis- 
sioners, and in other States by a Hoard of Supervisors. 

There was no business transacted on the third of 
September, but on the tenth appear.^ the following 
entry uj)on the books: ''The Court next considered 
the matter of county indebtedness, and ordered that 
all county scrip issued to this date be declared void 
and repudiated," On that same day commenced the 
shower, that in after years became a deluge, of 
petitions for private franchises and grants of water 
rights, toll-roads, bridges, railroads, etc. 

On the fourteenth, the county was divided into 
fourteen school districts, and on the fifteenth, the 
following rates for licenses were established lor 
county revenue purposes. 


Billiard T.aWe $10.00 

BowliiiK Alley 10.00 

Theaters, per day . .').(K) 

Theaters, per month 1 (KI.OI) 

Theaters, three months "JOO.OO 

Theaters, one year 000.00 

Opera or (>)ncert, same as Theater. 

Caravan or menajjerie, for each e.xhihition 'JO. 00 

C'ireu.s, .Slii,'ht of hand, Wire or Kope-Dancers, and sneh 

per day 10.00 

(4). Appointeil by Probate Court Septemlwr I'J, 1800. He 
was suceeeiliil by I'. II. Clayton. 

(0). Appointed by tlie court, Septomlx;r 10, 1800. The olliee 
was declareil vacant In^cause of illegality, the County Treasurer 
lieins; Collector I'x nfiii'in of Licenses, and on the sixteenth of 
February, 1801, V,. C. (.'ardoz^i was appointi-d to collect the tax 
in .St. Miiry's ami Hunilioldt Counties .-w well as Carsiin County, 
the two former having been attached to Carsm for jmlicial and 
revenue purposes. April IJ, ISlil, the Court allowetl the 
Assessor and his deputy ten dollars per day and eijjht per cent, 
on cnlleetioiis. 

(0). liesi^neil April l.t, 1801, to takucfTect on thcsevcntocnth 
instant, when \V. M. .Stewart was appoint«Ml to lill the vacancy. 

(7). Kcsii;necl .Xpril 17, ISOl; acccptL'.l .May l.'Uh, ami the 
next ilay John W. (Irier, of fiilver City, was .appointed to lill the 

(S). Editor ami proprietor of TtrrKoriiU Entrtpri*^^ com- 
missioned by tlovcrnor Nye, .Inly Ml, 1801. 

('.)). T. .1. Atchinsmi tiled notice of intention to contest the 
election August I'J, ISOO. .Mr. Illackburn was kilhtl ill Carson 
by William .Mayliidd, an<l Novcndier 'J8, I.SOl, the liCgislaturv 
otreretl ,1 reward of ."JI.OtM) for the arrest of his munlerer. 

(10). Wius later Surveyor Ceneral for Nevad:i. 

(II). .Salary lixed at $1'J,'> [ler month from \ovend>cr I, 1800. 



(Business was divided into three classes as Ibllows ) : 

First Class — Those whose sales reached 85,000 ikt 

mouth, quarterly license 17.50 

Seco.s'd Class — Those whose sales were less than $5,000, 

au'l at least SI, 000 per mouth, nuarterly liceuse. . 12.50 
Third C' — Those wliose sales were less than §1,000, 

per month, quarterly license 10.0) 

Traveling merchants or jiack-peiUUers 12.51) 

And if they used a pack-animal or wagon to convey 

their gooils 35.00 

Hotels or Inns, per quarter 17.5 ) 

Saloons, per quarter 17. ."lO 

Pawnl>roker.<, per quarter 50. Oil 

Auctioneers, per quarter 30.00 

Stoek-Broker.s, over $100,000 in business, per quarter 80.00 

Less than $100,000 ami over .$50,000 per quarter 40.00 

Bankers aud dealers in l^xchauge, if business was 

$200,000 aud uu<ler .$:50O,00O per month SO.OO 

If business was $100,000 ami under $200,000 per month 40.00 

If business less than $100,000 per month 30.00 

This Keveuue Act of the County Court was repealed 
February 18, ISO), except S(j far as Liquor Dealers 
and Manufacturers were concerned, and their 
license was placed at per quarter 15.00 


Established from Genoa to the Ridge, December, 5, 18G0. 

Carriage or wagon with six or eight animals 2.50 

Carriage or wagon with four animals 2.00 

Carriage or wagon with two animals 1..50 

Pleasure carriage wiih two animals 2.00 

Buggy with one animal 1.00 

Horseman or Pack with one animal 25 

Loose Stock 1 -JJ 

Same rates on road from Chinatown to Palmyra. 
December 7, 1800. 

Toll rates when not specially rated : 

Wagon with six or eight animals 2.00 

Wagon with four animals l.ol) 

Wagon with two anim ils l.Ol) 

Carriage or Buggy with two animals 75 

Horseman or pack-animals 12.', 


The following entries also appear upon the record 
of the Count}' Court, indicating an earlj faith in the 
future of the Comstouk Lode, and a disposition to 
take time by the forelock. 

October 4, 18G0— Petition of Leonard L. Tread- 
well et ul. for grant of railroad from Carson City to 
Virginia City ; and also grant of water, were taken 
up, and being duly considered and examined, the 
pra3"er of the petitioners was granted. 

October 24, 1860 — Gonnin and Tulluck arc 
granted a charter bj' the County Court, to construct 
a railroad "iVom Virginia City, by (Jold Hill, Silver 
City, and through Gold Canon to Johntown * * 
and thence down to Chinatown and the Carson 


On the nineteenth of September the Court, while in 
session at Genoa, authorized the building committee 
toe.\i>eii(l not to exceed 8750 to complete the Court 
House in that place, and furnish it. This was an old 
structure being repaired, a building thirty by sixty 
feet, one and one-half stories in height. Now it is 
clapboarded in front; rough boards j)ut uj) endwise the other end and sides, while shakes cover 
the roof, and i>r<)bably were placed there by the 
county to help make up tl.e cost of 87.")0. It has 
been twice painted, but no one would mistrust this 
fact from its ju'esent look, and it is now being 
occupied as a stable. In the ujiper part of the 

building Judge Cradlebaugh held his first United 
States District Court, access to it being had through 
the front door by means of a ladder from the street. 
Later, stairs wei-e built from the sidewalk up to it. 

Directly in front of the building, across the street, 
stands the Nevada Hotel, where the Roop, or Pro- 
visional Government, Constitutional Convention, and 
later, its Legislature, met in 1859. A few hundred 
feet to the north of this pioneer court building still 
stands the first house built in Nevada, the old Mor- 
mon Station, a log structure that now has a new 
roof and a clapboard front. 


At the State Capitol is deposited and laid away 
among the material deemed worthless the original 
books of the census records of Nevada in 18G0, from 
which are compiled the following statistics. They 
are imjiortant, being an exhibit of the condition 
and degree reached in prosperity of Nevada at 
that lime. 

The following table shows the dift'erent kinds of 
business, and its extent in each village and city in 
the countr}-, and is a volume in itself. From it 
there appears to have been at that time, in what 
is now Nevada, sixty-six saloons, no preacher, four 
school teachers, .six printers, nineteen doctors, and 
not a lawyer practicing his profession. 






Boarding Houses . 








Jiootmakers . - . . 


Printers . . 



Lively Stables... . 
Harness Makera. . 




School Teachers.. 


Brewers .• 















2 3 

r3 H 




. ' z 

































There should bo added to the foregoing list to 
make it complete, four telegraph operators at Car- 
son, and one in Genoa, two druggists, and a daguer- 
reau urtipit in Carson, The enumeration was made 
in August by J. T, Waters, Deputj- United States 

Long Vallev — Three public houses, ten miners and 
sixteen ranchers; the balance of population no occu- 
pation given; census taken in September. 

SrE.\.MiioAT Vali.ev — Two niercliants, two public 
houses, one saloon, and two blacksmiths; census taken 
in September. 

Palmyra District (in what is now Lj-on Count}-) — 
One saloon and one merchant; census taken in Sep- 

Clinton (now Dayton) — Two blacksmiths, one 
shoemaker, one saloon, one merchant, one public 
house; census taken in September. 

Caeson Valley — One school teacher, three hotels, 
and throe blacksmiths; census taken in October. 

Walker's River Vallev — Two hotels, and one 
grocery; census taken in October. 

IIoNEV Lake Vallev (taken by t'alit'ornia Mar- 
shal) — Ills claimed that along the border over L'JOO 
persons were enumerated for that State who should 
have been credited to Nevada. lie also saw over 
2(tO miners' huts made of willow, that were aban- 
doned because of the trouble with Indians. 

The following enumeration of population at Ilag- 
lown, the countrj- between there and Virginia City, 
and the towns in the vicinity of the latter place, were 
enumerated in August, all the valleys along the base 
of the Sierra being reached in September except 
('arson Valley, which with the Walker River countiy 
was taken in October. 








Female . 




























CarHdli Valley 


Ka;,'le Vallev 


K..rt Churchill 


Flowery Mifiiii;; Distriet 



fjnlil Hill 




.Itt<:k'8 Valley 

Loii;; Valley 

>l»iiitniit)t Ea^lo nmrrlcl 

l'»iiit>Ta Mining District 



Siher Citv 



Su-aiiibiiut Vallev 



Tnickec .Mea<lowii 







Virginia ^linltitr histrict 

Walker Hi. or Valley 

WiuHJHie Valley 


<';ir»nti Count V, total 

Iluiulioliit Countv, total 






Saint Mary'B County, total. 


Total o( Nevada 




6' 57 


NirTK.— Of the free colored population IB are male and 2 Icinalc niulntoes. 
At < ienoa uiie »laoe is reported, named T. J. Sin(;leton, a female, aged 4,'> yean. 


I rish G5 1 

English 294 

German 454 

Scotch 98 

Mexicans .' 85 

Other foreigners 482 

Total foreign 2,()(i4 

Total native 4,793 

Total population G,857 




PolitiCTl Events — Ai)iiointineiit.s liy (iovernor Nye — Org.iniza- 
tioii and Kluctioiis — E.veeutive Procl.imatiou — .ludicial 
Orj;aiii/,:itiiiu — Legislative Orj;aiii/.atii)ii — Census ami Elec- 
tion Districts — Kirst Territ.irial Election — Mcmliers of 
Teriitiiiiul Council — Members of Huuse of Iteprcseutativcs — 
Territory Diviileil into Counties — Special Election of .Janu- 
ary 14, 18()i'— Election of Sei>teml)er 3, ISti'J— Election of 
tSeptemlM-'r •_', liSOH — Etforta to Become a .State— \'ote For 
ami Against a State Government — Homograpliic Chart — 
Third House — The Constitution IJefeated— Vote for Dtlicers 
Under the Constitution — .Second Attempt to Become a 
State— Constitutional Convention Elected June litli, and 
Assemhled .Inly 14, 1864 — Votes for Congressional Delegate 
— Constitutional V'ote. 

Political and other events in 1861, pertaining to 
Carson County, chronologically given until it is 
merged in the first county organization of Nevada 
bj- Act of her Legislature, approved November 25th 
of that year as follows: — 

January 8. William O. Connor filed bonds as 
Deputy Sheriff for S2,000. The office of License 
Collector declared not warranted by law as the 
County Treasurer had those duties to perform ex 

.Fanuary 18. Territorial law passed authorizing 
change of Carson County seat of justice from (tenoa 
to Carson City. 

February 11. The County Court declared that 
Honey Lake Valley was within the limits of Carson 
County, and appropriated 8250 to assist any one in 
tile legal resistance to the collection of ta.xes, within 
th:it valle^', bj- the ollicers of Flumas County. Cali- 
fornia, and March 9th following, that section was 
organized as District No. 15. 

February 13. Rates of taxation in Carson County 
fixed for ISiil at one and one-half per cent, for 
county and one-half jjcr cent, for Territorial pur- 
poses. The latter was remitted on the following 
seventeenth of Juno because the new Territory of 
Nevada had been created in the meantime. 

I''ebruary 14. tJeorge McNeir, County Clerk and 
Auditor; salary fixe<l at 81,S0() per year. 

February 15. John L. Blackburn allowed 81 ,3(1(1 
for services as High Sheriff, and J. V. Solo jiresented 
bill for services as Deputy' Sheriff. 

February lU. The appointment of Assessor and 
Collector in September being declared illegal and 
void, the Court appointed to those offices ]•]. C. Car- 
doza. lie was to collect taxes in St. Mary's and 



Humboldt Counties us well as for Carson, those 
counties haviiii^ been added to the latter for revenue 
and judicial pur])oscs. 

On the same date Judge Child was authorized by 
the Count}' Court to select suitable rooms in Carson 
City for holdini; Ihc March term of Court, the counts- 
seat having been moved in the meantime from Genoa 
to that ]ilace; 8200 was allowed to be expended in 
fitting u]) such rooms. 

February 19. Date of last entry in United States 
District Court under Judge Cradlebaugh. 

March 1. County Court met in Carson City for 
the first time. Its place of meeting was in a build- 
ing rented of George Lewis for §175 per month. 

March 2. Congressional Act approved creating 
Nevada Territory'. 

March 7. A tax of one-fourth of one per cent, 
levied to be continued from }-car to year, to raise a 
fund of not to exceed $15,000 with which to build a 
County Court llouse, also, one-half of one per cent, 
to raise that same amount with which to build a jail. 

March 8. Poll-tax fixed at three dollars or two 
day's work. 

March 22. 
of Nevada. 

April 10. 

April 11. 

James W. Nj-e commissioned Governor 

George McXeir no longer County Clerk. 
P. H. Cla^'ton presented a bill for ser- 
vices as Prosecuting Attorney, and Thomas Winn as 
Deputy Sheriff. 

April 12. Assessor and his Deputy allowed ten 
dollars per day for services, and eight per cent, on 
amount collected. 

April 18. Selectman J. J. Coddington resigned and 
Wellington Stewart was appointed on the seventeenth 
to fill the vacancy. On this last date. William Alford 
resigned as Selectman, and May 14th, John W. Grier 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

May 14. The salarj' of Probate Judge was fixed 
at §2,500 per annum, and that of Selectmen at 81,500. 

July 8. Governor James W. Nye arrived in Car- 
son ('it J'. 

July 11. Governor Nye issued his proclamation 
organizing the Territory of Nevada. 


The following appointments by Governor Nye 
were made for (Jarson County during the year 18(Jl : 

J'robate Judge, L. W. Ferris, Virginia City, July 29. 

Clerk, Nelson W. Wiiiton, Virginia City, July 29. 

Jiecorder, Samuel 1). King. July 29. 

District Attorney, Marcus D. Larrowe, August 12. 

T'ounty Siirvej'or, S. 11. Marlette, August 14. 

Treasurer, AKerd Helm, August 20. 

Selectmen, J. Williams, Chauncy N. Notowaro, 
George W. Grier. .hily 81 . John F. Long. Septembei' 2. 

In the next cha])ter is given a detail of events that 
worked the change by which Carson County was 
ab.sorbed and deprived of its separate existence. It 
was a gradual transformation. 























o o o 
o c c 
ir: 'o o 

i o c o 
I o o o 

' 00 53 -t 


I C O «2 

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I CO C*! t-» 

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(N O 0-1 "M lO ?3 

o o 

o in • 00 o 
o -i> • CO o 

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■ lO 

1 T)< 

I (M O tr- O 

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■ CC 00 C I- o 
' o CC M CO in 

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' CO 

(M t> t- CC 1-1 

, to 

m ^ M in ei o (M o 

T— • r— I in r-* iC 

in 00 CO in -t CC C2 

(M i-i CO M o o CO in 

in 0-1 o -* CO — o 

^ rl i-H ■* 


t-t CO r-^ in 


O 0-1 Ol C-1 CO CO 00 


00 r-<^ '-2^ CO r--_ X in_^ 1S_ 

■*' 0-1 -t T^" of >-H co" o 


to CO 0-1 Oi O CO to 


r-( ,-1 0-1 0-1 Ol 0^ CO 

c s 
-o a 




. J i; ^ W ;£ = >" C3 ^ 

S c S 1 -i-S ^ £ -S^ 

c^ t^ 


o o 

t* ^ 


<„ 5 


13 2 

'~& a 

.5 s "> 

St Hi ft. -r. 


- 01 


5 3 


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H f 

— s. -^ 


The following deaths occurred within a year ]irior 
to June 1, 18(!0, and do not include those slain by 
either red or white men: — 


Robert Murphj', ago 2G, drowned, soldier. 
Charles P. Selmer, age 28, inflammation of bowels, 


Hon. Lyman L. Crockett was born March 1, 1S31, 
in Waldo ('ounty, .Maine; fame to the Pacific OoaHt 
by way of the l8thmu.s of Panama in 1S51. During 
the succooding nine years he was engaged in lumber- 
ing and mining in California. 

In 18()0 ho came to the then Territory of Utah 
and worked at mining for one year, in Washoe 
County. In lS(il he moved to Dayton, Lj'on County 
(then called Chinatown, Carson ('ounty, Utah), and 
built the first hay and feed stable ever opened in the 
town, which business he followed for about one and 
one-half years, when he engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness, in which he remained the greater part of his 
residence there. During that time he held several 
])OHitionsof trust and honor, some of them mentioned 
in this sketch. In 1805 ho was appointed United 
States I)ei)Uty Revenue Assessor for liyon ('ounty, 
and was also United States Commissioner and Notary 
Pul)lic. As County Cominissioner and Count)- Re- 
corder and ex officio Auditor, as well as in his various 
other offices, ho accjuitted himself with credit and to 
the satisfaction of his constituency. In 1870 ho was 
I)eputy Census Enumerator of Lyon County. In 
1876 he removed to Reno, Washoe County, and 
again engaged in the lumber business, also in the 
manufacture of gas. In 1878 he was elected to the 

position of State Treasurer, on the Republican ticket. 
Since 1863 ho has been an active working mem- 
ber of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and is at present connected with the same lodge in 
which he was initiated over seventeen years ago. 
Ho has been honored by his brother members to a 
high degree, having held many positions in the lodge; 
was Representative to the R. W. Grand Lodge for 
twelve successive years; was also R. W. tJraiid Treas- 
urer and W. G. Chaplain. In 186t) he became a 
member of the Order of F. it A. M., joining Valley 
Lodge, No. t), at Dayton, in which he has held sev- 
eral oflSces, often officiating at burials in the absence 
of clorg3-men. He has always rendered assistance 
to his distressed brethren, and many live to testify 
to his generosity. In 1861 he, in connection with 
Judge Calvin Hall, located the cemetery at Dayton, 
and December itth, of the same year, Mr. Crockett 
dug the first grave therein. Several hundred have 
since found a resting-place there; among them arc 
two children that once cheered the household of Mr. 
Crockett. He has a residence in Reno, Washoe 
County, but at present resides in Carson City, the 
duties of his present office making it incumbent on 
him to do so. Mr. Crockett was married in October, 
18();5, but has no children living. 



Charles Slapp, ago 29, drowned, soldier. 
Fred. Acaidel, age 23, drowned, soldier. 


John Calvin, ago 29, typhoid fever, teamster. 

Senira Perkins, age l(i. typhoid fever. 

Louisa Perkins, aged 4, typhoid fever. 

Chester Harlow, aged 1, iuttamnialion of bowels. 

Harriet Parks, ago 25, child bed. 

Thomas J. Owsloy, ago 2, cholera infantum. 


Mary E. Jones, age 40, congestion of brain. 
William Kdwards, ago 51, mountain fever, farmer. 
Iliram Mott, ago 29, by a threshing machine, 

Sarah J. Robinson, ago 21, typhoid fever, servant. 

WAOES IN 18(!0. 

Farm hands, per month, ^50, or S:5 per day with, 
and S3. 50 without board. 

Female help, per month, S40, with board. 

Carpenters, per day, without board, S7. 

Board from 812 to S2(i per week to laborers. 

Ruby Valley, in St. Mary's Count}-, has but one 
farm, run by William Rogers, Indian Agent. Last 
winter there was throe feet of snow in the valley, 
and most of the stock died for want of feed. 
Mountains highly timbered with cedar and pine. 
No minerals yet discovered there. 

llu.MBOLUT County. — No inhabitants in the county 
except those connected vvith the mail service. The 
onlj- things not human seen living are snakes, liz- 
ards, and crickets, upon which the Indians are 
forced to live a portion of the year. " Tho county 
is the most barren of any I ever passed over." 

J. P. Waters, 
United States Deputy Marshal. 

First, Congress created a new Territory including 
it, over which a new system of laws ap])lie(l. Then 
came Governor Nye, who applied the new system to 
tho old subdivision as they had existed under Utah. 
A Legislature then met, and on the twenty-fifth of 
November, ISGl, the Territory was segregated into 
nine counties, among whidi the old names of St. 
Mary's and ('arson found no ])laco. The Legislature 
enacted that the records of the county erased should 
be turned over to the Secretary of State for safe 
kee])ing, where they are now to be found. Then the 
legal shadows of Utah passed from that portion of 
the Great Basin that is now known as tho Stale of 


James W . Nye, of Madison County, New York, 
was commissioned Governor of the newlj'-created 
Territorj- of Nevada, on the twenty-second of March, 
1801; commissions being issued on the lwentj--sev- 
enth of tho same month to Orion Clemens, as Sec- 
retaiy; to Benjamin 15. Hunker, as United States 
Attorney; and (ieorge Turner, as (Jhief J iistice; his 
Associate Justices being Horatio M. Jones and Gor- 
don N. Mott. 

In July of that 3"ear Governor Nye issued tho 
following, his first proclamation, to the people over 
whom he was appointed: — 

To all whom it may concern — 

Whereas, By an Act of Congress of the United 
States of America, entitled "An Act to organize the 
Territory of Nevada," ajiproved March 2, ISfil, a 
true eo])y of which is lieri^to annexed, a (iovern- 
meiit was created over all the country described in 
said Act, to be called the "Ten-ilory of Nevada;" 
and whereas, the following-named officers have been 
duU- a])pointed and coiniuissioned under said Act, 
as officers of said (iovernmenl, viz.: — 

James W. Nye, Governor of said Territory, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Militia thereof, and Suiierin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs thei-ein; Orion Clemens, 
Secretary of said Territorj-; (ieorge Turner, Cliief 
Justice; and Horatio M. Jones and (Jordon N. Mott, 
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of said Ter- 
litorj', and to act as Judges of the District Court for 
said Territorj-; Benjamin H. Hunker, Attorney of 
the United States for said Territor}-; I). Bates, ilar- 
shal of the United States for said Territory; and 
John W. North. Surveyor General for said Territory; 
and the said (Governor and the other officers having 
assumed the duties of their said oflices, according to 
law, said Territorial Government is hereby declared 
to be organized and established, and all persons are 
enjoined to conform to, respect, and obey the laws 
thereof accordingly. 

Given under my hand and the seal of said Terri- 
tory this eleventh day of July, a. d. 18t!l, and of the 
independence of the United States of America tho 
eighty-fifth. James W. Nve, 

Governor of Nevada Territoi-y. 

Governor Nye filled the several offices created by 
the first Legislative Assembly with tho following- 
named gentlemen; and thus tho swaddling-clothes 
of government were )iHt U])on Nevada, transforming 
liei-, an infant, into the sisterhood of Territories. 


January 1, 18ti2, Warden of Prison, Abraham 

February 1, 18(12, Treasurer, John TL Kinkead. 

February 1, 18(12, Auditor, Perry (i. Child. 

February 24, 18t)2, School Superintendent, William 
(J, Blakely. 

September 8, 18G3, Auditor, vice Child, resigned, 
William W. Rose. 

December 24, 18()3, Superintendent Public Instruc- 
tion, for two years, A. F. White. 

At a later date tho following officers succeeded 
those in the positions named who arrived with (iov- 
ernor Nye: — 

August .il, 18(j;!, Ciiited States Attorney, Theo. 

October 2, 18(13, Judge First District Court, John 
W. North. 

October 14, 1803, Assistant Justice Siii)remo Court, 
Powhattan B. Locke. 


On the Bovcntccnth of Jul}- another proclamation 



was iesned, this time to establish Judicial Districts, 
over which to aBHijrn the three Judges for duty, and 
the division was a peculiar one. 

District No. 1, to which Gordon X. Mott was 
assigned, included all of Carson County lying west 
of the one hundred and eighteenth degree of longi- 
tude, and embraced what now is Washoe, Ormsby, 
Douglas, Storey, Lj'on and most of Churchill, 
Counties. Within it was, practically, all the white 
population of the Territory. 

The Second District embraced that part of Nevada 

ing east of No. 1, and between the one hundred 
and seventeenth and one hundred and eighteenth 
degrees of longitude, and J.o it was assigned Chief 
Justice George Turner to preside over a country 
inhabited by whites at the stage stations, Shoshonos 
and Pah-Utes. 

The third was given to Judge Horatio M. Jones, 
and included all the Territory lying east of the one 
hundred and seventeenth degree of longitude, within 
which were a few more stage stations, and quite a 
number of Shoshone and Gosh-Ute Indians. 

The proclamation further stated, that the terms of 
Court in the First District were to last two weeks, 
commencing at Virginia City on the twenty-third of 
July, to alternate between Carson and that place, 
and closed with the following : — 

The times and places for holding terms of the Dis- 
trict Court, in the Second and Third District, will be 
designated in a subsequent proclamation. 


The next thing in order, after having insured an 
equitable dispensation of law, among the whites as 
well as among the Indians, by the assignment of 
Judges, was the organization of a Territorial Govern- 
ment, or to set the wheels of State in motion. In 
pursuance of this purpose, another proclamation was 
issued, July 24th, that districted as follows, the Ter- 
ritorj', for census and election purposes, appointing 
Dr. Ilcnry De Groot, of Carson City, to take charge 
of enumeration, and make returns of the number of 
population in Nevada, on the twenty-second of that 
month and year: — 


District No. 1, Genoa, including all of Carson Val- 
ley south of Clear Creek. Population, 1,057. 

District No. 2. Carson City, including Eagle Val- 
ley, and that portion of Carson Valley north of Clear 
Creek, and to a point three miles south of Empire 
City. Population. 2,076. 

District No. y,. Empire City and vicinity. Popula- 
tion, 02ft. 

District No. 4, Silver City and vicinity. Popula- 
tion, 1,022. 

District No. 5, Gold Hill and vicinity. Population, 

District No. 6, Virginia City and vicinity, includ- 
ing what is known as Flowery District. Population, 

District No. 7, Washoe, including the Washoe Val- 
ley, and all the territor}' south of the divide between 
Washoe Vallej- and Steamboat Creek. Population, 

District No. 8, Steamboat Creek and Truckee Val- 
ley. Population, 608. 

District No. 9, Pyramid District, including all 
territory north of Truckee Valley, from a point where 
the Truckee River enters the mountains below Gates 
and Gage's Crossing, and west of Pyramid Lake. 
Population, 1,073. 

District No. 10, Humboldt City and vicinity, in- 
cluding the valley of the Humboldt and Silver Hill. 
Population, 469. 

District No. 11, Fort Churchill District, including 
the Carson Valley, from a point ten miles below 
Empire City to the sink of the Carson. Population, 

District No. 12, The valley of Walker Eiver and 
all territory south and east of it. Population, 3,286. 
Making the total population, 16,374. 

The number of population being ascertained, the 
next move in order was the calling of an election to 
choose a Delegate to Congress, and a Legislative 
Body for the Territory. This was done, and the 
election occurred on the thirty-first of August, 1801, 
resulting as follows : — 


The Union vote was 4,300; Democrat, 985. 

John Cradlebaugh received votes 1,806 

Charies E. OIney, " " 1,593 

("haries H. Bryan, " " . 90l 

William F. Anderson, " ■ " 985 

Scattering " 6 

Total Vote 5,291 


District No. 1, J. W. Pugh, 413 votes, two candi- 
dates; total vote, 642. 

District No. 2, Ira M. Luther, 313 votes, throe can- 
didates; total vote, 313. 

District No. 3, Wm. M. Stewart,* 557 votes, three 
candidates; total vote, 1,095. 

District No. 4, John W. Grier,t 477 votes, two 
candidates; total vote, 726. 

District No. 5, Thomas Hannah, 220 votes, two 
candidates; total vote, 386. 

District No. 6, A. W. Pray, 671 votes; J. L. Van 
Bokkelen, 635 votes; six candidates; total vote, 

District No. 7, Solomc)n Geller,J 134 votes, four 
candidates; total vote, 408. 

District No. 8, none elected. 

District No 9, Isaac lloop, 62 votes, two candi- 
dates; total vote, 68. 

• Resignefl in 1862. 

+ Resigned October 23, 1 86 1 , and a special elccti'm culled in 
Lyon County, to choose his successor November 3, 1862. 

t George \V'. Hejipcrly contested for the seat, but faileil lo sus- 
tain the charge of illegal votes cast at Huffaker polls, upon 
which his claim depended. 




District N<>. 1, Samuel Yoiiiifjs, M^ votes; William 
E.Teall, 320 votes; seven caiulidates; totalvote, 1,327. 

District No. 2, James McLean, 180 votes, two can- 
didates; total vote, 31G. 

District No. 3, W. P. Harrington, Jr., 526 votes; 
John D. Winters, 652 votes; six candidates; total 
vote, 2.105. 

District No. 4, William L. Card, 365 votes; K. M. 
Ford, 330 votes; five candidates; total vote, 1,341. 

District No. 5, John 11. Mills, ISO votes, three can- 
didates; total vote, 394. 

District No. 6, Mark IT. 15ryan, (Ml votes; Ejihraim 
Durham,* 582 votes; Miles N. Mitchell, 623 votes; 
nine candidates; total vote, 3,333. 

District No. 7, Edward C. Ing, 205 votes; J. 
H. Stnrtovant, 297 votes; four candidates; total 
vote, 728. 

District No. 8. William J. Osborn, 215 votes, three 
candidates; total vote, 4(52. 

District No. 9, John V. Wright, 52 votes, two can- 
didates; total vote, 58. 

After the election, another proclamation was made 
declaring the result, and naming October_l, 1861, as 
the time, and ("arson City us the place, for the mem- 
bers to " meet in Legislative Asseinldy." 

Congress had named 820,000 in gi-eenbacks as the 
amount that could be expended per year in support- 
ing a Tci-ritorial (iovei iimeiit for Nevada; and the 
fear of not over prompt pay added to the fact that 
greenbacks, the U. S. currency, were onlj- worth 
about forty cents on the dollar, caused the people to 
look with reserve upon the new scheme of Govern- 
ment that came with oflicei"s imported to run it. The 
Assembly was called to meet at Carson, but there 
was no one there who would i-cnt the Government a 
place on credit for the members to meet in. 

Mark Twain, whose brother was Territorial Sec- 
retary at the time says in his " Roughing It": — 

But when Curry hoard of the (iifliculty, he came for- 
ward solitary and alone, and shouicU'rcd the Ship of 
State over the bar ami got her afloat again. 1 refer to 
" Cuvry—0/<l Curry— Old Aim Curry." But for him 
the Legislature would have been obliged to sit in the 
desert. Ho otfoivd his iai-gc stone building Just out- 
side the (•a|)ital, rent IVoc, and it was ghullj" ac- 
cepted. Then ho built a horse-railroad from town to 
the ca]iital, and carried the Legislators gratis. He 
also furnished j)ine benches and chairs for the I>egis- 
laturc, and covered the floors with clean saw-dust bj- 
way of car|)et and s|)ittoon combined. Hut for Curry 
the Government would have died in its tender in- 
fancy. A canvas jiartilion, to sejjarate the Senate 
from the House of liopresentatives, was put u|) by 
the Secretary, at a cost of three dollars and forty 
cents, but the rniled States <ioclinod to paj- for it. 
Upon being roniimled that the "instructions" j)er- 
mittcd llio p;iyinont of a liberal rent lor a legislative 
hall, anil that that money was saved to the country 
by Mr. Curi-y's generosity, the United States said 

* Was from jVirginia City, and R. W. liillutt contcHtcd with 
him the Bi'iit in tlic Iloiinv, on the grounds of iiun-residence, but 
failed to iiiaintitiii the position. 

that did not alter the matter, and the three dollars 
and forty cents would bo subtracted from the Secre- 
tary's eightoen-hundred-dollar salary — and it wm .' 

The following, also from Mark Twain's book, is in 
several particulars an exaggeration of facts, but for 
all that gives so strong an impression of the general 
surroundings at the time, that we give it in full: — 

The matter of printing was from the beginning an 
interesting feature of the new Government's diflicul- 
ties. The Secretary was sworn to obey his volume 
of written " instructions,' and these commanded him 
to do two certain things without fail, viz.: — 

1. Got the House and Senate journals printed, 

2. For this work, pay one dollar and tifty-cents 
per " thousand " for composition, and one dollar and 
fifty-cents per " token " for ])ress-work, in green- 

It was easy to swear to do these two things, but 
it was entirely impossible to do more than one of 
them. When greenbacks had gone down to forty 
cents on the dollar the jirices regularly charged 
every bod3' by ])rinting establishments were 81.50 ])er 
"thousand," and 81 5(1 ]ier '-token," in (/old. The "in- 
structions" comniandod that the Secretary regard a 
paper dollar issued by thotiovernmont as eipial to any 
other (loUur issued by the Govornment. Hence the 
printing of the journals was dist'onlinuod. Then 
the United Slates stt'rnly roliuUed the Secretary for 
disregarding the "instructions." anil warned him to 
correct his ways. Whereupon he got some printing 
done, and forwarded the bill to Washington* with 
full exhibits of the high ])rice8 of things in the Ter- 
ritory, and called attention to a printed market 
report, wherein it would be observed that even hay 
was 8250 a ton. The United States responded by 
substracting the ])rinting-bill from the Secretary's 
suffering salary; and, moreover, remarked, with 
dense gravity, that he would find nothing in his 
"instructions" reijuiring him to purchase hay! 

Nothing in this world is ])alled in such impenetrablo 
obscurity as a United States Treasury Controller's 
understanding. The very tires of the hereaftercould 
get up nothing more than a litful glimmer in it. In 
the days 1 s])eak of ho never could be made to com- 
prehend why it was that .i?20,00(l would nt)t go as far 
in Nevada, where all commodities ranged at an enor- 
mous figure, as it would in the other Territories, 
whore exceeding chea])ness was the rule. Ho was 
an officer who looked out for the little expenses all 
the time. The Secretary of the Territory ke])t his 
ofiice in his bed-room, as I have before remarked; 
and he charged the United States no rent, although 
his "instructions" ])rovided for that item, and ho 
could have just'}' taken advantage of it (a thing 
which I W(Milil have done with more than lightning 
jiromptness if 1 had been Secretary mj'self); but 
the United States never a|i|>lauiled this devotion, 
indeed, I think my country was ashamed to have so 
ini|)rovident a ]ierson in its em]iloy. 

Those "instructions " (wo used to read a chapter 
from them every morning as intellectual gymnastics, 

* Wo notice in thoso procoodings that (rovernnr Nye's me«- 
sago to the I,p^;islative Asswnhly, coverinK eleven pages in tho 
book, was printed viTbatiin twite over, inakiii); twenty two 
jjages in all. It is an exwllent niessijii', tilled with a p.itiiotio 
(ire so characteristic of the 'Hiray ICanle," as the (iovernnr later 
came to be called; but it would seem that one insertion under 
the trying pc'cuiiiary circumstances would have l)ecn enough 
even for that message. 



and a couple of chapters in Sunda5'-school every Sab- 
bath, for thoy treated of all subjects under the sun 
and had much valuable relitrious matter in them 
aionfi willi the other statistics), those "illustrations" 
commanded that ])en knives, envelopes, pens, and 
writinj^ paper be lurnished the members of the Leg- 
islature, so the Secretary inade the purchase and 
distribution. The knives cost three dollars apiece. 
There was one too many, and the Secretary gave it 
to the Clerk of the House of Eepresentatives. The 
United States said the Clerk of the Ilouse was not a 
"member" of the Legislature, and took that three 
dollars out of the Secretary's salary as usual. 

White men charged three or lour dollars a "load" 
for sawing up stove wood. The Secretary was saga- 
cious enough to know that the L'nited States would 
never pay any such price as that; so he got an 
Indian to saw up a load of office wood at one dollar 
and a half. lie made out the usual voucher, but 
signed no name to it — simply aj)pended a note 
explaining that an Indian had done the work, 
and had done it in a very capable and satisfactor^- 
waj'. but could not sign the voucher owing to lack of 
ability in the necessary direction. The Secretary 
had to paj' that dollar and a half He thought the 
United States would admire both his econom}- and 
his honest}- in getting the work done at half-pi'ice 
and not putting a pretended Indian's signature to 
the voucher, but the United States did not see it in 
that light. The L'nited States was too much accus- 
tomed to employing dollar- and-a-half thieves in all 
manner of official capacities to regard his explanation 
of the voucher as having an}- foundation in fact. 

But the next time the Indian sawed wood for us I 
taught him to make a cross at the bottom of the 



It looked like a cross that had been drunk a j-ear — 
and then I " witnessed " it and it went through all 
right. The United States never said a word. 1 was 
Borry I had not made the voucher for a thou.sand 
loads of wood instead of one. The Goverrment of 
my countrj- snubs honest simplicitj- but fondles 
artistic villain}-, and 1 lhiid< I might have developed 
into a very capable pick-jjocket it' I had remained in 
the public service a year or two. 

That was a fine collection of sovereigns, that first 
Nevada Legislature. They levied taxes to the 
amount of thirty or forty thousand dollars and 
ordered ex])cnditures to the extent of about a mil- 
lion. Yet they had their Iit4le jieriodical cx])losions 
of economy like all other bodies of the kind. A 
member projiosed to save three dollars a day to the 
nation by disjicii^iiiLC with the Cliajilain. And ye* 
that shorl-siglitcii man needed the Chaplain more 
than any other member, )>erhiijis, for he generally 
sat with his feet on his desk, eating raw turnij)s, 
during the morning prayer. 

The Legislature s:tt sixty days, and passed private 
toll-road franchises all the time. When they ad- 
journed it was esiimated that every citizen owned 
about three franchises, and it was believed that un- 
less Congress gave the Territory another degree of 
longitude there would not be room enough to accom- 
modate the toll roads. The ends of them were hang- 
ing over the boundary line everywhere like a fringe. 

The fact is. the treigliting bu.-iiiess li:id grown to 
such important j)roporlioMs that there was nearly as 
much excitement over suddenly ac(|uired toll-road 
fortunes as over the wonderful silver mines. 

This first Legislature held a forty-nine days' 
session, and adjourned November 29lh, after having 
passed complete civil and criminal codes for the Ter- 
ritory. Their enactments and joint resolutions, after 
compilation, covered 518 pages of a royal octavo 
book, eight of which are devoted to toll-road fran- 
chises, only six of them having been granted. We 
mention these facts, because of the wholesale exag- 
geration in this particular by Mark Twain, which 
has left a false impression of the efforts and character 
of that first Assembly. 


By an Act approved November 25, 1861, the Ter- 
ritory was divided into nine counties by name as fol- 
lows : Churchill, Douglas, Esmeralda, Humboldt, 
Lake (changed to Roop, December 5, 1802), Lyon, 
Ormsby, Storey, Washoe. 

Humboldt, Churchill, and Esmeralda Counties 
included about four-fifths of the total area of the 
Territory ; the other counties the principal popula- 

After the division into counties it became neces- 
sary to breathe the breath of political life into those 
subdivisions, which was done in the following man- 
ner: The two branches of the Assembly met in joint 
convention, and nominated thrge Commissioners for 
each county, who were commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor. It was the duty of those appointed to meet in 
their respective localities and apportion the same 
into voting precincts, and prejiare for a general elec- 
tion, to be held on the ensuing fourteenth of Janu- 
ary, 18G2, at which time county officers were to be 
chosen. Probate Judges and District Attorneys for 
the several counties were given a two years' appoint- 
ment by the Governor, upon the recommendation of 
the joint House. For the result of that election see 
the several county histories in this work. 

This election of January 14, 1802, was for the pur- 
pose of choosing county officers to serve until their 
successors were entitled to supersede them; and it 
was provided that their successors should be voted 
for on the third of Sejitember the same year. There 
were conscijuently three sets of officials in 1802 for 
some of the counties in the Territory ; one by appoint- 
ment, and two elected. 

At the election of September ?,d, twenty-six Ter- 
ritorial IJcpreseiitatives, five Councilmen, and a Dele- 
gate to the Ilouse of Representatives, were chosen. 
The votes cast, and names of successfid candidates 
for the first two ])osiiions named, are given in the 
county histories, for the latter it was as follows: — 


Candidates for Delegates to Congress: — 

Gordon N. Mott 2,838 

John D. Winters 1,682 

J.J M usser 1,710 

J. II. Rals'on 904 

Scattering Votes •- 35 



Hon. Jasper Baucock, Secretary of State of 
Nevada, is a native of Ashford, Windham Countj^, 
Connecticut and was born April G, 1821. His par- 
ents moved into the State of New Yorli, and that 
became the field of his business operations up 
to 1852. He was a heavy railroad, canal and build- 
ing contractor, the construction of fifteen miles of 
the New York Central Railroad being one among the 
numerous operations of his in this lino. 

In 1852 ho moved to the Pacific Coast for the pur- 
pose of continuing his business in San Francisco; and 
for a time was very successful, many of the extensive 
grading contracts in that city in early days being 
ojicrated by him, until ho began to feel as though 
fortune was being very kind to him. Hut one day, 
Henry Mciggs, who had caused the illegal issuance 
of large amounts of city scrip, suddenly disappeared, 
and that class of paper fell from eighty cents on the 
dollar, to ten. Mr. Habcock had on hand and duo 
him in that class of ])aper, over 812(1,00(1 at the time, 
875,000 of which was pledged for borrowed money, 
and in a daj' he was bankrupt, but ho paid every 
dollar of his debts and then wont to work for a 

From that time forward his career has boon rather 
of a checkered one, divided between mining in Cali- 

fornia, Arizona and Nevada, speculating in real es- 
tate, and operating water ditches. In 1873 ho came 
to Nevada to take charge of a mining enterprise on 
the Comstock, and since that time has been a resi- 
dent of this State. 

Before his first sottlomont in Virginia City ho had 
succeeded in mending his broken fortunes and in 
accumulating a competence; but it was swept away 
in a stock zephyr, and he was left, at between 
fifty and sixty years of age, with only his reputation, 
his business qualifications, his energy and friends, to 
start in life again, to build from the bed-rock up. 

He is now a widower, with one son and three 
daughters living. 

Mr. Babcock has not made politics a business or 
a study, but was elected to the Legislature in Cali- 
fornia in 185!) as a Douglas Democrat, and follow- 
ing the advice of his groat loader, became from the 
first an uncompromising sui)porter of the Union 
movement, and naturally floated into the ranks of the 
Republican party. 

In 187(1 he was elected to the Legislature from 
Storey County, and Secretary of State for Nevada 
in 1878, for a term of four years, having for his 
deputy, Mr. James G. Chosloy, a very competent 
and genial gentleman. 




At the session of the Legislature of 1862, an Act 
was passed that will be found on page 128 of the 
Statutes of that year, that authorized at the general 
election in September of 1803, the choice of Dele- 
gates to frame a State Constitution to be submitted 
to the peoj)le for their ap]iroval. At the same time 
the question was submitted of whether the people 
desired a State Government, with the following 
results: — 

SEPTEMBER 2, 1803. 


Churchill and Lyon Counties. . 849 288 

Douglas County- 193 119 

Esmeralda County 539 72 

Jlumboldt County 503 489 

Lander County 583 87 

Ormsby County 002 147 

Storey Count}- - 2.415 155 

Washoe County. 



Totals 6,660 1,502 

Majority for a State Government 5,158 

The people having decided by such an emjjhatic 
majority in favor of putting on the robes of Slate, 
caused the Delegates to assemble at Carson City on 
the second of November after election, with a strong 
faith in the eventual adoption of wlialever Constitu- 
tion they should iVanio. 

The Convention sessions were continued until 
December 11th, and an instrument was framed that 
in most particulars was the same as the one under 
which Nevada later became a State in the Union. 
Due attention was paid by many Delegates to the 
chances of future preferment in a jjolitical waj-, this 
fact being particularly noticeable in William M. 
Stewart, ofStorey County, who laterbecame Nevada's 
United States Senator. Mark Twain was a reporter 


— OF THE — 

Members Constituting the Constitutional Convention of November, 1863, 




Alban, Win. G ... 
B.1II. Xath'l A. H, 
Bcclitel, Krud'k K 
Bryan, C'lias. II . 
Brdsnaii, C. M . . 
C'liapin, Sam I A. 
C'ulliiis, John A. . 
Conner, Henry . . 
Corey, James C. . . 
Uorscy, Edward B 

Knt, Fred'k A 

Epler, W'm 

(lilrson, (leo. L. . . 
llaiaca, Jamu^ \V. 
Harrison, W. It . . 
Hiokok, Wni. B .. 

Hitc, Levi 

Hudson, Geo. A. . 
lug, Edward C. . . . 
Johnson, .1. Neely. 
Keiiiiedy, Frank 11 
Kinkead, .lnhn il. 
Larrowe, Marcus U 
McClure, James B 
Mitcllell, Miles \, 
Nightiiigill, A. \V, 
North, John W. . , 
Notcware, C. N . 
Plunkett, Jos. U. 
Potter, Charles S. 
iiaUton, .fames H 
mianip, L'hos. B . 
Sm.ill, W. . . 
•Stark, .lames. .... 

Sterns, L. O 

Stewart, W'm. .M . 
Vinlen, \Vm. 11 . 
Wat^S'in, Warren. 
Youii.;8, .Samuel . 
•Cillespie. \V. M 
t.Miirsli, A. J ... 
+ Bowman, Amos. 
I. Stow, H. M... 

Post-office Address. 

Term of residence in 
this Territory. 

Place of Nativit.v. 

State lost resi- 
dent of. 

Storey . . . Virginia . . . 
Storey .. . IJold Hill . . . 

ICsuieralda .\urora 

Storey . . .Virginia . . . . 
Storey . . . I Virginia . . . . 
.Storey . . .! Virginia . . . . 
Storey . . .j Virginia . . . . 

Esmeralda' Aurora 

Storey . . .klold Hill . . . 
Ormsljy . . I Empire City. 
Washoe. . j Frank town . 
Hunilxjldt Star City . . . 

Since July, 1861 
Since Oct. I, 1S6I 
Since May, IStjO 

Ormshy . . 
Uoughis. . 


Storey . . . 
Lyon .... 
Washoe . . 
Ormshy . 
Lyou .... 
i )rms1 >y . . 
Lander. .. 
Lyon .... 
.Storey . . . 
Washoe . . 
Douglas. . 
Storey . . . 
\V;i.shoe. . 
Lamler.. . 
Wa-sliiw. . 
Douglas . . 
.Storey . . . 
Lyon .... 
Drmshy . . 
'storey . . . 

Carson City. . 
( ienoa 

Silver City. . 
(iold Hill... 
Silver City. . 
Truckee .\leadows 
Ciirsou City. . . . 


Carson City. . . . 


Carson Sink. . . . 



Washoe City . . . 




10 months 

.Since June, 1S60 

Since Sept., 186i 
Since Aug., 1851) 

.Since March, 1 850 
Since Aug., 18G1 

4 years 

1 year last May. 

Mansticld, Ohio 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Iteading, Berks Co., Penn. 

California. . . Physician. . . . 

California. . .iBanker 

California. . . IXotary public 


Massachusetts . 

Ireland . 
Ohio. . . 

Since July, ISOO 
Since Aug., ISIil 
Since June, I8GI 
Snice .May 10, 'o'.t 
Since .Sept., ISliO 
.Since Aug., 18(jl 
About ;{ years. . . 
3 years next June 
Since Aug. 1,1801 
.Since July, 18(50 
•i years last May 
.Since .lune, 1801 
.Since Oct., 1857. 

.Since April, 1801 
•i years 

Ijake Valley 





Carson City .... 



.Sacramento, Cal 

Carson City. ... 

Germaiitown, Penn 
■Jacksonville, [U . . . . 
Kryburg, Maine. ... 
Lower Canada 

Ogdenshurg, X. Y 

Lanciuster, Ohio 




Canon-iliurg, Pcna 

Smitlitiild, Penn 

Coshocton, N. Y 


Delhi, N. Y 

.Vshland, Oliio 

Keusclaer County, N. Y 
Suw Y'ork 

•i years 

'2 years 

.Since April, 1801 
Since April, I.SOO 
Since Feb., ISlil . 


Since Feb., 1800. 
Since July TJ, '01 
Since Oct., --'8, '03 
6 m<mtlis 

Schenectady County, N. Y 
Kentucky . . 

Eaton, Ohio 

.V. S 

U. C 

Wayne County, .N. Y. . . . 

Albion, 111 

liroome County, N. Y. . . . 

i,>ueensliury, L. I., N. Y, . 
-Vlbany, N. Y ........ .. 

Chenango Cimiity, N. Y'. . 
Caniula West 

C.ilifornia. . 
California. . 

California. . 
Indiana. . . ■ 

Minnesota . . 
Cilifornia. . . 
California. . . 

Co.achmaker . 
I'ivil engineer 
Merchant. . . . 

Cilifornia. . 
California. . 
California, . 
lifornia. . 
California. . 
California. . 
California. . 
New Y'ork. 
California. . 
California. . 
Minnesota . 
California. . 


New York 

La« yer .... 
Lumljer dealer 

Merchant. . . 
Millman. . . . 

.Mill owner. . 
Mill owner. . 
.Mill owner. . 


Lawyer .... 
Lawyer .... 
Merchant . . 
Lawyer .... 


.Sign painter 
.-Vtti.rney . . . 

or Single. 

Single . . 
Single . . 

Single . . 

43 Married. 

M Single . . 

Lawyer .... 

Hotel keeper 
Lawyer .... 
Lawyer .... 


.Miner. .... 
.Merchant. . . 


Keporler. . . . 
Reporter.. . . 

Wid wer 

Single . . 
Single . . 
Single . . 
Single . . 
Single . . 
.Single . . 

.Single . . 
Single . . 

Ja:< Married. 
. 50 .Married. 

Single . . 
Single . . 
Single . . 
.Single . . 
Single . . 
Single . . 

* Secretary. + Keporter. X Doorkeeper. 



at the time for the Territorial Enterprise, and in his 
coirespondciice to that paper notes some of the 
peculiarities of members as follows: — 

Cakson, December 13th. 

The Third House met in the Jlall of the Cimven- 
tion at eleven p. m.. Fridaj-, immediately after the 
final adjournment of the First House. 

On motion of Mr. Xightinf^ill the rules were sus- 
pended, and the usual prayer dispensed with, on the 
j^rounds that it was never listened to b}- the mem- 
bers of the First House, which was composed chiefly 
of the same j^entlemen which constitute the Third, 
and was, consequentlj% merely ornamental and en- 
tirely unnecessary. 

Mr. Mark Twain was elected President of the 
Convention, ami Messrs. Small and Hickok appointed 
to conduct him to the Chair, which the}' did amid 
a dense and respectful silence on the part of the 
House, Mr. Small ste])piiii^ grandly over the desks, 
and Mr. Hickok walkinj;; under them. 

The President addressed the House as follows, 
taking his remarks down in short-hand as he pro- 
ceeded: — This is the proudest moment of my 
life. I shall always think so. I think so still. 1 
shall ponder over it with unsjieakable emotion down 
to the last syllable of recorded time. It shall be 
my earnest endeavor to give entire satisfaction in 
the high and bull^' position to which j-ou have 
elevated me. 

The President ap])ointed Mr. Small. Secretary; 
Mr. (iibson.Otticial lieporter; and Mr. Pete lIo])kins, 
Chief Page; and Uncle Billy Patterson. First As.sist- 
ant Page. These officers came forward and took 
the following oath: — 

We do solcmnlj- affirm that we have never seen a 
duel, never been connected with a duel, never heard 
of a duel, never sent or received a challenge, never 
fought a duel, and don't want to. Furthermore, we 
will sup]>orl, protect and defend this constitution 
which wc are about to frame until we can't rest, and 
will take our paj- in scrip. 

Mr. Youngs — "Mr. President, 1— that is — ." 

The President — "Mr. Youngs, if you have got any- 
thing to say, saj' it; and don't stand there and shake 
your head, and gasj) '! — ah. J — a^,' as you have 
been in the habit of doing in the former Convention." 

Mr. Youngs — "Well, sir; I was only going to say 
that I liked your inaugural, and 1 i)erfectly agree 
with the sentiments you a](|)earcd to express in it, 
but 1 didn't rightly understand what — ." 

The President — "You have been sitting there for 
thirty days, like a bump on a log, and you never 
rightly- understand anything. Take your seat, sir, 
you are out of order. You rose i'or information? 
Well, you'll not get it; sit down. You will a]i])eal 
from the decision of the Chair'.' Take your seat, sir; 
the Chair will entertain no appeals from its decisions. 
And 1 would suggest to j-ou, sir, that you will not 
be ])ermitted here to growl in your seat, and make 
malicious side remarks in an underione for tilteen 
minutes alter you have been called to order, as j'ou 
have habiiually done in the other House." 

The President — 'The subject before the House is 
as follows. The Secretary will read." 

Secretarj- — "A-r, ar. t-i, li, arti,c-l-e, de — article — " 

The J'resident — "What are you trying to do?" 

Secretary — "Well, 1 am only a heli>les8 orphan, 
and I can't read wi-iliiig." 

The Chair appointed ilr. Hickok to assist Mr. 

Small, and discharged Mr. Gibson, the Official Ee- 
porter, because he did not know how to write. 

Mr. Youngs (singing) — "For the lady I love will 
soon be a bride, with the diadem on her brow-ow-ow." 

President — "Order, you snutfling old granny," 

Mr. Youngs — "I am in order, sir." 

The President — " Y'ou are not, sir — sit down." 

Mr. Y'oung.s — "I won't sir! I ai)peal to — ." 

The President—" Take — your — seat!" 

Mr. Y''oungs — " But I insist that 'Jeft'erson's 

The President— " l)—n 'Jeft'erson's Manual!' the 
Chair will transact its own Ijusiness in its own wav, 

Mr. Chapin — " Mr. President: 1 do hope the 
amendment will not pass. I do beg of gentlemen — 
I do beseech of gentlemen — that they will examine 
this matter carefully, and earnestly and seriouslj', 
and with a sincere desire to do the people all the 
good, and all the justice, and all the benefit it is in 
their power to do. 1 do hope, Mr. President — ." 

The President — "Now. there you go ! What are 
yon trying to get through your head ':' — there's noth- 
ing before the House." 

The question being on Section 4, Article 1. (free 
exercise) of religious liberty. 

Mr. Stewart said — '■ Mr. President: I insist upon 
it, that if you tax the mines, j-ou imjiose a burden 
upon the ])eople which will be heavier than thej- can 
bear. And when you tax the poor miner's shafts, 
and drifts, and bed-rock tunnels, you are not taxing 
his projiertj'; j'ou are not taxing his substance; j'ou 
are liot taxing his wealth — no, but j-ou are taxing 
what may become property some day, or may not; 
you are taxing the shadow from which the substance 
maj- eventually issue or may not; j'ou are taxing the 
visions of Alnaschar; which maj- turn to minted gold, 
or only prove the forerunners of poverty and mis- 
fortune; in a word, sir, you are taxing his ho]ies. 
taxii;g the aspirations of his soul; taxing the yearn- 
ings of his heart of hearts! Y'essir, I insist uj)on it, that 
if you tax the min( s, you will imixise a burden upon 
the people which will be heavier than they can bear. 
And when j-ou. tax the poor miner's shafts, and 
drifts, and bed-rock tunnels, you are not taxing his 
property; 3-ou are not taxing his substance; you arc 
not taxing his wealth — no, but you are taxing what 
maj- become projierty some day or may not; you are 
taxing the shadow from which the substance maj- 
eventuall}- issue or may not; j-ou are taxing the 
visions of Alnaschar; which may turn to minted gold, 
or merely prove the forerunners of i)oyrt}- and mis- 
fortune; in a word, sir, you are taxing liis liopes ! 
taxing the aspiiations ol' his soul! — taxing the yearn- 
ings of his heart of hearts! Ah, sir, I do insist u])on 
it that if 3"ou tax the mines, you will impose a bur- 
den upon the jieople, which will be heavier than they 
can bear. And when you lax the poor miner's 
shafts, and drifts, and bed-rock tunnels — " 

The President— "Take your seat. Bill Stewart! 1 
am not going to sit hero and listen to that same old 
song over andoveragain. 1 have been rejiorting and 
re|)<)i-ting that ihlern;il s]ieech for the last thirty days, 
and want you to understand that you can't play ilofl' 
on this Convention an}- more. When 1 want it. I 
will re])eat it myself— I know it by heart, anyhow. 
You anil your bed-rock tunnels, and lilighted miners, 
blasted hopes, have gotten to be a sort of nightmare 
to me, and I won't put up with it any longer. I 
don't wish to be too hard on your speed), but if you 
can't add something I'resh to it, or say it backwards. 



or sinp it to a new tune, you have simply got to 
simmer down for awhile." 

Mr. Johnson — "Mr. President ; I wish it distinctly 
understood that I am not acandi(hito for the Senate, 
or any other offiee. and liave no intention of beeom- 
inji one. And 1 wisii to call the attention of the 
Convention to the faet, .sir. that outside influences 
have been brought to bear here, that — " 

The President — •• (iovernor Johnson, there is no 
necessity of your ].utting in jour shovel here, until 
you are called upon to make a statement. And if 
you allude to the Engrossing Clerk as an outside in- 
fluence, I must inform you. sir. that his balterj- has 
been silenced with Territorial scri]) at fortj- cents 
on the dollar." 

Mr. Sterns — 'Mr. President- I cordially agree 
with the gentleman fnim Storey County, that if we 
tax the mines we shall impose a burden upon the 
people that will be heavier than they can bear. 1 
agree with him. sir, that in taxing the jioor miners' 
siialls and drifts, ai]d bed-rock tunnels, we would 
not be taxing his jiniperl^-, or bis weallli, or bis sub- 
stance, but only that wbirh may become such at 
at some future day — an AInasch.irian vision, which 
might turn to coin, or might only result in distister 
and dis:ip]>oinlment to the defendant ; in a word, sir, 
1 coincide with him in the opinion that it would be 
e(|uivalent to taxing trie hopes of the jioor miner — 
his asjiinitions — the dear yearnings of his — " 

The President — •' Yearnings of his grandmother ! 
I'll slam tills mallet at the next man that attempts to 
impose that tiresome old speech on this body. Sit 
now.N ! you have been ])reltj- regiihir about rehash- 
ing other )ieople's ))lalilu<les heretofore. Mr. Sterns, 
but you have got to be a little original in the Tldrd 
House. Your sacrilegious lips will bo marring the 
speeches of the Chair next." 

Mr. Kalston — '• Jlr. President : I have but a word 
to say, and 1 do not wish to occupy the attention of 
the House any longer than I can help ; and, although 
1 could, perhaps, throw more light upon the matter 
of our eastern boundary than those who have not 
visited that interesting but com|)aratively unknown 
section of our budding commonwealtb. it is grow- 
ing late, and I do not feel as 1 bad a right to tax the 
patience — " 

Tb(; President— " Tax ! Take your seat, sir, take 
j-our seat. 1 will not be bullj-ragged to death with 
this threadbare subject of taxation. You are out of 
order, anyhow. How do j-ou sujipose anj'body can 
listen in any comfort to j-our speech, when you are 
fumbling with your coat all the time j'ou are talking, 
and trying to button it with your left hand, when 
you know j-ou can't do it? 1 have never seen you 
succeed yet, until just as j'ou gel the last word out. 
And then tlio moment j'ou sit ilown, you alwaj's 
unlpiittoii it again. You may speak, hereafter, Mr. 
Ralston, but 1 want j'ou to understand that you have 
got to button your coat before you get u]i. 1 do not 
mean to be ke])t in hot water all the time by your 
little oratorical eccentricities. " 

Mr. Larrowe — " ilr. I'resident: There ai-e nine 
mills in Lander County already. Lot me see — there 
is Uobson's, five stamp; Thompson's, eight stam|); 
Johnson's, three stamp — well, 1 cannot give the 
names of all of them, but there are nine, sir — nine 
splendid Bteam-jiower ipiartz mills, disturbing, with 
their ceaseless thunder, the <lead silence of cen- 
turies! Nine noble ipiart;^ mills, sir, cheering with 
the music of their batteries tlii^ desponding hearts 
of pilgrims from every land! Nine miraculous (piart/, 
mills, sir, from whose steam-pipes and chimneys 

ascends a grateful incense to the god of Labor and 
Progress! Ninesceptered and anointed fiuartz mills, 
sir, whose mission it is to establish the ])Ower, anil 
the greatness, and the glory of Nevada, and place 
her high along the—" 

The Pi-esiijent — "Now will j-ou just take your 
scat and hold j-our clatter until somebody asks you 
for your confounded Reese River (luarlz-mill statis- 
tics'? What has Jteese River got to do with relig- 
ious freedom? and what have ijuartz mills got to do 
with it? and what have you got to do with it 
yourself? You are out of order, sir — plant j-ourself 
And, moreover, when j'ou get up here to make a 
si)ecch, 1 don't want you to yell at mo as if you 
thought I were in San Francisco. I'm not hard of 
hearing. I don't see why President North didn't 
tone you down long ago." 

Mr. Larrowe — "I think I am in order, .Mr. Presi- 
dent. It was a rule in the other Convention that no 
member could speak when there was no ipiestion 
before the House; but after the ipiestion had been 
announced bj- the Chair members could then go on 
and speak on any suliject tbej- ])leased — or rather, 
that was the custom, sir; the ordinaiy custom." 

The President — "Yes, sir, 1 know it has been the 
custom i'or thirtj- days and thirty nights in the 
other Convention, but 1 will let gentlemen know- 
that the}- can't ring in these stamps and Reese River 
quartz-mills on the Third House when 1 am consid- 
ering the question of religious liberlj' — the same 
being dear to evcrj- American heart. Plant your- 
self, sir — ])lant j'ourself. 1 don't want any more 
yowling out of you, now." 

Mr. Small — " The Secretary would bog leave to 
state, for the information of the Con — ." 

The President^ — "There, now. that's enough of 
that. You learned that from (iillesjiie. 1 won't 
have any of that nonsense here. When you have 
got anything to saj' talk it right out; and see that 
you use the personal ])ronoun ■!,' also; and droji 
that presumptuous third per.son. 'The Secretary 
would beg leave to state!' .The devil he would. 
Now suppose you take a back seat, and wait until 
somebody asks j-ou to state something. Mr. Cba])in 
you will jilease stop catching flies while the ('hair 
is considering the suli-ect of religious toleration." 

Mr. Ball — --Mr. President: The l-'inance Committee, 
of which 1 have the honor to be Chairman, have 
aiTived at the conclusion that it is Rid miles from 
hereto Folsom; that it will take 'I'.W miles of rail- 
road iron to build a road that distance, without 
counting the sw-itches. This would figure up as 
follows: Bars, 14 feet 3 inches long; weight, SOO 
pounds; 1,000 bars to the mile, 800, (K)0 pounds; 
130,0(10 bars for the whole distance, weight, 104,- 
000,000 pounds; original cost of the iron, w-ith in- 
surance and transportation to Folsom from St. Louis, 
cin Salt Lake City, added, say SIJ.50 a |)ouiid. w-ould 
amount to a fraction over or under S;ji2.722.2.'i!i 42. 
Three hundred and twelve millions, seven biiiidred 
and twenty-two tboiisaiid, two hundred and tbirty- 
niiio dollars and forty-two cents, sir. That is the 
estimate of the Commiltee, sir, for |irime cost of 
one class of material, w-illiout counting labor and 
other expenses, in view of these facts, sir. it is the 
opinion of the Comniitlee that wo had better not 
build the road. I did not think it necessary to ^ub- 
mit a written re|)orl because — " 

The President— "Take your scat, Mr. Ball; take 
your seat, sir. Your evil eye never lights u|)on this 
Chair but the spirit moves j-ou to confuse its intel- 
lect with some of voiir villi:ini)us algelifiiical mon- 



etrosities. 1 will iiol eiitcrlain them, nir; 1 don't 
know anj'thinf; about them. You needn't mind 
brinj^irif; in any written I'oports here — or verbal ones 
either, unless you can confine yourpielf' to a reason- 
able number of fiirures at a time, so that I can under- 
stand what you are driving at. No, sir, the Third 
House will not build the railroad. The other Con- 
vention's donation of 8.'!.000.()0(l in bonds, worth forty 
cents on the dollar, will bu\- enough of one of those 
bars to make a breast))in, and that will have to 
satisfy this commonwealth for the present. 1 ob- 
serve that Messrs. Wasson, and Gibson, and Note- 
ware, and Kenned}- have their feet on their desks, 
the Chief I'age will jiroceed to remove those relics 
of ancient continental barbarism from siglit." 

Mr. Musser — "Mr. President: To be, or not to be — 
that is the question — " 

The President — " No, sir I The question is, shall 
we tolerate religious inditt'ercnce in this community ; 
or the rights of conscience ; or the rights ofsuffi'age ; 
or the freedom of the press ; or free speech ; or free 
schools, or free niggers. The Chair trusts it knows 
what it is about, without anj' instructions from the 

Mr. Musser — '-But, sir, it was only a question 

The President — " Well, 1 don't care, 1 want j-ou to 
sit down. The Chair don't consider that j'ou know 
much about religion anyhow, and consequently the 
subject will suffer no detriment fi'om your letting it 
alone. You and Judge Hardy can subside, and stud}' 
over the ])reamble until you are wanted." 

Jlr. Jirosnan — "Mr. President: These proceedings 
have all been irregular, extremely and customarily 
irregular. I will move, sir, that the question be 
passed, for the present, and that we take up the ne.\t 

.Mr. .Mitchell— "I object to that, Jlr. President. I 
move that we go into Committee of the Whole on it." 

Mr. Wasson — "I move that it be referred back to 
the Standing Committee." 

Air. North — "J move that the rules be suspended, 
and the whole article jilaccd upon its final passage." 

The President — '(ientlemen : Tliose of you who 
are in favor of adopting the original (jroposition, 
together with the various motions now pending 
before the House, will signify the same by saying 

No one voting in the negative, the Chair decided 
the vote to be uniiniinous in the adirmative. 

The President — "(ientlemen: Your i)roceedings 
have been e.x'actlj' similar to those of the Convention 
which preceded j'ou. ^'ou have considered a subject 
which you knew nothing about ; spoken on every 
subject but the one before the House, and voted, 
witludit knowing what j-ou were voting for, or 
having any idea what would be the general result of 
your action. 1 will adjourn the (^'onvcntion for an 
liour, on account of my cold, to the end that I ma}' 
a]i|)ly the remedy jircscrilied I'oi- it by I)r. Tjader — 
the same being gin and molasses. 'I'lie Chief I'age 
is hereby instructt^d to provide a s])oonfid of 
molasses, and a gallon of gin I'or the use of the 


H was provided inthis Constitution that all of (he 
offices created by it should be filled at the time when 
the instrument was submitted to the ])eoplo. This 
was a serious mistake, for those disa]>poinled in 
getting nominations for the ])ositions they desired, 
and their names wore legion, became hostile to its 

adoption. A Convention was called to assemble ia 
Cai-son on the thirty-first of December, and place in 
nomination Union candidates to fill the various 
offices to be called into existence bj- the proposed 
organic law. 

Eight here the trouble began. In Storey County 
there was a serious split in the Union jiari)-, caused 
bj' a bolt at the County Convention, headed by the 
Daily Union. Eight delegates walked out of the 
Convention, declaring their intentions to oppose its 
nominations, because of the unfairness and slate 
action of the assemblage. The bolters held primary 
meetings in Virginia City; chose delegates who pre- 
sented themselves to the .State Convention, where a 
hearing was given them, and recognition denied. 
In the controversy that arose, when the two delega- 
tions were before that body asking preferment, a 
passage of wit and menace occurred between William 
M. Stewart and Baldwin, 8n the one side, and Tom 
Fitch, of the Dai/i/ Union, on the other, that gave a 
glimpse of the personal nature of the controversy, 
and character of some of the principal actors. The 
former charged Fitch with having offered to support 
the regular ticket on condition that ho received the 
nomination upon it of Attorney-General. Fitch 
replied that he had remarked to those gentlemen on 
a certain occasion, " in a joking way," that if they 
would enter into §10,000 bonds to keep their word 
when given, that he might be induced to entertain a 
proposition to give them the influence of the Daily 
Uuio7i. To this Baldwin responded, that " every- 
body knew that when a little office was to be had, 
or a little money made, Tom Filch neoer jokes." 

The split was a serious one, and before the Con- 
vention had made its nominations a formidable 
movement in the Union ranks had arra^-ed itself in 
hostility to the Constitution, to which the secession 
element in the Territory immediately joined hands. 

The Territorial Enterprise advocated one of its 
])roi)rietors, J. T. Goodman, for State Printer; and 
the Daily Union desired one of its owners, John 
(,'hurch, in the place. Neither were successful; 
(ieorge W. Bloor being the choice of the Conven- 
tion. The Enterprise was glad that Church was 
beaten, and Church was partiall}- consoled because 
(Joodman was defeated; but the nomination of Hloor 
made neither one happy enough to cause them to 
shako hands over the inky chasm. 

John B. Winters, of Lyon County; Warren Was- 
son. of Ormsby ('ounty; James Stark, of Ksmoralda 
County; and 11. G. Worthington, of Lander County, 
wore candidates for Congress; and the vote stood 
in the Convention, all the first day. Winters, 21 
v*)tes; Wasson, It! votes; Worthington, IT) votes; 
Stark, 9 voles; and it required 26 votes to nominate. 
On the second day Winters won the coveted ]irize. 

For Governor, the names of Judge Charles II. 
Morgan, and M. N. Mitchell were presented as rival 
aspirants, the latter gaining the nomination. 

The Storey County delegation was iu the Con- 

Hon. M. a. Murphy, Attorney General of the State 
of Nevada, was born in the State of New York, 
September 2!i, 18H7, his father cmij^rating to .Mcllenry 
County, Illinois, eoon after the birth of his son, so 
that the lad's earliest recollections were of Illinois. 

He could only secure such poor advantages in the 
•way of education as were offered by the common 
schools of that day. Those were sujiplcmciited. how- 
ever, by his owH exertions to acquire information, 
which, with many persons, fully compensates for 
what is usually called the T^nivcrsity training. It 
seems that lip early fixed his mind on the legal pro- 
fession, and turned his attention to reading that 
would be profitable in that connection. The sys- 
tematic reading of law had to bo postponed until 
his limited finances could be ])ut in bettor condition. 
As the gold mines of (,'alifornia ort'crcd the speediest, 
rf not the surest way of rc]>lenisliing his cxcheiiuor, at 
the early age of sixteen he started on hisj<iuiiiey of 
life, and crossed the plains in 185;^, joining a bi'other 
in Weaverville, Trinity County, California. lie 
remained in this vicinity for several years, engaged 
in mining or any other business which would afford 
a moderate income, with only moderate success, so 
that the aim of his life to take a sj-stcmatic course 
of study in the law seemed as far oft' as over. In 
April, 1863, he moved to Esmeralda County, in this 
State, and engaged in mining. Here fortune smiled 
upon him, and ho was able to pursue the study of 

the law without hindi'ancc. His perseverance and 
close application to his studies was soon rewarded 
by his admission to the Bar. 

Here he resided when the Republican Convention 
at Eureka placed him in nomination against the 
gentlemanly, courteous, eloquent, and distinguished 
Kittreil, then Attorney General of Nevada. The 
contest between those men was spirited, resulting 
in the election of .Mur]ihy by a largo majorit}'. 

The arduous and responsible duties devolving 
upon one in so important an office are faithfully dis- 
charged by Mr. Mur]>liy, and since his induction to 
the position he has given entire satisfaction to every 
one. He is a good sample of that class of self-made 
men like Lincoln, (iarfieid, and huiuiredsofothei-s who 
have wrested fortune out of poverty and adverse cir- 
cumstances, and achieved success by their own innate 
good sense and energy, which is better than a uni- 
versity training, and without which education can 
make nothing. The people delight to honor such 
men because they know of them, and never forget 
heir origin. Besides his present office, he has 
several times been elected to honorable positions. In 
1808 ho was elected County Assessor, and in 1872, 
District Attorney, to which office he was re-elected 
in IsTlaridin 187ti. He has always been Republican. 
He was married, September 22, 1859, to Miss .Matilda 
J. Myers, of Ki-d HiufVs, Tehama County, California, 
enjoying most hap]iy domestic relations. 



vention in tho interests of Hon. John Cradlebausjh 
for U. S. Senator; and. in their preferment for State 
officials, advocated those who were favoralile to 
their choice for Senator. Colonel John A. Collins, 
Henr}- Hdi^erton, and James W. Nye were also can- 
didates for that disiini^uished honor, (■ollins with- 
drew before the election, and Alinon llovey became 
an aspirant. John Conness, who at that time was 
representini^ California in Washintjton, writes as 
follows to tho Viri^inia Cit}- DdUj Union, regarding 
tho candidacy of Mr. Edgorton: — 

If you send Henry Edgerton here as a Senator T 
don't know what I wouldn't jiromise to do; and 1 
do not hesitate at all, as a friend of Nevada Terri- 
orj', to advise and ask that he bo one of her Sena- 
•. ors. Send that gifted and big-hearted man here 
as a Senator, and I will never cease to be thankful. 

There were fifty-ono delegates elected to that 
Convention, which lasted three days ; Chauncey N. 
Noteware was President, A. P. K. Satl'ord, Secretary, 
and a full "State ticket" was put in the field. 














John B. Wiiitors 























Scattering Vote 


M. N. Mitchell 







Lieutenant Governor. 











Sc.ittering Vote 

Supreme Court. 
R, S. Mesick 






J li. H.irniou 


Sc.itterini' Vote 


Secretary of State. 




Scattering/ V^ote 

W. B. Hickok 






Sca.ttc'riiii' Viite 







Scattering V'ote 

Attorney (Jeneral. 








Sctitt^'rin" V'ote 

Sui»cTiittendent Instruction. 
A. F. White.- 




Clerk .Supreme Court. 
Alfre.! ICclm 






SUte Printer. 
G. W. Bloor 






District Judge. 
H. M. .fiiiica 




T M I'awlin" . 




For Constitution 

Against Constitution 







.Storey County gave 570 for and 3,054 votes against the Con- 

The foregoing is tho official returns of that election, 
held January 10, 1804, with Ormsby and Storey 

Counties left out ; thej- having neither mnde anj*, or 
loft upon record, data, upon which the fi-ures can be 

There were nine newspapers in tho Territory at 
the time, all of which supported the adoi>lion of the 
t'onslilution and election of the Ujiion ticket, except 
the Aurora '/'imrs, Humboldt la'ai/in/ei; 0/1 I'uh L'te, and 
"Virginia Union. There was but one ticket in the 
field, the fight being made upon the organic law ; 
and the Steivart war cry of injustice, contained in the 
clause that authorized the ta.xing of" tho poor miner's 
shafts and drifts and bed-rock tunnels," enabled the 
opposition to carr}' with it the pojjular element, that 
resulted in an overwhelming rejection of the instru- 


The first eft'ort to become a Slate proving a failure, 
the ball was set in motion again within twenty days 
after the election, by Senator Doolittlo, of Wisconsin, 
who introduc'od a Rill into tho TTnited States Senate, 
February 8th, that authorized the Nevadans to try 
it over again. 

While the measure was before that l)odj% Senator 
Conness, of California, remarked — " Nevada is a 
mining community exclusively, and can never be any- 
thing else. It must alwaj's be fe<l from (u/jureut 
Countries," and the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany has from the first been trying to denioii- 
strate that Conness was a prophet. 

March 21, 1804, the" bill was signed by President 
Lincoln, and Governor Nye issued a proclamation, 
calling for an election on the sixth of June, to choose 
another set of Delegates, to frame a State Constitu- 
tion, with the result given on the following page. 

On the twenty-seventh of. July, the Convention 
adjourned, and tho tiuestion of a State Government 
was onco more before the people, under widely 
different circumstances from those which had pro- 
duced tho former defeat. This time that obnoxious 
clause ri'garding the taxation of the •■aspirations of 
the poor miners' soul, his shafts, and drifts, and bed- 
rock tunnels," was so changed as to leave that class of 
the commonwealth free to enjoy, untrammeled, their 
hopes and as|)irations. This time no State Officers 
were to bo voted for, and the class of population who 
were aspirants for such positions, all joined hands in 
the effort for an affirmative vote. This time there 
was no general s])lit in tho ranks of the dominant 
party, although tho old contest was continued in 
Store}- County, resulting in the defeat of the regular 
Republican nominees for County offices. 

There was another cause that oxorted a powerful 
influence upon the public mind at this time ; it being 
0|>enl3'. and with iiersistence, charged bj* tho press, 
that one of the Supreme Judges of the Territory 
neglected his duty, and rendered decisions favorable 
to the " highest biilder for cash." 

Tho charge was never judicially affirmed or 
negatived, and we do not know that the press was 
warranted in its assertions; yet it presented a strong 





Ball. Nathaniel AH 

Banks, Janies A 

Hclden. W. W 

Brady. H. B 

Brijtjtian, (.'ornelius 

Chapin, Sanincl A 

Collins, John A 

Crawfonl, Israel 

Crosman, J. S 

DeLonu. i-'harlea E 

Duniif, E. F 

Earl. .losiah 


Kriwll, LloTd 

Folsoni. Uiiman N 

Gibson, George L 

Haines. J. W 

Ha\vle> , Albert T 

Hovey, Alnum 

Hudson, George A 

John-nn, .!. Necl\ 

Jones, Williiiin Henry 

Kennedy, Francis H 

Kinkead, J. H 

L"K,'kwood, A. J 

Mason, H. S 

MK'linton, J. G 

Morse. E. A 

Murdock, Xelsoii E 

Nourse. * ;eor;;e A 

I'arker, H. G 

Proi'tor, Fran<i8 M 

8turfe\ant, James H 

Tagliabue, Francis 

Tozcr, Charles \V 

Warwick, J. H 

Wellin-ton, O 

Wetherill, William 

Williams, H H 

Johnson, J. Neely, President. 
Gillespie, Win. M., Secretary. 
Whitford, And'w, Ass't Scc'y. 
Marsh, A. J., ntticial RcjKirtcr 
Carson, T. M.. Strg'tat-Anns 
Skeene, Wni. K., I*oorkeeper. 
Ri jhards, Gcor;ce, Pa^ 











St orey . . . . 
Humboldt . 
Washoe . . . 
Washoe . , . 


Sto, ey 

Storey . . . 
Ornisby . . . 


Storey . . . . 
Storey . . . . 
Storey ... 


Washoe . . 
Ornisby . . , 
Doiujias. . . 
I)i>ui^la8. . . 



Ormsby . 


Ornisby . . 
Ornisby . 
Lander — 
Washoe . . 



Washoe . . 



Ijinder . . 
Lander. . . 
Ormsby . . 
Store>' . . 
Storey . . . 
Ormsby .r 
Ormsby . . 
Ormsby . . 



Mining Sup't. . 
Lumber dealer 



Miner. . . . 






..umber dealer 



Lumberman . . 





.Mill owner 

t^awyer . 

(did not attend) 

lyawyer . . 





(did not attend) 



MiniMK Sup't. .. 




Mining' ^V Milting 


(did not attend) 


(did not att«nd) 





Saloon keeper . . 

State in piat^ of Nativity, 
Life. I 

Whence to 
Pacific Coast. 

Sing^le . . 
Single . . 
Married . 
Single , . 
Married . 
Married . 
.Marriet' . 
Single . . 
-Married . 
Married . 
Single .. 
Married . 
•Married . 
Singl". . . 
Married . 

iNew Hamphire. 
'I^ennsjklvanla .. 




Massachusetts. . 


New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 


New York 




bower Canada . 


New York 

Massachusetts . 

.Single .. Pennsylvania.. 
37}Married. Pennsylvania 

:{M|Single . . New York 

47 Widower New York 

2« Single . . Illmois 

New York . . . 
mnectitut . . 

New York 



New York .... 
Michigan ... . 

New York 



Wisconsin .... 





Tennessee . . . 

New York 

I'ennsylvania . 

Single . . New York . 

.Marii d. Maine 

.Married Vermont . . 
.Marrit'd Kentucky 

3ft Married- New York 

.single . . 
Married . 


3S Married. 
2fi Single . 
32 Sinirlo . 

35 .Married 
38 Single . 

36 Married 
12 Single .. 


New York . 


Indiana ...... 

Albany. N. Y.. 
Rhode Is!and. . 

New York 

Ma^isachuselts . 



'ennsylvania . 





New York . 
Minnesota . . 
Verimmt . . . 
K'-ntucky . . 
.\ew York . . 
New York . . 
.Michigan ... 
New York . . 

Whence to,o'< Present 
^ P Politics. 


1849 California 
IS.'iO, Wisconsin 
ISjO California 
1849 California 
18.''>2 California 
IboO California 
1S52 Calif >rnia 
1&49 Californa 
1S(K) California 
1852 Calift»rnia 
1856 California 
1849 California 
1S49 t:ftlifi»rnia 
1858 California 
1849 Calif orrna 
1849, California 
I&49. California 

1867 [California 
1849 California 
18-^4 California 
1852 California 
1859, California 

1850 California 
184)3 .Minnesota 
1^:.2 California 
184!) Calif<»tnia 

1850 California 

1851 California 
18'»0 California 
1854, California 

Sew Jersey . 

1849 1 Call for Ilia 

Fa\ored in 









New York . 
New York . 
New York . 

1 1854 

California . 
New York. 
California . 
California . 
California . 
Kansas . . . 
California . 

Union . 
I'nion . 
Cnion . . 
Union . . 
Cnion . . 
Union . 
Union . 
Union . . 
Union . . 
Union . . 
I'nion . . 
Union , . 
Union . . 
Union . . 
Union . . 
Union . . 
Union . . 
Union . 
Union . 
Unii>n . . 
Union . . 

Uniiin . . 
Union . 
Union . 
Union . . 
Union . . 


Lincoln . . . . 


Lincoln .... . . 







Dougla** . ... 











Union . , . 
Union . 
Union . . 
Union . . . 
Union . . 
Union . . . 
Union . . 

1861 Union . 

18601 Union . 
1861 Union . 
lst!3 Uni<'n . 
1864 Union . 
1861 Union . 
18tt2 Union . 
1859. Union . 

Douglas . 


Douglas . 
Lincoln . . 





Douglas ..... 










circumstantial case, so strong, that about 4,000 names 
were signed to a petition asking the whole Bench to 
resign. The document was printed with its names, 
in the Territorial Enterpriser and filled six double 
columns of that paper. The people were called upon 
to adopt the Constitution, and in this way get rid of 
this unpopular ]5ench.* 

The general Territorial election was to come off 
on the seventh of September, that year, at which 
time County otticers, a Legislative Assembi}* and 
Delegates to the House of Eepresentativos at Wash- 
ington, \vere to be chosen. 

A Territorial Ilepublican Convention was held at 
Carson, on the tenth of August, consisting of fifty 
Delegates, twenty-six of whom were proxies ; and 
they put in nomination, on the regular Union ticket, 
Thomas Fitch, as Delegate to the House of ]ic])resen- 
tatives. The Democrats put A. C. Bradford in the 
field, and Judge John Cradlebaugh ran indepen- 
dent for that position. 

The Constitution was submitted to the people, on 
the day of the general election, and the following is 
the vote upon it, as well as upon the Congressional 


Thomas Fitch, Republican 1208 

A. C. Bradford, Democrat ;]71G 

•^'ee {jkM Hill News, of Auguat 6, IbG4. 

John Cradlebaugh, Independent Union 3781 

Scattering _ 4 




Churchill County 178 

Douglas County _ 470 

Fsmeral da County 859 

Humboldt County 320 

Lander Countyt - 1018 

Lyon County 898 

Nye County 148 

Ormsby County 999 

Store}^ County 5448 

Washoe County 1055 













Total 11,393 2,262 

Majority in favor of the Constitution, 9,131 

+A liirge vote was pollcnl at Ania*li«r, and rtjcctod Ixicause of 




State Politics ami Elections — rrtsideiitial Klection of November 
8, 18(>l — Contest for United State.s .Senate in ISW — Removal . 
of Capital Attempted — Iteply «f Mr. Wait/. — Congi-essicmal 
Election of 1S(>5 — .State EleetiDn, N'ovomlier li. 18GG — Elec- 
tions in ISGS-Oil — Presiilential Election of I.StiS — .State Elec- 
tion of November ;^, 1870 — I'olitics of the IjCgislatiire — 
Presiilential Election of 1872 — Contest for United States 
Senate — State Election of 1874 — Contest for United States 
Senate — Presidential Elc>ction of 1876 — Uesult of the Elec- 
tion — Politics of tlie Legislature of 187li — State Election of 
1878 — Choice of Senator — Kepublican Ticket — Democratic 
Ticket — -Politics of I.egislature of 1878 — Vote for United 
States Senator — Presidential Election of November '2, 1880 — 
Politics of the Lenislatiire of 18.S0 — Siitro's Net for Fair — 
Colonel .I.imes (J. Fair — .Salary Hcduction l)y Hobart's Bill — 
Judiciary Elections, 18G1 to 1878 — The State Ue-districted — 
Districts as they are. 

The Constitution having; been adopted, it required 
but a proclamation IVom tbc President of the United 
States to usher Nevada into the national t'amilj- as a 
sister State; and the necessary parchment was 
signed on the thirtj'-first of October, 18(54. 

The year 1804 was the season of wholesale elections 
in Nevada. Already there had been three, and her 
admission rendered it necessary to have another, as 
the Legislative officers and Congressional Delegates 
chosen under Territorial law could not serve under 
the new regime. 

The Presidential election was to occur on the 
eighth of November that year, at which time mem- 
bers of the House of lieprcsentatives were to be 
chosen; and as Nevada had become a State, the 
recent election of Judge Cradlebaugh as a Dele- 
gate was non-operative. There was accordinglj- 
placed in the field that fall a full State and National 
ticket by both the Republican and Democratic 
parties of Nevada; including Representative, State 
officers, State Senators and Assemblymen, eleven 
District Judges, and nine District Attorneys. 

The following is the ticket placed in the field bj^ 
the Democrats: — 

Member of Congress, A. C. Bradford, of Storey. 

Governor, D. ¥,. Buel, of Lander. 

Lieutenant (iovernor, R. E. Arick, of Storcj'. 

Secretary of State, P. B. Kllis, of Ormsby. 

Controller, J. P. (Jalagher, of Storey. 

Treasurer, Paul Moroney, of Storey. 

Superintetident of Public Instruction, J. B. Chinn, 
of Washoe. 

Surveyor General, John Ortrom, of Storey. 

Sujireme Court Judges, John R. McConnell, of 
Storey; William C. Wallace, of Storey: E. W. Mc- 
Kinstry, of Esmeralda. 

Attorney (ieneral, William II. Rhodes, of Storey. 

Clerk of Supreme Court, Tod Robinson, of Storej-. 

The following returns, except for the offices of 
District Judge and Attorneys, exhibit the result of 
that election: — 


For Presidential Electors — Republican, 9,826 votes. 
For Presidential Electors — Democratic, 0,594 votes. 

Member of Congress, H. G. Worthington, 9,7"G 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 16,328. 

Governor, II. G. Blasdel, 9,834 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 1(;,389. 

Lieutenant Governor, J. S. Crosman, 9,786 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, Id, 348. 

Secretarj- of State, C. N. Notoware, 9,839 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 16,335. 

Controller, A. W. Nightingill, 9,842 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, ]6,3(i!l. 

Treasurer, E. Rhoades, 9,824 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 16,3 IT). 

Superintendent Public Instruction, A. F. White, 
9,823 votes; two candidates; total vote, 16,331. 

Surveyor General, S. II. Marlette, 9,828 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 16,326. 

Supreme Court Judges — C. M. Brosnan, 9,838 
votes; II. O. Beatty,* 9,804 votes; J. F. Lewis, 9,826 
votes; six candidates. 

Attortic}- (Jeneral, George A. Nourse, 9,798 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 16,308. 

Clerk Supreme Court, Alfred Helm, 9,846 voles; 
two candidates; total vote, 16,310. 

By this election Hon. Henry G. Worthington, of 
Lander County, was chosen Representative to fill 
the term until the expiration of the session of Con- 
gress, on the third of March. 1865. Mr. Worthing- 
ton served through one session, and returned to 
Nevada as an as]>irant for re-election; but failing to 
receive the nomination, removed to the Atlantic 
Coast, where he took a prominent part in the recon- 
struction of the Southern State Governments suc- 
ceeding the war of the Rebellion. 

For the Legislature, Nye County elected one 
Democrat, Frank M. Proctor, to the Senate; and 
Churchill County one Democrat to the Assembly, 
named James A. St. Clair. The balance were all 


After the organization of the two branches of the 
Ijegislaturc. a Joint Convention was hold by them 
on the fii'teenlh of l)eceniber, 1864, for the ])ur))i)se 
of electing two United States Senatoi-s; and the 
first vote stood as follows: — 

William M. Stewart, of Storey County, 33. 
James W. NyCj of Ormsby count)', 23. 
Charles E. De Long, of Storey County, 23. 
John Cradlebaugh, of Ormsby County, 12. 
B. C. Whitman, of Storey (,'ounty, 13. 
Necessary for a choice, 27. 
Mr. Stewart having been elected, there still re- 
mained the necessity of choosing another Senator; 
and the next seven tallies stood — with the change 
of but one vote — 

James W. N^-e 23 

Charles E. De Long 17 

* Resignation to take eSect November 9, 1868, and Hon. B. 
0. Whitman was nppointe<l the same day to till vacancy until 
J. Ncely Johnson, who had been elected for that purpose, could 



John Cradlebaugh 9 

B.C. Whitman 3 

There seeming to be a dead-lock, the Convention 
adjourned until the next day, at 1 r. m. During 
this interim, Mr. Stewart sent a mesxage to Judge 
Cradlebaugh, stating that if the latter would con- 
sent to yield to him all Government patronage, which 
would be due by courtesy to both of Nevada's Sen- 
ators, his election would be secured. The reply of 
Judge Cradlebaugh was characteristic of the man. 
" Tell Stewart," said he, " that I had rather be a 
dog, and bay the moon, than such a Senator." 

When the Convention assembled the ne.\t da}- 
one vote decided the matter as follows: — 

James W. Nye 29 

Charles E. De Long IG 

John Cradlebaugh 7 

Total 52 

Necessary for a choice 27 


A little breeze was raised in the horizon of politics 
In the early part of 18G5, by an eflbrt made to pro- 
cure the removal of the seat of State Government 
to American City, south of (Jold Hill, in Storey 

It will be remembered that in 1861 the State Cap- 
ital was established at Carson City, and the Legis- 
lative Assembly was obligeil to meet at the place 
where the State Prison is now located — a suggestive 
coincidence. Storej' and Lyon Counties, taking 
advantage of this circumstance, entered into com 
petition to secure the removal of the same to within 
their respective boundaries, at Virginia City, if 
Storey County was successful, or at Da3-ton, if Lj^on 
County secured the prize. The Ormshj' County 
people became alarmed, and by petition asked the 
Legislature to adjourn to Carson City, where they 
would be furnished with assemblj' rooms, free of 
charge, which was finally done, Ijj'on and Storej- 
Counties failing, either of them, to gain the location. 

In January, 1864, a company organized with a 
large caiiital, laid out a town on the flat south 
from Gold Hill, ami n;imeil the location American 
City. They then oflVreil S.")(l,(l()0 as a duMalioii to 
the Terriiory if it would i-inmve the Capital from 
Car.-on Ciiy to ili:it jihico; and tlie Sloroy Count}- 
pa])ers advocali-d the removal. One of the reasons 
alleged lor its being desirable to make the change 
was, that Ormsby County had oftered to furnish 
assembly rooms free of charge, and now was asking 
a rental of 84.r)00 per ^es^ion for the use of the 
buildinii. 'i'lie Ca|)ital was not removed; but the 
discussioti li'fl the following interesting foot-|)rints 
behind it. that indicated the existence in early limes 
of that poliiicjil eneigy, and process of li-tling the 
rays of »i7iJ'r li;;lil in ii|ion the understanding of a 
Legislator, that since hue becumo suggestive of the 
Senatorial ionn. 

The Ormsby County people seeing the effect that 
the charge for rent by their County Commissioners 
had caused, many of them signed the following 
petition, headed b}- E. B. Kail, Wellington Stewart, 
and others: — 

The undersigned, citizens of Ormsby County, 
hereby resjjectfull}* request the present Commis- 
sioners of said County to resign their otlice imme- 
diately. To Adolphus Waitz we especially address 
this reciuest. We tirmly believe he has used his 
oflice as a means of speculation. We know that he 
has brought the countj- to present bankruptcy, and 
that he has acted in odious bad faith to this county 
in tendering the free use of our public buildings to 
the Territory, and afterwards charging the United 
States for the use of each building. As to him, we 
wish it distinctly understood that we shall not take 
NO for answer. 


* * * A proper regard for the public good, 
and those who elected me, as well as a feeling of 
self-respect, forbids that 1 should hasten to gratify 
j'our malice. If it be )"our pur])ose to intimidate me, 
it only ))roves what 1 had supposed was the case, 
that 3'ou were not well acquainted with my real char- 
acter. I am not apt to be scared bj^ the threats of 
armed desperadoes, much less those of peevish and 
excited citizens. * * * 

Your Coi'.nty Commissioner, 

Adolphus Waitz. 

On referring to this matter in ilarch, 1865, the 
I'osf, ])ublished at Carson, said editorially: — 

* * * And to show that wo are not mistaken 
in these matters we will add, that we individually 
collected the mone}- that was paid to a member of 
the I^egislature to vote against the removal. * * * 
The editor |)ro])oses to expose anyone else who goes 
and does likewise. 


The election of 18G4 had chosen a liepresentativo 
in Congress, Hon. H. G. W^orthington, for the term 
ex])iring March 3, 18G5, and, consequently, it would 
be necessar}' to elect another to take his seat with 
the convening of the new Congress, in December, 

Nevada had two United States Senators, but no 
Member in the House of Representatives. To pro- 
vide for the deficiency a Re])resentative had to be 
chosen at the Slate Klection on the seventh of No- 
vember, 1865. This brought to tlu- front three 
KeiiLibiican as])irants, namely. Colonel Charles A. 
Sumner, sujiported b}- the Gold Hill iVeirn and Vir- 
ginia City Union; Hon. W. H. Clagett, supported by 
the Terrilorial Kiiteiprinc ; and Delos II. Ashley, of 
Lander County, su])ported by the lieene liioi-r h'eceilk. 
Clagett carried the Storey County delegation by 
twenty votes — as claimed b}' the Gold Hill News — 
tliroiiirh the agencj' of Democratic votes in the 
iiepulilican primaries. 

On the tenth of October the Conven- 
tion met at Carson; the candidates, as named, were 
placed in nomination before it, and for ten or twelve 

Col. a. C. Ellis, 

Son of Dr. R. B. and Elizabeth (Collier) Ellis, was 
born in Eiehmond, Eay County, Missouri, on the 
twelfth day of July, 184tl. His father was a native 
of Sussex County, Virginia. Jlis mother, a Ken- 
tuckian by birth, died when he was but two years 
old, and Mrs. M. P. Koas, an aunt upon bis father's 
side, took upon herself the charge of his early train- 
ing. In 1850 the father removed from St. Louis, 
Missouri, to California, and the son went to reside 
with his aunt in Kichmond, where the succeeding ten 
years her house was his home. His early education 
was obtained in the last-named town, where he 
studied under a private tutor, and afterwards attended 
the academy of A. C. Jledmon and It. \V. Finley until 
1853, at which time he entered the Masonic College 
at Lexington, becoming a member of the Freshman 
Class in the fall of that year. In 1S55 he entered the 
Junior Class at the University of Missouri, at Colum- 
bia, and graduated therefrom July 4, 1857. 

In the month of October of the same year he 
entered the Law School at Louisville, Kentucky, 
which was a department of the State University, and 
remained there during two full courses of law lec- 
tures under James Speed, later President Lincoln's 
Attorney General, Judge W. F. Bullock, John C. 
Preston, and Wm. Pirtle. In 1850, February 
27th, Mr. Ellis graduated from this school and 
was chosen to deliver the valedictory, and received 
his diploma from James Guthrie, President of the 
Board of Curators. By an Act of the Legislature of 
that State, a diploma from the Law School entitled 
the graduate to practice in all of its courts, and he 
soon after located at llichmond, and through the in- 
fluence of old friends, combined with natural talent, 
acquired a good practice in his profession. In 1800, 
on the twenty-eighth of March, ho was married to 
Miss Lucie Rives Cobb, of Prince Kdward County, 
V'^irginia. Mr. Ellis was named by the State Conven- 
tion of Missouri as an alternate elector for Stephen 
A. Douglas ill the camjiaign of 180(1. lie was a can- 
didate the same year for Commonwealth Attorney 
in the Fourtli Circuit, embracing seven counties, and 
was defeated by only three hundred votes by his 
Bell and Everett opponent. The estimate placed 
upon Mr. Ellis by those who best knew him may be 
judged from the fact of his receiving 2,300 out of 
2,500 votes cast in his home county at that election. 
In 18<)1 he joined the Confederate regiment com- 
manded by Colonel B. A. Hives, and was an Adju- 
tant, first of General Little's brigade, and then of his 
own regiment, during the Pea Ridge battle and cam- 

paign. Colonel Rives was killed at Pea Ridge, and 
sometime afterwards Adjutant Ellis was sent by 
General Price from Van Buren, Arkansas, to exhume 
the Colonel's body and convey it to his old home in 
Ray County for burial. In 1803 Mr. Ellis came with 
his family to Carson City, Nevada, which has, since 
the fall of that year, been his home. 

In 1809 he practiced law in partnership with the 
late Tod Robinson, in "White Pine County. In poli- 
tics he has always been an earnest worker in the 
Democratic ranks, and has canvassed the State in 
the interests of his party many times. In 1870 ho 
was a candidate for Governor before the Democratic 
State Convention, at Elko, and was defeated by only 
three votes, receiving, after a protracted and exciting 
contest, ninety-eight votes, while bis opponent. Gov- 
ernor L. R. Bradley, had lol. The friends of the 
late Hill Beachy and Governor Bradley united, 
through the influence of General T. H. "Williams, 
Thomas Sunderland, T). K. Buell, and others,) to 
defeat him. Mr. Kllis was chosen Chairman of the 
Democratic State Central Committee, and made an 
active canvass of the State in the interests of (Jover- 
nor Bradley, who was elected. In 1872 he canvassed 
the State for Greeley, though he was not the man of 
his choice for President. In 1874 he received the 
Democratic nomination for Congress, but was de- 
feated by Wm. Woodburn, though he ran ahead of 
his ticket largely. In 187(! he went as a delegate to 
the National Democratic Convention, at St. Louis, 
and presented the resolution of the Nevada State 
Convention against Chinese immigration, and by 
persistent eff'orts secured its insertion, with slight 
modification, in the National Platform. On his return 
home he again received the itemocratic nomination 
for Congress, but was defeated by Thomas Wren, 
although receiving in the neighborhood of two hun- 
dred more votes than the Tilden Kloctors. 

In 1878 he took an active part in the support ol 
Bradley for Governor and Mr. Deal for Congress, and 
the Democratic ticket, making another stirring can- 
vass of the State, though not a candidate himself. 
In 1880 he attended the National Democratic Con- 
vention at Cincinnati, Ohio, as a delegate, and was 
again a member of the Committee on Resolutions. 
In connection with the members from California and 
Oregon he secured the ado))tioii of the very emphatic 
resolution in the National Platform against Chinese 
immigration. During his political life Mr. Kills has 
been one of the most zealous and untiring workers in 
his ] tarty. 



ballots the contest luy between those <;entlemcn. 
Colonel Sumner then withdrew, and John B. Win- 
tei-s ajipeareil before the Convention to ask its jire- 
ferment for the coveted position. It required lil'ty- 
three votes to get the nomination, and the new 
candidate could not obtain over forly-nine. Mr. 
Ashley continued to receive his regular fourteen 
votes until about 4 p. .m., when it stood: John B. 
Winters, forty-nine; \V. II. Clagctt, forty-eight; 
Delos R. Ashley, eight. 

The Convention then took a recess; and, after 
re-assembling, twenty-six of Clagett's men voted for 
Ashley. The friends of Winters also voted for 
Ashlc}-. and thus he became the nominee of the 

Mr. Ashley then pledged himself, in a speech be- 
fore the body tha't had placed his name upon the 
ticket, to use his utmost endeavors to oLtain from 
the Government all the aid, in land and money, to 
build as soon as possible everj' railroad contemplated 
and in course of construction, connecting the Slate 
with the tide-water on the Pacific. 

A plank of the Rei)nblican State platform affirmed 
the same doctrine in regard to the railroad.* 

As before stated, the election came off on the 
seventh of November, at which time 

Delos R. Ashlc)- received 3,(501 votes. 

n. K. Mitchell received. 2,215 votes. 

Total votes 5,900 

The choice had fallen upon the Republican can- 

In the election of 18GG there entered into the con- 
test the National issues brought on by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, Andrew Johnson. Mr. 
Ashley again became the nominee of the Republican 
party for Congress, and had for his opponent, on 
the Democratic ticket, II. K. Mitchell, the same 
gentleman who had contested the year before for the 
honor of being chosen for that position. The result 
was success to the entire Republican ticket, as fol- 
lows: — 


Member of Congress, 1). R. Ashley, 5,047 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 9,248. 

Governor, II. (t. Jilasdei, 5,125 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 9,230. 

Lieutenant tiovernor, J. S. Slingerland, 5,211 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 9,208. 

Secretary of State, C N. Notewaro, 5,207 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 9,257. 

Controller, W. R. Parkinson, 5,203 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 9,257. 

* Tlii'i was before tlie Central I'aeitic liaii re.achol the .State, 
anil when it** e<m8triicti"ii wa.s m-'st ai'ilently <li;«ii"eil and lioped 
for .'\.x an aei'"iii|iliNliiiitiit of tin' iliatant Intiire. .Vt the name 
time there were two rnaiKs Heekin^ 8nl>siili'-8 — one, the Central 
I'aeilie, then unnally ilenoniinatcil the Dutch Flat roail; and the 
other the I'lacervdle mail, lioth roads were Heekin^ favors 
whieh all parties wcru willin}^ to grant without question ur limit 
of powers. 

Treasurer, E. Rhoades, 5,157 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 9,239. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, A. N. Fisher, 
5,218 votes; two candidates; total vote, 9,250. 

Surveyor General, S. H. Marlotte, 5,209 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 9,250. 

State Printer, J. E. Eckley, 5,208 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 9,273. 

Supreme Judge, James F. Lewis, 5,183 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 9,2(iC. 

Attorney General, Robert M. Clark, 5,193 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 9,249. 

Clerk Supreme Court, Alfred Ilelm, 5,000 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 9,202. 

In admitting the State into the Union the Sena- 
tors were allotted terms ending in March, 1807, and 
March, 1809, respectively. 

The election of United State Senators in 1864 was 
for short terms — one for two 3'ears and the other for 
four; and the question of who should take the short- 
est one was decided by lot in open Senate. James 
W. Nj'e drew the short term, and became a candi- 
date for re-election before the Legislature, on the 
sixteenth and seventeenth of January, 1807. There 
were five aspirants for the ])Osition; and on the 
fifteenth, when the candidates were put in nomina- 
tion before the two separate Houses, the following 
was the result of the combined vote: — 

Charles E. De Long received 21 votes. 

James W. Nye received 18 " 

John B. Winters received 7 " 

Thomas Fiteli received 4 " 

Thomas U. Williams received 7 " 

Total.. : 57 

The same day II. R. Mighels published in his 
paper, the Dnifi/ Ap/iea/, one of those incisive, burn- 
ing editorials, for which he was noted, calling upon 
the Union men of both branches of the Legislature 
to supiiort the "(trey Eagle" for the United States 
Senate. In it occurs the following: — 

The whole Union ])ress, not only of Nevada; not 
oiilv of California; not only of Oregon; not only of 
all the Pacific States and Territories, but of all the 
United States, east and west — with but two solitary 
exceptions — are in favor of, and persistently advo- 
cate, the re-election to the United Slates Senate of 
Mr. Nye. 

The exceptions referred to were the San Francisco 
C'tt/l and Humboldt Rei/inter. During the political 
camjiaign that had recently clo.sed, Mr. De Long 
had assailed Mv. Nye by correspondence through 
the press, in a very bitter strain, accusing the latter 
of frauds in his ailministration of the Iiulian affairs 
ill Nevada; consequently, the issue between these 
parties was intenselj- ])ersonal. On the sixteenth 
the Convention of the two Houses took jjlaco, and 
the names of .Mr. Williams and Winters having been 
withdrawn, the vote stood as follows: — 



James W. Nj-e received 25 votes. 

Chill-lea E. De Lotif;; received 27 " 

Thomas Fitoh received 4 " 

Thomas U. Williams received 1 " 

Necessary for a choice 29 " 

An adjournment was then taken until the next 
da)', when the vote was: James W. Nye, 32; Charles 
E. De Lons^, 25. 

There were seven Democratic votes, and all were 
for Jilr. De Jjong. The successful candidate was then 
declared elected for a term of six years, to com- 
mence March 4, 18G7, and end March 3, 1873. 


On the sixteenth of September, 18GS, the Repub- 
lican Convention met at Carson Citj', and placed a 
ticket in the field. 

Thomas Fitch by acclamation for Congress; Chas. 
E. De Long being a candidate for the United States 
Senate against ^N'iiliam M. Stewart, withdrew to 
secure harmony in tlie party; and the following 
resolutions were passed by the Convention: — 

A'e.<o/(V'(/, That the action of Hon. C. E. De Long 
in withdrawing from the Senatorial contest in favor 
of Mr. Stewart, in order that there might be entire 
unanimity in our councils, is an act of pati-iotic self- 
denial so noble in its character, and so gratifying to 
the loyal pcoi)le of Nevada, that it merits their 
warmest cf)mmcndati(ins and approval., That by his conduct in tliis matter Mr. 
De Long has endeared himself to eveiy loyal voter 
in tlie State; and the thanks of a grateful people 
are hereby tendered liini tor so prom])tly sacrificing 
his personal political prospects to the end that the 
victory gained over error and wrong in the late 
contest should not be shorn of its fruits by partisan 
strife among the friends of Freedom, of Humanity, 
and of I'rogress. 

Mr. De Long was subsequently appointed Minister 
to Japan, which post he filled with great satisfaction 
to the American people, strongly cementing the 
friendly relations between the two (iovernments. 

All of the Republican candidates upon the State 
ticket were elected, as follows: — 


For Presidential Electors — Republican, 6,476 votes. 

For Presidentiiil Electors— Democratic, 5,215 votes. 

Member of Congress, Thomas Fitch, 6,230 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 11,579. 

Surveyor General (unexpired term), John Day, 
6,301 votes; two candidates; total vote, 11,677. 

State Printer, H. R. Mighels, 6,425 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 11,689. 

Supreme Judge (long term), B. C. Whitman, 6,476 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 11,698. 

Supreme Judge (unexpired term), J. Nooly John- 
son, 6,398 votes; two candidates; total vote, 11,632. 

The Legislature of 1S(>9 was made uj) of titty 
Republicans and nine Democrats. 

On the twelfth of January of that year William 
M. Stewart was elected to succeed himself as 
Nevada's United States Senator, being chosen by 
forty-nine out of the fifty Republican votes on the 

first ballot; A. C. Cleveland, of Washoe, giving hia 
vote for B. C. Whitman. The Democrats cast their 
nine ballots for Thomas H. Williams. 

Mr. Stewart was in Washington at the time attend- 
ing to his Senatorial duties; his political interests in 
Nevada being placed under the supervision of Hon. 
A. P. K. Saflbrd, who later became Governor of 


In 1870 the Democrats made their first political 
success in the State, securing the Congressman, and 
the most important State officers, among whom were 
Governor L. R. Bi-adle)-, and Supreme Judge John 

The Republicans, in Convention at Elko, on the 
twenty-first of September, that year, placed the fol- 
lowing ticket in the field: — 

For Congress Thomas Fitch (no opposition). 

" Governor P. A. Tritle. 

" Lieutenant Governor J. S. Slingcrland. 

" Secretary of State James D. Minor. 

" Controller W. W. llobart. 

" Treasurer Len Wines. 

" Superintend't Pub. Instruction A.N. Fisher. 

•' Survej'or General John Day. 

" State Printer H. R. Mighels. 

'' State Mineralogist H. R. Whitehill. 

" Su])reme Judge J. S. Slauson. 

" Attorncj' General Will. Camjibell. 

" Clerk Supreme Court Alfred Helm. 

The following is the result of the election; — 

Member of Congress, Charles W. Kendall,* 6,821 
votes; two candidates; total votes, 13,312. 

Governer, L. R. Bradley,* 7,200 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 13,349. 

Lieutenant Governor, Frank Denver,* 6,689 votes, 
two candidates; total vote, 13,309. 

Secretary of State, J. D. Minor, 6,786 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 13,341. 

Controller, W. \V. Hobart, 6,770 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 13,353. 

Treasurer, Jerry Schooling,* 6,942 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 13,333. 

Su]>erintendent Public Instruction, A. N. Pisher, 
6,793 votes; two candidates; total vote, 13,3t!6. 

Surveyor General, John Day, 6,002 voles; tw<5 
candidates; total vote, 13,375. 

State Printer, Charles L. Perkins,* 6,731 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 13,302. 

Mineralogist, H. R. Whitohill, 6,711 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 13,363. 

Supreme Judge,! John Garber,* 6,787 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 13,349. 

Attorney General, J L. A. Buckner,* 6,650 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 13,277. 

t.'lerk Supreme Court, § Alfred Helm, 6,801 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 13,365. 

* Duiiiocrnts. 

t Hu8ii,nic(l on the sixth of November, 1872, the day after 
election iif that year. 

t l{e»igiio<l .laimary 4, 1874. 

iS Keoigneil January "-, 1875. I{is succcaaor had been elected 
ou the jirevious third of November. 





COUNTIES. Dcm. Rep. Ucm. Ke]). 

Churchill 10 11 

llsmeralda 1 1 4 

Elko 1 L' 

Uumboldt 2 H 

Lander 2 4 

Lincoln 1 (I 1 

Lyon (» 2 3 

Nj-o 1 1 1 

Ormsby 2 12 

Storey 1 :{ 3 !• 

Washoe II 2 o 3 

White Pino 112 3 

Totals 10 12 22 22 

Douglas County elected one indc])eiident Senator 
and two independent Assemblymen. 


The election year that gave General Grant his 
second Presidential term, and consigned his com- 
petitor, the unfortunate Horace Greelej', to his grave, 
was one of unusual political activity in Nevada. Sena- 
tor Nye's term was drawing to a close, which east 
upon the Legislature to be chosen that year the 
necessity of electing his successor, and for the first 
time the overshadowing influence of money was felt 
in political manipulations in this State. Money had 
been used before, but not to so great an extent as in 
the campaign of 1S72. 

The mines of Storey County had produced wealth 
that graduallj- centered under the control of a few, 
and had placed upon the floor of politics a new class 
of men, untried statesmen, developed by silver into 
monej-ed Samsons, who felt equal to the task of car- 
r^-ing away the political gates of Gaza. 

The real contest laid between William Sharon. 
who was termed the quartz-mill and railroad monop- 
olist; and J. P. Jones, called by the press of the 
State, ''The Commoner." .lames W. Nye, whose 
name had become a national one, and familiar in 
every household in the land, was also a candidate, 
but without hope of ])refermenl where monej', and 
not demonstrated fitness and ability to servo the 
country and state, was to be tho shibboleth of suc- 

The Democratic aspirants prior to tho election 
were: John Garber, Supremo Judge; T. IL Williams, 
of Storey County; Harry I. Thornton, of Lincoln 
County; A. C. hlllis, of Ormsby County; W. W. Mc- 
Coy, of Lander County; John C. Fall, of Uumboldt 
County; II. K. Mitchell, of Storey County. 

J. P. Jones was a heavy mining operator in Ne- 
vada and Htock-<lealer in San Francisco. His policy 
was to maintain high prices for such stocks as ho 
was interested in, and ho carried a number of 
friends whose limited means would have proved 
their ruin but for his assistance. 

It was charged by the Pacific Coast press gen- 
ally that Sharon, backed by the California Bank, 

desired to break the Stock Market, expecting his 
opponent to go down with it, and ruin his main 
supporters, in this way thinking to ])lace this bold, 
talented, and generous coin distributor where he 
would be forced to give up the contest. It was 
further charged that the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company had joined Sharon and the bank in this 
move to suppress the Nevada •■ Commoner," who 
was tho champion of the people in their struggle 
against railroad, quartz-mill and bank monopolies. 

May 7, 1872, mining stocks were at their zenith 
for that year, tho inflatioti being (caused by the dis- 
covery of a sup])osed bonanza in the Savage mine. 
On the next day the San Francisco Chronicle pub- 
lished charges by one Isaac J. Hubbell, accusing 
G. F. Kellogg, the I'oreman of the Crown Point 
mine, of causing tho Crown Point, Yellow Jacket, 
and Kentuck mines to bo fired in April, 18(i0. at 
which time a number of minors had lost their lives. 
It further stated, that the " Nevada Commoner" 
was privy to the act, it being done to influence 
mining, or stock, manipulations. This same day. 
after the news became current upon the street, com- 
ing in connection with the unfavorable reports of 
the Savage mine, stocks suddenlj^ declined from 
thirtj" to forty per cent., and continued in their 
downward course for several days. The Tcrri/orial 
Enterprise, that supported J. P. Jones, in speaking of 
this matter, said: — 

Mr. Sharon, it is plain to everj' one here, has 
resorted to this atrocious means of alienating from 
his formidable com))elitor the support of a class of cit- 
izens whose numbers render them, when united, an 
almost resistless political power. 

At this juncture friends interfered, and the sub- 
ject was left to an investigation by the (irand Jury 
of Storey County, which rendered a decision in tho 
following June exonorating all jtarties accused. 

Two years later, in August. 1S74, at a public meet- 
ing in Carson, Sharon said of .1, P. Jones: — 

Ladies and Gentlemen: I thank j-ou on behalf of 
Senator Jones for the i'ece|>tion given him in your 
fair city this evening. He has jiroven himself tho 
representative of the true interests of the people. 
He has represented our interests at Washington 
against all opposition. He has been true to tho 
trust of the people i-eposed in him. and I am h;ippy 
to add ni}' voice in commending hiin for it. When 
we find a representative true to the interests of tho 
commonwealth; true to the best interests of all the 
peo])le; true to the principles of liberty, right and 
ireedoin. the i)eo])le can welcome him hack to his 
home with all the feelings which are highest in the 
hearts of freemen. 

Mr. Jones was helping Mr. Sharon to become Stew- 
art's successor in the I'nited Slates Senate at tho 
time of the above eulogy; and it makes a world of 
dift'erence whose ox is being gored. 

On the sixteenth of August William Sharon with- 
drew as a candidate, and the issue then lay between 
Senator Nye and tho "Commoner." But the con- 


test liad virtually ended when the bunk and rail- 
road interest ceased their onslaui^ht upon J. P. 
Jones. It was claimed by the friends of Nye that 
there had. for cause, been a compromise between the 
moneyed powers, but the people did not believe it, 
and still trusted their -Commoner." 

On the twenty-fifth of September the Republican 
Convention met at Reno, and placed upon its ticket 
C. C. Goodwin for Congress. The nomination was 
bj' acclamation, and for some time he refused to 
accept the place, only doing so upon the assurance 
from the Delegates representing the eastern counties 
in the State that thcj- were unanimously for him. 
Thomas P. Hawley was successful in gaining a 
nomination for the Supremo Bench, and C. A. V. 
Putnam was selected for State Printer. No other 
State offices were to be voted for at the coming elec- 

The Democrats placed Charles W. Kendall in the 
field for Congressional preferment, and staked everj-- 
thing ujjon his success. The friends of Jones lost 
sight of Goodwin's interests in their eft'orts to secure 
a Jjcgislature favorable to their leader, and the result 
was success to the "Commoner" and the Democratic 
candidate for Congress. 


Republican Presidential Electors, 8,413 votes. 

Denidcratic Presidential Electors. C.23C votes. 

Member of Congress. Charles W. Kendall, 7,847 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 14.903. 

Supreme Judge. Thomas 1'. Hawley, 8,193 votes; 
two candidates; total vote. 14,021. 

State Printer, C. A. V. Putnam, 8,179 votes; two 
candidates; total vote. l.j.OOS. 

On the twenty-first of the following Jaiuiarj- the 
vote for United States Senator stood, at the Con- 
vention of the joint Houses of the State Legisla- 
ture: — 

J. P. Jones, 53; W. W. McCoy, 17; Charles E. De 
Long, 1; Robert McHeth. 1; total. 72. 

There was but one ballot, and J. P. Jones had 
fairly entered u])on the career as a national Legis- 
lator, in which cap;icity he has since won and worn 
the laurel crown as a monetary statesman. 

Of the man whom his success had consigned to 
private life, Harry Mighels, on learning of his death 
on Christmas, 187G, said in the A/>/)eai: — 

To write a full and fitting obituary notice of 
James \V. Nye would be to write the history of the 
Hvputilican |iartj-; tell the story of the administra- 
tion of Abraham Jjincoln; the struggle for the Union; 
the scheme of reconstruction, and the lite and 
achievements of the Republican l)arty of the State 
of Nevaiia. For our deail friend and neighbor was 
as closelj' united to all these momentous matters 
and events as any man of his day. In the 
verj- midst of the most tremendous events of war 
and jiolitics he was one of the grandest figures u|)on 
the stage of ]iublic aflairs. His name will ever rest 
among the most distinguished patriots and states- 
men of bis age. 

His portrait now hangs in the State Capitol; and 
the stranger who, passing, stop.s to look at it, will 
be told — bj' whatever Nevadan chan^^es to be near — 
that it is the kindly noble face of "Grej' Eagle" that 
beams down from the cold canvas upon him. As 
he tells you, if you note it, j'ou will see a look of 
proud regret steal over the face of j'our informant, 
as the scene recalls from the secret chambers of the 
past a recollection of the one great heart, real states- 
man, true patriot, and generous friend of whose 
memorj- all Nevadans are proud. 


The political cam])aign of 1874 was started early 
in the season, the Senatorial contest being the ab- 
sorbing issue of the year. William Sharon again 
became a candidate for that position, and Adolph 
Sutro was his main antagonist. General Thomas 
H. Williams was the Democratic choice, and each of 
them were for the time being the leaders of a party 
in the State— Sharon of the Republican, Sutro of the 
Independent (Dolly Vardcn), and Williams of the 

The owners of the Comstock Lode had come to 
look upon the Sutro Tunnel scheme with great dis- 
favor, although strongly advocating it at first. 
Thej' had used every means available to defeat the 
enterprise in and out of Congress, and Mr. Sutro was 
violentlj' oj^posed to having the chief capitalist of 
the mines go to Washington as a Senator where he 
could use his position to cripple the tunnel enter- 
prise; consequently, that gentleman entered the list 
for the position himself, determined, at all hazards, 
to "tunnel Sharon's prospects." Thus the mone3'ed 
Titans of Nevada were brought in collision politi- 
cally. To this day, fossil remains of the political 
managers of that era can be warmed into life by a 
reference to the " Battle of the Money Bags" for 
Senatorial honors. 

The Republicans met in Convention at Winne- 
mucca, September 24th. of that year, and placed the 
following ticket in the field: — 

P""or Congress, Wm. Woodburn, of Store}- County. 

For Governor, J. C. Hazlett, of Lyon County. 

For Lieutenant Governor, John Bowman, of Nye 

For Secretary of State. J. D. Minor,* of Humboldt 

For Controller, W. W. Hobart,* of White Pine 

For Treasurer. L. J. Hogle.t of Eureka ("ounty. 

For Superintendent Public Instruction, S. P. Kelly, 
of Eureka County. 

ForSurveyortJeneral. John Day,*of Tiyon County. 

For State Printer, C. C. Powning, of Washoe 

' uere ti\»o plucLtl upon tile ticket of the Independents, 
and wiTi- dectwl. 

t L. .1. Hiiglc afterwards withdrew hi» candidacy, and the 
name of George Tully, of Ornisby County, was subatituted. 

John Grant. M D. 

Doctor John Grant was bum in Lenox t'ounty, ( »iitario, Canada, in 1831, and 
as the name strongly indicates, is of Scottish anci'sti y. 

From early youth he evinced a desire for study, giving ]>reference at that time 
to civil engineering, with the design of making that his profession For several 
years he |iursued this branch of seientiHc study, till in 1854 he entered the Albany 
Medical College, New York, and adopted the profession of medicine and surgery, 
to which he has since assiduously di-xoted his life. From this college he graduated 
in 1857. Subsequently he graduated from .Tetferson Medical College, of Philadel- 
phia, and is a graduate of the University of Victoria College, of Ontario, and 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, England. 

The Doctor's residence on the Pacific Coast has been chiefly in California and 
Nevada. For fifteen years he followed his profession in Santa Cruz, the pleasant 
summer resort on the Bay of Monterey, California. Here he practiced with great 
success, his fame and skill extending to surrounding counties, extending his busi- 
nes,s proportionately. During his residence at Santa Cruz his acquaintance was 
wide-spread, embracing the prominent members of the profession and the. princi- 
pal politicians and gentlemen of the State. Subsequently, for several years he 
was a prominent physician anil surgeon in Virginia City. In every sease Dr, John 
Grant is a gentleman of fine culture, thoroughly imbued with the sacred cause of 
profe.s.sional proprieties and obligations, a man of the strictest integrity, blessed 
with the itdieritance of a nature that finds happiness in cheering the afflicted and 
downcast, and extending a hand to help the wearv through life. 

The portrait of the gentleman of whom we write accompanies this sketch, A 
fine form and manly carriage ; a countenance always genial, pleasant and intel- 
lectual ; and with all this the Doctor remains a consistent bachelor, too loyal to 
Hygeia to admit another goddess to his devotions. 



For MineriilogiBt, II. R. Whitehill, of Churchill 

For Supreme Judge, W. H. Bentty* of White 
Pine County. 

For Supreme Judge, Warren Earll, of Elko County. 

For Attorney General, Moses Tebbs, of Douglas 

For Clerk Supreme Court, C. F. Bicknell, of 
Ormsby Count)'. 

On the twenty-eighth of September the Dem- 
ocrats, in Convention at Carson, placed the follow- 
ing candidates before the people for preferment: — 

For Congress, A. C. Ellis,* of Ormsby County. 

For Governor, L. R. Bradley,* of Elko County. 

For Lieutenant Governor, Jewett W. Adams, of 
Storey County. 

For Secretary of State, Charles D. Spires, of Lan- 
der Count)-. 

For Controller, T. R. Cranley, of White Pine 

For Treasurer, Jerry Schooling,* of Washoe County. 

For Superintendent Public Instruction, E. Spen- 
cer, of Lander County. 

For Surveyor General, George Uaist, of Storey 

For State Printer. J. J. Hill,* of Humboldt County. 

For Mineralogist, W . F. Stewart,* of Storey County. 

For Supreme Judge, A. M. Hillhouse, of Eureka 

For Supreme Judge, C. H. Belknap,* of Ormsby 

For Attorney General, J. R.. Kittrcll, of White 
Pine County. 

For Clerk Supreme Court, B. H. Hereford,* of 
Lincoln County. 

The name of Spencer was withdrawn and that of 
Willis substituted as a candidate for Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. 

On the thirtieth of .September the Independents 
met at Carson in State Convention, and put upon 
their ticket for State offices and Congress some of 
the nominees from both the regular parties; but 
laiiiiig to find u])()n either men that suited them for 
all the positions, they proceeded to iian)e the follow- 
ing gentlemen as third candidates in the field: Ijieu- 
tonant Governor A. J. Hatch, of Washoe County; 
Attorney (ieneral, A. B. Elliott, of Storey County; 
Superintendent I'ulilic Instruction, II. H. Howe, of 
Ormsby Count)-. 

U. II. Howe declined the nomination, and neither 
of the others were elected. 

The Democratic party was made up of two ele- 
ments — one that syin))aihized with or had assiste<l the 
Southern Confederacy; the otiior. that hail done 
lu'ither; and the former element had captured tluir 
Convention, and nominated for Congress Colonel A. 
C. Ellis, an ex-Confederate officer, instead of C. W. 

* These parties were also noniin.itc<l l)y the Iii(Ic|iciiduuts ; yet 
Ellis, Stewart, Belknap, and Heri;foril were ilefeiitcil. 

Kendall, a northern man, who had twice boon elected 
to that position by them. This was a serious mis- 
take, as it turned out, for Mr. Kendall would neither 
be flattered nor whijiped into pulling straight in the 
political harness. He was asked to "stand in," and 
make a ratification speech at a public meeting in 
Virginia City, on the eighth of October. He ap- 
peared on the platform, was introduced by the 
Chairman of the Democratic State Central Commit- 
tee, and then proceeded with such a storm of seri- 
ously damaging accusations and denunciations against 
the party platform, managers, and some of the can- 
didates as the members present of that organization 
never before had listened to. Ho was ordered off 
the platform, and withdrew, with the crowd follow- 
ing him, when he got upon a dry-goods box, and 
continued his '-ratification speech." The box was 
then kicked from under biin by some demonstrative 
members of the enraged audience, and he was forced 
to desist; but followed up the attack with very dam- 
aging letters that were published in the Enterpri»e 
until the close of the campaign. 

The Independents and Democrats chartcreil the 
Opera House in Virginia City for the campaign, and 
forced the Republicans to hold their meetings out 
in the streets. Mr. Sutro had magic-lantern jiictures 
painted in the East representing Sharon in various 
ways as a man that prospered unfeelingly upon the 
misfortunes of others, and free exhibitions were 
given with them to the crowds assembled on the 

Thomas Fitch, "the silver-tongued orator," was 
called into the struggle as a |>aitl attorney, to wither 
the Sutro movement with his strange metaphors, 
luminous wit. and scathing satire. The peo])le of 
Storey and Ormsby Counties were told that the 
defeat of Sharon meant success to Sutro, and ruin 
to property values in either of those places, as all 
business would be transferred, in such an event, to 
the mouth of that "Banshee" of a tniincl in Lyon 

On the third of November the election came oft', 
resulting in the choice of the following parties: — 

]\Ioniber Congress,* Wm. Woodburn, 0,240 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 17.S(!7. 

Governor,! L. H. Bradley, l(),l!10 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 18,0!t."). 

Lieutenant Governor,! Jewett W. Adams, 0,529 
votes; three candidates; total vote, IS.OtiO. 

Secretary of Slate,* J. D. Minor, 10,502 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, IS (101. 

Controller,* W. W. llobtul. 11.01!) votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 17.0.'j7. 

Treasurer,! Jerry Schooling, 0,404 votes; three 
candidates; total voics. 18,070. 

Superintendent Public Instruction,* S. P. Kelly, 
9,070 votes; four candidates; tola! vote, 17,865. 

Surveyor General,* John Day, 10,078 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 17,983. 



State Printer,! J. J- HiH, 9,071 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 18,038. 

Mineralogist,* H. E. Whitehill, 9,043 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 17,94G. 

Supreme Judge (long term),* W. H. Beatty, 9,932 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 18,088. 

Supreme Judge (short term).* Warren Earll, 9.322 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 18,0G4. 

Attorney General,! J- E. Kittrell, 9,050 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 18,006. 

Clerk Supreme Court,* C. T. Bicknell, 9,209 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 18,038. 

It will be observed that Hobart's majority is 4,101, 
being nearly double that of any other candidate. 

The Legislative Assemblymen chosen at the time, 
over whoso election the main issue had been made, 
stood as between the Democratic and Eepublican 
parties, as follows: — 

couNnES. Rep. Dem. 

Churchill . 3 

Douglas 3 

Elko 6 

Esmeralda. 2 3 

Eureka 1 1 

Humboldt 1 3 

Lander 2 1 

Lincoln 4 

Lyon - 4 

Nye 2 

Ormsby 4 

Storey 14 (I 

Washoe 4 

White Pine 7 

Hold-over Senators 9 1 

Totals 47 28 

On the twelfth of January, 1875, the vote was 
taken in both branches of the Legislature for a 
choice of United States Senator, as follows: William 
Sharon, 49; H. K. Mitchell, 21; Thomas P. Ilaw- 
ley, 4. 

The Democratic caucus had rejected General Will- 
iams lor Mitchell. The votes of the two houses had 
now elected William Sharon to the United States 
Senate to take the place of William M. Stewart, who 
had proved himself an able, earnest working member 
of that body; and we find with regret that the 
truth of history prevents us from saying the same 
of his successor. 


The year that saw the two great national parties 
struggling for victory in the country — with E. B. 
Hayes as standard bearer for the one, and S. J. Til- 
den advocated for the Presidencj' by the other — wit- 
nessed a comparatively quiet political tournament in 
Mevada. The national office — that sovereign State 
gives to her intellectual Calhouns, Jefforsons, Doug- 
lases, Clays, or Webstei-s — was not upon the market 
to call another Nevada Croesus to the front, and can- 
didates were left for ])referment to the strength 

* Uupublicans. 
+ Democrats. 

of their parties, and their own ability and fitness 
for such position as they sought. 

The Eepublicans placed their candidate in the 
field at Carson City, on the twent3--fourth and 
twenty-fifth of August. They gave Hon. Thomas 
Wren the preferment over Charles E. De Long by 
a vote of fiftj'-threo to forty-seven; at the same 
time placing Judge O. E. Leonard upon the ticket 
for Judge of the Supreme Court by a vote of fifty- 
three to forty-two, as between him and Judge D. C. 
McKenney, of Austin. 

The Democrats, at their Convention in Virginia 
City, August 28th, selected as their candidate for 
Congress Colonel A. C. Ellis by a vote of eighty-six as 
against fiftj--six cast for W. W. McCoy, of Eureka, 
for the same position. Judge M. Kirkpatrick was 
nominated without opposition for the position of 
Supreme Judge. Both political parties had placed in 
the field men of integrity, culture, and ability. 

The question of whether there should be a new 
Constitution framed was submitted at this election; 
also the proposition to change the beginning of the 
fiscal year from December 31st to December Ist. 


For Presidential Electors (Republican) 10,369 

For Presidential Electors (Democratic) 9,294 

Eepublican majority 1,075 

Against a Constitutional Convention 8,032 

For a Constitutional Convention 4,091 

Majority against 3,941 

For Congress, Thomas Wren 10,241 

For Congress, Colonel A. C. Ellis 9,330 

Majority for Thomas Wren 911 

Supreme Judge, O. E. Leonard 10.111 

Supreme Judge, M. Kirkpatrick 9,530 

Majority for O. E. Leonard 581 

The election had made a change in the party 
strength of both branches of the Legislature that 
will be best understood by a comparison of the fol- 
lowing table with that of 1874: — 



Rep. Dem. Rep. Dein. 



Douglas 1 

Elko 1 




Lander 1 

Lincoln 1 

Lyon 1 

Nye II 

Ormsby 2 

Storey 2 

Washoe 1 

White Pino 2 

Totals .12 13 34 

































' Iiidcpeudeut and Hold-over. Of the above Senators, seven 
Republicans and six Democrats were hold-overs. 




The struggle for Gubernatorial place upon the 
Republican ticket in 1878 was a bitter one. R. M. 
Daggett, General Batterman, and A. J. Tyrrell, of 
Storcj- County, were all desirous of the position; 
and it resulted in the withdrawal, before the county 
primary took place, of the former, and the admis- 
sion to the State Convention of an uninstructed Del- 
egation from that count}'. As usual, the Republicans 
were the first to hold their State Convention, which 
assembled at Eureka, on the eighteenth of Septem- 
ber; and, holding a two days' session, placed a Con- 
gressional and Slate ticket in the field. 

R. M. Daggett was nominated for Congress with- 
out opposition; after which an unsuccessful attempt 
was made to adjourn, the move being defeated by 
Hon. Thomas Wren, who said adjournment meant 
trade; and he was opposed to having a ticket 
placed in the field that was made up of traffic 
material. The choice of a candidate for Governor 
was next in order. General P. E. Connor securing 
sixtj'-three votes, and J. H. Kinkead sixty-six, the 
latter being declared the nominee. Then followed 
the vote by acclamation for Lieutenant Governor, 
II. R. Mighels being chosen without opposition; in 
fact, most of the ticket was made up of men who 
gained a place thereby a vote that indicated a unani- 
mous choice. 


Congress, Rollin M. Daggett, of Storey County. 

Governor, John II. Kinkead, of Humboldt County. 

Lieutenant Governor, Henry R. Mighels, of Orms- 
by County. 

Secretary of State, Jasper Babcock, of Storey 

Controller, J. F. Hallock, of Lincoln County. 

Treasurer, L. L. Crockett, of Washoe County. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, J. D. Ham- 
mond, of Ormsbj- County. 

Surveyor General, A. J. Hatch, of Washoe County. 

Supremo Judge, Thomas P. Hawlej', of White 
Pino County. 

Attorney General, M. A. Murphy, of Esmeralda 

Clerk Supreme Court, C. F. Bicknell, of Ormsby 

All of these gentlemen were elected except H. R. 
Mighels and J. D. Hammond. 

On the twenty- third of September the Democrats, 
in Convention at Carson City, placed the following 
ticket before the people: — 


Congress, W. E. F. Deal, of Storey County. 

Governor, L. R. Bradley, of Elko County. 

Lieutenant Governor, Jewctt W. Adams, of Storey 

Secretary of State, George W. Baker, of Eureka 
County. • 

Controller, M. R. Elstner, of Ormsby County. 

Treasurer, J. E. Jones, of Washoe County. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, D. R. Sessions, 
of Elko County. 

Surveyor General, S. H. Day, of Ormsby County. 

Supreme Judge, F. W. Cole, of Eureka County. 

Attorney General, J. R. Kittrell, of While Pine 

Clerk Supreme Court. Richard Rule, of Storey 

The only two successful candidates upon this 
ticket were Jewett W. Adams and D. R. Sessions. 

There were several occurrences of this campaign 
worthy of remembrance, among the first of which 
was the dropi)ingof the following resolutions from the 
Republican platform: — 

Resolved, That the Republican partj* of the State 
of Nevada is opposed to, and protests against, any 
repeal, modification, or change of the law taxing the 
net proceeds of mines, commonly known as the Bul- 
lion Tax Law. 

This plank was introduced by Hon. Thomas Wren, 
of Eureka, and was added to the platform of the 
party, but when that document was placed before 
the people it contained no such provision. Mr. 
Wren at once demanded, through the public press 
to know what had become of the lost plank. He 
advertised for it, and the State Central Committee 
dug it up, and put it where the Convention had 
placed it, among the articles of party faith, claiming 
that the important resolution had been inadvertently 
omitted. The historian of the "Sazerac L5-ing Club," 
being the Secretary who copied the resolution, was 
said to be responsible for this notable absence of 
mind. The Democratic platform contained a similar 
clause, and both parties tacked upon their campaign 
declaration of rights a dissoloing view, to the effect 
that they were for bringing railroad corporations 
"to time" upon the question of fares and freights. 

Another incident of importance, and significant 
in many ways, is related b}' Mr. Ilohart, who, by the 
way, as State Controller, proved himself to be one 
of the ablest financiers ever elected to a State 
office in Nevada. lie said that at first there were 
serious doubts in regard to the success of ihe Re- 
publican ticket, especially the Gubernatorial part 
of it, because of lack of funds, and the great pop- 
ularitj' of Governor Bradley; because of his tried 
honesty and incorruptible singleness of purpose that 
could not be reached by either wealth or intimida- 
tion. Besides, the people, many of them, wished 
to reward him by re-election lor vetoing the "Bul- 
lion Tax Compromise Bill." 

General Kittrell, the Democratic candidate for 
Attorney General, made a s]ieech in Virginia Cily, 
in which he handled without gloves the ''Bonanza" 
firm, and made many unnecessary personal remarks 
that so angered Mackey and Fair, the jirincipal 
owners of the " Bonanza Mines," that they, that 



nif^ht, determined to throw their entire influence 
and streniTth in the direction that would consign 
General Kiltrell and Governor Bradley to their 
political graves. "1 went to Carson," paid Mr. 
Ilobart, "and the next day told my friends that 
the danger had passed, and the Republican ticket 
■would bo elected. From that time forward there 
was no lack of funds on the llepublican side of the 
house;" and, as before stated, with two exceptions, 
their ticket was successful. 

The following are the names of and the votes 
that were received by the successful ones at that 
election: — 

Congress, Rollin M. Daggett, 9,811 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 18,959. 

Governor, John II. Kinkead, 9,747 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote, 18,999. 

Lieutenant Governor, J. W. Adams, 9,877 votes; 
two candidates; total vote. 18,898. 

Secretary of State, Jasper Babcock, 10,139 votes, 
two candidates; total vote, 18,961. 

Controller, J. F. Hallock, 10,193 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 19,022. 

Treasurer, L. L. Crockett, 9,813 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 18,981. 

Superintendent Public Instruction, D. R. Sessions, 
9,742 votes; two candidates; total vote, 18.933. 

Surveyor General, Andrew J. Hatch, 9,799 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, 19,008. 

Supreme Judge, Thomas P. Ilawley, 10,447 votes; 
two candidates; total vote, lS,99t}. 

Attorney General, M. A. Murphy, 9,993 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 18,952. 

Clerk Supreme Court, Charles F. BicknoU, 9,823 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 18,988. 

Constitutional Amendment, Article IS: Yes, 5,073 
votes; ^o, 337 votes. 

Constitutional Amendment, Article 11, Section 10: 
Yes, 3,357 votes; No, 91 votes. 

Constitutional Araondmont, Article 9: Yes, 2,429 
votes; No, 22 votes. 

The singling out of Jlr. Mighels for defeat was 
an unexpected misfortune to the party. There was 
no name on the ticket more entitled to receive the 
full party vote than his whose pen for j-ears had 
been a wand of fire in the State, wielded in the 
interests of Ilopublicanism. Ho was defeated by 
the Virginia and Truckee Railroad Company influ- 
ence, that desired to place S. II. Wright on the 
Bench in the Second District. Mr. Mighels refused 
to support them in the move, and the candidacy 
of Mr. Wright was withdrawn. This independent 
jininialist was then notified that ho, for his temerity 
in standing between them and their interests, would 
be defeated in his political aspirations. The fiat 
bad gone forili, and the Juggernautal rolled 
over him. 

Two years before the vote for the Lesri^-laturo had 
stood in Ormsliy County: II. R. Mighels, 840; M. 
B. Elbtner, 590; Mighels' majority, 244. 

At this election ho had led his ticket by 66 votes. 
At the election of 1878, when defeated by the rail- 
road influence, the vote stood as between him and 
Mr. Adams in Ornish}' Count}" : Jewett W. Adams, 
Democrat. 532; II. R. Mighels, Republican. 499: 
majority for Adams, 33. 

Governor Kinkead had received 140 ballots more 
than Mighels in the hitter's home county of Ormsby, 
where two years before he was the most popular 
candidate in the field. 

In Storey County the vote for him was 334 less 
than for Kinkead, which, added to the falling off in 
Ormsbj" County — where the railroad machine shops 
are — gives 474 votes, which is 47 more than was 
required to have elected him; and still the railroad 
car of Juggernaut rolls on. 

The unkindest cut of all came from the fact, that 
editorials in the Appeal, favoring the railroad com- 
pany in their issue with the Cornishmon when 
attempting to work Chinamen in 1S7G, were used 
against Mr. Mighels, thus rendering it possible for 
that company to defeat him; and the coincidence 
makes us admire that sweet singer in Israel who 
remarked: '• Put not your trust in princes." 



COCTNTIES. Rep. Dem. Rep. Dem. 

Churchill 10 10 

Douglas 10 11 

Elko .1 1 3 

Esmeralda 10 11 

Eureka 114 

Humboldt . 1 1 3 

Lander 10 3 

Lincoln 2 2 I 

Lyon *2 3 

Nye 111 

Ormsby *2 *2 1 

Storey 2 2 14 

Washoe 2 3 

White Pine 2 3 1 

Totals - 19 G 41 9 

Of the eleven hold-over Senators, five were Repub- 
lican, one Independent, and five were Democratic. 


There was virtually no contest for United States 
Senator, J. P. Jones having no opponent in the 
Republican party, which had been successful in 
electing a majority of both branches of the Legis- 
lature. Ho had achieved, during the six 5-ears that 
ho had represented Nevada in the Senate a national 
reputation as a monetary statesman, excelled by 
none of his com]>eers in that bodj-, and his re-elec- 
tion was a foregone conclu>ion. The candidate for 
the empty honor of the Democratic vote was Hon. 
A. M. Ildlhouse, of Eureka, a distinguished and able 

On the fourteenth of January, 1879, the Senate 

* Uue uf t^cli of thcau was luilcpeudcut; aiid voted for J. P. 

Ht.SIDENCE^'>'bUoli^JLob dLUuK"' M^.^M.E. RINCKEL. 


TH.BifirroN»i(ir,s r. 



and Assembly went throuy;h the formality of a vote 
that resulted as follows: J. P. Jones, 60; A. M. Ilill- 
house, 14. 


The nominations were, on the Republican side. 
James A. (Jarfieldj of Ohio, for President; and Ches- 
ter C. Arthur, of New York, for Vice-President; 
and on tho Democratic side, General W. S. Hancock, 
of Ponnsylvunia. for President; and William G. 
English, of Indiana, for Vice-President. 

The oloction campaign of 1880 was contested in 
Nevada without funds u])on the part of the Repub- 
licans. Mr. Sharon came out as a candidate for re- 
election to tho United States Senate, and Mr. James 
(t. Fair entered the list for that position as his Dem- 
ocratic opponent. Mr. Sharon would not furnish 
money to defray the legitimate expenses of the cam- 
paign, and many of the leadii>g Republicans felt as 
though a i)arty defeat was preferable to a continuance 
of his Senatorial career, his personal affairs having 
demanded his attention, and preventing his attend- 
ance to his duties at Washington. His speeches 
during the canvass demonstrated the necessitj^ of 
making a change, and money from the Democratic 
side of the house served the purpose of intensifying 
the growing sentiment. 

The people felt that a change could be onlj- for 
the better, and election day saw tho Republican ship 
scuttled and sunk beneath the jjolitical waves. 


For Democratic Electors 9,611 

For Republican Electors 8,732 

Democratic majority 879 

For Congress, George W. Cassidy 9,815 

For Congress, Rollin M. Daggett : 8,578 

Democratic candidate's majority 1,237 

Judge Supreme Court, Charles IL Belknap.. -10,110 

Judge Supremo Court, W. H. Boatty 8,251 

Democratic candidate's majority 1,865 


Elimination of tho word "white" from Section 1 of 
Article 2: Yes, 14,215; No, 353. 

Add Article 18, granting rights of suffrage and 
office-holding, notwitlislanding coloror previous con- 
dition of servitude: Yes, 14,215; No, 672. 

To add Section 10 to Article 11, forbidding the uso 
of public funds for sectarian pur|)Oses: Yes, 14,848; 
No, 560. 


Against immigration, 17,259; favor of immigra- 
tion, 183. 

It will bo observed that Mr. Daggett — who had 
accomplished more for his constituents than all his 
predecessors — received loss votes than was cast for 
the Republican President. Ho had offended the 
railroad |)owers in the State. It will also bo noted 
that lion. W. II. Beatly, one of the ablest jurists 
and purest men that ever filled tho position of 

Supreme Judge in Nevada was the worst defeated 
of all. He had failed in his ruling to please either 
the railroad or "Bonanza" interests, and was sacri- 

In tho State Legislature, of the sixty-one mem- 
bers elected to tho two branches, but nine were 
Republicans, of whom two were Senators, viz.: W. 
W. Ilobart, of Eureka, and J. I). Ilanunoiid. of 



coiTNTiF.s. Rep. Dcm. Uep. Uem. 

Churchill 1 1 

Douglas 1 2 

Elko .0 2 3 

Esmeralda 10 2 

Eureka .2 3 1 

Humboldt 1 1 3 

Lander 1 1 2 

Lincoln 1 1 3 

Lyon 1 1 3 

Nye 1 2 

Ormsby ..,*2 3 

Storey 2 2 14 

Washoe 1 1 3 

White Pine 1 1 4 

Totals 15 10 7 43 

After tho Legislature assembled a now disturbing 
element uncxpoctedlj' appeared upon the scene, 
knocking at the door for Senatorial preferment. 
Tho new aspirant was the world-renowned Adoljth 
Sutro, to whom was given the sobriquet of ''Assyrian 
bore"-er, who perforated the bowels of Mount 
Davidson with a tunnel that boars his name. It 
had come to be understood, at large in the country, 
that the coveted position was to go to the highest 
bidder for cash; and tho Ass3-rian came with the 
silver notes of discord, to wither, like Dead Sea fruit, 
tho apple of ambition that James G. Fair was in 
the act of jiressing to his lips. Tho attempt was a 
failure, as the following vote will show. 

The dissatisfaction respecting Mr. Sharon, and his 
conduct of tho cam])aign, resulted in dropping him 
from tho list of available camlidates and substitut- 
ing that of Hon. Thomas Wren. 

James G. Fair — Senate, 10; Assembly, 42; total, 52. 

Thomas Wren— Senate, 13; Assomblj', 7; total, 20. 

Rollin M. Daggett — Senate, 1. 

Of James G. Fair, who succeeded William Sharon 
as Uriited States Senator, much has been i)ublislu'il 
for and against, in the volume of which lurks but 
little truth. Tho following from tho Gold Ilill Xews, 
a Republican paper, edited by Alf Doten, may be 
regarded as an impartial and truthful statement in 
regard to him: — 


(i>uite a jiopular error regarding (Jolonel J. (J. Fair, 
which outsiders and those not i)ersonally acquainted 
with him naturally fall into, is that he is second to 

* Olio (if tho«! WHS ;iii Iiiilrpi'iicli'iit. Of llif fourteen .Seiiatnra 
who liild liver twelve were llepublieuus, one .in Inilepumleut, and 
ono a Demuurat. 



none as miner, mine manafjer, and minintjj engineer, 
but that bej'ond that he knows comparatively little. 
Never was a greater mistake. Colonel Fair never 
graduated from any university of learning, and his 
education has been obtained principallj' in the great 
school of the world; but he is not by any means 
deficient in many of the higher branches of learning. 
He is an extensive reader, and pretty well versed in 
historical, political, and other practical acquirements 
and requirements; he has a well-stored, evenly-bal- 
anced mind; is possessed of sound judgment, an emi- 
nent degree of discretion ; and although he may not 
make a brilliant mark as an eloquent member of 
the United States Senate, yet he will attend to his 
duty, and vote intelligently on all questions. As 
member of any Congressional committee, be he on 
mines and mining, or anj-thing else, he will be 
among the best and most studiously intelligent, for 
whatever he docs not know he alwaj^s studies into 
until he does. 

As a smooth diplomatist he has no superior. * * * 
He can write a ]jretty good newspaper article when 
he cares to, but seldom tries to distinguish himself 
in that line. He takes great interest in the arts 
and sciences, and has spared no expense to give 
his children the best education obtainable. Always 
having a strong desii-e to see the strange countries 
he has read so much about, he took a trip around 
the world, returning only recentlj' — ^just in time to 
bo nominated for United States Senator. For prac- 
tical ability, intelligence, general information, good 
judgment, and sound common sense. Col. James G. 
Fair will average well with his fellow-Senators and 
Congressmen at Washington. 

The Legislature of 1881 re-apportioned the Slate 
reducing the number of Legislators from sovonty- 
five to sixty. This reduces the expense of that 
body about glO,000 per term. The following is the 
new apportionment: — 

COUNTIES. Senators. men. 

Churchill... 1 1 

Douglas 1 .. 2 

Elko 2 3 

Esmeralda 1 2 

Eureka 2 3 

Humboldt 1 2 

Lander 1 3 

Lincoln 1 2 

Lyon 1 2 

Nye 1 2 

Ormsby 2 3 

Storey 3 10 

Washoe 2 3 

White Pine 1 2 

Total 20 40 

Senator W. W. Ilobart, of Eureka, introduced a 
bill that, becoming a law, to take effect in 1883, will 
make a further reduction of the expense of a State 
Government — in mileage about $',i,(H)(), and in sal- 
aries, 823,400; making a total reduction of 826,400 
per year. 


Present New 
Salary. Salary. 

Supreme Court Justices (throe) 87,000 85,000 

Governor 6,000 6,000 

Secretary of State 3,600 3,000 

Controller 3,600 3,000 

Treasurer 3,600 3,000 

Surveyor General 1,000 1,000 

Superintendent Public Instruction,. 2,000 2,000 

Lieutenant Governor 3,600 

Ex officio Eegister 2,400 2,000 

Clerk Supreme Court ..:.. 3,600 2,400 

Ex officio Curator and Secretary 

Orphan's Home 800 400 

Governor's Private Secretary 3,300 2,000 

Deputy Secretary of State 3,300 2,000 

Deputy Controller 3,300 2,000 

Deputy in Surveyor General's office. 3,000 2,000 

Deputy Treasurer 3,300 2.0(i0 

Clerk State Library. 1,800 1.000 

Warden Prison.. 3,000 2,000 

Mileage, Members Legislature 40c. 25c. 

Superintendent and Matron Orphan's 

Home 3,000 2,000 

Superintendent Printing. 2,400 2,000 

Totals 877,600 $53,800 


The office of Probate Judge was created in 1861, 
the jurisdiction of that official being about the same 
as now belongs to a District Judge. Each county 
had a Probate Judge — appointed by the Governor, 
with the approval of the Legislature — whose term 
of office was for two years; but there was no Attor- 
ney either elected or appointed. 

In 1862 this law was changed, making the office 
elective; at the same time the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney was created for each county, except in 
Churchill and Lyon, where one was to serve for both. 

In 1S04 there occurred another change that was 
engrafted upon the Constitution, in which the State 
was apportioned into districts, over which District 
Judges were to preside, who were to be chosen at 
the ensuing general election. 

In 1865 the office of District Attorney was added 
to the county offices, to supersede that of Prosecut- 
ing Attornej', the first of those officers being chosen 
at the election of November 6, 1866. 

Each of these judicial officers, except the District 
Judges, were, strictly speaking, county officials; and 
election returns reganling them will bo found with 
the county election histories; but as there were often 
two, and even more than two, counties embraced in 
a judicial district, wo have thought it best to place 
the returns, for the Judges elected in them, in sep- 
arate tables. 


First District, Storey County, C. B. Burbank, 
3,416 votes; R. S. Messick, 3,443 votes; E. Rising, 
3,418 votes; six candidates. 

Second District, Ormsby County, S. II. Wright, 
687 votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,276. 

Third District, I/yon County, William Haydon, 
964 votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,262. 

Fourth District, Washoo and l?oop Counties, C. C. 
Goodwin, 1,063 votes; two candidates; total vote, 



Fillh District, Nye and Churchill Counlios, S. L. 
Baker, 247 votes; two candidates; total vote, 442. 

Sixth District, Humboldt County, E. F. Dunne, 
44.) votes; two candidates; total vote, 81G. 

Seventh District, Lander County, \V. H. Beatty, 
1,278 votes; two candidates; total vote, 2.512. 

Eighth District, Douglas County, D. W. Virgin, 
4G2 votes; two candidates; total vote, 037. 

Ninth District, Esmeralda County, S. II. Chase, 
590 votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,030. 

The State having been redistrictcd, the 


was as follows: — 

First District, Storey County, Richard Rising, 1,811 
votes; two candidates; total vote. 3,280. 

Second District, Ormsby and Douglas Counties, 
S. H. Wright, 683 votes; two candidates; total vote, 

Third District, Washoe County, C. N. Harris, 603 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,169. 

Fourth District. Lyon County, William Uaydon, 
465 votes; two candidates; total vote, 762. 

Fifth District. Humboldt County, G. G. Berry, 
153 votes; two candidates; total vote, 305. 

Sixth District,* Lander County, W. H. Beatty, 
795 votes; one candidate; total vote. 797. 

Seventh District, Nye and Churchill Counties, 
Benjamin Curler, 369 votes; two candidates; total 
vote, 671. 

Jlighlh District, t Esmeralda County, S. H. Chase, 
324 votes; one candidate; total vote, 324. 

Ninth District.^ Lincoln County, Charles A. Leake, 
58 votes; three candidates; total vote, 105. 

The State having been redistrictcd again the 


was as follows: — 

First District, Storey County, Richard Rising, 1,698 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 3,300. 

Second District, Douglas, Ormsby and Washoe 
Counties, C. N. Harris, 1,169 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 2,266. 

Third District. Esmeralda and Lyon ('ounties, 
William M.Seawell, 620 votes; two candidates; total 
vote, 1,067. 

Fourth District, § Humboldt County, George G. 
Berry. 378 votes; two candidates; total vote, 731. 

Fifth District, Churchill and Nj'o Counties, Ben- 
jamin tUirler. 399 votes; two candidates; total vote. 

Sixth District, Lander County, D. C. Konnoy,Mc 
781 votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,445. 

*■ W. H. Beatty re.sigiieil M.iy 17, 18G9, to Ix; installed Judge 
of District No. Kiglit, the uumljcr of tlie newly-created one. 
consisting of White I'ino County. 

+ S. H. Chase ilied October 2S, 18G!). 

t Charles A. Leake dieil in August, 1870. 

§ At the election of November 5, 1872, O. R. Ijcon.ird was 
elected to till the vacancy caused l)y the resignation of Judge 
Berry, March 3, 1871. 

Seventh District, Lincoln County, M. Fuller, 465 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 800. 

Eighth District. White Pine County, W. II. Beatty, 
914 votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,719. 

Ninth District, Elko County, J. II. Flack, 642 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,211. 

Still further changes having been made in the 
various districts, the 


was as follows: — 

First District, Storey County, Richard Rising, 
3,758 votes; two candidates; total vole. 5,962. 

Second District, Douglas, Ormsby and Washoe 
Counties, S. H. Wright, 1,584 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 2,751. 

Third District, Lyon County, William M. Soawell, 
766 votes; one candidate; total vote, 766. 

Fourth District, Humboldt County, W. S. Bonni- 
fiold, 503 voles; two candidates; total vote, 879. 

Fiilh District, Churchill, Lander and Nj'e Coun- 
ties, D. C. McKenney, 1,065 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 1,831. 

Sixth District, Eureka and White Pine Counties, 
F. W. Cole, 1,290 votes; two candidates; total vote, 

Seventh District, Lincoln County, Henrj' Rives, 
655 votes; three candidates; total vote, 1,354. 

Eighth District, Esmeralda County, James S. Jami- 
son, 248 votes; three candidates; total vote, 555. 

Ninth District, Elko Countj', J. H. Flack, 772 votes; 
one candidate; total vote, 772. 

As the result of changes made by the Legislature 
the districts now stand as follows: — 


First District, Storey County, Richard Rising, 
3,510 votes; two candidates; total vote, 5,708. 

Second District, Douglas, Ormsbj' and Washoe 
Counties, S. D. King, 1,663 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 2,922. 

Third District, Esmeralda and Lj-on Counties, 
William M. Seawall, 967 votes; two candidates; total 
vote, l,.'i89. 

Fourth District, Humboldt Count}-. W. S. Bonni- 
field, 533 votes; two candidates; total vote, 914. 

Fifth District, Churchill, Lander and Nye Coun- 
ties, D. C. McKennej', 1,039 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 2,051. 

Sixth District, Eureka, Lincoln and White Pino 
Counties; Henry Kives, 2,104 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 3,862. 

Seventh District, KIko County, J. II. Klack, 1,011 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 1,852. 





The Boundary Line War — Peace Meeting — Message of Governor 
t'lemens — Line Agreed Upou — Square Miles in Nevada — 
A County of Two States. 

By the Act of Congress, approved March 2, ISCl, 
the boundaries of Nevada were established as fol- 
lows : — 

Beginning at the point of intersection of the forty- 
second degree of north latitude with the thirty- 
ninth degree of longitude west from Washington. 

Thence, running south on the line of said thirty- 
ninth degree of west longitude, until it intersects the 
northern boundary line of the Territory of New 
Mexico — later Arizona. 

Thence due west to the dividing ridge separating 
the waters of Carson Valley from those that flow 
into the Pacific. 

Thence on said dividing ridge northwardlj', to the 
forty-first degree of north latitude. 

Thence due north, to the southern boundary line 
of the State of Oregon. 

Thence due east to the place of beginning. 

The law, by a proviso, excepted from the area 
covered by this descriiHion anj- portion of California 
that might be included, unless that State should 
assent to such segregation. 


This became a fruitful source of trouble later, as 
the west line of California had not been established 
b}- survey, and the question of where Nevada began, 
and the Golden State left off, was a matter of serious 

October 25, 18G1, Governor Nye advised the 
aiijiointmcnt, by the Legislature of Nevada, of a 
commission to confer with California and obtain, if 
possible, the running of the Sierra Nevada mount- 
ain line of division between the two sections. By a 
joint resolution of the two bodies, ])as8ed November 
9, 1861, such a commission was to be named in a 
joint convention of both Houses* l)Ut they failed to 
meet and make the appointments. 

In the meantime, Deput}- United States Surveyor, 
John F. Kidder, surveyed the line as designated b}- 
Congress, from Lake Tahoe. northerly to Honey 
Lake, for which he was paid SoaO.t 

The same Legislature appro))riated SI, 000, con- 
ditionally, to be expended b^- the (Jovernor in esfab- 
lishitig the west boundary line from Lake Tahoe, 
southerly to or bej-ond I'^smeralda County. | 

Ah that county extended to the south line of the 
Territory, it is hard to tell in what sort of a fog the 
Legislators had become enveloped at that time in 
regard to the geography of Nevada. 

Jn 1S(;2 the line was run by J. F. Kiilder and 
Buller Ives, that left Aurora, in Nevada, but the sur- 
vey was not recognized by California. 

* Statutes of 1861, page 512. 
i Statut<a of 1861, p.ige 132. 
t Statutes of 1801, page 209. 

The Legislature of 18G2 passed a joint resolution 
asking the California Legislature to cede to Nevada 
such territory as had been included in the original 
boundary description by Act of Congress.* 

On the fourteenth of Julj-, 18G2, the bill introduced 
by Judge Cradlebaugh became a law by approval of 
the President, that added to the east line of Nevada 
one degree, or about sixtj* miles in width of territory 
lying between longitude thirty-eight and thirty- 
nine degrees west from Washington. 

Matters regarding the western boundary remained 
in this unsettled condition all along the line, until 
1803, when open war broke out along the border in 
Eoop County. 

The immediate cause of the trouble was a conflict 
of authority. The officials of Plumas Count}', Cali- 
fornia, claiming the right to exercise jurisdiction over 
the territorj- embraced within the limits of what the 
Nevada Legislature had organized into the county 
of Eoop. First a Justice of the Peace was enjoined 
by the Plumas County Judge from holding court in 
Eoop Count}', and failing to obey, was fined 8100 for 
contempt of court. Then the Sheriff and County 
J udge of J{oop County were ordered by the courts of 
Plumas County to cease exercising authority in Eoop 
County, and upon failure to obey, the Sheriff of 
Plumas and his Deputy came over and arrested these 
two officials. The citizens then arose and took the 
prisoners from custody before they had been taken 
over the mountains. The Plumas County Sheriff, 
whose name wasE. il. Pierce, returned in a few days 
with a large posse of Plumas citizens, stated to number 
from one hundred to one hundred and eighty persons, 
and one j)iece of artillery, and attempted to enforce 
the arrest of William H. Naileigh, Sheriff, and John 
S. Ward, Probate Judge of Eoop County. The arrest 
was made but a rescue ensued, and open hostilities 
had commenced in the streets of vSusanville. The 
Eoop County forces fortified in a log house, and Pierce 
advancing took possession of a largo barn in the 
immediate neigiiborhood, on the morning of the 
filleenth of February, 1803. The Eoop County men 
fired upon their assailants, and seriously wouncied 
one of them, when the fighting became general, 
resulting in the wounding of two of the log house 
party. An armistice was at length agreed to with 
a view to compromise, and the following is a copy of 
the same: — 


A stale of war existing between the authorities of 
Plumas County, California, and the authorities and 
<-ilizon8 of Eoop County, Nevada Territory, a com- 
mittee of citizens of Honey Lake Valley and the 
leaders of the belligerent ])arlies convened at Susan- 
ville, for the ]iurpose of making some arrangements 
for the establishment of jieace. and to stop the fur- 
ther shedding of blood. Frank Drake was appointed 
President, and H. U. Ji'nnings, Secretary. Mr. 
Pierce, Sheriff" of Plumas County, made the Ibllowing 
proposition, /o «>eV.: "Both parties to suspend hos- 

* Statutes of 1862, page 1<)5. 

(JCCyiyVCj >^,//- 


E B. Harris, M. D. 

Dr. Harris comes of an old New England, or rather 
of an old England family, for the Harris family 
were quite prominent several centuries ago, and 
brought with them when they came to this country 
in ltJ32 their coat of arms, and probably also, in com- 
mon with all the older ]S"ew England families, expect- 
ations of inheriting much wealth. The immense 
fecundity of the Harris family (E. B. is one of thir- 
teen) would have so divided the largest estate of 
England that but a few millions would have fiillen to 
the share of each Harris, and the tradition has long 
since ceased to be valued by any member of the 
family, the custom of each one's looking out for him- 
self and making his own fortune being well estab- 
lished among the descendants. Elias Braman Harris 
was born September 13, 1827, at Eichfield Springs, 
Otsego County, New York. At the age of eighteen 
he entered Fairfield Academy, Herkimer County, 
remaining until the age of twenty, when he entered 
Geneva College, where he completed his literary 
course. While in the last institution he commenced 
the study of medicine and surgery under Professor 
Frank Hamilton. The following year he entered 
the office of Dr. \Vm. .M. Spencer, of Otsego County, 
as a medical student, and also read a few books on 
common law at the same time, under the instruction 
of Judge Pomeroy of Cooperstown, New York, with 
the expectation of fitting himself for the profession 
of criminal jurisprudence, the profession involving a 
thorough knowledge of medicine as well as law. 

This design, however, was soon abandoned and hence- 
forth he gave his force to the medical sciences. 

In 1845 he entered the New York Medical Univer- 
sity, and completed his studies under the instruction 
of that world-renowned authority in surgery, Br. 
Valentine Mott, graduating in 1847; also in 1848 ! 
at the College of Surgeons. During the following ; 
year he commenced the practice of medicine in i 
Waterville, in Oneida County. At the beginning of ! 
1850 he took passage for Valparaiso. Not liking the | 
place he left for Panama, where he took passage on I 
a California-bound steamer, arriving in San Francisco 
in December, 1850, where he remained but a few 
months, going to Jackson, then in Calaveras County, 
by way of Stockton and Mokelumne Hill. The spec- 
tacle of a man hanging on the famous tree, executed 
by the court of Judge Lynch, determined him to con- 
tinue his journey to lone, then a little hamlet at the 
head of the valley bearing that name. He 8oor> 
found business in running a hotel, selling goods and 
practicing medicine at the same time in company 
with Dr. Jabez Newton. The following extract from 

a recently published history of Amador County will 
give an idea of his career there. 

I Doctor Harris acted quite a prominent part in the 
! early settlement of Amador County. He was a suc- 
; cessful physician as well as minor. He built and ran 
; forsorae time the Harris cV Newton Hotel; was largely 
I instrumental in the organization of Amador County- 
found time to help build up the State Agriculturai 
Society; mingled in politics; taught singing, and did 
I many things to help build up society. He was among 
the foremost who went to the Washoe mines, put up 
a custom mill, and made thirty thousand' dollars 
before other men had time to look around. When 
the civil war broke out. he joined the Union army 
and was made full Surgeon, with the rank of Major 
where Ins known skill as a surgeon, his great execu- 
tive ability and energy, were invaluable. Though 
genial and social in his habits, he never, either by his 
presence or conversation, promoted or countenanced 
gambling, drinking, and other vices, that swept into 
the vortex of ruin so many brilliant and talented 
young men in carl>- days. 

He was one of the first officers elected after 
1 he organization of the new county of Amador. The 
above remarks were made regarding the numbers of 
able men who at that time resided in the limits of 
the county. 

In the history of the mines of Amador County, 
we find the following in regard to the Oneida Mine! 

The mill and mine were leased, in 1.854, to Dr. E 
B. Harris for a nominal rent, for the purj)ose of hav- 
ingitdeveloped. He was endowed with great physical 
strength and indomitable energy, as wellas good'jud.r- 
raent, and by .selecting good rock, and acting as fire- 
man, engineer, amalgamator, machinist, miner, and 
supenntendont, hy turns, making about a dozen men 
of one and that one himself, he made the mine iiay 
ior that year, about thirty thousand dollars over 
expenses. At that time machinery was generally 
taken to Sacramento for repairs, necessitating long 
delays and much expense. One day a cam-seat or 
groove, on the shaft which holds the key gave way 
and the cam was dangling like a broken leg. To 
take out the shaft and send it to Sacramento was 
expensive, both in time and money, and it was 
resolved to drill a hole through both cam and shaft 
and put a largo pin through them to hold the cam 
By superhuman exertion this was done in about 
three hours, the order to -fire up ' ringing simul- 
taneously with the coming through of the point of 
''"'" and in half an hour the mill was pounding 

the dril 

away. A year or two afterward the mine was 
rented to Swam Sc Scgar, of lone, who in one year 
lost as much as Harris made. 

After the termination of his lease of the Oneida 
Mill and Mine, he took a trip to the East, with the 
design of remaining, hut he had too long been in 
California to live contentedly in the East, and in 

1855 he returned and invested in the Volcano Canal 
Company, becoming Superintendent. An unusually 
dry season followed, and even his energy could not 
make it a success, and it made a grave of nearly all 
the money he had saved in mining, and he returned 
to the practice of medicine at lone in Amador 
County, which he followed with success until the 
opening of the Washoe mines. 

With his usual great energy he plunged into the 
exciting business of mining, and erected the first 
stamp quartz mill in the Territory. There have 
been several claimants to the honor of having started 
the first mill, but Dr. Harris is most emi)halie in the 
assertion that his was thejirst, starling the machinery 
with his own hand, on the eleventh of August, 1860, 
at 2 p. M. of that daj', in the presence of 500 people. 
At this time the mill, which was a nine-stamp rotary 
battery, ran about an hour, when it was stopped on 
account of a difficulty with the pans. The njxt day 
Mr. Ki»ox was engaged to remedy the defect, and 
again started the mill, but he was unable to manage 
the pans, when Dr. Harris' engineer undertook the 
work and made it a success. From that date the I 

mill was run with great profit, being the most popu- 
lar one in the district, which was soon supplied with 
many works of the kind. [See page 68.] 

On the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion 
he left for the East, and joining the army remained 
until the close of the war. December 21, 1865, he 
married Miss Anna Isabella Stevens, youngest daugh- 
ter of the Hon. James A. Stevens, of Hoboken, New 
Jersey. Not even the changed condition of his 
domestic affairs could induce him to remain in the 
Eastern States, and on the twenty-first of March, 
following, he left for the Pacific Coast, which he has 
since made his home, practicing medicine in Sacra- 
mento and Virginia City. He has a family of three 
children — daughters — and his domestic relations are 
all pleasant. 

As a man, he is social, cheerful, hopeful, possessed 
of a splendid physique, indomitable energy, with 
excellent intellectual developments. The fault of 
his character, if he has any, is a tendency to attempt 
too many things at once, instead of concentrating 
his forces on one object. 





tilitics and disband tlioir forces, he takini; his men 
home with him and report tiie ease to tlie Governor 
orCalilbrnia, re(iuestinii him to eonfer with the (lOv- 
ernor of Nevada Territorj-, that the question of 
jurisdiction may hi- settled |ieaceably— ])endinff such 
settlement neitiier ]>artj- to chiim jurisdiction, also 
that tiie citizens of the valley shall draw U]i a full 
statement of the case and forward the same to the 
(Jovernors of California and Nevada Territorj-, 
requestiiiiT them to settle the ditliculties jjeaceablj' 
and as soon as jiossible." 

Mr. Elliott thought the jiroposition a fair and 
honorable one, and that it would lead to a s]>eedy 
settlement of our present diHieulties. He was lliere- 
foro in favor of Mr. I'ierco's jiroposition. 

Mr. I'ieree (Sherifl) moved tlie appointment of a 
committee of four citizens (two of each ))arly), 
to make the statement to each of the (Jovernors. 

Mr. KUiott moved that we adojit Mr. Pierce's 
proposition for a settlement of our difticultics. 
Carried, unanimously. 

The Chairman api)ointod upon the committee of 
corres[(ondence, Messrs. Itoop, .Murray, .lones, and 
Young. On motion, meetini^ adjourned. 

Fk.vnk buAKK, Chairman. 

H. U. Jennings, Secretary-. 

The above jiroeeedint^s is an agreement of settle- 
ment between the contending parlies of itoop and 
Plumas Counties. 

(Signed) E. II. Pikkce, 

Wm. IliLi, Naileioii. 

The above is a true and correct copy of tiie ])ro- 
ceedings of the ])eace meelini; lielil in Susanville, 
February 1(). l.*>0:!. W.m. Hii.l Nailekjii, 

.Sheriff of Poop County, Nevada Territory. 


Orion Clemens, the Territorial Secretary, was 
Acting Governor at the time when the difficulties 
occurred, and also on January 14, 1864, when he 
made the following rei)ort to the Legislature of 
Nevada: Hostilities ceased upon an agreement to 
refer the subject to the (iovernors of California and 
Nevada Teri-itory, for settlement; b\it yet excite- 
ment was great, and began to extend be3'ond the 
immediate locality of the disturbance; serious con- 
secjuencos might ensue. 

I telegra])hed in relation to the afVair to His 
Excellencj- Leland Slanforil, (Jovernor of California, 
and sent Hon. J. K. Lovejo3- to Susanville, to inves- 
tigato the facts. Upon his return ho submitted a 
written report, which, with aceom])anyiiig jiapers, 
is herewith transmitted to your Honorable bodj-. 

Subsequentlj-, a special messenger, William K. 
Parkinson. Esf|., arrived, beai'ing an official state- 
ment from William Hill Naileigh, who had been 
appointed Slieritf of Uoop (^)anty, bj- (Jovernor Nye. 
Mr. Naileigh staled the facts, asked nij- advice, and 
promised to obej' mj- direction in the matter, a 
])romise he faithfully ke])t. 

Accompanying this is .Mr. Naileigh's letter, with 
a copy of my answer, in which are quoted my dis- 
patch to (loveriior Stanford and his reply. 

Judge Itobert Pobinson, of Sacramento, was 
appointe<i b^- tiovernor Stanford, to confer with me 
in relation to the boundary. Alter ascertaining 
that the summit boundary would not be conceded 
by the California authorities, we drew u|) an instru- 
ment, ])roviding as the best that could be done. 

First — That the tlovernor of the Territory will 
appoint a commissioner to meet a commissioner 
appointed bj- the State of tJalifornia, to run and per- 
manently establish the boundarj- line between the 
State of California and the Territory of Nevada, dur- 
ing the ])rcsent j'ear, ISU^. 

The second clause, ]iroviding that the line shoidd 
be tem|)oraril}' regarded as nnming north through 
the eastern eml of Honey Lake, was ]iro])osed by 
Judge Pobinson, and was agi-eed to by myself on 
condition that the line south of Lake Pigler, as run 
by Kidilcr and Ives, in ISdjl, placing Aurora within 
this Territory, should be i-egarded temporarilj- as the 
true line, and Jurisdiction be accordingly so assumed 
b}' Nevada Territory. To this Judge Pobinson did 
not feel authoriy.ed to consent, and the writing was 
leit without signatures, u|)()n a verbal undei-standing 
that if apjiroved by the (Jovernor oi' California, the 
dujilicate should be signed by the Governor of that 
State, and of Nevada Territory, and exchanged. It 
was not so approved, but submitted by (Jovernor 
Stanford to the Jjcgislature of ('alilbrnia then in ses- 
sion, and a law was enacted ))roviding that the Sur- 
veyor (Jeiieral ot' California should I'liii. measure, and 
mai'k the entire eastern boundary of that State, and 
leqnesting the (Jovernor of Nevada Territory to 
ap]>oint a commisr-ionei- to accom])anj- and act in 
conjunction with said Surveyor Genei'al, "])rovided 
that Nevada Territory shall ])ay all expenses of such 
])erson or ])ersons so apjwinted." 1 send you a cer- 
tified cojiy of that Act, together with the ])a])er show- 
ing Judge Pobinson's authority to act as agent nl' (be 
Stale of Calilornia, and a duplicate of the allenipled 
agreement between him and myself. 

There was no law of this Territory authorizing a 
surve}', or the appoiillnieni of a coniinissioner or the 
pa3-nieMt of money, or the making of any contract 
for payment for detiiung and establishing the bound- 
ary. The calling of an extra session of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly was urged Instead of that, I trusted 
this Legislative Assembly. On the sixteenth of .Mmj-, 
18(53, I ajipointed Butler Ives, Esq., one of the most 
competent surveyors on the Pacific Coast, commis- 
sioner for and on behalf of Nevada Terrilorj-, " to 
accom])any and act in conjunction with the Surveyor 
General of the State of California, in definini^ and 
establishing the bouiidar}- line between the Terri- 
tory of Nevada and the Slate of California," and 
made a contract with said Ives by which he jjroin- 
iscd and agreed " to diligently, faithrully and fullj- 
perform all the duties devolving upon him as such 
commissioner," and ])re]iare and file in the otlice of 
the Secretary of the Territory, three copies of the 
maps andfielil notcsof such survey within sixtj- daj-s 
after the completion of the survej-, and make to this 
Legislative Assembly '-a full ami detailed report of 
the manner in which the survey has been made." 
Said agreement also contains the following clause: 
"And as consideration for said services to bo per- 
formed b}- said Puller Ives, said Orion Clemens, Act- 
ing Governor of the Territory of Nevada, in the 
name of the ])eo|)le of said Territory ])leilges the 
faith of Ihe Teri'ilorv of Nevada, to pay as comjien- 
sation to said Puller Ives the sum of (83,0(1(1) three 
thousand dollars in gold and silver coin, of the cur- 
rent money of the United Slates, said sum of money 
to bo so paid to said Butler Ives, thirty daj's after 
the adjournment of the next (this) session of the 
Legislative Assembly of the Teri'itory of Nevada." 

It was slijiulaled" that this S3.()(H) should be ])ay- 
ment in full of all expenses as well as services of him- 
self and assistants. The detailed statement rofeiTed 



to will doubtless be made by Mr. Ives during your 

In conjunction with Mr. Kidder, who was appointed 
by the Surveyor General ot Culifornia, .Mr. Ives ran 
the line from the initial point in Lake Bigler, north ^ 
to the southern boundary of Oregon, and south to 
within about a degree of the southern boundarj- of 
the Territory, when the severe cold and other difficul- 
ties compelled a suspension of the labors of the com- 
mission, but the important points were gained by 
showing the true location of the boundary line in the 
Honey Lake region, and thus preventing further 
difficulties, while, in the south, upon the running of 
the line under this commission the State of California 
immediately jielded a jurisdiction long maintained 
over the rich Esmeralda mining region, and the 
position of the line and respective jurisdiction of Cali- 
fornia and Nevada, arc now clearlj- known wherever 
there arc settlements along our western border. i 

Accompanjing this is a copy of my appointment i 
of Mr. Ives, as commissioner, together with a dupli- 
cate of our agreement, and his bond for arms fur- 
nished for protection in going through the Indian 
countr}-, and the inv(/ice and voucher fur the arms. 

All of which is respectfully submitted b}- your 
obedient servant, Ouion Cle.mens, 

Secretary of the Territory. 


February 7, 1SC5, an Act was approved making 
the line between California and Nevada, the same as 
had been decided upon by the former State, by a 
Legislative Act in April, 18U3, consequently there only 
remained necessary a survey to establish the line 
where it had not already been done. The Act above 
referred to of 1803 provided for such sarvej-. 

May 3, 186G, the Congressional Act was approved 
which ceded to Nevada a strip of territorj- sixty miles 
wide, extending from Oregon to the Colorado River, 
and all of Arizona lying between that river and 
Nevada's south line. This acquisition included 
11,000 square miles from Arizona and i;0,850 square 
miles from Utah, and January 18, 1867, the Nevada 
Legislature by Act accepted the gift. 

March 5, 18f)0, the Legislature ajipropriated 84,000 
to bo expended in surveying the east line of the 
State, that by the above Congressional Act, had been 
made on the thirty-seventh degree of longitude west 
from Washington. 

A joint resolution was passed bj- the Nevada Leg- 
islature in 1871, asking Congress to give to Nevada, 
all of Idaho that lay south of the Owyhee River, but 
the proi>o.-ition was not favorably entertained by 
that body. The same year the Nevada Legislature 
memorialized the Legislature of California asking the 
latter body to make the line of division between the 
two States the same as had been named in Nevada's 
organic Act. But this attempt to open the old ques- 
tion met with no favor across the Sierra. 

The boundary lines of Nevada as they now exist, 
commence in the center of the Colorado River where 
the thirty-filth parallel of north latitude crosses that 
stream (near Fort Mojave); from thence in a direct 
north-westerly line to the point where the thirty- 
ninth parallel of north latitude iutertfccls the forty- 

third degree of longitude west from Washington 
(near the center of Lake Tahoe); thence north 
on said degree to the forty-second parallel of lati- 
tude (which is the south line of Oregon); thence 
east on said parallel of latitude to the thirty-seventh 
degree; thence south on said degree to the center 
of the Colorado River; thence down said river to the 
place of beginning. Area 120,000 square miles. 


Resulting from a want of knowledge of where the 
west line of Nevada really was, were manj- serious 
incidents, some of them involving litigation as lato 
even as 1881, others tragic in their workings, while 
one at least was phenomenal in the history of poli- 
tics. It was not determined whether the town of 
Aurora was in California or Nevada until in 1863. 
Aurora was claimed by both States, and became the 
county seat of two counties; that of Esmeralda for 
Nevada, and Mono County for California. In 1863, 
Thomas N. Machin, of Aurora, was elected to the 
California Assembly, where hit was selected as their 
presiding officer, and later became Lieut. Governor 
of that State. At the same time, Br. John W. Pugh, 
also a resident of Aurora, was elected by the same 
constituency to the Legislature of Nevada, and he, 
too. was chosen as presiding officer for the bodj* of 
which he had become a member. Thus we have 
the singular coincidence, or political phenomenon, 
of a Legislative branch in two separate common- 
wealths at the same time, being presided over by 
men elected from the same town, b}' mostlj- the 
same votes, neither of whom, probablj*. were entitled 
to their positions because of their having been 
chosen by non-resident voters. 



Mail anil I'iisstu^'er Ti'aiisport.ition — Snow-shoe Thompson — 
Pony Express— Ovurlaml Mail Stagu Cmniiaiiy — Overland 
Stai-e Fiirm — Telegraph Lines — I'reseut -M.iil U"Utea — Wells, 
Far"0 & Co. s Express — I'ioneer Stage Line — Uverlauil Mail. 

The history- of the transi)ortation of the United 
States mails into and through the Territory of Nevada 
prior to the era of railroads and telegraph lines, is 
similar, in most respects, to that of other new Terri- 
tories. First the pack-mule and the covered wagon, 
followed by the pony express and the stage-coach. 
Although several exi)loring parties and numerous 
emigrant companies had, previous to 1850, passed 
over that ))orlion of the Great Basin that is now 
embraced within the limits of the State of Nevada, 
yet, there had, up to that time, been no ])ermanent 
settlements within the Territory. It was not till 
the 5'ear 1851 that regular mail facilities were 
secured to this section of the country; and even 
then the mail line extended no farther east than the 
Groat Salt Lake. 



Colonel A. Woodiird :iiul Mr. Chorpcninij had 
associated themselves tot^ether, and under the firm 
name of A. Woodard & Co., made a contract with 
the United States in 1851 to carrj- the mail from 
Sacramento, in California, to Salt Lake City. This 
route, commencina; at Sacramento, ran ma Folsom 
to Placcrville. in El Dorado Cuunty; thence over 
the Sierra by the old emi<,'i-ant road, through 
Strawberry and Hope Valleys into Carson Valley, 
throuijh Genoa, Carson City, Dayton, Rai^town, and 
thence across the Forty-Mile Desert to the Humboldt 
Eiver, near the Humboldt Sink; then following the 
old emigrant route east along the Humboldt IJiver 
to what is now Stone-house Station, on the Central 
Pacific Railroad, near which it left the river and, 
turning to the southeast, took the " Hasting's Cut- 
ott'" to Salt Lake Citj-. The entire length of this 
route was 750 miles. The mail was packed on the 
back of a mule, and the trip was made once a month 
each way. 

The actujil difficulties to be surmounted, and the 
dangers, real and fancied, that beset the whole line, 
are too numerous to recount, and beyond the powei-s 
of imagination to correctly paint. Hi the winter, 
upon that portion of the route which passes over the 
Sierra, the snow fell I'rom fifteen to twenty feet on a 
level, and in the canons and mountain gorges drifted 
to the depth of forty or fifty feet. In the spring the 
Carson and Humboldt Vallej's were sometimes flooded, 
and swimming was the onlj- means of passage, 
as there were no bridges. From Stone-house Sta- 
tion, east, the whole country was infested by bands 
of hostile Lidians. The Shoshone tribes were the 
worst, and gave the most trouble. They would skulk 
behind the rocks and watch day and night for the 
mail or emigrant train, lying in wait to kill and 
plunder. So great were the dangers from this 
source that it was found necessary to employ men to 
travel with and guard the mail. In the fall of 1851, 
Colonel Woodard, while in charge of the mail, and 
two young men, John Hawthorn and Oscar Fitzer, 
who were employed as guards, encountered a band 
of these hostile tribes at Gravel Point, near Stone- 
house Station, and were all three killed. Chorpen- 
ing, the surviving partner, continued to carry the 
mail till the fall of 1853, when this contract expired. 
He was then Joined by Ben. Hollidaj", and thej- 
obtained permission to carry the same with a four- 
mule team and covered wagons, which they con- 
tinued till Jinie, 1857, when the establishment of a 
tri-weekly lino of stages from Placcrville to Genoa, 
by J. B. Crandall, left them with the line only 
between Genoa and Salt Lake. Li 1857 a station 
keeper on their line b}- the name of Brown, while 
in the discharge of his duties as Station Agent, near 
Gravelly Ford, was killed by the Lidians. These 
hostile demonstrations on the jiart of straggling bands 
of Shoshones and Gosh-Utes continued till 18(J;], when 
more vigorous measures adoi)ted by General Connor 
put a stop to them. 


The difficulty of passing over the Sierra, occasioned 
by the deep snows of winter, was partly overcome by 
the use of snow-shoes. The mail was first carried 
across by this means in the sjiring of 1853, by Fred 
Bishop and a man named Drift, who alternated with 
each other in making the trips. They used what 
was called the basket form-, or Canadian jiattern of 
snow-shoe. George Pierce succeeded Bishop and 
Dritt, who in turn gave .way to John A. Thompson, 
better known as "Snow-shoe Thompson." He was a 
Norwegian by birth, and the first to introduce a 
Norwegian pattern of snow-shoo. A pair of them 
can be seen at the present time at the Orinsby House, 
in Carson City. They are ten feet long, turn u]) at the 
front end like skates, or runners, are about five or 
six inches wide and one and a half inches thick in 
the thickest part, and are made from the fir tree. 
They are the identical shoes upon which Thompson 
carried the mail between Genoa and Placcrville. 
The most wonderful stories are related of this man 
and his exploits on snow-shoes. 

This noted mountaineer was born at Upper Tins, 
Prestjrjold, Norway, in 1827. He came with his 
iiither to the United Slates in 1837, and settled in 
Illinois. In 1851 he crossed the plains to California, 
where he worked in different jjlaces for several years, 
sometimes mining, sonietimes farming. Hearing of 
the difficulties attending the transportation of mail 
across the Sierra on account of the great de])th of 
snovv, he determined one day to make a pair of snow- 
shoes such as he remembered to have seen when a 
boy in Norway. Having made the shoes, he went to 
Placcrville, near which jilace he could practice using 
them and test their utility. Finding that they 
worked to his entire satisfaction, he undertook to 
carry the mail across the Sierra on them, making his 
first trip in January, 185G. The distance, ninety 
miles from Placei'ville to Carson Valley, was passed 
over in three days, the return taking one less because 
of the down grade. Having made the e.xiieriniental 
journey successfully, Thompson continued to carry 
the mail between the two points all that winter. The 
weight of the mail bags was often from sixty to eighty 
pounds. When traveling across the mountains he 
never carried blankets or wore an overcoat. He 
traveled b}- night as well as by day when necessary. 
If he canii)ed for the night, he hunted the stump of 
a dead pine tree and having sot fire to it, he built 
him a bed of spruce boughs, on the snow, and lying 
down with his feet to the fiiv rested and slept 
soundly. Ho was never lost in the woods or the 
mountains. By observing the apjiearance of the 
trees and rocks he could tell which way was north 
and which south and direct his course accordingly. 
He helped to bring the material over the Sierra 
Nevada mountains on which the A'tifer/n-ise was first 
jirinted at Genoa in 1858. He was in the battle with 
the Pah-Utcs in Maj', IStiO, at I'yramid Lake, when 
the whites were routed with great slaughter. 



llo was a man of great physical slreiigth and 
endurance, and of such fortitude of mind and spirit, 
that he courted, rather than feared, the perils of 
the mountains when visited by their fiercest storms; 
and the wild rage of a midnight tempest could not 
disconcert or drive him from his path. But under 
the strain of the exhausting labors ho forced upon 
himself, his great strengtli gave out, and in the 
prime of life he was compelled to surrender to 
Nature's last summons. After a brief illness, at his 
residence in Diamond Valley, he dietl May 15, 1S7G. 
His remains were taken to Genoa I'or burial, lie 
left a wife and one child. 


In the summer of IS'il, Col. J. B. Crandall estab- 
lished a tri-weekly line of stages between Placerville 
and Genoa, ami carried the " Carson Valley express,' 
which was mauagc<l by Theodore F. Tracy. E. \V. 
Tracy was agent at I'lacerville, and Smith and Major 
Ormsby were agents at Genoa. In June of that 
year, T. F. Tracy, accompanied bj- J. B. Crandall, 
Mark Hopkins, J. 11. Neviit, \Vm. M. Cary, John 
M. Doi-sey, Theron Foster, C A. Sumner, ana M. I). 
Keiser, passed over the route, and established the 
following stations between Placerville and Genoa, 
viz.: Sportman's llali, Brockliss Bridge, Silver Creek, 
and Cary's Mill. This was called the •• Pioneer 
Stage Line," and connected at Genoa with the Chor- 
pening wagons to Salt fjake. 

OVERI,.\.ND M.\It,. 

The summer of 1858 marked a new era in mail 
and stage facilities. Crandall transferred the Pio- 
neer Stage Line to Lewis Brad}- & Co., who estab- 
lished a semi-weekly stage between Sacramento and 
Genoa. Major George Chorpening, brother of the 
enterprising and indomitable stage proprietor, had 
secured the United States mail contract from Placer- 
ville to Salt Lake City, which was to connect at that 
point with the regular overland mail to St. Joseph, 
Missouri. This ])ut new life into the route from Cur- 
son to Salt Lake, and raised Iresh hopes for the 
future of the region of country along its lino. The 
first coach under this arrangement left Placerville 
Juno 5, 1858. The tirst Overland mail stage, bring- 
ing letters and passengers from the East, arrived in 
Placerville, Monday-, July IDth of that year, at ten 
o'clock in the evening. The event CLiused universal 
rejoicing, and was celebrated with bonfires, speeches 
and other demonstrations of joy and gladness. W. 
M. Cary's new, and lor those days elegant, hotel was 
illuminated, and the assembled multitudes were 
addressed by G. D. Hall, 1). K. Newell and S. W. 
Sanderson. Dr. Pettit sent up a beautiful balloon in 
honor of the occasion. The Overland mail and stage 
lino was now considered permanently established, 
and in the hands of thoroughl}- reliable and com- 
petent men. Yet the many dillicullies and dangers 
attending its passage made it necessary to send 
special messengers a portion of the way to guard 

the mail and passengers. Messrs. Hightmire and 
Lindsay, most worthy and etficient gentlemen, 
were emploj'od to accompany the mail-coaches 
as far as the Big Meadows, near the Sink of the 
Humboldt, and return with the westward bound 
stage. On their return, July 13, 1858, they reported 
having met, on the third of July, five emigrants who 
came through trom Iowa that season, at the Sink of 
the Humboldt, who took the Truckee route for Cali- 
fornia. They had crossed the country on pack mules, 
and according to a rc|)orl published in the Mounfain 
Democrat of Placerville, at that date, they overlook 
General Harney and troo])S on the Sweetwater in 
the Hock}' Mountains, en route for Salt Lake Citj", 
who gave them perenitory orders notto])ass through 
ihe Mormon countrj", which they had complied with 
by going to the norlh of the City of the Saints. They 
further stated that in Hot Spring Valley they over- 
took a train consisting of sixteen Mormon families 
(most of whom were women), hastening on to Carson 
Valley. These families were, they said, in perpetual 
dread of being pursued and massacred by the Salt 
Lake Mormons, and were making almost super- 
human eft'orts to widen the distance between them- 
selves and the sanguinar}- saints. 

On the fifth of September, of the same year, Mr. 
Lindsay returned with the overland mail-coach, 
having a portion of the Salt Lake mail of August 
llJlh, also the mail which left there August 23d. Ho 
reported an attack upon the mail party, August 20th, 
by the Shoshone Indians, and the destruction of 
their wagon and part of the tnail matter. It appeal's, 
from the account given at the time by the Jfoantain 
Denwrat. that on the night of August 20th, while 
encamped eight miles below the tirst crossing of the 
Humboldt, the mail party of August IGth wore sur- 
rounded by a largo body of Shoshone Indians, who, 
by }-elling and hooting, succeeded in stampeding 
and driving oft' the stage animals. May field, tho 
conductor, and his assistants, remained during tho 
night to guard the wagon, but in the morning, find- 
ing that the Indians had gathered in great numbers, 
they determined to abandon everything except their 
arms and ammunition, and take to the mountains for 
personal safet}-. The mail-coach was afterwards 
found, literally torn to atoms; and the mail-bags 
were ripped open, and tho letters scattered in every 
direction. These were i)icked u|) and taken to 
Placerville, by Mr. Lindsay. About this time it 
was reported that General Hunt lia<l Icit Salt Lake 
City to explore a new stage route, west of trooso 
Creek, which was thought to be 150 miles shorter 
than the one then traveled. The overland stage, 
which arrived September 20, 1858, with mail and 
passengers I'rom Salt Lake and St. Joseph, Missouri, 
brought tho welcome intelligence that the United 
States troops had been ordered forward from Utah, 
to protect the mail and emigrants. October 13th, the 
overland mail reached tho west end of the route on 
horseback, in advance of the stage, which bad been 



delayed. It brought tho news tliat ( Ji'iieral limit 
and Dr. Forney, tho Indian Agoiit in Utah, had 
rouc-heil (Jravell}- Ford, and were snjourning there 
with tho Sboshonos. 

A settlement having been effected, for tho time 
being, with tho hostiles of that tribe, the mails were 
more regular and made better time, and tho business 
■was greatly inereased. In January, 1S50, the over- 
lan<l stage brought the President's message from Salt 
Lako in seventeen days. Letters sent by the over- 
land mail reached their destination in tho East ten 
days in advance of tho ocean steamer, and as a stage 
left once a week this line began to be the more 
po|iular and more generally ]>atronized by the 

April 2:i, IS.')!), there were .")(!() jiouiids of mail 
8bi|)|>ed by the East bound stage, the largest amount 
ever before taken at one time. In June of this year, [ 
Captain Simpson, of the United States To])ograiih- 
ical Engitieers, surveyed a new route from (^anip 
Floyd to Genoa, which it was claimed would shorten 
the distance about :!l)(l miles. Tho distance from 
Camp Floyd, by the oM Humboldt route to Crenoa, 
was reported to be 8.")4 miles, lly'the Chorpening 
route through Ruby Valley about TilO miles, and by 
the .Simpson survey .")(i.") miles. 

In September the companj- cut hay ami made the 
necessary pre]iarations to move down on to (he ('en- 
tral or Simpson route, which ihey did the winter 
following. In O(^tober, 18.")9, Chorpening's agents 
having failed to call for the overland mail at Placer- j 
ville, it was handed over to Ijcwis Brady & Co., 
proprietors of the Pioneer Stage, who carried it till 
March, IStiO, when it was returned to the charge of 
Chorpening, ho being required to carry it with four- 
horse teams. In October, 18.j9, J. A. Thompson and- 
Judge Child started a now stage lino to run tri- 
weekly botweon Placervilio and tionoa. They run 
with coaches from Placervilio to Strawberry Vallej', 
and from there to ('arson Vallo}^ they used sleighs, 
and thus kej)! the line ojien all winter. For this 
purpose they built two tine sleighs, with three seals 
each, in December, 'ii<')'.), which were the first sleighs 
ever used on this mountain road. In the spring of 
1860 Louis JIcLane purchased the "Pioneer Stage 
Line" between Placervilio and Cienoa, which ho 
transferred in tho year 18G1 to Wells, Fargo & Co., 
who then run the entire route to .Salt Lake. In the 
summer of ]8(;o A. J. Phodos started an o]>posilion 
stage line between Placervilio and Carson City via 
Genoa. He used six-horse coaches, made daily trips 
in from ton to twelve hours and reduced the fare 
from fortj- dollars to twenty dollars. In the sum- 
mer of 18(J2 he sold out to McLano, binding himself 
not to start another opposition lino. 


In the spring of 18(;() the celebrated Pony E.vpresa 
was established by Jones, Pussel & Co. W. W. Finney 
as agent, organized tho line between Sacramento and 

Salt Lake. Tho express came from San Francisco 
by steamer to Sacramento, and was there immedi- 
ately taken by a man on horseback. Tho old emi- 
grant route was followed across tho Sierra till tho 
valley of the Carson was reached, when the Simpson 
route was adopted. This led to the east, through 
tho desert in Churchill County, crossing the Peoso 
River at Jacobsville; thence northeast to I'liliy Valley 
and thence southeast, passing out through Deep 
Crock and around the south end of Great Salt Lake 
to Salt Ijako City. The time between Sacramento 
and Salt Lake by tho Pony Ex])ros8 was three and 
one-half da3's — relay stations every twenty-five 
miles. One rider covered sovonty-fivo miles, and ho 
was given but two minutes at each station passed. 
Tho average I'ate of travel was nine miles ]ier hour. 
Tho schedule time from New York to San Francisco 
was thirteen days, via St. Joseph, Missouri. The first 
express left Sacramento April l. 1S()II, at 2: 4.") p. m., 
and carried fiftv-six letters from San Francisco, 
thirtetn from Sacramento, and one from Placervilio 
at five dollars jicr letter. Tho first express from 
New York arrived A])ril l.'i. lS(i(l, bringing eigh( let- 
ters. The time from St. .losejih was ten days. The 
third trip of the ox])rcss brought news of the result 
of the prize fight in London between lloenan and 
Sayers. Also of tho adjournment of the Democratic 
National Convonti'in at Charleston, South Carolina, 
to meet in Baltimore tho eighteenth of June follow- 
ing, as there had been no agreement upon a Presi- 
dential candidate. The quickest time on record 
made by tho Pony Express was with President Lin- 
coln's first message. The time taken in bringing it 
from St. Joseph, Missouri, to. Carson City, a distance 
of 1,780 miles, was five days and eighteen hours. It 
was done with double sets of horses, /. e., with fresh 
horses between stations. 


The year following the establishment of the Pony 
Express, the Southern Daily Overland Mail, which 
had been established in 185!! through northern Texas 
to California was transferred to tho Central or Simpson 
route, its regular trips commencing on the first of 
July, 18(11. The reason of this transfer was the 
anticipated disturbances along the southern line, 
C0iise(iuent u])on the war of the JJebellion. The 
trans-continental telegra])h was also built along this 
line. Tho work of constructing it was commenced 
in 1850, jiushed rapidlj- forward in 1S(!0 and 18(!1, 
and com]iloted tho twenty-second of Se])tembcr of 
tho latter year. Previous (o the establishment of 
the whole line, that portion between Placervilio and 
Virginia City was built and operated by the '• Pla- 
cervilio and Humboldt Tolcgra[)h Company," and was 
known as " Bee's (Jrapcvino Line," having been jtro- 
jected and built by Col. F. A. Bee. (3ver the Sierra 
the wire was attached to the trees, and their sway- 
ing b}- the wind, caused tho wire to stretch, until, in 
many places, it lay along the ground between the 



points of Bui)|)ort. It is Haid that teamsters would 
sometimes cut out jiiccos of the line and use it in 
repairing the wheels of their wagons. One teamster 
being remonstrated with for this, said ho supposed 
the wire had been ]>laced there by the Toll-road Com- 
pany to be used for that purpose. In consequence 
of these breaks, messages were often delayed. If 
there were important messages |)assing ihrougli and 
the line was broken the message would bo transferred 
to the Pony Express, and in this way the telegraph 
was often beaten into Sacraniento by tiio ))OTiy rider. 
Tills was the case with President Lincoln's tirsl mes- 
sage and the news of his first election. 

From the date of the removal of the Southern Over- 
land -Mail to the Central route, and the establishment 
of the Daily Stage line, the mail facilities and means 
of transportation into and through the Territory be- 
gan to improve rapidly. New roads were constructed 
and the old ones were improved, so that heavj^ 
loads of merchandise could be transported and faster 
time made over them. Two toll-roads were built 
across the Sierra ; one called the Placerville, and llie 
other the Dutch Flat, or Donner Lake route. These 
were wide enough so that teams could pass in the 
narrowest places. The overland stage run with great 
regularity, and its business was conducted with 
promptness and dispatch. 

The discovery of silver and the development of 
the mines at Virginia City, gave rise to a raj)id in- 
crease of trade, and other and competing lines of 
stages were started. Quick trips from Virginia City 
were often required to be made by parties on special 
business to Sacramento, and they were sometimes 
made in an incredibly short time. On the twentieth 
of Februar}-, 1864, the Pioneer line is reported to 
have made the trip in five minutes less than twenty- 
four hours. The fastest time recorded was on Juno 
20, 1804, when the Larue lino is reported to have 
made the trip over the mountains, from Virginia City 
to Sacramento, in twelve hours and twenty-three 
minutes, canying the mail and William M. Lent, 
John Skac, and S. Cook, as passengers, they having 
chartered the coach. 

So great and so regular was the inci'oase of busi- 
ness and travel by the Overland stage, that the com- 
pany was eomi)ellod, from time to time, to add new 
stations, and increase the number of horses and 
coaches, till, in the spring of 18()5, thej' had, between 
Virginia City and Austin, a distance of one hundred 
and eighty miles, thirteen stations, eight drivers, sev- 
enty-eight horses, and fifteen mud-wagons and 
coaches. Between Austin and Salt Lake, there were 
thirty-six stations, si.xty wagons, one hiindi'ed and 
ninety horses, and twenty-two drivers — distance from 
Virginia City five hundred and fifty miles. This was 
called the Western Division, and was owned by the 
Overland Mail and Stage Company. The distance 
from Salt Lake to the eastern terminus on tlie Mis- 
souri Kiver was 1,220 miles, termed the Eastern Di- 

vision, was owned by a New York company, and 
managed by Ben Holladay. 


In consequence of the exorbitant prices demanded 
by the Mormons for hay, grain, and all kinds of pro- 
visions, together with the groat expense of trans])or- 
tation, the Overland Stage Company determined to 
make the experiment of raising their own fodder, 
and selected IJuby Vallej' as the best place for this 
purpose. The success of the enterprise had so far 
developed its advantages, that in the spring of 1865 
thej' emj)lo3-ed one hundred men, thirty plows, 
ninety yoke of oxen, and sowed 90,000 pounds of 

As a result they harvested 8,.")75 bushels of barley, 
8,745 bushels of oats, 1,655 bushels of potatoes, 1.854 
bushels of turnips, 1,000 bushels of carrots, and sev- 
enty-eight bushels of beets. Theirs was the first 
experiment and the beginning of farming in eastern 


The first movement towards an Overland Tele- 
graph line was made at Placerville in 1S5S, by the 
organization of the Placerville and Humboldt Tele- 
graph Company. Tho first pole was erected at 
Placerville Julj- 4, 1858, and tho line built to Oonoa 
that fall, and extended to Carson City in the spring 
of 1859, and to Virginia City in 1860. It was not 
completed to Salt Lake till tho fall of ISGl. Tho 
line to Virginia City had been constructed ijj- private 
means, and frequent attempts had been made to 
secure Slate and National aid to extend it, but with- 
out avail. However, in Juno, 1860, Congress passed 
an Act, directing tho Secretary of the Treasury to 
advertise for sealed proposals for the " use by the 
Government " of a lino or linos of tolograi)h, to be 
constructed within two years from July 31, 1860, 
from some point on the west lino of Missouri to San 
Francisco, for a jjoriod of ton j^cars, and to award 
the contract to the lowest bidder, provided ho did 
not require more than §40,0(10 per j-ear. By a con- 
cert of action between all tlie Pacific Coast companies, 
they availed themselves of this proffered assistance, 
and ajiplied it to the construction of one through line. 
For this purpose tho Overland Telegraph Company 
was organized, with a capital of Sl,2,")0,000. The 
eastern end of the line, from Salt Lake to Omaha, 
was constructed under tho supervision of Mr. Edward 
Creighton ; from Salt Lake to IJuby Valley, under 
tho su))orvision of James Street ; from Jiuljy Valley 
to Carson, by J. M. Hubbard. The General Super- 
intendent from Placerville to Salt Lake, was Horace 
W. Carpontior, and Mr. James CJamble liad general 
supervision of tho whole line. Thus arranged and 
divided up, tho work of construction commenced. 
On the twenty-seventh day of May, 1861, operations 
were inaugurated by Mr. Gamble, who started the 
construction outfit, consisting of a train of thirty 
wagons, from Sacramento, loaded with wire, insula- 




tors, provisions, etc. — also eeveral luindrod head of 
oxoii, horses, and mules. Although late in the season, 
there was no stoppage for storms or bad roads, and 
on the twenty-second daj- of September, a few daj's 
less than four months from its commencement, this 
great enterprise was completed, and connection at 
Salt Lake was made with the eastern lino. Upon 
that day was transmitted over the wires the news of 
the Union defeat at Ball's Bluff, Viri^inia, and the 
death of Col. E. D. Baker, the United .Stales Senator 
from Oregon, This line was built along the Central 
route through Nevada, and was operated in connec- 
tion with the Overland Stage and .Mail line till the 
completion of the Overland Railroad, May 13, 1869, 
when they were both drawn off and that route aban- 


The great Overland Mail and Stage line was with- 
drawn from its route upon the comi)lelion of the Over- 
land Railroad, still there were numerous lines in the 
interior, generally well equipped and conducted with 
great spirit, enter]>rise and energy, and by reason of 
the growth and gradual development of the State, 
many of like character have been added since. All 
the towns and mining camps of importance in the 
State, not on railroa<l lines, and now sup])lied with 
good mail facilities, are herewith enumerated, to- 
gether with their distances from each other and from 
the nearest railroad station. 

Commencing with lieno, on the Central Pacific 
Railroad, near the west line of the State, there are 
at present two dailj' stage lines (t'xcei)t Sunday-) run- 
ning from that station to the north anil northwest. 
One leads back northwesterly into California ilii-ough 
Phimas and Lassen Counties toSusanville, anil is used 
most of tiie year in distributing the mails to those 
counties, on account of the deep snows that fall upon 
the mountains to the west. To Pocville or Peavine Dis- 
trict, Nevada, is ten miles, and to Junction in Cali- 
fornia is ten more. The other line extends north- 
erljr through Roop County to Fort Bidwell, in Modoc 
County, California, ISt miles, passing through Pyra- 
mid, thirty miles from Reno; thence thirty-five miles 
to Sheephead; thence twenty-seven miles to Ikitlalo 
Meadow; thence to the northwest into Calif'oi'uia by 
Eaglesville, Cedarville, and Jjake City to Fort Bid- 
well; thence across to Willow Ranch, thirteen miles 
to the west. 

From Hye Patch on the CJentral Pacific Railroad 
Kouthwest to Vanderwater fourteen miles, and thence 
ten miles to Unionvillo, is a tri-wooklj'^ mail, and 
twice a week from Mill City to Dun (ilen, nine miles. 

From Winnemucca iioilli there are two daily lines 
(except Sunday), One an important lino carrying 
the Idaho mail, runs to Willow Creek, fiCty-four 
miles; thence twenty-five miles to Fort McDerniitt, 
and thence on to Boise City in Idaho. The other 
runs to Willow Point, twenty-five miles; thence to 
Paradise Valley, twenty-one miles; aud thence to 
Spring City, twelve miles. 

From Battle Mountain on the Central Pacific Rail- 
road, a daily line (except Sun<lay) runs to Tuscarora, 
sixtj'-eight miles; thence to Cornucopia, twentj--five 
miles; thence to White Ro.'k, eighteen miles, thence 
to Mountain City, twenty-eight miles. From Cornu- 
copia to Columbia, twenty miles, is a tri-weekly line. 
South from Battle Mountain is a tri-wcekly line to 
Lewis, twelve miles. 

From KIko to Tuscarora, fifty-nine miles, there is a 
daily mail and stage line, connecting with the Battle 
Mountain lino to Mountain City. 

From Palisade on the Central Pacific Railroad, to 
Bullion, fourteen miles, is a tri-weekly. 

From Elko south to Eureka, a weekly- line runs 

! through Mound Valky and Dry Creek, thirty-two 

miles; thence twenty miles to Huntington; thence 

twenty -six miles to Cold Creek; thence via Diamond 

to Eureka, thirty-seven miles. 

From Eureka to Belmont is a daily stage (except 
Sundaj-) running to More}-, eight}' miles; thence to 
Hot Ci'cek, sixteen miles; thence to Tybo, twelve 
and one-half miles; and thence thirtj'-five miles to 
Belmont. From Morcy to Duckwater, forty-four 
miles, the stage runs once a week. 

From Al]iha, on the Eureka and Palisade railroad 
to Mineral Ilill, eight miles, is a daily stage. 

Between Eureka and Pioche is a tri-weckl}- line, 
running fii'st to Pinto, seven and one-half miles; thence 
to Hamilton, thirty-five and one-half miles; thence 
to Ely, forty-five miles; thence to Ward, seventeen 
miles; thence to Bristol, eightj'-five miles; thence to 
Royal Cit}', ten miles, and to Pioche, fitleen miles, 
making the whole line 215 miles. 

There is a tri-weekly mailf'rom Hamilton to Ebcr- 
hardt, five miles distant, and to Treasure City, three 

From Wells to Hamilton is a tri-weekly lino, run- 
ning through Elaine, twentj'-eight miles; thence to 
Spruce Mountain, thirty miles; thence to Cherry 
Creek, fifty-two miles; thence to .Schcllbourne, sixteen 
miles; thence to Hamilton, ninety miles, making the 
whole line 2IG miles. 

From Spruce Mountain to Arthur, twenty-five 
miles, and thence to Ruby Vallc}-, seven miles, is a 
weeklj- mail. 

From Pioche to Mineral Park in Arizona, 22'J miles, 
is a tri-weekly line, running first to St. Josei>h, 117 
miles; thence to .St. Thomas, twelve miles; and thence 
100 miles to Mineral Park, The line at Mineral Park 
is connected with a line Irom there along the Colo- 
rado River to Yuma IJ.'U! miles. 

A daily stage runs from Piorlie to Bullionville, 
twelve miles; thence to Panaca, twn miles; thence to 
Clover Valley, iwenly-eight miles, and thence east to 
connect with the Utah Southern Railroad. 

From Pioche to lliko, sixt^'-six miles, the stage 
runs twice a week. 

A tri-weekly mail runs from Osceola east and con- 
nects with the Utah Southern at Frisco. 



From Austin, the southern terminua of the Nevada 
Central Railroad, a tri-woekly mail goes southwest 
to lone Cily, til'ly-fis-e miles; thence to Grantville, ten 
miles, and to Candalaria, seventy miles. Also, from 
Austin southwest to Junction, thirtj' miles, thence to 
Pine Creek, forty-two miles, and to Belmont, eighteen 
miles, is a tri-weekly mail. • 

From Wadsworth,on the Central Pacific Eailroad, 
a tri-wcekl}- mail goes southeasterly to Saint Clair, 
thirt3--two miles; thence to Stillwater, twent3--two 
miles; thence to Ellsworth, seventy-five miles; thence 
to Downej-vilie, eleven miles; thence to (frantville, 
twenty-eight miles; thence to San Antonio, forty- 
seven and one-half miles, and to Belmont, thirty-two 
and one-half miles, making the whole line 248 miles. 

From Daj-ton a tri weekly mail runs to Welling- 
ton, through Fort Churchill, twenty-two miles; thence 
to Wabuska, twenty miles; thence to Mason Valley, 
si.xtoen miles; thonce to Wellington, fourteen miles. 

From Mason \'alley to Aurora a tri-weekly mail 
goes via Cambridge, twenty-five miles; thence to 
Wai'hington, fourteen miles, and thence to Aurora, 
twent3'-one miles. 

From Aurora a daily mail (except Sundaj-) goes 
southeasterl}' to Columbus, passing througli Marietta, 
fiftj' miles; thence to Belleville, ten miles; thence to i 
Candalaria; eightmiles; to Metallic, one and a quarter 
miles, and to Columbus seven miles be^-ond. Thence 
a stage goes twice a week to .Silver Peak, thirty-six 
and one-half miles; thence to Lida*, twenty-three and 
one-half miles, and turning north to Montezuma, 
twenty-five miles. 

From Aurora a daily mail goes to Bodie, in Cali- 
fornia, twelve miles. Also, a daily mail goes from 
Aurora south into California, through Mono and 
Jnyo Counties, su))]i!ying numerous ])ost-ntfices and 
connecting with the Southern Pacific Jiuilroad at 

From Carson City a daily stage runs to Glenbrook, 
fourteen miles. Also, from Carson a daily stage 
runs to Aurora, jiassing through Genoa, thirteen 
miles; thence to Sjii'ague, twent^'-two miles; thence to 
Walker liiver, seventeen miles; thence to Welling- 
ton, five miles; thence to Pino Grove, twenty-five 
miles; thence to JJockland, five miles; thence to 
Sweetwater, twenty miles; thence to Elbow, ten miles, 
and to Aurora, seventeen miles. 

From Walker River to Coleville, twenty miles, is 
a weekl}' mail. 

From Genoa to Monitor and Silver Mountain in 
California, is a triweekly mail, going to Sheridan, 
eight miles; thence to Woodford, ten miles; thence to 
Markleeville, seven miles, and to Monitor and Silver 
Mountain, six miles. Between several points the 
mail is carried by a special supply line. This is the 
ease iietween Lovelock and .Salinas, forty-five miles; 
between K\\n> and liamoile, eighteen miles; between 
Battle Mountain and J$ailey, twenty-two miles; 
between Schellbourne and Annini, twentj- miles; 
between Fair Play and Buby Valley, twenty-five 

miles; between Junction and Twin River, thirty-one 
miles; and between Lida and Gold Mountain, twelve 

Such is the condition of the mail and stage ser- 
vice in 1881; changing as mining towns grow into 
importance or decline, and as railroads are extended. 

The Carson and Colorado Railroad will undoubt- 
edly produce the most immediate change in the lines 
running southeasterlj- from Car.son, making Haw- 
thorne, or other towns as the road is extended, the 
distributing, or initial point of routes. 

In the historj- of Nevada, the mail and express 
lines have borne an important part. Penetrating the 
wilderness they have followed close upon the foot- 
ste])s of the prospector, rendering aid and comfort in 
the development of the country. Wherever the 
miners made a camp the stage was quick to go. In 
the excitement of new discoveries of mines a rush of 
]ieople would follow, a stage line would be put on, a 
mail route petitioned for, and post-oftices established. 
The National Government was generous in granting 
subsidies oi- letting contracts for carrj-ing the mail, 
and thus aided materially in maintaining lines where 
the income was small and the necessity for such 
accommodation to important enterprises was great. 
This generosity led to great abuses, and soon lines 
were conducted disgraceful Ij' to enterprise, but gen- 
erally Ibej- were an honor to their proprietors. 


Ill the rapid growth and suililcii collapse of some 
mining towns, apjilicatioiis for ))ost-otfices have been 
made, which going through the "circumlocution 
office " of the de[)arlments at Washington would bo 
granted about the time the last tent had been folded 
and removed. There was another jiower, however, 
an institution peculiar to the Pacific Coast, which 
has no such "office"' but stood ever read\' on the 
frontier, and wherever the miner pitched his tent, 
however broad the tlesert or rugged the cafion, if 
letters were to be sent or bullion carried, there went 
the messenger with his pouch and strong box. This 
institution was Wells, Fargo & Co.'s express, always 
in the van of pioneers, readj- with the rush to go, 
serving its ])urposo and reaping its reward, then 
retiring as business declined, its facilities and accom- 
modation always corresponding with the times. This 
com))any rendered the pioneers needed service, for 
which it is held in grateful remembrance. So prompt 
and faithful were its messengers in the deliver}' of 
letters, that for several years the express did the 
princi])al carrying business, charging but two to 
seven cents in addition to the Unitetl .States postage. 
In addition the company transjjorted all the bullion 
of the country, keeping such a record of its produc- 
tion that its statistics have become authority suj)er- 
seding all others. 


George Thomas Marye. 

GEoK(iE TiKiMAs Marve, OF, 118 he usnuUy signs his 
name, (reo. T. Maiye.was born on the twenty-seventh 
of November 1817, near the little town of Luray, 
Pago County, Virginia. This is one of the most 
lovelj^ sections of the Shenandoah ^'alleJ% and has 
become famous for its romantic scenery and wonder- 
ful caverns. 

The familj- of the Maryes is of Huguenot origin, ! 
and is one of the oldest in the State of Virginia. 
The first of the name, and the founder of the family 
in America, was James Marye, a clergyman of the 
Reformed Church of France, in the Province of Nor- 
mandy, lie, like most of bis co-religionists, was 
driven from France by the persecutions following the ; 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1C8."). His 
departure from his native country was attended 
with many dangers and narrow escapes, and his 
adventures, and those of other Huguenots who 
subsequently eanie with him to this country, form 
the basis of a very interesting story called " The ! 
Huguenot's Sword," published in the April number of 
Harper's Magazine for 1857. He was fortunate in 
avoiding arrest, and found refuge in London, where 
he remained for several years. While there he mar- 
ried Miss Letitia Staige, an English, lady, who was 
his faithful companion throughout life, and who ac- 
companied him on his voj^ago to his new homo in 
what was then the distant Colony of Virginia. 

In IGIU or l(i02 the British Crown made a grant 
of lands on the James lliver to a number of French 
Huguenot refugees who had fled to England. One of 
the grantees was James Marye, and among them 
were the Meanx, the Fontaines, the Fiournoys, the 
Maurys, the d'Aubignes (or, as the name is now 
written, the Dabnoys), and others whoso descendants 
are still among the prominent citizens of Virginia. 
They came to this country in a body and founded the 
town, or settlement, of Monacan in Powhatan County. 
James Marye came with them as the minister of the 
band of colonists, and continued to reside at Mona- 
can in that capacity for manj^ years. Hishoj) Meade 
in his work on the "Old Families and Cluirches of 
Virginia" gives an interesting account of the estab- 
lishment of the church at Monacan, and of James 
Marye's ministry there, and also of the subsequent 
ministry- of himself and son, also called James, at 
Fredericksburg in Spottsylvania. James the elder, 
as we read in the Rev. Philip Slaughter's full and 
complete historj- of St. George's Parish, removed 
from Monacan to Fredericksburg in 1709, at the call 
of the vestry of St. George's Parish, which at that 

time embraced all of Spottsj-lvania County. He con- 
tinued to reside at Fredericksburg as Rector of St. 
George's until his death, which occurred in 1730 at 
the old family homestead in the outskirts of the 
town, on one of the hills overlooking it and the 
neighboring river. The hill, with the house that 
crowns it, is called Marye's Heights, and was the 
scene of some of the bloodiest engagements of the 
war of secession, when the National forces under 
Burnside and Hooker, undertook to capture Fred- 
ericksburg. It still belongs to the Fredericksburg 
branch of the Slarye familj-. One of the sons of tho 
younger James, who succeeded his father as Rector 
of St. George's, named Pierre, left Fredericksburg, and 
settled at Culpeper Court House, where he mar- 
ried Miss Eleanor (ireen, daughter of Col. William 
Green, of Culpeper, on the ^ixth of December, 
177.'>. Ho had several children, and among them 
William Staige, the father of tho subject of this 

William Staige Marj'c was born on the fifteenth 
of February, 1775, and while still a youth left his 
father's home and crossed the Blue Ridge Mount- 
ains into that portion of the Shenandoah Valley 
which has since been made Page County, and bo- 
came one of tho early pioneers of that portion of 
the country. On tho sixth, of May, 1802, ho mar- 
ried Maiy Kuffner, the daughter of Peter Ruffner, 
whose family were the original grantees from the 
Colonial Government of all tho lands along tho 
Hawksbill, between the Massanettan range of 
mountains and the Blue Ridge. Some time after 
his marriage, William Staige Marye founded and 
laid out the town of Luray, at a point on the Hawks- 
bill, which is a small tributar}- of the Shenandoah 
River, on the direct road from the gap through 
the Massanettan Mountains to the gap through tho 
Blue Ridge. Here he established himself with his 
family and engaged in a general merchaniiise busi- 
ness, for a long time being tho only merchant, and 
afterwards the |>riiu-i|>al one in that jiortion of tho 
country. He was a man of broad and progressive 
views, and was the recognized leader among his 
neighbors in all matters of public concern: and 
when in the course of time, tho vallej- became some- 
what more populous, and Luray had grown to tho 
dimensions of a repectablo little village, he procured 
the |)assage of an Act of tho Legislature of the State 
segregating the valley between tho Massenattan 
and Blue Ridge from tho remainder of Shenandoah 
County, to which it had previously belonged and 


from which it had always been divided by natural 
barriers, and creating a new countj', which, in 
honor of his friend Mr. Page, then Governor of 
the State, he called Page County; and ho also 
had Luray made the county seat, the Federal Gov- 
ernment having, some time before, at his solici- 
tation, established a post-office there. After accumu- 
lating a competencj', Mr. Marye withdrew from 
active business and resided altogether on his farm, 
called the Hillside Farm, on the banks of the Hawks- 
bill in the neighborhood of Luray. 

Here the subject of this sketch and most of his 
other children, of whom he had fifteen, were born, 
and here he spent the last years of his life in the midst 
of literary pleasures and in the enjoyment of the 
respect of his fcUow-citizcns, for. although he never 
held or sought for political office, his influence in 
shaping the course of public events in his county 
was paramount, and his memory is held in affection- 
ate esteem by his neighbors of I'age Valley, and their 
children down to this day. From here, too, he car- 
ried on a correspondence with his son George after 
the latter had gone to Baltimore, which, while it could 
not fail to be of the utmost benefit in the intellectual 
and moral development of his son, does honor to his 
own qualities of head and heart, and is an evidence 
of his rare and extensive attainments as a scholar and 

Mr. Marye attended the school of Mr. Thomas at 
Luray until the age of fourteen or fifteen j'ears, 
when, at his own request, his father placed him in 
the store of Messrs. Thomas AUmand & Co., who 
were his successors in his former business at Luray. 
Here Mr. Marye received a thorough business train- 
ing, and he attributes much of his success in after 
life to the habits of industry and sobrietj- that he 
acquired during this period. He remained with 
Allmand & Co., several years, but approaching man- 
hood brought with it a desire for a wider field, and 
leaving his native valley, he went to Baltimore which 
was then, as now, a great place for ambitious young 

Mr. Marye's eminently legal cast of mind, his clear, 
sound judgment and powers of close, logical reason- 
ing, would have admirably fitted him for the |)ractico 
of the law, and it has often been a subject of com- 
ment and surprise among his friends that he did not 
adopt that profession. But his father's numerous 
family made it difficult for him to give his son any 
pecuniarj' assistance, and his own disinclination to 
receive any aid and his energetic disposition led him 
to prefer the more active pursuits of commercial life. 

Ho first found emploj-ment in Baltimore as clerk 
in the dry goods house of Hart & Co., Itcginniiig as 
junior, but his industry and business ca])acity soon 
caused his promotion, and at the time of his marriage 
and before leaving his om])loyors he had the respon- 
sible position of head clerk in the house. On the thir- 
teenth of July, 1839, he married Miss Helen Tucker, 
daughter of William A. Tucker, Esq., President of the 

Baltimore Fire Insurance Company, a Director in sev- 
eral of the banks of the citj-, and one of the original 
stockholders of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
After his marriage he formed a co-partnership with 
Messrs. Marriot and Hardestj-, and under the firm 
name of Marriot, Hardesty & Marye, he carried on a 
large dry goods business, having an extensive con- 
nection in the South and West. 

In 1849, Marshall's famous discovery was attract- 
ing the attention of the world to the fai'-off shores 
of the Pacific, and Mr. Marye, who had inherited, in 
an increased degree, the pioneer energy of his father, 
was one of the first to join the adventurous band 
who were everj'where starting out from the older 
States in quest of the riches of the new El Dorado. 
He left Baltimore in the early summer, and arrived 
in San Francisco on the steamer Panama, in 
August, 1849. 

Bather an amusing incident is told as occurring 
on the way out. It was at a time when the first 
vigorous attacks were beginning to be made on the 
institution of negro slavery in the South, and the 
discussion of the subject aroused the strongest pas- 
sions and prejudices of men. Jlr. Marye, not un- 
naturally, entertained the same feelings as were well 
nigh universal throughout the Southern States, and 
they were shared by nearly all the passengers on 
the steamer, but not hy all. Among the few who 
held opposite opinions, and perhaps the onlj' one 
who bad the hardihood to express them freely, was 
William Sherman, who has since become a prom- 
inent citizen of San Francisco. At that time he was 
quite a young man, fresh from the New England 
States, and had not yet learned the necessity of 
keeping a guard upon himself in discussing this ex- 
citing topic. The ardor of his convictions, and the 
freedom with which he gave expression to them, 
led to frequent discussions, and the boldness of his 
utterances gave grave offense to some of the more 
extreme and intolerant of the pro-slavery men, and 
some of them even muttered threats of personal 
violence against the Abolitionist. Mr. Marye, be- 
tween Avhom and Mr. Sherman a warm friendship 
had sprung up, and who had heard some of these 
angry exj)ressions, drew Mr. .Sherman aside and told 
him that it would bo well to use greater moderation 
in discussing the slavery question, as man}' of the 
passengers had never heard such sentiments before, 
and were much exasperated by them. 'Why," said 
he, "some of those fellows may throw you over- 

Mr. Sherman thanked him, and recognized the 
soundness of the advice, and the voyage came to an 
end without any further incident. 

But a number of j'oars afterwards, when the war 
had broken out between the Slates, and Mr. Marye, 
although always a true patriot and lover of his 
country, was inclined to think that the attempt to 
coerce the South was unconstitutional and wrong, 
he several times gave expression to his views in his 


asual vigorous and unequivocal manner. On one 
such occasion, .Mr. Sberinan, who hajipenod to be 
present, took him aside, and said: ''Marye, whatever 
you maj- thinl<, it would be prudent to use greater 
moderation in the exjiression of your sentiments or 
some of these fellows maj' hang you to a lamp post." 

Mr. Maryo, who has a good memory', recognized 
the advice, and roadilj' acknowledged its point. 

After his arrival in San Francisco, ^Ir. ilarye at 
once engaged in a variety of j)ioneer work. lie 
dealt largely in real estate, and built the first house 
to the east of Davis Street. It was built at the 
southeast corner of J)avi8 and Sacramento Streets, 
on piles, in twenty feet of water. It was occupied 
as a ship chandler's, and the ships used to come 
right up alongside of the building for their supplies. 

When Mr. Marye arrived in San Francisco there 
were no wharves in the eitj', and the steamer that 
he was on cast anchor in the bay ofl' Clark's Point, 
and the passengers went ashore in boats. His 
attention, therefore, was carlj' drawn to the neces- 
sity of wharf accommodations for the shipping in 
the harbor, and, during the year of 1850, he built 
the Sacramento Street wharf, which ran from the 
intersection of Davis and Sacramento Streets, fol- 
lowing in the line of Sacramento Street, a distance 
of 800 feet, into the deep waters of the bay. This 
was for a long time one of the principal wharves of 
the city, and was a very lucrative piece of property; 
but after the sale of the citj- slip property its utility 
as a wharf was destroyed, and with it its value; and 
now, where the largest sea-going vessels used to 
come and load and unload, it is all dry land, covered 
with well paved streets and large brick and iron 

After he had built the Sacramento Street Wharf, 
Mr. Marye went to Stockton, and built the first 
wharf in that city. It was built under contract 
with the munici))al authorities, that he should pay 
himself out of the first tolls to be collected, and then 
turn it over to the city. The arrangement was 
mutually satisfactory- and profitable, and after he 
had received paj-ment he delivered it to the munici- 
pal Government, who still hold it. 

When he first started for California he sent at the 
same time, around the Horn, a number of articles, 
in the selection of which he displayed much good 
judgment of the wants of a new country-, and, sev- 
eral of which, among them a circular saw, were the 
first of their kind to be brought to the I'acific Coast. 
The profits of the venture were of course propor- 
tionate to the sagacity shown in the selection of the 
articles, and the saw and a]ipurtenanees, which had 
cost him some 82,500, were sold l'>jr upwards of 
$13,000. The other things were disposed of to 
almost equal advantage. 

During all this time he took an active part in the 
life and progress of San Francisco. Though never 
in any sense a politician, he took much interest in 
public affairs, and was very influential as a strong 
and consistent Democrat. Ills partner in business, 
Caleb Smith, was the first Judge of the Superior 
Court of San Francisco, and his brother, S. ]}olivar 
Marye, was the first Judge of the County Court. 

In 185(5 he made a trip to the Atlantic States, partly 
to enjoy a perioii of well-earned rest and recreation, 
but mainly for the purjioso of putting his eldest son, 
for whom he had received an ajipointment from his 
friend, (Jeneral Denver, Member of Congress at that 
time from California, at the Military Academj- at 
West Point. After his return to San Francisco the 
following year he was urged by many of his friends 
to become a candidate for the United States Senate, 
but his partner in business had died in the mean- 
while, and the necessity of giving his entire atten- 
tion to his own private atl'airs im])elled him to de- 
cline. About this time he built the house at the 
northwest corner of East and Alarket Streets, and in 
front of the house a large wharf running out into 
the bay. The house still stands as he built it, but 
the wharf has long since disajjpaared, and its site is 
now occu)>ied by a portion of East Street, the sea- 
wall and the ferry slips at the foot of Market Street. 
In 1859 ho again went East, leaving a power of at- 
torney with the brother of his former partner, who 
was at that time Xavj' Agent of the port of San 
Francisco, and who also represented the heirs-at-law 
of his deceased brother. Mr. Marj-e, after staying 
some time in the Atlantic States, went with his fam- 
ily to iMirope. He traveled through England, Franc© 
and Italy, and then, leaving his family abroad, re- 
turned to America and arrived in California in 1860. 
On his return he found that his agent had seriously 
compromised all his interests and had gravely in- 
volved his entire estate. The situation was one to 
try the nerves and the fortitude of anj- man. and if 
there had been a weak spot in his armor so unex- 
pected and heavy a blow would have reached it. 
But he showed no signs of discouragement. What- 
ever may have been his feelings, he gave expression 
to few words of complaint, lie fully recognized the fault was largolj- his own in leaving his 
business and in trusting too much to the hands 
of another, and he at once set about with redoubled 
energy and vigor to repair what had been done, to 
extricate his property from its incumbrances and 
to unravel the legal meshes that had been woven 
around it. The work was a long and tedious one, 
but he never paused or stayed his hand until he had 
brought it to a successful end. 

When he came back from Eui-ope in IStiO, Mr. 
Mar}-e wrote an oloiiuent letter to the Legislature 
then in session at Sacramento, urging the jiurchase 
by the Slate of Hiram Powers' beautiful statue of 
"California," which he had seen in the sculi)lor'8 
studio at Florence. 'J'he suggestion was well received 
and would probably have been acted upon, but it was 
made at a time when the shadow of the great strug- 
gle imjjending between the States was already rest- 
ing upon the land, and in the hush that precedes the 
battle, as in the clash of arms, the art* of ])eace are 
forgotten. The statue was afterwards bought by a 
citizen of California, was taken to the State, and is 
believed to be still there. 

After Mr. Mar3-o had restored order to his affairs 
and j)laced himself again securely in the possession 
of his own, ho made another trij) to lOurope to join 
his family. Ho traveled extensively with his wife 


and daughter during the years 18C:i-G4, and returned 
to California at the close of the latter year, after 
leaving his younger son at the University of Cam- 
bridge, in England. For the next few years he was 
principally engaged in settling old matters connected 
with his former business, and in the accomplishment 
of this he made several trips to the Atlantic States. 

In 18G9 he went to Virginia City, Nevada, to 
engage in banking and the brokerage business, and 
the step proved to have been well-timed, for not very 
long afterward came the great excitement in the 
stock market attendant upon the Crown Point and 
Belcher discovery, and still later the unprecedented 
upheaval of the bonanza period. The story of those 
great discoveries has been too often told to need to 
be repeated here, but, as maj' bo readilj' supposed, 
they were like the floods of Pactolus to those whose 
business it was to handle the stocks of the Washoe 
mines. Mr. JIarye's business, which had been very 
large during the Crown Point and Belcher excite- 
ment, became enormous during the era of wild specu- 
lation following upon the Consolidated Virginia and 
California development. The rush was so great that 
his office in Virginia was never closed day or night. 
It used to be kept open for customers from eight 
o'clock in the morning to eight in the evening, then 
the day clerks left and a night shift, as the^- say in 
Virginia, went to work, that is, a set of clerks who 
wrote up the books during the night. The mental 
and nervous strain of such a business was very con- 
siderable, but .Mr. Marj-c kept it well in hand, and it 
is worthy of remark as ilhistralivc of the independ- 
ence of his character and his strength of will, that 
during this whole period while he was right in the 
midst of the excitement, and living, as one might 
say, in an atmosphere of stocks, in constant inter- 
course with men who were dealing largely and grow- 
ing rich through their ventures, he never bought or 
sold a single share of stock on his own account. He 
was wont to say that the profits of his business, if 
he would keep them, were enough for him. 

In November, IStJa, he opened his own office in 
San Francisco, his younger son, George T. .Mar^-e, Jr., 
who some time before had given up the practice of 
the law to join him in business, taking charge of it. 
Before this time -Mr. Marye had carried on such por- 
tions of his business as re(iuired to be executed in 
San Francisco through corres])ondents. but his ti-ans- 
actions had now assumed such jiroportions that it 
became necessary for him to have his own otiice 
there. This arrangement, too, was desirable as a 
means of saving monej-, for during the last two years 
that he did business through others, he paid his San 
Francisco correspondent over a hundred and eleven 
thousand dollars commissions. (The exact sum was 
8111,474.41.) Since the establishment of the house 
in San Francisco the tendciic}' has been to make it 
the main olfice, and it has now become so, Mr. .Marye 
giving it much of his own time and attention. Dur- 
ing the Sierra Nevada and I'liion excitement in 
1878, the two offices, cspeciall3' the one in San 
Francisco, did as much business as in bonanza 
times, but the profits were not so great, as the 
prices of stocks were not so hiL,li. In 1879, ho gave 
his nephew, Orrick VV. Marye, an interest in the 
business in Virginia, so that now he is able to devote 
his time to the two offices without finding it neces- 
sary to give his personal attention as closely as for- 
merly to the details of either. 

Since his residence in Virginia he has been hardly 
less of a builder than in early days in California. 
One of the most noticeable buildings in Virginia was 
built by him in 1874. It is called Marye's Building, 

and still belongs to him. He is, it is believed, the 
largest individual owner of real estate in the town, 
and although it is not now a verj' desirable class of 
property, he has no cause to complain, for it paid 
him for a number of years two and three and even 
four per cent, a month. 

Mr. Marye, since he became a citizen of Nevada, 
has continued to show the same interest in public 
affairs that he has always displaj-ed. Though neither 
holding nor caring for office he has furnished a shin- 
ing example to that numerous body of good citizens 
who, because thej- are engaged in the active pur- 
suits of an engrossing business, think that they are 
relieved from the duty of giving any attention to 
public matters. He has been prominentlj- connected 
with the Democratic party in his State and has 
worked hard to promote its interests and those of 
good government. To the combined efibrts of him- 
self and those of the gentlemen of the State Cen- 
tral Committee is due in no small measure the 
brilliant success of the Democracy in carrying the 
State in the Garfield- Hancock campaign. 

Mr. Marj'e, as may be seen from the engraving 
accompanj-ing this sketch, is a man of striking ap- 
pearance. In stature he is above the medium heighth, 
with a well proportioned muscular frame. He has 
gray hair (formcrlj- auburn), a broad, massive fore- 
head, bright, searching eyes, an a<iuiline nose, and a 
firm, positive mouth, with well-shaped regular teeth. 
His face is a correct oval and clean shaven, excepting 
the mustache. His hand is small and well-shaped, 
white as a woman's and strong as a vice. The gen- 
eral expression of the face is that of decison and 
energy. If family mottoes are any indication of 
their dominant traits, the motto of the Marye's, 
that "persistent effort overcomes all obstacles'' (om- 
nia vincil per/ina.i- virfus) is singularly appropriate, at 
least to the member of the family who forms the sub- 
ject of this sketch. He is constitutionallj- unable to 
give up what he has undertaken, or to abandon what 
he has once set his mind upon. Persistent endeavor is 
no efi'ort to him, it is his nature. A good master of 
human nature, and endowed with a sound, cool 
judgment, he is able to make up his mind promptly, 
without much fear of mistake, and these qualities, 
which are supplemented by an easy, graceful hand- 
writing, a power of rapid calculation, and a com- 
plete knowledge of book-keeping, make him a thor- 
ough business man, and give him great facilities in 
the dispatch of business. Ho is a fast friend, and 
benefits and injuries seem to bo alike indcliblj- im- 
pressed upon his memory. Incidents of his boyhood, 
of his early manhood, and of his riper years aro 
apparently as vivid in his recollection as if they 
had occurred but j'csterday. He is generous and 
liberal to a sur]irising degree, and it is a good ])roof 
of the strength of his character, that the impulses 
of his heart are just as warm when he is exposed 
to the chilling blasts of adversity as when enjoying 
the genial glow of prosperity. During a long career 
he has been often tried but never found wanting. 

Mr. JIaryc has three children, two sons and a 
daughter. His eldest son, William A. .Maiyo, holds 
the commission of Major in the United States Army, 
and is now in command of the Arsenal at Augusta, 
Georgia; hisdaughlor .Vda is married to Dr. Joseph C. 
Bail}', Surgeon in the rnited States Army, and now 
stationed at the Presidio of San Francisco; and his 
second son, George T. Marye, Jr., is his ])artner 
in business, and President of the Stock Exchange, 
and Chairman of the Democratic County Committee 
of San Francisco. 



niAi'TKU XVI. 

The Humboiat River— The South Fork— The Truckee River— 
Wiilkfr River — Carson Kivor — The Amarfjioa — The — 
The Rio Virgeii — Qiiiii RiviT — The Lakes of Nevaila — 
UuiiibuKlt — Carson — Walker — ryraniid — \\';ishoe — Tahoe 
— Ruby — Franklin — Marlette. 

The rivers of Nevada are few in mimbcr and 
small in size. There is jirobaMy no other country 
of equal extent of territory, within the jurisdiction 
of the United States, so j)oorly su]ii)lied with run- 
nini; streams as the State of Nevada. 

With over 1(1(1,000 square miles of territory, 
stretcliini^ across tlie western half of the Groat 
Basin, from the (Jreat American Desert on the east, 
to the summit of the Sierra Nevada on the west, a 
distance of over 300 miles, and from the thirty- 
fifth to the fortj-'second parallel of north latitude, 
being ncarlj* SOO hundred miles in length, it does 
not contain, within its borders, one navigable sti-eam, 
the Colorado forming for a short distance its south- 
eastern boundary' being indirt'ercntlj' navigable. 

With the exception of the Owyhee lliver, which 
rises in the northeastern portion of the State, and 
flows with a long sweep to the west, thence north 
into the Snake, and thence through the Columbia 
River into the ocean, and a few small streams in the 
southeast which flow into the Colorado, it contains 
no streams whose waters reach the ocean. All those 
immense bodies of water that gather upon the east- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevada, and upon the numer- 
ous ranges of mountains that divide and subdivide 
the State and flow down to their base, are absorbed 
by the soil, either immediately upon reaching the 
plains, or are discharged into lakes and reservoirs 
somewhere within the borders of the State itself. 

The rivers ai"e formed from s])nngs and the melted 
snows of the mountains, and until heated by the sun 
or corrupted by the soil over which they pass, or 
through which they run after reaching the plains 
below, their waters arc pure and cold. Some of the 
smaller rivers, more properly called creeks, come 
abruptly to the surface, having no visible source. 
Their waters, pure as crystal, flow briskly along the 
])laiiis for many miles, and then disai)pear, leaving 
the bed of the stream dry for long distances, when 
the water again comes to the surface and resumes 
its onward flow. 

This gives a broken appearance to them, and like 
tlie mountain ranges, they seldom have connected 
or continuous courses. 

Many of the streams have rapid currents when 
they first leave the base of the mountains, and with 
large volumes of water flow with great strength for 
many miles, and then suddenly weaken and give 
out, and, as though weary with the struggle for 
existence, they retire ]K'rmanentlj- beneath the sur- 
face of the earth and never apjiear again. While 
the rivers of Nevada are useless for navigation pur- 
poses, they are of great value i'or irrigation. The 

rains u])on the plains and over the whole State are 
very meagov; by no means suflicient to furnish the 
necessary moisture for growing cro])s. This lack is 
supplied by the waters of these streams; and largo 
tracts of land, which would otherwise be barren and 
utterly worthless, have become productive, and in 
many instances, very valuable. 


Is the largest and most important stream in the 
State; and is the only one flowing from cast to west 
through the Great Basin. Its valley formed the 
ordinary emigrant route i'rom the Great Salt fjake 
to California; and the Central Pacific Railroad now 
follows its banks through nearly its whole course. 
It rises in the tiooso f'reek Kange, in the northeast 
corner of the State, 7,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, and runs in a southwesterly direction over 300 
miles, emi)tying into Ilnmboldl Luke on the bordei-s 
of Churchill and Humboldt Counties, 4,100 feet 
above the level of the sea, giving a descent to the 
stream of near 3.000 feel from its source to its mouth. 
Most of the way it flows through a region of country 
consisting of sandj- plains, destitute of vegetation or 
trees, except immediately along the stream, and 
during the summer months its banks swarm with 
flies, mosquitoes, gnats, and other insects. These 
are most numerous along the lower portion of the 
river and about the lake. On either side ol' the 
Humboldt Valley and in places long distant from 
the river are numerous mountain gorges, down 
which ambitious streams leap, and strive to reach 
the main channel, but, though promising well at 
first, except in seasons of more than usual snow and 
rain, they fail; and gradually sinking away, disap- 
pear in the sand. The Ivittle Humboldt on the 
north and the Reese on the south are noted exam- 
ples. The former rises in Cotton Range, about 100 
miles to the north, and flows to the south through 
Paradise Valley, with much force of current, but 
long before the main stream is reached it sinks in 
the sand and disai>iiears. The Reese rises 200 miles 
to the south, in the Toiyabe IJange, and for nearly 
100 miles is a stream of considerable magnitude and 
im])ortance. Before reaching Jacobsvillo, in Ijander 
County, the volume of its waters is materially dimin- 
ished, and forty miles beyond they disappear 
entirely. It is said that in seasons of an unusual 
fall of snow and rain, this stream flows to the Hum- 
boldt, but this does not often happen, if ever. This 
portion of the valley is barren and almost wholly 
worthless — with scant vegetation and no timber, 
there being for over sixtj- miles not a stick of timber 
largo enough for a fence rail. The upper portion of 
' the valley is much better. Years ago, at the time of 
I the early settlement of what are now Nye and Ijan- 
der Counties, the valley of the Reese was quickly 
i occupied by farmers and herdsmen and was made 
wonderfully rich and jiroduclive by irrigating the 
soil from this stream and the creeks and rivulets 



tributary thereto. The silver mines in the Toiyabe 
Range of mountains were first discovered in 1862. 
The overland stages crossed the vallej- i-i<> Jacobs- 
ville and Austin; now the Nevada Central Railway 
threads the valley from Battle Mountain to Austin, & 
distance of ninety-three miles, from which stages 
continue southerly up the valley crossing the Sho- 
shone Range, its western border, to Grantsville in 
Nye County. The river was named in 1859 by Cap- 
tain -Simpson of the U. S. Army in honor of John 
Reese who first explored the route crossing it from 
Salt Lake to Carson Yallej'. 

In Elko County, the north and south forks of the 
Humboldt join the main stream, each rising about 
one hundred miles away, in opposite directions. The 
North Fork is a stream of considerable strength, ris- 
ing in the northwest section of the Goose Creek 
range, flowing southerly and receiving manj' small 
creeks and rivulets in its course. The valley of this 
fork is from five to seven miles wide, is covered with 
a heavy growth of grass, and bj- means of irrigation 
is susceptible of a high state of cultivation. The 
length of the seasons and the early and late frosts, 
due to its high altitude, however, give no guarantee 
of a matured crop. The Goose Creek Mountains, 
where the main stream of the Humboldt River rises, 
form a rough and broken range; but the sides and 
gulches afford an abundance of water and pasture. 
It was upon this range, a little to the northwest of 
Cedar Pass, that the weary and travel-worn emi- 
grant first found water and food for himself and 
beasts of burden, after passing the parched and life- 
less desert lying immediately to the east. 

The South Fork rises in the Diamond Range of 
mountains, flows nearly due north through Hunt- 
ington Valley, a fair agricultural country, and enter.s 
the Humboldt from ten to twelve miles west of Elko. 
There are numerous unimportant creeks and rivulets 
that flow into the vallej^ of the Humboldt from the 
various mountain ranges that skirt its borders. 
Some succeed in reaching the river, but for the 
most part they sink away and disappear in the 
sands far back in the valley. The main stream is 
about one hundred feet wide, and from four to six 
feet deep. Towards its mouth the waters are brack- 
ish, and so great is the waste from evaporation and 
absorption that more water is lost from these causes 
than is gained from the tributaries; and it is not so 
large at its mouth as it is 200 miles above. The 
same is true of most of the rivers of the State. The 
name was given it in honor of the groat German 
scientist and traveler, IJaron Von Humboldt, by 


Is not so long as the Humboldt, but being a more 
rapid stream, dL-^charges a much greater volume of 
water during the year. It receives its supplj' 
directly from Eake Tahoe, at an elevation of G,1G7 
feet above the level of the sea, running north twelve 
miles, when it is joined by the Little Ti'uckco, flow- 

ing from Donner Lake. The accumulated waters 
then turn and run east sixty -nine miles, when, turn- 
ing to the north again and running sixteen miles, 
discharge into Pyramid Lake, at an elevation ol 
4,890 feet above the level of the sea, making a 
descent of over 1,277 feet in ninety -seven miles. 
The water is cold and pure throughout its entire 
course, and flows with a rapid current. The upper 
portions of the Truckee Valley are excellent farm- 
ing lands. The banks for nearly fifty miles are 
covered with heavy forests of spruce and pine, 
which are being manufactured into lumber and 
shingles by mills chiefly propelled by the power of 
its falling waters. The Truckee is distinguished for 
the quantity and quality of its fish, a variety usually 
denominated " Lake Bigler trout," and from this 
pleasant characteristic received from Fremont the 
name of Salmon Trout River. In accordance with 
the provisions of the Legislature, the waters of the 
Truckee were stocked with McCloud River salmon 
in 187!), and as a result, good and profitable fishing 
maj- be had at the present time. By State author- 
ity, the Carson, Walker, Humboldt, and other rivers 
of the State are to be stocked with fish. A name- 
less savage had been given the appellation of 
Truckee by some emigrants, and afterwards guid- 
ing another l)arty of travelers up the valley of the 
river, was complimented by giving his name to the 


In point of size, ranks next to the Truckee. It is 
formed by the union of two forks which rise in the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains, that unite about thirty 
miles from their source. Thence the main stream 
runs northerly about twenty miles, and taking a 
turn to the east and south stretches away about 
thirty miles, when it empties into Walker Lake, 
about forty miles south of Carson Lake. In its 
tortuous course it traverses about 100 miles. In the 
valleys along this river is some of the best agricul- 
tural land in the State, and on which now resides 
some of its most prosperous farmers, as will be seen 
by reference to some of the illustrations in this work, 
i-epresenting some of the homes in Mason's Valle3^ 
The Walker was named by Fremont in honor of 
Capt. .lose])h Walker, a noted mountaineer, trapper, 
and guide. 


Ivike the Walker and Humboldt, is formed by the 
confluence of two streams, and has no other tribu- 
taries of any magnitude. 

The East Carson is the main branch, rising in 
Alpine County, California, having its source in the 
Blue Lakes on the very summit of the Sierra Nevada, 
from which also flows the Mokelumne, running west- 
ward. After following a sinuous course through the 
deep cafions and heavy pine forests of the eastern 
slope it enters Carson Valley, flowing northward, 
and is joined by the West Carson a few miles south 
of Genoa, in Douglas County. Thence the main 



stream pasties to the norlheai^t through Ormsbj*, 
Store}', and Lyon Counties, and discharges its waters 
into Careon Lake. From its source to its mouth it 
is less than 200 miles by the river's course, including 
the two forks. It has an average width of about 
sixty feet, and a depth of three or four feet. How- 
ever, as it is fed from the melting snows of the 
Sierra, it is subject to great variations in this respect. 
The land, aggregating a large area bordering on 
the river, is very productive where irrigable, j-ield- 
ing largely in haj', grain and vegetables. 

Genoa, the county seat of Douglas County, is 
situated in the valley of the Carson, and is sur- 
rounded by a numerous and thrifty agricultural 

The Carson may be called the only navigable 
river in the State. Many thousands of cords of 
wood are yearly floated down it, to supply the 
demands for fuel at Virginia, Carson, and other 
towns, and for the numerous quartz-mills in Storej' 
and Lyon Counties. The quartz-mill owners along 
the Carson River, from Empire to Dayton, have suc- 
ceeded, to a large extent, in securing by some means 
(the farmers claim by foul, and the mill men assert 
by fair) the use of the Carson waters. When this 
stream is low and the mills in operation, the ranchers 
are, to a large extent, prevented from using it for 
irrigation, and this seriously interferes with the 
agricultural industries in Carson Valley. Fremont 
also has the honor of giving a name to this river, 
calling it after his favorite guide, Kit Carson. 


Is a singular river of the desert, rising in the Mount- 
ain Spring range of the Amargosa Mountains, in the 
southwest corner of Nye County, and running in a 
southeasterly course about 150 miles, sometimes on 
the surface and sometimes underground, it tui-ns 
around the southern end of the range, and returning 
to the northwest, it disappears in Death "\'^alley, a 
depression on the borders ©f the State of California, 
175 feet below the level of the sea. Before sinking, 
the water becomes so saturated with the salts, alkalies, 
and other ingredients of the soil through which it 
flows, that it becomes bitter and unpleasant to the 
taste, hence the Spanish name of Amargosa. 

The Vegas and the Rio Virgen are small streams 
in the southeast corner of the State, which rise in 
the broken mountains of that region, and flow 
into the Colorado River. At Las Vega (The 
Meadows), where the first is encountered on the 
" Old Spanish Trail," is a large area of fertile soil, as 
its name implies. •' Rio Virgen " is a name the 
Spanish explorei-s delighted to give in gratitude for 
finding a pure running stream in so desolate a wil- 

In the northwestern part of the State, Quin 
River rises in the Santa Rosa Ilills of the Owyhee 
Range. Its general course is south for nearly 
eighty miles, when it turns west and runs towards 

and sometimes into Mud Sink. Quin Valley, for 
sixtj- or seventy miles along this river, is from three 
to seven miles wide, and has rich grazing land its 
whole length. 


As delineated on the maps, a great portion of 
western Nevada appears covered by vast sheets of 
water; but this is deceptive, as much of the area so 
represented are mere mud-flats, occasionally inun- 
dated. There arc, however, several large lakes of 
permanent and deep water, Ij'ing in the greatest 
depression of the basin, these being Pyramid, Hum- 
boldt, Carson, and Walker Lakes, although two of 
these, Humboldt and Carson, vary greatly in area, 
and are too shallow for navigation. These four 
lakes receive the waters of as many rivers, and in 
seasons of excessive rain-fall spread over the adja- 
cent country and make other lakes. Having no 
outlets, their waters consequently being absorbed 
by evaporation are, at a short distance from the 
mouths of the streams feeding them, salt and bitter. 
The theory, at one time entertained, that these lakes 
had a subterranean outlet, or percolated through 
the rocks to the ocean, is no longer regarded, evap- 
oration from so extended surfaces being sufficient to 
exhaust the inflow. 


This lake is 4,100 feet above the level of the sea. 
It is situated on the line between Humboldt and 
Churchill Counties, and receives the watei-s of the 
Humboldt River. It is thirty miles long and ten 
miles wide. In reality it is merely a widening of 
the river at this point, for in years of extreme high 
water the stream flows through this basin to an out- 
let in the lake, and passes on to what is known as 
the liower Carson Sink, a few miles to the south. 


Is directlj'' south of Humboldt, and is twenty-five 
miles long and ten miles wide, receiving the 
largo volume of water discharged from the Carson 
River. In wet seasons, when the streams from the 
east and west have overflowed the lowlands about 
these lakes, they continue tlieir course towards each 
o.ther, and form what is known as the Lower Carson 
Sink or Lake, thus creating an inland sea that grad- 
ually increasing its dimensions from its double supply 
eventually covers the intervening country and the 
two Carson Lakes become one, stretching north to 
near the Humboldt Sink or Lake, a distance of 
eighty miles or more. These lakes have no visible 
outlets, but so powerful are the sun's rays over this 
region that their waters disappear, and in dry sea- 
sons the lakes themselves are materially diminished 
in size and the countr}' around is left parched and 


Lying in Esmeralda County, about forty miles south 
of Carson Lake, is forty miles long from north to 
south, and with a varying width of from five to fif- 



teen miles, and is fed by the waters of the Walker 
Eiver. The lake is navis^'uble, small steamboats plyinji 
on its surface, and is flanked on either side by high 
mountains and rugged hills, which are dry and barren 
being almost destitute of wood or water. The princi 
pal of these is Mount Corey, which with its spurs 
shields the water from the sudden and severe gusts of 
wind which prevail along the eastern base of the 
Sierra. The shores are irregular and indented with 
small bays and inlets. The lake and river abound in 
salmon trout, but not so numerous or so well flavored 
as those in the Pyramid and Tahoe. Near the em- 
houchure of the river spreads a large area of fertile 
soil, and on the eastern shore runs the Carson and 
Colorado Railroad. 


The largest bodj' of water whoU}' within the limits 
of the State, is thirty-five miles long and twelve 
miles wide, and is situated in Hoop County, near the 
western line of the State. It takes its name from a 
rock rising from its center COO feet above its surface, 
and having the shape of a pyramid. It has consid- 
erable depth of water, and the scenery about it is 
grand and picturesque — precipitous mountains from 
2,000 to 3,000 feet high walling it in on either side. 
It receives the flow from the Truckee liiver which 
discharges an immense volume of pure, cold water 
into it. In the summer when the melting snows 
swell the Truckee, an overflow of its banks occurs 
near its mouth, and the escaping water running 
through a channel to the northeast forms a twin 
lake to the ryramid that has been given the name 
of Winnemueca. In the mountains along the 
Truckee are numerous saw-mills which discharge 
their sawdust into the stream which is carried to 
the lake and has created a shoal. This shoal dam 
ming the outlet to the river has caused a greater 
quantity of water than formerly to flow into Winne- 
mueca Lake, thus largely increasing its depth and 
area, some five feet having been added to its depth. 


In the eastern part of the valley of that name, in the 
southern part of Washoe County, embraces about 
six square miles, with shallow and alkaline waters, 
fed by small sireams which flow from the Sierra on 
the west into the valley, where they sink and then 
rise again in the lake. 


By far tlie most noted lake on the Pacific Coast, 
is situated on the Sierra Neva<la Mountains, at an 
elevation of over 0,000 feet above the level of the sea, 
and fourteen miles west of Carson City, lying one- 
third in the State of Nevada, occupj-ing the westerly 
portions of Douglas, Ormsby and Washoe Counties, 
and two-thirds in the Slate of California. The bound- 
ary lino of the two States jiasses from the north to 
the center of the lake, to the intersevlion of the 
thirty-ninth parallel of north latitude, when it diverges 

to the southeast. The lake is twenty-two miles long, 
ten miles wide anU 1,700 feet deep, the waters being 
cold and clear as crystal, and noted for their want 
of bouyancy. From this quality and the great depth 
to which they sink, persons drowned in the lake never 
rise to the surface. The main body of the waters 
maintain a nearly equal temperature at all seasons, 
ice forming only near the shore, where also the 
warmth of summer renders bathing pleasant. 

It abounds in trout of a large size and fine flavor. 
The coast is indented with beautiful bays and inlets, 
and small villages are built along its shores. Steam- 
boats cross from shore to shore daily, and sailing 
j-achts are kept for the accommodation of the 
pleasure-seeking public. There are good hotels, and 
it is a pleasant summer resort for tourists. At its 
north end are the celebrated hot springs, lying near 
the Nevada line and within the State; and not far 
distant from them is a beautiful spring of clear, cold 
water, entirely free from mineral taste. On the west 
side, about six miles from Tahoe City, is a spur of 
mountains covered with a dense forest of sugar- 
pine, the most valuable timber for lumber on the 
Pacific Coast. On each side of this spur are fine 
streams of water running into the lake. Not far dis- 
tant to the south is Emerald Bay, a beautiful inlet 
about four hundred yards wide at its mouth and 
widening as it extends inland for nearly two miles, 
forming one of the most beautiful inland harbors in 
the world. Lake Creek, which comes from the hills 
far to the south, and is fed by their springs and 
snows, enters Lake Tahoe at its south end. The 
valley of this creek is adorned with green meadows 
and growing fields from the mountain slype to the 
lake, and is one of the loveliest to be found in the 
Sierra. To the north of the entrance of Lake Creek, 
and on either side of the lake, peaks of the Sierra 
rise from three to four thousand feet above the sur- 
face, and are covered with snow nearly two-thirds 
of the year. The waters of this wonderful reservoir 
are derived whollj' from the springs and snows of the 
surrounding mountains, and the Truckee Uivor on 
the northwest is its outlet. This celebrated resort 
is reached by stage, either from Truckee or Carson 
Cities; it being about twelve miles from the former 
and fourteen from the latter place. 

Ruby and Franklin are two small lakes situated 
in the valleys along the east base of the Humboldt 
or Rub}' range of mountains, in the southwestern 
portion of Elko County. In high water thej' become 
united, and form a sheet of brackish water about 
fifteen miles long, and seven miles wide. They 
have no outlet, and are merely reservoirs, where the 
surplus waters of the surrounding mountains accu- 
mulate, and are absorbed in the land and evaporated 
in the dry summer. About twenty miles east is 
Gosh-Ule Lake or pond, and to the northeast, about 
the same distance, is Snow Lake. These are smaller, 
but possess the same characteristics as the othera. 




Donner, iloiic}'. Mono, and Owens Lakes, tliouijli 
not within the State, yet forminj^ a ])arl of that 
series of reservoirs lyinijj aloiii; the rim of the 
Great Basin, and near the line of Nevada, are j)er- 
haps entitled to a passing notice here. Donner 
Lake lies two and a half miles northwest of Truckeo. 
It is about three miles long, one mile wide, and 200 
feet deep. This, and Lake Tahoe, are thought by 
some to be craters of extinct volcanoes, the mount- 
ains around them presenting evidence of volcanic 
formation. The waters are cold, and clear as crystal. 
It is surrounded on three sides with towering mount- 
ains, which are covered with a heavy growth of fir, 
8]iruce, and pine. Its watei-s are discharged into 
the Truckee liiver. 


Is a circular sheet of water, about ten miles across, 
and lies fitly miles north of Truckee City. Willow 
and Susan Creeks from the north, and Lone \^allcj- 
Creek from the south, supply its waters. It has no 
outlet and its waters are shallow and strongly alka- 
line, and in extremely dry summers they disappear 


Is situated in Mono County, California, about ten 
miles from the Xevada State line; is fourteen miles 
long and nine wide, and has been sounded to the 
depth of 300 feet and no bottom found. The waters 
are so acrid as to render them unfit for drinking, and 
even bathers, while delighted with the first immer- 
sion cannot long continue the pleasure with safety 
to their epidermis. Leather immersed in i'. is soon 
destroj'ed by its corrosive properties, and no animal, 
not even fish or frogs, can exist within it for anj^ 
great length of time. The peaks of the Sierra in 
this region reach their greatest altitude, and the 
scenery aliout Lake Mono is varied and majestic. It 
is fed by streams from the surrounding mountains, 
and, although it has no outlet, the dr^mess of the 
atmosphere keejjs it at about the same level by the 
process of rapid evaporation. 


Lying to the south of Mono, in Inyo County, is a 
large and deep body of water, eighteen miles in 
length by twelve in width, and is navigable for 
steamers which have been used in the transportation 
of ores and sup|)lies to mines on its eastern border. 
The qualities of its waters are similar to those of 
Mono, but notsostronglj- alkaline. The Sierra Nevada 
Mountains form the background on the west, and 
supply its waters. Like the other lakes of the 
basin it has no outlet, evaporation exhausting the 
water poured into it b}- Owens River, a stream of 
150 miles in length. 


Is a small body of pure, cold water, situate on the 
mountains forming the northeast portion of the rim 
of fiake Taboo, covering about ."iOO acres of ground 

and is from thirty to forty feet deep in the center. 
Virginia City is supplied with water from th-s lake. 
It is claimed that Jlarlette Lake has an altitude of 
1,500 feet above C street, Virginia, which places 
it about 1,G00 feet above the surface of Lake Taboo, 
or about 7.7(10 feet above the level of the sea. This 
is probably the highest lake in the world whose 
waters have been used to supply cities having large 


Baron Itichthofeu on the Comstock — General Structure of Corn- 
stock Veins — Inclosing Rock — Outcroppiugs — Vein M.itter — 
Clay anil Clayey Matters — (^)nartz, Character of — Variety of 
Ores — lleniarks on (Jeiieral (ieology, taken from Clarence 
King's Ueports — The Glacial Epoch— Living Glaciers — Local 
Characteristics — The Mountain .Syatem — Origin of Mineral 
Veins — l''uture Mining Prospects. 

Some account of the geology of the State is neces- 
sary' to make constantly recurring references to the 
mines intelligible. The larger part of our readers 
have, perhaps, carefully read the published works of 
Baron Eichthofen, ]{a3-mond, Clarence King, and 
others, on the geology of the Comstock Lode, and 
incidentally of the mines of other parts of the State. 
This article is not intended for them, but for those 
who have been denied the ))rivilege of reading tliose 
works, or observing more than a limited area of the 

The basin like character of much of the State has 
been referred to in another part of the work. Some 
time in past ages an upheaval of mountains took 
place, so peculiarly arranged as to inclose within 
their embraces several hundred thousand square 
miles of deep sea with all the minerals held in solu- 
tion in the waters, such as soda, magnesia, silex 
arsenic, antimony, iron, sulphur, as well as gold and 
silver. North and south of Nevada the seas found 
an outlet through the great rivers of the Columbia 
and Colorado. In the great Utah basin they were 
retained, and essentiall}' modified the whole charac- 
ter of the land as well as the deposit of minerals 
which took ])lace during man}' stages of the geolog- 
ical eras. The vast beds of salt, borax, soda and 
sulphur, with the thousand resulting compounds, are 
the relics of that sea. If only the Sierra with the 
accom]ianyiiig transverse mountains forming the 
boundaries of the basins had boon elevated, we 
should liave had a vast desert five or six hundred 
miles across, a waste of alkali and soda flat, destitute 
of animal and vegetable life, impassable for man or 
beast; but the same forces which elevated the JJocky 
Mountains, and subseiiuently the Sierra, also ele- 
vated parallel but shorter ridges of mountains 
between the two main ranges, some of whoso to])s 
rise 10,000 feet above the sea level. In most 
instances these U])lieavals were mainl}- in line with 
great ranges of the Ilocky .Mountains and Sierra 
Nevada, but often there wore transverse axes of 
elevatioti which considerably modified the main lines 



of upheaval. To these interior longitudinal and 
cross elevations we owe tlie fact of having mines 
away from the Comstock series and the Colorado 
deposits. Here we wish to caution our unscientific 
readers against falling into the usual mistake of sup- 
posing that these elevations were marked by any sud- 
den elevations or catastrophes of any kind whatever, 
though undoubtedly mother earth might have shaken 
and groaned at times when all these mighty mount- 
ain ranges were being evolved out of her bosom. 
Time, an element of such prime importance, is one 
of the infinite, inexhaustible quantities in nature's 
laboratory, and the largest results may be wrought 
out with the gentlest means. Foundations for con- 
tinents 20,000 feet deep may be laid so slowly that a 
hundred years may mark no sensible addition. In 
this way the auriferous slates of California were 
laid down ere the Sierra was raised from the bosom 
of the deep. So the great valley of the Mississippi 
was formed; so was the Great Basin, the future 
treasure-house of the world. If we could have seen 
an east and west section of Nevada during this era, 
it would have presented something of the following 
appearance: — 

Though by no means so regular, some of the ele- 
vations being much farther apart than others, some 
being perhaps twenty, others a hundred miles 
apart, and some of the elevations being thou- 
sands of feet, others only hundreds. For the purpose 
of illustrating the further changes of the strata and 
fixing an ideal locality of llie mineral or ore bearing 
portion, let the dark lines inclose the supposed min- 
erals forming the future veins, for the valuable 
minerals do not come out of the depths of the earth 
like the floods of lava, but are the result of deposit 
like the stratified rocks, perhaps having been held 
in solution in the sea water. Other forces are intro- 
duced. Along these lines of elevation volcanoes 
broke out and sent floods of lava, the future propylites, 
trachj-tes, and other forms of rocks, other than the 
ordinary stratified rocks, associated with the min- 
eral veins. With the elevation of the mountain 
ranges came denudation of the upper portions, and a 
deposit of tertiary matter in the retreating seas. 
Some portions of these folded strata were 'so far 
down into the earth as to become, or rather remain, 
subject to a heat well known to increase on an 
average one degree for each fifty feet, reaching per- 
haps a higher than the boiling point, while the 
upper portions were exposed to the lower tempera- 
ture of the surface of the earth. The rents 

and fissures, as well as the openings of natural 
cleavage, would also be permeated by the heated 
waters circulating through these fissures, all of 
which would hold more or less minerals in solution. 
If we could have seen an east and west section of 
Nevada, it would have presented something of the 
following appearance: — 

Though the illustration is imperfect, as some of 
the axes of elevation, like Mount Davidson, by this 
time were several thousand feet above the surround- 
ing country, and the strata of trachytes, propylites, 
and other igneous rocks have become highly inclined, 
following down the slopes of the newly-formed and 
perhaps still rising mountains, the portions sur- 
mounting the axes of elevation having been denuded 
according to the second diagram in this article. 
Before the upheaval or folding of the strata the dif- 
ferent rocks would have had about the following po- 
sition with respect to each other: — 


Syenite, E 


Graaiuc Mt- 

Authorities differ as to tlic plane of elevation at the 
time of the deposit. Baron Hichthof'en, Clarence 
King and Hossiter \V. ilaymond, were inclined to 
give quite an inclination to the slopes at the time of 
the outpour of proi>ylito and trachyte. John A. 
Church, a later authoritj-, fixes the plane nearer a 
horizontal. If Mount Davidson is the axis of eleva- 
tion, which seems probable, it would look reasonable 
that the elevation and eruption were contempora- 
neous. The reader can elevate the diagram to suit 
his theory. According to some writers on geology 
(John A. Church, for one), sufficient time elajised 
between the deposit of the propylite and the over- 
flow of the trachyte for the surface of the former to 
have been converted into soil, as charred and silici- 
fied remains of timber and vegetable impressions are 
plentiful in some places in the upturned strata. 



After the foldinj; or upheaval of the strata and sub- 
sequent denudation of the portion over the axis of 
elevation, a section would pi'esont the following ap- 

pearance, with the exception, however, that as the 
elevation was always in unuiiiial <iuantities, the 
strata would bo rumpled and irregular: — 


Main Lode. Propylite. 


The portion worn away by rains and other causes 
is supposed to have been carried to the unrepre- 
sented portion below the line of denudation, which 
maj- be as many thousands of feet or more below 
the level as the summit is above it, which, if we apply 
the diagram to the Comstoek Lode, would be Mount 

So far there is no appearance of mineral. Accord- 
ing to Clarence King, the upheaval caused numerous 
rents and fissures, even through the solid synitic 
rock, and more especially along the line of junction 
of the dift'ercnt rocks. Through the latter cleavages 
or fissures poured out a third kind of lava called by 
some andesite, on account of peculiar cr^-stallizations 
found in it. It was of a dark color, and was known 
by different names among the miners. It is known 
to have been erupted subsequent to the upheaval of 
the mountains, for it was spread out in horizontal 
layers or strata over the inclined propylites and 
trachytes, which formed the body of the mountain, 
or elevation. Durinij this dinturh/mce the <jre<it Corn- 
stock Lode was formed, the eruption of the veins 
seeming to bo intimately connected with the deposit 
of mineral. These rocks are frequently known as 
porphyrj', a term rather descriptive than technical, 
generally- meaning any kind of rock that has been 
so far altered by heat, pressure or exchange of min- 
eral bases as to have cr3'stals of feldspar, bearing 
dift'erent names, scattered through the body of the 
rock. Whenever in any of the dynamic disturb- 
ances a portion of the overhanging wall broke off 
and fell in the chasm, it subsequently became what 
the miners called a poi-pkyry horse. Having made 
those few preliminar3' explanations a description of 
the Comstoek Ijodc, by Ferdinand Baron Ifichthofen, 
than by whom no better authority can bo given, will 
be read with interest. The description of the Corn- 
stock Lode will to some extent atlbrd a key to the 
geology of other parts of Nevada, and is there- 
fore used in this portion of the work. 


The range of the Washoe iLountains, on which 
the Comstoek vein is situated, is separated from the 
steep eastern slope of the iSierra Nevada by a con- 
tinuous meridional depression, marked by the deep 
basins of Truckee. Washoe and Carson Valleys. 
Its shape is irregular, though in general a direction 
from south to north may be traced in the Summit 
Range. South, it slojios gradually down to a smooth 
table-land, traversed from west to east by the Carson 
River flowing in a narrow crevice, beyond which the 
Washoe Range continues in the more elevated Pino 
Nut Mountains. Some i)eaks in the latter have an 
altitude of probably more than !t,OU0 feet. To the 
west the Washoe Mountains sink rapidly beneath 
the detrital beds of Washoe and Truckee Valleys, 
but are connected with the Sierra Nevada by two low 
granite ridges, stretching at right angles with its 
general course across the northern and southern ends 
of Washoe Vallej-, and thus isolating the basin. To 
the north and east the Washoe Range passes into a 
very extensive mountainous region, which has been 
but little explored; while to the southeast it disap- 
pears abru])tly below one of the middle basins of 
Carson River. The width of the entire range is not 
more than fourteen miles, while its length from 
north to south is not determinable on account of the 
scanty knowledge wo possess about the northern 
parts of tho country.* 

The culminating point of the range is Mount 
Davidson, tho elevation of which was determined by 
J. D. Whitney, 7,827 feet. The altitude of the other 
places are: Virginia City, (J.2(l5 feet; Devil's Gate, 
5,105 feet; while the basins to the west and south have 
the following elevations: Washoe Lake 5,(1(1(1 feet; 
Carson City 4,G15 foot; Dayton, 4,4!)() feet; all accord- 
ing to barometrical measurement bj- Professor 

Mount ])avi<lson, the prominent central point, con- 
sists of syenite, a granitic^ rock, wh'ch is hero com- 
posed of two kinds of feldspar (orthoclase and oli- 
goclase), hornblende in laminated ]irisms of greenish 
black color, some mica, and occasionallj- epidate, Imt 
no quartz. It is probably a continuation of the gran- 
itic axis of the Pine Nut Mountains, and forms with 
the metainiirphic rocks, which accomjyan}- it, the 
backbone of the Washoe .Mountains. The latter 

"This was writtun in I8ti(i. 



rocks join tho syenite to the north and south and 
are intersected by dj-kes of that roek, thereby prov- 
ing its later origin. Lithi)logically, they exhibit a 
great variety; but they may be sui)divi(led into three 
distinct gri)Uj)8, one of which is of fria^isic age, and 
was discovered by Professor J. 1). Whitney in El 
Dorado t'afion, near Dayton; this is the most recent 
group, and its rocks are ordinarily but little metamor- 
phosed. The}' are immediatelj- preceded in age by 
a series of micaceous and f|uarlzose slates, which 
usuallj^ contain some beds of limestone. Both these 
grou])s occur onlj' at some distance from the Com- 
stock vein. Of more importance, for the latter is a 
third series of hornblendic ( uralitic) rocks with inter- 
stratified layers of ([Uartzile, gray slate and crystal- 
line laj'ers of limestoiie. which is often aecom])anied 
by extensive deposits of crystalline limestone, with 
extensive dejiosits of ])ure specular iron. These rocks 
form the hills which flank the American I'^lat to the 
west, as well as those between Silver City and Car- 
son. They are capped b}' an overflow of quartzosc 
])orphj-ry, an eruptive rock, which, however, is of no 
importance, except as forming the footwall of the 
Justice vein. 

Those rocks form the ancient series. They partly 
preceded and partly were contcmjioraneous with the 
eniei'gence of the Sierra Nevada and the Great Basin, 
and the entire range of the Cordilleras, from the 
ancient sea, whose traces are left in the saline incrus- 
tations and salt pools at the bottom of the numerous 
basins between the Sierra and the Rocky Mountains, 
which had formerly remained filled with tho water 
of the retiring sea. The Waslioe .Mountains undoubt- 
edly formed an elevated range during the long period 
which elapsed till the commencement of the formation 
of the recent series of rocks, which bear still closer rela- 
tion to the Comstock vein than the former. Those 
rocks are eruptive and volcanic, and belong to the 
latter part of the tertiary and to the post-tertiary 

To the first of them in age we apply the recently 
introduced term, ))ropylite. In Washoe the names 
'• f'elds])atliic ]>or|ihyry "and "hornblendic porjihj-ry" 
are conimonl)- used to designate two jiromincnt vari- 
eties of it. Tliej'are very approiuiate miner's terms; 
but scicntificallj- a])iilie(l, would be capable of very 
differing interpretations. In other countries the term 
" Diorite," '• Doritic jjorphj-iy," "greenstone," '• por- 
))h3'ritic greenstone" have been applied, which con- 
i'usion of names best shows the indistinctness of the 
external characters of tho rock. Pro|ivlite has this 
remarkable ])eculiarity, namelj-. that it resembles 
many ancient rocks exactly in a])pearance, and yet 
is among the most recent in origin. It is ])rominent 
among the inclosing rocks of the ("omstock vein, and, 
besides, hicfosen seve.nd, jxt/ih/is niunt, of' fhe anil pr(i</n-/!re Ki/ner vniim in the iror/i/, as those in the 
('ar|)athian .Mountains, of Zacatecas and other ])laceB 
in Mexico, and probabl}' several veins in Bolivia. 
Mineralogicallj', it consists of a fine grained paste of 
ordinarily greenish, but sometimes gray, red and 
brown color, with imbedded ciystals of feldsjiar (oli- 
goclase)and columns of<lark green and fibrous. sehiom 
of black, hornblende, which is also the coloring mat- 
ter of the base. A peculiarity of the rock is its fer- 
ruginous character wh(!n decomposed. ProbabI}' it 
contains other metals besides iron. (leologicall}- 
it is an erM|itive rock; but it is acconi))anied b}- vast 
accumulations of breccia, which is sometimes regularlv 
stratified. The flats of Virginia City. (Jold Jlill. 
American Cit}' and Silver City, consist of ])ro)>ylite; 
it lies, in general, east of the mountains consisting of 

; the ancient formations, and contains several minei'al 
i veins besides the Comstock Lode. Its distribution 
! in other countries of tho world is not ver}' general. 
Several different kinds of eruptive and volcanic 
rocks followed the outbreaks of prop^-lito ; but 
only to one of them have wo to direct the atten- 
tion in reference to tho Comstock vein, as it prob- 
ably caused its formation, besides taking a promi- 
nent part in tho structure of the countr}-. It is 
known in Petrology by the name of Sanidin- 
trachyte ; for convenience sake we simply use 
the name trachyte. Its essential character is " a 
predominance of a s]iccios of feldspar, called glassy 
feldspar or sanidin, which, along with hornblende 
and mica, is imbedded in a base or paste of pecu- 
liarly rough texture, caused hy microseo])ical vesi- 
cles which fill tho rock. It has a beautiful aj)- 
pearance and presents very different colors. It is 
an easj' blasting rock. * * * 

There is no doubt about the eruptive character 
of the lava, and this term has been ajtplied to it 
in Washoe. The mode of occurrence shows that 
it has been ejected through long fissures in a vis- 
cous or liquid state and at a high temiicrature. 
In some places the eruptions wore subaqueous, as 
at Dayton. The entire table-land around that ])laco 
is built up of trachytic tufa. The solid trachyte 
rises from it in rugged mountains, which form an 
elevated and verj- conspicuous range, ])assing east of 
the (iould and Curry Mill, across Seven-mile Canon 
(where, for instance, the Sugar Ijoaf Peak consists 
of it), and bending in a semicircle round to 
Washoe Ijako. Pleasant Valley is entirely sur- 
rounded b}' trachj'tic hills ; arid farther north this 
rock covers the country to a great extent. Sanidin- 
trachyte has never been found to contain silver- 
bearing veins, and in Washoe none occur in it, and 
yet it has evidently been maiidy instrumental in tho 
formation of the Comstock Lode and other veins 
in that region. # * * Volcanic and eruptive 
activity gradually died away, and we now behold 
their last stages in the action of the thermal 
springs, such as Steamboat S]>rings. The surface 
underwent but slow and gradual denudation, and 
tho events of the volcanic period are recorded so per- 
fectly and distinctly in the nature and association of 
the rocks, as to aid us groatlj- in explaining the mode 
of formation of the Comstock vein. 


The Comstock runs nearlj- in tho direction of tho 
magnetic meridian (the variation being sixteen and 
a rpiarter degrees oast) along the slope of the .Mount 
Davidson range, which descends at a stee|) grade 
until it abuts against the gentle slope of tho three 
flats, on which, at an altitude of from ."),.S(MI to (1.2(10 
foot, are situated the towns of Virginia, Gold Hill 
and American City. The out-crop|)ings of the vein 
extend in a broad belt along the foot of the steep 
grade, and immediately above the three towns. Tho 
course of the vein as far as yet ex|)lored is somewhat 
de])endent on the shape of tho slo])o, as it partakes 
of all its irregularities, passing tho ravines in con- 
cave bends, and inclosing tho foot of the dillbrent 
ridges in concave curves; tlie greatest convexity 
being around the broad, uninterrii|ited base of Mount 
Davidson itself. These irregularities are ini]iorlant 
as they influeneo the ore-lieai'ing character of tho 
vein. * * * 

The Comstock vein, at a do])th of from 4(1(1 to (KKI 
foot beneath its lowest outcrops, tills a fissure of 
from 100 to i;iO, and even 20(» feet iu width, but 

-^y ^CytytyU^C^CO^^ 


A. K. P. Harmon. 

The pioneers who came to California brought lit- 
tle or no capital with them. They came with clear 
heads, i-esoliite wills and strong arms, Considering 
the obstacles they encountered, a large percentage 
became successful men. but hardly one of them had 
unvarying good fortune. The tomporar}' disasters 
which they encountered did not dishearten them. 
Genuine men neither lost energy, pluck nor resolu- 
tion because this or that venture did not turn out 
well. There is not a pioneer in the eountrj- whose 
range of experience during the last twenty years, has 
not been greater than men elsewhere encounter in a 
long life. Their losses have been greater and their 
fortunes have been much more rapidly acquired. They 
haveseen a country with a floating population of a few 
thousands become a prosperous State, with nearly a 
million inhabitants. They arc a part of its history. 

A. K. P. Harmon was born at Scarborough, Cum- 
berland County, Maine, in the year 1821. He was 
named after the popular Governor of his own State. 
His ancestors were of English origin; the earliest in 
the line who settled in this country, coming over 
about the year 1G:^2. The name as it then appeared 
in the records was written tiarman. The father of 
Mr. Harmon served in the war of 1812, and the 
widow, who deceased during the present year, drew 
regularly the pension accruing to the widows of sol- 
diers of that war. Young Harmon received his 
early education in the common schools, the people's 
college, where so many of the strongest and bright- 
est men of the countr}- have been trained. He is a 
staunch friend of the public school system, and nat- 
urally has little patience with those who arraj' their 
influence against that beneficent institution. 

After leaving the public school it became neces- 
sary to do something for a livelihood. The young 
man went to Portland, where he served as a clerk in 
a mercantile house for about three j-ears. lie then 
went to Georgia, where he served as clerk in a 
mercantile establishment for three years; returning, 
he served for two j'oars or more as clerk in a busi- 
ness house in Portland, and afterwards became a 
partner in the same. The news of gold discoveries in 
California was received and discussed in nearly every 
household in the Eastern States in the year 1848. 
Young'men were leaving for the Pacific Coast bj' 
thousands. They came in all ways and by all routes. 
Some started [across the continent with ox-teams, 
others'embarked in sailing vessels around t?ape Horn. 
Mr. Harmon loft Portland for California in Decem- 
ber, 1848, 'taking a 'steamship passage from New 
York to Chagres, and trusting to chance, as many 

others did, for a passage from Panama to San Fran- 
cisco, as no line had been so permanently established 
that through tickets could be bought. From Chagres 
he walked across the Isthmus to Panama, where ho 
remained for about six weeks, and then took passage 
on the steamship Oreyon for San Francisco. The Ore- 
yon was full of passengers, and the two forward 
deck-boats were assigned to Mr. Harmon and his 
companions as sleeping quarters. It was an odd 
place to sleep, but the quarters were really more 
comfortable than manj- a poor fellow had who was 
glad to stretch himself on the hard deck. Large pre- 
miums were paid on those first steamers for standing 
room. Those who had been detained on the Isthmus 
for many weeks were tired of that embargo and 
were willing to pay large sums for a chance to reach 
California. The prices paid for some of these pas- 
sages would now take the traveler to Europe and 
back very comfortably. 

Mr. Harmon arrived in San Francisco on the sec- 
ond day of April, 1840. and camped at a point now 
intersected by Kearny Street, or about one block 
from what was then the landing for small boats. 
Everj-body was pushing out for the mines, and he 
soon took passage on a small schooner for Sacra- 
mento, the voyagers paying thirty dollars each for 
the passage, boarding themselves and sleeping on 
deck, arriving at Sacramento after an eight days' 
passage. An ox-team was secured, a square meal 
was obtained at Sutt;>r's Fort, and the partj- struck 
out for Coloma. There Mr. Harmon wrought his first 
daj- as a miner with a pan; the result of that da5-'8 
labor was an ounce of gold-dust. Remaining at this 
point for a few weeks, ho next went to Old Spanish 
Bar, where he worked for some months, getting very 
good returns. With this first money made from the 
mines, he soon went to New York, bought a stock of 
goods, returned to San Francisco and engaged in 
mercantile business with good prospects. The fire 
a few months afterwards swept his stock away. Dr. 
Samuel Merritt relates this incident: He had just 
reached the Coast with a small brig, which among 
other articles of lading, brought a number of ready- 
made houses. One of tlicm was sold to Mr. Harmon 
to bo used as a store. In sotting it up it was found 
that one or two pieces were missing. Notice was 
given of the deficiency, but the fire on the following 
night swept the store away, literally licking up the 
town, and the doctor was never called upon to make 
good the missing part of that building. 

Mr. Harmon commenced mercantile business again 
on or near the site of his burned premises. In the 

fall of 1850 he closed out his business in San | 
Francisco and removed to Racramento, where he 
was engaged in merchandise until the year 1864. He 
was gradually becoming interested in mining enter- 
prises. His ventures about this time in the Com- 
stock mines were fortunate. He bought largely, 
especially in the Chollar, of which mining company, | 
and also of the Ophir. Imperial, Empire, Bacon, Sil- | 
vcr Hill, Caledonia and others, he has been Presi- 
dent for manj- years. He also holds interests in many 
undeveloped mines which may turn out to be good 
ventures at some future daj-. He is not a dealer in 
stocks from daj- to day, but believes in mining for 
dividends; and for that reason does not let go of a 
mining enterprise because there is nothing in sight. 
TheComstock group of mines has been the richest in 
the known world. From no other area of equal 
extent has there ever been such an output of bullion. 
Those who have carefully watched all the phases of 
silver mining for the last twenty years are reluctant 
to believe that there are not still vast reserves of 
ore in some of these mines, which patient labor will 
yet reach; hence, the gigantic preparations for deep 
mining. The pump just now erected on the Chol- 
lar-Fotosi group of mines is the largest ever set up 
at any mine. When a Mexican mine began to fill 
with water, the natives abandoned it. When a mine 
on the Comstock shows water, a pump capable of 
delivering a thousand tons of water an hour is the 
remedy. That is legitimate mining; mines which 
have yielded millions may yield other millions; they 
cannot be aiiaiidoned so long as there is a reasonable 
prospect of finding paying bodies of ore. Mr. Har- 
mon has little to do with the mining speculations of 
the day. lie is considerate and cautious to a degree, j 
In business he is methodical, clear-headed, prompt 
and accurate. He knows how to say yes and no. 
He has a high sense of business honor, and his ver- ; 
bal promise would be accepted wherever he is known. 
He is square built and square in his transactions, and 
his record as an honorable business man is without a | 
blemish. In the j^ear 1872 Mr. Harmon, having 
acquired a handsome fortune, removed to Oakland, 
where he has since resided. Selecting a tract of about 
six acres noar the head of Lake Merritt, with a front- 
age on Webster Street, ho erected a large dwelling 
and made other costly improvements, which have I 

always been in excellent taste. His greenhouse con- 
tains one of the most extensive collections of rare 
plants on the Pacific Coast. The grounds are hand- 
somely laid out, and, with the improvements, com- 
prise one of the most attractive homesteads in Ala- 
meda Countj'. He is a liberal patron of art, and has 
already a choice collection of pictures which may 
serve as the foundation of a separate picture gallery 
at no distant day. 

Mr. Harmon has served for many years as one of 
the Trustees of the Mountain View Cemeterj- of Oak- 
land, and is also a Trustee of the Deaf, Dumb and 
Blind Asylum. He is averse to holding public oflSce, 
and onlj- consents to hold such as have no emolu- 
ments, giving his sers'ices freely to institutions of a 
benevolent character. 

Mr. Harmon has alwaj's taken a deep interest in the 
welfare of the State University, looking upon it as 
the crown of the public school system. Two years 
ago or more, he erected the Gymnasium building on 
the grounds of the University at his own expense, 
and gave it to that institution. Before that time 
there was no adequate assembly room or place of 
meeting on Commencement and other occasions. 
The Gymnasium was planned to afford students the 
best means of physical exercise, and to furnish also 
a complete audience room for 1,500 people. It is ad- 
mirably arranged for both these purposes. The cost 
was not less than S12,000. It bears the name of this 
citizen in just recognition of the noble gift. Mr. 
Harmon is a benevolent citizen, never withholding his 
contributions for any reallj' worthy object, but giv- 
ing without ostentation, and often so secretly that 
his most intimate friends never know the extent of 
his benefactions. He is a life member of the Art 
Association and of the Pioneer Association, and a 
member of the Union Club, of San Francisco. 

In 1846, Mr. Harmon married Miss Marietta Ran- 
dall, daughter of Job Randall, Esq., of Portland, 
Maine. This estimable ladj- was distinguished for 
works of charity, and especially as an unfailing 
friend and promoter of that excellent institution, 
The Ladies' Relief Society of Oakland. This lady 
having deceased a few years ago, Mr. Harmon mar- 
ried in 1879, Miss Sarah S. Johnson, of Portland, who, 
with a son and daughter grown up, constitute one 
of the most agreeable families of Oakland. 



contracting in places so as to allow both walls to 
conio in close contact. Both of the latter, at that 
depth, descend easterly at an angle varying from 
fortj'-two to sixtj' degrees. l'|)\vards from the 
average de])th of 500 feet, the western wall rises to 
the surface with the same inclination, which, how- 
ever, occasionally diminishes at the ii])per levels to 
forty and thirty-eight degrees, while the eastern 
wall soon bends to the vertical, and gradually turns 
to a western di|), which, at i)laces, is forty-tive 
degrees. Its general position to the depth men- 
tioned is, therefore, about vertical, with an inflation 
to the west. The vein, conseciuentlj', expatids 
towards the surface, in the shape of a funnel. The 
increase in volume is especially produced by the 
intervention, between the vein matter, of large frag- 
ments of country rock, broken from the walls, but 
usual!}' moved only a little vr&y downward, by slid- 
ing from their original ])lace. The liulk and num- 
ber of these fragments, or '• horses," increase towards 
the surface, where some of them have a length of 
1,000 feet, and a width of fifty to upwards of one 
hundred feet. 

Vein matter branching oft' from below fills the 
spaces between the fragments, but is generallj', near 
the surfiice, far inferior in bulk as compared with 
the country rock.* The width of the belt in which 
these branches come to the surface, and there form 
scattered outcroppings, is generally more than .500 

On the western side (west of the Virginia and El 
Ilorado cro])pings) the Conistock vein is accom]>a- 
nied b}' a number of smaller veins, the outcrop])ings 
of which are visible on Cedar Hill, Central Hill, 
Ophir Hill, and Mount Davidson, and are in some 
places of considerable size. Thej' are nearlj- ])ar- 
allel to the main vein, anil di|i to the east. Prob- 
ably they will unite in depth with the Comstock 
vein, which by its relation to them may be consid- 
ered as the main vein of what German miners call 
a -'gangzug." The western boundary of this main 
vein is exceedingly well defined by a continuous claj' 
selvage (gouge) lying on the smooth foot wall, and 
separating the vein matter verj' distinctly from the 
country rock; but it is ditterent on the eastern side, 
where the adjoining country rock, as is often the 
case with true fissure veins, is impregnated with 
matter similar to that which fills the fissure. It 
is fre(|uently concentrated in channels running par- 
allel to, or ascending from, the vein, but, in fact, 
forming parts of it. The well-defined east wall of 
its main body has, therefore, not often the same 
position relatively to the entire vein, and with the 
growing depth gained by successive explorations 
the development of vein matter, east of what was 
formerly considered the east wall, increases. 


The rocks which accompanj' the Comstock vein, 
change in its course. Tliey are different varieties 
of ])ro])j-lite on the eastern side, throughout its 
whole extent. In some places the frei|uent and 
large crystals of feldspar give it a por])hjritic char- 
acter, which in certain varieties is rendered more 
striking by green columns of hornblende; at others 
the rock has a very fine grain, and the inclosed 
crystals are of minute size; again, the rock is either 
compact and homogeneous, or it has a brecciated 
' appearance from the inclosure of numerous angular 
fragmentfl. Also, the color changes, though it is 

* In other wnnls, tlie horscH or foreign substances constitute 
the larger portion of the fissure matter. — Kd. 

predominantly green, and the difTerent varieties of 
docomj)osition create finallj- an endless variet}-. We 
will presently have occasion to consider the causes 
to which it is due. 

The western country offers more differences. 
Along the slope of .Mount Davidson and Mount 
Butler, from the Best k Belcher mine to (!old llill, 
it is formed bj' sj-enito, which, at some places, is 
separated from the vein by a crystalline rock of 
black color, having the nature of a]>hanite, but alto- 
gether obscure as to the mode of its occurrence. 
It is from three to fifty feet thick, and the elucida- 
tion of its real nature maj- be expected from further 
developments.* As syenite to the west, and propjMite 
to the east, occur just in that portion of the Com- 
stock vein which has been most explored, and where 
works, more than anj-where else, extend in both 
directions into the countrj', it has been generally 
assumed in Virginia that the lode follows the plane 
of contact between two different kinds of rocks, and 
is therefore a contact deposit. ]5ut immediately 
north of Mount Davidson, where ]iropylite extends 
high up on the western hills, this rock forms the 
western countr}' as well as the eastern — as at the 
(California and Ophir mines — -though at the latter 
metamorphic rocks and syenite are associated with 
propylite on the western side. On Cedar Hill syenite 
again jn-edominates; but further north propj'lite 
forms the country rock on both sides. South of 
Gold Hill the sj-enite disappears from the western 
wall, and its place is taken to some extent by pro- 
pylite, but in greater part by metamorphic rocks of 
the third of the before-mentioned classes, )irinci|ially 
quartzite and uralitic rocks. * * Nowhere have 
sj-enite and metamorphic rocks been found on the 
eastern side. 


The outcroppings of the Comstock Lode do not 
form a continuous line, but consists rather of small 
and detached fragments of ((uarlz, ordinarilj- jiro- 
truding from the surrounding ground, and sometimes 
forming bold crests, which, in the aggregate, form 
a broad uninterrupted belt. The horizontal <lis- 
tance across the vein of the outcro|)s of the differ- 
ent branches, amounts to upwards of (>(I0 feet. Those 
of the western branches wbich retain the eastern 
dip of the western wall of the vein, carrj' principally 
crystallized quartz of a verj' glassy- appearance, 
ordinaril}- of white, or at least of light color, and 
comparatively of pure i|uality. Angular fragments 
of the country rock are imbedded in the quartz, and 
form the center of its crystallization; they usually 
occur in large pieces and in tini'ly disseminated par- 

Metalliferous minerals are scarce, though not 
entirel}- wanting. Nothing indicates underground 
wealth, nor, indeed, has such been found by subse- 
quent mining. The only exception is Cedar Hill, 
where native gold was found abundantly in places; 
but its scarce dispersion never justified great expec- 
tations. Of this nature are the Sacramento, ^'■irginia, 
and HI Doi-ailo outcrops, and others on Mounts 
Davidson and Butler. Tbey have in several places 
a width of 120 feet, besides other branches which 
form ])art of them. 

In the eastern outcrops, jiarticles of the country 

* This rock was afterwards termed "andcsito," and is said to 
liave been of volcanic origin, sulwetjuent to the upheaval or 
elevation of the accompanying strata; and is also thought liy 
Clarence King and others to W' contemporaneous witli, and to 
some extent mstrumental in, the deposit of the mineral matter 
forming the Comstock I-odc. It will Ik; referre<l to again. — Ed. 



rock, together with othei-s of clayey matter and 
metallic substances, occur, finely dis.seminated through 
the quartz, causing thereby a marked dift'erence 
from the character of the western outcrops. A cer- 
tain porous structure of the quartz, evidently origi- 
nating from the removal of tino particles of ore, and 
the brown and red coloring caused by metallic 
oxides, indicate the ore-bearing character of large 
portions in depth; and the dissemination of native 
gold and silver in small pores and larger cavities, 
gives evidence of the presence of ores of the precious 
metals. Also the chloride and simple sulphuret of 
silver, occur in the eastern outcrops. These differ- 
ent characters of the "Facos" and "Colorados" of 
the Mexican, and the " iron hat " of the German 
miner, continue downward to varying depths.* 


The vein matter of the Comstock Lode is of a 
highly varied character, if we consider every sub- 
stance which enters into the compo^tion of the body 
of the vein between its two walls as belonging to 
it. Its chief component pai'ts are fragments of 
country rock, clay, and clayej' matter, quartz and 


Near the surface, about five-sixths of the mass of 
the Comstock vein consists of fragments of country 
rock — "horses," as the Cornish miner calls them. 
They are often of large size, and then terminate 
below in a sharp edge. Their shape and size vary 
somewhat with the nature of the rock of which they 
consist. Those of projij-lite, which along the whole 
range occur on the eastern side, and onl3- occasion- 
all3- extend throughout the whole vein where the 
country is of the same character on both sides, are 
ordinarilj- ver}- much elongated in the direction of 
the vein, frequently to 1.00(1 feet or more, while 
their breadth is far inferior, and their height is 
intermediate between both. At their ends they 
thin out gradually. Those of syenite terminate 
more abruptly, and their dimensions are more equal, 
though they are always in the direction of the 
strike of the vein. From the large "horses" every 
variety of size occurs down to the smallest frag- 
ments. The quartz is often so thickly filled with 
angular ])ieces as to have a breccialed a])]ioarance. 
Propylite is more common among them than sj-en- 
ite, and brecciated vein matter is therefore ])rev- 
alent in those parts of the lode where ))ro])ylite 
incloses the same on both sides, or where, at least, 
it furnished the larger part of the material for the 
"horses." It is for this reason abundant in the Cal- 
iiornia. Central, and (Jphir mines, and in the south- 
ern part of the Gold Uill mines. 


Few largo veins are so abundant in these sub- 
stances as the ('omstock vein. Clay forms the east- 
ern selvage from north to south in continuous sheets, 
sometimes of ten to twenty feet in tliickness. Other 
sheets of clay divide "horses" from (juartz or differ- 
ent bodies of the latter; and where the two walls 
come in close contact they have in ]ilaces a united 
width of twenty to sixty feet. This clay is ordi- 
nariij- tough and i)Utt3--like, and contains rounded 
])el)l)les of the adjoining rock; only where quartz is 
on both sides it i)artakes of its nature, and is more 
earthy and dry. liut, besides, clayey matter occurs 

'These surface rncks arc also called "gossan," "calico rock," 
"mundic," "iron cap," etc. — Ed. 

in the body of the vein to a great extent, and in 
places takes a prominent part in filling the fissure. 
Most "horses" terminate at their lower end in a 
clayey substance, and continue downward as well 
as in the direction of the vein as sheets of clay. 
Out of the vein the same matter occurs to a great 
extent in the eastern country, but scarcely, if ever, 
in the western, thereby giving another evidence of 
the indistinctness of the eastern boundary of the 


The differences mentioned before as prevailing in 
the quartz of the outcrops continue downward, but are 
not so conspicuous in depth on account of the gen- 
eral white color of the quartz. But even then the 
finely disseminated particles of the wall rock are 
more peculiar to the eastern then the western por- 
tions, and are alwaj-s abundant where the quartz 
contains ore. At the upper levels, some bodies of 
quartz are of a reddish color ; this is where the 
"Colorados" continue downward. Frequeiitl\% how- 
ever, this color is only due to the red clay filling the 
fissures of the fractured quartz. In this case it is 
probably produced by the percolation of the vein 
matter bj- water, while in the former it is likelj- that 
it is connected with the original formation of the 
vein, as are all the phenomena presented bj' the " iron 
hat." The ijuartz in the Comstock vein is rarelj' 
solid, and blasting is a|)plied for its removal in but 
few instances. Generally it is fractured, and in nu- 
merous places the effects of dj-namical action on it 
are such as to give it the appearance of crushed 
sugar. It occurs in this condition when inclosed in 
claj'ey matter, and then frequently reminds one of the 
waving lines of damask.* J?ut then, also large and 
continuous bodies, consisting entirely of " crushed 
quartz," as we maj' call it, are occasionallj- met 
with. Such was the ease throughout the larger part 
of the gi'eat bonanza of the Ophir mine. 


The principal ores of the Comstock lode are 
stephanite, vitreous silver ore, native silver, and 
ver}' rich galena; also small quantities of pj^rargy- 
rite or ruby silver, horn silver, and poiybasite. 
Besides these are found native gold, iron ))yrites, cop- 
per ])3'rites, zincblende. carbonate of lead and 
pyromorphite, the last two being very scarce. 

Having quoted extensivelj-from Baron Ilichthofen, 
a few extracts from Clarence King's exhaustive 
report will be in order: — 


Both the Sierra and I)e8ert ranges are composed 
first of crumpled and uplifted strata, from the azoic 
period to the late Jurassic; secondly-, of ancient 
erupted rocks which accompanj- the Jurassic up- 
heaval; and thirdl)-, of modern eruptive rocks belong- 
ing to the volcanic familj', ranging in date ])rc)bably 
from as early as the late miocene to the glacial 

'Great value is attached U> the timliiig of a large ainouiit of 
clay, gouge, or selvage on the walls of a vein. By many miners 
it is consiilered as the result of tl)e shiw grinding of the walls 
together, thus indicating a deep tissure, as no shallow crevice in 
the surface of tiic e;irth woidd 1k' snhject to such displacement. 
Other miners consider tlie clay .as resulting fn>m the dccomjiosi- 
tion of mineral waters acting on the walls of the lo<le, thus indi-* 
eating an extensive ore chauncl. It is likely that it may be 
produced by cither or both acting together. In any case it is, 
next to firm and consistent wall rocks, considered the best evi- 
dence of an ore deposit or ore channel. — Ed. 



period. Folds of more or less comploxity, twisted 
and warped by longitudinal forces, often comiJressed 
into a series of zigzags, sometimes masked by out- 
bursts of granite, syenitic granite, or syenite, and 
last!}-, built upon bj' or freciuently buried beneath 
immense accumulations of volcanic material; these 
are the characteristic features of the mountain 
chains. They are usually meridional and parallel, 
and separated by valleys \vhi(jh are filled to a gen- 
eral level by quarternarj- detritus, the result of 
erosion from the early cretaceous period down to 
the present time. The east slope of the Sierra, 
directlj' facing the Washoe region, is. in brief, a 
relic of metamorphic schists and slates, skirting the 
foot-hills and resting at high east and west angles 
against the great granite bod}% which, for many 
miles to the southward, forms not only the summit 
but the main mass of the range. Eising through 
the granite, and forming an eastern summit is a 
lofty mass of sanidin-trach3"te, of a dull chncolate 
color, and onl^- remarkable for the beautifully regu- 
lar prisms of black mica which intersect it. The 
ridge known as the Washoe .Mountains is of this 
trachyte. Its culmiiiating height, Washoe Peak, 
lies directlj' east and west across the vallcj' from 
Mount l)avidson, the center and summit of the 
Virginia mining region. 

Little can be learned of the ancient structure of the 
Virginia range, for eight-tenths of its mass are made 
up of volcanic rocks. Only at rare intervals, where 
deep erosion lays bare the original range, or whei-e 
its hard summits have been lifted above the volcanic 
flows, is there any clue to the materials or position of 
the ancient chain. Mount Davidson is one of these 
relics, being composed of syenite. Lidined against 
the base of this mass, and in the bottoms of ravines 
eroded in the volcanic materials occur considerable 
hills of metamorphic rocks, schists, limestones, graph- 
itic shales and slates. Southward in the canon of 
the Carson, and in the ravines of the Pine .Nut hills, 
are uplifted slates and carbonaceous shales, associated 
with irregular limestone beds, the whole surrounded 
and limited by volcanic (andesite) rocks. Still further 
southward, the crest ridge of the Pine Nut region, 
which is a continuation of the Virginia range, is 
syenitic granite, forming high, rugged crags, of an 
extremely ]>icturesque asjiect. Hvery analogy would 
point to the belief that these aqueous rocks and the 
granitic masses accompanj'in;, them, are identical 
with the similar njcks, which predominate in the 
majorit}' of Cordillera ranges; but we have positive 
proof of this in the fact that in El Dorado Canon, one 
of the ravines of the Pine Nut hills, Professor Whit- 
ney has found triassic fossils. 

In resume, it may be said that this range is one of 
the old Jurassic folds of stratified rocks, through 
whose fissures granite and syenite have obtruded; 
that after a verj' long period of comparative repose 
from the early cretaceous to the late tertiary the 
old range was riven in innumerable crevices, and 
deluged by floods of volcanic rocks which have 
buried nearly all its older mass, and entirelj- changed 
its topograph}'. l»uring this ])eriod of vulcanism 
the present vallej's were in great part filled with 
fresh water lakes; and near the base of the A'ir- 
ginia rango we have evidence, in the tufa deposits, 
that a considerable quantity of volcanic material 
.was both ejected under water and flowed down 
into it. Water penetrating the fissured range and 
meeting melted rock gave rise to the solfataras and 
hot springs, whose traces are everj'wherc ajiparent. 
Following this age of lava and steam eruptions 

came the glacial epoch, with its sequel of torrents 
and floods, and finally a great desiccating ]>eriod, 
introducing our present condition. 


A sketch of the geology of Nevada which should 
leave this out would bo very imperfect indeed. 
Although the great ice ago had little to do in 
forming the deposits of ores, it had much to do with 
fixing the to])ography of the countrj-, and exposing 
the mineral deposits. 

In common with all the northern part of North 
America, Nevada was covered with a deluge of ice. 
Although it was, geologically speaking, a modern 
affair, many centuries — perhaps thousands — have 
elapsed since that period, and it requires a great 
stretch of the imagination, while toiling over the 
dreary alkali or salt plains to realize the fact that 
at one time the ice overspread the whole country 
from 5,000 to 20,000 feet in depth. But the proofs 
seem incontrovertible. From California on the west 
to Nova Scotia in the east can be found the track 
of the glaciers, unmistakable in their character as 
are the ancient roads in Kurope, constructed by the 
Roman legions. The causes which led to these vast 
deposits of ice, which changed the almost tropic 
sun into an arctic one, and permitted the accumu- 
lated snows to remain for unknown ages, is as much 
beyond our comprehension as are the upheavals of 
the Eocky Mountains or Sierra Nevada. The small 
snow-banks left in the mountains seem about as in- 
significant compared to the original masses as the 
few hot springs compared with the great solfataras 
that deposited the rich lodes of the Comstock. It is 
one of the peculiarities of these great ice-fields that 
they have a regular flow towards the greatest de- 
pression. The movement is slow, sometimes not 
more than a few feet in a j'car, but it moves with 
a mightj' force. Great masses of rock held in the 
ice as in a vise are dragged along the earth, cutting 
away the hardest rocks, leveling everything to a 
certain plane. In this waj' Carson, Truckee, Para- 
dise, and all the larger valleys of the State were 
eroded. At the lower end of those valleys may 
generally be found the reef of rocks, the worn out 
or abandoned tools of the defunct glacier left us; 
under the influence of the changing climate it 
slowly retreated up the mountain sides, these trans- 
verso, also lateral piles of rock (jnoraines') indicating 
the places where an obstinate and prolonged resist- 
ance was made. The western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada was the site of the most active work, bo- 
cause the elevation was from tide water, or a molt- 
ing point, to a region of perpetual frost. 


The glaciers are now in full action in some parts 
of Alaska, moving in columns of a hundred miles in 
length so slowly that a j'ear is required to make any 
perceptible movement ; but from under the glacier 
tho waters pour out laden with clay and fine 



sand, the shavings and chips of the mighty ma- 
chine that was, and still is, engaged in leveling 
continents. In the southern part of California, 
around the cluster of mountains containing Mount 
Whitney, the glacier is still a powerful element in 
shaping the earth. A few small ones, not often 
exceeding a mile in their greatest dimensions, may 
be seen in the vicinity of the Carson Eiver. The 
number within the limits of that State may exceed 
a hundred, though the period of their greatest ac- 
tivity has long since passed away. 


Returning to the consideration of the general 
geology, a few remarks concerning other jjortions 
of the State will finish the subject, promising that 
the particular description given of the Comstock 
Lode will furnish a key to that of most parts of 
the Great Basin, though it would seem that the 
deposit of ores occurred in widely ditteront eras, 
as also under different dynamical and metalliferous 

The portions of the Slate occupied by the last 
of the reti-eating seas are marked by extensive 
bodies of soda, borax, sulphur, alum and salt. 
Those deposits are more particularly described in 
the sketches of the different counties. Humboldt, 
Churchill and Ksmoraldu counties are of this charac- 
ter, being distinguished by the presence of numerous 
saliniferous minerals. They occupy the lowest po- 
sition of the Groat Basin, the largest rivers, such as 
Carson, Humboldt, Walker, Truckce, all having their 
sinks in, or near, those counties. In other portions 
the beds of limestone, the remains of the coral 
reefs of a former age, become the associates of the 
gold and silver veins, and seem to have been ac- 
tive in producing the precipitation, or deposit. 
This condition seems to obtain in Elko, Nye, Kureka, 
and White Pine. In other portions of the State the 
deposits were in many instances in granite, in nar- 
row fissures, with little indications of deep or exten- 
sive fissures, as in Esmeralda and Lander counties, 
as well as the mines on the eastern slope of the Sierra 
Nevada, in the counties of Esmeralda, Ormsby, 
Washoe, etc. The northwestern ])art of the State 
in many places seems to be overlaid with the lava 
from the great overflow which formed the famous 
Modoc lava beds. 

The first fossils belonging to the lower silurian 
period, found west of the one hundred and twelfth 
meridian, to which ])ublic attention was called, wore 
discovered in lS(i(i, at Silver Peak, I'^sineralda County, 
by I'rofessor Joshua E. Clayton. They were found 
on the border of a large valle}', whoso depressed cen- 
tral portion of several hundred acres in extent, is 
covered with saline incrustations from the dej)th of 
several inches to a foot or more. At that time Pro- 
fessor Clayton was 8ui)erintending the construction 
of reduction works there, as well as exploiting the 
mines that were to su])ply the ore to be worked. 

The valley has since then been known as Clayton 
Valley. A hard, compact, finegrained calcareous 
rock, which was susceptible of a high degree of 
polish, proved to have been formed by the organic 
remains of the earliest existing corallites known; 
while an arenacious bed of yellowish, thinly laminated 
sandstone in immediate proximity contained innu- 
merable trilobites — the eai-liest living creatures on 
the globe — which were plainly imprinted upon each 
sheet of the rock as the layers were separated. 
Thermal saline springs of large dimensions flow near 
the point at which this discovery was made; and on 
the hills that skirt the valley are found ledges con- 
taining gold, silver, copper, lead and iron, besides 
other metals less useful. 

Manj- of the most prominent mines of central and 
eastern Nevada arc found in limestone. Immense 
reefs of quartzite are almost invariably found accom- 
panj-ing these limestone belts, and running parallel 
thereto. The Pilot Mountains, a short distance 
southeast of Walker Lake, are mostly composed of 
limestone, which contains numerous large fossils of a 
recent geological period. Erosion has loosened and 
exposed manj^ of these, and they can there be pro- 
cured in great quantities, and of perfect form. In 
the Diamond Jlange, on many of the most prom- 
inent ])caks, which have suffered denudation by snow 
and ice, can also be found fossils of Jike character. 
At Hot Creek and Tybo limestone is the predom- 
inating rock along the metalliferous zone. At 
Mineral Hill, where the ore is found, the rock is 
calcareous slate at the base of the hill, while over- 
lying this higher up is limestone. Spruce Mount- 
ain is composed of stratified limestone, or dolomite, 
with an outcrop of porph3"r3' on the western slope at 
its base. 

The rocks of Humboldt County are syenite, 
granite, porph3'ry and slate, though quartzite pre- 
vails in some of the mountain ranges, accompanied 
with limestone mingled with calcareous spar, which 
either rests upon or alternates with hard, compact 
grits and quartzile. In maii^' of the canons are 
found boulders of ser])entine, conglomerate, talcoso 
slate, fine grey granite, coarse rod, crystalline white 
and metamorphic sandstones, gypsum, pebbles of 
alabaster, and marble of variable textures. In some 
localities volcanic action is indicated bj- the presence 
of scoria, obsidian, lava and sulphur. 

In Nye County there is a vein of silicious material 
which contains much beautiful lui'quoise, useful to 
the lapidary. Also boaiitifull}' silicifiod wood — largo 
trees having been petrified — from which fine spec- 
imens can be procured. The sandy ])laina of south- 
ern Nevada frequcntlj' show upon their surface 
many pebbles, rough-looking on the outside, about the 
size of a hen's egg, which, u|)on being broken, arc 
found to be agate, hollow — geodes, containing innu- 
merable, iioautiful, tiny crystals. Calcedony, obsidian 
etc., are frcijuently found in their company. 









The general trend of the interior elevations is 
parallel to that of the Uocky Mountains and Sierra 
Nevada, though instances are not wanting of trans- 
verse elevations, and even of mineral veins to cor- 
respond. In places these elevations rival the parent 
Rocky Mountains in height. The United States 
geological cxjiloration of the fortieth parallel gives 
the altitude of Pogonip Peak, in White Pine Count}', 
as 10,792 feet above the level of the sea; Tel 
egraph Peak and Treasure Hill, 9,228; Treasure 
City, S,!1S(I; and other places nL'urly the same. It 
is remarkable that on those high elevations some 
of the richest mines in the State have been found 
in a horizontal po.sition, the minerals seemingly 
owing their capture or precipitation to beds of lime- 
stone, over which flowed the waters of solfiilaras, 
holding silver in solution. 

The Washoe range of mountains is 100 miles or 
more in length, ending, on the south, in the Pine 
Nut Mountains, which are even higher than Mount 
Davidson, without its fortunate and unexampled 
deposits, however. In the north it is lost or .sinks 
under the great lava flow before referred to. 

As illustrated in Figure No. 1, the surfjice of the 
great intermediate basin appears to have been com- 
pressed between the flanking ranges, the Sierra Ne- 
vada on the west and the Rocky Mountains on the 
east, the whole constituting a portion of the Cor- 
dillerian system, which stretches from Central Amer- 
ica to the Arctic. The regular recurrence of the 
mountain ranges and the parallelism of their trend 
impress the casual observer with the conviction of 
lateral pressure as their cause. While there is a 
general regularity in the physical features of all 
the different ranges, the trend of all being northerly 
and southerly, there appears great irregularity in 
their lithological formation, offering to the geologist 
and mineralogist the most interesting of all possible 
fields for his studies. Within the limits of the State 
are near 100 distinct mountain ranges, nearly everj^ 
one of which are worth}' the close attention and full 
description that IJichthofen and King have given 
of the Washoe Range, including Mount Davidson. 
Among the jirincipal ranges are, commencing in the 
northwest, the Black Rock, Pine Forest, Antelope, 
Trinity, Cottonwood or Santa Rosa, Hot Spring, 
Independence, Goose (^"reek, and othersmaller mount- 
ains, buttes and spurs north of the Humboldt River; 
and south of that river and north of the central 
parallel are the West Humboldt, East Range, Sonoma, 
Battle Mountain, l''ish ('reek, Cortez, Pifion, Hast 
Humboldt, Pequop and Toano. Along the central 
belt are the Carson Sink l^ange, Augusta, New Pass. 
Desatoya, Shoshone, Toiyabe, To<iuima, Monitor. 
Hot Creek. Diamond, Pancake, White Pine, Egan, 
Long Valley Range, Schell Creek, and Snake, In 
the southwest and south are the Walker River or 
Wassuch, Excelsior, Pilot, Monte Christo, Red Mount- 

ain, Kawitch, Reveille, Pahranagat, Mount Irish, 
Hiko, Ely, Highland, S|)ring Mountain, Cedar, Mor- 
mon, Virgin, Grapevine, Belted, Desert, Buckskin, 
j Vegas, and Muddy. There are many other ranges 
of considerable importance, to some of which the 
geographer has as yet neglected to give an appella- 
tion; and there arc also many i.solated ]ieaks and 
hills that have become famous for their mineral 
wealth. Of these latter are the Potosi, with its 
stores of galena; and the Salt Mountain, with its 
great veins of rock salt in the extreme south; Sil- 
ver Peak in the southwest; Ruby Hill and Prospect 
Mountain in the Diamond Range; Treasure Hill and 
Pogonip Peak in the White Pine Range; Mount 
Tenabo, and its giant ledge, in the Cortez Mountains; 
Jeff. Davis Peak and Wheeler Peak in the Snake 
Range. Some of the ranges, as the Toiyabe, Dia- 
mond, Schell Creek, Egan, and East Humboldt, ex- 
tend unbroken for 100 or more miles in length, send- 
ing their highest peaks 10.000 and 12,000 feet into 
the sky. While the surface appears so mountainous, 
there are broad valleys corresponding, seldom less 
than five or six miles in width, some with fertile 
soil, and some widely spread with salt, soda, borates, 
nitre, suli)hur, etc, forbidding to the eye, but valua- 
ble to commerce. Through all the mountain ranges 
arc fretpient passes, and open ])lains surround their 
termini, affording easy routes of travel; and in 
nearly every range, whether the body bo of granite, 
limestone, porphyry, or (piartzite, are veins of the 
precious or useful metals. 


If the minerals now sought for by the general- 
ity of mankind had their .origin in the center of 
tbe earth, or in the Plutonic regions, as so often 
said, it is quite certain that they were ejected at such 
an ancient period that they have been, and still are, 
handled over and over by the superficial forces or 
agencies. When superficial is spoken of it must bo 
given sufficient latitude to embrace all that portion 
of the earth which has been subject to deposit, 
erosion, or denudation, which in many places is not 
less than twenty thousand feet. In one of the illus- 
trations used at the beginning of this article atten- 
tion is called to the dark lities as inclosing the sup- 
posed mineral stratum. That such a condition may 
exist, and even does exist, may bo easily demon- 
strated. The granite mountains tower far above 
the stratified rocks at their bases, with which 
they once were overlaid. This stripping process 
has gone on until far down on the side of the 
mountains we find the edges of the strata which 
on the western slope go down under the great Sacra- 
mento Valley, and on the eastern side un<ler the Great 
Basin of Utah. We find the remains of mineral veins 
whose tops, and ]ierhaps richest ])arts, have been 
swept away with all tbe gold, silver and other min- 
erals contained in them. We have seen the surface 
of the Comstock Lode enrich Gold Cafion. The 



gold which was found in tho canon was \>re- 
sumablj- not one per cent, of what was ori,i;inallj- in 
tho vein, and the silver was all swept away, lodging 
somewhere, below or perhaps, carried to tho lake at 
the foot of Carson River. This condition prevails 
all over the State. According to the reports of the 
Assessors the mineral veins have been richest on the 
surface, and these have for ages been exposed to the 
wash and destruction incident to rains, frost and 
sunshine. There is no destruction of metals, and 
they must be in existence somewhere in the newly- 
formed or ]josl pliocene strata. In the course of our 
history mention is made of the use of immense quan- 
tities of quicksilver used by the miners everywhere. 
It all goes down the stream, enriching tho valleys. 
Thousands of tons arc deposited in some shape below 
the mines. Supposing that in course of natural 
events, propylitc and trachyte should again cover 
the earth, or at least the portion of it under consid- 
eration, and bury it so deep that the present ranches, 
alkali and salt beds, should become subject to the 
internal heat of the earth, amounting to one degree 
for each fifty feet of depth, the minerals would be- 
come redissolved and perhaps be redepositod by the, 
hot springs, or solfataras. which would result fi-om an 
upheaval of new mountain ranges. The slightest 
consideration of this subject will enable any one to 
see that the 8:500, 0(1(1, (100 taken from tho mines of 
Nevada have made no perceptible impression on the 
total amount of tho original quantity. 

The minerals lying in tho flats and mud lakes 
may bo of ver\' little value to tho present race of hu- 
manity, and are referred to as a possible solution of 
tho question as to tho origin of mineral veins. 


Whatever the fluctuations in the mining interests 
of any one locality, Nevada will undoubtedly remain 
tho groat silver-producing State for many years. 
While it is verj' doubtful whether, as a rule, the 
mines will grow richer as greater depths are attained, 
yet there is such an immense tract of metalliferous 
country with large ((uantities of low-grade ores, 
which under favorable circumstances will pay for 
reduction, that it is (juito certain thousands will mine 
with ])rofit for hundreds of years. When we look at 
tho extravagant rates of labor, timber, machinery 
etc., extravagant compared with ])rices in Kurope — 
where mining has boon carried on I'di- hundreds of 
years on a basis of less than one-fourth of the 
Nevada prices — and considei- that according to the 
inevitable laws of exchange tho rates must approx- 
imate each other, it leaves an immense margin for 
develo|)ment in Nevada. 

Vor}' little profit of the rich mines inures to the 
State where the mines are situated. Tho profits go 
to stockholders, who ])erliaps reside in I'aris or 
Jjondon. The works are managed by agents, who 
deem it their duty and interest to extort the utmost 
profits ))ossible; they cheapen everything, wood. 

labor and material to the greatest extent. Though 
bonanzas enrich the world, or at least the owners 
thereof, they bring no more profit to the country 
than the poorer mines, which pay but a small profit 
over the cost of working. In nearlj- every countj' 
are found bodies of low-grade ores of all kinds, 
where bonanzas are possible. In addition to the 
mines of silver and gold there are immense beds of 
borax, salt, sulphur, antimony and copper, all valu- 
able in the arts, that alone would form the basis of 
prosperity. When the systems of railways now 
contemplated and under way shall have been com- 
pleted, so that the prices of transportation shall not 
be such an effectual bar to development, Nevada will 
gradually assume among tho States tho position 
which her immense resources entitle her. 



Mining Inlliience Upou I'olitics — Why ami flow tlic L.iw Was 
t'liangcd — Wliy the Law Was t'l\anged in 1S7I — Bullion 
lucreasu in 1N71 Over 1870 — Table Showing Chtinge in 
Asseasments anil Taxation, etc. — The Law of 1875, Its 
Pecuniary and Political I'jli'ects — The Members Ignore Their 
Pledges — An Outside Pressure Brought to Bear — The Two 
Horns of the Dileninia — The llesult — Senators Voting Kor 
and Against — The Veto and Its I'^ifects — Bonanza Move 
Number Three — Attempt to Compromise — Compromise Ef- 
fected — EBbrts to Avoid Paying the Penalties. 

The search for tho royal metals first led to the 
settlement of the whites in tho country now known 
as Nevada. The discovery of the Comstock was the 
first lodestone that attracted any considerable num- 
ber into tho Territory. It is the mineral resources 
of Nevada that have created a demand for other 
branches of industry, and they languish or prosper 
in response to the mineral developments of the 
country. With the mining industrj- closed ilown, 
even at this day, there would result such an exodus 
from the State as would leave those who remained 
more tenants at will of the Indians. ISecause of the 
importance of this branch of Nevada's resources, it 
has from the first boon the touchstone, or ruling 
factor, in ultimatclj' determining her govermontal 

In 18G3, when the first legally authorized effort 
was made to adopt a State Constitution, tho question 
that agitated the framers more than any other, was 
that of taxing the mines. A section was inserted in 
that instrument authorizing taxation of property 
which ])laeed unproductive, and all mines, u])on the 
same basis for being taxed as other projierty. A 
strong opposition was developed in the Convention 
against this clause in the section which authorized a 
levy upon a mining claim on account of value given 
to the location because of tho present hope or belief 
that it would lead to vdlii-e at nomoyu/ure time. Wm. 
M. Stewart was the most able and tenacious of all 
tho members in his opposition to tho section as it 
was introduced, and he projiosod an amendment 
that authorized a levy only upon the net proceeds of 



that class of iiro])erty, but it was defeated. Ho 
made a number of speeches upon the (piestion, in all 
of which he reminded hia associates that he was 
"Opposed to taxintj the hopes of poor miners; his 
shafts, and drifts, and i)ed-rock tunnels." 

Mark Twain, in his inimitable way, in a communi- 
cation to the Territoi-wl Enterprise, gives the proceed- 
ings of a burlesque body known as the Third House, 
of which he was President. His report of the 
meeting leaves a forcible impression upon tho mind 
of the tenacity evinced by Mr. S., his proneness to 
recur to tho hojjc deferred «f the poor miners, as 
well as the importance attached at the time to that 
subject by tho Convention generallJ^ This article 
will be fount! in full in Cliaptov XII. of this book. 

On the nineteenth of tho following January tho 
Constitution was overwhelmingly rejected by the 
peo])le, on the grounds, mainly, of its not contain- 
ing the Stewart amendment. Another Convention 
was called to frame a State Constitution, that met 
at Carson, in Jul}-, 18(14, and the rejected instrument, 
with slight changes, including the Stewart idea of 
mining taxation, was again j)laced before the people. 
Tho vote was taken at the general State election 
that year, on the seventh of September, resulting in 
adopting it by a vote of 10,378 to 1,284. The first 
Legislature that met under tho Now Constitution 
enacted a revenue law that was a])provod March tt, 

This Act* authorized a tax levy of 81 ••")'• for tho 
county, and 81.25 for tho State on each one hundred 
dollars of valuation; but Section !t!l limited the levy 
on ])roceeds of mines to one dollar on the hundred, 
one- half for county, the other for State purposes. 
This was a discrimination in favor of mining pro- 
ducts of 81.75 on the 8100 over other kinds of prop- 

The law further ])rovided that twenty dollars 
should be deducted for expense of working the ore, 
and that only three-fourths of tho remainder should 
bo taxed. I This would result in obtaining sixty 
cents tax from a ton of ore that worked 8100. 


Tho question of the constitutionality of the ninety- 
ninth section of that law had been mooted from tho 
time of its passage, but no case had boon brought 
before tho courts to settle the matter until Feb- 
ruary 8, 1877, when an af^tion for that purpose was 
brought before Judge S. II. Wright, of tho Second 
District. Both friends and enemies of the law knew 
that the matter would be taken before the Supreme 
Court of the State, as soon as Judge Wright ren- 
dered his decision, by appeal of the unsuccessful 

• .Statues of 18U4 and 1865, pages 271-300. 

t State of Nevada vs. Kstabrook. New Reports, volume 3, 
page 173. 

tNcva<la Reports, volume 3, p.ige 179. "The closing sen- 
tence of Section '.10 dincts ;i tax to be levied on tliree-fourtlia of 
tlic value ]irevi(iu»ly a.seertaineil of llie procecda of the mine. 
This is clearly The value being once ascer- 
tained the whole value is taxable at the same rate a.s other prop- 

litigant. The question was a very important one; 
and if the section in question was finally declared 
to be antagonistic to the State Constitution such 
decision would increase materially tho amount of tax 
that producers would bo re(iuired to pay upon their 

Some idea of the strength of motive that influenced 
men to provide against the conseiiuences of an 
adverse decision will be gained from the following: — 

In 18()G tho Storey County Assessor had rej)ortod 
811,951,876 as the gross amount of their bullion 
produced, and a tax of 817,772.54 only had boon 
paid on the same. If tho revenue had been col- 
lected in accordance with only that portion of the law 
which the Supremo Court finally decided to be con- 
stitutional, the tax would have boon increased from 
the amount as above — of less than 818,000 — to 
8123,776.20 in Storey County alone. The Could & 
Curry, Savage, Halo & Norcross, Yellow Jacket, 
Kentuck, Imperial, Crown Point, Belcher, and other 
mines of the Comstock were ^-ielding an aggregate 
of from 815,000,000 to 817,000,000 in bullion per year. 
This present income, and foreshadowing of such 
vast andrapidlj^ accumulating wealth ibr the future, 
made slight variations in the per cent, of tax, repre- 
senting large sums of money. Therefore it was 
doomed important that no uncertainty should lie 
at the door of wealth, like tho menace contained in 
the undecided suit; and the danger resulted in bring- 
ing tho sensitive receivers of fabulous incomes into 
the shadows directly behind the Legislative throne. 

A special session of the Tjcgislature having been 
called, convened on the fifteenth of March succeed- 
ing the commencement of tho suit, and two rev- 
enue bills were introduced before that body that 
materially changed the provisions of tho law in 
question. One of them provided for a further ex- 
emption in the amount of bullion to bo assessed, 
allowing eighteen dollars per ton on free ores, and 
forty dollars per ton on such as had to bo worked 
by the Freiburg (roasting), or smelting jiroccss, to 
bo deducted from the gross yield.* The other was 
introduced into the Senate by D. W. Welty, of Lan- 
der County, on tho twenty-second of March, 1S67, 
looking to tho relief of tho tax-op])rc88ed bullion. 
It passed tho Senate by a vote of ten to five, and 
tho Assembly by a vote of twenty-three to five, 
almost without discussion; becoming a law by ap- 
proval April 2(1, on tho same day of its passage. 
Tho ninety-ninth section of the old law was on tho 
sixth of June following declared unconstitutional, 
because it made taxation unequal; but in this respect 
the new law out-lleroded Herod liiinself.t It lim- 
ite<l the liullinn tax in Storey < 'outit}' to twenty-five 
cents on the one hundreil dollars, for countj- pur- 
poses, at tho same lime authorizing therefor the 
levy of 81.50 on the same amount of any other 
species of property. Tho State tax was loil uniform; 

* Statues of 1807, page 100. 
+ Statutes of 1807, page 103. 



(iiBcrimination only heinfj allowed in taxation for 
county pur]ioses, and in Store}- County; productive 
mines in other parts of the State being nhut out 
from the beneficiary limitation. Under this new 
regime, thj owner of a horse vaUv^d at 8100 paid 
to Storey Countj- §1.5(1 in tax, while the owner of 
a ton of ore yielding SlOO, first deducted eighteen 
dollars out of it, if the same was free milling ore, 
and then )) lid twenty and a half cents tax on what 
remained; but if the ore had to be either roasted or 
smelted to reduce it, then forty dollars was fiist 
deducted, leaving sixty dollars to be assessed that 
was taxed only fifteen cents.* 


It needs but a glance at the following exhibit to 
enable a j)crson to understand the influences that 
produced a change in the existing law creating 
farther exemption in the tax on bullion. 


Over the product of 1870, as exhibited by rolls of 
County Assessors: — 

Ksmeralda County, bullion assesKed in 1871, •SK>7,- 
07!»; in 1870, $92,'.llil. Increase, .?44,l(i0. 

Elko County, bullion assessed in 1871, SG14,04C; 
in 1870, S210,l(;0. Increase, .«.'i0r),777. 

Humboldt Count}-, bullion assessed in 1871, 8400,- 
458; in 1870, 8378,840. Increase, 8120,618. 

Lyon County, bullion assessed in 1871, 8.")70,279. 
1 ncreaso, 8.")70,270. 

Lander Count}-, bullion assessed in 1871,82,090,01.3; 
in 1870, Sl,104,.')00. Increase, 8004,423. 

Lincoln County, bullion assessed in 1871,83,604,- 
802; in 1870, 81,602,016. Increase, 81,041,886. 

Nye County, bullion assessed in 1871, 8474,108; in 
1870, 8191,061. Increase, 8283,047. 

White Pine County, bullion assessed in 1871, 
§1,347,528; in 1870. 81,177,670. Increase, 8169,849. 

Storey County, bullion assessed in 1871, 810,644,702; 
in 1S70, 86,(153,040. Increase, 84,500,753. 

Total increased bullion assessment of 1871 over 
1870, 88,119,801. 

In November, 1870, tlio Crown Point and Rclcher 
'■bonanzas" were discovered, those mines being the 
property of William Sharon, of the California Pank, 
and his friends. The nni)recc(k'iitc(l j)ros])crily of 
mines all over the Slate combined to help give own- 
ers an overshadowing influence upon legislation; 
and they sought, as |)rc)i<>ndci-ating ca]iital always 
seeks, to shift the burden of taxation as much as 
possible on to the properties and industries less for- 
tunate and able to bear it. In addition to the above, 
another strong incentive was thrown into the scale 
for exemj)tion of mining products, because of the 
following facts: — 

The Legislature of 1869 had, in February, author- 

* Statutes of 1867, pages 160 and 163. 

ized Storey County to issue 8300,000 in bonds, to bo 
given to the Virginia and Truckco Pailroad Com- 
pany.* A levy of one-half of one per cent, was to 
be made yearly upon the property of the county to 
pay interest upon those bonds, and to create a sink- 
ing fund for accumulating moneys, out of which to 
jiay them oft' eventually. 

The Crown Point, Belcher, Savage, in fact nearly 
all the mines on the Comstock, were under the con- 
trol of the California Bank stockholders at that time. 
They consequently had a strong incentive for freeing, 
as far as lay in their power, this class of property 
from the burden of that debt. An additional motive 
was added, in the fact, that the same parties to 
whom the bonds were given and who owned the rail- 
road, also controlled those best paying mines; and 
they objected to having their bullion taxed into this 
county sinking and interest fund, out of which they 
were to be paid. The result of these influences, 
brought to bear, was the approval of an Act of the 
Legislature, on the twenty-eighth of February, 1871, 
that further'changed the law concerning the assess- 
ment of bullion, t This time it allowed a deduction 
from the product of mines, of such an amount per 
ton, as it cost to extract the ore and convert the 
same into bullion. A limit, however, was placed to 
the amount allowable for such expenses. The deduc- 
tion on ores going twelve dollars or less per ton, could 
not exceed ninety per cent, of their value. If they 
yielded anywhere between twelve and thirty dollars, 
a deduction of eighty per cent, might be made; and 
a sixty per cent, deduction was admissible if they 
produced between thirty and one hundred dollars. 
If over 8100, fifty per cent, might be claimed by the 
owner as exempt from taxation, provided it could bo 
shown that such was the actual expense. A further 
and additional deduction of fil'teen dollars per ton 
was allowable upon any ores worked by the dry, or 
Frieburg, ])roccss. The eft'ect of this change was to 
very materially increase the amount of bullion that 
escaped taxation. As an example: Under the law 
of 1S(')7. forty-dollar ore escaped tax, if worked by 
Frieburg or smelting process, and was assessed 
twenty-two dollars if reduced in any other way. 
Under the new law, the owners of the above grade 
of ores that escaped ta.xation, might figure expenses 
so high as to leave but one dollar per ton liable to 
assessment, while upon • the free ores that were 
assessed, as above twenty-two dollars per ton, the 
assessment might be reduced to sixteen dollars. 

The following table exhibits the eft'ect of the 
changes in the laws, by showing what the tax was — 
under each of the Acts, and the Supremo Court 
decision— upon 812, 830 to 899, and 810(1 ores. The 
remarks accompanying it, gives the authority for tho 
figures as they are given: — 

* Statutes (if I8G!>, page 49, Sections 1 imd 4. 
i Statutes of 1871, page 87. 

AA/'alter E. Dean. 

The young men who came to California as late as 
1860 do not call themselves pioneers. Yet in relation 
to business, they have had a pretty large range of 
pioneer expei-ience. \V. E. Dean was born in 
Eoehester, New York, December 25, 1838. His 
ancestors on his mother's side were of Maryland 
stock. His grandfather was present from that State 
at the first inauguration of George Washington as 
Pi-esident of the United States. On the paternal 
side, his immediate ancestors were from Kew York. 
Mr. Dean's early education was in the common 
schools of Eoehester and in the High School of the 
same city. This was supplemented by a good 
elementary business education in a banking house- 
In 1860, having attained his majority, he was ready 
for any business venture which had a reasonable 
prospect of succesB. He left Eoehester that year for 
China, by way of San Francisco. But on reaching 
the latter place, the accounts from China wore not 
assuring. The treatment of Europeans at that time, 
and the new hazards of business, with the prospect 
of a war between China and one or more European 
Powers, were considerations which changed Mr. 
Dean's determination, and he concluded to try his 
fortune in California. His business training stood him 
in good stead. lie very soon became Secretarj^ of 
some of the most important mines on the Pacific 
Coast. Among them were the Chollar Mining Com- 
pany, and afterwards the Potosi, Imperial, and oth- 
ers. He acquired in these positions the reputation of 
a prompt, accurate and faithful officer, with a large 
capacity for the dispatch of business. Courteous and 
obliging in his intercourse with those who had busi- 
ness to transact with him, he could hardly fail of 
being a popular business man. 

Mr. Dean made business ventures in mines, some- 
times with fortunate results, and sometimes with 
losses. Probably an instance is not known of unvary- 
ing good fortune on the part of any individual long 
engaged in mining pursuits. The purchase of an 
undeveloped mine is always a venture, where there 
may be ten chances against making anything to one 
for making a fortune. Yet a groat mine is such a 
fortune, and there is so much fascination in the ven- 
ture, that it is not a matter of wonder that enter- 
prising men should be willing to take the risks. A 
great mine can only be developed and placed on a 
paying basis by a large expenditure, and often bj' 
years of patient labor. Even when nothing is 
returned there is this one essential benefit, that many 

hundred thousand dollars may have been spent for 
labor and supplies, and this money goes into a 
thousand small channels, and helps the country just as 
much as the same amount which the farmer pays for 
the labor on his farm, and for the supplies which he 
buys from time to time. Mr. Dean at last found the 
balance from his ventures on the right side. He was 
set down as a fortunate man. It was rather the good 
fortune which came from experience, education and 
a clear business head. He did not place all his eggs 
in one basket, but at a later day, made several judi- 
cious investments in real estate in San Francisco, 
which ho has since improved, rightly judging that 
the future growth and prosperity of that city were 
well assured. 

In the year 1878, Mr. Dean turned his attention 
somewhat to raining interests in Arizona Territory. 
Encouraging accounts were given of some of the 
undeveloped mines in that region. The country was 
remote. The railroad had progressed hardly beyond 
the Colorado Elver. The cost of erecting mills and 
transporting supplies was enormous. It was certain 
that none but the richest mines in that condition of 
things would return any profit to the owners. Many 
cautious mining men were averse to touching any- 
thing in Arizona. ^Ir. Dean bought for himself and 
his associates what was then known as the Conten- 
tion Mine, in the Tombstone District. The consid- 
eration was only a few thousand dollars. But the 
mine was only partially developed. Indeed, it had 
never been opened far enough to show forth what 
might be in it; the surface indications were promis- 
ing enough. But surlaco indications have often 
promised vastly more than was ever realized, as 
most mining men know to their cost. The new pur- 
chaser had not seen the mine, and did not see it for 
nearly a year afterwards. It was, however, in 
charge of one of the most competent superintendents 
in the country. At the expiration of a year or more 
he and his associates were able to demonstrate that 
the Contention was a good mine. 

Mr. Dean was not onl3- fortunate in his mining 
investment, but also in his associates. When the 
purchasers were able to demonstrate its great re- 
sources, a mill was erected at a point about nine 
miles distant, whore water could be procured. In a 
few weeks the mill had produced bullion equal in 
value to the entire cost of the establishment. Since 
that time regular monthly dividends have been 
made of 875,000 each, besides an extra one of the 

same amount last ChristmaB. The name of the mine 
was changed to that of Western, and it is now 
known as one of the great mines of the country. 
The stock of this mine has never been placed on 
the market. The owners are satisfied with safe re- 
turns, and with conservative mining for regular 
dividends. The mine is developed in an orderly and 
systematic way, and it promises for many years to 
come to be one of the best mining properties in the 
country. Mr. Bean was married in 1863 to Miss 
Helen C. MacDonough, of Philadelphia, and has one 
son just coming to manhood. He is a member of the 

California Commandery of Knights Templar, and is 
also a member of several prominent clubs and 
Associations. He has a large social nature, gives 
liberally when his sympathies are enlisted, is a tried 
and trusted friend, high-spirited and firm in his 
views of public policy and duty. He has no taste 
for politics, votes quietly, but never conceals his 
opinions. He reads extensively, _has a taste for 
art and refined amusements, and has the capacity 
to enjoy in a rational way the fortune which he has 
attained in the prime of his years. 



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The people of Storey County became somewhat 
restive under the discrimination, and in 1874 elected 
John Piper of Viriiinia City to the State Senate, who 
introduced a bill that became a law,* by an almost 
unanimous vote in both Houses,t and was approved 
February 20, 1875. The change made by Piper's 
bill was a radical one. It repealed that portion of 
the law of 1SG7 which limited the tax on bullion in 
Storey County to twentj--five cents on the SlOO, and 
placed the limit at one dollar and a half, the same as 
with any other kind of projierty. 

This was a revolution in the policy regarding 
mines, and the unanimity of sentiment prevailing in 
both Houses in regard to it, was due to the absence 
of any outside influence in opposition to the measure. 
William Sharon and associates had practically 
exhausted the known ore bodies in their mines, and 
no longer cared to exempt that class of property. 
In fact, their interests now demanded a change in 
their jiolicy. A heavier tax on mines would draw 
but little money from them, and would increase the 
Storey County sinking fund out of which their rail- 
road bonds were to be paid. Consequently, that 
firm allowed the bill to pass, neither favoring nor 
opposing it. They were well enough pleased to 
rea]) the benefits that came to them unsought; but 
with those favors also came a political conflict upon 
which they liad not counted. 

As the Sharon mines had began to show signs of 
being worked out, another bonanza, the largest yet 
found, was opened by the firm of John W. Mackey, 
James G. Fair, and Flood and O'Brien, in the Consol- 
idated Virginia and California mines. The yield of 
bullion from the Consolidated Virginia was: — 

In 1873, 8(;45,587.17; 1874, 84,981,484.05; 1875, 
?1G,717,394.76; 1876, §16,057,049.47. Total §39,002,- 

It will be readily seen, that the change in 1875, 
from a tax of twenty-five cents to possibly SI. 50 
upon the §100, in Storey County, was throwing upon 
the above firm, a volume of taxation that the Cali- 
fornia Bank mines had escaped. This was not the 
feature, however, which aggravated most; but the 
fact that it forced these two mines to pay such a 
large proportion of the Vii'ginia and Truckee Kail- 
road bonds, was a hair that broke the camel's back. 
The owners of the newly discovered bonanzas de- 
elai'ed war against William Sharon, the bank man- 
ager, bullion tax manipulator, princijial owner of the 
Virginia and Truckee Railroad, and United States 
Senator, who they supposed was resjionsible for the 
existing state of things. The proposition was how 
to avoid the increased taxation, and at the same time 
])unish their enemy. At that time the members of 
the "Bonanza" firm were not politicians, their first 

•Statutes of 1875, pages 74 and 75. 

+In the .Senate, the vote was unanimous. In tlie Assembly, 
only one vote was opposed to it. 

niove demonstrated this fact; but they soon became 
such, and their second effort showed them to be apt 
scholars, in the arena where " Ways * * are dark and 
* * tricks * * not vain." 

Their first move as previously suggested, proved 
their incipient condition as jK)lilicians, being no less 
an eiTor than the refusal to pay any tax, either to 
the countj' or State; believing the law to be uncon- 
stitutional under which the tax-gatherer was acting. 
The case was decided against them in the United 
States Circuit Court and was appealed to the 
Supreme Court of the United States, where it lay 
undecided during the ensuing contest. This refusal 
to pay occurred in June, 187G, and was a direct 
demand upon the pockets of every property owner 
in the State, who would be called upon to make up 
all deficiencies to both State and county resulting 
from the act. It came just at the eve of an election, 
a fresh political question; and the two jiarties in the 
State vied with each other in their outspoken hos- 
tility to any action, by State officials or Legislators, 
that looked towards a modification of the law under 
which bidlion was taxed. The Republican State 
Convention Resolved, "That the Republican party is 
opposed to any repeal or change of the present law 
providing for the taxation of the net proceeds of the 
mines, looking to any different method of arriving at 
values for the purpose of taxation." The Democratic 
State Convention Resolced, "That all property, includ- 
ing the net proceeds of mines, shall bear its equal 
burden of taxation, and we are opposed to any Leg- 
islation in anywise exempting such proceeds from 
taxation." All candidates for the State Legislature 
were under necessity of pledging themselves as anti- 
compromise and anti-change on the bullion tax ques- 
tion before they were accepted by either ])arty — 
except in White Pine County. Apparently there was 
but one opinion in the State, and that was for no 
change. Judge O. R. Leonard was elected to the 
Supreme Bench, aiid Thomas Wren to Congress, the 
State going Republican on the Presidential issue. 
The new Legislative members were divided upon 
national politics, both Democrats and Republicans 
being elected, but they were a unit upon the one issue 
of the hour, and such was the political result of bo- 
nanza move number one. 


The State Controller's report, at the assembling of 
the Legislature, made the following exhibit of the 
Slate debt up to the beginning of 1S77: — 

Bonds payable after 1880. .§540,400 00 
Accrued interest on same 

Jan. 1, 1877 17,236 m 

Outstanding warrants 57,441 87 

Total outstanding State debt §G1.'),078 53 

On hand to pay the same in 

cash or Us e(juivalont 506,648 82 

Balance of State debt not pro- 
vided for 108,429 71 



Deduct amount not duo until 
after 1881 33,751 18 

Jjeavinjj Jan. 1, 1877, to bo 

pioviiled for 74,678 53 

To this add Controller's esti- 
mated expense of running 
the Stale Government for 
the ensuing two years.* 894,250 85 

This gives a total expense 
that this Legislature was to 
provide for of 968,929 38 

The necessities, therefore, lying at the threshold 
of the Slate Govornmenl was to provide for the 
payment, within the next two years, of 8968,929.38 
by borrowing money, taxation, or both. The 
Controller estimated the jirobablo revenues of the 
State, for the ensuing two years, not inclmJing tax on 
mines, at S7U,21(l.t Add to this 864,464J as the 
income from mines in the State, 7iol including tfie 
" Bo7wnziis" and the State would have S775,674 to 
meet its expense obligation of §968,929 with. 
There would thus remain a deficiency of $193,255 to 
be provided for bj- borrowing monej-, providing no 
tax was received from the '-Bonanza" mines. This 
was an over-estimate as to what the State 
necessities would bo, tho results showing that the 
deficiency would have been less than SlOU,O0(); 
but this fact c<iuld not be known at that time. 
Practically the (juestion ])resented was to provide 
for a deficit of, say §200,000, or collect the tax from 
the belligerent firm. 


The financial coixlition of Storey County was a 
question that ju'esented itself in a strong light be- 
fore tho now mombors. Tho County Treasurer had, 
on tho close of 1866, reported that county as having 
no floating debt, its only reported obligations being 
those Virginia and Truckee bonds, of which there 
remained un])aid 8218,000, bearing interest at seven 
per cent. The shutting off of the "Bonanza" tax 
was causing a deficiency in the county revenues that 
presented the necessity of borrowing 8100,000 to pay 
fortheirnew Court House, and maintain their schools, 
unless tho disputed tax was paid. 


The amount of money involved in tho issue was 
$290, 27.'). 72 due the State and county of Storey by 
that mining corporation, as levied under existing 
laws. To this had accrued, in tho form of penalties 
for not paying the amount when due, the sum of 
877,578.22, making a total of 367,853.94. 

Tho whole question apparently presented to tho 
Legislature resolved itself into one of a necessity for 
borrowing 8200.000 tor the State; of forcing Storey 
County to borrow 8100,000 to maintain her credit; 

'This .imoiint was $12,643.47 more than was expended. 

tThere was ^SI.'l.G'iii.'JO more paid into the treasury in 1877 and 
1878 than the estimate. 

JFigureil from the siippositinn that mines would continue to 
produce as much bullion e.ich year .is they had yiehUd in 1876. 

or go back on their party instructions as well as 
personal pledges, and compromise with tho "Bonanza" 


On tho seventeenth of February, 1877, bill No. 126 
was introduced before the Senate, that embodied tho 
results of a compromise entered into between the 
"Bonanza" managers on the ono side, and the county 
officials of Storey County — joined by tho State Con- 
troller and Treasurer — on the other, to which Gov- 
ernor Bradley acquiesced.* The existing law said, 
Assess tho value of what bullion remains, after de- 
ducting tho actiial cost — nuil no more — of ])roducing 
it, and placed a limit to tho amount per ton, beyond 
which owners were not allowed to bring in bills of 
expenses. The proposed compromise law made 
those limits a little more favorable to mine owners; 
and allowed a deduction for expenses equal to the 
limits named, regardless of whether the actual cost had 
reached those figures or not. The difl'erences amounted 
to a reduction in tho tax on the bullion product in 
tho State of thirty-one and a half per cent., as ad- 
mitted by the friends of the compromise. t This 
was equal to twenty per cent, of the entire taxable 
property of tho State. By its enemies, the claim 
was that it relieved from taxation between forty- 
seven and fiftj' per cent, of mining products, assessa- 
ble under the existing law of 1871. The "Bonanza" 
firm said, pass this law, relieving us in I'uture from 
the necessity of paying taxes U|)on thirty -one and a 
half per cent, of our bullion profits, and we will ])ay 
both State and county all that we owe, under exist- 
ing laws. 

On the twenty-fourth of February the bill passed 
the Senate, by a vote of fourteen to eleven, as fol- 
lows: — 

n-S PA.SS.\(JK. 

Goo. W. Baker, 
W. M. Boardman, 
11. T. Cresswell, 
K. 15. Dickinson, 
A. Garrard, 
Wm, C. Grimes, 
<^has. McConnoll. 
W. L. Ross, 
G. H. Shepard, 
VV. F. Stewart, 
N. Woscoatt. 



A. J. Blair, 

Geo. \V. Cassidj', 

S. W. Chubbuck, 

H. A. Comins, 

Gen. T. 1). Edwards, 

M. J. Farrell, 

AV. Ji. King, 

W. O. IL Martin, 

John Piper, 

T. B. Rickey, 

E. A. Schultz, 

O. K. Stampley, 

T. N. Stone, 

W.J. Westerfiold. 
Total vote for bill, 14. Total ojjposing vote, 11. 
On tlie twcntj'-sevcnth of February tho bill passed 
tho Assembly, by a vote of twenty-seven to twentj-- 
threo. On the first of March (tov. L. II. Bradley 
vetoed it; and such was tho result, for the time 
being, of "Bonanza" move number two. 

* These officials were elected prior to the time when the ques- 
tion of a compromise had been raised, consequently were not 
pledged in the matter, aiul acted upon the question from a stand- 
point of mere present policy. 

t See (Governor's veto, Senate Journal, Eighth .Session, page 
315 and 316. 




The Governor's veto message contained the follow- 
ing remarks upon the political bearing of the acts of 
those who hail taken part in the contest, and the 
reward that might be looked for, in the near future, 
as the natural result incident to those acts. Its 
expression sounds strangely out of place and absurd 
in the light of what has since transpired; much as 
the reading of a prayer would at a prize-fight, 
although the utterances are those only of principles 
and sentiments that underlie the only hope of per- 
petuating a free government: •' We are sent here," 
said the Governor, " as the servants of the people, to 
execute and carry out their will. There is no power 
on earth to release us from the pledges exacted of us 
by our constituents, except themselves. The success 
or failure of our Government depends upon the 
honesty of the representative in carrj-ing out his 
instructions. The whole people, in their State Con- 
ventions and in their County Conventions, have 
instructed us as to our duty in relation to the assess- 
ment of the proceeds of the mines. On no other 
subject were the people of this State ever so out- 
spoken, so unanimous. No member of this Legisla- 
ture came here in doubt as to the wishes of those 
who sent him. We all will have an accounting 
with our respective constituencies upon our return 
home for the proper execution of the trust confided 
to us. While some may return covered with the 
wreck of broken pledges, others, I am happy to say, 
will meet their people and receive the reward of 
' well done, good and faithful servants.' Many will 
go forth from this feast of the vultures with pledges 
kept sacred, with manhood unsullied, and the people 
will learn whom to truest hi thi: falare." 

" And the people will learn o'honi to tra»t in the 
futwe." What good has it done tliem to learn whom 
to trust ? What advantage has it pi-oved to those 
"Well done, good and faithful servants?" Of the 
eleven .Senators who kept their faith with the people, 
but two have since received preferment at the hands 
of their constituents, namely G. Jl. Shopard, of Elko, 
and Charles McConnell, of Humboldt. George W. 
Cassidy, of Kureka, was one of the Senators who, 
being pledged to oppose a change, ignored the fact 
and became one of the strongest advocates of the 
compromise. In 1S80 the ])eople elected him to Con- 
gress as a reward for iiot keeping faith with them, 
and defeated R. M, Daggett for that position, who 
had ably served them in Washington, where ho had 
acted consistcntl3', in following in the line of his anti- 
railroad, and all other pledges. 

The strangest part of this political anomaly, how- 
ever, has been the way in which the voters after- 
wards showed tlieii- aiipreciation of what the chief 
actor had done for them, by defeating him for Gov- 
ernor, because he had followed their instructions, 
and giving the United States Sonatorship to the 
party against whom they had instructed him to act 
in maintaining their rights. We have no fault to 

find with Mr. Fair, neither have we with Mr. Cassidy, 
for these gentlemen are much better representatives 
at Washington, than those deserve who reward their 
friends with defeat, and enemies with preferment. 


There was an extensive disjilay of enthusiasm 
throughout the State when the news spread that the 
Governor had vetoed the bill. Congratulatory meet- 
ings and pledges from influential members of both 
parties was the order of the day, naming L. R Brad- 
ley for Governor for the remainder of his life, regard- 
less of politics. Yet from a small minority in the 
State, emanated the mutterings that portended a com- 
ing storm. The press of Storey County came out in 
such a raid of abuse as it never before had turned 
loose upon a State official in Nevada. The Virginia 
Evening Chronicle said, under the heading of, " Our 
Boss Lunatic": " Governor Bradley has written him- 
self down an ass in letters as large as the State of 
Nevada. We move for a commission de lunatico en- 
quirendo in his ease, and that pending the inquiry 
pen and paper be carefully kept out of his way. In 
his hands they are as dangerous as a razor in the 
hands of a maniac." 

The Gold Hill N'ews headed a caustic editorial, 
"A I)is.\strous Veto," and satirically remarked that 
" * * Truly this is a brilliant piece of statesmanship 
on the part of Governor Bradley — one of which he 
and his party may justly be proud ! * * He has 
rung the death-knell of his party." 

The Territorial Enterprise boiled over in bitterness 
in the following strain: "Yesterday was one of the 
saddest days ever seen in Virginia, The shadow of 
a great calamity was felt everj'wherc; and over all 
was the feeling that the people had been spat upon 
and betrayed by the old imbecile whose only claim 
for respect among men has been his reputation for 
honesty, * * » \ye trust that it will cause the 
people of Storey County to realize at last that the 
most dangerous man to put in office at any time is 
an old fool. A man who through a long life has 
followed so narrow a groove that the suspicion of 
dishonesty is always awakened in his breast if a man 
with a clean shirt on approaches him. * * * 
Ho is old and <lecrc|iit, and it would be cowardice 
to abuse or insult him. * * * ]5ut would to 
God that he was a young man that we might pub- 
lish how much we wish that he was dead." 

We give an extract from the opposite side of the 
question as a sample of the opinions entertained 
bv a large majority of the people of the State. 
The Kureka Nejuilihcdn was politicallj- o|>posed to 
the Governor, but said: "Governor Bradley deserves 
well of the people of this State. Wo are alwaj's 
glad to do justice to a political opponent, and on 
this occasion we tender the Governor our hearty 
thanks for his action. He has, wo believe, saved 
the already overburdened tax-payers of the State 
IVom the imposition of additional and unjust bur- 




Tho veto of Jlareh Iftt left the whole question 
where the instructions of the people had indicated 
that they desired it to be, dependent upon the 
action of the Supreme Court. Seventeen days later 
a proposition was made by tho "Bonanza" firm to 
Storej- t'ounty. through its Commissioners, to loan 
that county 880.00(1, and follow tho accommodation 
by a further advance quarterly for four quarters 
of an amount equal to a half of one per cent, on 
their bullion j'ield, after deducting cost of produc- 
ing it. 

There were three conditions to be complied with 
on the part of the county as a consideration for this 
advance, as follows: — 

First — The money was to bo used for no other 
purpose than to replenish the general and school 
funds, which left tho railroad bonds and other mat- 
ter out in the cold. 

Second — These advances to cease when the suit 
was finally decided. 

Third — That these advances were to be ci-edited 
against the amount of taxes due the county and 
State, provided suit terminated adverse to that firm, 
otherwise not. 

Fourth — If suit was decided against the ''Bonanza" 
representatives then the County Commissioners wore 
'•b}- official action, so far as they had tho power to 
do the same, remit and release all penalties and per- 
centages for which either of said companies shall 
heretofore have been liable, by reason of a failure 
on its part to have paid the taxes assessed against 
it at the time when they became due." 

This proposition for compromise met with suf- 
ficient op]iosiiion to prevent its being adopted, and 
was withdrawn on the twenty-seventh of the same 


The next effort of these mine representatives, 
looking towards relief from a portion of tho conso- 
•luenccs of the error on their ])art of refusing to 
pay their taxes, resulte<l more favorably, simply be- 
cause they offered more and exacted less. This 
time the proposition was made. May 3d, to pay all 
they owed, both State and county, including costs 
of suit, less peivdlies and jier cents that had accrued 
for non-payment. Tho condition attached for doing 
this was, that if the pending case in tho United 
States Supreme Court terminated favorably to the 
State then the District Court of Storey County was 
to issue a viandamvs, staying execution for satisfac- 
tion of so much of tho judgment as included penal- 
ties and per cents, until the first of April, IST'J. This 
would carry the same beyond the next session of 
the State Legislature, thus giving an opportunity 
for relief from tho necessity of l>aying lliom bj- an 
Act of that body. The proposition was accepted 
by the District Attorney and ('ountj- (^)mniissioner 
of Storey County, atid the money, S2!M),27r).72, was 
paid on tho fifth. Un tho seventh the question was 

decided in the LTnited States Supreme Court in favor 
of the State,* the fact being ]jublish(;d in the Vir- 
ginia City papers the next day. 

The appearance of this transaction would indicate 
that tho attornej' of the "Bonanza" firm at Wash- 
ington had advised them of the probable result of 
their suit, and this final arrangement was a little 
sharp practice to save as much as possible from 
the wreck; but thoi-o is no positive evidence to this 


On the ninth of February, 18V9, a bill was intro- 
duced into the Senate, that had it been constitu- 
tional would have removed the necessity for paying 
the amount that had become duo the State and 
county in the form of penalties from this firm. It 
passed that body by a vote of fourteen to ten, and 
the Assembly- by a vote of thirty-one to eighteen, 
and was aj^jroved by the (iovornor, March 17, 187J).t 

Immediately after the adjournment of tho Legis- 
lature, Attorney tiencral Murphy asked of the 
Supreme Court that the cases of tho California and 
Consolidated Virginia Mining Companies, might bo 
again placed upon the Calendar, for the purpose of 
ro-argunient; to test the constitutionality of tho Act 
dismissing the suits, and releasing the companies 
from tho payment of the penalties. This request 
was granted, and after re-argument, the Su])rcmo 
Court held the law to be unconstitutional, for the 
following reasons : — 

First— That the District Attorney had no right, or 
power, to consent to the entiy of a judgment, or to 
receive less than tho full amount of taxes due and 
penalties accrued, to the State and County. 

Second — That the Act was in plain violation of 
Sections twenty and twenty-one, of Article four, of 
the Constitution of this State, in this, that it was a 
special Act. It was therefore ordered that the judg- 
ment of tho District Court be reversed, the demurrers 
overruled, and the tlofcndants permitted to answer. 

On tho receipt of the remitter in the District 
Court, tho State, by J. H. Harris, District Attorney 
of Storey County, filed an amended complain! on the 
ninth day of July, ISSO; and on the sixth day of llie 
ensuing ^'ovomber the Court rendered judgment in 
favor of the State, and against each of tho com- 
panies, for tho sum ])rayed for in the complaints and 
the penalties amounting to S77,.")78.2U. 

On tho 80vof!teenth day of November, 188(1, tho 
California and Consolidated Virginia Mining Com- 
panies filed their notices of appeal to tho Supreme 
Court, where the cases are now pending. 

The plan has been again adopted, of operating 
with tho Legislature, to avoid the unavoidable result 
of leaving tho issue for settlement in tho courts. In 
pursuance of this plan. Senator llaines of Douglas 
County, on tho twenty-seventh of January, 1881, 
introduced Senate Bill No. 68, that is so framed as, 

* 04 United .Stati'S Kqiorts, 4 Otto, page 702. 
t .Statutes of IS"'.*, pagu 143. 



if possible by the use of phraseology of a general 
form, to avoid the objection found in Section twenty, 
Article four of the Constitution, that proved dis- 
astrous to the former Act on the same subject. 

Upon the final passage of this bill the Senatorial 
vote stood eight Republicans aye, and five no; five 
Democrats aye and four no; one Democrat favor- 
able to its passage being absent. 

The Senators voting aj'e were R. P. Dayton, Wm. 
Doolin, J. B. Gallagher, W. D. C. Gibson, J. W. 
Haines, D. W. Perlcy, M. S. Thompson, J. A. Brum- 
sey, L. T. Fox, Chas. McConnell, J. B. ToUey, W. 
R. King and W. J. Westerfield. 

Senators voting no — J. D. Hammond, W. W. 
Hobart, Chas. Kaiser, C. C. Powning, J. P. Wheeler, 
B. H. Meder, \V. H. Henderson, Thos. Rockhill, G. 
H. Shepherd, J. T. Williams; absent, J. Schooling. 

In the Assemblj^ those voting yea were Messrs. 
Bailey, Ballinger, Barrett, Copeland, Drcxler, Duffj^ 
Englis, Fallon, Ford, Gignoux, Havenor, Kelly, 
Knight, Longley, Mallon, Masel, May, McBurney, 
McGowan, McKenzie, Mooney, Moriartj', Organ, 
Parker, Penoyer, Penton, Tuska, Waldorf — twenty- 
eight. Nay, Messrs. Adams, Bell, Blair, Bradshaw, 
Coffin, Corbett, Ernst, Green, Irvine, Johnson, 
Lewers, Newell, Plank, Richards, Shier, Smyth, 
Soule, the Speaker — eighteen. 

On the third of March Governor Kinkead vetoed 
the bill. The Daily Index, in commenting ujjon the 
unexpected event, said: — 

There was a murmur of delight which grew into 
actual demonstrations of applause in the Senate 
Chamber, last evening, as the message of Governor 
Kinkead was received announcing his veto of Senate 
Bill No. (JS, commoTily known ;is the "bullion tax 
penalties bill." That the veto was not generallj' 
expected ailded wonilerfully to the zest of the occa- 
sion. The ([Uestion was jiut by President Adams, 
"Shall the bill ])ass notwithstanding the objections 
of the (Jovcrnor?" and amid almost breathless silence 
it received onl}- eleven votes as the tally closed. 
Thus the bill was finally lost. The commotion 
again commenced and many faces beamed with 
smiles. The feeling of relief was to be marked on 
nearly every countenance, including even those who 
had sustained the measure liy their votes. 

(iovernor Kinkead has done himself great credit 
by this veto, and by none will this be acknowledged 
more gladly than liy the DdUij lu'lcx. Through 
this message the I{e])nblican ])arty has had a heai"- 
ing, and the recreancy of the [{epublican Senators 
to the will of the i)arty has been severely and 
righteously rebuked. The people can now "thank 
God and take courage," and so can the Governor 
himself He has in this instance "crossed the Ru- 
bicon." and there is no reason why he may not lor 
constitutional reasons veto the " Lottery Hill." As 
said elsewhere, we hope he will do so. 

The Virginia (Jity Ghronick editoriallj' remarks 
upon the same subject: — 

The bill vetoed by Governor Kinkead last night 
was substantially the same as that approved by him 
two j'ears ago, the only dilference being that this 

was drawn as a general law, to avoid the constitu- 
tional objections indicated bj- the Supreme Court. 
The veto of this bill took ever3-bodj' by surprise. 
Had the Legislature, in defiance of the /ilitf/onus of 
both jmrties, jxissed any bill repealing or modi/yinij the 
existiiu) law in reijard to taxing proceeds of mines, it 
would, vje think, have been the duty of Governor Kinkead 
to veto it, as upon that ])oint the door had been closed 
upon all argument. But this bill had no reference 
whatever to the matter upon which the people had 
exacted pledges. It was merely an effort to carry 
out in good faith the terms of a business agreement. 

The platforms of both parties at the time when 
Mr. Kinkead was elected Governor, contained just 
such clauses, pledging candidates to oppose any 
modification of the law under which mines were 
taxed. But this language reaches farther than the 
veto by Kinkead; it moves backwards in its logic, 
and justifies Governor Bradlej- in that act, for which 
the Chronicle so bitterly condemned him at the time; 
and, ])roves that after all, those letters were not so 
large as they appeared to be at the time. 


Early Cultivation of Carson Valley — Cultivation in Humboldt 
— Reports of Large Crops — The Climate of Neva'la — Monthly 
anil Annual Meteornlogical Ilec<»r(l for ISSO — Table .SliowiiiL; 
Number (if Trees and Vines in the .St,ite — Kain-fall — Cloud 
Bursts — Irrig,iting Ditches and Acres Irrigated — Water 
Catchment — Ayrieultural Products in li>7:^-74 — Progress of 
Fruit Culture — Stock — Washoe Valley — Prospects in 1S81 
— Tabulated Statement of the Increase of Stock from lS(i5 
to ISSl — Tabulated Statement Showing Area Cultivatiil 
and (irain Raised From l.S()5 to ISSl — Table of licailing 
Products for 1880 — Cattle Raising — The Ilodeo — The Stam- 
pede — The Cricket — Rocky Mountain Locust. 

NEv.\nA is ranked as a mineral State. Although 
capable in places of producing nearly all the cereals 
and fruits of the temperate zone, the peculiar geo- 
logical and climatic character will always militate 
against anything more than a limited cultivation of 
the soil. The greater portion of it lies at an eleva- 
tion of more than 8, .500 feet; some of the vallej's are 
0,000, and the mountains 10,000 to 14,000 feet above 
the sea, subjecting it to unseasonable frosts. For 
reasons not well imderstood the rain-fall over a great 
part is insufficient to mature crojts, being, in some 
instances, as low as four inches per annum. On the 
higher mountain ranges snow falls to a great depth, 
occasionally twenty feet or more. This melts on 
the approach of summer, and forms strong streams 
which flow, some into the Columbia, some into the 
Colorado, and some into the Great Basin, which 
constitutes such a remarkable feature in the topog- 
raph}- of the American (Continent. Along these 
limited water-courses are fertile valleys, and, where 
exempt from summer frosts, producing fruits and 
grains in abundance. The waters flowing into the 
large rivers generally run in a deep channel, or 
cafion, with precijjitous walls from one thousand to 
several thousand feet high. There are not suflicie^lt 
rains to round these channels into valleys as on tho 



oastern side of the Rocky Mountains, and century 
ailor century the channels are worn farther into tlio 
earth, the little rain fallini^ bein<; absoriied by tiie 
earth and carried otl' by the Ueep gorges, and never 
reappearing as springs or surface moisture. No 
vegetation of any amount can grow in a country so 
drained; and, accordingly, in the southern part of 
Iho State are immense deserts of mem, table-lands, 
and canons. Farther away from these rivers the 
streams flow into the interior basin, where the 
waters are soon evaporated by the desiccating 
atmosphere, leaving dry flats impregnated with the 
alkaline matters, or salts, brought down by cen- 
turies of destruction and wash of the mineral veins 
of the mountains. Soon after the building of the 
Central racitic Railroad, samples of the soil were 
forwarded to the Agricultural Department at Wash- 
ington for analysis. It was found that the soils 
were not deficient in the elements necessary to 
mature good cro[)s of grain, and that water alone 
was wanting to convert the apparent deserts into 
blooming gardens. This does not, of course, apply 
to the salt and alkaline plains, which are sometimes 
covered several feet thick with the impure salts and 
alkalies, and some only saturated to the extent of 
making it useless. These alkali flats constitute ])er- 
haps one-fourth part of the area of the valley lands 
of the State. If the old, worn-oul soils of the East- 
ern States could have some of the excess of potash 
and soda present in the Nevada soil, both would be 
much improved by the arrangement. 


In the State of Nevada was undoubtcdij' by the pre- 
historic cave dwellers of the (Colorado Canons. There 
is much evidence to show that by means of canals 
and contrivances for raising water the art of culti- 
vating the ground was carried to the highest extent, 
else they could not have sustained the immense num- 
bers of people which, according to late explorers, 
inhabited the ancient cities. Among all the millions 
who formerly occupied Arizona and vicinity, a few 
hundred only (the Mocjuis and Zufiis) remain, as of yore 
still cultivating the earth, and still perched in stone 
houses on the lofty, almost inaccessible wems, or cling- 
ing to the sides of the precipitious clitls. Whether 
they employed manual labor alone or had trained 
domestic animals to turn the furrow; whether they 
raised grains, roots or fruits; whether they had 
machinery or used sharpened, fire-hardened sticks, 
like the eastern aborigines, we have no means of 
knowing. It is to be hoj)ed that further exploration 
may reveal some hieroglyphic or sign writing which 
shall throw light on the subject. Whether they occu- 
pied any of the valleys of northern Nevada is a ques- 
tion to bo proved. 

When the white settlers first went into the Walker 
Valley they fouiKl the Indians irrigating portions of it 
to promote the growth of an edible rout which formed 
a groat portion of their living. As far as known this 

was the only cultivation of the soil previous to tho 
operations of the Mormons in Carson Valley subse- 
quent to 1850. 

The character of the possible productions of tho 
country may bo learned from its natural growths. 
In California the wild gra]ie-vine, fruits, and wild oats 
and annual grasses forshadowc<l the immense grain 
and wine crops which have since rendered the Slate 
so famous. The esculent roots of the valleys of 
Nevada and the perennial bunch grass indicate the 
sources of future agricultural wealth. The presence 
of the leek or wild onion, and the esculent (inw/r or 
ground-nut, growing in such abundance on Walker's 
River indicate tho capacity of potatoes and the hardy 
esculent roots which have succeeded so well in every 
part of the State. 

Tho well-known serviceberry grows in abundance 
and is utilized as food, as is the manzanita berry, 
called by some of the assessors buttalo berry. A kind 
of wild currant grows on the ui)])er Humboldt, again 
indicating the capacity of the soil for the hardy 
berries. Tho nuts of the pinus monopfiyUus were also 
used by the Indians as food, as well as the seeds of 
the wild peach, which is supposed to belong to the 
peach family, though destitute of any of tho agreeable 
pulp, the kernel alone being used as food. In the 
spring of tho year the Indians feasted on the young 
clover as well as many other grasses, eating it both 
in a raw state as well as cooked. When tho grasses 
were ripe tho squaws gathered the seed by beating it 
into a basket, winnowing it in the old Hebrew fashion 
by tossing it in the wind. They made no attempt to 
raise any domestic animals, though they utilized the 
grasshopper when he came in their way, but as this 
insect hardlj' comes in the catcgor}' of useful articles 
he will be treated under another head. 

A kind of dwarf sugar-cane grows along the banks 
of the lower Humboldt, which jjcrhaps furnishes a 
valuable hint to the farmers of that viciiiit3\ It is 
veritable eane, though on a small scale, growing 
usually one-quarter to one-half an inch in diameter 
and three to twelve foot in height. The sugar is 
found in minute crystals on the stock, probably the 
result of the evaporation of the juices of the plant, 
which ooze out through holes jiunctured by the 
insects. The Indians obtain the sugar by threshing 
the stalks and detaching tho small crystals, which 
they catch in a basket as they do seeds of plants. 
The sugar harvest is considered a festival, and anti- 
cipated with much pleasure by the natives. 


Some of the Mormons brought butter, eggs, and 
other things, as well as fat cattle for beef, to Carson 
Valley in 1850, and the following j'oar, induced by 
the green waving grass and clear running water, 
made a regular settlement and commenced farming 
with the intention of supi)lying the emigration with 
vegetables, eggs and butter. Carson Valley butter 
soon became noted, and many wagons loaded with it 



passed over the mountains into California. Some 
grain wa« also raised, and as early as 1854 a thresh- 
ing machine was constructed by J. & E. Reese & Co. 
The larger part of the agricultural productions were 
disposed of to the California emigration at remunera- 
tive prices. It was not until the discovery j^of the 
rich silver mines of the Comstock Lode that the pro- 
ducing ]iower of any part of the State was tested. 
When (Joid Hill, Virginia, Dayton, and other towns, 
sprang into existence with their inevitable extrav- 
acant as well as necessary wants, fruits, vegetables, 
and all kinds of perishable produce, were worth 
mints of money. The counties of Sacramento, El 
Dorado, Amador and Calaveras were taxed to their 
utmost to su])])ly these wants. Apples, peaches and 
pears, and all other kinds of fruit, often sold as high 
as a dollar a pound. Hundreds of wagons took the 
roads, and night and day kept moving on. The 
long trill — four to six days — rendered the marketing 
of these articles in good order next to impossible, and 
supplying the wants by the productions of the 
Nevada soil was earnestly considered. The high 
price of freight even in the summer season — sixty to 
one hundred dollars per ton — also sent up the prices 
of grain to an enormous figure, and within a short 
lime extensive preparations were made for farming 
in all its branches. Very little record of the general 
farming has been kept. We find that as earlj- as 
December l!i, 1862, the Washoe Agricultural, Mining 
and Mechanical Society was incorporated, the first 
fair being held October 12th the following year, con- 
tinuing five days. Although unequal in its displaj-s 
in any department to what has since been attained, 
it had the effect of calling attention to the boundless 


The Humboldt River land, the "bad lands" of 
Nevada, came in with both grain and vegetables, as did 
the valleys north and south, and it became evident 
that the State or Territory could become self-sup- 
j)orting. The discovery of the Paradise Valley with 
its 150,00(1 acres of tillable land turned attention in 
that direction, though in consequence of the Indian 
difficulties that valley did not get fully settled until 
some years later. 'J he emigrants of earl}- days now 
recalled the Thousand Spring an<l other valleys in 
the eastern part of the State, and remembered that 
the Moi-nions had raised enormous crops of wheat 
on that kind of soil, and some of them jiushcd out 
and located in these valleys. As usual in a new 
country the stock-raisers were the ))ioneers. Jt is a 
kind of produce that will transport itself and goes in 
advance of railroads. During the drj' winter of 
18C2-G:} in California, many herds were driven into 
Nevada to crop the scattered bunch-grass. Jack 
Sutherland, whose ranch is on Kings Iliver, in 
Tulare County, California, drove over 20,000 head 
and safely summered them in the northern part of 
the State, and was thus able to make a fine start 
when the feed grow again on his place. These pio- 

neers first occupied the tillable valleys, and made 
known their resources. 

The discover}' of the Comstock Mines and others 
farther cast induced agriculture on an extended scale. 
Men pushed out on the Humboldt and up its vari- 
ous branches, and in a few years began to be known 
in the markets, but not until after the admission of 
Nevada as a State was there anj' organized effort to 
systematize the agricultural reports, so that we are 
to some extent unable to give a reliable and full 
history of the earlj' farming. Prices were high 
until a full sup])ly for home consumption could be 
raised. Hay from the beginning was produced in 
Nevada, but barley was imported from California; 
the price of freight — SOO a ton to Virginia, and 
from that to S150 to points further east and south 
— being added to the California quotations. Thus 
we find at Austin that while haj' was worth S30 per 
ton, barley from California was worth 8120. Pota- 
toes which were raised in the vicinity were worth 
two to three cents per pound. 

Closer attention began to be paid to the weather 
as connected with agriculture, and though frosty 
nights with sunny days were a common occurrence, 
it was found that in IRtU there were seventy-five 
consecutive days without frost, and in 18C5, eightj'- 
seven. This was better than was expected. That 
was as good as many of the northern States. In 
New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont, the jjcriod 
exempt from frost was even loss than that, and in 
those States corn, melons, beans, and potatoes, as 
well as the hardy fruits such as apples, jiears, cher- 
ries, and plums, grew to perfection. In addition to 
this, no deep snows prevented getting around, or 
sjtells of extreme cold weather endangered life, as in 
those States, for the lowest point marked only 14° 
below zero, the thermometer in the Eastern States 
sometimes going as low as 50° below zero. It was 
justlj- believed that the State could be made self-sus- 

November 16, 18GG, the Humboldt Keyister con- 
tained the following: — 

Humboldt County alone is ca|)ablc of jtroducing 
all the hay, grain, and vegetables needed by the 
present jio|)ulation of the State. (Jarden vegetables 
are hero in superabundance. They are a positive 
drug in the market. Wheat, corn, barley, oats, 
rj-e, and sorghum grow luxuriantly and ripen 
tlioroughlj'. When the raili-oad comes to carry off 
the surplus of the farms, look out for farming hero 
on an Illinois scale. 

Carson Vallej- being nearer the center of the min- 
ing region developed faster. A flour-mill was 
erected at the foot of the Kingsburj' Grade as early 
as 18(55; one of light capacity, having been built in 

The Humboldt 7fe^t»/cr, June 13, 1807, again called 
attention to the agriculture of that county: "This 
branch of industry (farming) in Humboldt County 
promises to become of great importance in our 



future. The barley crop this season is estimated at 
1,000,000 pounds. The value of wheat, barley, and 
potatoes at a low estimate will not be less than 
§150,000, not a twentieth part of the arable land 
being under cultivation." The crops in lluby Valley 
were also pronounced marvelous. 


The crops of Douglas County were something 
extraordinary: 20,000 tons of hay. 20,000 bushels of 
wheat, 10, ()()(» bushels of barley, 1."),0(HI bushels of 
oats, ],000 bushels of corn, 5,000 bushels of potatoes. 

In ISGS a full report of the agriculture was 
received from Humboldt County. The reported 
grain was: 2,500 acres of barley, averaging forty 
bushels, worth S2.50; 1,200 acres of wheat, averaging 
forty bushels per ton, worth S3. 00; 3,000 tons of 
hay, worth §20. 

Lincoln County is situated at the extreme south 
end of the State, near the Colorado River, and has 
some peculiar features worth recording. The largest 
part of the farming was done at Panaca \'alley by 
the Mormons, but they would not report to the 
Assessor, even running him oft' ri cf (irmin. In 18()7 
the report for the i)ruduct of three farms, amounting 
to ninety-five acres, was: — 

150 bushels of barley .: .-$4 00 per bushel. 

loO " " oats 2 80 " " 

600 " " corn 3 50 " " 

10 tons of beets, worth 06 " ])ound. 

2 " " parsnips, worth 07 " " 

10 " " squashes, '• 04 " " 

15 " " cabbage, - 121 " " 

40 " " potatoes, " 05-1 " " 

8,000 melons (prices not given). 

From the above it will be seen that the climate is 
probably warmer than at Carson City. There is 
considerable ditfcreiice also in the price of grain in 
favor of the seller. 

In Ormsby Countj- the value of hay, grain, and 
vegetables was estimated at SlOO,500. 

The lines were established the following year, and 
the belligerent Mormons gathered into the Nevada 
fold. The places included were lOagleville, I'anaca 
City, West Point, St. Thomas, and St. Joseph. The 
Assessor reports 10,000 acres of hay land, producing 
2,200 tons of hay, cvidentl}' an error; otherwise no 
new industries were rejiorted. 

A prominent feature of the agriculture of 1871-72 
was the attempt, or the beginning of planting and 
raising shade, ornamental and forest trees. The 
most prominent man in connection with this was G. 
W. G. Ferris, who imported a great number of east- 
ern forest trees, such as hickory, black walnut, but- 
ter-nut, chestnut, liard and soft maple, and many 
other varieties. 

tteorge W. t'hcdic, (.'ountj- Assessor, 1872, reports 
as follows of fruit trees for the county of Ormsby:— 

The estimated number of fiuit and shade trees 
trans])lanted in this county is about 1.'),(hI(), the 
former kind predominating in number. Many of | 

the fruit trees have alrea<l3' borne fruif, but owing 
to the late frosts we usually experience the crop is 
uncertain, and will not average more than one in 
three years; and until some method is adopted to 
protect these trees from the frost in the blooming 
season wo cannot expect to reap an annual crop of 

The Surveyor General, Mr. Day, calls attention to 
the importancoof systematizing the irrigation ditches 
or canals. It scorns that dilKculty often occurred 
between the mining community and the farmers, 
the latter generally getting the worst in the strife; 
an experience that the California farmers have had 
for thirty years. Mr. Daj' reports as follows: — 

The proper methods of construction, looking to 
durabilit}-, efficiency, minimum cost, economj' in use, 
and distribution of su])]j|y, together with careful 
estimates of water flowing through the channels, to 
bo diverted to useful purposes, are, particularly in 
large agricultural districts, subjects of interest. At 
present no good system of construction has been 
adopted in this character of improvements. Large 
bodies of agricultural lands, containing thousands 
of acri's, lying contiguous, are irrigated bj' means of 
ill-conl rived ditches. Means are not generally taken 
for saving the water in reservoirs wliere the supply 
is scant; the lines of artificial channels are neces- 
sarily extended, and frequently in such directions 
as to cause great inconvenience to adjoining lands, 
and loss of cultivation. In large bodies of agricul- 
tural lands, such as some of our ))i'iiicipal valleys 
po.ssess, a sj'stem of irrigation should be adopted 
comprising the whole vallej-. The ditches, so far as 
possible, should be kept on the dividing line be- 
tween pro])erty; and when so ])hiccd their margins 
i-an be ])lanted with ti'ees. which, nourished by the 
moisture of the ditches, will thrive, forming a pleas- 
ing feature in the view, and greatly assist in fenc- 
ing. Sufficient care is not taken when ditches cross 
I ho jiublic highwaj-s to provide suitable crossings, 
i^oaded vehicles are drawn with difficulty- across 
ditches containing water; and in many instances, 
from the nature of the soil, roads near ditches are 
rendered useless from saturation. Some of 
our alluvial valleys, during the time of irrigation, 
arc almost im|)assable from this cause. 

Good reports came in from Esmeralda County, the 
productions being, in 1872, 20,000 tons of hay, 1,000 
tons of |)otatocs, 2,000 tons of grain. 

Much of the land that was sup|)osed to be worth- 
loss has, under the influence of water and cultiva- 
tion, become extremely i)roductivc. 


Is sui (jenerts, if such a thing can be. Whether the 
visitor comes from the land of summer rains along 
the Alleghany Mountains or great lakes, from the 
sunny valleys of California, the arid plains of New 
Mexico, or the interminable plains of British America, 
the climate of Nevada will ])uzzle him. Though 
a])pareiitly shut in by a high mountain range on tho 
west which should ward ofl' fierce winds from that 
i|Uarter. the wind will come pouring down tho ravines 
forty or fifty miles an hour with force enough to 
s\vee|) everything less in size than bullets into clouds, 
pelting one exposed to it as if with shot, and sending 



clouds of dust high into the air or through the closest 
weather-boarding into the farthest closet or pantry 
in the house. The thermometer will stand at 31° in 
the morning and reach 97° at noon, a condition that 
is said to prevail on the great desert of Sahara in 
Africa. Indeed the two places have manj- things 
alike. According to the reports of travelers the hot- 
test days were often followed by frosty nights. 
The reports of Eollins, who was cast away on the 
coast of Africa by the wrecking of the ship Commerce 
in 1816, taken prisoner and carried into the interior, 
were discredited until confirmed by recent travels; 
but the same climatic phenomena which he de- 
scribed as peculiar to the African deserts occur in 

The foregoing table may be consulted with interest 
and ])rofit. 

This peculiar condition seems to prevail along the 
foot of the Sierra Nevada, and becomes rather inten- 
sified as we go east; modified of course by the ditt'or- 
ences in latitude and altitude. The cold, it will be 
observed, never exceeded one and a half degrees below 
zero. On the head of the Humboldt, where an eleva- 
tion of 6,500 feet is attained, frosts are of almost 
nightly occurrence. Pjjko County is of this character, 
precluding the raising of anything but grain and the 
most hardy vegetables. In the southern portions of 
the State, bordering on the Colorado Canon, a 
different condition ])revails. The difference in lati- 
tude and altitude produces warm nights as well as 
days, and here we find the melon growing to perfec- 
tion, and the semi-tropical fruits ripening with cer- 
tainty. Humboldt County has perhaps the most 
desirable climate in the State, being far enough away 
from the lofty mountains to avoid the frostj^ nights 
incident to the vicinity of snow-banks, yet near 
enough to be benefited by the consequent rain-fall. 
Carson Valley is liable to damaging frosts as late as 
the first of Juno. Thej' are usually preceded b}' 
several days of warm weather which brings the fruit 
buds out, subjecting them to the danger of being 
destroyed. The June frosts are usnallj' preceded by 
a strong southeast wind, which blows so hard as to 
move coarse sand and even gravel. Much of the early 
sown grain is injured bj' the flying sand as well as 
killed by the succeeding frosts. Late sown grain 
escapes these dangers. 


Irrigatif)n is beautiful in theory. It seemingly 
places the husbandman in comparative indepen- 
dence. He is not compelled to look quietly on while 
a midsummer's sun, darting his scorching rays from 
a cloudless sky, wilts and burns to death the tender 
plants, the object of his care. He need not turn 
his anxious gaze from the parching ground, where 
the grain is drooping fi-om voiy thirst, to ])ray for 
rain, as of old. At the first indications of drought he 
can hoist the gates and send tiny, meandering rivu- 
lets to the thirsty roots which will revive with life. 
The reality dis])els much of the beauty of this 



Carson City, Nevada — Latitude, 39 degrees 10 minutes ; longi- 
tude, 119 degrees 40 minutes from (Jreenwich; 
altitude above sea level, 4,US0 feet. 

Chas. W. Fbienu. 


£ S ^ ">^ ^ 
£■0 cuSt^ 


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in 00 m I- C-. -t I- ift I- I- c-i 

r- 1 rH t— ( i-H C'J C'l I— * t-H 





::zi |=^S 




Total No. of miles 

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in miles |)er hour 

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No. of daj'S on wliicli 
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a scale of 10 

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theory. Irritcation is slow ami o.\])unsive; ditches 
must be conslrucled which, unless the iiuid has the 
proper inclination, must meander according to the 
surface to give the water the ]iroper motion. W too 
steep it sweeps away the soil ; if too flat the water 
accumulates and saturates the ground, converting it 
into mortar that bakes and cracks in the sun. The 
water must be taken from the ditches in quantities 
nicely regulated to the nature and requiremenJs of 
the soil, and constantly watched. Only sand}' soil 
will stand saturation without damage; even on that 
a little excess of water will wash the sand away and 
lay bare the roots of the ])lants. The constant care 
and attention required make the cultivation of the 
soil by irrigation in large (juantities nearly impossi- 
ble. Grazing land with sod may be saturated with- 
out serious damage. 

The following table, giving the number of trees 
and vines in the several counties, will give a better 
idea of the climate than any partial description. 



V *- ; *» ; © 
to'v © ^- • c© 10 . --O 

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" 1,266 











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The first full report of the Assessors on the subject 
ol' irrigation was made in 1874. The following is 
taken from the report of the Surveyor General for 
that year: — 


Irrigating Ditches. 

Acres Irrigated. 

Churchill 1,425 

Douglas 35 18,953 

Elko 50 18,000 

Esmeralda 25 850 

Eureka 12 1,886 

Humboldt 120 14,000 

Lander 3 2,400 

Lincoln 50 675 

Lyon 10 5,260 

N)'e 10 3,000 

Ormsby 5 . 1,100 

Storey 1 150 

Washoe 180 30,000 

White Pine 60 3,000 

Total .561 



The years of 1873 and 1874 marked an era in agri- 
cultural as well as other interests. There was a gen- 
eral settling down to steady work, and an absence of 
the restless fever which was characteristic of the 
early mining excitement. The County Governments 
were in healthy operation, and full i-eports were re- 
ceived. The Surveyor General's estimates of agri- 
cultural products for 1874 were as follows : — 

Kind. Acres sown. 

VIclil in hush- 
els per acre. 

T..t.->1 yield In 

W^heat 4,346 17 70,300 

Barley 26,651 20 506,790 

Oats 5,372 14 74,695 

Rye.. 100 10 1,000 

Corn 493 28 13,690 

Buckwheat 12 17 200 

Peas - 326 lOi 3,450 

Beans 53 11 593 

Potatoes 4,136 70 290,458 

Sweet Potatoes. i 96 24 

Onions 76 55i 4,210 

Hay 72,101 11-12 72,101 

Hops - 1 1251b8 

Beets (tons) 314 

Turnips " 320 

Pumpkins & Squashes " 5,350 

Butter (lbs) 227,240 


W^ood " 668,738 




The traditional orchard was not forgotten. 
Whether from the land of the orange or the apple, 
the first thing after building a shelter, the farmer 
sets out an orchard. What is home without fruit 
trees — apple, pear or orange, or grapevines, as the 
case may be ? flo who plants fruit trees is intending 
to stay. In Ormsby County were 125 walnut trees, 
125 elms, 300 box-older, 1,000 white maples, pre- 
sumably the property of G. W. G. Ferris, who had 
manifested a commendable enterprise in the planting. 

No returns. 



The following table shows by counties the fruit 
trees in 1874: — 














































Eureka . . _ 





, . 

Humboldt . 

;iooo 3000 








Lander.- . . 






Lincoln.. .. 


















Ormsby . . . 










240 40 








Washoe . . 

GOdO 700 







White Pine 

50 100 

Lincoln County leads strongly in grapevines; 
Humboldt in a general variety of fruits. The latter 
county is evidently on the high road to prosperity. 


The stock business also looked remarkably encour- 
aging. The product of mines, even when it amounts 
to millions a 3'ear, is no evidence of permanent 
wealth; tlie i-ichest veins have an end, but the jiro- 
ducts of the soil ma}' continue for centuries without 
diminution. The fields in the Roman Campagna, 
which (."incinnatus plowed near 2,000 years ago, ai-e 
still yielding golden grain, while the silver mines of 
Tarshish arc scenes of desolation. In 1874, there 
were 22,131 horses, 4,043 mules, 181,891 head of 
cattle, 1S5,48G sheep, 0,7G8 hogs, GO, 000 chickens, 
2,500 turkeys, besides much other stock that might 
be enumerated. The annual increase is not less 
than twenty-five per cent. A ))ortion must be 
consumed, of course, but the residue goes into the 
accumulations or investment as the source of future 
wealth. The northern and eastern portion of the 
State are most fitted foi- grazing ])ur|ioses. and many 
thousand head of beeves are annually shipjjed by 
rail, or driven on foot, to California and the eastei-n 
markets. The bunch-grass of the hills is exceed- 
ingly nutritious, and in many valleys grows a species 
of sage, which, after being frozen, constitutes an 
excellent herbage, receiving the name of " winter 
fat" from the grateful herdsman. The beei" and 
mutton of Nevada are highly prized by epicures. 


In the valleys extending into the Sierra Nevada 
the anninil rain-fall may I'each fifty or sixty inches 
in a year, as the snow sometimes falls twenty feet in 
depth. As the lower end of the vallej-s is reached, 
the rain-fall is less, and in some seasons amounts to 
but four or five inches, and on the deserts and 
interior plains even the last-named (juantity is (juite 

uncertain. The valleys at the foot of the Ruby, 
Santa Rosa, and other ranges of mountains in the 
interior of the State get a quantity of rain approxi- 
mating the rains of the Sierra Nevada. At Car- 
son Valley the rain-fall for the year of 1880 was 
13.1 inches. This may be taken as an average 
of rain-fall in the northern and western part of 
tho^ State. But it is evident, though no record 
has been kept from Walker Lake south, that the 
annual rain-fall gets less until a minimum is reached 
at the Colorado River, where the high mcsri lamisaro 
rained upon so little that the sharp angles of cen- 
turies remain the same, never becoming rounded into 
the graceful forms incident to plentiful rain fall. 

There is evidence in the difterent levels of the 
lakes of the State of periods when the rain-fall was 
much greater that at present. The Great Salt Lake 
in Utah is said to be pcrceptibl}' rising from year to 
year, being several feet higher than when first visited 
by the whites. This may be the case with the val- 
leys and plains of the State of Nevada, which are 
subject to about the same climatic laws. But the 
ancient water-marks on the hills indicate a much 
higher stage of water at one time, and, though the 
water, in consequence of a period of unusual fall of 
rain may rise a few feet, the evidence is incontro- 
vertible that the country is gradually drying. The 
great changes of elevation or de])i'ession that have 
bi'ought about this result is a proper subject for the 
consideration of the geologist; how to remedy the 
matter, either bj' introducing or diverting some of 
the waters of the Colorado or Columbia into the 
de])ression; saving the annual rains bj- means of a 
general sj'stcm of reservoirs, and distributing the 
rain-fall whore and when it is most needed, are 
matters for the consideration of the statesman and 
civil engineer. That much might be done to amel- 
iorate the ])erpetual drought, and make the State a 
desirable and jirofitable home for many times its 
present po])ulalion, is bej-ond a doubt. The mount- 
ains might be clothed with trees. This would j)ro- 
duce a greater rain-fall, as has been demonstrated 
many time.? in the Old World. The pi'osent water 
could be economized anil distributed to greater 
advantage. To do this the riparian water rights 
would have to be recognized, and the (jrah lnw, by 
which the fii-st-comer takes the water for all time, 
abrogated. The subject is so vast in its bearings 
and HO immense in its consequences as to be prop- 
erly a subject of National legislation. 

The ancMcnt Peruvians inhabited a much higher 
plateau than the Great Basin. It was nearly- rainless, 
but by means of extensive canals, in some instances 
three hundred miles long and carried over precipi- 
tous canons and through gi-anite mountains, the}' 
were enabled to sustain an immense population, and 
attain a high degree of civilization. 


As in all countries destitute of timber the rain is 
liable to fall in unequal ijuantities. The clouds sat- 



urated to the point of precipitation will pass over the 
treeless j)laiiis and bills without i)artini^ with their 
moisture. So well was this understood in Greece 
that the most earnest efforts were made to protect 
the timber on the mountains and elevated places. 
The term trce-kilkr, the most o])probrious eiiithet pos- 
sible, was applied to those who wantonly- destroyed 
timber. The j^reatcst calamity that could befall a 
nation, a'^^cordint; to the old Greeks, was the destruc- 
tion of their woodlands, bringing drought and famine 
ill its train. The people were taught to revere the 
trees as the homes of the gods; that it was sacrilege 
to wantonly destroy them. Our American, with 
little regard for the next generation, will sti-i]) mile 
after mile of timber away without planting a single 
tree to take its place. The western slope of the 
Sierra, as well as the eastern, is being denuded, and, 
in consequence, the cloud-burst, unknown to the early 
comers of California, is becoming a frenuent visitor. 
What is a cloud-burst > The name is suggestive 
enough, but, unfortunately, convoj-s a wrong imjires- 
sion. It is as if a cloud was a great sack or bag of 
water which could be ruptured and the whole con- 
tents let out by having a hole torn in it by coming in 
contact with a mountain-top, or even bj' the branches 
of a dry tree, a sort of Cesarian operation, an unpleas- 
ant ])roce8s for the cloud, certainly! We get the 
following description from one who has witnessed 
the phenomenon, which is of more frequent occur- 
rence in Nevada and Arizona than elsewhere in our 
country: "The clouds had been gathering in a great 
black bank on the west for some hours. Thick 
masses piled up on the already accumulated clouds 
until they seemed miles thick, dark and threatening. 
On the ojjposite side from the northeast was a similar 
gathering of clouds, giving the impression that a 
storm was gathering there also. As the hours rolled 
on the dense masses approached each other. At first 
only the advanced clouds met and seemed rolled back 
on the main masses; there was no rain yet. We 
could see a long line forming at right angles with 
the course of the clouds. It was of a lighter color 
than the bank of clouds on either side and reminded 
one of the changing shades when steel is being 
tempered. Still towards each other the great masses 
moved; the small, scurrying clouds, like outriders, 
would roll back on the main mass, or even sweep 
partly to the rear. The winds, which at first had 
blown strongly from the west, had ceased, but high 
up among the clouds we could hear a sullen, sub- 
dued roar, as if from a thousand brazen throats afar 
ofl'. The fall of a leaf could be heard; the birds and 
wild animals were aware of the war and ai)peared 
terror-stricken and mindless of human presence. 
The roar became deo])er and seemed mingled with 
the rustle of leaves and branches. At first a few 
drops fell, large as bullets and some feet apart. 
Soon they came faster until the}- fell so thickly as 
to render it impossible to see fifty feet away. The 
ground was soon running an inch deep with water 

every little ravine that was a hundred j-ards long 
was running waist deep and still the rain kept fall- 
ing. Thtt water, that should have been drawn away 
from the clouds by miles of woodland, was being jire- 
cipitated in a small territory. Now amid the roar 
of the falling rain and rushing water we heard a still 
greater roaring. Down the channel of the brook, 
which an hour before contained scarcely water 
enough for an ox to drink, came a breast of water 
four or five feet high antl a hundred feet wide, held 
back to some extent by timber, leaves and other 
trash, but sweeping everj-thing in its course. This, 
uniting with other streams, formed a flood big enough 
to wipe out a city if it was in its way. In this man- 
ner Eureka was destroyed, and in this waj", a coach, 
horses and passengers wore overtaken by a flood in 
one of the ravines or cafions of the eastern Sierra a 
few years since. A cloud-burst is simply a point of 
condensation between two opposing currents of air, 
both saturated with moisture, suspended for some 
considerable time over a small space. A timbered 
point in a countrj^ otherwise generally destitute of 
trees, will frequently determine the localitj' of the 
phenomenon. Such a cloud-burst occurred on 
Smart's Mountain in Lynn, New Hampshire, some 
forty years since. The high point, inaccessible to 
teams, and consequently safe from the woodman's 
ax, was the place of precipitation. Acres of forests 
were leveled by the flood which buried farms, bore 
away mills, or eroded new channels, which left the 
mills high and drj', and played havoc generally. 

From the very nature of the circumstances this 
excessive rain-fall can extend over but a small space, 
otherwise the most devastating floods would occur. 
Happily in most countries these affairs are, j)erha])s, 
less frequent than eartlK^uakes. People wonder at 
the destruction, and, for awhile, fear a return, but 
hundreds of years may elapse before such a peculiar 
combination of winds and clouds may bring about 
another catastrophe, but in the great interior of the 
continent, particularly in that region lying between 
the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains, 
embracing southeastern California, Nevada, Utah, 
Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico, their destruc- 
tive force is often seen. In 1807, and again in 1870, 
the city of Austin was visited by a cloud-burst, caus- 
ing great damage to property. A more serious flood 
from like cause occurred at Eureka in 1874, washing 
away a great many substantiallj- constructed build- 
ings and involving the loss of several lives. Similar 
floods have visited the same city on several occasions, 
but preparations having been made for them, the 
destruction of property was loss. The catchment 
area of either of these localities barely exceeds one 
square mile, yet the amount of water falling in tlie 
short period of an hour is one of the most wonderful 
features of the power of the elements that men ever 
behold, and that such a sea can be borne through 
the air in fleecy clouds is a phenomenon inconceiv- 
ably grand and terrifying. The volume of water 



f'alliiig in the brief moments is almost beyond fompii- 
tation, Justilying the term '• cloud-burd.," although 
it is a misnomer. The incline of the ravines, or val- 
leys, in which the towns of Austin and Eui'cka arc 
situated, is about ten feet in a hundred, average, and 
through these the current rushes from five to ten 
feet in depth and a hundred feet in width, continu- 
ing near an hour, an irresistible, destructive torrent. 
In other localities far greater volumes have fallen, 
the flood marks showing a depth of fifteen feet and 
a width of a quarter of a mile, with the incline nearly 
as precipitous. 

The Los Angeles News, California, of August 23, 
1802, describing a water-spout occurring on the six- 
teenth of that month in San Francisco Canon, says : — 

It appears that on that day, about 1 o'clock p. m. 
a heavy rain-cloud, which had been hovering over 
the canon, burst with a noise like thunder, discharg- 
ing a huge volume of water, instantly filling up the 
canon with a roaring stream, canying everything in 
its resistless course. A family with wagon and o.x-team, 
traveling in the canon, wore caught and overwhelmed 
in the flood, the di-iver alone, Mr. C. J. Chevalier, 
escaping with his life. The water in the eauon 
when the party entered it was less than three inches, 
and when the torrent came it was over fifteen feet 
deep, and it was past daylight next morning ere the 
flood subsided. 

The Carson Jpi>eal of January 13, 1878, gives some 
incidents '■ to our purpose quite," of avalanches and 
cloud-bursts occurring in that (jiiarter: — 

This beautiful weather is so seductive and sjiring- 
like that one forgets, as he sees groups of children 
sitting quietly ujjoii the ground in the mellow sun- 
shine, that il is .laiiuarj' and not June which is so 
sunny and so full of light and cheer. * * * 

We fell in with oui- old ]iioMcer friend Spurgeon, 
j^eslerday, and after the customary weather-wise salu- 
tations, we fell into the inevitable train of reminis- 
cences. It was as if two gentlemen of Herculaneum 
were to meet and gossi]> of their experiences in the 
eruption remittances from the Vesuvian crater. 

The readers of the A/ijituil will call to mind an ava- 
lanche which took ])lace in the winter of 18()5-G6, by 
whose icy current and pro])ulsive course a cabin and 
two men on the Bigler graiie wci-e swejit down into 
the <le))thH below. One of the men, liobinson bj- 
nanu'. survived, his partner, Chadwick, lies there 
under a hundred feet of gravel, granite, chips and 
loam. Robinson stayed all night in his bare legs in 
the snow, and was rescued in the morning by some 
Canadians hard by. 

In the spring of 1S()2 Mr. Spurgeon and a travel- 
ing companion were overtaken b}' a cloud-burst near 
Genoa. Spurgeon was complelel}' enveloped in dirt 
and debris, but escajicd with a sti'n and some bruises, 
Ilis companion has never since been seen. Says the 
Hook, " two women shall be standing together; and 
one shall be taken and the other left." 

On the tenth ol" April, 1S()2, the mountain which 
lies west of north, as one stands in Carson street 
looking towards Washoe Vallej-, was the scene of 
the verj- evident land slide or avalanche which is 
so much a feature of that jiromontor}-. There had 
fallen, after a long dr^^ winter, like the present, a 
very heavy fall of snow, and it was the sudden melt 

ing of this snow that caused the avalanche which 
buried Spurgeon and his companion, and caused that 
Washoe mountain to break in two." 

In 1874 another cloud-burst occun-ed near the 
same locality. 


The future agricultural wealth of the State 
depends upon its means of irrigation, and as the 
prosjject of turning any of the streams of the Colum- 
bia and Colorado into the Great Basin is remote, 
even if practicable, the system of impounding the 
waste waters of the winter season will eventually be 
considered and adopted. In all of the lofty ranges 
of mountains snow falls to a considerable depth. 
Most of this goes to the alkaline flats or the brackish 
lakes to be evaporated in the hot sun of the summer, 
and is mostlj' a dead loss to the State, the exception 
being the remote and insignificant benefit in the 
slightly moistened condition of the air resulting 
therefrom. In the mountains are many flats and 
depressions which could be converted into reservoirs 
and become of vast utility. The matters of climate, 
rain-fall, water-rights, and irrigation are subjects for 
the consideration of the wisest heads. The greatest 
populations of the world have existed where irriga-- 
tion was the reliance. Egj-pt, with its ruined cities 
of Karnac, Memphis, and Thebes; Hindoostan, with 
its canals a thousand miles in length, tapping the 
streams running from the loftiest mountains in the 
world; Ancient Peru, and in fact nearly all the 
ancient seats of population were enriched by arti- 
ficial water distribution. The lands of seasonable 
showers are the exceptions. What has been may be 

Pertinent to this subject maj- be quoted the follow- 
ing from the report of the Assessor of Ormsby County, 
Mr. H. H. Benee, to the Surveyor General, dated 
November 30, 1880:— 

The approximate area of agricultural land in this 
county is 8,000 acres; but owing to a scarcity of 
natural supplj- of water for irrigation, only about 
l.KU acres are actually under cultivation, and the 
question arises how water is to be obtained for irri- 
gating ])urposes. 

Numerous attempts have been made to su])ply it 
by means of artesian wells, but all efl'orts in that 
direction have failed; and, in my opinion, the only 
solution of this question is that carried out by 
Charles M. Scbultz, on his ranch near the mouth of 
Clear Creek. 

Some three years ago, Mr. Schultz constructed a 
reservoir covering a surface area of about twenty 
acres, about ten feet deep at the deojiest itoint, and 
an average depth of about three feet. This reser- 
voir is filled from Clear Creek in the s])ring of the 
year, when there is an abundance of water running 
to waste, and the water is thus stored up for use 
when most needed. When tapped for use, it fur- 
nishes a nice clear stream of water for irrigation 
from four to six weeks at a time. 

By means of this reservoir Mr, Schultz has been 
enabled to cultivate about sixty acres more of land 
than could have been successfully cultivated with 



the natural siip]>lies of water at hand; and his succ-csr 
in this ]ianioular lias been such that lie contem|ilate8 
not only iiu-reasing the ca]>acity of the present res- 
ervoir, hut the construction of others immediately 
below it, thus comitlclin-; a system of reservoirs, one 
below the other, that will undoubtedly reward his 
enterprise with a largo increase in agricultural 

There are many other suitable sites for reservoirs, 
and by a reasonable outlay in their construction the 

agricultural resourceB of the county might be more 
than doubled. 

Statistics have shown that the rain-fali along the 
western border of the State, also in the mountains 
of the north and cast, is about thirteen inches ])cr 
annum, which, if gathered in reservoirs, would be 
sulHcieut to irrigate all, or nearly all, the land of the 
valleys, redeeming the State from its present barren- 



1 State 







y liicr 

3ase ot 



1865 to 1880.* 








1871 j 1872 









3 J 
-= 1 

Horses . . . 



























13, .354 















1 1 ,425 




















4, GOO 

















> 6,8".K, 



1 9,12(1 











































1 21 
8,2 K 



J f 







2, 700 






■ .3,852 






3 \ 






Sheep . . 

2 1 

Horses. . . . 

-Mulrs. . . . 




























2 ( 

■^ J 
5 f 

Horses. . . . 




Horses . . . 




Horses. . . . 


1, 000 




1, 0*3 












2 292 



























" V.'oi) 

i f 

s -\ 








2, 100 



3, .562 



1. 885 




9 -{ 
^ 1 




1,903 2,084 

615 48!) 

12,!)48 7,8.30 


































































18," 102 





o 1 

Horses. . , . 
























Sheep . ... 

Horses. . . . 
.Mules. . . . 











i ) 







s J 

Horses. . . . 




Horses. . . . 


' 2,6o6 
































C 1 

C 1 

3 1 




Horses. . . . 























" 07 '( 




10A r.ikl 



























£ ) 

riorses. . . . 




O '\ 

m 9 


Horses. . . . 


Cattle. ... 
















14,0: 1 


*Iu some iustonces no returns were found; this accounts for the blank spaces. 



TaMlatei Statefflent, Showing tk Area Cnltivatefl, aM Grain Raised from 1865 to IS 





































I,. 500 













































































































2, .500 




























































































2 292 











































' ' '4.3s 










I" 040 


Wlieat . . . 




•' '>62 

Hay ...... 


Wlieat . . . 







3 1 

2 075 


t: i 

Area. . . . 





■3 1 














Barley. . . . 








16, .557 













Barley .... 







Wlieat . . 









i - 

3 750 




J3' 1 



















Wheat . . . 































o 1 


Corn. 18 





2 -{ 

Barley. . . . 


' ' ' '75 






Hay . . 

i- f 










Wheat . . . 
Barley . . . 





o ( 



Hay . . 





Area . 































^ f 


Wheat . . 
Barley. . . . 







3 1 
is (^ 





*Ia some iustances uo returns were found; this accounts for the lilank spaces. 


The bunch grass is the main relianeo for the herds 
of cattle raiij^ing through the State. It is hard}-, 
nutritious, and acceptable to the wandering stock, 
but has not met all the expectations of those who 
undertook to raise herds U])()n it. When the cattle 
were Been to paw away the snow to get it, and 

thrive and even get fat upon it in winter, the oxjiec- 
tations of stockmen were boundless, but it was 
found that the closely cropped bunches required 
years for their renewal, and that one season's pas- 
turage nearly worked oaf a range, and the cattle had 
to subsist upon the wild sage, which has some of the 
qualities of the domestic herb, communicating the 

"■•Xi^i ^ r-^,„J^ J^i^- 



Manuel San Pedro. 

In the northwestern extreme of the Spanish Peninsula, where the Atlantic's boisterous 
waves beat against the projecting buttresses of the Pyrenean chain, is the mountainous 
Province of Galicia, and therein, forty-one years ago, the suhjcclof this sketch, Manuel 
San Pedro, first saw the light. Ihiliive the coast of Spain generally, here &torni.s and 
sea and mountains combined, have formed bold headlands, deep bays and projecting 
islands, giving Galicia some of the best harbors of the kingdom. Good harbors are the 
schools of sailors, and there young San Pedro took his lessons. At the age of fourteen 
he left his native land for a voyage to Brazil, South America, and for several years his 
life was on the ocean wave. With that skill and ambition which has marked his later 
years, he soon rose to the rank of Captain, and as such liad coumiand of several ships in 
the commercial marine. But the life of a merchant .sailor did not offer the opportu- 
nities to which h^aspired. His tastes, talents and inclinations led him to mining. In 
his native land mining had been the high and lionorable occupation of the people for 
more than a tliousand years before he was born, and in his days of early manhood, the 
world was resounding witli the success of mining enterprises. In view of acquiring a 
knowledge of mineralogical .science, and familiarizing himself with the practical operations 
of the business, he visited all the great mines of South America, Central America and 
Mexico, spending several years in his studies. 

While engaged in these explorations, the news of the wonderful silver mines of Nevada 
was spreading over the world and Senor San Pedro .saw that there was the proper field 
for his future operations. In 18G1, he came to Virginia City, bringing with him most 
valuable knowledge of mines and mining. With the experience of a year in the mines 
of the Comstock, he plunged forward into the wilderness, being one of the pioneers in 
tile mines of Humboldt County. The Sheba and other mines of that region were then 
attracting the attention of miners, and cau.sing a great sensation. But San Pedro did 
not rest satisfied with the prospects of that region, and he went exploring the new 
discoveries of Reese River, which carried him into Nye County, examining all the country 
of the Toiyabe and the Shoshone ranges of mountains, becoming particularly interested 
in the mines of Union District, which he hflped to organize, and, at a later date, to 
found the town of Grantsville. 

The White Pine excitement of 18G9 called him to new fields, and since then his 
operations have been varie<l and extensive throughout this State as well as in California. 
Always observing, always learning, he has become an authority on mining matters, and 
his opinions are sought, and his sound and well-matured judgment relied upon by those 
seeking information in mining matters: for the development of mining property, or 
intending to invest in the same. With his twenty ^-ears' experience in the mines of 
Nevada, together with the exact knowledge obtained by his studies in the Spanish- 
American States, he has risen to the front rank as a mining expert, and his judgment is 
regarded as infallible. The proof of this is given in his faith in the mines of Grantsville, 
which among his earliest discoveries are now among the most valuable of the State, 
returning large profits for capital invested in them and a promise of being inexhaustible 
in their resources. He has seen grow up around him, greatly the result.'* of his sagacity 
and enterprise, the thriving town of Grantsville, and with it he has thrived and jnos- 
pered. Some seven or eight yeai-s ago he became associated in his mining operations 
with James B. Cooper, Es(p,a gentleman of great businessj ability, and in 1S77. organ- 
ized the Alexander Mining Company with Mr. Cooper as President and Don Manuel 
San Pedro as Superintendent. The mines of this Company are in and around Grants- 
ville, and with one of the best mills of the coast, using fifty stamps and all the modern 
improvements, employs (juite a colony of men. So successful have the operations been 
that extensive additions are expected to be made to the mill, quadrupling its capacity. 

This sketch is necessarily brief; the full history of the gentleman's life, with all its 
incidents, adventures, explorations and successes being suthcient to fill a volume. He is 
still in the prime of life, with the port of vigorous manhood, and many more triumphs in 
fortune's battles are in store for him. 



peculiar, though not objectionable, flavor to the beef. 
N. H. A. Mason, who is the largest land owner and 
perhaps cattle owner in the State — owning 1,800 
square miles on Quin River, also several other 
ranges — expresses the opinion that 160 acres of land 
to the head is required to carry a herd through the 
season. This is a low estimate on the abilitj- of the 
land, but it may be correct. Undoubtedly mueh of 
the land is much better than this, and some is so bad 
that an animal might starve while traveling from 
one bunch of grass to another. 

The Central Pacific Railroad has made the exten- 
sive raising of cattle in Nevada possible, by furnish- 
ing a speedy and economical trans])ortation to 
market. A drive of 300 miles will take fifty pounds 
of flesh off the average steer. A drive of 600 or a 
1,000 is, of course, out of the question. The cattle 
ranges of the State are all within 300 miles, and 
cattle are driven to the line of the raih'oad, and in 
a few days are transferred, with little loss, to the 
market in San Francisco or St. Louis. Over one- 
half of the beef supply of the former place comes from 
Nevada, amounting to nearly 80.000 head ]ier year. 
Large herds onlj- are profitable. The best judgment 
is necessarj' in handling cattle. The feed designed 
for winter use must be preserved. The summer and 
winter pastures are sometimes 100 miles ajiart. To 
remain on the suiiuner range during the winter 
would result in great loss, if not destruction of the 
herd. A deep snow would bury up the closely 
cropped grass, so that starvation would necessarily 
ensue. Where the bunches are uncropped. the cattle 
will paw away the snow, finding the grass by some 
kind of instinct, and feast on the compact head of 
grass, and perhaps improve in flesh during the 

Winter feeding is found to be detrimental. Cattle 
fed, though ever so little, lose their enterprise and 
hang around the hay -stack, refusing to exert them- 
selves at all, in this respect, at least, illustrating the 
ordinary results of charity to a street beggar. 

The migration of cattle was taught bj' the buffalo 
that moves from Texas to the grassy |)lains of the 
Red River of the north and back again the same sea- 
son. The cattle become half wild, as do their con- 
stant com])anions, the herders, who are a unique 
race, with a code of morals and almost a language of 
their own. Tliej- are not much above the Indian, 
whom they have dis])laced in their civilization, and 
in time may form a pojjulation as troublesome to 
control as the native Indian. The cow-boys of 
Texas are not a whit more amenable to the laws of 
ethics than Cachise's Indians were. A rifle, knife, 
saddle and horse are his e<|uipments. With these 
he will have the best the country aflTords. Some- 
body has to suffer. 


A drj' season may cut short the feed, in which 
case thousands may starve. A deep snow or an 
unusual low temperature may decimate a herd. It 


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is estimated that one-third of all the cattle in Nevada 
died in the winter of 1879-80. Ten years previous 
the winter was very destructive also. On the Car- 
son River the snow commenced fallini^ in Novem- 
ber, covering the ground two feet and a half deep. 
In Pine Nut Valley the Allcorn Brothers lost 360 
out of 4(10 head. Thej- had come in during the fall 
across the plains and were not used to the range. 
Walter Cosser lost seventy -five head; Israel Mott, 
300 head. Two-thirds of all the cattle in Carson 
Valley died. Among the farmers hay was worth 
$100 per ton ; if taken to Virginia City, 8300 to 
S500. Flour was worth 8100 per barrel. 

Cattle that were in good condition and accustomed 
to the range escaped. The " big melt," " big jaw," 
and "black leg" are diseases, mysterious, and fre- 
quently fatal; the latter, especially, is rapidly fatal, 
no cure or preventive having been found. The vic- 
tims are generally the finest calves, the poorer ones 
escaping. The disease prevails in July and August, 
these being the most dreaded months in the year. 
The hind legs commence swelling and getting stiff, 
the disease soon passing to the loins, when the animal 
dies. The disease usually runs its course in three or 
four hours. Some have supposed it to be a kind of 
gout, engendered by excessive nutrition of the blood, 
producing paralysis and stagnation, the blood being 
found in clotted masses around the kidneys. The 
losses by severe cold, snow and starvation are the 
most serious, however. 

Every season, in May and Juno, the owners have 
what they call a 


The cattle scatter over immense tracts of country, 
being left pretty much to their own keeping and 
straying ten, twenty, or even fifty miles from home. 
An cxteiisivo cattle owner will travel from one rodeo 
to another branding all the calves with his mark that 
follow his cows. He may not see his stock again 
until the rodeo of the following j'ear, or until he 
searches out the fat ones for a drive. A cattle farmer 
will brand annually from five hundred to five thou- 
sand calves. The rodeo is the cattle herders' delight. 
Here they may be seen in all their glory of riata or 
rawhide, jingling spurs, and revolver. They run 
races, throw the lasso over each other's heads, or 
riding upon an unsuspecting greenhorn (gringo) and 
catching his horse by the tail, tumble horse and rider 
into the sand. 


Is the jxirtion of the herd set off for beef or for sale, 
and is the increase, or profit of the herd. In a suc- 
cessful scries of years the annual drive will approxi- 
mate (he number of calves branded, which one year 
with another will nearly equal one-quarter of the 
herd. It will readily be seen that the stock business, 
when successfully conducted soon brings a fortune. 
Dr. Glenn once sent to market 13,000 at a single 

Among the cattle kings in Nevada are : Dr. 
Glenn & Co. with 30,000 ; Todhunter, with 25,000 ; 
Lux & Miller, with 10,000; and N, H. A. Mason, 
number unknown. 

The total number of cattle in Nevada is estimated 
at upwards of 200,000. It is extremely difficult to 
arrive at anything like correct figures, as the owners 
do not always know their own numbers, and the 
Assessor is not paid for hunting up the beasts. If 
there is an}' doubt the cattle owner is sure to have 
the benefit of it. 


The fine Durham or Jerse%' stock would find them- 
selves out of place in the sage-brush. Cattle are 
wanted that can either fight or run away as the case 
demands. The Texas steer or cow can do all this. 
Uis long slender horns and light heels make him 
formidable either in fight or flight. They are less 
prone to wander alone and are more readily massed 
than American cattle. 


Is one of the things that are past all comprehension. 
As this book may fall into the hands of some who 
have never seen one, a description may be ]>ermitted. 
Whether the atmosphere of the '-Great West," the 
altered disposition of the cattle (horses and mules as 
well), or a half indistinct recollection of danger in 
past ages causes it, none can tell. The stubborn fact 
remains unaccounted for. The emigrants of 1849- 
50 often learned to the sorrow what a stampede was. 
An eye-witness thus describes it: — 

' Twas bout three days this side Chimblej' Rock. 
We'd been pokin along sort of easy as the cattle had 
got kinder thin and the road was right sandy. 
'Twas near middle the arternoon, an I was thinking 
'o ridin' ahead fur a campin' ground. I'd got off to 
s]iell my mar a bit and was leadin' her with the 
bridle on my arm, my old woman walkin' with me. 
The}"'s four wagon on us all and Riah's was behind, 
his wife and children had jist climbed in over the tail- 
board. The old mar was alius a blamed thing ter 
lead; morn half asleej) less somebodj''s on her back. 
The mar made a stumble and slapped her foot on 
the ground like. 'Twant notliin'; you couldn't a 
hcerd it twenty j'ards, but Riah's critters heerd it 
though. The}' give a blow "n a heller 'n started 
with their eyes as big as saucers, as if old Satan his- 
self was prod'n 'em with his forked tail. The children 
spilled out fust thing and Kiah's wife next; how she 
rolled. "What's the matter dad?" says she. "Is't 
Injuns?" "Blamed if I know," says I. "1 reckon it's a 
stampede." The other critters started. You couldn't 
stop 'em more'n you could a horrycane. The boys was 
walkin' ahead. They heerd 'em a tearin along, but 
tliiy- couldn't do nothin 'cept turn the skeered crit- 
ters towards the blulVs. My mar had bruck away 
and we's all afoot, hut set after 'em as fast as we 
could. We cud see tar buckets, 'n blankets, 'n fry 
ing ])ans, 'n crackers jist a flyin, 'ii the cattle's tails a 
switchin'. Riah's rifle was tied ter the wag(m bows. 
That fell down 'n went oft' 'n ke])t u]) the skeer, 
though 't didn't hit nothin. We kim up two miles or 
more towards the blurt's, it mout a been three, 'n 
found 'em all snarled up. The forud ones 'ad turned 



'n upset the waijon, makitiica bii; scattcrmeiit. Tliey 
dni<; it on the side awiiile til tother erilter.s i-im into 
'em 'n we found 'em bellerin 'n i)lo\vin 'n all beat 
out, piled one top or tother. The old mar stood 
lookin on 's it' she hadn't done notliin'. We i^athercd 
up the |)lunder 'n i;ot back to the road arter dark. 
'■What made 'om run'?" J)ogond if I know, less 
kays they's 's fur from home." The critters was 
mitjhty little 'count arter that." 

In 1849, sixty teams of cattle, five yoke to a team, 
all drawini; emigrant wagons, stampeded on the 
Sweetwater and run seven or eight miles before they 
came to a liult. Horses and even the sedate, stolid 
mule, who ought to be proof against any sudden 
emotion, will join in the scare. The biggest fool in 
the crowd is the solemn-looking mule. In early 
days a cavalcade would be picketed out with ropes, 
fifty feet long fastened to an iron pin eighteen inches 
in length. Sometimes a herd of a hundred horses 
would break awaj^ and run twenty miles, the iron 
pins flying and prodding them every step. A more 
terror-stricken crowd of animals never was seen. In 
18G4, McCosh,a Missourian, started with six hundred 
mules for California. They stampeded on the Platte 
River and two hundred and fifty were lost beyond 
recovery. In the past winter, 1880-81, a band of 
thirteen hundred fat cattle, confined in a corral in 
Paradise City, took a panic, broke out and started. 
Some were killed in the ravines, or by falling over 
precipices; man3- were lost, and those that were 
recovered were greatly injured. The loss to the 
owners was something like 810,(MI(). Months are 
required to repair the nervous exhaustion produced 
by a stampede. The danger is always present, and 
the rush comes when least looked for. It is head- 
long and irresistible, and can only be controlled by 
fallhig in and running with the crowd, becoming in fact 
a leader. 

Is it not true also with regard to a human panic'? 


Has his habitation west of the Rockj' Mountains. 
He is a distant relative of the cricket on the hearth, 
with many of his tastes and habits, but having 
adapted himself to sage-brush and sand plains ho 
has changed considerably in appearance, being much 
larger and more clumsy than his domestic relative. 
He is two inches or more in length, of a reddish 
brown color, with only rudimentary wings, and a 
stomach that will digest cactus or sago-brush equally 
well, though ho will, when hard pressed for food, 
live upon lettuce, cabbage, and other garden truck, 
or even growing grain ; in fact, many farmers believe 
that he seeks the civilized product rather than the 
wild plants, and have experienced considerable dif- 
ficultj- in kee])ing them out of their cultivated fields. 
They overran the fields of the Mormons at Salt 
Lake in 1849-50; luit in answer to the prayers 
of the Saints for deliverance — according to the Mor- 
mon records — the Lord sent innumerable gulls that 
devoured the crickets. At any rate the fields in the 

vicinity of Salt Lake were saved from the crickets 
by the gulls that appeared in immense numbers. 
Like the grasshopjier, the cricket has his favorite 
breeding-place, and when grown emigrates in search 
of better pasture, though, having little use of his 
wings, he cannot carry his heavy body far away 
from the homo of his youth. 

They move in swarms, covering a space from half 
a mile to five miles in width. They do not, cannot 
mass, like the grasshopper, and, consequently, can- 
not commit such wido-spread havoc, though they 
are a great annoyance. Ditches will turn them or 
catch them so they can be destroyed. One farmer 
in the northeastern part of the State allowed ho 
had headed them off eff'ectually from his garden by 
building a sheet-iron and tin fence, four feet high, 
which thoy could neither climb nor jump over. The 
crickets were bad in places in 1869-70-71. but are 
not considered a serious objection to settling in 
Nevada. Probably they are not as destructive nor 
as difficult to exterminate as squirrels in some parts 
of California. 


Or grasshopper is, perhaps, more of a menace to 
the Pacific Coast than the "Heathen Chinee." He 
seems as much a native of the high table-lands of 
the interior as are the wandering hordes of Tartars 
of Central Asia. Their range is enormous, occa- 
sionally visiting one-half of the United States. We 
may commence within fifty miles of Galveston, and 
go northeast towards St. Louis, leaving that city, 
say a hundred miles to the east; thence through 
St. Paul to Winnipeg Lake — this line being nearly 
direct, covering twenty-five degrees, or near 2,000 
miles on the eastern side; then-ce west to the Colum- 
bia River, taking in the larger part of its territory; 
thence to the Sierra Nevada Mountains, taking all 
of Nevada and part of (California (though so far 
they have never crossed the Sierra), all of Arizona 
north of the Big Cafion (that boats them) to Santa 
Fe, following the Pecos River to the Rio Grande; 
thence, as the jiotaries say, to Galveston, the place 
of beginning, (containing 2,500,000 scjuare miles, be 
the same more or less. This includes his extreme 
range; his permanent breeding-place being the high 
and dry lands in the northern ])art of the United 
States, on both slopes of the l{ocky Mountains, to 
the fiftj'-fiilh parallel; though his breeding-places 
on the west side are confined to a few dry regions, 
such as the head-waters of Snake l{iver, a portion 
of Salt Lake Vallej', and parts of the eastern slope 
of the Sierra Nevada. In places his range is near 
1,000 miles from the breeding-place; he scarcely 
ever breeds south of Pike's Peak, but will sometimes 
extend his flight near to the (Julf of Mexico. 

It chooses for its breeding-place rather dry, grav- 
elly soil, and lays its eggs, some twenty-five or thirty 
in number, about one inch below the surface, in a 
cavity half an inch in length, and less than a quar- 
ter in diameter, where they remain until the heat 



of the following spring hatches them, and brings 
up the grass that shall nourish the young until they 
are able to fly, which, with favorable weather, will 
be in six or seven weeks. During this period they 
loiter along, hiding under the decayed vegetation at 
night, and traveling only in the warmer part of the 
day. They frequently destroy gi-ain fields in this 
stage, but may he turned by ditches, or destroyed 
by various means. It is not until after they have 
grown their wings that they show their formidable 
nature. Having exhausted the herbage in the vicin- 
ity of their breeding-place they apparentlj', by a con- 
certed movement, rise in immense swarms, in num- 
bers almost incredible, darkening the air for miles — 
millions, perhaps millions of millions would not num- 
ber them. They have been known to fall into Salt 
Lake, so that the beach was covered several feet 
thick with their dead bodies. They will stop a rail- 
road train, or convert the roads vvhoi-e wagons are 
passing into mud by sheer force of numbers. When 
in their flight they mass and prepare to alight the 
farmer is filled with terror. Karely can he turn 
them aside. In some instances it has been done by 
dense smoke, fire, noise, the preparations for them 
having been ample. Usually the effort is vain. 
Some morning he sees the skirmishing line appear- 
ing like silver spots glistening in the air, and they 
commence falling like the rain, until the air is dark 
with their bodies. It seems as if the air for miles 
in height is full of them. The rijiciiing grain begins 
to fall. The first comers select the choice morsels 
near the ground, cutting the stock off to get it. 
They next seize the straw like saw-logs, and running 
them through their mandibles, take otf another por- 
tion; a third devours the balance, and in two or three 
hours the harvest is ended, leaving a blackened, 
dirty, filthy mass instead of the waving grain. 
Sometimes they spread over a great extent of coun- 
tr}', and remain several days before the work is 
completed; but whether coming in swarms that 
cover the ground, or in scattered numbers, they do 
not leave until all is destroj-ed; and, thus they con- 
tinue their flight until the season for incubation 
arrives, when they settle for the purpose of leaving, 
their eggs and winding up business. 

In view of the ti'cmondous territory which is sub- 
ject to their de)>redalions the United States Govern- 
ment, in 187ti. ajjpointed a commission to examine 
and report U])on the matter, which they did in a full 
re])ort occu])ying some fitly jiages of tine print. The 
habits of the insect, from the hatching to the laying 
of the eggs, the character of the soil and temperature 
favorable for their development, were cai'efuljy ob- 
served; also their natural enemies and the means 
which had been tried to destroy them or turn aside 
the swarms. The result ma}' be found in the reports 
for 1877, and will give one a better idea of the possi- 
ble disasters than any ordinary report. It seems 
that like all other insects, it has its natural enemies. 
There is a small, red louse, or silky mile as it is 

called, that will sometimes exterminate the whole 
race of grasshoppers over a large territory. It 
seems a fatal enemy, whether attaching itself to the 
full grown grasshopper or burrowing in the egg 
nest. In the first instance it attaches itself to the 
sides of the insect, and never lets go while life lasts, 
the grasshopper never arriving to the depositing the 
ova. The appearance of these silky mites is hailed 
with joy, as they not only destroy the swarm but 
the egg deposits as well. In the first period of the 
life of the insect, before the full growth of the wings, 
much of the destruction may be averted or pre- 
vented. At this period the insects move but a mile 
or two in a daj'. Ditches, two or three feet deep, 
will sometimes turn them away from a field. They 
can be caught in nets or gathered \>y machinery 
rolled by horse power. A dozen or more machines, 
each possessing some peculiar merit, have been in- 
vented for this purpose. Many different kinds of 
poison have been recommended as efficient, but the 
utmost energy and watchfulness will frequently fail 
to save any portion of the crop. In the second 
stage, in which the insect is full-fledged, it is nearly 
impossible to avert total destruction when a 
descent is made. The" habit of massing precludes 
the general devastation of the land. The stream 
may be from one to four miles wide; outside of this 
the injury will be comparatively small. The average 
annual loss from their ravages is estimated at 
$40.0(10,(100. Hogs, chickens, turkeys, and domestic 
fowls of all kinds feed upon them, as do most of the 
wild birds and some of the wild animals, such as the 
skunk, coyote, etc. The skunk, in particular, seeks 
out the deposits of eggs, and in a country well 
stocked with nests will dig the ground full of little 
holes in search of the rich morsels. Some of the long- 
billed birds also reach the eggs and feed ujjon them. 
In 1880, and also during the earlier part of the pres- 
ent season (1881), the grasshop])er8 ravaged the val- 
leys along the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada. 
Some fields were entirely destroyed. They breed on 
or near the grounds where they commit their depre- 
dations, and therefore cannot be the famous Rockj' 
Mountain spretus, whose flight extends a thousand 
miles. According to the report of the United Slates 
Entomologist, the spretus does not extend his flight 
to the Ilocky Mountains. 


This, extending past Steamboat Springs and to 
the Truckee River, being on the line of travel be- 
tween the mines and California, naturally developed 
fast. Its big tract of hay land, which, umlor the 
influence of irrigation, has ]>roduce(l marvelously, 
being one great field of luxuriant alfalfa. The inex- 
haustible supply of water and vicinity to market 
have given it an impetus that maj- keep it in advance 
of other counties in the State. The well-conducted 
farms and elegant residences are evidences of thrift 
that cannot he misunderstood. Perhajis no jilace in 
the world combines a greater number of good (jaali- 



fTM mr C L. SMITH- 



ties than Washoo Valley. Some may bo more 
beautiful, others more fertile, others with a more 
genial climate, ami others with a better market, but 
for the whole combined it may chalieiiye the world. 

It was fii-st cultivated by the Mormons, who seem 
to have an ej-e for profit as well as beaut}-, in IS.'jH, 
but did not assume any special imi)ortance until 
1860, or about the time of the development of the 
Virginia silver mines. The subsequent buildinij of 
the Central Pacific Railroad along its northern 
terminus, and the Virginia and Truckee Railroad 
through the valley, fixed its status beyond all cavil. 
At present it seems likely to become a commercial 
as woli as an agricultural center, and with its 
natural advantages will have a brilliant future. 

The partial suspension of the mines of Nevada has 
worked a temporary hardship for the farmers. 
These seasons of depression are common to all 
countries, and are no evidence of declining wealth. 
It is one of the peculiarities of an agricultural com- 
munity, that even in the hardest of limes, substan- 
tial progress is generally made. When the chil. 
dren of Israel were starving in the wilderness, tlicj' 
would not touch their cattle. These were regarded 
as the source of wealth when they should reach 
their promised land. Thej- would not encroach 
on their capital. Jlarkets may be depressed, as 
when in Iowa the price of corn was but ten cents a 
bushel; j)lcuro-pneumonia may sweep off the cattle, 
or cholera the hogs; and grasshoppers may cat up 
the crops, as in Kansas, but the land, the source of 
all the wealth, remains. In a year or two more 
stock takes the place of those that died; the barren, 
blasted fields again become clothed with grass and 
grain; and the next decade shows a substantial 
increase in all the elements of wealth. The State of 
Nevada shows no exception to these general rules 
By consulting the annexed tables a general i)rogress 
through the decade of seventy will be noticed. The 
population becomes contented with a moderate and 
steady prosperity; the children pick up the business 
where the fathers laid it down, each year, each gen- 
eration adding something to the general wealth. 
So cf)mmunilies from small beginnings grow to be 
mighty States like Now York, Ohio, Illinois. So 
may Nevada. 


First Kxpwlitidii of Whites — Washoe Kaiils— Munkr of I'lter 
Ij^issuM — (!ov. Hoop anil the Indians — The War of ISdO — 
Numaga's KITort for Peace — Burning of Williams Station — 
Demand for Vengeanee — Volunteers for the I'^xpedition — 
The Battle Kield — An Aimless Charge and Wild Ketreat — 
Death of Major Ormsby — A Nameless Hero — Closing Scenes 
—Effects of the Defeat. 

The first intercourse between the white and red 
race in Nevada, of which there is any record, dates 
from 1832. In August of that year Milton Sublette 
reached the head-waters of the Humboldt River, 

with a company of trappers, among whom was the 
celebrated Joe Meek, long afterwards a resident of 
Oregon, of whom the following traditionary story is 
told by Mrs. F. F. Victor, in her book entitled 
"Mountain and Forest." Within a few days after 
their arrival at that ])lace, .Meek shot and killed a 
Shoshone Indian. The unfortunate, though famous 
mountaineer, N. J. Wj-the, who was also of the 
party, asked the tra]i])er why he had done this, and 
was told that it was oidy a hint ''to keep the Indians 
from stealing their traps." 

"Had he stolen anj'?" (|ueried his questioner. 

"No," replied Meek; "but ho looked as if he was 
going to." 

This was a suggestive introduction of the whites 
to the natives of Nevada; one that gives the chief 
actor a distinction over which it requires, u])on our 
part, a great effort to become enthusiastic. 

The following year Captain B. L. E. Bonneville 
started an expedition of forty men* under Joseph 
Wallver, from the Green River Valley, to explore 
and trap the country west from Salt Lake to the Pa- 
cific Ocean — Meek being one of the party. Kit Car- 
son was not one of them. He had been seriously 
wounded, a couple of months prior to this, in an 
encounter with the Black Feet Indians, ami later in 
the season trapped the Humboldt down to its Sink, 
and no farther. Consequently, the oft-repeated as- 
sertion that he discovered the Carson River in 1S88. 
is untrue. The company made its way slowly down 
the Humboldt, trap])ing as it went, until the curi- 
osity of the natives had gradually overcome their 
fears of the whites. From day to day their numbers 
increased in the vicinity of, but at what they con- 
sidered, a safe distance from, the camp and line of 
the strangers' advance. At night the more daring 
would occasionally steal into camp and carry off 
some trifling article that seemed to them a treasure 
of priceless value. 

Their petty larccnj' proclivities, combined with 
their constantly' increasing numbers, eventually 
aroused the suspicion of Walker, who claimed, as 
justification of what followed, to have feared a medi- 
tated attack. 

Washington Irving, in his account of this expedi- 
tion, says: — 

At length, one daj', the}' came to the banks of a 
stream emptying into Ogden's River (Humboldt), 
which they were obliged to ford. Hero a great 
number of Shoshones were ])osteil on the opposite 
bank. Persuaiied that they were there with hostile 
intent, they advanced u|)on them, leveled their rifles, 
and killed twenty-fivet of them upon the sjiot. The 
rest fled to a short distance, then halted and turned 
about, howling and whining like wolves and uttering 
the most ))iteous wailings. The trapjiei-s chased 
them in every direction; the poor wretches made no 
defense, but Hed with terror; neither does it a])pear 

*Mrs. F. F. Victor plaoes the nunilur at IKS, sco "Mountain 
and Forest," hy that authoif.-is, ii.ige 14;t ami 144. 

't^'lic nunilx'r killeil is placed at seventy-live by siunc authoress 
in same book, se« page 14U. 



from the account of the boasted victors, that a 
weapon bad been wielded or a weapon launched bj- 
the Indians throughout the affair. We feel perfectly 
convinced that the poor savages had no hostile in- 
tention, but had merely gathered together through 
motives of curiositj*. 

A member of Walker's company, one morning, 
found some of his traps missing, and swore that be 
would have the life of the first Indian he met. Soon 
after he chanced to see a couple fishing along the 
margin of the river, unconscious of approaching 
danger, when he deliberately raised his rifle and 
fired at one of them, who sank to the earth as his 
death-cry rang out over the vallej'. 

When the hunters reached the sink of the Hum- 
boldt, they struck across the country towards the 
west. Arriving at Pyramid Lake, they followed 
the Truckce Eivcr up into the Sierra Nevada 
mountains, and from thence passed across to the 
Sacramento, following nearlj' the same route now 
traversed by the Central Pacific Ilailroad. 

After the departure of Walker's party, there was 
no more slaughter of Indians for the ensuing seven- 
teen j'cars, although numerous expeditions passed 
through Nevada, culminating in 1849-50 in a tidal 
wave of whites from over the plains that passed down 
the western slope, a deluge upon the golden plains of 

The passage of emigrants thi'ough the country, 
among whom were many that were reckless, and 
some who thought that the reputation of having 
killed an Indian would transform them into heroes, 
resulted in the slaughter of some straggling Sho- 
shones, along the Humboldt in 1S49. Several 
instances of the kind occurred, where they were shot 
in retaliation for real or fancied aggressions. In 
1850 this tribe, or portions of it, commenced a series 
of depredations that lasted until the close of 1803. 

In June, 1850, a train from JoHet, Illinois, among 
whom was Capt. Robert Lyon, who relates that 
while camped at a point near where Elko now is, 
they lost one of their party, who was shot through 
the heart with an arrow while on |)icket duty. An 
ineffectual attempt was made to stampede the horses, 
but three of the animals that were running loose 
fell into the hands of the Indians. The next day 
the man was buried near (iraveily Ford, and the 
emigrants pursued their way. About twenty miles 
from the Ford they came upon another train of seven 
wagons and twelve men that had no stock, all of it 
having been stampeded and driven off, and they 
wore forced to burn their wagons, and go on foot 
the balance of the way to California. Later the same 
season another train was served in the same way, 
all its slock being taken; but with the assistance of 
others, among whom chanced to be several mount- 
aineers, ])ursuit of the Shoshones was made under the 
leadership ol' one — Wai'ner, resulting in a surjirisal 
of the Indians, the killing of some thirtj' of them, 
and the recovery of the stock. This put a stop to 
troubles that season. 

Jn the spring of 1851, Walter Cosser. now living 
in Douglas County, in tlii.s State, left Salt Lake for the 
purpose of going to California. There were five men 
accompanying Cosser's party, among whom was the 
since notorious Bill Hickman, the Danite, or destroy- 
ing angel of Brigh am Young. The five were under the 
leadership of Hickman; and while they were camped 
at Stony Point, on the Humboldt Kiver, some 
Shoshones were standing around, when one of the 
Danite gang shot and killed a couple of them. Their 
only reason given for doing it was the pleasure that 
killing of redskins afforded the murderers. Three 
or four days later, while upon the same river, Hick- 
man's satellites killed two more Indians and a 
squaw, and scalped the former. As before, they 
made no attempt at justifying their acts by accusing 
their victims of having committed a wrong. 

In the fall of the same year (1851) Col. A. Wood- 
ard of Sacramento, California, in company with two 
guards named Oscar Pitzer and John Hawthorn, 
were carrying the mail from Salt Lake to Sacramento, 
and camped one night at the scene of Hickman's 
massacre. That night a mortal tragedy was enacted 
there among the mountains, by the banks of the 
Humboldt Eiver; but its silent, passing waters, told 
no tale. The next traveler over the route found the 
mangled bodies of three white men at Stonj- Point, 
and the newspapers of the Pacific Coast recorded the 
fact as another outrage on the overland road by 
savages, and demanded an extermination of the tribe. 
The party w-ho discovered these bodies was S. A. 
Kinsey, who now lives at Genoa, in this State. He 
was carrying the eastward-bound mail for Salt Lake, 
and was accompanied by a couple of men as guards; 
but upon their arrival at the scene of the late trage- 
dies, they camped, intending to pass a dangerous 
point ahead in the night. As darkness came they 
were prevented from doing so, however, by the Indi- 
ans, who built fires in places that revealed any object 
that might ])ass that way. To go around was im- 
possible. They were consequently forced to remain 
at camp until daylight before making the attempt to 
continue their journej'. In the morning they 
mounted and rode forward. Where the river came 
nearest to the rocks a number of willows were grow- 
ing, and the horsemen, as thej' approached this place, 
leveled their rifles at it and rode quietly along, turn- 
ing in their saddles as they passed, to enable them to 
continue facing the point of danger. Thus they 
made their way along bj' the willows to a more o]>en 
and safe locality. As they passed beyond rifle range, 
however, and lowered their weapons, a number of 
Indians sprang out from their willow ambush, j-elliiig 
and gesticulating in impotent rage at the escape of 
their proposed victims. 

In June, 1851, Joseph Zumwalt, now a resident of 
California, visited Lake Tahoe, from whence he made 
a tri|) bj' the way of Dayton to Truckeo Meadows, 
and from the latter place to Pyramid Lake. In pass- 
ing down the river between these last-named points, 



his party camo upon the half-docomposed bodj* of a 
white man, whose hair was red, and thej- buried 
the remains, lie had l)eeii ])ursiK'(l and fiiiiiliy mur- 
dered by a hirge band oflndians, prol)ai)ly I'ah-l'tcf*; 
this much the numerous pony tracks, still distinguish- 
able in the soil, revealed, and nothing more. 


In the summer of 1852, a man who kept a station 
on the overland road at a point near the present site 
of Empire, came up to Eagle Station and informed 
those stopping there that a band of Washoes on the 
cast side of the river, near that place, had in their 
possession several American horses that he supposed, 
of course, they had no right to. It was immediate!}' 
determined bj- all to go down and take the animals 
away from the Indians. The whites, under the 
leadership of Pearson, a noted Indian fighter, con- 
sisted of Frank Hall, now of Carson, his brother, W. 
L. Hall, of Esmeralda County, the station keeper, 
and a man named C'ady. They found the Washoes 
with little trouble, but failed to discover the Ameri- 
can stock. They found also, that the squaws were 
taking the unnecessary camp ecpiipage of the band, 
up the mountain to the east. This looked like busi- 
ness, and when a bodj- of about sixty warriors with 
their paint on, advanced u|)oii them, matters assumed 
a decidedly hostile appearance. Pearson, the leader, 
decided that there were too many to justify risking 
a fight, and with two of his followers "lit out." Frank 
Hall and — Cady concluded to await the approach 
of the enemy and "play the friendly dodge," which 
the}' did bj' distributing their small stock of tobacco 
among them. Of course the Indians did not object 
to the gifts, but, after accepting them, ordered the 
donore to hunt their eyrie at the base of the mount- 
ain in the west, and they hunted. 

A few days later t'ady was riding along a trail not 
far from where Dayton now is, and overtook an 
Indian, and like a brave many deliberately shot him. 

In 1852, the Indians made many raids upon the 
stock in Carson Vallej'. In retaliation the whites 
captured a couple of the tribe and brought them into 
the Mormon Station as hostages, for a return of the 
stolen property. One of the captives was a power- 
ful man, dressed in a full buckskin suit, and the other 
was a mere lad, some sixteen years of age, who 
dressed as nature had clothed him. Several days 
passed and nothing was heard from the lost animals; 
when one morning the larger Indian was let walk 
out a little way by himself, and be suddenly made a 
dash for freedom. He scattered his garments as ho 
went, and naked as he was born, bounded like a 
frightened stag away toward the mountains. The 

guard, named Terr}', had in a careless way 

leaned his gun against the stockade, and was prob- 
ably ten yards away from it when the warrior started; 
but in a moment he had the formidable rifle in his 
grasp, and taking a long, deliberate aim, fired. As 
the whip-liko report broke upon the morning still- 
ness the runner leaped high into the air and then fell 

to the ground; and when they had reached the fallen 
Washoe, he was dead. The Indian boy had not seen 

the fate of his comjianion; but the rifle shot had told 
him enough; and he was badly frightened, expecting 
a similar fate for himself. His terror so impressed 
those who had him in charge that they determined to 
set him at liberty. They fitted him ui) with a suit of 
new clothes, hat, coat, pants and shoes, and then 
leading him about a hundred yards away, pointed to 
the hills about twenty miles acro.ssthe valley, where 
his people were, and said to him, "go." At first he 
moved oft'm a hesitating kind of way, looking doubt- 
fully back over bis shoulder, expecting every instant 
to hear the dreaded rifle speak death to him. At 
length his movements became more assured. He 
scanned the countr}' ahead, looked back once more, 
then suddenly leaping into the air, those shoes went 
spinning into the sage-brush on either side, and the 
boy was off for the camp of the Washoes with the 
speed of the wind. 

Between the years 1852 and 1857 there were more 
or less murders, both of whites and Indians, along 
the line of the overland road; within what is now 
Nevada. In 1857 two men were killed by Wahoes, 
on the road running south of Lake Taboo over the 
mountains to California. Their names were John 
MeMarlin and James Williams, and both were on 
their way to California in charge of separate pack 
trains from Mormon Station. Both were killed by 
Washoes the same day, Williams at Slippery Ford 
Hill, where he was buried, and MeMarlin on the sum- 
mit near by. The body of the latter was taken to 
Carson Valley, and buried on the ranch now owned 
by Mrs. Clayton. There was no white survivor of 
the double tragedy, consequently, none to tell of the 
scene that was enacted in the shadows of the pines, 
up among the rocks and ravines of the Sierra, where 
their life's journey ended. 


In March, 1S50, some prospectors went over from 
Honey Lake Valley to search for gold in the Black 
Rock country, in what is now known as Hunilioldt 
County. Some of them had been there before, con- 
sequently the part}' sejiarated, four going in advance 
of the other three. They had an understanding 
that they were to meet in a canon on Clapp Creek, 
where running water is to be found during a ))orlion 
of the year. The creek is about twenty miles north- 
west of Black Hock. The second ])arty consisted of 
Peter Lassen — after whom a jteak in the Sierra 

Nevada Mountains is named— accompanied by 

Clapper and Wyatt. They had reached the 

mouth of the cafion up which the rendezvous had 
been appointed, as night came on, ami camped by a 
large boulder till morning. At daylight Lassen got 
up, lit his pipe, sat down and was smoking, when 
the party was fired on by a concealed foe, and Clap- 
])er was killed. Lassen sprang to his feet, rifle in 
hand, and scanned the surrounding rocks in search 
of the assailants, but unable to see any, told Wyatt 



to move their camp equipage to a safer place, while 
he watched and kept the enemy at bay. The latter 
had taken one load of their efteets away, and was 
returning for more, when another voile}- from among 
the twilight shadows rang out on the morning air; 
and the brave old hero of many a mountain battle 
sank down by the rock where he had been standing. 
As Wyatt came u]) he said to him, "I am done for 
at last; take care of yourself;" and, mounting a 
bare-backed horse, the only survivor, dashed away 
over the rocks and plains of sand to bear the sad 
news to the Bettlements. The four men camped 
further up the canon knew nothing of the disaster un- 
til they were met on their way into the Honey Lake 
Station by a party on its way out to recover the 
bodies of the two victims. They were buried where 
they had been killed, but in November of hat j'ear 
Lassen's remains were removed to Honey Lake. 

The winter of 1850-GO was one of unprecedented 
severity in Nevada, and the summer that preceded 
it had witnessed the first wave of white emigration 
from California to the Comstoek. The spirit of dis- 
content had gained a pretty thorough hold of the 
natives of the country, before these last causes had 
been added to their real and fancied wrongs. Many 
of them were led to believe that the evil spirit had 
been angered by the presence in the territorj- of so 
many whites; and that in consequence thereof, he 
was sending the storms that were freezing and 
starving them. 


The Territorial Enterprise, published in Carson in 
iJccember, 18.')0, in mentioning the arrival of Gov. 
Isaac Jioop from Honey Lake, said: — 

The Indians in Truckeo Meadows are freezing and 
starving to death by scores. In one cabin the Gov- 
ernor found three children dead and d^'ing. The 
whites are doing all they can to alleviate the mis- 
cries of the poor Washoes. They have sent out and 
built fires for them, and offered them bread and 
other provisions. IJut in man}- instances the starving 
Indians refuse to eat, fearing that the food is poi- 
soned. They attribute the severity of the winter to 
the whites. * * * The Truckee JJivcr is frozen 
over hard enough t<i bear up loailoil teams. 

On the i:!lh of January, 18(;(l, Dexter E. Dem- 
ming was brutally murdered by Pah Utes at his 
ranch in Willow Creek Valley, just north of Ilonoy 
Lake Valley, in what has since been determined to 
be (Jalifornia. This resulted in the following peti- 
tion addressed to Governor Roop: — 

SusANviLi^E, Nevada Ter., Jan. 15, 18(!l». 
Dkaii Sir: We, the undersigned, would most 
resjx'ctfull}' urge the neccHsity of your l"j.\cellency's 
calling out the military forces under your command 
to follow and chastise the Indians u])on our borders. 
We make this request to 5-our l*',.xcelloncy from the 
fact that we have received iiifurmation that we fully 
relj- u]>()n, to the cfl't'ct that Mr. Demming has boon 
murdered, and his house robbed, on or about the 
15lh instant, by Indians, within the borders of Ne- 

vada Territory. Your 
will ever pray, etc. 
A. B. McDonald, 
Win. Bray ton, 
E. Aubrey, 
Wm. Hamilton, 

D. Chandler, 
G. W. Fry, 

E. Brannan, 
Wm. Hill, 

J. H Shearer, 
Geo. W. Shearer, 
Jas. Belcher, 
E. II. Nicols, 
C3-rus Smith, 
E. A. Rower, 
W. M. Cain, 
Wm. Dow, 
Wm. Arullary, 
Thomas Bare, 
Z. C. Dow, 
Thos. Sheflield, 

E. G. Banghan, 
Henry Hatch, 

F. H. Moshier, 
r. J. Tutt, 

G. V. Lathrop, 

0. Stresley, 
J. Bonette, 
N. Purdy, 
F. Drake, 
Chas. Kingman, 
W. Taylor, 

C. A. Fitch, 

F. Long, 

Mark W. Haviland 

John .Morrow, 

H. Kingman, 

1. E. Ellison, 

M. C. Thaderson, 

or Shaderson, 
J. W. Shearer, 
J. L. ODonnell, 
J. W. Doyle, 
I. N. Boswick, 
S. S. Smith, 
W. C. Taylor, 
J. M. Painter, 
C. Brown, 

petitioners, as in duty bound, 

Fred. Morrison, 
G. W. Mitchell, 
John D. Robinson, 
S. II. Painter, 
Milton Craig, 
A. A. Holcomb, 
Wm. Hobby, 

A. D. Beecher, 

Dr. Jas. W. Stettinias, 
Dr. II. S. Barrette, 

B. E. Shumway, 
L. Vary, 

Dan Murry, 

J. H. HoUingsworth, 

Jas. A. A. Ohen or 

A. L. Tunison, 
Jas. Huntington, 
E. L. Varney, 
M. S. Thompson, 
Clark Doty, 
Ale.x McLoud, 
Wm. D. Snj^der, 
S. I). Patten, 
A. W. Worm, 
John Altman, 

A. B. Jenison, 
L. D. Sanborn, 
J. S. Haggett, 
Joshua II. Lewis, 
II. E. Arnold, 

L. J. Spencer, 

B. B. tfray, 
B. B. Painter, 
P. \\. Shearer, 
James McFadden, 
J. II. Anderson, 
A. Ramsej^, 
J. E. Parker, 
John Taylor, 
T. Campbell, 
F. A. Sloss, 
S. Conkcj-, 
C. Hall, 
Antonio StorfF, 
C. T. Emerson, 

A detachment was immediately sent out to trail 
the murderers, and find out if ]>ossible, to what 
tribe they belonged. Under date of January 24th, 
Ijieut. U. J. Tutt reported to the Governor that they 
had been tracked into the I'ah-Ule camp. On the 
twenty-eighth of the same month, two Commis- 
sioners were a])pointed by the Governor to visit 
Winnonuicca, the chief of that tribe, and demand 
the murderers in accordance with a treaty pre- 
viously made with him, providing for an emergency 
like this. The following is a copy of their report: — 

SusANViLLE, February 11, a. d. 1800. 
Your E.\cem,f.\cy: Wo, the undersigned, your 
Commissioners, aiipointed Januaiy 28, a. d. IStJO, 
to proceed to the camp of the Pah-Uto tribe of 
Indians, respoclfully rejiort that we proceo<Ied across 
the couiitiy from this place in the direction of Pyra- 
mid Lake; that on the third day of our travel, we 
were mot by a band of about (30) thirty Pah-Ute 



N. H. A. Mason 

Is a native of Robinson County, Tennessee, and was born U&y 13, 1830. His parents 
lived on a farm, and their children were educated and trained to that industry. In 
183« the family moved to Pope County, Arkansas. In 1«J2 the subject of this sketch 
crossed the plains to California, where he mined in Tuolumne County, near Sonora, in 
that State, until 1853. The latter part of this last-named year he returned by way of 
the Isthmus to Arkansas, and in 185-t, accompanied by his two brothers, drove a band 
of cattle across the plains to Stanislaus County, California, and passings through Nevada 
on this trip, he first saw the valley that now bears his name. In the fall of 1859 he 
located at the place now known as Mason's Ranch, in Esmeralda County. (See History 
of Mason's Valley). From 1854 until 1862 his exclusive business was dealing in stock, 
and that which was incidentally connected with it. In 18G2 he became interested in 
the Vir<Tinia and Gold Hill Water Works, and became the first President of that 
company-, as well as Superintendent. November, 4,18(31), the "Bonanza" firm purchased 
the control of the company's uiterest from him at a cost of §184,000. While he had 
control the stock of the company paid monthly dividends of 810,000, or SI 00 per 

In January, after the sale, he removed to San Jose, California, where he purchased a 
controlling interest in the water-works of that city, and under his management pipes 
were laid that brought the supply for that place eleven miles, from Los Gatos Creek. 
Prior to this it had been raised from wells with pumps. In January, 1877, he 
removed from San Jose to Oakland, California, having sold, the previous fourth of 
November, all his interest in the water-works, and now his residence is San Francisco. 
During this time his cattle interest, as well as the ranch property, was retained in 
Nevada. In 1871 he took up a stock range on Quin River, in Humboldt County, 
Nevada, that, is on an average thirty miles wide and sixty in length. In 1872 he pur- 
chased 8,000 head of stock from R. C. and A. H. Broder, in Tulare County, California, 
paying therefor §125,000, and drove them to his ranges in Esmeralda and Humboldt 
Counties. This Quin River range is considered a little above the average of the State 
in grazing capacity, including only what is classed as grazing land, and it will keep 
from G.OOO to 7,000 head in good condition the year round. This is 164 acres to the 
sintrle animal, including mountain foot-hills, and vordureless, sandy or alkali flats. 

In 1877 he purcha.sed of Governor Bradley a range for winter grazing on Marys 
River, north from Deeth Station, on the Central Pacific Railroad. In extent it is 
thirty-five miles long and eight miles wide, and along the river is a bottom on an 
average three-cjuarters of a mile wide through its entire length. In the summer .stock 
is di-iven from there west into Bruno Basin, that is twenty miles long and twelve wide, 
with Bruno Creek running through it. These two ranges judicially managed would 
keep 7,000 head of cattle in good condition. 

He has accpiired since coming to the State, by patent and claims in Ma-son Valley, 
about 15,000 acres of land, of which 5,000 has been patented. Add to this the Quin 
River, the Marys River, and Bruno Basin ranges, witli 12,000 head of stock feeding 
upon the same, ami the result includes his posse.s-sions in this State. 

On the twenty-second of October, 1857, he was married to Miss Elizabeth F. Dillon, 
in San Joaquin County, California, and has three children, all girls, now living, who 
are named respectively, Ursula, Dixie, and Maud. 



Indiaim, well mountod, who, with a war-whoop, Bur- 
romidod us and prevented us I'roni ))roc't'odiiii; to the 
main cami). Wo were detained over nij^ht by the 
same jiartj' of Indians, under a sti-iet guard, the said 
Indians utterly retusini^ to j^ive us anj- inronnatif)!! 
as to the wiiereabouts of their chiefs. 

On the followini; morning, we were released from 
imprisonment, an<i ordered to return to Honey Lake 
Valley. Wo traveled two or three miles in the 
direction of Ilonej- Lake \'alley, there heing a dense 
fog, wo came to the deterniinalion to travel across 
the country to the crossing of the Truckee Uiver. 
and follow down said river to 1'3'ramid Lake, .\rriv- 
ing at Pyramid Lake, we found an encanipnient of 
tho I'ah-Utes; but, from the contradictory reports 
received from the said Indians, we were unable to 
ascertain where either of the chiefs could be found. 
We then traveled down the lake about ten miles, 
and found another encam])ment, which ])roved to be 
the cam]) of Winnemucca, the war chief of the I'ah- 
Utes. We re])resented to tho chief that we were 
sent to them by the whites, to ask of the chiefs the 
delivery of the murderer, or murderers, of Mr. J). K. 
I lemming, in accordance with a treaty made and 
entered into between the I'ah-T'tes and the citizens 
of Ilonej' Lake Vallej-, at the same time inviting the 
chief to return with us and settle our dilticulties 

The chief acknowleged that, according to said 
treaty, we were warranted in making the demand; 
but, after making many excuses, he not onlj^ refused 
to como to Iloney Lake Valley, but refused to intcr- 
])oso his authority' in ])reventing doi)redatiotis upon 
the whites on the part of his followers. We then 
asked him to appoint .some future time to visit us. 
He said that ho would not come at all, and that the 
citizens of Honey Ijake Valley must pa}' him .Slti.ddO 
for Hone}- Lake Valley. We have ascertained that 
ho is at this time levying blackmail b}" demanding 
from one to two beeves per week from the herders 
of stock, there being two or throe thousand head of 
stock in his immediate vicinity, horded by so few 
that they daro not refuse the demand. We fiiul, 
also, that the owners of said stock cannot drive 
them to the settlements from the groat depth of 
snow between Pj-ramid Lake and Iloney Ijake, 
Washoe and Cai-son Vallej's. We believe that the 
Pah-Utos are determined to rob and murdei- as 
many of our citizens as they can, more especially 
our citizens ujion the borders. 

Finding it impossible to bring the Indians to any 
terms of ])eaee, notwithstanding the advantages 
offered them, wo determined to return as spe(^(lily 
as possible, and make this our report to your Excel- 
lencj'. WiLMAM Weatherlow, 

T. J. Harvey. 

It will bo observed that the report of tho Commis- 
sioners was dated February 11, 18(j(). On the next 
day, Governor Hoop asked assistance from tho Gen- 
eral commanding the Pacific Dei)artment, in language 
that so thoroughly explains tho position of affairs 
in that part of the country, that wo give tho docu- 
ment in full: — 

Generai, Ci.arkr, U. S. A., [ 

Commander of the Pacific Department, j 

Sir: We are about to be plunged into a bloody and 

])rotracted war with the Pah-l'te Indians. Within 

the last nine months there have been seven of our 

citizens murdered by the Indians. Up to tho last 

murder we were unablo to fasten thoso depredations 


on any particular tribe, but always believed it was 
the Pah-Utes, yet did not wish to blamo them until 
wo were sure of tho facts. On tho thirteenth day of 
last month, Mr. Dexter K. Demming was most 
brutally murdered at his own house, and plundered 
of everything, and his horses driven off. As soon as 
1 was informed of the fact I at once sent out fifteen 
men after the mur<ierers (there being snow on the 
ground they could bo easily traced), with orders to 
follow on their tracks until they would find what 
tribe they belonged to; and if they would prove to 
be Pah-lHes, not to give them battle, but to return 
:ind re|)ort, as we had, some two years ago, made a 
treaty with the Pah-lTtes, one of tho sli|)iilation8 
being that if any of their tribe committed any mur- 
ders or depredations on any of the whites, wo wore 
first to go to tlio chiefs and that they would deliver 
up tho murderers or make redress, and that we wore 
to do the same on our part with them. On tho third 
daj' out, they came onto the Indians and found them 
to be Pah-lUes, to which I call your attention to the 
]):iper marked A. Immediately on receiving this 
report, un<l agreeable to the said treaty, I sent Oapt. 
William Weatherlow and Thomas J. Harvey, as 
( Commissioners, to proceed to tlio Pah-Ules' head- 
([narters, and there infoi'm tho chief of this murder 
and demand retlress. Here allow me to call 3'our 
attention to tho paper marked 15. It is now j)retty 
well an established fact that the Pah-Utes killed 
thoso eight men, one of them being Mr. Peter Lassen. 
How soon others must fall is not known, for war is 
now inevitable. We have but few good arms and 
but little ammunition. 

Therefore, I would most respectfully call upon 
j'ou for a company of dragoons to come to our aid 
at once, as it may save a ruinous war to show them 
that we have other help besides our own citizens, 
they knowing our weakness. .Vnd if it is not in 
your power at present to dis|)atch a company of men 
here, I do most respectfully demand of 3'ou arms 
and ammunition, with a field-])iece to drive them out 
of their forts. A four orsix-jjoundcr isindis])ensablo 
in fighting tho Pah-Utes. We have no Indian Agent 
to call on, so it is to j'ou wo look for assistance. 
I remain your humble servant, 

LsAAP Hoop, 
Governor of Nevada Territory. 

SusANVii-LE, February 12, lS(iO. 

P. S. — Sir: If you should forward to us arms, 
ammunition, etc., I hereby appoint Col. I. H. Ijowis 
to receive and receipt for and bring them hero at 
once. I. Roop. 

Tho foregoing indicates, with sufilcient clearness, 
that the accumulated hostility between the two races 
had reaclie<l that point where it reiiuired but a 
spark to cause it to burst forth into a fierce war 
llame. The t!ommanding (ieneral sent no troops 
and furnished no arms; and it all terminated in that 
sanguinary outbreak, in the following Ma}', that re- 
sulted so disastrously to both Indians and whites. 


The defeat and massacre of the party, usually 
known as tho ''Ormsby party," on tho 12th of May, 
18G0, sent a thrill of horror throughout tho Pacific 
Coast, and to this day is regarded as one of tho 
most im])ortant events in the early history of tho 
State. IIa])poning, as it did, anterior to tho groat 
war of tho Rebellion, the people were unaccustomed 



to tales of battle and bloodshed; the slaughter of 
great numbers of relatives, friends and neighbors, 
and the conflicts, movements and losses which at a 
later date would have seemed trifling, then had a 
terrible effect, and left a lasting impression. The 
publishers of this work, desiring the most -minute 
particulars of this most important Indian war of 
Nevada, in the latter part of 1880 dispatched one of 
their corps of writers to thoroughly examine the 
ground and interview all whites and Indians who 
could be found who had participated in the fatal 
battle. In companj- with the Acting Indian Agent, 
Maj. W. II. H. Wasson, he visited the Pj-ramid Lake 
Reservation, obtained an interpreter, a Pah-Ute 
named George Quip, who spoke the English language 
fluently, and with numerous veteran savages trav- 
ersed the battle-ground, spending three days in the 
examination. The Indians were assured that what- 
ever statement they should make would never be 
used against them, and with such assurances they 
gave a detailed account of the whole atfair. 

It was a strange assemblage, of those old braves, 
each narrating what he had done, and seen, of that 
bloody record of 18G0. Each Indian would recount 
his own experience and observation; but when asked 
concerning anything beyond that, would say : " Me 

no see 'um mobe tell j'ou 'bout that;" and the 

party designated would be sent for, if not present, 
and the stoiy would go on. On the third day we 
rode over the battle-field and trail from Pyramid 
Lake to VVadsworth, a distance of eighteen miles, 
accompanied by some of them. As we came to a 
place where a white man had been killed, or some 
special event worthy of note had trans2)ired, they 
would stop, and, in their peculiarly slow, dreamy 
way, tell the event, or describe the death struggle. 
Their speech was accompanied by gesticulations, and 
movements of the body, conveying to the looker-on 
a knowledge of what had transpired there in all its 
tragic detail before the interpreter had opened his 
lips. In this manner those events, that before had 
remained a secret between the sla3'er and his dead, 
were revealed. 

In the latter part of April, 18G0, the Pah-Utes 
congregated at Pyramid Lake from all over the ex- 
tensive territory, for the purpose of holding a coun- 
cil. The object of the gathering was to decide what 
they should do, in view of the fact that the whites 
were rapidly encroaching upon their lands; killing 
their game ; and cutting down their orchards. 
[Thus referring to the pine-nut trees.] By the first 
of May they were nearly all in at the rendezvous. 

There was a Shoshone chief there with his band 
who had married a Pah-Ute squaw; he was for war; 
and his Indian name was Qu-da-zo-bo-eat. A few 
years later ho was killed near 15nt(le Mountain, by 
members of his own tribe, after his return from a 
raid into Paradise Valley. They killed him because 
ho was all the time making trouble for them, bj' 
stealing stock from the whites. There was a chief 

from Powder River with his followers there, who 
was also for war. His name was Sa-wa-da-be-bo; 
he was a half Bannock and half Pah-Ute, and was 
killed by the whites some two years later. Wa-he, 
a brother of Old Winuemucca, was fierce for the con- 
flict. He was afterwards killed by the Pah-Utes at 
Walker River, concerning 'which a more extended 
account is given elsewhere. Sa-a-ba, chief of the 
Smoke Creek Indians, was for war. lie was a 
brother-in-law of Old Winnemucca, and was killed 
later by one of his own tribe, whom he was pi-oposing 
to "Ho-do," or bewitch. No-jo-mud, chief of the 
Honey Lake Band, was for war. Some j-ears later 
he was killed by his followers, who had become 
afraid of him, because of his continued active hos- 
tility to the whites, fearing that it would bring dis- 
aster upon them. Ho-zi-a, another Honey Lake 
leader, who wa< afterwards killed by Capt. Dick, 
their present chief, was also for war. Yur-dy, 
known as Joaquin by the whites, was for war. His 
band ranged in the vicinitj' of the big bend of the 
Carson River, and south toward Mason Valley. He 
is now dead. Ha-za-bok, a big medicine, and chief 
at Antelope Valley, now living, was for war. He 
proposed to su]i])ly the warriors with bullets, by 
changing their tobacco into lead; to cause the ground 
to open and swallow the whites; and to kill them 
with fierce storms of hail. 

Se-quin-a-ta, a chief from the